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-Weighted" methodology of 30 component stocks representing large, well-established and financially sound companies across key sectors. The base year of SENSEX was taken as 1978-79. SENSEX today is widely reported in both domestic and international markets through print as well as electronic media. It is scientifically designed and is based on globally accepted construction and review methodology. Since September 1, 2003, SENSEX is being calculated on a free-float market capitalization methodology. The "free-float market capitalization-weighted" methodology is a widely followed index construction methodology on which majority of global equity indices are based; all major index providers like MSCI, FTSE, STOXX, S&P and Dow Jones use the free-float methodology. The growth of the equity market in India has been phenomenal in the present decade. Right from early nineties, the stock market witnessed heightened activity in terms of various bull and bear runs. In the late nineties, the Indian market witnessed a huge frenzy in the 'TMT' sectors. More recently, real estate caught the fancy of the investors. SENSEX has captured all these happenings in the most judicious manner. One can identify the booms and busts of the Indian equity market through SENSEX. As the oldest index in the country, it provides the time series data over a fairly long period of time (from 1979 onwards). Small wonder, the SENSEX has become one of the most prominent brands in the country. Index Specification:
Base Year Base Index Value Date of Launch
1978-79 100 01-01-1986
Method of calculation Launched on full market capitalization method and effective September 01, 2003, calculation method shifted to free-float market capitalization. Number of scrips Index Constituents Index calculation frequency Index calculation 30 Click here for list of constituents Real Time
Click here for Index calculation and maintenance
wherein. The Divisor is the only link to the original base period value of the SENSEX. (For more details click 'Dollex series of BSE indices') SENSEX .and Maintenance Index Reach Click here for scrip-wise. This market capitalization is further multiplied by the freefloat factor to determine the free-float market capitalization. scrips suspended on the last day of the month prior to review date. The market capitalization of a company is determined by multiplying the price of its stock by the number of shares issued by the company. listed mutual funds. scrips objected by the Surveillance department of the Exchange and those that are traded under permitted category) shall be considered eligible . prices of the index scrips. Equities of companies listed on Bombay Stock Exchange Ltd. Price to Book Value ratio and Dividend Yield % Click to search Historical Notices on Index Replacements Click here for historical replacements SENSEX Calculation Methodology SENSEX is calculated using the "Free-float Market Capitalization" methodology. (excluding companies classified in Z group. are used by the trading system to calculate SENSEX on a continuous basis. During market hours. at which latest trades are executed. Market Capitalization Click here for market capitalization and turnover coverage and Turnover Coverage Historical Values of Index Historical Notices Historical Replacements Index. The base period of SENSEX is 1978-79 and the base value is 100 index points. the level of index at any point of time reflects the free-float market value of 30 component stocks relative to a base period.Scrip Selection Criteria 1. The calculation of SENSEX involves dividing the free-float market capitalization of 30 companies in the Index by a number called the Index Divisor. sector wise market capitalization. replacement of scrips etc. weightage etc. It keeps the Index comparable over time and is the adjustment point for all Index adjustments arising out of corporate actions. Dollex-30 BSE also calculates a dollar-linked version of SENSEX and historical values of this index are available since its inception. This is often indicated by the notation 1978-79=100. Price Earnings.
3 months). 4. Any company having a weight within this filtered constituent list of <0. From the list of constituents selected through Steps 1-4. The filtered list of constituents selected through Step 5 (which can be greater than 75 companies) is then ranked on absolute turnover (avg. The filtered list calculated in Step 7 is then sorted by free float market capitalization. 10. the company becomes part of the regular stock universe that can be considered for inclusion in the Index. All remaining companies will be sorted on sector and sub-sorted in the descending order of rank on free-float market capitalization. 3 months). 5. In the event that a company is listed on account of a merger / demerger / amalgamation. are excluded. Exceptions can be made for extreme reasons like scrip suspension etc. Track Record: In the opinion of the BSE Index Committee. sorted list created in Step 6 that has Cumulative Turnover of >98%.50% shall be excluded 9. 3. 3 months) are selected as well as any additional companies that are in the top 75 based on full market capitalization (avg. if the average free-float market capitalization of a newly listed company ranks in the top 10 of all companies listed at BSE. Listing History: The scrip should have a listing history of at least three months at BSE. so long as the remaining list has more than 30 scrips. all companies included within the SENSEX should have an acceptable track record. 7. This is done because during this period BSE is unable to ascertain the valuation of the constituent and valuation of a constituent is required for Index Calcualtion. Industry/Sector Representation: Scrip selection will generally attempt to maintain index sectoral weights that are broadly in-line with the overall market. 11. Understanding Free-float Methodology Concept . The scrip should have been traded on each and every trading day in the last three months at BSE. Companies that have reported revenue in the latest four quarters from its core activity are considered eligible.2. An exception may be granted to one month. Note: If an existing constituent is traded under the ex-entitlement basis it will be excluded from all BSE Indices. 6. a minimum listing history is not required. Any company in the filtered. Upon relisting or from ex-entitlement. 8. the top 75 companies based on free-float market capitalisation (avg.
