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Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ships JANUARY 1958 BUREAU OF SHIPS NAVY DEPARTMENT WASHINGTON 25, D. C.
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. - Price $3
ii NAVY DEPARTMENT, Bureau of Ships, 15 April 1958 The Foundry Manual of 1944 has been revised to reflect the advancement in foundry technology and to indicate current foundry practice. The revised manual contains information for persons who operate or are employed in a foundry. J. B. Duval, Jr. Captain, USN Assistant to the Assistant Chief of Bureau for Shipbuilding and Fleet Maintenance
iii PREFACE This Manual is intended primarily for use by foundry personnel aboard repair ships and tenders. The recommended practices are based on procedures proved workable under Navy conditions and are supplemented by information from industrial sources. The Manual is divided into two general sections. The first section, chapters 1 through 13, contains information of a general nature, such as "How Metals Solidify," "Designing a Casting," "Sands for Molds and Cores," "Gates, Risers, and Chills," and "Description and Operation of Melting Furnaces." Subjects covered in these chapters are generally applicable to all of the metals that may be cast aboard ship. The second section, chapters 14 through 21, contains information on specific types of alloys, such as "Copper-Base Alloys," "Aluminum-Base Alloys," "Cast Iron," and "Steel." Specific melting practices, suggestions for sand mixes, molding practices, gating, and risering are covered in these chapters. This manual has been written with the "how-to-do-it" idea as the principal aim. Discussions as to the "why" of certain procedures have been kept to a minimum. This manual contains information that should result in the production of consistently better castings by repair ship personnel. iv This page is blank. v FOUNDRY MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 25 25 25 25 28 28 28 29 29 39 39 40 43 43 44 45 48 49 51 61 61 64 64 66 66 67 68
Chapter I. How Metals Solidify The Start of Solidification Contraction Freezing Temperature of Metals Crystallization Heat Transfer Gases in Metals Summary Chapter II. Designing a Casting Strength Requirements Stress Concentrations Section Thickness Directional Solidification Wall Junctions Good Casting Design Summary Chapter III. Patternmaking Functions of the Pattern Types of Patterns Pattern Materials Making the Pattern Finishing and Color Coding Maintenance, Care and Repair Calculation of Casting Weight Summary Chapter IV. Sands for Molds and Cores Molding Sands Sand Properties All-Purpose Sand Properties of a 63 AFS Fineness Number Sand Molding Sand Mixtures Cores Core Sand Mixes Methods for Testing Sand Summary Chapter V. Making Molds Molding Tools and Accessories Types of Molds Molding Loose-Piece Patterns Molding Mounted Patterns False-Cope Molding and the Use of Broken Parts as Patterns Setting Cores, Chills, and Chaplets Closing Molds
Risers. Gates. Relief. Causes and Cures for Common Casting Defects Names of Defects Design Pattern Equipment . Making Cores Coremaking Tools and Accessories Types of Cores Internal Support Facing. and Venting of Cores Turning Out and Spraying Baking Cleaning Assembly Storage of Cores Making a Pump-Housing Core Summary Chapter VII.Summary 68 vi Page 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 85 86 95 95 95 98 104 105 121 121 123 127 128 131 131 139 139 139 140 141 141 142 147 147 147 148 148 149 149 149 150 Chapter VI. and Chills General Purpose Gating System Risers Chills Summary Chapter VIII. Description and Operation of Melting Furnaces Oil-Fired Crucible Furnace Electric Indirect-Arc Furnace Electric Resistor Furnace Electric Induction Furnace Sintering the Monolithic Lining and Making the First Steel Heat Summary Chapter IX. Pouring Castings Types of Ladles Ladle Linings Pouring the Mold Speed of Pouring Pouring Temperature Summary Chapter X. Cleaning Castings Removing Gates and Risers Grinding and Finishing Welding Summary Chapter XI. Ramming.
Heat Treatment of Castings Iron and Steel Castings Nonferrous Castings Brass and Bronze Treatment Stress-Relief Anne al Reasons for Heat Treatment Aluminum Iron and Steel Monel Summary Chapter XIII. Composition of Castings Specifications Selection of Metal Mixtures Raw Materials and Calculation of Charges Summary Chapter XIV.Flask Equipment and Rigging Gating and Risering Sand Cores Molding Practice Pouring Practice Miscellaneous Summary 151 151 152 154 154 155 155 156 vii Page 179 179 179 180 180 179 181 181 183 183 185 185 185 189 194 213 213 213 214 214 217 220 221 221 222 222 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 Chapter XII. Copper-Base Alloys Selection of Alloy How Copper-Base Alloys Solidify Patterns Molding and Coremaking Melting Pouring Cleaning Causes and Cures for Common Casting Defects in Copper-Base Casting Welding and Brazing Summary Chapter XV. Aluminum-Base Alloys Aluminum Silicon Aluminum Copper Aluminum Zinc Aluminum Magnesium How Aluminum Solidifies Patterns .
Steel Selection of Alloys How Steels Solidify Patterns Molding and Coremaking Melting Pouring Cleaning Welding and Brazing Summary Chapter XIX. Cast Iron Selection of Alloys How Gray Cast Irons Solidify Patterns Molding and Coremaking Melting Pouring Cleaning Causes and Cures for Common Defects in Iron Castings Welding and Brazing Summary Chapter XVIII. Nickel-Base Alloys Monel Modified S-Monel How Nickel-Base Alloys Solidify Patterns Molding and Coremaking Melting Pouring Cleaning Causes and Cures for Common Casting Defects in Nickel-Base Alloy Castings Welding and Brazing Summary 228 230 231 231 231 232 232 235 235 235 235 235 235 236 236 237 237 237 237 viii Page Chapter XVII. Copper 239 239 241 241 242 244 247 247 247 248 248 251 251 252 252 252 254 256 256 257 257 259 .Molding and Coremaking Melting Pouring Cleaning Causes and Cures for Common Defects In Aluminum Castings Welding and Brazing Summary Chapter XVI.
Selection of Metal How Copper Solidifies Patterns Molding and Coremaking Melting Pouring Cleaning Causes and Cures for Common Casting Defects in Copper Summary Chapter XX. Babbitting With Tin-Base Bearing Metal Selection of Alloys Preparation of Bearings Melting Pouring Finishing of Bearing Bearing Failures Summary Chapter XXI. Process Control Sand Molding Melting Inspection and Test Summary 259 259 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 263 263 263 264 264 265 265 266 269 269 269 269 270 270 ix LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Chapter I Figure Title 1 Schematic Illustration of the Solidification of Metal in a Mold 2 Volume Change During the Cooling of a 0. a Solid Solution Alloy.35 Percent Carbon Steel 3 Types of Shrinkage (a) piping (b) gross shrinkage (c) centerline (d) microshrinkage 4 Cooling Curves of a Pure Metal. and an Eutectic Alloy 5 Melting Points of Metals and Alloys 6 Effect of Section Size on Size of Crystals 7 Schematic Representation of Crystal Growth 8 Dendrite Growth 9 High Magnification of Shrink Area in an Aluminum Casting. Showing Dendrites Page 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 .
Heavy Section Hub Cross Section .10 Crystal Growth in a Gun Metal Casting Dumped Before Solidification was 12 Complete Preferred Orientation in Chill Zone Crystals Dendritic Solidification and Dendritic-Equiaxed Solidification Solubility of Hydrogen in Iron and Nickel at One Atmosphere Pressure Mechanism of Pinhole Formation in Steel Chapter II Effect of Section Size on Physical Properties Use of Fillets Blending of Thin and Heavy Sections Wheel Design Recommended Wheel Designs Transitions in Section Size Simple Directional Solidification Taper as an Aid to Directional Solidification Hot Spot Location by the Method of Inscribed Circles Reduction of Cross Section in L and V Junctions Reduction of Cross Section in an X Junction Various Treatments for a T Junction Coring to Reduce Section in a Rib Junction Removal of Heavy Section by Redesign Hub Cross Section .Improved Design Bracket Casting Aluminum Yoke Casting Chapter III One Piece Pattern Split Pattern Core Print Construction Chaplet Location With Pads Mold Broken Due to a Lack of Taper Clean Pattern Draw With Correct Taper Pattern Draft Distortion Allowance in a Simple Yoke Pattern Plaster Patterns and Core Boxes Making a Simple Plaster Pattern Calculating Casting Weight Calculating Casting Weight 12 13 13 13 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 x Chapter IV Figure Title 45 Permeability as Affected by the Grain Size of Sand Page 53 .
Green Compressive Strength.46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Permeability as Affected by Sand Fineness and Moisture The Effect of Sand Grain Shape on Permeability Permeability as Affected by the Amount of Binder The Effect of Bentonite and Fireclay on Permeability Green Strength as Affected by the Fineness of Sand Green Strengths of Sands With Varying Fineness Numbers Green Strength as Affected by the Shape of Sand Grains Green Strength as Affected by Moisture and Varying Bentonite Contents The Effect of Bentonite and Fireclay on Green Strength of Foundry Sand The Effect of Bentonite on Sands With Various Moisture Contents The Effect of Western and Southern Bentonite on Green Strength and Dry Strength Green Strength as Affected by Mulling Time Relationship Between Moisture Content. Bentonite Content. and Dry Strength for an All-Purpose Sand of 63 AFS Fineness Number General Green Compressive Strengths for Sands of Different Grain Class Numbers Strength of Baked Cores as Affected by Baking Time and Baking Temperatures Core Gas Generated by Two Different Core Binders The Effect of Single Binders and Combined Binders on the Baked Strength of Cores 57 Rammer Used for Test Specimen Preparation Permeability Test Equipment Strength Testing Equipment Equipment for Drying Sand Specimens for Moisture Determination Jar and Stirrer for Washing Sand Sand Washing Equipment Assembled The Difference in Sand Grain Distribution for Two Foundry Sands Having the Same Grain-Fineness Number Chapter V Molder's Hand Tools Additional Molder's Tools Double-Headed Chaplets Stem Chaplets Perforated Chaplets Recommended Chaplet Design for Emergency Use Anchoring Cores With Chaplets Pattern Set in Drag With Gating System Parts Hand Packing Riddled Sand Around the Pattern Ramming a Deep Pocket Striking Off the Drag Drag Ready for the Cope 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 59 56 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 56 56 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 69 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 73 73 . Green Compressive Strength. and Permeability for an All-Purpose Sand of 63 AFS Fineness Number Relationship Between Moisture Content. Bentonite Content.
83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Cope With Pattern and Gating Pieces Set Ramming the Partially Filled Cope Venting the Cope Start of the Pattern Draw Pattern Completely Drawn Setting the Core Cope and Drag Ready for Closing Clamped Mold With Weights and Pouring Basin Pouring the Mold Finished Pump Housing Casting Propeller Set in the Drag Propeller in the Drag With Parting Line Cut Drawn Cope Mold Ready for Closing As-Cast Propeller 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 82 xi Chapter VI Figure Title 98 Arbor for a Medium-Size Core 99 View of Inside of Core Showing Hollowing to Make the Core More Collapsible When Metal is Poured Around It 100 Section of Mold Showing Use of Lifting Eye for Supporting Heavy Core 101 Typical Lifting Hooks for Lifting Cores 102 Core Boxes for Pump Housing Core 103 Ramming Up the Core 104 Striking Off the Core 105 Placing the Reinforcing Rods 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 Cutting Vents Drag Core Turned Out Cope Core Turned Out Applying Core Paste Assembling the Two Core Halves Chapter VII Parts of a Simple Gating System Illustration of Gating Ratio Gating Nomenclature Unfavorable Temperature Gradients in Bottom Gated Casting Defect Due to Bottom Gating Bottom Gate Reverse Horn Gate Reverse Horn Gate Bottom Gating Through Side Risers Page 87 87 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 91 92 93 93 106 106 107 108 108 108 108 108 109 .
(Not Recommended. Insulated Riser. and Exothermic Riser 157 Typical Internal Chills 158 Typical External Chills with Wires Welded-On or Cast-In to Hold Chill in Place 159 Use of External Chills in a Mold for an Aluminum Casting Page 115 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 117 . A/V Ratio Effectiveness of Square and Round Risers Proper and Improper Riser Height Poor Riser Size and Shape Proper Riser Size and Shape Riser Location at Heavy Sections Cold Metal Riser (Not Recommended ) Hot Metal Riser Feeding Through a Thin Section Flanged Casting with Open Riser Flanged Casting with Blind Riser Inscribed Circle Method for Riser Contact Effect of Keeping Top Risers Open Effect of Keeping Blind Risers Open Casting Defects Attributable to Shrinkage Voids and Atmospheric Pressure Blind Riser Principle Individual Zone Feeding for Multiple Risers Padding to Avoid the Use of Chills or Risers Padding to Prevent Centerline Shrinkage 109 109 109 109 109 110 110 111 111 111 111 111 111 112 112 112 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 113 113 114 114 114 114 115 115 xii Figure Title 151 Typical Padding of Sections 152 Shrinkage on the Thermal Centerlines of Unpadded Sections 153 Use of a Core to Make a Padded Section 154 Effect of Insulated Risers 155 Reduction in Riser Size Due to Insulation 156 Comparison of Ordinary Riser.) Thirty-Degree Mold Manipulation Complete Mold Reversal Pouring Cups Pouring Basin Solidification Time vs.120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 Bottom Gating Through Riser with Horn Gate Sprue With Well at Base Simple Top Gating Pencil Gate Typical Parting Gate Parting Gate Through the Riser Whirl Gate Simple Step Gate.
X. Too High a Setting. and W Junctions Preferred Method of Applying External Chills by Staggering Chapter VIII Pit-Type Crucible Furnace Crucible for Tilting Crucible Furnace Tilting Crucible Furnace Cross Section of a Stationary Crucible Furnace Undercutting a Refractory Patch Proper Burner Location Proper Fit for Crucible Tongs Electric Indirect-Arc Furnace General Assembly View of Electric Indirect-Arc Furnace Accessory Equipment for Electric Indirect-Arc Furnace Properly Charged Electric Indirect-Arc Furnace Electric Resistor Furnace Electrode-Bracket Assembly for Electric Resistor Furnace Cross Section of Electric Induction Furnace Flow Lines in an Induction Furnace Melt Essential Parts of an Induction Furnace Typical Electric Induction Furnace Induction-Furnace Control Panel Method of Lining Induction Furnace Using a Steel Form Chapter IX Lip-Pouring Ladle Teapot Ladle Lip-Pouring Crucibles Teapot Crucibles Lining a Teapot Pouring Ladle Proper Pouring Technique Poor Pouring Technique Use of Pouring Basin and Plug Skim Core in Down Gate Skim Core in Pouring Basin Pyrometer Field When at Correct Temperature.T. and Too Low a Setting Effect of Pouring Temperature on Grain Size Chapter XI Sticker Gross Shrink Surface Shrink 117 118 118 118 119 119 119 133 133 133 133 133 134 134 134 134 135 135 135 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 143 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 144 144 144 145 173 173 173 .V.160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 Use of External Chills on a Bronze Casting As-Cast Aluminum Casting Showing Location of External Chills Gear Blank Mold Showing Location of External Chills Principle of Tapering Edges of External Chill Effect of Chill Mass and Area of Contact Typical Application of External Chills to Unfed L.
