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The Spinal Serpent' Serpent1
Thomas McEvilley Thomas McEvilley

In the Timaeus, Plato describes what he calls lower soul t h e appetitive part of a the Timaeus, Plato describes he soul—the of a personality, obsessed with bodily pleasures—and higher soul—the spiritual part obsessed higher soul t h e spiritual whose ambitions transcend the bodily realm. Somewhat surprisingly, he does not Somewhat he does not count sexual desire as among the appetites of the lower soul, but as a degenerate sexual desire as among lower as degenerate form of higher soul activity. The higher soul desires only to be reunited with the higher soul desires be of higher the World Soul; this, Plato says, is the true and pure form of eros. When, however, the says, and pure form of er os. however, the embodied soul becomes subject to external influences through the channels of the becomes influences channels of the embodied senses, a degenerate form of desire for the One, and for immortality in the One, a degenerate of desire for immortality the arises. This is, on the one hand, desire of the individual to merge with the species, species, arises. of the which, through the bewilderment of existing in time, the soul now mistakenly sees of existing soul now mistakenly sees as the One, and on the other hand, desire to attain immortality through offspring. and other as Other factors enter also, such as seeing, in a sex object, the shadow of the Idea of such as seeing, sex shadow of the Idea of Beauty, and mistakenly seeking the Idea in the shadow that stimulated memory of and seeking shadow memory of it. Thus the true eros desire for supreme knowledge, freedom, and eternality—is eros—desire it. eternality i s temporarily replaced by a false eros sexual desire. replaced a false eros—sexual desire. Plato proceeds to describe the physiology of sex ( Timaeus 73b ff., 91a ff.). proceeds describe of sex (Timaeus Soul power, he says, resides in a moist substance whose true home is in the brain, power, he says, resides the seat of the higher soul. The brain is connected with the penis, and along the seat along way, with the heart, by a channel that passes through the center of the spine and a channel passes the center of the spine and connects with the urethra. Under the stimulus of false eros the soul fluid in the the urethra. Under of false eros soul brain is drawn down the spinal passage and ejaculated from the penis in the form passage from the penis the form of sperm, which is able to produce new living creatures precisely because it is soulable new creatures precisely because it soulstuff. It may be inferred, though Plato does not speak directly to this point, that be does speak directly that stuff the practice of philosophy (which requires celibacy except for begetting children) begetting of involves keeping the soul-stuff located in the brain, that is, preventing it from keeping the soul-stuff the that preventing flowing downward through the spinal channel. This inference is implicit in the Platonic doctrine, which holds that the philosopher gets beyond false eros to the philosopher gets eros true celestial eros. Since the false eros draws the seminal fluid down the spinal celestial eros. Since the false eros draws the seminal the spinal channel, the transcendence of false eros must end this downward flowing. the transcendence false eros channel, What will be obvious at once (though it has never been remarked on in any be has never been any text that I have seen) is that this description applies to the Hindu doctrine of the have seen) of the kun¸ alin¯ias well as to Plato's doctrine in the Timaeus. In the Hindu version too, ¸d ı as Plato’s ku1:1(talin as 93 93

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the natural or proper place of the kulydatini (soul-power) is at the very top of the place kun¸ alin¯ ¸d ı of brain; when it is in this position the yogin is in the state of union with the divine when of union (quite as Plato said of the philosopher). In an unpurified person, however, the as Plato said of unpurified person, however, the kun¸ alin¯ descends through the spinal channel and expresses itself, not as divine kulydatini descends ¸d ı spinal channel expresses not as divine union, but as the drive to sexual union: it is expended through the penis in but as the drive to sexual union: it is expended through the penis ejaculation. The practice of yoga causes the descended kulidatini power to be The practice of yoga causes the descended kun¸ alin¯ power ¸d ı be drawn back upward through a channel in the center of the spine. There are seven back center of the seven seats, or cakras, which the kun¸ l ı may occupy, that at the base of the spine, that k ¸ dalin¯ u at the and . the top of the brain, and five in between, while Plato mentioned only two, the kun¸ alin¯ power ¸d ı throat and m a As Plato’s i d a t andiheart.yAs in Plato's version, the kulydatinipower is especially embodied in in semen, u descends semen o semen, andpdescends in semen from the brain to the penis through the spinal c c and y , channel. Various practices are recommended for forcing the semen upward channel. Various practices are recommended for forcing the semen upward t h a t channel resides through the spinal channel until it resides in the brain again;2 there its life-giving again; a t forceh e expressiitselfs can express t physical.3 2 t can r e e itself through giving-spiritual lifenrather than physical. l i f e g i v i rather g t h This correspondence is already so remarkable as to invite interpretation; but already as 3 b s e texts distinguish there is more. The Indian texts distinguish many "subtle" channels in the body. is a more. The “subtle” channels o foremostf is the channel through which the kulydatinipasses up and down the The kun¸ alin¯ passes ¸d ı t ne (su,sumna-nadi); nearly as important are two channels that pass along the spine s h a a ¸ ı channels pass spi (su¸umn¯ -n¯ d¯); nearly as important are e spine but outside it (i¸ a and pingala). These two surrounding channels conform d¯ pi˙ gala). These n channels conform (kb s p i themselves to the icon n the entwined serpents. Between their origin in the upper of themselves upper e brain and their termination at the base of the spine they cross one another five and their termination at the base , spine cross one another times, thath the right passing to the left, and vice versa; their points of intersecthat to the passing and t of intersection are the tfive intermediary cakras. Plato also, in the Timaeus (77c. ff.), knows of Timaeus of a are pass these two veins (which physical anatomists cannot find) that pass along the sides of sides of spinal column and cross one another an unknown number the spinal column and cross one another an unknown number of times (Plato only the crossing at the Plato, as these mentions only the crossing at the throat). In Plato, as in the Indian texts, these veins are secondary carriers of soul-power. Finally, the parallel subsidiary veins are secondary carriers o f the soul-power. Finally, the parallel the was associated extends to the imagery of the serpent. The spinal marrow was associated with the of by Aelian (de Animalium I.51) and others, as kun¸ alin¯ ¸d ı serpent by Aelian (de Natura Animatium 1.51) and others, as in the kwidatini There the kun¸ alin¯ power described as a ¸d ı when awaktradition. There the kulidatini power is described as a serpent that, when awakened, slithers up the spine; according to Aelian, the spinal marrow of a man lleaves of a eaves his body as a serpent when he dies. body as a serpent when he That these ideas which neither the study of cadavers nor mere theorizing these ideas which cadavers would arrive at should occur in both Greece and India demands special investigaoccur demands special investigation. A rudimentary form of this occult physiology is attested in India as early as A as as the Chandogya Upani,cad, which says (VI11.6.6): "A hundred and one are the Ch¯ ndogya Upani¸ad, which says (VIII.6.6): “A hundred and one are the a s arteries of the heart, one of them lleads up to the crown of the head. Going upward one eads of through that, one becomes immortal." (And compare B¸had¯ ranyaka Upani¸ad that, one becomes immortal.”4 r a ¸ s IV.2.3.) The somewhat later Maitri Upani,cad specifies (IV.21) that the name of Upani¸ad specifies s name of 4 ( A The somewhat n d thisochannel isasu¸rumn¯ , and that the goal of yoga is to cause the pralia (spirits ea cause pr¯ na a¸ c channel is sup,anna, and that the goal yoga m p energy)hto a dthrough that lchannel to the crown of the head. (And compare rise a r a the crown of head. (And compare to rise through that channel B r g a Pra´na Upani,cad 111.6.) The much later Brahma Upani,cad asserts that there are s s later Brahma Upani¸ad asserts s PraMa Upani¸ad III.6.) The k a four seats of pralna, then appears to relate two different traditions, first naming seats pr¯ ya, then appears a¸ first naming U p a n i , c a d

