P. 1
Transpersonale Psychologie Und Psychotherapie - 1996 Vol.1

Transpersonale Psychologie Und Psychotherapie - 1996 Vol.1

|Views: 75|Likes:
Published by spiritsnake
Mark Waldmann: Transpersonale Psychologie:
Definitionen, Beschreibungen und Konzepte 4
Joachim Galuska: Transpersonale stationäre Psychotherapie 23
Rudolf Hämmerli: Das Geheimnis der Zeit 35
Ludwig Frambach: Von der Unfähigkeit des Intellekts,
das Absolute zu erkennen,
oder der Wettlauf zwischen Hase und Igel 51
Michael Schröter- Reinkarnationsglaube und Reinkarnations-
Kunhardt: therapie: transpersonale Fiktion 67
Hans-Willi Weis: Therapeutisierung und Verlust des spirituellen Eros 85
Mark Waldmann: Transpersonale Psychologie:
Definitionen, Beschreibungen und Konzepte 4
Joachim Galuska: Transpersonale stationäre Psychotherapie 23
Rudolf Hämmerli: Das Geheimnis der Zeit 35
Ludwig Frambach: Von der Unfähigkeit des Intellekts,
das Absolute zu erkennen,
oder der Wettlauf zwischen Hase und Igel 51
Michael Schröter- Reinkarnationsglaube und Reinkarnations-
Kunhardt: therapie: transpersonale Fiktion 67
Hans-Willi Weis: Therapeutisierung und Verlust des spirituellen Eros 85

More info:

Published by: spiritsnake on Feb 17, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/02/2013

pdf

text

original

,!)-+$,-*)!

($
-0"&*(*%'$/)#
-0"&*.&$,!+'$
=QBNRPFQRONBLF
:RXDIOLOHJFTNE
:RXDIOSIFQBPJF
lstelneuncbhönglgeZelt-
schrlft.Auselnemschulen-,
kultur-unJrellglonsubergrel-
fenJenverstönJnlshercus
bletetsleelnlorumzurver-
blnJungvonPsychologleunJ
PsychothercµleunJJeren
theoretlschenGrunJlcgenmlt
sµlrltuellenunJtrcnsµerso-
nclenPhönomenen,lrfchrun-
genunJwegen,welt-unJ
MenschenbllJern.5leJlent
JemDlclogJerverschle-
Jenenklchtungen,forJert
lntegrctlve8emuhungenunJ
lelstet8eltrögezulorschung
unJ7heorlebllJung.
lmµressum:
lercusgeberunJ5chrlftleltung:
<g) bZY) BdVX]^b ?Vajh`V' >VX]`a^c^` @Z^a^\Zc[ZaY'
=jZgYdg[Zg Kig) /(1' <(42133 :VY C^hh^c\Zc' LZaZÜ
[dc#+42,$3-+1(14'>Vm#+42,$130-4)
Hgd[)<g)=Y^i]RjcYZa'9c`ZgWVX]iValZ\/'
<(0.--2:dcc'LZaZ[dc#+--3$//-.1-'>Vm#+--3$
//..4.)
wlssenschcftllcher8elrct:
<Vk^Y :dVYZaaV #he^g^ijZaaZ CwgeZgehnX]di]ZgVe^Z$
E^X]VZa kdc :gxX` #kZg\aZ^X]ZcYZ JZa^\^dchl^hÜ
hZchX]V[iZc$
KiVc ?gd[ #@dadigdeZ L]ZgVe^Z' Ke^g^ijZaaZ Cg^hZc$
O^aa^\^hBu\Zg#CdciZbeaVi^dcjcYEZY^iVi^dc$
Ac\dBV]ghZio#Ke^g^ijZaaZCg^hZc$
9nnV C]ZbV #:jYY]^hi^hX]Z EZY^iVi^dc jcY CdcÜ
iZbeaVi^dc$
OVaiZgkdcDjXVYdj#HVgVehnX]dad\^Z$
H^ZiZgDddbVch#Ac^i^Vi^hX]ZL]ZgVe^Z$
9gcdaY E^cYZaa #HgdoZzdg^Zci^ZgiZ HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z$
E^X]VZaHaZhhZ#Gg\dYncVb^`$
MghjaVJZ^cZ`Z#HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ$
;]g^hi^Vc KX]Vg[ZiiZg #:ZljzihZ^ch[dghX]jc\' HhnÜ
X]deVi]dad\^Z$
L]ZdYdgKZ^[Zgi#Bjc\^Vc^hX]ZHhnX]dad\^Z$
CZcO^aWZg#LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z$)
lrschelnungswelseunJ8ezug:
<^ZRZ^ihX]g^[iZghX]Z^ciolZ^bVa_u]ga^X])
:Zoj\hegZ^h<E.4'(ojox\a)NZghVcY`dhiZc)
<Vh 9WdccZbZci \^ai [xg YVh CVaZcYZg_V]g' Y^Z
:Zoj\hYVjZg kZgauc\Zgi h^X] _ZlZ^ah jb , BV]g' lZcc
W^h ojb .+) KZeiZbWZg `Z^cZ 9WWZhiZaajc\ kdga^Z\i)
:ZhiZaajc\ZcW^iiZVcYZcNZgaV\N^VFdkV)
E^i YZg 9ccV]bZ Z^cZh :Z^igV\h ojg NZgw[[ZciÜ
a^X]jc\ xWZgigu\i YZg 9jidg YZb NZgaV\ VaaZ JZX]iZ'
^chWZhdcYZgZ YVh JZX]i YZg lZ^iZgZc NZgk^Za[uai^Ü
\jc\ jcY YVh JZX]i ojg sWZghZiojc\ [xg VaaZ KegVÜ
X]Zc jcY DucYZg) <^Z RZ^ihX]g^[i hdl^Z VaaZ^c ^]g ZciÜ
]VaiZcZc Z^coZacZc :Z^igu\Z jcY 9WW^aYjc\Zc h^cY
jg]ZWZggZX]ia^X] \ZhX]xioi) >xg YZc eZghwca^X]Zc
?ZWgVjX] Yxg[Zc kdc :Z^igu\Zc dYZg LZ^aZc YVgVjh
=^coZa`de^Zc ]Zg\ZhiZaai lZgYZc) <^Z 9j[cV]bZ YZg
RZ^ihX]g^[i^cDZhZo^g`Za^hic^X]i\ZhiVaiZi)
verlcg:
N^VFdkV'FZ^zZgKigVzZ4).1,++HZiZghWZg\'
LZaZ[dcjcY>Vm5#+11,$1-42.)
llnwels:
<^ZhZ RZ^ihX]g^[i ^hi Vj[ X]adg( jcY hujgZ[gZ^Zb
HVe^Zg\ZYgjX`i)
{N^VFdkVNZgaV\'HZiZghWZg\
KXVc!G;JkdcK]^kV-+,-
=QBNRPFQRONBLF:RXDIOLOHJF
TNE:RXDIOSIFQBPJF
-)BV]g\Vc\'@Z[i,',441
0EJSOQJBL .
McrkwclJmcnn: LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5
<Z[^c^i^dcZc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ /
1occhlmGcluskc: LgVcheZghdcVaZhiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z -.
kuJolflömmerll: <Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i .0
luJwlglrcmbcch: NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^iYZhAciZaaZ`ih'
YVh9WhdajiZojZg`ZccZc'
dYZgYZgOZiiaVj[ol^hX]Zc@VhZjcYA\Za 0,
Mlchcel5chroter- JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dch(
lunhcrJt: i]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc 12
lcns-wllllwels: L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh 30
8ernJGunJermcnn: =^clugih[gV\Zc -
9X]ihVb`Z^i --
NZgWdg\ZcZ=^c]Z^i ./
NZg\uc\a^X]`Z^i 11
JZkd`Vi^dc 3/
D^X]iZgFVX]]Vaa 44
:jX]WZhegZX]jc\Zc ,++
LV\jc\Zc ,+1
<^Z9jidgZcY^ZhZg9jh\VWZ ,+3
1
0JNV[QSRGQBHFN
8ernJGunJermcnn,8cJllsslngen
Glbteseln5ubjektJer8eglerJe?
GlbteselncnJeres5ubjekt,Jcsslchöngstlgt?
0nJwleJerelncnJeres,Jcsncch8efrelungJröngt?
Glbtesuberhcuµteln5ubjekt?
llnecutonomelnstcnz,unJfestumrlssenelJentltöt,
JleZleleoJerZustönJecnstrebt?
werlstes,Jerlccht?
wer,JerwelntoJertrcurlglst?
werlstlelchtfertlg?
werhct5kruµel?
werwlll,cbertrcutslchnlcht?
wermochteesbessermcchen?
werverhlnJertes?
werkommtzuroJerwergehtcusJerwelt?
weroJerwcslebtJcslebenunJstlrbtJen7oJ?
lcbelch8ewußtselnoJerblnlch8ewußtseln?
Glbteselnlch,Jcs8ewußtselnhcbenoJerselnkonnte?
lct8ewußtselnelneGrenze?
OJerlstcuchJle8ewußtselnsgrenzenurelnevorstellung
Jes8ewußtselns?
werstelltGrenzenvorunJwcrum?
werfrcgtncchJerGrenze?
werwlrJslchJeslrcgensbewußt?
werfrcgtncchJemlrcger?
wer?
wer?
wer?
?
2
0EJSOQJBL
llebeleserlnnenunJleser,
nun kommt Jle Zeltschrlft lns zwelte 1chr. wlr freuen uns welterhln uber Jle große
kesoncnz, Jle sle nlcht nur bel lhnen cls leserlnnen unJ leser, sonJern cuch bel
lhnen cls µotentlelle Autorlnnen unJ Autoren flnJet. 5lcherllch besteht noch 0n-
slcherhelt Jcruber, welcher 8eltrcg ln Jlese Zeltschrlft µcßt, ob es eher theore-
tlsche, metcµhorlsche, µrcktlsche, emµlrlsche oJer gcr µoetlsche seln sollen. Als
lercusgeber flnJen wlr Jlesen lntwlcklungsµrozeß selbst sehr cnregenJ unJ sµcn-
nenJ. Dle lntwlcklung Jer Zeltschrlft soll eln offener Prozeß seln, selbst wenn slch
lm lcufe Jer Zelt ncturllch elne gewlsse lorm hercusbllJen wlrJ. Nun lst 7rcns-
formctlon eln wlchtlger 8egrlff ln Jer trcnsµersonclen Psychologle unJ Psycho-
thercµle,unJsohoffenwlr,cuchfurwcnJlungenoffenblelbenzukonnen.Momen-
tcn geht es jeJoch mehr um 8egrlffsklörung unJ 8egrlffsbllJung, Auslotung Jes
trcnsµersonclen lelJes, 5ystemctlslerung, 8eschrelbung unJ lrlöuterung Jer
MethoJen, Dlskusslon Jer PcrcJlgmen usw. Dle trcnsµersoncle Psychologle unJ
Psychothercµle mochte elne 8rucke schlcgen zwlschen Jem wlssen Jer sµlrltuellen
wege unJ Jer wlssenschcftllchen Psychologle unJ Psychothercµle. Dcbel stoßen
wlr cuch cuf erkenntnls- unJ wlssenschcftstheoretlsche lrcgen, zu Jeren Dlskus-
slonwlrelnlcJenmochten.
Dlese Ausgcbe besltzt keln 5chwerµunktthemc. GrunJ Jcfur slnJ Jle lulle Jer zur
veroffentllchung elngegcngenen 8eltröge, von Jenen wlr gerne wegen lhrer 0nter-
schleJllchkelt mehrere veroffentllchen wollten. Dc Jle trcnsµersoncle Psychologle
unJPsychothercµlenochelnrechtjungesGebletlst,beglnnenwlrJleseAusgöbemlt
elner 8egrlffscbklörung unJ -Jlskusslon zentrcler lonzeµte Jer trcnsµersonclen
Psychologle, Jle Mcrk wclJmcn zuscmmen mlt cnJeren beJeutenJen Autoren Jer
trcnsµersonclen Psychologle vornlmmt. wclJmcn lst lercusgeber Jes 7rcnsµer-
soncl kevlew, elner cmerlkcnlschen Zeltschrlft, Jle zwelmcl jöhrllch vor cllem
cktuelle Publlkctlonen cus Jem trcnsµersonclen 8erelch besµrlcht. wclJmcn besltzt
somlt elnen elnzlgcrtlgen 0berbllck uber Jen gegenwörtlgen 5tcnJ Jer Dlskusslon
lnJlesemlelJ.wlrhcbenlnJleseAusgcbecuchbewußt8eltrögecufgenommen,Jle
zu lontroversen Anlcß geben konnen. lclls 5le slch zu elner 5tellungnchme her-
cusgeforJert fuhlen, slnJ wlr neuglerlg cuf lhre kecktlon. Gegenwörtlg slnJ wlr
noch unschlusslg, ob wlr elne Art leselforum schcffen wollen. 5lcherllch wlrJ lhre
kesoncnz,llebeleserlnnenunJleser,elneentschelJenJekolleJcbelsµlelen.
llnen großen Dcnk mochte lch cn 0llc lelst cus vogt lm Allgöu rlchten fur Jle
gutereJcktlonelleZuscmmencrbelt,cusJerJleseAusgcbeentstcnJ.
1occhlmGcluskc
3
LgVcheZghdcVaZ
HhnX]dad\^Z jcY
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
,%,441$/(-,
=QBNRPFQRONBLF:RXDIOLOHJF+
/FGJNJSJONFN"-FRDIQFJCTNHFNTNE6ONYFPSF
McrkwclJmcn,wooJlcnJlllls,lcllfornlen
mlt lommentcren von 1onnc l. lcnnert, Chcrles 7. 7crt, lrcnces vcughcn unJ
kogerN.wclsh
ATRBMMFNGBRRTNH+ <^ZhZg 9j[hVio jciZghjX]i <Z[^c^i^dcZc' :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\Zc jcY
CdcoZeiZ' Y^Z [xg YVh NZghiucYc^h YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z jcY ^]gZg D^iZgVÜ
ijggZaZkVci h^cY) <^h`ji^Zgi lZgYZc EVhadlh OZgiZ]^ZgVgX]^Z' ehnX]dad\^hX]Z <Z[^Ü
c^i^dcZc YZg Ke^g^ijVa^iui' YZg =^c[ajz kdc Bjc\' >gVc`a jcY 9hhV\^da^ Vj[ Y^Z igVch(
eZghdcVaZ L]Zdg^Z' Y^Z <Z[^c^i^dc kdc ?ZhjcY]Z^i' :ZljzihZ^c' Ke^g^ijVa^iui' LgVcÜ
hoZcYZco' KZaWhi jcY AX] ^c YZc jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Zc igVcheZghdcVaZc CdciZmiZc hdl^Z
Y^ZCg^i^`Vc:Z\g^[[ZcjcY<Z[^c^i^dcZc)
<DIL]RRFLVOQSF+ LgVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z' :ZljzihZ^ch[dghX]jc\' ?ZhjcYÜ
]Z^i'Ke^g^ijVa^iui'LgVchoZcYZco
@BLEMBN+ ,44- ]Vi Y^Z Ö9hhdX^Vi^dc [dg LgVcheZghdcVa HhnX]dad\nÅ Y^Z igVcheZg(
hdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Zl^Z[da\iYZ[^c^Zgi5
Ö?Z\Zclugi^\ ZcihiZ]i Z^cZ jb[VhhZcYZgZ HZgheZ`i^kZ YZg bZchX]a^X]Zc FVijg)
K^Z V`oZei^Zgi Y^Z eZghdcVaZ =^co^\Vgi^\`Z^i \ZcVjhd l^Z Y^Z trcnseZghdcVaZ <^bZcÜ
h^dc ( Y^Z xWZg YVh ^cY^k^YjZaaZ AX] ]^cVjhgZ^X]i jcY YZccdX] ojb EZchX]Zc \Z]wgi)
<^ZhZ HZgheZ`i^kZ Zgbw\a^X]i Z^c ZglZ^iZgiZh NZghiucYc^h bZchX]a^X]Zg >u]^\`Z^iZc
jcY kZgW^cYZi Z^cZ hdcY^ZgZcYZ :ZjgiZ^ajc\ YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i b^i Z^cZg V[[^gb^ZgZc(
YZc NdghiZaajc\ kdc YZg :VcYWgZ^iZ YZg ehnX]^hX]Zc jcY he^g^ijZaaZc =cil^X`ajc\)
<^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HZgheZ`i^kZ' Y^Z Vj[ :ZdWVX]ijc\Zc jcY HgV`i^`Zc k^ZaZg CjaÜ
ijgZc WVh^Zgi' \gZ^[i Vj[ Y^Z bdYZgcZ HhnX]dad\^Z' Y^Z ?Z^hiZh( jcY @jbVcl^hhZcÜ
hX]V[iZc \ZcVjhd ojgxX` l^Z Vj[ Y^Z oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Zc he^g^ijZaaZc <^ho^ea^cZc jcY
Y^ZOZ^h]Z^ihigVY^i^dc)Å
9WZg Zh \^Wi oV]agZ^X]Z VcYZgZ <Z[^c^i^dcZc jcY :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\Zc' ^c YZcZc h^X] Y^Z
_Z heZo^[^hX]Zc 9jhg^X]ijc\Zc jcY KX]lZgejc`iZ YZg 9jidgZc he^Z\Zac) <Voj `dbÜ
bZc Y^Z <Z[^c^i^dcZc lZ^iZgZg igVcheZghdcVaZg Achi^ijiZ jcY NZgZ^c^\jc\Zc' ^c YZcZc
h^X] ojb LZ^a VjX] Y^Z heZo^[^hX]Zc e]^adhde]^hX]Zc ?gjcYg^X]ijc\Zc YZg _ZlZ^a^\Zc
Gg\Vc^hVi^dcZc c^ZYZghX]aV\Zc) 9jzZgYZb ]VWZc VcYZgZ <^ho^ea^cZc' kdg VaaZb H]^Ü
adhde]^Z jcY JZa^\^dchl^hhZchX]V[i' YZc :Z\g^[[ YZh ÖLgVcheZghdcVaZcÅ b^i lZ^Ü
iZgZc :ZYZjijc\Zc jcY CdciZmiZc WZgZ^X]Zgi) E^iiaZglZ^aZ \gZ^[Zc VjX] cZjZgZ >dgÜ
hX]jc\h\ZW^ZiZ Vj[ YZc :Z\g^[[ ojgxX`' ZilV Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ EZY^o^c #9X]iZgWZg\
,44-$' Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ 9ci]gdedad\^Z #CValZ^i ,44-6 DVj\]a^c' EXEVcjh' K]ZVÜ
gZg ,44.$ jcY Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ r`dad\^Z #>dm ,44+$) 9WZg l^Z Y^Z <ZWViiZc ^b
1ourncl of lumcnlstlc Psychology #@ZgWhi ,434$ \ZoZ^\i ]VWZc' ]VaiZc Mc`aVg]Z^iZc
4
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
jcY E^zkZghiucYc^hhZ ^b Mb[ZaY YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc L]Zdg^Zc jcY HZgheZ`i^kZc
VjX]lZ^iZg]^cVc)
:^h ]ZjiZ \^Wi Zh `Z^cZ Vaa\ZbZ^c V`oZei^ZgiZ <Z[^c^i^dc YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnÜ
X]dad\^Z) DV_d^Z jcY K]Ve^gd #,44-$ ]VWZc Vc]VcY ^]gZg 9cVanhZ YZg ]uj[^\hiZc CdcÜ
oZeiZ jcY L]ZbZc ^c /+ Vjh\Zlu]aiZc <Z[^c^i^dcZc Z^cZ cVX] ^]gZg EZ^cjc\ Öeguo^hZ
oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Z<Z[^c^i^dcYZgigVcheZghdcVaZcHhnX]dad\^ZÅZgVgWZ^iZi5
Ö?Z\ZchiVcY igVcheZghdcVaZg HhnX]dad\^Z ^hi Y^Z =g[dghX]jc\ YZh ]wX]hiZc HdiZcÜ
i^Vah YZg EZchX]]Z^i hdl^Z Y^Z =g`Zccic^h' YVh NZghiucYc^h jcY Y^Z NZgl^g`a^X]jc\
kZgZ^c^\ZcYZg'he^g^ijZaaZgjcYigVchoZcYZciZg:ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ)Å
9WZg oV]agZ^X]Z =^clucYZ hegZX]Zc \Z\Zc Z^cZ hd Vaa\ZbZ^cZ <Z[^c^i^dc) =ghiZch
lVg ^]gZ 9jhlV]a Vjh ^ch\ZhVbi xWZg -++ R^iViZc gZaVi^k l^aa`xga^X] jcY ]Vi bZ^cZh
=gVX]iZch Z^cZ JZ^]Z l^X]i^\Zg <Z[^c^i^dcZc jcY :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\Zc c^X]i WZgxX`h^X]Ü
i^\i' Y^Z h^X] ^c YZg D^iZgVijg jcY ^c kZglVcYiZc >dghX]jc\h\ZW^ZiZc [^cYZc) RlZ^iZch
\Z]Zc YjgX] Y^Z CdcoZcigVi^dc Vj[ Y^Z ]uj[^\hiZc :Z\g^[[Z jcY L]ZbZc #Y^Z hiVi^hi^Ü
hX]Z 9cVanhZ ]Vi [xc[ Zg\ZWZc5 Ö:ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZÅ' ]wX]hiZh dYZg jai^bVi^kZh
HdiZci^VaÅ' ÖxWZg YVh AX] dYZg YVh eZghdcVaZ KZaWhi ]^cVjh\Z]ZcYÅ' ÖLgVchoZcYZcoÅ
jcY Öhe^g^ijZaaÅ$ hjWi^aZ `dciZmijZaaZ MciZghX]^ZYZ kZgadgZc) <Vh [x]giZ ojb 9jhÜ
hX]ajz VcYZgZg l^X]i^\Zg CdcoZeiZ' Y^Z [xg k^ZaZ 9jidgZc jcY O^hhZchX]V[iaZg ZhhZcÜ
i^Zaa ojb NZghiucYc^h igVcheZghdcVaZg HhnX]dad\^Z \Z]wgZc' ojb :Z^he^Za Y^Z MciZgÜ
hjX]jc\ bZchX]a^X]Zg OZgiZ' `jaijgxWZg\gZ^[ZcYZ >dghX]jc\Zc oj gZa^\^whZc jcY
he^g^ijZaaZc ?ZW^ZiZc' ^ciZgY^ho^ea^cugZ KijY^Zc ojg HZghwca^X]`Z^i' ]^ZgVgX]^hX]Z
jcY c^X]i]^ZgVgX]^hX]Z EdYZaaZ igVcheZghdcVaZg =g[V]gjc\' 9aiZgcVi^kbdYZaaZ jcY
(i]Zdg^Zc xWZg YZc ;]VgV`iZg YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc :ZljzihZ^ch' Y^Z :ZYZjijc\ YZg
Zbe^g^hX]Zc >dghX]jc\ ^c YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z' YVh NZg]uaic^h igVcheZg(
hdcVaZg HhnX]dad\^Z ojg =l^\Zc H]^adhde]^Z jcY oj cZjZc cVijgl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zc
HVgVY^\bZc' igVcheZghdcVaZ ?ZhjcY]Z^ihbdYZaaZ jcY ^]g FjioZc [xg @Z^ajc\ jcY
L]ZgVe^Z' hdo^VaZ jcY \ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Z Abea^`Vi^dcZc YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc L]Zdg^Z
jhl) McY Yg^iiZch hX]a^Zza^X] `Vcc Z^cZ hd kZg`xgoiZ' gZYj`i^dc^hi^hX]Z <Z[^c^i^dc
`Z^cZc `dciZmijZaaZc JV]bZc [xg YVh NZghiucYc^h hd `dbeaZmZg L]ZbZc l^Z
:ZljzihZ^c'Ke^g^ijVa^iui'LgVchoZcYZcodYZg]wX]hiZhHdiZci^Vaa^Z[Zgc)
<^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z ^hi c^X]i hZaiZc Vjh\ZhegdX]Zc kZgoZggi YVg\ZhiZaai
ldgYZc' \ZaZ\Zcia^X] hZaWhi ^c YZg >dghX]jc\' l^Z Y^Z [da\ZcYZ :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ Vjh
Z^cZgcZjZgZc9cVanhZYZgFZl(9\Z(:ZlZ\jc\oZ^\i5
Ö>xg EjZaaZg ou]aZc @necdhZ jcY @ZaahZ]Zc' Ke^g^ijVa^hbjh jcY EZY^Va^iui' xWZgÜ
h^cca^X]Z >dghX]jc\ jcY Y^Z >gV\Z YZh sWZgaZWZch' HVgVehnX]dad\^Z jcY =KH' hdl^Z
hd jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z 'ZhdiZg^hX]ZÉ KX]jaZc l^Z 9ci]gdedhde]^Z' JdhZc`gZjoZgijb
jcY YVh AciZgZhhZ Vc kZg\Vc\ZcZc DZWZc oj YZc OjgoZac YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnÜ
X]dad\^ZÅ#9aZmVcYZg,44-'K)/1$)
<^ZhZg 9jidg kZghjX]i' Vc]VcY oV]agZ^X]Zg jckZgw[[Zcia^X]iZg jcY jcWZ\gxcYZiZg
IjZaaZc hdl^Z kdc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc Vjh olZ^iZg @VcY Y^Z =cil^X`ajc\ YZg igVcheZghdÜ
cVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z #oj YZgZc OjgoZac Y^Z kdc EjZaaZg \ZcVcciZc :ZgZ^X]Z `Z^cZhÜ
lZ\h ou]aZc$ Vc Y^Z :ZlZ\jc\ YZh cZjZc <Zc`Zch Vjh YZb ,4) BV]g]jcYZgi jcY Y^Z
]Zji^\Z FZl(9\Z(:ZlZ\jc\ oj W^cYZc) <Vh ^hi c^X]i cjg Z^cZ NZgoZggjc\ jchZgZh
NZghiucYc^hhZh YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z jcY ^]gZg ehnX]dad\^hX]Zc jcY he^Ü
g^ijZaaZc OjgoZac' hdcYZgc igu\i oj YZc hX]Z^cWVg ZcYadhZc Mc\ZcVj^\`Z^iZc ^b oZ^iÜ
\Zcwhh^hX]ZcFZl(9\Z(<Zc`ZcWZ^)
=BQS+ DZ^YZg ^hi YVh igVcheZghdcVaZ O^hhZc \ZaZ\Zcia^X] b^i k^Za Mch^cc jcY jcgZ^Ü
[Zc H]VciVh^Zc' _V hZaWhi b^i HhnX]deVi]dad\^Zc kZgb^hX]i ldgYZc' l^Z bVcX]Z
=moZhhZ YZg FZl(9\Z(:ZlZ\jc\ oZ^\Zc) <Zg jc\ZcVjZ' jcY^ho^ea^c^ZgiZ ?ZWgVjX]
5
YZh :Z\g^[[h ÖigVcheZghdcVaÅ `Vcc hubia^X]Z =g[V]gjc\Zc Z^cZh EZchX]Zc VWYZX`Zc'
Y^Z kdc hZ^cZb cdgbVaZc KZaWhi VWlZ^X]Zc' jcY Z^c^\Z YVkdc \Z]wgZc Z^cYZji^\
c^X]i oj YZb' lVh YZg :Z\g^[[ jghegxc\a^X] \ZbZ^ci ]Vi) Kd `wcciZ bVc ojb :Z^he^Za
Y^Z YjgX] Z^c FVg`di^`jb ^cYjo^ZgiZ MchX]ug[Z jcY LgxWjc\ WZ^ Z^cZb EZchX]Zc'
YZhhZc cdgbVaZg :ZljzihZ^chojhiVcY kdc DZ^Y \Zegu\i ^hi' VjX] Vah igVcheZghdcVa
jcY' gZaVi^k \ZhZ]Zc' Vah Ö@dX]Å WZigVX]iZc' VWZg lV]ghX]Z^ca^X] ]VcYZai Xh h^X]
YVWZ^ jb Z^cZ NZgZc\jc\ jcY =^chX]guc`jc\ YZh kdaaZc bZchX]a^X]Zc HdiZci^Vah
jcY c^X]i jb Y^Z =meVch^dc oj ZilVh hZ]g k^Za @w]ZgZb Vah YZb FdgbVaojhiVcY' Vj[
Y^Z h^X] YZg :Z\g^[[ Z^\Zcia^X] WZo^Z]i) FVixga^X] `Vcc bVc c^X]i kZg]^cYZgc' YVz
:Z\g^[[Z hX]aVbe^\ kZglZcYZi lZgYZc' VWZg l^g `wccZc Vah >VX]aZjiZ Vj[ Y^ZhZb
?ZW^Zi Vj[ Z^cZc hdg\[uai^\Zc ?ZWgVjX] YZh :Z\g^[[h VX]iZc jcY ^c >dghX]jc\ jcY
D^iZgVijg\ZcVjYZ[^c^ZgZc'lVhl^g_ZlZ^ahYVgjciZgkZghiZ]Zc)
<Voj `dbbi' YVz Y^Z bZ^hiZc W^h]Zg^\Zc <Z[^c^i^dchkZghjX]Z Y^Z ZcihX]Z^YZcYZ
>gV\Z c^X]i WZgxX`h^X]i^\Zc' dW h^X] Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z b^i YZg MciZgÜ
hjX]jc\ kdc HhnX]deVi]dad\^Z' LujhX]jc\Zc jcY @Vaajo^cVi^dcZc #VjX] lZcc h^Z
gZaVi^k \jiVgi^\ h^cY$ WZhX]u[i^\i dYZg b^i keclltöten _ZchZ^ih YZh \Zlw]ca^X]Zc JZVÜ
a^iuihojhiVcYh)
AX] `Vcc ojb :Z^he^Za bZ^cZc ;dbejiZg hd egd\gVbb^ZgZc' YVz Zg b^g VW jcY oj Y^Z
9jhhV\Z VjhYgjX`i5 ÖG] AX] ]VWZ \ZgVYZ bZ^c cdgbVaZh egd\gVbb^ZgiZh KZaWhi
igVchoZcY^Zgi jcY YZc ]wX]hiZc RjhiVcY YZg =aZ`igd(=`hiVhZ ZggZ^X]i' b^X] b^i YZb
\gdzZc <ViZchigdb YZh @^bbZah kZgZ^c^\i jcY bZ^cZ jai^bVi^kZ :ZYZjijc\ \Z[jcÜ
YZc)Å O^g lxgYZc Z^cZ hdaX]Z 9jhhV\Z Vah ^c]ugZci [VahX] WZigVX]iZc' Vah egd\gVbÜ
b^ZgiZc?V\'c^X]iVah=g[V]gjc\'Y^ZZ^cZb;dbejiZgbw\a^X]lugZ)
=^cZ cdgbVaZ jcY kZg\aZ^X]hlZ^hZ ine^hX]Z 9jhhV\Z YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dÜ
ad\^Z `wcciZ aVjiZc5 G] AX] ]VWZ \ZgVYZ bZ^c cdgbVaZh' W^dad\^hX] jcY hdo^Va
WZhX]guc`iZh [VahX]Zh KZaWhi igVchoZcY^Zgi jcY Y^Z ]wX]hiZ bnhi^hX]Z =g[V]gjc\ YZh
=^chlZgYZc b^i YZg ^c]ugZciZc OZ^h]Z^i jcY D^ZWZ YZh Cdhbdh ZgaZWi' Z^cZ =g[V]Ü
gjc\ kdc jai^bVi^kZg :ZYZjijc\) >xg Y^Z bVz\ZWa^X]Z cVijgl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Z OZ^iÜ
h^X]i b^i ^]gZg bViZg^Va^hi^hX]Zc 9jhg^X]ijc\ lugZ Y^ZhZ 9jhhV\Z \ZcVjhd jch^cc^\
l^Z Y^Z YZh ;dbejiZgh) 9jh YZg bViZg^Va^hi^hX]Zc HZgheZ`i^kZ WZ[Vzi h^X] Y^Z igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z b^i Zh`Ve^hi^hX]Zc Aaajh^dcZc' Y^Z :ZYZjijc\ jcY ?Z[x]a kZgÜ
oZggZc jcY YVoj Y^ZcZc' YZg =g`Zccic^h YZg W^dad\^hX]Zc ?gZcoZc jcY YZg McjbÜ
\uc\a^X]`Z^iYZhLdYZhVjhojlZ^X]Zc)
9jh bZ^cZg Z^\ZcZc 9gWZ^i `Vcc ^X] hV\Zc' YVz Y^Z MciZghjX]jc\ hdaX]Zg Aaajh^dÜ
cZc iVihuX]a^X] jciZg YVh Vaa\ZbZ^cZ =i^`Zii ÖigVcheZghdcVaÅ [VaaZc `Vcc) 9aaZgY^c\h'
jcY YVh ^hi Z^c ZcihX]Z^YZcYZg Hjc`i' hegZX]Zc ZmoZaaZciZ l^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Z :ZaZ\Z
Vjh YZg HVgVehnX]dad\^Z VjX] YV[xg' YVz YZg ?Z^hi Y^Z ?gZcoZc YZg EViZg^Z \ZaZ\ZciÜ
a^X] xWZghX]gZ^iZc `Vcc) <^ZhZ YjgX] higZc\Z DVWdgZg[V]gjc\Zc jcY hedciVcZ HKA(
=g[V]gjc\Zc Zg]ugiZiZc :ZlZ^hZ oZ^\Zc' YVz h^X] igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z Vj[ Y^Z
keclltöt hixioZc `Vcc' YVz ^g\ZcY ZilVh ^b EZchX]Zc Zm^hi^Zgi' YVh ojg iVihuX]a^X]Zc
LgVchoZcY^Zgjc\YZgW^dad\^hX]ZcjcYe]nh^hX]Zc?gZcoZc[u]^\^hi)
9jX] lZcc Zh \ZaZ\Zcia^X] iV`i^hX] `aj\ hZ^c `Vcc' Y^Z >gV\Z cVX] jchZgZb MciZgÜ
hjX]jc\h\Z\ZchiVcY oj kZgl^hX]Zc' bxhhZc l^g jch aZioia^X] YZb HgdWaZb hiZaaZc
jcYjchZg>dghX]jc\h[ZaYYZ[^c^ZgZc)
8BRLOVR@FQSFIJFQBQDIJF
@BLEMBN+ AX] bwX]iZ b^i YZg MciZghjX]jc\ Z^c^\Zg [jcYVbZciVaZg CdcoZeiZ jcY
Hg^co^e^Zc WZ\^ccZc' Y^Z EVhadl #,414$ WZ^ YZg NdghiZaajc\ hZ^cZg ?ZYVc`Zc xWZg
EVg`OVaYbVc
6
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
Y^Z cZjZ <^ho^ea^c YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z [dgbja^Zgi ]Vi) <Vh [da\ZcYZ
R^iVi Vjh hZ^cZg NdgaZhjc\ ^c KVc >gVcX^hXd ,412 ^hi ^b ZghiZc @Z[i YZh ÖBdjgcVa d[
LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\nÅZghX]^ZcZc5
ÖN^ZaaZ^X]i ]Vi bVc YVh OZhZc YZh EZchX]Zc YVYjgX] WV\ViZaa^h^Zgi' YVz bVc
hZ^cZ ]w]ZgZc Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc c^X]i Vah W^dad\^hX] WZigVX]iZi ]Vi) EVc `Vcc ojb :Z^Ü
he^Za YVh :ZYxg[c^h cVX] OxgYZ Vah \gjcYaZ\ZcYZh EZchX]ZcgZX]i hZ]Zc' \ZcVjhd
l^Z YVh JZX]i' \Zcx\ZcY CVao^jb dYZg N^iVb^cZ oj WZ`dbbZc' jb \ZhjcY oj WaZ^Ü
WZc)OZccY^ZhZ:ZYxg[c^hhZc^X]iWZ[g^ZY^\ilZgYZc'ZcihiZ]iCgVc`]Z^i)
OZgYZc Y^ZhZ :ZYxg[c^hhZ VWZg Zg[xaai' YVcc l^gY Z^c \Vco VcYZgZh :^aY h^X]iWVg)
=h \^Wi EZchX]Zc' Y^Z h^X] \Za^ZWi [x]aZc jcY ojg D^ZWZ [u]^\ h^cY' Y^Z h^X] h^X]Zg jcY
\ZVX]iZi [x]aZc jcY KZaWhiVX]ijc\ WZh^ioZc) OZcc bVc Y^ZhZ EZchX]Zc jciZghjX]i
jcY cVX] ^]gZc Edi^kZc [gV\i' [^cYZi bVc h^X] ^c Z^cZb \Vco VcYZgZc ?ZW^Zi l^ZYZg)
<^ZhZh ?ZW^Zi `Vcc ^X] cjg igVch]jbVc^hi^hX] #Y) ]) igVcheZghdcVa$ cZccZc' jcY YVh
jb[Vzi VaaZh' lVh YZc \axX`a^X]Zc' Zcil^X`ZaiZc' h^X] hZaWhi kZgl^g`a^X]ZcYZc EZcÜ
hX]Zc bdi^k^Zgi' WZad]ci jcY V`i^k^Zgi) <Zg >d`jh dYZg YZg OZ\lZ^hZg ^c Y^ZhZc
igVch]jbVc^hi^hX]Zc :ZgZ^X] ]^cZ^c l^gY ^c YZc 9cildgiZc hdaX]Zg EZchX]Zc Vj[
>gV\Zc l^Z Y^Z [da\ZcYZc YZjia^X]5 'ac lZaX]Zc EdbZciZc ^hi YZg 9chidz' ^hi Y^Z
:Z[g^ZY^\jc\ Vb \gwziZc8 OVh h^cY Y^Z \gdzZc 9j\ZcWa^X`Z8 OVh h^cY Y^Z ad]cZcÜ
YZcEdbZciZ'Y^ZDZWZcjcY9gWZ^iYZgEx]ZlZgibVX]Zc8
/
:Z^ YZc 9cildgiZc Vj[ hdaX]Z >gV\Zc `VbZc Y^Z jai^bVi^kZc OV]g]Z^iZc ojg
KegVX]Z) =h ]VcYZaiZ h^X] jb '^cig^ch^hX]Z OZgiZÉ' jb b^i JdWZgi @VgibVc #,412$ oj
hegZX]Zc ( jb OV]g]Z^i' ?xiZ' KX]wc]Z^i' Ndaa`dbbZc]Z^i' Ndgox\a^X]`Z^i'
KX]a^X]i]Z^i' =aZ\Vco jhl) Ab =g\ZWc^h ZcihiZ]i hd Vjh YZg Yg^iiZc #]jbVc^hi^hX]Zc$
HhnX]dad\^Z Z^cZ k^ZgiZ' Y^Z 'igVch]jbVc^hi^hX]Z HhnX]dad\^ZÉ' Y^Z h^X] b^i igVchoZcÜ
YZciZc=g[V]gjc\ZcjcYOZgiZcWZhX]u[i^\i)
<Zg kdaa Zcil^X`ZaiZ #jcY hZ]g \axX`a^X]Z$ EZchX]' YZg jciZg YZc WZhibw\a^X]Zc
:ZY^c\jc\Zc VgWZ^iZi' ^hi iZcYZco^Zaa YjgX] OZgiZ bdi^k^Zgi' Y^Z hZ^c 5elbst igVchoZcÜ
Y^ZgZc) K^Z h^cY c^X]i auc\Zg Z\d^hi^hX] ^b VaiZc K^ccZ YZh OdgiZh) KX]wc]Z^i [^cYZi
h^X] c^X]i ^c YZg Z^\ZcZc @Vji' \ZcVjhdlZc^\ l^Z ?ZgZX]i^\`Z^i jcY GgYcjc\) EVc
`Vcc hdaX]Z :ZYxg[c^hhZ `Vjb ^b hZaWZc K^ccZ Vah Z\d^hi^hX] WZigVX]iZc l^Z ojb
:Z^he^Za YVh :ZYxg[c^h cVX] FV]gjc\) OZcc ^X] ?ZgZX]i^\`Z^i ZggZ^X]Z dYZg Zgbw\Ü
a^X]Z' YVcc a^Z\i Y^Z YVgVjh \ZldccZcZ :Z[g^ZY^\jc\ c^X]i ^ccZg]VaW bZ^cZh CwgÜ
eZgh' c^X]i ^ccZg]VaW bZ^cZg 9giZg^Zc) K^Z ^hi \aZ^X]ZgbVzZc ^ccZc jcY VjzZc' h^Z ]Vi
Y^Z gujba^X]Zc ?gZcoZc YZh KZaWhi igVchoZcY^Zgi) Kdb^i [uc\i bVc Vahd Vc' xWZg
igVch]jbVc^hi^hX]Z#igVcheZghdcVaZ$HhnX]dad\^ZojhegZX]Zc)Å
EVhadlh NdgaZhjc\ ]Vi Z^cZc YgZ^[VX]Zc KX]lZgejc`i5 =ghiZch Y^Z bZchX]a^X]Zc
OZgiZ' Y^Z [xg ^]c ojb LZ^a ^cig^ch^hX] #Y) ]) ^c jch hZaWhi oj ZciYZX`Zc$ jcY ojb LZ^a
hZaWhi\ZhX]V[[Zc dYZg hZaWhi\Zlu]ai h^cY #EVhadl ,413$' olZ^iZch Y^Z :ZYZjijc\
igVchoZcYZciZg =g[V]gjc\Zc [xg YZc HgdoZz YZg KZaWhikZgl^g`a^X]jc\ jcY Yg^iiZch Y^Z
NdghiZaajc\' YVz Y^ZhZ OZgiZ jcY =g[V]gjc\Zc uber Y^Z hZaWhioZcig^ZgiZc ^cY^k^YjZaÜ
aZc AciZgZhhZc hlncus gZ^X]Zc) <Vh W^aYZi Y^Z :Vh^h [xg hZ^c NZghiucYc^h YZh :Z\g^[[h
ÖigVcheZghdcVaÅ) 9cYZgZ O^hhZchX]V[iaZg' o) :) ?gd[ #,42-',42.$ ]VWZc h^X] lZc^\Zg
Vj[ igVchoZcYZciZ werte' hdcYZgc Vj[ igVchoZcYZciZ lrfchrungen Vc h^X] `dcoZcÜ
ig^Zgi)
7BNNFQS+ EVhadl #,413$ ]Vi \ZhV\i5 Ö<Zg EZchX] WgVjX]i Z^cZc OZgiZgV]bZc'
Z^cZ DZWZche]^adhde]^Z' Z^cZ JZa^\^dc dYZg Z^cZc JZa^\^dchZghVio' Vc YZb Zg hZ^c
DZWZc jcY hZ^c NZghiucYc^h dg^Zci^Zgi' \ZcVjhd l^Z YVh KdccZca^X]i' CVao^jb dYZg
D^ZWZ)Å OZgiZ ]VWZc 9jhl^g`jc\ Vj[ _ZYZc :ZgZ^X] jchZgZh DZWZch' h^Z \ZWZc YZb
DZWZc hZ^cZ :ZYZjijc\ jcY hZ^cZc JZ^X]ijb) =h \^Wi `Z^cZc EZchX]Zc d]cZ OZgiZ'
7
EVg`OVaYbVc
\ZcVjhdlZc^\ l^Z Z^cZ lZgi[gZ^Z HhnX]dad\^Z dYZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z) OZgiZ h^cY Hg^(
dg^auihZcihX]Z^Yjc\Zc) [xg Y^Z gZ^[Z jcY bdgVa^hX]Z =glVX]hZcZ NZgVcildgijc\
xWZgcZ]bZc'jcYh^Xh^cYYZg^ccZgZcjcYujzZgZcJZVa^iui_ZYZhEZchX]Zc^c]ugZci)
EVc ]Vi \Zlw]ca^X] Vc\ZcdbbZc' YVz \jiZ L]ZgVeZjiZc ^c YZg 9gWZ^i b^i Z^cZb
Ca^ZciZc lZgi[gZ^ WaZ^WZc' VWZg l^g l^hhZc ]ZjaZ' YVz HhnX]^Vig^X jcY HhnX]dad\^Z
lZYZg lZgi[gZ^ cdX] lZgicZjigVa h^cY) <^Z \Z\Zclugi^\Z >dghX]jc\ WZjgiZ^ai Y^Z
CdchZfjZcoZc' Y^Z OZgiZ [xg Y^Z E^iVgWZ^iZg ^c YZc ehnX]dad\^hX]Zc :Zgj[Zc' [xg
Hgd[ZhhdgZc jcY DZ]gZg ]VWZc #<Zgg ,44+6 =a`^ch ,44+6 BZchdc' :Zg\^c ,433$) O^Z
l^g cdX] hZ]Zc lZgYZc' \Z]wgZc OZgiZ ZhhZci^Zaa ojg <Z[^c^i^dc YZg Ke^g^ijVa^iui jcY
h^cYZ^coZcigVaZhL]ZbV^cYZgigVcheZghdcVaZc>dghX]jc\)
@BLEMBN+ >xg EVhadl #,42,$ lVgZc OZgiZ ]^ZgVgX]^hX]6 bVcX]Z OZgiZ igVchoZcÜ
Y^ZgZc Y^Z VcYZgZc) KZaWhiV`oZeiVco jcY NZg\ZWjc\ ojb :Z^he^Za igVchoZcY^ZgZc
KX]jaY' KX]Vb jcY NZgaZ\Zc]Z^ih\Z[x]aZ) LgVchoZcYZco ]Vi Zg Vah ÖY^Z ]wX]hiZc'
^c`ajh^khiZc dYZg \Vco]Z^ia^X]hiZc =WZcZc YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc :ZljzihZ^chÅ kZghiVcÜ
YZc' Vah ÖNZg]VaiZc jcY :Zo^Z]jc\ oj h^X] hZaWhi' l^X]i^\Zc 9cYZgZc' VcYZgZc EZcÜ
hX]Zc' VcYZgZc ?Viijc\Zc' FVijg jcY Cdhbdh' Y^Z c^X]i hd hZ]g E^iiZa Vah k^ZabZ]g
RZ^ih^cYÅ#K)-14$)
<Vh CdcoZei YZg LgVchoZcYZco WaZ^Wi Z^c l^X]i^\Zg 9heZ`i YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc
D^iZgVijg) EVhadl #,42,$ ]Vi .0 jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z :ZYZjijc\Zc Vj[\Z[x]gi' jciZg
VcYZgZb Y^Z AYZci^[^`Vi^dc b^i KZ^chlZgiZc' Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg RZ^iadh^\`Z^i' Z^cZ
=be[^cYjc\ YZh NZgajhiZh YZh :ZljzihZ^ch hZ^cZg hZaWhi' YVh ?Z[x]a YZg 9cYZghVgÜ
i^\`Z^i' hZaWhiadhZ D^ZWZ) <^hiVco^ZgiZ :ZdWVX]ijc\ YZh KZaWhi jcY YZg VcYZgZc' =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\ Z^cZh VjidcdbZc KZaWhi' 9`oZeiVco YZh Z^\ZcZc KX]^X`hVah' gZ^cZ >gZjYZ
Vc :Zad]cjc\Zc' =g`Zccic^h jcY OxgY^\jc\ jc^kZghZaaZc EZchX]hZ^ch jhl) Rj YZc
igVchoZcYZciZc =g[V]gjc\Zc ou]ai Zg jciZg VcYZgZb =g[V]gjc\Zc YZg KZaWhikZgl^g`Ü
a^X]jc\' bnhi^hX]Zh NZghX]bZaoZc b^i Z^cZb VcYZgZc EZchX]Zc dYZg YZb Cdhbdh'
^ciZgeZghdcZaaZ KncZg\^Z' =gaZjX]ijc\hZg[V]gjc\Zc' =gaZWZc YZh =^c]Z^ihWZljziÜ
hZ^chjhl)
>xg O^aWZg #,44+V' K) ,+/$ YV\Z\Zc' YZg Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ L]Zdg^Z bVz\ZWa^X]
\Zegu\i ]Vi' ^hi LgVchoZcYZco Ö^b lZhZcia^X]Zc ^YZci^hX]Å b^i =cil^X`ajc\ jcY
=kdaji^dc) LgVchoZcYZco ^hi [xg ^]c VjzZgYZb \aZ^X]WZYZjiZcY b^i LgVch[dgbVi^dc)
Ac _ZYZg H]VhZ YZg ehnX]^hX]Zc =cil^X`ajc\ `dbbi Z^cZ Kigj`ijg ]w]ZgZg GgYcjc\
ojb NdghX]Z^c' Y^Z YZc >jc`i^dchgV]bZc YZg [gx]ZgZc =cil^X`ajc\hhigj`ijg ^c h^X]
Vj[c^bbi jcY h^Z YVYjgX] igVchoZcY^Zgi) <Vh \ZigZcciZ KZaWhi dYZg YVh AX] YZh EZcÜ
hX]Zc `Vcc aZioia^X] igVchoZcY^Zgi lZgYZc jcY ^]c b^i YZb ^c CdciV`i Wg^c\Zc' lVh
Y^Z he^g^ijZaaZc jcY bnhi^hX]Zc LgVY^i^dcZc Vah YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh Mc^kZghZaaZ dYZg
YVh?wiia^X]ZWZoZ^X]cZc)
<V\Z\Zc WZhX]guc`i OVh]Wjgc #,433' K) 0$ Y^Z LgVchoZcYZco Vj[ Y^Z heuiZgZc
H]VhZc YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^ihigVch[dgbVi^dc' ^chWZhdcYZgZ Vj[ Y^Z ÖLgVchoZcYZco YZg
\gdzZc <jVa^hbZc' Y^Z YVh \Z^hi^\Z AX] fjuaZc' ojb :Z^he^Za YZc <jVa^hbjh kdc
?Z^hi jcY CwgeZg' <Zc`Zc jcY >x]aZc' Dd\^` jcY CgZVi^k^iui' R^k^a^hVi^dc jcY
Achi^c`i' jcY ^chWZhdcYZgZ kdc AX] jcY ?gjcY' jcY Vj[ Y^Z LgVch[dgbVi^dc Y^ZhZg
<jVa^hbZc oj ]Vgbdc^hX]Zc <jVa^iuiZc' oj ]w]ZgZc Knci]ZhZc kdc ?Z\ZchuioZcÅ)
>xg OVh]Wjgc ^hi LgVchoZcYZco \aZ^X]WZYZjiZcY b^i Z^cZb he^g^ijZaaZc =glVX]Zc'
YVh Y^Z HZghwca^X]`Z^i \gjcYaZ\ZcY cZj higj`ijg^Zgi oj Z^cZb h^c\jaugZc' ^ciZ\g^ZgiZc
ehnX]^hX]Zc ?VcoZc) 9jh hZ^cZg K^X]i h^cY hdaX]Z ^ciZ\g^ZgiZc EZchX]Zc `Z^cZ
Enhi^`Zg dYZg @Z^a^\Z' hdcYZgc' ^b K^ccZ kdc EVhadlh CdcoZei YZg KZaWhikZgl^g`Ü
a^X]jc\' Öhubia^X] Z^co^\ jcY Vji]Zci^hX] h^Z hZaWhiÅ' jcY h^Z gZeguhZci^ZgZc ÖZ^cZ
=cil^X`ajc\hhij[Z'Y^ZYZgEZchX]]Z^i^ch\ZhVbid[[ZchiZ]iÅ#K)-..$)
8
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
=QBNRPFQRONBLF0QGBIQTNHFNTNE-FVT^SRFJNRGOQRDITNH
@BLEMBN+ Ac YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc >dghX]jc\ ]VWZc :Zg^X]iZ xWZg VjzZg\Zlw]ca^Ü
X]Z dYZg VjzZgdgYZcia^X]Z =g[V]gjc\Zc k^Za 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i \Z[jcYZc) Ndg VaaZb
EVhadl #,42+$ ]Vi h^X] [xg trcnszenJente =g[V]gjc\Zc ^ciZgZhh^Zgi jcY h^Z b^i Ö`ZgcÜ
gZa^\^whZcÅ =g[V]gjc\Zc #dW i]Z^hi^hX] dYZg c^X]ii]Z^hi^hX] YZ[^c^Zgi$' b^i ?^e[ZaZgÜ
[V]gjc\Zc' bnhi^hX]Zc =gaZjX]ijc\Zc' =`hiVhZc jcY VcYZgZc =g[V]gjc\Zc \aZ^X]\Z(
hZioi'Y^Z:ZljzihZ^cjcY:Zljzi]Z^iedh^i^kkZgucYZgc`wccZc)
@BLRI+ >xg EVhadl lVg YVh :ZYxg[c^h cVX] igVcheZghdcVaZc =g[V]gjc\Zc [xg Y^Z
ZX]iZ bZchX]a^X]Z =cil^X`ajc\ ZhhZci^Zaa jcY W^dad\^hX] \ZcVjhd ^c YZg bZchX]a^Ü
X]Zc FVijg kZgljgoZai l^Z YVh :ZYxg[c^h cVX] KX]jio jcY FV]gjc\) =g ]Vi VjX]
\ZhV\i' YVz bVc\ZacYZ =g`Zccic^h jcY =g[xaajc\ Y^ZhZg igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZYxg[Ü
c^hhZ' Y^Z Zg Vah EZiVbdi^kZ dYZg KZ^chWZYxg[c^hhZ WZoZ^X]cZiZ' oj ehnX]^hX]Zb
DZ^Y dYZg oj Z^cZg ÖEZiVeVi]dad\^ZÅ [x]gi) <^ZhZ EZiVeVi]dad\^Z l^gY hZaiZc
Zg`Vcci' VWZg Zh ^hi YjgX]Vjh bw\a^X]' YVz h^Z ]^ciZg YZb `jaijgZaaZc McWZ]V\Zc
hiZ]i' YVh ^c YZg lZhia^X]Zc ?ZhZaahX]V[i hd kZgWgZ^iZi ^hi) <^Z OxgY^\jc\ YZg igVch(
eZghdcVaZc' gZa^\^whZc' e]^adhde]^hX]Zc jcY uhi]Zi^hX]Zc <^bZch^dcZc YZh DZWZch
lVg hZ^cZg EZ^cjc\ cVX] [jcYVbZciVa [xg Y^Z ?ZhjcY]Z^i jcY =cil^X`ajc\ YZh =^cÜ
oZacZcl^ZYZg?ZhZaahX]V[i)
LgVcheZghdcVaZ =g[V]gjc\Zc' Y^Z h^X] Vah =g[V]gjc\Zc YZ[^c^ZgZc aVhhZc' ^c YZcZc
YVh AYZci^iuih( dYZg KZaWhi\Z[x]a 9heZ`iZ YZh EZchX]hZ^ch' YZh DZWZch' YZg Psyche
jcY YZh Cdhbdh _ZchZ^ih YZh Wadz AcY^k^YjZaaZc dYZg HZghdcVaZc jb[Vzi' `wccZc Z^c
?Z[x]a kdc K^cc jcY J^X]ijc\ kZgb^iiZac' Zm^hiZci^ZaaZ HgdWaZbZ awhZc jcY ojg
b^i[x]aZcYZc Kdg\Z [xg Y^Z EZchX]]Z^i jcY Y^Z =gYZ ^che^g^ZgZc) KX]dc Z^cZ Z^co^\Z
igVcheZghdcVaZ =g[V]gjc\ `Vcc YVh DZWZc Z^cZh EZchX]Zc [xg ^bbZg kZgucYZgc' ^]g
>Z]aZcojg^cY^k^YjZaaZc'\ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]ZcjcY\adWVaZcHVi]dad\^ZWZ^igV\Zc)
@BLEMBN+ Cjgo kdg hZ^cZb LdY ]Vi EVhadl #Cg^eecZg ,42-$ YZc :Z\g^[[ YZg
Plctecu-lrfchrung ojg :ZoZ^X]cjc\ Z^cZh heZo^ZaaZc igVchoZcYZciZc RjhiVcYh ZciÜ
l^X`Zai' YZg h^X] YjgX] hZ^cZ KjWi^a^iui' hZ^cZ CdchiVco jcY hZ^cZ `d\c^i^kZ jcY
l^aaZchbuz^\Z IjVa^iui kdc ?^e[ZaZg[V]gjc\Zc jciZghX]Z^YZi) =h ]VcYZai h^X] jb
]Z^iZgZ =g[V]gjc\Zc' lZaX]Z Y^Z CdhiWVg`Z^i jcY Y^Z KX]wc]Z^i YZg <^c\Z jb[VhhZc'
YVh DZWZc egu\cVciZg jcY aZWZcY^\Zg bVX]Zc jcY oj Z^cZg NZghX]^ZWjc\ YZg eZghwcÜ
a^X]ZcOZgiZ[x]gZc5
Ö<Vh l^X]i^\hiZ Vc Y^ZhZc HaViZVj(=g[V]gjc\Zc ^hi' YVz h^Z ^b ?gjcYZ `d\c^i^k
h^cY) K^Z gZeguhZci^ZgZc [Vhi hX]dc eZg YZ[^c^i^dcZb Z^c RZj\c^h YZg OZai) <^Z
HaViZVj(=g[V]gjc\ ^hi RZj\c^h YZg JZVa^iui) K^Z jb[Vzi Y^Z =^ch^X]i ^c YVh KnbWdÜ
a^hX]Z dYZg Enhi^hX]Z' YVh LgVchoZcYZciZ' YVh OjcYZgWVgZ' YVh Mc\aVjWa^X]Z' YVh
bZ^cZg EZ^cjc\ cVX] LZ^a YZg gZVaZc OZai ^hi jcY c^X]i cjg ^b 9j\Z YZh :ZigVX]iZgh
a^Z\i)Å
<^Z HaViZVj(=g[V]gjc\ u]cZai hiVg` YZc hjWi^aZc >dgbZc igVcheZghdcVaZg =g[V]Ü
gjc\' l^Z h^Z >VWgn #,43+$ WZhX]g^ZWZc ]Vi' YZhhZc 9gWZ^i h^X] Vj[ >gVc`ah Dd\dÜ
i]ZgVe^Zhixioi5
ÖDd\di]ZgVeZjiZc WZcjioZc YZc :Z\g^[[ trcnsµersoncl ojg :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ _ZYZg
=g[V]gjc\' YZgZc 9jhl^g`jc\Zc Vj[ Y^Z HZghdc h^X] Vj[ YZg bZchX]a^X]Zc' kdg VaaZb
Vj[ YZg gVi^dcVaZc =WZcZ c^X]i bZ]g Zg`augZc aVhhZc) K^cc jcY Kigj`ijg lZgYZc jcb^iÜ
iZaWVg h^X]iWVg) Ac YZc bZ^hiZc >uaaZc ^hi Y^Z :dihX]V[i ^c Vaaiu\a^X]Zc =g[V]gjc\Zc
kZgWdg\Zc' h^Z l^gY Zg`ZccWVg' lZcc l^g Z^cZc KdccZcjciZg\Vc\ dYZg YVh EZZg
WZigVX]iZc' ^ch >ZjZg Wa^X`Zc' Ejh^` ]wgZc' Z^c L]ZViZghixX` hZ]Zc dYZg Z^c ?ZY^X]i
aZhZc' lZcc l^g ^b HgdoZz ^ciZch^kZg bZchX]a^X]Zg :Zo^Z]jc\ oj Z^cZb ?Za^ZWiZc'
9

EVg`OVaYbVc
Z^cZb C^cY' Z^cZb ?jgj h^cY) Hawioa^X] jcY jcZg`auga^X] WZ`dbbi YVh DZWZc' lZcc
VjX]cjg[xgZ^cZc9j\ZcWa^X`'Z^cZcK^ccÅ#K)31$)
@BLRI+ =^c \ZbZ^chVbZh EZg`bVa i^Z[Zg igVcheZghdcVaZg =g[V]gjc\Zc WZhiZ]i ^c
YZg VaaZh YjgX]Yg^c\ZcYZc =^ch^X]i ^c YVh Z^\ZcZ OZhZc dYZg Y^Z AYZci^iui' Y^Z h^Z b^i
h^X] Wg^c\Zc) <^ZhZ =^ch^X]i l^gY c^X]i cjg Vah igVcheZghdcVa' hdcYZgc VjX] Vah igVchÜ
kZgWVa dYZg jchV\WVg WZhX]g^ZWZc' Vah _ZchZ^ih kdc RZ^i' JVjb jcY ?gZcoZc' lZYZg
YjgX]OdgiZcdX]YjgX]<Zc`Zc[VzWVg)
<ZccdX] h^cY hdaX]Z =g[V]gjc\Zc [axX]i^\) <Vh ZghiZ 9j[Wa^ioZc YZg =gaZjX]ijc\'
l^Z WZYZjihVb dYZg egd[jcY VjX] ^bbZg' kZgWaVzi b^i YZg RZ^i) =cihegZX]ZcY \^Wi Zh
Vahd cdX] Z^cZ lZ^iZgZ =cil^X`ajc\hVj[\VWZ' jcY Y^Z WZhiZ]i YVg^c' hdaX]Z [axX]i^\Zc
kZgucYZgiZc RjhiucYZ oj Z^cZb Vc]VaiZcY kZgucYZgiZc Chcrckterzug oj bVX]Zc'
Vahd ojb :Z^he^Za Z^cZ ?^e[ZaZg[V]gjc\ ^c Z^cZ HaViZVj(=g[V]gjc\ dYZg' l^Z @jhidc
Kb^i] hd egu\cVci \ZhV\i ]Vi' YVh 9j[Wa^ioZc YZg =gaZjX]ijc\ ^c Z^c WaZ^WZcYZh D^X]i
ojkZglVcYZac)
=QBNRPFQRONBLF-FVT^SRFJNRMOEFLLF
@BLEMBN+ ?gd[' Z^cZg YZg :Z\gxcYZg YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZlZ\jc\' ]Vi Vj[ YZg
:Vh^h hZ^cZg `a^c^hX]Zc 9gWZ^i b^i DK< jcY @dadigdeZb 9ibZc' Z^cZg heZo^[^hX]Zc
EZi]dYZ' Y^Z YjgX] 9ibjc\' CwgeZgVgWZ^i jcY CaVc\ kZgucYZgiZ RjhiucYZ d]cZ <gdÜ
\ZcZ^chVio Zgo^Zai' Z^c EdYZaa ojg :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc =g[V]gjc\ ZciÜ
l^X`Zai) ?gd[h #,44-$ ÖDVcY`VgiZcÅ YZh :ZljzihZ^ch jb[VhhZc YgZ^ :ZgZ^X]Z ehnÜ
X]^hX]Zg =g[V]gjc\5 YZc W^d\gVe]^hX]Zc #C^cY]Z^ihZgZ^\c^hhZ' =g^ccZgjc\Zc jcY
LgVjbViV$'YZceZg^cViVaZc#?ZWjgi$jcYYZcigVcheZghdcVaZc5
ÖAb igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZgZ^X] ZgaZWZc l^g Z^cZ =glZ^iZgjc\ dYZg NZgWgZ^iZgjc\ YZh
:ZljzihZ^ch lZ^i xWZg Y^Z cdgbVaZc ?gZcoZc YZh CwgeZgh jcY YZh AX]h hdl^Z Y^Z
e]nh^hX]Zc =^chX]guc`jc\Zc YZh 9aaiV\haZWZch ]^cVjh ))) igVcheZghdcVaZh :ZljziÜ
hZ^c`VccYVh\ZhVbiZKeZ`igjbYZg=m^hiZcojb[VhhZcÅ#K)32$)
Rj YZc :Z^he^ZaZc [xg igVcheZghdcVaZh :ZljzihZ^c ou]aZc aVji ?gd[ #,44-$ jciZg
VcYZgZb ZbWgndc^hX]Z dYZg [wiVaZ =g[V]gjc\Zc' AYZci^[^`Vi^dc dYZg NZghX]bZaojc\
b^i VcYZgZc EZchX]Zc dYZg KeZo^Zh' =g[V]gjc\ YZg LdiVa^iui YZh DZWZch' =gaZWZc YZh
`dhb^hX]Zc :ZljzihZ^ch' 9j[awhjc\ YZg ?gZcoZc YZg RZ^i' Rj\Vc\ oj =g^ccZgjc\Zc
YZg Ndg[V]gZc dYZg kZg\Vc\ZcZg Ac`VgcVi^dcZc' `daaZ`i^kZc dYZg ?Viijc\hZg[V]gjcÜ
\Zc' VgX]Zine^hX]Z AYZci^[^o^Zgjc\Zc' eVgVehnX]dad\^hX]Z H]ucdbZcZ' =gaZWZc jc^g(
Y^hX]Zg dYZg bni]^hX]Zg JZVa^iuiZc jcY Z^cZ N^Za[Vai kdc =g[V]gjc\Zc' Y^Z ^c he^g^Ü
ijZaaZc'bnhi^hX]ZcdYZghX]VbVc^hX]ZcHgV`i^`ZcWZhX]g^ZWZcljgYZc)
?gd[ ]Vi hZ^c :ZljzihZ^chbdYZaa YjgX] l^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Z HZgheZ`i^kZc jcY 9g\jÜ
bZciZ kdc =^chiZ^c' :d]b' :ViZhdc' ;VegV' Hg^WgVb jcY K]ZaYgV`Z `dc`gZi^h^Zgi' Y^Z
lZ^igZ^X]ZcYZ Abea^`Vi^dcZc [xg jchZgZc :Z\g^[[ kdb bZchX]a^X]Zc :ZljzihZ^c jcY
hZ^cZg 9clZcYjc\ Vj[ oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Z HhnX]dad\^Z jcY HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z ]VWZc `wcÜ
cZc) O^aWZg #,44+ V$ ]Vi VaaZgY^c\h YVkdg \ZlVgci' YVgVjh kdghX]cZaa 9ccV]bZc jcY
CdggZaVi^dcZcVWojaZ^iZc5
Ö<^Z 'cZjZ H]nh^`Ç ^hi cdX] lZ^i kdc Z^cZb WgZ^iZc CdchZch Zci[Zgci' hZaWhi YV' ld
Zh jb YVh OZhZc YZg hjWVidb^hX]Zc JZVa^iui \Z]i) <^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z*
YZg Enhi^o^hbjh auzi h^X] c^X]i Vc YZc CdchZch YZg cZjZc IjVciZce]nh^` W^cYZc'
lZ^a Zh Y^ZhZc CdchZch c^X]i \^Wi) <^Z kdg]VcYZcZc NZgW^cYjc\ha^c^Zc ol^hX]Zc
H]nh^` jcY Enhi^o^hbjh h^cY kwaa^\ l^aa`xga^X]) <^Z =^coZa]Z^iZc YZg kZghX]^ZYZcZc
#fjVciZcbZX]Vc^hX]Zc$ AciZgegZiVi^dcZc hX]a^ZzZc h^X]' l^Z l^g \ZhZ]Zc ]VWZc'
10
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
bZ^hi \Z\ZchZ^i^\ Vjh) OZcc bVc Vjh YZc kZghX]^ZYZcZc AciZgegZiVi^dcZc Y^ZhZh dYZg
_ZcZh <ZiV^a dYZg EZg`bVa ]ZgVjh\gZ^[i' ^hi YVh' ^c YZc OdgiZc YZh H]nh^`Zgh :ZgcÜ
hiZ^c''Z^cZLgVkZhi^ZjcYZ^cFVX]iZ^a"[xgY^ZWZigZ[[ZcYZcL]Zdg^ZcÅ#K),/1$)
@BLRI+ <^Z >dghX]jc\ ojb :ZljzihZ^c jcY oj kZgucYZgiZc :ZljzihZ^chojhiucÜ
YZc ^hi [xg Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z oZcigVa' VWZg l^g ]VWZc jch W^haVc\ lZc^\
b^i YZg >gV\Z WZhX]u[i^\i' lVh :ZljzihZ^c Z^\Zcia^X] ^hi) ac aZioiZg RZ^i ]Vi h^Z olVg
Zgchi]V[iZgZ :ZVX]ijc\ \Z[jcYZc' VWZg Zh \^Wi lZ^iZg]^c `Z^cZ CaVg]Z^i xWZg YVh
OZhZc' Y^Z :ZYZjijc\' _V c^X]i Z^cbVa xWZg Y^Z =m^hiZco YZh :ZljzihZ^ch' kdc YZg
WZhiZc EZi]dYZ oj hZ^cZg MciZghjX]jc\ \Vco oj hX]lZ^\Zc #:Vgjhh ,44+$) 9b
Z^cZc =cYZ YZh KeZ`igjbh l^gY :ZljzihZ^c Vah >^`i^dc VW\ZiVc' Vb VcYZgZc Vah [jcÜ
YVbZciVaZh KjWhigVi YZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i \Zeg^ZhZc #AYZVa^hbjh$) >xg bVcX]Z ^hi Zh
9heZ`i Z^cZg ZaZbZciVgZgZc JZVa^iui' Y^Z lZYZg \Z^hi^\ cdX] e]nh^hX] ^hi' hdcYZgc
=^\ZchX]V[iZc Vjh WZ^YZc :ZgZ^X]Zc Vj[lZ^hi' [xg VcYZgZ Z^c WadzZh =e^e]ucdbZc
YZg EViZg^Z #EViZg^Va^hbjh$) =h ljgYZ Vah CgVc`]Z^i YZh DZWZch VW\ZaZ]ci #F^ZioÜ
hX]Z$dYZgVahjcZcYa^X]Zh?axX`YZhKZ^chZghZ]ci#NZYVciV$)
Mc\Zlw]ca^X]Z :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ \VaiZc W^h kdg c^X]i Vaaoj aVc\Zg RZ^i Vah
eVi]dad\^hX]' ojb LZ^a' lZ^a Y^Z bZ^hiZc lZhia^X]Zc O^hhZchX]V[iaZg `Vjb Y^gZ`iZ
=g[V]gjc\Zc b^i YZc kZgucYZgiZc RjhiucYZc ]ViiZc' Y^Z h^Z jciZghjX]iZc) <^Z whia^Ü
X]Z HhnX]dad\^Z YV\Z\Zc ]Vi oV]agZ^X]Z :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ Zg[Vzi jcY `dbea^Ü
o^ZgiZ EZi]dYZc oj ^]gZg AcYjo^Zgjc\ Zcil^X`Zai) Kd ^hi ojb :Z^he^Za ?daZbVc
#,42/$ oj YZb KX]ajz \Z`dbbZc' YVz Y^Z AciZ\gVi^dc YZg kZghX]^ZYZcZc ehnX]dad\^Ü
hX]Zc KX]jaZc [xg GhiZc l^Z OZhiZc Z^cZ :ZgZ^X]Zgjc\ YVghiZaaZc `wcciZ) E^i YZg
lVX]hZcYZc =^ch^X]i ^c igVcheZghdcVaZ =g[V]gjc\ jcY HgdoZhhZ jcY ^]gZg OxgY^\jc\
`wccZc l^g VjX] VcYZgZ CjaijgZc WZhhZg WZjgiZ^aZc jcY kdc ^]gZg ^c @jcYZgiZc kdc
BV]gZc Vc\ZhVbbZaiZc igVcheZghdcVaZc OZ^h]Z^i aZgcZc) <Vb^i `wccZc l^g jch Y^Z
hd\ZcVcciZ Ö?gdzZ LgVY^i^dcÅ l^ZYZg VcZ^\cZc' YVh ]Z^zi Y^Z ?ZhVbihjbbZ `jaijg(
xWZg\gZ^[ZcYZggZa^\^whZgjcYe]^adhde]^hX]ZgOZ^h]Z^i)
<^Z =m^hiZco Z^cZg \gdzZc :VcYWgZ^iZ kdc :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZc l^g[i k^ZaZ >gVÜ
\Zc Vj[5 OZaX]Z RjhiucYZ ojb :Z^he^Za h^cY edh^i^k jcY Y^ZcZc YZg LgVch[dgbVi^dc'
lZaX]Z h^cY gZ\gZhh^k jcY \Z[u]ga^X]8 O^Z aVhhZc h^X] \ZhjcYZ RjhiucYZ hiug`Zc jcY
YZhigj`i^kZ igVch[dgb^ZgZc8 O^Z `wccZc l^g Y^Z Z^coZacZc RjhiucYZ ^YZci^[^o^ZgZc'
kZg\aZ^X]Zc jcY Zg[VhhZc jcY Z^cZc xWZg\gZ^[ZcYZc L]Zdg^ZgV]bZc Zcil^X`Zac' YZg
YVh \ZhVbiZ KeZ`igjb YZh :ZljzihZ^ch YVghiZaai8 E^i hdaX]Zc jcY k^ZaZc lZ^iZgZc
>gV\Zcl^gYh^X]Y^ZigVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^ZlZ^iZg]^cWZ[VhhZcbxhhZc)
2FRTNEIFJSTNE@OILCFGJNEFN
@BLEMBN+ <^Z WZ`VcciZ <Z[^c^i^dc kdc OVah] jcY NVj\]Vc #,43+$ oZ^\i VjX]'
