Unit 2 Communicative Principles and Task-based Language Teaching

I. Language use in real life vs. traditional pedagogy In real life How is Language used/taught? What parts of language are used/ taught Generally speaking language use in real life differs from traditional language teaching pedagogy in the following aspects: Traditional pedagogy Focus on forms rather than functions Focus on one or two skills Isolate language from its context II. Used in real life Perform certain communicative functions Use all four skills Language is used in a certain context In traditional pedagogy

Fostering communicative competence

(1) Language competence and communicative competence a. Chomsky’s theory: competence simply means knowledge of the language system: grammatical knowledge in other words b. Hymes’s theory: “there are “rules of use without which the rules of grammar would be useless”. Besides grammatical rules, language use is governed by rules of use, which ensure that the desired or intended functions are performed and the language used is appropriate to the context. c. Aspects of Communicative competence: According to Hymes, communicative competence included four aspects: 1). whether (and to what degree) something is formally possible; 2). whether (and to what degree) something is feasible in virtue of means of implementation available;

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several principles can be generalized as follows 1. successful) in relation to a context in which it is used and evaluated. that is to practice writing to express their own feelings or 2 . neither Brumfit and Johnson nor Littlewood. and reactive if ever possible. offers any discussion. The implementation of language skills (1) In listening and speaking. (3) In writing. Features of CLT 1). unpredictable. 2. the task principle: Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning (Johnson 1982). It focuses on meaning rather than form 3). (2) In reading. It stresses the need to allow students opportunities for authentic and creative use of language. However. students should have the chance to listen to and produce what is meaningful. 5). authentic. happy. It emphasizes a functional approach to language learning. Principles of CLT As far as learning theory is concerned. d. the reading skill is redefined to focus on the purpose of reading. for example. the communicative principle: Activities that involve real communication promote learning. whether (and to what degree) something is appropriate (adequate. e.3). 4). III. 4). 2). It advocates task-based language teaching. whether (and to what degree) something is in fact done. the meaningfulness principle: Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process. Since communicative courses focus on meaning rather than on form. It suggests that learning should be relevant to the needs of students. actually performed and what its doing entails. 3. students should make the writing more meaningful and authentic.

Functional communicative activities 1) sharing information with restricted cooperation The focus of activities is on meanings to be communicated not on linguistic forms to be learnt. dialogues and role plays. following directions 3) Sharing and processing information Jigsaw. discovering missing features in a map or picture. discovering difference. working out a likely sequence of events in a set of pictures. to decide on a route of travel or to decide on a criminal 4) Processing information 3 . pair-work. group work. a. discovering pictures. pooling information to solve a problem for example to complete a table. Tasks such as learners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences. discovering secrets 2) Sharing information with unrestricted cooperation Communicating patterns and pictures. discovering missing features. discovering identical pairs. while conversation and discussion sessions. improvisations. a map. communicating models. skit. discovering missing information. The first type is functional communicative activities and the other type is social interaction activities. (1) Functional communicative activities and social interaction activities There are mainly two types of activities applicable in communicative lessons. 4. or how to complete a map. following directions and solving problems from shared clues all fall into the former category. Communicative activities. reconstructing story sequences. one learner communicating behind a screen to another learner and giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape. simulations. and debates belong to the second type.describe their own experience. discovering sequences or locations.

the acceptability of the forms that are used in the particular typical examples (2) Six criteria for evaluating communicative classroom activities: 1) Communicative purpose 2). not form 4). No teacher intervention 6). Content. react to disagreeable treat b. order to get meanings across 2. convey meanings effectively. and effectively pay greater attention to the social context in which the interaction takes place standard for Cope with the communicative 1. No materials control Information gap activities situation Role-play activities 4 . functional effectiveness of the success demand of the activity language. Variety of language 5). Communicative desire 3). 2. comment on different characters in a story.Deciding on food for a picnic. social interaction activities four approaches: 1) using the foreign language for classroom management 2) using the foreign language as a teaching medium 3) conversation and discussion sessions 4) basing dialogues and role-plays on school experience Functional emphasis aim communication Social interaction activities aspect of The social as well as functional activities The functional communication aspects of communication Use the language they know in 1.

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