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navel, heart, throat and head, then eye, throat, heart, and head.5 navel, heart, throat and head, then eye, throat, heart, and head. The Hansa ¸ Upani¸ad mentionsa full list, a Upanicad eyebrows. 5 T ,sh e H a u s loins, belly, navel, heart, neck, and eyebrows.6 It is notable, however, that none of these passages mentions the spine, and those that passages 6 I t ihowever, that none s refer to a channel or vein rising from the heart seem to mean the heart itself, not a channel seem the heart level of the spine. heart level spine. ´a The Sandilya and Dhyanabindu Upani,cads describe the central channel and S¯ ndilya Dhy¯ nabindu Upani¸ads a s channel the two subsidiary channels, and mention the anus and navel cakras. The Ha¸ha subsidiary channels, and cakras.7 t Yoga Prad¯pik¯ a t Y T h e a ı H of channels, 7oga Pradipika knows of the arrangement of the three channels, and mentions the throat and brain cakras (111.50,1\1,75, 79). Matsyendra, in his Kaulaj˜ ananirand brain cakras (III.50, IV,75, 79).8 n¯ . naya, a t s y e the r a , ¸ 8 M summarizes n d system, giving anus, gentials, navel, heart, throat, spotuaya, h a summarizes the system, giving anus, gentials, navel, heart, throat, spot´ between-the-eyes, and crown of the head as the cakra points.9 The Siva Samhit¯ and i of as cakra points. ˙ a i n h s spells seven cakras (V56-103) 10 spels 9 la h u the a j systemaof S a t channelsi t a S i v ia K T oute l entire system of the three channels and seven cakras (V.56–103). . l n n h h The relative chronology of these texts is not certain, but may be more or less in the of may be or less in the 1 r i order in which II have mentioned them. I f so, then the pattern with which the which have mentioned them. If then the () system emerges into articulation suggests, though it does not require, that the require, system emerges into articulation suggests, though does doctrine either entered India in stages or that it underwent indigenous developeither entered stages underwent development in a series of stages there. Of course, all of these texts contain materials from a series stages of different ages, so no conclusion on these matters is available at present. It is equally ages, so equally possible that there were different versions of the system extant or that different that there were versions system teachers purveyed it with different emphases. purveyed it emphases. The Greek belief in the Timaeus can be traced to a period before Plato; the belief Timaeus trail leads to the Sicilian and South Italian schools o f medicine, which were leads to the Sicilian and South Italian schools of which were with the Pythagorean and Orphic presences the same area. These connected with the Pythagorean and Orphic presences in the same area. These schools semen schools taught that semen comes from the brain and is of one substance with the of one substance with the spinal marrow, by way of which it travels to the genital organ through the spinal of spinal channel, called “the holy tube.”11 channel, called "the holy tube." This was explicitly taught by Alcmaeon of Croton (DK s was center of broth11 T h i 14A13). Croton, of course, was the center of the Pythagorean brothw a s erhood, and though Alcmeon seems not to have been a member, he shared many have many e x p and ithough t l y seems l c i viewsawithuthe Pythagoreans. In fact, the doctrine of the sperm descending with the g Pythagoreans.12 t h t through theyspinal channel seems to have a special connection with the 12 I n the a c t ,channel seems to have a special connection with the f spinal b Pythagorean tradition; it is found in Alcmaeon, in Plato's most Pythagorean work, Plato’s t h l e c A m a the Timaeus, and in Hippo of Samos (DK 38A3 and 10) in the fifth century 13.C.E., Timaeus, r i n e of Samos ..., d tn e o o c also a Pythagorean. probably also a Pythagorean. o f o f association spinal marrow aion, “life” “lifeThe association of the spinal marrow with the word aion, "life" or "lifet h e span,” in a fragment of (at least partly) Orphic poet Pindar, affirms the span," in a fragment of the (at least partly) Orphic poet Pindar, affirms the s p as well as the Pythagorean, associations of e r teaching. Pindar was Orphic, as well as the Pythagorean, associations o f the teaching. Pindar was m and later was influenced by West Greek mystery cults, and Aion, according to later writers, was d Orphic name for Dionysus, the divine element expressed as sexual power. e s for e an Orphic name c Dionysus, the divine element expressed as sexual power.13 n i n himself g influenced Orphism, seems also have taught Heraclitus, himself very influenced by Orphism, seems also to have taught the 13 d retention of semen and a qualified sexual abstinence." Diogenes of Apollonia of semen and a qualified sexual abstinence.14 Diogenes (DK 64B6), living probably on the Black Sea in the fifth century 13.C.E., had the living probably (DK Black Sea the century ..., had the doctrine of the spinal channel with the two surrounding "veins" and o f the of the spinal channel with the two surrounding “veins” and of connection between the spinal channel and the testicles.15 Plato, as we have seen, between testicles. 15 P l a t o , a s w e h a v e s e e n ,