lZaX]Z:ZYZjijc\Y^ZigVcheZghdcVaZ>dghX]jc\YZg?ZhjcY]Z^iojb^zi5
,7rcnsµersoncle Psychologle l^aa YVh >dghX]jc\h\ZW^Zi YZg HhnX]dad\^Z jb Y^Z
MciZghjX]jc\ dei^bVaZg ehnX]^hX]Zg ?ZhjcY]Z^i jcY dei^bVaZc Od]aWZ[^cYZch
ZglZ^iZgc) K^X V`oZei^Zgi YVh WgZ^iZ HdiZci^Va kdc :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZc' kdc YZcZc
bVcX]Z Zh Zgbw\a^X]Zc' Y^Z AYZci^iui xWZg Y^Z cdgbVaZc ?gZcoZc YZh AX]h jcY YZg
HZghwca^X]`Z^i]^cVjhojZglZ^iZgc)
7rcnsµersoncle Psychothercµle WZ[Vzi h^X] b^i YZc igVY^i^dcZaaZc ehnX]dad\^Ü
hX]Zc ?ZW^ZiZc jcY >gV\Zc' l^aa VWZg YVoj OVX]hijb jcY :ZljzihZ^c xWZg YVh igVY^Ü
i^dcZaa V`oZei^ZgiZ ?ZhjcY]Z^ihc^kZVj ]^cVjh [wgYZgc) K^X V[[^gb^Zgi Y^Z :ZYZjijc\
YZg:ZljzihZ^chkZgucYZgjc\jcYYZg?xai^\`Z^iigVchoZcYZciZg=g[V]gjc\)Å
11
EVg`OVaYbVc
@BLRI+ DZ^YZg lZ^X]i Y^ZhZ <Z[^c^i^dc YZg HgdWaZbVi^` YZg HVi]dad\^Z Vjh jcY
^bea^o^Zgi' YVz igVcheZghdcVaZ =g[V]gjc\Zc VjhhX]a^Zza^X] Vj[ ?ZhjcY]Z^i WZod\Zc
h^cY) 9jX] lZcc Y^Z NdghiZaajc\' YVz igVcheZghdcVaZ =cil^X`ajc\ jc\ZigxWiZ >gZjYZ
jcY ?ZhjcY]Z^i b^i h^X] Wg^c\i' lZ^i kZgWgZ^iZi ^hi' Wg^c\Zc igVcheZghdcVaZ =g[V]gjc\
jcY =cil^X`ajc\ ^c O^g`a^X]`Z^i YdX] VjX] HgdWaZbZ jcY KX]l^Zg^\`Z^iZc b^i h^X])
Kd `wccZc he^g^ijZaaZ jcY `dciZbeaVi^kZ HgV`i^`Zc ojb :Z^he^Za jc\ZawhiZ [gx]Z
ehnX]^hX]Z HgdWaZbZ ojb 9jhWgjX] Wg^c\Zc dYZg oj ol^hX]ZcbZchX]a^X]Zc
KX]l^Zg^\`Z^iZc [x]gZc) O^g ]VWZc ]ZjiZ Rj\Vc\ oj YZc EZi]dYZc jcY e]^adhde]^Ü
hX]Zc ?gjcYaV\Zc YZg `dciZbeaVi^kZc LgVY^i^dcZc Vjh VaaZg OZai jcY `wccZc _Zioi
`jaijgxWZg\gZ^[ZcYZ <VghiZaajc\Zc ^]gZg =cil^X`ajc\he]VhZc' HgdWaZbZ jcY Vc\ZÜ
bZhhZcZc L]ZgVe^Zc Zcil^X`Zac) ?ZcVj YVh ]Vi CZc O^aWZg #,43/$ b^i hZ^cZb
ÖKeZ`igjbÅYZgHhnX]deVi]dad\^ZcWZ\dccZc)
:Z^ _ZYZb KX]g^ii Vj[ YZb he^g^ijZaaZc dYZg ehnX]^hX]Zc OZ\ h^cY igVcheZghdcVaZ
Cg^hZc bw\a^X]' Y^Z hd\Vg `a^c^hX]Z :Z]VcYajc\ Zg[dgYZgc `wccZc) :Z^ hdaX]Zc
CgVc`]Z^ihojhiucYZc `Vcc Zh h^X] VWZg YjgX]Vjh VjX] jb ediZci^Zaa edh^i^kZ =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\h`g^hZc ]VcYZac) <^Z =^ch^X]i' YVz ehnX]^hX]Z Cg^hZc' _V hZaWhi HhnX]dhZc
\ZaZ\Zcia^X] YjgX]Vjh Y^Z >jc`i^dc kdc OVX]hijbhZg[V]gjc\Zc ]VWZc `wccZc' Y^Z
aZioia^X] YVh ehnX]^hX]Z jcY he^g^ijZaaZ Od]aWZ[^cYZc hiZ^\Zgc' ^hi cdX] hZaiZc) 9WZg
lZcc hdaX]Z Cg^hZc Zg[da\gZ^X] \Zawhi lZgYZc' YVcc h^cY <Zhdg\Vc^hVi^dc jcY ^ccZÜ
gZg 9j[gj]g d[i YVh EZY^jb' b^i YZhhZc @^a[Z Z^chX]guc`ZcYZ DZWZch\Zld]c]Z^iZc'
sWZgoZj\jc\Zc' R^ZaZ' AYZci^iuiZc jcY DZWZchhi^aZ cZj Z^c\ZhX]uioi' VW\ZaZ\i jcY
YjgX] cZjZ' aZWZchWZ_V]ZcYZ @Vaijc\Zc ZghZioi lZgYZc `wccZc) <Vh hdaa cVixga^X]
nlcht ]Z^zZc' YVz ehnX]^hX]Zh DZ^Y ^bbZg Z^cZ =cil^X`ajc\h`g^hZ lugZ dYZg YVz
h^X] hubia^X]Z =cil^X`ajc\h`g^hZc Z^chX]a^Zza^X] igVcheZghdcVaZg olVc\hauj[^\
WZluai^\Zc aVhhZc jcY oj OVX]hijb jcY Od]aWZ[^cYZc [x]gZc) KZaWhikZghiucYa^X]
\^WiZhEZchX]Zc'WZ^YZcZchdaX]ZCg^hZcWaZ^WZcYZKX]uYZc]^ciZgaVhhZc)
9jX] WZ^ hX]lZgZc =g`gVc`jc\Zc' ZilV WZ^ HhnX]dhZc' `wccZc jcZglVgiZi igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZ =g[V]gjc\Zc Vj[igZiZc) OZcc h^X] ojb :Z^he^Za Y^Z cdgbVaZc `d\c^i^kZc
>jc`i^dcZc Vj[awhZc' l^gY Y^Z HhnX]Z ^c bVcX]Zc >uaaZc b^i =aZbZciZc Vjh hubia^Ü
X]Zc :ZgZ^X]Zc YZh McWZljziZc' ]d]Zc jcY c^ZYg^\Zc' eVi]dad\^hX]Zc jcY igVcÜ
hoZcYZciZc' xWZghX]lZbbi) =^cZ Vc\ZbZhhZcZ :Z]VcYajc\ ]uc\i YVcc kdc 9gi jcY
KX]lZgZ YZg =g`gVc`jc\' kdc YZg <^V\cdhZ jcY kdb NZghiucYc^h igVcheZghdcVaZg
HgdoZhhZVW)
/BR<FLCRSTNEEBRSQBNRPFQRONBLF6ONYFPSEFQ
=QBNRYFNEJFQTNHEFR4DIR
@BLEMBN+ ac YZg <Z[^c^i^dc kdc OVah] jcY NVj\]Vc #,43+$ `dbbi Z^c CdcoZei
ojg KegVX]Z' YVh gZaVi^k hX]lZg oj kZghiZ]Zc ^hi5 Y^Z Ew\a^X]`Z^i YZg =glZ^iZgjc\ YZg
AYZci^iui xWZg Y^Z cdgbVaZc ?gZcoZc YZh AX]h jcY YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i ]^cVjh) <Vh ^hi
ZilVhVcYZgZhVahEVhadlhCdcoZei'^cYZbY^ZwerteYVhKZaWhiigVchoZcY^ZgZc)
<Vh CdcoZei Z^cZh igVchoZcYZciZc 5elbst iVjX]i ^c YZg ?ZhX]^X]iZ YZg H]^adhde]^Z
jcY YZg JZa^\^dc l^Z ^c YZc Z^c[ajzgZ^X]Zc HhnX]dad\^ZhX]jaZc kdc 9hhV\^da^ #,42,$
jcY Bjc\ ^bbZg l^ZYZg Vj[) <^Z [gx]Z igVcheZghdcVaZ >dghX]jc\ ]Vi h^X] VjX] YZhÜ
]VaW YZc c^X]ilZhia^X]Zc #kdg VaaZb YZc whia^X]Zc$ JZa^\^dcZc jcY H]^adhde]^Zc
oj\ZlVcYi' lZ^a h^X Ydgi VaiZgcVi^kZ jcY ^c bVcX]Zc >uaaZc `dbeaZmZgZ EdYZaaZ YZg
HZghwca^X]`Z^ihZcil^X`ajc\ jcY YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc :ZljzihZ^ch [VcY #@Vaa' D^cYoZn
,423$) <^Z >dghX]jc\ ojg ehnX]ZYZa^hX]Zc jcY VcYZgZc VjzZg\Zlw]ca^X]Zc >dgbZc
12
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
YZg :ZljzihZ^chZglZ^iZgjc\ ]Vi ojhVbbZc b^i YZg >dghX]jc\ xWZg :^d[ZZYWVX`'
\ZaZc`iZ AbV\^cVi^dc' =ciheVccjc\hi]ZgVe^Z jhl) lZ^iZgZ 9c]Vaihejc`iZ [xg Y^Z
Ejai^Y^bZch^dcVa^iui YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i jcY YZg :Zljzi]Z^i \Z[jcYZc) =^c lZ^iZgZh
=g\ZWc^h Y^ZhZg 9gWZ^iZc lVg Y^Z =g`Zccic^h' YVz h^X] YVh KZaWhi\Z[x]a kZgucYZgc'
jb[dgbja^ZgZc dYZg Vj[ Z^cZ OZ^hZ ZgaZWZc auzi' Y^Z cdgbVaZ :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ
c^X]i Zgbw\a^X]Zc) OViih #,42/$ bZ^ci5 ÖO^g ]VWZc jch b^i Z^cZb HgdoZz YZg ?Z^Ü
hiZhiui^\`Z^i dYZg YZh :ZljzihZ^ch ^YZci^[^o^Zgi' YZg ^c O^g`a^X]`Z^i \Vg c^X]i YZg
jchZgZ^hiÅ)
Ahi YVh KZaWhi Z^cZ Aaajh^dc' Z^cZ l^aa`xga^X]Z Cdchigj`i^dc YZh ?Z^hiZh' l^Z Y^Z
:jYY]^hiZc bZ^ciZc' dYZg \^Wi Zh Z^c VcYZgZh' WZhhZg ^ciZ\g^ZgiZh KZaWhi' YVh h^X]
YjgX] WZhi^bbiZ he^g^ijZaaZ dYZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z EZi]dYZc ZgVgWZ^iZc auzi8 Ahi YVh
:ZljzihZ^c cjg Z^c HgdYj`i YZh NZghiVcYZh' dYZg `Vcc Zh _ZchZ^ih YZg ?gZcoZc YZh
W^dad\^hX]Zc CwgeZgh Zm^hi^ZgZc' l^Z Y^Z eVgVehnX]dad\^hX]Z >dghX]jc\ b^iiaZgÜ
lZ^aZ \ZoZ^\i ]Vi8 <Vh h^cY Y^Z >gV\Zc' Y^Z ^c YZg l^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zc igVcheZghdcVaZc
?ZbZ^cYZ\Z\Zclugi^\Y^h`ji^ZgilZgYZc)
=BQS+ :Z^ bZ^cZg MciZghjX]jc\ kZgucYZgiZg :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ l^Z ojb :Z^Ü
he^Za LgujbZ' @necdhZ' hiVg` Zbdi^dcVaZ RjhiucYZ' bZY^iVi^kZ =g[V]gjc\Zc jcY YgdÜ
\Zc^cYjo^ZgiZ RjhiucYZ ]Vi Zh h^X] Vah h^cckdaa ]ZgVjh\ZhiZaai' YVh ÖKZaWhiÅ(?Z[x]a
ojb LZ^a' k^ZaaZ^X]i hd\Vg ojg ?ucoZ Vah l^aa`xga^X]Z lonstruktlon oj WZigVX]iZc jcY
c^X]iVahOV]gcZ]bjc\kdcZilVhCdc`gZiZb)
<^Z gZaVi^kZ KiVW^a^iui YZh e]nh^hX]Zc CwgeZgh WZ^ cdgbVaZg ?ZhjcY]Z^i ^hi YZg
hiug`hiZ 9cig^ZW ojg Cdc`gZi^h^Zgjc\ YZh KZaWhi) OZ^iZgZ >V`idgZc h^cY `jaijgheZo^[^Ü
hX]Z ehnX]^hX]Z jcY Zbdi^dcVaZ ?Zld]c]Z^iZc' l^Z YZg kdc b^g WZcjioiZ hnhiZbÜ
i]ZdgZi^hX]Z 9chVio ojg =g[dghX]jc\ kZgucYZgiZg RjhiucYZ #LVgi ,420$ Zg\ZWZc ]Vi)
<Zg OZX]hZa oj Z^cZb VcYZgZc RjhiVcY jcY oj Z^cZb VcYZgZc KZaWhi auzi h^X] YjgX]
Z^cZ gVY^`Va VcYZgZ >x]gjc\ oj Z^cZb VcYZgZc NZg]VaiZc ZgaZWZc) OZcc bVc ojb
:Z^he^Za Y^Z HZghwca^X]`Z^ihbZg`bVaZ YZh lVX]Zc KZaWhi b^i YZcZc ^c cdgbVaZc
LgujbZc kZg\aZ^X]i' aVhhZc h^X] k^ZaZ l^X]i^\Z MciZghX]^ZYZ [ZhihiZaaZc) =^c VcYZgZh
:Z^he^Za lugZ Y^Z @necdhZ' ^c YZg bVc YVh KZaWhi\Z[x]a YjgX] Kj\\Zhi^dc WZa^ZW^\
bVc^eja^ZgZc`Vcc)
=h ^hi c^X]i hX]lZg' h^X] ^c NZghjX]Z oj kZghig^X`Zc' YVh ÖKZaWhiÅ dYZg YVh ÖAX]Å oj
YZ[^c^ZgZc' VWZg b^g ZghX]Z^ci Zh h^cckdaaZg' Z^cZc CViVad\ YZg iVihuX]a^X]Zc =g[V]Ü
gjc\hjciZghX]^ZYZ oj ZgVgWZ^iZc jcY YVgxWZg oj WZ\gZ^[Zc' YVz YVh ÖKZaWhiÅ Z^c HgdÜ
oZzjcY`Z^cZhiVi^hX]Z?Z\ZWZc]Z^i^hi)
@BLEMBN+ <Vh ^hi g^X]i^\) ?aZ^X]oZ^i^\ VgWZ^iZc Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZc L]Zdg^Zc jcY
<Z[^c^i^dcZc VWZg b^i Z^cZb VcYZgZc ÖAX]Å(:Z\g^[[ Vah ^c YZg HhnX]dad\^Z xWa^X]' jcY
YVh l^g[i HgdWaZbZ Vj[' kdg VaaZb [xg HhnX]dad\Zc jcY L]ZgVeZjiZc VcYZgZg KX]jaZc'
Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ L]Zdg^Zc jcY HZgheZ`i^kZc kZghiZ]Zc bwX]iZc) >VY^bVc #,43+$
ojb :Z^he^Za ]Vi YZc :Z\g^[[ ÖAX]Å WZcjioi' jb Y^Z HZghwca^X]`Z^i oj YZ[^c^ZgZc'
lu]gZcY VcYZgZ ^]c Vj[ YVh KZaWhiW^aY WZo^Z]Zc) OVah] jcY NVj\]Vc #,43+' K) -1-$
]VWZc Zh YZ[^c^Zgi Vah Ö`dcoZeijZaaZh KZaWhi\Z[x]a' YVh b^i YZg ^cY^k^YjZaaZc :ZhdcÜ
YZg]Z^i ^YZci^[^o^Zgi l^gY6 LZ^a YZg HhnX]Z' b^i YZb h^X] YVh AcY^k^Yjjb ^YZci^[^Ü
o^ZgiÅ)
<^Z bZ^hiZc HhnX]dad\Zc kZghiZ]Zc YVh AX] VaaZgY^c\h Vah YZc oZcigVaZc' WZhi^bÜ
bZcYZc HZghwca^X]`Z^ihVciZ^a' YZc ^ciZ\gVi^kZc jcY hnci]Zi^h^ZgZcYZc 9heZ`i YZh
?Z^hiZh) >xg KigVX]Zn #>gZjY' ,4-.$ gZeguhZci^ZgiZ Zh NZghiVcY jcY \Z^hi^\Z ?ZhjcYÜ
]Z^i) <V\Z\Zc ]Vi :ZiiZa]Z^b #,43-$ YVgVj[]^c\Zl^ZhZc' YVz Y^Z Zc\a^hX]Z sWZghZiÜ
ojc\ Ö=\dÅ Z^cZ NZgoZggjc\ kdc >gZjYh ?gjcY`dcoZei YVghiZaai jcY hZ^c EdYZaa YZg
HhnX]Z ZcieZghdcVa^h^Zgi5 ÖOVh Zg Vah 'AX]Ç WZoZ^X]cZiZ' WZo^Z]i h^X] ]VjeihuX]a^X]
13
EVg`OVaYbVc
Vj[ Y^Z WZljziZc' gVi^dcVaZc 9heZ`iZ YZh KZaWhiÅ #K) 00$) 9jX] EVhadl ]Vi ^c hZ^cZc
:ZhX]gZ^Wjc\Zc igVcheZghdcVaZg HgdoZhhZ jcY =g[V]gjc\Zc Vj[ YZc :Z\g^[[ kZgÜ
o^X]iZi)
Ac YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z WZo^Z]i h^X] ÖAX]Å kdg VaaZb Vj[ YVh KZaWhi\ZÜ
[x]a' b^i YZb l^g jch Vb ]uj[^\hiZc ^YZci^[^o^ZgZc jcY YVh l^g d[i [xg Y^Z JZeguhZcÜ
iVi^dc jchZgZg \ZhVbiZc AcY^k^YjVa^iui ]VaiZc) KX]l^Zg^\ l^gY Zh WZ^ YZb NZghjX]'
YVh oj YZ[^c^ZgZc' lVh Ö_ZchZ^ihÅ jchZgZg AYZci^[^o^Zgjc\ YZh eZghdcVaZc KZaWhi a^Z\i'
lZ^a Xh hd k^ZaZ EdYZaaZ \^Wi' ^c YZcZc Y^Z LgVchoZcYZco YZh KZaWhi WZhX]g^ZWZc l^gY)
Bjc\ ojb :Z^he^Za lVg YZg EZ^cjc\' YVz c^X]i YVh AX] YVh RZcigjb YZg HZghwca^X]Ü
`Z^i hZ^6 Zg \^c\ kdc Z^cZb oZcigVaZc' aZc`ZcYZc CZgc Vjh' YZc Zg Vah ÖKZaWhiÅ
WZoZ^X]cZiZ) LgdioYZb lugZ Zh jcg^X]i^\' Bjc\h KZaWhiWZ\g^[[ b^i igVcheZghdcVaZc
=g[V]gjc\Zc jcY HZgheZ`i^kZc \aZ^X]ojhZioZc' Y^Z ^c Z^cZb YZjia^X] VcYZgZc L]Zd(
g^ZgV]bZc ljgoZac `wccZc) EVcX]Z igVcheZghdcVaZc J^X]ijc\Zc aZ^iZc h^X] Vjh
bnhi^hX]Zc dYZg ZhdiZg^hX]Zc OjgoZac dYZg Vjh L]Zdg^Zc xWZg YVh KZaWhi VW' Y^Z ^b
,4) BV]g]jcYZgi Zcil^X`Zai ljgYZc) =^c :Z^he^Za YV[xg [^cYZi h^X] WZ^ O^aa^Vb BVbZh
#,4+-' o^i) cVX] YZg 9jh\VWZ kdc ,41,' K) ./-$' YZg h^X] Vj[ CVcih igVchoZcYZciVaZh
AX] WZo^Z]i' Z^c ZcieZghwca^X]iZh' jc^kZghZaaZh CdcoZei YZh VWhigV`iZc :ZljzihZ^ch'
YVh' ^c BVbZhÉ OdgiZc' ÖY^Z KZZaZ YZg OZaiÅ `dchi^ij^ZgiZ' Ö^c YZg YVh OZhZc jchZgZh
_ZlZ^a^\ZceZghdcVaZcKZaWhiWZljzihZ^ch@Z\iÅ)
Ndg VaaZb Y^Z whia^X]Zc H]^adhde]^Zc ]VWZc ol^hX]Zc YZb ^cY^k^YjZaaZc WZljziZc
KZaWhi #YZg :Z\g^[[ YZh AX] ]Vi ^c YZc Vh^Vi^hX]Zc CjaijgZc Z^cZ \Vco heZo^[^hX]Z
:ZYZjijc\$ jcY Z^cZb \gwzZgZc dYZg VWhdajiZc KZaWhi jciZghX]^ZYZc' YVh ^c jcY _ZcÜ
hZ^ih YZg ?gZcoZc Vaaiu\a^X]Zg :Zljzi]Z^i Zm^hi^Zgi) <Zg AX]WZ\g^[[ YZg igVcheZghdÜ
cVaZc D^iZgVijg hixioi h^X] ]uj[^\ Vj[ hdaX]Z CdcoZeiZ) Kd ZcihegZX]Zc ojb :Z^he^Za
WZhi^bbiZ 9heZ`iZ YZh :ZljzihZ^ch' Y^Z O^aWZg #,420$ Vah igVcheZghdcVa dYZg ÖxWZg(
^cY^k^YjZaaÅ #ÖhjegV(^cY^k^YjVaÅ$ WZoZ^X]cZi' YZg whia^X]Zc NdghiZaajc\ YZh RZj\Zc5
Ö<Vh' lVh [u]^\ ^hi' YVh >a^ZzZc YZhhZc oj WZdWVX]iZc' lVh ^hi ( d]cZ _ZYZc =^c\g^[['
CdbbZciVg dYZg ^g\ZcYl^Z \ZVgiZiZ EVc^ejaVi^dc)Å <^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ D^iZgVijg
hixioi h^X] Vj[ hd k^ZaZ jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z jcY Y^hi^c`iZ <^bZch^dcZc Z^cZh igVchoZcÜ
YZciZc KZaWhi' YVz YZg ?ZWgVjX] YZh Vci^fj^ZgiZc' jceZghwca^X]Zc jcY VWhigV`iZc
:Z\g^[[h ÖAX]Å jcVc\ZbZhhZc ZghX]Z^ci jcY bw\a^X]ZglZ^hZ [xg Y^Z Cg^i^` kZgVciÜ
ldgia^X] ^hi' cVX] YZg igVcheZghdcVaZ CdcoZeiZ ediZci^Zaa oj Z^cZg =ci]jbVc^h^Zgjc\
YZh EZchX]Zc jcY hZ^cZg ^ccZgZc ehnX]^hX]Zc HgdoZhhZ [x]gZc #;]VjY]jg^ ,420'
EVn,431'KX]cZ^YZg,432$)
?BTHIBN+ 9jX] lZcc Y^Z <^h`jhh^dcZc xWZg YVh AX] d[i kZgl^ggZcY h^cY' `wccZc
l^g bZ^cZh =gVX]iZch Vj[ YZc :Z\g^[[ c^X]i kZgo^X]iZc) AX] \aVjWZ' YVz Z^cZ <Z[^c^Ü
i^dc bw\a^X] ^hi' Y^Z jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z HZgheZ`i^kZc Z^cWZo^Z]i jcY ^]cZc \ZgZX]i
l^gY) NZghX]^ZYZcZ OV]gcZ]bjc\Zc he^Z\Zac kZghX]^ZYZcZ sWZgoZj\jc\Zc jcY
K^X]ilZ^hZc) 9jh bZ^cZg K^X]i he^Z\Zai YVh AX] YZc ^ciZ\g^ZgZcYZc' WZhi^bbZcYZc
LZ^a YZg Z^\ZcZc HZghwca^X]`Z^i' Y^Z WZljziZc gVi^dcVaZc 9heZ`iZ YZh KZaWhi hdl^Z
YVh `dcoZeijZaaZ KZaWhi\Z[x]a' b^i YZb l^g jch ^YZci^[^o^ZgZc) Bjc\h 9j[[Vhhjc\'
ldcVX] YVh KZaWhi YVh RZcigjb YZg HhnX]Z jcY YVh AX] YVh RZcigjb YZg WZljziZc
HZghwca^X]`Z^i ^hi' eVzi oj Y^ZhZc <Z[^c^i^dcZc' lZcc l^g cVX] ?ZbZ^chVb`Z^iZc
hjX]Zc)
9aaZgY^c\h hdg\i Zh [xg ojhuioa^X]Z NZgl^ggjc\' lZcc l^g YZc :Z\g^[[ YZh AX] Vj[
YVh igVchoZcYZciVaZ KZaWhi WZo^Z]Zc) CVci jcY BVbZh ]VWZc ^]gZ OZg`Z aVc\Z kdg
YZg RZ^i \ZhX]g^ZWZc' ^c YZg YZg :Z\g^[[ YjgX] Y^Z HhnX]dad\^Z edejaVg^h^Zgi ljgYZ)
@ZjiZ ^hi Zh `Z^c HgdWaZb' ^b cdgbVaZc KegVX]\ZWgVjX] ol^hX]Zc YZb AX] jcY YZb'
lVh bVc Vah KZZaZ WZoZ^X]cZc `wcciZ' oj jciZghX]Z^YZc' jcY Zh \^Wi \jiZ ?gxcYZ'
14
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
WZ^YZ :Z\g^[[Z [VaaZcojaVhhZc) 9WZg ^c YZg >VX]hegVX]Z YZg oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Zc
HhnX]dad\^Z auzi h^X] bZ^cZg EZ^cjc\ cVX] Z^cZ <^h`jhh^dc YZg _ZlZ^a^\Zc HZgÜ
heZ`i^kZc YZh :Z\g^[[h ÖAX]Å c^X]i kZgbZ^YZc) =h `wcciZ ]^a[gZ^X] hZ^c oj `augZc'
lZaX]Z MciZghX]^ZYZ jcY ?ZbZ^chVb`Z^iZc Zh ^c YZg _ZlZ^a^\Zc NZglZcYjc\ YZh
:Z\g^[[h\^Wi)
/FQ-FHQJGGaSQBNRPFQRONBL`JNEFQ<JDISUON.$2$5TNH
7BNNFQS+ EZ^cZg EZ^cjc\ cVX] ^hi Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z oji^Z[hi kdc
YZc 9gWZ^iZc ;) ?) Bjc\h WZZ^c[ajzi' YZg Y^Z NVa^Y^iui YZg gZa^\^whZc =g[V]gjc\ WZ[xgÜ
ldgiZiZ' Y^Z Zg Vah Lg^ZW`gV[i ^c _ZYZb EZchX]Zc hV]) Bjc\ [x]aiZ h^X] \aZ^X]ZgbVzZc
kdc whia^X]Zc l^Z kdc lZhia^X]Zc JZa^\^dcZc Vc\Zod\Zc jcY ]Vi Vj[ YZc RjhVbbZcÜ
WgjX] YZg he^g^ijZaaZc HZgheZ`i^kZ ^c YZg lZhia^X]Zc Cjaijg ]^c\Zl^ZhZc5 ÖO^g ]VWZc
VaaZ <^c\Z ^]gZh ?Z]Z^bc^hhZh jcY ^]gZg Fjb^cdh^iui WZgVjWi6 jch ^hi c^X]ih bZ]g
]Z^a^\Å #,413' K) 4/$) =cihegZX]ZcY ]Vi Zg Z^c KnhiZb he^g^ijZaaZg jcY gZa^\^whZg =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\ kdg\ZhiZaai) =g WZbZg`iZ' YVz EZchX]Zc ^b [gx]Zc =glVX]hZcZcVaiZg h^X]
kdg VaaZb b^i HgdWaZbZc YZh AX]h' b^i gVi^dcVaZg GgYcjc\ jcY ad\^hX]Zc JZa^\^dch(
hnhiZbZc WZhX]u[i^\Zc) Ab b^iiaZgZc =glVX]hZcZcVaiZg YV\Z\Zc higZWZc h^Z d[i cVX]
?Vco]Z^i jcY ?aZ^X]\Zl^X]i' lVh h^X] ]uj[^\ ^c he^g^ijZaaZg jcY gZa^\^whZg =g[V]gjc\
bVc^[Zhi^Zgi)
Bjc\h HhnX]dad\^Z gZ^X]i xWZg Y^Z =WZcZ YZh AX] jcY YZh @jbVc^hi^hX]Zc ]^cVjh)
>xg ^]c WZhiVcY Y^Z ZX]iZ L]ZgVe^Z ^c YZg 9ccu]Zgjc\ Vc YVh Fjb^cdhZ6 cjb^cdhZ
=g[V]gjc\Zc WZ[gZ^Zc YZc EZchX]Zc Vjh YZb CgZ^haVj[ YZg HVi]dad\^Z #,42,$) =g lVg
Z^cZg YZg ZghiZc HhnX]^ViZg' Y^Z Z^cZ :Zo^Z]jc\ ol^hX]Zc bZchX]a^X]Zb DZ^Y jcY
i^Z[ZgZc KX]^X]iZc YZg ^cY^k^YjZaaZc HhnX]Z' YZb Ö`daaZ`i^kZc McWZljziZcÅ' ]Zg(
\ZhiZaai ]VWZc) 9jh hZ^cZg HZgheZ`i^kZ gZeguhZci^Zgi Y^Z bZchX]a^X]Z =cil^X`ajc\
igdio ^]gZg hX]Z^cWVgZc ?Zg^X]iZi]Z^i YVh :Zbx]Zc' Y^Z edaVg^h^ZgiZc ?Z\ZchuioZ'
Z^chX]a^Zza^X] YZh KX]ViiZch' oj Z^cZg Vjh\Z\a^X]ZcZc Knci]ZhZ oj Wg^c\Zc' ?Z^hi jcY
K^ccZ' gVi^dcVa(a^cZVgZ 9cVanhZ jcY Acij^i^dc' GhiZc jcY OZhiZc' Eucca^X] jcY
OZ^Wa^X]' 9aa jcY FZj jhl) oj kZgW^cYZc #K]VVaVc ,430$) <Vh h^cY \ZcVj Y^Z :ZgZ^Ü
X]Z' b^i YZcZc h^X] Y^Z gZa^\^whZ LgVY^i^dc jcY Y^Z \Z\Zclugi^\Z igVcheZghdcVaZ
L]ZgVe^ZWZhX]u[i^\i)
@BLEMBN+ ?gd[ #,44-' K) ,-$ ]Vi YVgVj[]^c\Zl^ZhZc' YVz Y^Z bdYZgcZc :ZljziÜ
hZ^ch[dghX]Zg Bjc\ hZ]g k^Za kZgYVc`Zc' YZcc Zg Ö]Vi xWZgoZj\ZcYZ :ZaZ\Z YV[xg
\ZhVbbZai' YVz l^g lZ^i xWZg Y^Z eZghwca^X]Z :^d\gVe]^Z jcY YVh ^cY^k^YjZaaZ
McWZljziZ ]^cVjh\Z]Zc bxhhZc' lZcc l^g Y^Z lV]gZ FVijg YZg HhnX]Z VjX] cjg
VchViolZ^hZ WZ\gZ^[Zc ldaaZcÅ) Bjc\ ]Vi YZc :Z\g^[[ ÖigVcheZghdcVaÅ ^b JV]bZc YZg
kdc ^]b Zcil^X`ZaiZc NdghiZaajc\ YZh `daaZ`i^kZc McWZljziZc WZcjioi jcY YVb^i
\Vco VcYZgh \ZWgVjX]i Vah l^g ]ZjiZ) <Vh [da\ZcYZ R^iVi kdc =g^X] FZjbVcc hdaa
Z^c^\Z Mc`aVg]Z^iZc jcY Ac`dch^hiZcoZc WZhZ^i^\Zc ]Za[Zc' kdg VaaZb ^b @^cWa^X` Vj[
Y^Z \uc\^\Z AciZ\gVi^dc _jc\^Vc^hX]Zg jcY igVcheZghdcVaZg EdYZaaZ ^c L]Zdg^Z jcY
HgVm^h5
Ö=^c NZghjX]' kdc YZg 9cVani^hX]Zc HhnX]dad\^Z Vjh\Z]ZcY VgX]Zine^hX]Z =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\hhiVY^Zc YZh :ZljzihZ^ch cVX]ojlZ^hZc' bjz WZ\^ccZc b^i YZg MciZgÜ
hX]Z^Yjc\ kdc igVcheZghdcVaZc jcY eZghdcVaZc ehnX]^hX]Zc >V`idgZc) HZghdcVaZ
>V`idgZc h^cY hdaX]Z' Y^Z ojg =^coZaeZghwca^X]`Z^i \Z]wgZc jcY Y^Z h^X b^i `Z^cZb
VcYZgZc AcY^k^Yjjb \ZbZ^chVb ]Vi' jcVW]uc\^\ YVkdc' dW h^X WZljzi dYZg jcWZÜ
ljzi h^cY) <^Z igVcheZghdcVaZc ehnX]^hX]Zc >V`idgZc YV\Z\Zc h^cY `daaZ`i^k' xWZg(
15
EVg`OVaYbVc
jcY VjzZgeZghwca^X]' VWZg c^X]i Vah `daaZ`i^kZ ujzZgZ :ZY^c\jc\Zc YZg Kdo^Ziui' hdcÜ
YZgc Vah ^ccZgZ Kigj`ijgZaZbZciZ) <Vh LgVcheZghdcVaZ hiZaai Z^cZc kdb HZghdcVaZc
lZ^i\Z]ZcY jcVW]uc\^\Zc O^g`jc\h[V`idg YVg' YZcc YVh HZghdcVaZ ^hi `daaZ`i^k l^Z
^cY^k^YjZaaZghiZ^cheuiZhHgdYj`iYZg=cil^X`ajc\)
BZYZ ]^hidg^hX]Z :ZigVX]ijc\ jcY _ZYZ Zcil^X`ajc\h\ZhX]^X]ia^X]Z 9chX]Vjjc\
^hi ^c Y^ZhZb K^ccZ ]^hidg^hX]' bjz YV]Zg kdb LgVcheZghdcVaZc Vjh\Z]Zc) Ac YZg
EZchX]]Z^ih\ZhX]^X]iZ l^Z ^c YZg =^coZaZcil^X`ajc\ hiZ]i Z^c sWZg\Zl^X]i igVch(
eZghdcVaZg >V`idgZc Vb :Z\^cc' Zghi ^b NZgaVj[ YZg =cil^X`ajc\ l^gY YZg eZghdcVaZ
:Zo^g`h^X]iWVgjcYhZaWhiucY^\Å#,42/'K),+$)
FZjbVcc `dbbi oj YZb KX]ajz5 Ö=h ^hi Y^Z ?gjcYZg`Zccic^h YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc
HhnX]dad\^Z' YVz Y^Z CdaaZ`i^kehnX]Z' Y^Z L^Z[ZchX]^X]i YZh McWZljziZc' YZg OjgÜ
oZa\gjcY jcY OjgoZahigdb ^hi' Vjh YZb VaaZh AX]]V[iZ jcY :ZljziZ hiVbbi' ^c YZb Zh
\gxcYZi' kdc YZb Zh Zgcu]gi l^gY' jcY d]cZ YZc Zh c^X]i Zm^hi^ZgiZc `VccÅ #K) -,2$)
<Vb^i hiZ]i Bjc\h NZghiucYc^h YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc =g[V]gjc\ ^b ?Z\ZchVio oj YZc
=cil^X`ajc\hbdYZaaZc kdc EVhadl' O^aWZg jcY VcYZgZc' WZ^ YZcZc igVcheZghdcVaZ
=g[V]gjc\Zc ^c Z^cZb :ZgZ^X] YZg LgVchoZcYZco YZh AX] jcY YZh KZaWhi Vc\Zh^ZYZai
h^cY)
<PJQJSTBLJS[STNE=QBNRYFNEFNYJMSQBNRPFQRONBLFN6ONSFWS
@BLEMBN+ <Zg :Z\g^[[ YZg Ke^g^ijVa^iui ou]ai oj YZc oZcigVaZc >gV\Zc YZg igVch(
eZghdcVaZc >dghX]jc\' l^gY VWZg l^Z hd k^ZaZ VcYZgZ :Z\g^[[Z YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc
D^iZgVijg d[i c^X]i Z^cYZji^\ YZ[^c^Zgi) :Z^ \ZcVjZgZg :ZigVX]ijc\ l^gY YZjia^X]' YVz
[Vhi _ZYZg 9jidg Ke^g^ijVa^iui VcYZgh jcY l^YZghegxX]a^X] YZ[^c^Zgi) <V Ke^g^ijVa^iui
hZ^i Z^c^\Zg RZ^i Z^c hZ]g WZa^ZWiZh L]ZbV ^c jchZgZg ?ZhZaahX]V[i ^hi' `Vcc Y^Z [daÜ
\ZcYZ `jgoZ RjhVbbZc[Vhhjc\ YZg kZghX]^ZYZcZc NZglZcYjc\h[dgbZc YZh :Z\g^[[h
^c YZg HhnX]dad\^Z hZ^cZ :ZYZjijc\ ^b CdciZmi igVcheZghdcVaZg L]Zdg^Zc jcY HZgÜ
heZ`i^kZc`augZc]Za[Zc)
7BNNFQS+ Ab lZ^iZhiZc K^ccZ `Vcc bVc Ke^g^ijVa^iui Vah YZc LZ^a YZh EZchX]Zc
kZghiZ]Zc' YZg 9heZ`iZ kdc HhnX]Z' KZZaZ' ?Z^hi' ?Z[x]a jcY O^aaZc jb[Vzi jcY h^X]
kdb i]Z^hi^hX]Zc l^Z kdb c^X]ii]Z^hi^hX]Zc KiVcYejc`i Vjh WZigVX]iZc auzi) :ZccZg
#,434$ ]Vi Y^Z @VjeiWZhiVcYiZ^aZ YZg Ke^g^ijVa^iui ^b KigZWZc cVX] YZg Z^\ZcZc NZg(
dgijc\ YjgX] LgVchoZcYZco YZh KZaWhi' cVX] YZg AciZ\gVi^dc YZh KZ^ch jcY YZg =ciÜ
YZX`jc\ jcY =g[xaajc\ YZh lV]gZc KZaWhi \ZhZ]Zc) <Vh jb[Vzi YVh ^ccZgZ DZWZc
\ZcVjhd l^Z YVh DZWZc ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ b^i jcY ^b <^Zchi [xg VcYZgZ) K^Z]i bVc kdc
hZbVci^hX]Zc HgdWaZbZc VW' hd ^hi Ke^g^ijVa^iui Y^Z \gjcYaZ\ZcYZ ?ZbZ^chVb`Z^i
kdcJZa^\^dcjcYHhnX]dad\^Z)
Lgdio YZg kZghX]^ZYZcZc Vi]Z^hi^hX]Zc jcY i]Z^hi^hX]Zc ]jbVc^hi^hX]Zc H]^adhdÜ
e]^Zc ^hi Y^Z KX]jaZ YZg ]jbVc^hi^hX]Zc HhnX]dad\^Z [xg Z^cZc Zi]^hX]*he^g^ijZaaZc
HajgVa^hbjh d[[Zc' YZg YZb Z^coZacZc Y^Z >gZ^]Z^i auzi' h^X] [xg Z^cZ he^g^ijZaaZ J^X]Ü
ijc\ oj ZcihX]Z^YZc dYZg h^Z hZaWhi oj Zcil^X`Zac #?djY ,44+$) McY EVhadl ]Vi
\ZhV\i' YVz ÖYZg EZchX] Z^cZc OZgiZgV]bZc' Z^cZ DZWZche]^adhde]^Z' Z^cZ JZa^\^dc
dYZg Z^cZc JZa^\^dchZghVio ojb DZWZc jcY ojb NZghiZ]Zc \ZcVjhd WgVjX]i l^Z
KdccZca^X]i'CVao^jbjcYD^ZWZÅ#,41-'K)-+1$)
E^i YZb lVX]hZcYZc AciZgZhhZ Vc Ke^g^ijVa^iui h^cY ^c YZg HhnX]dad\^Z oV]agZ^X]Z
L]Zdg^Zc xWZg Y^Z =cil^X`ajc\ Z^cZg ehnX]dhe^g^ijZaaZc HZgheZ`i^kZ ZcihiVcYZc) >xg
:V``Zc #,43.$ ]VcYZai Zh h^X] WZ^ YZb' lVh Vah he^g^ijZaaZh =glVX]Zc WZoZ^X]cZi
l^gY' ^b ?gjcYZ jb Y^Z =cil^X`ajc\ Z^cZg ehnX]dad\^hX]Zc AYZci^iui' lu]gZcY
16
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
>gVc`a #,41.' ,423$ Y^Z OjgoZa oV]agZ^X]Zg ehnX]^hX]Zg HgdWaZbZ ^c he^g^ijZaaZc
Cdc[a^`iZc jcY ^c YZg O^ZYZgZciYZX`jc\ Z^cZg he^g^ijZaaZc HZgheZ`i^kZ Z^c cdilZcÜ
Y^\Zh9iig^WjiYZgL]ZgVe^ZhV]5
<^Z e]ucdbZcdad\^hX](Zm^hiZci^ZaaZ 9cVanhZ' hd WZ]VjeiZi Zg #>gVc`a$' kZglZ^hi
YZc EZchX]Zc _ZchZ^ih YZg gZ^c ehnX]dad\^hX]Zc <^bZch^dc Vj[ Z^cZc jcWZljziZc
logos' Z^cZ 'cddad\^hX]Z <^bZch^dcÉ kdc he^g^ijZaaZg L^Z[Z) @^Zg [^cYZc l^g Z^cZ
)jcWZljziZ JZa^\^dh^iui
,
' Z^c aViZciZh NZg]uaic^h ojg LgVchoZcYZcoÉ' YVh VaaZc EZcÜ
hX]Zc Z^\Zc ^hi) <Vh he^g^ijZaaZ McWZljziZ ^hi YVb^i VjX] YVh 'igVchoZcYZciZ McWZÜ
ljziZÉ' YZhhZc ^ciZci^dcVaZg :Zoj\hejc`i h^X] Vah '?diiÇ WZoZ^X]cZc auziÅ #Oja[[
,44,'K)1-,$)
>gVc`a ]Vi Y^Z ^cY^k^YjZaaZ K^cchjX]Z Vah igVchoZcYZciZ <^bZch^dc WZigVX]iZi' Y^Z
Vjh YZb he^g^ijZaaZc CZgc YZh EZchX]Zc ZgluX]hi #Oja[[ ,44,' K) 1-,$) DVji K]V(
[gVch`Z #,43/$ l^gY Z^cZ he^g^ijZaaZ <^bZch^dc ^c YZc EdbZciZc ZciYZX`i' ^c YZcZc
YZg EZchX] Y^Z :ZYZjijc\ YZg eZghdcVaZc =m^hiZco ^c >gV\Z hiZaai jcY kZghjX]i' hZ^c
KZaWhi ^c Z^cZc WgZ^iZgZc dcidad\^hX]Zc CdciZmi oj hiZaaZc) <^ZhZg he^g^ijZaaZ 9heZ`i
YZg bZchX]a^X]Zc =m^hiZco auzi h^X] hZ^cZg EZ^cjc\ cVX] ^c YZc i]ZdgZi^hX]Zc qjzZÜ
gjc\Zc 9aaedgih #,40+$' =g^`hdch #,40+$' >gVc`ah #,414$' Bjc\h #,403$ jcY EVnh
#,43.$ Vj[hexgZc) BVbZh #,4+-$' 9hhV\^da^ #,410$ jcY Jd\Zgh #,41,$ ]VWZc ZWZc[Vaah
hX]dc [gx] Y^Z =^cWZo^Z]jc\ he^g^ijZaaZg OZgiZ WZ[xgldgiZi) 9jX] >gdbb #,40+'
,400$ ]Vi Z^cZ ]jbVc^hi^hX]Z JZa^\^dc Vj[ YZg ?gjcYaV\Z Z^cZg ?gjeeZ Zi]^hX]Zg
OZgiZ Zbe[d]aZc' l^Z h^X ^b CZgc VaaZg \gdzZc JZa^\^dcZc jcY H]^adhde]^Zc oj [^cÜ
YZc h^cY) =g \aVjWiZ' YVz Y^Z ehnX]dVcVani^hX]Z Cjg YZg KZZaZ oj Z^cZg ]jbVc^hi^Ü
hX]ZcgZa^\^whZcGg^Zci^Zgjc\[x]gZclxgYZ)
Ac cZjZgZg RZ^i ]VWZc =a`^ch' @ZYhigdb' @j\]Zh' DZV[ jcY KVjcYZgh #,433$ Z^cZ
<Z[^c^i^dc oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Zg Ke^g^ijVa^iui b^i cZjc MciZg\gjeeZc ZgVgWZ^iZi' Y^Z ^c
@^cWa^X` Vj[ Y^Z bZchX]a^X]Z jcY jc^kZghZaaZ FVijg YZg Ke^g^ijVa^iui jciZghjX]i lZgÜ
YZc5 ,) LgVchoZcYZco' -) K^cc jcY R^Za' .) 9j[\VWZ ^b DZWZc' /) @Z^a^\jc\ YZh
DZWZch' 0) NdggVc\ he^g^ijZaaZg kdg bViZg^ZaaZg :Zad]cjc\' 1) FuX]hiZca^ZWZ' 2) AYZVÜ
a^hbjh'3)O^hhZcjbYVhLgV\^hX]ZjcY4)>gxX]iZYZgKe^g^ijVa^iui)
@BLEMBN+ =^c hZ]g VcYZgZg 9chVio ojg oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Zc Ke^g^ijVa^iui ^c YZg igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z lVg YZg >d`jh Vj[ Y^Z ]^hidg^hX]Z HZgheZ`i^kZ YZg OZ^hÜ
]Z^ihigVY^i^dc' Y^Z @jmaZn jcY O^aWZg Vah =l^\Z H]^adhde]^Z WZoZ^X]cZc) Ndc Z^cZg
ZilVh VcYZgZc OVgiZ Vjh aVhhZc h^X] Y^Z ?gjcYaV\Zc YZg ]jbVc^hi^hX]Zc jcY Zm^Ü
hiZci^ZaaZc ehnX]dad\^hX]Zc KX]jaZc' Y^Z [xg Y^Z AgVcheZghdcVaZ HZgheZ`i^kZ hd l^X]Ü
i^\ lVgZc' ^c YZg H]^adhde]^Z @Z\Zah hZ]Zc #KiVXZ ,400$) @Z\Za ]Vi Ke^g^ijVa^iui Vah
`dbeaZmZ ?gjeeZ kdc =^\ZchX]V[iZc YZ[^c^Zgi5 eZghdcVaZ jcY hdo^VaZ =i]^`' EdgVa'
OZgiZ' NZgcjc[i' :ZljzihZ^c' KZaWhiWZljzi]Z^i' Acij^i^dc' AbV\^cVi^dc' ?Z^hi'
KZZaZ' Cjchi' KX]wc]Z^i' gZa^\^whZ =g[V]gjc\) <^ZhZaWZc =^\ZchX]V[iZc o^Z]Zc h^X]
YjgX] EVhadlh #,413$ HhnX]dad\^Z' YZg Ke^g^ijVa^iui Vah Kncdcnb [xg Y^Z ^cig^ch^Ü
hX]Zc OZgiZ YZh KZ^ch WZ\g^[[Zc ]Vi' ^c`ajh^kZ =^\ZchX]V[iZc l^Z OV]g]Z^i' ?xiZ'
KX]wc]Z^i' ?Vco]Z^i' LgVchoZcYZco YZg <^X]didb^Z' DZWZcY^\`Z^i' =^co^\Vgi^\`Z^i'
Ndaa`dbbZc]Z^i' FdilZcY^\`Z^i' NdaahiucY^\`Z^i' ?ZgZX]i^\`Z^i' GgYcjc\'
KX]a^X]i]Z^i' >xaaZ' Ex]Zadh^\`Z^i' NZghe^Zai]Z^i jcY KZaWhi\Zcx\hVb`Z^i #,42+$)
9hhV\^da^ ]Vi Ke^g^ijVa^iui YZ[^c^Zgi Vah Öhubia^X]Z RjhiucYZ YZg :Zljzi]Z^i' hubia^Ü
X]Z >jc`i^dcZc jcY 9`i^k^iuiZc' YZgZc \ZbZ^chVbZg FZccZg YZg :Zh^io kdc xWZgÜ
YjgX]hX]c^iia^X] ]d]Zc werten ^hi' OZgiZc l^Z YVh =i]^hX]Z' YVh qhi]Zi^hX]Z' YVh
@Zgd^hX]Z' YVh @jbVc^iugZ jcY YVh 9aigj^hi^hX]ZÅ #,421' K) .3$) ;) ?) Bjc\ YV\Z\Zc
]Vi Ke^g^ijVa^iui Vah symbollsche JZeguhZciVi^dc ^ccZgZg ehnX]^hX]Zg Lg^ZWZ kZghiVcÜ
YZc #Oja[[ ,44,$) Ndb igVcheZghdcVaZc KiVcYejc`i ]VWZc O^aWZg #,44+ V$ jcY
17
EVg`OVaYbVc
OVh]Wjgc #,433$ l^Z Bjc\ YZc he^g^ijZaaZc Lg^ZW Vah [jcYVbZciVaZ EVc^[ZhiVi^dc YZg
bZchX]a^X]ZcHhnX]ZYZ[^c^Zgi)
=BQS+ Ac YZc 1+Zg BV]gZc lVg Y^Z ]jbVc^hi^hX]Z HhnX]dad\^Z YVh >ZaY YZg ?ZhZaaÜ
hX]V[i' ^c YZb h^X] Y^Z :Zbx]jc\Zc bVc^[Zhi^ZgiZc' c^X]i cjg Y^Z OZ^h]Z^i YZh
Cde[Zh' hdcYZgc VjX] Y^Z YZh @ZgoZch jcY YZh CwgeZgh oj ZglZgWZc) 9WZg h^Z ]Vi Y^Z
k^ZgiZ <^bZch^dc bZchX]a^X]Zg =cil^X`ajc\ kZgcVX]auhh^\i5 YZc ?Z^hi #he^g^i$) O^g
]VWZc Y^ZhZc :Z\g^[[ c^X]i cjg ojg :ZoZ^X]cjc\ kdc N^iVa^iui jcY 9ji]Zci^o^iui
WZcjioi' hdcYZgc YVgjciZg Z^cZ keclltöt ]^ciZg YZc bViZg^ZaaZc EVc^[ZhiVi^dcZc YZh
DZWZch kZghiVcYZc' kZg\aZ^X]WVg YZg k^iVaZc =cZg\^Z' Y^Z YZg gZa^\^whZc =g[V]gjc\
oj\gjcYZaV\' WZkdg h^Z h^X] oj Z^cZb \ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Zc @ZgghX]V[ihb^iiZa Zcil^X`Zai
]Vi) N^ZaZ kdc jch hZ]Zc ]ZjiZ ^c YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z YVh >ZaY YZg
?ZhZaahX]V[i' ^c YZb h^X] jchZgZ :Zbx]jc\Zc bVc^[Zhi^ZgZc' Y^ZhZc k^ZgiZc 9heZ`i
oj WZ\gZ^[Zc jcY oj Zcil^X`Zac' YZg' l^Z l^g hexgZc' Y^Z EZchX]Zc ]^c oj \gwzZgZg
ehnX]^hX]Zg JZ^[Z jcY lZ\ kdc YZc YZhigj`i^kZc LZcYZcoZc YZh gZa^\^whZc >VcVi^hÜ
bjh [x]gZc `Vcc) <^Z :ZYZjijc\ Y^ZhZg Öhe^g^ijZaaZcÅ >gV\Zc l^gY bZ^cZg EZ^cjc\
cVX] b^i xWZg YVh sWZgaZWZc YZg EZchX]]Z^i Vj[ YZg =gYZ ZcihX]Z^YZc) <Zcc lZcc Zh
Z^cZ gZVaZ he^g^ijZaaZ <^bZch^dc \^Wi' Y^Z jch kZgW^cYZi' YVcc ]VWZc l^g Z^cZ k^iVaZ
:Vh^h' Vj[ YZg h^X] >g^ZYZc ^c YZg OZai jcY ZX]iZ Kdg\Z jb YVh \Z\ZchZ^i^\Z Od]aWZÜ
[^cYZckZgl^g`a^X]ZcaVhhZc)
@BLEMBN+ OVh]Wjgc ]Vi ^c hZ^cZg igVcheZghdcVaZc L]Zdg^Z YZg bZchX]a^X]Zc =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\Y^ZKe^g^ijVa^iui^cYZcE^iiZaejc`ihZ^cZg<Z[^c^i^dc\ZhiZaai5
Ö=^c lZhZcia^X]Zh R^Za YZg igVcheZghdcVaZc L]Zdg^Z ^hi Y^Z AciZ\gVi^dc he^g^ijZaaZg
=g[V]gjc\ ^c Z^c WgZ^iZgZh NZghiucYc^h YZg bZchX]a^X]Zc HhnX]Z ))) LgVcheZghdcVaZ
L]Zdg^Z ^hi c^X]i Z^c[VX] JZa^\^dchehnX]dad\^Z dYZg he^g^ijZaaZ HhnX]dad\^Z' hdcYZgc
Z^c Hgd_Z`i' YVh Vj[ Z^cZ ZX]iZ Knci]ZhZ he^g^ijZaaZg jcY ehnX]dad\^hX]Zg HZgheZ`i^Ü
kZc YZg HhnX]Z VWo^Zai ) ) ) ) <Zcc Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ L]Zdg^Z \Z]i YVkdc Vjh' YVz h^X]
^c YZg he^g^ijZaaZc =g[V]gjc\ YVh ]wX]hiZ HdiZci^Va YZg EZchX]]Z^i VjhYgxX`iÅ #,433'
K),$)
Ke^g^ijVa^iui WVh^Zgi ^c OVh]Wjgch NZghiucYc^h Vj[ YZg Ö:Zo^Z]jc\ YZh AX] oj bw\Ü
a^X]Zc gZa^\^whZc #o) :) cjb^cdhZc' ^c[jcY^ZgiZc' X]Vg^hbVi^hX]Zc' ZgaZjX]iZiZc$
=g[V]gjc\ZcÅ #,433' K) /$) 9aaZgY^c\h Ö]Vi YZg ?Z^hi bw\a^X]ZglZ^hZ bZiVe]nh^hX]Z
MghVX]Zc' Y^Z \Vco jcY \Vg VjzZg]VaW YZg KZZaZ a^Z\ZcÅ #K) ,-+$) @^Zg gZ[aZ`i^Zgi
OVh]Wjgc Y^Z igVchoZcYZciVaZc <Z[^c^i^dcZc YZh ?Z^hiZh dYZg YZh 9WhdajiZc' kdc
YZcZc Y^Z e]^adhde]^hX]Z jcY gZa^\^whZ <ZWViiZ hZ^i 9g^hidiZaZhÉ Cdhbdad\^hX]Zb
9g\jbZciYjgX]Ygjc\Zc^hi)
?BTHIBN+ Ndb igVcheZghdcVaZc KiVcYejc`i `Vcc Y^Z KjX]Z cVX] ?Vco]Z^i c^X]i
Y^Z LVihVX]Z ^\cdg^ZgZc' YVz l^g VaaZ cjg LZ^a Z^cZh \gwzZgZc ?VcoZc h^cY) O^g aZWZc
c^X]i ^hda^Zgi' hdcYZgc ^c :Zo^Z]jc\' jcY ?Vco]Z^i ^bea^o^Zgi hdld]a Z^cZ kZgi^`VaZ
Vah VjX] Z^cZ ]dg^odciVaZ <^bZch^dc YZg :Zo^Z]jc\) <^Z kZgi^`VaZ WZo^Z]i h^X] Vj[
YZc CdciV`i b^i YZc ^bbVcZciZc jcY igVchoZcYZciZc :ZljzihZ^chY^bZch^dcZc' Y^Z
]dg^odciVaZ Vj[ jchZgZ NZgWjcYZc]Z^i b^i VaaZb DZWZc Vj[ YZg =gYZ) Ac Y^ZhZb
JV]bZc hiZ]i YVh bZchX]a^X]Z KigZWZc cVX] K^cc jcY R^Za) =^cZ igVcheZghdcVaZ HZgÜ
heZ`i^kZ' Y^Z jchZgZ lZX]hZahZ^i^\Z 9W]uc\^\`Z^i jcY Y^Z lZX]hZahZ^i^\Z :Zo^Z]jc\
kZghX]^ZYZcZg OZaih^X]iZc V`oZei^Zgi' YZX`i hdld]a Y^Z eZghdcVaZ Vah VjX] Y^Z hdo^Ü
VaZ NZgVcildgijc\ VW) <Zh]VaW bVc^[Zhi^Zgi h^X] Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ Gg^Zci^Zgjc\
cVixga^X]ZglZ^hZ Vah <^ZcZc ^c YZg OZai) >xg b^X] WZYZjiZi Z^cZ \ZhjcYZ AciZ\gVi^dc
kdc HhnX]dad\^Z jcY Ke^g^ijVa^iui <^ZcZc Vj[ YZg ?gjcYaV\Z kdc >gZ^]Z^i' 9ji]Zci^Ü
o^iui'OZ^h]Z^ijcYE^i\Z[x]a)
18
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
<DILT^GOLHFQTNH+
@BLEMBN+ AX] ]d[[Z' YVz Y^ZhZ <^h`jhh^dc l^X]i^\Z CdcoZeiZ jcY Kigj`ijgZc `auÜ
gZc `dcciZ' YjgX] Y^Z h^X] igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z kdc VcYZgZc MciZghjX]jc\hÜ
[ZaYZgc jciZghX]Z^YZi) AX] ]d[[Z VjX]' YVz h^Z Z^cZ @^a[Z [xg Y^Z >dgbja^Zgjc\ Z^cZg
jb[VhhZcYZgZc <Z[^c^i^dc Y^ZhZh hiucY^\ WgZ^iZg lZgYZcYZc ^ciZgY^ho^ea^cugZc
>ZaYZh W^ZiZc `Vcc) =^cZ 9cildgi Vj[ Y^Z >gV\Z' ^c lZaX]Z J^X]ijc\ h^X] Y^Z igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z ^c Rj`jc[i WZlZ\Zc `wcciZ' [^cYZi h^X] WZ^ O^aWZg #,44+ W'
K) AP$5 Y^Z `dci^cj^Zga^X]Z jcY jb[VhhZcYZ ehnX]dad\^hX]Z HguhZciVi^dc YZg =l^\Zc
H]^adhde]^Z jcY YZg DZ]gZc YZg OZ^h]Z^ihigVY^i^dcZc hdl^Z Y^Z =cil^X`ajc\ Z^cZg
Z^c]Z^ia^X]Zc L]Zdg^Z YZg HhnX]dad\^Z' Y^Z h^X] Vj[ Y^Z =g`Zccic^hhZ YZg bdYZgcZc
ehnX]dad\^hX]Zc >dghX]jc\ jcY O^hhZchX]V[i WZo^Z]i' VWZg' ld cwi^\' ÖlZ^iZgZ =^cÜ
h^X]iZc jcY =g[V]gjc\Zc YZg Zm^hiZci^ZaaZc jcY he^g^ijZaaZc <^bZch^dcZc YZh EZcÜ
hX]ZcÅVj[\gZ^[i)
McYZghiVcY^c\igVcheZghdcVaehnX]dad\n5VcZmVb^cVi^dcd[YZ[^c^i^dch'YZhXg^ei^dchVcYXdcXZeih
5ummcry
L]^hY^hXjhh^dcZmeadgZhhZaZXiZYYZ[^c^i^dch'YZhXg^ei^dch'VcYXdcXZeihi]ViVgZgZaZkVciidi]ZjcYZg(
hiVcY^c\d[igVcheZghdcVaehnX]dad\nVcY^iha^iZgVijgZ)AhhjZhi]ViVgZVYYgZhhZY^cXajYZ5EVhadlÉh]^ZgÜ
VgX]nd[kVajZh6ehnX]dad\^XVaYZ[^c^i^dchd[he^g^ijVa^in6i]Z^c[ajZcXZd[Bjc\'>gVc`aVcY9hhV\^da^jedc
igVcheZghdcVai]^c`^c\6YZ[^c^c\]ZVai]'XdchX^djhcZhh'he^g^ijVa^in'igVchXZcYZcXZ'hZa['VcYZ\dl^i]^c
kVg^djhigVcheZghdcVaXdciZmih6Xg^i^X^hbhd[igVcheZghdcVaXdcXZeihVcYYZ[^c^i^dch)
CZnldgYh5LgVcheZghdcVaehnX]dad\n'XdchX^djhcZhh']ZVai]'he^g^ijVa^in'igVchXZcYZcXZ)
7JSFQBSTQ
Achterberg,1.#@\)$#,44-$5ÖLgVcheZghdcVabZY^X^cZÅ#KeZX^VaAhhjZ$6JZk^h^dc,/#.$)
AlexcnJer, l. #,44-$5 ÖJddih d[ i]Z FZl 9\ZÅ6 ^c5 DZl^h' B(' EZaidc' B)5 HZgheZXi^kZh dc i]Z FZl 9\Z6
FZlQdg`5KiViZMc^kZgh^ind[FZlQdg`HgZhh)
Allµort,G.#,42+$5L]Z^cY^k^YjVaVcY]^hgZa^\^dc6FZlQdg`5EVXb^aaVc)
Asscgloll, k. #,410$5 HhnX]dhnci]Zh^h6 FZl Qdg`5 HZc\j^c :dd`h6 Yi)5 HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ #sWZgh) <) :VX]$6
JZ^cWZ`W)@VbWjg\'Jdld]ai,44.)
Assoclctlonfor7rcnsµersonclPsychology#,44-$5Gg\Vc^oVi^dcÉh:gdX]jgZ)
8ckken, 7. #,43.$5 ÖJZXd\c^o^c\ i]Z Y^aZbbV d[ ehnX]dad\^XVa gZa^\^djh XdckZgihÅ6 ;djchZa^c\ VcY
NVajZh'44(,+/)
8cruss,l.#,44+$5L]ZeZghdcVacVijgZd[cdi^dchd[XdchX^djhcZhh6FZlQdg`5:Vh^X:dd`h)
8enner, D. #,434$5 ÖLdlVgY V ehnX]dad\n d[ he^g^ijVa^in5 Abea^XVi^dch [dg eZghdcVa^in VcY ehnX]di]ZÜ
gVenÅ6BdjgcVad[HhnX]dad\nVcY;]g^hi^Vc^in'3#,$',4(.+)
8ettelhelm, 8. #,43-$5 >gZjY VcY EVcÉh Kdja6 FZl Qdg`5 Ccde[6 Yi)5 >gZjY jcY Y^Z KZZaZ YZh EZchX]Zc
#sWZgh)C)?gV[$6ExcX]Zc5<ZjihX]ZgLVhX]ZcWjX]NZgaV\,431)
ChcuJhurl, l. #,420$5 ÖHhnX]dad\n5 @jbVc^hi^X VcY igVcheZghdcVaÅ6 BdjgcVa d[ @jbVc^hi^X HhnX]dad\n'
,0','2(,0)
Derr, l. #,44,$5 ÖJZa^\^djh ^hhjZh ^c ehnX]di]ZgVen5 >VXidgh VhhdX^ViZY l^i] i]Z hZaZXi^dc d[ Xa^c^XVa
^ciZgkZci^dchÅ#<^hhZgiVi^dc$6Mc^kZgh^ind[Kdji]Zgc;Va^[dgc^V)
llklns, D., leJstrom, l., lughes, l., lscf 1., 5ounJers, C. #,433$5 ÖLdlVgY V ]jbVc^hi^X(e]ZcdbZcdÜ
ad\^XVa he^g^ijVa^in5 YZ[^c^i^dc' YZhXg^ei^dc' VcY bZVhjgZbZciÅ6 BdjgcVa d[ @jbVchi^X HhnX]dad\n'
-3'/'0(,3)
lrlkson, l. #,40+$5 ;]^aY]ddY VcY KdX^Zin6 FZl Qdg`5 Fdgidc ! ;d)6 Yi)5 C^cY]Z^i jcY ?ZhZaahX]V[i
#sWZgh)E)k)=X`]VgYi(BV[[v$6Kijii\Vgi5CaZii,42/)
lchry, 1. #,43+$5 ÖL]Z jhZ d[ i]Z igVcheZghdcVa ^c ad\di]ZgVenÅ6 ^c5 :ddghiZ^c' K) #@gh\)$5 LgVcheZghdcVa
HhnX]di]ZgVen #K) ,2(4,$5 HVad 9aid' ;95 KX^ZcXZ VcY :Z]Vk^dg :dd`h6 Yi)5 LgVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dÜ
i]ZgVe^Z#sWZgh)=)k)KX]Z^Yi$':Zgc*ExcX]Zc9N^Zc5KX]ZgoNZgaV\,433)
lcJlmcn')*)#,43+$59jhigVa^VcBdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n',',)
lox, O) #,44+$5 ÖLgVcheZghdcVa ZXdad\n5'HhnX]dad\^o^c\ ZXde]^adhdenÅ
,
6 L]Z BdjgcVa d[ LgVcheZghdcVa
HhnX]dad\n'--','04(41)
lrcnkl,v.#,41.$5EVcÉhhZVgX][dgbZVc^c\59c^cigdYjXi^dcidad\di]ZgVen6FZlQdg`5HdX`Zi:dd`h)
19
EVg`DVcYbVc
( #,414$5L]Zl^aaidbZVc^c\5;aZkZaVcY5FZl9bZg^XVcD^WgVgn6Yi)5<ZgO^aaZojbK^cc6ExcX]Zc5
H^eZg,44,)
( #,423$5L]Zjc]ZVgYXgn[dgbZVc^c\6#d)9)$)
lreuJ,5.#,4-.$5<VhAX]jcYYVh=h6?Zh)OZg`Z:Y),.'K)-.2(-34)
lromm, l. #,40+$5 HhnX]dVcVanh^h VcY gZa^\^dc6 FZl @VkZc5 QVaZ Mc^kZgh^in HgZhh6 Yi)5 HhnX]dVcVanhZ
jcYJZa^\^dc#sWZgh)=)JdiiZc$6ExcX]Zc5<ZjihX]ZgLVhX]ZcWjX]NZgaV\,431)
(#,400$5L]ZhVcZhdX^Zin6FZlQdg`5>VlXZiiHgZb^Zg6Yi)5OZ\ZVjhZ^cZg`gVc`Zc?ZhZaahX]V[i#sWZgh)
D)jcY=)E^X`Z$6ExcX]Zc5:ZX`,44,)
Golemcn, D. #,42/$5 ÖHZgheZXi^kZh dc ehnX]dad\n' gZVa^in' VcY i]Z hijYn d[ XdchX^djhcZhhÅ6 BdjgcVa d[
LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n1','2.(30)
GouJ, N. #,44+$5 ÖKe^g^ijVa VcY Zi]^XVa WZa^Z[h d[ ]jcVc^hih ^c i]Z XdjchZa^c\ egd[Zhh^dcÅ6 BdjgcVa d[
;djchZa^c\VcY<ZkZadebZci'13'02,(02/)
Grof, 5. #,42-$5 ÖNVg^Zi^Zh d[ igVcheZghdcVa ZmeZg^ZcXZh5 GWhZgkVi^dch [gdb DK< ehnX]di]ZgVenÅ6 L]Z
BdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n'/','/0(3+)
( #,42.$5ÖL]ZdgZi^XVaVcYZbe^g^XVaWVh^hd[igVcheZghdcVaehnX]dad\nVcYehnX]di]ZgVen5GWhZgkVi^dch
[gdbDK<gZhZVgX]Å6L]ZBdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n'.',',0(0/)
( #,43.$5Ö=VhiVcYOZhi59cX^Zcil^hYdbVcYbdYZgchX^ZcXZÅ6L]ZBdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dÜ
ad\n',0',',.(.1)
( #,44-$5L]Z]dadigde^Xb^cY6KVch>gVcX^hXd5@VgeZgKVc>gVcX^hXd)
lcll, C., llnJzey, G. #,423$5 L]Zdg^Zh d[ eZghdcVa^in #.) 9j[a)$6 FZl Qdg`5 Bd]c O^aZn VcY Kdch6 Yi)5
L]Zdg^ZcYZgHZghwca^X]`Z^i6ExcX]Zc5:ZX`,423)
1cmes,w.#,41,$5L]ZkVg^Zi^Zhd[gZa^\^djhZmeZg^ZcXZ6FZlQdg`5;daa^ZgEVXb^aaVc#Gg^\)k),4+-$6
Yi)5<^ZN^Za[VaiYZggZa^\^whZc=g[V]gjc\#sWZgh)=)@Zgbh$6GaiZc5OVaaZg,424)
1ensen, 1., 8ergln, A. #,433$5 ÖEZciVa @ZVai] kVajZh d[ egd[Zhh^dcVa i]ZgVe^hih5 9 cVi^dcVa ^ciZgY^hX^ea^Ü
cVgn hjgkZnÅ6 Hgd[Zhh^dcVa HhnX]dad\n5 JZhZVgX] VcY HgVXi^XZ' ,4' .'-4+(-43) BdjgcVa d[ @jbVc^hÜ
i^XHhnX]dad\n'-4'/'/02(0++',434)
1ung,C.G.#,42,$5HhnX]dad\^ZjcYJZa^\^dc6?Zh)OZg`Z:Y),,#K),(2+$)
( #,413$5<ZgEZchX]jcYhZ^cZKnbWdaZ6GaiZc5OVaiZg)
lclwelt,l.#,432$5Mg]Z^aZg'EZY^o^caZjiZjcYKX]VbVcZc)ExcX]Zc5CwhXa)
lrlµµner, 5. #,42-$5 ÖL]Z eaViZVj ZmeZg^ZcXZ5 9) AA) EVhadl VcY di]ZghÅ6 L]Z BdjgcVa d[ LgVcheZghdcVa
HhnX]dad\n'/'-',+2(,-+)
lcjole, D., 5hcµlro, 5. #,44-$5 Ö<Z[^c^i^dch d[ igVcheZghdcVa ehnX]dad\n5 L]Z [^ghi -. nZVghÅ6 L]Z BdjgcVa
d[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n'-/','24(43)
lcughlln,C.,McMcnus,1.,5hecrer,1.#,44.$5ÖLgVcheZghdcVa9ci]gdedad\nÅ6^c5OVah]'J))NVj\]Vc'
>)#@\)$5HVi]hWZndcYZ\d5L]ZigVcheZghdcVak^h^dc6Ddh9c\ZaZh5LVgX]Zg)
Mcslow,A.#,41-$5LdlVgYVehnX]dad\nd[WZ^c\6Hg^cXZidc5<)NVcFdhigVcY6
(#,413$5 LdlVgY V ehnX]dad\n d[ WZ^c\ #-) 9j[a)$6 Hg^cXZidc5 <) NVc FdhigVcY ;dbeVcn6 Yi)5 HhnX]dadÜ
\^ZYZhKZ^ch#sWZgh)H)CgjcidgVY$6>gVc`[jgi5K)>^hX]Zg,44+)
( #,414$5ÖL]Z[jgi]ZggZVX]Zhd[]jbVccVijgZÅ6L]ZBdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n' ,',',(4)
Mcy,k.#,43.$5L]ZY^hXdkZgnd[WZ^c\6FZlQdg`5O)O)FdgidcVcY;dbeVcn6Yi)5<^Z=g[V]gjc\ÖAX]
W^cÅ5h^X]hZaWhiZciYZX`Zc^cYZc?gZcoZcYZgOZai#sWZgh):)KiZ^c$6HVYZgWdgc5Bjc\[ZgbVcc,431)
( #,431$5Ö<ZWVi^c\i]ZaZ\^i^bVXnd[igVcheZghdcVaehnX]dad\n5L]ZVg\jbZciV\V^chiÅ6;dbbdc:djcÜ
YVgn'/'-)
Murµhy,M.#,44-$5L]Z>jijgZd[i]Z:dYn6Ddh9c\ZaZh5LVgX]Zg6Ya)5<ZgIjVciZcbZchX]#sWZgh)
E)E^Zi]Z$6OZhhdWgjcc5AciZ\gVa,44/)
Neumcnn,l..#,4/4$5Mghegjc\h\ZhX]^X]iZYZh:ZljzihZ^ch#-)9jaa)$6ExcX]Zc5C^cYaZg,42/)
kogers,C.#,41,$5GcWZXdb^c\VeZghdc6:dhidc5@dj\]idcE^[[a^c6Yi)5=cil^X`ajc\YZgHZghwca^X]`Z^i
#sWZgh)B)?^ZgZ$6Kijii\Vgi5CaZii(;diiV,433)
kothberg, D. #,431$5 ÖH]^adhde]^XVa [djcYVi^dch d[ igVcheZghdcVa ehnX]dad\n5 9c ^cigdYjXi^dc id hdbZ
WVh^X^hhjZhÅ6L]ZBdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n',3',',(./)
5chnelJer, l. #,432$5 ÖL]Z YZ^[^ZY hZa[5 9 );ZciVjg% gZhedchZ id O^aWZg VcY i]Z igVcheZghdcVa bdkZÜ
bZciÅ6BdjgcVad[@jbVc^hi^XHhnX]dad\n'-2'-',41(-,1)
5hcfrcnske,l.#Fdk),433$5ÖL]ZXdcig^Wji^dchd[dW_ZXigZaVi^dchi]Zdgnid;]g^hi^VcXdjchZa^c\Å6
9iaVciV'?Zdg\^V5NdgigV\kdgYZgAciZgcVi^dcVa;dckZci^dcd[;]g^hi^VcHhnX]dad\n)
5mlth, l. #,44,$5 L]Z ldgaYÉh gZa^\^dch6 FZl Qdg`5 @VgeZg ;daa^ch6 Yi)5 =^cZ OV]g]Z^i' k^ZaZ OZ\Z5 Y^Z
\gdzZcJZa^\^dcZcYZgOZai#sWZgh)J)AgbZc$6>gZ^Wjg\5:VjZg,44.)
5tcce,O)#,400$5L]Ze]^adhde]nd[@Z\Za6FZlQdg`5<dkZg)
5utlch, A. #,421$5 ÖL]Z ZbZg\ZcXZ d[ i]Z igVcheZghdcVa dg^ZciVi^dc5 9 eZghdcVa VXXdjciÅ6 L]Z BdjgcVa d[
LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n'3',',0(,4)
7crt,C.#,420$5KiViZhd[;dchX^djhcZhh6FZlQdg`5<jiidc)
(#@\) #,420$5 LgVcheZghdcVa ehnX]dad\^Zh6 FZl Qdg`5 @VgeZg VcY Jdl6 Yi)5 LgVcheXghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z
#MWZgh)?)MZaaZcWZg\jcY?)@ZhhZ$6GaiZc5OVaiZg,423)
wclsh,k.,vcughcn,l.#@\)$#,43+$5:ZndcY=\d6Ddh9c\ZaZh5LVgX]Zg)
( #,44.$5O]ViÉh^cVcVbZ5LgVcheZghdcVaYZ[^c^i^dch6#^b<gjX`$)
20
LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^Z5<Z[^c^i^dc':ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ZcjcYCdcoZeiZ
wcshburn,M.#,433$5L]ZZ\dVcYYncVb^X\gdjcY59igVcheZghdcVai]Zdgnd[]jbVcYZkZadebZci5FZl
Qdg`5KiViZMc^kZgh^ind[FZlQdg`HgZhh)
wctts,A.#,42/$5ÖHhnX]di]ZgVenVcYZVhiZgcgZa^\^dc5EZiVe]nh^XVaWVhZhd[ehnX]^VignÅ6L]ZBdjgcVad[
LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n'1',',3(.,)
wleJemcnn,l.#,430$5ÖL]ZeVgVYdmd[l]daZcZhh59Xg^i^fjZVcYVeegZX^Vi^dcd[igVcheZghdcVaehnX]dÜ
ad\nÅ6L]ZKVc>gVcX^hXdBjc\Achi^ijiZD^WgVgnBdjgcVa',1','20(,,3)
wllber,l.#,420$5ÖHhnX]dad\^VeZgZcc^h5L]ZheZXigjbd[XdchX^djhcZhhÅ6L]ZBdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVa
HhnX]dad\n'2'-',+0(,.-)
( #,43/$5ÖL]ZYZkZadebZciVaheZXigjbd[ehnX]deVi]dad\n5HVgiA'hiV\ZhVcYineZhd[eVi]dad\nÅ6L]Z
BdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n',1','20(,,3)
( #,43/$5ÖL]ZYZkZadebZciVaheZXigjbd[ehnX]deVi]dad\n5HVgiAA'igZVibZcibdYVa^i^ZhÅ6L]ZBdjgcVa
d[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n',1'-',.2(,11)
( #,44+V$5=nZidZnZ5L]ZfjZhi[dgi]ZcZleVgV^Y\b#Zgl)9jh\)$6:dhidc5K]VbW]VaV6Yi)5<^ZYgZ^
9j\ZcYZg=g`Zccic^h6ExcX]Zc5CwhZa,433)
( #,44+W$5Ö>dglVgYÅ6^c5FZahdc'B)5@ZVa^c\i]Zhea^i5EVYcZhhdgigVchXZcYZcXZ8#K),P(PAAA$6Ddh
9c\ZaZh5LVgX]Xg)
wulff,D.#,44,$5HhnX]dad\nd[gZa^\^dc5;aVhh^XVcYXdciZbedgVgnk^Zlh6FZlQdg`5Bd]cO^aZnVcY
Kdch)
EVg`OVaYbVc
/34.=hXdWZYd<g^kZ
OddYaVcY@^aah
;94,.1/
MK9
21
,DISRBMKFJS
8ernJGunJermcnn,8cJllsslngen
lsglbtkelnlochunJkelnGerlng.
wlchtlglstAchtscmkelt.
woAchtscmkeltlst,stelgtJcsGerlnge
unJmußlgtslchJcslohe:
hellstehtclleslmstufenlosenkcum.
lehltcberAchtscmkelt,
JcnnblöhteltelslchJcslohe
unJfllehtverschömtJcsGerlnge,
loheswlrJzurMcske,
GerlngeszurZufluchtunJAusreJe.
llnzlgAchtscmkeltcJeltclles
lnstufenloshellerwelt.
22
LgVcheZghdcVaZ
HhnX]dad\^Z jcY
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
,%,441"-.(..
=QBNRPFQRONBLFRSBSJON[QF:RXDIOSIFQBPJF!
