This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Suta and the Other Sages Many years ago, some sages (rishis) desired to go to heaven (svarga). They therefore began to perform a yajna (sacrifice) in a forest known as naimisharanya. The sacrifice was a difficult one, and all the assembled sages were resting, when Suta arrived on the scene. Suta was himself a sage and was the sage Romaharshana’s alternatively, Lomaharshana) son. Suta was also extremely learned in the Puranas and the shastras (sacred texts). The assembled sages welcomed Suta with offerings and said, Suta, not only are you learned in the shastras and the Puranas, you have also interpreted them. This is kaliyuga, the last of the four eras when evil reigns supreme everywhere. People are no longer interested in righteousness. Moreover, men do not live for as long as they used to earlier. They therefore have less time to devote to the hearing of the shastras. Tell us briefly, the essence of the shastras. Vishnu was born as Krishna, the son of Vasudeva and Devaki, to rid the world of evil. Who knows about Krishna more than you ? Tell us about Krishna and his exploits, Suta was very happy that sages had asked him about Krishna. He began to tell the story of the Bhagavata Purana.
Vishnu’s twenty-four Incarnations Usually, ten incarnations (avataras) of Vishnu are mentioned in the Puranas. The Bhagavata Purana however mentions twenty-four incarnations. Vishnu has an original form which cannot be normally seen. It has many legs, thighs, hands, mouths, eyes, ears and noses. It is from this original form that the incarnations are created. And it was also from this form that Brahma was created. Vishnu’s first incarnation was as a celibate brahmana, the brahmanas being the first of the four classes. The duties of brahmanas were to pray and devote themselves to the study of the shastras. Vishnu’s second incarnation was a wild boar (varaha). In this form, he rescued the world from the depths of the underworld. In his third incarnation, Vishnu adopted the form of the great sage Narada. As Narada, he instructed men about the virtues of being devoted to Vishnu. In the fourth incarnation, Vishnu adopted the forms of two different sages. Their names were Nara and Narayana. These two sages performed very difficult tapasya (meditation). Vishnu’s fifth incarnation was also as a sage. This sage’s name was Kapila. There was another sage named Asuri. Kapila instructed Asuri about the school of philosophy that is known as samkhya darshana. In his sixth incarnation, Vishnu was born as the son of the sage of the sage Atri and his wife Anusuya. The name that Vishnu adopted in this incarnation was Dattatreya. As Dattatreya, Vishnu instructed Alarka, Prahlada and others on the path to true knowledge. The seventh incarnation took place during the rule of Svayambhuva Manu, the first Manu to rule over an era (manvantara). Vishnu was now born as the son of Ruchi and Akuti and his name was Yajna. Yajna held the title of Indra during the first manvantara. Vishnu’s eighth incarnation was as Rishabha, the son of King Nabhi and Queen Maru. In this incarnation, he instructed even the most learned of scholars about the best form of meditation. The ninth incarnation was as a king. In fact, the sages had asked that Vishnu might be born as a king. From the word for asking (prarthana), the king came to be called Prithu and the earth is known as prithivi after king Prithu. Prithu milked the earth and obtained all the herbs and plants which were then handed over to humans.
Vishnu’s tenth incarnation was as a fish (matsya). This took place during the manvantara that was known as chakshusha manvantara. At this time, the whole world was flooded with water. The Manu who ruled over this manvantara was known as Vaivasvata Manu. As a fish, Vishnu told Vaivasvata Manu to build a boat and save himself and the rest of humanity from the waters of the flood. The eleventh incarnation was at the time of the churning of the ocean (samudra manthana). Vishnu now adopted the form of a turtle (Kurma). The gods (devas) and demons (asuras) churned the ocean with Mount Mandara as a churning rod. But this would not have been possible had there not been a base on which Mount Mandara could rest. This base was provided by the back of the turtle. As the churning of the ocean continued. Dhanvantari came out with a pot of amrita ( a life-giving drink) in his hands. Dhanvantari was Vishnu’s twelfth incarnation. Dhanvantari was also the originator of all medical knowledge. Together with the gods, the demons also wanted a share of the amrita. But Vishnu adopted the form of a beautiful woman and so charmed the demons that they gladly parted with the amrita. This was Vishnu’s thirteenth incarnation. Hiranyakashipu later became the king of the demons and began to oppress the gods. So Hiranyakashipu had to be destroyed. Vishnu did this in his fourteenth incarnation, known as narasimha because the being was half-man and half-lion. This man-beast tore apart Hiranyakasipu’s breast with its claws. After Hiranyakashipu, Vali became the king of the demons and drove the gods out of heaven. Vishnu’s fifteenth incarnation was that of a dwarf (vamana). The dwarf came to Vali and desired that it might be granted as much of land as could be encompased in three of its steps. The generous Vali did not refuse. But the dwarf adopted a gigantic form and in three of its steps, it covered all the three worlds. Thus Vali had to surrender heaven to the gods. There was once a time when the kings on earth became evil and began to ignore the brahmanas. The kings were kshatriyas. The kshatriyas constituted the second of the four classes and their primary duty was to bear arms and protect the world from evil. When it was found that the kings had themselves became evil. Vishnu was born as Parashurama. This was his sixteenth incarnation. Parashurama destroyed all the kshatriyas in the world twenty-one times, so that good might once again prevail. Thereafter, the seventeenth incarnation was born. This was Vedavyasa, the son of Parashara and Satyavati. Vedavyasa recompiled the sacred texts of the Vedas so that they might become more easily understandable to men. It was thus that there came to be four Vedas. Vedavyasa’s real name was Krishna Dvaipayana. He came to be known as Vedavyasa because he had divided the Vedas.
the son of a brahmana named Vishnuyasha. You are allknowing. The twenty-seond incarnation is yet to come. the narrator of the Bhagavata Purana. asked Narada. Shukadeva was a great sage. this time from the Mahabharata. Vedavyasa taught the four Vedas to four of his disciples. Kalki will arrive at the end of kaliyuga and destroy the evil of the world. Accordingly. The twenty-first incarnation was Buddha. It will be Kalki. Jaimini the Sama Veda and Sumanta the Atharva Veda. Vedavyasa divided the Vedas into four. And this Romaharshana was the father of Suta. Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. After having bathed in the river. Why don’t you tell me why I keep feeling discontented? That may be because you have spent too much time in describing dharma. Vedavyasa sat in his hermitage and began to ponder about what he might do next. He was learned and free from all wordly illusions. it actually lists only twenty-two. Vaishamapayana the Yajur Veda. Vedavyasa later taught the Puranas to his disciple Romaharshana. These sacred texts came to be known as Rig Veda. Yajur Veda.The eighteenth incarnation was Rama. I don’t really know why I feel dissatisfied. But despite having done all this work one the Vedas in addition to having composed the Mahabharata. There descriptions are too impersonal. that which is righteous. It was then that the sage narada arrived on the scene. said Narada. Paila was taught the Rig Veda. Vedavyasa and Narada Vedavyasa had a son named Shukadeva. Most people need that which is more personalised. Although the Bhagavata Purana had promised to talk about twenty-four avataras of Vishnu. Their names are also familar to you. The nineteenth incarnation was Baladeva or Balarama and the twentieth was Krishna. His hermitage (ashrama) was on the banks of the river Sarasvati. It however points out that such incarnations occur whenever there is evil on earth and there is a need to destroy evil and establish righteousness. replied Vedavyasa. But he never displayed his knowledge. Vedavyasa was intensely dissatisfied. Why are you looking so miserable? You have accomplished much that one ought to feel proud about. The nineteenth and twentieth incarnations were born as Yadavas. the originator of Buddhism. The Puranas are known as the fifth Veda. Vedavyasa. Dry words of dharma do not mean . And a new righteous order will be established. about whom you must have read in the Ramayana. there have been several incarnations. so that most people thought him to be ignorant and stupid.
after all. Towards the end of the war. Thus encouraged by Narada. Since the baby had been protected by Vishnu in his form of Krishna. He was. Arjuna did this easily. Thus it was that Vishnurata came to be popularly known as Parikshit. the brahmanas proposed that he should be named Vishnurata. so the weapon was directed at Uttara’s womb Uttara was Arjuna’s widowed daughter-inlaw. Arjuna promised her that he would bring her Ashvatthama’s head as atonement. To counteract it. He therefore hunted out Ashvatthama and challenged him to a duel. Ashvatthama’s Punishment Many Kaurava and Pandava warriors died in the course of the Kurukshetra War. the son of Dronacharya. he tested to see if the person he had just met was indeed the person whom he had met inside the womb. But these two divine weapons threatened to burn up the entire world. Arjuna had to release a brahmashira weapon of his own. Droupadi had five sons. Vedavyasa composed the Bhagavata Purana and initially taught it to his son Shukadeva. Ashvatthama had fought the war on Duryodhana’s side and was looking for a way to please the disconsolate Duryodhana. The word for a test is pariksha. It was now Droupadi’s turn to be disconsolate and she demanded revenge. Why don’t you do it? You alone are capable of accomplishing a task like that. But what was to happen to the brahmashira weapon that had been directed at Uttara’s womb? Uttara came running to Krishna for protection. This jewel was cut off and given to Droupadi and Ashvatthama was allowed to leave. And the sages asked the two warriors to writhdraw their weapons. the teacher of the Pandavas. Duryodhana lay there on the ground. protected by Vishnu. There it was decided that Ashvatthama should not be killed. He then brought them as gifts to Duryodhana. Ashvatthama used to wear a jewel (mani) on his head. defeated but not yet dead. And Krishna himself entered the womb and so protected the baby. But the baby had met Krishna inside Uttara’s womb and had become devoted to Krishna. but Ashvatthama did not know how to wirthdraw a brahmashira weapon.very much. Ashvatthama entered the Pandava camp and sliced off the heads of these five sons. . Ashvatthama was captured and brought to Droupadi by Arjuna. his son Abhimanyu having died earlier in the course of the battle. This baby was Parikshit. Ashvatthama let loose a terrible divine weapon known as brahmashira on Arjuna. In the dead of the night. That would have made it much more personal. Whenever the child met someone. that is. the sons of the five Pandavas. Bhima and Duryodhana fought a duel and Bhima broke Duryodhana’s thighs with a mace. The cause of dharma might have been better served had you described the exploits of Krishna.
the eldest of the Pandava brothers. But thereafter.Krishna’s Return to Dvaraka Yudhisthira. Dvaraka was a very pretty city. the seasons did not arrive at their appointed times. Are our friends in Dvaraka well? Why aren’t you uttering a word? Or is it that you yourself are not well? For a long while Arjuna could not bear to say anything. Yudhishthira was beside himself with worry. Silent drops of tears rolled down this cheek. They were very glad that their husband had come back after such a long itme. The Bhagavata Purana will describe these incidents in the eleventh skandha. People became evil. Woman climbed up to the roofs to catch a glimpse of Krishna. became king after the end of the Kurushetra War. Relatives fought with each other and friends became enemies. Krishna stayed in the capital city of Hastinapura. Arjuna went on a visit to Dvaraka. Krishna’s Death and the Destruction of the Yadavas After some time had passed. For some time. but Arjuna did not return. Meanwhile. What has happened. The trees bore all sorts of fruits and flowers. The shops and street were clean. The brahmanas blessed him as he walked down the streets. Krishna blew loudly on his conch-shell. There were many gates. Yudhishthira became seriosly worried and decided to send Bhima to Dvaraka to find out what was happening there. Krishna had sixteen thousand wives. The ponds were gay with lotuses. Months passed. The houses had creepers on them. But eventually he told them that Krishna had died. all of which were decorated with pennants and flags. without utteringa word. Great was the rejoicing in Dvaraka when Krishna returned. Musical instruments were played. Beautiful gardens wre scattered throughout the city. Arjuna returned. Arjuna?. Why had Arjuna not come back despite the fact that seven months had elasped since his departure from Hastinapura? But before Bhima could be sent. the capital of the Yadavas. . he asked. He was no longer his old self. The Yadavas had been destroyed as a clan. Yudhishthira could see all sorts of ill omens in Hastinapura. He sat quietly. he had to return to Dvaraka. Before entering the city.
In the course of his travels. Kali was thus permitted to do no harm. Parikshit and Iravati had four sons. The cow and the bull were conversing about the evil that had befallen the earth. . What do you think you are doing? Have you no shame or fear? You deserve to be killed. The earth is divded into seven regions or dvipas. Parkshit conquered each of these dvipas. These were places where gambling. Kali invaded Parikshit’s kingdom a person. he dressed himself in his armour and took up his weapons. So Kali begged the king to tell him where he might live. Parikshit Parikshit was a good king. Yudhisthira decided to rule no more. the daughter of Prince Uttara. The animals shook with fear as they were beaten by the shudra’s mace. Parikshit heard that the demon Kali had entered his kingdom. One day. The king could not kill someone who was begging for mercy. lies. but told him that Kali was not to live inside Parikshit’s kingdom. He forced the conquered kings to pay him taxes. The five Pandavas and Droupadi left for the Himalayas. As long as Parikshit was king. the most important of whom was Janmejaya. This put Kali in a dilemma. a shudra was in the process of beating the two animals up. jealousy. The kaliyuga era had started as soon as Krishna had died. Parikshit came upon the world (prithivi) wandering around in the form of a cow. As soon as Parikshit learned that his kingdom had been invaded. Otherwise. set out to conquer the world and fight Kali. Parikshit earmarked certain places as Kali’s habitat. So he spared Kali. A shudra belongs to the lowest of the four classes.But hearing that Krishna had died. Parikshit also performed three ashvamedha yajnas (horse sacrifices) on the banks of the river Ganga. One by one. theft and quarrels would become commonplace in the kingdom. Parikshit was made king in Hastinapura. He always consulted the brahmanas before taking any major decisions. When Parikshit came upon the bull and the cow. He married Iravati. But in this particular incident. He consoled the two animals and took out his word to kill the shudra. But the shudra was none other than Kali and Kali fell at Parikshit’s feet and begged for mercy. Prikshit’s guru (teacher) was Kripacharya. He then ascended his chariot and. The cow was talking to a bull and the bull was none other than the god Dharma in disguise. Parikshit shouted at the shudra. drinking and violence took place. with his army. Where was Kali going to live? Parikshit’s kingdom extended throughout the world. the duty of a shudra being to serve the other three classes.
How dare a kshatriya king insult a brahmana? He therefore cursed Parikshit that the king would die of snakebite within the span of seven days. After chasing deer for a very long time. Parishit’s son Janmejaya had also come and Parishit handed over the kingdom to his son. And this search brought him to the hermitage of a sage. But when he returned and discovered what had happened. The sage got to know of the curse that his son had imposed on Parikshit and was not at all happy. back in the capital. Parikshit asked the sage for some water. because that meant that his last moments on earth were blessed. He look for a place where he might get some water to drink. he was extremely angry. but the sage did not bother to reply. he would also undergo penance (prayashchitta) for the sin. But prior to dying. And the snake which would do this deed would be a snake named takshaka. Many sages assembled to witness this wonderful spectacle The king was delighted that all the sages had come. The king then returned to his capital. Flowers were showered on the king’s head from heaven. The sage’s son was very powerful. He had been busy playing with his friends when all this had happened. And if it was desined that he should die at the hands of takshaka.Once Parikshit had gone on a hunt. He meditated and thought of Krishna. There was a dead snake lying there in front of the hermitage. The sage was meditating. The sage’s name was Shamika. He resolved that not only would he never act like that in the future. news was brought to him about the curse that had been imposed on him. Parikshit is a good king. The gods and sages were delighted to see the calm with which Parikshit was facing up to his fate. What will happen to us if the king dies? Moreover. What have you done? The king is our protector. oblivious of what was going on in the world around him. While the king was thus pondering. Parikshit bore this news with fortitude. You have levied a heavy punishment for a minor transgression. Shamika told his son. Parikshit felt slighted. He realize that he should not have thus insulted the sage. Meanwhile. His hair was matted and his body was clothes in deerskin. the king felt hungry and thirsty. And he would devote the seven days that were left to him to the contemplation of Krishna. At this. Parikshit picked up the dead snake with his bow and wound it around the shoulders of the sage. Parikshit was also struck with remorse. Parikshit therefore began a fast on the banks of the Ganga. . then so would it be. He was prepared to atone for his sin. he decided that his death should take place on the banks of the holy river Ganga.