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spoke not only of the three channels but also of the heart and throat cakras, which of channels also of the in fact he mentions earlier than any extant Indian text. Aristotle also had the fact he mentions earlier than any extant Indian text. Aristotle also had the doctrine of the connection between sperm and spinal fluid, and regarded the of the connection between sperm and spinal fluid, and regarded the testicles not as sources of semen, but as receptacles whose purpose is to retard and as sources as receptacles "steady" its flow." “steady” its flow.16 There would seem to be some connection between the Indian and the Greek There would seem to be some connection between the Indian and the Greek doctrines of the identity of spinal fluid, brain fluid, and sperm, the spinal channel of spinal spinal channel connecting the brain and the penis, the surrounding channels that cross one the brain and the penis, the surrounding channels that cross one another, the cakras where they cross, the value judgment that prefers the highest the cakras they the value cakra as the location of the sperm-marrow-soul, the association of the marrow sperm-marrow-soul, the association the marrow cakra as the location a serpent, and so on. with a serpent, and so on. One account would focus on the diffusion of elements of Pre-Socratic lore One account would focus on the diffusion of elements of Pre-Socratic lore Greece India the period, roughly ..., into Greece from India during the period, roughly the late sixth century B.C.E., when both Northwest India and Eastern Greece were within the Persian Empire. the Persian expressed doctrines learned directly an Upani¸adic s Heraclitus expressed doctrines learned directly or indirectly from an Upani,cadic source a n d in fact doctrines related to those under consideration here.17 If the source—and in fact doctrines related to those under consideration here. 17 I f physiology was a part of this wave of Indian influence, then it must have Tantric t h e a have of Indian influence, entered Greece after about 540 B.C.E. The type of situation that would provide a Greece 540 ... The of concrete means of transmission is shown by the story of the physician Democedes means Democedes of of Croton. Democedes, according to tradition a contemporary of Pythagoras, Croton. Democedes, according to tradition a contemporary spent years at the Persian court, where he met and exchanged opinions with years at the Persian court, where he met and exchanged opinions doctors from various parts of the empire, including India, and then returned to from various parts empire, including and Greece, no doubt full of foreign lore, perhaps including the physiology of the no doubt full of lore, perhaps including the physiology spinal channel. In fact Democedes returned specifically to Croton, where such channel. In fact Democedes returned specifically where ideas would have fed directly into the Pythagorean tradition whence, probably, the Pythagorean whence, probably, ideas would have fed directly Plato got them. One could hardly ask for a nicer model of a diffusion mechanism. One ask of a The main problem with this reconstruction is that Homer already has the Homer already has idea that the cerebro-spinal fluid (which he calls engkephalos)was the container of engkephalos) was idea container of Whether sperm life power. Whether he equated it with sperm is unknown, but is implied both by by fundamental idea the engkephalos and because as the fundamental idea that the engkephalos was life power, and because at least as early as Democritus (KD 68B32) the engkephalos was believed to issue forth in as Democritus 68B32) the engkephalos was believed issue sexual intercourse. The connection of the spinal fluid with sperm seemspresent in sexual of the spinal with sperm seems present in Hesiod too, well before any known opportunity for Indian influence on Greek too, well before any influence Greek thought. The importation of this doctrine into the Greek tradition in the sixth The Greek century 13.C.E., is unlikely, though it may have been highlighted and reinforced by ..., may by material imported at that time. (The detail of the crossing secondary veins, for imported at that time. (The secondary example, may have been passed later than the doctrine of the central channel.) the of example, may have been passed The doctrine of the engkep halosis not only present in the Homeric texts but engkephalos of present Homeric texts but seems well established there, where it is taken for granted, or treated as a given; it seems for or treated as a may, then, go back even to the Homeric tradition, which is known to contain then, go back even to the which elements at least as early as the fifteenth century B.C.E. In fact, there is some ... fact, there some elements at least as early as the fifteenth evidence that the serpent-marrow-seed-soul identity was already in place in the was already evidence that the serpent-marrow-seed-soul Minoan-Mycenean period." Scholars desire some source that is earlier than period.18 Scholars desire some source that earlier than