1occhlmGcluskc,8cJllsslngen
ATRBMMFNGBRRTNH+ <Vh bZchX]a^X]Z :ZljzihZ^c l^gY Vjh ZgaZWc^hWZod\ZcZg
HZgheZ`i^kZ Vah ^ccZgZh =cZg\^Z[ZaY `dcoZeijVa^h^Zgi) <Vh :ZljzihZ^ch[ZaY ^hi ]ZjiÜ
ojiV\Z kdgl^Z\ZcY eZghdcVa higj`ijg^Zgi' `Vcc h^X] _ZYdX] VjX] lZ^iZc jcY igVcheZgÜ
hdcVa Vah =cZg\^ZgVjb dg\Vc^h^ZgZc) =^cZ Ca^c^` l^gY kZghiVcYZc Vah `daaZ`i^kZh
=cZg\^Z[ZaY' Vc YZb VaaZ E^iVgWZ^iZg jcY HVi^ZciZc iZ^a]VWZc jcY YVh @Z^ajc\hegdÜ
oZhhZ Zgbw\a^X]Zc hdaa) =^cZc Y^gZ`iZc Rj\Vc\ YVoj W^aYZi Y^Z 9gWZ^i b^i YZg 9ibdÜ
he]ugZ ^c i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc ?gdz\gjeeZc) <^Z ^bbZg l^ZYZg WZYZjihVbZ NZgVc`Zgjc\
YZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc E^iVgWZ^iZg ^b igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^chgVjb Zg[dgYZgi kZgÜ
Vcildgijc\hkdaaZ 9X]ihVb`Z^i ^c LZVbVgWZ^i' KjeZgk^h^dc jcY [xg Y^Z ^cY^k^YjZaaZ
=cil^X`ajc\) @Z^ajc\ `Vcc \ZhX]Z]Zc' lZcc YVh igVcheZghdcVaZ :ZljzihZ^c ( ^cY^Ü
k^YjZaa dYZg ^b `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaY ( Y^Z eZghwca^X]Zc jcY VgX]Zine^hX]Zc DZ^Ü
YZch[dgbZc jb[uc\i jcY igu\i) <^ZhZ :Zgx]gjc\ kdc ?wiia^X](9WhdajiZb jcY HZgÜ
hwca^X]Zb ^b Rl^hX]ZcgVjb YZh LgVcheZghdcVaZc Zgbw\a^X]i Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg
^ccZgZc:Zhi^bbjc\jcYYZhK^cchjchZgZh<VhZ^ch)
<DIL]RRFLVOQSF+ LgVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z' 9ibdhe]ugZ' :ZljzihZ^c' =cZgÜ
\^Z[ZaY'?gdz\gjeeZc'K^ccZg[V]gjc\'hiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z)
0JNG]IQTNHJNEJF0QGBIQTNHEFR0NFQHJFGFLEFR
O^g `wccZc Z^cZ LV\jc\ kZghiZ]Zc Vah Z^c =cZg\^Z[ZaY) <VWZ^ kZghiZ]Z ^X] YZc
=cZg\^ZWZ\g^[[ c^X]i Vah e]nh^`Va^hX]Zc' hdcYZgc Vah ZgaZWc^hWZod\ZcZc :Z\g^[[)
OZcc l^g jchZgZ 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i Vj[ Y^Z =gaZWc^hfjVa^iuiZc g^X]iZc' Y^Z _ZchZ^ih
jchZgZg :Z\g^[[Z jcY CdcoZeiZ a^Z\Zc' hd [x]ai h^X] YVh >ZaY jchZgZh :ZljzihZ^ch Vc
l^Z Z^c >ZaY kdc Ö=cZg\^ZÅ' bZiVe]dg^hX] Vjh\ZYgxX`i) <^ZhZh ^ccZgZ =cZg\^Z[ZaY'
YVh jchZgZc =gaZWc^hgVjb' jchZg :ZljzihZ^c Zg[xaai' ^hi hZaiZc gZ^c' hdcYZgc bZ^hiZch
higj`ijg^Zgi) O^g `wccZc Z^cZ LV\jc\ kdc jchZgZb =gaZWZc ]Zg Vah Z^c =cZg\^Z[ZaY
WZigVX]iZc' YVh Vah hZ^cZ Kigj`ijg WZhi^bbiZ >dgbZc ]ZgVjhW^aYZi' Y^Z Z^cZ RZ^iaVc\
aZWZc jcY YVcc l^ZYZg kZg\Z]Zc) Lne^hX]Z >dgbW^aYjc\Zc' ^c YZcZc h^X] Y^ZhZh
=cZg\^Z[ZaY higj`ijg^Zgi' h^cY HdaVg^h^Zgjc\Zc' o):) Y^Z kdc Gg\Vc^hVidg jcY LZ^aÜ
cZ]bZg' kdc JZ[ZgZci jcY Rj]wgZg' kdc V`i^kZg' kZgb^iiZacYZg Hdh^i^dc jcY \Zw[[cZi(
]^c\Z\ZWZcZg @Vaijc\' dYZg kdc `dc`jgg^ZgZcYZb ?Z\ZcxWZghZ^c) <^Zh h^cY :Z^Ü
he^ZaZ' l^Z h^X] Ö=cZg\^ZÅ ^b =gaZWc^h[ZaY kZgY^X]iZc `Vcc' l^Z h^X] jchZg :ZljziÜ
hZ^c higj`ijg^ZgZc `Vcc' l^Z l^g @^cZ^cejah^ZgZc ^c Z^cZ WZhi^bbiZ >dgb' Z^cZ JdaaZ'
% sWZgVgWZ^iZiZ >Vhhjc\ Z^cZh NdgigV\h Vb ,4) /) ,440 ^c EZa`' rhiZggZ^X]' Vj[ YZg LV\jc\ ÖOZ\Z
ojbKZaWhiÅ)
23
BdVX]^b?Vajh`V
Z^cZ =gaZWc^hµersµektlve, jcY l^Z l^g jch l^ZYZgVjh Y^ZhZc NZgY^X]ijc\Zc' Kigj`ijÜ
g^Zgjc\Zc ]ZgVjhawhZc' l^Z Y^ZhZ oZg[a^ZzZc' l^Z l^g ^c jchZgZb =gaZWc^hgVjb lZ^Ü
iZghigwbZc) MchZg ^ccZgZh =cZg\^Z[ZaY' YZg Ac]Vai jchZgZh :ZljzihZ^ch' [aj`ij^Zgi
hiucY^\' ^hi hiucY^\ ^b >ajz' ^c NZgucYZgjc\' ^c KX]l^c\jc\) <^Z higj`ijg^ZgZcYZc
HgdoZhhZ jchZgZh =gaZWc^h[ZaYZh ]VWZc YVh ojg >da\Z' lVh l^g \ZgVYZ `dc`gZi ZgaZÜ
WZc)Lne^hX]ZHgdoZhhZ'l^Zh^X]jchZg:ZljzihZ^cdg\Vc^h^Zgi'h^cY5
( NZgY^X]ijc\oj=^coZa^c]VaiZcjcY9j[awhjc\'
( CdcigV`i^dcVah=goZj\jc\^ccZgZgKeVccjc\'Vah>^m^Zgjc\jcY9jhYZ]cjc\
Z^cZg`dcigV]^ZgiZcKigj`ijg'
( >d`jhh^Zgjc\VahCdcoZcigVi^dc'VahRZcig^Zgjc\'NdgYZg\gjcYW^aYjc\jcYr[[Ü
cjc\'OZ^ijc\'=ci[d`jhh^Zgjc\'
( AYZci^[^o^Zgjc\jcY=ci^YZci^[^o^Zgjc\'
jb cjg Z^c^\Z oj cZccZc) O^Z bVc Vc Y^ZhZg 9j[ou]ajc\ hX]dc Zg`ZccZc `Vcc' h^cY
=cZg\^ZfjVa^iuiZc ine^hX]ZglZ^hZ lZaaZc[wgb^\' g]ni]b^hX]' ejah^ZgZcY' k^Wg^ZgZcY'
l^Z l^g Zh VjX] WZ^ `wgeZga^X]Zc Ndg\uc\Zc' l^Z @ZgohX]aV\' 9iZb' OVX]]Z^i jcY
ExY^\`Z^idYZgVjX]WZ^=bdi^dcZcZgaZWZc)
<^ZhZ Kigj`ijg^Zgjc\hegdoZhhZ jchZgZh :ZljzihZ^ch' Y^Z >dgbW^aYjc\hegdoZhhZ'
Vahd Y^Z 9gi jcY OZ^hZ' l^Z l^g jchZg =cZg\^Z[ZaY hd higj`ijg^ZgZc' YVz l^g \ZcVj YVh
ZgaZWZc' lVh l^g ZgaZWZc' aVj[Zc bZ^hiZch \Zld]c]Z^ihbuz^\ VW) O^g h^cY ^]gZg c^X]i
\ZlV]g) K^Z h^cY \Zl^hhZgbVzZc jcWZljzi) K^Z h^cY jch hd hZaWhikZghiucYa^X]' YVz
l^g \aVjWZc' YVz bVc Y^Z O^g`a^X]`Z^i ZWZc cjg hd ZgaZWZc `Vcc' l^Z l^g h^Z \ZgVYZ
ZgaZWZc) <^Zh \ZhX]^Z]i kdg VaaZb YVYjgX]' YVz l^g Vj[ Z^coZacZ Ac]VaiZ WZod\Zc h^cY'
Vj[ L]ZbZc' Vj[ Y^Z :Z\g^[[Z' b^i YZcZc l^g jchZg =gaZWZc WZhX]gZ^WZc) O^g aZWZc
^ccZga^X] kdgl^Z\ZcY ^c Z^cZg OZai kdc :Z\g^[[Zc jcY AciZgegZiVi^dcZc jcY WZo^Z]Zc
jch cjg hZaiZc Vj[ Y^Z i^Z[ZgZ KX]^X]i YZh =gaZWZch _ZchZ^ih YZg :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ jcY
:ZYZjijc\) <^Zh ^hi YVh ;]VgV`iZg^hi^`jb jchZgZh eZghdcVaZc' WZ\g^[[a^X]Zc' ^X](
]V[iZc :ZljzihZ^ch) =^cZg YZg lZhZcia^X]Zc HgdoZhhZ' jchZg =cZg\^Z[ZaY oj [dgbZc
jcY oj higj`ijg^ZgZc' ^hi YZg HgdoZz YZh K^X](AYZci^[^o^ZgZch #?Vajh`V' ,440$5 lch W^c
Zh' YZg \ZcVj Y^Zh _Zioi ZgaZWi' lch ]wgZ ]^Zg oj jcY YZc`Z b^g YVoj bZ^cZ elgenen
?ZYVc`Zc)
9j[ Y^ZhZ OZ^hZ \ZhiVaiZc l^g jchZgZc ^ccZgZc JVjb YZh =gaZWZch) OZcc VWZg
jchZg :ZljzihZ^c h^X] c^X]i bZ]g b^i =^coZa^c]VaiZc ^YZci^[^o^Zgi' hdcYZgc h^X] w[[Ü
cZi [xg Y^Z OV]gcZ]bjc\ YZh oj\gjcYZa^Z\ZcYZc >ZaYZh' lZcc Zh kdc YZc :Z\g^[[Zc
adhaVhhZc `Vcc jcY ojg ZcZg\Zi^hX]Zc ?gjcYhigj`ijg jchZgZh =gaZWZch kdgYg^c\i'
YVcc `Vcc Zh lV]gcZ]bZc' l^Z h^X] YVh =cZg\^Z[ZaY \ZgVYZ Vc[x]ai' l^Z Zh higj`ijÜ
g^Zgi ^hi jcY lZ^iZg higj`ijg^Zgi lZgYZc `wcciZ) =^c hdaX]Zh :ZljzihZ^c `wcciZc l^g
Vah ÖZcZg\Zi^hX]Å WZoZ^X]cZc dYZg VjX] Vah igVcheZghdcVa' lZ^a Zh c^X]i b^i =^coZa^cÜ
]VaiZc ^YZci^[^o^Zgi ^hi' hdcYZgc YZc JVjb YZh =gaZWZch lV]gc^bbi) McY ^c Y^ZhZb
lnergle gVjb #HaZhhZ' Ki) ;aV^g' ,440$ \^Wi Zh `Z^cZ :Z\gZcojc\Zc' hdcYZgc NZgWjcÜ
YZchZ^c' NZgldWZchZ^c) <^Z AccZc(9jzZc(MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ l^gY YjgX]auhh^\Zg' l^g
]VWZc YVh ?Z[x]a' b^i jchZgZg Mb\ZWjc\ oj kZghX]bZaoZc) OZcc l^g oj olZ^i dYZg
^c Z^cZg \gwzZgZc ?ZbZ^chX]V[i h^cY' hd hexgi jchZg ZcZg\Zi^hX]Zh :ZljzihZ^c' dW
l^g Vj[Z^cVcYZg Z^c\Zhi^bbi h^cY) =h hjX]i sWZgZ^chi^bbjc\' Y^Z \aZ^X]Z OZaaZcÜ
auc\Z' Y^Z \aZ^X]Z KX]l^c\jc\) E^ihZ^c' RjhVbbZchZ^c' NZgWjcYZchZ^c `ZccoZ^X]Ü
cZi Y^Z i^Z[Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg :Z\Z\cjc\ ^b =cZg\^ZgVjb #h) VjX] :jWZg' ,4-.$) OdgiZ'
Y^Z Öb^iÅ' ÖojhVbbZcÅ dYZg ÖXdcÅ Vah Ndgh^aWZ WZh^ioZc' WZhX]gZ^WZc ZcihegZX]ZcYZ
IjVa^iuiZc5 Mlt\Z[x]a' Mlt[gZjYZ' ZuscmmeneVhhZc' lochZch' loche^gVi^dc Vah
ZuscmmenVibZc' lociV`i' Zuscmmencrbelt, lodeZgVi^dc jhl) 9aaZ Y^ZhZ =g[V]gjcÜ
24
LgVcheZghdcVaZhiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
\Zc WZYZjiZc LZ^a]VWZ Vb \gwzZgZc ?VcoZc' YZb O^g' YZg =^c]Z^i' YZg ?Vco]Z^i) K^Z
h^cY NZghX]bZaojc\ jcY YVb^i 9j[awhjc\ YZg :Z\gZcojc\ jchZgZh AX](?Z[x]ah'
jchZgZheZghdcVaZc:ZljzihZ^ch)
=^c hZ]g Y^gZ`iZg Rj\Vc\ oj Y^ZhZg =gaZWc^hfjVa^iui WZhiZ]i YVg^c' Y^Z 9j[bZg`Ü
hVb`Z^i oj g^X]iZc Vj[ Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ' Y^Z Ki^bbjc\' YVh ZcZg\Zi^hX]Z Ca^bV' YVh
\ZgVYZ ol^hX]Zc olZ^ EZchX]Zc dYZg ^c Z^cZg ?ZbZ^chX]V[i ]ZgghX]i) O^g h^cY LZ^a
Z^cZg hdaX]Zc 9ibdhe]ugZ jcY Wg^c\Zc h^Z \ZbZ^chVb ]Zgkdg) <^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ' YVh
Ca^bV' kZgW^cYZi jch) K^Z ^hi Z^cZ MciZghigwbjc\' Y^Z l^g`i' VjX] lZcc l^g jch YZhÜ
hZc c^X]i WZljzi h^cY #h) VjX] :ZioaZg' ,440$) <^Z 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i oj w[[cZc [xg YVh
Vibdhe]ug^hX]Z >ZaY w[[cZi jch [xg YVh \gwzZgZ ?VcoZ' YVh jch igu\i) <^Z 9j[bZg`Ü
hVb`Z^i oj w[[cZc [xg YVh ZcZg\Zi^hX]Z Ca^bV `Vcc jchZgZc :ZljzihZ^chojhiVcY
lZX]hZac aVhhZc ojg OV]gcZ]bjc\ igVcheZghdcVaZg IjVa^iuiZc) ?ZgVYZ Y^ZhZg OZX]Ü
hZa kdb eZghdcVaZc ojb igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^c hX]Z^ci [xg jchZgZ Cjaijg' k^ZaÜ
aZ^X]i [xg Y^Z \VcoZ EZchX]]Z^i' \Z\Zclugi^\ Zg[dgYZga^X] oj hZ^c) <Vh VWZcYaucY^Ü
hX]Z :ZljzihZ^c ^hi bdbZciVc kdgl^Z\ZcY eZghdcVa ^YZci^[^o^Zgi) MchZg RZ^i\Z^hi ^hi
gVi^dcVa' ^X](]V[i' dW_Z`iWZod\Zc) MchZg ^cY^k^YjZaaZh :ZljzihZ^c `Vcc kZghiVcYZc
lZgYZc Vah 9jhYgjX` YZh `daaZ`i^kZc :ZljzihZ^ch' YZh RZ^i\Z^hiZh' ac Y^ZhZg HZgÜ
heZ`i^kZ ^hi jchZg ^cY^k^YjZaaZh :ZljzihZ^c Y^Z =^coZa[dgb' Y^Z YVh `daaZ`i^kZ
:ZljzihZ^c' YVh Ö`daaZ`i^kZ =cZg\^Z[ZaYÅ' Vcc^bbi) AcY^k^YjZaaZh :ZljzihZ^c jcY
`daaZ`i^kZh :ZljzihZ^c kZg]VaiZc h^X] ojZ^cVcYZg l^Z @dadcZ) O^aWZg #,440$ Zg`augi
b^i Y^ZhZb :Z\g^[[ kdc 9gi]jg CdZhiaZg YVh NZg]uaic^h kdc LZ^a jcY \gwzZgZg ?VcoÜ
]Z^i) N^ZaZ AcY^k^YjZc [dgbZc ojhVbbZc Z^c \gwzZgZh CdaaZ`i^k' kdc YZb h^Z l^ZÜ
YZgjb Vah LZ^a WZigVX]iZi lZgYZc `wccZc) <Vh `daaZ`i^kZ VWZcYaucY^hX]Z :ZljziÜ
hZ^c `Vcc Vah LZ^a YZh EZchX]]Z^ihWZljzihZ^ch kZghiVcYZc lZgYZc) <^ZhZh lugZ l^ZÜ
YZgjb Z^c LZ^a YZh eaVcXiVgZc :ZljzihZ^ch YZh \ZhVbiZc Gg\Vc^hbjh =gYZ) <Vh
VWZcYaucY^hX]Z kdg]ZgghX]ZcYZ `daaZ`i^kZ :ZljzihZ^c ^hi cZWZc egueZghdcVaZc
9heZ`iZc' l^Z WZgZ^ih Zglu]ci' kdgl^Z\ZcY eZghdcVa higj`ijg^Zgi) Ab eZghdcVaZc
:ZljzihZ^c h^cY ZcZg\Zi^hX] WZigVX]iZi Y^Z CdcigV`i^dc' Y^Z :Z\gZcojc\' Y^Z AYZci^Ü
[^o^Zgjc\' xWZgWZidci) <^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ :ZlZ\jc\ jcY YVh igVcheZghdcVaZ
:ZljzihZ^c `wccZc Vah 9jhYgjX` egd\gZhh^kZg 9heZ`iZ YZh \Z\Zclugi^\Zc EZchX]Ü
]Z^ihWZljzihZ^ch WZigVX]iZi lZgYZc) <Vh igVcheZghdcVaZ :ZljzihZ^c ^hi _ZYdX] Vc\ZÜ
h^X]ih YZh \ZhVbiZc `daaZ`i^kZc :ZljzihZ^ch[ZaYZh cjg hZ]g hX]lZg Vj[gZX]iojZgÜ
]VaiZc) Fjg Z^cZ hZ]g Vjh\ZgZ^[iZ jcY Zcil^X`ZaiZ HZghwca^X]`Z^ihhigj`ijg `Vcc YVoj
^c YZg DV\Z hZ^c) Ac `daaZ`i^kZc hjW`jaijgZaaZc >ZaYZgc' Vc YZcZc l^g 9ciZ^a ]VWZc' ^hi
Y^Zh aZ^X]iZg' o) :) Vj[ Z^cZg ÖigVcheZghdcVaZc LV\jc\Å dYZg ^c Z^cZb ^chi^iji^dcZ^aZc
JV]bZc' l^Z Z^cZg DZWZch\ZbZ^chX]V[i dYZg Z^cZg Ca^c^`\ZbZ^chX]V[i) <Vb^i
WZh^ioZc hdaX]Z `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaYZg' l^Z Y^Z Z^cZg LV\jc\ dYZg Z^cZg Ca^c^` ^c
YZg\Z\Zclugi^\ZcEZchX]]Z^ihh^ijVi^dcZ^cZWZhdcYZgZNZgVcildgijc\)
/JF6LJNJKBLRKOLLFKSJUFR0NFQHJFGFLE
<Vh `daaZ`i^kZ :ZljzihZ^c Z^cZg igVcheZghdcVa dg^Zci^ZgiZc ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^Ü
hX]Zc Ca^c^` WZh^ioi hdld]a egueZghdcVaZ' eZghdcVaZ Vah VjX] igVcheZghdcVaZ KigwÜ
bjc\Zc' cVX] YZcZc h^X] YVh `daaZ`i^kZ =cZg\^Z[ZaY higj`ijg^ZgZc `Vcc) HVi^ZciZc
jcY L]ZgVeZjiZc eVgi^o^e^ZgZc hdb^i Vc YZg AciZch^iui jcY <ncVb^` egueZghdcVaZg
VgX]Xine^hX]Zg jcY `^cYa^X]Zg KigZWjc\Zc' Vc YZg JVi^dcVa^iui' <^hiVco jcY =ghiVgÜ
gjc\ YZh AX](:ZljzihZ^ch jcY Vc YZc Vjh\ZYZ]ciZgZc' [gZ^ZgZc jcY ]Z^ahVbZc IjVa^Ü
iuiZc YZh igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^ch) <V _ZYZg' HVi^Zci jcY L]ZgVeZji' ^b K^ccZ
25
BdVX]^b?Vajh`V
Z^cZh @dadch LZ^a YZg Ca^c^`\ZbZ^chX]V[i ^hi jcY YVb^i LZ^a ^]gZh `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg(
\^Z[ZaYZh' eVgi^o^e^Zgi _ZYZg Vc YZc HgdoZhhZc _ZYZh VcYZgZc ^c YZg Ca^c^` #?Vajh`V
jcY ?Vajh`V' ,440$) 9aaZ^c Vjh Y^ZhZg :ZigVX]ijc\hlZ^hZ `wccZc Z^cZ >xaaZ kdc
KX]ajz[da\Zgjc\Zc\Zod\ZclZgYZc)
<^Z lZhZcia^X]Z 9j[\VWZ YZg L]ZgVeZjiZc WZhiZ]i YVg^c' YVh `daaZ`i^kZ =cZg\^ZÜ
[ZaY hd oj higj`ijg^ZgZc' YVz Zh @Z^ajc\hegdoZhhZ Zgbw\a^X]i) r[[cZc h^Z h^X] [xg YZc
trcnsµersonclen :ZljzihZ^chgVjb' hd Zgbw\a^X]Zc h^X YZc VcYZgZc E^iVgWZ^iZgc
jcY YZc HVi^ZciZc xWZg Y^Z LZ^a]VWZ Vc YZb hd higj`ijg^ZgiZc `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^ZÜ
[ZaY' ^]gZc ^ccZgZc =gaZWc^hgVjb hd oj \ZhiVaiZc' YVz h^X ZWZc[Vaah Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ
=WZcZ lV]gcZ]bZc `wccZc) @^ZgVjh gZhjai^Zgi Z^cZ WZhdcYZgZ NZgVcildgijc\ YZg
L]ZgVeZjiZc [xg ^]gZ Z^\ZcZ =cil^X`ajc\' ^chWZhdcYZgZ ^]g Z^\ZcZh :ZljzihZ^c) <^Z
9jhhigV]ajc\ _ZYZh L]ZgVeZjiZc l^g`i h^X] Vibdhe]ug^hX] Vjh jcY WZgx]gi YVb^i
_ZYZcVcYZgZc)
<Zg Y^gZ`iZhiZ Rj\Vc\ ojb `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaY YZg Ca^c^` ^hi Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ'
YZg ?Z^hi YZh @VjhZh) ?Z\Zc 9ibdhe]ug^hX]Zh `wccZc l^g jch `Vjb VW\gZcoZc' Zh
WZZ^c[ajzi jch l^Z YVh OZiiZg' YVh Ca^bV) <^Z bdYZgcZ Kuj\a^c\h[dghX]jc\ heg^X]i
kdb AciZgV`i^dch`a^bV #D^X]iZcWZg\' ,44+$' YVh [gx]Zg egu\ZcY ^hi Vah WZhi^bbiZ Z^cÜ
oZacZ =gaZWc^hlZ^hZc jcY :Zo^Z]jc\hbjhiZg) Kdb^i `Vcc jch Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ i^Z[
WZgx]gZc' kZghX]xX]iZgc' kZghiwgZc dYZg VjX] igV\Zc' cu]gZc jcY ]Z^aZc) Ndg VaaZb
h^cY l^g YZb Ca^bV kdc ?gdz\gjeeZc gZaVi^k hX]jioadh Vjh\Za^Z[Zgi' l^Z Xh h^X] WZ^
EVhhZckZgVchiVaijc\Zc oZ^\i) <^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ Z^cZg ?gdz\gjeeZ `Vcc jch Vjh jchZÜ
gZg eZghdcVaZc Kigj`ijg ^c eg^b^i^kZ KX]lVgo(lZ^z(EjhiZg kdc :Z\Z^hiZgjc\ jcY
AYZVa^h^Zgjc\ dYZg 9\\gZhh^k^iui jcY =cilZgijc\ gZ\gZY^ZgZc aVhhZc' VWZg VjX] w[[Ü
cZcjcYlZ^iZc[xgYVh:Zgx]gihZ^ckdcZilVh?gwzZgZb)
=h W^ZiZi h^X] YV]Zg Vc' ^c Z^cZg AgVcheZghdcVa dg^Zci^ZgiZc Ca^c^` i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z
?gdz\gjeeZc YjgX]oj[x]gZc jcY Y^ZhZ hd oj higj`ijg^ZgZc' YVz ]Z^aZcYZ jcY igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZ IjVa^iuiZc Zg[V]gWVg h^cY) :Z^ Z^cZg ?gwzZ kdc bZ]g Vah ,-(,/ LZ^acZ]Ü
bZgc l^g`Zc Zg[V]gjc\h\Zbuz bZ]g ZcZg\Zi^hX]Z dYZg `a^bVi^hX]Z Cgu[iZ' Vah Y^Z
^ciZgV`i^dcZaaZ <ncVb^`' Y^Z ^c Z^cZg CaZ^c\gjeeZ kdg]ZgghX]ZcY ^hi) ac YZg >VX]`a^Ü
c^` @Z^a^\Zc[ZaY lZgYZc Z^cZ \VcoZ JZ^]Z kdc L]ZgVe^Zc ^c ?gdz\gjeeZc ^c Y^ZhZb
K^ccZ YjgX]\Z[x]gi' o) :) Y^Z LVCZL^FV(?gjeeZ' Y^Z ?gjeeZ YncVb^hX]Zg CwgeZgVgÜ
WZ^i' Y^Z YZg Gg\dYncVb^` [da\i' jcY YncVb^hX]Zg 9iZbVgWZ^i' Y^Z ^c Z^cZg EdY^[^Ü
o^Zgjc\ @dadigdeZc 9ibZch YjgX]\Z[x]gi l^gY' VWZg VjX] Y^Z Z]Zg higj`ijg^ZgiZ jcY
higj`ijg[wgYZgcYZ :ZlZ\jc\hi]ZgVe^Z) RZcigVa h^cY Y^Z WZ^YZc ?gdz\gjeeZckZgVcÜ
hiVaijc\ZcVaaZgHVi^ZciZcjcYE^iVgWZ^iZg)
<Vh lwX]Zcia^X]Z Plenum l^gY WZ\dccZc b^i Z^cZb he^g^ijZaaZc LZmi jcY Z^cZg
VchX]a^ZzZcYZc `jgoZc KX]lZ^\Ze]VhZ) <^ZhZ =^chi^bbjc\ higj`ijg^Zgi WZgZ^ih Y^Z
9ibdhe]ugZ YZg ?gdz\gjeeZ' jcY YV Y^ZhZ NZgVchiVaijc\ _ZYZ OdX]Z ^c YZg \aZ^X]Zc
OZ^hZ WZ\dccZc l^gY' WV]ci WZgZ^ih YZg g^ijVa^h^ZgiZ 9WaVj[ Z^cZ WZhi^bbiZ Ki^bÜ
bjc\) Ke^g^ijZaaZ LZmiZ jcY KX]lZ^\Ze]VhZc ]VWZc Z^cZ WZhdcYZgZ CgV[i ojg r[[Ü
cjc\ [xg YZc igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^chgVjb) A]gZ 9Wh^X]i ^hi' Z^cZc ^ccZgZc
JVjb oj hX]V[[Zc [xg ZilVh ?gwzZgZh) Ab 9WaVj[ Y^ZhZg NZgVchiVaijc\ l^gY JVjb
\ZhX]V[[Zc [xg Y^Z 9WhX]^ZYZ YZgZg' Y^Z ^c YZg YVgVj[[da\ZcYZc OdX]Z Y^Z Ca^c^` kZgÜ
aVhhZc) BZYZg HVi^Zci' YZg \Z]i' Zg]uai YZc JVjb' ^c YZg ?gdz\gjeeZ kdc YZg Ca^c^`Ü
\ZbZ^chX]V[i Vj[ hZ^cZ OZ^hZ 9WhX]^ZY oj cZ]bZc) 9WhX]^ZY' hd l^gY ]^Zg d[i
Zg[V]gWVg' ^hi Z^c Zm^hiZci^ZaaZh' VgX]Zine^hX]Zh L]ZbV YZh sWZg\Vc\h) =h ^hi c^X]i
cjg YZg sWZg\Vc\ kdc YZg Ca^c^` ^c YZc 9aaiV\' hdcYZgc VjX] YZg Ddhawhjc\ Vjh Y^ZÜ
hZb =cZg\^Z[ZaY' YVh Z^cZc HVi^ZciZc dYZg Z^cZ HVi^Zci^c [xg Z^cZ RZ^iaVc\ \ZigV\Zc
]Vi jcY ^c YZb Zh aZ^X]iZg lVg' YZc ^ccZgZc =gaZWc^hgVjb Vj[ Z^cZ ]Z^ahVbZ OZ^hZ
26
LgVcheZghdcVaZhiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
oj higj`ijg^ZgZc Vah ^b `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaY YZg ?gdzhiVYi dYZg YZg CaZ^c[Vb^a^Z
dYZg YZh 9gWZ^iheaVioZh' Vc YZb _ZbVcY cVX] YZg Ca^c^` l^ZYZg iZ^a]VWZc l^gY) <Zg
JVjb' 9WhX]^ZY oj cZ]bZc' ^hi VjX] YZg JVjb' Vjh YZg JdaaZ kdc HVi^Zci jcY L]ZgVÜ
eZji h^X] ]ZgVjhojawhZc' ojb aZioiZc EVa h^X] ]ZgVjhojawhZc jcY Y^Z =WZcZ YZh E^iÜ
bZchX]Zc oj [x]aZc' YVh NZgWjcYZchZ^c kdc EZchX]Zc oj hexgZc' Y^Z h^X] oj Y^ZhZg
RZ^i \ZgVYZ ]^Zg Vj[ YZg =gYZ igZ[[Zc jcY h^X \ZbZ^chVb WZld]cZc' Z^c NZgWjcYZcÜ
hZ^c k^ZaaZ^X]i VjX] ^c YZg \ZbZ^chVbZc N^h^dc' Y^Z YjgX] _ZYZc HVi^ZciZc' YZg Y^Z
Ca^c^` kZgauzi' ^c YVh \gwzZgZ >ZaY YZh ?ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Zc ]^cZ^c\ZigV\Zc l^gY)
KX]a^Zza^X] ^hi _ZYZh l^g`a^X]Z jcY i^Z[Z 9WhX]^ZYcZ]bZc VjX] Z^cZ NdgWZgZ^ijc\ Vj[
YVhaZioiZ9WhX]^ZYcZ]bZc'YVhDdhaVhhZcYZhDZWZch^bKiZgWZc)
9j[ Y^ZhZg :Vh^h YVcc lZgYZc Y^Z cZjZc HVi^ZciZc' Y^Z \ZgVYZ Vc\XgX^hi h^cY'
WZ\gxzi jcY l^aa`dbbZc \Z]Z^zZc) @uj[^\ h^cY h^Z WZgZ^ih i^Z[ WZgx]gi kdc YZg
9ibdhe]ugZ' Y^Z Y^Z_Zc^\Zc Vjh\ZhigV]ai ]VWZc' Y^Z 9WhX]^ZY \ZcdbbZc ]VWZc) =^c
;]VgV`iZg^hi^`jbY^ZhZg9ibdhe]ugZ^hiYVh?Z[x]aZ^cZh\jiZcRj]VjhZh)
<^Z Ca^c^` Vah Ggi YZg ?ZhjcYjc\ hdaaiZ Z^c \ZhjcYZg Ggi hZ^c jcY `Z^c `gVc`Zh
@Vjh McY Vc _ZYZb \ZhjcYZc Ggi ^hi Zh bw\a^X]' h^X] oj @VjhZ oj [x]aZc' h^X] Vc(
\Z`dbbZc oj [x]aZc) Kd ^hi YVh ^ccZgZ 9c`dbbZc ^c YZg Ca^c^` Vah ?Z[x]a' ZcYa^X]
oj @VjhZ oj hZ^c' Vj[\Z]dWZc oj hZ^c' \ZigV\Zc oj lZgYZc' Vjh\Z]VaiZc oj lZgYZc
jcY NZgigVjZc oj ]VWZc' aZioia^X] Z^c ^ccZgZh 9c`dbbZc WZ^ h^X] hZaWhi' ^b Z^\ZcZc
OZhZc' ^c YZg Z^\ZcZc L^Z[Z) <^ZhZh =gaZWZc WZh^ioi Z^cZc igVcheZghdcVaZc ;]VgV`iZg'
YZcc YVh :ZYxg[c^h cVX] Rj]VjhZ ^hi Z^c VgX]Zine^hX]Zh' l^Z HdYkdaa #,44/$ hV\i'
lZcc Zg [ZhihiZaai' YVz X]gdc^hX] hX]^ode]gZcZ HVi^ZciZc Z^cZg DVc\oZ^ihiVi^dc' Y^Z
`Z^cZ Od]cjc\ jcY `Z^cZ >Vb^a^Z bZ]g WZh^ioZc' YZc OjchX] ujzZgc' ZciaVhhZc oj
lZgYZc jcY cVX] @VjhZ \Z]Zc oj `wccZc) =^c ujzZgZh Rj]VjhZ ^hi WZ^ ^]cZc c^X]i
kdg]VcYZc' VWZg YVh ^ccZgZ :ZYxg[c^h) =h ^hi VgX]Zine^hX]) =h `ZccoZ^X]cZi jchZgZc
OjchX] cVX] =^chlZgYjc\ b^i YZb KZ^c jcY ]Vi YVb^i lZhZcia^X]Zc 9ciZ^a Vc jcÜ
hZgZghe^g^ijZaaZcKjX]Z)
<^Z VcYZgZ' Z]Zg thercµeutlsch Vj[\ZWVjiZ ?gdz\gjeeZ WZ\^ccZc l^g bZ^hiZch b^i
Z^cZg =cZg\^ZkZgW^cYjc\' YZb JZhdcVco`gZ^h #h) Edhh' ,433$) @^Zg h^ioZc VaaZ E^iÜ
VgWZ^iZg jcY HVi^ZciZc h^X] Vc YZc @ucYZc ]VaiZcY ^b CgZ^h jcY h^cY [xg Z^c^\Z E^cjÜ
iZc hi^aa) Ac Y^ZhZg Ki^aaZ lZgYZc h^X Vc\ZaZ^iZi' YVh NZgWjcYZchZ^c oj hexgZc) Kd l^gY
Y^Z 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i Vj[ YVh \gwzZgZ ?VcoZ YZh =cZg\^Z[ZaYZh \Zg^X]iZi) 9c Y^ZhZg ^c
YZg Ca^c^` ^bbZg l^ZYZg YjgX]\Z[x]giZc sWjc\ lZgYZc YgZ^ lZhZcia^X]Z =aZbZciZ
ojg @ZghiZaajc\ Z^cZh igVcheZghdcVaZc ZcZg\Zi^hX]Zc Ca^bVh' Y^Z E^X]VZa HaZhhZ jcY
?VWg^ZaaZKi);aV^g#,440$[dgbja^ZgZc'Zg`ZccWVg5
( Y^ZHguhZcoVah:Zljzi]Z^i[xgYVh\Z\Zclugi^\Z=gaZWZc'
( Y^ZOV]gcZ]bjc\YZh^ccZgZc=gaZWZchVahJVjb'Vah:ZljzihZ^chgVjb'=cZgÜ
\^ZgVjb
( jcYY^ZNZgW^cYjc\'YVhZcZg\Zi^hX]ZNZgWjcYZchZ^cVah?ZbZ^chX]V[i'Vah
\ZbZ^chVbZh:ZljzihZ^ch[ZaY)
9j[ YZb :dYZc Y^ZhZg =^chi^bbjc\' YZh YVYjgX] `gZ^ZgiZc :ZljzihZ^ch[ZaYZh' ^c
Z^cZg hd higj`ijg^ZgiZc 9ibdhe]ugZ lZgYZc YVcc WVhVaZ i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z sWjc\Zc
YjgX]\Z[x]gi' l^Z o) :) :^aVco^Zgjc\ YZg W^h]Zg^\Zc L]ZgVe^Z' JxX`bZaYjc\ \ZWZc
jcY cZ]bZc' =meZg^bZci^ZgZc b^i YZg Z^\ZcZc E^iiZ' YVh =gaZgcZc YZh :Zljzi]Z^ihÜ
`dci^cjjbh' Y^Z sWjc\ [jcYVbZciVaZg IjVa^iuiZc YZh Rj]wgZch' jb cjg Z^c^\Z :Z^Ü
he^ZaZ oj cZccZc) @^Zg `wccZc l^g VjX] L]ZbZc' Y^Z Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ YZg ?ZhVbiÜ
`a^c^` WZhi^bbZc jcY \ZaZ\Zcia^X] Vj[ Ca^c^`ZWZcZ ^c YZc NdgYZg\gjcY igZiZc' l^Z
l. :) KjX]i' E^zWgVjX]' jchdo^VaZ NZg]VaiZchlZ^hZc jhl)' h^X] Zci[VaiZc aVhhZc jcY
27
BdVX]^b?Vajh`V
^]gZ <ncVb^` ^b Ca^bV `daaZ`i^kZg :Zljzi]Z^i Z^cZg OVcYajc\ oj[x]gZc) <Zc
9WhX]ajz YZg ?gdz\gjeeZ W^aYZi bZ^hi Z^c @Z^ajc\hg^ijVa' WZ^ YZb ^c `aZ^cZc ?gjeÜ
eZc dYZg ^c Z^cZg HVgicZghigj`ijg h^X] Z^cZg YZg HVgicZg ZciheVcci jcY [xg Z^cZ :Zgx]Ü
gjc\ w[[cZi' Y^Z Zg kdc Z^cZb dYZg bZ]gZgZc VcYZgZc Zg]uai) O^Z ^c Z^cZg EZY^iVi^dc
lZgYZc VaaZ ]^c\Z[x]gi oj Z^cZg r[[cjc\ [xg ]Z^ahVbZ IjVa^iuiZc YZh ^ccZgZc =cZgÜ
\^ZgVjbZh)
@Z^ajc\ ^hi cVX] jchZgZg 9j[[Vhhjc\ c^X]i bVX]WVg dYZg ZggZ^X]WVg) K^Z \ZhX]^Z]i'
dYZg h^Z \ZhX]^Z]i c^X]i) K^Z ^hi Z^cZ YZg dg\Vc^hb^hX]Zc IjVa^iuiZc' Y^Z l^g WZ]^cÜ
YZgc dYZg YZgZc =ci[Vaijc\ l^g Zgbw\a^X]Zc `wccZc) <Vh ^ccZgZ =gaZWc^h oj ]Z^aZc ^hi
^bbZg YVh :Zgx]gihZ^c kdc ZilVh ?gwzZgZb' OZ^iZgZb Vah ^X] Zh W^c' k^ZaaZ^X]i kdc
ZilVh @Z^a^\Zb) =h ^hi Z^cZ \gwzZgZ CgV[i' Z^cZ VgX]Zine^hX]Z =cZg\^Z' kdc YZg ^X]
b^X] WZgx]gi [x]aZ) @Z^ajc\ YZg Z^\ZcZc ?Z[x]aZ' =be[^cYjc\Zc' EjhiZg' YZg 9gi
jcY OZ^hZ' l^Z l^g jch hZaWhi ZgaZWZc' ^hi [x]aWVg Vah :Zgx]gihZ^c' Vah =g\g^[[ZchZ^c'
Vah NZghw]cjc\ b^i h^X] hZaWhi dYZg VcYZgZc) @Z^ajc\ ^hi Z^c ?ZhX]Zc`' Z^cZ ?cVYZ)
Ac Y^ZhZb K^ccZ `Vcc h^Z ZgaZWi lZgYZc' lZcc YVh :ZljzihZ^c igVcheZghdcVa \Zw[[cZi
^hi) <^Z ^c YZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z xWa^X]Z 9j[VgWZ^ijc\ jcY <jgX]VgWZ^ijc\ jcWZljziZg
dYZg WZljziZg L]ZbZc' Cdc[a^`iZ jcY EjhiZg `Vcc oj Z^cZg AciZ\gVi^dc' Z^cZg ^ccZÜ
gZc @Vgbdc^h^Zgjc\ jcY 9`oZeiVco [x]gZc jcY VjX] Vah hdaX]Z ZgaZWi lZgYZc) @Z^Ü
ajc\ Zg[dgYZgi VWZg Z^cZc OZX]hZa YZg =gaZWc^heZgheZ`i^kZ ojb =cZg\^ZgVjb ]^c' h^Z
^hi Z^c 9jhYgjX` YZg ?VcolZgYjc\) K^Z ^hi Z^c 9jhYgjX` YZh @Z^ah' cVX] YZb l^g
EZchX]ZcaZioiZcYa^X]hjX]Zc)
Achd[Zgc WZh^ioZc VaaZ EZchX]Zc' Y^Z iZ^a]VWZc Vc YZb =cZg\^Z[ZaY Z^cZg Ca^c^`'
jcY YVh h^cY VaaZ E^iVgWZ^iZg jcY HVi^ZciZc' Z^cZ NZgVcildgijc\ [xg Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ'
jcY Zh ^hi l^X]i^\' Y^ZhZ \ZbZ^chVbZ NZgVcildgijc\ ^bbZg l^ZYZg YZjia^X] oj
bVX]Zc) AchWZhdcYZgZ WZYZjiZi Zh [xg Y^Z HVi^ZciZc jcY HVi^Zci^ccZc' E^ikZgVcildgÜ
ijc\ YV[xg oj igV\Zc' YVz YVh >ZaY' ^c YZb h^Z ]Z^aZc ldaaZc' VjX] ]Z^ahVb ^hi) L]ZgVÜ
e^Z WgVjX]i h^X]Zga^X] Y^Z :ZgZ^ihX]V[i' YZc Z^\ZcZc KX]ViiZc ^b >ZaY YZg ?ZbZ^cÜ
hX]V[i h^X]iWVg lZgYZc oj aVhhZc' h^X] WZigd[[Zc hZ^c oj aVhhZc kdc YZc Z^\ZcZc
YZhigj`i^kZc Cgu[iZc' Y^ZhZ oj Zg`ZccZc' oj WZ\gZcoZc jcY h^X] ^b >ZaY YZg :ZljziÜ
]Z^i' YZg MciZghixiojc\ jcY YZh E^i\Z[x]ah lVcYZac oj aVhhZc) <V[xg ^hi Zh VWZg Zg[dgÜ
YZga^X]' \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ Vj[ Z^cZg i^Z[ZgZc KX]^X]i YVoj WZ^ojigV\Zc' YVz YVh Ö@Z^a[ZaYÅ
Zg]VaiZc WaZ^Wi' ^cYZb ^X] b^X] Vah HVi^Zci ^bbZg l^ZYZg jb Z^cZc edh^i^kZc jcY `dcÜ
higj`i^kZc ?Z^hi WZbx]Z jcY bZ^cZ HguhZco jcY MciZghixiojc\ [xg Y^Z HgdoZhhZ
VcYZgZg ojg NZg[x\jc\ hiZaaZ) <^Z ZcZg\Zi^hX]Z CgV[i Z^cZg ?gjeeZ ^hi' l^Z J^X]VgY
Edhh #,433' K) /.$ hV\i' k^Za \gwzZg Vah Y^Z Z^cZh Z^coZacZc' jcY YVb^i l^gY Zh bw\Ü
a^X]' YVh Z^\ZcZ CgVc`Z jcY McZgawhiZ ^b CdciZmi YZg ?gjeeZ h^X] kZglVcYZac oj
aVhhZc) <V]Zg a^Z\i Zh cV]Z' ^c Z^cZg igVcheZghdcVa dg^Zci^ZgiZc ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^Ü
hX]Zc Ca^c^` kdgl^Z\ZcY Vj[ \gjeeZci]ZgVeZji^hX]Z 9gWZ^i jcY lZc^\Zg Vj[ =^coZa(
i]ZgVe^Z WZod\Zc oj hZ^c) <^Z kZghX]^ZYZcZc ?gjeeZcVc\ZWdiZ h^cY Vjh\Zg^X]iZi Vj[
YZc \aZ^X]Zc ?Z^hi) A]gZ NZgldWZc]Z^i igu\i ^YZVaZglZ^hZ YZc ;]VgV`iZg YZh RjhVb(
bZceVhhZch' YZg Ki^bb^\`Z^i) ac jchZgZg Ca^c^` h^cY Y^Zh cZWZc YZc WZhX]g^ZWZcZc
?gdz\gjeeZc Y^Z iu\a^X] hiVii[^cYZcYZc CZgc\gjeeZci]ZgVe^Zc' ^c YZcZc kdgl^Z\ZcY
kZgWVa' i^Z[ZcehnX]dad\^hX] jcY \ZhiVaii]ZgVeZji^hX] \ZVgWZ^iZi l^gY' Y^Z `wgeZgWZÜ
od\ZcZc L]ZgVe^Z[dgbZc' l^Z Y^Z 9iZb\gjeeZ' Y^Z YncVb^hX]Z CwgeZgVgWZ^i' LVCZ(
L^FV' Y^Z Ki^bb\gjeeZ' EVhhV\Z\gjeeZ' OVhhZg\gjeeZ jhl)' Y^Z EVai]ZgVe^ZÜ
\gjeeZ jcY Y^Z kZghX]^ZYZcZc EZY^iVi^dcZc' jb Z^c^\Z :Z^he^ZaZ oj cZccZc) Kd lZgÜ
YZc olVg KX]lZgejc`iZ \ZW^aYZi' Y^Z [xg YZc Z^coZacZc jciZghX]^ZYa^X] \Zl^X]iZi
h^cY jcY YZg Ca^c^` ^]gZ ?ZhiVai \ZWZc' ^X] ]VaiZ VWZg Y^Z Z^coZacZ EZi]dYZ c^X]i [xg
ZcihX]Z^YZcY'hdcYZgcYZc?Z^hi'^cYZbh^Z\ZhX]^Z]i)
28
LgVcheZghdcVaZhiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
/JF,TGHBCFEFR=FBMRJNFJNFQSQBNRPFQRONBLOQJFNSJFQSFN6LJNJK
9c\Zh^X]ih YZg <ncVb^`' Y^Z HVi^ZciZc b^i hX]lZgZc ehnX]^hX]Zc Kiwgjc\Zc ^c
YVh =cZg\^Z[ZaY YZg Ca^c^` ]^cZ^cigV\Zc' `dbbi Zh ^bbZg l^ZYZg oj Wg^hVciZc >aj`Ü
ijVi^dcZc YZh `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaYZh b^i ]d]Zg 9\\gZhh^k^iui dYZg Zg]ZWa^X]Zc
sWZghX]gZ^ijc\Zc YZg JZ\Zac jcY NZgZ^cWVgjc\Zc) Ac hdaX]Zc K^ijVi^dcZc ^hi Zh
Zg[dgYZga^X]' YVz Y^Z L]ZgVeZjiZc Y^ZhZh b^i ]d]Zg =cZg\^Z WZhZioiZ L]ZbV' l^Z o) :)
E^zWgVjX]' KjX]i dYZg =ciiujhX]jc\' ^b ^ccZgZc JVjb kdc HguhZco' E^i\Z[x]a jcY
^ccZgZg Ki^aaZ WZlV]gZc jcY ]VaiZc' d]cZ h^X] oj kZghig^X`Zc jcY ]VcYajc\hjc[u]^\
oj lZgYZc) =h WZhiZ]i Y^Z ?Z[V]g' YVz Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ jb`^eeZc `Vcc jcY YZhigj`Ü
i^kZ =cZg\^Zc Vjh\ZaZWi lZgYZc' lVh Zg]ZWa^X]Z LgVjbVi^h^Zgjc\Zc jcY NZgaZioi]Z^(
iZc ojg >da\Z ]VWZc lxgYZ jcY ^b ?gjcYZ Z^cZ O^ZYZg]dajc\ jcY NZgi^Z[jc\ VaiZg
LgVjbVi^h^Zgjc\Zc WZYZjiZc lxgYZ) Ac jchZgZg Ca^c^` \VW Zh W^h]Zg Z^c^\Z hdaX]Z
?gZcoh^ijVi^dcZc' VWZg Y^Z ]Z^aZcYZ CgV[i YZh =cZg\^Z[ZaYZh `dcciZ Zg]VaiZc WaZ^WZc'
^cYZb Z^cZg YZg L]ZgVeZjiZc Y^Z i]ZbVi^hX]Z <ncVb^` ^c h^X] hZaWhi l^g`hVb lZgÜ
YZc a^Zz' Vjhigj\ jcY w[[Zcia^X] h^X]iWVg jcY hexgWVg lZgYZc a^Zz' lVh Y^Zh [xg ^]c
WZYZjiZiZ #o) :) lVh Zg Wol) h^Z ^c YZg Z^\ZcZc eZghwca^X]Zc ?ZhX]^X]iZ ^b Mb\Vc\
b^i?ZlVai(dYZgE^zWgVjX]hZg[V]gjc\ZcVah]^a[gZ^X]ZgaZWi]Vi$)
<^Zh ^hi Z^cZ lZhZcia^X]Z IjVa^iui igVcheZghdcVaZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zg 9gWZ^i' Z^cZ 9gi
hX]VbVc^hX]Zg Lui^\`Z^i) <jgX] HVgi^o^eVi^dc Vc YZg DZ^YZchi]ZbVi^` YZh HVi^ZciZc'
Y^Z ^b `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaY l^g`hVb ^hi' ZghX]Z^ci Y^ZhZ ^c jchZgZb ^ccZgZc =gaZW(
c^hgVjb) Ab \xchi^\Zc >VaaZ cZ]bZc l^g Y^ZhZ ^b ?Z[uz jcY YZg \gwzZgZc OZ^iZ
jchZgZh :ZljzihZ^ch Vj[' igV\Zc h^Z ^c jch Vjh jcY igVch[dgb^ZgZc h^Z' o) :) Vah 9jhÜ
hw]cjc\ b^i Z^cZg ?ZlVaiZg[V]gjc\) <^ZhZg MblVcYajc\hegdoZz `Vcc ^b Z^coZacZc
L]ZgVeZjiZc hiVii[^cYZc' ^b Z^coZacZc HVi^ZciZc dYZg ^b HgdoZz Z^cZg ?gjeeZ l^g`Ü
hVb lZgYZc) OZcc @Z^ajc\ \ZhX]^Z]i' hd \ZhX]^Z]i h^Z c^Z cjg ^cY^k^YjZaa' hdcYZgc
[xg Y^Z EZchX]]Z^i' k^ZaaZ^X]i hd\Vg [xg Y^ZhZc HaVcZiZc' YZcc \Vco cV] dYZg Zci[ZgcÜ
iZg' bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg eVgi^o^e^ZgZc l^g VaaZ Vc Y^ZhZc @Z^ajc\hegdoZhhZc) =^c hdaÜ
X]Zh ?Z[uz oj hZ^c' Z^c hdaX]Zg ;dciV^cZg' YZg VjX] Y^Z ZcZg\Zi^hX]Z <ncVb^` he^g^Ü
ijZaaZg Cg^hZc dYZg ehnX]di^hX]Zg =gaZWc^hhZ ]VaaZc' igV\Zc' VjhigV\Zc `Vcc' Zg[dgYZgi
Z^c igVcheZghdcVaZh :ZljzihZ^c #?Vajh`V jcY ?Vajh`V' ,440$) Ke^g^ijZaaZ Cg^hZc'
HhnX]dhZc' hX]lZgZ LgVjbVi^h^Zgjc\Zc hZmjZaaZg dYZg \ZlVaiiui^\Zg FVijg h^cY c^X]i
eZghwca^X] Vjh]VaiWVg) A]gZ CgV[i oZghiwgi Y^Z eZghwca^X]Z AYZci^iui) @^Zg `Vcc cjg
Zm^hiZci^ZaaZ 9clZhZc]Z^i' a^ZWZkdaaZ HguhZco' Y^Z NZgVc`Zgjc\ ^b KZ^ch\gjcY Z^cZc
JVjb [xg Y^Z @Z^ajc\ Zgw[[cZc) Ac _ZYZg VcYZgZc c^X]i(he^g^ijZaaZc HZgheZ`i^kZ `wccÜ
iZc l^g Vah L]ZgVeZjiZc YZc ]Z[i^\Zc KixgbZc YZg sWZgigV\jc\Zc jcY jchZgZg Z^\ZÜ
cZc ?Z\ZcxWZgigV\jc\Zc `Vjb ZilVh Zci\Z\ZchZioZc jcY lugZc c^X]i ^c YZg DV\Z'
^]gZIjVa^iuiZc[gjX]iWVgojbVX]Zc)
<Zg NdgiZ^a Z^cZh igVcheZghdcVa VgWZ^iZcYZc L]ZgVeZjiZc ^c Z^cZg Ca^c^` Vc\ZÜ
h^X]ih YZg bVhh^kZc ZcZg\Zi^hX]Zc <ncVb^` WZ^ hX]lZgZc ehnX]^hX]Zc Kiwgjc\Zc
WZhiZ]i ^c YZg LZVbVgWZ^i) 9jX] ]^Zg ^hi Y^Z ZcZg\Zi^hX]Z CgV[i YZg ?gjeeZ hiug`Zg Vah
Y^Z YZh Z^coZacZc) Kd `Vcc h^X] ojb Z^cZc YZg Z^coZacZ L]ZgVeZji ^b LZVb\Z^hi kZgÜ
Vc`Zgc' kdc ^]b igV\Zc aVhhZc' ojb VcYZgZc `wccZc hX]l^Zg^\Z K^ijVi^dcZc jcY
L]ZbZc hnbWda^hX] ^b \ZhVbiZc LZVb YjgX]\ZVgWZ^iZi lZgYZc) <Vh MblVcYZac
YZhigj`i^kZg =cZg\^Z`gu[iZ ^c egd\gZhh^kZ jcY \jiVgi^\Z \ZhX]^Z]i bZ^hiZch YVYjgX]'
YVz YVh `daaZ`i^kZ :ZljzihZ^c YZh LZVbh ÖZ^cZ KX]^X]i i^Z[ZgÅ \Z]i' Vah Y^Z Kiwgjc\
YZh HVi^ZciZc ZghX]Z^ci) <dgi ^hi bZ^hiZch Y^Z KZ]chjX]i cVX] =gawhjc\ jcY :Z[gZ^Ü
jc\' Y^Z Z^c Knbeidb dYZg Z^cZ YZhigj`i^kZ NZg]VaiZchlZ^hZ ^c h^X] igu\i' hexgWVg'
^]g ^chd[Zgc i^Z[ZgZg K^cc kZghiZ]WVg) N^ZaZ kdc jch `ZccZc Y^Z =g[V]gjc\' YVz h^X]
29
BdVX]^b?Vajh`V
]uj[^\ ^b HVi^ZciZc ZilVh kZgucYZgi ]Vi' lZcc Z^cZ i^Z[\Z]ZcYZ >VaaWZhegZX]jc\
dYZg KjeZgk^h^dc xWZg Y^ZhZc HVi^ZciZc hiVii\Z[jcYZc ]Vi' d]cZ YVz Zh WZgZ^ih oj
Z^cZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc AciZgkZci^dc \Z`dbbZc lVg) <^ZhZh H]ucdbZc' YVh kdgl^ZÜ
\ZcY WZ^ >gx]\ZhiwgiZc WZ`Vcci ^hi' auzi h^X] YjgX] Y^Z \ZbZ^chVbZ HVgi^o^eVi^dc ^b
`daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaY Zg`augZc) Ab xWg^\Zc h^cY VjX] Y^Z H]ucdbZcZ' Y^Z YjgX] YZc
:Z\g^[[ YZg egd_Z`i^kZc AYZci^[^o^Zgjc\ WZhX]g^ZWZc lZgYZc' aZ^X]iZg YjgX] Y^Z LZ^a(
]VWZ Vc Z^cZb `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaY' jcY hZ^ Zh YZg <nVYZ L]ZgVeZji jcY HVi^Zci'
ojZg`augZc)
9jh Y^ZhZc sWZgaZ\jc\Zc l^gY Y^Z :ZYZjijc\ YZg LZVbVgWZ^i jcY YZg KjeZgk^h^dc
Z^cZg igVcheZghdcVa VgWZ^iZcYZc Ca^c^` Zg`ZccWVg) <Zg LZVb\Z^hi hiZaai Z^cZ WZYZjÜ
iZcYZ KjW`jaijg ^ccZg]VaW YZh `daaZ`i^kZc =cZg\^Z[ZaYZh YZg Ca^c^` YVg) =g WZcwi^\i
hdb^i kdc E^iVgWZ^iZgc jcY KjeZgk^hdgZc Z^cZ WZhdcYZgZ H[aZ\Z jcY :ZVX]ijc\)
BZYZg igu\i Z^c ]d]Zh 9jhbVz Vc E^ikZgVcildgijc\ [xg Y^Z 9ibdhe]ugZ ^b LZVb) <V
Y^Z NZgVc`Zgjc\ YZg L]ZgVeZjiZc ^b igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^chgVjb Y^Z NdgVjhÜ
hZiojc\ [xg Y^Z @Z^ajc\hegdoZhhZ ^b YVg\ZhiZaaiZc K^ccZ ^hi jcY Z^cZ McVW]uc\^\`Z^i
^b Mb\Vc\ b^i YZc Z^\ZcZc \Z[x]ahbuz^\Zc JZV`i^dcZc' Vahd YZc Z^\ZcZc ?Z\ZcÜ
xWZgigV\jc\hgZV`i^dcZc' VjX] Vj[ hX]lZgl^Z\ZcYZ =cZg\^ZYncVb^`Zc Zgbw\a^X]i'
kZgY^Zci Y^Z HZghwca^X]`Z^ihZcil^X`ajc\ YZg L]ZgVeZjiZc Z^cZ WZhdcYZgZ :ZVX]Ü
ijc\) AYZVaZglZ^hZ ]VWZc h^X] ^c Z^cZb hdaX]Zc LZVb EZchX]Zc ojhVbbZc\Z[jc(
YZc' Y^Z ]^Zg ^]gZ :Zhi^bbjc\' ^]gZ ^ccZgZ 9j[\VWZ [x]aZc jcY YZc ^]cZc VckZgigVjÜ
iZc HVi^ZciZc jcY HVi^Zci^ccZc Y^ZcZc bwX]iZc) N^ZaaZ^X]i h^cY h^X VjX] ^ciZgZhh^Zgi'
^b WZgj[a^X]Zc >ZaY lZ^iZg oj lVX]hZc' jcY h^X jciZghixioZc h^X] \Z\ZchZ^i^\ ^c Y^ZÜ
hZb 9ca^Z\Zc) <Vh hd kZghiVcYZcZ OVX]hijbh[ZaY YZh LZVbh lugZ YVb^i Z^c l^X]i^Ü
\Zg kZg[Z^cZgiZg jcY ]dX]higj`ijg^ZgiZg LZ^a YZh ]Z^aZcYZc >ZaYZh YZg ?ZhVbi`a^c^`)
J^X]VgY Edhh #,433$ kZghiZ]i ^c hZ^cZg N^h^dc Z^cZh \Vco]Z^ia^X]Zc CgVc`Zc]VjhZh'
Z^c hdaX]Zh CgVc`Zc]Vjh Vah ?Z[uz YZg LgVch[dgbVi^dc' Vah KX]jaZ ojg =glZX`jc\
YZg DZWZcY^\`Z^i' Vah Z^cZ 9gi he^g^ijZaaZg KX]jaZ) Ac hZ^cZg N^h^dc bZY^i^ZgZc Y^Z
E^iVgWZ^iZg jcY E^iVgWZ^iZg^ccZc b^i YZc HVi^ZciZc jcY HVi^Zci^ccZc' hZ]Zc ^]gZ
9gWZ^i c^X]i \ZigZcci kdc ^]gZb Hg^kViaZWZc jcY kZghjX]Zc' YZg H[a^X]i oj [da\Zc' \ji
Vjh\Zgj]ijcY\Z^hi^\`aVg^cYZg9gWZ^iojhZ^c)
9c\Zh^X]ih VWZg YZg YVg\ZghiZaaiZc KX]l^Zg^\`Z^i [xg YVh ^cY^k^YjZaaZ :ZljzihZ^c'
Z^cZ igVcheZghdcVaZ r[[cjc\ ^b CdciZmi egueZghdcVaZg jcY eZghdcVaZg \ZhZaahX]V[ia^Ü
X]Zg :ZljzihZ^ch[dgbZc Vj[gZX]iojZg]VaiZc' lZgYZc h^X] ]ZjiojiV\Z ^b LZVb Z^cZg
hdaX]Zc Ca^c^` kdgl^Z\ZcY EZchX]Zc ojhVbbZc[^cYZc' Y^Z ^ccZga^X] ^b KeVcÜ
cjc\h[ZaY Y^ZhZg :ZljzihZ^chhigj`ijgZc aZWZc) C^cYa^X]Z :ZYxg[c^hhZ' KZaWhikZgÜ
l^g`a^X]jc\h^ciZgZhhZc jcY he^g^ijZaaZ 9ca^Z\Zc WZ^he^ZahlZ^hZ lZgYZc YV]Zg ^c
Z^cZb hdaX]Zc LZVb ZghX]Z^cZc jcY YVh :ZljzihZ^ch[ZaY YZh \ZhVbiZc LZVbh bZ]g
dYZg lZc^\Zg WZhi^bbZc) @^ZgVjh [da\i [xg Y^Z LZVbaZ^ijc\' Y^Z KjeZgk^h^dc' VWZg
VjX] [xg _ZYZc E^iVgWZ^iZg Y^Z d[ibVah hX]l^Zg^\Z jcY \gdzZ @ZgVjh[dgYZgjc\' YVh
LZVb[ZaY jcY YVh >ZaY YZg \ZhVbiZc Ca^c^` Vah YVh \gwzZgZ ?VcoZ oj hZ]Zc' YVh
_ZYZb Z^coZacZc Y^Z ;]VcXZ \^Wi' lZ^iZgZ KX]g^iiZ ojg ?VcolZgYjc\ oj ijc) >xg Y^ZÜ
hZc =cil^X`ajc\hegdoZz' YZg ^b ?gjcYZ cVixga^X] VWauj[i' ^hi Zh ]^a[gZ^X]' ^c ]uj[^\
lZX]hZacYZc :ZljzihX^chojhiucYZc oj aZWZc) <^Zh ^hi \gjcYhuioa^X] [xg Y^Z =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\ h^cckdaa' [xg E^iVgWZ^iZg jcY HVi^ZciZc' jcY l^gY ^c Z^cZg Ca^c^` WZgZ^ih
ZgaZ^X]iZgi YjgX] Y^Z jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Zc 9gWZ^ih[dgbZc5 ^c ?gdz\gjeeZc ^hi Zh cV]ZÜ
a^Z\ZcY' Y^Z 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i Vj[ YZc igVcheZghdcVaZc ;]VgV`iZg YZh 9ibdhe]ug^Ü
hX]Zc oj aZ\Zc) Ac YZc CaZ^c\gjeeZc jcY YZc <nVYZc YZg =^coZai]ZgVe^Z he^ZaZc
W^d\gVe]^hX]Z 9heZ`iZ' sWZgigV\jc\ jcY ?Z\ZcxWZgigV\jc\ Z^cZ JdaaZ) LZVbVgWZ^i
Vj[ YZg Z^cZc KZ^iZ Wol) HVi^ZciZckZghVbbajc\ jcY qbiZg Vj[ YZg VcYZgZc KZ^iZ
30
LgVcheZghdcVaZhiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
\ZWZc JVjb [xg eZghdcVaZh =gaZWZc jcY eZghdcVaZ =ci[Vaijc\) McY Y^Z EZY^iVi^dcZc
WZidcZcY^ZAccZchX]Vj'Y^ZsWjc\YZg:ZljzihZ^chkZgucYZgjc\)
/JF2BNYIFJSEFR<FJNRTNEEBR=QBNRPFQRONBLFBLRAVJRDIFNQBTM
<^ZhZg OZX]hZa YZg :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ' Y^ZhZ >u]^\`Z^i' YZc ^ccZgZc =cZg\^ZÜ
ojhiVcY oj lZX]hZac' l^Z ?VWg^ZaaZ Ki) ;aV^g jcY E^X]VZa HaZhhZ #,440$ Y^Zh WZidcZc'
^hi Vjh igVcheZghdcVaZg K^X]i ]ZjiZ hd Yg^c\ZcY Zg[dgYZga^X]) =g [x]gi ojcZ]bZcY oj
Z^cZg OZgihX]uiojc\ hdld]a YZh LgVcheZghdcVaZc Vah VjX] YZh HZghdcVaZc jcY HguÜ
eZghdcVaZc) Ac EdbZciZc i^Z[Zg =^ch^X]i l^gY YZb ?Z^hi Zg`ZccWVg' YVz YVh 9WhdÜ
ajiZ' ?dii' YZg KZ^ch\gjcY h^X] ^c _ZYZg >dgb `gZ^Zgi jcY bVc^[Zhi^Zgi' YVb^i VjX] ^c
_ZYZg >dgb YZh ^ccZgZc =cZg\^Z[ZaYZh ZghX]Z^ci' h^X] Vah _ZYZ bw\a^X]Z Kigj`ijg jchZÜ
gZh :ZljzihZ^ch[ZaYZh VjhYgxX`i) C^cYa^X]Z L]ZbZc' W^d\gVe]^hX]Z EjhiZg' eZghwcÜ
a^X]Z AciZgZhhZc' YVh =\d h^cY ZWZchd =ghX]Z^cjc\h[dgbZc YZh KZ^ch l^Z Y^Z ^ccZgZ
Ki^aaZ jcY YZg ^ccZgZ >g^ZYZc igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^ch) 9aaZgY^c\h h^cY h^X ^b
?gjcYZ YjgX] Z^c \gdzZh DZ^YZc' Z^cZ ^ccZgZ KeVccjc\' Z^cZ ^ccZgZ KZ]chjX]i cVX]
=gawhjc\ jcY :Z[gZ^jc\ \Z`ZccoZ^X]cZi) Ac YZg @Vaijc\ i^Z[Zc E^i\Z[x]ah jcY
\gdzZg D^ZWZ jb[uc\i YVh igVcheZghdcVaZ :ZljzihZ^c Y^Z eZghwca^X]Zc jcY VgX]ZinÜ
e^hX]Zc DZ^YZch[dgbZc' hd YVz h^X ]Z^aZc `wccZc) Ac\g^Y J^ZYZa #,44/$ oZ^\i ^c ^]gZc
:^aYZgc YZg 9gWZ^i b^i HVi^ZciZc' l^Z h^X] hdaX]Z xWZgeZghwca^X]Zc Cgu[iZ WZ^he^ZahÜ
lZ^hZ ^c =c\Zah\ZhiVaiZc hnbWda^h^ZgZc jcY hZaWhi `ViVhigde]VaZ igVjbVi^hX]Z =g[V]Ü
gjc\Zc oj igV\Zc jcY oj ]Z^aZc ]Za[Zc) K^Z heg^X]i YVkdc' YVz VjX] Y^Z Yjc`aZc
9gX]ZineZc Z^c LgVchoZcYZcoediZci^Va WZh^ioZc jcY WZigVX]iZi h^X Vah :dYZchX]uioZ
YZh `daaZ`i^kZc McWZljziZc' lZcc h^Z bdW^a^h^Zgi jcY WZ[gZ^i lZgYZc) <^Zh jciZgÜ
hixioi jch ^c YZg sWZgoZj\jc\' YVz VjX] Y^Z bVhh^kZc Yjc`aZc VgX]Zine^hX]Zc =cZgÜ
\^Zc' Y^Z ^c Z^cZg HhnX]dhZ l^g`hVb h^cY' \ZigV\Zc jcY \ZWdg\Zc lZgYZc `wccZc'
hdYVzh^Z^]gigVch[dgbVidg^hX]ZhHdiZci^VaZci[VaiZc`wccZc)
=^c lZhZcia^X]Zg KX]g^ii YVoj ^hi YVh Ö=glVX]ZcÅ' Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i YZh :ZljzihZ^ch'
Vjh YZc ^YZci^[^o^ZgiZc :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZc ]ZgVjhojigZiZc ^c YZc JVjb YZg
:Zljzi]Z^i' ^c YZb VaaZ =^coZa]Z^iZc h^X] VWW^aYZc jcY YjgX] YZc YVh 9aaiV\hWZÜ
ljzihZ^c gZaVi^k^Zgi l^gY) KZaWhi [xg HhnX]di^`Zg' jcY \ZgVYZ [xg h^Z' ZghX]Z^ci Zh Yg^cÜ
\ZcY Zg[dgYZga^X]' Y^ZhZc :ZljzihZ^chgVjb oj Zci[VaaZc) ÖAchZac YZg CaVg]Z^iÅ cZcci
HdYkdaa #,44/$ Y^Z EdbZciZ' ^c YZcZc Z^c hX]^ode]gZcZg EZchX] c^X]i ehnX]di^hX]
^YZci^[^o^Zgi ^hi) <^ZhZ AchZac YZg CaVg]Z^i oj Zg`ZccZc jcY h^X] VjhYZ]cZc oj aVhhZc'
hZ^ YVh ZcihX]Z^YZcYZ =aZbZci YZg :Z]VcYajc\ Z^cZg V`jiZc HhnX]dhZ) AchWZhdcYZgZ
YjgX] Y^Z kZghX]^ZYZcZc >dgbZc YZg 9X]ihVb`Z^ihbZY^iVi^dc l^gY ^c jchZgZg Ca^c^`
ojcuX]hi Z^cbVa Y^Z Hdh^i^dc YZh Ö^ccZgZc :ZdWVX]iZghÅ \Zhiug`i) <Zg ^ccZgZ :ZdWÜ
VX]iZg ^hi WZ^ ehnX]di^hX]Zc EZchX]Zc' :dgYZga^cZ(Kagj`ijgZc dYZg FZjgdi^`Zgc
c^X]i kZghig^X`i ^c YVh Z^coZacZ EjhiZg dYZg L]ZbV) =ghi Y^ZhZ Hdh^i^dc Zgbw\a^X]i
YVh F^X]i(JZV\^ZgZc' Z^cZ \Zl^hhZ :Z[gZ^jc\ kdb 9jh\Za^Z[ZgihZ^c Vc Y^Z =bdi^dcVÜ
a^h^Zgjc\' Y^Z jch hd d[i WZ]ZgghX]i) <^Z Hdh^i^dc YZh ^ccZgZc :ZdWVX]iZgh WZ[gZ^i h^X]
ojcZ]bZcY kdc :ZlZgijc\' Cg^i^` jcY :ZjgiZ^ajc\ jcY l^gY bZ]g jcY bZ]g oj
Z^cZb cZjigVaZc :Z\aZ^iZg YZh =gaZWZch) K^Z lZ^iZi h^X] hX]a^Zza^X] ojb JVjb YZg
:Zljzi]Z^i' YZg kZgWjcYZc b^i YZg D^ZWZ YZh @ZgoZch jcY YZg CgV[i jchZgZh CwgeZgÜ
a^X]Zc hX]a^Zza^X] _ZYZ VjX] cdX] hd hX]lZgZ NZgaZiojc\ jcY LgVjbVi^h^Zgjc\ oj
ZgigV\Zc jcY k^ZaaZ^X]i VjX] oj ]Z^aZc kZgbV\) Kd lxgYZc l^g Zh ojb^cYZhi Vah igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZ L]ZgVeZjiZc ZglVgiZc jcY Zg]d[[Zc) <^Z OZgihX]uiojc\ hdld]a YZh LgVch(
eZghdcVaZc Vah VjX] YZh HgueZghdcVaZc jcY HZghdcVaZc oZ^\i h^X] bZi]dY^hX] ^c YZg
31
BdVX]^b?Vajh`V
L]ZgVe^Z YjgX] Y^Z 9clZcYjc\ hdld]a kdc >dgbZc YZh @Z^cZ^c\Z]Zch ^c Z^cZ =bdÜ
i^dc' Z^cZ `wgeZga^X]Z =be[^cYjc\' Z^c W^d\gVe]^hX]Zh EjhiZg' ^b K^ccZ YZh <jgX]Ü
aZWZch' 9jhaZWZch' 9jhYgxX`Zch' >d`jhh^ZgZch' NZgi^Z[Zch Vah VjX] YjgX] >dgbZc
YZh DdhaVhhZch' YZg <Zh^YZci^[^o^Zgjc\' YZh E^i\Z[x]ah b^i h^X] hZaWhi jcY VcYZgZc'
YZg @^c\VWZ jcY r[[cjc\ [xg ZilVh OZ^iZgZh' ?gwzZgZh dYZg FZjZh) <Zg igVcheZghdÜ
cVaZ 9chVio ^hi ^bbZg \Vco]Z^ia^X] jcY kZgW^cYZcY' WZidci YVh ÖjcYÅ hiVii YZh ÖdYZgÅ
Wol) ÖVWZgÅ) Kd ZcihiZ]i Z^c Z]Zg lZaaZc[wgb^\Zg NZgaVj[ ^b L]ZgVe^ZegdoZz b^i
jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Zc Kiug`Zc YZh @^cZ^c( jcY @^cYjgX]\Z]Zch Wol) YZg Ddhawhjc\ jcY
OZ^ijc\)
Ac Y^ZhZb K^ccZ `Vcc igVcheZghdcVaZ 9gWZ^i ^b CdciZmi YZg X]g^hia^X](he^g^ijZaaZc
LgVY^i^dc YZh 9WZcYaVcYZh kZghiVcYZc lZgYZc) ;]g^hijh oZ^\iZ Z^cZc 9`i i^Z[Zc E^iÜ
\Z[x]ah jcY jcZcYa^X]Zg D^ZWZ' ^cYZb Zg YVh DZ^Y YZg OZai Vj[ h^X] cV]b) 9j[ Y^ZhZ
OZ^hZ `dcciZ Zg YZc EZchX]Zc Z^c ?Z[x]a YV[xg \ZWZc' l^Z Zh ^hi' h^X] oj ZciaVhiZc5
_ZbVcY VcYZgZg( ;]g^hijh ( igu\i bZ^c DZ^Y jcY bZ^cZ KxcYZc jcY `augi h^Z [xg b^X])
9WZg Z^\Zcia^X] ^hi Zh Y^Z Ö;]g^hijhcVijgÅ ^c _ZYZb kdc jch' Y^Z \wiia^X]Z IjVa^iui YZh
igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZljzihZ^ch' Vc Y^Z l^g Vaa jchZg DZ^Y jcY jchZgZ KX]jaY VW\ZWZc
`wccZc) <^Zh [x]gi oj Z^cZg MblVcYajc\' Z^cZg LgVch[dgbVi^dc jcY Ö@^bbZa[V]giÅ)
?dii' YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh KZ^c hZaWhi Zgawhi jch) O^g ZgaZWZc Y^Zh Vah D^ZWZ ?diiZh' Vah
?cVYZ) MchZgZ HZghwca^X]`Z^i hi^gWi' l^Z ;]g^hijh Vb CgZjo' VWZg ?dii ^c jch ZghiZ]i'
l^Z Y^Z Enhi^`Zg hV\Zc) <Vh KZ^c hZaWhi' YVh DZWZc Zg[xaai jchZg :ZljzihZ^c) <^Zh
lugZ Y^Z he^g^ijZaaZ K^X]i YZh OZ\Zh jchZgZg HVi^ZciZc' YZcc µctlens WZYZjiZi ZgigVÜ
\ZcY' ZgaZ^YZcY' ZgYjaYZcY oj hZ^c' VWZg VjX] d[[Zc' ojaVhhZcY' aVhhZcY' ]^c\Z\ZWZc)
O^Z l^g _ZYdX] l^hhZc' ^hi YZg OZ\ YZh DZ^Yh jcY hZ^cZg LgVch[dgbVi^dc c^X]i YZg
Z^co^\Z he^g^ijZaaZ OZ\) =h \^Wi VjX] YZc OZ\ YZg =`hiVhZ' YZg K^ccZ' YZc iVcig^hX]Zc
OZ\ jcY YZc OZ\ YZh ?Z^hiZh' YZg CdcoZcigVi^dc jcY 9X]ihVb`Z^i jcY h^X]Zg VjX]
VcYZgZ) <^Zh hdaa jch YVgVc Zg^ccZgc' c^X]i cjg b^i jchZgZc eZghwca^X]Zc AciZgZhhZc'
hdcYZgc VjX] b^i jchZgZb Z^\ZcZc he^g^ijZaaZc OZ\ c^X]i xWZg^YZci^[^o^Zgi oj hZ^c'
hdcYZgcYZb9WhdajiZcojkZgigVjZc)
DZioiZcYa^X] ^hi _ZYZ igVcheZghdcVaZ 9gWZ^i \ZigV\Zc kdc YZg ?Vco]Z^i YZh KZ^ch'
kdc YZg VWhdajiZc FVijg YZh KZ^ch' kdc YZg =m^hiZco ?diiZh' Y^Z h^X] WZgZ^ih ^c jch
kZgl^g`a^X]i) =h hX]Z^ci hd' YVz YVh KZ^c h^X] hZ^cZg hZaWhi ^c jch WZljzi lZgYZc l^aa'
YVz ?dii ^c jch ZghigV]aZc bwX]iZ' YVz Zh c^X]i cjg jchZgZ eZghwca^X]Z KjX]Z \^Wi'
hdcYZgc VjX] Y^Z KjX]Z YZh 9WhdajiZc cVX] jch) <Vh LgVcheZghdcVaZ ZghX]Z^ci YVcc
Vah Rl^hX]ZcgVjb' ^c YZb Y^ZhZ WZ^YZc Cgu[iZ hexgWVg lZgYZc' YZg Rl^hX]ZcgVjb
ol^hX]Zc YZb AX](:ZljzihZ^c jcY YZb =gaZjX]ijc\hWZljzihZ^c) =g igu\i hdb^i
Rx\Z kdc WZ^YZc) =g gZeguhZci^Zgi Y^Z NZg[Z^cZgjc\ YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i' Y^Z @Z^ajc\
^]gZg Kigj`ijgZc' Y^Z @Z^ajc\ ^]gZh 9aaiV\h) J^X]VgY Edhh #,433$ heg^X]i kdc YZg
NZg[Z^cZgjc\ jcY =glZ^iZgjc\ YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i ^c ^]gZg DZWZcY^\`Z^i jcY higV]aZcÜ
YZc CgV[i) =g WZhX]gZ^Wi Y^Zh Vah O^YZghX]Z^c YZg ?Vco]Z^i YZh DZWZch' kdc YZg h^X]
jchZg AX](:ZljzihZ^c igZcci' YZg l^g jch _ZYdX] YjgX] Z^c =^chlZgYZc b^i YZb =gaZÜ
WZc YZh 9j\ZcWa^X`Zh' YjgX] Z^cZ ]d]Z HguhZco' cu]Zgc `wccZc) ÖMb Y^Z ?Vco]Z^i
oj ZggZ^X]Zc' bxhhZc l^g b^i YZg ?Vco]Z^i WZ\^ccZcÅ #K) 4.$) <Vcc Zg[V]gZc l^g YVh
DZWZc Vah D^ZWZh\ZhX]^X]iZ YZh KZ^ch #K) 4-$) ?Za^ZWi oj lZgYZc jcY oj a^ZWZc ^hi
Z^ch' 9jhhigV]ajc\ YZh 9WhdajiZc ^c jchZgZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i) Kd WZh^ioi YVh LgVcheZgÜ
hdcVaZ Vah Rl^hX]ZcgVjb ol^hX]Zc AX](:ZljzihZ^c jcY =gaZjX]ijc\hWZljzihZ^c
hZ^c Z^\ZcZh 9ca^Z\Zc jcY hZ^cZ Z^\ZcZ :Zhi^bbjc\) <^ZhZ ^ccZgZ :Zhi^bbjc\
Zg[V]gZc l^g Vah YZc K^cc jchZgZh <VhZ^ch) OZaX]Zb 9j[igV\ ^hi jchZg DZWZc \ZlZ^]i
dYZg \Zl^YbZi8 =h ^hi ^bbZg ZilVh' YVh mlch xWZghX]gZ^iZi' Z^cZ :dihX]V[i' Z^cZ
N^h^dc' Z^cZ ?ZbZ^chX]V[i dYZg Z^c VcYZgZg EZchX]' YZb ^X] b^X] ]^c\ZWZ) <Zg K^cc
32
LgVcheZghdcVaZhiVi^dcugZHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
YZh <VhZ^ch ^hi cjg ^c YZg sWZghX]gZ^ijc\ YZh AX]h' YZh AX](:ZljzihZ^ch oj [^cYZc)
Fjg Vjh YZb 7rcnseZghdcVaZc ^hi K^cc oj \Zl^ccZc) MchZgZ 9j[\VWZ oj [^cYZc'
WZYZjiZi' jch Vj[oj\ZWZc) MchZgZ :Z(hi^bbjc\ Zg[V]gZc l^g YjgX] jchZgZ ^ccZgZ
Ki^bbZ' ^c YZg 0mstlmmung jcY :Zod\Zc]Z^i Vj[ Y^Z ?Vco]Z^i YZh KZ^ch' Y^Z ^bbZg
VclZhZcY^hi)
Kd bwX]iZ ^X] b^i Z^cZg `aZ^cZc :Zh^ccjc\' Z^cZg :Z(h^ccjc\ oj Y^ZhZg >gV\Z
hX]a^ZzZc) McY jb Y^Z :Z\Z\cjc\ Y^ZhZg WZ^YZc 9heZ`iZ ^b Rl^hX]ZcgVjb YZh
LgVcheZghdcVaZc h^X]iWVg lZgYZc oj aVhhZc' bwX]iZ ^X] A]cZc Y^ZhZ >gV\Z ^c olZ^
>dgbZchiZaaZc5
FZ]bZc K^Z h^X] Z^c^\Z EdbZciZ RZ^i [xg Y^Z >gV\Z5 lZaX]Z :ZYZjijc\ bwX]iZ ^X]
bZ^cZbDZWZc\ZWZc8OZaX]ZbAc]VaibwX]iZ^X]Zhl^YbZc8
McY cjc lZcYZc K^Z h^X] YZg >gV\Z oj5 lZaX]Zh 9ca^Z\Zc ]Vi Y^Z =m^hiZco' ]Vi ?dii
b^ibZ^cZbDZWZc8OVhbwX]iZYVhKZ^cYjgX]b^X]^cY^ZOZaiWg^c\Zc8
L]ZigVcheZghdcVaeZgheZXi^kZ^cVehnX]di]ZgVeZji^X]dhe^iVa
5ummcry
@jbVc XdchX^djhcZhh ^h XdcXZeijVa^oZY Vh Vc ^ccZg [^ZaY d[ ZcZg\n Vh V bZiVe]dg [dg djg ZmeZg^ZcX^c\)
LdYVn i]Z [^ZaY d[ XdchX^djhcZhh ^h bV^can higjXijgZY ^c Vc Z\d^X bViiZg Wji ^i XVc Vahd dg\Vc^oZ ^ihZa[ ^c V
igVcheZghdcVa bViiZg Vh heVXZ d[ ZcZg\n) 9 ]dhe^iVa ^h XdcXZeijVa^o^Y Vh V XdaaZXi^kZ [^ZaY d[ ZcZg\n ^c
l]^X] i]Z l]daZ hiV[[ VcY Vaa eVi^Zcih eVgi^X^eViZ) L]Z ejgedhZ d[ i]Z [^ZaY ^h id [VX^a^iViZ i]Z egdXZhhZh d[
]ZVa^c\) L]^h XVc WZ Y^gZXian [dXjhhZY ^c i]Z ldg` l^i] i]Z Vibdhe]ZgZ ^c W^\ ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^X \gdjeh)
9h i]Z i]ZgVe^hih d[iZc ]VkZ id hiVn ^c i]Z igVcheZghdcVa heVXZ d[ XdchX^djhcZhh' heZX^Va XVgZ ^h cZZYZY [dg
i]Z iZVb ldg`' adg hjeZgk^h^dc VcY ^cY^k^YjVa XdVX]^c\) @ZVa^c\ XVc ]VeeZc l]Zc i]Z igVcheZghdcVa XdchÜ
X^djhcZhh ^cY^k^YjVaan dg ^c i]Z XdaaZXi^kZ [^ZaY d[ ZcZg\n ^h VWaZ id XdciV^c VcY WZVg i]Z eZghdcVa VcY
VgX]Zine^XVa hj[[Zg^c\) L]^h idjX] d[ i]Z VWhdajiZ VcY i]Z eZghdcVa ^c i]Z ^ciZgbZY^ViZ heVXZ d[ i]Z igVchÜ
eZghdcVaaZVYhidi]ZZmeZg^ZcXZd[^ccZgYZhi^cVi^dcVcYhZchZ)
CZn ldgYh5 igVcheZghdcVa ehnX]dad\n' Vibdhe]ZgZ' XdchX^djhcZhh' ZcZg\n [^ZaY' hZchZ' Xa^c^XVa ehnÜ
X]di]ZgVen)
D^iZgVijg
ketzler, 1. #,440$5 Rl^hX]Zc <g^ccZc jcY <gVjzZc' Ab JVjb YZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z' A ciZ\gVi^kZ L]ZgVe^Z -'
,440',2.(,41)
8uber,M.#,4-.$5AX]jcY<j'KX]cZ^YZg'@Z^YZaWZg\',43.)
Gcluskc,1.#,440$5AX]'KZaWhijcYKZ^c'LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^ZjcYHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z,',440'.3(0,)
Gcluskc, 1. unJ Gcluskc, D. #,440$5 CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z ^b KeZ`igjb YZh :ZljzihZ^ch' ^c5 RjcYZa' =)' Ddd(
bVch'H)#,440$5Ab=cZg\^X`gZ^hYZhDZWZcY^\Zc'@ZgYZg'>gZ^Wjg\)
llchtenberg, 1. D. #,44+$5 =^c^\Z HVgVaaZaZc ol^hX]Zc YZc =g\ZWc^hhZc YZg Kuj\a^c\hWZdWVX]ijc\ jcY
`a^c^hX]Zc :ZdWVX]ijc\Zc Vc =glVX]hZcZc' WZhdcYZgh :dgYZga^cZ(HVi^ZciZc jcY HVi^ZciZc b^i cVgÜ
o^zi^hX]ZgHZghwca^X]`Z^ihhiwgjc\'HhnX]Z//'32,(4+,)
Moss,k.#,433$5CgVc`]Z^i(LdgojgOVcYajc\'9chViV'AciZgaV`Zc)
Plesse, M., 5t. Clclr, G. #,440$5 Gg\dYncVb^` ( Lxg ojb KZ^c' ^c5 RjcYZa' =)' DddbVch' H) #,440$5 Ab
=cZg\^Z`gZ^hYZhDZWZcY^\Zc'@ZgYZg'>gZ^Wjg\)
PoJvoll,l.M.#,44/$5NZgadX`jc\YZhOV]ch^cch'@j\ZcYjWZa'ExcX]Zc)
kleJel,l.#,44/$5A`dcZcYZg=gYZ'OVaiZg'GaiZc)
wllber,l.#,440$5?diihX]au[i^bKiZ^c'LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^ZjcYHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z-',440'02(21)
<g)bZY)BdVX]^b?Vajh`V
>VX]`a^c^`@Z^a^\Zc[ZaY
=jZgYdg[ZgKigVzZ/(1
42133:VYC^hh^c\Zc
33
?FQCOQHFNF0JNIFJS
8ernJGunJermcnn,8cJllsslngen
Melnewelt
lstnlchtJelnewelt
unJlstJochllnewelt.
Meln8ewußtseln
lstnlchtJeln8ewußtseln
unJlstJochlln8ewußtseln.
Melne5trebscmkelt
lstnlchtJelne5trebscmkelt
unJlstJochllne5trebscmkelt.
DuunJlchunJcllewelt
sµlegelnslchlnllnemkcum,
eswolbtllnelnz´gesllmmelszelt
slchuberjeJenlrJenbcum.
0nJ welt, 8ewußtseln, 5trebscmkell,
löJen nur slnJ´s von llnem llelJ,
Jes 7röger uns schelnt unbekcnnt:
lelmctlosenlmelgnenlcnJ.
