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William Revelle Northwestern University Spring, 2003 http://pmc.psych.nwu.edu/revelle/syllabi/405.html

• ‘The character which shapes our conduct is a definite and durable ‘something’, and therefore ... it is reasonable to attempt to measure it. (Galton, 1884) • “Whatever exists at all exists in some amount. To know it thoroughly involves knowing its quantity as well as its quality” (E.L. Thorndike, 1918)

**Psychometric Theory: Goals
**

1. To acquire the fundamental vocabulary and logic of psychometric theory. 2. To develop your capacity for critical judgment of the adequacy of measures purported to assess psychological constructs. 3. To acquaint you with some of the relevant literature in personality assessment, psychometric theory and practice, and methods of observing and measuring affect, behavior, cognition and motivation.

**Psychometric Theory: Goals II
**

4. To instill an appreciation of and an interest in the principles and methods of psychometric theory. 5. This course is not designed to make you into an accomplished psychometist (one who gives tests) nor is it designed to make you a skilled psychometrician (one who constructs tests), nor will it give you "hands on" experience with psychometric computer programs.

**Psychometric Theory: Requirements
**

• Objective Midterm exam • Objective Final exam • Final paper applying principles from the course to a problem of interest to you. • Sporadic applied homework and data sets

**Text and Syllabus
**

• Nunnally, Jum & Bernstein, Ira (1994) Psychometric Theory New York: McGraw Hill, 3rd ed.(required: available at Norris) • Loehlin, John (1998) Latent Variable Models: an introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis . Hillsdale, N.J.: LEA. (recommended)

1

Methods of observation of behavior Constructs/Latent Variables L1 L4 Theory as organization of constructs L1 L4 L2 L2 L5 L3 L3 L5 Theory development and testing • Theories as organizations of observables • Constructs. and electrical circuits – The Bohr atom – Latent Variables • Latent variables as the common theme of a set of observables • Central tendency across time.Syllabus: Overview I. Test Construction Psychometric Theory: A conceptual Syllabus X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 L3 L5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y4 L2 Y5 L1 Y2 L4 Y3 Y1 IV. people. Models of measurement III. pendulums. Assessment of traits V. Validity (predictive and construct) C. space. Individual Differences and Experimental Psychology II. Reliability B. situations • Biology – Evolutionary theory – Genetic transmission – Constructs as organizations of latent variables and observed variables 2 . latent variables and observables – Observables • Multiple levels of description and abstraction • Multiple levels of inference about observables Theories as metaphors and analogies-1 • Physics – Planetary motion • Ptolemy • Galileo • Einstein – Springs. Test theory A. Structural Models D.

and cognitive psychology – Telephone as an example of wiring of connections – Digital computer as information processor – Parallel processes as distributed information processor • • • • Love Conformity Intelligence Learning and memory – Procedural .simulations X1 Y1 X2 X3 Y3 X4 X5 X6 Y6 X7 X8 X9 Y7 Y8 Y4 Y5 Y2 • Conceptual models – As guides to new research – As ways of telling a story • Organizational devices • Shared set of assumptions Psychometric Theory: A conceptual Syllabus X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 L3 L5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y4 L2 Y5 L1 L4 Y1 Y2 Y3 A Theory of Data: What can be measured X1 What is measured? Individuals Objects What kind of measures are taken? proximity order Comparisons are made on: Single Dyads or Pairs of Dyads 3 .Theories as metaphors and analogies-2 • Business competition and evolutionary theory – Business niche – Adaptation to change in niches Examples of psychological constructs and their operationalization as observables • Anxiety – Trait – State • Learning. memory.memory for how – Episodic -.memory for what • Implicit • explicit Observables/measured variables Models and theory • Formal models – Mathematical models – Dynamic models .

Covariance. and Correlation X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 Y5 Simple regression Y3 Multiple correlation/regression Simple correlation Observed Variable X6 X7 X8 Latent Variable X9 Partial correlation Y6 Y7 Y8 X1 X2 X3 Classic Reliability Theory: How well do we measure what ever we are measuring L1 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 Types of Validity: What are we measuring Face Concurrent Predictive Construct L2 Convergent Discriminant L3 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 L5 Y6 Y7 Y8 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 Techniques of Data Reduction: Factors and Components L1 L4 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 L2 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 Y5 X6 Y6 Structural Equation Modeling: Combining Measurement and Structural Models L1 L4 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 L2 Y5 L5 L3 Y6 L5 L3 Y7 Y8 X7 X8 X9 Y7 Y8 4 .X1 Scaling: the mapping between observed and latent variables L1 Variance.

