PETE 661

Drilling Engineering

Lesson 9 Well Control Concepts
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Lesson 9 - Well Control Concepts
 The Anatomy of a KICK  Kicks - Definition  Kick Detection

 Kick Control
 (a)  (b) * * Dynamic Kick Control Other Kick Control Methods Driller’s Method Engineer’s Method
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Read:
Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch.6

HW # 6
Kick Control due Monday, Oct. 13, 2003
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Causes of Kicks 8 .

Causes of Kicks 9 .

Causes of Kicks 10 .

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What? What is a kick?  An unscheduled entry of formation fluid(s) into the wellbore 17 .

pw < pf 18 .Why? Why does a kick occur?  The pressure inside the wellbore is lower than the formation pore pressure (in a permeable formation).

ECD too low 19 .trips or lost circ.  Swabbing on trips  Circulation stopped .How? How can this occur?  Mud density is too low ( pW  pF )  Fluid level is too low .

What ? What happens if a kick is not controlled?  BLOWOUT !!! 20 .

Kick containment .Typical Kick Sequence 1. Removal of kick from wellbore 5. Kick indication 2. Kick detection . Replace old mud with kill mud (heavier) 21 .(stop kick influx) 4.(confirmation) 3.

Kick Detection and Control Kick Detection Kick Control 22 .

Circulate Kick out of hole Keep the BHP constant throughout 23 .1.

2. Circulate Old Mud out of hole Keep the BHP constant throughout 24 .

2.Kick Detection Some of the preliminary events that may be associated with a well-control problem. not necessarily in the order of occurrence. Pit gain. are: 1. Increase in flow of mud from the well 3. Drilling break (sudden increase in drilling rate) 25 .

Incorrect fill-up on trips 26 . Shows of gas. oil. 5. or salt water 6. Increase in hook load 8. Decrease in circulating pressure. Well flows after mud pump has been shut down 7.Kick Detection 4.

Dynamic Kick Control [Kill well “on the fly”] For use in controlling shallow gas kicks • • • • No competent casing seat No surface casing .only conductor Use diverter (not BOP’s) Do not shut well in! 27 .

Check for flow after each complete circulation 4. repeat 2-4. Increase rate! (higher ECD) 2. Keep pumping.3 #/gal per circulation 3. 28 . Increase mud density  0.Dynamic Kick Control 1. If still flowing.

29 .Conventional Kick Control {Surface Casing and BOP Stack are in place} Shut in well for pressure readings. (a) Remove kick fluid from wellbore. (b) Replace old mud with kill weight mud Use choke to keep BHP constant.

DRILLER’S METHOD ** TWO complete circulations **  Circulate kick out of hole using old mud  Circulate old mud out of hole using kill weight mud 30 .Conventional Kick Control 1.

Conventional Kick Control 2. WAIT AND WEIGHT METHOD (Engineer’s Method) ** ONE complete circulation **  Circulate kick out of hole using kill weight mud 31 .

) 32 .000 ft.Constant Geometry Information required: Well Data: Depth = 10. (constant) Drill Pipe = 4 1/2” O.D.D.415 in. 68 #/ft (12.60 #/ft Surface Csg.: 4. 16.D. Hole size = 12.000 ft..Driller’s Method .415 in I. of 13 3/8” O.

Driller’s Method .Constant Geometry Additional Information required: Kick Data: Original mud weight Shut-in annulus press. Shut-in drill pipe press.0 #/gal = 600 psi = 500 psi = 30 bbl (pit gain) 33 . Kick size = 10.

Constant Annular Geometry. Initial conditions: Kick has just entered the wellbore Pressures have stabilized 34 .

At no time during the process of removing the kick fluid from the wellbore will the pressure exceed the pressure capability of  the formation  the casing  the wellhead equipment 35 .Successful Well Control 1.