Improved Risering Practice Risers for a Cupro-Nickel Valve Body Tapered Chills on a Flat G Metal Casting Tapered Chills on a G Metal Bushing Examples of Gassy and Gas-Free Metal Chapter XV Enlargement-Type Sprue Base Page 173 174 174 174 174 174 174 175 175 175 175 176 176 176 176 176 177 177 177 178 178 210 211 223 223 223 223 223 223 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 225 225 233 .Poor Risering Practice Globe Valve .xiii Figure 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 Title Surface Shrink Internal Shrink Gating and Risering that Corrected Internal Shrink in Figure 202 Gross Shrink Dross Inclusions Blow Expansion Scab Erosion Scab and Inclusions Metal Penetration and Veining Hot Tear Pin Holes Rattails Rattails Buckle Cracked Casting Misrun Blow and Expansion Scab Sticker Blows Blow Drop Chapter XIII Example of Charge Calculation for Ounce Metal Example of Charge Calculation for Gray Iron Chapter XIV Horizontal Molding of a Bushing Vertical Molding of a Bushing Gating a Manganese Bronze Casting Gating a Number of Small Castings in Manganese Bronze or Red Brass Gating for a Thin Nickel-Silver Casting Poor Gating System for a Cupro-Nickel Check Valve Improved Gating That Produced a Pressure-Tight Casting Globe Valve .Poor Risering Practice High Pressure Elbow .Improved Risering Practice High Pressure Elbow .
Other things being equal. and Ingate Operating Log for Cast Iron Heats Chapter XVIII Iron-Carbon Diagram Tapered Chill Steel Rods Used for Determining the Pouring Temperature of Steel Chapter XIX The Effect of Various Elements on the Electrical Conductivity of Copper Properly Deoxidized Copper Sample Partially Deoxidized Copper Sample Gassy Copper Sample Chapter XX Jig for Babbitting Bearings Figure 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 Page 249 249 249 249 250 250 250 258 258 258 262 262 262 262 267 1 Chapter I HOW METALS SOLIDIFY Making a casting involves three basic steps: (1) The speed of solidification depends on how heating metal until it melts. The control of the the casting. in is described in later chapters on casting design. Much of the art and area of the metal. the science of making castings is concerned with thin sections will solidify before the thick control of the things that happen to metal as it ones. and (3) mold. is exposed to metal on two sides and . (2) pouring the fast the necessary heat can be removed by the liquid metal into a mold cavity. this case.240 241 242 243 244 Well-Type Sprue Base Coarse-Grained Structure (Caused by Iron Contamination ) Porosity. Outside corners of a casting solidify solidifies. An understanding of how metals faster than other sections because more mold solidify. is necessary to the work of surface is available to conduct heat away from the foundry-man. Inside corners are the slowest solidification of metal to produce better castings sections of the casting to solidify. Riser. therefore. (Caused by Excessive Moisture in the Sand ) Chapter XVI Poor Gating and Risering Practice for a Nickel-Base Alloy Casting Improved Gating and Risering for Nickel-Base Alloy Casting 233 233 233 238 238 xiv Chapter XVII Title Knife Gate Lap Gate Riser for a Gray Iron Casting Molded in the Cope and Drag Riser for a Gray Iron Casting Molded in the Drag Riser for a Gray Iron Casting Molded in the Cope Plan View of Runner. The rate of heat removal depends on the allowing the metal to cool and solidify in the relation between the volume and the surface shape of the mold cavity. The sand.
The amount of that result in little or no change in the shape of superheat determines the amount of time the the casting. The third contraction takes gradually thickens as more and more metal is place when the solidified casting cools from its cooled. Shrink holes. illustrates these contractions. The first Changes in design to control solidification rate step is the cooling of the metal from the pouring sometimes can be made by the designer. a change in solidification rate is The difference between the pouring required for the production of a good casting. The shell metal solidifies. blow machined off later. risering. a thin skin solidification contraction. which shows the change in volume of a steel alloy as it cools from the pouring temperature to room temperature. The metal that was still molten after various intervals of time was dumped out to show the progress of solidification. freezing temperature to room temperature. It is during this stage of when they are heated. expand to room temperature. However. At this time. however.gating. the first liquid contraction words. Notice that some compositions of gray cast iron expand slightly 2 TABLE 1. it cannot carry heat away so fast. and (3) by padding solidifies. The second. The way in which metal solidifies from mold walls is illustrated by the series of steel castings shown in figure 1. During this step. contraction occurs in three definite steps corresponding to the three steps Solidification of a casting is brought about by of cooling. solidification follows the direction that causes least trouble to the foundryman because the metal is cooled. until all the metal has solidified. In other steps in contraction. like most other materials. and pouring. (2) by proper The second step is the cooling of the metal gating and risering. Therefore. The change from hot molten metal to cool solid casting takes place in three main steps. hot cracks. it is so small in amount. Solidification always starts at the surface and This is called solid contraction. Of the three finishes in the center of a section. THE AMOUNT OF SHRINKAGE FROM POURING TEMPERATURE TO ROOM TEMPERATURE FOR SEVERAL METALS AND ALLOYS Name Composition Decrease in Total Volume Decrease . Figure 2. and through the range of temperature at which it control of pouring speed. If. The first step. temperature and the solidification temperature is the foundryman is usually limited to methods called the amount of superheat. temperature to the solidification temperature. a thin layer of metal next is cooling from its pouring temperature to its to the mold wall is cool enough for freezing temperature. When cooled. The amount of shrinkage in several metals and alloys is given in table 1. known as liquid the cooling effect of the mold. All metals behave in a similar manner. they must cooling that warpage and casting stresses occur. called solidification to begin. contract or shrink. The rate of solidification can be foundryman has available to work with the influenced in three other ways: (1) by molten metal before it starts to solidify. takes place while the molten metal seconds after pouring. In a similar way. takes place when the or shell of solid metal forms. holes. and many other defects form in a casting while it solidifies. becomes heated to high temperatures. most of the metals considered in this manual contract in volume when cooling and when solidifying. During the cooling of molten metal from its pouring temperature to THE START OF SOLIDIFICATION room temperature. changing the rate of heat removal from some parts of the mold with chills. CONTRACTION The third step is the cooling of the solid metal Metals. the time required to reach a given thickness of skin varies among the different metals. mold manipulation. Within a few contraction. the quality of the the section with extra metal that can be final casting is established.
It is caused by inability to feed metal are required to make up for the contraction that into the spaces between the arms of the occurs during solidification. percent percent Copper Red brass Yellow brass Manganese bronze Aluminum bronze Aluminum Nickel Monel Nickel silver Deoxidized 85 Cu.94 -1.68 Si. Contraction has been improperly fed. 5 Sn 70 Cu. Piping in a riser is rigid as it cools to normal room temperature. 10 Al Commercial 98 Ni.6 Mn Nickel cast iron 13 Ni. 3 C Gray cast iron 2.69 C. Piping. heavier sections.25 C. 1 Sn 56-3/4 Cu. This type provided at selected spots on the casting.1 6. Microporosity on the shape of the casting and on the type of may also be caused by gas being trapped the metal. . This results from the Centerline shrinkage occurs most frequently in formation of graphite.4 11. contraction. depending solidification temperature range.8 6. Often. usually a good indication that it is functioning This cooling is accompanied by contraction. 1-1/2 Si. shrinkage voids will occur in the casting.3 4. the type of shrinkage between the arms of the crystals. If risers are not individual crystals or grains of metal. Microshrinkage.5 11. 0. 2 Cr.44 Mn 3. Solidification.2 13. of shrinkage.1 6. different cooling rates of thin section where the gradually thickening walls of and heavy sections result in uneven solidified metal from two surfaces meet. 1. Gross shrinkage.08 C. 1 Al. 2.24 Si. which is less dense than alloys having a short solidification range and iron. 1. metal.87 Si. and still weak.1 C 67 Ni. 15 Zn. illustrated in figure which is allowed for by the patternmaker in 3b. occurs as tiny voids scattered through an area of Reservoirs of molten metal. These is most often found in metals having a long voids can occur in different ways.6 4.35 Mn 3. 5 Pb.During in Volume. 10 Sn. 27 Zn. 1-1/4 Fe. 1/2 Mn 90 Cu. 0.59 Mn during solidification.2 Si.6 12. 40 Zn.5 6. 32 Cu 20 Ni. cast metal becomes more solidification temperature. 0. occurs in the center of a the mold. occurs at a heavy section of a casting which making the pattern for the casting. which is illustrated in figure 3d.9 12. Resistance to solidification temperatures are different for each material. This uneven contraction can 3 severely stress the partially solidified. 1/2 Sn.5 3. which is also known as microporosity.7 10. 10 Pb Carbon steel 0. illustrated in figure 3a.4 7.2 14. 0.4 7.65 (expands) 10. a part of the shrinkage of the iron. Centerline shrinkage.8 Bearing bronze 80 Cu.8 1. 0. 5 Zn. 2 Pb.18 C. known as risers. The formation of graphite compensates for low thermal conductivity. in cast metals after solidification is resisted by illustrated in figure 3c.3 5. occurs in pure metals and in alloys having narrow ranges of After solidification. properly.85 1.2 12.1 11. 65 Cu 3.3 6.6 4. 0. 7 Cu.2 11.
When substances are salt. so certain temperature ranges in the solid state. it will be entirely solid. The addition of lead to tin also lowers cause cast irons to have lower strengths and the freezing temperature of the mixture. In soft. undergo other Just as the addition of salt to water changes the dimensional changes as they pass through temperature at which water starts to freeze. the excess Most of the metal mixtures used in the foundry carbon will form flakes of graphite during do not have cooling curves as simple as those solidification. For example. and hydrogen. A small amount of carbon dissolved in the its simplest form. The solidification of quite complicated. just as water dissolves salt. In such necessary. boundary of Area A + L. The graphite flakes lower the effective cross the addition of tin to lead lowers the freezing section of the metal. phosphorus. there is one specific mixture which has a lower freezing temperature than either One of the most important changes in a metal lead.contraction of the casting results in severe Most of the metals used by foundrymen are "contraction stresses" which may tear the casting or which may remain in the casting until impure and are not eutectic mixtures. solidify (right). pure metals and eutectic mixtures is very similar to the freezing of water. the cooling curve looks like iron makes it tough and hard. It will be METALS noted that the addition of copper to nickel lowers the freezing temperature. These metals solidify over a range of temperature removed by suitable heat treatment. If the design of the (right). In does the addition of one metal to another the case of castings with extreme variations in change the freezing point of the second metal. In the Area A + L. However. solid solubility. Sharp known as the solidification range. A cooling curve for one lead-tin alloy without a change in temperature. or any other mixture of the two. A given mixture of copper and nickel junctions of these parts is not carefully will be liquid until it reaches the temperature considered. The the freezing temperature. it is possible for contraction An example of such a mixture of metals is the to take place in some parts at the same time that copper-nickel system shown in figure 4b expansion occurs in others. shown in figures 4a and 4b. lower the apparent temperature of the mixture (see figure 4c. the mechanism of solidification is solidification to occur. temperature is the eutectic mixture. however. The as it dissolves other substances is a change in mixture that has the lowest freezing the freezing characteristics. the addition of nickel to copper raises substances. More temperature between the upper and lower line carbon dissolved in the iron makes further is the solidification range. such as steel. A metal system most important elements that are soluble in which has the same general shape as the molten iron are other metals and five copper-nickel system is said to have complete nonmetals--sulfur. hardness. A typical set of alloys that has an eutectic mixture is that Pure metals and certain specific mixtures of of the lead-tin system shown in figure 4c metals. characteristics of mixtures of salt and water. the mixture will be partly liquid. The melting 32°F. until all of the they create real problems in selecting materials . metal mixtures of this type must be cooled dissolved in a metal. section thickness. lower toughness than steels. called eutectic mixtures. Like the mixture of water and nitrogen. and have a notch effect. changes in its properties. When enough carbon is dissolved in the molten iron. Mixtures of internal corners are natural points for these metals have many of the solidification stresses. The range of small amount of carbon is called steel. and in the FREEZING TEMPERATURE OF Area A. This metal is known as cast iron. Iron containing a that in figure 4b (left). It is is also shown in figure 4c (left). they change many of its well below the temperature at which freezing properties. As an example. carbon. tin. On the other Molten metal has the ability to dissolve many hand. serious difficulties will occur in the that crosses the line marking the upper foundry and in service. Water does not begin The melting temperatures of important metals to freeze until the temperature is lowered to are shown in figure 5. Some metals. The temperature of the ice and water temperatures of many metals are so high that does not change from 32°F. These factors right). to extract heat for mixtures. pure iron is relatively begins before they are completely solidified.