34
LgVcheZghdcVaZ
HhnX]dad\^Z jcY
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
,%,441".0(0+
/BR2FIFJMNJREFQAFJS
kuJolflömmerll,7hun OZb Y^ZRZ^i^hil^Z=l^\`Z^i
jcYY^Z=l^\`Z^il^ZY^ZRZ^i'
YZg^hiWZ[gZ^i
kdcVaaZbKigZ^i)
BV`dW:w]bZ
ATRBMMFNGBRRTNH+ <^Z RZ^i ^hi cVX] ?ZWhZg YVh KX]axhhZai]ZbV jchZgZg =edX]Z
jcY sWZg\Vc\hoZ^i) Kd l^Z YVh bZciVaZ :ZljzihZ^c YZc YgZ^Y^bZch^dcVaZc JVjb
ZciYZX`i ]Vi' jcY ^c YZg LgZccjc\ kdc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i Y^Z fjVci^[^o^ZgZcYZ O^hÜ
hZchX]V[i \ZhX]V[[Zc ]Vi' hd ZciYZX`i YVh cZjZ' ^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c _Zioi Y^Z IjVa^Ü
iui YZg RZ^i) <^ZhZg 9j[hVio hdaa ?ZWhZgh :Z^igV\ ojg :ZljzihZ^ch\ZhX]^X]iZ b^i YZg
HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ 9hhV\^da^h ^c NZgW^cYjc\ Wg^c\Zc) ?ZWhZg jcY 9hhV\^da^ ^hi YZg
igVcheZghdcVaZ ?Zh^X]ihejc`i \ZbZ^chVb) :Z^YZ \Z]Zc YVkdc Vjh' YVz Y^Z :ZljziÜ
hZ^c\ZhX]^X]iZ YZg EZchX]]Z^i jcY Y^Z :ZljzihZ^chZcil^X`ajc\ YZh AcY^k^Yjjbh
HVgVaaZaZc Vj[lZ^hZc jcY YVz Y^Z EZchX]]Z^i ]ZjiZ cZjZ <^bZch^dcZc YZh :ZljziÜ
hZ^ch ZciYZX`i' Y^Z xWZg YVh gVi^dcVaZ <Zc`Zc ]^cVjh[x]gZc) :Z^YZ hZ]Zc YZc ZciÜ
hX]Z^YZcYZc =^c[ajz jchZgZh RZ^iWZljzihZ^ch Vj[ jchZgZ DZWZchZ^chiZaajc\ jcY
jchZg @VcYZac' jcY WZ^YZ \ZWZc l^X]i^\Z @^clZ^hZ [xg Z^cZ FZjdg^Zci^Zgjc\ YjgX]
Z^cZ AciZch^k^Zgjc\ jchZgZh RZ^iWZljzihZ^c) <Zg 9j[hVio kZghjX]i' Vc]VcY egV`i^Ü
hX]Zg :Zox\Z #Rj[Vaa' JZaVi^k^iui' =g^ccZgjc\' RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i jcY 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i$
Y^ZhZ @^clZ^hZ ^c ^]gZg 9jhl^g`jc\ Vj[ YZc 9aaiV\ jcY Y^Z i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z 9gWZ^i oj
`dc`gZi^h^ZgZc)
<DIL]RRFLVOQSF+ :ZljzihZ^ch[dghX]jc\' HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ' LgVcheZghdcVaZ HhnÜ
X]dad\^Z'RZ^iZgaZWZc)
N^Za ]uc\i VW kdc jchZgZb NZg]uaic^h ojg RZ^i' kdc YZg OVX]]Z^i jchZgZh RZ^iWZÜ
ljzihZ^ch) <Zg `dhiWVgZ Kid[[ RZ^i l^gY aZ^X]i ^c hZ^cZg WZhdcYZgZc jcY \Z]Z^bc^hÜ
kdaaZc IjVa^iui xWZghZ]Zc' ojb Z^cZc \ZgVYZ lZ^a Y^ZhZg ÖKid[[Å jch^X]iWVg ^hi l^Z
Y^Z Dj[i) =^c VcYZgZg ?gjcY YV[xg' YVz l^g Y^Z RZ^i c^X]i Zg`ZccZc' a^Z\i YVg^c' YVz
l^g h^Z kZg`ZccZc) O^g [VhhZc h^Z cdX] fjVci^iVi^k Vj[ Vah RZ^igVjb' YZc l^g cVX]
:Za^ZWZc Vjh[xaaZc `wccZc) <^Z KijcYZc YZh LV\Zh jcY Y^Z LV\Z YZg OdX]Z lZgYZc
ojb DZZggVjb' YZc l^g b^i jchZgZc <^c\Zc kdaahide[Zc dYZg ( lZcc l^g Z^c lZc^\
DZWZch`jchi egV`i^o^ZgZc ( YZc l^g cVX] jchZgZc :ZYxg[c^hhZc hX]wc bwWa^ZgZc'
YVb^i Xh jch Vc\ZcZ]b jcY WZfjZb ^hi) <^Z RZ^i ^hi VWZg Z^cZ CgV[i' h^Z ]Vi b^i YZg
IjVa^iui jcY YZg AciZch^iui jchZgZh DZWZch lZhZcia^X] oj ijc) MchZgZ 9j[bZg`hVbÜ
`Z^i YZg RZ^i \Z\ZcxWZg ]Vi \gjcYaZ\ZcY egV`i^hX]Z CdchZfjZcoZc [xg jchZg iu\a^Ü
X]Zh DZWZc jcY VjX] [xg jchZgZ i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z 9gWZ^i) <Vh hdaa ^b [da\ZcYZc Vc]VcY
Z^c^\Zg:Z^he^ZaZ\ZoZ^\ilZgYZc)
9jh\Vc\hejc`i bZ^cZg ?ZYVc`Zc ^hi Z^cZghZ^ih BZVc ?ZWhZgh CdcoZei YZg :ZÜ
ljzihZ^ch\ZhX]^X]iZ' VcYZgZghZ^ih 9hhV\^da^h i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zh CdcoZei YZg HhnX]d(
35
JjYda[@ubbZga^
hnci]ZhZ) >xg ?ZWhZg l^Z [xg 9hhV\^da^ ]Vi YVh RZ^ii]ZbV oZcigVaZ :ZYZjijc\' [xg
?ZWhZg Zmea^o^i' [xg 9hhV\^da^ Z]Zg ^bea^o^i) ?ZWhZg ^hi YZg 9j[[Vhhjc\' YVz YVh
:ZljzilZgYZc YZg RZ^i ^c jchZgZg =edX]Z Z^c lZhZcia^X]Zg KX]axhhZa ^hi) jb Vjh YZg
WZgZ^ih Vjh\ZaZWiZc' Z^chZ^i^\ \ZldgYZcZc bZciVa(gVi^dcVaZc :ZljzihZ^chlZai ^c
Z^cZ cZjZ :ZljzihZ^chhigj`ijg Vj[ojWgZX]Zc' Y^Z Zg YVh ^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c cZcci)
<Vh cZjZ ^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c ]Vi cVX] ?ZWhZg YgZ^ @VjeibZg`bVaZ5 ,) YVh :ZljziÜ
lZgYZc YZg RZ^i ( -) Y^Z sWZgl^cYjc\ YZh <jVa^hbjh ( .) Y^Z LgVcheVgZco' YVh
<jgX]h^X]i^\lZgYZc YZh ?VcoZc) OZg Y^Z RZ^i Vah AciZch^iui Z^cWZo^Z]i' aZWi ^c Z^cZg
h^X] WZlZ\ZcYZc jcY h^X] YVjZgcY kZgucYZgcYZc OZai) <VYjgX] lZgYZc VaaZ hiVggZc
<jVa^hbZc Vj[\Zawhi) OZg YZc <jVa^hbjh xWZgl^cYZc `Vcc' YZb l^gY Y^Z =g[V]gjc\
YZg ?Vco]Z^i YjgX]h^X]i^\' igVcheVgZci) <^Z YgZ^ EZg`bVaZ YZh cZjZc :ZljzihZ^ch
ZcihiZ]Zc Vahd VjhZ^cVcYZg6 YZg 9jh\Vc\h( jcY 9chVioejc`i ^hi VWZg Y^Z RZ^i) =h
^hi' l^Z YZjia^X] \ZldgYZc ^hi' YVh :ZljzilZgYZc YZg RZ^i' YZb Y^Z KX]axhhZa[jc`(
i^dc oj`dbbi) Kd l^Z YVh bZciVaZ :ZljzihZ^c YZc ujzZgZc' YgZ^Y^bZch^dcVaZc
JVjb ZciYZX`i ]Vi jcY ^c YZg LgZccjc\ jcY ?Z\ZcxWZghiZaajc\ kdc KjW_Z`i jcY
GW_Z`i' kdc :ZigVX]iZg jcY :ZigVX]iZiZb Y^Z fjVci^[^o^ZgZcYZ' Y) ]) gujba^X]ZcYZ
O^hhZchX]V[i \ZhX]V[[Zc ]Vi' hd ZciYZX`i YVh ^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c _Zioi Y^Z RZ^i Vah
IjVa^iui)
>xg 9hhV\^da^' YZc :Z\gxcYZg YZg HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ' ^hi Y^Z RZ^i ZWZc[Vaah kdc ZciÜ
hX]Z^YZcYZg :ZYZjijc\) 9hhV\^da^ kZghiZ]i ^b MciZghX]^ZY oj oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Zc' eVgÜ
VaaZaZc ehnX]dVcVani^hX]Zc EdYZaaZc YZc EZchX]Zc c^X]i eg^bug kdc hZ^cZg NZg\VcÜ
\Zc]Z^i ]Zg' hdcYZgc Zg kZghiZ]i YZc EZchX]Zc Vjh hZ^cZg Rj`jc[i ]ZgVjh) 9hhV\^da^
h^Z]i YZc EZchX]Zc ^b KeVccjc\hkZg]uaic^h ol^hX]Zc YZg \Z\Zclugi^\Zc DZWZchÜ
h^ijVi^dc jcY hZ^cZg Rj`jc[i' Y^Z ^b sWZgWZljziZc jcY aZioia^X] ^b @w]ZgZc KZaWhi
Vc\ZaZ\i ^hi) <VYjgX] ^hi VjX] Y^Z Rj`jc[i ^bbZg \Z\Zclugi^\) <^Z 9gWZ^i b^i KnbÜ
WdaZc' AYZVaW^aYZgc jcY YVh OZX`Zc' sWZc jcY 9jhg^X]iZc YZh O^aaZch ^hi [xg Y^Z
HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ YZh]VaW hd lZhZcia^X]' lZ^a YVh KeVccjc\h[ZaY ol^hX]Zc ?Z\ZcÜ
lVgi jcY Rj`jc[i YVYjgX] WZljzi l^gY jcY l^g YVYjgX] Vc jchZgZ ]Z^aZcYZc jcY
hX]we[Zg^hX]Zc Cgu[iZ Vc\ZhX]adhhZc lZgYZc) <^ZhZ sWjc\Zc Wg^c\Zc jch WZljzi
b^i jchZgZg Rj`jc[i ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ jcY ]ZWZc Y^Z LgZccjc\ ol^hX]Zc ?Z\ZclVgi jcY
Rj`jc[i Vj[' Y^Z \Zlw]ca^X] WZhiZ]i' lZcc jchZg :ZljzihZ^c ^c @d[[cjc\ jcY
>jgX]i Vj[ Y^Z Rj`jc[i hiVggi) Ac b^g ^hi Z^cZ kZgWdg\ZcZ CgV[i' Y^Z' lZcc ^X] b^i ^]g ^c
:Zgx]gjc\ `dbbZ' Zg[V]gZc l^gY Vah hiucY^\ h^X] ZgcZjZgcYZ ?Z\ZclVgi) AbbZg'
Zg[V]gZ ^X] ^c Z^cZb hdaX]Zc 9j\ZcWa^X`' ^hi VaaZh l^ZYZg d[[Zc' d[[Zc [xg YVh =^cÜ
higwbZc bZ^cZg Rj`jc[i) HVgVYdm jcY ZilVh xWZghe^ioi [dgbja^Zgi `wcciZ bVc hV\Zc'
YVz ^X] Rj`jc[i \ZgVYZ YVYjgX] \Zl^ccZ' YVz' lZcc ^X] b^X] cVX] ^ccZc l ZcYZ' ^X]
b^X] Vc bZ^cZ ?Z\ZclVgi Zg^ccZgZ) <^ZhZb HgdoZz Y^Zci cVX] bZ^cZb NZghiucYc^h
^b lZhZcia^X]Zc Y^Z HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ) 9hhV\^da^ `cxe[i YVWZ^ Vc EVhadl Vc jcY cZcci
Y^ZhZc HgdoZz5 KZaWhiV`ijVa^h^Zgjc\) O^g h^cY cdX] c^X]i Y^Z' Y^Z l^g l^g`a^X] h^cY)
<Vh^hiYZg9jh\Vc\hejc`i)
9j[ Y^ZhZb @^ciZg\gjcY YZjiZi jcY kZghiZ]i 9hhV\^da^ VjX] DZWZch`g^hZc Y^[[ZÜ
gZco^Zgi) =h \^Wi Cg^hZc' ^c YZcZc jch Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i Z^c]dai) =h \^Wi VWZg VjX]
Cg^hZc' ^c YZcZc Y^Z Rj`jc[i ^ch DZWZc Z^cWg^X]i) <^ZhZg =^cWgjX] YZg RZ^i `Vcc YVcc
oZ^ilZ^a^\ ZWZc[Vaah jchZg DZWZc ^c McdgYcjc\ Wg^c\Zc' lZ^a Y^Z VaiZ GgYcjc\ h^X]
Vj[awhi jcY Y^Z cZjZ GgYcjc\ cdX] c^X]i ZcihiVcYZc ^hi) OVh 9hhV\^da^ Vah gZ\gZhh^kZ
jcY egd\gZhh^kZ Cg^hZ ^b DZWZc YZh =^coZacZc jciZghX]Z^YZi' jciZghX]Z^YZi ?ZWhZg
\Vco eVgVaaZa oj 9hhV\^da^ ^c YZg :ZljzihZ^ch\ZhX]^X]iZ YZg EZchX]]Z^i' lZcc Zg
jchZgZ sWZg\Vc\hZedX]Z WZhX]gZ^Wi5 9jX] ^c jchZgZb `daaZ`i^kZc DZWZc \^Wi Zh
]ZjiZ YZjia^X] gZ\gZhh^kZ jcY egd\gZhh^kZ Cg^hZc oj Zg`ZccZc) O^X]i^\ ^hi [xg ?ZWhZg
36
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^a
^c Y^ZhZb RjhVbbZc]Vc\ Y^Z `aVgZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ ol^hX]Zc gZ\gZhh^kZc LZcYZcÜ
oZc' Y^Z jch ^c VaaZ :ZljzihZ^ch[dgbZc ojgxX`[x]gZc ldaaZc jb YZc HgZ^h YZg :ZÜ
ljzihZ^chigxWjc\' jcY egd\gZhh^kZ LZcYZcoZc' Y^Z jch xWZg Y^Z \Z\Zclugi^\Z Kigj`Ü
ijg YZh :ZljzihZ^ch ]^cVjh[x]gZc `wccZc) Kd jciZghX]Z^YZi ?ZWhZg hZ]g \ZcVj ol^Ü
hX]Zc ^ggVi^dcVaZc jcY VgVi^dcVaZc 9jhYgjX`h[dgbZc YZh :ZljzihZ^ch jcY hV\i' YVz
cjg YVh 9gVi^dcVaZ' lZaX]Zh Y^Z JVi^d ^ciZ\g^Zgi jcY c^X]i kZgl^g[i' xWZg YVh Z^chZ^i^\
JVi^dcVaZ ]^cVjh[x]gZc `Vcc' lu]gZcY YVh RjgxX`h^c`Zc ^c AggVi^dcVa^hbZc Z^c NZgÜ
gVi ^hi Vc YZg :ZljzihZ^ch`gV[i' Y^Z l^g WZgZ^ih ZgldgWZc ]VWZc) OZcc l^g Vahd ^c
jchZgZg MbWgjX]hoZ^i Y^Z egd\gZhh^kZ Cg^hZ Zg`ZccZc `wccZc' hiug`Zc l^g Y^Z CZ^bZ
YZg Rj`jc[i) F^X]i cjg ^c jchZg ^cY^k^YjZaaZh' hdcYZgc VjX] ^c jchZg `daaZ`i^kZh
DZWZc `Vcc Y^Z Rj`jc[i' Y^Z RZ^i Z^cWgZX]Zc) O^g ZgaZWZc ]ZjiZ Z^cZ egd\gZhh^kZ
Cg^hZ \gdzZc 9jhbVzZh) <^Z VaiZ GgYcjc\ oZgWg^X]i' Y^Z cZjZ Kigj`ijg jchZgZh
:ZljzihZ^ch'YVhxWZg[dgYZgi^hikdcYZc9c[dgYZgjc\ZcYZgVchiZ]ZcYZcRj`jc[i)
Ö<Zg =^cWgjX] YZg RZ^i ^c jchZg :ZljzihZ^c5 Y^ZhZh =gZ^\c^h ^hi YVh \gdzZ jcY
Z^co^\Vgi^\Z L]ZbV jchZgZg OZaihijcYZ) =h ^hi Z^c cZjZh L]ZbV jcY YVb^i Z^cZ cZjZ
9j[\VWZ) KZ^cZ JZVa^h^Zgjc\ YjgX] jch Wg^c\i Z^cZ \ucoa^X] cZjZ OZail^g`a^X]`Z^i
b^i h^X]5 Z^cZ cZjZ AciZch^iui jcY Z^c WZ[gZ^iZh ?ZlV]glZgYZc' jcY YVb^i Y^Z sWZgÜ
l^cYjc\ YZg O^ggc^hhZ' lZaX]Z kdgYZg\gxcY^\ jchZgZg OZai YVh ?Zegu\Z oj \ZWZc
hX]Z^cZc) Od l^g Y^ZhZb L]ZbV ^c YZc 9jzZgjc\h[dgbZc jchZgZh DZWZch WZ\Z\cZc'
Ydgi WZ[^cYZc l^g jch [VXZ Zc [VXZ b^i YZc ZghiZc EVc^[ZhiVi^dcZc YZg VeZgheZ`i^k^(
hX]ZcOZai)))Å#BZVc?ZWhZg',40.$)
<Zg =^cWgjX] YZg RZ^i ^c jchZg :ZljzihZ^c ^hi cVX] BZVc ?ZWhZg YVh ZcihX]Z^YZcYZ
=gZ^\c^h jchZgZg =edX]Z' jcY Zh WZl^g`i' YVz Y^Z _V]g]jcYZgiZVaiZ Ndg]ZgghX]V[i YZh
NZghiVcYZh \ZWgdX]Zc l^gY) <Zg AciZaaZ`i gZ^X]i c^X]i bZ]g Vjh' lZcc RZ^i WZljzi
l^gY) 9aaZ KnhiZbZ' VaaZ [^mZc CddgY^cViZchnhiZbZ Z^cZg hiVW^aZc OZaidgYcjc\ `dbÜ
bZc^chOVc`Zc'lZccYVhYncVb^hX]Z=aZbZciYZgRZ^iZ^cWZod\Zcl^gY)
?ZWhZg WZhX]gZ^Wi ^b olZ^iZc :VcY kdc ÖMghegjc\ jcY ?Z\ZclVgiÅ' l^Z Y^Z RZ^i
c^X]i cjg Vah IjVci^iui' hdcYZgc Vah IjVa^iui ^c YZc kZghX]^ZYZchiZc qjzZgjc\h[dgÜ
bZc YZh -+) BV]g]jcYZgih ojb oZcigVaZc 9ca^Z\Zc' ojb cZj ZciYZX`iZc O^g`a^X]Ü
`Z^ihWZgZ^X] l^gY5 Y^Z =ciYZX`jc\ YZh hd\ZcVcciZc McWZljziZc YjgX] Y^Z L^ZÜ
[ZcehnX]dad\^Z' Y^Z Vc[Vc\h jchZgZh BV]g]jcYZgih ZcihiVcYZc ^hi' ^hi oj\aZ^X] Y^Z
=ciYZX`jc\ YZg aViZciZc RZ^i ^c jch) <^Z HhnX]Z ^hi c^X]ih Jujba^X]Zh' hdcYZgc
ZilVh RZ^i]V[iZh' `Z^cZ KVX]Z' hdcYZgc Z^cZ CgV[i) Rj\aZ^X] b^i YZg bdYZgcZc HhnÜ
X]dad\^Z ZcihiZ]i Y^Z bdYZgcZ H]nh^`' lZaX]Z Y^Z RZ^i Vah k^ZgiZ <^bZch^dc Z^cWZÜ
o^Z]i jcY Zg`Zcci' YVz Y^Z EVhhZ Z^cZ VcYZgZ >dgb YZg =cZg\^Z YVghiXaai' Y^Z EViZg^Z'
YVh Jujba^X]Z Vahd c^X]ih VcYZgZh ^hi Vah hX]Z^cWVg ZghiVggiZ' \Z[gdgZcZ RZ^i) HVgVaaZa
oj Y^ZhZc =ciYZX`jc\Zc ^c HhnX]dad\^X jcY H]nh^` xWZgl^cYZi Y^Z EVaZgZ^ Y^Z HZgÜ
heZ`i^kZ' Y^Z hZ^i YZg JZcV^hhVcXZ ^]gZ ?xai^\`Z^i ]ViiZ) H^XVhhd o) :) hiZaai EZchX]Zc
hd YVg' YVz Vj[ YZbhZaWZc :^aY Y^Z ÖZc([VXZÅ ( jcY Hgd[^aVch^X]i kZgZ^c^\i h^cY) OVh
cjg ^c Z^cZb @Zgjb\Z]Zc jb YVh GW_Z`i' Vahd ^c YZg :ZlZ\jc\ \ZhZ]Zc lZgYZc
`Vcc' h^Z]i bVc cjc oj\aZ^X]) <^ZhZ <VghiZaajc\hlZ^hZ ]Vi BZVc ?ZWhZg YVoj \Z[x]gi'
kdc Z^cZb VeZgheZ`i^k^hX]Zc' Y) ]) c^X]i bZ]g eZgheZ`i^k^hX] [^m^ZgiZc :ZljzihZ^c
oj hegZX]Zc' YVh Y^Z RZ^i' Y^Z :ZlZ\jc\ WZljzi Z^cWZo^Z]i) HZgheZ`i^k^hX] l^gY Y^Z
OZai Vjh cjg Z^cZb :a^X`l^c`Za \ZhZ]Zc5 YZg KiVcYejc`i YZh :ZigVX]iZgh ^hi Z^cYZjÜ
i^\ [Zhi\ZaZ\i) 9eZgheZ`i^k^hX] h^cY lZYZg YZg :ZigVX]iZg cdX] YVh :ZigVX]iZiZ
[^m^Zgi' WZ^YZ HdaZ h^cY ^c :ZlZ\jc\' WZhhZg' WZ^YZ HdaZ \Z]wgZc oj Z^c jcY YZghZaWZc
:ZlZ\jc\'ojg:ZlZ\jc\YZg\Vco]Z^ia^X]Zc'jb[VhhZcYZc=g[V]gjc\YZgOZai)
Rjg NZgYZjia^X]jc\ Y^ZhZh ?ZYVc`Zch l^aa ^X] Z^c :Z^he^Za Vjh ÖMghegjc\ jcY
?Z\ZclVgiÅ ]^Zg Vc[x\Zc5 Ö9ah ^X] ^b @ZgWhi ,4.3 H^XVhhd l^ZYZghV] ))) oZ^\iZ Zg
37
JjYda[@ubbZga^
b^g Y^Z cZjZc raW^aYZg' Y^Z Zg ^b KdbbZg _ZcZh BV]gZh \ZbVai ]ViiZ ))) MciZg YZc
cZjZc :^aYZgc [ZhhZaiZ b^X] WZhdcYZgh Z^c `aZ^cZh :^aY' YVh Y^Z <uX]ZgaVcYhX]V[i
Z^cZh <dg[Zh' VchX]Z^cZcY kdc Z^cZb >ZchiZg Vjh \ZhZ]Zc' YVghiZaaiZ5 Zh lVg [Vhi [auÜ
X]^\ \ZbVai jcY kdc `Z^cZb oZcigVaZc D^X]iejc`i WZaZjX]iZi5 YVh \VcoZ :^aY oZ^\iZ
c^X]ih Vah Z^cZ Kij[jc\ [Vhi eaViiZg <uX]Zg k^Za[uai^\hiZg >ugWjc\Zc' Y^Z ojZghi l^Z
Z^cZ WadzZ 9c]uj[jc\ kdc gZX]iZX`^\Zc >auX]Zc VcbjiZiZc) AX] \aVjWiZ ojcuX]hi'
Y^ZhZh :^aY WZhX]u[i^\Z b^X] kdg VaaZb lZ\Zc hZ^cZg >VgW[xaaZ) W^h b^g Vaabu]a^X]
`aVg ljgYZ' lVh YZg l^g`a^X]Z ?gjcY [xg bZ^c AciZgZhhZ lVg5 Y^Z gujba^X]Z Mc[^m^Zgi(
]Z^i YZg RZ^i' Y^Z LVihVX]Z' YVz c^X]i YZg 9j\ZcWa^X` Vj[ ^]b ojg <VghiZaajc\
\ZaVc\iZ' hdcYZgc Y^Z YVjZgcYZ' _V Zl^\Z ?Z\ZclVgi) <^Z KX]ViiZc' Y^Z Ydgi ^c YZc
>VgWiwcZc ojiV\Z igViZc' ]ViiZc ^]gZc ?gjcY c^X]i ^c Z^cZb KdccZchiucYZ' YZg Vj[
Z^cZc WZhi^bbiZc 9j\ZcWa^X` oZ^igujba^X] ZmV`i [^m^ZgWVg \ZlZhZc lugZ) ( hd l^Z
bVc ZilV kdc Z^cZg DVcYhX]V[i OViiZVjh dYZg Hdjhh^ch \ZcVj Vc\ZWZc `wcciZ' YVz
h^Z ^c _ZcZb HVg`' ^c _ZcZb BV]g' _ZcZb EdcVi' Vc _ZcZb LV\Z' oj _ZcZg KijcYZ
\ZbVai jcY' ^c[da\Z ^]gZg Z^cYZji^\Zc KX]ViiZc' ZmV`i Vj[ _ZcZ KZ`jcYZ ]^c [^m^Zgi
lVgZc5 Vj[ _ZcZc Z^cZc WZhi^bbiZc 9j\ZcWa^X` ^b JVjb) <^Z KX]ViiZc Vj[ YZb
<uX]ZgW^aY H^XVhhdh YV\Z\Zc he^Z\ZaiZc ^c ^]gZg NZghX]^ZWjc\ jcY DV\Zgjc\ YZc
cVijg]V[iZc RZ^iVWaVj[ l^YZg5 H^XVhhd ]ViiZ Y^ZhZ DVcYhX]V[i \ZbVai' ^cYZb Zg Zh
lV\iZ' VaaZ :ZaZjX]ijc\Zc' VaaZ YjgX] YZc h^X] ucYZgcYZc KdccZchiVcY Vjh\ZawhiZc
oZ^ia^X]Zc :ZlZ\jc\hbdbZciZ #Y^Z ^c YZg NZghX]^ZWjc\ YZg >VgWhX]ViiZc h^X]iWVg
lZgYZc$ b^iojbVaZc' hdaVc\Z Zg hZaWZg Vc YZb :^aYZ VgWZ^iZiZ5 Z^c =^c[Vc\Zc YZg Vj[
Y^Z FVijg WZod\ZcZc ?Z\ZclVgi' l^Z Zh' \ZgVYZ lZ\Zc hZ^cZg =^c[VX]]Z^i' `x]cZg
c^X]i YZc`WVg ^hi) F^X]i YZg gVjb[^m^ZgiZ' oZ^igujba^X]Z 9j\ZcWa^X` l^gY Vj[ Y^ZhZb
Z^co^\Vgi^\Zc DVcYhX]V[ihW^aY h^X]iWVg' hdcYZgc Y^Z ^c ^]gZg ?Vco]Z^i YjgX]h^X]i^\
lZgYZcYZ ?Z\ZclVgi6 Y^Z ?Z\ZclVgi' Y^Z ^b lZhZcia^X]Zc b^i YZb xWZgZ^chi^bbi'
lVh l^g =l^\`Z^i cZccZc)Å <Zg aZioiZ KVio oZ^\i' YVz ?ZWhZg b^i YZb =^cWgjX] YZg
RZ^a aZioia^X] YZc =^cWgjX] YZg =l^\`Z^i ^c jchZgZ RZ^ia^X]`Z^i bZ^ci' YVh :ZljziÜ
lZgYZc YZg RZ^i [x]gi ojg sWZgl^cYjc\ YZg RZ^i dYZg' l^Z ?ZWhZg Zh cZcci5 ojg RZ^iÜ
[gZ^]Z^i)
=^chiZ^c ]Vi b^i hZX]oZ]c BV]gZc h^X] Y^Z >gV\Z \ZhiZaai5 OVh eVhh^Zgi' lZcc ^X] Vj[
Z^cZb D^X]ihigV]a YjgX] YVh 9aa gZ^hZ8 KeuiZg ]Vi Zg b^i hZ^cZg JZaVi^k^iuihi]Zdg^Z YVgÜ
Vj[ Z^cZ 9cildgi \Z\ZWZc5 <^Z RZ^i \^Wi Zh ^c Y^ZhZb >Vaa c^X]i bZ]g' h^Z hiZ]i hi^aa'
lu]gZcY bZ^cZ ?ZhX]l^cY^\`Z^i b^i YZg D^X]i\ZhX]l^cY^\`Z^i Y^Z ?gZcoZ YZh Ew\Ü
a^X]Zc ZggZ^X]i ]Vi) <^ZhZ 9cildgi ^hi VjX] Vj[ hnbWda^hX]Zg =WZcZ h^cckdaa) <^Z
Y^c\a^X]Z OZai ^hi \Z[gdgZcZh D^X]i) D^X]i ^hi Y^Z ?gjcYl^g`a^X]`Z^i YZh KZ^ch jcY
Ydgi ^hi `Z^cZ RZ^i bZ]g) OZcc ^bbZg Cg^h]cVbjgi^ ^c hZ^cZb ?ZheguX] b^i YZb H]nÜ
h^`Zg :d]b Vj[ YVh L]ZbV RZ^i oj hegZX]Zc `dbbi' l^gY YZjia^X]' l^Z ^c hX]Z^cÜ
WVgZb O^YZghegjX] oj ?ZWhZg RZ^i [xg ^]c \ZgVYZ 9jhYgjX` YZh kwaa^\ MclZhZciÜ
a^X]Zc ^hi jcY ^c YZg sWZgl^cYjc\ YZg RZ^i YVh =cihX]Z^YZcYZ a^Z\i) <^Z :ZljzilZg(
Yjc\ YZg RZ^i' jcY YVh bjz ^bbZg `aVg WaZ^WZc' Y^Zci VjX] WZ^ ?ZWhZg YZg sWZgÜ
l^cYjc\ YZg RZ^i) <Vh RZ^ii]ZbV ^hi Vahd Z^c L]ZbV YZh sWZg\Vc\h' bZ]g c^X]i) =h
WZoZ^X]cZi YZc sWZg\Vc\ kdc YZg hiVi^hX]Zc OZai YZh <Zc`Zch jcY YZg Aaajh^dc YZg
<^c\]V[i^\`Z^i jchZgZg =g[V]gjc\ ojg YncVb^hX]Zc OZai YZh OV]gcZ]bZch kdc
EdbZci oj EdbZci) :ZljzilZgYZc YZg RZ^i ^hi :ZljzilZgYZc YZg hiucY^\Zc NZgÜ
ucYZgjc\ jcY OVcYZaWVg`Z^i kdc VaaZb' :ZljzilZgYZc YZg RZ^i WZYZjiZi oj aZgcZc'
NZg[Zhi^\jc\Zc' NZgY^c\a^X]jc\Zc' =ghiVggjc\Zc adhojaVhhZc' YZc ?g^[[ oj adX`Zgc'
VjX] YZg ?g^[[ jchZgZg :Z\g^[[Z' YV Zh c^X]ih oj \gZ^[Zc \^Wi) <^Z ^ciZ\gVaZ @Vaijc\ YZg
RZ^i \Z\ZcxWZg bVc^[Zhi^Zgi h^X] o) :) ^c [da\ZcYZc NZgucYZgjc\Zc YZg DZWZchZ^cÜ
hiZaajc\5
38
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i
( lmAnerkennenJesZufclls(5ynchronlzltöt}
<VYjgX] l^gY Y^Z K^ccaZZgZ' ^c Y^Z YVh oZghixX`ZacYZ' Vidb^h^ZgZcYZ >gV\Zc YZh
gVi^dcVaZc :ZljzihZ^ch olVc\hlZ^hZ ]^cZ^c[x]gi' xWZgljcYZc YjgX] Y^Z =ciÜ
YZX`jc\YZgK^cc[xaaZ^b?ZhX]Z]ZcjbjcY^cjch)
( lmAufgebenunbewegter,cbsoluter8ezugsµunkte(kelctlvltöt}
Ndb <Zc`Zc YZg :ZlZ\jc\' l^Z Zh H]^adhde]Zc YZg Vjh\Z]ZcYZc gVi^dcVaZc =edX]Z
kZghjX]i ]VWZc #o) :) Y^Z <^VaZ`i^` kdc @Z\Za$' `dbbZc l^g ]ZjiZ ojb h^X] WZlZÜ
\ZcYZc <Zc`Zc' YVh YZb HgdoZzX]VgV`iZg YZg OZai hd gxX`]Vaiadh l^Z bw\a^X] [da\i)
<^ZhZh <Zc`Zc ^hi c^X]i bZ]g eg^bug VcVani^hX]' hdcYZgc Z]Zg Z^c lVX]Zh NZglZ^aZc
WZ^ YZc <^c\Zc' YZc H]ucdbZcZc' Y^Z h^X] ^c ^]gZb HgdoZz hZaWZg Zci]xaaZc) ?ZWhZg
cZcciY^ZhZhlVX]ZNZglZ^aZc5ÖOV]gcZ]bZcÅ)
( lnJerNeubewertungJerlrlnnerungclslnstrumentJer8efrelung
=g^ccZgjc\^hic^X]ibZ]g\Z[x]ahbuz^\ZJxX`W^cYjc\VcVc\ZhVbbZaiZhO^hhZc
VjhYZgNZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i)=g^ccZgjc\l^gYcZjVah9gWZ^ikZghiVcYZc'Y^ZYZgRj`jc[i
Y^Zci'lZ^aZg`Vccil^gY'YVzVjX]Y^ZNZg\Vc\Zc]Z^ic^X]ih=cY\xai^\Zh'c^X]ih
9W\ZhX]adhhZcZh^hi)KZaWhiWZgZ^ih?ZhX]Z]ZcZh^hikZgucYZgWVg)
( lmllnubenJerlcltungJerZeltfrelhell
RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i ^hi Z^c :Z\g^[[ ?ZWhZgh' YZg Y^Z EZ^hiZgjc\ YZg RZ^i bZ^ci) <^Z EZ^hiZÜ
gjc\ YZg RZ^i WZhiZ]i VWZg c^X]i YVg^c' YVz YZg EZchX] bZciVa eaVcZcY h^X] Vah @Zgg
YZg RZ^i Vj[he^Zai) <^Z RZ^i ^hi ^c _ZYZb >Vaa buX]i^\Zg Vah YZg EZchX]) <^Z EZ^hiZÜ
gjc\ YZg RZ^i WZhiZ]i YVg^c' jb jb[VhhZcYZc K^cc\ZhX]Z]Zc' lZaX]Z _ZYZh DZWZc
igu\i' WZljzi jcY ZcihX]^ZYZc b^iojl^g`Zc) >gZ^]Z^i jcY EZ^hiZghX]V[i ZcihiZ]Zc
]^ZgeVgVYdmZglZ^hZVjh@^c\VWZ)
( lnJerlrcrbeltungJerlöhlgkelt,Zeltgeben,Zeltschenkenzukonnen
<Vh :ZljzihZ^c ZcihiZ]i' YVz RZ^i Z^c `dhiWVgZg Kid[[ ^hi' Z^cZ >dgb VjX] kdc eZghwcÜ
a^X]ZgCgV[i'Y^ZbVc\ZWZc'\ZhX]Zc`iWZ`dbbZc'VjhiVjhX]Zc`Vcc)
9j[ Y^ZhZ :Z^he^ZaZ Z^cZg cZjZc @Vaijc\ YZg RZ^i \Z\ZcxWZg lZgYZ ^X] cjc VjhÜ
[x]ga^X]Z^c\Z]Zc)
&$/FQATGBLL<XNDIQONJYJS[S
EZ^c?aVjWZ
AX]igVjZc^X]iYZgJdhZ
VjhHVe^Zg'
hdk^ZaZEVaZhX]j[
^X]h^Zb^ibZ^cZc@ucYZc)
McYigVjÉVjX]c^X]iYZg
VcYZgZc'YZgl^g`a^X]Zc'
YZbC^cYYZgKdccZjcYYZgBV]gZhoZ^i'
YZgVcYZcO^cYkZgadWiZc)
<^g'YZc^X]c^ZbVahhX]j['
Y^g'YZcbVcc^ZbVahhX]j['
Y^gigVjZ^X]'\ZgZ^[iZg
jcY\Zl^hhZgRj[Vaa)
HZYgdKVa^cVh#,34-(,40,$
39
JjYda[@ubbXga^
Ac Z^cZg JVY^dhZcYjc\ xWZg HVgVehnX]dad\^Z ]Vi BZVc ?ZWhZg \ZhV\i5 Ö ) ) ) lVgjb
hdaaiZ Y^Z HVgVehnX]dad\^Z' dYZg l^Z ^bbZg bVc h^Z cZccZc l^aa' c^X]i Y^Z NdgVgWZ^Ü
iZc lZ^iZg[x]gZc' Y^Z Vj[ Y^ZhZb ?ZW^ZiZ WZ^he^ZahlZ^hZ O^a]Zab kdc KX]dao b^i hZ^Ü
cZg 9gWZ^i xWZg )KX]^X`hVa jcY Rj[Vaa% \ZaZ^hiZi ]Vi8 BZcZ Rj[VaahWZ\ZWc^hhZ bVX]Zc
cuba^X] Z^c W^h]Zg kZgWdg\Zc \ZWa^ZWZcZh ?gjcYbjhiZg jcY Z^cZ \Z]Z^bZ :Zo^ZÜ
]jc\h[xaaZ YZh ?ZhX]Z]ZcYZc h^X]iWVg' Y^Z WZ\axX`ZcY h^cY jcY ^c Y^Z d]cZ RlZ^[Za
VjX] iZaZeVi]^hX]Z' k^iVaZ jcY VcYZgZ :Zox\a^X]`Z^iZc jcY ?gjcY[u]^\`Z^iZc YZh
EZchX]Zc ]^cZ^che^ZaZc) <^Z hd\ZcVcciZ eVgVehnX]dad\^hX]Z O^hhZchX]V[i `wcciZ
kdc Y^ZhZc <^c\Zc Vjh\Z]ZcY _ZcZh O^hhZc jb Ndg\uc\Z hX]V[[Zc' Y^Z oZ^\Zc' YVz
YZg Z^coZacZ hZ^cZb Z^\ZcZc DZWZc jcY h^X] hZaWZg bZ]g kZgigVjZc YVg[' Vah Zg Zh ojg
RZ^i ijiÅ #?ZWhZg' ,40/$) OVh ^hi YZg Rj[Vaa' YZg `Z^cZg ^hi' YZg VchiVii gZ\ZaadhZh
?ZhX]Z]Zc oj hZ^c' K^cc' GgYcjc\ h^X]iWVg bVX]i8 Ac L]dgcidc O^aYZgh JdbVc5 <^Z
:gxX`Z kdc KVc Dj^h JZn jciZghjX]i :gjYZg Bjc^eZg cVX] YZb =^chijgo YZg @uc\ZÜ
WgxX`Z ^c D^bV Y^Z >gV\Z' lVgjb \ZgVYZ Y^ZhZ [xc[ EZchX]Zc oj YZb RZ^iejc`i xWZg
Y^ZhZ :gxX`Z \^c\Zc' Vah h^Z Z^chixgoiZ jcY YVh DZWZc Y^ZhZg EZchX]Zc ^c Y^Z L^Z[Z
g^z) OVgjb \ZhX]V] Zh _jhi Y^ZhZc >xc[Zc8É [gV\iZ Zg h^X]) OZcc Zh xWZg]Vjei Z^cZc
HaVc ^b OZaiVaa \VW' lZcc YZb bZchX]a^X]Zc <VhZ^c ^g\ZcYZ^c K^cc ^ccZld]ciZ'
bjziZ Zg h^X]' lZcc VjX] cdX] hd \Z]Z^bc^hkdaa kZgWdg\Zc' h^X]Zga^X] ^c Y^ZhZc [xc[
hd _u] VW\ZhX]c^iiZcZc DZWZchauj[Zc ZciYZX`Zc aVhhZc) =cilZYZg aZWZc l^g YjgX]
Rj[Vaa jcY hiZgWZc YjgX] Rj[Vaa' dYZg l^g aZWZc cVX] Z^cZb HaVc jcY hiZgWZc cVX]
Z^cZb HaVc)Å Ab DZWZcheaVc Y^ZhZg [xc[ EZchX]Zc ZciYZX`i YZg :gjYZg YVcc Y^Z
jcWZlZ^hWVgZ' VWZg Zk^YZciZ 'Dd\^`É [xg \ZgVYZ Y^ZhZh KiZgWZc jcY [xg \ZgVYZ Y^ZhZc
RZ^iejc`i YZh LdYZh) >xg =gZ^\c^hhZ' ld ^c Z^cZb KX]c^iiejc`i YZg RZ^i' ^c Z^cZb
Rj\aZ^X] Z^c ^ccZgZh jcY Z^c ujzZgZh =gZ^\c^h' Z^c cV]Zh jcY Z^c [ZbZh' Z^c jch^X]iÜ
WVg \Z^hi^\Zh jcY Z^c bViZg^ZaaZh =gZ^\c^h eVgVaaZa Vj[igZiZc' d]cZ YVz Z^cZ `VjhVaZ
NZg`cxe[jc\ \Z\ZWZc lugZ' ]Vi Bjc\ YZc :Z\g^[[ YZg KncX]gdc^o^iui \Zegu\i #,40-
^b :jX] b^i HVja^5 FVijgZg`augjc\ jcY HhnX]Z$) =g hX]gZ^Wi ^b 9j[hVio ÖKncX]gdc^Ü
o^iui Vah Z^c Hg^co^e V`VjhVaZg RjhVbbZc]uc\ZÅ' YVz Öh^cckdaaZ ?aZ^X]oZ^i^\`Z^iZc
Vah gZ^cZ Rj[uaaZ jcYZc`WVg h^cY ( _Z bZ]g h^Z h^X] ]uj[Zc jcY _Z \gwzZg jcY ZmV`iZg
Y^Z =cihegZX]jc\Zc h^cY' ))) YZhid lZc^\Zg `wccZc h^Z Vah gZ^cZg Rj[Vaa \ZlZgiZi
lZgYZc) <V l^g VWZg Z^cZg `VjhVaZc =g`augjc\ ZciWZ]gZc' bxhhZc l^g h^Z jch Vah h^ccÜ
kdaaZ 9cdgYcjc\ kdghiZaaZc)Å ?ZWhZg ]Vi VaaZgY^c\h \Z\Zc YZc KncX]gdc^o^iuihWZ(
\g^[[ kdc Bjc\ Vc bZ]gZgZc KiZaaZc hZ^cZh OZg`Zh Z^c\ZlZcYZi' YVz Bjc\ kdg VaaZb
kdggVi^dcVaZ' bV\^hX]Z :Z\ZWZc]Z^iZc Vah hncX]gdc^hi^hX] lZgiZ' jcY bVc ]^Zg Z^cZg
Hgu(LgVchkZglZX]hajc\ Zga^Z\Z' lZcc bVc Y^ZhZ H]ucdbZcZ Vah VgVi^dcVa jcY ^ciZÜ
\gVa Vj[[VhhZ) AX] YZc`Z' YVz Zh lZc^\Zg jb Y^Z H]ucdbZcZ hZaWZg \Z]i Vah jb Y^Z
=cZg\^Z Y^ZhZg H]ucdbZcZ jcY Y^Z @Vaijc\' Vjh YZg bVc Y^ZhZ H]ucdbZcZ WZigVX]Ü
iZi) <V Bjc\ ]w]ZgZh jcY i^Z[ZgZh McWZljziZh c^X]i jciZghX]^ZYZc ]Vi) [Z]ai ^]b Y^Z
Ew\a^X]`Z^i YZg MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ egugVi^dcVaZg jcY VgVi^dcVaZg RjhVbbZc]uc\Z ^b
K^ccZ kdc ?ZWhZg) O^X]i^\ ^hi ^c Y^ZhZb RjhVbbZc]Vc\ VjX] Y^Z 9j[[Vhhjc\ kdc
CZc O^aWZg' YZg Y^Z kdggVi^dcVaZ' bV\^hX]Z :ZljzihZ^chhij[Z' Y^Z Zg Z^cbVa Y^Z
ine]dc^hX]Z jcY Z^c VcYZgbVa Y^Z e]VciVhb^hX](Zbdi^dcVaZ Kij[Z cZcci' ^c HVgVaaZaZ
hZioi oj Z^cZg VgVi^dcVaZc Kij[Z' Y^Z Zg Y^Z ehnX]^hX]Z jcY hX]VbVc^hX]Z Kij[Z cZcci)
CZc O^aWZg \Z]i Vahd YVkdc Vjh' YVz VaiZ >dgbZc YZh :ZljzihZ^ch Vj[ Z^cZg WZljzÜ
iZgZc Kij[Z ^]gZ =cihegZX]jc\ ]VWZc) #CZc O^aWZg' ,433$ Mb hd bZ]g WZhiZ]i Y^Z
?Z[V]g YZg NZglZX]hajc\) Ab egugVi^dcVaZc K^ccZ bV\^hX] h^cY Rj[VaahWZox\a^X](
`Z^iZc' Y^Z YZb k^iVaZc =^c]Z^ih\Z[x]a Zciheg^c\Zc jcY cdX] hiVg` b^i YZg Kiug`jc\
Z^\ZcZg EVX]i jcY K^X]Zg]Z^i oj ijc ]VWZc) Kd h^cY iZaZeVi]^hX]Z H]ucdbZcZ' l^Z
h^Z' l^Z ^X] Vjh Z^\ZcZg =g[V]gjc\ lZ^z' cVixga^X] ol^hX]Zc =aiZgc jcY C^cYZg [jc`Ü
40
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i
i^dc^ZgZc' ^c Y^ZhZb K^ccZ kdggVi^dcVa) Rj[uaaZ' Y^Z kdc YZg bV\cZi^hX]Zc O^g`jc\
YZg Zgdi^hX]Zc 9co^Z]jc\ ]Zggx]gZc' \Z]wgZc ZWZc[Vaah ^c Y^ZhZc :ZgZ^X]) 9jX] Y^Z
hZaWhi ZgaZWiZ jcY kdc VcYZgZc KZ^iZc WZhiui^\iZ LVihVX]Z' YVz HVgicZg cZWZcZ^cVcYZg
^c YZghZaWZc FVX]i \ZcVj YVhhZaWZ igujbZc' ^hi bV\^hX] ^b VaiZc K^ccZ #]^Zg `Vcc
bVc VWZg WZgZ^ih hZ]Zc' YVz _Z cVX] ZcZg\Zi^hX]Zb Mb[ZaY jcY YZg @Vaijc\ YZh
:ZigVX]iZgh YVh \aZ^X]Z H]ucdbZc Z^c ^ciZ\gVaZh H]ucdbZc hZ^c `Vcc$) Rj[VaahWZ\Z(
WZc]Z^iZc VWZg' Y^Z Vj[ K^cc jcY DZWZchVj[\VWZ ]^clZ^hZc' h^cY VgVi^dcVa) 9ci^(
o^eVidg^hX]Z LgujbZ' VWZg VjX] \Vco Vaaiu\a^X]Z Ki^bb^\`Z^iZc' `aZ^cZ 9]V(=gaZW(
c^hhZ' Y^Z bVc YVc`WVg Vah O^c` jcY @^clZ^h Zbe[^cYZi' \Z]wgZc YVoj) <^ZhZ
Rj[uaaZ h^cY @^clZ^hZ Vj[ ZilVh' lVh hX]dc YV ^hi' lVh c^X]i Vc a^cZVgZc oZ^ia^X]Zc
9WaVj[ \ZWjcYZc ^hi jcY YZh]VaW ]^Zg jcY Ydgi _ZYZgoZ^i 'Vj[iVjX]ZcÇ `Vcc) <^ZhZ
=gZ^\c^hhZ h^cY l^Z `aZ^cZ :ZlZ\jc\Zc' Y^Z Y^Z \gdzZ :ZlZ\jc\ [xg Z^cZc 9j\ZcÜ
Wa^X`ZgV]cZcaVhhZc)
<Zg H]nh^`Zg HZVi hX]gZ^Wi ^c hZ^cZb :jX] ÖKncX]gdc^o^iuiÅ5 Ö:ZlZ\jc\ ]Vi
ZilVh q]ca^X]`Z^i b^i Z^cZb :ddi' YVh Vj[ YZc EZZgZhlZaaZc iVcoi) <^Z =ghX]Z^cjc\
Z^cZg WZhi^bbiZc OZaaZ Vc Z^cZg KiZaaZ ^hi c^X]i hd hZ]g Z^c 'bZX]Vc^hX]ZhÉ H]ucdÜ
bZc' hdcYZgc ^hi YZg \ZhVbiZ 9jhYgjX` `aZ^cZg OZaaZc' Y^Z Vjh VaaZc J^X]ijc\Zc YZh
GoZVch `dbbZc) <^Z :ZlZ\jc\ YZh :ddiZh ^c Z^cZb WZhi^bbiZc EdbZci ^hi Vahd
9jhYgjX` YZg ?ZhVbiWZlZ\jc\ YZh GoZVch' hd l^Z h^Z h^X] ^c Y^ZhZb WZhi^bbiZc
?ZW^Zi oZ^\iÅ #HZVi' ,434$) <^ZhZ VgVi^dcVaZc Rj[uaaZ jb\^Wi VjX] Z^cZ hZaihVb
jceZghwca^X]Z FxX]iZgc]Z^i6 lV]ghX]Z^ca^X] YZh]VaW' lZ^a h^Z c^X]i k^iVaZ NZghiugÜ
`jc\Zc h^cY' hdcYZgc Vj[ ZilVh Mb[VhhZcYZh ]^clZ^hZc' Vj[ Z^c ?ZlZWZ' ^c YVh YZg
EZchX] Z^cWZod\Zc ^hi ( hd l^Z Y^Z Z^coZacZ OZaaZ ojb EZZg \Z]wgi jcY d]cZ YVh
EZZg \Vg c^X]i Zm^hi^Zgi) ÖLZ^a]VWZÅ cZcci YVh ?ZWhZg) <Vz ^c ZhdiZg^hX]Zc CgZ^hZc
Y^Z N^Za[Vai YZg :Zox\a^X]`Z^iZc bVcX]bVa oj Z^cZb Ke^Z\Za`VW^cZii Z^\ZcZg 9jhZg(
lu]ai]Z^i l^gY #^b K^ccZ kdc5 ?dii bZ^ci ^bbZg l^ZYZg \ZgVYZ b^X]$' bVX]i ?ZWhZgh
Cg^i^` Vb b^zkZghiVcYZcZc :Z\g^[[ YZg KncX]gdc^o^iui WZhdcYZgh lZgikdaa) Ö:Zo^ZÜ
]jc\hlV]cÅ cZcci YZg 9higdad\Z jcY HhnX]dad\Z >g^io J^ZbVcc' Y^ZhZh kZg`gVbe[iZ
:ZhigZWZc' ^c VaaZb jcY _ZYZb Z^cZc kZgWdg\ZcZc K^cc oj [^cYZc) 9aaZh ]Vi ld]a
Z^cZc K^cc' VWZg bVc `Vcc ZWZc VjX] ^c VaaZh Z^cZc K^cc ]^cZ^cegd_^o^ZgZc' YZg YVcc
\ZgVYZ YZc lV]gZc K^cc kZgYZX`i) 9ah bZ^c NViZg hiVgW' lVg Zg 33 BV]gZ Vai' ^X] //'
bZ^c uaiZgZg Kd]c --) =g hiVgW Vj[ YZc LV\ \ZcVj cZjc EdcViZ cVX] hZ^cZb ?ZWjgihÜ
iV\) OVh ]Z^zi YVh8 AX] lZ^z Zh c^X]i) Mb l^X]i^\Z =gZ^\c^hhZ' jb OZcYZ( jcY
OVcYajc\hejc`iZ ]Zgjb \^Wi Xh ^bbZg k^ZaZ hncX]gdc^hi^hX]Z EjhiZg) K^Z h^cY l^Z
J^c\Z' Y^Z h^X] ^b OVhhZg VjhWgZ^iZc' lZcc bVc Z^cZc KiZ^c ]^cZ^c\Zldg[Zc ]Vi)
EVc YVg[ hdaX]Z Rj[uaaZ c^X]i ^hda^Zgi WZigVX]iZc' hdcYZgc bjz h^Z ^b Mb[ZaY YZh
?ZhVbi\ZhX]Z]Zch ZghexgZc) 9W jcY oj ZcihiZ]i YVYjgX] =^ch^X]i jcY =^cWa^X` ^ch
\gwzZgZ CgV[i[ZaY' YVh Z^c hdaX]Zh =gZ^\c^h jb\^Wi) <Vh :ZVX]iZc YZg KncX]gdc^o^iui
WZl^g`i ^c jch Z^c cZjZh NZg]uaic^h ojg RZ^i5 O^g VX]iZc Vj[ Y^Z CZ^bZ YZh ?ZhX]ZÜ
]Zch' Vj[ YVh' lVh h^X] Vc`xcY^\i jcY oj\aZ^X] WZgZ^ih YV ^hi) <^ZhZ RZ^X]Zc Zg`Zcci
bVc kdg VaaZb Vc YZc 'JucYZgcÉ YZh ?ZhX]Z]Zch' Ydgi' ld ^ccZc jcY VjzZc RjhVbÜ
bZcigZ[[Zc) Lgjc\eV hX]gZ^Wi xWZg Y^ZhZh RjhVbbZcigZ[[Zc kdc ^ccZc jcY VjzZc5
Ö<^Z <^c\Z lZgYZc \ZcVj hd \ZhZ]Zc' l^Z h^Z h^cY' \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ VWZg hZ]Zc Y^Z <^c\Z
VjX] jch \ZcVj) <V l^g kwaa^\ ZciWawzi jcY d[[Zc h^cY jcY `Z^cZ 9c\hi ]VWZc' \ZhZÜ
]Zc oj lZgYZc' Zg\^Wi h^X] Z^c LgZ[[ejc`i) Ag\ZcY ZilVh bVX]i jch `aVg' YVz l^g c^X]i
VjhlZ^X]Zc jcY hV\Zc `wccZc' YVz jchZg DZWZc cjg Z^cZ L]ZViZgegdWZ ^hi5 Ag\ZcY
ZilVh bVX]i jch `aVg' YVz Zh l^g`a^X] ^hiÅ #Lgjc\eV' ,434$) <^ZhZ @Vaijc\ oj xWZc'
WZYZjiZi' YVh ^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c oj xWZc' [xg YVh Zh YZc <jVa^hbjh kdc ^ccZc jcY
VjzZc c^X]i bZ]g \^Wi) <Vh WZYZjiZi VjX] YVh OV]gcZ]bZc YZg aZ^hZgZc Ki^bbZc' Y^Z
41
JjYda[@ubbZga^
Vah hd\ZcVcciZ Rj[uaaZ' oZ^ia^X]Z <jgX]Yg^c\jc\hejc`iZ kdc K^X]iWVgZb jcY
Mch^X]iWVgZb'jchYVjZgcYjb\ZWZc)
Ac YZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc 9gWZ^i ^hi YVh =^cWZo^Z]Zc YZh Rj[Vaah' YZg KncX]gdc^o^iui
lZhZcia^X]5 <^Z ehnX]dad\^hX]Z 9gWZ^i l^gY YVYjgX] ojg E^iVgWZ^i' c^X]i cjg b^i YZb
Ca^ZciZc' hdcYZgc kdg VaaZb VjX] b^i YZb' lVh \ZhX]Z]Zc hdaa) <Zg L]ZgVeZji bjz
#jcY `Vcc$ Zh c^X]i bZ]g hZaWZg ijc) <Vh \^Wi Z^cZ WZ[gZ^ZcYZ <^h^YZci^[^`Vi^dchbw\Ü
a^X]`Z^i) 9ah E^iVgWZ^i b^i YZb' lVh h^X] hZaWZg Vah K^cc VjhYgxX`i' WZhiZ]i Y^Z 9gWZ^i
YVg^c' ^b K^ccZ kdc Lgjc\eV Y^Z KZaWhiYVghiZaajc\' Y^Z KZaWhid[[ZcWVgjc\ YZh K^ccÜ
\Z[x\Zh oj Zg`ZccZc) <^Z E^iVgWZ^i b^i YZg KncX]gdc^o^iui hZioi VjX] YVh NZgigVjZc
kdgVjh' YVz es hX]dc YV ^hi' YVz Y^Z CZ^bZ YZh Rj`xc[i^\Zc h^X]iWVg lZgYZc) <V
Rj[VaahZgZ^\c^hhZ c^X]i \Zldaai WZl^g`i lZgYZc `wccZc' ^hi YV VjX] c^X]i k^Za oj ijc'
jb hd bZ]g VWZg lV]gojcZ]bZc) 9ah ^ccZgZ @Vaijc\ ^hi Y^Z NdgVjhhZiojc\ YVh' lVh
YZg X]^cZh^hX]Z H]^adhde] Ed <h^ ÖujzZghiZ 9j[g^X]i^\`Z^iÅ cZcci5 ÖFjg YZg
EZchX]' YZg kdc YZg ujzZghiZc 9j[g^X]i^\`Z^i WZ]ZgghX]i ^hi' `Vcc hZ^cZ Z^\ZcZ FVijg
kdaa Zci[VaiZc ))) YVYjgX] `Vcc Zg VjX] Y^Z FVijg hZ^cZg Mb\ZWjc\ Zci[VaiZc ) ) ) hd
VWZg `Vcc Zg Y^Z kZglVcYZacYZc jcY Zgcu]gZcYZc Cgu[iZ kdc @^bbZa jcY =gYZ jciZgÜ
hixioZc) Fjg Z^c hdaX]Zg EZchX] WZh^ioi VjX] Z^c NdgVjhl^hhZc YZg Rj`jc[i ) ) )
Lj\ZcY jcY O^hhZc VWZg h^cY =^\ZchX]V[iZc YZg FVijg' jcY hd `Vcc Z^cZ NZgZ^c^\jc\
YZhqjzZgZcjcYAccZgZcojhiVcYZ`dbbZcÅ#R^i^ZgicVX]5kdc>gVco),432$)
'$/JF;FLBSJUJS[S
<Zg :Z\g^[[ YZg JZaVi^k^iui auzi ^b RjhVbbZc]Vc\ b^i RZ^i ojcuX]hi Vc =^chiZ^c
YZc`Zc) =g ]Vi ^c hZ^cZg JZaVi^k^iuihi]Zdg^Z ]ZgVjh\Z[jcYZc' YVz Zh Z^cZ RZ^ibZhhjc\
jcVW]uc\^\ kdc YZg ?ZhX]l^cY^\`Z^i YZh :ZigVX]iZgh c^X]i \^Wi) <V RZ^ibZhhjc\
^bbZg VW]uc\^\ ^hi kdb :ZdWVX]iZghiVcYejc`i' `wccZc o):) [xg Z^cZc :ZigVX]iZg
olZ^ =gZ^\c^hhZ \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ hZ^c' Y^Z Xh [xg Z^cZc VcYZgZc :ZigVX]iZg c^X]i h^cY) <Zg
hnbWda^hX]Z OZgi Y^ZhZg e]nh^`Va^hX]Zc L]Zdg^Z a^Z\i YVg^c' YVz VWhdajiZ EVzhiuWZ
Vj[\Z\ZWZc lZgYZc bxhhZc) <Vg^c WZhiZ]i YZg VeZgheZ`i^k^hX]Z :Z^igV\ YZg =^chiZ^c(
hX]Zc =g`Zccic^h) OV]g]Z^i ^hi VW]uc\^\ kdb :ZigVX]iZghiVcYejc`i' YZg lZc^\Zg Z^c
KiVcYejc`i ^hi Vah Z^c RZ^iejc`i ^ccZg]VaW Z^cZg =^\ZcWZlZ\jc\' Z^cZg Z^\ZcZc =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\) <Vg^c YgxX`i h^X] Y^Z ^ciZ\gVaZ @Vaijc\ YZg RZ^i \Z\ZcxWZg Vjh5 =h \^Wi
`Z^cZc VWhdajiZc OV]g]Z^ihhiVcYejc`i bZ]g' YZg OV]g]Z^i YZ[^c^ZgZc lxgYZ jcY
bZciVa kZgigZiWVg lugZ) 9aaZh gZaVi^k^Zgi h^X] YVYjgX]' YVz Y^Z >gV\Zc \ZhiZaai lZgYZc
bxhhZc5 OVcc lV]g' hZ^i lVcc lV]g' W^h lVcc lV]g8 McY Y^Z VcYZgZc >gV\Zc5 ^hi Xh
\aZ^X]oZ^i^\ [xg b^X] jcY YZc VcYZgZc lV]g8 dYZg [xg b^X] lV]g' [xg YZc VcYZgZc
jclV]g' lZ^a `Z^cZ ?aZ^X]oZ^i^\`Z^i kdgVjh\ZhZioi lZgYZc `Vcc8 <^ZhZ >gV\Zc
lVgZc [xg YVh bZciVaZ OV]g]Z^ihkZghiucYc^h _V]g]jcYZgiZaVc\ c^X]i WZjcgj]^\ZcY'
lZ^a Zh ^c ZghiZg D^c^Z cVX] YZc Vaa\ZbZ^cZc' xWZgoZ^ia^X]Zc ?ZhZiobuz^\`Z^iZc ]^cÜ
iZg YZc =ghX]Z^cjc\Zc \ZhjX]i ]Vi' d]cZ oj Zg`ZccZc' YVz Y^Z =g`Zccic^hb^iiZa hZaÜ
WZg' Y^Z WZljzihZ^chbuz^\Zc NdgVjhhZiojc\Zc oZ^iVW]uc\^\ jcY c^ZbVah xWZgoZ^iÜ
a^X] h^cY) @ZjiZ ^hi Zh jcojauhh^\ \ZldgYZc' kdb RZ^i[V`idg oj VWhigV]^ZgZc' lVh
VWZg WZYZjiZi' YVz 'VaaZh ^b >ajzÉ ^hi jcY YVb^i VaaZ bZciVaZ K^X]Zg]Z^i ^c YZc Jjz YZg
RZ^i \Z[VaaZc ^hi) <Voj `dbbi b^g Z^cZ ^cY^hX]Z ?ZhX]^X]iZ ^c YZc K^cc) K^Z Zgou]ai
kdc Z^cZb \ZaZ]giZc :gV]bVcZc) YZg Vb Jjz Z^cZb Z^c[VX]Zc EVcc WZ\Z\cZi' YZg
hZ^cZ ?wioZc ^b >ajz luhX]i' h^Z gZ^c^\i' jb h^Z cVX] YZg `jai^hX]Zc OVhX]jc\ l^ZÜ
YZg b^i cdX] \gwzZgZg AcWgjchi kZgZ]gZc oj `wccZc) <Zg :gV]bVcZ [gV\i YZc EVcc
cVX] YZb' lVh Zg ]^Zg ijZ jcY WZaZ]gi ^]c' YVz Y^ZhZ @dao[^\jgZc `Z^cZ ?wiiZg hZ^Zc'
42
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i
hdcYZgc WZbVaiZh @dao' YVz Y^ZhZ >^\jgZc bZchX]a^X]Z ?Zh^X]ihox\Z igx\Zc' :gV]Ü
bVc VWZg `Z^cZ bZchX]a^X]Z ?ZhiVai' xWZg]Vjei `Z^cZ ?ZhiVai ]VWZ) <Zg Z^c[VX]Z
EVcc' YZg YZb :gV]bVcZc b^i =]g[jgX]i oj\Z]wgi ]Vi' h^Z]i hZ^cZ >^\jgZc ZcilZgiZi
kdg h^X] a^Z\Zc jcY Wg^X]i ^c LgucZc Vjh) <Zg :gV]bVcZ' YVgxWZg hidao' Z^cZc EZcÜ
hX]Zc YZg OV]g]Z^i cu]Zg\ZWgVX]i oj ]VWZc' ]wgi cjc jb h^X] Y^Z Ki^bbZ :gV]bVch5
OVh W^hi Yj [xg Z^c a^ZWadhZg' jcl^hhZcYZg EZchX]8 ?Z]É ZcihX]jaY^\Z Y^X] WZ^b
EVccVb>ajz[xgYZ^cZjccxioZjcYh^ccadhZ:ZaZ]gjc\
AX] a^ZWZ Y^ZhZ ?ZhX]^X]iZ' lZ^a h^Z oZ^\i' YVz OV]g]Z^i ^bbZg b^i :Zo^Z]jc\' b^i
YZg :Zo^Z]jc\hZWZcZ oj ijc ]Vi) <^Z JZaVi^k^iui YZg OV]g]Z^i oj hZ]Zc' [x]gi c^X]i
cdilZcY^\ oj YZb Rnc^hbjh' YZg ine^hX] ^hi [xg YZc AciZaaZ`ijZaaZc jchZgZg LV\Z' YZg
h^X] hZaWZg b^zkZghiZ]ZcY bZ^ci (' hd\Vg xWZg YVh Z^\ZcZ <Zc`Zc hediiZc oj bxhhZc)
<^Z JZaVi^k^Zgjc\ YZg OV]g]Z^i `Vcc WZYZjiZc' OV]g]Z^i WZo^Z]jc\hgZ^X]Zg' Y) ]) ^c
JZaVi^dc' ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ b^i YZb RZ^iejc`i' YZg DZWZchh^ijVi^dc YZh VcYZgZc EZcÜ
hX]ZcojhZ]Zc)
<Vcc l^gY Zh hX]l^Zg^\Zg oj l^hhZc' lVh [xg YZc VcYZgZc g^X]i^\ ^hi) :Z^ Z^cZg
JZ\gZhh^dche]VhZ dYZg kZgbZ^cia^X]Zc Ki^aahiVcYhe]VhZ Z^cZh EZchX]Zc o) :) lZgÜ
YZc l^g hZ]g hX]cZaa lZgiZcY' jc\ZYjaY^\ jcY jc\ZgZX]i) OZg lZ^z' bw\a^X]ZglZ^hZ
]dai Y^ZhZg EZchX] cjg 9caVj[' jb jbhd lZ^iZg heg^c\Zc oj `wccZc) 9cYZgZ' Y^Z kdc
h^X] YVh h^X]ZgZ ?Z[x]a ]VWZc' hX]cZaa ^c ^]gZg =cil^X`ajc\ kdgVcoj`dbbZc' `dbÜ
bZc olVg l^g`a^X] VjX] gVhZcY hX]cZaa kdgVc ( Vj[ ^]gZb OZ\ VWlugih) #<^ZhZg
?ZYVc`Z hiVbbi Vjh YZc 9e]dg^hbZc kdc CV[`V)$ O^g bxhhZc jcY Yxg[Zc #$ Zh ^c
YZg JZ\Za d[[Zc aVhhZc' oj l^hhZc' lZaX]Zg =cil^X`ajc\hhX]g^ii [xg YZc VcYZgZc _Zioi
\ZgVYZ hi^bbi jcY lZaX]Zg c^X]i) JZaVi^k^iui ^hi VWZg c^X]i ?aZ^X]\xai^\`Z^i YZb
VcYZgZc jcY hZ^cZg =cil^X`ajc\ \Z\ZcxWZg) =^cWZo^Z]Zc YZg JZaVi^k^iui' G[[ZcaVhÜ
hZc YZg OV]g]Z^i bVX]i \ZgVYZ lVX] [xg Y^Z [gV\ZcYZ @Vaijc\) 9chiVii oj l^hhZc5
<Vh ^hi ]^a[gZ^X] [gV\Z ^X] b^X]5 OVh ^hi ]^a[gZ^X]8 McY Y^Z >gV\Z WZlV]gi bZ^cZ
G[[Zc]Z^ijcYbVX]ib^X]Zbe[uc\a^X][xgY^ZgZaVi^kZcOV]g]Z^iZc)
BZYZg EZchX] ]Vi Z^cZ =^\ZcoZ^i' Z^cZ =^\ZclV]g]Z^i #k\a) ;^dbe^5 9jzZclZai(
AccZclZai' ,433' K) -0, [)' ld Zg WZhX]gZ^Wi' l^Z _ZYZg EZchX] Z^cZ 9gi ?gVk^iVi^dchÜ
[ZaY jb h^X] ]Vi' YVh Y^Z ujzZgZ RZ^i' Y^Z RZ^i YZg VcYZgZc EZchX]Zc WZZ^c[ajzi$)
RjYZb ^hi bZ^cZ =^\ZcoZ^i ^bbZg ^c OZX]hZal^g`jc\ ojg =^\ZcoZ^i YZh VcYZgZc
EZchX]Zc) AX] ]VWZ YVh WZ^ bZ^cZc C^cYZgc o) :) hd ZgaZWi' YVz _ZYZh 9aiZg bZ^cZg
C^cYZg b^g bZ^cZ Z^\ZcZ =g[V]gjc\ _ZcZh 9aiZgh jcY kdg VaaZb Y^Z cdX] kdg]VcYZcZ
Hgu\jc\ ^c b^g lVX]\Zgj[Zc ]Vi) AX] ]VWZ VWZg VjX] [ZhihiZaaZc bxhhZc' YVz bZ^cZ
=g[V]gjc\Zc WZhi^bbiZg DZWZche]VhZc oj YZb RZ^iejc`i' Vah bZ^cZ C^cYZg YVh
9aiZg _ZcZg H]VhZc ZggZ^X]i ]ViiZc' Y^Z LZcYZco ]ViiZc' ^c YZc C^cYZgc YZc O^ZYZgÜ
]dajc\holVc\ VjhojawhZc) <Vh ^hi cjc Z^c VcYZgZg 9heZ`i YZg JZaVi^k^iui) @^Zg \Z]i
Zh jb Y^Z OZX]hZal^g`jc\' Y)]) jb YVh gZaVi^kZ :Zod\ZchZ^c kdc =^\ZcoZ^iZc)
OV]g]Z^iZc h^cY Vahd c^X]i cjg [xg h^X] e]VhZcVW]uc\^\ jcY YVYjgX] gZaVi^k' h^Z h^cY
VjX] cdX] gZaVi^k YVYjgX]' YVz h^Z Vj[Z^cVcYZg WZod\Zc h^cY jcY ^c Y^ZhZb :Zod\ZcÜ
hZ^c Vj[Z^cVcYZg Z^cl^g`Zc) <^Z oZ^ia^X]Z JZaVi^k^iui ^hi [xg 9hhV\^da^h CdcoZei^dc
YZg HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ oZcigVa) Ö<^Z :ZYxg[c^hhZ c^X]i cjg _ZYZh Z^coZacZc HVi^ZciZc'
hdcYZgc VjX] YZg verschleJenen Phcsen Z^cZg :Z]VcYajc\ h^cY _ZlZ^ah hZ]g kZgÜ
hX]^ZYZc jcY bVcX]bVa hd\Vg Zci\Z\Zc\ZhZioi) <Zh]VaW `Vcc Y^Z 9clZcYjc\ Z^cZg
heZo^[^hX]Zc LZX]c^` dYZg sWjc\' Y^Z h^X] ^c Z^cZb >Vaa dYZg elner Phcse Vah cxioÜ
a^X] Zgl^ZhZc ]Vi' [xg VcYZgZ HZghdcZc dYZg jciZg VcYZgZc :ZY^c\jc\Zc jceVhhZcY
dYZg hd\Vg \Z[u]ga^X] hZ^cÅ #9hhV\^da^' ,433$) Kd lZ^hi 9hhV\^da^ YVgVj[ ]^c' YVz
bZY^iVi^kZ sWjc\Zc YZg ?ZaVhhZc]Z^i dYZg YZg ^ccZgZc KVbbajc\ [xg Y^Z Z^cZc EZcÜ
hX]Zc kdc \gdzZg :ZYZjijc\ h^cY' lZ^a h^Z YZc ]Z^aZcYZc HgdoZz jciZghixioZc' [xg
43
JjYda[@ubbZga^
VcYZgZ VWZg _Z cVX] RZ^iejc`i jcY H]VhZ cjg LgVcfj^a^oZg WZYZjiZc' Y^Z ÖZ^c [VahX]Zh
?Z[x]akdcOd]aWZ[^cYZcjcYK^X]Zg]Z^i]Zgkdggj[ZcÅ)
FdX] Z^cZc 9heZ`i YZg JZaVi^k^iui bwX]iZ ^X] ]^Zg Vc[x\Zc5 OVh b^g Vah ?Z\ZcÜ
lVgi ZghX]Z^ci' ^hi ^c YZc bZ^hiZc >uaaZc NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i) :Z^b D^X]i YZg KiZgcZ ^hi Zh
Vb aZ^X]iZhiZc Z^cojhZ]Zc' YVz YVh D^X]i' YVh ^X] _Zioi hZ]Z' VaiZ' uaiZhiZ NZg\Vc\ZcÜ
]Z^i ^hi) AX] hX]VjZ BV]gb^aa^dcZc ojgxX`' jcY lVh h^X] Ydgi YgVjzZc k^ZaaZ^X]i _Zioi
ZgZ^\cZi' hZ]Z ^X] c^X]i) <dX] VjX] ^c WZoj\ Vj[ bZ^c Vaaiu\a^X]Zh Mb[ZaY' kZgÜ
lZX]hZaZ ^X] Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i b^i YZg ?Z\ZclVgi) OVh ^X] hZ]Z' ^hi YVh ?ZldgÜ
YZcZ' YVh ?ZbVX]iZ) AX] hZ]Z bZ^hi' lVh ^X] hX]dc `ZccZ jcY hX]VjZ YVgjb \Vg c^X]i
hd \ZcVj ]^c) :Z^ YZc EZchX]Zc hZ]Z ^X] ^c YZc _xc\ZgZc bZ^cZ NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' VWZg
VjX] ^c YZc uaiZgZc hZ]Z ^X] aVc\Z RZ^i Z]Zg bZ^cZ =aaZgc Vah bZ^cZ Rj`jc[i) <^ZhZ
NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^ih[^m^Zgi]Z^i bZ^cZg OV]gcZ]bjc\ kZgucYZgi h^X]' lZcc ^X] YVh gZaVi^Ü
k^hi^hX]Z :ZljzihZ^c Zcil^X`ZaZ) AX] lZ^z YVcc' YVz bZ^cZ ?Z\ZclVgi cjg Z^cZ gZaVÜ
i^kZ' Vc\Zcu]ZgiZ jcY ^bbZg l^ZYZg ^b Kd\ YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i kZgadgZcZ ^hi) OZcc
^X] YVh lZ^z' l^gY bZ^c :a^X` [gZ^ [xg YVh [gV\ZcYZ' ^bbZg l^ZYZg ZghiVjciZ OV]gÜ
cZ]bZc) OZgijc\Zc' Y^Z bZ^hiZch YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' ^g\ZcYZ^cZg LgVY^i^dc kZgÜ
e[a^X]iZi h^cY' [VaaZc [xg EdbZciZ lZ\) OVh ^hi _Zioi \ji8 AX] lZ^z Zh c^X]i bZ]g' ^X]