Terman Allport. Models of measurement Theory of Data Issues in scaling Variance. Fechner Watson. situations. and people Psychometric Theory: A conceptual Syllabus X1 X2 L1 Y2 L4 Y3 X4 X5 X6 Tn X7 X8 X9 L3 L5 Y6 Y7 Y8 L2 Y4 Y5 Y1 X3 P1 P2 P3 P4 . A. Two Disciplines of Psychological Research (Cronbach. Skinner Mischel IV. B. A. items. B. Pi Pj … Pn X1 X2 … Xi Xj … Xn T1 T2 … Syllabus: Overview I. Assessment of traits Methods of observation of behavior 5 . 1997) Individual Differences and Experimental Psychology Two historic approaches to the study of psychology Individual differences and general laws The two disciplines reconsidered B=f(Personality) Galton Binet. C. . A. C. Eysenck. C. D. B.Scale Construction: practical and theoretical X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 L3 L5 Y6 Y7 Y8 X7 X8 X9 Y4 L2 Y5 X6 L1 Y2 L4 Y3 X4 X5 X3 Y1 X2 X1 Traits and States: What is measured? BAS Y2 Affect Y3 Y4 BIS Y5 Cog IQ Y6 Y7 Y8 Y1 The data box: measurement across time. and Correlation III. Covariance. Thorndike II. 1957. Burt Cattell Epstein B=f(P*E) Darwin B=f(Environment) Weber. 1975. 1966. Eysenck Hull. Test theory Reliability Validity (predictive and construct) Structural Models Test Construction Lewin Atkinson. V. Tolman Spence.

F test Effects Individuals Situations Individual Differences General Laws B=f(P.Two Disciplines of Psychological Research B=f(Person) B=f(Environment) Method/ Correlational Experimental Model Observational Causal Biological/field Physical/lab Statistics Variance Mean Dispersion Central Tendency Correlation/ Covariance t-test.E) Effect of individual in an environment Multivariate Experimental Psychology Types of Relationships (Vale and Vale. 1969) • Behavior = f(Situation) • Behavior = f1(Situation)+ f2(Personality) • Behavior = f1(Situation)+f2(Personality)+ f3(Situation*Personality) • Behavior = f1(Situation * Personality) • Behavior = idiosyncratic Types of Relationships: Behavior = f(Situation) Behavioral Output Behavioral Output Types of Relationships: Behavior = f1(Situation)+f2(Person) High ability Low ability Environmental Input Neuronal excitation = f(light intensity) Environmental Input (income) Probability of college = f1(income) + f 2(ability) Types of Relationships: Behavior = f1(Situation)+f2(Personality)+ f3(Situation*Personality) Behavioral Output Behavioral Output Types of Relationships: Behavior = f(Situation*Person) Low High Low Environmental Input Avoidance = f1(shock intensity)+f2(anxiety) + f3(shock*anxiety) Reading = f1(sesame street) = f2(ability) + f3(ss * ability) High Environmental Input Eating = f(preload * restraint) GRE = f(caffeine * impulsivity) 6 .

Situations. and Theory Observed relationship External stimulation-> Individual Difference Performance External stimulation-> General Law Arousal Environmental Input GRE = f(caffeine * impulsivity) Arousal-> Theory and Theory Testing I: Theory Construct 1 Construct 2 Theory and Theory Testing II: Experimental manipulation Construct 1 rc1c2 Construct 2 rmo Fm Manipulation 1 Observation 1 Theory and Theory Testing III: Correlational inference ? Construct 1 ? rmo Theory and Theory Testing IV: Correlational inference Construct X ? Construct 1 ? rmo Construct 2 Construct 2 Observation 1 Observation 2 Observation 1 Observation 2 7 .Performance Types of Relationships: Behavior = f(Situation*Person) Behavioral Output Low High Persons.