Solidification. Obviously. The size of the crystals is controlled by the time required for the metal to solidify and by its cooling rate in the mold. The black square represents the original crystal center or nucleus which grows into a crystal or grain by the addition of layers of atoms from the melt. A schematic drawing of the start and growth of metal crystals is shown in figure 7. layer by layer. The position for favorable growth is perpendicular to the mold wall and parallel to the direction of heat transfer from the casting. equiaxed grains. is typical of pure metals. is the formation and growth of crystals. As one example. For a while after solidification begins at the surface of the casting. growth of elongated grains may extend to the center of the casting. it grows progressively larger until its growth is stopped by other crystals around it or until there is no more molten metal to feed it. The crystals of zinc on the surface of galvanized steel are a familiar example. the casting defect known as centerline shrinkage is formed. Actual for handling the molten metal and for making the mold. the crystalline structure of a heavy section is usually coarser than that of the lighter members. On the other hand. Depending on the pouring temperature and the type of metal. this difference will not be considered in detail. the ice can be cooled to the temperature of its surroundings. eutectic mixtures. Still further growth is shown by part arranged in any particular pattern and that grow about the same length in each direction. Such grains are called randomly oriented. This may be seen in figure 6. The growth of the metal crystals in the skin will take place by the building up of metal on some of the crystals of the surface layer which are favorably positioned for further growth. A point may be reached during solidification when the solidification temperature is reached by the entire remaining liquid metal. shown in figure 4a. from the melt. This type of crystal growth toward the center of the casting is known as columnar grain growth. Figure 11 shows the small grains at the mold surface. Part (a) shows the crystal shortly after it has formed and has started to grow. Metal crystals start to grow at the surface of the casting because this is where the molten metal first cools to its freezing temperature.water is converted to ice. The growth of metal crystals is similar to the growth of frost crystals on a pane of glass. Once a crystal starts to form. A three-dimensional sketch of crystal growth is shown in figure 8. Although the physical properties of coarsegrained metals differ from those of fine-grained metals of the same chemical composition. Within 452605 0-58-2 4 any particular crystal. coarse grains lower the strength of steel. the atoms are arranged in regular orderly layers. This type of temperature change during cooling. like building blocks. As a result. The faces of the individual crystals can be seen easily and growth would have continued if it had not been dumped to reveal the crystals. whether they are zero or many degrees below zero. there is no orderly arrangement of atoms in molten metal. and water. This is shown in figure 12a. Nucleation and growth of crystals will then start throughout the melt and result in an equiaxed crystal structure in that part of the . there will be a solid skin against the mold and the metal in the center will still be liquid. In part (b). the crystal has become elongated and growth has started in two other directions. Another example of crystal structure is shown in figure 10. the heavy sections take more time to freeze than the light sections. After this. therefore. Properly oriented crystals will grow in toward the center because side growth will stop as soon as adjacent crystals meet. CRYSTALLIZATION A casting is made up of many closely packed and joined grains or crystals of metal. with some of them positioned for further growth. If the characteristics of the metal are such that it is impossible to feed properly the last parts of the dendrites.
the sand becomes saturated with heat. At the same time. This takes place as shown in figure 14.(c). Two other sets of arms have started growing near the ends of the longest arms of the crystal. In some cases. These defects may range in size and form from microscopic porosity to large blow holes. Many times. the rate of transfer is further slowed by an air gap which is formed when the solidified casting starts to contract and draw away from the mold. iron oxide and hydrogen are formed. The original body of the crystal has grown still longer and has become thicker in cross section. GASES IN METALS Many defects in castings are caused by gases which dissolve in the metal and then are given off during solidification. The . A bubble is formed and gradually grows as more steel solidifies. the transfer of heat is carried on at a reduced rate. This process of heat extraction is called heat transfer. HEAT TRANSFER The solidification of molten metal in the mold is a result of the extraction of heat from the metal by the sand that surrounds it. As the casting cools and solidifies. The transfer of heat from the molten metal to the sand and its transfer away from the casting is most rapid at the time the mold cavity is first filled. will be composed of grains that are not 5 and further transfer of heat from the casting to the mold is controlled by the ability of the sand to conduct the heat away. 0. the water in the sand is changed to steam with an increase in volume of approximately 5. the transfer of heat away from the casting takes place at a lower rate. such as may sometimes occur between carbon and oxygen in steel to form carbon monoxide. The presence of this air gap causes a further decrease in the rate of heat transfer. When the molten steel comes in contact with moist sand in the mold. Because this is a much slower process than the absorption of heat by the sand. as compared to an equal volume of sand. The rapid heat transfer in the early period of solidification is due to the ability of the sand to store a large amount of heat. Crystals grow in this manner with continued branching and thickening of the arms. The steam is highly oxidizing to the steel and reacts with it.001 percent by weight of hydrogen The gases are trapped as the metal solidifies. it must reject some of this water vapor and hydrogen. The hydrogen which is formed in this reaction passes through the thin layer of solid steel and enters the still molten steel. and their ability to conduct heat at a rate much more rapid than that at which sand can conduct it. A good example of the formation of a casting defect due to gas in pinhole formation in steel. This reaction produces water vapor. a thin skin of steel is formed almost immediately. Close examination will also show where the growth of crystals was stopped by the growth of neighboring dendrites. Because of the large volume that a small weight of gas occupies. A photograph of dendrites in a shrink area of an aluminum casting is shown in figure 9. The iron oxide produces the scale which is seen on steel castings when they are shaken out of the mold. As the maximum The first metal that solidifies at the mold surface capacity of the sand to store heat is reached. the arms will have grown and thickened until they have formed a continuous solid mass. just as an ice cube must reject gas as it freezes. the type of crystal shown in figure 8 is called a dendrite. Because of its branching nature. at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. casting. Solidification which started as dendritic growth and finished as an equiaxed structure is shown in figure 12b.000 times. Chills produce an increased rate of solidification because of their increased heatstorage capacity. When the metal is completely solidified. The branching of the dendrite arms at right angles can be seen in this photograph. which is also dissolved in the steel. As an example. gas is generated by chemical reactions within the metal. As the steel cools. As a result. A still further stage of growth is shown in part (d). The hydrogen in the molten steel can then react with iron oxide. very little gas by weight can cause the foundryman a lot of trouble.
bubbles are trapped in the casting occur if the freezing characteristics of metals are not taken into account are as follows: (1) causing defects. The treatment of metals to reduce their gas content before they are poured microshrinkage. Casting defects which can solidifies. times that of metal. The gases in any melting process often come from water vapor in castings. (2) centerline shrinkage. In particularly Chapter 2. and at 2. SUMMARY Gases may be absorbed by the metal during smelting. various temperatures is shown in figure 13. An understanding of the solidification or freezing of metals is important to the foundrywe are primarily concerned with the gas man who wants to know how to make good absorption during melting.in a metal occupies a volume equal to that of bubbles become trapped between the rapidly the metal. and Chills.000°F. and casting. "Gates. the air. 6 . gas that is absorbed during melting defects which can be explained and avoided if may escape when the molten metal cools and proper attention is given to the way in which the metal solidifies. These grains grow inwardly from A gas frequently absorbed by metals is the the surface until they meet other grains hydrogen produced from water vapor. and (6) hot tears. When these solubility of hydrogen in nickel and steel at growing surfaces meet. These defects can be dealing with the specific metals. these defects are caused by gases 7. (4) certain types of gas holes. by gas that is dissolved in the molten metal. If the gas cannot escape from the metal freely.. Risers. Here. the casting is solid. minimized if proper attention is given to the Gas defects in castings are not always caused practices described in later chapters. melting. (5) into the mold is discussed in later chapters piping. refining. "Design. The growing from other surfaces." driven into the metal from the mold." and Chapter some cases. formation of solid grains next to the surface of the mold. Notice that it is possible to dissolve more hydrogen in molten metal than in solid metal. or from water which is introduced into Solidification of a casting starts by the the melt by careless foundry practice. the same amount of growing crystals of steel and cause the familiar hydrogen would occupy a volume equal to four pinhole defect. Improper foundry practice will cause many Therefore. (3) shrink holes.
7 . Schematic illustration of the solidification of metal in a mold.Figure 1.
Figure 2. Types of shrinkage (a) piping (b) gross shrinkage (c) centerline (d) microshrinkage 8 . Volume change during the cooling of a 0. Figure 3.35 percent carbon steel.
Cooling curves of a pure metal. and an eutectic alloy. a solid solution alloy.Figure 4. 9 .
10 .Figure 5. Melting points of metals and alloys.
Figure 6. Effect of section size on size of crystals. .
12 .11 Figure 7. Schematic representation of crystal growth. Dendrite growth. Figure 8.
13 . Figure 11. Preferred orientation in chill zone crystals. Figure 10.Figure 9. Crystal growth in gun metal casting dumped before solidification was complete. High magnification of shrink area in an aluminum casting showing dendrites.
15 . Figure 13. Solubility of hydrogen in iron and nickel at one atmosphere pressure. Dendritic solidification and dendritic-equiaxed solidification. Figure 14. Mechanism of pinhole formation in steel. 14 This page is blank.Figure 12.
The combination of high stresses and the and to the replacement of a casting of an old plane of weakness result in early failure of the design. The first thing to consider is the the casting is to make the best use of the metal intended use of the casting. More tear. shrinkage. The intended use of the casting (that is. the same features of design which in castings because they are points of high stress. it can be seen that the effect of section size on the Good casting design is based on two general properties of a casting must be considered if considerations. and strength that are needed will improper design. wear resistance. the first step in the production of a reduce the concentration of stresses in corners. in to casting unsoundness. casting should be a careful study of its design in A sharp corner will also produce a plane of weakness in a casting where crystal growth the light of the information given in this chapter. while foundry-man should not be relied upon to aluminum bronze and manganese bronze are overcome poor design. This applies equally to a new design from two sides meet. certain regions in the vicinity of make a casting from a loose pattern or from the the failure will be made larger with the idea broken parts of an existing casting. In reality. overdesign frequently produces casting defects Nevertheless. Superior craftsmanship of the very sensitive to section thickness. The junction of thin and heavy sections is another point of stress concentration. or bearing) will be the major factor in determining One of the major factors that cause the the general shape of the casting. but he will copper-base alloys is shown in figure 15. the defective part should be thoroughly studied to casting. He is usually called upon to a casting fails. Very rarely that additional strength will be gained with an is he consulted as to what is good casting increase in thickness. often than not. This is shown in figure 16a. Sharp corners and notches should be avoided Many times. and cracks strength per square inch of cross section when found in a casting. which alloy should be used. Stresses. In the replacement of a casting. The effect of increasing section size produce satisfactory castings that violate some on the strength and elongation of four different of the principles of good design. an understanding of what which offset the desired increase in strength. machinability.Chapter II DESIGNING A CASTING The design of a casting might seem to be the proper safety factor. From this. whether faulty design contributed figure 16b. of course. moving part. determine which alloy should be used. pressure casting. are the forces and loads that cause a casting to crack. and its complete elimination. and thus affects its cast in thick sections than it does in thin serviceability. The amount of untimely failure of castings is the concentration of stresses that results from corrosion resistance. or break. Many times when of a Navy molder. less affected by section size. A capable foundryman may sections. and the second is poured into it. The partial removal of this plane of weakness by rounding the corners is shown in determine if failure was in any way due to design faults. The liberal use of fillets and rounded give trouble to the foundryman will also corners of proper size is the easiest way to adversely affect the service life of the part. whether it is a supporting STRESS CONCENTRATIONS structure. porosity. The STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS stresses in this case result from the rapid The amount of strength that is needed for a solidification and contraction of the thin . It is never produce them with any degree of evident that the tin bronze and red brass are consistency. Sections that are heavier than necessary do not make use of all the strength that is available in Design influences the soundness. this design from the foundryman's point of view. As a general rule. affected the service strength of the solid part. or whether it adversely figure 16c. freedom from the metal. hot tears. constitutes good casting design will help the molder to make a consistently better product. Therefore. a casting must meet a combination of requirements. Care should be taken something far removed from the field of interest not to overdesign a casting. a metal has lower dirt.
Correction of this this objective. it The minimum thickness that can be cast is gives up some of its heat to the mold. An effort is always made by the other patterns made to prevent tearing in a foundry-man to get solidification to progress wheel casting are shown in figure 19. must allow for the absorption of casting stresses Figure 20 shows various methods for in order to produce a good casting. shown in figure 21a. it solidification. When distortion cannot be solved factor in the control of the direction of directly by design. The mold to the left of the casting will also have been heated by the TABLE 2. the same practices should be followed for all metals. The first metal minimum sections that can be cast from several to solidify will then be the metal at the right. A casting should be designed so that the heavy section and may produce hot tearing. A spoked changing from one section thickness to wheel is an example. or gradual change in section There are some castings in which the design thickness reduces stresses at the junctions. However. it should be gradual. and as it flows over the mold surface. Because of controlled Gray cast 1/8 solidification. it means that solidification will not start in some to stretch and distort slightly without tearing under the stresses set up by contraction.casting will be determined primarily by the part section. A blending. in. A sudden change in section thickness should be avoided wherever possible. this will probably be a sound iron casting. The modified design (with a curved spoke) produced a casting without hot solidification will start in one part of the mold tears. The metal is poured through the riser. they should be blended together to reduce the 16 stresses as much as possible. Where a change in section thickness must be made. Casting design is a determining casting. Two area where molten metal is needed to feed the casting. toward the riser from the point furthermost Contraction stresses often cause warping of the from the riser. will promote directional solidification described in the next paragraph. the metal at the right end will not be as excessive pouring temperature. strength requirements are met with Where sections of different thicknesses are necessary. type of distortion is covered in Chapter 3. Recommended practices for the blending of junctions are shown in figure 17. shown in "Patternmaking. This contraction will set up very high it plays in the structure or machine in which it is stresses at the junction with the hotter." figure 21. as with the wheel casting. the casting with solidification in a more advanced stage. Such a determined by the ability of the metal to flow condition will mean that when the mold is and fill thin sections without the use of an filled. weaker. the reduction of area at the White cast 1/8 . Although shown for aluminum. used. A slab casting of uniform dimension. as metals are listed in table 2. designs for wheels are shown in figure 18. Figure 21b shows Thickness. Correct and incorrect another. The normal hot as the metal near the riser. The original design (with straight spokes) caused DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION hot cracks at the junction of the spokes with the Directional solidification means that rim and hub. NORMAL MINIMUM molten metal flowing over it and its ability to SECTIONS FOR CAST METALS conduct heat away from the casting will be reduced so that the cooling of the casting in Material Normal Minimum Section that area will be retarded. The modified design permits the spokes and gradually move in a desired direction. demonstrates directional SECTION THICKNESS solidification. and every effort should be made must be allowed for by the patternmaker after to apply the principles of good design to reach consultation with the molder.
The heavy . and Chills. Figure 22b shows the taper employed to obtain directional solidification. than any of the sections which it joins. the part of the casting from which solidification was to start. Figure 25c shows the staggered by machining. shown in figure 26. Internal chills should given special consideration when designing a not be used without authorization from the casting." result of ribbed construction. the section thickness can be WALL JUNCTIONS used. Chills are used to start or core. as in figure 26a. This method. to produce a speed up solidification in a desired section of a hole in the junction. "Gates. In designing a casting. They are described in Chapter 7. Risers. as in figure 26c. The first method is most commonly used.In actual practice. It will be noted that although solidification has taken place at the same rate from the opposing walls. which are locations of junction because it is thicker. 17 to have parallel sides. a large casting will require ribs to sections. illustrated in figure 23. can be used to predict The use of ribs produces a hot spot at the the location of hot spots. and Chills. then other L or V sections. as in figure 26d. the desired may vary slightly with composition of the alloy. "Gates." An X section has a still greater tendency If it is impossible to design a casting to make toward hot spots and unsoundness than do the full use of directional solidification. In such cases. section thickness in a casting cannot be stressed tapering sections can be used. This directional solidification. is that of Another method of obtaining directional staggering the sections so as to produce T solidification in a casting is to taper the section junctions which can be more easily controlled intentionally and then remove the excess metal with chills. because it is a major factor in tapered with the larger dimensions toward the good design. Chills may also be used to produce a sound junction. A cored hole can be used. Because a junction is normally heavier foundry supervisor. then a taper could be used to good advantage. and size or design of the obtained by other methods." design. solidification will begin at about the An effort should be made at all times to same rate from both sides and centerline increase gradually the section size toward the shrinkage will be found because of the lack of reservoir of liquid metal in the riser. When a flat casting is poured. as in figure 26b. called "padding. The only way to reduce the aids must be used. The method of inscribed circles. A method which is casting. the external chills can be used. conditions are usually such that directional solidification cannot be 1/8 obtained as simply as described above because of the properties of the metal or the design of These minimum dimensions for thin sections the casting. If this casting did not have iron Steel Brass and bronze Aluminum 3/32 3/32 corner is undesirable from the structural design standpoint. Various treatments for a T section are is also described in chapter 7. The use of adequate but not excessive casting to control directional solidification. provide added strength at certain locations. or internal chills can Junctions such as "L" and "T" sections must be be used. it usually cools more slowly than adjacent Many times. directional solidification of the casting must be pouring temperature. as shown in figure 25b. Solidification of this type is known as progressive solidification and is shown in figure 22a. direction of feeding. Their application and use are covered preferred. The sections are too strongly. especially when the junction is a in Chapter 7. Risers. The most effective and most wall section in this type of junction is to use a easily used is the chill. the taper permits molten metal to feed the casting properly.
