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Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

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Structural Engineer's Pocket Book
Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

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Published by: Ahmad Hussein Enayat on Feb 16, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/21/2013

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Although there are a great number of fixings available, the engineer will generally specify
nails,screwsorbolts.Withinthesecategoriestherearevariationsdependingonthematerials
to be fixed. The fixings included here are standard gauges generally available in the UK.

Selected round wire nails to BS 1202

Length

mm

Diameter (standard wire gauge (swg) and mm)

11 swg

10

9

8

7

6

5

3.0 mm

3.35 3.65 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6

50

.

.

75

.

.

.

100

.

.

.

125

.

150

.

Selected wood screws to BS 1210

Length

mm

Diameter (standard gauge (sg) and mm)

6 sg

7

8

10

12

14

16

3.48mm

3.50 4.17 4.88 5.59

6.30

6.94

25

.

.

.

.

.

50

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

75

.

.

.

.

.

.

100

.

.

.

.

125

.

.

.

.

Selected self-tapping screws to BS 4174

Self-tapping screws can be used in metal or plastics, while thread cutting screws are
generally used in plastics or timber.

AB

D

U

BF

B

Metals+plastics

Plastics

Metals

304 Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

Selected ISO metric black bolts to BS 4190 and BS 3692

Bolt head

Shank

Pitch – the
distance between
points of threads

Thread

Nut

Nut

Dome
head
nut

Nominal
diameter
mm

Coarse
pitch
mm

Maximum
width of
head and
nut
mm

Maximum
height of
head
mm

Maximum
thickness
of nut
(black)
mm

Minimum
distance
between
centres
mm

Tensile
stress
area
mm2

Normal size* (Form E)
round washers to
BS 4320

Across
flats

Across
corners

Inside
diameter
mm

Outside
diameter
mm

Nominal
thickness
mm

M6

1.00 10

11.5

4.375

5.375

15

20.1 6.6

12.5

1.6

M8

1.25 13

15.0

5.875

6.875

20

36.6 9.0

17.0

1.6

M10

1.50 17

19.6

7.450

8.450

25

58.0 11.0

21.0

2.0

M12

1.75 19

21.9

8.450

10.450

30

84.3 14.0

24.0

2.5

M16

2.00 24

27.7

10.450

13.550

40

157.0 18.0

30.0

3.0

M20

2.50 30

34.5

13.900

16.550

50

245.0 22.0

37.0

3.0

M24

3.00 36

41.6

15.900

19.650

60

353.0 26.0

44.0

4.0

M30

3.50 46

53.1

20.050

24.850

75

561.0 33.0

56.0

4.0

* Larger diameter washers as Form F and Form G are also available to BS 4320.

Length*
mm

Bolt size

M6

M8

M10

M12

M16

M20

M24

30

.

.

50

.

.

.

.

.

70

.

.

.

.

.

.

100

.

.

.

.

.

120

.

.

.

.

.

140

.

.

.

150

.

.

.

180

.

*Intermediate lengths are available.

M6, M8, M10 and M12 threaded bar (called studding) is also available in long lengths.

Spanner and podger dimensions

3.2D

Spanner

2
(
D
+
1
)

Podger

15°

15°

Building Elements, Materials, Fixings and Fastenings 305

Selected metric machine screws to BS 4183

Available in M3 to M20, machine screws have the same dimensions as black bolts but
they are threaded full length and do not have a plain shank. Machine screws are often
used in place of bolts and have a variety of screw heads:

Pozidrive

Hexagonal

Phillips

Square

Allen key

Fillister

Pig nose

Counter sunk

Cross slot

Round

Slotted

Cheese

Selected coach screws to BS 1210

Typically used in timber construction. The square head allows the screw to be tightened
by a spanner.

Length*
mm

Diameter

6.25

7.93

9.52

12.5

25

.

.

37.5

.

.

.

50

.

.

.

75

.

.

.

.

87.5

.

.

100

.

.

.

.

112

.

125

.

.

.

.

150

.

.

.

200

.

Selected welding symbols to BS 449

Fillet

Vee butt

Double vee butt

Spot

Seam

Spot flush one sideSpot flush two sides

306 Structural Engineer's Pocket Book

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