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Democedes' stay Persia, a source Democedes’ stay in Persia, a source that could have influenced both Homer and have Homer the early Upanipds. early Upani¸ads. s A second hypothesis is that the doctrine may have survived into the Greek may have the Greek and Indian traditions from proto-Indo-European times. It is indeed widespread Indian traditions times. indeed widespread among Indo-European traditions. "The head," R. B. Onians says, "was believed Indo-European “The head,” R. B. Onians says, “was by the early Romans to contain, to be the source of, the seed," and Pliny the early Romans to contain, to be the source of, the seed,”19 (Naturalis d (Naturalis spinal marrow as “descending from 19 a n Historia XI.37.178) describes the spinal marrow as "descending from P l i n y describes the brain." There are hints of the doctrine in Germanic and Slavic lore,20 and brain.” There are hints doctrine Germanic and Slavic lo re , 2 0 a n of in Shakespeare’s line, “Spending remnants of it in Shakespeare's line, "Spending his manly marrow in her arms" d her arms” (All’s Well That Ends Well, 11.3.298) and in Edmund Spenser's assertion that II.3.298) and Edmund Spenser’s assertion that (All's Well That Ends sexuality "rotts the marrow and consumes the brain” ( The Faerie Queene, 1.4.26). “rotts brain" (The Faerie Queene, I.4.26). at the same there are signs idea system But at the same time, there are signs of this idea system in ancient Semitic passages of Psalms, texts. In various passages of the Old Testament (in Job, Psalms, Ezekial, and Isiah) equated and of Rabbinic literature, spirit is equated with bone marrow, with brain liquid, with sperm, implying a system among areas.21 and with sperm, implying a system of conduits to carry it among those areas. Elsewhere in the Near Eastern area, there are also suggestions of the doctrine. It area, there suggestions of Els 21ewhere has been proposed, for example, that the priests of Attis and Cybele, who castrated example, has been of Attis castrated themselves, may have been attempting to interrupt the channel from spine to spine themselves, may have been attempting to interrupt the channel genitals and thus prevent the sperm from leaving the body and the body, conseand thus prevent sperm consequently, from aging.22 Similarly, Epiphanius (Panarion 1, 2, 9, 26), writing of the aging. says: “They power Gnostic tradition, says: "They believe the power in both the menstrual fluid and 22 23 they eat." the semen tor be the soul, which, gathering S i semenato be the soul, which, gathering up, they eat.” mil ly, salvation 23 p There is an Egyptian antecedent for the idea of attaining salvation or E i p is an Egyptian antecedent for the idea h a enlightenment through passing up the spine in the myth in which Osiris ascends passing ascends n i u s to heaven over the spinal column of his mother, the goddess Nut, the vertebrae heaven over the spinal column mother, the goddess ( P a n being used as the rungs of a ladder. Onians proposes that the djed column, being used as the rungs of a ladder.24 a r i o “as representing a spine of life," 24 O n i then s of Osiris and worshiped "as an amulet of life,” indicates the n 25 same idea. o fact s p r idea.p Thes e that the spine and phallus of Osiris were found together at o 1 the t dismemberment again channel Mendes a 25 h in the myth of the dismemberment again implies the channel and the t , h e “The vital fluid,” Onians notes, “is repeatedly shown connection. "The vital fluid," Onians notes, "is repeatedly shown [in Egyptian T t h e 2 a c t as transmitted by laying the hand on the top of the spine or passing iconography] iconography] as of the or passing f d j e 26 d , down the spine.” It has also been argued that there are hints of the doctrine in it h spine." t c o iconography, specifically the l u m Sumerian iconography, specifically in the icon of the entwined serpents and the serpents 9 tI t h a s 26 a n , upright figure surrounded by intertwined serpents, much as in the Tantric , l hs figure surrounded by intertwined serpents, much as in the Tantric a o t “serpent power.”27 iconography n 2 e e6 of the "serpent power." There is a strong argument for the likelib e hoodr ofhg e doctrinei occurring in the Indus Valley culture also. Finally, the of the Indus Valley also.28 27 T this rdoctrine occurring s ) a p , ue s fundamental physiological model e ¸d ı kundalinidoctrine t h e spinal link28 d i rnsa lt l yr , o tn model behind the kun¸ alin¯ doctrine—the spinal linkh a g w n e F i between the brain and the urethra, and the fundamental identity of the brain and age between the m and n t of a r h g ui e i t t a e the spinal marrow, and the semen—seems have been extremely widefluid, theospinal marrow, and the semen seems to have been extremely widef r n g t a though texts speak of spread in the ancient world, though only the Tantric and Platonic texts speak of t two subsidiary channels surrounding h e e o t two subsidiary channels surrounding the spine. n the h l ie distribution does i seem k e l f r d This distribution does not seem to me to invite the proto-Indo-European t a Valley occurhypothesis; in fact, it is very problematic if the Egyptian and Indus Valley occurp h r h e a l h u i l n t s

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rences of the physiology are accepted. In this case, it is possible only on the of the physiology are accepted. In this case, it is possible only on the hypothesis of early Indo-European migrations proposed by Renfrew, with the of Indo-European migrations proposed by Renfrew, corollary of the Indus Valley being regarded as an Indo-European culture.29 Indus Valley being regarded as an culture. Since the theme causing semen 29 Since the theme of causing the semen to rise to the brain is found in both ancient India and ancient China—cultures between which important diffusion India and ancient China—cultures between transactions occurred early in the Common Era—suggests the possibility of diffuof diffusion in this case too. But the chronolgy would hardly allow diffusion from India case But allow from into China. The theme of upwardization is mentioned in two Han Dynasty texts China. The theme Dynasty texts (though the full system of channels and movements is not spelled out until the (though system of channels movements the Sung Dynasty), somewhat earlier than current estimates of the diffusion of Budsomewhat of Buddhism from India into China. Indeed, many scholars have proposed the opposite Indeed, view: that the sexual elements of Tantra came into India from China, where they that they had been contextualized with Taoism.30 had been contextualized with Taoism." But the introduction of the Greek material into the duscussion changes this changes situation. The Greek and Indian forms of the physiology both involve the central The of central channel up the spine and the two subsidiary channels that run beside the spine up the spine and the subsidiary channels beside and cross over one another periodically, creating the caduceus configuration that is another caduceus fundamental to Tantric iconography. But the Chinese version lacks this configuraconfiguration. In that model, the so-called Tu channel runs from the perineum up the spine, perineum s a a¸ı d¯ n like su¸umn¯ -n¯ d¯—but, instead of the flanking and criss-crossing i¸ a and pi˙gata, supmna-nadi b u t , of the criss-crossing k/a and pin gala, runs another chanel (Jen) runs down the front of the body, joining with the Tu channel of the channel top and bottom. In difference, does seem at top and bottom. In light of this difference, it does not seem possible that the doctrine went from China into India; if Indians had received it in the Chinese went from China India; had received configuration, it is unlikely in the extreme that they would have adapted it into the they same references same configuration that Plato had—and with the same references to the serpent, also are which also are lacking in the Chinese version. The third possibility—diffusion of possibility diffusion of doctrine India and whence passed the doctrine from Greece into India and China (or into India whence it passed China where they adapted the is chronologically and into China where they adapted the form) is chronologically possible and could have been case; nevertheless seems conceivably turn out to have been the case; it nevertheless seems unlikely to be a as popular choice, as the Indian version, at present the most complete and whole of of seems the three, seems to many to express its parent culture most appropriately, while the seems Greek version still seems what Erwin Rohde, a century ago, called “a drop of alien "a of alien blood."' blood.”31 The remaining possibilty is that some fourth ancient culture diffused the remaining that some doctrine into Greece, India, and China (where it was adapted into another form) Greece, India, and another into Greece and India, whence it may have passed into China and been or into Greece and India, whence it may have passed into China and been There seems no And is adapted. There seems no other possibility. And there is in fact an ancient culture offers exactly the elements needed: one that has the caduceus icon, that that offers exactly the elements needed: one that has the caduceus icon, that associates it with the serpent motif, and that is known have diffused other associates it with the serpent motif, and that is known to have diffused other elements into Greece, India, and China. elements into Greece, India, and China. argued power Heinrich Zimmer argued that the iconography of the serpent power comof was diffused This plex was diffused from Mesopotamia into India. This diffusion, if it happened, it happened, have number of would have occurred in a number of waves, beginning with Sumerian input into Sumerian