24. This is shown in figure 24. SUMMARY A few general rules can be made to assist the 7. The bracket shown in figure 31 is such a casting. flat base is shown in figure 28. Where junctions produce thick sections of metal (hot spots). 3. Another example of good casting design is shown in figure 32. but a few examples are given of the small white area in each case indicates the design features which can be of help to the location of the hot spot. 26. job. a heavy section will be formed. Ribbed construction can often be used to replace a heavier section. adjoining sections. the largest circle which can be make a hole at the junction of the rib with the drawn in the junction is larger than the largest casting section." page 22). The same GOOD CASTING DESIGN is true of the T section. a casting can be designed to used only if they were permit easier molding as well as to improve the feeding. These small spots are molder and patternmaker in making a better casting. defect. circles that can be drawn in the walls.) 4. Figure 23b shows similar give the casting a section having a gradual taper. 5. where the circle at the junction is even larger than the one for the L Casting designs often cannot be ideal because section. Note that the thin sections are connected to the heavy sections which are 6. to which will be unsound unless special precautions are taken. Radii heavy section in the casting. as shown in figure 27. the tubular section had a heavier X. The inscribed circle shows should be used so that the thickness in the the heavy section which would be difficult to junction will be the same as that in the feed and would probably cause a shrinkage adjoining walls. Everything should be done. "Wall Junctions. A casting having a tubular section joining a The joining of two walls may result in an L. but also resulted in heavy sections in the casting with the possibilities of shrinkage defects. The location of given here. use cores or other methods located so that they may be easily fed. A detailed were made from actual laboratory studies of the discussion of a good casting design cannot be solidification of the junctions. A cross section of the same casting is The area within the dashed line shows the amount of metal which should be eliminated to shown in figure 30 as it was redesigned to eliminate the heavy section and make the avoid hot spots. Redesigning eliminated the rounded corners are used in the L or V-type junction. The original design did not have 18 the shaded areas shown. 25. and 27. so that the best possible conditions for junctions with the progress of solidification indicated by the shaded areas. to eliminate the heavy section (figures 23. As originally designed.final solidification and possible shrinkage. A hub casting is shown in figure 29. By padding the area as shown by the shaded portions. Such junctions would be Many times. within the large circles inscribed at the junctions as shown in figure 23a. The larger circles in both of the the casting must be designed to do a certain junctions predict the location of a hot spot. This not only made the making of the mold difficult. (See figures 17 and 20. however. V. If small fillets and wall than the plate. These sketches solidification can be obtained. Abrupt changes in adjoining sections should never be allowed. Use ribs to avoid warpage or to add stiffness. A casting should be made as simple as . Heavy sections should not be located so that feeding must take place through thin sections. or T-shaped junction. In section may also be reduced by using a core to the L section. The wall thickness at the junction can be reduced further by using radii casting more adaptable to directional which will produce a junction thinner than the solidification. the pattern was easier to draw and feeding of the lugs was simplified.
lugs. (See "Section Thickness. page 28. a compromise must be made which will best suit the casting desired. the section should have uniform thickness." Table 4." page 19. 10. . The casting thickness. and size should be kept as small as possible. Allow for shrinkage and machine finish in dimensional tolerances. (Chapter 3. There also may be a conflict between rules. 8. In such a case. (See "Strength Requirements. and pads should not be used unless absolutely necessary. and figures 17 and 22. "Patternmaking. consistent with proper casting performance. Effect of section size on physical properties. All sections should be tapered so that they are thickest near the risers.) 2. If a casting is complicated. consider the use of several simpler castings which can be welded together. If proper tapering is impossible. Avoid junctions of several walls or sections at one point. 1. weight. The use of cores should be kept to a minimum. 9. these rules cannot be followed to the letter.foundryman in producing a better casting.) 19 Figure 15. and figure 15. Sections should never be tapered so that thick sections are far from the risers.) possible. Bosses. It must be remembered that in many cases. page 27." page 20. Table 5.
452605 0-58-3 20 . Use of fillets.Figure 16.
21 . Wheel design. Blending of thin and heavy sections.Figure 17. Figure 18.
Recommended wheel designs.Figure 19. Figure 21. Simple Directional solidification. Figure 20. Transitions in section size. Figure 22. Taper as an aid to directional solidification. 22 .
Figure 26. Various treatments for a T junction. Figure 23. Hot spot location by the method of inscribed circles.
Figure 24. Reduction of cross section in L and V junctions. Figure 27. Coring to reduce section in a rib junction.
Figure 25. Reduction of cross section in an X junction.
Figure 28. Removal of heavy section by redesign.
Figure 29. Hub cross section - heavy section.
Figure 30. Hub cross section - improved design.
Figure 31. Bracket casting.
Figure 32. Aluminum yoke casting. 24 This page is blank. 25
Chapter III PATTERNMAKING FUNCTIONS OF THE PATTERN A pattern is used to form the mold cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a casting. As such, it is a tool in the hands of the foundryman. A great deal of success in producing a good casting depends on the quality and design of the pattern. For example, a pattern that does not have the proper draft is difficult to draw from the sand without breaking the mold. section on 'Maintenance, Care, and Repair" in this chapter. Mounted Patterns. Patterns fastened permanently to a flat board, called a match plate, are known as mounted patterns.
The main advantage of the mounted pattern over the loose pattern is that it is easier to use and store. For these reasons, a mounted pattern is generally warranted when several of the castings (say, five or more) are to be made The design of the casting itself, as well as that during one "run" or when the casting is made of the pattern, must be taken into consideration at frequent intervals. to make molding less difficult. The casting design should be as simple as possible, since it Another advantage of the mounted pattern is that a pattern of the gating system also can be will determine the ease with which a pattern mounted on the match plate. This practice of can be drawn from the mold, the number of molding the gating system eliminates the loose loose pieces required in the pattern, and the sand that often results when gates are hand number of cores needed. cut. As a result, the castings produced usually TYPES OF PATTERNS are better than those produced with the loose patterns. There are three main types of patterns: loose patterns, mounted patterns, and core boxes. Core Boxes. Core boxes are actually negative patterns. When looking at a pattern, one sees Loose Patterns. The majority of molds made the casting in its actual shape. A core box on aboard repair ships are made with loose the other hand shows the cavity which will be patterns, since castings required are usually few created by the core. Core boxes are used not in number and not too often repeated. A loose only to make cores for holes in castings but pattern is the wood counterpart of the casting, also to make parts of a mold. In some cases, a with the proper allowance in dimensions for pattern cannot be made so that it can be contraction and machining. A typical loose drawn. In such a case, the part of the casting pattern is shown in figure 33. A loose pattern which would hinder drawing is made as a core may be made in one piece or it may be split into that can be placed in the mold after the pattern the cope and drag pieces to make molding proper has been withdrawn. The making and easier. A split pattern is shown in figure 34. proper use of cores is described in Chapter 6, "Making Cores." A loose pattern has the disadvantage of requiring a follow board or a false cope to PATTERN MATERIALS make the parting line, or hand cutting the parting line. The different steps used to make The most commonly used material for patterns molds from loose patterns are described in is wood, because it is easy to work with and is Chapter 5, "Making Molds." readily available. Mahogany, white pine, and sugar pine are acceptable materials. Select The original casting or the broken parts of a kiln-dried white or sugar pine is most widely casting which have been put together may be used because it is easily worked and is used in an emergency as a loose pattern. In generally free of warping and cracking. such a case, the part to be used as a pattern must be built up to allow for the contraction of For pattern work, it is essential that the wood the cast metal and prevent the new casting from has a low moisture content, 5 to 6 percent if being too small. A material known as possible, in order to avoid warping and "Celastic" (see allowance list), supplied in shrinking of the finished pattern.
and type of vent holes. shaped. "Making drag sections. it is cope (top) and drag (bottom) of the mold. box by raised sections such as shown in figure 36. Their use is warranted only when a large number of castings must be made. These chaplets are Whenever possible. should not be excessive. with the gating included in the pattern. the cope when removed from storage. This A material which maybe used for an clearance. Usually. For directions on the use of Celastic. The parting line divides the that additional support over and above that pattern into the parts that form the cavity in the given by the core prints is needed. If it is possible for a core to be sufficient time to make a wooden pattern. particularly on pressure castings. In PATTERN LAYOUT addition. pattern is that it does not warp on storage and When a core has prints in the cope. Gypsum cement is or indexing lugs (tell-tales) should be provided made from gypsum rock. emergency pattern. Mounted metal 26 patterns are difficult to make and require special In general. which is length of core prints or how much taper they necessary to obtain pressure tightness." locating plaster or gypsum cement. it provides an additional mass of metal Although there are no fixed rules as to the to aid in the fusion of the chaplet. When mixed with water. Chaplets. as to avoid the possibility of crushing sand from the cope when closing the mold. finely ground and to prevent this. can be applied to the metal part. When possible. or by some other determining any nonconformity between the appropriate means. If loose patterns are used. when only a small number as the core will shift under pressure from the of castings are required and there is not molten metal. a casting is designed so a pieces of metal especially designed to support straight parting line can be used. a straight parting line is Molds. This additional metal in the mold cavity Core Prints.sheets. they reduce the tendency for cracks to form in the cored openings from core fins. their location and size easier with a straight parting line than with a should be indicated on the pattern and core broken parting line. size. it is produce cracks. or cast. the length of a core print should skills. When Celastic dries. When the design of the core is such Parting Line. and require extra time to clean recommended for use only in an emergency. it accurately pattern designed to make an impression in the locates the best chaplet position and insures sand for locating and anchoring the core. first." Their use is to be avoided wherever necessary if the pattern is to be mounted. it forms a plastic mass which can be A good practice for constructing core prints is molded. that the location will be consistently used. A core print is a projection on the serves two main purposes. casting and the original drawing. no preparation prints should provide a "closing clearance" so other than cleaning is necessary before use. Larger core prints provide better core location and support in the mold. is set "upside down" or "wrong end to. The The location. Detailed description of chaplets and flat surface will divide the casting into cope and their use will be found in Chapter 5. The process of actually laying out a pattern comes under the work of the patternmaker. the mold may be made chaplets are necessary. heated to high temperatures. that is. therefore. off the casting. see the Metal patterns are usually used as mounted patterns. Plaster patterns have shown in figure 35. a single the core. . to various parts of proper pattern layout are allow gases to escape. The one distinct advantage of a metal equal or slightly exceed its diameter or width. however. it will adhere firmly and form a hard surface which may be sandpapered or sawed like wood. should be indicated on discussed briefly here to provide the molder the core prints and in the core box by means of with information which may prove useful in strips or projections. second. It results in castings with the disadvantage of being very fragile and fewer fins at the parting line. necessary to use chaplets. Fins tend to require careful handling.
Distortion Allowance. The machining allowance or finish is usually made on a pattern to provide for extra metal on the casting during heat treatment. light and medium steel castings of simple design and no cores require a 1/4-inch rule. For example. in figure 37. the sand away. The draft is dependent on the shape and size of the casting and should at all times be ample. Some castings do not require finish since they are used in the rough state just as they come from the final cleaning operation.should have. A casting may become distorted from stresses during the casting process or surfaces. and no set rule can be given as to the amount of finish to be allowed. This also applies to core boxes. The size of such a rule allows for shrinkage of the casting. Recorded information on castings is made. surfaces will require more draft than the exterior surfaces TABLE 4. experience. Shrinkage allowances for various metals and mold construction are listed in table 4. interior distortion allowances on future work. CORE PRINT DIMENSIONS Size of Core Up to 1 1/2-inch diameter From 2-inch to 5inch diameter Above 5 inches in diameter Length of Core Print 2-inch core print At least equal to the diameter of core 6-inch core print (minimum) Shrinkage Rules. A 1/4-inch shrink rule. This distortion is also a factor in determining machining allowance. the pattern so that the pattern may be The design may also be such that it cannot be withdrawn from the mold without breaking the corrected in the design. When a straight pattern and are usually determined by piece. TABLE 3. such as the face of a flange or a bushing. and the body of that cause distortion in the finished casting. The following table gives dimensions which have been found successful in practical application. In green sand molding. PATTERN SHRINKAGE ALLOWANCES Casting Alloys Pattern Dimension (inches) Type of Construction Contraction (inches per foot) . It must be remembered that the shrinkage rule will also vary with the casting design. The experience of the molder and pattern maker breaking of sand due to a lack of taper is shown must be relied upon to produce a good casting. a 3/16. is 12 1/4-inches long. The patternmaker uses rules which are somewhat longer than the numbers indicate. Proper and improper drafts are shown in figure 39. the amount of draft is usually 1/8-inch of this type is very useful in determining per foot. the exact finish allowances can be found by referring to the original blueprints of the part to be cast. The finish is determined by the machine shop practice and by the size and shape of the casting. although the markings would indicate that it is only 12 inches long. that are to be machined. Many times a casting Draft. In table 5 are listed some finish allowances which may be used as a guide. because of the lower strength of isolated volumes of sand. The actual draft to be used is usually determined by consultation between the patternmaker and the molder. for instance. In such a case. 27 whereas for pipes and valves where there is a considerable resistance offered to the contraction of the steel by the mold and cores. Most castings are finished only on certain surfaces. Many times. pockets. The same pattern with correct Distortion allowances must be made in a taper is shown in figure 38.inch rule will be adequate. practice requires that there should be sufficient bearing surface to support the weight of the core. Draft is the amount of taper given to the is of a design which results in cooling stresses sides of projections. The shrinkage rule to be used in constructing a pattern must be selected for the metal which will be used in the casting. Machining Allowances.