This chanting calms the mind. Vedavyas’s son Shukadeva also arrived there. but so holy that all the sages stood up to honour Shukadeva. The form is shrouded in the five elements and the ego.At the time. True bliss comes from knowing Vishnu. the rivers his veins and the trees are the hair on his body. The Bhagavata Purana tells of Vishnu and I learnt the text from my father Vyasadeva. You are devoted to Vishnu. But within the form is the being who is the object of all yoga. When death knocks at one’s door. Near the breast of the being is heaven (svarloka or svarga). This great form of Vishnu is known as vishvarupa. the chanting of om repeatedly. sutala. I am honoured that you have come here. the mountains his bones. He was only sixteen years of age. the mouth janaloka. The oceans form his armpits. The brahmanas have a place near Vishnu’s mouth. One should go to a holy place and prepare to meditate. the kshatriyas near his . Yoga is the technique of uniting the human soul (atman) with the divine essence (brahman). talatala. tapoloka and satyaloka. Vishnu’s great form is everywhere. So I will relate to you the Bhagavata Purana. Indra and the other gods are the arms of the being. The senses are controlled and one can contemplate God. Seven other lokas form the upper regions and their names are bhuloka. surrounded by all the stars. the forehead tapoloka and the head satyaloka. It is the beginning of the past. the earth is near the thighs and the sky is at the navel. The entire universe is divided into fourteen regions (lokas). janaloka. one should forget about material pursuits. vitala. The underworld rests at this being’s feet. A yogi has to sit in a proper posture (asana) and has to control his breath in the process of meditation (pranayama). the present and the future. They do not realize that all these are merely illusions (maya). maharloka. mahatala. rasatala and patala. The best incantation (mantra) for meditation is that which goes by the name of omkara. svarloka. The Great Form of Vishnu Shukadeva said. Tell me what a man about to die should hear. The four directions are his ears. The wind is Vishnu’s breath and the clouds are nothing but his hair. bhuvarloka. The sun is Vishnu’s eyes. And so began Shukadeva’s narrative. It helps to fix one’s mind on the great form of Vishnu. Thus the being’s throat is maharloka. And yogis are people who try to achieve this union. Seven of these form the underworld and their names are atala. Parikshit also worshipped Shukadeva and said . Higher up on the body are the higher regions. They are obsessed with material pursuits. Most people are ignorant. day and night are his eyelashes and his smile is maya. The two Ashvinis are his nose and his mouth is flaming fire itself.
and kingdom. And the seven lokas that constitute the upper regions were made out of the upper half of the body. there was only the great egg (brahmanda). faces and heads. breasts. the vaishyas (the third of the four classes) near his thighs and the shudras near his feet. Uddhava and Vidura Many years ago. Raja guna relates to activity and is associated with the senses. and tama guna. sons. wealth. Brahma himself owes his creation to Vishnu. Tama guna relates to matter and is associated with the five elements. Brahma himself emerged from a lotus that sprouted from this great being’s navel. In every cycle (kalpa). legs. he unfairly defeated Yudhishthra in a game of dice and he deprived the Pandavas of the kingdom that was rightfully theirs. Sattva guna relates to knowledge and is associated with the gods. Having heard all this. raja guna. Then a being came out of the egg. Vishnu created the three gunas (qualities) for the purposes of creation. This vishvarupa of Vishnu is everywhere. beginning with the story of the creation. And it is this vishvarupa that one must concentrate on in the process of yoga. If you have read the Mahabharata. For thousands and thousands of years the egg floated on the waters that were everywhere. This was nothing but Vishnu’s great form.arms. Vishnu’s incarnation on earth. In the beginning. And Dhritarashtra’s son Duryodhana was always trying to bring some harm to the Pandavas. And this is what Shudadeva proceeded to do. If Brahma became the creator of all living beings. This vishvarupa extends throughout the universe. The learned know that all the fourteen worlds were created from this great being. hands. The seven lokas that constitute the underworld were made out of the lower part of the body. And Shiva happens to be the destroyers also by Vishnu’s grace. it was only because of the blessings of Vishnu. It even extends beyond the universe. preserves them and eventually destroys them. Creation Although Brahma is regarded as the creator. Vidura was once forced to leave his house. Nothing that was created is independent of this great being. These three qualities are sattva guna. you will remember that Vidura was the younger brother of Dhritarashtra. Vishnu first creates himself. He forgot his wife. He asked Shukadeva to tell him about Krishna. He tried to burn them in the house of lac (jatugriha). It had thousands of thighs. Dhritarashtra was so smitten . Parikshit gave himself up to the contemplation of Vishnu. But he nevertheless wanted to know more about Krishna. Then he creates other beings.
And Brahma went and prayed to Vishnu that something might be done about all this evil. Alas. He travelled throughout the length and breadth of Bharatavarsha and finally came to the river Yamuna. Krishna’s elder brother was Baladeva. So he imprisoned Vasudeva’s son would kill him. Vishnu agreed to be born as the son of Vasudeva and Devaki. But even at that early age. Uddhava’s eyes glistened with tears. he had become a close friend of Krishna’s and could not bear to parted from him. the king of the Yadavas. Having left he capital. even though he realized that what Duryodhana was doing was not quite right. Vidura felt so hurt that he resolved to leave Hastinapura. He enquired from Uddhava about the welfare of Krishna and the other Yadavas. I am sorry to tell you that the days of Krishna’s glory are now over. Vidura visited many places of pilgrimage. Uddhava remembered various childhood exploits of Krishna’s. Cursed are the Yadavas for not recognizing while there was time that Krishna was Vishnu’s avatara. So he imprisoned Vasudeva and Devaki. There are only a few like you and me who recognized Krishna for what he was. the two friends had aged over the years. also born as an incarnation of Vishnu’s. Duryodhana lost his temper. Uddhava was Krishna’s close companion and friend and Vidura was delighted to have met him. had got to know that Vasudeva’s son would kill him. It was indeed true that Vidura was the son of a slave-girl. But this did not mean that Duryodhana had the right to insult someone who was his uncle. Krishna is no more. There Krishna was brought up as the son of Nanda and Yashoda. He begged Dhritarashtra to forsake his son and return the kingdom to Yudhishthira. Eventually. Banish him from the kingdom. And together. On the banks of the Yamuna he met Uddhava. It was in Kamsa’s prison that Krishna was born. Now when Vidura asked him about Krishna. The world no longer seems to be the same. To save the newly born baby from Kamsa’s wrath. . They treated him like a mere human. Vasudeva went and left baby Krishna with Nanda and his wife Yashoda. At this. He said.by love for his son that he never interfered. He is dead. Do you remeber his childhood deeds? The world was full of evil. Vidura could bear it no longer. How dare Vidura insult the hand that feeds him? He behaves like an enemy. he demanded to know. Hearing this. Krishna’s Childhood Uddhava had first met Krishna when he was only five years old. Who has permitted this son of a slavegirl to enter the court premises?. But Kamsa.
From his furrowed brows there was born a son known as Nilalohita. Sanatana and Sanatkumara. so named because he was partly blue (nila) and partly red (lohita) in colour. Kamsa had got to know about Krishna and he sent many demons to try and kill Krishna. Those who were devoted to Krishna attained true knowledge. Cowherds and cattle died as a result of drinking this poisoned water. Brahma emerged from Vishnu’s navel and began the task of creation. Vidura asked Maitreya. Maitreya The sage Maitreya lived in Haridvara and it was there that Vidura met him. And Uddhava asked Vidhura to worship the sage Maitreya if he desired to attain this knowledge. there is unhappiness all around. Nilalohita was the ancestor of all the gods. Sananda. This so angered Indra that he poured down torrents and torrents of rain and threatened to destroy all the cowherds and their cattle. the two brothers withheld from common knowledge their divine nature. Krishna came to Mathura. Our worldly life is such that no matter what one does. He killed Kamsa and made Kamsa’s father Ugrasena the king of the Yadavas. Krishna was particularly fond of playing the flute. He also brought back to life the cowherds and the cattle who had died. Kamsa’s Death Later on. There was a huge snake named Kaliya which was poisoning the water of the Yamuna. As soon as he was born. They played with the cowherds along the banks of the river Yamuna and tended to the cattle. from Kamsa’s prison. . Krishna put a stop to this sacrifice. Tell me how Krishna can be worshipped so that one can conquer all this unhappiness. asked Brahma. But Krishna lifted up a huge mountain known as govardhana with his finger. Krishna tamed Kaliya and made the water of the Yamuna pure again. But Krishna disposed of all these demons effortlessly. He held this aloft and all the cowherds and their cattle took shelter under this mountain. Vasudeva and Devaki.For eleven years. The cowherds had been in the habit of praying to Indra through a sacrificial ceremony. This city was Kamsa’s capital. He also freed his parents. They were thus saved. Nilalohita began to cry. From the powers of his mind he created four sages whose names were Sanakaa. Maitreya told Vidura about the beginning of creation. But these sages did not seem to be at all interested in the process of creation and this made Brahma very angry. Why are you crying?.
But all these creations were terrible and they proceeded to destroy whatever Brahma had so far created. Mahinas. rudra went away to meditate. Dhriti. Several sacred texts came out of Brahma’s mouth. Vamadeva and Dhritavrata. Atri from his eyes and Marichi from his mind. two sons and three daughter. Sarpi. the moon. Vashishtha. Angira. The whole world is full of water. Kratu from his hands. and all meditation. replied the boy. Vashishta from his breath of life. Pulaha. Brahma also decided that Rudra’s habitat would be the heart. Kratu. The first Rudra created several other Rudras. Agnira from his mouth. Narada was born from Brahma’s lap. Ambhika. And with Rudra safely out of the way. the fire. the life. Pulastya from his ears. Ten sons were born to Brahma. Brahma told Rudra. Give me a name and tell me where I should stay. Bhava. Nishut. and Prasuti. Bhrigu from his skin. The Puranas also came out of Brahma’s mouth and they came to be known as the fifth Veda. The Boar Incarnation Maitreya continued with the story. the sky. Kala. They said. Manu and Shatarupa had five children. Eleven wives named Dhi. From the word for crying (rud). Brahma could concentrate on the act of creation once more. Uma. and Diksha were earmarked for Rudra. Manu. Daksha and Narada. Brahma gave the boy eleven more names. Their names were Marichi. In additon. the earth. Lord. There is no need for you to create anything any more. Iravati. Bhrigu. Enough is enough. Brahma told the boy not to cry. Why don’t you go away and meditate? Thus instructed by Brahma. The earth is submerged in water. Svadha. Mahan. These included the four Vedas (rig. Rasala. Atri. Shiva. The man was called Svayambhuva Manu and the woman Shatarupa. These were Manyu. Pulaha from his navel. Finally Brahma split his own body into two. Manu and Shatarupa touched Brahma’s feet. One part became male and the other female. Ila. and ayurveda (the art of medicine). Ritadhvaja. sama. the sun. he named the boy Rudra. .Because I have no name. and atharva). Daksha from his thumb. The sons were Priyavrata and Uttanapda and the daughters were Akuti. yajur. Brahma next asked Rudra to create more beings. the air. Please desist. Pulastya. dhanurveda (the art of fighting) and gandharvaveda (the art of singing). we have no place to live in. Devahuti. the water. Ugrareta.
Within seconds. And it was also destined that they would be killed by Vishnu in two of his incarnations. For a hundred years the two evil sons stayed in Diti’s womb without being born. Brahma. Who was this Hiranyaksha who met Vishnu in the underworld? Maitreya then began to relate the story of Hiranyaksha. This grandson was Prahlada. They chanted mantras (incantations) so that the boar might be pacified. The boar went all the way down into the underworld and there it discovered the earth. The waves rose up as if in protest. the four directions became dark . The wold shook with the sound of this roaring. Perhaps he should pray to Vishnu for deliverance. It raised the earth with its tusks and brought the earth up to where it should be. Diti had had the idea of having children when it was evening. Daksha’ s daughter Diti was married to the sage Kashyapa. even before they were born. Kashyapa himself being the son of the sage Marichi. In the water there was also a daitya (demon) named Hiranyaksha. So he granted his wife the boon that one of their grandsons would be so righteous that he would be a model for everyone to follow. the sages. Hiranyaksha tried to fight the boar with a mace. who was always devoted to Vishnu. a minute little boar came out from his nose. The light from its eyes lit up the four directions and its tusks glistened white.. the boar entered the waters of the ocean. It hardened its body and the hair on its neck stood up. he said. the boar grew and grew until it became as huge as an elephant. Glancing at the people who had assembled. you have been too brief. But Vidura was not satisfied. Sage Maitreya. and Manu marvelled to see this wonderful sight. Vishnu killed the demon with his sudarshana chakra (a weapon like a bladed discus). the boar began to roar. Kashyapa and Diti had two sons. But Kashyapa was a powerful sage. but was no match for Vishnu. But while Brahma was thinking.Brahma found that this was indeed true and he wondered what might be done. The evening is not auspicious for such a task. Like a mountain the boar’s body fell and the bed of the ocean was ripped apart. So evil were they that. It struck the clouds with its hooves. They would oppress the world. Who could this boar be? As they wondered. since it is then that ghosts and demons wander around. And everyone realized that the boar could be none other than Vishnu. These two sons were Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu. Unfortunately. The boar kept up into the sky. The sages prayed at this wonderous deed. They started to pray to Vishnu. The upshot was that the two sons who were born were destined to be evil.
The ponds were full of flowers. All those who are devoted to Vishnu stay in vaikunthaloka. The sages were very happy to have come to vaikunthaloka. thanks to a boon received from Brahma. Varuna’s palace was named Vibhavari. When they were born. Hiranyaksha once arrived in heaven. After the babies had spent a hundred years in Diti’s womb. Brahma’s residence. Brahma said. They crossed six gates without difficulty and so arrived at the seventh. Trees were uprooted in the storms and lightning split the sky. All this has been ordained. The sages felt insulted. The gardens had miraculous trees which yielded whatever fruits or flowers one desired. Hiranyaksha decided to conquer the sea. They now desired to see Vishnu himself. The earth shook and fires broke out everywhere. The gandharvas (singers of heaven) and apsaras (dancers of heaven) were everywhere. The clouds were so thick that the sun’s rays could not be seen. Thus they . And he struck Hiranyaksha with his own mace. Once upon a time. He challenged the boar to a duel and hurled a mace at it. And it was Jaya and Vijaya who were born as the two asuras (demons) Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu. Hiranyaksha won over Vibhavari and began to live there. they were born as a pair of twins. Terrible duststorms darkened the earth. Having conquered heaven. The gods were greatly alarmed at these developments and went to Brahma for a solution. He had become invincible. Do not worry. Vaikunthaloka is a better place than even brahmaloka. The elder of the twins was named Hiranyaksha and the younger Hiranyakashipu. It was full of wonderful gardens. Hiranyaksha encountered Vishnu in the form of a boar in the water. He defeated Indra and the other gods and expelled them from heaven. Donkeys brayed and owls hooted. there were ill omens all around. They had maces in their hands and they threatened the sages with these weapons. Let me tell you about Jaya nd Vijaya. the gate they would have to cross before meeting Vishnu. They became very powerful and strong. several sages went to vaikunthaloka. This was the place where Vishnu lived. There were tidal waves in the sea.and the sun and the moon faded. Vaikunthaloka was a beautiful place to behold. After some time. There were showers of meterors and thunder and comets. The evil can never go there. But there were two sentries who stood guard at the seventh gate and they would not let the sages pass. The two sentries were named Jaya and Vijaya. But Vishnu easily repelled the mace. The god of the ocean was Varuna. They therefore cursed the two sentries that they would leave vaikunthaloka and be born on earth. but Varuna’s army was no match for Hiranyaksha.