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the Indus Valley culture and ending with the fall of Persepolis, when many Near Indus Valley and ending of Persepolis, many Near Eastern craftsmen carrying Mesopotamian traditions came into India. Indeed, it craftsmen came Indeed, cannot be denied that certain Sumerian and Indus Valley icons are the same icons be same in different instantiations. A few examples will make the point. different instantiations. examples make The heraldic flanking composition is perhaps the most characteristic of all perhaps of all Sumerian visual trademarks. Where it occurs in Old Kingdom Egypt it is comvisual trademarks. Where occurs monly attributed to Sumerian influence. Severalcases in the Indus Valley imagery Several cases Valley imagery simply cannot be explained at present except through Sumer-Indus influence, cannot be explained at present except through Sumer-Indus influence, whichever direction it may be presumed to have gone in, and however mediated may be have however by other cultures it might have been. An Indus seal shows, for example, an eagle other have been. An seal shows, eagle heraldically flanked by serpents; both the eagle and serpent motif and the flanked by serpents;32 heraldicoflanking format uniting them are distinctively Sumerian elements. An 32 b flanking t h uniting them are distinctively Sumerian elements. t h e Indus seal portraying a ritual of a tree goddess shows clearly in the lower left tree goddess33 e a seal portraying a g l e handscorner w smotif, commonr in Sumerian cylinder seals,34 of a mountain or cylinder seals, 33 corner the h c lcommon l y e a a n o d hillock flankedp two o n with their front feet on it and a tree or pole of some a 34 onf r a by m goats nt e a i n u t or of some i te goats h s e kind o r w rising from its top (Figures and 9). One face triangular seal o rising from e top (Figures 8 and 9). One face of a triangular seal form l m o t ir Mohenjo-Daro35 shows this motif again, identical in form to many Sumerian Mohenjo-Daro l e f t f icons. examples of this icons. Numerous survived. 35 Numerous other Indus examples of this iconograph have survived.36 Several a Indus sealvsn r a most characteristic iconographs, 36 o e s37 show another s h Sseals37 showlanother of the most characteristic of Sumerian iconographs, w e d called the a often called the dompteur or Gilgamesh: a male hero standing between two lions t h i s t h symmetrically and whom he holding a gesture of mastery who symmetrically flank him and whom he is holding in a gesture of mastery m o t e (Figures 10 and 11). A burial urn from cemetery H at Harappa38 shows two 10 and 11). cemetery at Harappa i f dompteurs, o w mastering w o two bulls. They have long hair and seem to be naked, They have long hair and seem be naked, dompteurs, each 38 s h each s a their Sumerian t like g a counterparts (some consider cemetery H to be post-Harappan, consider cemetery H be i n as the final Harappan stratum). In addition, the bull-lion combat, a comothers as , the a i d ace of Sumerian iconography, occurs in the Indus Valley,40 (Figures 12 monplace iconography,39 monpl e n 13)cas does the goddess in the tree41 (Figures 14 and 15), a centrally import and 13) as does the goddess tree 39 o ic u r s i n c h F e gboth Egypt and Sumer. a iin both e s and Sumer. tant icon l u r Egypt 1 41 icon ( 4 t i n n d dicons t h e eagle and serpents, the mountain flanked by goats, the These icons—the eagle and serpents, the flanked by a I u s heroa 5 l l ) e lions, ,the lion-bull combat, the goddess and the tree—are among goddess n mastering ,y tree a re among 1 V the central icons of Sumerian religion. Their presence in the Indus Valley city of of f central icons a 4 Mohenjo-Daro in the strata that indicate Sumerian trade was active suggests that was suggests o )e n t r a l l y c ( significant cultural exchanges were going on in the Bronze Age between Mesoexchanges were going the Bronze Age between Mesor i o ( Fm i p u rr e potamia and thegIndus Valley. On presently accepted chronologies, which tend to m s the Sumerian flowering of civilization somewhat earlier than that in the Indus put of civilization earlier Indus t 1 seem conceptual elements of SumeValley, it would 2 seem that both iconographical and conceptual elements of Sumeo religion had been assimilated in Bronze Age India. That rian religion had been assimilated in Bronze Age India. That Elamite, or some some m other, intermediaries might have been involved does not alter the significance of intermediaries have been does alter significance of a chronology. this chronology. n It must be granted, however, that this conclusion seems less certain today must be granted, however, that conclusion seems less today y it did a generation or so ago when there was a widespread scholarly consensus than a ago widespread consensus S about Sumerian influence on the Indus Valley culture. Henri Frankfort, writing Sumerian influence the Indus Valley about fifty years ago, went so far as to suppose that “ an important element in the ago, so as suppose that" u m e r i a n

Figure 8 Indus Valley seal impression Mohenjo-Daro, showing motif of symmetrically flanking goats Indus seal motif of symmetrically flanking with feet on central tree and mountain. (Courtesy of the Archaeological Survey of India) of the Archaeological Survey of India)

Figure 9 Summerian cylinder seal showing symmetrically flanking goats with hooves on tree and/or Summerian seal tree flanking mountain. Uruk mountain. Uruk Period. (Line drawing courtesy of Joyce Burstein) Joyce

Figure 10 Indus Valley seal impression showing dompteur motif. Indus Mohenjo-Daro. (Courtesy of the Archaeological Survey of the Archaeological Survey of India)

Image rights unavailable. Image rights unavailable.

Figure 11 Achaemenian seal showing Sumerian dompteur motif with Achaemenian seal motif with central male figure flanked by griffenlike composite figure flanked composite monsters. (Courtesy of The Morgan Library) of The

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- 11 Figure 12 Indus Valley painted potsherd showing lion attacking Indus attacking 11 bull. Mohenjo-Daro. (Courtesy of Arthur Probsthain of Arthur Probsthain Publisher) 11 11 11 11 1• 11 1w w
Figure 13 Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing lion attacking bull from behind. Uruk period, Sumerian seal attacking from ca. 3000 B.C.E. (Line drawing courtesy of Joyce Burstein) ... courtesy of Joyce

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Figure 14 Indus Valley seal impression showing a goddess in a tree with a Indus a a a bull god and seven vegetation spirits. Mohenjo-Daro. (Courtesy seven of the Archaeological Survey of India) India)

Figure 15 Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing a goddess in a tree with a horned god. Third Sumerian seal a a a horned millennium B.C.E. (Line drawing courtesy of Joyce Burstein) ... courtesy of Joyce

