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(1) Orthotropous : The micropyle, chalaza and funicle are in a straight line.

This is the most primitive type of ovule e.g., Piper, Polygonum, Cycas. (2) Anatropous : The ovule turns at 1802 angle. Thus it is inverted ovule. Micropyle lies close to hilum or at side of hilum e.g, found in 82% of angiosperm families. (3) Campylotropous : Ovule is curved more or less at right angle to funicle. Micropylar end is bend down slightly e.g., in members of Leguminosae, Cruciferae. (4) Hemianatropous : Ovule turns at 902 angle upon the funicle or body of ovule and is at right angle to the funicle e.g., Ranunculus. (5) Amphitropous : Ovule as well as embryo sac is curved like horse shoe e.g, Lemna, Poppy, Alisma. (6) Circinotropous : The ovule turns at more than 3609 angle, so funicle becomes coiled around the ovule e.g., Opuntia (Cactaceae), Plumbaginaceae.

A. Orthotropous, B. Anatropous, C. Hemianatropous D. Campylotropous, E. Amphitropous, F. Circinotropous

D. Ovule types 1. orthotropous. Funiculus attached at chalazal end, ovule not curved, funiculus and micropyle on opposite sides (Arisaema, Carya, Eucnide) 2. amphitropous. Funiculus medially attached, ovule curved on both sides, thus retaining a straight axis, funiculus partly fused to exterior of ovule (Abutilon, Arabidopsis) 3. anatropous. Funiculus attached basally near funiculus, ovule curved 180 degrees (Narcissus, Asarum, Canna) 4. campylotropous. Funiculus attached medially, ovule curved on one side (Agrostemma) 5. ovule types (from Lawrence)