Up to 12 3/32 and aluminum 13 to 24 3/16 25 to 36 3/16 A typical casting which would require distortion allowances is a simple yoke casting shown in figure 40. The yoke made to this design is shown in part (b) with the arms widened out. Part (a) shows the casting as it was designed. smooth surface. Making of a simple pattern is shown in figure 42.Gray Cast Iron Up to 24 From 25 to 48 Over 48 Up to 24 From 25 to 36 Over 36 Cast Steel Up to 24 From 25 to 72 Up to 18 From 19 to 48 From 49 to 66 Aluminum Up to 48 49 to 72 Up to 24 Over 48 From 25 to 48 Brass Bronze Open construction Open construction Open construction Cored construction Cored construction Cored construction Open construction Open construction Cored construction Cored construction Cored construction Open construction Open construction Cored construction Cored construction Cored construction 1/8 1/10 1/12 1/8 1/10 1/12 1/4 3/16 1/4 3/16 5/32 5/32 9/64 5/32 9/64 to 1/8 1/8 to 1/16 3/16 1/8 to 1/4 28 TABLE 5. bronze. The arrows indicate the direction . The color code used for identifying different parts of a pattern is as follows: 1. GUIDE TO PATTERN MACHINE FINISH ALLOWANCES Casting Alloy Pattern Bore Finish Size (inches) (inches) Cast iron Up to 12 1/8 13 to 24 3/16 25 to 42 1/4 Up to 12 3/16 13 to 24 1/4 3/32 1/8 3/16 1/8 3/16 5/16 1/16 1/8 5/32 hair. After the surface of the patterns has been properly prepared. Plaster patterns may be metal sprayed to produce a hard. Cast steel 25 to 42 5/16 Brass. various parts are painted for identification. 2. Surfaces to be left UNFINISHED are painted BLACK. FINISHING AND COLOR CODING Shellac is usually used to fill the pores in wood patterns or to seal plaster patterns. Typical patterns produced in gypsum cement are shown in figure 41. Surfaces to be MATCHED are painted RED. while external reinforcements can be provided by surface coating. The patterns are rubbed smooth to eliminate the possibility of sand adhering to the pattern because of a rough surface.
the weights of heads and gates boxes and minor repair of them will go a long are added. CARE. and for. and storage. the pattern should be checked to make sure that it conforms to the drawing. Any permanent pattern changes. 5. Care. A periodic check of patterns or core To this figure. is not discussed in detail in this manual. . Seats of. For aluminum 5. MAKING THE PATTERN Skilled patternmakers are available aboard repair ships to make patterns. size of part. The use of Celastic damage down to a minimum. pattern required is small and the designs are quite numbers. therefore. gypsum cement can be used as pattern drawing and piece number. LOOSE PIECES are marked by RED STRIPES on a YELLOW BACKGROUND. 4. Celastic may For steel 17. Internal already on hand or using the pattern as support can be provided through the use of designed and making alterations in the arbors. It is important that storage If broken parts are to be used as a pattern. These records should contain a For applications where the quantity of castings complete description of the pattern. and Repair. This precaution will maintain the alignment of the parts when they are joined or patterns in good condition and prevent placed for molding. Part (c) shows the pattern as made with distortion allowances. The storage of patterns smooth as possible and the size of the casting should be in properly constructed racks should be increased wherever necessary to wherever possible. MAINTENANCE. class of ship. CORE PRINTS and SEATS for LOOSE CORE PRINTS are painted YELLOW. and if possible on the blueprint of the casting. should be noted on the pattern record. They One disadvantage in the use of this material is may also be used to provide a pattern for a that it is fragile and is likely to be damaged in similar casting which may be required. but any repair of a For bronze 18. Another simple method that can be used in cases where a small pattern of solid wood construction with no cores is to be used Many times a core box has to be repaired or consists in weighing the patterns and altered slightly. and simple. This will keep pattern compensate for contraction. and part (d) shows the finished part. wire frames. no matter how 29 small. Construction of patterns. Detailed information on patternmaking can be found in the patternmaker' manuals aboard ship. For cast iron 16. Time can be saved by slightly altering a pattern handling. AND REPAIR The patterns normally made aboard repair ships are used for a few castings and then they must be stored. See Pattern Materials. space be provided which is as free of moisture extreme care must be taken to insure proper as possible. rods.0 After any repair is made. molding.of the cooling stresses which produced contraction in the cross member." A record should be kept of all patterns which are on hand. useful in locating a pattern for future use.5 major nature should be by a pattern-maker. for this purpose is described in the section on "Maintenance.5 Minor repairs to the pattern or core box may easily be made by a molder. Such records are material with success. In part (d) the arrows again show the direction of the cooling stresses which were used to produce a straight yoke. intermixed machining operations. Sheet lead or sheet brass of multiplying this figure by the following: varying thicknesses may be used. STOPOFFS are indicated by DIAGONAL BLACK STRIPES on a YELLOW BASE. 3.0 also be used to repair a pattern or core box. The surfaces should be as warping and cracking.
Manganese bronze 0. For that involved in patternmaking is useful to the reason. and (methyl ethyl ketone) until it becomes then obtaining the total: very pliable and sticky. some information on the methods and molder. casting weights. returned to the bottle. even on irregular contours. Immerse the Celastic in the solvent by the following weights per cubic inch. but a knowledge of the factors in the operation of any foundry. traced to not enough draft. it is easy to calculate their weight and add it to the The factors discussed in this chapter are not weight of the casting. it can be applied to the pattern and will shape Pounds per very easily.260 and the outer surface will be relatively Compositions G and M 0. pine and mahogany have a greater density and 1. any solvent left in the pan may be are useful in calculating casting weights.way toward keeping the patterns in good usable Caution must be used in following this condition and prevent major repairs later. or insufficient core prints.098 Celastic will adhere firmly to the pattern Cast iron 0. Cut pieces to the size required or a down the design into simple sections--such as number of pieces to cover the required rounds. multiplying this figure 3. Sugar Directions for Applying Celastic. and proper allowance must designs shown in figures 43 and 44. an erroneous answer will be obtained. intended to supply all the answers relating to patternmaking. if the pattern is not of solid construction or if it is not made of white pine. In this state. SUMMARY CALCULATION OF CASTING WEIGHT Making a pattern is the job of a skilled The calculation of casting weights is important patternmaker. Two small calculating weights of castings. Many times a defective casting can be practices used is given. A molder who It is obviously quite simple to calculate the is able to recognize a defect caused by weight required to pour a casting if the improper pattern work or a pattern requiring defective part is to be used as a pattern. be made. squares. the Aluminum 0. improper parting line. This table metal pans should be available for submerging shows the various shapes and formulas which the Celastic. It may then be sanded and lacquered to a smooth surface. Since risers and gates are usually the pattern corrected. and plates--and calculate the area. 30 . one or more pieces may be applied to In table 6 are areas and volumes for the original layer of the Celastic. Where neither of these methods is possible.317 hard. The molder should use this information to guide him in maintaining his patterns and recognizing when they are in need of attention. Clean the surface where it is to be a lower factor must be used to calculate the applied.303 WARNING: Celastic shrinks in thickness after This method is demonstrated in the case of the dipping and drying. cubic inch by pressure from the fingers. Cast steel 0. If a greater thickness is desired on any surface.284 4. or if it repair can save himself a lot of time by having is on hand. round (and should be) in their cross section. practice. After the solvent has evaporated. weight of each section by determining its volume in cubic inches. it is necessary to break 2.
18181 s2 = 3. e = 8" Area = 1/2 [10 (8 + 6) + (3 X 6) + (5 X 8)] = 99 sq. d = 6".36570 s2 = 3.63395 s2 = 3.63273 r2 2.27574 r2 7. in. in. c = 5".414 The side of a square inscribed in a given circle is: B X .69416 s2 = 3. s= Length of one side. Area = SQRT(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)) when s= 1/2(a + b + c) Example: a = 3".31368 r2 6.46408 r2 3. c = 5" s = (3" + 4" + 5")/2 = 6" Area = SQRT(6 (6-3) (6-4) (6-5)) = 6 sq.72047 s2 = 3.AREAS AND VOLUMES FOR CALCULATING WEIGHTS OF CASTINGS Rectangle and Parallelogram Area = ab Triangle Area = 1/2 cd. . b = 4".707.37099 r2 4.24922 r2 9. r= Inside radius Area = 1/2 nsr Number Area of Sides 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.59809 s2 = 3.22987 r2 11.82847 s2 = 3. Regular Polygons n = Number of sides.21539 r2 Trapezium Area = 1/2 [a (e + d) bd + ce] Example: a = 10". Square The diagonal of a square = A X 1. b = 3".19616 s2 = 3.
0174533 Rθ 1/2 θ (in degrees) = 28.355 sq.8.SQRT(R2 -(C/2)2 ) Length of Arc.472".472/2 x 5 = 26.66".472" Area = 1/2[(10. θ = 120° L = 0.5))/2 = 15.h)/2 Example: R = 5".355 sq.1416 X 52 X 120/360 . Length of arc L = 0.1073 C2 .32 ) = 71.1416. Spandrel Area = 0. C = Chord. h = Height of Arc. or Area = π R2 X θ/360 = 0. C = 8. or 0.7854 (D2 -d2 ). in.31 Circle θ (the Greek letter Theta) = angle included between radii π (pi) = 3. L = θ/360 x 2 π R = 0. Circumference = πD = 2πR = 2 SQRT(π X Area) Diameter = 2 R = Circumference / π = 2 SQRT(Area/π) Radius = 1/2 D = Circumference / 2 π = SQRT(Area/π) Radius = ((c/2)2 + h2 )/2h Area = 1/4 π D2 = 0.4714 sq. h = 2. θ = 120°.2.66".5" Area = 3.66(5 . in. h = 2.7854 D2 = π R2 Chord = 2 SQRT(h (D .2146 R2 = 0.C(R . 32 Circular Ring Area = 0.0174533 X 5 X 120 = 10. h = R .7854 (D-d)(D+d) Example: D = 10". d = 3" Area = 0. L = Length of Arc. D = Diameter.180 sq. in.1416 X 52 X 120/360 = 26.180 sq. R = Radius.6479 L/R Sine(1/2 θ) = (C/2) / R Sector of a Circle Area = 1/2 LR Example: L = 10. Segment of a Circle Area = πR2 X θ/360 .h)) = 2R X sine 1/2θ Height of Arc.472 X 5) .(8. θ = 120° Area = 3.66(5 . C = 8.0087266 R2 θ Example: R = 5".2.5". in. in.7854 (102 . R = 5" Area = 10.0174533 R θ Area = 1/2 [LR-C (R-h)] Example: R = 5".5)] = 15.
b = 4 Area = 3. (1) Add lengths of dotted lines.4674 Dd2 Sphere Surface = 4 π r2 = 12. (3) Multiply result by "A.6992 Irregular Figures Area may be found as follows: Divide the figure into equal spaces as shown by the lines in the figure." 33 Ring of Circular Cross Section Area of Surface = 4 π2 Rr = 39.1416 ab Example: a = 3.2146 X 32 = 1. h = 4 Area = 2/3 X 3 X 4 = 8 Ellipse Area Tab = πab = 3.7392 Rr2 Volume = 1/4 π2 Dd2 = 2.8696 Dd Volume = 2 π2 Rr2 = 19.1888 r3 Volume = 1/6 π d3 = 0.1416 X 3 X 4 = 37.4784 Rr Area of Surface = π2 Dd = 9.Example: R = 3 Area = 0.5236 d3 . (2) Divide sum by number of spaces.9314 Parabolic Segment Area = 2/3 sh Example: s = 3.5664 r2 = π d2 Volume = 4/3 π r3 = 4.
0472 r2 h = 0.0944 r2 h Cylinder Cylindrical Surface = π dh = 2 πrh = 6.2832 (r + h) Volume = π r2 h = 1/4 πd2 h = 0 7854 d2 h 34 Pyramid A = area of base P = perimeter of base Lateral Area = 1/2 Ps Volume = 1/3Ah Frustum of a Pyramid A = area of base a = area of top m = area of midsection P = perimeter of base p = perimeter of top Lateral Area = 1/2s (P + p) Volume = 1/3h (a + A + SQRT(aA) Volume = 16h (A + a + 4m) Cone Conical Area = πrs = πr SQRT(r2 + h2 ) Volume =1/3 π r2 h = 1.5708 r (4 h + c) Volume = 2/3 πr2 h = 2.Segment of a Sphere Spherical Surface = 2 π rh = 1/4 π(c2 + 4h2 ) = 0.1309 h (3c2 + 4h2 ) Sector of a Sphere Total Surface = 1/2πr (4 h + c) = 1.7854 (c2 + 4h2 ) Total Surface = 1/4π (c2 + 8 rh) = 0.7854 (c2 + 8 rh) Volume = 1/3 π h2 (3 r .2618 d2 h .h) = 1.h) or Volume = 1/24 πh (3c2 + 4h2 ) = 0.0472 h2 (3 r .2832 rh Total Surface = 2 π r (r + h) = 6.
0472 h (R2 + Rr + r2 ) Volume = 1/12 h (D2 + Dd + d2 ) = 0. r = d / 2 Area of Conical Surface = 1/2 πs (D + d) = 1.5708 s (D+d) Volume = 1/3 h (R2 + Rr + r2 ) = 1. One piece pattern.2618 h (D2 + Dd + d2 ) Volume = 1/3h (a + A + SQRT(aA)) = 1/6 h (a + A + 4m) 35 Figure 33.Frustum of a Cone A = area of base a = area of top m = area of midsection R = D / 2. .
452605 0-58-4 36 Figure 35. Clean pattern draw with correct taper. Figure 37. Mold broken due to a lack of taper. Split pattern.Figure 34. Core print construction. Figure 38. .
Figure 36. Calculating casting weight. Chaplet location with pads. Figure 43. Pattern draft. 37 Figure 40. Figure 39. . Distortion allowance in a simple yoke pattern.
Figure 42. and possesses properties that enable it to withstand the effects of molten metals. Plaster patterns and core boxes. and permitting easier patching and finishing of molds. One disadvantage of natural sand is that its properties vary and are not so consistent as desired. Additions of bentonite are sometimes . Silica sand is readily available. 39 Chapter IV SANDS FOR MOLDS AND CORES The principal molding material used in foundries is silica sand. low in cost. long period of time. Figure 44.Figure 41. having a wide working range for moisture. Making a simple plaster pattern. 38 This page is blank. Calculating casting weight.
such as cereal. since the sand can be used limited. Its refractoriness enables it to withstand the intense heat from molten metals. All of limitation of storage space makes the practice of maintaining many special sands impossible. They are made by mixing together the various individual materials that make up a molding sand. However. made to natural sands. the substitute sand will have to be determined before the sand is used in the foundry. and (6) less storage Because storage space aboard repair ships is space is required. In commercial practice. refractoriness. (2) higher make the sand a useful molding material. molding sand for shipboard use. As an example. only a few types of foundry sands. the name synthetic has become established in the foundry industry. The binder maintains the sand in place until the casting is poured and solidified. (4) require less binder. Naturally. A naturally bonded sand has the requirement. the use of an all-purpose sand is ALL-PURPOSE SANDS advantageous in that only one facility for new sand is required for all of the metals cast aboard Sands that are used for a variety of casting sizes and types of metals are called "allship.) A more appropriate name would be "compounded" sands. A synthetic sand used as a base for an all"Sand Properties. obtain the all-purpose sand required.The primary function of any molding material is to maintain the shape of the casting cavity until the molten metal is poured and until the casting solidifies. Such a sand is called "semisynthetic. (See glossary. a coarse-grained advantages of maintaining its moisture content sand suitable for steel castings will produce for a rough surface finishes on lighter nonferrous castings made in the same sand. From this point of view. Surface finish is often not a major a natural sand. This is a minor disadvantage for an all-purpose sand when compared to its advantages for repairship use. some advantages will have to be sacrificed in NATURAL SANDS using one sand for making all types of Natural sands contain only the clay that is castings. additional binders. Synthetic Sand. Its ability to be formed into shapes is attained by the action of naturally occurring clay (clay that is quarried with the sand) or added clay. However. which provide the necessary refractory properties. ." SYNTHETIC SANDS Sands that fall under the designation of "synthetic" sands are not actually synthesized from the various elements. The properties of silica sand that make it useful as a molding material are its refractoriness and its ability to be formed into complicated shapes easily. In different sands are used to cast different metals and different sizes of castings of the same such instances. which may be a naturally occurring clay in the or a washed sand (all of the natural clay sand or an added material such as bentonite or removed). the sand properties discussed in the section. Synthetic sands have the following advantages over naturally bonded sands: (1) bonding of the sand grains by the binder to more uniform grain size. Albany sand is a typical example of castings. The three major parts of a molding sand are: (1) Synthetic sands consist of a naturally the sand grains. but in a shipboard foundry. (5) the various properties MOLDING SANDS are more easily controlled. The major factor that will be already associated with them when mined. occurring sand with a very low clay content. and an added binder. through usage. the various properties of the metal. to designate a sand of this type. and a locally available sand will have to be used. it may be impossible to purpose" sands. sacrificed in this respect is that of surface Such a sand is often used as it is received. Many times. which makes possible the bentonite. with finish. and water. (2) the bonding material. it is to the molder's advantage to stock for many different types of castings. the principal purpose of a only moisture added to obtain the desired shipboard foundry is to produce serviceable properties." apply to natural sands as purpose sand has the requirements for a well as to synthetic and all-purpose sands. and (3) water. (3) mold with less moisture.