This meditation so pleased Vishnu that he granted Kardama the boon that he himself would be born as the son of Kardama and Devahuti. Vishnu called for his sudarshana chakra. But this did not affect Hiranyaksha. he began to fling down boulders and weapons. Vashishtha and Atharva. Kardama created a vimana ( a space-vehicle). With the powers of his tapasya. He repelled the various maces and spears that the asura hurled at him. Kardama and Devahuti One of Svayambhuva Manu’s daughters was Devahuti. They lived in an ashrama (hermitage) named Vindusarovara.continued to fight for some time. Khyati. . Once Devahuti went to her son and said. Kardama went off on a pilgrimage and Kapila was brought up by Devahuti. Pulastya. He completely disappeared and made the whole world dark. This is what Kapila taught. the theory of true knowledge that showed the path to an union with the brahman. Havirbhu. Shraddha. the art of creating illusions and hallucinations. For ten thousand years Kardama performed very difficult tapasya (meditation) on the banks of the river Sarasvati. Yoga means union and is used in the sense of the human soul (atman) uniting with the divine assence (brahman). His purpose was to teach men the intricacies of samkhya tattva. Kapila taught his mother. There seemed to be demons everywhere. Vishnu struck the asura on his throat with the mace. After Kapila was born. striking each other with maces. Having achieved his purpose. I am tired of this world. Kriya. He counterattacked so hard that Vishnu’s mace fell off from his hand. Vishnu himself was born to Kardama and Devahuti as Kapila. And from the darkness. Teach me true knowledge. It had many rooms inside it. But a special place needed to be designed for Vishnu to be born. all this maya disappeared. For a hundred years Kardama and Devahuti lived in this vimana and Devahuti gave birth to nine daughters. Kratu. I am tired of its illusions. Their names were Kala. And these teachings have come to be known as samkhya yoga. Atri. These nine daughters were married to the nine great sages Marichi. Pulaha. Vishnu gave up the form of a boar. She was married to the sage Kardama. Gati. Anasuya. And the chakra sliced off Hiranyaksha’s head. Arundhati. Angira. Thereafter. Hiranyaksha now restored to maya. But when Vishnu flung his chakra. Bhrigu. and Shanti. At this. This vimana was bejewelled and richly decorated.
it cannot be described. Everyone stood up to honour Daksha. The supreme knowledge that Kapila taught her. The brahman has no traits. The daughter was named Dakshina. The Daughters of Manu You will recollect that Svayambhuva Manu had three daughters. Akuti was married to the sage Ruchi and they had a son and a daughter. Nara and Narayana. One of Dharma’s wives was Murti and she gave birth to the two great sages. It is known as siddhipada. The mind gets attached to material pursuits and this is the main obstacle in the path. Those who do not realize the identity of the atman with the brahman are destined to be born again and again. She went to an ashrama on the banks of the river Sarasvati and there began to practice yoga. You have been told that Shiva married one of Daksha’s daughters. one to the god Agni. They had sixteen daughters. She gave up her life because her husband was insulted. It is not moved by any emotions. Daksha was after all his own son. Thirteen of these daughters were married to the god Dharma. The place where Devahuti performed tapasya has now become a famous place of pilgrimage. All the guests were seated. freed Devahuti from all here illusions. The son was Vishnu’s incarnation and was brought up by Svayambhuva Manu. Nara and Narayana were incarnations of Vishnu. Akuti. This also requires the overcoming of one’s own ego.Yoga conquers both happiness and unhappiness. Her name was Sati. They were worshipped by everyone and went off to perform tapasya on Mount Gandhamadana. when Daksha suddenly arrived. Apart from anything else. Brahma had no reason to show Daksha respect. Dakshina married Vishnu himself and their twelve sons were the gods known as tushitas. Thereby hangs a tale. of yoga One has to free oneself from these attachments. Shiva and Daksha Many years ago. Devahuti and Prasuti. one to the ancestors and the last one to Shiva. The main path to achieving this union with God is bhakti (devotion and faith). . She meditated on the various forms of Lord Vishnu that Kapila had told her of. You have already heard Devahuti’s story. except Brahma and Shiva. True bliss was in yoga. there was a yajna (sacrifice) at which all the gods and sages had assembled. She realized tha the body was nothing. But Daksha was greatly insulted at Shiva’s ignoring him. Brahma’s son was Daksha and Daksha married Prasuti. Shiva also happened to be his son-in-law.
He cursed all followers of Shiva that they would become addicted to drinking and would roam around with bodies smeared with ashes and decorated with skulls. This went on for a thousand years. He frequents cremation grounds (shmashana) like a lunatic. This excited Sati’s curiosity and she too wanted to go to her father’s sacrifice. Shiva had been silent through all this pandemonium. Now it was the turn of the sage Bhrigu to get angry. Their hair would always be matted. But at all this general cursing. I have not met them for such a long time. Some such people who had been to the yajna were conversing about it while travelling through the sky. Please listen to what I have to say. Nandi therefore cursed the sages and brahmanas that they would be born again and again on earth. Your father-in-law Daksha is organizeing a wonderful sacrifice. But Daksha’s ire had been roused and he cursed Shiva that. His companions are ghosts and demons. all the other gods are going. said Daksha. Daksha organized another yajna named vajapeya and did not invite Shiva or his followers. Let us go. Let us go there. He then left the place in a huff. Sati overhead their conversation. he does not know how to honour his seniors. The yajna was successfully completed and this made Daksha so arrogant that he decided to hold yet another yajna named brihaspatistava. Shiva’s main companion was Nandi. He is married to my daughter Sati.Assembled guests. His body is smeared with ashes from dead bodies. he collected his followers and companions and left the yajna. This Shiva has no sense of shame. Nor have I met my mother for ages. Nandi was incensed that Shiva should have been cursed and that the sages and the brahmanas should have kept quiet and not protested. Days passed. but did not invite Shiva and his followers. let me . She also saw many gandarva women going to attend the yajna in their vimanas. She went to Shiva and said. The yajna was performed in Shiva’s absence. The sacrifice was a tremendous success and people talked about it everywhere. They would have to work for a living and they would lose sight of true knowledge and become addicted to material pursuits. he wears a garland of skulls and he drinks all the time. henceforth. Shiva would not be entitiled to receive any offerings that were made to gods at yajnas. Or at least. Wouldn’t it have been proper of him to stand up and show me respect? It was stupid of me to marry my daughter to this useless fellow. I will get to meet my sisters. This is a chance to talk to all one’s relatives. Shiva continued to ignore Daksha and did not react at these angry words. He invited all the other gods and sages to this yajna.
She would go. since you happen to be my father. For although she was Daksha’s own daughter. she happened to be Shiva’s wife as well. I have given birth to you and you are invincible. She also noticed that. He was accompanied by several other demons . From the hair was created a gigantic being named Virabhadra. She controlled her breath and brought the breath of her life to the centre of her forehead. Saying this. I owe this body of mine to you. What are my orders? Shiva replied. And he had a thousand arms and three eyes. I know that we have not received an invitation. She would not be welcome there. The Vedas were being recited. The ribhus soon put all Shiva’s companions to fight. no one dared to welcome her. He was as dark as the clouds. Shiva had sent several companions with Sati. Shiva’s anger knew no bounds. Who but you would have insulted a person like Shiva? It is the duty of a pativrata (a woman who is devoted to her husband) to protest if her husband is being insulted. He tore off a flaming hair from his head flung it down on the ground with a thunderous laugh. Virabhadra took up a terrible trishula (trident) and rushed towards the place where the sacrifice was being held. Virabhdra’s head touched the sky. But except for Sati’s mother and sisters. Virabhadra stood before Shiva in all humility and asked. Sati told her father. But amongst the guests was the powerful sage Bhrigu. at the yajna. Go and destroy Daksha and his yajna.go. So he sent several of his companions to accompany her. She thought of Shiva and exhaled the breath of life. You have insulted my husband. The gods and the sages had arrived. no provison had been made for Shiva’s share. The assembled guests marvelled at this wonderful incident. Sati sat down on the floor. Sati was adamant. Bhrigu created thousands and thousands of gods (named ribhus) from the fire of the yajna. And her body was immediately consumed by fire. Her father ignored her completely. But despite Shiva’s warning. father or friends? Shiva reminded Sati of what Daksha had said earlier and asked her to desist. A garland of skulls hung around his neck and his hands held diverse weapons. These companions rushed back to Shiva and told him what had transpired. But I no longer wish to possess a body that is thus contaminated. With his powers. I had not expected that you would stoop to such low levels. Shiva was to be deprived. Sati arrived at Daksha’s sacrifice and found that the yajna had started. These companions now attacked Daksha and the guests. But does one need an invitation to go to one’s husband.
Go to your mother Suniti. Dhruva Svayambhuva Manu had two sons named. But Suruchi said. But he found that this was very difficult to do. The gods who did not flee were also tied up. And then he tried to slice off Daksha’s head with his sword. This severed head was flung into the fire. Shiva was entitled to shares in all yajnas just as the other gods were. One day. Go away. The gods fled in despair to Brahma and told him what had happened. You are not my son. No one else could pacify Shiva’s anger. Some demons chased the sages and the gods were attacked by others. The gods went to Kailasa and began to pray to Shiva. Suniti and Suruchi. As for Sati. she was born again as the daughter of Himalaya and Menaka. Dhruva came there and also wanted to sit on his father’s lap. But what was to be done about Daksha? His old head had been consumed by the fire. One of Shiva’s companions was named Manimana. The yajna started afresh and this time Vishnu himself acted as the chief priest. The fire of the yajna was put out. Brahma’s reaction was that the gods had got what they deserved. others demolished the sacrificial pyre. But that is a different story. So Virabhadra dragged Daksha’s body to a scaffold that had been erected for sacrificing animals. Shiva had cooled down by then. Virabhadra himself imprisoned Daksha. and united once again with Shiva. Bhrigu’s beard might sprout again. Both of them became kings. He placed Daksha’s head on the scaffold and cut it off with his sword. Having accomplished his purpose. Suruchi’s son was Uttama and Suniti’s son was Dhruva.and ghosts. so that he was not averse to grantng these boons. They had no business to insult Shiva or to be a party to such insults. Uttama was sitting on his father’s lap and being fondled by him. The gods and sages returned with Shiva to the place where the sacrifice was being held. . but did not like Suniti all that much. Shiva stuck the goat’s head onto Daksha’s body and Daksha was brought back to life.Priyavarata and Uttanapada. Virabhadra returned to Shiva’s residence in Mount Kailasa. They desired that Daksha might be brought back to life. King Uttanapada had two wives. He begged Shiva for mercy and forgiveness. He caught hold of the sage Bhrigu and tied him up. and the gods who had injured might quickly be restored to good health. Some of them broke down the pillars of Daksha’s house. He was extremely fond of Suruchi. Shiva proposed the solution that the head of a goat might be stuck onto Daksha’s body. He tore off Bhrigu’s beard. What do you think you are doing? The king’s lap and his throne are reseved for my son. Brahma therefore advised the gods to pray to Shiva.
he was furious. Pray to God. No one had live there before. His brother Uttama would get lost while on a hunting expedition. Do not be sad. praying. there lies true salvation. For the moment. do not be unhappy. five months passed. she will have to pay for her sins in the future. Bhrami and Ila. If Suruchi has sinned. At this time. This would be known as Dhruvaloka. Dhruva stood there on one leg.Dhruva burst into tears at these harsh words. He was accosted by the sage Narada who told him that he was too small to be performing difficult tapasya. For Dhruva was destined to rule as a king for thirty-six thousand years. Unfortunate are you that you are my son. Vishnu informed him that he should return to his father. Suniti said. Dhruva was only five years of age. and he lived only on air in the fourth month. The remaining days he fasted. And so enamoured was the king of Suruchi that he did not protest. Narada also taught Dhruva an incantation that he could use for this purpose. In the second month he ate once every five days. He should there pray to Vishu. he handed over the kingdom to Dhruva. Dhurva began his tapasya. King Uttanapda was very happy to have him back. For the first month. Dhruva returned to his father’s kingdom. We must be paying for sins that we have committed earlier. Dhruva had two wives. Uttama’s mother. He saw nothing but Vishnu everywhere. Dhruva resolved to do this and left his father’s house. he ate only fruit once every three days. Narada advised Dhruva to go to the banks of the Yamuna to a grove named Madhuvana. He went on a hunt and was killed by a powerful yaksha in the forest. Dhruva desired that he might attain a position that no one had reached even before. This resolve pleased Narada no end. Vishnu carved out a place for Dhurva in the sky. Thus. Suruchi. Dhruvaloka would not be destroyed at the end of a kalpa (cycle) when everything else was destroyed. These yakshas were beings who were the companions of Kubera. Uttama never married. But all this would happen only after Dhruva died. and Uttama and Dhruva embraced each other. And When Uttanapada desired to retire to the forest. He climbed onto his chariot and left for the abode of the yakshas to . son. went to look for her son in the forest and died there. once every nine days in the third month. The weeping Dhruva went to his own mother and was consoled by her. Throught his tapasya he wished to attain a position that had not been attained by any of his ancestors. Eventually Vishnu was pleased and appeared before Dhruva. the god of wealth. When Dhruva learned that his brother had been killed by a yaksha. That was meant for the sages. But Dhruva was insistent. Thanking Vishnu. Dhruva would become the pole star and all the other stars would revolve around him. The two princes grew up together. When Vishnu offered to grant a boon.
Dhruva found their city and started to blow on his conch-shell. He retired to a hermitage named vadrikashrama to perform yoga. the gods did not come to attend the sacrifice. Had he committed a sin that the gods had refused to come? He was then told that the gods had not come because Anga did not yet have a son. several sages came to Dhruva. But he triumphed over them and killed many of them with his weapons. he was more concerned about getting to know about the brahman. If you look up at the sky at night. Why are you doing this? they asked. Dhruva wanted the boon that he might always remain devoted to Vishnu. The yakshas brought millions of soldiers to bear on Dhruva and the king was completely surrounded by his enemies. Anga sent several priests with invitations for the gods. Anga was puzzled. Before the fight could progress further. In fact. Your brother was destined to die. The boon was granted and Dhruva returned to his kingdom. He ruled for thirty-six thousand years. but why kill the others? Besides. Why blame the poor yaksha? He was only the instrument. After some time had passed. Vishnu’s companions Nanda and Sunanada were in the vimana. It was really Vena’s acts that drove Vena’s father Anga to the forest. So the kingdom was handed over to his younger brother Vatsara. even as a prince. The yakshas lived towards the north in a valley in the Himalayas. Vena was terrible. But these invitations notwithstanding. Vena and Prithu Dhruva had a son named Utkala who was asked to become king after Dhruva left for the forest. Dhruva handed over the kingdom to his sons. The yaksha soldiers attacked. When he was tired of the material life. Only one yaksha had killed your brother. Why are you killing innocent yakshas? That is a sin. everyone’s destiny is ordained by Vishnu. King Anga had arranged for an ashvamedha yajna (horse sacrifice).avenge his brother. Kubera himself came to Dhruva and offered to grant him a boon. He alone decides on what is to happen. Dhruva realized the wisdom in these words and ceased to fight. Dhruva repelled the maya with a divine weapon known as narayanastra. They took Dhruva to the place that had been reserved for him in the sky. But Utkala was not interested in becoming a king. He ruled well and performed many sacrifices. challenging the yakshas to a fight. you will be able to see Dhruva. a vimana descended from the sky for Dhruva. The yakshas retaliated with the use of maya (the art of creating illusions). but Dhruva pierced them with his arrows. Punish him. It was imperative that . Vatsara’s descendant was king Vena. Control your anger.