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population of the two regions belonged originally to a common stock.”42 A later belonged stock." scholar more moderately posited "idea diffusion" from both Mesopotamia and 42 A more moderately posited “idea diffusion” from l a t e r Egypt as the proximate causes of the Indus culture. Another used the more as the proximate causes Indus culture.43 common term "stimulus diffusion.”44 Yet another doubted that the Indus culture diffusion." d common o h e r 43 A ntermt “stimulus u s e 44 Y e t e anyn o t multimate origin,” and noted that, at least in the technolr "springs “springs from a separateh e o origin," e least technolt h r d o writing," it likely be ogy of writing,” it is e d to be dependent, in the last resort, on the inventions of u b t of late fourth-millennium date in Mesopotamia.”45 In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, Mesopotamia." t h a t then,Ianformidable consensus of western , influences from Sume45 a h t h e consensus 4 0 s scholars held that influences from Sume1 9 t e rian culture stimulated, the Indus Valley culture to arise out of the village state of of of 1 I 9 n 5 0 s u the s d the Neolithic Age into theu Age t urban planning stage uncovered at Mohenjo-Daro and a n d c u l Harappa.46 6 Harappa. 1 9 0 s , r e recently, this consensus has been broken up into a series new 46 More recently, this consensus has been broken up into a series of new debates, as the increasing influence of scholars who are Indian nationals has as the increasing influence scholars who are Indian nationals has contributed to a tendency to minimize external inputs into the Indian tradition.47 a tradition. Do recalibrated Carbon 14 dates put the Indus culture earlier than the Sumerian dates earlier 47 recalibrated finds? What was the role of Elam, and what were the connections between the finds? was the role and what were between Elamite and Dravidian languages? Were the Indo-Europeans on the scene in India languages? scene Indo-Europeans yet? This revisionist impetus attacks the clich´d and long-held assumption of the e cliched of the “nuclear” Near East, especially in its Sumero-centric form. But little has actually has actually nuclear" Near East, especially in the evidence. And the revisionists have not yet accounted for the changed in the evidence. And the revisionists have not yet accounted for the parallels. iconographic parallels. Perhaps the key icon involved is the entwined serpents that are central to the iconography subsidiary Tantric iconography of the spinal column with its subsidiary veins. This is first in Sumerian iconography, for example, the famous Gudea Vase encountered in Sumerian iconography, for example, in the famous Gudea Vase (Figure 16), where it seems to be the symbol of Gudea’s personal deity, Ningizzida. it seems be the symbol of Gudea's personal encountered as presently It is not encountered in the Indus Valley iconography as presently known and, in fact, is not encountered in India at all until after the fall of Persepolis. In any case, after of Persepolis. any case, whether a vessel whether this icon came with a certain doctrinal content or as an emptied vessel to or as an be refilled is not known. known.48 48 It is of course possible that a complex diffusion situation obtained, parts of possible a of the doctrine descending into both Greece and India from some earlier source, doctrine descending into both Greece and India some earlier source, other parts being passed from one of these cultures to another at a later time. But passed another later what is clear, and what should enter the general discussion of the topic, is that the and enter general of the Tantric physiology is not exclusively an Asian element, and that a diffusion situaa situation probably involving some of the factors just reviewed was involved in its probably involving some of factors just reviewed was involved its presence in India as well as in Greece. But there may be a still more ancient world as as may be a involved. In an essay called "An Archeology of Yoga," I investigated six mysterious an essay called “An Archeology Yoga,” I investigated ´ seal images whether Indus Valley seal images often, whether rightly or wrongly, called “Siva.” I argued "iva." all the figures these seals, without exception, are that all the figures on these seals, without exception, are in a posture known in Ha¸ha yoga as m¯ l¯ bandh¯ sana, or the closely related utkat¯ sana t ua a a bhadda Hatha yoga as mfilabandhasana, or the closely related mkatasana or bhadda kon¯ sana, three variants of the same yogic function (Figures 17, 18, 19).). The a same yogic (Figures konasana, three of 1 9 49 49 T h e

Figure 16 Babylonian seal showing entwined serpent pair homologized to human body. ca. 2000 Figure 16 Babylonian seal showing entwined serpent pair homologized to human body. ca. 2000 ... (Courtesy of Princeton University Press) B.C.E. (Courtesy of Princeton University Press)

Figure 17 Indus Valley seal impression. (Courtesy of the Indus Valley seal impression. Archaeological Survey of India) Survey

Figure 18 Malibandhasana. (Digital art courtesy of Joyce Burstein) M¯ l¯ bandh¯ sana. (Digital ua a Joyce

Figure 19 Yogasana Vignana demonstrated by Shirendra Brahmachari. Yog¯ sana a (Courtesy of Probashi Publishing Company)

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Figure 20 Australian aboriginal ritual view. (Couretsy of International University Press) Australian Press)