Successful Well Control 2. Under these conditions the well will not flow when the BOP’s are opened. Keep the BHP constant throughout. When the process is complete the wellbore is completely filled with a fluid of sufficient density (kill mud) to control the formation pressure. 3. 36 .

Calculations From the initial shut-in data we can calculate: • Bottom hole pressure • Casing seat pressure • Height of kick • Density of kick fluid 37 .

700 psig 38 .Calculate New Bottom Hole Pressure PB = SIDPP + Hydrostatic Pressure in DP = 500 + 0.200 PB = 5.000 = 500 + 5.0 * 10.052 * 10.

052 * 10 * 4.000 = SICP + 0.000 = P0 + DPHYDR.Calculate Pressure at Casing Seat P4. ANN.680 psig 39 . 0-4.000 = 600 + 2.000 = 2.080 P4.

670 psi/ft 4.670 psi / ft  12.052 (psi / ft )(lb / gal) ( rmud = 10.Calculate EMW at Casing Seat This corresponds to a pressure gradient of 2.680 psi  0.0 lb/gal ) 40 .000 ft Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW) = 0.88 lb/gal 0.

415  4.Calculate Initial Height of Kick Annular capacity per ft of hole: vx   4 (D H  D P )L 2 2 2 2 3 gal bbl  (12.5 ) *12 in * 3 4 231 in 42 gal  0.13006 bbls/ft 41  .

7 ft v x 0.13006 bbl/ft hB  231 ft 42 .Calculate Height of Kick  Height of kick at bottom of hole. VB 30 bbl hB    230.

000) 600  5.052 *10*10.200 43 .080  DPKB  500  5.Calculate Density of Kick Fluid The bottom hole pressure is the pressure at the surface plus the total hydrostatic pressure between the surface and the bottom: Annulus Drill String PB  SICP  DPMA  DPKB  SIDPP  DPMD 600  0.052 *10 *(10.000 .231)  DPKB  500  (0.

Density of Kick Fluid  DPKB  20 psi  r KB 20   1.67 lb/gal 0.052 * 231 (must be primarily gas!) 44 .

Circulate Kick Out of Hole NOTE: The bottom hole pressure is kept constant while the kick fluid is circulated out of the hole! In this case BHP = 5.700 psig 45 .

Conditions When Top of Kick Fluid Reaches the Surface BHP = const.Constant Annular Geometry Driller’s Method. 46 .

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If the expansion follows the gas law. it expands.Top of Kick at Surface As the kick fluid moves up the annulus. then P0 V0 PB VB  Z 0n0RT0 ZBnBRTB [surface ] [bottom] 48 .

we get: P0 V0  PB VB P0 v 0h0  PB v BhB i.) 49 Since cross-sectional area = constant . P0h0  PBhB (v 0  v B  const .Top of Kick at Surface Ignoring changes due to compressibility factor (Z) and temperature.e.

700 = Po + DPKO + DPMA 5.hO ) PB hB 5. and need a second one. BHP = Surface Pressure + Hydrostatic Head 5.200 = Po .000 .20 .700 .700 = Po + 20 + 0. P0 and h0.Top of Kick at Surface We are now dealing two unknowns.5.052 * 10 * (10.0. We have one equation.52 * Po 50 .

Top of Kick at Surface 480 P0  P0  0.684 2 P0  240  862  1102 psi .52 * 5700 * 231 2 P0  480 P0  684684  0 2  P0  480  480 2  4 * 684. 51 .

6 1.10 13.100 40 1.000) 1.5 14.200 * 14.000 800 1.000/40 1.298 psi52 .40 2.052 * 14.200 + 800 2.6 / 13.200 50 2.000 800 / (0.5 1.

1.000 200 0 0 bbls 53 .298 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 2.

Csg DS DS Csg Pressure When Circulating Static Pressure Driller’s Method First Circulation Second Circulation 54 .

Strokes 55 .Csg DS DS Csg Driller’s Method Drillpipe Pressure Volume Pumped.

1 3 4 Engineer’s Method 2 5 6 56 .

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