He performed a sacrifice and was given some rice pudding that his wife should have if they desired a son. there were ill omens all around. But ever since an early age. No further trace could be found of him. This they did with the power of their anger. So the dwarf and his descendents were not permitted to live inside the kingdom. In sheer desperation. This son was Vena. Sunitha’ s father was Mrityu and Mrityu was an evil person. But Vena would have none of it. He stopped all yajnas in his kingdom. Who was to become king in his place? In the absence of a king. He killed those who came to play with him. a dwarf emerged from the dead king’s thighs. They lived in the forest and became hunters. Vena got attached to his maternal grandfather and picked up evil pursuits from him. In the brief period when there was no king. Yajnas were meant for the gods. Vena’s oppression knew no bounds. What shall I do? Sit. When he became king. they had no choice in the matter. The word nishida means sit and so the dwarf came to be known as nishada. Anga left the kingdom one night and left for the forest. Vena was crowned the king. But what need was there of gods when the people could pray to King Vena himself? Having realized that Vena was beyond redemption. replied the sages. the sages resolved to kill him. Anga’s wife Sunitha had the rice pudding and gave birth to a son. Vena’s dead body had been preserved by his mother. But Vena had left no son. The dwarf asked. They had crowned Vena king to prevent the anarchy that would have resulted had there been no king. The sages went to Vena to try and persuade him to mend his ways. Vena was beyond all control. The evil traits of Vena had entered the dwarf’s body. Although the subjects were not at all keen that Vena should become the king. The sages realized that they had made a mistake. the kingdom degenerates. Things came to such a pass tha tpeople used to run away when they saw Vena coming.Anga perform a yajna so as to obtain a son. The dwarf was dark and his eyes were red. The sages went to the dead body and began to knead it. but to no avail. . But what was happening was worse than anarchy. He would go to the forest and unnecessarily kill deer. A kingdom cannot function without a king. All thieves took over the kingdom since there was no protector of the people. Anga did as he was told. As a result of the kneading. He would not permit yajnas. Anga tried to discipline his son.
where will you and your subjects live? I will grant whatever it is that you wish for. he was taken to vishuloka or vaikunthaloka. Prithu resolved to conduct a hundred ashvamedha yajnas. It is after Prithu that the earth is known as prithivi. They went to Prithu and said. The earth has swallowed the seeds of all foodgrains and herbs and crops do not grow. there were no foodgrains available on the earth and people were starving. and a son and a daughter emerged. This disturbed Indra. When he died. Prithu’s son chased Indra and brought the horse back. And the daughter. Prithu married Archi and was crowned king. A horse is an essential component of the sacrifice and when no one was noticing. He ruled according to this advice. .The sages continued to knead the dead body’s arms. Prithu was given advice by four brahnmarshis (sages). Brahma however convinced Prithu that the killing of Indr a was not advisable. was an incarnation of Vishnu. the king of the gods. Prithu. Prithu fixed an arrow to his bow and decided to let it loose at the earth. for they realized that the son. Indra was after all the king of gods. Finally she said. Prithu listened to Brahma and became friends with Indra. But Indra stole the horse yet again. Prithu was greatly angered at the disturbance that Indra was causing and decided to kill Indra. The earth adopted the form of a cow and Prithu milked from her the goodrains and the herbs. Prithu asked her to restore the foodgrains and the herbs. and yet again Prithu’s son bought it back. Indra stole the sacrificial horse. the abode of Vishnu. The earth could not outdistance Prithu. Indra had himself performed a hundred ashvamedha yajnas and thus obtained for himself the title of Shatakratu. he handed over the kingdom to his sons and went to the forest to do tapasya. If I am destroyed. Prithu’s wife Archi immolated herself on her husband’s funeral pyre and was also taken to vishnuloka. Please do not destroy me. Prithu was a good king. This was noticed by the sage Atri and he pointed it out to Prithu’s son. Now Prithu was about to equal his glory. And after many years. Indra become jealous. Save us. The sages were now content. But at that time. Prithu had already successfully completed ninety-nine ashvamedha yajnas and how did it matter whether the hundredth one was completed or not? Posterity would remember Prithu as a far greater person than Indra. Please do something to prevent the famine. was an incarnation of the goddess Lakshmi. Archi. But the earth started to run away and Prithu followed after her with the arrow in his bow.
This king had ten sons who were known as the Prachetas. Narada came to visit king Prachinavarhi. Who are you?. There used to be a king named Puranjana. In the city Puranjana discovered a beautiful woman guarded by ten bodyguards. replied Narada.The Prachetas and Puranjana Amongst Prithu’s descendants there was a king named Prachinavarhi. And the Prachetas spent ten thousand years under the water. . The city was full of groves and houses. He had eleven hundred sons and a hundred and ten daughters. The king worshipped Narada and said. they came to a huge lake. Puranjana was looking for a place where he might live on earth. Meanwhile. A snake with five hoods also protected her. Shiva gave the Prachetas a lot of good advice. On their way. The pleasures that he had earlier enjoyed no longer appealed to him. And the doors and windows were made of gold and silver. but they had forgotten their cruel natures. He forgot all sense of night and day. I am to attached to wordly pursuits. He had only one friend. Musical instruments were being played on the shores of the lake. asked Puranjana. He did not go on hunts lest his wife be offended . Wild beasts roamed inside the city. But no place that he saw appealed to him. But slowly Puranjana grew old. I will tell you the story of Puranjana. Puranjana married the woman and forgot about everything else. It had moats and walls around it. His search for a proper residence eventually brought him to the foot of the Himalayas and there he discovered a beautiful city. Once. And who are these ten guards and the snake who follow you around? Puranjana wanted to marry the woman and the woman readily agreed. performing tapasya. but no one knew what the friend’s name was. The Prachetas were amazed to find that Shiva and his companions were bathing in the lake. Fishes were playing in the water and many lotuses had bloomed on the lake. Give me some advice so that I may be freed of these illusions. The houses were bright with jewels. the Prachetas were journeying westwards to perform tapasya inside the ocean. She said that Puranjana could live in the city for a hundred years and be her husband. And his own kingdom Panchala had also been conquered by his enemies.
he was taken to hell and spent a hundred yars there. he was married to King Malayadhvaja. This did not necessarily mean that the one would get tied down by the illusions of the world. who are you ? Don’t you recognize me? I am your friend from you earlier life. While he was in hell. He went to the sage Kapila’s hermitage to meditate. But his father Svayambhuva Manu. Forget material pursuits and realize true knowledge. Vishnu had appeared before them. And since he kept thinking about a woman all the time. But just as she was about to do so. he looked like a second sun. They married a woman named Marisha and had many children. Shaka and Pushkara.When the king died. But Priyavrata was quite upset that night should occur. So Priyavrata did become king. You are your atman. But then he died and his wife was struck with grief. Yajnavahu. Why could it not always be day? One night. You had gone off to a city in the Himalayas and had forgotten all about me. The sun goes around the world in his chariot. Plaksha. a brahmana arrived on the scene. What are you doing?. he was born as woman in his next life. You are neither Puranajana nor are you Malayadhvaja’s wife. These seven dvipas Priyavarata left to his seven sons Agnidhra. Kusha. his teacher Brahma. They had seven sons and one daughter. asked the brahmana. Krouncha. and the sage Narada convinced him that there was nothing wrong in becoming a king. it is night. Understand this and be free of all illusions. And when the king was doing this. Medhatithi and Vitihotra. Ghrita-prishtha. The wheels of his chariot gouged the earth and created the seven oceans. These seven oceans surround the seven regions (dvipas) of the earth. Priyavrata and His Descendants Priyavrata had no real desire to be king. Seven times he drove his chariot around Mount Sumeru. he decided that he would drive his flaming chariot around the world so that night might disappear. Born as the daughter of the king of Vidarbha. he was not interested in worldy matters. King Malayadhvaja ruled for a long time and then handed over the kingdom to his sons. The names of these dvipas are Jambhu. She decided that she would immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre. Prachinvarni understood the message that was latent in Narada’s story . When the sun is on the other side of the world. Meanwhile. For a hundred years Malayadhvaja meditated. when you were Puranajana. Hiranyareta. Idhnajihva. he thought of his wife all the time. He married Vahirshmati. Who are you sorrowing for ? What is this man to you? For that matter. . his sons the Prachetas had succeeded in their tapasya. He went to meditate in the forest and his wife accompanied him. Shalmali.
He married Indra’s daughter Jayanti and they had a hundred sons. so much so that he forgot all about his meditation. When Rishabha died. Bharata became king. Bharata ruled well. He performed many yajnas. He lived alone in an ashrama on the banks of the river Gandaki and prayed to Vishnu for enlightenment. He brought it home to his hermitage and began to rear it. She was so beautiful that Agnidhra’s meditation was disturbed. a lion roared nearby and the deer was frightened. He pretended . He jumped into the water and rescued the baby deer. the nine sons split up Jambu dvipa into nine different regions (varshas). Bharata was reborn as the son of a brahmana. Had it been attacked by a jackal or some other wild beast? Even when he died. that is. Purvachitti married Agnidhra and they had nine sons whose names were Nabhi. Agnidhra had no sons. He realized that human relationsips were transient and did not wish to get attached to them. Bharata continued to be a jatismara. The baby deer was carried away by the current of the river. The eldest was called Bharata and it is after him that this land came to be known as Bharatavarsha. Kimpurusha. Bharata was born as a deer in his next life. Bharata saw what had happened. but died of fright and exhaustion. When he had ruled for many years. She jumped into the water of the river and delivered a baby there. After Agnidhra died. he asked. Kuru. And the mother deer managed to clamber up on to the bank. Who are you?. Slowly he got attached to the deer. Nabhi’s son was Rishabha and Rishabha was devoted to Vishnu. Bhadrashva and Ketumala.Agnidhra ruled over Jambu dvipa. he could remember the incidents of his earlier life. Are you an illusion? If you are not. Since he had been thinking of a deer at the time of his death. he handed over the kingdom to his sons and became a hermit. Harivarsha. Just as the deer was drinking water. he kept thinking of the deer. He would start to worry if he did not see the deer for a while. Ilavrita. But he was born a jatismara. When the deer died. Ramyaka. Rishabha gave his sons a lot of learned advice so that they might not get bogged down by the illusions of the world. He therefore came back to his earlier ashrama and lived there. Bharata Bharata’s queen was named Panchajani. Each ruled over one region and the region took on the name of its ruler. One day a deer came to drink water from the river. Brahma knew what Agnidhra wanted and so he sent an apsara named Purvachitti to Agnidhra. He went to Mount Mandara and started to pray to Brahma that he might have a son. He realized that he had dislodged from the path of yoga through his own mistakes. Hiranmaya. As a brahama. please marry me.
The king’s servants found Bharata and brought him to the king. Bharata taught Rahugana about the brahman and about the indentity of the atman and the brahman. But Kali could not bear this to take place. and he never bathed. Nor have I travelled a long distance. This irritated the king and. the prisoner escaped. He returned to his field. But Bharata could not keep pace with the other bearers. He stepped very carefully so that he might not step on living beings such as insects and kill them. He was strong of health and slept on the ground. How can the atman be tired. The king was riding a palanquin and the palanquin needed one more bearer. There was a leader of the shudras who wished to make a human sacrifice to the goddess Kali. he asked.they pointed out that it was Bharata who was responsible. Rahugana shouted at Bharata. She came out of her image and she and her companions killed all the shudras. It was the atman that was permanent. not to satify his senses. Are you tired?. The result was that the palanquin did not move smoothly. Bharata merely smiled. bathed and dressed in new clothes. he replied. A piece of cloth sufficed as clothing for him. When Bharata’s parents died. Have you travelled a long distance? Or is it that you are weak? You look strong enough to me. He ate only to survive. He had captured a man for this purpose. . deaf and dumb so that no one might mix with him. but. He fell down at Bharata’s feet and begged that he might be forgiven. I am neither weak nor strong. He ruled over the kingdoms of Sindhu and Soubira.to be mad. I am not tired. stupid. They captured him and brought him to their leader. He was therefore made to bear the planaquin with the other beares. He wished to learn more words of wisdom from Bharata. He told the king that the physical body was only transitory. Bharata was fed. king Rahugana was passing. But Bharata could not care less. his brothers began to treat him rather shabbily. Bharata seemed to strong and healthy enough. The shudras had to find another person for the sacrifice. They gave him the worst of food to eat. weak or strong? How can it travel a long distance? The king was amazed at these words of wisdom. The shudra priest then raised his sword to sacrifice Bharata to the goddess. One day. when he scolded the bearers. Bharata was nonchalant. Other people started to treat him as an outcast. Life was like a forest with the dangers of illusions and material attachments everywhere. The learned knew how to step carefully so as to avoid these pitfalls. I am my atman. and they found Bharata sitting in a field. in the dead of the night.
Some people say that there are twenty-eight different hells. On the peak of Mount Sumeru is Brahma’s famous city. who decides which hell a sinner should go to. Asipatravana naraka is full of palm trees that have leaves as sharp as the blade of a sword. There Yama’s servants drive a needle-andthread through his body. go to krimibhoja and are eaten by worms. Vana means forest. Those who perform good deeds go to svarga. individuals are born again in order to clear any portion of punya or papa that may remain. Bharatavarsha is the most sacred of the varshas. Punya is rewarded in heaven and pap has to be paid for in hell. one’s flesh is torn to bits by the sharp leaves of the palm trees. A sinner who does harm to a brahmana is sent to kalasurtra and burnt there. If one tries to run away from the whipping. Asi is a sword and partra means a leaf. Each naraka is earmarked for a specific sort of sin. in proportion to the sins that he had committed on earth. Those who punish the innocent are sent to shukaramukha and bitten by bed-bugs. that is the reason why this naraka is called rourava. A bearer of false wintess is flung down repeatedly from mountain tops. Those who oppose the Vedas are taken to asipatravana and whipped. A brahmana who drinks is forced to drink molten iron. Geography You have already been told that the earth is divided? into seven regions (dvipas). An arsonist or a poisoner is torn to bits by seven hundred and twenty dogs.Thus it was that King Rahugana learnt true knowledge from Bharata. A person who is violent is sent to rourava. A thief goes to tamisra naraka and is made to suffer hunger and thirst there. It is Yama. Sinners who eat without offering food to gods. Jambu dvipa is snaped like the leaf of lotus and there are nine regions (varshas) within Jambu dvipa. brahmanas or guests. A miser goes to suchimukha. When the account of punya or papa is partly cleared. The rurus practise violence on the sinner. All the hells are located below the underworld. Asipatra is the blade of a sword. Ajamila . Hells There are several different hells (naraka). Each individual has an account of the store of merit (punya) and sins (papa) committed by him. the god of Death. Ilavrita varsha is in the centre and Mount Sumeru is right in the middle of Ilavrita varsha. Rourava narka is populated by snake-like beings known as ruru.
The time came for Ajamila to die. With their guru Shukracharya’s permission. The gandharvas were singing and the apsaras were dancing. But so engrossed was Indra in the singing and the dancing that he neglected to stand up and honour Brihaspati. Brahma said.But without waiting for naraka. You need a guru. Vishnu’s servants took him to vishnuloka. Brihaspati felt insulted and left the assembly. for example. Their faces were fierce and they held nooses in their hands. The gods went running to Brahma. Narayana. The asuras had got to know that the devas were now without a guru. he simply vanished. the son of Tvashta. The youngest was named Narayana and he was his father’s darling. a sinner can make atonement for his sins (prayashchitta). When he died. . The guru (teacher) of the devas (gods) was Brihaspati. But Narayana is also Vishnu’s name and at these words. but could not find Brihaspati. They thought that this was the opportune moment to attack. You have become weak because you have no guru. He was still thinking of his youngest son and he called out. all his sins had been pardoned. Three terrible messengers of Yama came to take Ajamila to naraka. In the land of Kanyakubja there lived a brahmana named Ajamila. Ajamala lived for eighty years and he had ten sons. The tussle began between Yama’s messengers and Vishnu’s servants. Indra immediately realized what had happened and decided to hunt out Brihaspati and beg forgiveness. Indra searched and searched. He gambled and cheated and stole. Using his powers of maya. Indra and Vritra Once upon a time. Ajamila did not realize what was happening. Yama’s messengers wanted to take Ajamila to naraka but Vishnu’s servants would not let them do this. Narayana. He had now become penitent for his deeds and he spent the remaining part of his life in performing tapasya. Finally both parties left and Ajamila was allowed to live for some more time. Indra was seated on his throne and the other gods were all seated around him. Vishnu servants appeared. The best form of prayashchitta is to call upon Vishnu. Brihaspati came to the assembly. He will find a way out. Go and pray to the sage Vishvarupa. the story of Ajamila. They maintained that since Ajamila had called upon Narayana (Vishnu) before his death. they attacked the gods and drove them away. All this has happened because you insulted your guru. But the guru was not going to let Indra get away so easily. There is. At this. His wife was a woman of lowly caste and she persuaded Ajamila to perform all sorts of evil deeds.
