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Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

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Structural Engineer's Pocket Book
Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

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Published by: Ahmad Hussein Enayat on Feb 16, 2013
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Typical span/depth ratios

Element

Typical span (L)
m

Beam depth

Primary beams/trusses (heavy point loads)

4–12

L/10–15

Secondary beams/trusses (distributed loads)

4–20

L/15–25

Transfer beams/trusses carrying floors

6–30

L/10

Castellated beams

4–12

L/10–15

Plate girders

10–30

L/10–12

Vierendeel girders

6–18

L/8–10

Parallel chord roof trusses

10–100

L/12–20

Pitched roof trusses

8–20

L/5–10

Light roof beams

6–60

L/18–30

Conventional lattice roof girders

5–20

L/12–15

Space frames (allow for l/250 pre-camber)

10–100

L/15–30

Hot rolled universal column

single storey 2–8

L/20–25

multi-storey 2–4

L/7–18

Hollow section column

single storey 2–8

L/20–35

multi-storey 2–4

L/7– 28

Lattice column

4–10

L/20–25

Portal leg and rafter (haunch depth <0.11)

9–60

L/35–40

Preliminary sizing

Beams

There are no shortcuts. Deflection will tend to govern long spans, while shear will govern
short spans with heavy loading. Plate girders or trusses are used when the loading is
beyond the capacity of rolled sections.

Columns – typical maximum column section size for braced frames

203 UC Buildings 2 to 3 storeys high and spans up to 7m.

254 UC Buildings up to 5 storeys high.

305 UC Buildings up to 8 storeys high or supports for low rise buildings with long
spans.

354 UC Buildings from 8 to 12 storeys high.

Columns – enhanced loads for preliminary axial design

An enhanced axial load for columns subject to out of balance loads can be used for
preliminary design:

Top storey: Total axial loadþ4YÀYþ2XÀX
Intermediate Total axial loadþ2YÀYþXÀX
storey:

Where XÀX and YÀY are the net axial load differences in each direction.

Trusses with parallel chord

Axial force in chord, F ¼Mapplied=d where d is the distance between the chord centroids.

Itruss ¼

P Acd2

=4

À Á where Ac is the area of each chord.
For equal chords this can be simplified to Itruss ¼Acd2

=2:

246 Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book

Portal frames

The Institution of Structural Engineers’ Grey Book for steel design gives the following
preliminary method for sizing plastic portal frames with the following assumptions:

. Plastic hinges are formed at the eaves (in the stanchion) and near the apex, therefore

Class 1 sections as defined in BS 5950 should be used.
. Moment at the end of the haunch is 0.87Mp.

. Wind loading does not control the design.

. Stability of the frame should be checked separately.

. Load,vertical rafter load per metre run.

Horizontal base reaction, H¼HFRWL

Design moment for rafter, Mp rafter¼MPRWL2
Also consider the high axial force which will be in the rafter and design for combined axial
and bending!

r

h

L

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

0.20

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.76

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.15

0.060.1

0.10

0.05

0

H

FRHorizontal force factor for stanchion base

Span/eaves height (L/h)

R

ise/span

(r/L)

Structural Steel 247

Design moment for stanchion, Mp stanchion¼MPLWL2

Source: IStructE (2002).

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0

0.020

0.025

0.030

0.045

0.040

0.035

0.015

Span/eaves height (L/h)

2.0

2.5

3.0

10.0

9.0

8.5

7.5

7.0

6.5

6.0

5.7

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

8.0

1.5

1.0

M

PR rafter ratio

R

ise/span (r/L)

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

10.0

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0

Span/eaves height (L/h)

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

MPL stanchion ratio

R

ise/span (r/L)

248 Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book

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