10.

Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 1
PETE 661
Drilling Engineering
Lesson 10
Well Control, cont’d
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 2
Lesson 10 - Well Control, cont’d
 Shut-in Procedures after Taking a Kick
 Kick Occurs While Drilling
 Kick Occurs While Tripping
 Casing Pressures During
Well Control Operations
 Kick on Bottom
 Kick at surface
 Kick Migration During Shut-in Conditions
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 3
Controlling A Kick when On Bottom
Procedure:
1. Raise the kelly to clear
the tool joint
above the rotary
2. Shut down the pump
3. Check for well flow
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 4
Controlling A Kick when On Bottom
4. If well is flowing, immediately close the
blowout preventer and shut in the well
completely, (except on shallow gas
kicks).
5. Notify supervisory personnel.

6. Read and record the stabilized shut-in
drill-pipe pressure. (SIDPP)
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 5
Controlling A Kick When On Bottom
7. Read and record the stabilized shut-in
casing pressure (SICP)
8. Read and record the pit gain
(pit-level increase = kick size)
9. Record the time
10. Record depth
11. Record mud weight
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 6
Controlling A Well Kick While
Making A Trip
1. Stop trip operations. Set slips
with tool joint at rotary.

2. Install inside blowout
preventer and release
valve stem or close the
valve if drill-stem valve is
employed.

10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 7
Controlling A Well Kick While
Making A Trip
3. Immediately close the blowout
preventer and shut in the
well completely (except on
shallow gas kicks).
4. Install kelly, open drill-pipe
valve, or pump through
back-pressure valve.
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 8
Controlling a Well Kick While
Making A Trip
5. Notify supervisory personnel

6. Read and record the stabilized shut-in
drill- pipe pressure or equivalent
(SIDPP)

7. Read and record the stabilized shut-in
casing pressure (SICP)
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 9
Controlling A Well Kick While
Making A Trip
8. Read and record the pit gain
(Kick Size)

9. Record the time

10. Record the current well depth

11. Record the current mud weight
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 10
Well Control
 Avoid kicks if possible

 Catch them early if they do occur

 Know how to control kicks
if they do occur
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 11
Avoiding Kicks While Tripping:
 Keep the hole full.

 Avoid excessive surge pressures.

 Avoid excessive swab pressures
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 12
Tripping Out Of Hole
If well is not taking enough fluid to replace
volume of steel pulled from hole, fluid may
have been swabbed into well.

Measure fluid volume to fill hole:
1. By counting pump strokes, or
2. By direct measurement from trip tank.

Note: The second method is best.
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 13
Recommendations
 Do not break circulation with bit and
BHA just above the casing seat.

When breaking circulation,
 Start the pumps slowly,
 Rotate the drill string,
 Pick up on the drillstring at the same time

This will reduce the initial pressure
required to get the mud moving
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 14
Well Control-Variable Geometry
 Initial Shut-In Conditions
• Driller’s Method
 Kick at Casing Seat
 Kick at Surface
• Wait and Weight Method
 Kick at Casing Seat
 Kick at Surface
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 15
Example Problem
1. Determine the pressure at the casing seat
at 4,000’ when using the old mud
(Driller’s) versus using the kill mud
(Wait and Weight) to circulate a gas
kick out of the hole.
2. Determine the casing pressure at the
surface when the top of the gas
bubble has just reached the surface,
for the same two mud weights used
above.
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 16
Example Problem
Well depth = 10,000’
Hole size = 10.5”
Drill pipe = 4.5”, 16.60 #/ft
Drill Collars = 8” * 3.5” * 500 ft
Surface casing = 4,000’, 13-3/8”, 68 #/ft
Mud Weight = 10 ppg

Fracture gradient @ 4,000’ = 0.7 psi/ft
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 17
Example Problem
1. Drillers Method (two circulations)