Theory and Theory Testing V: Alternative Explanations Individual differences and general laws Impulsivity Attention Arousal Working Memory Caffeine Reaction Time GREs Construct 1 ? Construct 2 Memory Span Observation 1 Observation 2 Theory and Theory Testing VI: Eliminate Alternative Explanations Psychometric Theory: A conceptual Syllabus X1 X2 X3 L1 Y2 L4 Y3 Y4 L2 Y5 L5 L3 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y1 Construct 1 Construct 2 X4 X5 X6 Observation 1 Observation 2 X7 X8 X9 A Theory of Data: What can be measured X1 What is measured? Individuals Objects What kind of measures are taken? proximity order Comparisons are made on: Single Dyads or Pairs of Dyads Coombs: A theory of Data • • • • • • O = {Stimulus Objects} S={Subjects} O = {o1. on)} O x O = {(o1.oj). …. ….oj). … . (sm. s2. sm} S x O = {(s1. o1 ) . …. ….(si.(oi. si. on} S = {s1. … . oi. on)} Types of Comparisons: – Order – Proximities si <oj (aptitudes or amounts) |si -oj | < d (preferences ) 8 . o2. (on. o1 ) .

Y) = 0 iff X=Y (D(X.3 .Coombs typology of data Single Dyads Pairs of Dyads Single Stimuli Metric spaces and the axioms of a distance measure • A metric space is a set of points with a distance function.Z) (triangle inequality) Measurement (S*O) |si -oj | < d (attitudes) si <oj |si -oj | < (Abilities) |sk -ol | Unfolding (S*O)*(S*O) Preferential choice Pairs of Stimuli Scaling of stimuli (O * O) oi <oj MDS (O*O)*(O*O) |oi -oj | < |ok -ol | Individual differences in Multidimensional Scaling S * (O*O) * (O*O) Scaling of Stimuli (O*O) • Finding a distance metric for a set of stimuli – – – – Sports teams (wins and losses) Severity of crimes (judgments of severity) Quality of merchandise (judgments) Political orientations of judges (history of decisions -. and satisfies the triangle inequality: – – – – D(X.Y) = D(Y. which meets the following properties • Distance is symmetric.Z) => D(X. • Assume that object J has a mean value mj • Assume equal and normal variability (Thurston case 5) – Less restrictive assumptions are cases 1-4) • Observe frequency of (oi <oj) • Convert relative frequencies to normal equivalents • Result is an interval scale with arbitrary 0 point Thurstonian Scaling Frequency Preferential Choice and Unfolding (S * O) * (S*O) Comparison of the distance of subject to an item versus another subject to another item: |si -oj | < |sk -ol | Do you like broccoli more than I like spinach? x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 .3 Or more typically: do you like broccoli more than you like spinach? Preferential choice Unfolding (S*O)*(S*O) .5 .X)=0 reflexive) D(X. D.voting with or against majority) Thurstonian Scaling of Stimuli • What is scale location of objects I and J on an attribute dimension D? • Assume that object I has mean value m i with some variability.5 Row > Column 9 .5 x3 .Y)>= 0 (non negativity) D(X.7 . positive definite.1 .7 x2 .9 .Y) + D(Y.X) (symmetric) D(X.

3. and 4 children. would you rather have X+1 or X-1 (Y). • Model of answer: – Something is preferred to something else if if it “closer” in the attribute space or on a particular attribute dimension – Individual has an “Ideal point” on the attribute. Z)+1 5. (Z) 4.Y. and 100 means having 5 children. what would your second choice be? _Y_ • Third choice? _Z_ • Fourth choice? -W• Fifth choice? _V_ Preferential Choice: forced choice 1. – Objects have locations along the same attribute – |si -oj | < |si -ok | – The I scale is the individual’s rank ordering of preferences Preferential Choice: free choice • If you had complete freedom of choice.Y. 2.Y)+1. • On this same scale.Z)-1 or max (X. If could not have X or Y. If you had complete freedom of choice. how many children would you like to have? _X_ 2.Y)-1) or max (X. 3.underlying model • On a scale from 0 to 100. If you could not have X. Y or Z. Alternative J scales 100 90 80 70 60 scale value 50 Accelerating deaccelerating equal interval 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F categorical choice 10 . If you could have X. would you rather have min(X. would you rather have (min(X. please give your preferences for having 0. Repeat (4) until either 0 or 5 Preferential choice. 3. 2.Preferential Choice: I scales • Question asked an individual: – Do you prefer object j to object k? Preferential Choice: J scales • Individual preferences can give information about object to object distances that are true for multiple people • Locate people in terms of their I scales along a common J scale. if 0 means having 0 children. please assign the relative location of 1. 4. or 5 children. 1. how many children would you like to have? _X_ • If you could not have that many.