The amount and type of binder also have an effect on the permeability of foundry sand. the sand shows a rapid decrease in permeability with increased bentonite content." in this chapter. When water is size relation to fine sand grains as basketballs added in excess of the amount to produce this have to marbles. The other properties include hot strength. The permeability of the coarse sand is and then a decrease with further additions of very high. (5) clay content. Permeability is expressed as a number that increases with an increasing openness of the sand. (3) the amount and type of binder. and collapsibility. and (4) the moisture content. angular and rounded. or steam through the sand. These are also the properties that can be determined by the use of the sand-test equipment aboard ship. Figures 46 and 47 both show an permeability test on the sand retained on each increase in permeability to a maximum value. (2) green strength. There are four factors that control the permeability of foundry sand: (1) fineness of the sand grains. These will be discussed in greater detail. With 2 percent moisture. As a result." incidentally. As the sand grains become smaller. The six properties selected as most important are those with which repair-ship molders should be most familiar.40 SAND PROPERTIES There are a great many properties of sand which are of interest to the production foundryman. The openings between the sand grains in a mold give sand its permeability. Data for this curve were moisture content is caused by the dry clay obtained by screening a given sand through a particles filling the spaces between the sand series of test screens and then making a grains. GREEN PERMEABILITY Green permeability is that property of a molding sand that permits the passage of air. sand with angular grains have a higher permeability than sands with rounded grains. There are two primary shapes of sand grains. made up largely of very small sand permeability over a range of bentonite grains. sintering point. or a coarse sand. Shape of the Sand Grains. Moisture Content. There are sharp edges and corners on the grains. grain-fineness number is given under "Methods for Testing Sands. A sharp sand is simply a sand very low in Clay content. The type of binder also affects large sand grains. This produced when the moisture causes the clay decrease is due to the smaller voids or openings particles to agglomerate or stick together. and (6) grain fineness. (The word "sharp. The rounded sand grains have the appearance of beach pebbles that have been rounded by the action of the sea. This type of information of the grain size of the sands. the excess water begins to . gases. Low permeability at very low is shown by figure 45. The permeabilities are shown for moisture contents of 2 and 4 percent. when applied to molding sands has nothing to do with grain shape. water. The effect of grain shape on the permeability of molding sand is shown in figure 47. Angular grains can be compared to crushed stone. The increase in permeability is the permeability decreases rapidly. screen. Among the most important are: (1) green permeability. The effect of moisture content on permeability was shown in figures The general effect of grain size on permeability 46 and 47. (4) moisture content. The effect of increasing amounts of bentonite on permeability is shown in figure 48. Coarse sand grains have the same general to form a firm piece of soil. Grain fineness is an indication bentonite is reached. sticking together. Sands containing 4 percent moisture show a fairly constant permeability after 4 percent Grain Fineness.) Binder. deformation. (3) dry strength. There are many degrees of roundness or angularity between the two extremes. composed mainly of contents. (2) shape of the sand grains. as shown in figure 49. A detailed description of permeability. It is expressed as indicates that 4 percent of moisture in this a number that tells a molder if he has a fine particular sand would produce the best sand. Sharp angular sand grains cannot pack together as closely as rounded sand grains. This between the individual sand grains for the fine action is similar to the addition of water to dust sand.
angular grains and. BINDERS Binders are the materials added to molding sands to hold the individual sand grains together to provide a usable molding material. have lower permeabilities. ranging from coarse to fine. This shows the advantage of bentonite over fire clay as a binder. As a result. The smaller the size of the sand grains in a given amount of molding sand. the permeability goes down. (Refer to glossary. it can be seen that for any for four different sands. have a stronger bond than the angular sand. The other sands become progressively weaker as they become coarser. the higher will be the green . there is not a large and has the highest green strength for a given change in green strength with a change in the moisture content. fill in the holes between the sand grains and as a result. see the next section. and (4) the moisture content. the bonded mixtures give a higher dry strength. the green strength can be changed over a considerable range by Grain Shape. The other sands. If the moisture content is moisture content. maintained at a given value. dry strength. They are ( 1) grain fineness. Round grains pack together much more green strength. Binder. This is discussed in detail in the section on "Mixing. GREEN STRENGTH Green strength is the strength of molding sand just after it has been tempered. The coarse sand. on the binder.") It is the strength which is required for the handling of the sand during the molding operation and. are shown in figure 46. 41 Green strength is expressed as the number of pounds per square inch required to crush a standard specimen. Green strength. has a high permeability. The area of contact between the adjusting the amount of bentonite. The green strength increases as the sand The change in green strength with a change in changes from a coarse sand to a fine sand. Figure 51 shows the variation in green strength the bentonite content is shown in figures 53 and 55. while the green strength round and angular sands is made in figure 52. (3) the amount and type of binder. Green strength is affected directly by the amount of binder which is added. as a strength due to fire clay decreases rapidly with result. The change in permeability with a other hand. The same factors that control permeability also control the green strength of foundry sand. due to bentonite decreases much less for the same moisture contents. the green strength directly affected by the amount and type of of the finer sand is high. The sand with the highest fineness number (108) is the finest sand given amount of bentonite. The green closely than sharp. having a greater amount of small sand grains and small voids. Mulling practice or mixing practice also affect the green strength of sand.The permeabilities of four typical foundry sands. The numbers shown on the graph are the grain-fineness numbers. Figure 49 shows the effect of bentonite strength is lower. and fire clay on permeability. will have a much smaller contact change in bentonite content is shown in figure area for the same amount of sand." When cereal and dextrine are added to bentonite. For more information on the behavior of different binders. Grain Fineness. having a greater amount of large sand grains and large voids between the grains. (2) shape of the sand grains. and the green 48. "temper. The more The effects of blending western and southern bentonite on the green strength and dry binder used. and permeability the greater will be the area of contact between are the properties of the sand which are the many grains. This action is similar to the addition of water to a firm soil to produce mud. Figure 54 sand grains is also affected by the shape of the shows the effect of fire clay and bentonite on grains. This is illustrated in figure 50. A comparison of the green strengths of increased moisture. In figure 55. A coarse sand. it is the strength which must maintain the shape of the mold. if a mold is poured soon after it is completed.
There is a rather uniform decrease in dry strength with a changeover from western to southern bentonite. The effect of moisture on bentonite through the various mixtures and green strength is similar to its effect on then increases rapidly as the 100 percent permeability. or mixtures illustrated in figures 47 and 53. Different binders. but its influence on sand properties is not so great as that of dextrine. bentonite is widely used for its low dry strength Wheat-flour. The effect of bentonite and fireclay on the green strength is shown in figure 54. molds and cores made with rosin-bonded sands should be used as soon after baking as possible. strength of a sand with an AFS Fineness Number of 50 to 60 are shown in figure 56. for instance. for a given moisture addition of small amounts of binder. As a result. cereal. contributes and the resulting easy shakeout of castings. However. or rosin) also affects the green strength of molding sand. This shows the first additions of water. The use of sand-testing equipment periodically to measure these properties of molding sands enables the GRAIN FINENESS molder to make appropriate additions to the The effect of fineness of a foundry sand is sand before it has deteriorated to the point discussed under the various other properties. It is important to realize that the effects of all cereal 42 binders are not the same in influencing the properties of molding sands. Molasses can be used as a substitute for dextrine.strength. Rosin binders are commercial byproducts that are used principally as core binders or in sand mixes for dry sand molds. The apparently obvious cause of a defect may not be the actual factor causing that defect. The type of binder used (clay. Because of this characteristic. where it must be discarded. dextrines also cause a reduction in the green strength of the sand mixture. REBUILDING OF SANDS The binder in foundry sands is burned out by the heat of the molten metal. corrections can be made by the and lower permeability. but improves the collapsibility of a sand. This is use of the two different bentonites. The cereal binders example. If a continuous Briefly. The green strength increases with southern bentonite bond is used. Dextrine binders are a form of sugar and produce a much higher dry strength than do cereal binders. dextrine. This interdependence of properties must be kept in mind constantly. The low dry strength of southern bentonite is especially advantageous DRY STRENGTH when a sand mixture having good collapsibility is required. The permeability decreases because of the increase in fines in the sand. and then starts to decrease. Southern a decided improvement in the dry strength. of the two bentonites. A cornflour binder southern bentonite produces a high green slightly improves the green strength and makes strength and a low dry strength. and content. and more and binder content. The green strength increases slightly from 100 percent western Moisture Content. but has the disadvantage that it absorbs moisture on standing. as shown in figure 53. affected in the same way as green strength by grain fineness. when The dry strength of sand mixtures is generally casting alloys that are apt to hot tear easily. For or modify the clay binders. and in many cases it is a combination of sand properties that leads to a defect. very little to green strength. each other. on the other hand. are wheat and corn flours. uniform day-to-day properties can be . reaches a maximum the difference in properties that result from the strength. a fine sand will have a higher strength check is made. the green strength of the sand becomes lower and the permeability decreases as the sand is reused. and moisture Other binders (such as cereal. in comparison with western bentonite. dextrine. than will a coarse sand. especially when trying to determine the cause of casting defects due to sand. grain shape. can affect rosin) are often used as additives to augment dry strength and green strength differently. however. A rosin-bonded sand has a very hard surface when baked.
repair ships should be consulted for proper operating instructions. a casting is an indication of too high a hot The literature supplied with the mullers aboard strength. and shows up in the sand lacks adequate collapsibility. which is the strength of molding sand gives a much weaker bond than bentonite. The best results are In this discussion of sand properties. The hot and facing sands be mixed in a muller. The use of a muller to mix and rebond sands is essential to when shaking out a casting. and also a lack of collapsibility. that permits a sand mold or core to crumble when it is subjected to the forces exerted by a MIXING contracting casting. Properties of sands . by observation. the 43 sand mixed for a suitable period of time. hot strength and Additions of new binder may be as little as collapsibility are two properties which are one-third to one-half percent of the sand by important to the foundryman. but general necessary to obtain the maximum benefits. MIXING TIMES USED IN properties can be attained in the molding sand SOME OF THE COMMON TYPES OF with a minimum of bonding materials such as MULLER MIXERS bentonite. except through sands. It is especially important that core sands very close control of sand processing. The effect before solidification of the metal starts. Research Laboratory. Hot strength is necessary in a required will depend on the type of binder and sand mixture to retain the shape of the mold on the manner in which it is added. The total mixing time after the foundries is a "compounded" or "synthetic" water additions should be approximately as sand that has been developed by the Naval shown in table 7. cornstarch. Sand properties for an all-purpose sand having an AFS Fineness Number of 63 are discussed in Type of Size Mixing Mixing the following section. A determinations of these properties can be made much larger percentage of binder is required if the sand is mixed manually with a shovel. and dextrine. Hot of fire clay and bentonite as binders is shown strength should not be confused with retained in figures 49 and 54. The two properties of hot strength and collapsibility go hand in hand. The determination of hot strength and collapsibility is impossible with the When rebonding sands. but this combination is difficult to attain. it is obvious that all of the various factors affecting obtained by mixing the dry sand and dry bond the properties of molding sand are dependent for at least one minute. Collapsibility is the property same strength as a bentonite-bonded sand. A hot tear in production of better castings. the use of a muller is sand-testing equipment aboard ship. A part of the temper water is then added. The Mulling Sand. This operation distributes the bond evenly throughout the on sand. but the mixing of all sands in a muller provides a more strength and collapsibility of the sand can be checked by observing the condition of the sand uniform day-to-day operation. A wide range of TABLE 7. the ALL-PURPOSE SAND balance of the temper water added. The actual amount of binder molten metals. and after it has been heated and permitted to cool to would require a larger addition to attain the room temperature. To obtain the maximum properties from a molding sand. a muller ideal foundry sand would have a high hot should be used for the mixing of all foundry strength and good collapsibility. and one cannot be discussed without the other. then the good sand control. Note that the fire clay strength. Hot strength is weight if additions are made frequently and the strength that a molding sand has when it is are made as shown necessary by test at the pouring temperature of the various information. In a molding sand. and mixing The all-purpose sand that is used in Navy completed.OTHER PROPERTIES maintained. If the sand is difficult to remove from deep pockets.
there is a rapid increase in green strength with the first binders over the individual sand grains by a additions of moisture. thoroughly after each addition. and then a gradual kneading and smearing action. The increased amount of binder The relationships between green compressive required in a hand-mixed sand also results in a strength. and also give information on the particular combinations of binder and The binder should be added to the sand heap in moisture to use in a new mix to obtain certain small amounts in the dry condition and mixed desired properties. and a permeability of 95. Situations may arise when bentonite and moisture contents. Preferably. In same green strength. This graphical method of presenting the Speedmullor 3 1/2 1 information is used so that the interrelation of A mixing time longer than those listed in table the various properties can be easily seen. smaller amount of binder than does a handmixed sand.Mixer of Time Batch. the mulled sands require a obtained for the various bentonite and moisture contents. This is The relationships between green compressive shown in figure 57. Minutes Time for Backing Sand.s. Reference to figure 58 shows that this change could be made by increasing the bentonite content to 5 percent Clearfield Mulbaro 4 3 5 5 3 3 . the As an example.) PROPERTIES OF A 63 AFS FINENESS NUMBER SAND The principal properties (green strength. it should be done preferably the day before the sand is to be used. After the binder has been added and dry mixing completed. The mulling times to determine the time needed to green strength of the sand increases with attain the maximum green strength. moisture content. and that it had a green with a sprinkling can while the sand is being mixed. no matter how thoroughly it is done. increased amounts of bentonite. a strength is too low. and 51. permeability. moisture content. for cu ft Facing Sand.i.5 p. sand properties. lower permeability than in a mulled sand of the and dry strength are shown in figure 59. On completion of the mixing operation. 7 does not increase the green strength. compressive strength of 4. minutes having higher or lower AFS Fineness Numbers (finer or coarser sands) will generally vary as described in the section on Sand Properties. and it is desired to increase hand-mixed sand should be covered with wet the green strength without changing the burlap bags and permitted to stand overnight. and dry strength) of a 63 AFS Simpson 5 1/2 5 3 Fineness sand are shown in figures 58 and 59. bentonite content. When and 59 provide information on the direction in which changes can be made to correct the such mixing is necessary. 46. bentonite content. the broken lines show the dry strengths that are obtained with the various Manual Mixing. a series of tests for green strength after various and permeability are shown in figure 58. Figures 58 mulling of sand is impossible and manual mixing of the sand will have to be done. permeability. Such decrease in green strength as the moisture distribution of the binder is impossible to content is increased. In addition to distributing 58 show the various permeabilities that are the binder uniformly. Assume that this sand is the sand should be passed through a three or found to be unsatisfactory because the green four-mesh riddle and permitted to stand (or temper) for at least a few hours. It is good practice to make strength. figure 59. (See figures 45. The broken lines in figure achieve by manual operation. 50. Notice that for Mulling of sand distributes the clay and other each bentonite content. assume that a sand was temper water should be added a little at a time prepared with 4 percent bentonite and 4 percent moisture.