Drop the Z terms
but consider Temperature
T at surface = 70 deg. F
Temperature gradient = 1.2 deg.F/100 ft
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 18
Initial (Closed-In) Conditions:
/gal # 10 Weight Mud Initial
bbl 20 Increase Level Pit
psi 400 SICP
psi 200 SIDPP
=
=
=
=
Initial mud gradient = 0.520 psi/ft
(0.052 * 10 = 0.520)
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 19
Initial (Closed-In) Conditions:
bbl/ft 04493 . 0
gal 42 in 231
) 12 ( ) 8 5 . 10 (
4
v
Collars, Drill outside Vol/ft Annular
psi 5,400 200 ) 520 . 0 ( * ) 000 , 10 ( P
Pressure, Hole Bottom
2
2 2 2
ann dc,
10,000
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
= + =
bbl gal
in in
ft
psi
ft
t
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 20
4,000’




9,500’

10,000’
v
dp.csg
= 0.13006 bbl/ft
v
dc,hole
= 0.04493 bbl/ft
v
dp,hole
= 0.08743 bbl/ft
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 21
Fluid, Kick of Height
ft 445
bbl/ft 0.04493
bbl 20
h
10,000
= =
Fluid, Kick across Pressure c Hydrostati
555 , 9 * 520 . 0 400 400 , 5 P
0 kick_10,00
÷ ÷ = A
psi 4 31. P
0 kick_10,00
= A
Annulus, the in cs Hydrostati
0 kick_10,00
P 9,555 * 0.520 400 5,400 A + + =
P Δ P Δ P BHP
K0 MA 0
+ + =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 22
Driller’s Method - kick at bottom
F = AP * A = W
area * Pressure Fluid Kick of Weight =
2 2 2
2
in ) 8 5 . 10 (
4
*
in
lb
31.4 ÷
t
=
lb 1,141 W =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 23
4,000’
9,500’
10,000’
9,555’
P
B
= P
10,000
= 5,400 psi
445’
SIDPP = 200 psi
SICP = 400 psi
31.4
psi
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 24
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat
What is the pressure at 4,000 ft when the
top of the kick fluid first reaches that point?
4,000
4,000
P
1,098,444
h =
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
650
460 48 70
*
P
5,400
* 20 h * 0.08743
4,000
4,000
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10,000
4,000
4,000
10,000
10,000 4,000
T
T
*
P
P
* V V
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 25
4,000’




9,500’

10,000’
Driller’s
Method

Top of
Kick at
Casing
Seat
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 26
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat
Again,
( ) in 4.5 10.5
4
lbs 1,141
area
weight
P
2 2
K_4,000
÷
= = A
π
MA K_4,000 4,000
P P P BHP Δ Δ + + =
AP
K_4,000
= 16.1 psi
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 27
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
4,000
4,000
P
1,098,444
* (0.52) P 2,264
4,000 4,000
h * 0.52 3,120 P 5,384 ÷ + =
) h (6,000 * 0.52 16 P 5,400
4,000 4,000
÷ + + =
MA K_4,000 4,000
P P P BHP Δ Δ + + =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 28
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat
0.7 psi/ft 0.6233 psi 2,493 P
4,000
< => =
( )
2
571,191 * 4 2,264 2,264
P
0.5
2
4,000
+ ±
=
0 571,191 P 2,264 P
4,000
2
4,000
= ÷ ÷
This results in the quadratic Eqn:
With the solutions:
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 29
Driller’s Method - Top of Kick at Casing Seat
4,000’
9,500’
10,000’
BHP = 5,400 psi
P
4,000
= 2,493 psi
h
4,000
= 441 ft
AP = 16 psi
(
¸
(

¸

=
4,000
4,000
P
1,098,444
h
P
0,ann
= ?
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 30
Driller’s Method - kick at surface
When the bubble rises, it expands. The
volume of the bubble at the surface is given by:
(1) - - -
P
084 , 677
h
o
0
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
460 120 70
460 70
P
5400
20 h ) 13006 . 0 (
0
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
000 , 10
0
0
000 , 10
000 , 10 0
T
T
P
P
V V
(Z = const.)
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 31
4,000’




9,500’

10,000’
Driller’s
Method

Top of
Kick at
Surface
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 32
Driller’s Method - kick at surface
psi 11 10.85 P
K0
~ = Δ
( )
2 2 2
K,0
in 4.5 12.415
4
lb 1,141
area
weight
P
÷
= =
π
Δ
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 33
Driller’s Method - kick at surface
From Eq. (2),