bjzZhZg[gV\Zc)
<^Z HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ WZgxX`h^X]i^\i Y^Z =^\ZcoZ^i jcY Y^Z =^\ZclV]g]Z^i YZh
:ZljzihZ^ch) <Vh l^gY o) :) Ydgi YZjia^X]' ld 9hhV\^da^ Cg^hZch^ijVi^dcZc Y^[[ZgZcÜ
o^Zgi WZigVX]iZi jcY egd\gZhh^kZ jcY gZ\gZhh^kZ Cg^hZc i]ZgVeZji^hX] \Vco VcYZgh
Vc\Z]i' VjX] lZcc ^]gZ KnbeidbVi^` ujzZga^X] \aZ^X] oj hZ^c hX]Z^ci) <^Z HhnX]dÜ
hnci]ZhZ WZbx]i h^X]' Y^Z kZghX]^ZYZcZc :ZljzihZ^chbw\a^X]`Z^iZc Vah =cil^X`Ü
ajc\hhX]g^iiZ ^b Z^coZacZc EZchX]Zc oj Zg`ZccZc' d]cZ h^Z oj lZgiZc) F^X]i _ZYZg
=cil^X`ajc\hhX]g^ii WgVjX]i Y^Z \aZ^X]Zc AbejahZ6 lVh [xg YZc Z^cZc EZchX]Zc ^c
hZ^cZg K^ijVi^dc ]^a[gZ^X] ^hi' ^hi [xg YZc VcYZgZc hX]uYa^X] dYZg h^ccadh) =h \^ai' Y^Z
RZ^ih^ijVi^dc Z^cZh EZchX]Zc lV]gojcZ]bZc' lVh c^X]i aZ^X]i ^hi) lZ^a bVc Vah L]ZÜ
gVeZji hZaWZg kdc Z^cZg WZhi^bbiZc =cil^X`ajc\he]VhZ Vjh\Z]i) <^hiVco ojg Z^\ZcZc
:ZljzihZ^chhigj`ijg oj ]VWZc' ^hi cVX] ?ZWhZg Zghi ^b ^ciZ\gVaZc :ZljzihZ^c bw\Ü
a^X]' lZ^a Zh Y^Z ZghiZ :ZljzihZ^ch[dgb ^hi' lZaX]Z Zh c^X]i bZ]g cwi^\ ]Vi) Y^Z kdgVcÜ
\Z]ZcYZc :ZljzihZ^chbw\a^X]`Z^iZc oj WZ`ube[Zc) <Vh ^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c hZioi
`Z^c :ZljzihZ^c VWhdaji' hdcYZgc h^X]i _ZYZ :ZljzihZ^chbw\a^X]`Z^i ^c ^]gZg gZaVi^Ü
kZc OV]g]Z^i) Ou]gZcY cdX] YVh bZciVaZ :ZljzihZ^c h^X] \Z\Zc Y^Z ?Z[V]g' kdb
EV\^hX](Eni]^hX]Zc xWZghX]lZbbi oj lZgYZc' VWhdaji hZioZc bjziZ' `Vcc YVh
^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^c Y^Z kZg\Vc\ZcZc :ZljzihZ^ch[dgbZc ^c Z^cZb gZaVi^kZc' h^X]
\Z\ZchZ^i^\WZgZ^X]ZgcYZcE^iZ^cVcYZgVcZg`ZccZc)
O^X]i^\ ^hi VjX]' YVz h^X] YZg L]ZgVeZji YZg JZhdcVco YZg ^cY^k^YjZaaZc =^\ZcoZ^i
jcY hZ^cZg \Z\Zclugi^\Zc :ZljzihZ^chhigj`ijg b^i YZg =^\ZcoZ^i jcY :ZljzihZ^chÜ
higj`ijg YZh Ca^ZciZc WZljzi ^hi) =h `dbbZc d[i EZchX]Zc ^c Y^Z HgVm^h' Y^Z b^i
L]ZbZc WZ[Vzi h^cY' lZaX]Z ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ oj L]ZbZc YZh L]ZgVeZjiZc hiZ]Zc) <^ZhZ
JZhdcVco `Vcc' hdWVaY h^Z WZljzi ^hi' YVh NZghiucYc^h [xg YZc VcYZgZc kZgi^Z[Zc'
lZcch^ZjcWZljziWaZ^Wi'Z^cKiwg[V`idglZgYZc)
($ /JF0QJNNFQTNH
ÖOVh cjc Vahd `aVg jcY YZjia^X] ^hi' ^hi Y^Zh' YVz Xh c^X]i Rj`jc[i \^Wi cdX] VjX]
NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i) =^\Zcia^X] Vahd `Vcc bVc c^X]i hV\Zc5 Zh \^Wi YgZ^ RZ^iZc' NZg\VcÜ
\Zc]Z^i' ?Z\ZclVgi jcY Rj`jc[i) ?ZcVjZg k^ZaaZ^X]i lugZ Zh oj hV\Zc5 Zh \^Wi YgZ^
44
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i
RZ^iZc' Y^Z ?Z\ZclVgi YZh NZg\Vc\ZcZc' Y^Z ?Z\ZclVgi YZh ?Z\Zclugi^\Zc jcY Y^Z
?Z\ZclVgi YZg Rj`jc[i) Ac YZg KZZaZ cuba^X] h^cY Y^ZhZ YgZ^6 VcYZghld hZ]Z ^X] h^Z
c^g\ZcYh) <^Z ?Z\ZclVgi YZh NZg\Vc\ZcZc ^hi YVh ?ZYuX]ic^h' Y^Z ?Z\ZclVgi YZh
?Z\Zclugi^\Zc Y^Z 9chX]Vjjc\' Y^Z ?Z\ZclVgi YZh Cxc[i^\Zc ^hi Y^Z =glVgijc\)Å
#9j\jhi^c5 :Z`Zccic^hhZ ,,) :jX] -+) Ce$ O^Z 9j\jhi^c hV\i' \^Wi Zh Y^Z JZVa^iui YZg
NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i cjg ^c jchZgZb :ZljzihZ^c Vah =g^ccZgjc\hkZgbw\Zc) <Vh hZ]Zc l^g
\Zlw]ca^X] VcYZgh5 l^g jciZghX]Z^YZc ^c jchZgZb 9aaiV\hWZljzihZ^c Zg^ccZgiZh
?ZhX]Z]Zc jcY iVihuX]a^X]Zh ?ZhX]Z]Zc ^c YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i c^X]i) ( EVcX]bVa
YubbZgi Zh jch' YVz ]^Zg jciZghX]^ZYZc lZgYZc bxziZ' lZcc l^g o) :) =g^ccZgjc\Zc
VjhiVjhX]Zc jcY bZg`Zc' YVz YVh \aZ^X]Z =gZ^\c^h' YZg \aZ^X]Z EZchX] kdc kZghX]^ZÜ
YZcZc EZchX]Zc \Vco kZghX]^ZYZc Zg^ccZgi lZgYZc) <Vcc \ZhX]^Z]i Z^cZ JZaVi^k^ZÜ
gjc\ YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' Y^Z Z^cZghZ^ih WZ[gZ^ZcY' VcYZgZghZ^ih VjX] ZcioVjWZgcY
l^g`i) OZcc ^X] bZg`Z' YVz bZ^cZ =g^ccZgjc\Zc bZ^cZ Z^\ZcZc ^ccZgZc :^aYZg h^cY'
Y^Z bZ]g[VX] xWZgaV\Zgi jcY kZgucYZgi ldgYZc h^cY jcY ojYZb \Zegu\i h^cY kdc bZ^Ü
cZg \Vco eZghwca^X]Zc 9gi YZg OV]gcZ]bjc\' YVcc h^cY bZ^cZ Zg^ccZgiZc =gZ^\c^hhZ
c^X]i bZ]g ^c YZg jcVWucYZga^X]Zc jcY buX]i^\Zc O^g`a^X]`Z^i kZgljgoZai) AX] lZgYZ
[u]^\' h^Z oj kZgucYZgc' lZ^a h^Z b^g \Z]wgZc) <Vb^i \ZWZ ^X] VWZg VjX] YZc RVjWZg
YZgNZg\Vc\Zc]Z^iegZ^h)
<^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i ]Vi Z^cZ kZgoVjWZgcYZ O^g`jc\) K^Z ^hi hdld]a ^b ?jiZc l^Z
^b KX]aZX]iZc jchZg JZ^X]ijb' b^i YZb l^g jchZg ?Z[x]a kdc jchZgZg AYZci^iui jcY
jchZgZb OZgi kZgW^cYZc) =^cZ JZaVi^k^Zgjc\ jchZgZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i ^hi ^bbZg VjX]
Z^cZ JZaVi^k^Zgjc\ jchZgZh KZaWhikZghiucYc^hhZh) BZVc ?ZWhZg bVX]i YVgVj[ Vj[bZg`Ü
hVb' YVz ^c YZg bni]^hX]Zc OZai YZg EZchX] h^X] Vc Y^Z =g^ccZgjc\ W^cYZi) EnVi]dh
^hi YVh `daaZ`i^kZ ?ZYuX]ic^h) <Zg Eni]dh hV\i YZc \g^ZX]^hX]Zc Cwc^\Zc' YVz h^Z
aZioia^X] kdc YZc ?wiiZgc jcY YZc @VaW\wiiZgc VWhiVbbZc' kdc Ydgi Vjh YZg NZg\VcÜ
\Zc]Z^i `dbbi ^]gZ DZ\^i^bVi^dc) <Zg Eni]dh WZg^X]iZi kdc VaiZc RZ^iZc' Vah Y^Z ?wiÜ
iZg cdX] Vj[ =gYZc lVcYZaiZc' Vah Zh cdX] J^ZhZc \VW jcY EZchX]Zc' lZaX]Z Y^Z
KegVX]Z YZg L^ZgZ kZghiVcYZc) <Vh EugX]Zc WZ\^cci ^c YZg JZ\Za b^i YZb KVio5 Ö=h
lVg Z^cbVa )))Å jcY awhi hX]dc YVb^i Z^cZc RVjWZg Vjh) <^Z MgbjhZ ]Z^zi WZ^ YZc
?g^ZX]Zc EcZbdhncZ' Vahd =g^ccZgjc\) <VgVjh hX]we[Zc Y^Z <^X]iZg' Y^Z =gou]aZg)
A]gZ 9gWZ^i ^hi Zh' YZc EZchX]Zc VcojhX]a^ZzZc Vc YVh ?ZYuX]ic^h YZg OZai' Vc YZc
JZ^X]ijb YZg =g[V]gjc\) ?ZWhZg lZ^hi cjc YVgVj[ ]^c' YVz YVh bdYZgcZ KZaWhikZg(
hiucYc^h YZg <^X]iZg h^X] ^c Y^ZhZb Hjc`i lVcYZai5 Y^Z <^X]iZg lZcYZc h^X] VW kdc
Y^ZhZb NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^ihWZoj\' h^Z kZghiZ]Zc =g^ccZgjc\ cZj) <^Z JxX`W^cYjc\ Vc
Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' Y^Z LgVY^i^dc l^gY c^X]i bZ]g Vah IjZaaZ YZh KX]we[Zg^hX]Zc
ZgaZWi) Ac Y^ZhZb RjhVbbZc]Vc\ hX]gZ^Wi ?ZWhZg5 Ö<^Z 9WlZcYjc\ kdc YZg =g^ccZÜ
gjc\ ^hi Z^cZ @^clZcYjc\ ojg >gZ^]Z^iÅ #?ZWhZg' ,40.$) <^Z <^X]iZg hX]we[Zc ]ZjiZ
c^X]i bZ]g eg^bug Vjh YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' l^Z YVh [xg YZc Vci^`Zc jcY b^iiZaVaiZga^Ü
X]Zc <^X]iZg cdX] hZaWhikZghiucYa^X] lVg) ?ZWhZg o^i^Zgi YZc l^X]i^\Zc KVio kdc
=a^di5ÖL]^h^hi]ZjhZd[bZbdgn5>dga^WZgVi^dcÅ#?ZWhZg',40.$)
EZ^hiZch ^hi VWZg =g^ccZgjc\ c^X]i :Z[gZ^jc\' hdcYZgc :^cYjc\ Vc Y^Z NZg\Vc\ZcÜ
]Z^i) =h \^Wi Y^Z hX]we[Zg^hX]Z :^cYjc\ Vc YZc JZ^X]ijb YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' h^Z
ljgYZ dWZc WZhX]g^ZWZc) =h \^Wi VWZg VjX] Y^Z WZljzihZ^chiwiZcYZ NZg]Zmjc\ YjgX]
Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i5 K^X ZgaZWi o):) J^e kVc O^c`aZ ^c YZb EugX]Zc' YVh Agk^c\
Zgou]ai5 <Zg ZilVh igu\Z HVcid[[Za]ZaY NVc O^c`aZ Zci[a^Z]i YZb <^`iVi hZ^cZg gZhdajÜ
iZc >gVj' ^cYZb Zg b^i hZ^cZb @jcY aVc\Z KeVo^Zg\uc\Z jciZgc^bbi jcY bw\a^X]hi
heui cVX] @VjhZ `dbbi) 9j[ Z^cZb Y^ZhZg KeVo^Zg\uc\Z `dbbi Zg jc\Zldaai ^c Y^Z
?ZhZaahX]V[i kZghidgWZcZg K^ZYaZg' b^i YZcZc Zg cVX] Z^cZb `gu[i^\Zc jcY jcWZYVX]Ü
iZc KX]ajX` Vjh YZg >aVhX]Z YZg ?Vhi\ZWZg Z^cZ FVX]i WZ^b CZ\Zahe^Za kZgWg^c\i) 9b
45
JjYda[@ubbZga^
VcYZgZc LV\ ^hi Zg Vai \ZldgYZc' hZ^c @jcY ^hi idi' hZ^cZ >a^ciZ kZggdhiZi' hZ^cZ >gVj'
l^Z Zg Zg[u]gi' idi' Y^Z DZjiZ `ZccZc ^]c c^X]i bZ]g) <^Z ?ZhX]^X]iZ oZ^\i b^g' l^Z YVh
RjgxX`h^c`Zc Z^cZh hX]lVX]Zc dYZg cjg igu\Zc EZchX]Zc ^c Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i'
RZ^i' DZWZchoZ^i iwiZc `Vcc) <Zg Cdc[gdciVi^dc b^i YZg ?Z\ZclVgi ^hi bVc Vjh\Zl^Ü
X]Zc) MckZghZ]Zch ^hi bVc Vai) <^Z RZ^i ^hi kZgiVc) <Zg :Vcc YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i ^hi
]^Zg ^b EugX]Zc YVg\ZhiZaai YjgX] Y^Z idiZc K^ZYaZg) K^Z igZ[[Zc h^X] ^bbZg l^ZYZg
ojb ^bbZg l^ZYZg \aZ^X]Zc Ke^Za) AX] YZc`Z' YVz cZjgdi^hX]Z >^m^Zgjc\Zc b^i Y^ZÜ
hZb :Vcc YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i kZg\aZ^X]WVg h^cY5 EVc h^c`i ^c cZjgdi^hX]Zc NZg]VaÜ
iZchlZ^hZc ojgxX` ^ch ^bbZg \aZ^X]Z kZg\Vc\ZcZ Ke^Za' kZgbZ^YZi YVYjgX] Y^Z CdcÜ
[gdciVi^dcb^iYZg?Z\ZclVgijcYkZga^ZgiVah>da\ZYVkdc5DZWZchoZ^i)
=g^ccZgjc\ `Vcc :^cYjc\ hZ^c Vc NZgaZiojc\Zc' Vc MckZgYVjWVgZh) <^Z hedciVcZ'
WZYguc\ZcYZ =g^ccZgjc\ ]^a[i ^c Y^ZhZb >Vaa c^X]i' h^Z l^ZYZg]dai YZc 9aeigVjb) <Zg
Ygd\ZcVW]uc\^\Z KX]g^[ihiZaaZg ?aVjhZg \^Wi Y^ZhZg >dgb YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^ihW^cYjc\
9jhYgjX`' lZcc Zg ^c Z^cZb VjidW^d\gVe]^hX]Zc LZmi jcY ^b RjhVbbZc]Vc\ b^i
hZ^cZg hX]l^Zg^\Zc C^cY]Z^i hX]gZ^Wi5 Ö=h \^Wi =gZ^\c^hhZ' Y^Z h^cY l^Z hX]^aaZgcYZ
:aVhZc6 cVX] k^ZaZc BV]gZc' YV bVc hX]dc bZ^ciZ' h^Z hZ^Zc c^X]i bZ]g kdg]VcYZc'
hiZ^\Zc h^X eawioa^X] Vj[ ^c Z^cZg KijcYZ YZg FVX]i' lVX]hZc' ldaaZc c^X]i oZgeaVioZc
jcY l^ZYZg ^b F^X]ih kZghX]l^cYZc' hdcYZgc WaZcYZc Y^Z \ZhX]adhhZcZc 9j\ZcÅ
#?aVjhZg' d) B)$) KdaX]Z NZgVc\Zc]Z^ihW^cYjc\Zc W^cYZc jchZgZ DZWZch`gV[i ^c ^ccZÜ
gZcNZg`gVbe[jc\ZcYZg9c\hi)
=g^ccZgjc\ Vah IjZaaZ YZh KX]we[Zg^hX]Zc' =g^ccZgjc\ Vah NZg\ZhhZc' Vah OZ\(
iVjX]Zc ^c oZ^iadhZh F^ZbVcYhaVcY jcY =g^ccZgjc\ Vah l^ZYZg`Z]gZcYZg 9aeigVjb' (
Y^Z WZhX]g^ZWZcZc >dgbZc YZg =g^ccZgjc\ h^cY edh^i^kZ jcY cZ\Vi^kZ :^cYjc\Zc Vc
Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i) OVh bZ^ci VWZg =a^di' lZcc Zg hV\i' YVz =g^ccZgjc\ YZg :Z[gZ^jc\
Y^ZcZc hdaa8 O^Z `Vcc =g^ccZgjc\' hiVaa :^cYjc\ oj ZgoZj\Zc' ^c Y^Z >gZ^]Z^i [x]gZc8
=g^ccZgjc\' Y^Z ^c Y^Z >gZ^]Z^i [x]gi' Wg^c\i YZc EZchX]Zc ^c Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i
ojgxX`' jb ^]c kdc YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i oj ZgawhZc) <^Zh ^hi Y^Z FZjWZlZgijc\ YZg
=g^ccZgjc\^bK^ccZYZh^ciZ\gVaZc:ZljzihZ^ch)
=h ^hi bZ]g Vah Z^c Odgihe^Za oj hV\Zc' YVz =g^ccZgjc\hVgWZ^i ^b ^ciZ\gVaZc K^cc
ojg =g^ccZgjc\ Vc Y^Z Z^\ZcZ Rj`jc[i [x]gi) ?ZWhZg o^i^Zgi Z^c J^a`Zldgi5 ))<^Z OxcÜ
hX]Z h^cY Y^Z =g^ccZgjc\Zc' Y^Z Vjh jchZgZg Rj`jc[i `dbbZcÅ) <^Z ZX]iZc OxchX]Z
Zg^ccZgcjchVcYVh'lVhjchZgOZ\jcYYVb^ijchZgZRj`jc[i^hi)
<^Z HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ `Zcci Y^ZhZ =g^ccZgjc\hVgWZ^i) <^Z :Zidcjc\ YZg Rj`jc[i'
YZg =cihX]Z^Yjc\hbw\a^X]`Z^i YZh EZchX]Zc jcY YVb^i YZg O^aaZchfjVa^iui [x]gi WZ^
9hhV\^da^ YVoj' YVz Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i c^X]i l^Z bVcX]bVa VjX] ^c ehnX]dVcVani^Ü
hX]Zc CdcoZeiZc Vah YZiZgb^c^ZgZcY jcY ol^c\ZcY Vj[\Z[Vzi l^gY) <^Z NZg\Vc\ZcÜ
]Z^i ^hi olVg \ZhX]Z]Zc' YVgVc auzi h^X] c^X]ih bZ]g ucYZgc' VWZg jchZgZ @Vaijc\ YZg
NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i \Z\ZcxWZg ucYZgi Y^Z O^g`a^X]`Z^i YZg ^ccZgZc NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' Y^Z l^g
hiucY^\ b^i jch ]ZgjbigV\Zc) Ab CZccZcaZgcZc YZg =aiZgcW^aYZg jcY YZh kZgaZioiZc
C^cYZh ^c jch ^hi ^bbZg Y^Z :Z[gZ^jc\ YVh DZ^ibdi^k) Ac YZg MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ kdc
^ccZgZb :^aY jcY ujzZgZg' kZg\Vc\ZcZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i #Y^Z \Vg c^X]i bZ]g Zm^hi^Zgi$
l^gY Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i ZcioVjWZgi jcY YZg WZljziZc NZgucYZgjc\ Vjh YZg _Zio^\Zc
9gWZ^i ]ZgVjh oj\uc\a^X] \ZbVX]i) NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i l^gY Vj[\ZVgWZ^iZi' jb ?Z\ZcÜ
lVgi' bZ]g cdX]5 jb Z^cZc OZ\' Z^cZ Rj`jc[i oj ]VWZc) <Vh =g`ZccZc YZh ?gjcY(
bjhiZgh [x]gi YVoj' cZjZ NZg]VaiZchlZ^hZc oj lV\Zc jcY YZc K^cc YZg VaiZc KigViZÜ
\^Zc cZj' Vc\hi[gZ^ jbojhZioZc) <^Z =g^ccZgjc\hVgWZ^i [x]gi oj YZb Hjc`i) ld Y^Z
eZghwca^X]Z ?ZhX]^X]iZ c^X]i bZ]g [Vho^c^Zgi' lZ^a Y^Z Zbdi^dcVaZ DVYjc\ YZg Zg^cÜ
cZgiZc :^aYZg jcY ?Z[x]aZ VW\ZWVji ^hi) OVh WaZ^Wi' ^hi YVh ?Z[x]a i^Z[Zg <Vc`WVg`Z^i
[xgYVhLZ^a]VWZcVbjb[VhhZcYZcDZWZchhigdb)
46
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i
<Vh KVcYj]gW^aY5 Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i luX]hi' jcY Y^Z Rj`jc[i l^gY ^bbZg lZc^\Zg'
^hi c^X]i cdilZcY^\ZglZ^hZ jchZg KX]^X`hVa' dWld]a k^ZaZ VaiZ EZchX]Zc Y^ZhZb
KX]ZbV cdX] kZg[VaaZc) K^Z aZWZc cjg cdX] ^c =g^ccZgjc\Zc jcY ]VWZc `Z^cZ Rj`jc[i
bZ]g) <Zg \ZgZ^[iZ VaiZ EZchX] ]Vi VWZg' lZcc Zg h^X] kdc YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i WZ[gZ^i'
Y^Z WZhdcYZgZ ;]VcXZ' jcb^iiZaWVg jcY \Z\Zclugi^\ oj aZWZc) 9aiZ EZchX]Zc ]VWZc
[xg b^X] d[i Y^ZhZ ZghX]xiiZgcYZ >gZ^]Z^i' Y^ZhZh Ddh\ZawhihZ^c kdb kZg\Vc\ZcZc
DZWZc' Y^ZhZ <^gZ`i]Z^i jcY NdgjgiZ^ahadh^\`Z^i' Y^Z h^Z YVcc \ZgVYZ l^ZYZg kZga^ZgZc'
lZcc h^Z YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^ih\ZWjcYZc]Z^i kZg[VaaZc) <^Z =g^ccZgjc\hVgWZ^i YZg HhnÜ
X]dhnci]ZhZ `Vcc YZb EZchX]Zc ]Za[Zc' Y^Z WZ[gZ^ZcYZ Ew\a^X]`Z^i oj kZgl^g`a^Ü
X]Zc5 Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i oj aVhhZc) #9ah lZhZcia^X]Z LZX]c^`Zc WZ[gZ^ZcYZg =g^ccZÜ
gjc\hVgWZ^i hZ^Zc ]^Zg VjX] cdX]5 Y^Z \ZhX]jaiZ LgVjbZg^ccZgjc\ Vb Edg\Zc jcY YZg
LV\ZhgxX`Wa^X` Vb 9WZcY Zglu]ci' Y^Z bVc h^X] ojg iu\a^X]Zc ?Zld]c]Z^i bVX]Zc
`Vcc)$
)$ AFJSGQFJIFJS
=h \^Wi EdbZciZ' ld Y^Z RZ^i Vah GgYcjc\h\gwzZ `Z^cZ JdaaZ bZ]g he^Zai jcY
c^X]ih WaZ^Wi Vah YVh AbbZg jcY F^Z) <V ?ZWhZg VWZg ol^hX]Zc RZ^iadh^\`Z^i jcY RZ^iÜ
[gZ^]Z^i `aVg jciZghX]Z^YZi' ^hi Zh cwi^\' \ZcVj ]^cojhX]VjZc' lVh bVc YV ZgaZWi' lZcc
Y^Z RZ^i c^X]i bZ]g \^ai' ac hZ^cZb :jX] Ö9h^Zc auX]Zai VcYZghÅ hX]gZ^Wi ?ZWhZg xWZg
Z^cZ =g[V]gjc\' Y^Z Zg ^c BVeVc \ZbVX]i ]Vi' Vah Zg Vj[ Z^cZb :V]chiZ^\ Vj[ Z^cZc
kZgheuiZiZc Rj\ aVc\Z lVgiZc bjziZ5 ÖKdaX]Z OVgiZoZ^iZc h^cY jc\ZbZ^c jciZg]VaiÜ
hVb6 ^X] hiVcY ]Zgjb jcY WZdWVX]iZiZ) <Zg _VeVc^hX]Z ?ZeuX`igu\Zg ]dX`iZ h^X] kdg
Y^Z olZ^' YgZ^ `aZ^cZc ?ZeuX`hixX`Z) <Vcc \^c\ ZilVh EZg`lxgY^\Zh ^c hZ^cZb
?Zh^X]i kdg h^X]5 hZ^c :a^X` ljgYZ \Zl^hhZgbVzZc lZhZcadh' Zg ljgYZ kdaahiucY^\
VjhYgjX`hadh6 Y^ZhZg EVcc hX]^Zc c^X]i ZilVh oj igujbZc' hdcYZgc b^i d[[ZcZc
9j\Zc oj hX]aV[Zc6 Zg lVg ^c YZc hZZa^hX]Zc RZ^idoZVc ]^cVW\ZiVjX]i6 ^X] `dcciZ ^]c'
hd Z^cYg^c\a^X] ^X] ldaaiZ' VchZ]Zc' Zg hexgiZ Zh c^X]i' Zg lVg \Zl^hhZgbVzZc \Vg
c^X]i YV) 9ah YZg Rj\ Z^c[j]g' `Z]giZ Zg ^ch @ZjiZ ojgxX`6 Y^Z 9j\Zc hV]Zc l^ZYZg Y^Z
OZai' Zg lVg l^ZYZg ^ch OVX]WZljzihZ^c ]ZgVj[\ZiVjX]iÅ #?ZWhZg' ,41-$) <^ZhZh
@ZgVjh[VaaZc Vjh YZg RZ^i ^hi Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg RZ^iadh^\`Z^i' Z^c 9Wh^c`Zc ^c kZ\ZÜ
iVi^kZh =^chhZ^c6 C^cYZg `wccZc YVh \ji) =h ^hi VjX] d[i Z^cZ l^g`hVbZ sWZgaZWZch(
higViZ\^Z kZgigujbiZg C^cYZg) RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i ^hi `Z^c @ZgVjh[VaaZc Vjh YZg RZ^i) >xg
?ZWhZg ^hi RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i Z^cZ ^ciZ\gVaZ @Vaijc\' Y^Z Zghi bw\a^X] ^hi' lZcc Y^Z RZ^i ^c
^]gZc k^Za[uai^\Zc >dgbZc \ZbZ^hiZgi jcY xWZgljcYZc ^hi) <Vh =^cWZo^Z]Zc YZg RZ^iÜ
Zg[V]gjc\ kZghX]^ZYZcZg :ZljzihZ^chhigj`ijgZc' YVh NZgigVjZc ^c YZc Rj[Vaa' YVh
:ZljzihZ^c YZh gZaVi^kZc jcY lZX]hZal^g`hVbZc FZWZcZ^cVcYZgh kZghX]^ZYZcZg
RZ^iZc' Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg [gZ^hZioZcYZc CgV[i YZg =g^ccZgjc\hVgWZ^i5 Vaa YVh h^cY
9ccu]Zgjc\Zc Vc Y^Z RZ^i[gZ^]Z^a) 9WZg RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i ^hi cdX] bZ]g) =h ^hi Y^Z =g[V]Ü
gjc\ YZh <jgX]WgjX]h' Y^Z =g`Zccic^h' YVz RZ^i Z^cZ Aaajh^dc ^hi) <Zg KVio Vjh YZg
NZYVciVaZ]gZ5 =h ^hi c^Z _ZbVcY \ZWdgZc ldgYZc' Xh ^hi c^Z _ZbVcY \ZhidgWZc' o^Zai
Vj[Y^ZhZ=WZcZ]^c)EZY^iVi^dc`VccY^ZhZc:ZgZ^X]WZgx]gZc)
OZcc ^X] Y^Z 9j\Zc hX]^ZzZ' \^Wi Zh YZc JVjb c^X]i bZ]g' WZhhZg' YZg JVjb ig^ii ^c
YZc @^ciZg\gjcY bZ^cZh :ZljzihZ^ch' lVh ZglVX]i' ^hi Y^Z RZ^i5 ?ZYVc`Zc[ZioZc'
?Z[x]aZ' :ZlZ\jc\ ZcihiZ]i' :^aYZg Vjh YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i' `gVbe[]V[iZh >Zhi`aVbÜ
bZgc Vc bw\a^X]Zg Rj`jc[i' OxchX]Z iVjX]Zc Vj[' W^h YVh VjX] hi^aaZg l^gY jcY l^ZÜ
YZg hd ZilVh ZcihiZ]i l^Z YZg JVjb) =h ^hi VWZg Z^c ejah^ZgZcYZg JVjb' WZhhZg' Z^c
JVjb' ^c YZb Y^Z =cZg\^Z o^iiZgi jcY Z^c DZjX]iZc h^X] ^bbZg ZgcZjZgi) =h ^hi ZcYa^X]
47
JjYda[@ubbZga^
VjX] Jj]Z' Y^Z oj\aZ^X] CgV[i dYZg Jj]Z jcY :ZlZ\jc\ oj\aZ^X] ^hi) =h ^hi `Z^c
JVjb l^Z YZg ZghiZ' ujzZgZ JVjb' ld VaaZh l^Z oj[uaa^\ dYZg VjX] VaaZc[Vaah olZX`Ü
buz^\ cZWZcZ^cVcYZg a^Z\i jcY bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg \ZigZcci kdcZ^cVcYZg YV ^hi6 Zh ^hi
Z^c JVjb ^cc^\Zg :Zo^Z]jc\' Zh ^hi :Zo^Z]jc\hgZ^X]ijb) OVgjb ZghX]Z^ci Zh Vah
JVjb8 OZ^a h^X] b^i Y^ZhZg =g[V]gjc\ YVh ?Z[x]a kZgW^cYZi' OZ^iZ oj ]VWZc) 9iZb(
gVjb oj \Zl^ccZc' jcY lZ^a Y^Z [axX]i^\Z RZ^i Vah @ZioZ jcY @Vhi' Vah ?Zig^ZWZclZgÜ
YZc' Vah RZgg^ccZc YZg DZWZchbw\a^X]`Z^iZc c^X]i bZ]g WZhi^bbZcY ^hi' h^Z ]Vi ^]gZ
EVX]i kZgadgZc5 =h ZcihiZ]i ZilVh' YVh ^X] Vah YVjZgcYZ ?Z\ZclVgi YZg ?ZaZ\Zc]Z^i
Zg[V]gZ) JVjb jcY RZ^i h^cY Vahd ]^Zg kZghX]bdaoZc oj YZb' ldoj Y^Z bdYZgcZ H]nÜ
h^` YVh Ki^X]ldgi 'JVjb(RZ^i`dci^cjjbÉ \Z\ZWZc ]Vi' d]cZ YVb^i Y^Z ^ccZgZ =g[V]Ü
gjc\ oj bZ^cZc) 9WZg YVh ^hi \ZgVYZ WZoZ^X]cZcY5 <Vz ]ZjiZ Y^Z =g[dghX]jc\ YZg
ujzZgZc OZai oj YZb AccZgc kdghiwzi' YVh YZg =g[V]gjc\ WZ^b =g[dghX]Zc YZg ^ccZgZc
OZai Zciheg^X]i' YZg ^ccZgZc =g[V]gjc\ higj`ijgu]ca^X] ^hi' hd YVz ^X]' lZcc ^X] Y^Z
9j\Zc hX]a^ZzZ VjX] c^X]i bZ]g ol^c\ZcY hV\Zc `Vcc #dYZg hV\Zc bjz$5 AX] \Z]Z
cVX]^ccZc)
=^cZ =g[V]gjc\ oZ^i[gZ^Zg 9gi' lZaX]Z Y^ZhZ ?Vco]Z^i kdc ^ccZc jcY VjzZc ojb
9jhYgjX` Wg^c\i' ^hi YVh KX]axhhZaZgaZWc^h kdc ;VegV' YVh Zg Vb 9c[Vc\ hZ^cZh
:jX]Zh5Ö<Zg`dhb^hX]ZJZ^\ZcÅ#L]ZLVdd[H]nh^Xh$WZhX]gZ^Wi5
ÖNdg [xc[ BV]gZc ]ViiZ ^X] Z^c ljcYZgWVgZh =gaZWc^h' ldgVj[ ^X] YZc OZ\ Z^cÜ
hX]aj\) YZg ojb KX]gZ^WZc Y^ZhZh :jX]Zh [x]giZ #<Vh LVd YZg H]nh^`$) =^cZh FVX]Ü
b^iiV\h ^b KeuihdbbZg hVz ^X] Vb EZZg jcY hV]' l^Z Y^Z OZaaZc VcgdaaiZc' jcY
[x]aiZ YZc J]ni]bjh bZ^cZh 9iZbh' Vah ^X] b^g eawioa^X] bZ^cZg Mb\ZWjc\ Vah LZ^a
Z^cZh \^\Vci^hX]Zc `dhb^hX]Zc LVcoZh WZljzi ljgYZ) 9ah H]nh^`Zg ljziZ ^X]) YVz
YZg KVcY jcY Y^Z >ZahZc' YVh OVhhZg jcY Y^Z Dj[i jb b^X] ]Zg h^X] Vjh k^Wg^ZgZcYZc
EdaZ`xaZc jcY 9idbZc ojhVbbZchZioZc) <^ZhZ l^ZYZgjb WZhiZ]Zc Vjh LZ^aX]Zc'
Y^Z YjgX] =goZj\jc\ jcY RZghiwgjc\ VcYZgZg LZ^aX]Zc b^iZ^cVcYZg gZV\^ZgZc) AX]
ljziZ VjX]' YVz jchZgZ 9ibdhe]ugZ hiucY^\ YjgX] KigwbZ `dhb^hX]Zg KigV]aZc WdbÜ
WVgY^Zgi l^gY' LZ^aX]Zc kdc ]d]Zg =cZg\^Z' Y^Z WZ^b <jgX]Yg^c\Zc YZg Dj[i k^Za[VX]Z
RjhVbbZchiwzZ ZgaZ^YZc) 9aa Y^Zh lVg b^g kdc bZ^cZg >dghX]jc\hiui^\`Z^a ^c @dX](
ZcZg\^Z(H]nh^` kZgigVji' VWZg W^h oj Y^ZhZb 9j\ZcWa^X` WZhX]guc`iZ h^X] bZ^cZ
=g[V]gjc\ Vj[ \gVe]^hX]Z <VghiZaajc\Zc) <^V\gVbbZ jcY bVi]ZbVi^hX]Z L]Zdg^Zc)
9ah ^X] Vc Y^ZhZb KigVcY hVz' \ZlVccZc bZ^cZ [gx]ZgZc =meZg^bZciZ DZWZc) AX]
'hV]É [wgba^X]' l^Z Vjh YZb OZaigVjb =cZg\^Z ^c CVh`VYZc ]ZgVW`Vb jcY ^]gZ LZ^aÜ
X]Zc g]ni]b^hX] ZgoZj\i jcY oZghiwgi ljgYZc) AX] )hV]" Y^Z 9idbZ YZg =aZbZciZ jcY
Y^Z bZ^cZh CwgeZgh Vah LZ^a Y^ZhZh `dhb^hX]Zc =cZg\^Z(LVcoZh6 ^X] [x]aiZ hZ^cZc
J]ni]bjh jcY )]wgiZ" hZ^cZc CaVc\' jcY ^c Y^ZhZb 9j\ZcWa^X` ljziZ ^X]' YVz Y^Zh
YZg LVco KX]^kVh lVg' YZh ?diiZh YZg LucoZg' YZc Y^Z @^cYjh kZgZ]gZcÅ #;VegV'
,422$)
>xg ?ZWhZg ^hi RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i aZioia^X] Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZhhZc' lVh Zg YZc jch^X]iWVgZc
Mghegjc\ \ZcVcci ]Vi5 ÖOZg YZc jch^X]iWVgZc Mghegjc\ lV]g\ZcdbbZc ]Vi' ljgYZ
kdb ?VcoZc [xg lV]g \ZcdbbZc) =g [VcY oj YZc IjZaaZc ojgxX` dYZg oj ^]cZc
]^cVj["#?ZWhZg',42+$)
>xg Y^Z 9gWZ^i YZg HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ ^hi Y^ZhZ Gg^Zci^Zgjc\ oZcigVa) =^cZ HhnX]dhnc(
i]ZhZh^iojc\) Y^Z b^i YZg ^ccZgZc KVbbajc\ WZ\^cci' WZ\^cci b^i Y^ZhZg 9jhg^X]ijc\)
<Vh :Zod\ZchZ^c Vj[ YZc igVcheZghdcVaZc O^aaZc ^hi Z^c :Zod\ZchZ^c Vj[ Y^Z \Z\ZcÜ
lugi^\Z Rj`jc[i' Y^Z ^bbZg hX]dc YV lVg) @^Zg kZghX]l^cYZi [xg 9j\ZcWa^X`Z YVh
FVX]Z^cVcYZg YZg RZ^i) 9hhV\^da^ bVX]i Vj[ Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ Vj[bZg`hVb' YVz YVh
WZljziZ KZaWhi kdb :ZljzihZ^chigdb jciZghX]^ZYZc lZgYZc `Vcc) MchZg \Zlw]ca^Ü
X]Zh :ZljzihZ^c ^YZci^[^o^Zgi h^X] b^i YZb :ZljzihZ^chhigdb' \Z]i d[i YVg^c jciZg
48
<Vh?Z]Z^bc^hYZgRZ^i
jcY YVg^c kZgadgZc) >xg 9j\ZcWa^X`Z ^hi VWZg Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ bw\a^X]' YVz l^g jch Vjh
YZb :ZljzihZ^chhigdb ]ZgVjhcZ]bZc `wccZc' YVz l^g c^X]i ^b >ajz YZg RZ^i' hdcÜ
YZgc oZ^i[gZ^ jch Zg[V]gZc `wccZc) Ö<Vh WZljziZ KZaWhi ^hi ^b Vaa\ZbZ^cZc c^X]i cjg
^c YZc hiucY^\Zc Kigdb ehnX]^hX]Zg jcY bZciVaZg Ac]VaiZ Z^c\ZiVjX]i' Zh hX]Z^ci
hd\Vg kwaa^\ oj kZghX]l^cYZc' lZcc l^g Z^chX]aV[Zc' d]cbuX]i^\ lZgYZc' jciZg YZb
=^c[ajz kdc 9cuhi]Zi^`V dYZg FVg`di^`V hiZ]Zc dYZg ^b RjhiVcY YZg @necdhZ) OZcc
l^g ZglVX]Zc' iVjX]i YVh KZaWhi Vj[ \Z]Z^bc^hkdaaZ OZ^hZ l^ZYZg Vj[' d]cZ YVz l^g
l^hhZc' l^Z jcY ld]Zg ( Z^cZ LVihVX]Z' Y^Z \ZcVj WZigVX]iZi lV]g]V[i kZgl^ggZcY
jcY WZjcgj]^\ZcY ^hi) <^Zh [x]gi jch oj YZg 9ccV]bZ' YVz YVh O^ZYZgVj[iVjX]Zc YZh
WZljziZc KZaWhi dYZg YZh 'AX]Ç Z^cZb [dgiYVjZgcYZc RZcigjb ojojhX]gZ^WZc ^hi'
Z^cZb 'lV]gZc KZaWhiÉ' YVh _ZchZ^ih dYZg 'xWZgÇ YZb WZljziZc KZaWhi a^Z\iÅ #9hhVÜ
\^da^' ,433$) <^Z NZgW^cYjc\ ojb ]w]ZgZc KZaWhi ^hi oj\aZ^X] Y^Z NZgW^cYjc\ oj Z^cZg
oZ^i[gZ^Zc O^g`a^X]`Z^i) Ö<^ZhZh KZaWhi hiZ]i xWZg YZb :ZljzihZ^chhigdb dYZg YZc
`wgeZga^X]Zc RjhiucYZc jcY l^gY YVkdc c^X]i WZgx]gi)Å O^X]i^\ ^hi YVWZ^' YVz Y^ZhZh
KZaWhi `Z^cZ e]^adhde]^hX]Z L]ZhZ ^b K^ccZ YZh igVchoZcYZciVaZc KjW_Z`ih' hdcYZgc
Z^cZ Zg[V]gWVgZ jcY YZh]VaW VjX] Zg[dghX]WVgZ =g[V]gjc\ YVghiZaai) <^Z oZ^i[gZ^Z
=g[V]gjc\^hi`Z^cHdhijaVi'hdcYZgcZ^cZWZhi^bbiZIjVa^iuiYZh:ZljzihZ^ch)
*$ AFJSHFCFN+,TGMFQKRBMKFJS
RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i ^hi =g[V]gjc\ kdc Mc\ZWjcYZc]Z^a Vc a^cZVgZ' o^Za\Zg^X]iZiZ RZ^i' Vc
cVijg]V[i on`a^hX]Z 9Wauj[Z' ^hi >gZ^]Z^i kdc ÖRZ^ihX]lZgZÅ jcY ÖRZ^ihX]jaYÅ
#:Z\g^[[Z YZh gdbVci^hX]Zc H]^adhde]Zc >gVco kdc :VVYZg Vjh hZ^cZb 9j[hVio5 sWZg
YZc :Z\g^[[ YZg RZ^i$) <^Z >gZ^]Z^i von :^cYjc\Zc hdaa VWZg Y^Z >gZ^]Z^i zu cZjZb
DZWZc Zgbw\a^X]Zc) Odoj WZ[gZ^i Y^Z RZ^i[gZ^]Z^i8 AX] YZc`Z' YVz Z^c EZchX]' YZg ^b
lZ^iZhiZc K^cc c^X]i bZ]g l^g`a^X] jciZg RZ^iYgjX` hiZ]i #dWld]a Zg k^ZaaZ^X]i hZ]g
WZhX]u[i^\i ^hi$' [u]^\ \ZldgYZc ^hi' YZb VcYZgZc EZchX]Zc' YZc VcYZgZc OZhZc'
RZ^i oj \ZWZc' RZ^i oj hX]Zc`Zc) :Z^b :ZigVX]iZc YZh >^abh ÖCdnVVc^hfjVih^Å kdc
;deedaV ^hi b^g WZljzi \ZldgYZc' l^Z kZgaVc\hVbiZ :^aYZg' RZ^iajeZcVj[cV]bZc
ZilVh D^ZWZkdaaZh ]VWZc) =h he^Zai `Z^cZ \gdzZ JdaaZ' lVh YVg\ZhiZaai l^gY5 O^Z
_ZbVcY h^X] Z^cZ R^\VgZiiZ VcoxcYZi' YZc Cde[ lZcYZi' l^gY YjgX] Y^Z DVc\hVb`Z^i
YZg :^aYl^ZYZg\VWZ oj ZilVh OZgikdaaZb' YVh 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i kZgY^Zci) <Vh EZ]g
Vc RZ^i' YVh ^ckZhi^Zgi l^gY' auzi Z^cZ cZjZ 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i ZcihiZ]Zc) #<^Z ?Z]bZÜ
Y^iVi^dc ^c k^ZaZc WjYY]^hi^hX]Zc LgVY^i^dcZc VgWZ^iZi hX]dc aVc\Z b^i Y^ZhZb Hg^co^e
YZg WZljziZc NZgaVc\hVbjc\)$ ?dZi]Z hV\i Vc Z^cZg KiZaaZ5 Ö<^Z 9j\Zc Vj[ijc'
WZhX]Z^YZchZ]ZcjcYZglVgiZc'lVhh^X]Y^g^cYZgKZZaZW^aYZi)Å
OZcc ^X] aVc\Z \Zcj\ ]^chX]VjZ' lZcc ^X] Z^cZg KVX]Z \Zcx\ZcY 9j[bZg`hVbÜ
`Z^i hX]Zc`Z' ZciYZX`Z ^X] ZilVh' lZcc ^X] b^i bZ^cZg 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i YVWZ^ WaZ^WZ'
kZgucYZgih^X]ZilVh'lZcc^X]YVWZ^WaZ^WZ'kZglVcYZaih^X]ZilVh)
<^Z HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ VgWZ^iZi b^i Y^ZhZb oZ^i[gZ^Zc RZ^i\ZWZc) 9hhV\^da^ lZ^hi YVgÜ
Vj[]^c' YVz ÖDVc\hVb`Z^iÅ oj Z^cZg O^aaZchxWjc\ ^b 9aaiV\ lZgYZc `Vcc) Ö<^Zh ^hi
Z^cZ l^X]i^\Z jcY lZgikdaaZ >u]^\`Z^i' Y^Z bVc ^b 9aaiV\ Zcil^X`Zac `Vcc5 oj aZgcZc'
l^Z bVc 'aVc\hVb Z^aZcÉ `VccÅ #9hhV\^da^' ,433$) ÖDVc\hVb Z^aZcÅ' [x]gi 9hhV\^da^
lZ^iZg Vjh' ^hi c^X]i Z^c[VX]' lZ^a ^X] oj\aZ^X] olZ^ HZghdcZc \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ hZ^c bjz5
Y^Z ]VcYZacYZ HZghdc jcY Y^Z VcYZgZ Vah :ZdWVX]iZg) N^eVhhVcV Vah EZY^iVi^dch[dgb'
>dXjh^c\ Vah i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z LZX]c^` `ZccZc Y^ZhZc ^ccZgZc :ZdWVX]iZg' YZh ^ccZgZc
RZj\Zc) =h h^cY EZi]dYZc' Y^Z YZg HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ hZ]g cV]Z hiZ]Zc jcY h^Z Zg\ucÜ
oZc) ?ZcZ ?ZcYa^c' YZg :Z\gxcYZg YZh >dXjh^c\' ]Vi ^c Z^cZb Odg`h]de `xgoa^X]
49
JjYda[@ubbZga^
\ZhV\i5 Ö>dXjh^c\ WZYZjiZi Z^c[VX]5 >V]g aVc\hVbZgÅ OZg aVc\hVbZg [u]gi' h^Z]i
bZ]g) <^Z >dXjh^ZgiZX]c^` auzi YZc :^aYZgc jcY ?Z[x]aZc' YZc ?ZYVc`Zc jcY YZc
=be[^cYjc\Zc RZ^i' h^X] VjhojYgxX`Zc jcY YZg ^ccZgZc ÖDd\^`Å ZcihegZX]ZcY h^X]
oj `augZc) <^Z 9gWZ^i YZh L]ZgVeZjiZc Y^Zci YVWZ^ kdg VaaZb YZg AciZch^k^Zgjc\ YZg
OV]gcZ]bjc\ YjgX] YVh EZ]g Vc RZ^i' YVh ^ckZhi^Zgi l^gY' ^b NZgigVjZc YVgVj[' YVz
h^X] YVh oZ^\i' lVh h^X] oZ^\Zc hdaa) <Vz Y^Z 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i VaaZ^c' YVh RZ^ihX]Zc(
`Zc WZgZ^ih Z^cZc VaX]Zb^hX]Zc HgdoZz Zgbw\a^X]i' ^hi Y^Z \Z]Z^bc^hkdaaZ =g[V]gjc\'
Y^Z bVc YVWZ^ ^bbZg cZj bVX]i) <V WZgx]gi bVc jcb^iiZaWVg5 YVh ?Z]Z^bc^h YZg
RZ^i)
L]ZbnhiZgnda"i^bZ
5ummcry
L^bZ' VXXdgY^c\ id ?ZWhZg' ^h i]Z `Zn i]ZbZ d[ djg ZedX] ^c i]^h eZg^dY d[ igVch^i^dc) Bjhi Vh i]Z bZciVa
XdchX^djhcZhh Y^hXdkZgZY i]gZZ(Y^bZch^dcVa heVXZ' VcY ^c i]Z hZeVgVi^dc d[ hjW_ZXi VcY dW_ZXi XgZViZY V
hX^ZcXZ d[ fjVci^[^XVi^dc' hd cdl i]Z cZl ^ciZ\gVa XdchX^djhcZhh Y^hXdkZgh i]Z fjVa^in d[ i^bZ) L]Z egZÜ
hZci ZhhVn bZVch id a^c` ?ZWhZgÉh Xdcig^Wji^dc id i]Z ]^hidgn d[ XdchX^djhcZhh l^i] i]Z ehnX]dhnci]Zh^h d[
9hhV\^da^) :di] hiVgi [gdb i]Z Vhhjbei^dc i]Vi eVgVaaZah Zm^hi WZilZZc i]Z ]^hidgn d[ XdchX^djhcZhh d[
]jbVc^in Vh V l]daZ VcY i]Z YZkZadebZci d[ XdchX^djhcZhh ^c i]Z ^cY^k^YjVa' VcY i]Vi ]jbVc^in idYVn ^h
Y^hXdkZg^c\ cZl" Y^bZch^dch d[ XdchX^djhcZhh l]^X] \d WZndcY gVi^dcVa i]^c`^c\) :di] ed^ci id i]Z YZX^Ü
h^kZ^c[ajZcXZd[djgXdchX^djhcZhhd[i^bZdcdjg[jcYVbZciVaVii^ijYZida^[ZVcYdjgWZ]Vk^djg'VcYWdi]
egdk^YZ ^bedgiVci ed^ciZgh [dg V gZdg^ZciVi^dc d[ ZmeZg^ZcXZ i]gdj\] ^ciZch^[^XVi^dc d[ djg XdchX^djhcZhh
d[ i^bZ) L]Z egZhZci ZhhVn ViiZbeih Wn bZVch d[ egVXi^XVa gZ[ZgZcXZ ed^cih # X]VcXZ' gZaVi^k^in' bZbdgn'
[gZZYdb [gdb i^bZ VcY ViiZci^kZcZhh$ id \^kZ XdcXgZiZ [dgb id i]ZhZ hj\\Zhi^dch [gdb ?ZWhZg VcY 9hhVÜ
\^da^^ciZgbhd[i]Z^gedhh^WaZVeea^XVi^dc^cWdi]YV^ana^[ZVcYi]ZgVeZji^Xldg`)
CZnldgYh5AciZ\gVaXdchX^djhcZhh'HhnX]dhnci]Zh^h'LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n'i^bZXdchX^djhcZhh)
D^iZgVijg
Asscgloll,kobertc#,433$'HhnX]dhnci]ZhZ'9HA(NZgaV\'9Ya^hl^a*Rxg^X])
Augustln#d)B)$':Z`Zccic^hhZ'<^ZYZg^X]h'BZcV)
von 8ccJer, lrcnz #,430$' sWZg YZc :Z\g^[[ YZg RZ^i' O^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Z :jX]\ZhZaahX]V[i' <VgbhiVYi)
Ccµrc,lrltjof#,422$)<Zg`dhb^hX]ZJZ^\Zc'G)O):Vgi]':Zgc)
Clomµl,luc#,433$'9jzZclZaiAccZclZai(<^Z=cihiZ]jc\kdcRZ^i)JVjbjcYehnX]^hX]ZcKigj`ijgZc'
KVbbajc\NVcYZc]dZX`'?wii^c\Zc)
vonlrcnz,Mcrle-loulse#,432$'O^hhZcVjhYZgL^Z[Z'CwhZa'ExcX]Zc)
vonlrcnz,Mcrle-loulse#,43,$)RZ^i(KigwbZcjcYKi^aaZ'AchZaNZgaV\)>gVc`[jc-EV^c)
Gebser,1ecn#,431$'?ZhVbiVjh\VWZ)FdkVa^hNZgaV\'KX]V[[]VjhZc)
Gebser,1ecn#,4/4(,40.$'Mghegjc\jcY?Z\ZclVgi)<N9)Kijii\Vgi)
Gebser,1ecn#,42+$'<Zgjch^X]iWVgZMghegjc\'OVaiZgNZgaV\'GaiZc)
Glcuser,lrleJrlch#,433$'RZ^i\ZcdhhZ'?aVjhZg'9gX]Z'Rxg^X])
lrvlng,wcshlngton#,431$)J^eNVcO^c`aZ)Hj[[^c;aVhh^Xh'@VgbdcYhldgi]
lrlshncmurtl,1lJJu/8ohm,DcvlJ#,432$'NdbOZgYZcojbKZ^c)G)O:Vg~:Zp
Pect,DcvlJ#,434$'KncX]gdc^o^iui'G)O):Vgi]':Zgc)
7rungµcChogycm#,434$'>ZjZgig^c`Zc)=gYZVibZc'gdgdgd)JZ^cWZiWZ((
wllber,len#,433$)<^ZYgZ^9j\ZcYZg=g`Zccic^h'CwhZa'ExcX]Zc)
wllber,len#,44,$'@VaWoZ^iYZg=kdaji^dc)?daYbVcc'ExcX]Zc)
wllJer,7hornton#,40/$'<^Z:gxX`ZkdcKVcDj^hJZn'>^hX]Zg)>gVc`ijc(EV6(
<g)JjYda[@ubbZga^
:axba^hVaehigVzZ,-
;@(.1++L]jc
KX]lZ^o
50
LgVcheZghdcVaZ
HhnX]dad\^Z jcY
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
,*,441'0,(10
?ONEFQ>NG[IJHKFJSEFR4NSFLLFKSR"
EBR,CROLTSFYTFQKFNNFN"
OEFQEFQ@FSSLBTGYVJRDIFN3BRFTNE4HFL!
luJwlglrcmbcch,lcufc.J.Pegnltz
ATRBMMFNGBRRTNH$ <Zg AciZaaZ`i ^hi eg^co^e^Zaa jc[u]^\' YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh ?VcoZ'
oj Zg`ZccZc' YV hZ^c ?gjcYeg^co^e YVh MciZghX]Z^YZc ^c NdgYZg\gjcY jcY @^ciZgÜ
\gjcY ^hi) <VWZ^ WaZ^Wi ^bbZg Z^c jcZg`VcciZg JZhi' YZg Y^[[jhZ @^ciZg\gjcY) >xg Y^Z
edaVg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZ e]ucdbZcVaZ O^g`a^X]`Z^i ^hi YZg AciZaaZ`i YZg Vc\ZbZhhZcZ
=g`Zccic^h(EdYjh) Mb YVh 9WhdajiZ' ?VcoZ' Y^Z ÖKX]we[Zg^hX]Z AcY^[[ZgZcoÅ #K)
>g^ZYaVZcYZg$ _ZchZ^ih VaaZg edaVgZg <^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ lV]gojcZ]bZc' WZYVg[ Xh Z^cZg
cZjZcxWZg\Z\Zchuioa^X]Zc'`dciZbeaVi^kZc=g`Zccic^hlZ^hZ)
<DIL]RRFLVOQSF+ =g`Zccic^hi]Zdg^Z' HdaVg^iui' NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<^[[ZÜ
gZco^Zgjc\'KX]we[Zg^hX]ZAcY^[[ZgZco)
Rj\Z\ZWZc ( Z^cZ ZilVh bZg`(lxgY^\Z RjhVbbZchiZaajc\ Y^ZhZg L^iZa) 9WZg YZh
EZg`ZchlxgY^\'YVZgK^ccbVX]i'l^Zh^X]]d[[Zcia^X]WVaY]ZgVjhhiZ^aZcl^gY)
<Vh olZ^iZ ^hi Vaa\ZbZ^c WZ`Vcci' Vjh YZb EugX]ZcWjX]5 Z^cZ >VWZa Vjh jchZgZg
C^cYZgoZ^i) =g^ccZgc l^g jch :^aYZg hiZ^\Zc Vj[ Vjh EugX]ZcWjX]lZaiZc5 <Zg
hX]cZaaZ' VWZg aZ^YZg VjX] ZilVh Z^iaZ jcY YjbbZ @VhZ lZiiZi b^i YZb e[^[[^\Zc A\Za5
Zg auj[i Vj[ _ZYZc >Vaa hX]cZaaZg Vah YZg `jgo( jcY `gjbbWZ^c^\Z O^X]i' jcY YVh ldaÜ
aZc h^X WZ^ Z^cZb OZiiaVj[ ^c olZ^ 9X`Zg[jgX]Zc `augZc) <Zg A\Za ]dai hZ^cZ >gVj' jcY
Y^ZhZ kZghiZX`i h^X] Vb VcYZgZc =cYZ YZg JZcchigZX`Z) <Vh JZccZc WZ\^cci) <Zg
@VhZ gVhi adh' YdX] Vc YZg OZcYZbVg`Z hX]Vaai ^]b hX]dc YVh kZg]uc\c^hkdaaZ Ö:^c
hX]dc YVÅ Zci\Z\Zc' jcY Zg h^Z]i Y^Z A\Za^c' Y^Z Zg [xg ^]gZc EVcc ]uai) =g gVhi ojgxX`
jcY l^ZYZg YVh \aZ^X]Z5 Ö:^c hX]dc YVÅ gj[i ^]b YZg A\Za oj) Kd \Z]i Zh ]^c jcY ]Zg' ^c
gVhZcYZb DVj[ kdc Z^cZb Ö:^c hX]dc YVÅ ojb VcYZgZc' W^h YZg kwaa^\ ZghX]we[iZ
@VhZ ^c YZg E^iiZ idi ojhVbbZcWg^X]i) <Zg 9gbZ' lVh lVg hZ^c >Z]aZg8 =g ]Vi c^X]i
Zg`Vcci' YVz ZgZh b^i olZ^Zc oj ijc ]ViiZ <^Z \Z]Zc _Zioi b^i ^]gZb ?Zl^cc kZg\cx\i
cVX]@VjhZ)
McY lVh ]Vi YVh VaaZh b^i YZb aciZaaZ`i jcY YZb 9WhdajiZc oj ijc8 KZ]g k^Za' YZcc
lZcc bVc h^X] `aVgbVX]i' lVh YZg AciZaaZ`i ^hi' l^Z Zg VgWZ^iZi jcY lVh YVh 9WhdajiZ
^hi'YVccl^gYjchZgZ>VWZa\ZgVYZojojZ^cZbe]^adhde]^hX]ZcDZ]ghixX`)
% [xgFZaan',434)
51
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
/FQ4NSFLLFKS
9ahd ojZghi5 OVh ^hi YZg AciZaaZ`i' jcY l^Z VgWZ^iZi' l^Z [jc`i^dc^Zgi Zg8 <Zg AciZaÜ
aZ`i ^hi YVh =g`ZccZc' OV]gcZ]bZc' YjgX] YVh l^g jch ^c YZg OZai dg^Zci^ZgZc #aVi)
lntellectus WZYZjiZi YVh OV]gcZ]bZc' =g`ZccZc' =be[^cYZc jcY `dbbi kdc lntel-
lect}, YVh h^X] Vjh lnter-lego ojhVbbZchZioi' jcY Z^\Zcia^X] Ölu]aZ YVol^hX]ZcÅ
WZYZjiZi$) =g ^hi \Z^hi^\Z OV]gcZ]bjc\' YjgX] Y^Z l^g Y^Z OZai h^cckdaa dgYcZc' jb
jch YVg^c ojgZX]ioj[^cYZc) E^i ^]b higj`ijg^ZgZc l^g jchZgZ h^cca^X]Zc' gZoZei^kZc
=^cYgxX`Z' YjgX]Yg^c\Zc h^Z' Zg`ZccZc \gjcYaZ\ZcYZ EjhiZg' ?ZhiVaiZc' Hg^co^e^Zc'
Ndg\uc\Z) E^i YZb AciZaaZ`i ÖYjgX]hX]VjZcÅ l^g' lVh l^g hX]VjZc' ]wgZc' g^ZX]Zc'
[x]aZc' hX]bZX`Zc) BV' bZ]g cdX]5 d]cZ ^]c lugZc Vaa jchZgZ bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg
`aVgZc h^cca^X]Zc =be[^cYjc\Zc \Vg c^X]i bw\a^X]) G]cZ YZc AciZaaZ`i lugZc jchZgZ
K^ccZhlV]gcZ]bjc\Zc Z^c c^X]ihhV\ZcYZg `dcijgadhZg :gZ^' Z^c E^hX](bVhX]) =g ^hi
Z^cZ dgYcZcYZ' `dbW^cVidg^hX]Z DZ^hijc\' Y^Z 9gi jcY OZ^hZ YZg Kigj`ijg^Zgjc\
jchZgZgOV]gcZ]bjc\)
McY l^Z VgWZ^iZi Zg cjc8 FVX] lZaX]Zc Hg^co^e^Zc [jc`i^dc^Zgi Zg8 <Vh =g`ZccZc
YZh AciZaaZ`ih VgWZ^iZi WZ^ YZc `dbea^o^ZgiZhiZc \Z^hi^\Zc ÖjcVchX]Vja^X]ZcÅ GeZgVÜ
i^dcZc l^Z VjX] WZ^b Z^c[VX]Zc \gdWh^cca^X]Zc =g`ZccZc cVX] Z^cZb ?gjcYeg^co^e5
YZg 0nterschelJung. =g`ZccZc ]Z^zi MciZghX]Z^YZc) <Vh auzi h^X] Z^c[VX] ÖZ^chZ(
]ZcÅ'^bWjX]hiuWa^X]ZcK^ccZYZhOdgiZh5
OVh Zg`ZccZc K^Z' cZ]bZc K^Z lV]g8 ( FdgbVaZglZ^hZ l^gY Y^Z 9cildgi Z^c[VX]
aVjiZc5 Z^cZc hX]lVgoZc Hjc`i) <Vh hi^bbi' ^hi VWZg jc\ZcVj' Z^\Zcia^X] cjg Z^cZ
KZ^iZ YZg =g`Zccic^h) ?ZcVjZg WZigVX]iZi Zg`ZccZc l^g Z^cZc hX]lVgoZc Hjc`i dYZg
Z^cZ hX]lVgoZ CgZ^h[auX]Z kdg Z^cZb lZ^zZc @^ciZg\gjcY) MchZg =g`ZccZc lst YVh
MciZghX]Z^YZc YZh hX]lVgoZc Hjc`iZh kdc YZg jb\ZWZcYZc lZ^zZc >auX]Z) <^ZhZ
MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ a^Z\i _ZYZb ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc =g`Zccic^hV`i oj\gjcYZ) <^Z Gestcltµsy-
chologle jcY -theorle #EZio\Zg ,420$' Z^cZ ehnX]dad\^hX]Z jcY Zg`Zccic^hi]ZdgZi^(
hX]Z >dghX]jc\hg^X]ijc\ Vjh YZc ZghiZc BV]goZ]ciZc Y^ZhZh BV]g]jcYZgih ^c <ZjihX]Ü
aVcY' ^hi Y^ZhZb \gjcYhuioa^X]Zc Ndg\Vc\ YZg OV]gcZ]bjc\ cVX]\Z\Vc\Zc) A]gZ
NZgigZiZg #=]gZc[Zah' OZgi]Z^bZg' Cw]aZg' Cd[[`V' Cgx\Zg' DZl^c' EZio\Zg j)k)V)$
]VWZc \ZoZ^\i' YVz =g`ZccZc jcY OV]gcZ]bZc ^bbZg ^c Y^ZhZb HgdoZz YZg MciZgÜ
hX]Z^Yjc\' YZg Dlfferenzlerung ^c vorJergrunJ jcY llntergrunJ, WZhiZ]i) =^cZ
?ZhiVai ^hi Z^cZ NdgYZg\gjcY[^\jg' Y^Z h^X] YjgX] MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ kdc Z^cZb @^ciZgÜ
\gjcY VW]ZWi) <^ZhZg HgdoZz kdaao^Z]i h^X] WZ^ _ZYZg >dgb kdc h^cca^X]Zg' Zbdi^dcVÜ
aZg jcY \ZYVc`a^X]Zg OV]gcZ]bjc\) 9jX] lZcc K^X _Zioi Y^ZhZ RZ^aZc aZhZc5 K^Z
Zg`ZccZc ojb Z^cZc h^cca^X] k^hjZaa' ^cYZb K^X _Zioi ^c Y^ZhZb EdbZci Y^Z Yjc`aZc
D^c^Zc YZg KX]g^[ioZ^X]Zc kdb ]ZaaZc @^ciZg\gjcY jciZghX]Z^YZc jcY hd Y^Z ?ZhiVaiZc
YZg :jX]hiVWZc lV]gcZ]bZc) <Vh kZghiZ]ZcYZ ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ =g`ZccZc WZhiZ]i
lZ^iZg]^c YVg^c' YVz K^Z Y^Z Z^coZacZc ?ZhiVaiZc YZg :jX]hiVWZc oj YZc Z^coZacZc
WZYZjijc\hkdaaZc ?ZhiVaiZc `dbW^c^ZgZc' YZc OwgiZgc' l^Z o) :) ZWZc :jX]hiVWZ
52
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^i)
dYZg :aVhZc`ViVgg]' ExaaZ^bZg' N^ZicVbZh^hX]Zh @uc\ZWVjX]hX]lZ^c) McY YVcc
dgYcZc K^Z Y^Z Z^coZacZc ?ZhiVaiZc YZg OwgiZg oj lZ^iZgZc xWZg\ZdgYcZiZc ?ZhiVaiZc
kdc WZYZjijc\hkdaaZc KuioZc jcY kZghiZ]Zc YVcc ]d[[Zcia^X]' lVh ^X] b^i Vaa Y^ZhZc
Yjc`aZc RZ^X]Zc Vj[ ]ZaaZb ?gjcY b^iiZ^aZc l^aa' ^cYZb Y^Z h^cckdaaZ ?ZhiVai Z^cZh
Zg`ZccZcYZc'jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc?ZYVc`Zc\Vc\ZhWZ^A]cZcegu\cVcil^gY)
<dX] l^g bxhhZc [xg jchZg L]ZbV c^X]i hd `dbea^o^Zgi lZgYZc) RjgxX` ojb Z^cÜ
[VX]Zc ?gjcYkdg\Vc\ YZg =g`Zccic^h5 YZg MciZghX]Z^Yjc\) <Vh Zg`ZccZcYZ MciZgÜ
hX]Z^YZc WZhiZ]i Vahd YVg^c' YVz l^g Z^c ojhVbbZc]uc\ZcYZh' `dbeaZmZh ?VcoZh
kdc Z^cZg jcojhVbbZc]uc\ZcYZgZc Mb\ZWjc\ VW\gZcoZc5 Y^Z NdgYZg\gjcY[^\jg
l^gY egu\cVci' YZg @^ciZg\gjcY Y^[[jh) O^g hZ]Zc YZc hX]lVgoZc Hjc`i jcY xWZghZÜ
]Zc Y^Z lZ^zZ >auX]Z' Y^Z l^g cjg ]^ciZg\gxcY^\ b^ihZ]Zc) KZ]Zc ]Z^zi Vahd ^bbZg
VjX] oj\aZ^X] sWZg(KZ]Zc' F^X]i(KZ]Zc) GYZg jb[VhhZcYZg Vjh\ZYgxX`i5 =g`ZccZc
WZYZjiZi ^bbZg oj\aZ^X] F^X]i(=g`ZccZc) MchZg AciZaaZ`i [jc`i^dc^Zgi \ZcVj cVX]
YZb \aZ^X]Zc Hg^co^e' YVh h^X] ^b k^hjZaaZc =g`Zccic^hbdYjh YjgX] YVh Gg\Vc YZg
9j\Zc Vah KZ]Zc YVghiZaai) MchZgZ 9j\Zc hiZaaZc h^X]' jb egu\cVci `aVg oj Zg`ZccZc'
Vj[ ZilVh hX]Vg[ jcY oj\aZ^X] Vj[ ZilVh jchX]Vg[) Mb ZilVh oj Zg`ZccZc' bjz bVc
ZilVh VcYZgZh' cuba^X] \ZcVj YZc JZhi' c^X]i Zg`ZccZc) <V YVh =g`ZccZc YZh AciZaÜ
aZ`ih MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ ^hi' l^gY YjgX] YZc =g`Zccic^hV`i Y^Z JZVa^iui olVc\hauj[^\
^bbZg ^c olZ^ jciZghX]^ZYZc' kdc YZcZc Z^cZh jcZg`Vcci WaZ^Wi) =h `Vcc c^Z ^ciZaaZ`Ü
ijZaa jciZghX]^ZYZc' Y) ]) Zg`Vcci lZgYZc jcY oj\aZ^X] VaaZh Zg`Vcci lZgYZc) <Vh auzi
h^X] l^ZYZg ^b k^hjZaaZc =meZg^bZci WjX]hiuWa^X] ÖZ^chZ]ZcÅ) O^g `wcciZc l^ZYZg
oj jchZgZb hX]lVgoZc Hjc`i ojgxX``Z]gZc' VWZg Z^cYgjX`hkdaaZg ^hi YVh :Z^he^Za
Z^cZgWZ`VcciZcC^ee[^\jgkdcJjW^cVjhYZg?ZhiVaiehnX]dad\^Z5
OVh hZ]Zc' Zg`ZccZc K^Z _Zioi8 ( K^Z Zg`ZccZc _Zioi ZcilZYZg Z^cZ NVhZ dYZg olZ^ Z^cÜ
VcYZg oj\ZlVcYiZ ?Zh^X]ihegd[^aZ) N^ZaaZ^X]i Zg`ZccZc K^Z ]^ciZgZ^cVcYZg ^c lZX]Ü
hZacYZg >da\Z WZ^YZ Edi^kZ ( Y^Z >^\jg `^eei (' VWZg Zh ^hi jcbw\a^X]' WZ^YZ oj\aZ^X]
lV]gojcZ]bZc jcY oj Zg`ZccZc) =^c \aZ^X]oZ^i^\Zh hdld]a Vah VjX] YZh =g`ZccZch
YZg WZ^YZc Edi^kZ ^hi Vjh\ZhX]adhhZc) =cilZYZg Y^Z ?ZhiVai YZg NVhZ ig^ii Vah egu\Ü
cVciZ >^\jg ^c YZc NdgYZg\gjcY YZh =g`ZccZch dYZg Y^Z ?Zh^X]iZg) KX]dc WZ^ Y^ZhZb
Z^c[VX]Zc k^hjZaaZc :Z^he^Za YZh =g`ZccZch oZ^\i h^X] `aVg Y^Z Mcbw\a^X]`Z^i YZh
jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc AciZaaZ`ih' YVh ?VcoZ b^i \aZ^X]Zg =g`Zccic^hhX]ug[Z' Hgu\cVco' oj
Zg`ZccZc) <Vh Z^cZ Gcnze' YVh l^g VjX] Vah GrunJ WZoZ^X]cZc `wccZc' l^gY ^bbZg
^c olZ^ jciZghX]^ZYZc' YZc hX]Vg[Zc vorJergrunJ, Y^Z >^\jg' jcY YZc jchX]Vg[Zc
llntergrunJ.