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system system of yogic ideas and methods that these asanas (yogic postures) are involved ideas and asanas ¯ postures) with consistently throughout their long later history involves the occult physioltheir later history involves physiology discussed here. Specifically, the function of these asanas is, by pressing the discussed here. Specifically, the function asanas ¯ heels against the perineum, to drive the sperm-marrow-soul fluid up the spinal heels against the perineum, sperm-marrow-soul spinal channel. There is then some cogency to the view that where this asana is found channel. There then some cogency view asana ¯ that physiology may well have been present also. It does not in fact occur in any of also. does occur any of the places that have from time to time been suggested as providing analogues of places that have been suggested as analogues of the asanas—in Egyptian sculptures of scribes, for example, or the Gundestrup asanas—in Egyptian sculptures ¯ for example, or the Gundestrup cauldron, or pre-Columbian seated figures. Some Sumerian cylinder seal imcauldron,50 pressions of the so-called Displayed Female are close, but the crucial element of so-called Displayed element of pressi 5 ons the o r heels is never precisely found in them. This posture can, however, be joined however, be () joined heels is never precisely observed in ethnographic photographs o f Australian aboriginal rituals (Figure aboriginal rituals (Figure p r e - in ethnographic photographs of 20).51lOf course, there may be no connection, but there are so few known cases in 2 0o u ). C all the iworld's record of words and images that perhaps it is permissible to reflect and images reflect 5 1the world’s record m b upon the possibility of a connection. The obvious candidate is that this yogic a connection. The candidate that yogic O n the possibility a position, perhaps along with certain other proto-yogic elements, may have surperhaps along elements, may have surf s vivede the from the proto-Australoid stratum of Indian prehistory. c a t I have said that the physiology of the spinal channel seems, in Indian have said that the physiology of spinal channel seems, in Indian o e d cultural history at least, syntactically related to the heels-joined squatting posture. u r fi Of course, syntax varies and whether the connection would hold for earlier culsyntax varies and whether connection earlier s g u a guess. Still, tures is a guess. Still, it is plausible that the physiology of the spinal channel may is channel may of eso be also be extremely ancient and have been diffused widely at an early level of human r ,e al level of human t culture—perhaps even by that hypothetical wave of migration that brought the even by hypothetical wave s . h ancestors of the proto-Australoid peoples out of Africa. The ethnographer Lorna peoples ethnographer S e Marshall, in her article "Kung Bushmen Religious Beliefs,”52 writes of an occult her “Kung Beliefs," o r physiologicalepower calledfntum that is aroused by trance dancing, which brings ntum a aroused 52 w r i t power o s n m the ntum to u boil. t"The men, " Marshall writes, "say it boils up their spinal e ntum a boil. “The men, “ Marshall writes, “say boils up their spinal o c c a l e columns into their heads, and is so strong when it does this that it overcomes them does overcomes them m S and they lose their senses." Indeed, when we reflect briefly on the antiquity of the of a they lose their senses.” Indeed, when we reflect u cults, known as early as seems marrow cults, known as early as Homo Erectus, this Greek-Indian parallel seems y m direct our gaze into the darkest depths of human prehistory. the darkest depths to direct our gaze b e e r NOTES n i o 1. This research is part of a larger project on which I am working, The Shape of Ancient a This a am The Shape ofAncient c Thought: A Comparative Study of Greek and Indian Philosophies. n Thought: of Greek and Indian o 2. See Thomas McEvilley, "An Archeology of Yoga,” RES 1, 1981, for discussion of See Thomas McEvilley, “An Archeology Yoga," RES discussion of c n practices. these practices. y Modern Yoga: Immortality and n 3. Modern descriptions of the system include Mircea Eliade, Yoga: Immortality and the system include Mircea l Freedom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, The Bollingen Series, 1971), 134, 236– 49, e Freedom 236-49, i and Swami Sivananda, Kun(lahni Yoga (Sivanandnagar, India: Divine Life Society, 1971). Kun¸ alin¯ Yoga ¸d ı c n The Principal trans. S. Radhakrishnan (London: Allen Unwin, t 4. The Principal Upanishads, trans. S. Radhakrishnan (London: Allen and Unwin, d 1953). i1953). e o r n s , e b a

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5. K . Narayanasvami Aiyar, Thirty Minor Upanishads (Madras: Vedanta Press, 1914), K. Narayanasvami Press, Minor Upanishads 107- 109. 107–109. 6. Ibi d., 213. Ibid., 213. 7. Ibi d., 176- 77, 205- 206. Ibid., 176–77, 205–206. 8. T he Ha¸ha Yoga Prackpikti, trans. Pancham Singh (New Delhi: Munshiram ManThe Hatha Yoga Prad¯pik¯ , t ı a oharlal, 1980). 1980). 9. David Gordon White, The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India David The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 134 –35. Press, (Chicago: 134- 35. 10. T he Siva Samhit¯ , trans. Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra Vasu (New Delhi: Munshiram The ´ Sarghita, ¸ a Srisa 10. Manoharlal, 1979). 1979). 11. See: F. M . Cornford, Plato's Cosmology: The Timaeus of Plato (New York: Bobbs See: F. M. Cornford, Plato’s Cosmology: Timaeus of Plato 11. Merrill, T he Library of Liberal Arts, nod.), 295; R. B. Onians, The Origins of European The Library Arts, n.d.), 295; R. B. Onians, Origins of European Merrill, Thought about the Body the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge, Eng.: Body, the Mind, the the and Fate Thought Cambridge University Press, 1989), 208. University Press, 1989), 208. 12. Alister Cameron, The Pythagorean Background of the Theory of Recollection (MenAlister Pythagorean Background of the Theory of Recollection 12. asha, Wisc.: George Banta Publishing Co., 1938), 37- 42. Wisc.: George Banta Publishing Co., 1938), 37– 42. asha, 13. W . K. C. Guthrie, Orpheus and Greek Religion (New York: W. W. Norton, 1966), 13. W. K. C. Guthrie, Orpheus and Greek Religion (New York: W. W. Nor ton, 1966), 228. 228. 14. These points are argued, for example, by M. L. West, Early Greek Philosophy and the 14. These points are argued, for example, by M. L. West, Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient (Oxford, Eng.: The Clarendon Press, 1971), 151- 61. Orient (Oxford, Eng.: The Clarendon Press, 1971), 151–61. 15. IIt is interesting that in the Odyssey (5.160) Homer refers to “the sweet aion flowing 15. t is interesting that in the Odyssey (5.160) Homer refers to "the sweet aion flowing down.” down." 16. De partis animal. 656a; de gen. animal A 7i7a20 ff.; Problemata 879b and 897b23 de Problemata 879b and 897b23 16. De animal A ff.; and part. animal. 651b20 ff and 652a25 ff. and part. animal. 651b20 f f and 652a25 ff. ff.; 17. O r from an earlier source that also fed into the Upaniiads. See West, Early Greek s 17. Or from an earlier source that also fed into the Upani´ads. See West, Early Greek Philosophy, 186 and elsewhere. 186 and elsewhere. Philosophy 18. M ar ti n R Nilsson opines that in Minoan-Mycenaean religion “the snake represents 18. Martin P. Nilsson opines that in Minoan-Mycenaean religion "the snake represents the soul of the deceased;" see A History of Greek Religion (New York: Norton, 1964), 13; and soul of the deceased;” see A History of Greek Religion (New York: Norton, 1964), 13; and the The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion (Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, The and Its Survival in Greek Religion 1927), 273 ff. See also Jane Helen Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (New 1927), 273 ff. See also Jane Helen Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (New York: Meridian Books, 1957), 235- 37, 325- 31. 235–37, 325–31. 19. Onians, Origins, 124- 25. Onians, Origins, 124 –25. 19. 20. Ibi d., 154- 55. Ibid., 154 –55. 21. Som e of these passages are assembled by Onians, ibid., 287- 88, 492–93. 21. Some of these passages are assembled by Onians, ibid., 287–88, 492- 93. 22. T hi s follows from the belief that the testicles were not the sources of sperm, but 22. This follows from the belief that the testicles were not the sources of sperm, but carriers or way stations for it. Onians argues the point, ibid., 109–10, 4n. carriers or way stations for it. Onians argues the point, ibid., 109- 10, 4n. 23. C f. ibid., 110, n. Cf. ibid., 24. See Theodor Gaster, Thespis: Ritual, Myth and Drama in the Ancient Near East See Gaster, Thespis: and Drama the Ancient Near East (New York: Harper & o w , Harper Torchbooks, 1966), 396. York: Harper R Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1966), 396. (New 25. Oni ans, Origins, 208, n.3. 25. Onians, Origins, 208, n.3. 26. Ibi d. Ibid. 27. See Heinr ich Zimmer, T he Ar t of Indian Asia (Princeton: Princeton University 27. See Heinrich Zimmer, The Art of Indian Asia (Princeton: Princeton University Press, The Bollingen Series, 1955), 1:66 and fig. 6. Press, The Bollingen Series, 1955), 1:66 and fig. 6.