5 p.. 3. There will be some overlapping of the indicated areas because of differences in sand-grain distributions within sands having the same fineness numbers. and dry strength. previous sand may be used for the new sand.. a complete series of may have a similar fineness number and the tests should be conducted on the new lot of same type of binder.s. This figure should TABLE 8.5 percent moisture. This new combination of bentonite and moisture contents would provide a sand that has a green strength of 7 p.5 to 5 p. 4. it can be seen that this change in moisture and binder contents will probably cause a decrease in dry strength of only 10 p.s. the dry strength will be decreased to approximately 90 p. not be taken to mean that there is a sharp separation between the properties of the different classes of sands. shown in figure 60. This change in moisture would produce only a small increase in the green strength from 4.. 2. but decreasing the moisture content to 3 percent.44 and reducing the moisture content to 3 percent. References to figure 59 shows that by keeping the bentonite content at 4 percent. SAND MIXES FOR GRAY IRON CASTINGS Sand Materials.i. When referring to these figures. The final information is then plotted to produce graphs similar to those shown in figures 58 and 59.i. and increase the permeability from 85 to 105. When a new shipment of sand is received aboard ship. it must be remembered that only bentonite was considered as a binder. 1. This procedure is then repeated for the remaining bentonite contents. This would indicate that the dry strength might possibly be too high. permeability of 90. reducing the dry strength from 110 to 100 p. s.i. These figures should not be used as an However. As a second example.s. Other materials can also be added as binders to improve green strength or dry strength. sand. Conducting such a series of tests and putting the information in graphical form would be a useful and informative way of conducting shipboard instruction periods. Listed in the following tables are various The green compressive strength of sands of the examples of sand mixes that may be used as a various grain class numbers that are to be used starting point in preparing all-purpose sand for in shipboard foundries will vary generally as use aboard repair ships. and 6 percent moisture can be tested for green strength. assume that a sand was prepared with 4 percent bentonite and 4. It is recommended that a test series (such as that required to produce the information for figures 58 and 59) be made on each new shipment of sand before it is used in the foundry. Figures 58 and 59 were sand to develop a complete picture of the based on information obtained from a particular properties of the new sand. a few spot tests can be made to determine how the new lot of sand compares with the previous lot. This sand would probably have a green compressive strength of 4. permeability.i. The information is developed by making a series of sand mixtures having different bentonite (or other binder) contents and different moisture contents.s. if there is a significant difference in indication of properties for all other sands that the physical properties.i. and a dry strength of 120 p. Assume that this sand is found to cause difficulties in shake-out or to cause hot tearing in the casting. 5.i. with the permeability still at 95. From figure 59. percent by weight Properties Casting . As an example. and are used here mainly to show a method of presenting sand-property information MOLDING SAND MIXES in a condensed and usable form.s. The effects of these other binders were discussed in the section on binders. A second series of sand mixes containing 3 percent of bentonite and the same moisture contents can be tested to obtain the same properties.s. the charts developed for the Another word of caution on figures 58 and 59. If the properties are reasonably close. a series of 2 percent bentonite sand mixes with 1/2.
SAND MIXES FOR STEEL CASTINGS Sand Materials. Strength ability lb p. Properties Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Cereal Other Water Class Number Green 4 70-100 95.5 Coal 8. percent by weight Properties .5 1.0 1. SAND MIX FOR ALUMINUM CASTINGS Sand Materials.9.0 1.s.i.0 .4Sea 5.5 3. percent by weight Properties Type Casting Weight.3 2.5 . Green 4 4 70-100 70-100 89. 0 100-140 20.s.2 110 76 1-30 150800 Skin dried 4 3 70-100 45.5 5. percent by weight Casting Weight.2 5.6.0 4. 5 50-70 94.0 6.0 5.53.4 5.7 5. SAND MIXES FOR COPPER-BASE ALLOYS Casting Weight.0-12.7.s.0 60-70 7.8 0.0-10.0 97.0--5.0 4.8 Fireclay 1.7.0 30-50 to 2000 to 2000 Sand Materials.i.0 120 to 500 Green Facing Sand Green Backing Sand Skin dried Used heap 5 50-70 97.Weight.1 0.i.5 7. Green 4 3 70-100 95.0 2. Green Permelb Strength ability p.0 5. 9 45 TABLE 9.5 4.0 3.0 3.5 .3 10.0 4.5 3.0 4.i. Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Cereal Other Water Green Permelb Class Number Strength ability p.0 50-100 to 200 TABLE 11.3 94.7 4.0 5.0 120 to 500 95.5 3.5 90-120 100 and over TABLE 10.6 4. Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Cereal Other Water Green Permelb Class Number Strength ability p.5 0.Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Cereal Other Class Number Water Green Perme.0 1.0 4.0 .0 8.s.54.5 5. 0 70-80 60 and over 100-140 45.04.
Hold their shape before and during the baking period. The true if storage of cores is necessary.5 Silica Flour 7. Have hot strength that is sufficient to avoided. Produce as little gas as possible when will probably vary somewhat from those listed. 0 15. Continuing at its pouring temperature. there is need for free circulation of air around and through molding sands in the section "Sand Properties. pouring temperature and during the beginning stages of solidification. Have hardness sufficient to resist the eroding action of flowing molten metal. tendency for this to happen in large cores can be partly overcome by filling the center of the 11.0 40-80 Special purpose The sand mixes given in the preceding tables 2. Cores used aboard repair ships are usually baked sand cores.0 4. Baked sand cores should have 6. If the temperature is maintained. Absorb a minimum amount of moisture if until it finally reaches maximum strength. Other types (such as green 5. CORES 4. This also holds may be overbaked and low in strength. The outer surface of a core will bake 9. There are three major factors which influence the properties of cores." the core while baking. the baking of the cores to the point where the bonding material decomposes must be 8. 1.0-12. The properties obtained with the all-purpose sands aboard ship 3. and by using low CORE PROPERTIES baking temperatures. they will be much weaker. the inside will continue to bake 10.0 1. sand cores) have limited use and are not discussed here. by the use of well-perforated core plates. Retain its strength properties during storage core with highly permeable material with a and withstand breakage during handling.0 5. but the mold is required to stand a considerable by that time. are given only as a guide.Used heap 75. maximum strength.. 46 7. Thus. The size of the core must be considered in drying.0 5. Be sufficiently permeable to permit the easy escape of gases formed during pouring.0 4 70-100 80. the properties discussed for supplying it with oxygen. Bake rapidly and thoroughly. but also of preceding section. Have surface properties which will prevent the following properties: metal penetration. It is not only a matter of In addition to the special properties listed in the heating the center of the core. They are (1) baking The most skillful and careful preparation of metal and mold can easily be canceled by careless technique. and the necessity for . low moisture and bond content. Have good collapsibility so the core won't readily and will be the first part to develop cause hot tears or cracks in the casting. molten metal comes in contact with the core. also apply to core sands. as this causes the cores to lose withstand the weight of the molten metal at the strength. Be resistant to the heat contained in the metal 500°F. the outer surface of a large core period of time before pouring.
baking temperature of 300°F. 5-inch. Excessive stress. First. When it has turned a uniform nut brown. and a darker color indicates overbaking. a uniform taken out of the oven and cooled. The volume of core gas generated from a linseed-oil cereal binders are used in combination with compound and an oil-pitch mixture. core surface. strength of cores before using a new core mix.to which they are baked.. The core oil to produce the desired strength. for varying predetermined times.. causing drying and partial oxidation of the oil. If cores are not properly baked. Entrapped dirt due to eroded or spalled sand caused by low strength in baking time and temperature on the baked the core. 450°F... thus ovens used. temperature. the following is likely to happen to the casting: 47 core. and (3) collapsibility. In the baking of oil sand cores. Dextrine greatly increases the strength of baked cores and is used in small amounts with other binders. (2) type of core binder. Following this. and (3) the type of core from the heat of the metal. possibly cracks. varies with: (1) the type of binder used. they should temperature is desired. but then the generation of gas from . as was attained in six hours at a not baked out. Dextrine-bonded cores have the disadvantage that they absorb moisture very Type of Core Binder. and 8-inch cube cores should be made without rods and baked at temperatures of 400°F. therefore. (2) the caused by the core continuing to bake ratio of oil to sand. Figure 61 shows the dependence increasing in strength at the time the of the baked strength on baking time and metal is freezing and contracting. 425°F. nor under 375°F. the temperature rises. The type of core binder easily and. Figure 62 shows the and hold it together until it is baked. It is always good practice to make a series of tests on the effect of 3. the strength of the core is developed. Unsoundness caused by core gases at 450°F. first minute. A practical method is to observe the color of the proper baking cannot be overemphasized. 475°F. should not be stored for is important from the viewpoint of gasany length of time before being used. and dextrine are cereal binders. To establish a full appreciation of the problems of drying cores. This simple test will oil cores are baked at a moderate temperature of aid in determining the proper times and 375°F. After being For proper baking of oil-sand cores. the loss of strength of the mix. Such information will provide the shortest baking time to obtain a given strength for that When overbaked. The best combination of baking time and temperature 1.time and temperature. and 500°F.. A lighter color indicates insufficient baking. the moisture is driven off. If temperatures to use for various cores in a the same cores are baked quickly at given oven and under given atmospheric conditions. Corn generating properties as well as the strength the flour is used to give the core green strength binder will develop. and cutting or eroding of the core oven. This type of investigation will also provide core results in excessive breakage in handling information on the baking characteristics of a or during casting.. They volume generated by both is the same for the are rarely used by themselves. Practice is necessary to determine accurately when a core is baked properly. If linseed. This temperature should be cut open with a saw to determine the extent not be over 500°F. In this way. Baking Time and Temperature. or 400°F. a series of 3-inch. two things occur. It will be noted that the same strength was attained in one hour when baking 2. they will be quite strong. it is usually properly baked.
(5) quick drying. can be obtained with the individual binders. and some natural sand deposits containing clay may be used. the core sand mixture reclaimed backing sand may be used for definitely is too strong at high temperatures and facing. Sugar or made from clean. or some natural clays may be used. Used with dextrine. before any materials are added. Cereal binders have the following advantages that make them very useful binder materials: (1) good green strength. The corn flour maybe Standard Materials. since core gas is generated for a much shorter length of time and the possibility of defects due to core gas is lessened. it is added used aboard ship does not permit the highto the core mix as part of the temper water temperature testing of cores for collapsibility. in a sand mixture containing core oil cores good strength. whereas. A during the mulling operation. One important point in the mixing of a minimum and the amount of good clean sand core sand mixtures is to have the sand dry grains to a maximum. A core oil having gas-generating characteristics similar to those of linseed oil is preferred. (2) good dry bond. Molasses should be mixed with water to form a thin solution known as Collapsibility. and (4) give example. the contributes most of the baked strength. The fineness of the sand is determined Wherever substitutes must be used. materials. For (3) work clean in the core boxes. fireclay. Core sand mixtures are replaced with ordinary wheat flour. Notice that the strength obtained by measure. A core that is still very hard high temperatures caused by the molten metal. If a crack should later be observed in the cored If new washed silica sand is not available. mixture. If bentonite is not available. some fine building sands. during shakeout is said to lack collapsibility. and (6) fast and complete burn out. area of the casting. relatively free from crustaceous is to add about 2 percent of wood flour to the matter and feldspar. and properties. The strength attained substitute materials must be used. Substitute from a cereal-oil combination is shown in materials should be used only as an emergency figure 63. They have the following advantages over other types of binders: (1) Combinations of several binders can be used to ability to coat the individual sand grains obtain a better overall combination of green evenly with a reasonable amount of mixing. Pitch is seldom rule-of-thumb practice must be followed in used alone. dextrine. Sea coal in small must be made in shaking out a casting to amounts is used with pitch to prevent the pitch determine if the core mix had good from rehardening after it has cooled from the collapsibility. the core oil Substitute Materials. Silica flour is usually commercial core oils. The sand-testing equipment "molasses water. One remedy dune sands. binders. This is situation may arise where they standard core the reason for using combinations of cereal materials are unavailable. it imparts determining this property. Close observation good strength to a core mix. while the generation of gas by the oil-pitch mixture decreases at a much lower rate. (3) effective in angular sand. (4) core oil is not absorbed as in naturally bonded sands. strength. Corn flour 48 . Silica flour and wood The materials used for binders are primarily flour are added to core mixtures to get special corn flour. the amount by the size of the core and the metal being of organic materials and clay should be kept to poured. Aboard repair ships. and cereal binder. dry silica sands and various molasses will take the place of dextrine. Core oils are used to provide a hard strong core after baking. raw linseed oil.linseed oil decreases rapidly." In this condition. baked strength. if properly bonded. Some beach or the sand mix should be corrected. Other Core Materials. the cereal binder contributes most of the green strength. In such cases. binder with oil binders. Molasses and pitch are two materials the combination is higher than the total which can be obtained easily for use as core strengths of the individual binders. CORE SAND MATERIALS portland cement. and hot strength than (2) generate a small amount of smoke and gas.