He crushed the gods under his feet. . And armed with vajra. There were so many arrows flying around that the sky could not be seen. He became the priest of the gods and thanks to his advice. Vritra continued to fight alone. Go to the sage Dadhichi. the gods succeeded in defeating the demons. Come back. Why are you running away ? Everyone who is born has to die. This giant asura was known as Vritra. but he simply swallowed up the weapons. People began to flee. Vishnu appeared before them and said. The severed heads became three types of birds. The earth shook when he roared and danced. And Indra will kill Vritra with the vajra. The sky was littered with weapons which were being hurled around. Indra hurled a mace at Vritra. fashioned the vajra out of the sage’s bones. It is better to die a glorious death on the battlefield than do die as a coward. Dadhichi did not refuse when the gods asked him for his body. Indra cut off all three of Vishvarupa’s heads. Indra climbed onto his elephant Airavta and attacked Vritra and the other demons. Indra was never very sure of Vishvarupa. So Vishvarupa was a nephew of the daityas (demons) and it was inconceivable that he would help the devas in their fight with the asuras or daityas. the architect of the gods. A terrible asura came out of the fire and rapidly began to grow. but Vritra caught the mace in his hand and struck Indra’s elephant. A weapon named vajra will be made from Dadhichi’s bones. His body is strong and hard from many years of tapasya. Vritra could have attacked Indra. Vishvakarma. But the asura soldiers did not listen. he might be helping them secretly. Vritra tried to restrain them. Ask him for his body and he will not refuse. who was a daitya woman. But when the devas prayed to him Vishvarupa could not refuse. His mouth was as huge as a cave. the second for drinking wine and the third for drinking the juice of the soma herb. it seemed as if he would swallow up all the three worlds and everything that was in them. The elephant retreated and started to vomit blood. When he got the chance. He was after all related to the daityas. For the mere physical body was nothing. The gods didn’t know what to do. and when he opened his mouth. Airavata on the head with the mace. Cowards. Tvashta was furious that Indra had killed Vishvarupa. It was the atman that was everything. he said. He performed a yajna and wished that an enemy of Indra’s might be born out of the flames. The asura held a trident in his hand. They began to pray to Vishnu. The gods came and attacked Vritra with many weapons. The other gods also came along to help Indra and a terrible war raged between the gods and the demons.Now Tvashta had married Rachana. He was as dark as a mountain and his eyes burnt like the midday sun. The demons began to flee. Vishvarupa had three heads. He used one for eating.
But he was sad because he did not have a son. But eventually. Saying this. And with the vajra he next sliced off Vritra’s right hand. King Nahusha ruled as Indra. The king had many wives. a son was indeed born and everyone rejoiced. they began to fight again. Come on. It lay there on the ground and Indra was too ashamed to pick it up. But Vritra took up a club in his left hand and hit Indra so hard that the vajra was dislodged from Indra’s hand. In due course. but he permitted him to rest. . The sin followed him around wherever he went. When Indra had rested. you will in all probability kill me with your vajra. And Parishit was puzzled. Vritra had been a brahmana and Indra had committed the sin of killing a brahmana. said Vritra. Chitraketu King Parikshit heard the story of Indra and Vritra from the sage Shukadeva. The eldest of Chitraketu’s wives was named Kritadyuti and the rice pudding that came out of the sacrifice was fed to her. Indra realized that he was inside Vritra’s stomach. He hid inside the stem of a lotus flower in the lake and stayed there for thousands and thousands of years. How can an asura like Vritra have become devoted to Vishnu? Shukadeva told him the story of Chitraketu. Vritra opened his mouth wide and tried to swallow up Indra and Airavata. Indra returned and performed an ashvamedha yajna as complete atonement for the sin.then. a king named Chitraketu used to rule. Many years ago. Pick up the vajra and kill me. I will try to kill you with my trident and avenge Vishvarupa’s death. The sage Angira came to visit him once and the king told the sage about his misery. Indra. But since you have been blessed by Vishnu. in the kingdom of Shurasena and in the city of Mathura. Finally Indra went and hid in manasa sarovara lake. The gods were delighted. Vritra’s body was so thick that it took three hundred and sixty days for the entire head to be severed. Vritra said. But Indra was still not at peace with himself. Vritra picked up another club in his left hand. And before he could do anything. Don’t waste time. While Indra was away. Angira decided that a yajna had to be performed so that Chitraketu might have a son. the severity of the sin was diminished. But this time Indra sliced off Vritra’s left hand with his vajra. I am eager to die and meet Vishnu. Who can win without Vishnu’s support? The demon hurled the trident at Indra. But he cut open Vritra’s stomach with the vajra and then sliced off Vritra’s head as well. but Indra cut it up with his vajra.
they did prayashchitta on the banks of the river Yamuna. On one occasion he even insulted Shiva and Parvati. Chitraketu himself performed tapasya. Enjoy your father’s property and be king after him. the other queens also pretended to weep. The sages Angira and Narada came to comfort Chitraketu. And he seemed to love Kritadyuti even more now that she had given birth to a boy. Diti was very upset that Indra and the other gods kept killing her children. Accordingly. The atman replied. what boon do you desire? . He told the atman. To hide their crime. To think otherwise is to be ignorant. Shiva ignored the insult. which father and what property? I have lived many times. Live for some more time. They gave up their sorrowing and performed the last rites for the dead prince.Chitraketu was delighted. There is no need to sorrow. Again and again they adopt physcial bodies. Narada used his powers to bring back the atman of the dead prince. Which body are you talking about? These words convinced the relatives. nothing but illusions. Come and enter the body of the dead prince. Chitraketu and Kritadyuti went mad with grief. Which life. And through the powers that he acquired. As penance for their sin. To convince Chitraketu. He loved his son. She resolved to have a son who would kill Indra. Your son’s atman has not been killed. They said. I have had many lives and many fathers. The other queens felt slighted and becamed jealous. They fed the boy poison and the boy died. of the dead prince. but Parvati cursed Chitraketu that he would be born as an asura. Diti’s Children The sage Kashyapa married Diti and Aditi. Who are you sorrowing for? What is this boy to you? He was nothing to you in your earlier life. The sage Kashyapa was pleased and asked her. she started to serve her husband really well. Diti’s children were known as the daityas and Aditi’s children were the adityas or devas. He told the atman. He spread the knowledge of Vishnu everywhere and this inflated his ego no end. It was he who had been born as Vritra. he got to meet Vishnu. The queens who had posioned him became penitent. People are born again and again. Ths explains his devotion to Vishnu. You still have some life left as the prince. But these are temporary.
don’t cry. Diti agreed to this condition. such as lying or cursing. In that positon he began to meditate. Indra had got to know about his aunt’s desire and he was always hanging around. You will be called the maruts and you will be my friends and companions. For a hundred years Hiranyakashipu meditated thus. He called all the asuras together and asked them to stop all yanas and Veda recitals on earth. These parts began to cry and Indra said. His hair grew matted and the termites built a hill all around his body. Hiranyakashipu and Prahlada You probably remember that Vishnu adopted the form of a boar to kill the asura Hiranyaksha. The gods were oppressed and fled from heaven. the son who will be born will become a friend of the gods. You will have to perform certain rites for a year. Finally Brahma appeared before him and agreed to grant him a boon. Give me a son who will kill Indra. There were thus forty-nine parts and they asked. Hiranyakashipu was furious to learn of his brother’s death. Kashyapa was in a fix. You are my cousin. The rites included the avoidance of thrity-one acts that were prohibited. All right. And that Hiranyaksha had a brother named Hiranyakshipu. Once Diti was very tired and went to sleep without washing her feet. Hiranyakashipu wished to become invincible. It was also forbidden to go to sleep without washing one’s feet. replied Indra. That is. ma ruda. He entered Didi’s womb and sliced up the baby who was there into seven parts with his vajra. you will have a son who will kill Indra. The asuras did as they had been told and religious ceremonies on earth came to an end. Hiranyakashipu consoled his mother and nephews and asked them not to sorrow. But he pretended to serve Diti faithfully. Indra saw his chance. He therefore started to perform very difficult tapasya. without food and water. Why are you killing us? I shall not kill. If you do them for an entire year. He would avenge his brother. He stood on the tips of his toes and raised his arms up. But if you stop before a year. He then cut up each of the seven parts into seven parts again. He resolved to kill Vishnu.Diti replied. These maruts became gods. waiting for a chance to bring his aunt’s wishes to nought. . And Diti was so happy to see them that she forgave Indra all his crimes. He said.
He was fed poison. Prahlada continued to talk about Vishnu. At first Hiranyakashipu thought that this was childish foolishness and would pass away. The asura children started to get converted as a result of Prahlada’s teachings and Hiranyakashipu was not prepared to tolerate this. Prahlada’s mother was released and taken to Narada’s hermitage. Snakes were made to bite him. He told them that he himself would kill Hiranyakashipu. Hiranyakashipu did not wish to have such a son. But Narada convinced Indra that this abduction was a sin. Who protects you every time I try to kill you?. exclaimed Hiranyakashipu. was an exception. the gods attacked the demons and defeatd them. But it did not. The asuras struck Prahlada with spears. Prahlada was still in the womb then and he listened to the words of wisdom that Narada taught his mother. That I may not killed during night or day and that I may not be killed by man or beast. These two began to teach Prahlada and his brothers. Prahlada was then kept imprisoned for a while and he spent the time in instructing the other asura children on the virtues of being devoted to Vishnu. Make me invincible from all weapons. Hiranyakashipu conquered the three worlds. the spears did him no harm. He instructed his servants to kill Prahlada. But no matter what they taught. when that asura started to oppress his own son Prahlada.Grant me the boon that I may not be killed by any being of your creation. But nothing happened to Prahlada. Vishnu. The gods sought refuge with Vishnu. Elephants were let loose on the prince. he asked Prahlada. Prahlada continued to be devoted to Vishnu. And grant me the boon that devas or asuras may do me no harm. in the sky or on earth. Rendered invincible. Hiranyakashipu had three other sons. And Shukracharya had two sons named Shanda and Amarka. He told them how he had become devoted to Vishnu. He had Prahlada brought before him again. Brahma granted Hiranyakashipu this rarest of rare boons. But Prahlada. He was thrown into the water. Indra abducted Prahlada’s mother. When Hiranyakshipu was away on his tapasya. Vishnu asked them to be patient. said Hiranyakashipu. He was thrown down from mountain tops. He was devoted to Vishnu and thought of Vishnu all the time. Where is Vishnu? . It was this knowledge that he still remembered. Shukracharya was the teacher of the asuras. was the answer. Vishnu. He drove Indra out of heaven and ruled there instead. But since Prahlada was protected by Vishnu. Apart from Prahlada.
A being came out from inside the pillar. Is Vishnu inside this pillar? See. And the shudras should serve the other three classes. His claws were exceedingly sharp. Manvantaras Each manvantara is an era. Dharma There are four classes (varna) and each class has to act according to what is prescribed for it. The brahmanas should study and perform religious rites. The universe is destroyed at the end of each kalpa. the sixth Chakshusha and the seventh . The first is that of brahmacharya or celibate studenthood. replied his son. In the present cycle. And the last is sannyasa or the hermit stage. The first Manu was Svayambhuva Manu. six manvantaras have passed. He placed the demon across his thighs and tore apart his breast with the claws. Agriculture and trade is for the vaishyas. It was neither man or beast. A Manu rules over each manvantara and the title of Indra. The kshatriyas have to protect the world. Narasimha offered to grant him a boon and Prahlada wanted the boon that his father’s sins might be forgiven. it was half-man and half-lion. The third is vanaprastha or the forest-dwelling stage. The second is garhasthya or the householder stage. the third Uttama. or king of the gods. the fourth Tamasa. Narasimha’s eyes were like molten gold. He then killed many of the other asuras. This boon Vishnu granted. The second Manu was Svarochisha. the fifth Raivata. asked Hiranyakashipu. His teeth were as sharp as swords. Prahlada became the king of the asuras and he ruled well according tot he dictates of dharma (righteousness). A terrible sound was then heard from inside the pillar. Prahlada came up to narasimha and worshipped him. A golden mane hung around his face. Hiranyakashipu attacked narasimha with a mace. Where is Vishnu? Hiranyakashipu struck the pillar with a blow his fists. He effortlessly flung aside the sword and the shield that Hiranyakashipu had grasped. This was the narasimha avatara of Vishnu. Everywhere?. I am striking this pillar.He is everywhere. There are also four ashramas (stages of life) prescribed by dharma. Fourteen such manvantaras constitute a kalpa (cycle). is held by different individuals in different manvantaras. He pointed to a crystal pillar and said. But narasimha caught the asura up in his arms.
In fact. When a thousand years over. There will be seven more manvantaras before the universe is destroyed. The elephant and the crocodile struggled for a thousand years. Try as he might.Shraddhadeva. In each manvantara it is the duty of the ruling Manu to uphold the dharma of the four classes and the four stages of life. Nor were the other elephants in a position to help. And he had been cursed by a sage that he would be born as an elephant. His name was Huhu. The elephant started to pray to Vishnu. That had now happened. the tenth Brahmasavarni. the crocodile then adopted the form of a gandharva. Indra met Vali to try and persuade him that a truce should be called and that they should churn the ocean together. And the sage had told him that he would be freed from the curse by Vishnu. The devas and the asuras were always fighting with each other. the elephant had earlier also been a king named Indradyumna. The eighth Manu will be Savarni. although the crocodile’s strength was still undiminished. the thirteenth Devasavarni and the fourteenth Indrasavarni. It is the seventh manvantara that is now going on. Strange as it may seem. the eleventh Dharmasavarni. He had been cursed by a sage that he would become a crocodile. Vishnu would ensure that the demons would not get a share of the amrita. The demons agreed. Mount Mandara was to be the . the elephant could not free himself. the elephant began to tire. the churning of the ocean (samudra manthana) took place. He ruled over all the other elephants in the herd. The crocodile caught hold of the elephant’s leg. the ninth Dakshasavarni. And in the forests there lived a king of elephants. Vishnu appeared and cut off the crocodile’s mouth with his sudarshana chakra. But Vishnu advised the devas to have a temporary truce with the asuras. Thus Vishnu saves whoever prays to him. The Elephant’s Story There was a beautiful mountain named Trikuta. The two sides should get together and churn the ocean. Amrita ( a life-giving drink) would emerge from the ocean and make the gods strong. Indradyumna too was freed from his curse and became Vishnu’s companion. The king of the demons then was Vali. the twelfth Rudrasavarni. Once that elephant came to bathe in a lake where a crocodile lived. The waves of the ocean lapped at the foot of Trikuta. There were thick forests on the mountain. they too wanted the amrita. The Churning of the Ocean Many years ago.