Subsequently all BSE indices with the exception of BSE-PSU index have adopted the free-float methodology. the . However. The MSCI India Standard Index. a Free-float adjusted index is best suited for the passive managers as it enables them to track the index with the least tracking error. Free-float Methodology improves index flexibility in terms of including any stock from the universe of listed stocks. For example. In other words. a leading global index provider. Free-float market capitalization takes into consideration only those shares issued by the company that are readily available for trading in the market. under the Free-float Methodology. which is followed by Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) to track Indian equities. under a Full-market capitalization methodology. Being a perfectly replicable portfolio of stocks. since only the free-float market capitalization of each company is considered for index calculation. A Free-float index aids both active and passive investing styles. It generally excludes promoters' holding. This improves market coverage and sector coverage of the index. is also based on the Free-float Methodology. MSCI. the market capitalization of each company in a free-float index is reduced to the extent of its readily available shares in the market. strategic holding and other locked-in shares that will not come to the market for trading in the normal course. government holding. it becomes possible to include such closely-held companies in the index while at the same time preventing their undue influence on the index movement. companies with large market capitalization and low free-float cannot generally be included in the Index because they tend to distort the index by having an undue influence on the index movement. shifted all its indices to the Free-float Methodology in 2002. S&P and STOXX have adopted the same. It aids active managers by enabling them to benchmark their fund returns vis-Ã -vis an investible index. Major advantages of Free-float Methodology A Free-float index reflects the market trends more rationally as it takes into consideration only those shares that are available for trading in the market. FTSE. the Free-float Methodology of index construction is considered to be an industry best practice and all major index providers like MSCI. NASDAQ-100. Globally.Free-float methodology refers to an index construction methodology that takes into consideration only the free-float market capitalization of a company for the purpose of index calculation and assigning weight to stocks in the index. Free-float Methodology makes the index more broad-based by reducing the concentration of top few companies in Index. This enables an apple-to-apple comparison thereby facilitating better evaluation of performance of active managers.
Once the Free-float of a company is determined.QQQ is based on the Free-float Methodology. A Free-float factor of say 0. (Format available on www.underlying index to the famous Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) . . in the normal course come into the open market for trading are treated as 'Controlling/ Strategic Holdings' and hence not included in free-float. it is rounded-off to the higher multiple of 5 and each company is categorized into one of the 20 bands given below. Specifically. Free-float factor is a multiple with which the total market capitalization of a company is adjusted to arrive at the Free-float market capitalization.55 means that only 55% of the market capitalization of the company will be considered for index calculation. The remaining shareholders fall under the Free-float category. BSE determines the Free-float factor for each company based on the detailed information submitted by the companies in the prescribed format. Determining Free-float Factors of Companies BSE has designed a Free-float format. which is filled and submitted by all index companies on a quarterly basis.com).bseindia. the following categories of holding are generally excluded from the definition of Free-float: Shares held by founders/directors/ acquirers which has control element Shares held by persons/ bodies with "Controlling Interest" Shares held by Government as promoter/acquirer Holdings through the FDI Route Strategic stakes by private corporate bodies/ individuals Equity held by associate/group companies (cross-holdings) Equity held by Employee Welfare Trusts Locked-in shares and shares which would not be sold in the open market in normal course. Definition of Free-float Shareholding of investors that would not.
45% >45 .55 0. The base year value adjustment ensures that replacement of stocks in Index.90% >90 . Maintenance of SENSEX One of the important aspects of maintaining continuity with the past is to update the base year average.95 1. If a SENSEX constituent has not traded in the last 30 minutes.100% Free-Float Factor 0.15% >15 .80% >80 .65 0.05 0.10 0.50 % Free-Float >50 .90 0.95% >95 .20% >20 .25 0.20 0.10% >10 .50% Free-Float Factor 0.40 0.45 0.35% >35 .25% >25 .35 0.70% >70 .85% >85 .5% >5 .40% >40 .75 0. additional issue of capital and other corporate announcements like 'rights issue' etc.15 0. The BSE Index Cell ensures that SENSEX and all the other BSE indices maintain their benchmark properties by striking a delicate balance between frequent .30% >30 .Free-float Bands: % Free-Float >0 . The beauty of maintenance lies in the fact that adjustments for corporate actions in the Index should not per se affect the index values. If a SENSEX constituent has not traded at all in a day. The BSE Index Cell does the day-to-day maintenance of the index within the broad index policy framework set by the BSE Index Committee. do not destroy the historical value of the index.60% >60 .60 0. the last traded price is taken for computation of the Index closure.85 0. The use of Index Closure Algorithm prevents any intentional manipulation of the closing index value.75% >75 .30 0.70 0.55% >55 .80 0.65% >65 .00 Index Closure Algorithm The closing SENSEX on any trading day is computed taking the weighted average of all the trades on SENSEX constituents in the last 30 minutes of trading session. then its last day's closing price is taken for computation of Index closure.
fund managers. On-Line Computation of the Index During trading hours.replacements in index and maintaining its historical continuity. . This is done automatically on the basis of prices at which trades in Index constituents are executed. market participants and members of the BSE Governing Board. value of the Index is calculated and disseminated on real time basis. The BSE Index Committee comprises of capital market expert.