53
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
/BR,CROLTSF
McY cjc ojb 9WhdajiZc RjZghi5 OVh ^hi YVgjciZg 2)j kZghiZ]Zc8 9b WZhiZc cu]Zgi
h^X] bVc YZb :Z\g^[[ YZh 9WhdajiZc ld]a' ^cYZb bVc ^]c oj YZb :Z\g^[[ YZh JZaVi^Ü
kZc ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ hZioi) <Vh JZaVi^kZ ^hi YVYjgX] WZhi^bbi' YVz Zh oj ZilVh VcYZgZb
^c JZaVi^dc' ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ hiZ]i' gZaVi^k ^hi) 9cYZgh Vjh\ZYgxX`i5 Zh bjz h^X] kdc
ZilVh VcYZgZb jciZghX]Z^YZc' VcYZgh' Y^[[ZgZci hZ^c) <Vh JZaVi^kZ ^hi YVh <^[[ZgZcÜ
o^ZgiZ' Zh ^hi Y^Z \ZhVbiZ Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZ OZai YZg H]ucdbZcZ _Z\a^X]Zg )9c kdc YZc
\gdW bViZg^ZaaZc W^h oj YZc hjWi^aZc ehnX]^hX]Zc jcY bZciVaZc) OVh ^hi YVcc YVh
9WhdajiZ8 Ab MciZghX]^ZY ojb JZaVi^kZc ^hi YVh 9WhdajiZ ))) ( ]Vai <Vh `Vcc hX]dc
c^X]i bZ]g hi^bbZc OZcc YVh 9WhdajiZ kdb JZaVi^kZc jciZghX]^ZYZc ^hi) VcYZgh'
Y^[[ZgZci ^hi' YVcc ^hi Xh \ZgVYZ jcY \ZcVj YZhlZ\Zc YVhhZaWZ' ZWZc ZilVh VcYZgZh'
<^[[ZgZco^ZgiZh' `jgo5 JZaVi^kZh) OVh ^hi Zh YVcc8 Ahi Zh ZilV l^g`a^X] hX]a^X]i YVhÜ
hZaWZ l^Z YVh JZaVi^kZ8 OZcc _V' lVh hdaa YVcc Y^Z \VcoZ AYZZ YZh 9WhdajiZc' Y^Z
>gV\Z cVX] YZb 9WhdajiZc' Y^Z VaaZ H]^adhde]^Z jcY L]Zdad\^Z YjgX]o^Z]i8 Ahi YVh
VaaZh Z^c jch^cc^\Zh KX]Z^cegdWaZb' YZb VjX] dYZg \ZgVYZ Y^Z `ax\hiZc ?Z^hiZg ^b
DVj[kdc@jcYZgiZc'_VLVjhZcYZckdcBV]gZc^bbZgl^ZYZgVj[\ZhZhhZch^cY8
<^Z KX]l^Zg^\`Z^i' Y^Z h^X] _Zioi WZ^ YZg <Z[^c^i^dc YZh 9WhdajiZc oZ^\i' ^hi \ZcVj
Y^Z KX]l^Zg^\`Z^i' jb Y^Z Zh b^g ]^Zg \Z]i) MchZg jciZghX]Z^YZcYZg AciZaaZ`i' b^i YZb
l^g _V \ZgVYZ Z^cZ <Z[^c^i^dc YZh 9WhdajiZc kZghjX]i ]VWZc' ^hi Vj[ YVh MciZghX]Z^YÜ
WVgZ' YVh JZaVi^kZ' WZod\Zc) O^Z YVh 9j\Z Vj[ YVh D^X]i' dYZg \ZcVjZg' Vj[ @Zaa*<jc(
`Za(CdcigVhiZ jcY >VgW`dcigVhiZ WZod\Zc ^hi jcY o):) c^X]i ]wgZc `Vcc' hd ^hi YZg
AciZaaZ`i Vj[ Y^Z OZai YZg jciZghX]Z^YWVgZc H]ucdbZcZ ^ch\ZhVbi' YVh JZaVi^kZ'
WZod\Zc) <Vh ^hi Y^Z OZai jchZgZg cdgbVaZc K^ccZh( jcY NZghiVcYZhZg[V]gjc\) OVh
YVh JZaVi^kZ xWZghiZ^\i' igVchoZcY^Zgi ( jcY YVh ZWZc ^hi YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh \aZ^X]WZÜ
YZjiZcY ^hi b^i LgVchoZcYZco ( `Vcc YjgX] YZc Y^[[ZgZco^ZgZcYZc AciZaaZ`i c^X]i
Zg`Vcci jcY lV]g\ZcdbbZc lZgYZc) O^g ]VWZc \ZhZ]Zc' ]d[[Zcia^X] VjX] Z^c\ZhZÜ
]Zc' YVz WZ^b ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc =g`Zccic^hV`i YZg MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ ^bbZg Z^c jcZgÜ
`VcciZg JZhi WaZ^Wi ( cdilZcY^\Zg( jcY jcjb\uc\a^X]ZglZ^hZ) O^g `wccZc _Zioi
cZ\Vi^k VjhYgxX`Zc5 YVh 9WhdajiZ ^hi _ZcZh ?VcoZ' JZhi(adhZ' _ZcZh 9aaZh' YVh l^g WZ^
_ZYZb jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc' ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc =g`Zccic^hV`i olVc\hauj[^\ kZg[Z]aZc)
MciZg ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZh =g`ZccZc ^hi ^bbZg ÖKixX`lZg`Å #,) Cdg) ,.' ,-$) l^Z Zh HVjajh
hX]dc ^cij^i^k ^c hZ^cZb Ö@d]Zc D^ZY YZg D^ZWZÅ [dgbja^ZgiZ) McY ^b :jYY]^hbjh
jcY @^cYj^hbjh heg^X]i bVc VjhYgxX`a^X] kdc vljncnc, YZb jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc AciZaÜ
aZ`i' YZb YVh =g`ZccZc YZg VWhdajiZc JZVa^iui kZghX]adhhZc ^hi) AbbZg WaZ^Wi Z^c
jcZg`ZccWVgZg JZhi) 9Whdaji Zg`ZccZc' VaaZh' YVh ?VcoZ' Zg`ZccZc ^hi YZb Y^[[ZgZcÜ
o^ZgZcYZc AciZaaZ`i jcbw\a^X]) McY YVh c^X]i Zghi ^b K^ccZ Z^cZh gZhiadhZc' VWhdÜ
ajiZc' Zcon`adeuY^hX]Zc O^hhZch' hdcYZgc µrlnzlµlell WZ^ _ZYZb cdX] hd Z^c[VX]Zc
^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc =g`Zccic^hV`i' WZ^ _ZYZg h^cca^X]Zc OV]gcZ]bjc\) :Z^b MciZghX]Z^Ü
YZc WaZ^Wi µrlnzlµlell ZWZc ^bbZg Z^c MciZghX]^ZYZcZh' Z^c JZhi) <Vh 9WhdajiZ' YVh
?VcoZ b^i YZb AciZaaZ`i Zg`ZccZc oj ldaaZc' ^hi jc\Z[u]g hd h^cc^\' l^Z lZcc bVc
b^i YZb EZhhZg Z^c :gdi ^c Z^ch hX]cZ^YZc ldaaiZ) AbbZg lZcc l^g b^i YZb jciZgÜ
hX]Z^YZcYZc AciZaaZ`i YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh ?VcoZ' VaaZh gZhiadh Zg`Vcci oj ]VWZc bZ^Ü
cZc' YVcc hX]Vaai Xh jch \aZ^X]hVb kdb jciZghX]^ZYZcZc' jcZg`VcciZc JZhi hX]dc
Zci\Z\Zc5 Ö:^c hX]dc YV =g`ZccZ b^X]Å McY YVb^i h^cY l^g l^ZYZg WZ^ jchZgZb
@VhZc jcY jchZgZb A\Za' dYZg g^X]i^\Zg5 WZ^ jchZgZb @VhZc jcY jchZgZc olZ^ A\Zac)
BZioi l^gY YZg kZg\aZ^X]WVgZ RjhVbbZc]Vc\' YVh ÖdYZgÅ' ^c YZb bZg`lxgY^\Zc L^iZa
kZghiucYa^X]) O^Z YZg hX]cZaaZ @VhZ ^b EugX]Zc YZc OZiiaVj[ b^i YZb A\Za \Zl^ccZc
l^aa' hd l^aa YZg AciZaaZ`i Y^Z =g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc' YVh gZhiadhZ' \VcoZ =g`ZccZc'
54
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^i
\Zl^ccZc) =g l^aa YZc VWhdajiZc =g`Zccic^h\Zl^cc) McY l^Z YZg @VhZ bjz Zg hX]Z^Ü
iZgc) 9jX] ^]b hX]Vaai' lZcc Zg YZc`i Vb R^Za oj hZ^c' VaaZh gZhiadh' ÖVWhdajiÅ Zg`Vcci
oj ]VWZc' YVh Ö:^c hX]dc YVÅ YZh jcZg`VcciZc' ]^ciZg\gxcY^\Zc JZhiZh Zci\Z\Zc)
CZ^c RlZ^[Za' Zg ^hi [a^c` jcY hX]cZaa' YZg @VhZ AciZaaZ`i) 9WZg ( l^Z Zh WZ^b OZiiaVj[
ol^hX]Zc @VhZ jcY A\Za _V iVihuX]a^X] c^X]i jb Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i YZh hX]cZaaZc DVj[Zch
\^c\' ( hdchi ]uiiZ EZ^hiZg DVbeZ _V h^X]Zga^X] \ZldccZc ( hd \Z]i Zh WZ^ YZg
=g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc VjX] c^X]i jb Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i YZh ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc MciZghX]Z^Ü
YZch) <^Z =g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc ^hi `Z^cZ <Zc`hedgiVj[\VWZ) McY YZhlZ\Zc h^cY
AciZaaZ`ijZaaZ VjX] YZg =g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc eg^co^e^Zaa c^X]i cu]Zg Vah lZc^\Zg
AciZaaZ`i(LgV^c^ZgiZ) N^ZaaZ^X]i ^b ?Z\ZciZ^a8 BZYZc[Vaah lZcc h^Z h^X] ojk^Za Vj[
^]gZcAciZaaZ`iZ^cW^aYZc
:OLBQJS[S
Ahi cjc Y^Z Mc[u]^\`Z^i' YVh 9WhdajiZ oj Zg`ZccZc' Vah Z^cZ 9gi >Z]a[jc`i^dc YZh
AciZaaZ`ih VcojhZ]Zc' Vah Z^cZ 9gi kdc eg^co^e^ZaaZc \Z^hi^\Zb @^c`Zc' YVh jch Y^Z
[gZ^Z K^X]i Vj[ Y^Z Ö\VcoZÅ' VWhdajiZ JZVa^iui kZgheZggi8 KeVaiZi cjg YZg jciZghX]Z^Ü
YZcYZ AciZaaZ`i Y^Z JZVa^iui Vj[' Y^Z ÖVc h^X]Å \Vco ^hi' Z^ch jcY c^X]i olZ^8 Ahi Y^Z
OV]gcZ]bjc\' YVh =g`ZccZc YZh AciZaaZ`ih' ^ggZVa' Z^cZ NZgoZggjc\ d]cZ gZVaZ =ciÜ
hegZX]jc\8
FVX] bZ^cZg sWZgoZj\jc\ ^hi YZb c^X]i hd) <^Z ?gjcYhigj`ijg jchZgZg ^ciZaaZ`Ü
ijZaaZc =g`Zccic^h[jc`i^dc' YZh JZ[aZ`i^ZgZch' gZ[aZ`i^Zgi \ZcVj Y^Z ?gjcYhigj`ijg
YZg e]ucdbZcVaZc JZVa^iui' Vj[ Y^Z h^Z WZod\Zc ^hi) Ab ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc =g`ZccZc
he^Z\Zai h^X] Y^Z JZVa^iui' Y^Z gZ[aZ`i^Zgi l^gY) ?ZcVj l^Z Zh YZg @VhZ ^c jchZgZg >VWZa
iVihuX]a^X] b^i olZ^Zc oj ijc ]ViiZ jcY c^X]i cjg b^i Z^cZb' hd ]VWZc l^g Zh ^c YZg
Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc' gZaVi^kZc JZVa^iui YZg H]ucdbZcZ eg^co^e^Zaa ^bbZg b^i olZ^Zc oj
ijc' cuba^X] b^i Polcrltöt. <^Z e]ucdbZcVaZ JZVa^iui ^hi edaVg higj`ijg^Zgi) <^ZhZ
=g`Zccic^h kZgYVc`Z ^X] kdg VaaZb KVadbd >g^ZYaVZcYZg #,32,(,4/1$' Z^cZb [Vhi kZgÜ
\ZhhZcZc YZjihX](_xY^hX]Zc H]^adhde]Zc jcY KX]g^[ihiZaaZg) =g ]Vi Y^Z jgVaiZ DZ]gZ
YZh HdaVg^hbjh ad\^hX] `dchZfjZci b^i YZb <Zc`(RZj\ lZhia^X]Zg H]^adhde]^Z
Z^\ZchiucY^\ Zci[VaiZi jcY eguo^h^Zgi) FVX] >g^ZYaVZcYZg ^hi HdaVg^iui' Y^Z ?Z\ZcÜ
hVioZ^c]Z^i' YVh VaaZc YZc`WVgZc H]ucdbZcZc oj\gjcYZa^Z\ZcYZ Kigj`ijgeg^co^e)
O^g ]VWZc Zh c^Z cjg b^i Z^cZb' hdcYZgc ^bbZg b^i olZ^Zc oj ijc ^c YZg OZai Y^[[ZÜ
gZco^ZgiZg H]ucdbZcZ' Y) ]) b^i YZb' lVh l^g Vaa\ZbZ^c JZVa^iui cZccZc) <Vh WZo^Z]i
h^X] VjhcV]bhadh Vj[ VaaZ bViZg^ZaaZc' ehnX]^hX]Zc jcY Xd\c^i^kZc H]ucdbZcZ)
9aaZh Zm^hi^Zgi cjg oj\aZ^X] b^i hZ^cZb edaVgZc ?Z\ZchVio) 9ah H]ucdbZc Zm^hi^ZgZc
]Z^ziedaVgZm^hi^ZgZc)
FZccZc l^g Z^c Z^c[VX]Zh :Z^he^Za5 @Zaa Zm^hi^Zgi cjg ^b ?Z\ZchVio' Y) ]) edaVg' oj
<jc`Za) @Zaa d]cZ <jc`Za ^hi jckdghiZaaWVg' jcYZc`WVg <Zcc @Zaa ^hi cjg YVh edaVgZ
=migZb ojb \Z\Zceda^\Zc =migZb <jc`Za) 9cYZgh Vjh\ZYgxX`i5 @Zaa ^hi YVh & YZhhZaÜ
WZc' YVh jciZg YZb NdgoZ^X]Zc ( Vah <jc`Za ^c =ghX]Z^cjc\ ig^ii' Zg`ZccWVgZh jciZgÜ
hX]Z^YWVgZh H]ucdbZc l^gY) @Zaa jcY <jc`Za h^cY Ödeedh^i^k #he^Z\Za]V[i$ ]dbdÜ
\ZcÅ' l^Z Zh >g^ZYaVZcYZg VjhYgxX`i #,4-1' -+$) 9aaZh ig^ii cjg ojhVbbZc b^i hZ^cZb
?Z\ZchVio ^c =ghX]Z^cjc\' dYZg Zh ig^ii c^X]i ^c =ghX]Z^cjc\) O^g `wcciZc c^X]ih @ZaÜ
aZh Zg`ZccZc' lZcc c^X]i YZg edaVgZ MciZghX]^ZY oj <jc`Za \Z\ZWZc lugZ) =h lxgYZ
hX]a^X]ilZ\ c^X]i Zm^hi^ZgZc) =cihegZX]ZcY hiZ]i Zh b^i VaaZc VcYZgZc Z^c[VX]Zc
?gjcYZ^\ZchX]V[iZc' YZgZc CdbW^cVi^dc ^c VaaZc `dbea^o^ZgiZgZc H]ucdbZcZc oj
Zg`ZccZc ^hi' l^Z o) :)5 `Vai(lVgb' ]Vgi(lZ^X]' \gdz(`aZ^c' he^io(hijbe[' ]dX](i^Z['
55
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
WgZ^i(hX]bVa' gjcY(ZX`^\' aVji(aZ^hZ' \gdW([Z^c' \aVii(gVj]' hX]cZaa(aVc\hVb' Zc\Ü
lZ^i')))jhl)jhl)
:Zod\Zc Vj[ YVh =g`ZccZc jcY OV]gcZ]bZc WZYZjiZi YVh [da\ZcYZh5 lZcc l^g
ZilVh Vah ]Zaa Zg`ZccZc' YVcc ^bbZg cjg Vj[ YZb @^ciZg\gjcY YZh edaVgZc ?Z\ZcÜ
hVioZh Yjc`Za' YZg ^bbZg b^i Zg`Vcci l^gY' dW jch YVh WZljzi ^hi dYZg c^X]i) @Zaa ^hi
^bbZg gZaVi^k oj Yjc`Za) =h \^Wi c^X]ih VWhdaji @ZaaZh) =h ^hi ^bbZg gZaVi^k ]Zaa jcY
^bbZg gZaVi^k Yjc`Za) O^g Zg`ZccZc ^bbZg cjg YZc Hda YZg HdaVg^iui @Zaa*<jc`Za' YZg
[xg jch ^b NdgYZg\gjcY hiZ]i) <^Z =^c]Z^i WZ^YZg' YVh ?VcoZ YZg HdaVg^iui' ^hi Vah
H]ucdbZcjcZg`ZccWVg)
EVX]Zc l^g YVoj Z^c =meZg^bZci ^c A]gZg NdghiZaajc\) KiZaaZc K^Z h^X] kdg5 Ndg
A]cZc h^cY olZ^ >auX]Zc' Y^Z \ZcVj ^c YZg E^iiZ VcZ^cVcYZg \gZcoZc' ZmV`i) <^Z Z^cZ
Yjc`Za l^Z Y^Z FVX]i' Y^Z VcYZgZ ]Zaa l^Z YZg LV\) Fjc [uc\i ZmV`i \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ Y^Z
Yjc`aZ >auX]Z Vc' ^bbZg ]ZaaZg oj lZgYZc jcY Y^Z ]ZaaZ >auX]Z ^bbZg Yjc`aZg) K^Z
hZ]Zc ^bbZg \ZcVj Vj[ Y^Z E^iiZaa^c^Z' Vj[ Y^Z CdciV`i\gZcoZ kdc @Zaa jcY <jc`Za'
Y^Z YZc MciZghX]^ZY #Vjh($bVX]i) <^Z Yjc`aZ KZ^iZ l^gY ^bbZg ]ZaaZg jcY Y^Z ]ZaaZ
KZ^iZ ^bbZg Yjc`aZg) <^Z edaVgZc IjVa^iuiZc cu]Zgc h^X] Z^cVcYZg' Y^Z CdciV`i \gZcoZ
^hi ^bbZg hX]lZgZg lV]gojcZ]bZc' h^X kZghX]l^bbi) McY YVcc eawioa^X] (
FA;@LK CZ^cZ ?gZcoZ' `Z^c MciZghX]^ZY bZ]g F^X]ih ^hi oj Zg`ZccZc Ahi Zh _Zioi
]Zaa dYZg Yjc`Za8 =h auzi h^X] c^X]i Zci( jcY jciZghX]Z^YZc @Zaa jcY <jc`Za h^cY kZgÜ
hX]ljcYZc) K^Z ]VWZc h^X] ^c F^X]ih Vj[\Zawhi' Y) ])' h^Z h^cY _Zioi ^c ^]gZg jcZg`ZccÜ
WVgZc =^c]Z^i eguhZci) <^ZhZ' YVh ?VcoZ YZg HdaVg^iui' ^hi Vah Zg`ZccWVgZh' jciZgÜ
hX]Z^YWVgZh H]ucdbZc c^X]i lV]gojcZ]bZc) <^Z edaVgZ @Zaa*<jc`Za(<^[[ZgZco ^hi
Vj[\Z]dWZc ^c YZg \ZbZ^chVbZc AcY^[[ZgZco) O^g [x]gZc YZc NZgYjc`Zajc\h( jcY
=g]Zaajc\hkZghjX] lZ^iZg) <^Z VaaZg`aZ^chiZ <^[[ZgZco jcY Y^Z CdciV`i( jcY LgZcÜ
cjc\ha^c^Z ^hi l^ZYZg YV) @Zaa jcY <jc`Za igZiZc l^ZYZg ^c =ghX]Z^cjc\) lZgYZc H]uÜ
cdbZcZ) 9jh YZb F^X]ih igZiZc h^X ]Zgkdg) K^Z ]VWZc VaaZgY^c\h Y^Z Hdh^i^dc \ZlZX]Ü
hZai) Od ojkdg @Zaa lVg' ^hi _Zioi <jc`Za jcY jb\Z`Z]gi) 9jh YZb F^X]ih YZg AcY^[Ü
[ZgZco ^hi l^ZYZg Y^Z edaVgZ <^[[ZgZco kdc @Zaa jcY <jc`Za Zcihegjc\Zc) >g^ZYaVZcYZg
heg^X]i YV]Zg kdc YZg ÖKX]we[Zg^hX]Zc AcY^[[ZgZcoÅ jcY ]Vi hd VjX] hZ^c @VjeilZg`
WZi^iZai #ExcX]Zc ,4,3 jcY ,4-1' -) 9j[a)$) 9aaZ H]ucdbZcZ igZiZc Vjh YZb F^X]ih
^]gZg jcjciZghX]Z^YWVgZc =^c]Z^i' YZg AcY^[[ZgZco' edaVg ^c Y^Z e]ucdbZcVaZ =m^Ü
hiZco) Ac Y^ZhZb schoµferlschen Nlchts h^cY h^Z ^c ^]gZg jghegxc\a^X]Zc =^c]Z^i'
?Vco]Z^i' kZgWdg\Zc' jcY jb\Z`Z]gi ^hi Y^ZhZ ^b ?Z\ZchVio' YZb Hajh jcY E^cjh
^]gZg e]ucdbZcVaZc gZaVi^kZc =m^hiZco' kZgWdg\Zc) Mghegxc\a^X]Z =^c]Z^i ?Vco]Z^i'
ig^ii ^c YZg gZaVi^kZc JZVa^iui \ZgVYZ Vah ZmV`i(ZmigZbZg' h^X] \Z\ZchZ^i^\ VjhhX]a^ZÜ
zZcYZg ?Z\ZchVio ^c =ghX]Z^cjc\5 Xh `Vcc jcbw\a^X] Vah jciZghX]Z^YWVgZh H]ucdÜ
bZc \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ ]Zaa jcY Yjc`Za hZ^c) =h \^Wi c^X]ih ?VcoZh gZhiadh =^c]Z^ia^X]Zh'
YVh Vah ^hda^ZgiZh' jcVW]uc\^\Zh H]ucdbZc Zm^hi^Zgi) =h Zm^hi^Zgi Vah H]ucdbZc' ^c
Z^cZg bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg ^ciZch^kZc Hgu\cVco' _ZlZ^ah cjg YZg Z^cZ Hda Z^cZg edaVgZc
?Z\ZchVioZ^c]Z^i) <Zg VcYZgZ Hda ig^ii ^c YZc @^ciZg\gjcY V`ijZaaZg F^X]i(=m^hiZco
jcY Zgbw\a^X]i YjgX] hZ^cZ F^X]i(=m^hiZco Y^Z bdbZciVcZ =m^hiZco hZ^cZh ?Z\ZcÜ
edah) <Vh RjgxX`igZiZc YZh Z^cZc Hdah ^hi cdilZcY^\Z' jcjb\uc\a^X]Z :ZY^c\jc\ [xg
YVh @ZgkdgigZiZc YZh VcYZgZc Hdah) =m^hi^ZgZc' kdc aVi) ex-slsto, WZYZjiZi _V lwgia^X]
Z^c[VX] ]Zgkdg(igZiZc) 9j[ YZb Vjh\Zld\ZcZc g]ni]b^hX]Zc OZX]hZahe^Za edaVgZg
?Z\ZchVioZ^c]Z^iZc WZgj]i Y^Z =m^hiZco YZg \ZhVbiZc aZWZcY^\Zc GgYcjc\ jchZgZg
gZaVi^kZc JZVa^iui YZg OZX]hZa kdc LV\ jcY FVX]i' kdc KdbbZg jcY O^ciZg #>gx]a^c\
jcY @ZgWhi h^cY _V cjg sWZg\Vc\he]VhZc$' ^hi Y^Z aZWZcY^\Z :Vh^h kdc VaaZc dg\Vc^Ü
hX]Zc jcY Vcdg\Vc^hX]Zc HgdoZhhZc' Y^Z YVh DZWZc Vj[ Y^ZhZb HaVcZiZc \ZhiVaiZc)
<Vh g]ni]b^hX]Z' edaVgZ OZX]hZahe^Za A]gZh 9iZbh ( 9jhVibZc =^cVibZc ( jcY
56
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^i
A]gZh @ZgoZch ( KnhidaZ*<^VhidaZ ( YVh h^X] _Zioi ^b EdbZci kdaao^Z]i' ^hi' cZWZc k^ZÜ
aZc VcYZgZc edaVgZc 9Wauj[Zc #KujgZc*:VhZc(@Vjh]Vai' KnbeVi]^`jh*HVgVhnbeVi]^Ü
`jh jhl)$' YVh >jcYVbZci A]gZg e]nh^hX]Zc =m^hiZco) HdaVg^iui ^hi `Z^c gZVa^iuih[ZgÜ
cZh' VWhigV`iZh ?ZYVc`Zc`dchigj`i' hdcYZgc Z^c ^c VaaZc :ZgZ^X]Zc YZg Zm^hi^ZgZcYZc
JZVa^iui WZdWVX]iWVgZh jcY Zg[V]gWVgZh Kigj`ijge]ucdbZc #JVjhX]ZcWZg\Zg ,40,'
@w]a*CZhhaZg ,42/' Cw]cZ ,43,*,43.$) McY \ZcVj YVh he^Z\Zai h^X] ^c YZg >jc`i^dchÜ
lZ^hZ jchZgZh AciZaaZ`ih) Ac YZg edaVgZc NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\'
YZg MciZghX]Z^Yjc\h[jc`i^dc YZh AciZaaZ`ih' he^Z\Zai h^X] Y^Z edaVgZ ?gjcYhigj`ijg
YZg Zm^hi^ZgZcYZc e]ucdbZcVaZc JZVa^iui' cuba^X] YVh @Zgkdg( jcY RjgxX`igZiZc YZg
HdaZ kdc edaVgZc ?Vco]Z^iZc) O^Z o) :) Y^Z 9j\Zc ^c ^]gZg >jc`i^dchlZ^hZ b^iiZah
D^chZ jcY YZg Zbe[^cYa^X]Zc FZgkZcoZaaZc YZg FZio]Vji YVh gZVaZ H]ucdbZc YZh
D^X]ih jcY hZ^cZ heZ`igVaZc :gZX]jc\ l^YZghe^Z\Zac ( ÖOug c^X]i YVh 9j\Z hdccZcÜ
]V[i' Y^Z KdccZ `wcci Zh c^Z ZgWa^X`ZcÅ #?dZi]Z$ (' hd gZ[aZ`i^Zgi YZg AciZaaZ`i ^c hZ^cZg
>jc`i^dchlZ^hZY^ZedaVgZ?gjcYhigj`ijgYZgdW_Z`i^kZce]ucdbZcVaZcJZVa^iui)
<jgX] Y^Z =^ch^X]i ^c Y^Z edaVgZ ?gjcYhigj`ijg YZg gZaVi^kZc JZVa^iui jcY YZh Vj[ h^X
WZod\ZcZc AciZaaZ`ih lZgYZc VjX] `dbea^o^ZgiZ guihZa]V[iZ ?gZcoZg`Zccic^hhZ YZg
FVijgl^hhZchX]V[iZc eg^co^e^Zaa' Y)]) ^]gZg [dgbVaZc Kigj`ijg cVX]' Z^ch^X]i^\ jcY
kdgVjhhV\WVg) <Vh WZhiZ :Z^he^Za YV[xg h^cY Y^Z >dghX]jc\hZg\ZWc^hhZ YZg 9idbe]nÜ
h^`)
<^Z 9idbe]nh^` hiZaai ld]a YZc Vjh\Zegu\iZhiZc cVijgl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zc NZghjX]
YVg' b^i YZb E^iiZa YZh jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc AciZaaZ`ih YZg e]ucdbZcVaZc JZVa^iui Vj[
YZc ?gjcY oj \Z]Zc jcY gZhiadh' Y) ]) VWhdaji' oj Zg`ZccZc) <jgX] Z^cZc ^bbZg lZ^iZg
[dgihX]gZ^iZcYZc HgdoZz ZmV`i jciZghX]Z^YZcYZg :ZdWVX]ijc\ kZghjX]iZ bVc' Y^Z
`aZ^chiZ jciZ^aWVgZ =^c]Z^i dYZg ?Vco]Z^i #\g^ZX]) c-tomos 7 jc(iZ^aWVg' jc(hX]cZ^YÜ
WVg$ oj Zg`ZccZc' Vjh YZg h^X] Y^Z EViZg^Z Vj[WVji) <Vh' lVh bVc kdghX]cZaa A-tom
\ZcVcci ]ViiZ' Zgl^Zh h^X] VWZg c^X]i Vah Y^Z \ZhjX]iZ jciZ^aWVgZ =^c]Z^i jcY bVc
\ZaVc\iZ ^c YZc :ZgZ^X] YZg H]ucdbZcZ' Y^Z bVc Vah sub-ctomcr WZoZ^X]cZi' Z^c
Z^\Zcia^X] jcad\^hX]Zg :Z\g^[[) <^ZhZ ( =aZ`igdcZc l^Z VjX] HgdidcZc jcY FZjigdcZc
( oZ^\iZc _ZYdX] Z^cZ kZgl^ggZcYZ RlZ^YZji^\`Z^i' lZaX]Z Y^Z YVgVc WZiZ^a^\iZc ^ciZgÜ
cVi^dcVaZc >dghX]Zg ojg =cil^X`ajc\ Z^cZg gZkdaji^dcugZc' cZjZc L]Zdg^Z [x]giZ' YZg
hd\ZcVcciZc ÖQucntentheorleÅ) <^Z hjWVidbVgZc H]ucdbZcZ ZghX]^ZcZc cuba^X]'
_Z cVX] :ZdWVX]ijc\hbZi]dYZ' Z^cbVa Vah LZ^aX]Zc' Cdgejh`Za' jcY Z^c VcYZgZh EVa
oZ^\iZc h^Z h^X] Vah OZaaZ) =^cZ X]VgV`iZg^hi^hX]Z =^\ZcVgi a^Zz h^X] c^X]i Z^cYZji^\
[ZhiaZ\Zc) <^ZhZg h^X] VjhhX]a^ZzZcYZ Ö7ellchen-welle-Ducllsmus" ljgYZ kdc
F^Zah :d]g Vah ÖlomµlementcrltötÅ ^ciZgegZi^Zgi' Vah h^X] \Z\ZchZ^i^\ VjhhX]a^ZÜ
zZcYZ jcY Zg\ucoZcYZ 9heZ`iZ YZghZaWZc JZVa^iui) OZgcZg @Z^hZcWZg\ YZ[^c^ZgiZ YVh
NZg]uaic^h Y^ZhZg `dbeaZbZciugZc 9heZ`iZ ^c `dbeaZmZc ?aZ^X]jc\Zc Vah
Ö0nschörferelctlon ?Vco \gdW kZgZ^c[VX]i auj[i h^Z ^b Hg^co^e Vj[ [da\ZcYZh ]^cÜ
Vjh5 _Z eguo^hZg YZg Z^cZ 9heZ`i #Cdgejh`Za$ lV]g\ZcdbbZc jcY WZdWVX]iZi l^gY'
YZhid jchX]ug[Zg l^gY YZg VcYZgZ 9heZ`i #OZaaZ$ jcY jb\Z`Z]gi) <^ZhZ =ciYZX`jc\
YZg H]nh^` Vc YZg ?gZcoZ YZh ZmV`i ^ciZaaZ`ijZaa =g`Zcc( jcY MciZghX]Z^YWVgZc YZ`(
`Zc h^X] \ZcVj b^i YZc ]^Zg kdg\ZaZ\iZc Zg`Zccic^hi]ZdgZi^hX]Zc =^ch^X]iZc) <Vh
Hg^co^e YZg Polcrltöt jcY YZg vorJergrunJ/llntergrunJ-Dlfferenzlerung YZh jciZgÜ
hX]Z^YZcYZc AciZaaZ`ih [^cYZi hZ^cZ `dc`gZiZ cVijgl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Z =cihegZX]jc\ ^c
YZg lomµlementcrltöt jcY YZg 0nschörfe relctlon YZg IjVciZci]Zdg^Z) 9j[\gjcY YZg
]^Zg YVg\ZhiZaaiZc Kigj`ijgeg^co^e^Zc YZg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc JZVa^iui jcY YZh Y^[[ZgZco^ZÜ
gZcYZc AciZaaZ`i l^gY Z^ch^X]i^\' YVz Y^Z =g`Zccic^hWZbx]jc\ YZg H]nh^`Zg ^b
:ZgZ^X] `aZ^chiZg LZ^aX]Zc [dgbVa kdgVjhhV\WVg cdilZcY^\ZglZ^hZ oj Y^ZhZb =g\ZWÜ
c^h \ZaVc\Zc bjziZ) =^cZ aZioiZ Z^cYZji^\Z =^c]Z^i' ?Vco]Z^i' ^hi eg^co^e^Zaa c^X]i
57
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
gZhiadh oj Zg`ZccZc' lZ^a =^c]Z^i' ?Vco]Z^i \gjcYhuioa^X] Vah Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZh H]ucdÜ
bZc c^X]i oj Zg`ZccZc ^hi) O^gZg`ZccZc c^Z gZhiadh' \Vco VWhdaji' lZ^a l^g ZWZc cjg
Vj[ YZb @^ciZg\gjcY YZh JZhiZh Zg`ZccZc) MchZg ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZh jciZghX]Z^YZcYZh
=g`ZccZc ^hi eg^co^e^Zaa jchX]Vg[) <^Z Ö@Z^hZcWZg\hX]Z MchX]ug[ZgZaVi^dc"" ^hi c^X]i
Vj[ Y^Z hjWVidbVgZ H]nh^` WZhX]guc`i' hdcYZgc ^hi Z^c Zg`Zccic^hi]ZdgZi^hX]Zh
?gjcY[V`ijb) Ab :ZgZ^X] YZg EVi]ZbVi^` o) :) [^cYZi h^Z ^]gZ ad\^hX]Z =cihegZX]jc\
^b hd\ZcVcciZc ,0nvollstönJlgkellstheorem" YZh EVi]ZbVi^`Zgh Cjgi ?wYZa' YZg
cVX]l^Zh' YVz _ZYZh ad\^hX]Z KnhiZb Z^cZ ad\^hX]Z NdgVjhhZiojc\ ]VWZc muß' Y^Z
hZaWhi c^X]i ad\^hX] WZlZ^hWVg ^hi) 9j[ ?gjcY YZg =^ch^X]i ^c Y^Z eg^co^e^ZaaZ HdaVg^iui
VaaZg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc H]ucdbZcZ ^hi lZ^iZg]^c kdc kdgcZ]ZgZ^c `aVg' YVz Vah aZioiZ
=g`Zccic^h ^b :ZgZ^X] YZg `aZ^chibw\a^X]Zc LZ^aX]Zc Y^Z OV]gcZ]bjc\ zweler h^X]
cusschlleßenJer jcY ergönzenJer' Y) ]) komµlementörer, µolcrer H]ucdbZcZ xWg^\
WaZ^WZc bjz) <Vh' lVh edaVg Vah hjWVidbVgZh LZ^aX]Zc( dYZg OZaaZce]ucdbZc Y^[[ZÜ
gZco^Zgi Zg`ZccWVg l^gY ( l^Z VjX] WZ^b D^X]i (' ^hi ^c hZ^cZg =^c]Z^i jcY ?Vco]Z^i
^cY^[[ZgZci) =h ^hi `Z^c Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZh H]ucdbZc jcY YVb^i YZb [dghX]ZcYZc :a^X`
YZh AciZaaZ`ih Zciod\Zc) LZ^aX]Zc jcY OZaaZ h^cY Y^Z edaVgZ' `dbeaZbZciugZ <^[[ZÜ
gZco^Zgjc\ YZhhZaWZc' YVh ^c hZ^cZg AYZci^iui ^cY^[[ZgZci jcZg`ZccWVg ^hi) OVh YVh ,cn
slch" ^hi' YVh h^X] YV ^c hZ^cZc edaVgZc H]ucdbZcZc oZ^\i' auzi h^X] c^X]i Zg`ZccZc
jcY YV]Zg VjX] c^X]i hegVX]a^X] VjhYgxX`Zc jcY WZ\g^[[a^X] YZ[^c^ZgZc) <^Z H]nh^`
]Vi Y^Z EViZg^Z W^h ^c YZc hjWVidbVgZc :ZgZ^X] ]^cZ^ckZg[da\i' YgxX`iZ Zh Z^cbVa Z^c
H]nh^`Zg Vjh' jcY YVcc Y^Z Kejg kZgadgZc) <^ZhZh NZga^ZgZc YZg Kejg l^gY YjgX] Y^Z
=^ch^X]i ^c Y^Z eg^co^e^ZaaZ HdaVg^iui YZg e]ucdbZcVaZc JZVa^iui Zg`augWVg' Vah YVh
=ggZ^X]Zc YZg ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc =g`Zccic^h\gZcoZ YZh Y^[[ZgZco^ZgZcYZc cVijgl^hhZcÜ
hX]V[ia^X]Zc =g`ZccZch ^b E^`gd(:ZgZ^X]) <Vh ,Dlng cn slch ^hi eg^co^e^Zaa jcZgÜ
`ZccWVg' l^Z YVh hX]dc CVci ^c hZ^cZg ,lrltlk Jer relnen vernunft ,23,$ ^ciZaaZ`Ü
ijZaa hX]axhh^\ cVX]l^Zh' jcY olVg WZod\Zc Vj[ Y^Z OV]gcZ]bjc\ VaaZg H]ucdbZcZ)
<Vh Ö<^c\ Vc h^X]Å' Y^Z ?Vco]Z^i' =^c]Z^i' YZg JZVa^iui' ^hi YVh ^ciZaaZ`ijZaa jcZg`ZccÜ
WVgZ Noumenon' YVh h^X]' `wccZc l^g CVci b^i >g^ZYaVZcYZg eguo^h^ZgZcY Zg\ucoZc'
Vah Zm^hi^ZgZcYZh Phönomen ^bbZg cjg ^c hZ^cZb µolcren <deeZaVheZ`i oZ^\i) <^ZhZ
K^X]ilZ^hZ YZg e]^adhde]^hX]Zc ,Metcµhyslk" >g^ZYaVZcYZgh [^cYZi ^c YZc =g`ZcciÜ
c^hhZcYZgZmV`iZc,Physlk"^]gZ`aVgZ:Zhiui^\jc\)
<Vh Z^cZ ?VcoZ' Y^Z =^c]Z^i' ^hi Vah H]ucdbZc jcZg`ZccWVg jcY YVb^i VjX] YVh
9WhdajiZ' YVh _V c^X]ih VcYZgZh ^hi Vah Y^ZhZh ?VcoZ #aVi) cbsolutlo ( ^c h^X] VW\ZÜ
hX]adhhZc' kdaahiucY^\' kdaa`dbbZc' \Vco$) Ac YZg e]^adhde]^hX]Zc DZ]gZ YZh ^cY^Ü
hX]Zc veJcntc l^gY YVhhZaWZ igZ[[ZcY ^b :Z\g^[[ ,c-Jvcltc " ojb 9jhYgjX` \ZWgVX]i'
YZg Z^c[VX] ,ohne-Zweltes" WZYZjiZi) <^Z ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ >gV\Z cVX] YZb 9WhdajiZc
^hi jcWZVcildgiWVg) <Vh 9WhdajiZ ^hi YjgX] YZc AciZaaZ`i' YZg Vj[ YZb YjVaZc Hg^co^e
YZh MciZghX]Z^YZch WZgj]i' c^X]i Zg`ZccWVg' YV Zh YVh 0nunterschelJbcre ^hi' YVh
,ohne-Zweltes". ?aZ^X]hVb l^Z gZ^cZh' `aVgZh OVhhZg d]cZ _ZYZc jciZghX]Z^YWVgZc
?ZhX]bVX` jcY _ZYZ jciZghX]Z^YWVgZ >VgWZ ^hi' hd ^hi YVh 9WhdajiZ d]cZ _ZYZc jciZgÜ
hX]Z^YWVgZc FVbZc) :Z\g^[[' <Z[^c^i^dc) =h ^hi F^X]ih ^b K^ccZ gVY^`VaZg McjciZgÜ
hX]Z^YWVg`Z^i' AcY^[[ZgZco' lZ^a Zh c^X]ih olZ^iZh \^Wi kdc YZb Zh h^X] jciZghX]Z^YZc
`Vcc) =h ^hi c^X]i F^X]ih ^b K^ccZ YZg FZ\Vi^dc' hdcYZgc F^X]ih ^b K^ccZ Y^ZhZg
McjciZghX]Z^YWVg`Z^i' ^c YZg Y^Z >xaaZ VaaZg edaVg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc H]ucdbZcZ ^c ^]gZg
=^c]Z^i Vj[\Z]dWZc ^hi) 9jh Y^ZhZb F^X]ih YZg AcY^[[ZgZco ]ZgVjh ig^ii _ZYZh H]ucdÜ
bZcedaVg^c hZ^cZ Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZ =ghX]Z^cjc\) <^ZhZ ,5choµferlsche lnJlfferenz" ^hi
YZg aZWZcY^\ hX]we[Zg^hX]Z GrunJ VaaZg Y^[[ZgZco^Zgi(gZVaZc H]ucdbZcZ' ^hi Y^Z VWhdÜ
ajiZ' oZcigVaZ' c^X]i(YjVaZ O^g`a^X]`Z^i) <Zg AciZaaZ`i `Vcc jch W^h Vc Y^Z ?gZcoZ YZg
=g`Zccic^h Wg^c\Zc' VWZg l^g `wccZc h^Z b^i ^]b c^X]i xWZghiZ^\Zc' YZcc5 er selbst lst
58
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^a)
Y^ZhZ ?gZcoZ <^Z >jc`i^dchlZ^hZ YZh AciZaaZ`ih' YVh MciZghX]Z^YZc ^hi YVh ZcihX]Z^Ü
YZcYZ µrlnzlµlelle @^cYZgc^h) O^g `wccZc Y^Z Cjchi YZh ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc MciZghX]Z^Ü
YZc kZg[Z^cZgc' VWZg VjX] YZg VaaZg\gwziZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\h`xchiaZg `Vcc b^i hZ^cZg
>u]^\`Z^i c^X]i YVh jcjciZghX]Z^YWVg" 9WhdajiZ' Y^Z AcY^[[ZgZco' Zg`ZccZc) <Zg AciZaÜ
aZ`i ^hi ^b :ZgZ^X] YZg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc JZVa^iui Y^Z Vc\ZbZhhZcZ =g`Zccic^hlZ^hZ) K^Z
kZghV\i' lZcc h^Z Vj[ YVh 9WhdajiZ Vc\ZlVcYi l^gY) HhZjYd(bnhi^hX]Z KX]lugbZgZ^
cZ^\i YVoj' YZc AciZaaZ`i \gjcYhuioa^X] oj Y^hfjVa^[^o^ZgZc jcY hZ^cZc jcZghZioWVgZc
OZgi oj kZg`ZccZc) <Zg >Z]aZg a^Z\i _ZYdX] ^c YZg 9clZcYjc\' c^X]i ^c YZg :ZhX]V[Ü
[Zc]Z^i YZh AciZaaZ`ih) OZg kZg\ZWa^X] kZghjX]i' hZ^cZ KjeeZ b^i YZg ?VWZa oj aw[[Zac'
\ZWZ Y^Z KX]jaY c^X]i YZg ?VWZa) EZ]g Vah YVh =g`ZccZc YZg eg^co^e^ZaaZc McZg`ZccÜ
WVg`Z^i YZh 9WhdajiZc' YZg ?Vco]Z^i' `Vcc Zh Vj[ YZg =WZcZ YZh AciZaaZ`ih c^X]i \ZWZc)
9WZg VjX] YVh ]Vi Z^cZc c^X]i oj jciZghX]uioZcYZc OZgi) =h ^hi hdojhV\Zc Y^Z kdgÜ
cZ]bhiZ jcY gVY^`VahiZ ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ 9j[\VWZ YZh EZchX]Zc' h^X] hZ^cZg =g`Zccic^hÜ
\gZcoZ WZljzi oj lZgYZc jcY \aZ^X]hVb YZc 9hi YZh AciZaaZ`ih' Vj[ YZb Zg h^ioi' b^i
YZg Ku\Z YZh `dchZfjZci Vc\ZlVcYiZc AciZaaZ`ih VWojhu\Zc) EVc kZglZX]haZ YVh
^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ =g`ZccZc YZg =g`Zccic^h\gZcoZ YZh AciZaaZ`ih VWZg c^X]i' YjgX] Z^cZc
^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc@V`ZchX]aV\'cjcYdX]b^iYZg=g`Zccic^hYZh9WhdajiZc
ZCFQHFHFNR[SYLJDIFR"SQBNREJGGFQFNSFR0QKFNNFN
Fjc hiZaai h^X] cdX] Y^Z >gV\Z5 OZcc jchZg [jcYVbZciVaZh =g`Zccic^heg^co^e' YZg
AciZaaZ`i' YZb 9WhdajiZc jcVc\ZbZhhZc ^hi' ^hi YVb^i Z^c =g`ZccZc YZh 9WhdajiZc
\ucoa^X] Vjh\ZhX]adhhZc8 Ahi =g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc VWhdaji jcbw\a^X]8 GYZg
VcYZgh \Z[gV\i5 ?^Wi Xh Z^cZ VcYZgZ 9gi YZh =g`ZccZch' Y^Z jch Z^cZ =g`Zccic^h YZh
9WhdajiZcZgbw\a^X]i8O^ZbxziZY^ZhZ9giYZh=g`ZccZchWZhX]V[[ZchZ^c8
<Voj bjz ojb ZghiZc \ZhV\i lZgYZc' YVz YjgX] Y^ZhZ 9gi YZh =g`ZccZch \aZ^X]hVb
c^X]ih' YVh McjciZghX]Z^YWVgZ' sWZg\Z\Zchuioa^X]Z Zg`Vcci lZgYZc bxziZ) F^X]ih
Zg`ZccZc ^hi ]^Zg c^X]i ^b K^ccZ Z^cZg ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc >Z]a( jcY E^cYZgaZ^hijc\' Z^cZh
KX]Z^iZgch YZg =g`Zccic^h' oj kZghiZ]Zc' hdcYZgc ^b K^ccZ Z^cZg `aVgZc' kdaaWZljzÜ
iZc =g`Zccic^h YZh McjciZghX]Z^YWVgZc ^b K^ccZ Z^cZh `aVgZc xWZg\Z\Zchuioa^X]
^cY^[[ZgZciZc =g`ZccZch) >da\ZcYZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ `Vcc ZilVh YZjia^X]Zg bVX]Zc'
jb lVh Zh YVWZ^ \Z]i5 9jX] YVh FZj\ZWdgZcZ c^bbi Y^Z OZai lZ^i\Z]ZcY ^cY^[[ZgZci
lV]g' lZcc Zh VjX] k^Za `dbeZiZciZg ^hi Vah W^haVc\ Vc\ZcdbbZc' l^Z Y^Z ]Zji^\Z
:VWn[dghX]jc\ oZ^\i #HZiodaY S@\)T ,44.*,440$) N^ZaZh ^hi [xg Zh ojZghi Z^cZ 9gi
jciZghX]^ZYhadhZh ?Zb^hX] kdc Z]Zg `dcijgadhZc' `dc[ajZciZc H]ucdbZcZc' kdc
YZb Zh VjX] h^X] hZaWhi cdX] `Vjb ^b K^ccZ Z^cZg AX]*F^X]i(AX](<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ `aVg
jciZghX]Z^YZc `Vcc) 9aaZh ^hi Z^cZ bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg ^cZ^cVcYZg[a^ZzZcYZ =^c]Z^i)
RjcZ]bZcY igZiZc YVgVjh ^bbZg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZgZ ?ZhiVaiZc ]Zgkdg' Y^Z dW_Z`i^kZ
OZai higj`ijg^Zgi h^X] jb YVh KjW_Z`i AX]) Ab ?Z\ZchVio oj Y^ZhZg 9gi kdc kZgÜ
hX]ldbbZcZg µrö(^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZg ^cY^[[ZgZciZg OV]gcZ]bjc\ YZh FZj\ZWdgZcZc
\Z]i Zh WZ^ YZg =g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc YZh ^ciZaaZ`ijZaa kdaaZcil^X`ZaiZc =glVX]Ü
hZcZc jb Z^cZ 9gi kdc `aVgZg trcns(^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZg jcY trcns(Y^[[ZgZciZg OV]gcZ]Ü
bjc\) <^Z >u]^\`Z^i' ^ciZaaZ`ijZaa Y^[[ZgZco^Zgi oj Zg`ZccZc' ^hi ^c Y^ZhZ >dgb ^cY^[[ZÜ
gZciZc =g`ZccZch lntegrlert: <^Z =^c]Z^i' Y^Z ?Vco]Z^i' l^gY ^c YZg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc
N^Za[Vai \ZhZ]Zc) <^Z MciZghX]^ZYZc]Z^i YZg Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc H]ucdbZcZ l^gY `aVg
lV]g\ZcdbbZc' VWZg Vj[\Z]dWZc ^b D^X]i ^]gZh VaaZhYjgX]Yg^c\ZcYZc' jcjciZgÜ
hX]Z^YWVgZc RjhVbbZc]Vc\h' ^]gZg =^c]Z^i) <^Z <^[[ZgZco l^gY ^c YZg AcY^[[ZgZco
\ZhZ]Zc' Y^Z AcY^[[ZgZco ^c YZg <^[[ZgZco) <Vh igVch^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ jcY igVchY^[[ZgZciZ
59
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
=g`ZccZc ^hi Z^cZ 9gi kdc olZ^iZg FV^k^iui' WZ^ YZg Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i' Y^Z VaaZhkZgW^c(
YZcYZ =^c]Z^i lV]gojcZ]bZc' Vj[ Z^cZg cZjZc Kij[Z l^ZYZg\ZldccZc l^gY) =h ^hi
Y^[[ZgZci(^cY^[[ZgZciZh =g`ZccZc' hdld]a Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZh Vah VjX] ^cY^[[ZgZciZh
=g`ZccZc' jcY YVg[ c^X]i Vah µrö(Y^[[ZgZciZg ?Z^hiZhojhiVcY b^zkZghiVcYZc lZgYZc)
=h ^hi kdc ZcihX]Z^YZcYZg :ZYZjijc\' ]^Zg c^X]i Z^cZg Prö/7rcns-verwechslung oj
Zga^Z\Zc'Vj[Y^ZCZcO^aWZg#,433$]^c\Zl^ZhZc]Vi)
=h \Z]i jb Z^cZ cZjZ IjVa^iui YZh =g`ZccZch' c^X]i jb Z^c ojhuioa^X]Zh fjVci^iVi^Ü
kZh EZ]g(=g`ZccZc) Ö=h ]VcYZai h^X] ZWZc c^X]i YVgjb' YVz ZilVh cnJeres gesehen
l^gY' hdcYZgc YVz bVc cnJers sleht", ]Vi YVh ;) ?) Bjc\ igZ[[ZcY Vjh\ZYgxX`i #,42-'
-,$) ?ZcVjhd YZjia^X] l^Z YZg MciZghX]^ZY' YVh LgZccZcYZ YZg H]ucdbZcZ l^gY VjX]
Y^Z ojhVbbZc]uc\ZcYZ =^c]Z^a' YVh NZgW^cYZcYZ \ZhZ]Zc) =h l^gY ))Z^c\ZhZ]ZcÅ'
Vah =g[V]gjc\' YVz YZg igZccZcYZ MciZghX]^ZY oj\aZ^X] Z^cZcYZ NZgW^cYjc\ VaaZg
H]ucdbZcZ ^hi) <^Z YjVaZ NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ YZh ^ciZaaZ`Ü
ijZaaZc =g`ZccZch ^c µrögncnten vorJergrunJ jcY Jlffusen llntergrunJ l^gY Vj[\ZÜ
]dWZc ^c Z^cZ c^X]i(YjVaZ jb[VhhZcYZc' gZhiadh `aVgZ OV]gcZ]bjc\ YZh GrunJes,
lZaX]Zg YZg <^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ zugrunJe a^Z\i) <Zg MciZghX]^ZY YZh Y^[[ZgZco^ZgZcYZc
=g`ZccZch awhi h^X] c^X]i regresslv Vj[ ^c Z^cZ egu(^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ NZghX]ldbbZcÜ
]Z^i' hdcYZgc Zg l^gY µrogresslv Vj[\Z]dWZc ^c Z^cZ trcns(^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ CaVg]Z^i'
^cYZb VjX] YZg hdchi eg^co^e^Zaa jchX]Vg[Z @^ciZg\gjcY `aVg Zg`Vcci l^gY) <^Z egu(
^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ kZghX]ldbbZcZ AcY^[[ZgZco WZgj]i Vahd YVgVj[' YVz hdld]a NdgYZgÜ
\gjcY Vah VjX] @^ciZg\gjcY jchX]Vg[ jcY jc`aVg h^cY) <^Z igVch^ciZaaZ`ijZaa `aVgZ
AcY^[[ZgZco ]^c\Z\Zc WZgj]i YVgVj[' YVz hdld]a NdgYZg\gjcY Vah VjX] @^ciZg\gjcY
hX]Vg[ jcY `aVg h^cY) <Vh _ZYdX]' lVh YVWZ^ Zg`Vcci l^gY' Y^Z VWhdajiZ c^X]i(YjVaZ
O^g`a^X]`Z^i' Zcio^Z]i h^X] YZg Z^cYZji^\Zc :ZhX]gZ^Wjc\ YjgX] Y^Z Y^[[ZgZco^ZgZcYZ
KegVX]Z' YZgZc :Z\g^[[a^X]`Z^i _V =g\ZWc^h jcY OZg`oZj\ YZh jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc' YjVÜ
aZc=g`ZccZchYZhAciZaaZ`ih^hi)
OZcc l^g YZh lZ^iZgZc Y^Z NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ W^h ^c ^]gZ
aZioiZ CdchZfjZco kZg[da\Zc' YVcc l^gY YZjia^X] lZgYZc' lZaX] [jcYVbZciVaZ NZgÜ
ucYZgjc\ YZh EZchX]Zc h^X] ZgZ^\cZc bjz' YVb^i Zg YVh 9WhdajiZ Zg`ZccZc `Vcc)
<Voj WZo^Z]Z ^X] b^X] Vj[ Z^c ?ZheguX]' YVh O^aa^Vb K) @VVh b^i Z^cZb AcYZg \Z[x]gi
]Vi) =h [^cYZi h^X] ^c hZ^cZb :jX] Örhia^X]Zh jcY lZhia^X]Zh <Zc`ZcÅ #,412$) <Zg
AcYZg [gV\i @VVh lu]gZcY Z^cZg <^h`jhh^dc eawioa^X]' \Z\Zc lZaX]Zc @^ciZg\gjcY Zg
Y^Z :ajbZc ^c YZg Fu]Z lV]gcZ]bZ) =g VcildgiZi' \Z\Zc YZc @^ciZg\gjcY YZg Kiguj(
X]Zg) McY Y^Z KigujX]Zg8 ?Z\Zc YZc @^ciZg\gjcY YZg :ujbZ' ^hi Y^Z 9cildgi) Kd \Z]i
Zh KX]g^ii [xg KX]g^ii lZ^iZg W^h ojg >gV\Z' \Z\Zc lZaX]Zc @^ciZg\gjcY Y^Z kdgWZ^o^ZÜ
]ZcYZc Oda`Zc lV]g\ZcdbbZc lZgYZc) ?Z\Zc YZc @^ciZg\gjcY YZh @^bbZah
<Vcc Y^Z aZioiZ >gV\Z5 ÖMcY \Z\Zc lZaX]Zc @^ciZg\gjcY hZ]Zc K^Z YZc @^bbZa8Å
@VVh ^hi kZgWax[[i jcY lZ^z `Z^cZ 9cildgi) <Zg AcYZg \^Wi h^Z ^]b5 Ö?Z\Zc YZc @^ciZgÜ
\gjcYYZh:ZljzihZ^ch)Å
9c Y^ZhZb :Z^he^Za l^gY YZjia^X]' ldg^c Y^Z NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<^[[ZgZc(
o^Zgjc\ YZh jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc AciZaaZ`ih ^c aZioiZg CdchZfjZco kZgVc`Zgi ^hi) <Zg @^cÜ
iZg\gjcY jchZgZh Z^\ZcZc :ZljzihZ^ch' YZh hjW_Z`i^kZc AX](:ZljzihZ^ch' l^Z Y^Z
9cildgi eguo^hZg aVjiZc bxziZ' ^hi Zh kdg YZb l^g aZioia^X] VaaZ Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc H]ucdÜ
bZcZ lV]gcZ]bZc) <^Z \gjcYaZ\ZcYZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ YZh AciZaaZ`ih WZhiZ]i YVg^c'
YVz l^g jch Vah KjW_Z`i' Vah AX]' =\d' kdc YZg dW_Z`i^kZc OZai jciZghX]Z^YZc) CdchZÜ
fjZciZ) gVY^`VaZ <jgX][x]gjc\ YZg NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ [x]gi
jch ^bbZg ojgxX` Vj[ jch hZaWhi' ojgxX` ojb KjW_Z`i' YVh Y^Z <^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ V`i^k
YjgX][x]gi) <Zcc Y^Z MciZghX]Z^Yjc\h[jc`i^dc YZh AciZaaZ`ih ^hi c^X]i Z^c[VX] Z^cZ
=g`Zccic^hlZ^hZ' YZg l^g jch WZY^ZcZc O^g h^cY Y^ZhZ =g`Zccic^hlZ^hZ' l^g h^cY YZg
60
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^i
AciZaaZ`i O^g h^cY YVb^i ^cYZci^[^o^Zgi) MchZg AX](:ZljzihZ^c' jchZgZ AYZci^iui' ^hi
\gjcYaZ\ZcY `dchi^ij^Zgi YjgX] Y^Z eg^co^e^ZaaZ ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\h[jc`Ü
i^dc) MchZg AX] ^hi 9jh\Vc\hejc`i jcY =g\ZWc^h YZg ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZc MciZghX]Z^Yjc\hÜ
[jc`i^dc) <^Z ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\ `dchi^ij^Zgi Y^Z AYZci^iui jchZgZh AX]' YVh
KZaWhiWZljzihZ^c YZh KjW_Z`ih' YVh YZb GW_Z`i YZg e]ucdbZcVaZc OZai \Z\Zc(
xWZghiZ]i) O^g jciZghX]Z^YZc' Zg`ZccZc YVh GW_Z`i ÖWaVjZg @^bbZaÅ Vj[ YZb @^ciZgÜ
\gjcY YZh KjW_Z`ih ÖAX]Å' YVh YjgX] VaaZ kdg]Zg^\Z MciZghX]Z^Yjc\hZg[V]gjc\ `dchi^Ü
ij^Zgi l^gY' GW l^g cjc Y^Z MciZghX]Z^Yjc\h[jc`i^dc YZh AciZaaZ`ih `dchZfjZci ^b
Mckro(WZgZ^X] ^c J^X]ijc\ Vj[ YVh ^bbZg ?gwzZgZ' Mb[VhhZcYZgZ' kdaao^Z]Zc' l^Z
^b dW^\Zc :Z^he^Za' dYZg ^b Mlkro(WZgZ^X] ^c J^X]ijc\ Vj[ YVh ^bbZg CaZ^cZgZ'
Mc\Z[VziZgZ' l^Z ^c YZg 9idbe]nh^`' l^g hidzZc ojaZioi ^bbZg l^ZYZg Vj[ jch hZaWhi'
Vj[ YVh lV]gcZ]bZcYZ' Zg`ZccZcYZ KjW_Z`i) OZcc l^g `dchZfjZci ^c J^X]ijc\ YZh
GW_Z`ih \Z]Zc' hZ^ Zh ^c J^X]ijc\ Vj[ YVh ?gwziZ dYZg CaZ^chiZ' iVjX]i olVc\hauj[^\
^bbZg YVh KjW_Z`i Vj[' l^g hZaWhi) <Vh GW_Z`i' YVh F^X]i(AX]' [x]gi ^bbZg l^ZYZg
ojgxX` ojb KjW_Z`i' ojb AX]) =h ^hi \aZ^X]hVb' Vah lxgYZ bVc Vj[ Z^cZg Cj\Za `dchZÜ
fjZci \ZgVYZVjh bVghX]^ZgZc jcY YVcc olVc\hauj[^\ ojb 9jh\Vc\hejc`i ojgxX`Ü
`Z]gZc) Ac Y^ZhZg =g`Zccic^h Zci]xaai h^X]' YVz KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i' AX] jcY F^X]i(AX]'
Z^cZ HdaVg^iui h^cY) K^Z h^cY Y^Z edaVgZc' \Z\Zchuioa^X]Zc 9heZ`iZ YZhhZaWZc' YVh ^c
h^X] jcZg`ZccWVg igVchY^[[ZgZci ^YZci^hX] ^hi) <^ZhZg [jcYVbZciVaZ RjhVbbZc]Vc\
l^gY igZ[[ZcY kZgVchX]Vja^X]i ^b X]^cZh^hX]Zc K^ccW^aY [xg HdaVg^iui' YZb Ö7cl Gl".
?ZgVYZ YVcc' lZcc Z^c 9heZ`i YZg HdaVg^iui #]^Zg GW_Z`i$ hZ^cZ hiug`hiZ 9jhegu\jc\
ZggZ^X]i'YVccig^ii^chZ^cZgE^iiZYZg\Z\Zceda^\Z9heZ`i#KjW_Z`i$^c=ghX]Z^cjc\)
OZcc l^g cjg Vj[ Y^Z ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ MciZghX]Z^Yjc\h[jc`i^dc [^m^Zgi h^cY' YVcc
Zg`ZccZc jcY ZgaZWZc l^g cjg YZc MciZghX]^ZY Y^ZhZg HdaVg^iui kdc KjW_Z`i jcY
GW_Z`i) O^g Zg[V]gZc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i' AX] jcY Y^Z OZai Vah Duclltöt, Vah h^X] VjhÜ
hX]a^ZzZcYZ' ^hda^ZgZcYZ KeVaijc\) <Vb^i l^g Y^Z Polcrltöt kdc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i
Zg`ZccZc `wccZc' bjz YZg xWZg\gZ^[ZcYZ RjhVbbZc]Vc\' Y^Z =^c]Z^i' AYZci^iui Y^ZÜ
hZg HdaZ Zg[V]gZc lZgYZc) <VYjgX] l^gY Y^Z <jVa^iui ^c Z^cZ HdaVg^iui \ZlVcYZai)
<^ZhZ =g[V]gjc\ YZg =^c]Z^i YZg HdaVg^iui ^hi VcYZgh Vjh\ZYgxX`i Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg
AcY^[[ZgZco YZg edaVgZc <^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\) <^Z <^[[ZgZco kdc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i l^gY
Vj[\Z]dWZc ^c YZg =^c]Z^i YZg AcY^[[ZgZco(=g[V]gjc\' YZb 9aaZh(F^X]ih YZg c^X]iÜ
YjVaZc VWhdajiZc O^g`a^X]`Z^i) K^Z ^hi \aZ^X]hVb Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ ^]gZg ^cY^[[ZgZciZc
E^iiZ' VcVad\ oj YZb :Z^he^Za YZg @Zaa*<jc`Za(<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\) Ac YZg =^c]Z^ihZgÜ
[V]gjc\ YZg AcY^[[ZgZco \^Wi YVh KjW_Z`i(AX] Y^Z Aaajh^dc Vj[' Zh lxgYZ \ZigZcci' ^hdÜ
a^Zgi' jcVW]uc\^\ kdb GW_Z`i' YZb F^X]i(AX] Zm^hi^ZgZc) <^ZhZ KeVaijc\' YZg \gjcYÜ
aZ\ZcYZ =m^hiZco(Aggijb' l^gY xWZgljcYZc ^c YZg =g[V]gjc\ YZh F^X]ih YZg AcY^[[ZÜ
gZco kdc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i' AX] jcY F^X]i(AX]) 9cYZgh Vjh\ZYgxX`i5 Y^Z =g[V]gjc\
YZh h^X] kdb GW_Z`i jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc' ^hda^ZgZcYZc KjW_Z`ih' YZh AX]' bjz h^X] Vj[(
]ZWZc ^c YZg =g[V]gjc\ YZg KjW_Z`i*GW_Z`i(AcY^[[ZgZco) <Vh Z\d(oZcig^hX]Z AX] YZg
61
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
KjW_Z`i*GW_Z`i(Duclltöt Öhi^gWiÅ ^c Y^ZhZg F^X]ih(=g[V]gjc\ jcY l^gY YVgVjh l^ZYZgÜ
\ZWdgZc Vah \ZlVcYZaiZh AX] YZg Vjh\Zld\ZcZc KjW_Z`i*GW_Z`i(Polcrltöt' lZ^a Zh ^c
YZg =^c]Z^ihZg[V]gjc\ hZ^cZ Z\doZcig^hX]Z' Z^chZ^i^\Z AhdaVi^dc xWZgljcYZc ]Vi) <Vh
AX]) YVh h^X] hZaWhi Z\doZcig^hX] VWhdaji hZioi jcY Vah ^hda^ZgiZ =^c]Z^i WZ\gZ^[i ( YZg
Ö9aiZ 9YVbÅ YZg X]g^hia^X]Zc LgVY^i^dc l^gY YjgX] Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg AcY^[[ZgZco
YZh F^X]ih c^X]i Z^c[VX] kZgc^X]iZi' hdcYZgc Zh l^gY gZaVi^k^Zgi' ^cYZb Zh h^X] Vah Z^c
edaVgZg 9heZ`i Z^cZg jb[VhhZcYZc =^c]Z^i Zg`Zcci jcY Z^cZ ^]b xWZg\ZdgYcZiZ E^iiZ
VcZg`Zcci) <^ZhZ =g[V]gjc\' Y^Z b^i Y^ZhZc sWZgaZ\jc\Zc cjg Vc\ZYZjiZi lZgYZc
`Vcc' ^hi Y^Z =g`Zccic^h YZh 9WhdajiZc' YVh gZhiadhZ' \VcoZ =g`ZccZc) Ac YZg =^c]Z^i
YZg AcY^[[ZgZco kdc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i l^gY YVh ?VcoZ' YVh 9WhdajiZ Zg`Vcci' YZgZc
edaVgZ <^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ h^Z h^cY) <Vh ^hi Z^c bw\a^X]Zg ?Zh^X]ihejc`i' kdc YZb Vjh
Vj[ YVh 9WhdajiZ ]^c\Zl^ZhZc lZgYZc `Vcc' dYZg WZhhZg' YjgX] YZc [xg Y^Z =g[V]gjc\
YZh 9WhdajiZc hZch^W^a^h^Zgi lZgYZc `Vcc) #<Zcc \ZcVj\ZcdbbZc `Vcc bVc Vj[ YVh
9WhdajiZ c^X]i hln-welsen. =h lugZ hdchi ZilVh ÖYdgiÅ' kdb @^Zg jcY BZioi MciZgÜ
hX]^ZYZcZh'VcYZgZhjcYhdb^ic^X]iYVh9WhdajiZ)$
/JF=QBEJSJON]CFQHFHFNR[SYLJDIFN0QKFNNFNR
<^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg AcY^[[ZgZco' ^c YZg YVh 9WhdajiZ Zg`Vcci l^gY' ZghX]Z^ci YjgX]
Y^Z ]^Zg kdg\ZaZ\iZ ^ciZaaZ`ijZaaZ <VghiZaajc\hlZ^hZ Vah ZilVh Cdbea^o^ZgiZh jcY
FZjZh) K^X ^hi Zh c^X]i) K^Z ^hi ^b ?gjcYZ c^X]i cjg Z^c[VX]' hdcYZgc' b^i >g^ZYaVZcYZgh
OdgiZc' ÖxWZgZ^c[VX]' `Z^c[VX]Å) K^Z ZghX]Z^ci Vj[ YZg =WZcZ YZh AciZaaZ`ih `dbea^Ü
o^Zgi' _V ^hi ]^Zg eg^co^e^Zaa c^X]i Vc\ZbZhhZc YVgojhiZaaZc) A]gZ KX]l^Zg^\`Z^i a^Z\i ^c
^]gZg =^c[VX]]Z^i' Y^Z YVh \Z\Zchuioa^X] jciZghX]Z^YZcYZ' olZ^[VX]Z :Z\gZ^[Zc xWZgÜ
hiZ^\i) McY h^Z ^hi VjX] c^X]i ZilVh FZjZh) Ab ?Z\ZciZ^a) K^Z ^hi Y^Z jghegxc\a^X]hiZ
>dgb YZh =g`ZccZch' Y^Z ^b RZcigjb YZh AciZgZhhZh VaaZg JZa^\^dcZc hiZ]i) 9aaZ
Vji]Zci^hX]Zc JZa^\^dcZc hegZX]Zc' _Z ^c ^]gZg igVY^i^dcZaaZc 9jhYgjX`hlZ^hZ' kdc
Y^ZhZg =^c]Z^ihZg[V]gjc\' ^c YZg YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh ?VcoZ ( bZ^hi ?dii \ZcVcci (
xWZg\Z\Zchuioa^X]Zg`Vccil^gY)
Ac bZ^cZg \Z^hi^\Zc @Z^bVi jcY @Zg`jc[i' YZb ;]g^hiZcijb' hiZ]i Vb 9c[Vc\ Y^Z
=^c]Z^ihZg[V]gjc\ BZhj kdc FVoVgZi]h) ÖAX] jcY YZg NViZg h^cY =^chÅ #Bd]) ,+' .+$
YgxX`iZ Zg Y^ZhZ =g[V]gjc\ ^c YZg KegVX]Z hZ^cZg gZa^\^whZc LgVY^i^dc' YZb BjYZcijb'
Vjh) <Vg^c ^hi WZ\gxcYZi' YVz Zg Vah YZg Chrlstus WZoZ^X]cZi jcY kZgZ]gi l^gY' Vah YZg
bVz\ZWa^X]Z' lZ^a ?dii' YZb 9WhdajiZc' ZcihegZX]ZcYZ jcY Vjh Y^ZhZg =^c]Z^ihZg[V](
gjc\ aZWZcYZ cZjZ EZchX]) =g gZeguhZci^Zgi' kZg\Z\Zclugi^\i Y^Z jcZg`ZccWVgZ'
VWhdajiZ' aZWZcY^\Z =^c]Z^i YZg OZai' ?dii' ^c YZg gZaVi^kZc N^Za[Vai YZg OZai' Y^Z
lssenz ^c YZg lxlstenz' ^c YZc OdgiZc YZh L]Zdad\Zc HVja L^aa^X]) KZ^c DZWZc' KiZgÜ
WZc jcY 9j[ZghiZ]Zc ^hi Y^Z [jcYVbZciVaZ Gg^Zci^Zgjc\ jcY =gbji^\jc\ [xg YZc
bZchX]a^X]Zc DZWZchegdoZz' YZg ediZci^Zaa Vj[ Y^ZhZ =^c]Z^ihZg[V]gjc\ Vc\ZaZ\i ^hi'
Y^Z Vjh YZg [ViVaZc =c\Z jcY 9c\hi Z^cZh ^hda^ZgiZc' Z\doZcig^hX]Zc KZaWhikZghiucY(
c^hhZh WZ[gZ^i) Ac YZg lZ^iZgZc X]g^hia^X]Zc LgVY^i^dc hiVcY bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg YZjiÜ
a^X]) kdc kZghX]^ZYZcZc ?Zh^X]ihejc`iZc Vjh lV]g\ZcdbbZc' Y^ZhZ WZ[gZ^ZcYZ =^cÜ
]Z^ihZg[V]gjc\ ^b RZcigjb' ljgYZ VWZg VjX] d[i Vjh YZc 9j\Zc kZgadgZc) :ZhdcYZgh
egu\cVci ^hi Y^Z CdcoZcig^Zgjc\ Vj[ Y^Z =^c]Z^ihZg[V]gjc\ ^c YZg X]g^hia^X]Zc Enhi^`)
:Z^ EZ^hiZg =X`]Vgi) LVjaZg) KZjhZ' JjjhWgdZX' @^aYZ\VgY kdc :^c\Zc) ;jhVcjh'
Bd]VccZh kdb CgZjo' :dZ]bZ' LZghiZZ\Zc' jb cjg Z^c^\Z oj cZccZc' hiZ]i Y^Z ÖMc^d
bnhi^XVÅ' Y^Z NZgZ^c^\jc\ b^i ?dii' _ZchZ^ih VaaZg ?Z\ZchuioZ ^b E^iiZaejc`i ^]gZg
=g[V]gjc\jcY^]gZgDZ]gZ)
62
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^i
9jX] ^c VcYZgZc \gdzZc gZa^\^whZc LgVY^i^dcZc auzi h^X] u]ca^X]Zh WZdWVX]iZc) Ab
@^cYj^hbjh' WZhdcYZgh ^c YZg AJvcltc(H]^adhde]^Z YZh veJcntc, \Z]i Zh oZcigVa jb
Y^Z NZgZ^c^\jc\ YZh Atmcn, YZh ^cY^k^YjZaaZc KZaWhi b^i 8rchmcn, YZb `dhb^hX]Zc
KZaWhi) Ab :jYY]^hbjh hiZ]i Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg DZZgZ' 5hunyctc, ^b RZcigjb) Ab Zen-
:jYY]^hbjh o):) bjz YVh ^cY^k^YjZaaZ AX] YZc Ö?gdzZc LdYÅ' 7clshl, hiZgWZc' jb
Y^Z WZ[gZ^ZcYZ =g[V]gjc\ YZg =^c]Z^i' 5ctorl, oj ZgaVc\Zc) Ab X]^cZh^hX]Zc 7colsmus
`gZ^hi VaaZh jb Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZh jcYZ[^c^ZgWVgZc 7co, YZb VaaZh Zciheg^c\i jcY ^c
YZb YZg Mg\Z\ZchVio ¥ln/¥cng Vj[\Z]dWZc ^hi) 9jX] Y^Z ^haVb^hX]Z Enhi^`' YZg
5uflsmus, higZWi Z^cZ a^ZWZcYZ NZgZ^c^\jc\ ^c Z^cZg Ö@wX]hiZc AYZci^iuiÅ Vc) =h ^hi Y^Z
9j[\VWZ Z^cZh aVc\Zc' ^ciZch^kZc ^ciZggZa^\^whZc <^Vad\h ^c L]Zdg^Z jcY HgVm^h oj
`augZc' ld ?ZbZ^chVb`Z^iZc jcY MciZghX]^ZYZ WZhiZ]Zc) 9WZg hX]dc _Zioi `Vcc
\ZhV\i lZgYZc' YVz Y^Z higj`ijgZaaZc =cihegZX]jc\Zc YZg JZa^\^dcZc ^c WZoj\ Vj[
^]gZ Vc\ZhigZWiZ WZ[gZ^ZcYZ RZcigVa(=g[V]gjc\ Vj[[uaa^\ h^cY) 9aaZc \Z]i Zh' WZhdcÜ
YZgh ^c ^]gZc `dciZbeaVi^kZc LgVY^i^dcZc' bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg egu\cVci jb Y^Z =g[V]Ü
gjc\ Z^cZg c^X]i(YjVaZc =^c]Z^i' Z^cZg LgVchY^[[ZgZco' ^c YZg Y^Z MciZghX]^ZYZ'
?Z\ZchuioZ ÖVj[\Z]dWZcÅ h^cY' c^X]i kZgc^X]iZi' jcY Vjh YZg YZg EZchX] \ZlVcYZai'
Y) ]) Vjh hZ^cZb YjVaZc =\d(RZcig^hbjh WZ[gZ^i' ]Zgkdg\Z]i) <^Z Vji]Zci^hX]Zc he^g^Ü
ijZaaZc OZ\Z ldaaZc oj Z^cZg jb[VhhZcYZc :Zljzi]Z^i [x]gZc' ^c YZg YVh \VcoZ
ÖKeZ`igjb YZh :ZljzihZ^chÅ #O^aWZg ,432' ,44+$ Zci[VaiZi ^hi' jcY ^c YZg =^c]Z^i
Z^cZh ÖCdbeaZmZc :ZljzihZ^chÅ #HZiodaY ,44.$ Y^Z WZ[gZ^ZcYZ =^ch^X]i ^c Y^Z [jcYVÜ
bZciVaZCdZm^hiZcogZVa^h^Zgil^gY)
OVh YZc ?ZYVc`Zc YZg HdaVg^iui WZig^[[i' hd [^cYZi Zg h^X] cZWZc hZ^cZg egu\cVciZÜ
hiZc >dgb ^b GhiZc' ^c YZg ¥ln/¥cng(CdcoZei^dc YZh 7colsmus, VjX] ^c YZg lZhia^Ü
X]Zc ?Z^hiZh\ZhX]^X]iZ) <^Z e]^adhde]^hX]Zc 9caVc\Z edaVgZc <Zc`Zch [^cYZc h^X]
^chWZhdcYZgZ WZ^ @ZgV`a^i #0//(/3.$' jcY [xg Y^Z heuiZgZ =cil^X`ajc\ hiZ]Zc FVbZc
l^Z F^`daVjh kdc CjZh #,/+,(,/1/$ b^i hZ^cZg DZ]gZ kdc YZg colnclJentlc oµµoslto-
rum, YZb RjhVbbZc[Vaa YZg ?Z\ZchuioZ' BV`dW :dX]bZ #,020(,1-/$' ?dZi]Z
#,2/4(,3.-$' @Z\Za #,22+(,3.,$ jcY KX]Zaa^c\ #,220(,30/$) Ac YZg oZ^i\Zcwhh^hX]Zc
X]g^hia^X]Zc L]Zdad\^Z l^gY YZg HdaVg^iuih\ZYVc`Z kdg VaaZb WZ^ CVga @Z^b #,32/Ä
,403$ oZcigVaZh Edi^k' YZg Z^c NZghiucYc^h YZg sWZgedaVg^iui ?diiZh Zcil^X`Zai
#,430$) 9jX] ^b i]Zdad\^hX]Zc 9chVio kdc HVja L^aa^X] #,331(,410$ he^Zai HdaVg^iui
Z^cZ oZcigVaZ JdaaZ #,422$) <^Z egu\cVciZhiZ jcY `dchZfjZciZhiZ e]^adhde]^hX]Z
<jgX]Yg^c\jc\ YZh HdaVg^iuihbdi^kZh [^cYZ ^X] WZ^ KVadbd >g^ZYaVZcYZg' YZg h^X] ^c
hZ^cZb H]^adhde]^ZgZc kdg VaaZb Vj[ CVci jcY VjX] Vj[ KX]deZc]VjZg jcY F^ZiohX]Z
WZod\Zc ]Vi) KZ^cZ HdaVg^iuih( jcY AcY^[[ZgZcoe]^adhde]^Z ^hi Z^cZ 9gi \Z^hi^\Zg
Ggi]deuY^Z' lZaX]Z Y^Z hX]^Z[Z' Z^chZ^i^\Z OZaiVchX]Vjjc\ YZh AciZaaZ`ih l^ZYZg ^c
^]gZ ^cY^[[ZgZciZ E^iiZ gZc`Zc l^aa' kdc ld Vjh Zg Vjh\Zld\Zc edaVg [jc`i^dc^Zgi5
Ö<Vh >jcYVbZci YZg <^c\Z ^hi YV]Zg c^X]i ^]gZ jciZgZ ?gjcY(' hdcYZgc ^]gZ oZcigVaZ
E^iiZaaV\Z' Y^Z <^c\Z h^cY edaVg) <Vh 'MciZc" ^hi Y^Z E^iiZ YZh edaVgZc 'GWZcÉÅ #>g^ZYÜ
aVZcYZg ,4-1' -/$) <^ZhZ HdaVg^iuihe]^adhde]^Z ^hi ]^Zgb^i YZb \gjcYaZ\ZcYZc Hg^cÜ
o^e YZg ?ZhiVaii]Zdg^Z' YZg NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(<ncVb^`' ^c :Zo^Z]jc\ \ZhZioi
ldgYZc' lVh oj Z^cZb jb[VhhZcYZgZc NZghiucYc^h jchZgZg JZVa^iuihZg[Vhhjc\ [x]gi)
<^ZhZg i]ZdgZi^hX]Z RjhVbbZc]Vc\ a^Z\i VjX] YZg ?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z kdc >g^io HZgah
oj\gjcYZ' YZg h^X] oZcigVa Vj[ >g^ZYaVZcYZg WZo^Z]i #HZgah ,423' ,2[[)$) <Zg \ZhiVaii]ZÜ
gVeZji^hX]Z 9chVio' YZg b) =) Vah ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Z MbhZiojc\ YZg edaVgZc AcY^[Ü
[ZgZcoe]^adhde]^Z >g^ZYaVZcYZgh Vc\ZhZ]Zc lZgYZc `Vcc' oZ^\i ^c hZ^cZb HgdoZzkZg(
hiucYc^h Z^cZ lZ^i\Z]ZcYZ higj`ijgZaaZ sWZgZ^chi^bbjc\ b^i he^g^ijZaaZc :Z[gZ^Ü
jc\hegdoZhhZc' l^Z o) :) ^b RZc dYZg ^c `dciZbeaVi^kZg X]g^hia^X]Zg Ke^g^ijVa^iui
#>gVbWVX] ,44/$) <Vh Hg^co^e YZg HdaVg^iui ^hi `Z^cZ gZVa^iuih[ZgcZ i]ZdgZi^hX]Z
63
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
KX]wc\Z^hiZgZ^' hdcYZgc kdc YZjia^X] egV`i^hX]Zg JZaZkVco jcY l^g`i h^X] ^c VaaZc
O^hhZch\ZW^ZiZc [gjX]iWVg `augZcY jcY dgYcZcY Vjh' hZ^Zc Zh FVijgl^hhZchX]V[iZc'
Kdo^Va( jcY ?Z^hiZhl^hhZchX]V[iZc jcY' c^X]i ojaZioi' Y^Z L]Zdad\^Z) <Vh Z^chZ^i^\
a^cZVg(`VjhVaZ <Zc`Zc l^gY YZg e]ucdbZcVaZc JZVa^iui c^Z \Vco \ZgZX]i) =h bjz
^bbZg kdc Z^cZb OZX]hZahe^Za edaVgZg H]ucdbZcZ Vjh\Z\Vc\Zc lZgYZc' Y^Z h^X] oj
Z^cZg aZWZcY^\ [jc`i^dc^ZgZcYZc ?Vco]Z^i Zg\ucoZc) HdaVg^iui ^hi YVh aZWZcY^\Z
?ZhiVaijc\heg^co^e YZg OZai' YVh VaaZh b^i VaaZb kZgW^cYZi) =h \^Wi `Z^cZ [xg h^X]
Zm^hi^ZgZcYZc =^c]Z^iZc' ^c Y^Z bVc Y^Z JZVa^iui YZg H]ucdbZcZ oZg\a^ZYZgc `wcciZ)
<Zg [jcYVbZciVaZ RjhVbbZc]Vc\' Y^Z =^c]Z^i YZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i ^hi YVYjgX] \Z\ZWZc'
YVz VaaZ H]ucdbZcZ edaVg higj`ijg^Zgi h^cY jcY VaaZ Vj[ ^]gZ jghegxc\a^X]Z ÖKX]we[ZÜ
g^hX]Z AcY^[[ZgZcoÅ ojgxX`\Z[x]gi lZgYZc `wccZc) <^Z \VcoZ N^Za[Vai YZg edaVgZc
<^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ YZg gZaVi^kZc OZai ]Vi ^]gZ =^c]Z^i jcY E^iiZ ^c YZg VaaZc \ZbZ^cÜ
hVbZcVWhdajiZcAcY^[[ZgZco'YZg>xaaZYZhF^X]ih)
/JF8OQBLUONEFQ2FRDIJFIS
<dX] `dbbZc l^g ojb KX]ajz l^ZYZg oj jchZgZg >VWZa ojgxX`' jcY o^Z]Zc l^g Z^cZ
9gi ojhVbbZc[VhhZcYZh >Vo^i) OVh ^hi Y^Z ÖEdgVa kdc YZg ?ZhX]^Z]iÅ' Y^Z Zh Z^cojÜ
hZ]Zc\^ai8
OZcc YZg AciZaaZ`i h^X] Vj[ hZ^cZ >u]^\`Z^i YZh hX]cZaaZc' ZmV`iZc MciZghX]Z^YZch
hdk^Za Z^cW^aYZi l^Z YZg @VhZ Vj[ hZ^cZ aVc\Zc :Z^cZ jcY h^X] \Vco YVgVj[ kZgauzi'
YVcc l^gY Zg l^Z Y^ZhZg hX]Z^iZgc) @dX]bji `dbbi kdg YZb >Vaa) 9ggd\Vco ^hi ^bbZg
VjX] A\cdgVco) <^ZhZg OZiiaVj[ ^hi c^X]i oj \Zl^ccZc) AbbZg l^gY `jgo kdg YZb
=ggZ^X]Zc YZh R^ZaZh YVh kZg]uc\c^hkdaaZ Ö:^c hX]dc YVÅ ZgiwcZc) <Zcc Zh \Z]i _V
jb ZilVh \Vco VcYZgZh Vah @VhZ jcY AciZaaZ`i h^X] Z^cW^aYZc) :Z^b OZiiaVj[ kdc @VhZ
jcY A\Za `Vb Zh _V c^X]i Vj[ Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i YZh hX]cZaaZc DVj[Zch Vc' hdchi ]uiiZ YZg
@VhZ h^X]Zga^X] \ZldccZc' hdcYZgc Vj[ Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i YZh Y^[[ZgZco^ZgZcYZc =g`ZcÜ
cZch) =h \^c\ c^X]i jb Y^Z :Z^cZ' hdcYZgc jb YZc Cde[) <Zg @VhZ ]uiiZ YZc MciZgÜ
hX]^ZY kdc >gVj jcY @Zggc A\Za Zg`ZccZc bxhhZc) =g ]ViiZ Zh b^i olZ^Zc oj ijc jcY
c^X]i cjg b^i Z^cZb) :Z^b NZghjX] YZh AciZaaZ`ih YVh 9WhdajiZ' Y)])' \Vco jcY gZhiadh
VaaZh oj Zg`ZccZc' `dbbi Zh cjc c^X]i Vj[ Y^Z >u]^\`Z^i YZh jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc YjVaZc
=g`ZccZch Vc' hdcYZgc Vj[ Z^cZ cZjZ IjVa^iui YZh =g`ZccZch) F^X]i YVh MciZghX]Z^YÜ
WVgZ hdaa lV]g\ZcdbbZc lZgYZc' hdcYZgc YVh McjciZghX]Z^YWVgZ' Y^Z =^c]Z^i' Y^Z
Vah Y^Z N^Za[Vai YZg jciZghX]Z^YWVgZc H]ucdbZcZ ZghX]Z^ci) =h \Z]i c^X]i jb YVh
=g`ZccZc YZg <^[[ZgZco' hdcYZgc jb YVh =g`ZccZc YZg AcY^[[ZgZco ^c YZg <^[[ZgZco)
<Zg AciZaaZ`i ]Vi Zh ^b ?gjcYZ b^i YZb Z^cZc jcWZhX]gZ^Wa^X]Zc F^X]i(<jVaZc oj ijc'
YVh e]ucdbZcVa Vah olZ^ ZghX]Z^ci' Vah HdaVg^iui) <Vh Zg[dgYZgi \aZ^X]hVb Z^c cZjZh
OV]gcZ]bjc\hdg\Vc) =h \Z]i c^X]i jb YZc Cde[' hdcYZgc jb YVh @Zgo) <Vh ^hi YVh
?Z]Z^bc^h' YVh YZg >jX]h kdc 9cid^cZ YZ KV^ci(=mjeZgn YZb `aZ^cZc Hg^coZc kZggui5
ÖEVc h^Z]i cjg b^i YZb @ZgoZc \ji) <Vh OZhZcia^X]Z ^hi [xg 9j\Zc jch^X]iWVgÅ) <Vh
jch^X]iWVgZ' jcjciZghX]Z^YWVgZ OZhZc' YVh 9WhdajiZ' YVh Y^Z aZWZcY^\Z =^c]Z^i' YZg
?gjcY VaaZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i ^hi' YVh ^hi YZb jciZghX]Z^YZcYZc 9j\Z YZh AciZaaZ`ih ZciodÜ
\Zc) <^Z =^c]Z^i YZh [jcYVbZciVaZc MciZghX]^ZYh' YZg HdaVg^iui ^hi `Z^c [xg YZc AciZaÜ
aZ`i lV]gcZ]bWVgZh H]ucdbZc) <dX] YVh @Zgo' Y) ]) YZg h^X] \Vco YZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i
]^c\ZWZcYZ jcY kZgigVjZchkdaa w[[cZcYZ EZchX]' h^Z]i h^Z ^c ^]gZg jciZghX]^ZYhadhZc
CaVg]Z^i)
<Zg @VhZ AciZaaZ`i `Vcc Vjh YZb kZg]uc\c^hkdaaZc VWhdajiZc OZiiaVj[ VjhhiZ^\Zc'
^c YZc Zg h^X] kZggVcci ]Vi' lZcc Zg Zg`Zcci' YVz Zg Zh cjg ^c YZg JZVa^iui YZg Y^[[ZgZcÜ
64
NdcYZgMc[u]^\`Z^i
o^ZgiZc H]ucdbZcZ' ^b JZaVi^kZc' ^bbZg b^i olZ^Zc' b^i HdaVg^iui' oj ijc ]Vi' Y^Z Zg
YjVa jciZghX]Z^YZcY Zg`ZccZc `Vcc' ac WZoj\ Vj[ YVh 9WhdajiZ \Z]i Zh c^X]i jb YVh
Y^[[ZgZco^ZgZcYZ' olZ^[VX]Z =g`ZccZc cVX] YZb NdgYZg\gjcY*@^ciZg\gjcY(Hg^co^e'
hdcYZgc jb YVh Z^c[VX]Z ÖxWZgZ^c[VX]ZÅ' ^cY^[[ZgZciZ' dYZg WZhhZg' lZ^a \ZcVjZg'
igVchY^[[ZgZciZ =g`ZccZc YZg F^X]i(<jVa^iui YZh ?gjcYZh) <Vh 9WhdajiZ ^hi jcjciZgÜ
hX]Z^YWVg xWZgedaVg) =h ^hi Y^Z =^c]Z^i' AYZci^iui YZg edaVgZc ?Z\ZchuioZ' Y^Z ,colncl-
Jentlc oµµosltorum", Y^Z AcY^[[ZgZco YZh <^[[ZgZco^ZgiZc' E^iiZ' RZcigjb' ?gjcY'
LgVchoZcYZco' ?dii' ( YVh @Zgo YZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i) K^Z]i Zg YVh Z^c' jchZg @VhZ AciZaÜ
aZ`i ( jcY olVg ^c YZg jcb^iiZaWVgZc aZWZcY^\Zc =g[V]gjc\ YZh McjciZghX]Z^YWVÜ
gZc YVcc ^hi Zg ( h^cY l^g ( l^ZYZg [gZ^' jcY Zg heg^c\i b^i \gdzZc KuioZc ZgaZ^X]iZgi
YVkdc) N^ZaaZ^X]i' jb b^i Z^c eVVg VcYZgZc @VhZc ojb KeVz jb Y^Z OZiiZ oj aVj[Zc)
GYZg \Vco Z^c[VX]' jb h^X] Z^c eVVg hX]bVX`]V[iZ Cd]a`we[Z oj hjX]Zc) ?jiZc
9eeZi^i
,COTSSIF4NBCJLJSXOGSIF4NSFLLFDSSOQFDOHNJYFSIF,CROLTSF
OQ
SIF;BDFCFSVFFN3BQFBNE3FEHFIOH
5ummcry
L]Z ^ciZaaZXi ^h dc eg^cX^eaZ jcVWaZ id gZXd\c^oZ i]Z VWhdajiZ' i]Z l]daZ' WZXVjhZ ^ih bV^c eg^cX^eaZ ^h i]Z
Y^hi^cXi^dc ^c [dgZ\gdjcY VcY WVX`\gdjcY) L]ZgZ[dgZ gZbV^ch ValVnh Vc jcgZXd\c^oZY gZhi' i]Z Y^[[jhZ
WVX`\gdjcY) >dg i]Z edaVg Y^[[ZgZci^ViZY e]ZcdbZcVa gZVa^in i]Z ^ciZaaZXi ^h i]Z Veegdeg^ViZ bdYZ d[
gZXd\c^i^dc) Ld eZgXZ^kZ i]Z VWhdajiZ' l]daZ' i]Z Ö;gZVi^kZ AcY^[[ZgZcXZÅ #K) >g^ZYaVZcYZg$' WZndcY Vaa
edaVgY^[[ZgZci^Vi^dc'i]ZgZbjhiWZVcZldkZgdeedh^i^kZ'XdciZbeaVi^kZ`^cYd[gZXd\c^i^dc)
6FX @OQER$ L]Zdgn d[ JZXd\c^i^dc' HdaVg^in' >dgZ\gdjcY*:VX`\gdjcY(<^[[XgZci^Vi^dc' ;gZVi^kZ AcY^[Ü
[ZgZcXZ)
7JSFQBSTQ
lrcmbcch,l.#,44/$'AYZci^iuijcY:Z[gZ^jc\^c?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z'RZcjcYX]g^hia^X]ZgKe^g^ijVa^iui)N^V
FdkV'HZiZghWZg\)
lrleJlcenJer,5.#,4,3$'KX]we[Zg^hX]ZAcY^[[ZgZco)?Zdg\ExaaZg'ExcX]Zc)
( #,4-1$'KX]we[Zg^hX]ZAcY^[[ZgZco)-)jbZ^cNdgldgikZgbZ]giZ9j[a)JZ^c]VgYi'ExcX]Zc)
lccs,w.#,412$'rhia^X]ZhjcYlZhia^X]Zh<Zc`Zc)JZ^cWZ`)
lelm,l.#,430$'?aVjWZjcY<Zc`Zc)9jhhVVi'FZj`^gX]Zc(Najnc)1)9j[a)=9,4.,)
lohl,G./lessler,l.#@\)$#,42/$'HdaVg^iuiVahOZai\ZhZiojcYDZWZcheg^co^e#9W]VcYajc\ZcYZg@jbÜ
WdaYi(?ZhZaahX]V[i:Y).$)Kd`gViZh'EVcc]Z^b)
1ung,C.C.#,42-$'?ZaZ^ildgi)Ac5Kjoj`^'<)L)#,42-$'<^Z?gdzZ:Z[gZ^jc\)G)O):Vgi]'OZ^a]Z^b'
4(.3)
löhne,O.#,43,$'HdaVg^iui)=^c[x]gjc\^cY^ZHdaVg^iuihi]Zdg^Z)Kd`gViZh'EVcc]Z^b)
( #,43.$'Y^ZÖ=^c[x]gjc\ÅYZh:Z\g^[[ZhYZgHdaVg^iui^cY^ZZ^coZacZcl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zc<^ho^ea^cZc)
Kd`gViZh'EVcc]Z^b)
Metzger,w.#,420$'OVh^hi?ZhiVaii]Zdg^Z8ac5?jhh'C)#,420$'?ZhiVaii]Zdg^ZjcY=go^Z]jc\)KiZ^c(
`de[['<VgbhiVYi),(,2)
lerls,l.5.#,423$'<VhAX]'YZg@jc\ZgjcYY^Z9\\gZhh^dc)CaZii(;diiV'Kijii\Vgi)
PetzolJ,l.#,44.$'AciZ\gVi^kZL]ZgVe^Z:Y)A)Bjc[ZgbVcc'HVYZgWdgc)
( #@\)##,44.$'>gx]ZKX]uY^\jc\Zc(heuiZ>da\Zc8Bjc[ZgbVcc'HVYZgWdgc)
( #@\)$#,440$'<^ZCgV[ia^ZWZkdaaZg:a^X`X)Bjc[ZgbVcc'HVYZgWdgc)
lcuschenberger,w.#,40,$'<VhOZai\ZhZioYZgHdaVg^iui)>gVc`[jgi*E)
7llllch,P.#,422$'KnhiZbVi^hX]ZL]Zdad\^Z:Y)AÄAAA)=k)NZgaV\hlZg`'Kijii\Vgi)0)9j[a)
wllber,l.#,432$'<VhKeZ`igjbYZh:ZljzihZ^ch)KX]Zgo':Zgcj)V)-)9j[a)
( #,433$'<^ZYgZ^9j\ZcYZg=g`Zccic^h)CwhZa'ExcX]Zc)
( #,44+$'<Vh9ibVcHgd_Z`i)Bjc[ZgbVcc'HVYZgWdgc)
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
DVj[V)Y)HZ\c^io
65
?FQH[NHLJDIKFJS
8ernJGunJermcnn,8cJllsslngen
wlrslnJwleJerwlnJ
elnfluchtlgwehen,
blelbennlrgenJsunJnlemclsstehen,
kelnlelm,wowlrwlrkllchzulcuseslnJ.
vergebenssuchenwlrfestzustellen
Jle7rlttsµurvonunsreslebenslcuf,
eshobenunJsenktenslchvlelewellen,
slezogenhlnunter,sleschobenhlncuf
0nJwcsversµrcchzuJcuern,
ertrcnkrcschlm5tromJerZelt.
5chelnwcrclles:lreuJwlelelJ,
fcstlcutlosJle7cgezerbersten,
wlrwechselnllelJumllelJ.
0nJslnJwleJerwlnJ,
JerJle5ellenblöttert
vonelnemengbeJruckten8uch,
worlnnenelnkomcnhelJklettert,
Jerkcmzukurzestem8esuch.
Der0rheberblelbtunbekcnnt,
vergebenssuchtJer8llck,
unJschwelfterubern8ucherrcnJ,
soflnJ´erschwerzuruck.
wlrslnJwleJerwlnJcusluftgemccht.
wurJenwlretwchercusgelccht?
lercusgenleßt?lercusgeµflffen?
Getrlllertmlthurtlgenllotengrlffen?
AllJleserwögenJlcngunJbrelt,
verkllngtJcslleJlnklelnerZelt.
66
LgVcheZghdcVaZ
HhnX]dad\^ZjcY
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
,*,441'12(3.