The parijata tree followed. Dhanvantrari was the originator of all medicine. He gave the amrita to the devas. the snakes and poisonous herbs obtained their poison from this. The sages anointed her with sacred water. He is therefore known as Nilakantha. Varuna gave her a garland. but not to the asuras. The ocean gave her clothes. it produced whatever one desired. Vishnu adopted the form of a turtle and the back of the turtle constituted the base on which Mount Mandara could rest.churning rod. The demons grasped Vasuk’s mouth. was promised some amrita and he agreed to be the rope for the churning. it yielded whatever one desired. blue of throat. The apsaras emerged next. the king of the elephants. A little bit of poison was however spilled on the ground. He held the pot of amrita in his hands. Meanwhile. Her appearance lit up the world. This was a kamadhenu. The churning continued and a cow named Surabhi came out. Nothing happened to Shiva. Vishvakarma jewellery and Brahma a lotus. but Vishnu created illusions so that the asuras fell to fighting amongst themselves over the amrita. Vishnu adopted the form of a beautiful woman and the asuras also began to fight over who should marry this woman. The only perfect being was Vishnu and Lakshmi therefore married Vishnu. They asked the woman to divide the amrita for them. And Shiva drank up the poison. The gods became despondent. And so the churning began. that is. Vishnu did no such thing. The demons immediately snatched the pot of amrita and ran away with it. The first object that emerged from the ocean was a terrible poison known as halahala. Next came Airavata. Then a handsome white horse named Ucchaihshrava emerged and was given to Vali. so the gods and the demons grasped the mountain and dragged it to the ocean. and sixteen other elephants. The gods grasped his tail. The goddess of wine is Varuni. She followed Lakshmi out of the ocean. She was given to the demons. It was a kapavriksha. They wore golden jewellery and beautiful clothes. Of course. The gods and the demons went to Shiva and begged him to rescue them. The sages took this cow to brahmaloka. the king of the snakes. The only demon who managed to get a . that is. it was placed in Indra’s garden. except that his throat became blue. The goddess Lakshmi came out after this. The scorpions. The demons were cheated. Vasuki. And what should emerge next but a beautiful jewel named koustubha? Vishnu accepted this as an adornment for his breast. Lakshmi looked for a perfect being to whom she could belong. What was to be done about his poison? It would destroy the world. the demons and the humans all wanted to possess her. She was so attractive that the gods. Then Dhanvantari emerged.
little amrita was Rahu. He was however caught while he was in the act of swallowing the amrita. Vishnu cut of Rahu’s head with his chakra. The amrita never entered Rahus’ body. But since Rahu’s head had tasted the amrita, it had become immortal. Brahama therefore converted the head into a planet. The demons had by now realized the fraud. They attacked the gods with all sorts of weapons. But the gods had drunk the amrita and become strengthened. After a prolonged battle, they defeated the demons. Vali Shukracharya was the teacher for the asuras. Shukracharya performed a yajna named vishvajita for Vali and the asura king became invincible. He attacked Indra and the other gods and drove them out of heaven. He became the ruler of the three worlds and performed a hundred ashvamedha sacrifices in celebration. Aditi was unhappy to see her children suffer thus. She performed tapasya so that Vishnu might be born as her son and defeat Vali. The tapasya was successful and Vishnu was born as the son of Kashyapa and Aditi. The son was a dwarf (vamana) and this was therefore known as the dwarf incarnation of Vishnu. Vali was performing an ashvamedha sacrifice. The sacrifice was being held on the banks of the Narmada river and Vali had announced that, on the occasion, he would not refuse a boon to anyone. The dwarf went to the sacrifice. What is your desire?, Vali asked of the dwarf. Nothing very much, replied the dwarf. Only as much of land as can be covered by three of my steps. Agreed, said Vali. Shukracharya had seen through Vishnu’s game and he tried to restrain Vali. But Vali would not listen to his teacher. He would not go back on his word. The dwarf started to grow in size. It became gigantic. With one step it covered the earth, with the second it covered heaven, and with the third and final step it covered all the other lokas. Vali had nowhere left to go but to the underworld. The Fish Avatara Many years ago there was a flood when the world was immersed in water. Brahma had been sleeping then, and seizing the opportuntiy, a demon named Hayagriva stole the sacred Vedas. That was the time when Vishnu adopted the fish (matsya) incarnation.
There used to be a king named Satyavrata. He was performing tapasya in the waters of the river Kritamala. Suddenly he noticed a very small fish swimming in the water in the palm of his hands. Satyavrata was about to throw the fish into the water, but the fish spoke out. Don’t throw me back into the river, it said. I am scared of being eaten up by the animals that live in the water. Satyavrata placed the fish in a pot and brought it home to his hermitage. Within a night the fish grew so big that it could no longer be kept inside the pot. Satyavrata placed the fish inside a vat, but in matter of seconds, the fish became too big for the vat. Satyavrata put it inside a pond, but the fish became too big for the pond as well. Satyavrata took the fish to a lake, but even the lake proved to be too small. Finally Satyavrata took it to the ocean and prepared to release it there. Don’t release me in the ocean, said the fish. I am scared of the animals that live in the ocean. By now, Satyavrata had realized that this was no ordinary fish. Who are you?, he asked. Why are you deluding me? You must be the Lord Vishnu. The fish told him that it was indeed Lord Vishnu. It also told him that seven days later, there would be a flood that would swallow up the three lokas of bhuloka, bhuvarloka, and svarloka. A huge boat would then arrive before Satyavrata. And the king should climb onto the boat with all beings, the seven great sages (saptarshis) and foodgrains. The fish would also arrive and Satyavrat should tie the boat to the fish’s horn with the great snake Vasuki as a rope. In that manner, Satyavrata would be saved from the havoc of the flood. Having said all this, the fish disappeared. But everything happened just as the fish had said it would. While they floated on the water, the fish recited the Matsya Purana to Satyavrata. King Satyavrata later became Vaivasvata Manu. In this form of a fish, Vishnu also killed the demon Hayagriva and retrieved the Vedas. The Sons of Vaivasvata Manu Vaivasvata Manu had no sons. His wife was named Shraddha. Because they had no son, husband and wife decided to perform a sacrifice. Shraddha wanted a daughter and she instructed the priest accordingly. A daughter named Ila was born from the sacrifice. But Manu was unhappy because he had wanted a son. Manu’s guru was the sage Vashishtha and Vashishtha was exceedingly powerful. When Manu complained to his teacher, Vashishtha used his powers to transform
Ila into a son named Sudyumna. In fact, Sudyumna or Ila alternated between being a man and a woman for stretches of one month at a time. When Ila was a woman, the sage Budha married her and they had a son named Pururava. And when Sudyumna was a man, he had three sons named Utkala, Gaya and Vimala. Manu was not satisfied. He wished that he might have a proper son and he prayed for a hundred years that this might happen. Ten sons were born to him and their names wre Ikshvaku, Nriga, Sharyati, Dishta, Dhrishta, Karusha, Narishyanta, Prishadhra, Nabhaga and Kavi. Prishadhra’s guru asked him to look after the cows. Prishadhra stayed awake at night to do this. One night it was raining. A tiger came and entered the cowshed. The cow ran thither and thither in fright and the tiger caught a cow. Prishadhra came running to see what was happening. In the darkness Parishadhra mistook a cow for the tiger and killed it. His teacher was furious at this mistake and cursed Prishadhra that, henceforth, he would live like a shudra. Prishadhra did not have any children. The youngest son Kavi did not marry either. He went off to the forest to perform meditation. But all the others had several children. Sukanaya and Chyavana Sharyati’s daughter was Sukanaya. She was very pretty and her eyes were like the petals of lotus flowers. Once Sharyati and Sukanya went to the forest to visit the hermitage of the sage Chyavana. The princess and her friends went around picking flowers. Sukanaya suddenly came across a termite hill. There were two holes in the hill which shone with a peculiar light. She inserted a thorn into the two holes and was amazed to see blood ooze out. She had not realized that it was the sage Chyavana who was inside the hill and whom she had succeeded in blinding. To appease the sage, Sharyati married Sukanaya to him. After some time the two Ashvinis came to visit the hermitage. They were twins and were also the physicians of the goods. Chyavana promised them a share in the coveted juice of the soma herb and persuaded them to treat him so that he might become handsome. The ashvinis asked Chyavana to bathe in a lake and the sage became exceedingly handsome. Ambarisha King Ambarisha was descended from Nabhaga. He rules over the entire world and possessed all the riches that one might desire. But Ambarisha was not really
Go and get some meat from the forest. Vikukshi went to the forest and killed many animals. Once Ikshvaku was performing a funeral ceremony. the sage Durvasa arrived. Vikukshi returned and became king. Puranjaya agreed on condition that he could ride into battle . Still pursued by the chakra. The reason for this was as follows. Ikshvaku’s Son Ikshvaku had a hundred sons. While all this was going on. The sage was hot-tempered and his anger was easily aroused. Wherever Durvasa fled. Time passed and the sage did not return. he banished Vikukshi from the kingdom. His mind was devoted to Vishnu. After Ikshvaku died. Once there was fight between the gods and the demons and the gods craved Puranjaya’s help. It had already been eaten. Not knowning what to do. The chakra then started to pursue Durvasa. the chakra followed. Durvasa went to Ambarisha and begged for mercy. Ambarisha was in a dilemma. they were to fast for three nights. The rest of the meat he brought home to his father. He could not eat before his guest. Ambarisha worshipped him and asked him to partake of some food.interested in all this. Bu Ambarisha was devoted to Vishnu. Finally Durvasa went to vishnuloka and fell at Vishnu’s feet. If the auspicious moment passed. the entire ceremony would be wasted. He and his wife decided to perform a special religous rite. At the end of the ceremony. He called Vikukshi to him and said. His son Puranjaya was also known as Indravaha or Kakutstha. But Vishnu told him to go to Ambarisha instead. But he was exhausted as a result of all this exertion and ate the meat of a rabbit. Ambarisha pacified the chakra. And he had to eat since the three nights were over. So Vishnu’s sudarshana chakra arrived and estroyed the demon. Ambarisha drank soem water as a compromise. And Ikshvaku gave the meat to the sage Vashishtha so that the funderal ceremony might be performed But Vashishtha said that the meat was tainted and could not be used for the ceremony. Durvasa agreed. When Ikshvaku found out from his son what had happened. Durvasa returned and immediately realized that Ambarisha had drunk some water. This created a demon which advanced with a sword to kill Ambarisha. but wanted to have a bath first. the chief among them being Vikukshi. they should eat as soon as the three nights were over. And if the ceremony was to be properly conducted. Nimi and Dandaka. He tore off a hair and flung it down on the ground.
Chandra Vamsha Brihaspati was the guru of the devas and his wife was Tara. Sagara and the Descent of Ganga Amongst Ikshvaku’s descendants was King Sagara. Dilipa’s son was Bhagiratha and Bhagiratha performed such difficult tapasya that the river Ganga agreed to grant him a boon. Sumati had sixty thousand sons and Keshini one. Rama of Ramayana fame was also descended from Ikshvaku’s line. When the sixty thousand sons did not return. Soma . But Indra came and stole the sacrificial horse. And at the touch of the sacred water. take the horse. But Sagara’s sons did not know that Indra was responsible. Puranjaya fought so bravely that the demons were defeated. Amshumana. asked Ganga. The sons looked for the horse everywhere and finally found it in the hermitage of the sage Kapila. Soma abducted Tara and although Brihaspati asked him to return his wife. Amshumana returned with the horse and the sacrifice was completed. The mischievous Indra had hidden it there. They concluded that Kapila was the thief and attacked him. Bhagiratha prayed to Shiva and persuaded him to break Ganga’s fall. Shiva held her on his head before releasing her to the earth.perched on Indra’s shoulders. Sagara had two wives. But. Soma was the sage Atri’s son. But he was unsuccessful. When the horse could not be found. burnt into ashes. Keshini’s son was Asamanjasa and Asamanjasa’s son was Amshumana. Sagara sent Amshumana to look for his uncles and the lost horse. Sumati and Keshini. Bhagiratha told her what he desired. Amshumana discovered the horse in the sage Kapila’s ashrama. he began to pray to the sage. But being different from his uncles. Nor did his son Dilipa succeed. I will go straight through the earth and land up in the underworld. Sagara sent Sumati’s sixty thousand sons to look for it. Amshumana performed a lot of tapasya so that the river Ganga might be brought down to earth. who will break my fall? If no one does. Bhagiratha led Ganga to where his ancestors’ ashes were. Thee is no way to rescue them except through the waters of the river Ganga. But such was the power of Kapila’s rage that all sixty thousand sons were burnt into ashes. Your uncles are here. Sagara had once performed an ashvamedha yajna. they were purifed and taken up to heaven. When I descend to earth. Kapila said.
that is. But Soma and Tara had by then got a son. I don’t want a son like a kshatriya. The . Can’t you do something so that my grandson is like that? Let my son be like a brahmana. Richika and Satyavati’s son was Jamadagni and Jamadagni married Renuka. Richika agreed. Aya. A war then started between the gods and the demons. You shouldn’t have done that. he had ensured that this motherin-law’s rice pudding was such that her son would be kshatriya-like. he told Satyavati. When Richika found out what had happened. He thus married Satyavati. Gadhi had a daughter named Satyavati.refused. You already know that Pururava was Budha and Ila’s son. Both Satyavati and Satyavati’s mother (Richika’s mother-in-law) wished to have sons and Richika arranged a sacrifice. But Gadhi did not think that Richika was the right sort of husband for Satyavati. And since his father-in-law was a kshatriya. but Richika managed to get such horses from Varuna. Soma finally returned Tara. This son was named Budha and he was very wise. But Satyavati’s mother thought that her son-in-law might have given the better rice pudding to her daughter. Gadhi was descended from Vijaya. I need a bride price. They would then bear sons. The sage Jamadagni had a kamadhenu. Now your son will behave like a kshatriya. Their sons were Ayu. Shrutany. Richika had ensured that Satyavati’s rice pudding was such that their son would be brahmanalike. Each horse should be as white as the moon and have one black ear. A brahmana named Richika wished to marry Satyavati. They married and lived together happily for many years. He obtained two bowls of rice pudding from the sacrifice and gave one to his wife and the other to his mother-in-law to eat. the youngest of whom was Parashurama. Vijaya and Jaya. Parashurama Arjuna was the king of the Haihaya kingdom. Once Pururava met the beautiful apsara Urvashi. So he said. replied Satyavati. a cow that gave whatever one wanted. Jamadagni and Renuka had several sons. So she persuaded Satyavati to exchange bowls. This seemed to be an impossible task. Since he himself was a brahmana. The gods fought on Brihaspati’s side and the demons on Soma’s. He was so blessed by the sage Dattatreya so that he had a thousand arms and was formidable in battle. Bring me a thousand horses. Arjuna had gone on a hunt and arrived at Jamadagni’s hermitage. Satyayu.
Sharmishtha and Devayani used to be friends. Son. Parashurama did as his father bid him. When they were hurriedly putting on the clothes . So angry was Parashurama at this dastardly act of the kshatriyas that he killed all the kshatriyas in the world with his axe (parashu). You need to perform penanace. you probably remember that Shukracharya was the teacher of the asuras. Jamadagni did not protest. he wielded five hundred bows at a time. Parashurama has now given up violence and lives on Mount Mahendra. He returned and learnt of Arjuna’s deed. Arjuna himself came out to fight. you have committed a crime. There he killed all of Arjuna’s soldiers. Devayani and Sharmishtha. Jamadagni’s wife Renuka had misbehaved with him once. He took up his weapons and went to the king’s capital. Devayani was Shukracharya’s daughter. You should not have killed a king. the ten thousand sons of Arjuna came and attacked the hermitage. While Parashurama was away. Parashurama was away at that time. These lakes had been formed with the blood of all the dead kshatriyas. They killed Jamadagni. that is a sin. The king of the asuras was Vrishaparva and Sharmishtha was Vrishaparva’s daughter. Near the battlefield of Kurukshetra there are nine lakes. He is believed to be immortal. He then killed Arjuna and Arjuna’s ten thousand sons fled from the field of battle. Arjuna took a liking to the cow and tried to forcibly take it away. he said. They had gone to a lake to bathe and had taken off their clothes.cow produced whatever was needed for feeding Arjuna and his many followers. But Parashurama destroyed all these bows. Yayati Pururava also had a son named Ayu. Twenty-one time he rid the world of all the kshatriyas. Jamadagni had been so pleased at his son’s obedience that he had wanted to grant Parashurama a boon. Jamadagni had requested his sons to kill their mother. However. The only son who had agreed to do so was Parashurama. Thereupon. Go away for a year and visit all the places of pilgrimage. He had killed his mother and also his brothers for having disobeyed their father. Parashurma had wanted the boon that his dead mother and brothers might come to life again and this had been granted. From Ayu was descended Yayati. Jamadagni was not happy. Since he possessed a thousand arms. Yayati had two wives. Parashurama returned with the cow.