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28. See McEvilley, "An Archeology of Yoga.” See “An Yoga." 29. Colin Renfrew, Archeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins Colin Renfrew, Archeology and Puzzle of Indo-European Origins (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Renfrew seems to lean toward an IndoRenfrew seems to lean toward an Indo(New European Indus Valley. See also J. P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Indus Valley. See also J. P. Search of the Indo-Europeans: Archaeology and Myth (London: Tham,es and Hudson, 1989). and Archaeology and Myth 30. Joseph Needham et al., Science and Civilization in China (Cambridge, Eng.: CamJoseph Science and Civilization bridge University Press, 1954-1988), 2:425 and elsewhere; and Nagendranath BhatUniversity Press, 1954 –1988), 2:425 and elsewhere; and Nagendranath Bhattacharyya, History of Tantric Religion: A Historical Ritualistic and Philosophical Study (Delhi: of Tantric A Historical Ritualistic and Philosophical Study (Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1982). 31. Erwin Rohde, Psyche, the Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality Among the Greeks, Erwin Psyche, the of Souls and Belief in Immortality Among the Greeks, trans. W. B. Hillis (New York: Harper & o w , Harper Torchbook, 1966), 2:260. W. B. Hillis (New R Row, 32. K. N. Sastri, New Light On the Indus Civilization (Delhi: Atma Ram and Sons, K. N. Sastri, New the Ram and 1965), 1965), vol. 1, 122. 33. Ernest J. H. Mackay, Further Excavations at Mohenjo Daro (New Delhi: Indological Ernest H. Further Excavations at Mohenjo Daro (New Delhi: Book Corporation, 1938), vol. 2, 13, pl. 90. 34. E. G., Henri Frankfort, Cylinder Seals (London: Gregg Press, 1965), pl. 4j, 11g. E. G., Henri Frankfort, Cylinder Seals Gregg 35. Sastri, New Light, 118. Sastri, New 36. See Ibid,. pl. 3.8, ph 5, 4.c, 5.c. etc. See Ibid,. pl. 3.8, pl 5, 4.c, 5.c. etc. 37. See Mackay, Further Excavations, pl. DOOCIV, 75, 86. See Mackay, Further pl. LXXXIV, 75, 38. Sastri, New Light, 12 and fig.13. Sastri, New 12 and 39. See B. M. Goff, The Symbols of Prehistoric Mesopotamia (New Haven: Yale UniverSee M. Symbols of Prehistoric Mesopotamia (New Yale sity Press, 1963), fig. 260. Press, 1963), fig. 40. See a painted potsherd published by Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, vol. 3, pl. See a 92, 21. 21. 41. Mackay, Further Excavations, vol. 2, pl. 99, 677A. Mackay, Further 42. Frankfort, Cylinder Seals, 307. Frankfort, Cylinder Seals, 43. Mortimer Wheeler, Civilization of the Indus and Beyond (London: Thames and Mortimer Wheeler, Civilization of the Indus and Beyond Thames Hudson, 1966), 61-62. 1966), 61–62. Hudson, 44. Glyn Daniel, The First Civilizations (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968), 114— Glyn 114– Civilizations (New 16. 45. Stuart Piggot, Prehistoric India (Baltimore: Penguin, 1950), 141. Stuart Prehistoric 46. The excavations conducted at Mehrgarh by Jean-Francois Jarrige and Richard H. The excavations Jarrige and Meadow, “The Antecedents of Civilization in the Indus Valley,” Scientific American (August "The Civilization Valley," Scientific American (August 1980): 122-33) are frequently mentioned as proof of the internal continuity of the Indus 1980): 122–33) are proof of the of the Valley culture. But it seem to me that their findings in fact show a major discontinuity just seems s in show a major discontinuity just at the point when ancient Near Eastern influence might have entered in the third milleninfluence have the nium. A sudden influx of Mesopotamian objects occurred along with significant iconoA sudden objects occurred along significant graphic changes and the appearance of writing. Even if Mehrgarh removes the need for changes and appearance Even need external input leading to urbanization, the extensive iconographic parallels remain and input leading urbanization, the extensive and seem to require some degree of formative influence from Mesopotamia. some degree influence from seem 47. The extreme example of this type of argument is found in Pramesh Choudhury, The extreme example Pramesh Indian Origin Of the Chinese Nation (Calcutta: Dasgupta & o . , 1990). Chinese Dasgupta C Co., Of the 48. Onians notes, without mentioning the kun¸ alin¯ parallels: "The union of the two Onians ¸d ı kulpfaiini parallels: “The of the

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serpents round the wand might for the Greeks represent the life-power . . . y the union of b by the union of male psyche (soul; cerebro-spinal fluid) and female psyche." psyche cerebro-spinal psyche.” 49. McEvilley, "An Archaeology of Yoga.” McEvilley, “An of Yoga." 50. Timothy Taylor, "The Gundestrup Cauldron,”"Scientific American (March 1992): “The Gundestrup Cauldron, Scientific American (March 50. Timothy 84 –89. 84 —89. 51. See, for example, Geza Roheim, The Eternal Ones of the Dream (New York: InternaSee, Eternal Ones of th Dream (New e tional Universities Press, 1969), pl. 7 Press, 7. 52. Lorna Marshall, "Kung Bushmen Religious Beliefs," Africa 32, no. 3 (1962): 138. Lorna “Kung Beliefs,” Africa

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