;FJNKBQNBSJONRHLBTCFTNE;FJNKBQNBSJONR#
SIFQBPJF+SQBNRPFQRONBLF1JKSJON
Mlchcel5chroter-lunhcrJt,welnsberg
ATRBMMFNGBRRTNH$ JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\Zc ZglZ^hZc h^X] Vah [uahX]a^X]Zh
>xglV]g]VaiZc hj\\Zhi^k ^cYjo^ZgiZg H]VciVh^Zc' ^c YZcZc YZg HVi^Zci j) V) hZ^cZ HgdÜ
WaZbZ eZghdc^[^o^Zgi jcY `ViVi]nb ZciauYi' lVh \ZaZ\Zcia^X] ]Z^ahVb l^g`i) KX]dc
kdc YZc Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc YZh ?ZYuX]ic^hhZh ]Zg `Vcc Xh h^X] WZ^ Y^ZhZc =g[V]gjc\Zc
_ZYdX] c^X]i jb '[gx]ZgZ DZWZcÉ ]VcYZac) Mc\Zlw]ca^X]Z H]ucdbZcZ l^Z KiZ^\ZÜ
gjc\ bVcX]Zg DZ^hijc\Zc' O^g`a^X]`Z^ihX]VgV`iZg jcY YVh 9j[iVjX]Zc hX]Z^cWVg
jcWZ`VcciZc O^hhZch aVhhZc h^X] Vah ine^hX]Z LgVcXZ(H]ucdbZcZ Zg`augZc) NZg^[^`VÜ
i^dchkZghjX]Z [Z]aZc dYZg VWZg lZ^hZc cjg hZaiZc Z^cYZji^\ eVgVcdgbVaZ DZ^hijc\Zc
Vj[' Y^Z h^X] YVcc Vc^b^hi^hX] dYZg VjX] he^g^i^hi^hX] YZjiZc aVhhZc) <^Z gZ^c`VgcVi^d(
c^hi^hX]Z<Zjijc\YZghZaWZcZglZ^hih^X]YV\Z\ZcVah[VahX])
<DIL]RRFLV\QSFQ JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\Zc' JZ^c`VbVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z' Kj\\ZÜ
hi^dc'<^hhdo^Vi^dc'HZghdc^[^`Vi^dc'CgneidbcZh^X'Ke^g^i^hbjh)
;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFNBLRRTHHFRSJUJNETYJFQSF:IBNSBRJFN
Ab OZhiZc l^gY YZg JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZ ojcZ]bZcY oj Z^cZg Wa^cY xWZgcdbbZÜ
cZc =ghViogZa^\^dc) <VWZ^ WZgj[i bVc h^X] Vj[ WZhi^bbiZ whia^X]Z JZa^\^dcZc l^Z YZc
@^cYj^hbjh dYZg YZc :jYY]^hbjh' Y^Z hZ^i XV) -3++ BV]gZc Vc JZ^c`VgcVi^dc \aVjWZc
#KVX]Vj' ,4406 9aWgZX]i' ,4336 :VX]Z' ,44.6E^hX]d' ,44-6 KiZkZchdc ,4346 O^ZhZc(
YVc\Zg,44,$)
=^cZ l^X]i^\Z Edi^kVi^dc [xg YZc ?aVjWZc Vc JZ^c`VgcVi^dc ^hi YVh jc^kZghZaaZ
K^cc( jcY =g`augjc\hWZYxg[c^h YZh EZchX]Zc) Ca^ZciZc jcY L]ZgVeZjiZc ZglVgiZc'
YjgX] YVh O^ZYZgZgaZWZc '[gx]ZgZg DZWZcÉ YVh Z^\ZcZ DZWZc jcY WZhdcYZgh Z^\ZcZh
DZ^Y oj kZghiZ]Zc Wol) oj Zg`augZc) <^ZhZ ?aujW^\`Z^i Vc Z^c NdgaZWZc Vah =g`augjc\
VaaZg RjhVbbZc]uc\Z hiZaai cZWZc YZc ^)J) kdc ÑJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZcÉ Vc\ZÜ
lVcYiZc ]necdi^hX]Zc NZg[V]gZc Z^c Vjid( jcY ]ZiZgd]necd^YZh hZi*hZii^c\ YVg' YVh
\ZgVYZojojb9j[iVjX]ZcZcihegZX]ZcYZgH]VciVh^ZegdYj`iZ[x]gZcbjz)
:Z^ YZc 'JZ^c`VbVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZcÉ lZgYZc iVihuX]a^X] Y^gZ`iZ hj\\Zhi^kZ 9caZ^Ü
ijc\Zc ojg JxX`[x]gjc\ ^c [gx]ZgZ DZWZc \Z\ZWZc6 Zh ]VcYZai h^X] WZ^ YZc lZhia^Ü
X]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\Zc Vahd c^Z jb hedciVcZ' hdcYZgc jb `xchia^X] ]ZgÜ
WZ^\Z[x]giZ =gaZWc^hhZ) KZaWhi ld Z^cZ Y^gZ`iZ DZc`jc\ Y^ZhZg 9gi [Z]ai' ^hi YZg gZ^c(
`VgcVi^kZ 9chVio hX]dc Z^cZ VjhgZ^X]ZcYZ Kj\\Zhi^dc) <^Zh oZ^\i h^X] WZhdcYZgh
YVg^c' YVz hX]Z^cWVg hedciVcZ' Vahd c^X]i i]ZgVeZji^hX] ^cYjo^ZgiZ 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg(
[V]gjc\ZcÉ W^h Vj[ lZc^\Z 9jhcV]bZc cjg ^c hdaX]Zc CjaijgZc Vj[igZiZc' ^c YZcZc
kdckdgc]ZgZ^cVcJZ^c`VgcVi^dc\Z\aVjWil^gY
67
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
<Vz Zh ^c Y^ZhZc CjaijgZc VjX] cjg ( hX]dc \gjcYhuioa^X] ujzZghi aZ^X]i hj\\Zhi^Ü
WaZ ( C^cYZg ^b 9aiZg kdc -(0 #(,+$ BV]gZc h^cY' Y^Z hedciVcZ ÑJZ^c`VbVi^dchZg[V](
gjc\ZcÉ bVX]Zc' oZ^\i YZjia^X] YZc =^c[ajz YZh hj\\Zhi^kZc Mb[ZaYh' YVh b^i hZ^cZb
?aVjWZc Vc JZ^c`VgcVi^dc ZWZc Y^ZhZ <Zjijc\ jc\Zlw]ca^X]Zg Wol) eVgVcdgbVaZg
H]ucdbZcZ cV]ZaZ\i #FZi]Zgidc*K]^[[g^c' ,4326 =WZgi^c ,4326 L]^ZcZa ,4325 E^hX]d
,44-6 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg ,44,V6 ,44,W6 KiZkZchdc ,43.6 ,4346 E^aah ,4346 ,44+ V6 ,44+W6
CZ^a,44,$)
KX]dc Y^Z cVX]lZ^ha^X]Z CdggZaVi^dc ol^hX]Zc @necdi^h^ZgWVg`Z^i jcY AbV\^cVÜ
i^dch[u]^\`Z^i YZjiZi Vj[ YZc hj\\Zhi^k(^bV\^cugZc ;]VgV`iZg kdc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg(
aZWc^hhZc ]^c) <^Z Kj\\Zhi^W^a^iui kdc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchVc]uc\Zgc ]Vi h^X] VjX] ZmeZÜ
g^bZciZaaoZ^\ZcaVhhZc5
Öac Z^cZg ZmeZg^bZciZaaZc KijY^Z b^i hZX]o^\ ÑhdbcVbWjaZcÉ WZhdcYZgh
aZ^X]i jcY i^Z[ ]necdi^h^ZgWVgZc NZghjX]heZghdcZc jciZghjX]iZ J) 9)
:V`Zg ,43-' ^cl^ZlZ^i Kj\\Zhi^dcZc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZgaZWc^hhZ WZZ^c[ajhÜ
hZc) FdX] kdg YZg ÑJxX`[x]gjc\É iZ^aiZ :V`Zg Y^Z LZ^acZ]bZg ^c YgZ^ ?gjeÜ
eZc oj _Z olVco^\ Z^c' Y^Z Zg xWZg YVh OZhZc YZg O^ZYZg\ZWjgi _ZlZ^ah
VcYZgh ^chigj^ZgiZ5 ?gjeeZ 9 kZgb^iiZaiZ Zg WZ_V]ZcYZ' xWZgVjh \xchi^\Z
EZ^cjc\Zc6 ?gjeeZ : Zg]^Zai Z^cZ bw\a^X]hi cZjigVaZ' Vjh\Zld\ZcZ
:ZlZgijc\6 ?gjeeZ ; jciZgg^X]iZiZ Zg h`Zei^hX] W^h VWaZ]cZcY) <VgVj[]^c
lVgZc Zh ^c ?gjeeZ 9 ,2' ^c ?gjeeZ : ,- jcY ^c ?gjeeZ ; cjg olZ^
HgdWVcYZc' lZaX]Z ^c @necdhZ oj Z^cZb [gx]ZgZc DZWZc ojgxX`[VcYZc ('
ldWZ^ Y^ZhZ WZ^YZc' l^Z VchX]a^ZzZcYZ ?ZheguX]Z Zg\VWZc' dWZcYgZ^c kdc
9c[Vc\ Vc xWZgoZj\i Z^cZg JZ^c`VgcVi^dchaZ]gZ Vc]^c\ZcÅ #O^ZhZcYVcÜ
\Zg',44,',2+(,2,$)
<^Z @necdhZ[dghX]jc\ ]Vi iVihuX]a^X] auc\hi WZl^ZhZc' YVz @necdi^h^ZgiZ ]uj[^\
kZghjX]Zc' YZc 9clZ^hjc\Zc YZh @necdi^hZjgh YjgX] Cdchigj`i^dc jcY H]VciVh^Z oj
ZcihegZX]Zc5
ÖG[i \Zcx\Zc Ki^X]ldgiZ YV[xg) E^i Z^cZg ]necdi^h^ZgiZc HVi^Zci^c [x]giZ
O^aa^Vb :gnVc Z^cZc OdgiVhhdo^Vi^dchiZhi YjgX]' ^c YZb Zg c^X]ih lZ^iZg
Vah 'EVhhV`ZgÉ jcY 'CaVeeZghX]aVc\ZÉ kdg\VW ) ) ) Hgdbei ZghVcc h^Z Z^c
eVhhZcYZh KX]gZX`ZgaZWc^h Vjh Z^cZb kZg\Vc\ZcZc <VhZ^c5 A]gZ >Vb^a^Z
l^gY kdc AcY^VcZgc c^ZYZg\ZbZioZai' `jgo YVgVj[ hi^gWi h^Z Vb :^z Z^cZg
CaVeeZghX]aVc\ZÅ#O^ZhZcYVc\Zg',44,',2-(,2.$)
=^c VbZg^`Vc^hX]Zg 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiÇ auzi YVcc VjX] Y^Z hX]gZX`a^X]Zc
9jh\uc\Z YZg Ñ[gx]ZgZc DZWZc" Z^c[VX] ÖjbhX]gZ^WZcÅ' jb YZc KX]dX` oj a^cYZgc (
jcY hZ^cZ HVi^ZciZc ]VaiZc YVcc YVh Vc\ZcZ]bZgZ =cYZ [xg lV]g #O^ZhZcYVc\Zg
,44,W$
ÖO^Z hdchi lugZ Zh Z^cZb BV]gbVg`ih]necdi^hZjg bw\a^X]' hZ^cZ Ge[Zg
Vah FVedaZdc' Vah CaZ^c`^cY dYZg Vah CZiiZc]jcY Vj[igZiZc oj aVhhZc8 F^ZÜ
bVcY hX]a^Zzi YVgVjh' Vaa Y^ZhZ EZchX]Zc hZ^Zc Z^cbVa FVedaZdc #dYZgZ^c
OVX]]jcY$\ZlZhZcÅ#O^ZhZcYVc\Zg,44,V',+.$)
KdaX]Z [VahX]Zc KX]axhhZ VWZg o^Z]Zc Y^Z ZhdiZg^hX]Zc ÑJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVeZj(
iZc" #OZ^hh ,44/6 <Zi]aZ[hZc ,430$) <Zi]aZ[hZc WZ]VjeiZi o) :)' Zh \ZWZ WZ^ YZg JZ^c(
`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z ^c @necdhZ `Z^cZc Ö@^clZ^h' YVz bVc YjgX] Y^Z 9gi YZg >gV\ZÜ
hiZaajc\ dYZg YjgX] Z^cZ hj\\Zhi^kZ >dgbja^Zgjc\ Z^cZ 9cildgi [dgX^ZgZc `wccZÅ
#<Zi]aZ[hZc' ,440' /2(/3$' lVh Zg YVcc hZaWhi ^c hZ^cZg HgVm^h k^Za[VX] l^YZgaZ\i)
Fjg hdaX]Z Mcl^hhZc]Z^i `Vcc VjX] YVoj [x]gZc' YVz <Zi]aZ[hZc Y^Z AciZch^iui YZh
'NdgaZWZchÉ^c@necdhZVah:ZlZ^h[xghZ^cZ=X]i]Z^ikZg`Vj[i)
68
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5AgVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
q]ca^X] cV^k l^Z <Zi]aZ[hZc \Z]i VjX] Y^Z @VbWjg\Zg HhnX]dad\^c ?^hZaV
KX]b^iob^iYZcHgdYj`i^dcZcYZh:ZljzihZ^chjb5
))) =^cZ ÖWa^ioVgi^\Z =gaZjX]ijc\Å ]VWZ h^Z Zg\g^[[Zc' Vah h^X ojb ZghiZc
EVa kdg YZb HZg\Vbdc(9aiVg hiVcY) <Zg `Vb ^]g hd WZ`Vcci kdg' YVz h^Z
`Z^cZc RlZ^[Za ]ViiZ5 Ö<V W^hi Yj hX]dc bVa \ZlZhZcÅ) E^i @^a[Z kdc
?ZaZ]giZc jcY JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(L]ZgVeZjiZc [VcY h^Z ]ZgVjh5 ÖMb ,2+
k) ;]g) lVg ^X] LZbeZaY^ZcZg jciZg =jbZcZh AA)Å) <^ZhZ Zg[gZja^X]Z
=g`Zccic^h hdaaiZ >gxX]iZ igV\Zc) 9c[Vc\ YZh BV]gZh VccdcX^ZgiZ Y^Z >dgÜ
hX]Zg^c ^c KoZcZ(:auiiZgc jcY =hdiZg^`(EV\Vo^cZc5 ÖAX] [x]gZ h^Z ^c A]gZ
[gx]ZgZcDZWZcÅ))))
Acol^hX]Zc ]Vi >gVj KX]b^io bZ]gZgZ ]jcYZgi HZghdcZc YjgX] kwa`ZgÜ
`jcYa^X]Z EjhZZc \Zadihi) 9X]io^\ HgdoZci YVkdc' hd hV\i h^Z' ljgYZc
Vc\Zh^X]ih kdc K`jaeijgZc dYZg CdhixbZc' g^ijZaaZc ?Z\ZchiucYZc'
Ejb^Zc jcY EVh`Zc Z^cZg =gaZjX]ijc\ iZ^a]V[i^\) McY lZ^a =gaZjX]ijc\
WZ\Z]gi ^hi ))) l^gY Ö=i]cdad\^hX]Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[dghX]jc\Å b^iiaZgÜ
lZ^aZ ^c [Vhi VaaZc \gdzZc KiuYiZc Vc\ZWdiZc) <Zg :ZhjX] Z^cZh Nwa`ZgÜ
`jcYZbjhZjbh`dhiZiYVcceawioa^X]h^ZWo^\EVg`#Ö^c`ajh^kZ=^cig^iiÅ$)
<^Z ?gjeeZcaZ^iZg ( bZ^hi kdc `Z^cZgaZ^ Zi]cdad\^hX]Zg NdgW^aYjc\ kZgÜ
YdgWZc ( kZghX]V[[Zc h^X] ojcuX]hi eZg ÖJZhdcVcobZi]dYZÅ Z^cZ ZghiZ
Gg^Zci^Zgjc\) Ahi YVh ?ZW^Zi YZg OV]akZglVcYihX]V[i Zghi Z^cbVa Z^c\ZÜ
`gZ^hi ( ZilV ÖK^W^g^ZcÅ dYZg ÖAcY^VcZgÅ dYZg Ö9[g^`VÅ (' lZgYZc Y^Z
KjX]ZcYZc ^c _ZcZ 9WiZ^ajc\ \Z[x]gi jcY Ydgi ^c Z^cZ Ö^cYjo^ZgiZ LgVcXZÅ
kZghZioi) OZcc h^Z YVcc Y^Z qj\Zc w[[cZc jcY h^X] jbhZ]Zc' `dbbZ Zh
Ö^bbZg l^ZYZg oj ]ZgoZg\gZ^[ZcYZc KoZcZc' l^Z YVh ZWZc \Z]i' lZcc bVc
ZilVh aVc\Z NZgadgZcZh l^ZYZgZg`ZcciÅ' hd Y^Z >dghX]Zg^c))) #<A= O=DL
kdb,+)4),44/'?,+$)
<^ZhZ HVi^ZciZc(\Z[u]gYZcYZ Mcl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]`Z^i VjX] WZ`VcciZhiZg 'JZ^c`Vg(
cVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiZcÇ l^gY lZc^\hiZch YjgX] YZc gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Zc HhnX]dadÜ
\ZcO^ZhZcYVc\ZgVj[\ZoZ^\i5
ÖEZchX]Zc ^c LgVcXZ h^cY c^X]i cjg kZg[x]gWVg' h^Z [VWja^ZgZc ( hd
WZhiZX]ZcY 'ad\^hX]É' YZiV^aa^Zgi jcY kdc ]Z[i^\Zc =be[^cYjc\Zc' =^cÜ
YgxX`Zc jcY ?Z[x]aZc WZ\aZ^iZi' YVz h^Z #jcY 9j\ZcoZj\Zc$ [ZahZc[Zhi Vc
Y^ZJZVa^iui^]gZgCde[\ZWjgiZc\aVjWZc)
Kd WZg^X]iZc @necdi^h^ZgiZ ^b NZgaVj[ kdc '9aiZghgZ\gZhh^dcZcÉ ZWZchd
xWZgoZj\i xWZg cVX]lZ^ha^X] [gZ^ Zg[jcYZcZ l^Z xWZg iVihuX]a^X]Z :Z\ZÜ
WZc]Z^iZc Vjh [gx]Zc C^cY]Z^ihiV\Zc6 c^X]i b^cYZg WZgZ^il^aa^\ ZgiZ^aZc
h^Z 9jh`jc[i xWZg =gaZWc^hhZ Vjh YZb BV]g -+02 dYZg Vj[ VcYZgZc HaVcZÜ
iZc' ^c @^bbZa jcY @waaZ) 9j[ ?Z]Z^z kZglVcYZac h^Z h^X] ^c BZhjh dYZg
FVedaZdc' @Zabji Cd]a dYZg EVg^anc EdcgdZ) <Zcc @necdhZ Zci]Zbbi
Y^Z H]VciVh^Z5 ^c LgVcXZ lZgYZc NdghiZaajc\hW^aYZg aZW]V[iZg jcY cZ]bZc
Y^Z =^cYgxX`a^X]`Z^i kdc \ZheZ^X]ZgiZc OV]gcZ]bjc\Zc Vc) Edi^kZ'
qc\hiZ' =g`augjc\hWZYxg[c^hhZ' NdgjgiZ^aZ' =glVgijc\Zc jcY Ndgl^hhZc
hX]V[[Zc h^X] eVhhZcYZ '=^cYgxX`ZÉ) HhZjYd(=g^ccZgjc\Zc' Y^Z YVgVjh
ZcihiZ]Zc' ]uai YZg @necdi^h^ZgiZ jcWZ^ggWVg [xg ZX]i ) ) ) @Vi c^X]i _ZYZg
kdc jch ^c KX]jaZc jcY EjhZZc' Vjh :xX]Zgc jcY >^abZc \Zcj\ YVgxWZg
Vj[\ZcdbbZc' l^Z EZchX]Zc Z^chi aZWiZc' jb h^X] Z^cZ [ZgcZ [^`i^kZ NZgÜ
\Vc\Zc]Z^iVjhojbVaZc8#O^ZhZcYVc\Zg',44,W',2-(,2.$)
69
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
LVihuX]a^X]h^cY
Mc\ZgZ^bi]Z^iZc jcY d[[Zc`jcY^\Z O^YZghegxX]Z' xWZgYZjia^X]Z
9WhjgY^iuiZc jcY aZ^X]i cVX]lZ^hWVgZ AggixbZg hZaWhi WZ^ VchdchiZc
Ñ\Zajc\ZcZc" JxX`[x]gjc\Zc Z]Zg Y^Z JZ\Za Vah Y^Z 9jhcV]bZ) <V ^YZci^Ü
[^o^ZgZc h^X] bZ]gZgZ Ca^ZciZc' oji^Z[hi xWZgoZj\i' b^i Z^c jcY YZghZaWZc
]^hidg^hX]Zc ?ZhiVai6 YV ZciYZX`i Z^c RjgxX`\Z[x]giZg WZ^ kZghX]^ZYZcZc
K^iojc\Zc bZ]gZgZ NdgaZWZc' Y^Z Zg ^c Y^ZhZaWZ RZ^i YVi^Zgi ) ) )6 YV Wg^X]i
Vjh ^]b Z^c '[gx]ZgZh KZaWhi" ]ZgVjh' YVh cVX]lZ^ha^X] cdX] aZWi6 YV
WZg^X]iZi Zg xWZg iZX]c^hX]Z =ggjc\ZchX]V[iZc' Y^Z Zh oj DZWoZ^iZc ÑhZ^Ü
cZg" [gx]ZgZc Ac`VgcVi^dc cdX] \Vg c^X]i \VW' Wg^c\i WZ`VcciZ ]^hidg^hX]Z
9Wauj[Z YjgX]Z^cVcYZg' cZcci [^`i^kZ GgihX]V[iZc' DucYZg jcY HZghdcZc'
egdYjo^Zgi hZaWhih^X]Zg jcbw\a^X]Z" ?ZhX]^X]ihYViZc) #Kd 'ZcihVcc" h^X]
^c Z^cZg MciZghjX]jc\ Vc YZg ;VgaZidc(Mc^kZgh^iui ^b `VcVY^hX]Zc
GiiVlV Z^cZ NZghjX]heZghdc Ö^]gZg" CV^hZg`gwcjc\ ^b BV]g 0+ cVX] ;]g^Ü
hijh ( Vah Bja^jh ;VZhVg) <dX] ;VZhVg lVg c^ZbVah CV^hZg6 Zg hiVgW // UOQ
;]g^hijh)$ MciZg <jioZcYZc kdc kdajb^cwhZc HgVm^hWZg^X]iZc' b^i YZcZc
JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiZc hZ^i YgZ^ BV]goZ]ciZc Vj[ YZc :jX]bVg`i YgucÜ
\Zc' `ZccZ ^X] `Z^cZc Z^co^\Zc' YZg hdaX]Z HVccZc VjX] cjg ^c >jzcdiZc
oj\uWZÅ#O^ZhZcYVc\Zg,44,W',13$)
FVX] Z^cZg MciZghjX]jc\ YZh HhnX]^ViZgh =) K) Rda^` l^ZYZgjb lZ^hZc Y^Z #]ne(
cd^Y($egdYjo^ZgiZc'[gx]ZgZcDZWZc"Wol)HZghdcZc[da\ZcYZEZg`bVaZVj[5
,) @^hidg^hX]Zh O^hhZc YZg NZghjX]heZghdc xWZg YZc Ggi' Vc YZb h^Z ^c
^]gZb Vc\ZWa^X] [gx]ZgZc DZWZc \Zld]ci' jcY xWZg Y^Z HZg^dYZ' ^c YZg
h^X]Y^ZhZhd\ZcVcciZkZg\Vc\ZcZAc`VgcVi^dcVW\Zhe^Zai]ViiZ6
-) Vjh\Zlu]aiZ EZg`bVaZ kdc @ZaYZc Vjh JdbVcZc dYZg >^abZc' lZaÜ
X]Z Y^Z NZghjX]heZghdc `VcciZ' dYZg kdc HZghwca^X]`Z^iZc' Y^Z h^Z WZljcÜ
YZgiZ6
.) <gVbVi^h^Zgjc\Zc kdc =aZbZciZc YZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i jcY YZh <ZcÜ
`Zch YZg NZghjX]heZghdc hZaWhi5 ^]gZg ;]VgV`iZgZ^\ZchX]V[iZc' qc\hiZ'
OxchX]Z'LgujbZjhl)
Rda^` [da\ZgiZ' YVz Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(H]VciVh^Z[^\jg `Z^cZ cZjZ HZgÜ
hwca^X]`Z^i ^hi' hdcYZgc cjg Z^c kZgoZggiZh :^aY YZhhZc W^ZiZi' lVh Y^Z NZgÜ
hjX]heZghdcWZljzijcYjcWZljzilZ^zjcYYZc`i#Jnoa',431',00(,01$)
Ac Z^cZg 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZÇ Z^cZg KX]g^[ihiZaaZg^c lVg ^]g YVWZ^ Vj[iVjX]ZcÜ
YZh '[gx]ZgZh DZWZc" YVcc VjX] c^X]ih VcYZgZh Vah Y^Z >VWZa ^]gZh ZghiZc JdbVch
#Odda\Zg',44-$
;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFNRJNE#BTDIJN3XPNORF#RDIONUONEFN
7FJRSTNHFNEFR2FE[DISNJRRFRIFQNJDISM\HLJDI
KZaWhiYZgHhnX]^ViZgaVcKiZkZchdc'YZgVaaZ^cxWZg-0++`^cYa^X]ZJZ^c`VgcV(
i^dch[uaaZjciZghjX]i]Vi'kZghjX]iZkZg\ZWa^X]'WZ^HZghdcZc'Y^ZhedciVcxWZg[gxÜ
]ZgZDZWZcWZg^X]iZiZc'YjgX]@necdhZlZ^iZgZojhuioa^X]Z<ZiV^ahojZgj^ZgZc5
ÖGWld]aY^ZVj\ZchX]Z^ca^X]Zc=g^ccZgjc\Zc'Y^ZWZ^Y^ZhZcHZghdcZc
Vj[\ZiVjX]ilVgZc'VjhZ^cZb[gx]ZgZcDZWZc\ZhiVbbi]VWZc`wcciZc'
hd[Z]aiZc^]cZcYdX]]^cgZ^X]ZcYZ<ZiV^ah'kdgVaaZb=^\ZccVbZc'jbh^Z
70
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
kZg^[^o^ZgZc oj `wccZc) AX] ]d[[iZ' YVz h^Z h^X] jciZg @necdhZ Z^c^\Zg ) ) )
=^\ZccVbZc kdc EZchX]Zc jcY GgiZc Zg^ccZgc lxgYZc' hd YVz l^g Y^Z
=m^hiZco YZg EZchX]Zc' YZgZc DZWZc h^Z oj Zg^ccZgc hX]^ZcZc' cVX]egx[Zc
`wcciZc)
AX] ]VWZ YgZ^oZ]c hdaX]Zg =meZg^bZciZ YjgX]\Z[x]gi dYZg Vc\ZgZ\i6 ^c
Z^c^\Zc >uaaZc lVg ^X] hZaWZg YZg @necdi^hZjg' ^c VcYZgZc WZhdg\iZ ^X]
Z^cZc VcYZgZc @necdi^hZjg' YZg YVh =meZg^bZci YjgX][x]giZ) F^X]i Z^c Z^cÜ
o^\ZhY^ZhZg=meZg^bZciZlVgZg[da\gZ^X]Å#KiZkZchdc',434'03)1,(1-$)
@^Zg^c oZ^\i h^X] cjg Y^Z YZc bZ^hiZc #hZaWhiZgcVcciZc$ JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiZc
aZ^YZg VjX] c^X]i WZ`VcciZ LVihVX]Z' YVz Y^Z [xg 'JxX`[x]gjc\ZcÉ Z^c\ZhZioiZc #]neÜ
cdi^hX]Zc$ LgVcXZ(RjhiucYZ YjgX]Vjh `Z^cZc WZhhZgZc Rj\Vc\ oj kZg\ZhhZcZb
O^hhZc WZYZjiZc ( VjX] lZcc Zh YVWZ^ #xWg^\Zch cjg ujzZghi hZaiZc$ ojb 9j[igZiZc
eVgVcdgbVaZgH]ucdbZcZ`dbbi)
LVihuX]a^X] h^cY hZaWhi #]necdi^hX] ^cYjo^ZgiZ$ 9aiZghgZ\gZhh^dcZc cVX]lZ^ha^X]
Z^cZ E^hX]jc\ Vjh H]VciVh^ZegdYj`iZc' Cdchigj`i^dcZc Vjh sWZgoZj\jc\Zc jcY
NdghiZaajc\Zc jcY Hgd_Z`i^dcZc ^c Y^Z NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i YZh _Zio^\Zc DZWZch ?ZaZ\ZciÜ
a^X] `dbbi Zh YVWZ^ olVg VjX] oj Z^cZb g^X]i^\Zc O^ZYZgZgaZWZc YZg Z^\ZcZc NZgÜ
\Vc\Zc]Z^i ( VWZg ZWZc cjg \ZaZ\Zcia^X]) :Z^b 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiZcÇ YV\Z\Zc
lZgYZc VaaZ Vj[iVjX]ZcYZc NdghiZaajc\Zc oj `dc`gZiZc =gZ^\c^hhZc Vjh Z^cZb aVc\Z
ojgxX`a^Z\ZcYZc Ñ[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ YZh :Zigd[[ZcZc' WZhdcYZgh lZcc Y^ZhZ :^aYZg
hZ]gaZWZcY^\jcYkdchiVg`Zc?Z[x]aZcWZ\aZ^iZilZgYZc)
=^cZ WZa^ZW^\ hiZjZgWVgZ jcY YVcc \Vg [did\gV[^hX] \ZcVjZ O^ZYZg\VWZ VWZg aZ^hiZi
jchZg ?ZYuX]ic^h c^X]i Z^cbVa ^c i^Z[hiZg @necdhZ' hd YVz Y^Z \uc\^\Zc JxX`[x]gjcÜ
\Zc hX]dc Vjh \ZYuX]ic^hiZX]c^hX]Zc ?gxcYZc c^X]i bw\a^X] jcY hdb^i `Z^cZ Ñ=g^cÜ
cZgjc\Zc Vc [gx]ZgZ DZWZcÉ hZ^c `wccZc <ZbZcihegZX]ZcY \^Wi Zh VjX] `Z^cZ kZg^Ü
[^o^ZgiZc ]necdi^hX] Zkdo^ZgiZc 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[uaaZÇ) KZaWhi <Zi]aZ[hZch NZg^[^`VÜ
i^dchkZghjX]Z lVgZc kwaa^\ Zg[da\adh) Mb hd bZ]g ^hi hZ^cZ :Z]Vjeijc\' YVz Y^Z
@necdhZ Z^c[VX] Z^cZ Lxg ojg =g^ccZgjc\ w[[cZi' Y^Z YVcc _ZYZgoZ^i \Zcjioi lZgYZc
`wccZ' jb WZa^ZW^\ =g^ccZgjc\Zc Vjh '[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ oj [^cYZc' ejgZg Mch^cc
#Dd[ijh*CZiX]Vb ,4406 KiZkZchdc ,4226 ,4346 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg ,44,W6 <Zi]aZ[hZc
,4306E^hX]d,44-6Jnoa,4316NZcc,431$)
;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFNBLREJRROYJBSJU#SQBTMIBGSF
:FQRONJGJKBSJONFN
LVihuX]a^X] Zg^ccZgc Y^Z ( xWg^\Zch cjg ^c lZhia^X]Zc CjaijgZc Vb >a^ZzWVcY egdÜ
Yjo^ZgiZc '[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ [ViVa Vc he^g^i^hi^hX] \ZYZjiZiZ 9jidbVi^hbZc jcY K^iojcÜ
\Zc' ^c YZcZc LgVcXZ(EZY^Zc cVX] :Za^ZWZc jcY oj _ZYZb' ojbZ^hi \ji WZoV]aiZc K^iÜ
ojc\hiZgb^c Y^Z ?Z^hiZg NZghidgWZcZg oj ^c`dgedg^ZgZc \aVjWZc' ^c O^g`a^X]`Z^i
_ZYdX] Z^\ZcZ #kZg\ZhhZcZ$ 9ciZ^aZ cjg Y^hhdo^Vi^k VWheVaiZc jcY eZghdc^[^o^ZgZc
#:ZcYZg',43/6Jnoa',4316KiZkZchdc',43.6,4346E^hX]d',44-$)
<VWZ^ h^cY Zh Y^Z \ZgVYZ jciZg hdaX]Zc Y^hhdo^Vi^kZc :ZY^c\jc\Zc bVcX]bVa Vj[Ü
igZiZcYZc jc\Zlw]ca^X]Zc DZ^hijc\Zc YZg :Zigd[[ZcZc' Y^Z YZc JZ^c`VbVi^dch(
Vc]uc\Zg l^Z YZc Ke^g^i^hiZc xWZgoZj\Zc' Zh ]^Zg b^i Z^cZb 'VcYZgZc DZWZcÉ oj ijc oj
]VWZc) OVh _ZYdX] YV]^ciZg hiZ]i' oZ^\iZ YZg gVhh^hX]Z HhnX]^ViZg OaVY^b^g D) JV^(
`dl) =g 'gZ^c`Vgc^ZgiZÉ ^c CjchihijYZciZc kZghX]^ZYZcZ WZgx]biZ kZghidgWZcZ EVaZg6
YVYjgX] `dcciZ Zg cVX]lZ^ha^X] Y^Z bVaZg^hX]Z :Z\VWjc\ YZg KijYZciZc hiZ^\Zgc' Y^Z
71
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
YVcc ^b Ki^a YZh 'gZ^c`Vgc^ZgiZcÇ EVaZgh bVaiZc' h^X] VjX] hd [x]aiZc jcY ^c hZ^cZg
RZ^i oj aZWZc \aVjWiZc' o) L) d]cZ Y^Z ?Z\ZclVgi oj Zg`ZccZc) <^Z :Zigd[[ZcZc ]ViiZc
YVcc VjX] _ZlZ^ah Z^cZ 9bcZh^Z [xg ^]gZ RjhiucYZ jcY Y^Z \ZbVaiZc :^aYZg(Z^c YZjiÜ
a^X]Zg@^clZ^hVj[Y^ZKiug`ZYZg]necdi^hX]^cYjo^ZgiZc<^hhdo^Vi^dc)
BZYZg JZ^c`VgcVi^dchVc]uc\Zg lxgYZ ]^Zg hX]cZaa Z^cZc :ZlZ^h [xg hZ^cZc ?aVjÜ
WZc lu]cZc ( hd l^Z YZg Ke^g^i^hi ]^Zg NZghidgWZcZ Vb OZg`Z hu]Z) <dX] JV^`dl
`dcciZ ojb Z^cZc Y^Z kZghidgWZcZc EVaZg cVX] :Za^ZWZc 'gZ^c`Vgc^ZgZcÇ aVhhZc' lVh
Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dch]nedi]ZhZ c^X]i ojauzi' YV c^X]i bZ]gZgZ EZchX]Zc \aZ^X]oZ^i^\
Y^Z O^ZYZg\ZWjgi YZhhZaWZc '[gx]ZgZc DZWZchÅ hZ^c `wccZc) <Vz ^c YZc iVjhZcYZc
iu\a^X] YjgX]\Z[x]giZc jcY \ji WZoV]aiZc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchh^iojc\Zc ^bbZg l^ZYZg
kZghX]^ZYZchiZ EZchX]Zc h^X] [xg Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dc YZghZaWZc #WZgx]biZc$ HZghdc
]VaiZc' YZX`i h^X] b^i YZb :Z[jcY JV^`dlh jcY l^gY xWg^\Zch VjX] ^c `Z^cZb JZ^c(
`VgcVi^dchWjX]Zglu]ci)
Rjb VcYZgZc a^Zz JV^`dl ojlZ^aZc YZchZaWZc kZghidgWZcZc EVaZg ^c olZ^ KijÜ
YZciZc \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ 'gZ^c`Vgc^ZgZcÇ' lVh hdb^i Z^c lZ^iZgZg @^clZ^h Vj[ Y^Z `xchiÜ
a^X]Z HgdYj`i^dc hdaX]Zg H]ucdbZcZ ^hi) LVihuX]a^X] `dcciZ JV^`dl WZ^ Z^cZb 9a`dÜ
]da^`Zg VjX] cVX] OjchX] hZ^cZ \ZhVbiZc kZghidgWZcZc jcY aZWZcYZc >Vb^a^ZcVcÜ
\Z]wg^\Zc 'gZ^c`Vgc^ZgZcÇ aVhhZc) 9jX] hiZ^\ZgiZ Zg Y^Z DZ^hijc\Zc Z^cZh EVi]ZbVÜ
i^`hijYZciZc hegjc\]V[i' cVX]YZb Zg ^c ^]b Z^c Zjgdeu^hX]Zh EVi]ZbVi^`\Zc^Z 'gZ^c(
`Vgc^ZgZcÉ a^Zz) >xg JV^`dl lVg hdb^i `aVg5 =h ]VcYZai h^X] WZ^ Y^ZhZc H]ucdbZcZc
jb WadzZ HZghdc^[^`Vi^dcZc WZljziZc jcY jcWZljziZc O^hhZch #GhigVcYZg*KX]gdZ(
YZg',43,$)
Ach\ZhVbi YZbdchig^ZgZc Y^Z KZg^ZcegdYj`i^dcZc '[gx]ZgZg DZWZc
,
WZ^ YZc hd\ZÜ
cVcciZc JZ^c`VbVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiZc Vahd c^X]ih VcYZgZh Vah Y^Z hX]dc ^b LgVjb kdb
bjai^(b^cY(KnhiZb ?Z]^gc hiucY^\ \ZxWiZ MbhZiojc\ WZljziZg' iZ^a( jcY jcWZljzÜ
iZg =g[V]gjc\Zc' AYZZc jcY HgdWaZbZ ^c ljchX]Zg[xaaZcYZ' egd_^o^^ZgZcYZ H]VciVÜ
h^Zc' o)L) VjX] ^c >dgb kdc LgVjb[^\jgZc jcY YVb^i Z^cZg Y^hhdo^Vi^kZc' [^`i^kZc
HZghdc^[^`Vi^dc Z^\ZcZg 9ciZ^aZ #Jnoa' ,4316 KiZkZchdc ,43.6 ,4346 @^a\VgY ,4316
O^ZhZcYVc\Zg',44,W6E^hX]d',44-6EddYn',44+$)
sWZg]Vjei WZhiZ]Zc Y^Z 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\ZcÇ Vjh WadzZc \ZYVc`a^X]Zc
NdghiZaajc\Zc W^h ]^c oj aZW]V[i ^bV\^c^ZgiZc :^aYZgc) <Vh Zciheg^X]i YZb Vjh YZb
=^chX]aV[( jcY 9j[lVX]hiVY^jb WZ`VcciZc [a^ZzZcYZc sWZg\Vc\ kdc ?ZYVc`Zc oj
:^aYZgc) Ab ?Z\ZchVio oj YZc cV^kZc lZhia^X]Zc 'JZ^c`VbVi^dchi]ZgVeZjiZcÉ
hX]a^Zzi _ZYdX] `Z^c O^hhZchX]V[iaZg Vjh YZb bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg W^aY]V[iZc ;]VgV`Ü
iZg YZg 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\ZcÉ' YZg xWg^\Zch cjg hZaiZc Z^cZ l^g`a^X] ]Vaajo^cV(
i^kZ :^aYhiug`Z Vcc^bbi' Vj[ YZgZc JZVa^iui) LVihuX]a^X] bxziZc hubia^X]Z LgujbZ
OV]gigujbZ Wol) VjzZgh^cca^X]Z OV]gcZ]bjc\Zc hZ^c' lZcc Y^Z xWa^X]Zc 'JZ^c`Vg(
cVi^dchZg[V]gjc\ZcÉ [gx]ZgZ JZVa^iuiZc lugZc #Ke^ioZg' ,4336 KiZkZchdc ,4346 O^Z(
hZcYVc\Zg',44,V6,44,W6@^a\VgY',4316EddYn',44+6NZcc),431$)
1FILFNEF?FQJGJKBSJONEFQ;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFN
9jX] lZgYZc ojbZ^hi cjg Y^Z VchX]Z^cZcY [xg Z^cZ JZ^c`VgcVi^dc hegZX]ZcYZc
:Z[jcYZ kZgw[[Zcia^X]i' VaaZ \Z\ZciZ^a^\Zc <ViZc VWZg ( jcY Y^ZhZ xWZgl^Z\Zc (
hnhiZbVi^hX] kZghX]l^Z\Zc) Ac YZc lZc^\hiZc i]ZgVeZji^hX] ^cYjo^ZgiZc 'JZ^c`VgcV(
i^dch[uaaZcÉ ( jcY VjX] cjg ^c Z^cZb LZ^a YZg KedciVc[uaaZ ( l^gY xWZg]Vjei Y^Z J^X]Ü
i^\`Z^i YZg _ZlZ^a^\Zc 9jhhV\Zc xWZgegx[i' \ZhX]lZ^\Z YZcc cVX]\Zl^ZhZc) <Vh \^ai
xWg^\Zch VjX] [xg Y^Z kdc ?gd[ ^bbZg l^ZYZg o^i^ZgiZc '=g^ccZgjc\Zc Vc [gx]ZgZ
72
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJX^c`VbVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
Ac`VgcVi^dcZcÉ ^b JV]bZc Z^cZg ehnX]dani^hX]Zc*ehnX]ZYZa^hX]Zc DK<(L]ZgVe^Z6
?gd[ ]Vi c^X]i Z^c Z^co^\Zh EVa VjX] cjg YZc NZghjX] \ZbVX]i' Y^Z =m^hiZco YZh
_ZlZ^a^\Zc '[gx]ZgZc DZWZchÉ oj kZg^[^o^ZgZc #?gd[*@Va^[Vm' ,43+6 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg'
,44,6FZi]Zgidc*K]^[[g^c',4326L]^ZcZa',432$)
KZaWhi Y^Z hZaiZcZc [xg ÑL]ZgVeZjiÉ jcY Ca^Zci c^X]i VcYZgh Vah xWZg Z^cZ JZ^c`VgÜ
cVi^dc oj Zg`augZcYZc rlchtlgen =g^ccZgjc\Zc Vc [gx]ZgZ RZ^iZc h^cY d[i hX]aVbe^\
gZX]ZgX]^Zgi dYZg WZgj]Zc Vj[ >Z]aZ^chX]uiojc\Zc ZWZc Y^ZhZg <ViZc) :Z^ YZc hedcÜ
iVcZc #C^cYZg($ >uaaZc Zg[da\i Y^Z MciZghjX]jc\ [Vhi ^bbZg Zghi BV]gZ heuiZg' d[i
`VcciZc h^X] Y^Z WZigd[[ZcZc >Vb^a^Zc hX]dc kdg]Zg Wol) ld]ciZc ^b \aZ^X]Zc Ggi (
jcY VjX] ]^Zg `dcciZc k^ZaZ >uaaZ jcY 9c\VWZc c^X]i kZg^[^o^Zgi lZgYZc) OZcc Y^Z
=aiZgc o) :) c^X]i Z^cbVa YVh ?ZWjgihYVijb YZh WZigd[[ZcZc C^cYZh dYZg YVh k^Zg
C^adbZiZg Zci[ZgciZ FVX]WVgYdg[ `ZccZc' l^Z `Vcc bVc YVcc VccZ]bZc' YVz ^]gZ [xg
Z^cZ JZ^c`VgcVi^dc hegZX]ZcYZc 9c\VWZc g^X]i^\ h^cY #KiZkZchdc' ,43.6 NZcc' ,4316
CZ^a) ,44,6 A) KiZkZchdc*K)a HVhg^X]V*?) KVbVgVgVicZ' ,4335 KiZkZchdc*HVhg^X]V*
EX;aZVc(J^XZ',4346EViadX`',4346E^aah',4346,44+V6,44+W$8
LVihuX]a^X] aVhhZc h^X] ^c YZg [Vhi ^bbZg Zghi BV]gZ heuiZg Zg[da\ZcYZc JZ`dchigj`Ü
i^dc [gV\a^X]Z eVgVcdgbVaZ DZ^hijc\Zc c^Z h^X]Zg kdc ZcihegZX]ZcYZc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc
jcY Kj\\Zhi^dcZc YZh gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Zc Mb[ZaYZh VW\gZcoZc) Ac k^ZaZc >uaaZc
ljgYZc YVcc VjX] cZWZc Z^c^\Zc g^X]i^\Zc 9jhhV\Zc YZg C^cYZg AggixbZg dYZg \Vg
WZljziZ LujhX]jc\Zc cVX]\Zl^ZhZc) KZaWhi gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Z MciZghjX]Zg
[VcYZc d[i `Z^cZ YZc 9c\VWZc ZcihegZX]ZcYZ HZghdc jcY `dcciZc \Vg #^c 9h^Zc*
AcY^Zc$ WZgx]biZ 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[uaaZÉ Vah LujhX]jc\Zc ZciaVgkZc' lVh YVh gZ^c`VgÜ
cVi^dch\aujW^\Z Mb[ZaY VWZg c^X]i YVgVc ]^cYZgiZ' Y^ZhZ >uaaZ lZ^iZg]^c [xg ZX]i oj
]VaiZc)
KdaX]Z AggixbZg [^cYZi bVc WZhdcYZgh WZ^ YZc cV]Zoj \ZlVaihVbZc jcY d[i kZgÜ
\ZWa^X]Zc NZghjX]Zc WjYY]^hi^hX]Zg EwcX]Z' xWZg OV]ghV\ZegV`i^`Zc Z^c C^cY Vah
JZ^c`VgcVi^dc ^]gZh kZghidgWZcZc EZ^hiZgh oj [^cYZc) Rjg RZ^i higZ^iZc h^X] WZ^he^ZahÜ
lZ^hZ \ZgVYZ olZ^ i^WZi^hX](WjYY]^hi^hX]Z J^X]ijc\Zc jb Y^Z lV]gZ `^cYa^X]Z JZ^cÜ
`VgcVi^dc YZh ,2) CVgbVeVh) Fjg hZaiZc h^cY YVWZ^ Y^Z >u]^\`Z^iZc YZh Vjh\ZhjX]iZc
C^cYZh cjg YjgX] 9KO oj Zg`augZc6 iVihuX]a^X] l^ZhZc cjg lZc^\Z Y^ZhZg C^cYZg
xWZg]Vjei eVgVcdgbVaZ >u]^\`Z^iZc Vj[) KiZkZchdc ]Vi \Vg cVX]\Zl^ZhZc' YVz hZaWhi
WjYY]^hi^hX]Z EwcX]Z cVX]lZ^ha^X] [VahX]Z 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[uaaZÉ egdYjo^ZgZc #KiZÜ
kZchdc) ,44.6 ,4346 ,44+ W6 A) KiZkZchdc*K) HVhg^X]V*?) KVbVgVgVicZ' ,4336 O^XhXc(
YVc\Zg' ,44,V6 Jnoa' ,4316 9) E^aah*=) @VgVaYhhdc*B) CZ^a' ,44/6 E^aah' ,4346 ,44+V6
CZ^a',44,$)
;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFNBLR6QXPSOMNFRJFN
<^Z cjc ojlZ^aZc YdX] jcZg`auga^X] WaZ^WZcYZc DZ^hijc\Zc aVhhZc h^X] ojbZ^hi d[i
Vah CgneidbcZh^Z' Vahd Vah =g^ccZgjc\ Z^cZh auc\hi kZg\ZhhZcZc O^hhZch Zg`augZc' oj
YZhhZc 9j[iVjX]Zc \ZgVYZ YVh hj\\Zhi^k(]necdi^hX]Z KZii^c\ kdc JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(
i]ZgVe^Zc eguY^hedc^Zgi' ac bZ]gZgZc 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchWZg^X]iZcÇ `dcciZc WZ^he^ZahÜ
lZ^hZ V``jgViZ ]^hidg^hX]Z =^coZa]Z^iZc heuiZg Vj[ [gx]Zg \ZaZhZcZ :xX]Zg ojgxX`\ZÜ
[x]gilZgYZc)
LVihuX]a^X] bVX]i Xh Y^Z \gdzZ Ac[dgbVi^dch[aji jchZgZg LV\Z WZhdcYZgh lV]gÜ
hX]Z^ca^X]' YVz k^ZaZ Ac[dgbVi^dcZc Vj[\ZcdbbZc jcY l^ZYZg kZg\ZhhZc ljgYZc' hd
YVz VaaZ Vj[ YZc ZghiZc :a^X` jcZg`auga^X] l^g`ZcYZc Wol) hX]Z^cWVg cjg eVgVcdgbVa
YZjiWVgZc Ac[dgbVi^dchWgjX]hixX`Z ^c lZhia^X]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\ZhX]^X]iZc ojVa(
73
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
aZgXghi ^c YZg CgneidbcZh^Z ^]gZ =g`augjc\ [^cYZc) <V YZg FVX]lZ^h' YVz Y^Z WZigd[Ü
[ZcZ HZghdc Y^Z Vah @^clZ^h Vj[ Z^c '[gx]ZgZh DZWZcÉ \ZYZjiZiZ g^X]i^\Z Ac[dgbVi^dc
c^Z ojkdg Vj[\ZcdbbZc ]Vi' egV`i^hX] c^X]i [x]gWVg ^hi' h^cY `gneidbcZhi^hX]Z HgdÜ
oZhhZ VjX] YVcc VcojcZ]bZc' lZcc bVc cjg cdX] Z^cZ eVgVcdgbVaZ =g`augjc\ oj
[^cYZcbZ^ci)
>xg Z^cZ CgneidbcZh^Z heg^X]i VjX] Z^cZ \gdzZ ?ZcVj^\`Z^i YZg _ZlZ^a^\Zc hX]Z^cÜ
WVg cjg b^i JZ^c`VgcVi^dc oj Zg`augZcYZc Ac[dgbVi^dc' YV eVgVcdgbVaZ DZ^hijc\Zc
hZaiZc [did\gV[^hX] \ZcVj' hdcYZgc k^ZabZ]g d[i [gV\bZciVg^hX] jcY igVjb]V[i kZgÜ
oZggi h^cY) =^cZ CgneidbcZh^Z ( jcY YVb^i `Z^c eVgVcdgbVaZg Mghegjc\ ( a^Z\i VjzZgÜ
YZb kdg' lZcc Y^Z g^X]i^\Zc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc VaaZ #dYZg xWZgl^Z\ZcY$ Vjh aZ^X]i
oj\uc\a^X]Zc IjZaaZc hiVbbZc' lu]gZcY VaaZ [VahX]Zc 9c\VWZc hX]lZgZg oj\uc\Ü
a^X]Zh EViZg^Va WZigZ[[Zc' lVh VjX] WZ^ `^cYa^X]Zc KedciVc[uaaZc WZdWVX]iZi l^gY
#KiZkZchdc' ,43.6 ,4346 ,44+ W6 A) KiZkZchdc*K) HVhg^X]V*?) KVbVgVgVicZ' ,4336
NZcc' ,4316 E^hX]d' ,44-6 Jd\d' ,44-6 Odda\Zg' ,44-6 EddYn' ,44+5 E^aah' ,44+V6
:ZcYZg',430$)
=^c ZmoZaaZciZh :Z^he^Za Z^cZh hdaX]Zc vermelntllchen JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[VaaZh
WZhX]gZ^Wi B) NZcc ^b >Vaa kdc EVii]Zl' Z^cZb -1_u]g^\Zc Gei^`Zg' YZg Vc eZgh^hi^ZÜ
gZcYZc ]nedX]dcYg^hX]Zc :gjhihX]bZgoZc a^ii jcY Z^cZ @ZgoViiVX`Z WZ[xgX]iZiZ) Ab
JV]bZc YZg Yg^iiZc @necdhZh^iojc\ ljgYZ EVii]Zl eawioa^X] oj Z^cZb [gVcowh^Ü
hX]Zc H^adiZc cVbZch BVXfjZh ?^dccZ LgZXVjaiZh' YZg Vc\ZWa^X] ^b 9j\jhi ,4,/ xWZg
:Za\^Zc VW\ZhX]dhhZc jcY YVWZ^ ^c YZg :gjhi \Zigd[[Zc ljgYZ) <VWZ^ `Vb Zh oj Z^cZg
ZmigZb \Z[x]ahhiVg`Zc `wgeZga^X]Zc 9WgZV`i^dc' jcY Y^Z \ZcVcciZc :gjhiWZhX]lZgÜ
YZc kZghX]lVcYZc ^b DVj[Z kdc ^ch\ZhVbi 1+ @necdhZ(K^iojc\Zc' Y^Z NZcc ojg
9j[YZX`jc\ kdc =^coZa]Z^iZc Y^ZhZh Ñ[gx]ZgZc DZWZchÉ YjgX][x]giZ) Ac heuiZgZc K^iÜ
ojc\Zc hegVX] EVii]Zl VjX] Z^c^\Z [gVcowh^hX]Z :gdX`Zc' Y^Z Z^c sWZghZioZg Vah
hX]aZX]iZh'ZX]daVa^hX]Zh>gVcowh^hX]b^i[gZbYZb9`oZciWZhX]g^ZW)
NZcc xWZgegx[iZ EVii]Zlh 9jhhV\Zc xWZg kZghX]^ZYZcZ aZ^X]i jcY hX]lZg
oj\uc\a^X]Z Ac[dgbVi^dchfjZaaZc) <Voj WZcjioiZ Zg c^X]i cjg YVh KiVYi( jcY @Z^gVihÜ
gZ\^hiZg hdl^Z YVh E^a^iugVgX]^k YZg Vc\ZWa^X]Zc @Z^bVihiVYi EVii]ZlÉh' hdcYZgc
VjX] hX]lZg oj\uc\a^X]Z E^a^iugVX]^kZ ^c HVg^h) N^ZaZ 9jhhV\Zc EVii]ZlÉh xWZg Y^Z
YVbVa^\Z Cg^Z\hiZX]c^` jcY Cg^Z\haV\Z Zgl^ZhZc h^X] Vah g^X]i^\' k^ZaZ VWZg VjX] Vah
[VahX] dYZg ]VaWlV]g) LVihuX]a^X] lVgZc VaaZ hX]lZg oj\uc\a^X]Zc 9c\VWZc [VahX]'
jcY kdc YZc aZ^X]iZg oj\uc\a^X]Zc jcY hdb^i Z]Zg WZ`VcciZc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc lVgZc ,1
g^X]i^\ jcY ,/ [VahX]) AchWZhdcYZgZ Zci]^ZaiZc Y^Z \ZcVcciZc JZ\^hiZg hZ^cZg @Z^bViÜ
hiVYi`Z^cZcBVXfjZh?^dccZLgZXVjaiZh)
9c\Zh^X]ih Y^ZhZg hdb^i WZ^ \ZcVjZgZb @^chZ]Zc YjgX]Vjh cdgbVa VjhhZ]ZcYZh
KVX]aV\Z a^Zz NZcc YVcc Y^Z @nedi]ZhZ Z^cZg eVgVcdgbVaZc =g`augjc\ [VaaZc) <Vz Zg
YVb^i gZX]i ]ViiZ jcY YVz VjX] YVh NZghX]l^cYZc YZg ]VgbadhZc ]nedX]dcYg^hX]Zc
:gjhihX]bZgoZc `Z^c @^clZ^h Vj[ Z^c l^g`a^X]Zh '[gx]ZgZh DZWZcÉ ^hi' oZ^\i VjX] Y^Z
LVihVX]Z' YVz EVii]Zl hX]dc ^c YZc ZghiZc @necdhZ(K^iojc\Zc hZ]g hX]cZaa VaaZ
9giZc ]necdi^hX]Zg H]ucdbZcZ l^Z 9bcZh^Z' 9cuhi]Zh^Z' <^hhdo^Vi^dc' #cZ\Vi^kZ$
@Vaajo^cVi^dc' NZgucYZgjc\ YZg RZ^ilV]gcZ]bjc\' edhi]necdi^hX]Z H]ucdbZcZ
jcY JZ\gZhh^dcZc Zcil^X`ZaiZ' hd YVz VjX] Y^Z ]nedX]dcYg^hX]Z =cZg\^Z kZgbjia^X]
xWZg Y^ZhZh ]Vaajo^c^ZgiZ [gx]ZgZ DZWZc aZ^X]i `ViVi]nb ^ciZ\g^Zgi Wol) ZciaVYZc
ljgYZ) <Vz Zh h^X] WZ^ Y^ZhZg 9gi YZg L]ZgVe^Z _ZYdX] cjg jb Z^cZ KnbeidbkZghX]^Z(
Wjc\ ]VcYZai' oZ^\i Y^Z LVihVX]Z' YVz EVii]ZlÉh :gjhihX]bZgoZc olVg kZghX]ljcÜ
YZc lVgZc' YV[xg VWZg WZ^ ^]b Z^cZ jc`dgg^\^ZgWVgZ sWZgoZj\jc\ kdc YZg =X]i]Z^i
Y^ZhZh '[gx]ZgZc DZWZchÉ WZhiVcY) KeuiZg bjziZ Zg YVcc VjX] cdX] Z^cbVa b^i EZY^Ü
`VbZciZcWZ]VcYZailZgYZc#NZcc',4316E^hX]d',44-$)
74
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
?OQ]CFQHFIFNEFSIFQBPFTSJRDIF0GGFKSFUON;FJNKBMBSJONRSIFQBPJFN
<Vz Y^Z ^c 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZcÉ hX]Z^cWVg \Z]Z^aiZc KnbeidbZ \ZaZ\Zcia^X]
Y^Z CwgeZgiZ^aZ WZigZ[[Zc' Y^Z ^b'NdgaZWZc% kZgaZioi ldgYZc hZ^c hdaaZc' ^hi Vahd ojVaÜ
aZgZghi cjg Z^c RZ^X]Zc YV[xg' YVz YZg aZ^YZcYZ HVi^Zci hZ^cZ KnbeidbZ ^c Z^c [gx]ZgZh
DZWZc kZghX]^ZWi jcY h^Z YVYjgX] WZ^ VjhgZ^X]ZcY i^Z[Zg LgVcXZ Wol) <^hhdo^Vi^dc
`ViVi]nbZciauYi)
<^Z @Z^ajc\hWZ]Vjeijc\Zc YZg 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZÉ WVjZc VjzZgYZb Vj[
Z^cZb ^c YZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z auc\hi gZaVi^k^ZgiZc Hg^co^e Vj[5 <Vz YVh O^ZYZgZgaZWZc
Z^cZh LgVjbVh Y^ZhZh VjX] ]Z^ai) LVihuX]a^X] lZgYZc ojb :ZaZ\ YZg k^Za[uai^\Zc
@Z^ajc\hWZ]Vjeijc\Zc c^Z VjhgZ^X]ZcY aVc\Z CViVbcZhZc \ZbVX]i jcY E^zZg[da\Z
kZghX]l^Z\Zc' hd YVz =g[da\Z kdgZghi cjg Vah kdgxWZg\Z]ZcYZ HaVXZWd(=[[Z`iZ oj
\ZaiZc]VWZc)
OZg \Vg l^Z :) =WZgi^c \VcoZ Vj[ [gx]ZgZ DZWZc kZglZ^hZcYZ Knbeadba^hiZc kZgÜ
`Vj[i dYZg l^Z FZi]Zgidc j) V) @Z^ajc\ jcY =e^aZeh^Z YjgX] JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Zc
kZgheg^X]i' YZg kZgYgZ]i c^X]i cjg Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dchaZ]gZc VaaZg CjaijgZc' hdcYZgc
kZggui h^X] hZaWhi OZcc gZVaZ LgVjbZc ^c [gx]ZgZ DZWZc kZghX]dWZc jcY YVb^i [VahX]
Zg`augi lZgYZc' ZglZ^hZc h^X] JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(AYZZc \Vg Vah \Z[u]ga^X]Z #gZa^\^whÜ
lV]c]V[iZ$ NZghX]aZ^Zgjc\Zc gZVaZg LgVjbViV*Kiwgjc\Zc jcY kZg]^cYZgc hd Z^cZ
l^g`a^X]`VjhVaZL]ZgVe^Z)
Ac YZc >uaaZc' ^c YZcZc Zh WZ^ 'JZ^c`VbVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZcÉ #j)V) <Zi]aZ[hZc$ oj
CgVc`]Z^ihkZghX]aZX]iZgjc\Zc' AX](<ZhiVW^a^h^Zgjc\Zc dYZg ^cYjo^ZgiZc HhnX]dhZc
`dbbi' a^Z\i \Vg Z^cZ ?Z[u]gYjc\ YZg HVi^ZciZc kdg) <^ZhZ oZ^\i h^X] VjX] ^c <Zi]aZ[(
hZch :Z]Vjeijc\' YVz hZ^cZ HVi^ZciZc ^]g ]necdi^hX]Zh =gaZWZc cVX] YZg K^iojc\
c^X]i bZ]g kdc ^]gZb gZVaZc DZWZc jciZghX]Z^YZc `wccZc jcY YVcc VjX] cdX] ^b
OVX]ojhiVcY lZ^iZgZ =^coZa]Z^iZc YZh NdgaZWZch egdYjo^ZgZc #NZcc' ,4316 KiZkZcÜ
hdc' ,4346 ,44+ V6 FZi]Zgidc*K]^[[g^c' ,4326 JZkZchidg[' ,44+6 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg' ,44,V6
,44, W6 Jnoa' ,4316 ?gVlZ*<dcVi^' ,44/6 OZ^hh' ,44/6 KX]gwiZg(Cjc]VgYi' ,440 W6
=WXgi^c',4326<Zi]aZ[hZc',4306:VX]Z,44.$)
9cYZgZghZ^ih ^hi VWZg Z^cZ \Zl^hhZ ]Z^aZcYZ O^g`jc\ kdc 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgV(
e^ZcÉ c^X]ih Mc\Zlw]ca^X]Zh' YV Zh YVWZ^ ojb `VaVi]nbZc*`Vi]Vgi^hX]Zc 9WgZV\^ZÜ
gZc' VWZg VjX] oj Z^cZb 'gZ[gV^c^c\É `dbbi jcY YVWZ^ Y^Z VaaZc HhnX]di]ZgVe^Zc
\ZbZ^chVb O^g`[V`idgZc cffektlves lrleben jcY kognltlve verönJerung #YZg 9ccV]Ü
bZlZai YZh HVi^ZciZc WZox\a^X] =cihiZ]jc\ jcY :Z]VcYajc\ hZ^cZg CgVc`]Z^i$ l^gÜ
`Zc) @Z^ahVbZ Zbdi^dcVaZ >V`idgZc h^cY YVWZ^ VjzZgYZb Y^Z hX]dc gZa^\^whZc ;]VgV`Ü
iZg igV\ZcYZc =aZbZciZ @X^ahZglVgijc\' @d[[cjc\ jcY NZgigVjZc ^b RjhVbbZc]Vc\
b^i YZb hZ]g hj\\Zhi^kZc' _V gZa^\^whZc ;]VgV`iZg YZg )JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^ZcÉ)
9cYZgZghZ^ih \^Wi Zh lZhZcia^X] Zg[da\gZ^X]ZgZ jcY kdg VaaZb ncchwelsbcr wlrkscme
L]ZgVe^Zc' Y^Z VjzZgYZb `Z^cZ KnbeidbkZghX]^ZWjc\ WZ^c]VaiZc #?gVlZ*<dcVi^'
,44/6 Jd\d' ,44-6 E^hX]d' ,44-6 NZcc' ,4316 JZkZchidg[' ,44+6 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg'
,44,V6KiZkZchdc',43.6,4346<^iig^X]*KX]Vg[ZiiZg',4326Jnoa',431$)
,NJMJRSJRDIFOEFQRPJQJSJRSJRDIF0QKL[QTNHPBQBNOQMBLFQ7FJRSTNHFN
J$;$UON;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFN
Fjc `Vcc Zh ^c LgVcXZ(RjhiucYZc ( jcY YVoj ou]aZc he^g^i^hi^hX]Z ZWZchd l^Z
JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\Zc ( VWZg VjX] \ZaZ\Zcia^X] oj l^g`a^X] eVgVcdgbVaZc DZ^Ü
hijc\Zc `dbbZc) <VWZ^ l^gY xWZg Y^Z Vjh YZg HVgVehnX]dad\^Z cVX]\Zl^ZhZcZc
75
E^X]VZaKZ]gwaZg
EZX]Vc^hbZc kdc LZaZeVi]^Z' Hgu`d\c^i^dc jcY ( ^b >VaaZ kdc JZ^c`VgcVi^dc" (
WZhdcYZgh JZigd`d\c^i^dc Ac[dgbVi^dc \ZldccZc' Y^Z YZg :Zigd[[ZcZ ojkdg cdX]
c^X]i Vj[\ZcdbbZc ]VWZc `Vcc) O^hhZchX]V[ia^X] l^gY 9KO Vc^b^hi^hX]' Y) ]) xWZg
Y^Z ^bbVcZciZc >u]^\`Z^iZc YZh ?Z]^gch' JVjb jcY RZ^i oj igVchoZcY^ZgZc' Zg`augi)
LVihuX]a^X] `dbbi Zh \ZgVYZ ^b LgVjb ( jcY VjX] WZ^ C^cYZgc ( bZ]g Vah hdchi oj
VjzZgh^cca^X]Zc OV]gcZ]bjc\Zc #9KO$' Y^Z YVcc VaaZ Vj[ cdgbVaZb OZ\ c^X]i
Zg`augWVgZc' YVh '[gx]ZgZ DZWZcÉ `ZccoZ^X]cZcYZc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc jcY NZg]VaiZchÜ
lZ^hZcYZgWZigd[[ZcZcHZghdckZgjghVX]Zc`wcciZc)
=^cZ gZ^c`VgcVi^dc^hi^hX]Z =g`augjc\ [xg 9KO' ldcVX] YZg :ZigZ[[ZcYZ Vb Ggi YZg
_ZlZ^a^\Zc Ac[dgbVi^dc hX]dc Z^cbVa \ZaZWi ]VWZc bjz' `jgh^Zgi _ZYdX] cjg ^c cV^kZc
ZhdiZg^hX]Zc CgZ^hZc jcY gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Zc Nwa`Zgc d]cZ CZccic^h eVgVehnÜ
X]dad\^hX]Zg >dghX]jc\hZg\ZWc^hhZ) <^Z bZ^hiZc Nwa`Zg YZjiZc Y^ZhZaWZc H]ucdÜ
bZcZ VcYZgh' cuba^X] he^g^i^hi^hX] Vah CdciV`iVj[cV]bZ b^i kZghidgWZcZc VcYZgZc
EZchX]Zc Wol) Vah #`jgo[g^hi^\Z$ MbhZhhZc]Z^i YjgX] Y^ZhZ) <^ZhZ <Zjijc\ ^hi YVcc
VjX] ^c YZg HVgVehnX]dad\^Z b^i JZX]i Y^Z Z^co^\Z Y^h`ji^ZgiZ 9aiZgcVi^kZ ojg Vc^b^(
hi^hX]Zc AciZgegZiVi^dc #:ZcYZg' ,43/6 Jnoa' ,4316 CZ^a' ,44,6 KiZkZchdc) ,4346 KiZ(
kZchdc*HVhg^X]V*EX;aZVc(J^XZ' ,4346 KiZkZchdc*HVhg^X]V6 ,4246 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg'
,44,V6 E^hX]d' ,44-6 Jd\d' ,44-6 EVaadX`' ,4346 E^aah' ,4346 44+W6;dX`Xaa' ,44/6
KVX]Vj',440$)
LVihuX]a^X] ^hi Zh ( cZWZc YZg Vc^b^hi^hX]Zc 9KO(=g`augjc\ ( YjgX]Vjh YZc`WVg'
YVz Y^Z sehr seltenen eVgVcdgbVaZc =aZbZciZ hd\) 'JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\ZcÇ
c^X]ih VcYZgZh Vah Z^cZc kdgxWZg\Z]ZcYZc hedciVcZc jcY Vj[\Zoljc\ZcZc VjzZgÜ
h^cca^X]Zc CdciV`i b^i Z^cZb VcYZgZc #kZghidgWZcZc$ EZchX]Zc YVghiZaaZc) <Zg
WZgx]biZhiZ JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[dghX]Zg #jcY (Vc]uc\Zg$ AVc KiZkZchdc ]uai YVcc VjX]
Y^ZhZ =g`augjc\' Y^Z kdc Z^cZg 9gi MbhZhhZc]Z^i YjgX] Z^cZc kZghidgWZcZc VcYZgZc
EZchX]Zc Vjh\Z]i' [xg Y^Z l^X]i^\hiZ <^[[ZgZci^VaY^V\cdhZ YZg hd\ZcVcciZc 'JZ^c(
`VgcVi^dchZg[V]gjc\ZcÇ5
Ö<Zg MciZghX]^ZY ol^hX]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dc jcY :ZhZhhZc]Z^i a^Z\i^b ?gVY
YZg 9jhhX]Vaijc\ YZg Hg^bugeZghwca^X]`Z^i' kZgjghVX]i YjgX] YZc =^c[ajz
YZg 'Z^cigZiZcYZcÉ HZghwca^X]`Z^i) :ZhZhhZc]Z^i WZYZjiZi ZcilZYZg Z^cZ
iZ^alZ^hZ :ZZ^c[ajhhjc\ YZg jghegxc\a^X]Zc HZghwca^X]`Z^i' Y^Z VWZg cdX]
Z^cZ \Zl^hhZ CdcigdaaZ xWZg YZc e]nh^hX]Zc DZ^W WZ]uai' dYZg VWZg Z^cZ
oZ^ilZ^hZ' VchX]Z^cZcY kdaahiucY^\Z :Z]ZgghX]jc\ YZh e]nh^hX]Zc Gg\VÜ
c^hbjh b^i heuiZgZg JxX``Z]g YZg jghegxc\a^X]Zc HZghwca^X]`Z^iÅ #KiZÜ
kZchdc',44.'.22$)
=^c^\Z YZg '[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ YZg `^cYa^X]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[uaaZ lZgYZc YVcc VjX]
Y^gZ`i oj YZb C^cY \Z[x]gi' ^c YZhhZc CwgeZg h^Z gZ^c`Vgc^ZgZc hdaaZc) Kd WZg^X]iZi ^c
Z^cZg kdc KiZkZchdch >Vaa\ZhX]^X]iZc BVhW^g' YVz Zg Vah YZg Vc Z^cZg NZg\^[ijc\ b^i
VchX]a^ZzZcYZb Kijgo \ZhidgWZcZ KdW]V JVb ^c hZ^cZb VjzZg`wgeZga^X]Zc RjhiVcY
kdc Z^cZb @Z^a^\Zc Vc\Zl^ZhZc ljgYZ' ^c YZc CwgeZg YZh oj Y^ZhZb RZ^iejc`i hX]dc
Vah Z^\ZchiucY^\Zh C^cY aZWZcYZc BVhW^gh Z^cojYg^c\Zc jcY Ydgi ÑGWYVX] oj hjX]ZcÉ)
?ZcVjhd `xcY^\Zc Y^Z KiZgWZcYZc dYZg NZghidgWZcZc #^c LgujbZc$ \ZaZ\Zcia^X]
VjX]Vc'VahC^cYYZg>Vb^a^ZPl^ZYZgoj`dbbZc)
<V KiZkZchdc kdc bZ]gZgZc hdaX]Zg >uaaZ WZg^X]iZi' `wcciZ Zh h^X] jb YVh xWa^X]Z
?ZhX]Z]Zc WZ^ hd\ZcVcciZc JZ^c`VgcVi^dcZc ]VcYZac' Y^Z h^X] YVb^i Vah >Z]a^ciZgÜ
egZiVi^dcZc kdc Z^cZg 9gi 'MbhZhhZc]Z^iÉ ZglZ^hZc) LVihuX]a^X] WZigZ[[Zc ,+ HgdoZci
YZg kdc KiZkZchdc Vah Ñhj\\Zhi^kZ [dg gZ^cXVgcVi^dcÉ WZoZ^X]cZiZc \ji jciZghjX]iZc
C^cYZg' YZgZc hX]Z^cWVgZh '[gx]ZgZh DZWZc% Zghi \ZhidgWZc lVg' Vah YVh C^cY hX]dc
76
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
Z^c^\Z RZ^i aZWiZ) Kdb^i ]VcYZai Zh h^X] ]^Zg c^ZbVah jb YVh [gx]ZgZ DZWZc YZh C^cÜ
YZh' sonJern um Jcs fruhere leben elnes cnJeren Menschen. KiZkZchdc h^Z]i ^c hdaÜ
X]Zc >uaaZc iVihuX]a^X] Z^cZ 9gi :Z( dYZg MbhZhhZc]Z^i YjgX] Z^cZc NZghidgWZcZc
#KiZkZchdc,43.6,434$5
Ö) ) ) lZcc Y^Z NZgZ^c^\jc\ ol^hX]Zc [gx]ZgZg HZghwca^X]`Z^i jcY e]nh^Ü
hX]Zb Gg\Vc^hbjh Zghi heuiZg #Y) ]) [xg KiZkZchdc5 cVX] YZg ?ZWjgi' b) R)$
hiVii[^cYZi'hegZX]Zcl^gkdc:ZhZhhZc]Z^iÅ#KiZkZchdc',43.'.23(.24$)
Fjc hiVgWZc Y^Z kdc C^cYZgc Zg^ccZgiZc '[gx]ZgZ DZWZcÇ ]uj[^\ ( ^c W^h oj 1, HgdÜ
oZci kdc 2-0 >uaaZc kZghX]^ZYZchiZg #hZX]h$ CjaijgZc ( Z^cZh \ZlVaihVbZc dYZg
eawioa^X]Zc LdYZh) Ac :jgbV WZ^he^ZahlZ^hZ Zg^ccZgc Y^Z WZigd[[ZcZc C^cYZg ]uj[^\
LZ^aZ YZg [gx]ZgZc DZWZc _VeVc^hX]Zg KdaYViZc' Y^Z lu]gZcY YZh olZ^iZc OZai`g^Z\h
^c :jgbV \ZiwiZi ljgYZc #KiZkZchdc ,4346 ,44+ W6 CZ^a' ,44,6 KiZkZchdc*HVhg^X]V*
EX;aZVc(J^XZ' ,4346 :ZcYZg' ,43/5 E^hX]d' ,44-6 Jd\d' ,44-6 :) Ke^kV`*A) AVcXj*F)
<V^Z*9)OZ^obVc',4406EViadX`',4346E^aah,44+W6:VX]Z',44.$)
=^c eawioa^X]Zg \ZlVaihVbZg LdY `wcciZ VWZg l^ZYZgjb Z^c @Zgjb^ggZc YZg KZZaZ
jcY ^]g =^cYg^c\Zc ^c Z^cZc DZWZcYZc WZ\xchi^\Zc) <V[xg hegZX]Zc o) :) Y^Z =g`ZcciÜ
c^hhZ YZg FV](LdYZh[dghX]jc\ jcY k^ZaZ u]ca^X]Z :Zg^X]iZ kdc iZaZeVi]^hX]Zc DZ^Ü
hijc\Zc KiZgWZcYZg ^c YZc OZai`g^Z\Zc) 9jX] Y^Z ^col^hX]Zc \ji jciZghjX]iZc Kej`(
Zg[V]gjc\Zc dgih\ZWjcYZcZg 9gi YZjiZc Vj[ Y^Z Ew\a^X]`Z^i' YVz jciZg WZaVhiZcYZc
MbhiucYZc eawioa^X] NZghidgWZcZ VjX] heuiZg cdX] ']Zgjb\Z^hiZgcÇ) Kd aVhhZc h^X]
VjX] Y^Z ojbZ^hi cjg Vj[ YVh '[gx]ZgZ DZWZcÉ oZcig^ZgiZc eVgVcdgbVaZc DZ^hijc\Zc
YZg WZigd[[ZcZc C^cYZg jcY Zkia) VjX] Y^Z gZaVi^k `jgoZc 9WhiucYZ ol^hX]Zc YZb
#\ZlVaihVbZc$ LdY YZh '[gx]ZgZc DZWZchÉ jcY YZg ?ZWjgi YZh WZigd[[ZcZc C^cYZh
Zg`augZc #EVii^ZhZc) ,4.16 ?gZnhdc' ,44-6 Agl^c' ,4306 KX]gwiZg(Cjc]VgYi' ,44.V6
,4406KiZkZchdc),43.6,4346E^aah,44+W5:ZcYZg',43/V6,43/W6,430$)
<Vz Y^Z WZigd[[ZcZc C^cYZg ^c W^h oj 0, HgdoZci Vc H]dW^Zc aZ^YZc' Y^Z ]uj[^\ Y^Z
MbhiucYZ Wol) MghVX]Zc YZh \ZlVaihVbZc jcY eawioa^X]Zc LdYZh l^YZghe^Z\Zac
#KiZkZchdc) ,43.6 ,4346 ,44+W6 9) E^aah*=) @VgVaYhhdc*B) CZ^a' ,44/6 E^aah' ,4346
,44+ W$' a^ZzZ h^X] YVcc ( WZ^b Ndga^Z\Zc l^g`a^X] eVgVcdgbVaZg HgdoZhhZ ( Vah YjgX]
Y^ZVj[iVjX]ZcYZc:^aYZgVjh\ZawhiZKX]gZX`gZV`i^dckZghiZ]Zc)
<Zg JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZ ^hi hdb^i Z^cZ >Z]a^ciZgegZiVi^dc cdgbVaZg jcY eVgVcdg(
bVaZg DZ^hijc\Zc YZh :ZljzihZ^ch) JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Z kZg`ZccZc YVcc VjX]
_ZYZ Yv_t(kj(=g[V]gjc\ hd[dgi Vah RZ^X]Zc' Vc YZb ZcihegZX]ZcYZc Ggi hX]dc Z^cbVa
\ZaZWi oj ]VWZc) O^hhZchX]V[ia^X] ]VcYZai Zh h^X] WZ^b Yv_t(kj(H]ucdbZc _ZYdX]
ZcilZYZg jb CgneidbcZh^Zc' =g^ccZgjc\Zc auc\hi kZg\ZhhZcZg egu`d\c^i^kZg
LgujbZ dYZg VWZg jb VbcZhi^hX]Z >Z]akZgVgWZ^ijc\Zc #KiZkZchdc' ,43.6 ,4346
JnWVX`*KlZ^ioZg',44+6E^hX]d',44-$)
;FJNKBQNBSJONRFQGBIQTNHFNBLRGBLRDIJNSFQPQFSJFQSFR
JEFNSJGJKBSOQJRDIFR0QLFCFN
<dX] c^X]i cjg eVgVcdgbVaZ DZ^hijc\Zc jcY Yv_t(kj(H]ucdbZcZ lZgYZc kdc YZc
gZ^c`VbVa^dch\aujW^\Zc CjaijgZc [VahX] \ZYZjiZi) <^ZhZ l^hhZc VjX] c^X]i' YVz
\ZgVYZ Y^Z C^cYZg b^i ^]gZc kZgbZ^cia^X]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchZg^ccZgjc\Zc WZhdcYZgh
hj\\Zhi^WZa jcY ^c Z^cZb 9aiZg h^cY' ^c YZb k^ZaZh ^YZci^[^`Vidg^hX] ZgaZWi l^gY) Kd
hiZaaZc \ZgVYZ Y^Z ( d[i ^c Z^cZb LgVjb Zg[da\ZcYZc ( 9c`xcY^\jc\Zc YZh KiZgWZcÜ
YZc dYZg NZghidgWZcZc' Vah C^cY YZg >Vb^a^Z P l^ZYZgoj`dbbZc' WZ^ YZc gZ^c`Vg(
cVi^dch\aujW^\Zc :Zigd[[ZcZc Z^cZc ujzZghi hj\\Zhi^kZc =^c[ajz YVg' YZg h^Z YVh ZciÜ
77
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
hegZX]ZcYZ 'NdgaZWZcÉ heuiZg ^c YVh C^cY ]^cZ^caZ\Zc auzi' lVh Y^ZhZh YVcc ^YZci^[^(
`Vidg^hX] xWZgc^bbi jcY VjhWVji #KiZkZchdc' ,43.6 ,4346 A) KiZkZchdc*K) HVhg^X]V*
?) KVbVgVgVicZ' ,4336 :) Ke^kV`*A) AVcXj*F) <V^Z*9) OZ^obVc' ,4406 EViadX`' ,4346
E^aah',4346,44+V6CZ^a',44,$)
Fjc iVjX]Zc VjX] WZ^ YZc \ZaZ\Zcia^X] ^b JV]bZc kdc kZghX]^ZYZcZc LgVcXZ(RjÜ
hiucYZc Vj[igZiZcYZc hd\ZcVcciZc AYZci^[^`Vi^dch(=gaZWc^hhZc b^i idiZc dYZg aZWZcÜ
YZc GW_Z`iZc' L^ZgZc jcY EZchX]Zc ojlZ^aZc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc Vj[' Y^Z hX]Z^cWVg c^X]i
bZ]g `gneidbcZhi^hX] oj Zg`augZc h^cY #KiZkZchdc' ,4226 9) <^iig^X]*;) KX]Vg[ZiiZg'
,4326<)Edh`dee*>) J^Zh*@) >) <jglZc*<):) D^c`Z' ,4326 ?gd[' ,43.6 a4326JnWVX`*
KlZ^ioZg' ,44+6 <jZgg' ,43,6 ;dX`Zaa' ,44/$) ?gd[ WZhX]gZ^Wi Y^ZhZ NZghX]bZaojc\h(
AYZci^[^`Vi^dchZg[V]gjc\Zc^)J)Z^cZg@Vaajo^cd\Zc(L]ZgVe^Zl^Z[da\i5
ÖAc bVcX]Zc >uaaZc ZgaZWZc Y^Z HVi^ZciZc Z^cZ DdX`Zgjc\ ^]gZg \Zlw]cÜ
a^X]Zc AX]\gZcoZc6 ^]g :ZljzihZ^c jcY ^]g KZaWhi\ZlV]ghZ^c hX]Z^cZc
h^X] VjhojYZ]cZc' hd YVz VjX] VcYZgZ EZchX]Zc jcY =aZbZciZ YZg ujzZÜ
gZc OZai Z^cWZod\Zc ) ) ) lZgYZc) Ac lZc^\Zc >uaaZc ZgaZWZc h^Z olVg lZ^Ü
iZg]^c ^]gZ Z^\ZcZ AYZci^iui' VWZg ^c Z^cZg VcYZgZc RZ^i' Vc Z^cZb VcYZgZc
Ggi dYZg ^c Z^cZb VcYZgZc CdciZmi) Ac VcYZgZc >uaaZc l^ZYZgjb Zg[V]gZc
Y^Z HVi^ZciZc YZc idiVaZc NZgajhi YZg Z^\ZcZc AYZci^iui jcY ZgaZWZc Z^cZ
kwaa^\Z AYZci^[^`Vi^dc b^i YZb :ZljzihZ^c Z^cZh VcYZgZc EZchX]Zc' Z^cZh