All the sons except Puru took on his father’s old age. He promised to come back for her and left for the capital. Shukracharya agreed to stay on the condition that Sharmishtha became Devayani’s maid. My father is her father’s teacher. Wandering around in the forest. Dushmanta and Shakuntala One of Parikshit’s ancestors was King Dushmanta. . Shukracharya was greatly saddened to hear this and decided to leave the asuras. Yayati got tired of worldly pleasures. Sharmishtha threw Devayani into a well that was nearby and returned home. But Vrishaparva fell at his guru’s feet and begged for mercy. he asked. How dare Sharmishtha do this? she asked. Dushmanta married Shakuntala. And the Yadavas were descended from Yadu. Meanwhile.after bathing. The sage Kanva has brought me up. You people get to eat because of my father’s generosity. He returned the youth to Puru and took back his old age. When he came to drink water at the well. the woman replied. Dushmanta had once gone on a hunt. and Sharmishtha’s sons were Druhyu. he came to the hermitage of the sage Kanva. But once he was in the capital. Yayati became old. Devayani’s sons were Yadu and Turvasu. Shakuntala gave birth to a boy and his name was Bharata. I am the daughter of Vishvamitra and the apsara Menaka. Yayati agreed to marry her. There he met a beautiful woman and fell in love with her. he discovered Devayani. Anu and Puru. Who are you? I am smitten with love for you. he completely forgot about Shakuntala. After several years had passed. Yayati married both Devayani and Sharmishtha. Devayani did not like this at all. replied Sharmishtha. Parikshit was descended from Puru. Beautiful lady. After a thousand years had passed. Yayati took out Devayani from the well and she fell in love with her benefactor. King Yayati happened to be passing. Sharmishtha put on Devayani’s clothes by mistake. How dare an inferior wear a superior’s clothes? Who is inferior and who is superior?. So he called his sons to him and asked them to take his old age from him. Saying this. But his taste for worldly pleasures had still not passed. I am Shakuntala. My father is the king. Devayani returned home and told her father how she had been treated by Sharmishtha. He wanted their youth instead.
He performed fiftyfive ashvamedha yajnas. And seeing Krishna . Kalyavana thought that it had to be Krishna and kicked the body. He then began to raise an army for the eighteenth time. Kalayavana was burnt to ashes from the blaze of this anger. Krishna had a plan. This was in the form of a king named Kalayavana who was about to attack Mathura. Bharata ruled after Dushmanta and became a powerful king. the king of Magadha. A beautiful city was accordingly built on the shores of the ocean. led by Balarama and Krishna. In the dim light he saw a man sleeping inside the cave. He realized that his person had woken him up from his sleep and he looked angrily at Kalayavana. How did this come about? Muchukunda was a king of the Ikshvaku dynasty. Krishna began to run and Kalayavana followed him. defeated Jarasandha.But eventually Dushmanta accepted Shakuntala and Bharata as his wife and son. the Yadavas were faced with another enemy. Muchukunda fought on the side of the gods . It was a person named Muchukunda. Meanwhile. Kalayavana Krishna now decided to do something about Kalayavana. Krishna realized that the Yadavas needed a stronger and more fortified captial if they were to face up to enemies from two directions. The Yadavas came out to fight and. This new city was Dvaraka or Dvaravati. The gods were busy fighting with the demons and needed some aid. He led Kalayavana to a cave in the mountainside. He rules for twenty-seven thousand years. But the sleeper was not Krishna. it was much better protected than the city of Mathura. More importantly. He came alone to where Kalayavana was. Jarasandha was very angry to learn that his son-in-law had been killed and he resolved to kill all the Yadavas. But Krishna began to run and Kalayavana followed him. He had been sleeping for many years and had been woken up by Kalayavana. Kalayavana wanted to attack him. It had wide roads and magnificent houses. Mathura was surrounded from all sides by Jarasandha’s army. The Building of Dvaraka Kamsa was so much of an oppressor that Krishna was forced to kill him. But Jarasandha came back again with an army. Again he was defeated. Kamsa had two wives named Asti and Prapti and they were the daughters of Jarasandha. Seventeen times Jarasandha lost and seventeen times he retired to Magadha. It was dark inside the cave and Kalayavana could not see very well. This went on. He raised an army that was twenty-one battalions (akshouhimi) strong and laid siege to the city of Mathura.
Rukmini sent a brahmana as emissary to Krishna. Balarama and several other Yadavas had also followed Krishna to Kundina. the capital of the kingdom of Vidarbha. I will not return to Kundina without killing Krishna and rescuing Rukmini. When Rukmini went to visit the temple. and wished to marry him. Bhishmaka made separate lodging arrangements for Shishupala and Krishna. he resolved. they attacked Krishna. The eldest son was Rukmi and the daugter was Rukmini. I am tired after fighting for so many years. I want to marry you instead. Witnessing the defeat of his allies. So they told Muchukunda. the king of the kingdom of Chedi. Shishupala also came there with a large number of companions and many gifts for Bhishmaka. This is outside the city. Krishna came to Kundina. But eventually the gods obtained a general in the form of the god kartikeya and no longer needed Muchukunda. relatives and subjects on earth are now dead. But the Yadavas easily repelled these eneemies. When they recovered from the shock. Please grant me the boon that whoever wakes me up will burn to ashes by my wrath. The king had five sons and a daughter. you have fought with the demons for many years and have successfully protected us. Rukmi entered the fray with his own army. Her father was not averse to such an alliance. Rukmini had heard of Krishna’s prowess and other qualitites. What do you propose to do? So many years have passed that all your friends. You have given up all wordly pleasures. Please come and abduct me then. Ask for whatever boon you desire. But Rukmi hated Krishna and refused to accept such a marriage. I feel like having a long sleep. Krishna abducted her. Through the brahmana Rukmini said.for many years. Rukmini and Rukmi There was a king named Bhishmaka who rules over the kingdom of Vidarbha. My marriage has been fixed for the day after tomorrow and I am to be married to Shishupala. He wished to get his sister married off to Shishupala. Please come and abduct me. The many other kings who had asembled could not look on in wonder. Muchukunda replied. But we no longer need your services. Tomorrow I shall go to visit the temple of the goddess Parvati. King. .
she said.But Krishna destroyed all Rukmi’s arrows and other weapons. In Shambara’s household there lived a woman named Mayavati. The lion was in turn killed by the bear Jambavana. He then went tothe forest on a hunt and was killed by a lion. He was devoted to the sun god. There. Satrajit . Jambavana brought the jewel home to his cave and gave it to his son to play with. The fish was caught by a fisherman and he brought the fish as a gift to Shambara. Jambavana finally accepted defeat. What was going to happen to that oath? Instead of returning to Kundina. To vindicate his reputation. Shambara handed over the baby to Mayavati to rear. He was about to kill Rukmi with a sword. Pradyumna challenged Shambara to a duel and killed the asura. He then married Mayavati and returned to Dvaraka. the baby was swallowed by a big fish. an asura named Shambara kidnapped the baby and threw it into the ocean. The jewel shone like the sun itself. He not only returned Symantaka to Krishna. Meanwhile Prasenjit’s dead body was discovered and Satrajit concluded that it was Krishna who had killed his brother and stolen the jewel. Krishna agreed. And such were the wonderful properities of the jewel that all disease and famine vanished from the Yadava kingdom. Satrajit used to wear the jewel around his neck. He is my brother. Surya. Krishna went to the forest to try and find out what had happened. Rukmi began to live in a city named Bhojakata. Mayavati told him the story of his being kidnapped. Krishna brought Rukmini back to Dvaraka and married her there. Rukmini intervened. Satrajit’s brother was Prasenjit and Prasenjit borrowed the jewel from his brother. Their son was Pradyumna. This rumour quickly spread amongst the Yadavas. But Satrajit refused to part withthe jewel. Please spare him. the king of the Yadavas. they discovered the baby inside. Shambara sent the fish to his kitchen and when his cooks cut open the fish’s stomach. When Pradyumna was only ten days old. When Krishna returned the jewel to Satrajit. The Symantaka Jewel There was a Yadava named Satrajit. Surya was pleased with Satrajit and gave him a wonderful jewel named symantaka. When Pradyumna grew up. But Rukmi had resolved that he would not return to Kundina without killing Krishna and rescuing Rukmini. It was Krishna’s opinion that the jewel should rightfully be in the possession of Ugrasena. He followed the trail to Jambavan’s cave and a terrible fight waged for eighteen days and nights between Jambavana and Krishna. but also married his daughter Jambavati to him.
Akrura of course kept his possession of the jewel a complete secret. But they could find no trace of the jewel. Their names were Akrura. and married them all. But he met the same fate as Mura. As atonement. They therefore left Dvarka. He then killed Mura with his sudarshana chakra. The demon wa so strong that he drove Indra out of heaven and stole Indra’s umbrella and earrings. Krishna retrieved and returned Indra’s umbrella and earrings. Narakasura had imprisoned sixteen thousand princesses. as you probably remember. And immediately disease and drought became rampant in the city. had begun to live in the city of Bhojakata. But Akrura and Kritavarma were not at all sure that their complicity in the crime would not be detected. A demon named Mura guarded the city. He was the son of the earth (prithivi). Balarma and Krishna pursued Shatadhanva and Krishna killed the murderer. Aniruddha got married to Rukmi’s grand-daughter Rochana. But knowing that Balarama and Krishna would exact revenge for this deed. There were three other Yadavas who had wanted to marry Satyabhama. Kritavarma and Shatadhanva. Rukmi’s daughter was Rukmavati and she was married to Krishna’s son Pradyumna. The city of Pragjyotishapura was very difficult to enter. Akrura and Kritavarma advised Shatadhanva to kill Satrajit.was ashamed that he had suspected Krishna in the first place. It was surrounded by mountains on all sides and there were forts on the mountains. Rukmi’s Death Rukmi. Narakasura A demon named Narakasura ruled in the city of Pragjyotishapura. he gave his daughter Satyabhama in marriage to Krishna. had them brought back to Dvaraka. Shatadhanva did this and stole the symantaka jewel. Indra went and complained to Krishna. Pradyumna and Rukmavati had a son named Aniruddha. He however left the jewel with Akrura. he fled from Dvaraka. They were not at all happy that Satyabhama had been married off to Krishna. Narakasura now ascended an elephant and came to fight with Krishna. But Krishna destroyed the mountains and the forts with his mace. Krishna freed them. He brought Akrura back to Dvaraka and persuaded him to confess that the jewel was indeed in his possession. From this. Mura’s seven sons were also killed by Krishna. . Krishna deduced that the jewel must have been in Akrura’s possession.
On the occasion of Aniruddha and Rochana’s marriage. Vali had a hundred sons. Shiva. Vana came to Usha’s palace and discovered Aniruddha there. yakshas and men and Usha identified Aniruddha as the person she had fallen in love with. The eldest was named Vana. Vana was also defeated by Krishna. Balarama. Balarama staked a lakh of golden coins. But thanks to Shiva’s pleading on behalf of the asura. Usha had a friend named Chitralekha who was very good at drawing portraits. This so angered Balarama that he killed Rukmi with a club. he was defeated and imprisoned by Vana. Vana came out to fight. A miraculous battle ensured. Usha dreamt of Aniruddha and fell in love with him. Kartikeya was defeated by Pradyumna and Shiva by Krishna. Rukmi won yet again. The Yadavas returned to Dvaraka with Aniruddha and Usha. Chitralekha drew the portraits of gods. Vana was devoted to Shiva and he ruled in the city of Shonitapura. Krishna spared Vana’s life. She brought Aniruddha from Dvaraka and he and Usha were secretly married. News of Aniruddha’s imprisonment reached Dvaraka and the Yadavas attacked Shonitapura. However. Krishna and the other Yadavas came to Bhojakata. He then staked a thousand golden coins and lost again. Balarama now placed ten thousand golden coins as a bet. And because of his pledge to be a guardian of the city. They began to have a game. Finally. gandharvas. Vana had a daughter named Usha. Vana Vali used to be the king of the asuras. Not content. This time Balarama won. Although Aniruddha fought as best as he could. Poundraka and the King of Kashi . Vana had pleased Shiva so much that Shiva had agreed to be the guardian of Shonitapura. she did not know his name. But Vana’s guards discovered what was happening and went and reported this to the asura king. But the evil Rukmi denied that Balarama had won and insisted that it was he who had won. asuras. Balarama was very fond of playing dice and so was Rukmi. But how were Aniruddha and Usha to meet? It was again Chitralekha who found the solution. Kartikeya had also come to fight on the side of his father. Shiva also fought on Vana’s side. But she did not know who Aniruddha was. Balarama first placed a hundred golden coins as a bet and lost.
It then headed towards Dvaraka. Krishna returned to Dvaraka. The fire of this yajna will go together with my companions. But Krishna decimated this army and killed Poundraka with his chakra. Krishna was not going to ignore. What boon do you desire?. Having disposed of the challenge.A king named Poundraka used to rule in the kingdom of Karusha. In the process . Sudakshina saw his father’s severed head and thirsted for revenge. He grasped the city of Hastinapura with his plough and prepared to hurl it into the river Ganga. They regarded the Yadavas as belonging to an inferior race and they were certainly not going to listen to Balarama. The fire adopted the form of a demon with a trident in its hand. Balarama thought that he would try peaceful means first. They fell at Balarama’s feet and begged for mercy. They attacked Samba and imprisoned him. the king’s head was carried into the city by a strong wind. the consequences will be dreadful. he asked Sudakshina. the king of Kashi. Balarama felt insulted. The prince of Kashi was Sudakshina. said Shiva. At this the Kauravas were angered. He performed a yajna and started to pray to Shiva. But take care that the fire is not directed at a brahmana. Samba was released and Duryodhana gave . He always carried a plough with him. But Krishna used the chakra to kill him as well. replied the prince. The king of Kashi began to fight in order to avenge his friend. He came to Kashi to accept the challenge. Samba Samba was the son of Krishna and Jambavati Lakshmana was Duryodhana’s daughter. Shiva was satisfied with the prayers. Shiva assented. The city whirled round and round and the Kauravas relaized their mistake. This. Lakshmana’s svayamvara (ceremony at which a bride chooses her husband) had been arranged. Please grant me the boon that I may kill my father’s murder. the ghosts. Poundraka had with him an army that was two battalions (akshouhini) strong. where the fire consumed Sudkshina and all his priests. he went and began to live with his friend. But since the Yadavas and the Kauravas had close ties. But Krishna’s sudarshana chakra repelled the fire. but Samba came to the assembly and abducted Lakshmana. It drove the fire back to Kashi. If it is. This king was so insolent that he sent a messenger and challenged Krishna to a fight. But having challenged Krishna. He came to Hastinapura and requested that Samba be released. and do the needful. The Kauravas were in no mood to listen. The Yadavas prepared to fight with the Kauravas.