Points and Midpoints • 0 1 2 3 4 5 • 0|1 0|2 0|3 0|4 0|5 • 1|2 1|3 1|4 1|5 • 2|3 2|4 2|5 • 3|4 3|5 • 4|5 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 1 0 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 4 3 2 2 0 3 3 3 1 4 4 2 2 I scales and midpoints example 1 • Preference Orders: (Individual Scales) 34 34 34 04 40 40 40 10 10 10 10 Midpoints crossed 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 23 14 23 24 14 23 24 34 11 .4 I scales from the accelerating J scale 100 90 80 I scales from the deaccelerating J scale 100 90 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 A B C D E F 0 A B C D E F I scales from two J scales 100 Unfolding of Preferences • • • • • • • A B C D E F 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Consider the I scale 234105 What information has this person given us? Unfold to give J scale Ideal point is closest to 2. furthest from 5. J scale of 0 1 2 3 4 5 Critical information: 2|3 occurs after 1|4 0 Joint scales.

The names have been changed to protect the guilty. but not necessarily (and probably rarely) linear.0 -4 -2 0 Ability 2 4 12 .0 Latent and Observed Scores -The problem of scale Much of our research is concerned with making inferences about latent (unobservable) scores based upon observed measures. This leads to many problems of inference. 0.2 0.8 Performance 0.I scales and Midpoints: Example 2 • Preference Orders: (Individual Scales) 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 1 0 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 0 0 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 34 34 34 34 04 04 04 40 10 10 10 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 Distance information from midpoints • • • • • • • Consider: 1 2 2|3 1|4 3 4 vs Midpoints crossed 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 13 13 13 13 13 13 23 23 23 23 23 04 04 04 04 14 14 14 24 24 34 2 2|3 3 Midpoint orders imply distance information If 2|3<1|4 then (12) < (34) If 2|3 >1|4 then (12)> (34) From midpoints to partial orders • • • • • • 0|3 0|4 0|4 0|4 1|4 Measurement (S * O) • Ordering of abilities: si <oj • Proximity of attitudes |si -oj | < d Data example 1 < < < < < 1|2 1|2 1|3 2|3 2|3 <=> (01) > (23) <=> (01) > (24) <=> (01) > (34) <=> (02) > (34) <=> (12) > (34) • Partial Orders of distances • (04) > (03) > (02) > (12) > (34) • (04) > (03) > (02) > (01) > (24) > (34) • (04) > (03) > (02) > (01) > (24) > (23) Measurement: Objects and Subjects Performance as a function of Ability and Test Difficulty 1.4 0. The following examples are abstracted from real studies. the relationship between observed and latent scores is monotonic.6 Easy Difficult 0. Typically.

a similar writing test was given again. or a two year junior college. the researchers report data only for those who finished one year. a less selective university. A writing test was given to the entering students at three institutions in the Boston area. the researchers concluded that the quality of teaching at the very selective university was much worse and that the students there learned a great deal less than the other universities. They proposed to study the techniques used at these other institutions in order to apply them to the very selective university. a similar math test was given again. the researchers report data only for those who finished one year. Although there was some attrition from each sample. The pre and post test scores as well as the change scores were: Junior College Non-selective university Selective university Pretest 1 5 27 Posttest 5 27 73 Change 4 22 45 From these data.College and Writing Quality of school affects writing • A leading research team in motivational and educational psychology was interested in the effect that different teaching techniques at various colleges and universities have upon their students. They proposed to study the techniques used there in order to apply them to the other institutions. They were particularly interested in the effect upon writing performance of attending a very selective university. the researchers concluded that the quality of teaching at the very selective university was much better and that the students there learned a great deal more. After one year. A math test was given to the entering students at three institutions in the Boston area. or a two year junior college. They were particularly interested in the effect upon mathematics performance of attending a very selective university. The pre and post test scores as well as the change scores were College Quality and Mathematics Pretest Posttest Change Junior College Non-selective university Selective university 27 73 95 73 95 99 45 22 4 • From these data. Although there was some attrition from each sample. Are their conclusions justified? Can you think of several reasons that their conclusions could be incorrect? School Quality and Mathematics • Another research team in motivational and educational psychology was interested in the effect that different teaching techniques at various colleges and universities have upon their students. After one year. a less selective university. • Are their conclusions justified? Can you think of several reasons that their conclusions could be incorrect? 13 .

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