But, from Eq. (1),
0
0
0 0
P
677,084
h

) h (10,000 * 0.52 11 P 5,400
=
÷ + + =
MA K0 0
P P P BHP Δ Δ + + =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 34
Driller’s Method - kick at surface
0 084 , 352 P 189 P
0
2
0
= ÷ ÷
Quadratic equation . . .
( ) 352,084 P P 11 5,200 5,400
2
0 0
÷ = ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + + =
0
0
P
677,084
10,000 0.52 11 P 5,400
So,
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 35
Driller’s Method - kick at surface
| |
2
) 084 , 352 )( 4 ( 189 189
P
2
1
2
0
+ ±
=
psi 695 psi 34 . 695 P
0
~ =
ft 974 h
0
~
74 . 973
34 . 695
084 , 677
h
0
= =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 36
Driller’s Method - kick at surface
psi 2,280
11 1,574 695
P 974) (4,000 * 0.52 P P
KO 0 4,000
=
+ + =
+ ÷ + = Δ
psi 2,280
3,120 - 5,400
) 000 , 4 000 , 10 ( * ) 52 . 0 ( P P
, ely Alternativ
000 , 10 4,000
=
=
÷ ÷ =
( = 0.57 psi/ft )
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 37
Driller’s Method. Top of Kick at Surface
4,000’
9,500’
10,000’
h
0
= 974 ft
AP
K,0
= 11 psi
P
0,ann
= 695 psi
P
4,000
= 2,280 psi
P
10,000
= ?
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 38
Calculate the pressure at 4,000 ft when the
top of the bubble reaches this point.

Volume of bubble at 4,000 ft
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at casing seat
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10,000
4,000
4,000
10,000
10,000 4,000
T
T
P
P
V V
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 39
Wait and
Weight
Method

Top of
Kick at
Casing
Seat
Kill Mud
Old Mud
4,000’
9,500’
10,000’
BHP = 5,400 psi
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 40
W&W - Pressure at top of kick at 4,000 ft
(7) - - - ΔP ΔP ΔP P BHP
But,
(6) - - -
P
1,098,444
h

650
578
P
5,400
20 (0.08743)h
M1 M K_4,000 4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
+ + + =
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 41
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft
psi 839

bbl/ft 0.08743
bbl 141
* 10 * 052 . 0 P
psi 16 P before, As
M
K_4,000
=
= A
= A
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 42
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft
4,000 4,000
4,000 M1
h (0.5398) 2,368 839 16 P 5,400

0.08743
141
h 6,000 * 10.38 * 0.052 ΔP
÷ + + + =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
(7) - - - ΔP ΔP ΔP P BHP
M1 M K_4,000 4,000
+ + + =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 43
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft
0 592,940 P 2,177 P
P
1,098,444
(0.5398) P 2,177
4,000
2
4,000
4,000
000 4
= ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 44
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft
| |
psi/ft 0.61 psi 2,422
2
940 , 592 * 4 177 , 2 177 , 2
P
5 , 0
2
000 , 4
=> =
+ ±
=
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 45
4,000’




9,500’

10,000’
Wait and
Weight
Method

Top of
Kick at
Surface
Kill Mud
Old Mud
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 46
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at surface
Capacity inside drill string = DP_cap. + DC_cap.

bubble. the below mud
gal
#
10.0 of Quantity
bbl 141
ft 500 *
ft
bbl
0.0119 ft 9,500 *
ft
bbl
0.01422
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 47
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at surface
gal
#
10.38 10.00 0.38

Wt. Mud Old
10,000 * 0.052
SIDPP
weight mud Kill
= + =
+ =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 48
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at surface
Volume of gas bubble at surface:
(4) - - -
P
677,084
h
650
530
P
5,400
20 h * 0.13006
T
T
P
P
V V
0
0
0
0
10,000
0
0
10,000
10,000 0
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 49
Wait and Weight Method
(Engineer’s Method) - kick at surface