The duel was arranged and Bhima and Jarasandha began to fight with maces. replied Krishna. Since sandhi means uniting or . Balarama. Jarasandha recognized them to be kshatriyas disguised as brahmanas. and the Pandavas were delighted to see him. The noise was like that of two mad elephants fighting . Yudhishthira told Krishna. But I will not fight with Krishna. Choose any one of us and fight with him. Samba and Lakshmana returned to Dvaraka. You have come to me as brahmanas. The warriors then started to wrestle. Bhima. King Vrihadratha’s wife had given birth to two lumps of meat and thrown them away in disgust. I am thinking of performing a rajasuya yajna (royal sacrifice). They fought during the day and behaved as friends during the night. He is a coward. Defeat all the kings on earth. Yudhishthira’s captial. What is your desire? A duel.twelve hundred elephants. Jarasandha’s Death Krishna went on a visit to Indraprastha. For twenty-seven days they fought. one lakh twelve hundred horses. Arjuna north and Bhima east. What is your opinion? I think that’s a very good idea. he fled from Mathura to Dvaraka. Nor will I fight with Arjuna. She joined the lumps together and produced a baby. After all the other kings were defeated. He is younger than me and not quite strong enough. The maces clashed against each other and broke into many pieces. These were discovered by a rakshasa (demon) woman named Jara. The Pandava brothers started out on their conquest. But remember that you will not be able to complete your sacrifice until Jarasandha is killed. said Bhima. But Krishna knew Jarasandha’s history. I shall fight with Bhima. Sahadeva headed south. Bhima could not kill Jarasandha. replied Jarasandha. Threatened with my invasion. Arjun and Krishna disguised themselves as brahmanas and went to Jarasandha’s kingdom. We have come a long distance. Grant us our desire. I will grant you what you want. They met Jarasandha and said. Nevertheless he replied. sixty thousand chariots and one thousand maids as gifts. Arjuna and Krishna. Nakula west. All right.
Answered Shalva. the first offering of the sacrifice was given to Krishna. maces against maces. What boon do you want?. At long last. Jarasandha’s son Sahadeva was crowned the king of Magadha. When he returned. He resolved to kill the Yadavas and started to perform tapasya. Why should Krishna be given the first offering? This is like giving a cake to a crow. Shalva’s Death Shalva was Shishupala’s friend. Please give me a vimana (space vehicle) that I can fight the Yadava’s with. But Krishna restrained the Pandavas and cut off Shishupala’s head with his sudarshana chakra. Everyone knows that the Yadavas are an inferior race. he asked Shalva. Shishupala’s Death Many kings and sages assembled on the occasion of Yudhishthira’s royal sacrifice. The Pandavas took up their weapons to fight with Shishupala and Shishupala too took up his weapons. There are individuals assembled here who are more deserving than Krishna. Krishna smashed the vimana with his mace. And is precisley how Bhima killed Jarasandha. or one who has been put together by Jara. Krishna was away at that time. Arrows clashed against arrows. he ate only a fistful of dust. Finally Shiva was pleased and appeared before Shalva. Pradyumna and Shalva fought a wonderful duel with all sorts of divine weapons. he said. For an entire year Shalva prayed to Shiva. Shalva attacked Dvaraka and showered down weapons from the sky on the city. Shiva instructed the danava (demon) Maya to construct such a viman for Shalva. The vimana was named Soubha and it was made completely of iron. But ignoring everyone else. The fight was now on between Krishna and Shalva. he found the battle raging. He prayed to Shiva and each day. This angered Shishupala. On the twenty-eighth day of the duel. Krishna advised Bhima to grasp Jarasandha’s legs in his two hands and then tear him apart. Jarasandha had imprisoned twenty thousand and eight hundred kings. Armed with this vimana. Dvaraka’s ramparts and gardens were destroyed. the baby came to be known as Jarasandha. These kings were released. What utter nonsense.putting together. .
Krishna asked. When young. he reached the forest known as naimisharanya. He did not get up because that was part of the sacrificed ceremony. This gift the brahmana wrapped up in a piece of cloth and left Dvaraka. Why don’t you go to him and ask him for some help? I am sure that he will not refuse you. After doing a circuit of several places of pilgrimage along the river. you have done a terrible thing. And Balarama killed the demon with a club. nor food to eat. Balarama did not want to take sides . Balarama. He then traversed the length and breath of the country on his pilgrimage. He is very rich. Why not?. They got to talking about old times. He preferred to remain neutral. Shridama met Krishna in Dvaraka and Krishna embraced him warmly. what have you brought me as a present? . All they could manage were two handful of fried rice. They then asked Balarama to go on a pilgrimage for the period of one year.He then killed Shalva with his chakra. The only one who remained seated was Romaharshana. He killed Romaharshana. Krishna is your friend. At least. thought Shridama. Balarama lost his temper at this. Next day Valvala arrived as was his wont. But what will I take as a present for him?’ The brahmana and his wife were so poor that they had no money to buy gifts. The sages had arranged for a sacrificein the forest and the sacrifice was to go on for twelve years. The sages exclaimed. Vyasadeva’s disciple. You must perform penance. he and Krishna had studied under the same guru and the two had been friends . Balarama’s Penance At the time of these Kurukshetra War. One day Shridama’s wife said. He therefore went on a pilgrimage and came to a place named Prabhasa. I shall get a chance to meet Krishna after ages. He then arrived at the river Sarasvati. Balarama agreed. All the sages got up to honour Balarama. Shridama. Shridama There used to be a brahmana named Shridama. The sages first asked him to kill a demon named Valvala who was in the habit of disturbing their sacrifice. He and his wife had no clothes to wear. Now Krishna was in Dvaraka and Shridama was exceedingly poor.
Once Shiva landed himself in a pretty mess. wearing handsome clothes. he discovered a beautiful temple and large gardens and ponds there. replied the sage. They lived happily ever after. There was an asura named Vrika. There were maids and servants. he left for his own dwelling. What is the matter?. First he tried to burn parts of his body. he asked. . rubbing his eyes in disbelief. Vishnu disgused himself and appeared before Vrika. When the brahmana arrived home. but Shiva did not appear. He met the sage Narada and wanted to know who. however had got to know what Shridama had wanted without Shridama’s asking for it. No one knew what to do until Vishnu came to the rescue. Brahma and Shiva were in the habit of granting boons and levying curses. was pleased most easily. but Vishnu was never so indiscriminate. He then decided to slice his head into two with an axe. Vishnu and Shiva had powers of granting boons and levying curses. Shiva granted the boon. But Krishna hunted out the piece of cloth and ate the fried rice to his heart’s content. wondered Shridama. out of Brahma. Answered the asura. Shiva. The brahmana and his wife realized that all this was due to Krishna’s grace. Immediately Shiva appered and restrained the asura. Shiva’s Problem Brahma. Once Shiva was dead.The brahmana was so ashamed of the two handfuls of fried rice that he kept quiet. Vrika went to a place of pilgrimage named Kedara and started his tapasya. But he could not bring himself to ask anything of Krishna. His wife emerged. and Shiva. He continued to do this for seven days. he thought that he could marry Parvati. Krishna. What is all this?. Next morning. Vishnu. He was given wonderful food to eat and wonderful clothes to wear. the person will immediately die. asked Shiva. Shiva started to run in fear and the demon followed. Please grant me the boon that if I put my hand on anyone’s head. Shridama spent the night in Krishna’s house and felt as if he had gone to heaven. What do you want?. But Vrika wanted to try out the boon on Shiva himself.
They sent Brhrigu to conduct an experiment. Bhrigu was also Brahma’s son. If you don’t believe me. why don’t you put your ahnd on your own head and see? Nothing will happen. One day. Brahmana. The stupid asura did as Vishnu had him to do and. but did not bow down before him. The king ordered . he controlled his temper. The youths dressed up Samba as a woman and brought him to the sages. Parvati. they said. but since Bhrigu happened to be his son. When Brhrigu reported the result of his experiment. This so angered Shiva that he took up his trident to kill Bhrigu. He first went to visit Brahma. Bhrigu now went to Vaikuntha and discovered that Vishnu was sleeping. died. From now on I shall bear the mark of your feet on my chest. Sages. Fearing the consequences of what they had done. Your kick has freed me from all my sins. several Yadava youths were playing there when a group of sages arrived. Bhrigu next went to Kailasa to visit Shiva. I am gratified that you have come to visit me. The sages saw through the game and were very annoyed. Shiva got up to embrace him but Bhrigu started to shout at Shiva. You know everything. Brahma’s anger was aroused. however. Stupid young men. the sages concluded that Vishnu was the supreme god of the Trinity.The asura told him the story. Samba will give birth to a club and that club will lead to the destruction fo all the Yadavas. He kicked the sleeping Vishnu on his chest. they took the club home to Dvaraka and related the incident to king Ugrasena. the Yadavas discovered a club (mushala) inside Samba’s clothing. they never come true. they replied. Please tell us whether this woman will indeed give birth to a son. managed to calm Shiva down. Shiva was profundly relieved. of course. Who believes in Shiva and his boons? They are all lies. Vishnu and Shiva. The Test The sages once wanted to find out who was supreme in the Trinity of Brahma. The Curse on the Yadavas There was a place of pilgrimage known as Pindaraka. When the sages went away. Are you well? Stay here for a while and be my guest. exclaimed Vishnu. Shiva. Vishnu woke up and said.
We will purify ourselves there and worship the gods. Meanwhile. A small piece of the club did not get pulverised. Who is your guru? . the ancestor of these Yadavas. the dust developed into reeds. the hunter. They began to fight amongst themselves and kill each other with weapons. all sorts of ill omens were witnessed. Thus it was that the Yadavas were destroyed. was searching for a deer that he might kill. Krishna readily pardoned him. met a learned young man. Krishna called the Yadavas to him and said. the small piece of iron went into the possession of a hunter named Jara who used it to fashion a head for his arrow. The Yadavas crossed the ocean in boats and arrived at Prabhasa. There were earthquakes and the sun looked blurred. Where did you learn all this?. Through him. It had all been decreed by fate. the Yadavas plucked the reeds from the beach and began to fight with those. There. They got to drinking a lot of wine and lost all control of their senses. all of Dvaraka. was flooded by the ocean. I do not like all these omens. He therefore let loose an arrow. Jara. the reeds hardened into rods of iron. It was after all no fault of the hunter. When the weapons were exhausted. In their hands. Perhaps it is no longer safe to live in Dvaraka. Krishna gave up his mortal body and ascended to heaven. with the exception of Krishna’s own dwelling. They arranged for the require sacrifices. But destiny cannot be avoided. As soon as Krishna died. Send the old men.that the iron club should be pulverised into dust and the dust scattered in the waters of the ocean. Yadu. Gurus Several years ago. Balarama went to the shores of the great ocean. Jara fell down at Krishna’s feet and begged for mercy. And when he came to see if his arrow had found its mark. This was swallowed by a fish and the fish was later caught by a fishermen. Through the thick foliage he saw Krishna’s feet and thought that they were the ears of a deer. The remaining iron dust was brought to the beach by the waves of the ocean. The sorrowful Krishna sat under a banyan tree and meditated. women and children to the tirtha (place of pilgrimage) Shankhoddhara. he asked the young man. He gave up his life there through yoga. And let all of us go to the tirtha Prabhasa. he discovered that he had shot Krishna by mistake.
was the answer. the paramatman (divine soul) can adopt many different forms. It is not stirred by the clouds that moved across it. The bramana’s attempt was successful and he obtained true knowledge. From the earth one can learn the art of forgiving.You don’t need any special guru. It fills all living beings with life. From the air one can learn detachment. Thieves stole whatever meagre belongings the brahmanas still had. but does not get attached to any of them. And he started on a pilgrimage of the world. He had even given up all conversation. like the fire. Look at the earth (prithivi). Eventually the brahmana exhausted most of his wealth. He now asked the sage the names of the kings who would rule in kaliyuga. From the moon you can learn that nothing actually happens to the atman. She is continually hurt by the footsteps of all living beings. but returns it in the monsoon. He had become addicted to material pursuits and was also a miser. He never helped any of his relatives. The Story of the Brahmana In the land of Malava there used to be a very wealthy brahmana. The brahmana began to think about what he had done with his life and realized that he had made a mistake. The brahmana therefore became a hermit. Look at the fire (agni). It evaporates the water in the summer. He controlled his senses. . yet she forgives them all. Look at the sun (surya). Look at the water (jala). From the sky the atman can learn how no to get stirred by the senses. There are many gurus like these. Future Dynasties and Kaliyuga When Krishna died. Look at the moon (chandra). Like the sun. One learns that. but nothing actually happens to it. the kali era started Parikshit had heard the story of the Bhagavata Purana from the sage Shukadeva. it adopts so many different forms. the learned return the gratifications of the senses and do not retain them. One can learn from several places. It seems to wax and wane. But the brahmana did not protest. Look at the air (vayu). and thieves stole the remainder. others stole whatever little food he had begged. Material possessions wre nothing. He begged food for a living. Look at the sky (akasha). The appearances that mislead one are all illusions. It cleans everything. There does not necessarily have to be a formal teacher. One has to be like that brahmanas if one wishes to realize the nature of the brahman. He had made a lot of money from agriculture and trade. From the water one can learn the virtue of purification.
Takshaka disguised himself as a brahman in order to get near the king. . Wealth is everything to people and righteous living has no value. Might becomes right. Trade means cheating. People sport long hair. Vrihadratha. Cows are as small as goats and trees are as small as bushes. This would establish the Shunga dynasty and the ten kings of this dynasty would rule for more than a hundred years. would be killed by his general Pushyamitra. The ten kings of this dynasty would rule for three hundred and sixty years. one hundred. He then bit the king and Parikshit died. He had learnt the nature of the atman and the brahman. The kings are thieves and robbers. Having heard the Bhagavata Purana. But the country would be splintered. Thereafter. The kings would all be evil. as the son of the brahmana Vishnuyasha. The last king of the Mourya dynasty. Nanda and his eight sons would be destroyed by a brahmana named Chanakya and Chanakya would make Chandragupta the king. This would be the Mourya dynasty and the ten kings fo this dynasty would rule for a hundred and thirty-seven years. and fifteen years would elapse from the date of Parikshits’s birth tothe date of Mahapadma Nanda’s coronation. The Nanda dynasty would rule for a hundred years. Nepotism and corruption prevail. Parikshit sat down and began to meditate. He told the sage that he was no longer frightened of being bitten to death by a snake.The first dynasty to rule would be the Pradyota dynasty. When Shukadeva left. There would be five kings in this dynasty and they would rule for a hundred and thirty-eight years. The Snake You must have forgotten by now that Parikshit had been cursed that he would be bitten to death by a snake named takshaka. Parikshit worshipped Shukadeva. Evil is a characteristic of kaliyuga. Next would follow thirty kings of the Andhra dynasty who would reign for four hundred and fifty-six years. Many other dynasties and many other kings would rule. A shudra named Mahapadma or Nanda would become king next. He will be born in a village named Shambhala. In the courts the poor obtain no justice. But Kalki will arrive to put an end to kaliyuga and establish a new satyayauga. Shukadeva also informed Parikshit that one thousand. Then the Shishunaga dynasty would take over. Then the Kanva dynasty would rule for three hundred and forty-five years. Famine and starvation prevail everywhere.
heard and contemplated with great care. The person who does this acquires everlasting punya. The other Puranas are appreciated only by those who do not know about the Bhagavata Purana. Janmejaya finally stopped the sacrifice when Brihaspati interceded on behalf of the snakes.Parikshit’s son Janmejaya was furious. Those who are devoted to Vishnu love this Purana. Takshaka fled to Indra for protection. After having read the Purana. It is to other Puranas what the Ganga is to rivers. They would be consumed in the fire of the yajna. He resolved to perform a snake sacrifice (sarpa yajna) at which all the snakes would be killed. In the month of Bhadra it should be placed on a golden throne and donated. It is a text that should be studied. . we bow down in obeisance before the great Lord Vishnu. Vishnu to gods and the city of Kashi to tirthas. Virtues of the Bhagavata Purana The Bhagavata Purana is the most sacred of the Puranas.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.