5 5. (3) run the mixture dry for a short time. Many of the binders are added in very binders without the liquids will cause the batch small amounts.0 100 to 1000 lb New 4 70-100 98.5 5. percent by weight Use in Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Core Cereal Silica Molasses Other Water Castings Class Number Oil Flour Water(3:1) New 4 New 4 70-100 70-100 98. the additions are made in the following order with the mixer running: (1) sand. They are given Mulling time has the same effect on core sand primarily as a guide to obtain good core mixes as on molding sand.0 General castings Thin .added to prevent metal penetration and erosion of cores by molten metal. In the mixing of core sands.0 1.5 10. (4) add liquids. and a longer length of time operation can distribute the binder uniformly will be needed to bring the core mix to its throughout the sand. percent by weight Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Core Cereal Silica Molasses Class Number Oil Flour Water(3:1) New 4 70-100 98. The following tables suggest various representative core mixes. the maximum properties from the various Excessive mixing of the sand with cereal binders.0 5. CORE SAND MIXES FOR STEEL CASTINGS Sand Materials. the batch should not be some other type of mechanical mixer to obtain mixed too long before adding the liquids. and (5) continue to mix for the desired period of time. If Core sands should be mixed in a muller or cereal binder is used.5 0.0 General castings TABLE 14. shovel requires the addition of much more binder to obtain the desired properties. as is shown in figure for work aboard repair ships. and only a thorough mixing to become sticky. TABLE 13.3 0. Silica flour must be used carefully and not used in excess. Its use is that of softening or weakening a core so that it has better collapsibility.0 0.5 0.5 0. Laboratory tests have shown that if the core oil is added to the sand before the water and MIXING mixed for a short period of time. Excessive use may lead to hot tears because of too high a hot strength. The proper mulling time should be determined for each mix used.0 General small castings TABLE 15. and CORE SAND MIXES results are not consistent.5 1.0 1. percent by weight Use in Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Core Cereal Silica Molasses Other Water Castings Class Number Oil Flour Water(3:1) New 5 50-70 88.5 0. Wood flour is not a binder but a filler material.2 99.0 0. CORE SAND MIXES FOR ALUMINUM CASTINGS Sand Materials.0 0.0 1. (2) dry ingredients.0 5. CORE SAND MIXES FOR GRAY IRON CASTINGS Sand Materials.5 Use in Other Water Castings 5. 57. Manual mixing of core sands is to be discouraged. more consistent core properties will be obtained. Manual mixing with a proper condition.
percent by weight Use in Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Core Cereal Silica Molasses Other Water Castings Class Number Oil Flour Water(3:1) New 5 50-70 95. CORE SAND MIXES FOR COPPER-BASE ALLOYS Sand Materials. then water is of the regular core wash. 3 of plumbago and molasses water.5 0. a core wash made added to produce a mixture the consistency of from a silica base is satisfactory. sections may be made from 3 percent bentonite. thereby not only saving Weight percent time but also preventing casting losses.7 0. and indicates to the molder how the molding sands. Regular sand testing penetration into the sand. CORE SAND MIX FOR COPPER CASTINGS Sand Materials. Silica flour 64. 6 percent dextrine. This material is pressed into the METHODS FOR TESTING SAND cracks between the core sections to prevent The testing of foundry sands should not be a metal penetration. A plumbago soft putty. with silica flour replacing the sand properties behave. the green or air-dried sand mixtures will produce excellent casting A very good core paste for use in joining core surfaces without use of the wash. and water penetration are problems.sections 49 TABLE 16.0 1.5 3. The following mix results in a day-to-day record of sand contains the same bonding material as the properties. and 94 percent silica flour.0 100 lbs and over New 4 70-100 98. wash is useful for bronze castings. added to make a mixture with the consistency of stiff putty. In brass castings. percent by weight Use in Other Water Castings 4. Proper interpretation sand.0 TEST-SPECIMEN PREPARATION Bentonite 1. Such a percent dextrine.0 1.5 .5 General purpose TABLE 17.0 1.3 CORE PASTE AND FILLER In most cases. series of tests for obtaining a great deal of MOLD AND CORE WASHES meaningless information. may be made from a paste core may be made from 3 percent bentonite. and 91 percent silica flour. Regular sand testing along with records of the results is the one Core and mold washes may be needed in some way of establishing the cause of casting cases to prevent erosion of the sand and metal defects due to sand. and with sodium benzoate added to of the results of sand tests permits the molder prevent the mixture from becoming sour.5 0.0 Type Grain Fineness Sand Bentonite Core Cereal Silica Molasses Class Number Oil Flour Water(3:1) New 4 70-100 98. where erosion and The ingredients should be mixed dry. to make corrections to the sand before it is rammed up in molds. treatment should be followed by a thin coating The ingredients are mixed dry.5 4. A core wash for use with high-lead alloys and A filler to seal the cracks between parts of the phosphor bronzes.
The tube with the pedestal is carefully in the compression head. the motor automatically reverses itself fall. The rammer is raised slowly by the affects the test results. since the rate of motion of the arm the sand. If the specimen is of the the rider on the appropriate scale. the motor-driven mechanism or by hand. and permitted to breaks. The sand is then placed in the should be used only when absolutely necessary. which rests on the specimenCare should be taken to seat the specimen container pedestal. care must be taken to The rammer is lowered gently into the maintain a slow and uniform speed of specimen tube until the rammer is supported by operation. released. such as graphite. If the end of the rider will remain at the position attained by the rammer rod is not within the tolerance. With hand have been applied. and the operating condition at all times. the arm is returned manually when should be between the 1/32 inch tolerance the specimen is seen to break. on sand-testing equipment. The the broken specimens must be completely type of rammer supplied for shipboard use is removed from the equipment after each test.0 50 specimen tube.A sample of sand. the rammer rod should be lifted equipment must be maintained in good carefully to clear the specimen tube. The sand should be placed on a flat rigid plate and dried specimen. at least one quart in volume. or it may be brushed on the dried a rammed sample 2 inches high. If hand operation is used. When the specimen cam to the full 2-inch height. The testing correct height. the arm when the break occurred. This is repeated until a total of three rams and returns to its bottom position. "Test-Specimen Preparation.3 1/4 inch mesh riddle or the size of riddle used The dry material should be mixed thoroughly in in the foundry." After the specimen is The equipment for the permeability made and removed from the stripping post. The sand should be riddled through a Water 31. Care should be taken to keep the the compression head. and permitted to drop. and the mixture stirred thoroughly. is placed in the for at least two hours. The For test specimen for determining dry strength specimen is prepared as described in the is prepared as described in the section "Testprevious section. should be taken from various sections of the Sodium benzoate 0.2 sand heap and from a depth of at least six inches. and 230°F. and the arm is raised by tube upright so as not to lose any of the sand. a closed container. Drying is done at a mercury well with the sand specimen in the top temperature between 220°F. still in the tube." Specimen Preparation. When cooled to room temperature in a container that the water column in the manometer becomes will prevent moisture pickup by the dry . shown in figure 64. The top of the rammer rod operation. The magnetic marks for control work. A small then placed under the rammer. The water is then added. The position. The mixture Enough tempered sand is weighed out to make is sprayed onto the green core like paint and then baked. and sand from specimen tube removed from the pedestal. and error. Pay special attention to keeping grains of sand and dirt out of the bearings. as shown in magnetic rider is placed on the scale against figure 64. It must be allowed to dry thoroughly in air or be baked in an oven. it determination is shown in figure 65. The proper amount of sand can be determined by trial and core or mold. The green specimen must be discarded and a new test compressive strength is read from the back of specimen made. The air chamber is raised to its proper specimen is removed from the oven and position. The permeability of foundry sand is determined by measuring the rate of flow of air under a DRY STRENGTH standard pressure through a standard specimen 2 inches high by 2 inches in diameter. The same riddle size should be used for all sand tests. Use only dry PERMEABILITY lubricants. Dextrine 3.
The loss in previous test.0 20 0 settle for 10 minutes a second time. part of the test apparatus shown in figure 66. It is good practice to take permeability readings on three different specimens from the same lot of sand and to average the readings.Clay Content: 5. A representative 50-gram sample of most useful in foundry sand control in repair tempered sand is placed in the -special pan. is rotated until the edge of the scale is opposite the top of the water column. the permeability scale. ship foundries. permeability test is suitable if not damaged in the pan is removed and weighed. The sample is placed in the jar carefully weighed and recorded.20 0. The grain shown in figure 68 with 475 cc of distilled fineness number is then calculated as shown in water and 25 cc of standard sodium hydroxide table 18. The specimen used for the set time interval. The contents Grams Percent of the jar should be well stirred by hand and None 0. which is on the curved part of the indicator. the solution agitated and allowed to None 0. The water 30 is siphoned off a second time to a depth of 1 40 0. Setting the timer and then stripped from the tube with the automatically starts the dryer. The timer described under "Test-Specimen Preparation. compression head.65 1. as described. The jar is Retained then filled with distilled water to a depth of six on Screen inches from the bottom of the jar. The face of the sand specimen which was the CLAY CONTENT top face when the specimen was rammed A representative sample is obtained from the should be placed against the right-hand sand which is to be tested for clay content." switch is set for 3 minutes. (The assembled sand.2 percent stirrer is then removed from the jar and any Screen Amount Multiplier Product adhering sand washed into the jar. The specimen is then tested in the same manner as described for obtaining green strength in the section "Green Strength. after which the water is siphoned off .4 30 12 inch. The jar containing the sand sample and solution is assembled with the stirrer and Size of Sample: 50 grams stirred for five minutes.11.3 40 52 agitated and permitted to settle for a 5-minute 70 1. Water is added a third time.8 percent washing equipment is shown in figure 69. The reading on the scale at this point is the permeability for control purposes. The sand is then thoroughly dried and a 50gram 51 sample taken. The water 6 is then siphoned off to a depth of 1 inch. After drying is complete. The sand specimen is placed weight multiplied by two is the percent of between the compression heads on the lower moisture in the tempered sand. the solution 50 0. The standard sodium hydroxide TABLE 18.0 10 0 6 inches.) The Sand Grains: 44. which runs for stripping post. MOISTURE The moisture content of molding sands is determined with the apparatus shown in figure Green compressive strength is the property 67.1 grams . and should not be permitted to stand for any appreciable length of time before testing.20 2.) GREEN STRENGTH specimen.9 grams .steady." The specimen should be tested as soon as it has cooled to room temperature.0 3 0 then allowed to settle for 10 minutes.4 50 120 period.88. solution.0 5 0 Distilled water is then added again to a depth of 20 None 0. measures green permeability. 12 None 0. (The test. CALCULATION OF GRAIN solution is made by dissolving 30 grams of FINENESS NUMBER sodium hydroxide in distilled water and diluting to 1000 cc. The specimen is prepared as which is then placed in the holder.
The sand is dried thoroughly in the base. Clay content and the shape of sand grains also influence the sand properties. . and the distribution does affect the permeability and potential strength of the sands. The dry sand is weighed.2 = 173 A better method for comparing sands is to compare them by the actual amounts retained on each screen.2 15243 Grain Fineness Number = Total Product / Total Percent of Retained Grain = 15243/88. Notice that although both sands have the same grain fineness number.8 70 100 140 200 315 1710 3094 4360 Pan 9. and may differ in sands having the same grain fineness number. the solution agitated. Distilled water is added to a depth of 6 inches. and the procedure repeated until the solution is clear after the 5-minute settling period. can help the molder to determine the causes of casting defects. The sample for determining the grain fineness number should be washed of all clay as described under "Clay Content. green strength increased. and point the way toward corrective measures. The determination would then give a false value. fineness fine pinholes. Day-byday testing of foundry sands provides the molder with information which enables him to keep the molding sand in proper condition. Possible defects: blisters. the size distribution of the grains is different. SUMMARY The need for proper sand control through the use of sand-test equipment cannot be stressed too strongly.5 17. A 50-gram sample of the sand is then screened through a series of standard sieves. There is only one way to determine the properties of molding sands and core sands.10 88.25 8.1 21. Two sands have been plotted for grain distribution. due to differences in their grain-size distribution. misruns. green strength decreased. A method for plotting this type of information is shown in figure 70." and thoroughly dried. The sand remaining on each screen should be 100 140 200 270 2. along with appropriate comments as to the type of castings made and any defects which may occur. permitted to settle for 5 minutes. GRAIN FINENESS Grain fineness is expressed as the grain fineness number and is used to represent the average grain size of a sand.again. The weight lost multiplied by two is the percent of AFS clay in the sand. the result will not be a true clay content. The recording of these test results.05 10. since sea coal and other additives will be removed along with the clay. Possible defects: rough coarse casting surface and metal penetration. The glass cylinder is then removed from the base of the jar so as to leave the sand in the base. If clay determinations are made on used sand. the various factors affecting sand are tabulated below with the results produced in the sand. and that is to make tests. As a summary to the chapter on foundry sand. Sand too Permeability increased. Two sands may have the same grain fineness number and still differ widely in permeability. Grain fineness numbers. and scabs. do not tell the molder the distribution of grain sizes.1 22.90 4. however. blowholes.55 11.6 300 5580 Total 44. 452605 0-58-5 52 Molding Sand Factor Variation Effect Grain Sand too Permeability reduced.30 18. siphoned off to a depth of 1 inch. The number is useful in comparing sands.
cuts. Figure 50. dirt. washes. Figure 48. Possible defects: hot cracks. Possible defects: drops. Possible defects: drops. rat tails. pin holes. Figure 46. washes. Permeability and green strength too low. results in decreasing permeability. and metal penetration. cuts. binder increasing green strength. and dirty castings. Permeability as affected by the amount of binder. The effect of bentonite and fireclay on permeability. Permeability as affected by the grain size of sand. Permeability and green strength decreased. Low green strength and high permeability. and stickers. washes. Permeability as affected by sand fineness and moisture. scabs. Figure 49. cuts. and scabs. Too little binder Moisture Too high content Too low 53 Figure 45. tears. Green strength as affected by the . Possible defects: blows.Binder Too much Accompanied by too little moisture.
54 Figure 51. The effect of bentonite on sands with various moisture contents.fineness of sand. Green strengths of sands with varying fineness numbers. The effect of bentonite and fireclay on green strength of foundry sand. . Green strength as affected by the shape of sand grains. Figure 54. Figure 52. Figure 47. Figure 55. The effect of sand grain shape on permeability.
Green strength as affected by mulling time. Green strength as affected by moisture and varying bentonite contents. Figure 56. 55 Figure 57. The effect of western and southern bentonite on green strength and dry strength.Figure 53. .
Figure 58. Relationship between moisture content bentonite content. and permeability for an all-purpose sand of 63 AFS fineness number. 56 . green compressive strength.
Strength of baked cores as affected by baking time and baking temperatures. Figure 61. Relationship between moisture content. bentonite content.Figure 59. General green compressive strengths for sands of different grain class numbers. and dry strength for an all-purpose sand of 63 AFS fineness number. Figure 60. green compressive strength. .
57 Figure 62. 58 . Core gas generated by two different core binders. Figure 63. Rammer used for test specimen preparation. Figure 64. The effect of single binders and combined binders on the baked strength of cores.
59 . Figure 68. Permeability test equipment. Figure 66. Strength testing equipment. Jar and stirrer for washing sand. Figure 67. Equipment for drying sand specimens for moisture determination.Figure 65.
Figure 69. 60 . The difference in sand grain distribution for two foundry sands having the same grain-fineness number. Sand washing equipment assembled. Figure 70.
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