As before,

Assume all 10 lb mud is inside 13 3/8” csg.
Then the height of 10 lb mud
psi 11 P
(5) - - - P P P P P
K,0
M1 M K0 0 10,000
=
+ + + =
Δ
Δ Δ Δ
ft 1,084
bbl/ft 0.13006
bbl 141.0
h
M
= =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 50
Wait and Weight Method
(Engineer’s Method) - kick at surface
1,084) h (10,000 * 10.38 * 0.052 ΔP
psi 564 1,084 * 0.52 ΔP
0 M1
M
÷ ÷ =
= =
Hydrostatic head across the mud columns:
(old mud)
(kill mud)
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 51
Hydrostatics in Annulus
W&W Method - kick at surface
0 0
0 0
M1 M K0 0 10,000
(0.5398)h P 12.14
) h (8,916 * 0.5398 564 11 P 5,400
ΔP ΔP ΔP P P
÷ =
÷ + + + =
+ + + =
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 52
Wait and Weight Method
kick at surface
( )
psi 611 610.59 P
2
365,490 * 4 12 12
P
0 365,490 12P P
P
677,084
(0.5398) P 12
0
2
1

2
0
0
2
0
0
0
~ =
+ ±
=
= ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
From Eq. 4, substituting for h
0

10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 53
Height of Bubble at Surface
ft 1,109

610.59
677,084
P
677,084
h
0
0
=
= =
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at surface
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 54
Check Pressure at 4,000 ft
- kick at surface
psi/ft 0.54 psi 2,161
1,093) - 1,109 - (4,000 * 10.38 * 0.052
569 11 611

ΔP ΔP ΔP P P
M1 M K0 0 4,000
=> =
+
+ + + =
+ + + =
Looks OK
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 55
Wait and Weight Method
Top of Kick at Surface
Kill Mud
Old Mud
4,000’
9,500’
10,000’
h
0
= 1,109 ft
AP
K,0
= 11 psi
P
0,ann
= 611 psi
P
4,000
= 2,161 psi
P
10,000
= ?
AP
Old Mud
= 569 psi
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 56
Summary
Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method
Bubble at 10,000 ft
400 400 P
2,480 2,480 P
0
4,000
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 57
Summary
Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method
Top of Bubble at 4,000 ft
342 413 P
2,422 2,493 P
0
4,000
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 58
Summary
Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method
Top of Bubble at surface
611 695 P
2,161 2,280 P
0
4,000
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 59
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 60
Why the difference?
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 61
Wait and Weight Method
Kick Intensity, ppg
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 62
Pump Strokes
Kick Intensity, ppg
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 63
20 bbl kick
50 bbl kick
10 bbl kick
1,998 psi
1,266 psi
989 psi
BARRELS OF KILL MUD PUMPED
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 64
Bubble
Rise
Velocity
?
Gas
Bubble
Will
Rise
!
Well is Shut In
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 65

Variable
Geometry

Kick On Bottom
- Well Shut In

4,000’



9,500’

10,000’
400 psi
200 psi
P
B
= 5,700 psi
h
B
= 445’
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 66
1. Calculate new BHP:

2. Calculate height of kick
(check geometry).

3. Calculate density of kill mud:
SIDPP ) depth * * 052 . 0 ( P
old B
+ = µ
depth * 052 . 0
P
B
kill
= µ
depth * 052 . 0
SIDPP
= Aµ
Variable Geometry
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 67
4. Calculate the density of kick fluid:
How would you derive this equation?
Variable Geometry
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ µ = µ
B
MUD OLD KICK
Height Kick * 052 . 0
SIDPP SICP
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ µ = µ
B
MUD OLD KICK
Height Kick * 052 . 0
SIDPP SICP
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 68
Engineer’s
Method -

Gas Kick
at surface
SIDPP ) depth * * 052 . 0 ( P
old B
+ = µ
P
B
= const = 0.052 * µ
kill
* depth
Gas Bubble
10.0 lb/gal

10.38 lb/gal
h
o

D*
10. Well Control cont’d PETE 661 Drilling Engineering Slide 69
1. Calculate expansion
of gas bubble
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
B
x
B
x
x
B
B x
Z
Z
T
T
P
P
V V
kill , m old , m KICK x
P P P P BHP
Annulus PHYD, kick of at top Press BHP . 2
A + A + A + =
A + = 2. BHP = Press at top of kick + AP
HYD,Annulus

3. Solve the resulting quadratic equation to get
the pressure