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Structural Engineer's Pocket Book|Views: 374|Likes: 11

Published by Ahmad Hussein Enayat

Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/125796654/Structural-Engineer-s-Pocket-Book

04/21/2013

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**Typical span/depth ratios
**

**Element
**

**Typical span (**L**)
m
**

**Beam depth
**

Primary beams/trusses (heavy point loads)

4–12

*L*/10–15

Secondary beams/trusses (distributed loads)

4–20

*L*/15–25

Transfer beams/trusses carrying floors

6–30

*L*/10

Castellated beams

4–12

*L*/10–15

Plate girders

10–30

*L*/10–12

Vierendeel girders

6–18

*L*/8–10

Parallel chord roof trusses

10–100

*L*/12–20

Pitched roof trusses

8–20

*L*/5–10

Light roof beams

6–60

*L*/18–30

Conventional lattice roof girders

5–20

*L*/12–15

Space frames (allow for l/250 pre-camber)

10–100

*L*/15–30

Hot rolled universal column

single storey 2–8

*L*/20–25

multi-storey 2–4

*L*/7–18

Hollow section column

single storey 2–8

*L*/20–35

multi-storey 2–4

*L*/7– 28

Lattice column

4–10

*L*/20–25

Portal leg and rafter (haunch depth <0.11)

9–60

*L*/35–40

**Preliminary sizing
**

**Beams
**

There are no shortcuts. Deflection will tend to govern long spans, while shear will govern

short spans with heavy loading. Plate girders or trusses are used when the loading is

beyond the capacity of rolled sections.

**Columns – typical maximum column section size for braced frames
**

203 UC Buildings 2 to 3 storeys high and spans up to 7m.

254 UC Buildings up to 5 storeys high.

305 UC Buildings up to 8 storeys high or supports for low rise buildings with long

spans.

354 UC Buildings from 8 to 12 storeys high.

**Columns – enhanced loads for preliminary axial design
**

An enhanced axial load for columns subject to out of balance loads can be used for

preliminary design:

Top storey: Total axial load*þ*4*YÀYþ*2*XÀX
*Intermediate Total axial load

Where* XÀX* and* YÀY* are the net axial load differences in each direction.

**Trusses with parallel chord
**

Axial force in chord,* F ¼M*applied=*d* where* d* is the distance between the chord centroids.

*I*truss* ¼
*

*P A*c*d*2

=4

*À Á* where* A*c is the area of each chord.

For equal chords this can be simplified to* I*truss* ¼Acd*2

=2:

246 Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book

**Portal frames
**

The* Institution of Structural Engineers’ Grey Book* for steel design gives the following

preliminary method for sizing plastic portal frames with the following assumptions:

** .** Plastic hinges are formed at the eaves (in the stanchion) and near the apex, therefore

Class 1 sections as defined in BS 5950 should be used.

** .** Moment at the end of the haunch is 0.87

** .** Wind loading does not control the design.

** .** Stability of the frame should be checked separately.

** .** Load,

Horizontal base reaction,* H¼H*FR*WL
*

Design moment for rafter,* M*p rafter*¼M*PR*WL*2

Also consider the high axial force which will be in the rafter and design for combined axial

and bending!

r

h

L

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

0.20

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.76

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.15

0.060.1

0.10

0.05

0

*H
*

FRHorizontal force factor for stanchion base

Span/eaves height (*L*/*h*)

R

ise/span

(*r*/*L)
*

Structural Steel 247

Design moment for stanchion,* M*p stanchion*¼M*PL*WL*2

**Source:** IStructE (2002).

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0

0.020

0.025

0.030

0.045

0.040

0.035

0.015

Span/eaves height (*L*/*h*)

2.0

2.5

3.0

10.0

9.0

8.5

7.5

7.0

6.5

6.0

5.7

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

8.0

1.5

1.0

*M
*

PR rafter ratio

R

ise/span (*r*/*L*)

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

10.0

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0

Span/eaves height (L/h)

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

MPL stanchion ratio

R

ise/span (r/L)

248 Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book

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