L^ZgZh dYZg hd\Vg Z^cZh jcWZaZWiZc ?Z\ZchiVcYZh) KX]a^Zza^X] \^Wi Zh Z^cZ
o^Zba^X] \gdzZ ?gjeeZ igVcheZghdcVaZg =g[V]gjc\Zc' WZ^ YZcZc YVh
:ZljzihZ^c =aZbZciZ oj jb[VhhZc hX]Z^ci' Y^Z `Z^cZgaZ^ Cdci^cj^iui b^i
^]gZg\Zlw]ca^X]ZcAYZci^iui]VWZc)))
N^ZaZ YZg oj Y^ZhZg CViZ\dg^Z \Z]wgZcYZc =g[V]gjc\Zc aVhhZc h^X] Vah
JZ\gZhh^dc ^c YZg ]^hidg^hX]Zc RZ^i ) ) ) YZg HVi^Zci ]Vi YVh xWZgoZj\ZcYZ
?Z[x]a' YVz Zg =g^ccZgjc\Zc Vjh YZb DZWZc hZ^cZg 9]cZc l^ZYZgZgaZWi
dYZg hd\Vg Vjh YZb gVhh^hX]Zc jcY `daaZ`i^kZc McWZljziZc hX]we[i ) ) ) ac
=migZb[uaaZc l^gY VjX] YVh :ZljzihZ^c YZg \ZhVbiZc KX]we[jc\' YZh
\VcoZc =gYWVaah dYZg YZh \ZhVbiZc bViZg^ZaaZc Mc^kZghjbh Zg[V]gZc ) ) )Å
#?gd[*@Va^[Vm',43+'2.(2/$)
?ZgVYZ lZ\Zc hZ^cZg NZghX]bZaojc\ b^i YZb _ZlZ^a^\Zc GW_Z`i jcY YZg Zkia)
eVgVcdgbVaZc CdbedcZciZc bV\ YZg =gaZWZcYZ h^X] olVg wöhrenJ YZg =g[V]gjc\
b^iYZbGW_Z`iZ^ch[x]aZc5
ÖAX] W^c xWZg]Vjei c^X]i xWZgh^cca^X] kZgVcaV\i' VWZg Vc Z^cZb Hjc`i ^c
bZ^cZb DZWZc ]ViiZ ^X] Z^cZc LgVjb' YZg Vj[ ]wX]hi WZjcgj]^\ZcYZ
OZ^hZ gZVa^hi^hX] lVg) Ndg ZilV ,. BV]gZc lVg bZ^c EVcc WZ^b E^a^iug ^c
>dgiOV^clg^\]i'9aVh`V'hiVi^dc^Zgi)))
AX] igujbiZ Z^cZh FVX]ih' ^X] lugZ Z^c VcYZgZh EuYX]Zc jcY [x]gZ JdaaÜ
hX]j] Vj[ Z^cZg :V]c Zia^X]Z EZ^aZc kdc YV Zci[Zgci' ld l^g ld]ciZc) =h
lVg hZ]g gj]^\ Ydgi' W^h eawioa^X] Z^c EVcc 9bd` a^Z[' b^i Z^cZg KX]gdiÜ
[a^ciZ Vj[ Y^Z DZjiZ hX]dz' h^Z kZgaZioiZ jcY iwiZiZ) AX] gVcciZ ^c HVc^` ojg
<VbZcid^aZiiZ jcY g^Z\ZaiZ b^X] ^c Z^cZg RZaaZ Z^c ))) Ab LgVjb lVg ^X] ^c
Z^cZbRjhiVcYi^Z[hiZc=cihZioZch)))
<V ZglVX]iZ ^X] jcY Zgou]aiZ bZ^cZb EVcc kdc YZb Z^\ZcVgi^\Zc
?Z[x]a WZ^ Y^ZhZb LgVjb) AX] `Vcc c^X]i cVX]YgxX`a^X] \Zcj\ WZidcZc'
YVz)))YVh?Z[x]a'ZhhZ^VaaZhl^g`a^X]'Z^c[VX]xWZgluai^\ZcY^hi)
EZ^c EVcc ) ) ) iVi Zh b^i Z^cZb 9X]hZaojX`Zc VW jcY YgZ]iZ YVh JVY^d
Vc' cjg jb oj ]wgZc' YVz jciZg \ZcVj YZc MbhiucYZc' Y^Z ^X] \ZgVYZ
78
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
\Zigujbi ]ViiZ' olZ^ dYZg YgZ^ EZchX]Zc \ZiwiZi jcY bZ]gZgZ kZgaZioi
ldgYZc lVgZc) 9WZg l^g`a^X] hZaihVb lVg' YVz h^X] Z^c EuYX]Zc `jgo kdg
=^cigZ[[Zc YZg Hda^oZ^ ^c Z^cZ Ld^aZiiZc`VW^cZ Z^c\ZhX]adhhZc jcY YVYjgX]
\ZgZiiZi]ViiZ)
KeuiZg' Vah ^X] Y^Z RZ^ijc\hWZg^X]iZ aVh' hiZaaiZ h^X] ]ZgVjh' YVz ^X]
YVh WZigZ[[ZcYZ EuYX]Zc \Vg c^X]i `VcciZ jcY YVz VaaZh \ZcVjhd kdcÜ
hiViiZc \Z\Vc\Zc lVg l^Z ^c bZ^cZb LgVjb) <^Z Z^co^\Z NZgW^cYjc\ oj
jch lVg' YVz YZg EVcc' Z^c KdaYVi' YZg bZ^cZb EVcc \ucoa^X] jcWZ`Vcci
lVg' ZWZc[Vaah ^c >dgi OV^cg^\]i hiVi^dc^Zgi lVgÅ #JnWVX`*KlZ^ioZg' ,44+'
33(34$)
<V YZg =gaZWZcYZ hdaX]Zg ^YZci^[^`Vidg^hX]Zg HgdoZhhZ ZWZc c^X]i YVh cdX] Zm^hi^ZÜ
gZcYZ GW_Z`i dYZg DZWZlZhZc ^hi' hdcYZgc Z^c kdc Y^ZhZb \ZigZcciZg' lZcc VjX] `jgo
b^i ^]b kZghX]bZaoZcYZg EZchX]' hd ^hi Zg VjX] c^X]i YVh kZghidgWZcZ GW_Z`i dYZg
DZWZlZhZc \ZlZhZc) <V hdaX]Z AYZci^[^`Vi^dchZgaZWc^hhZ VWZg hdld]a b^i cdX] Zm^Ü
hi^ZgZcYZc l^Z b^i kZg\Vc\ZcZc Wol) kZghidgWZcZc GW_Z`iZc' L^ZgZc dYZg EZchX]Zc
bw\a^X] h^cY' ^hi VjX] ^]gZ gZ^c`VgcVi^dc^hi^hX]Z =g`augjc\ \Vco Z^c[VX] [VahX]' YZcc
ZghiZgZh`VccYZg=gaZWZcYZZWZcc^X]ihZ^c)
LVihuX]a^X] jciZghX]Z^YZc h^X] Y^Z kdc ?gd[ WZhX]g^ZWZcZc AYZci^[^`Vi^dchZgaZW(
c^hhZ b^i =^coZaeZghdcZc ^b =gaZWZc' VWZg VjX] e]ucdbZcdad\^hX] c^X]i kdc AYZci^Ü
[^`Vi^dcZcb^iYZb\ZhVbiZcMc^kZghjbdYZgo):)
Öb^i VaaZc ExiiZgc' Y^Z _Z \ZWdgZc ]ViiZc' jcY VaaZc C^cYZgc' Y^Z _Z \ZWdÜ
gZc ljgYZc6 YVcc ljgYZ h^Z hjW_Z`i^k Vaa Y^ZhZ ExiiZg jcY Vaa Y^ZhZ C^cÜ
YZg) <jgX] YVh =gaZWc^h kdc ?ZWjgi jcY LdY hX]^Zc h^Z b^i YZg \ZhVbiZc
aZ^YZcYZc EZchX]]Z^i kZgWjcYZc oj hZ^c' b^i 9WZgb^aa^dcZc EZchX]Zc'
Y^Z ^c KX]bZgoZc lZ^cZc) K^Z lZ^ciZ b^i ^]cZc jcY wcr oj\aZ^X] Vaa Y^ZhZ
EZchX]Zc ))) Ac Z^cZg Y^ZhZg KoZcZc ljgYZ h^Z oj Z^cZg V[g^`Vc^hX]Zc =^cÜ
\ZWdgZcZc' Y^Z b^i ^]gZc KiVbbZh\ZcdhhZc xWZg Z^cZ hdccZckZgWgVcciZ
=WZcZa^Z[)9b=cYZY^ZhZgKoZcZljgYZh^ZYjgX]Z^cZcKeZZg\ZiwiZi)))
Ac Z^cZg VcYZgZc KoZcZ WgVX]iZ h^Z ^b b^iiZaVaiZga^X]Zc =c\aVcY Z^c C^cY
ojg OZai) KeuiZg ^c YZg K^iojc\ ljgYZ h^Z oj Z^cZb Nd\Za' YZg YjgX] Y^Z
Dx[iZ [ad\6 h^Z ljgYZ kdc Z^cZb H[Z^a \Zigd[[Zc jcY hixgoiZ b^i \ZWgdX]ZÜ
cZb >ax\Za ojg =gYZ))) <Vcc ljgYZ h^Z oj Z^cZb l^co^\Zc Hxc`iX]Zc )))
^c Z^cZb \gZcoZcadhZc' kdc egVX]ikdaaZc KiZgcZc Zg[xaaiZc 9aaÅ #?gd[*
@Va^[Vm',43+),+4$)
@^Zg oZ^\i h^X] Vaaoj YZjia^X]' YVz Zh h^X] WZ^ Vaa Y^ZhZc ^YZci^[^`Vidg^hX]Zc DZ^hijcÜ
\Zc k^ZabZ]g jb Z^cZ WZhdcYZgh ^c LgVcXZ Wol) kZgucYZgiZc OVX]WZljzihZ^chojÜ
hiucYZc #NO:$ Vj[igZiZcYZ FZ^\jc\ YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc :ZljzihZ^ch ]VcYZai' b^i
VaaZbojkZghX]bZaoZc)
<VWZ^ `wccZc ^c NO:h xWZg RZ^i( jcY JVjb\gZcoZc ]^clZ\ gelegentllch unJ
unkontrolllerbcr igVcheZghdcVaZ <^bZch^dcZc ZggZ^X]i jcY YVb^i Rj\Vc\ ojb `daÜ
aZ`i^kZc McWZljziZc jcY eVgVcdgbVa oj ^b cdgbVaZc OVX]WZljzihZ^c jcoj\uc\Ü
a^X]Zb O^hhZc \ZldccZc lZgYZc) =^cZ \ZeaVciZ 'JxX`[x]gjc\É ^c Y^ZhZ <^bZch^dÜ
cZc' l^Z h^Z Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z WZVchegjX]i' ^hi _ZYdX] c^X]i bw\a^X] #KiZÜ
kZchdc' ,4346 ?gd[' ,4306 :Zco' ,4346 <) Edh`dee*>) J^Zh*@) >) <jglZc*<) :)
D^c`Z' a4326<jZgg' ,43,6 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg' ,44,V6 ,44,W6 OZ^hh' ,44/6 :ZcYZg' ,43/V6
,43/W6,430$)
:ZhdcYZgh C^cYZg hX]Z^cZc cjc YVoj oj cZ^\Zc' hdaX]Z #eVgVcdgbVaZc$ HgdoZhhZ
^YZci^[^`Vidg^hX]ojZgaZWZc#KiZkZchdc',434$)KdigujbiZZ^cC^cY5
79
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
ÖAX] [x]aiZ b^X] Vah CVc^cX]Zc jcY gVcciZ WjX]hiuWa^X] jb bZ^c DZWZc)
Ag\ZcY ZilVh _V\iZ b^X]' jcY ^X] ljziZ' YVz ^X] hiZgWZc lxgYZ' VWZg ^X]
gVcciZ igdioYZb W^h ojb =cYZ) <Zg LgVjb lVg `jgo' YdX] ^X] Zg^ccZgZ
b^X] cdX] aZW]V[i Vc YVh ?Z[x]a' Z^c CVc^cX]Zc oj hZ^c ( Vc Y^Z `gu[i^\Zc
:Z^cZ' YVh lZ^X]Z >Zaa) O^Z ^X] b^X] Zg^ccZgZ' lVg YVh Z^co^\Z' lVh ^X] ^b
<jc`ZachV]'Z^clZ^zZgDViiZcoVjc'YZgVcb^gkdgWZ^gVhiZ)
9ah ^X] ZglVX]iZ' o^iiZgiZ ^X]' jcY ^X] hX]l^ioiZ jcY hX]cVj[iZ' Vah lugZ
^X] \ZgVcci) AX] Wa^ZW Z^cZ \VcoZ OZ^aZ lVX]' hVcc xWZg YZc LgVjb cVX]
jcYhiVjciZxWZgYVhhZaihVbZ?Z[x]a'Z^cCVc^cX]Zc\ZlZhZcojhZ^c)))
9b cuX]hiZc Edg\Zc WVi bZ^c NViZg jch' c^X]i ^c YZc CZaaZga^X]iÜ
hX]VX]i oj hX]VjZc' YV ^g\ZcYZilVh Z^c \gdzZh lZ^zZh CVc^cX]Zc \ZiwiZi
jcY ]VaW kZgheZ^hi ]VWZ) =ghi heuiZg Vc _ZcZb LV\ [^Za b^g YZg lZ^zZ
E^c^Vijg(DViiZcoVjc jb jchZgZc :ajbZc\VgiZc ]Zgjb Vj[' YZg \ZcVj Vj[
YVhCZaaZg[ZchiZgojauj[iÅ#JnWVX`*KlZ^ioZg',44+'32$)
<ZbZcihegZX]ZcY h^cY Zh ZWZc \ZgVYZ C^cYZg ^c gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Zc CjaÜ
ijgZc' Y^Z eawioa^X] =^coZa]Z^iZc Vjh YZb DZWZc Z^cZg \Vco WZhi^bbiZc kZghidgWZcZc
HZghdcWZg^X]iZc)
,TDI9BI#=OEFRFQGBIQTNHFNVJEFQLFHFNEJF;FJNKBQNBSJONRLFIQF
LVihuX]a^X] iVjX]i ^c `Z^cZb FV](LdYZhZgaZWc^h #FL=$ ( Vah YZg Z^co^\Zc hedciVÜ
cZc' jc^kZghZaaZc jcY igVcheZghdcVaZc ?gjcYZg[V]gjc\ ( Z^c [gx]ZgZh DZWZc
/
Vj['
dWld]a Zh cjg ^b JV]bZc Y^ZhZg =g[V]gjc\ ]uj[^\ oj Z^cZb W^aVco^ZgZcYZc [^abVgi^Ü
\Zc 9WaVj[ YZh \ZhVbiZc Z^\ZcZc DZWZch ^c o) L) [did\gV[^hX]Zg ?ZcVj^\`Z^i `dbbi)
OZcc Xh xWZg]Vjei Z^c '[gx]ZgZh DZWZcÉ \uWZ' bxziZ Zh VWZg \ZgVYZ ^c Y^ZhZb JV]Ü
bZc Vj[ _ZYZc >Vaa oj ZglVgiZc hZ^c) <V YVh VWZg ( VjX] WZ^ YZc FL=h gZ^c`VgcVi^dch(
\aujW^\Zg CjaijgZc ( c^X]i YZg >Vaa ^hi' ^hi \ZgVYZ Y^Zh Z^c hX]aV\ZcYZg :ZlZ^h [xg YZc
gZ^c [^`i^kZc ;]VgV`iZg YZg Ñ[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ #KX]gwiZg(Cjc]VgYi' ,44. V6 ,44. W6
,440V$)
9jX] WZhiZ]Zc Y^Z ^c YZc hd\ZcVcciZc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Zc egdYjo^ZgiZc [gxÜ
]ZgZc DZWZcÉ cjg lu]gZcY YZg K^iojc\' VaaZc[Vaah cdX] `jgo YVcVX] jcY lZgYZc YVcc
^b 9aaiV\ l^ZYZg l^Z Z^cZ hX]wcZ ?ZhX]^X]iZ ojg KZ^iZ \ZaZ\i) O^Z H]VciVh^Zc dYZg
VWZg VjX] Z^cZ hZaiZcZ 9KO kZgWaVhhZc VjX] Y^Z hedciVcZc '=g^ccZgjc\Zc Vc [gx]ZgZ
DZWZcÉ WZ^ C^cYZgc cVX] lZc^\Zc BV]gZc jcY oZ^\Zc YVb^i ^]gZ :ZYZjijc\hadh^\`Z^i
[xgYVhDZWZcYZh=glVX]hZcZc)
<V\Z\Zc WZ]VaiZc hZaWhi Y^Z ZWZc[Vaah cdX] [^`i^kZ =aZbZciZ Zci]VaiZcYZc' VWZg
YZjia^X] bZ]g igVcheZghdcVaZc' bnhi^hX]Zc ;]VgV`iZg igV\ZcYZc FV](LdYZhZg[V](
gjc\Zc Z^cZ xWZgYVjZgcYZ HguhZco jcY 9jhl^g`jc\ ^b DZWZc YZh :Zigd[[ZcZc' lVh
Y^Z '[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ ZWZc Vj[\gjcY ^]gZh gZ^c [^`i^kZc dYZg hZaiZc Z^cbVa eVgVcdgbVÜ
aZc ;]VgV`iZgh c^X]i aZ^hiZc #KiZkZchdc' ,43.6 ,44+ V6 ,44+ W6 O^ZhZcYVc\Zg' ,44,V6
,44,W6 9) E^aah*=) @VgVaYhhdc*B) CZ^a' ,44/6 E^hX]d) ,44-5 EViadX`) ,4346 E^aah'
,4346,44+V6,44+W6:VX]Z',44.6CZ^a',44,$)
4MMBNFNSF1FILFQEFQ;FJNKBQNBSJONRLFIQFN
F^X]i ojaZioi hiZ]i YVh \ZhVbiZ ZhdiZg^hX]Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(CdcoZei' cVX] YZb Y^Z
JZ^c`VgcVi^dc =gawhjc\ WZYZjiZi jcY Y^Z =^cbVa^\`Z^i Vah VjX] Y^Z NZgVcildgiÜ
a^X]`Z^i YZh bdbZciVcZc DZWZch hiVg` gZaVi^k^Zgi' ^c Y^VbZigVaZb ?Z\ZchVio oj YZg
80
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
:ZYZjijc\' Y^Z gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Z CjaijgZc YZg O^ZYZg\ZWjgi ojhegZX]Zc) >xg
aZioiZgZ ^hi Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dc Y^Z @waaZ' Vahd Y^Z KigV[Z [xg Z^c [VahX] \ZaZWiZh DZWZc)
E^i VaaZc E^iiZac \^ai Zh YVgjb' Y^Z Z^\ZcZ O^ZYZg\ZWjgi oj kZgbZ^YZc ( jcY hZ^ Zh
b^i YZb NdgaZhZc YZh L^WZiVc^hX]Zc LdiZcWjX]h Vb :Zii YZh KiZgWZcYZc) F^ZbVah
lxgYZ bVc ^c Y^ZhZc CjaijgZc '[gx]ZgZ DZWZcÉ hjX]Zc6 ^b ?Z\ZciZ^a' Y^Z Ydgi xWg^Ü
\Zch ujzZghi hZaiZc hedciVc Vj[igZiZcYZc '=g^ccZgjc\Zc Vc [gx]ZgZ DZWZcÉ lZgYZc
VjX] ^c gZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aujW^\Zc CjaijgZc #o) :) ^c AcY^Zc' L]V^aVcY jcY ^c YZg LxgÜ
`Z^$ jciZgYgxX`i dYZg \Vg l^Z Z^cZ :ZhZhhZc]Z^i Zmdgo^Zgi' lZ^a Y^Z WZigd[[ZcZc C^cÜ
YZg YjgX] hdaX]Z =g[V]gjc\Zc iVihuX]a^X] d[i ehnX]^hX]Z Kiwgjc\Zc Vj[lZ^hZc' YZhÜ
dg^Zci^Zgi h^cY dYZg \Vg [gx]Zg Vah VcYZgZ hiZgWZc #KiZkZchdc' ,43.6 ,4346 KiZkZchdc*
HVhg^X]V*EX;aXVc(J^XZ' ,4346 ?gd[*@Va^[Vm' ,43+6 =kVch(OZcio' ,43.6 CZ^a' ,44,6
9) E^aah*=) @VgVaYhhdc*B) CZ^a' ,44/6 E^hX]d' ,44-6 :) Ke^kV`*A) AVcXj*F) <V^Z*9)
OZ^obVc',4406E^aah,4346,44+V6,44+W$)
LVihuX]a^X] ]Vi Y^Z HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z \ZoZ^\i' YVz auc\hi NZg\ZhhZcZh jchZg NZg]VaÜ
iZc lZ^iZg jcWZljzi hiZjZgi' lVh hdb^i [xg lZ^i xWZg 44'4 HgdoZci VaaZg EZchX]Zc
\ZaaZc bxziZ' Y^Z c^X]ih kdc ^]gZc '[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ l^hhZc jcY hd c^X]ih YVgVjh aZgÜ
cZc `wccZc) <dX] hZaWhi Y^Z C^cYZg #jcY =glVX]hZcZc$' Y^Z VchX]Z^cZcY kdc ^]gZc
'[gx]ZgZc DZWZcÉ l^hhZc' l^ZYZg]daZc ^c ^]gZb DZWZc d[i Y^Z NZg]VaiZchbjhiZg ^]gZh
'NdgaZWZchÉ) Kdb^i hiZaai YVh `Vgb^hX]Z Hg^co^e `Z^cZ =gawhjc\' hdcYZgc Z^cZ NZgaucÜ
\Zgjc\bZchX]a^X]ZcDZ^YZchYVg#KiZkZchdc',43.6,43469aWgZX]i',433$)
>xg Y^Z GWZg[auX]a^X]`Z^i YZg ZhdiZg^hX]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dchVg\jbZciZ heg^X]i
hX]ajzZcYa^X] VjX] Y^Z LVihVX]Z' YVz ^bbZg l^ZYZg ( hZaWhi kdc FZi]Zgidc' ?gd[
dYZg HVhh^Vc ( WZ]VjeiZi l^gY' YVh ;]g^hiZcijb ]VWZ b^i YZb Cdco^a oj CdchiVci^Ü
cdeZa Y^Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dchaZ]gZ #YZh Gg^\^cZh$ Vah [VahX] kZgjgiZ^ai jcY VW\ZaZ]ci) LViÜ
huX]a^X] kZgigViZc cjg Y^Z KX]xaZg YZh Gg^\ZcZh' c^X]i VWZg Y^ZhZg hZaWhi JZ^c`VgcV(
i^dch^YZZc' jcY ^c YZb YVbVa^\Zc Cdco^a ljgYZ cjg YZg ?aVjWZ VW\ZaZ]ci' YVz VaaZ
EZchX]Zc jghegxc\a^X] Ñ?Z^hiZg jcY ]Z^a^\Z ?ZlVaiZc lVgZc' Y^Z cVX] ^]gZg @^cÜ
lZcYjc\ ojb :whZc ^c CwgeZg kZgWVcci ldgYZc lugZc) FVX] bVcX]Zb WjYY]^hi^Ü
hX]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(CdcoZei ^hi Zh hX]ajzZcYa^X] c^X]i YVh eZghwca^X]Z AX]' YVh
gZ^c`Vgc^Zgi' hdcYZgc Z^cZ xWZgeZghwca^X]Z KZZaZchjWhiVco' lVh YZc ZhdiZg^hX]Zc
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch^YZZc' Y^Z kdc Z^cZb OZ^iZgaZWZc YZg Z^\ZcZc HZghdc Vjh\Z]Zc' _ZYZc
:dYZc Zcio^Z]i #?gd[*@Va^[Vm' ,43+6 FZi]Zgidc*K]^[[g^c' ,4326 HVhh^Vc' ,43/6
9aWgZX]i',4336O^ZhZcYVc\Zg',44,V6LdeeZg',4336KVX]Vj',4406Odda\Zg',44-$)
;FJNDBQNBSJON#=IFQBPXBNE;FJNDBQNBSJON-FLJFG+=QBNRPFQRONBL1JDSJONR
5ummcry
JZ^cXVgcVi^dc(ZmeZg^XcXZh h]dl id WZ V [VahZ gZVa^in d[ hj\\Zhi^k ^cYjXZY [VciVh^Zh l]^X] XVc ^cXajYZ V
eZghdc^[^XVi^dc VcY XViVi]nb Y^hX]Vg\Z d[ egdWaZbh' l]Vi bVn ]VkZ ]ZVa^c\ Z[[ZXih) 9agZVYn i]Z `cdlc
bZbdgn([jcXi^dch h]dl i]Vi i]ZhZ ZmeZg^ZcXZh ]dlZkZg XVc cZkZg WZ V [dgbZg a^[Z) KigVc\Z e]ZcdbZcV
a^`Z \gdl^c\ VW^a^i^Zh' gZVa^in(X]VgVXiZg VcY i]Z ZbZg\ZcXZ d[ hZZb^c\an jc`cdlc ^c[dgbVi^dch XVc WZ
h]dlc id WZ ine^XVa igVcXZ(e]ZcdbZcV) NZg^[^XVi^dch VgX d[iZc aVX`^c\6 gVgZan i]Zn h]dl" eVgVcdgbVa e]ZÜ
cdbZcV' l]^X] i]Zc XVc WZ Vc^b^hi^XVaan dg he^g^i^hi^XVaan ^ciZgegZiZY) 9\V^chi i]Vi Vc ^ciZgegZiVi^dc Vh
gZ^cXVgcVi^dch]dlhidWZlgdc\)
6FX VOQER+ gZ^cXVgcVi^dc(ZmeZg^ZcXX' gZ^cXVgcVi^dc(i]ZgVen' hj\\Zhi^dc' Y^hhdX^Vi^dc' eZghdc^[^XVi^dc'
XgneidbcZh^V'he^g^i^hb)
7JSFQBSTQ
Albrecht,M.C.#,433$5JZ^c`VgcVi^dc(Y^ZiwYa^X]ZDZ]gZ'KX]jaiZjcY?Zgi])9hhaVg)
8cche,C.M.#,44.$5<Vh:jX]kdcYZgO^ZYZg\ZWjgi5<Vh?ZhZioYZgZl^\ZcO^ZYZg`Z]g(VaaZhxWZg
JZ^c`VgcVi^dcVjhYZgK^X]iYZgbdYZgcZcO^hhZchX]V[i'KX]Zgo)ExcX]Zc)
8ecker,l.#,43,$5<ncVb^`YZhLdYZh5<^ZsWZgl^cYjc\YZgLdYZh[jgX]i'?daYbVcc'?xiZghad])
81
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg
8enJer,l.#,43/V$5Mb\Vc\b^iYZbG``jaiZc'9jgjb'>gZ^Wjg\^b:gZ^h\Vj)
8enJer, l. #,43/ W$5 LZaZeVi]^Z' @ZaahZ]Zc' HhnX]d`^cZhZ5 9j[huioZ ojg HVgVehnX]dad\^Z A' H^eZg' ExcÜ
X]Zc)
8enJer,ll.#,430$5<^ZkZgWdg\ZcZO^g`a^X]`Z^i59j[huioZojgHVgVehnX]dad\^ZAAA'H^eZg'ExcX]Zc)
8enz' l. #,434$5 @Vaajo^cd\Zc(jciZghixioiZ HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z5 =g]ZWjc\ WZ^ YZg KX]lZ^oZg^hX]Zc qgoiZ\Z(
hZa AhX]V[i [xg HhnX]dani^hX]Z L]ZgVe^Z) AcVj\jgVaY^hhZgiVi^dc YZg EZYo^c^hX]Zc >V`jaiui YZg Mc^kZgÜ
h^iuiRxg^X]',434)
8ernsteln,M.#,422$5Hgdid`daaZ^cZgO^ZYZg\ZWjgi5<Zg>Vaa:g^YnEjge]n'>^hX]Zg'>gVc`[jgiVbEV^c)
Cockell,1.#,44/$5MchiZgWa^X]Z=g^ccZgjc\'?jhiVkDxWWZ':Zg\^hX]?aVYWVX])
Dethlefsen,7.#,430$5<Vh=gaZWc^hYZgO^ZYZg\ZWjgi5@Z^ajc\YjgX]JZ^c`VgcVi^dc)?daYbVcc':Zga^c)
Dlttrlch,A.,5chcrfetter,C.#@gh\)$#,432$5=i]cdehnX]di]ZgVe^Z'>ZgY^cVcY=c`Z'Kijii\Vgi)
Drewes, A. A., Drucker, 5. A. #,44,$5 HVgVehnX]dad\^XVa JZhZVgX] O^i] ;]^aYgZc5 9c 9ccdiViZY :^Wa^dÜ
\gVe]n'L]ZKXVgZXgdlHgZhh'AcX)'FZlQdg`)
Duerr, l. P. #@gh\)$ #,43,$5 <Zg O^hhZchX]V[iaZg jcY YVh AggVi^dcVaZ5 :Z^igu\Z Vjh H]^adhde]^Z jcY HhnÜ
X]dad\^Z'KncY^`Vi'>gVc`[jgiVbEV^c)
lberlln, 8. l. #,432$5 JZ^c`VgcVi^dc jcY cZjZh :ZljzihZ^c' NZgaV\ @ZgbVcc :VjZg' >gZ^Wjg\ ^b :gZ^hÜ
\Vj)
Grcwe, l., Donctl, k., 8erncuer, l. #,44/$5 HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z ^b OVcYZa5 Ndc YZg Cdc[Zhh^dc ojg Hgd[ZhÜ
h^dc'@d\gZ[X'?wii^c\Zc)
Grey son, 8., 8ush, N. l. #,44-$5 <^higZhh^c\ FZVg(<ZVi] =meZg^ZcXZh' HhnX]^Vign' Nda) 00' >ZWgjVgn
,44-'40(,,+)
Grof5.,lcllfcx,1.#,43+$5<^Z:Z\Z\cjc\b^iYZbLdY'CaZii(;daiV'Kijii\Vgi)
Grof,5.#,43.$5DK<(HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z'CaZii(;diiV'Kijii\Vgi)
Grof5.#,430$5?ZWjgi'LdYjcYLgVchoZcYZco5FZjZ<^bZch^dcZc^cYZgHhnX]dad\^Z'CwhZa'ExcX]Zc)
Grof 5. #,432$5 <Vh 9WZciZjZg YZg KZaWhiZciYZX`jc\5 @Z^ajc\ YjgX] kZgucYZgiZ :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ'
CwhZa'ExcX]Zc)
lllgcrJ, l. k. #,431$5 <^k^YZY ;dchX^djhcZhh5 Ejai^eaZ ;dcigdah ^c @jbVc L]dj\]i VcY 9Xi^dc' B) O^aZn
!Kdch'FZlQdg`)
lrwln, l. 1. #,430$5 >a^\]i d[ E^cY5 9 HhnX]dad\^XVa KijYn G[ L]Z Gji(G[(:dYn =meZg^ZcXZh' L]Z
KXVgZXgdlHgZhh'AcX)'FZlQdg`)
lubler-koss,l.#,43.$5C^cYZgjcYLdY)CgZjo'Rxg^X])
loftus,l.,letchcm,l.#,440$5<^Zi]ZgVe^ZgiZ=g^ccZgjc\'Ac\g^YCaZ^c'@VbWjg\)
Mcclclne,5.#,43/$5Rl^hX]ZcaZWZc'?daYbVcc'ExcX]Zc)
Mctlock,.j. G. #,434$5 9\Z VcY Ki^bjajh ^c HVhi D^[Z EZbdgn ;VhZh5 9 KijYn d[ HjWa^h]ZY ;VhZh' BdjgcVa
d[i]Z9bZg^XVcKdX^Zin[dgHhnX]^XVaJZhZVgX]Nda)3.'GXidWZg'.+.(.,1)
Mctthlesen, l. #,4.1$5 <Vh eZghwca^X]Z sWZgaZWZc YZh LdYZh' OVaiZg YZ ?gjniZg ! ;d' :Zga^c jcY
DZ^eo^\)
Mllls, A. #,434$5 9 JZea^XVi^dc KijYn5 L]gZZ ;VhZh d[ ;]^aYgZc ^c Fdgi]Zgc AcY^V O]d 9gZ KV^Y id
JZbZbWZgVHgZk^djhD^[Z'BdjgcVad[KX^Zci^[^X=meadgVi^dc'Nda).'Fd)-',..(,3/)
Mllls, A. #,44+ V$5 EdhaZb ;VhZh d[ i]Z JZ^cXVgcVi^dc LneZ ^c Fdgi]Zgc AcY^V5 9 iZhi d[ i]Z @nedi]Zh^h d[
AbedhZY AYZci^[^XVi^dc HVgi A5 9cVanh^h d[ -1 ;VhZh' BdjgcVa d[ KX^Zci^[^X =meadgVi^dc' Nda /) Fd) -'
,2,(,33)
Mllls, A. #,44+ W$5 EdhaZb ;VhZh d[ i]Z JZ^cXVgcVi^dc LneZ ^c Fdgi]Zgc AcY^V5 9 LZhi d[ i]Z @nei]Zh^hd[
AbedhZY AYZci^[^XVi^dc HVgi AA5 JZedgih d[ L]gZZ ;VhZh' BdjgcVa d[ KX^Zci^[^X =meadgVi^dc' Nda) /'
Fd)-',34(-+-)
Mllls, A., lcrclJsson, l., lell,)*) #,44/$5 JZea^XVi^dc KijY^Zh d[ ;VhZh Kj\\Zhi^kZ d[ JZ^cXVgcVi^dc Wn
L]gZZ AcYZeZcYZci AckZhi^\Vidgh' BdjgcVa d[ i]Z 9bZg^XVc KdX^Zin [dg HhnX]^XVa JZhZVgX] Nda) 33'
Bjan'-+2(-,4)
Mlscho, )*) #,44-$5 EZi]dYZcegdWaZbZ YZg =be^g^hX]Zc JZ^c`VgcVi^dch[dghX]jc\) ?gZco\ZW^ZiZ YZg
O^hhZchX]V[i/,'-',-,(,0+)
MooJy,k.A.#,44+$5DZWZckdgYZbDZWZc'Jdld]ai'JZ^cWZ`)
Moskoµµ, D., kles, l., Durwen, l. l., llnke, D. 8. #,432$5 Rjg =^ciZ^ajc\ YZg :ZljzihZ^chaV\Zc' NZgÜ
]VcYajc\ZcYZg<ZjihX]Zc?ZhZaahX]V[i[xgFZjgdad\^Z'/04)LV\jc\'Keg^c\Zg)@Z^YZaWZg\)
Netherton, M., 5hlffrln, N. #,432$5 :Zg^X]i kdb DZWZc kdg YZb DZWZc5 JZ^c`VgcVi^dch(L]ZgVe^Z ( =^c
cZjZgOZ\^cY^ZL^Z[ZYZgKZZaZ'MaahiZ^c'>gVc`[jgi)
OstrcnJer/5chroeJer#,43,$5HKA'EdZl^\'KVaoWjg\)
Pcsslcn,k.#,43/$5O^ZYZg\ZWjgi5=^cDZWZcdYZgk^ZaZ'CcVjg'ExcX]Zc)
kevenstorf,D.#@gh\)$#,44+$5Ca^c^hX]Z@necdhZ'Keg^c\Zg'@Z^YZaWZg\)
kogo, D. 5. #,44-$5 MciZghjX]jc\Zc sWZg JZ^c`VgcVi^dc McY :ZljzihZ^chojhiucYZ' ?gZco\ZW^ZiZ YZg
O^hhZchX]V[i/,','-.(/4)
kyhcck, D., 5weltzer, l. #,44+$5 OV]gigujbZ ( ^]gZ igVch[dgb^ZgZcYZ jcY xWZgh^cca^X]Z CgV[i' <gdZ(
bZghX]ZNZgaV\hVchiVai'ExcX]Zc)
kyzl, M. #,431$5 <Zg LdY jcY lVh YVcVX] `dbbi5 <Vh OZ^aZgaZWZc Vjh YZg K^X]i YZg HVgVehnX]dad\^Z'
?daYbVcc':Zga^c)
82
JZ^c`VgcVi^dch\aVjWZjcYJZ^c`VgcV^^dchi]ZgVe^Z5igVcheZghdcVaZ>^`i^dc
5cchcu, k. #,440$5 OZhia^X]Z JZ^c`VgcVi^dchkdghiZaajc\Zc5 Rjg JZa^\^dc ^c YZg EdYZgcZ' <^hhZgiVi^dc
^b>VX]WZgZ^X]=kVc\Za^hX]ZL]Zdad\^ZYZgH]^a^eeh(Mc^kZgh^iuiEVgWjg\)
5chroter-lunhcrt,M.#,44.V$5<VhBZchZ^ih^cjch'HhnX]dad\^Z@ZjiZFg)1'1/(14)
5chroter-lunhcrJt, M. #,44. W$5 9 JZk^Zl G[ FZVg(<ZVi] =meZg^ZcXZh BdjgcVa G[ KX^Zci^[^X =meadgVÜ
i^dc'Nda)2'Fd).'-,4(-.4)
5chroter-lunhcrJt, M. #,440 V$5 =g[V]gjc\Zc KiZgWZcYZg lu]gZcY YZh `a^c^hX]Zc LdYZh' LO FZjgdadÜ
\^ZHhnX]^Vig^Z4',.-(,/+)
5chroter-lunhcrJt,M.#,440W$5<Zb9jidgWZ`VcciZ`a^c^hX]Z>uaaZ)
5µltzner, E) #,433$5 @Vaajo^cVi^dcZc5 =^c :Z^igV\ ojg Vaa\ZbZ^cZc jcY `a^c^hX]Zc HhnX]deVi]dad\^Z'
Keg^c\Zg'@Z^YZaWZg\)
5µlvck, k., lcncu, *)' Dcle, N., welzmcn, A. (,440$5 L]Z :Za^Z[ ^c i]Z LgVchb^\gVi^dc d[ Kdjah Vh V HgZÜ
hZci^c\ Knbeidb d[ ?ZcZgVa^oZY 9cm^Zin <^hdgYZg ^c V E^a^iVgn KZii^c\' HhnX]deVi]dad\n' -3' ,03Ä
,1+)
5tevenson, l. #,422$5 JZhZVgX] Acid L]Z =k^YZcXZ G[ EVcÉh Kjgk^kVa 9[iZg <ZVi]' L]Z BdjgcVa G[ FZgÜ
kdjh9cYEZciVa<^hZVhZ'Nda),10'Fd).',0-(,2+)
5tevenson, l. #,43.$5 JZ^c`VgcVi^dc5 <Zg EZchX] ^b OVcYZa kdc LdY jcY O^ZYZg\ZWjgi' 9jgjb' >gZ^Ü
Wjg\^b:gZ^h\Vj)
5tevenson,l.#,434$5O^ZYZg\ZWjgi5C^cYZgZg^ccZgch^X]Vc[gx]ZgZ=gYZcaZWZc'9fjVbVg^c'?gV[^c\)
5tevenson, l. #,44+ V$5 :dd` JZk^Zl5 Gi]Zg D^kZh' Gi]Zg KZakZh5 9 Bjc\^Vc HhnX]di]ZgVe^hi <^hXdkZgh
HVhiD^kZh'WnJ)B)Odda\ZgBdjgcVad[FZVg(<ZVi]KijY^Zh4#,$'00(01)
5tevenson, l. #,44+ W$5 H]dW^Vh ^c ;]^aYgZc O]d ;aV^b id JZbZbWZg HgZk^djh D^kZh' BdjgcVa d[ KX^Zci^Ü
[^X=meadgVi^dc'Nda)/'Fd)-'-/.(-0/)
5tevenson, *)' Pcsrlchc, 5., McClecn-klce, N. #,434$5 9 ;VhZ d[ i]Z HdhhZhh^dc LneZ ^c AcY^V O^i] =k^Ü
YZcXZd[HVgVcdgbVaCcdlaZY\Z'BdjgcVad[KX^Zci^[^X=meadgVi^dc'Nda).'Fd)A'ee3,(,+,)
5tevenson, l., Pcsrlchc, 5. #,424$5 9 ;VhZ d[ KZXdcYVgn HZghdcVa^in l^i] PZcd\adhhn' 9b B HhnX]^Vign
,.15,-',04,(,04-)
5tevenson, *)' Pcsrlchc, 5., 5cmcrcrctne, G. #,433$5 <ZXZei^dc VcY KZa[(<ZZXei^dc ^c ;VhZh d[ i]Z JZ^cÜ
XVgcVi^dc LneZ5 KZkZc AaajhigVi^kZ ;VhZh ^c 9h^V' BdjgcVa d[ i]Z 9bZg^XVc KdX^Zin [dg HhnX]^XVa
JZhZVgX]Nda)3-'BVcjVgn',(.,)
7hlenel, P. #,432$5 KZZaZclVcYZgjc\5 <Vh ?Z]Z^bc^h YZg O^ZYZg\ZWjgi ^c jchZgZb DZWZc ( >dghX]jcÜ
\ZcjcY=g[V]gjc\Zc'?daYbVcc'ExcX]Zc)
7oµµer,0.#,433$5O^ZYZg\ZWjgi5<VhO^hhZcYZgNwa`Zg'Jdld]ai'@VbWjg\)
venn, 1. #,431$5 @necdh^h VcY i]Z JZ^cXVgcVi^dc @nedi]Zh^h5 9 ;g^i^XVa JZk^Zl VcY AciZch^kZ ;VhZ
KijYn'BdjgcVad[i]Z9bZg^XVcKdX^Zin[dgHhnX]^XVaJZhZVgX]'Nda)3+'/+4(/-0)
welss, 8. #,44/$5 <^Z oV]agZ^X]Zc DZWZc YZg KZZaZ5 <^Z ;]gdc^` Z^cZg jc\Zlw]ca^X]Zc JxX`[x]gjc\hi]ZÜ
gVe^Z'?daYbVcc'ExcX]Zc)
wlesenJcnger, l. #,44,$5 O^ZYZg\ZWjgi5 @ZgVjh[dgYZgjc\ [xg YVh lZhia^X]Z <Zc`Zc' >^hX]Xg' >gVc`[jgi
V)E)
wlesenJcnger, 0. #,44,$5 RjgxX` ^c [gx]ZgZ DZWZc5 Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc YZg JZ^c`VgcVi^dchi]ZgVe^Z' CwhZa'
ExcX]Zc)
woolger, k. 1. #,44-$5 <^Z k^ZaZc DZWZc YZg KZZaZ5 O^ZYZgZg^ccZgjc\ ^c YZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc 9gWZ^i' @)
@j\XcYjWZa'ExcX]Zc)
E^X]VZaKX]gwiZg(Cjc]VgYi
HhnX]^Vig^hX]ZhDVcYZh`gVc`Zc]VjhOZ^chWZg\
2/,3/OZ^chWZg\
83
;FUOKBSJON
8ernJGunJermcnn,8cJllsslngen
Dcs0rtelltellt.
wo0r-llneswcr,erschelnen7elle,
erschelntvlelesclsweltJer
GegensötzeunJllercrchlen.
wleJer0rtellenJeselbst
slchcbhebtvom8eurtellten,
sozerfölltJcs8eurtellte
lnDlesunJDcs,
lnDelnunJMeln,
lnllercrchlenvonverJlensten
unJverfehlungen.
verschleJenslnJJleOhren,
verschleJenJlelehren,
jeJewchrecberfuhrtzuruck
lnsllnelerz,
Jcs0rtellcufhebenJ,
JcmltJcsGetelltewleJer
0r-llneswerJelnJervlelfclt.
84
LgVcheZghdcVaZ
HhnX]dad\^Z jcY
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z
,*,441'30(43
=IFQBPFTSJRJFQTNHTNE?FQLTRS
EFRRPJQJSTFLLFN0QOR
lcns-wllllwels,7oJtmoos
ATRBMMFNGBRRTNH$ MciZg L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ kZghiZ]Z ^X] YZc LgZcY' YVh #ehnÜ
X]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Z <Zc`Zc jcY hZ^cZ @VcYajc\hhigViZ\^Zc Vj[ VcYZgZ 9heZ`iZ YZh
bZchX]a^X]Zc jcY hdo^VaZc DZWZch ^c jcojauhh^\Zg OZ^hZ VjhojYZ]cZc) <^ZhZ LZcÜ
YZco ^hi ojb LZ^a VjX] ^ccZg]VaW YZg cZjZc he^g^ijZaaZc :ZlZ\jc\Zc jcY ^c YZc igVchÜ
eZghdcVaZc 9chuioZc oj WZdWVX]iZc) <^Z >da\Z ^hi' YVz ]uj[^\ YVh KeZo^[^hX]Z YZh
bZY^iVi^kZc sWjc\h( jcY =g[V]gjc\hlZ\Zh kZg`Vcci dYZg xWZghZ]Zc l^gY) Ndg VaaZb
VWZg ^c YZg HgVm^h [x]gi Y^Z i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z EZciVa^iui ojb NZgajhi YZh sµlrltuellen
lros. - Ac Y^ZhZb ZghiZc LZ^a VgWZ^iZ ^X] YZc \gjcYhuioa^X]Zc MciZghX]^ZY ol^hX]Zc
YZb #YZc kZghX]^ZYZchiZc HhnX]di]ZgVe^Zg^X]ijc\Zc \ZbZ^chVbZc$ thercµeutl-
schen PcrcJlgmc jcY YZb sµlrltuellen PcrcJlgmc #YZg bZY^iVi^kZc sWjc\hlZ\Z$
]ZgVjh) EZ^cZ L]ZhZ' Y^Z ^X] oj WZ\gxcYZc kZghjX]Z' aVjiZi5 BZYZ HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z ^hi
cdi\ZYgjc\Zc ^X](dg^Zci^Zgi' Z\doZcig^Zgi' lu]gZcY Y^Z bZY^iVi^kZc sWjc\hlZ\Z
eg^co^e^Zaa Vj[ AX](LgVchoZcYZco o^ZaZc) <V]Zg aZ^hiZi VjX] Y^Z L]ZgVe^ZhoZcZ ]ZjiZ
YZb hdo^VaZc JxX`oj\ NdghX]jW' ld]^c\Z\Zc ZX]iZ igVcheZghdcVaZ =cil^X`ajc\Zc
^cY^ZOZaikZgVcildgijc\]^cZ^c[x]gi)
<DIL]RRFLVOQSF+ EZY^iVi^kZ sWjc\hlZ\Z' AX](LgVchoZcYZco' ( i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zh
kZghjhhe^g^ijZaaZhHVgVY^\bV(hdo^VaZgJxX`oj\kZghjhOZaikZgVcildgijc\)
<Vh L]ZgVeZji^hX]Z WZ[^cYZi h^X] ^b 9j[l^cY' Zh ]Vi @dX]`dc_jc`ijg' Zh ou]ai oj
YZc ÖD^ZWa^c\hhe^ZaZcÅ YZg ^c ^]gZc bViZg^ZaaZc DZWZch NZg]uaic^hhZc Z^c^\ZgbVzZc
VW\Zh^X]ZgiZc \Z^hi^\ \ZW^aYZiZc jcY hZZa^hX] hZch^W^a^h^ZgiZc \ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Zc
CgZ^hZ YZg cVX]^cYjhig^ZaaZc ?ZhZaahX]V[iZc' [xg lZaX]Z bVc VaaZgaZ^ FVbZch\ZWjcÜ
\Zc kdg\ZcdbbZc ]Vi' l^Z ZilV ÖedhibViZg^Va^hi^hX]Z R^k^a^hVi^dcÅ' ÖAc[dgbVi^dchÜ
\ZhZaahX]V[iÅ' Ö=gaZWc^h\ZhZaahX]V[iÅ' ÖRZ^iVaiZg YZh FVgo^zbjhÅ) OZ^a L]ZgVe^Z'
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z' ^c VaaZc ^]gZc Ke^ZaVgiZc jcY 9jhlZ^ijc\Zc h^X] hdaX]Zg :Za^ZWi]Z^i'
c^X]i Wadz 9`oZeiVco' Zg[gZji' lZ^a hd k^ZaZ ^c ^]g YZc ÖJZiiZgÅ jcY Ö@Z^aWg^c\ZgÅ
ZgWa^X`Zc ( hdld]a ^cY^k^YjZaa [xg h^X] hZaWhi Vah VjX] [xg YVh ?VcoZ' Y^Z ?ZhZaahX]V[i
jcY ^]gZ HgdWaZbZ ( jcY lZ^a hX]a^Zza^X] Z^c h^X] gVhX] kZgWgZ^iZcYZh KeZ`igjb i]ZÜ
gVeZji^hX]Zg :Zgj[Z' Lui^\`Z^iZc jcY 9jhW^aYjc\h\uc\Z YZc Y^gZ`i kdc YZg HgdheZg^Ü
iui Y^ZhZh O^gihX]V[iholZ^\h VW]uc\^\Zc LZ^a YZg :Zkwa`Zgjc\ gVhVci VchX]lZaaZc
auzi' h^cY ^bbZg bZ]g EZchX]Zc b^i YZb L]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc' hZ^cZg K^X]ilZ^hZ' hZ^cZc
Hgub^hhZc' hZ^cZg 9j[\VWZchiZaajc\' hZ^cZc R^ZaZc jcY AciZgZhhZc' hZ^cZb KZaWhikZg(
hiucYc^h' a^^Zgi jcY ^YZci^[^o^Zgi) K^cY l^g c^X]i WZgZ^ih VaaZ ( dW cjc Vj[ hZ^iZc YZg
9cW^ZiZg dYZg Vj[ YZg KZ^iZ YZg FVX][gV\Z' Vah ÖHgdYjoZciZcÅ dYZg Vah CdchjbZciZc'
Vah NZg`uj[Zg dYZg Cuj[Zg YZg ÖOVgZ L]ZgVe^ZÅ ( kdc YZg <ncVb^` jcY YZb ;]VÜ
g^hbV Y^ZhZh KZ`idgh jcY hZ^cZg :Zig^ZWhVb`Z^i hd Z^c\ZcdbbZc' YVz jch Z^c jckdgÜ
85
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
Z^c\ZcdbbZcZg :a^X` Vj[ Y^Z KoZcZg^Z' Vj[ YVh' lVh kdg h^X] \Z]i' ^col^hX]Zc
hX]lZg[uaai8
MciZg Y^ZhZb ÖZg`Zccic^hi]ZdgZi^hX]ZcÅ NdgWZ]Vai bV\ bVc VjX] bZ^cZ Z^\ZcZc
9jh[x]gjc\Zc aZhZc jcY WZYZc`Zc) AX] aZj\cZ `Z^cZhlZ\h Y^Z ^cY^k^YjZaa hZch^W^a^Ü
h^ZgZcYZc O^g`jc\Zc YZh L]ZgVe^Z( jcY ÖHhnX]dÅ(KZ`idgh Vj[ Z^cZ VchdchiZc YjgX]
lZc^\ gxX`h^X]ihkdaaZ Cdc`jggZco( jcY DZ^hijc\hcdgbZc WZ]ZgghX]iZ ?ZhVbi\ZÜ
hZaahX]V[i) McY hX]dc \Vg c^X]i hiZaaZ ^X] Y^Z i]ZdgZi^hX]Zc NZgY^ZchiZ YZg igVcheZghdÜ
cVaZc HhnX]dad\^Z l^Z \ZcZgZaa YZg bdYZgcZc HhnX]dad\^Z ^c 9WgZYZ) <^Z 7hercµeu-
tlslerung' YZg bZ^cZ Cg^i^` \^ai' he^Zai h^X] ( c^X]i cjg' VWZg YdX] ]VjeihuX]a^X] ( Vj[
YZg c^X]i(i]ZdgZi^hX]Zc' YZg egV`i^hX]Zc =WZcZ VW6 hler lZgYZc bZ^cZh =gVX]iZch
YjgX] h^Z =^ch^X]iZc kZghiZaai jcY Aaajh^dcZc \Zcu]gi' ]^Zg ZglZ^hi h^Z h^X] Vah ]^cYZgÜ
a^X] [xg VcYZgZ Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc jcY 9aiZgcVi^kZc YZh DZWZch jcY @VcYZach' jcY ]^Zg
\Zgui h^X VjX] ^c Cdc[a^`i b^i Z^cZg bw\a^X]Zc he^g^ijZaaZc =cil^X`ajc\heZgheZ`i^kZ'
^hiVahdYZbVWigu\a^X]'lVh^X]YZcÖhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdhÅcZccZ)
=IFQBPFTSJRJFQTNH
E^i YZb LZgb^cjh 7hercµeutlslerung WZoZ^X]cZ ^X] Y^Z jc\ZWx]ga^X]Z' xWZgodÜ
\ZcZ 9jhYZ]cjc\ jcY 9clZcYjc\ Z^cZh WZhi^bbiZc HVgVY^\bVh' cuba^X] YZh #ehnÜ
X]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bVh #hd l^Z bVc hV\i' _ZbVcY ÖehnX]dad\^h^ZgZÅ' lZcc
Zg cjg cdX] ehnX]dad\^hX]Z ?Zh^X]ihejc`iZ ^c VaaZb oj Zg`ZccZc kZgbV\' dYZg l^Z
kdc Ör`dcdb^hbjhÅ dYZg ÖKdo^dad\^hbjhÅ \ZhegdX]Zc lZgYZc `Vcc' ld Y^ZhZ LX^a(
VheZ`iZ YZg O^g`a^X]`Z^i Vj[ CdhiZc YZg VcYZgZc 9heZ`iZ jcY YZgZc ?Zaijc\hWZgZ^X]
kZgVWhdaji^Zgi lZgYZc$5 Ou]gZcY Y^ZhZ L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ Vc bZ]gZgZc KX]VjeauioZc
YZh hdo^d(`jaijgZaaZc DZWZch' kdgcZ]ba^X] hZ^cZg egdWaZbiguX]i^\Zc jcY `dc[a^`iÜ
]V[iZc RdcZc' oj kZg[da\Zc ^hi' ^ciZgZhh^Zgi b^X] ^b RjhVbbZc]Vc\ YZg >gV\ZhiZaÜ
ajc\ ÖL]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ jcY NZgajhi YZh he^g^ijZaaZc =gdhÅ ]^Zg cjg Y^Z i]ZgVeZji^Ü
hX]Z NZgZ^ccV]bjc\ YZh he^g^ijZaaZc AciZgZhhZh Wol) gZa^\^whZc 9ca^Z\Zch YZg EZcÜ
hX]Zc) Ac Y^ZhZg @^ch^X]i h^cY k^ZaZ' lZcc c^X]i \Vg Y^Z bZ^hiZc YZg H]ucdbZcZ' Y^Z
jch ine^hX]ZglZ^hZ Vj[ YZb he^g^ijZaa Wol) ZhdiZg^hX] ^begu\c^ZgiZc L]ZgVe^Z( jcY
HhnX]dbVg`i WZ\Z\cZc' Vah 9jhYgjX` _ZcZh HgdoZhhZh YZg L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ oj
lZgiZc' _V k^Za[VX] ^hi \ZgVYZ Y^Z NZgfj^X`jc\ YZh Z^cZc b^i YZb VcYZgZc' YZh L]ZÜ
gVeZji^hX]Zcb^iYZbKe^g^ijZaaZc'YVh@ZgkdghiZ]ZcYZjcY;]VgV`iZg^hi^hX]Z)
CVjb Z^cZ Odg`h]deVcoZ^\Z dYZg Z^c \gjeeZci]ZgVeZji^hX]Zh 9c\ZWdi' Y^Z ^c
^]gZb OZgWZiZmi c^X]i VjX] b^i YZb NZghegZX]Zc he^g^ijZaaZg =g[V]gjc\ jcY =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\ adX`Zc jcY ZcihegZX]ZcY YZc @^clZ^h Vj[ Y^Z =^cWZo^Z]jc\ kdc LZX]c^`Zc
jcY EZi]dYZc Vjh he^g^ijZaaZc jcY ZhdiZg^hX]Zc sWZga^Z[Zgjc\Zc Zci]VaiZc) McY
jb\Z`Z]gi kZghujbZc Zh Y^Z G[[ZgiZc kdc @VjhZ Vjh ZhdiZg^hX](gZa^\^whZg 9`i^k^iuÜ
iZc jcY Y^Z =^caVYjc\Zc oj he^g^ijZaaZc HgV`i^`Zc ^bbZg hZaiZcZg' Z^cZ NZgWZj\jc\
kdg YZb L]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc oj VWhdak^ZgZc' Y) ]) ^]gZ \xchi^\Zc 9jhl^g`jc\Zc Vj[
jchZg hZZa^hX]Zh Od]aWZ[^cYZc l^Z jchZg ?ZhjcYhZ^c jcY ?ZhjcYlZgYZc ^b Vaa\ZÜ
bZ^cZc ]ZgVjhojhigZ^X]Zc' hd[Zgc h^Z c^X]i \aZ^X] ^b cZjZc ?ZlVcY Z^cZg ZhdiZg^Ü
hX]Zc Wol) he^g^ijZaaZc L]ZgVe^Z' Z^cZg ÖigVcheZghdcVaZc HhnX]di]ZgVe^ZÅ' YV]ZgÜ
`dbbZc) Ö9aa i]ZgVen ^h bZY^iVi^dcÅ' e[aZ\iZ Z^cZg bZ^cZg LgV^cZg ^c W^dZcZg\ZÜ
i^hX]Zg CwgeZgVgWZ^i oj hV\Zc6 jcY Y^Z Mb`Z]gjc\ Y^ZhZh KVioZh #ÖBZYZ EZY^iVi^dc (
Vah AcWZ\g^[[ he^g^ijZaaZg HgVm^h(^hi L]ZgVe^ZÅ$ ^hi c^X]i b^cYZg ]uj[^\ ^b Z^chX]au\^Ü
\Zc CdciZmi VcojigZ[[Zc' ldWZ^ Y^Z 9jhhV\Z' YVz YVh Ke^g^ijZaaZ ( Vah \Z^hia^X]Z
sWjc\' Vah =mZgo^i^jb' egV`i^o^Zgi ( i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z O^g`jc\Zc oZ^i^\i' hd\Vg bZ]g
86
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh
?xai^\`Z^i [xg h^X] WZVchegjX]Zc `Vcc) ( =h ]ZgghX]i Vahd Z^c ?gjcYiZcdg' YZbojÜ
[da\Z YVh L]ZgVeZji^hX]Z jcY YVh Ke^g^ijZaaZ ^g\ZcYl^Z `dckZg\^ZgZc' aZioia^X] Vj[
YVh\aZ^X]Z]^cVjhaVj[Zc)
/OMJNBNYEFRSIFQBPFTSJRDIFN:BQBEJHMBR
<^Z `jgoZg]VcY jciZghiZaaiZ jcb^iiZaWVgZ dYZg VjX] cjg eZgheZ`i^k^hX]Z CdckZgÜ
\Zco YZh L]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc jcY Ke^g^ijZaaZc ]Vi _ZcZh Y^[[jhZ AcZ^cVcYZg jcY <jgX]Ü
Z^cVcYZg WZ^YZg K^X]ilZ^hZc jcY HgVm^h[dgbZc ojg >da\Z' _V ^hi ojbZ^hi hZaWZg WZgZ^ih
Z^c 9jhYgjX` YVkdc' l^Z Zh jch ^c YZc KZaWhiYVghiZaajc\Zc jcY OZgWZegdheZ`iZc YZh
KZ`idgh L]ZgVe^Z ( KZaWhiZg[V]gjc\ ( Ke^g^ijVa^iui ( =hdiZg^` Zci\Z\Zcig^ii' ( hdld]a
Z^cZ Cdc[jh^dc Vj[ YZg =WZcZ jchZgZg NdghiZaajc\Zc' Z^cZ NZgl^ggjc\ ^c YZc Cwe[Zc'
Vah VjX] Z^cZ NZgb^hX]jc\ jcY NZgbZc\jc\ Vj[ YZg =WZcZ YZh egV`i^hX]Zc Ljch' Z^c
Cdc\adbZgVi Y^heVgViZg 9chuioZ' EZi]dYZc jcY LZX]c^`Zc) 9aaZgY^c\h ( jcY Zghi
Y^ZhZg MbhiVcY kZgaZ^]i YZg 9c\ZaZ\Zc]Z^i YVh Vj[[uaa^\ LZcYZco^whZ' lZh]VaW Zh
YZcc VjX] \ZgZX]i[Zgi^\i ^hi' kdc L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ oj hegZX]Zc kdaao^Z]i h^X] YVh
\VcoZ Z^chZ^i^\ oj\jchiZc ine^hX] i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zg 9`oZciZ Wol) KiVcYVgYh jcY oj
DVhiZc YZg heZo^[^hX] he^g^ijZaaZc 9heZ`iZ jcY OZhZchbZg`bVaZ6 YVh L]ZgVeZji^Ü
hX]Z WZ]uai Y^Z GWZg]VcY' ZghX]Z^ci ^c[aVi^dc^Zgi' YVh \Zcj^c he^g^ijZaaZ ]^c\Z\Zc
\ZhX]gjbe[i jcY iZ^alZ^hZ YZcVijg^Zgi) <^Z <db^cVco a^Z\i b^i]^c jcolZ^YZji^\
WZ^b #ehnX]d$i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bV' lZaX]Zh bZ^cZh =gVX]iZch \ZgVYZ c^X]i
^YZci^hX] ^hi b^i YZg Z^\Zcia^X]Zc he^g^ijZaaZc N^h^dc YZh EZchX]Zc jcY hZ^cZg =ciÜ
l^X`ajc\) N^ZabZ]g ]VcYZai Zh h^X] ^b >VaaZ kdc L]ZgVe^Z jcY =mZgo^i^jb' HhnX]dÜ
i]ZgVe^Z jcY he^g^ijZaaZg sWjc\hegVm^h' jb olZ^ YjgX]Vjh jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z 9chuioZ
jcY R^Zakdg\VWZc) <^Zh oj xWZghZ]Zc dYZg Zmea^o^i YVh ?Z\ZciZ^a oj edhija^ZgZc' ^hi
bZ^cZg9ch^X]icVX]Z^c[da\ZchX]lZgZhE^zkZghiucYc^h)
<Zc ]VgiZc CZgc YZh #ehnX]d$i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bVh W^aYZi Y^Z Kdg\Z jb
Od]a jcY OZ]Z jchZgZh lch, YVh HVgVY^\bV WVh^Zgi \ZgVYZoj Vj[ YZg MciZghiZaajc\
YZg =m^hiZco Z^cZh ehnX]^hX]Zc ÖGg\VchÅ b^i YZb FVbZc AX] dYZg KZaWhi) OVh Zh b^i
Y^ZhZg ÖAchiVcoÅ Vj[ h^X] ]Vi' ]Vi BdVX]^b ?Vajh`V ^c hZ^cZb^b kdgaZioiZc @Z[i Y^ZhZg
RZ^ihX]g^[i VW\ZYgjX`iZc NdgigV\ #?Vajh`V' ,440$ cdX] Z^cbVa WZgZYi VjhZ^cVcYZg\ZÜ
hZioi' hd YVz ^X] Vc Y^ZhZg KiZaaZ Vj[ hZ^cZ <VgaZ\jc\Zc ojgxX`\gZ^[Zc `Vcc) O^g hiZaÜ
aZc jch YZbcVX] YVh AX] dYZg KZaWhi kdg Vah YVh lV]gcZ]bZcYZ jcY gZV\^ZgZcYZ'
`ddgY^c^ZgZcYZ jcY dg\Vc^h^ZgZcYZ RZcigjb YZh ^cY^k^YjZaaZc Gg\Vc^hbjh' YZg Vah
ZglVX]hZcZg EZchX] oj Z^cZg hZaWhiWZljziZc HZghdc ]ZgVc\ZgZ^[i ^hi) Ndc Y^ZhZb
fjVh^ dg\Vc]V[iZc ÖE^iiZaejc`iÅ Vjh Zg[da\i YjgX] AYZci^[^o^Zgjc\ b^i =gaZWiZb jcY
=ga^iiZcZb' b^i =be[^cYjc\Zc' ?Z[x]aZc jcY ?ZYVc`Zc' Y^Z jch hd hZaWhikZghiucYa^Ü
X]Z KZaWhilV]gcZ]bjc\ YZh ÖYVh W^c ^X]Å jcY ÖYVh ^hi bZ^cÅ) <Vh \aZ^X]Z \^ai [xg Y^Z
RjhX]gZ^Wjc\ kdc Djhi jcY Mcajhi' >gZjYZ jcY KX]bZgo hdl^Z ]^ch^X]ia^X] YZh
MbhiVcYh' YVz YVh Ö\ZhjcYZ AX]Å YVh DZ^YkdaaZ oj kZgbZ^YZc jcY Od]aZg\Z]Zc oj
h^X]Zgc kZghjX]i) <^ZhZ NdghiZaajc\ Z^cZg ^g\ZcYl^Z \ZVgiZiZc AX]^YZci^iui Wol) Z^cZh
ÖKZaWhi`dcoZeihÅ ^hi ( ^bea^o^i dYZg Zmea^o^i ( Y^Z 9gWZ^ih\gjcYaV\Z hubia^X]Zg KigwÜ
bjc\Zc YZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z jcY YZg kZghX]^ZYZchiZc AciZgkZci^dchbdYZaaZ5 WZ^
>gZjY' \Zl^hhZgbVzZc YZb =ciYZX`Zg YZh AX]' WZ\Z\cZc l^g ^]g d]cZ]^c Vah YZb
<gZ]( jcY 9c\Zaejc`i hZ^cZh Kigj`ijghX]ZbVh #YVh ÖVgbZ AX]Å l^gY WZYguc\i jcY
\Z[u]gYZi kdc hZ^iZc YZg WZ^YZc VcYZgZc hZZa^hX]Zc AchiVcoZc' YZb =h jcY YZb sWZg(
AX]$' VWZg hZaWhi WZ^ YZc :Z]Vk^dg^hiZc ^hi YVh AX] dYZg KZaWhi Vah YZg VchdchiZc YjcÜ
`Za WaZ^WZcYZ ^ccZgZ Ggi #Y^Z DZZghiZaaZ dYZg ÖWaVX` WdmÅ$ VjhojbVX]Zc' ld Y^Z
87
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
JZV`i^dc Vj[ YZc Ki^bjajh' hdojhV\Zc ^b ?Z]Z^bZc' Vjh\Zawhi l^gY' jcY Y^Z CdcY^Ü
i^dc^Zgjc\Zc lu]gZcY ^]gZg DViZco gj]Zc' ( YVh eZghdcVaZ AX] b^i]^c `dchi^ij^Zgi
YjgX] Z^c :xcYZa \ZaZgciZg jcY _ZlZ^ah V`ijVa^h^ZgWVgZg NZg]VaiZchY^hedh^i^dcZc b^i
Zbdi^dcVa \Z[ugWiZc =gaZWc^hfjVa^iuiZc6 Y^Z ?ZhiVaii]ZgVeZjiZc h^cY WZbx]i' YVh AX]
kdc hZ^cZg Cde[aVhi^\`Z^i oj WZ[gZ^Zc jcY ^]b l^ZYZg Z^cZ igV\[u]^\Z #AYZci^a^`V(
i^dch$:Vh^h ^b =gaZWZc YZg K^ccZ oj kZgaZ^]Zc #ÖNZga^Zg YZc NZghiVcY jcY `dbb oj
K^ccZcÅ' hd >g^io HZgah$6 WZ^ YZc FDHaZgc jcY @necdi]ZgVeZjiZc ig^ii YVh WZljziZ AX]
Z^cZc KX]g^ii ojgxX` jcY ZglZ^hi YZg \gwzZgZc AciZaa^\Zco YZg jcWZljziZc HgdoZhhZ
hZ^cZ JZkZgZco' YVh AX] dYZg KZaWhi V`oZei^Zgi YVh McWZljziZ Vah hZ^cZ ÖWZhhZgZ
@ua[iZÅ jcY \ZaVc\i YVYjgX] oj gVi^dcZaaZgZc' Z[[Z`i^kZgZc jcY ^c[da\ZYZhhZc VjX]
[xg jchZg Zbdi^dcVaZh =gaZWZc oj[g^ZYZchiZaaZcYZgZc jcY Zg[gZja^X]ZgZc ÖHgdÜ
\gVbbZcÅ6 ^b hnhiZb^hX]Zc 9chVio ZilV :Zgi @Zaa^c\Zgh hX]au\i h^X] YVh aZ^YZcYZ
AX] kdg VaaZb b^i KX]jaYegdWaZbVi^`Zc jcY hX]jaY]V[iZc NZghig^X`jc\Zc ^ccZg]VaW
hZ^cZg [Vb^a^ugZc jcY hdo^VaZc :Zox\Z ]Zgjb jcY YVg[ ^b 9jh\aZ^X] kdc ?ZWZc jcY
FZ]bZc Vj[ =gaZ^X]iZgjc\ jcY Ö=gawhjc\Å ]d[[Zc) ( <^Z 9j[a^hijc\ a^ZzZ h^X] a"dgi(
hZioZc)
BZYZ gZ\jaugZ HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z' _ZYZh [dgbZaaZ ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Z KnhiZb jcY
NZg[V]gZc' WZgj]i Vj[ Z^cZg bZ]g dYZg lZc^\Zg Vjh\ZVgWZ^iZiZc L]Zdg^Z Z^cZh ^cY^k^Ü
YjZaaZc KZaWhi' Vj[ Z^cZg ÖAX](HhnX]dad\^ZÅ #lZcc l^g Y^ZhZ \Zlw]ca^X] ojg :ZoZ^X]Ü
cjc\ YZg kdc 9ccV >gZjY jcY @Z^co @VgibVcc WZ\gxcYZiZc i^Z[ZcehnX]dad\^hX]Zc
LgVY^i^dcha^c^Z kZglZcYZiZ ÖhnbeidbVi^hX]ZÅ ;]VgV`iZg^h^Zgjc\ ]^Zg Z^cbVa \ZcZÜ
gVa^h^ZgZc ldaaZc$) McY _ZYZ HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z Ö^c 9`i^dcÅ WZbx]i h^X] [da\Zg^X]i^\ jb
Y^Z egV`i^hX]Z dYZg egV\bVi^hX]Z :Zhiui^\jc\ jcY :Z`gu[i^\jc\ ZWZc Y^ZhZh CdcÜ
oZeih) =h ^hi ZilVh b^i jchZgZb KZaWhiW^aY' jchZgZb AX](?Z[x]a' c^X]i ^c GgYcjc\'
YVh kZgjghVX]i jch c^X]i cjg Cde[oZgWgZX]Zc' hdcYZgc hZZa^hX]Zc KX]bZgo' ehnÜ
X]^hX]Zh DZ^YZc jcY Mcld]ahZ^c' jcY YZh]VaW kZghjX]Zc l^g Zh b^i Z^cZg L]ZgVe^Z'
YV]Zg cZ]bZc l^g Vc i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc jcY KZaWhiZg[V]gjc\h\gjeeZc iZ^a) <^Z =^coZaÜ
cZc bw\Zc YVWZ^ cdX] hd k^ZaZ jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z :Z\gxcYjc\Zc jcY MbhX]gZ^Wjc\Zc
^]gZg Edi^kVi^dc Vc[x]gZc) OZcc l^g Z]ga^X] h^cY jcY \ZcVj ]^chX]VjZc' l^hhZc dYZg
Zg`ZccZc l^g' YVz VaaZ ^c ZghiZg D^c^Z Z^cZh ZglVgiZc jcY h^X] Zg]d[[Zc5 Y^Z Ö@Z^ajc\Å
^]gZh kZgaZioiZc KZaWhi#lZgi$\Zaj]ah' Y^Z ?ZcZhjc\ ^]gZh Vj[ Y^ZhZ dYZg _ZcZ OZ^hZ
Vc\ZhX]aV\ZcZc dYZg \Z`guc`iZc AX]) <Vgjb \Z]i Zh Vahd kdg VaaZc <^c\Zc ^b \Z\ZcÜ
lugi^\Zc( xWZg Y^Z :Z]VcYajc\ hX]lZgZgjcY hX]lZghiZg ehnX]^hX]Zg Kiwgjc\Zc jcY
<Z[Z`iZ ]^cVjh ZglZ^iZgiZc jcY ZmeVcY^ZgZcYZc (L]ZgVe^Z( jcY KZaWhiZg[V]gjc\hWZÜ
ig^ZW5 jchZgZ Vaaiu\a^X]Zc cVgo^zi^hX]Zc OjcYZc oj kZghdg\Zc jcY jch b^i Z^cZb
\ZhjcYZc' Y) ]) ehnX]^hX] hiVW^a^h^ZgZcYZc jcY idc^h^ZgZcYZc' VWZg hdo^Va cdX] kZgÜ
igu\a^X]Zc FVgo^zbjh VjhojhiViiZc) Mb Y^ZhZc ÖoZ^i\ZbuzZcÅ hdo^Va(`jaijgZaaZc
9j[igV\ YZg ^]gZ ]Zg`wbba^X]Zc ?gZcoZc hegZc\ZcYZc \ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Zc Achi^iji^dc
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z lZ^z hX]a^Zza^X] VjX] YZg igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\Z jcY HhnX]di]ZÜ
gVeZji' YZg olVg Z^cZghZ^ih Y^Z ^c Y^ZhZb RjhVbbZc]Vc\ \ZgVYZoj egdkd`Vi^k VcbjÜ
iZcYZ :Z]Vjeijc\ YZg he^g^ijZaaZc OZ^h]Z^ihaZ]gZc' YVh AX] hZ^ Z^cZ Aaajh^dc jcY Zm^Ü
hi^ZgZ ^c O^g`a^X]`Z^i xWZg]Vjei c^X]i' Vah Y^Z i^Z[ZgZ jcY aZioi]^c \xai^\Z OV]g]Z^i
VcZg`Zcci jcY WZhiui^\i' VcYZgZghZ^ih VWZg Z^cgujbi' YVz ÖYVh CdcoZei kdc jch hZaWhi
#YVz l^g YVh jcl^aa`xga^X]Z ?Z[x]a ]VWZc' Y^ZhZh AX] oj hZ^c' @) O) O)$))) ^b \gdzZc
jcY \VcoZc WgVjX]WVg #^hi$Å' jcY aVe^YVg ]^coj[x\i' ÖlZcc c^X]i' \Z]Zc l^g ojb
HhnX]di]ZgVeZjiZcÅ #?Vajh`V' ,440' K) .4$) E^i Y^ZhZg aZ^X]i ^gdc^hX]Zc >ZhihiZaajc\
]Vi BdVX]^b ?Vajh`V Y^Z 9j[\VWZchiZaajc\ jcY R^ZahZiojc\ YZh L]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc (
jcY' l^Z ^X] bZ^cZ' VjX] hZ^cZ eg^co^e^ZaaZ ?gZcoZ jcY :ZhX]guc`i]Z^i ( hX]axhh^\
Mbg^hhZc)
88
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc:gdh
<db^cVco YZh #ehnX]d$i]XgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bVh WZYZjiZi cjc [gZ^a^X] VjX]'
YVz Zh Y^Z ?Z^hiZg WZ]ZgghX]i' jcY bZ]g cdX]' YVz Zh h^X] ^b egV`i^hX]Zc Ljc YjgX]Ü
hZioi' YVz Zh Vahd oj Z^cZg EZciVa^iui jcY Z^cZb @VW^ijh \ZldgYZc ^hi' YZcZc l^g jch (
dW egd[Zhh^dcZaaZ L]ZgVeZjiZc dYZg ^ciZgZhh^ZgiZ Ö:Zigd[[ZcZÅ ( c^X]i d]cZ lZ^iZgZh
oj ZciaZY^\Zc ^bhiVcYZ h^cY) O^Z `jaijgZaa ^ciZgcVa^h^ZgiZ NZghiucYc^hbjhiZg jcY
HgVm^h[dgbZc ^b Vaa\ZbZ^cZc WZh^ioZc h^Z Z^c ZghiVjca^X]Zh :Z]Vggjc\hkZgbw\Zc'
Z^cZ c^X]i oj jciZghX]uioZcYZ JZh^hiZco \Z\Zc \gjcYhuioa^X]Z NZgucYZgjc\Zc' l^aa
hV\Zc' l^g `wccZc h^Z jch c^X]i Z^c[VX] Vjh YZb Cde[ hX]aV\Zc) >da\a^X] bV\ Z^cZ
he^g^ijZaaZ' heg^X] igVcheZghdcVaZ =glZ^iZgjc\ YZh i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bVh olVg
^c YZg L]Zdg^Z YZc`WVg jcY YjgX][x]gWVg hZ^c #bVc YVg[ WZ^he^ZahlZ^hZ CZc O^aWZgh
EdYZaa YZh :ZljzihZ^chheZ`igjbh Vah NZghjX] ^c Y^ZhZg J^X]ijc\ kZghiZ]Zc$' ^c YZg
HgVm^h VaaZgY^c\h bjz h^Z Zghi Z^cbVa [da\Zcadh WaZ^WZc' ^hi Vjh ZWZc_ZcZb ?gjcY ojg
Cde[\ZWjgi kZgjgiZ^ai) <^Z \Zl^z b^i YZc WZhiZc 9Wh^X]iZc jciZgcdbbZcZ =^cWZo^ZÜ
]jc\ igVcheZghdcVaZg =^ch^X]iZc hdl^Z he^g^ijZaaZg HgV`i^`Zc dYZg LZX]c^`Zc ^ch
i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z E^a^Zj #jcY Zh WgVjX]i c^X]i Z^cbVa YVh hd Z^cYZji^\ ehnX]di]ZgVeZjÜ
i^hX] YZ[^c^ZgiZ jcY higj`ijg^ZgiZ 9bW^ZciZ Z^cZg ehnX]dhdbVi^hX]Zc Cjg`a^c^` l^Z
Y^Z kdc BdVX]^b ?Vajh`V ^c :VY C^hh^c\Zc \ZaZ^iZiZ oj hZ^c$ ]Vi olVc\hauj[^\ Z^cZ
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ YZh Ke^g^ijZaaZc ojg >da\Z) <V[xg hdg\Zc hdld]a YVh Z^chX]au\^\Z
NdgkZghiucYc^h jcY Y^Z =glVgijc\Zc YZg EZchX]Zc l^Z VjX] Y^Z `Z^cZhlZ\h cZjigVÜ
aZc Achi^iji^dcZaaZc JV]bZcWZY^c\jc\Zc dYZg YVh ÖKZii^c\Å' l^Z Zh ^b >VX]_Vg\dc
]Z^zi) ( <Vh Ke^g^ijZaaZ ^cYZhhZc' hd bwX]iZ ^X] bZ^cZ L]ZhZ [dgbja^ZgZc' kZgaVc\i
cVX] hZ^cZb Z^\ZcZc E^a^Zj' jb oj \ZYZ^]Zc #hdWVaY Zh YVcc Z^cbVa OjgoZac ^c jch
\ZhX]aV\Zc ]Vi' cZ]bZc l^g Zh xWZgVaa]^c b^i' jcY Zh Wax]i Vc _ZYZb Ggi' l^Z Zh YVh
aZioiZ YZg WZgx]biZc ÖoZ]c GX]hZc(:^aYZgÅ Vjh YZg RZc(sWZga^Z[Zgjc\ hd eaVhi^hX]
oZ^\i$) <Vh ZglZ^iZgiZ i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z Mb[ZaY' l^Z l^g Zh ]ZjiZ Vah LZ^a YZh >gZ^oZ^iÜ
hZ`idgh jcY YZg Ö=gaZWc^h\ZhZaahX]V[iÅ `ZccZc' ^hi YZb Ke^g^ijZaaZc' YZg =ciYZX`jc\
jchZgZh lV]gZc OZhZch' YZg NZgl^g`a^X]jc\ jchZgZg Zkdaji^dcugZc =cil^X`Ü
ajc\heZgheZ`i^kZ' h^X]Zga^X] c^X]i [Z^cYa^X] dYZg ^c WZhdcYZgZb EVz VWigu\a^X] ( Y^Z
KZ]chjX]i jcY Y^Z KjX]Z cVX] YZb Ö?Vco 9cYZgZcÅ dYZg YZb Ö=^\Zcia^X]ZcÅ'
ldgjb Zh ^b DZWZc \Z]i' ujzZgc jcY bVc^[Zhi^ZgZc h^X] c^X]i ojaZioi _V \ZgVYZ ^c
Y^ZhZg \Z^hi^\ [gZ^ZgZc jcY ZmeZg^bZciZaaZc Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc Vj[\ZhX]adhhZcZgZc
\ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Zc Ke]ugZ jcY YdX] ^hi Xh ^]b VjX] l^ZYZg hd lZ^i [gZbY jcY YZb
ÖlZaia^X]ZcÅ :ZljzihZ^c jcY bViZg^Va^hi^hX]Zc DZWZchZciljg[ kZge[a^X]iZi' YVz ^X]
[xgX]iZ' YVh Ke^g^ijZaaZ kZga^Zgi hZ^cZ =hhZco' Zh Wxzi hZ^cZ Z^\Zcixba^X]Z NZglVcYÜ
ajc\h`gV[i Z^c) 9cYZgh Vjh\XYgxX`i jcY Vj[ Y^Z `xgoZhiZ >dgbZa \ZWgVX]i5 AX] hZ]Z
Y^Z ?Z[V]g' YVz Y^Z L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ ( ^chWZhdcYZgZ Ydgi' ld h^X Y^Z L]ZgVeZji^Ü
h^Zgjc\ YZh Ke^g^ijZaaZc WZ^c]VaiZi ( Z^c]Zg\Z]i b^i YZb NZgajhi Wol) YZb NZg[Z]aZc
YZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh)
<PJQJSTFLLFQ0QOR
Ke^g^ijZaaZg =gdh ( lVh bZ^cZ ^X] YVb^i8 Mb Zh ojcuX]hi ZilVh VchX]Vja^X]Zg oj
bVX]Zc5 Ke^g^ijZaaZg =gdh WZ\Z\cZi jch ^b DuX]Zac :jYY]Vh' l^Z Xh jch Vjh oV]aadÜ
hZc :^aYc^hhZc kdc EZY^iVi^dchWjYY]Vh Zci\Z\ZchigV]ai6 he^g^ijZaaZg =gdh heg^X]i Vjh
YZg Hdgigui\ZhiVai jcY ^]gZg ZcZg\^hX]Zc ?ZhiZ' Y^Z jch Vah Bd]VccZh YZg Luj[Zg Vj[
YZb WZgx]biZc ?ZbuaYZ DZdcVgYdh \Z\ZcxWZgig^ii6 he^g^ijZaaZg =gdh ^hi Y^Z Z^\Zcia^Ü
X]Z O^g`jc\hfjVa^iui ^c YZg 9jhhigV]ajc\h`gV[i ^cY^hX]Zg OZ^hZg #xWZg YZgZc kZgÜ
lVcYZacYZc jcY ]Z^ahVbZc =^c[ajz Vj[ EZchX]Zc ^c ^]gZg jcb^iiZaWVgZc Mb\ZWjc\
89
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
^bbZg l^ZYZg WZg^X]iZi l^gY$6 hX]a^Zza^X] hX]Z^ci b^g he^g^ijZaaZg :gdh Vb OZg` ^c YZg
gZa^\^wh ^che^g^ZgiZc iui^\Zc OZaikZgVcildgijc\ ZilV Z^cZh >gVco kdc 9hh^h^' Z^cZh
?]VcY^' Z^cZh 9aWZgi KX]lZ^ioZg dYZg VjX] ( jb c^X]i cjg Y^ZhZ X]Vg^hbVi^hX]Zc
DZ^i[^\jgZc Vcoj[x]gZc ( k^ZaZg >gVjZc jcY EuccZg YZg hxYVbZg^`Vc^hX]Zc :Z[gZ^Ü
jc\hi]Zdad\^Z) ?ZbZ^chVb ^hi Vaa Y^ZhZc :Z^he^ZaZc' Y^Z [xg b^X] YZc he^g^ijZaaZc
=gdh kZg`wgeZgc' YVz Zh ^]cZc Vah EZchX]Zc \Zajc\Zc ^hi' egV`i^hX] jcY `dc`gZi Vjh
YZb :Vcc`gZ^h YZh ÖAX]Å jcY YZh ÖbZ^cÅ ]ZgVjhojigZiZc) NZgVcaVzi' ^che^g^Zgi' ZgbjÜ
i^\i oj Y^ZhZb KX]g^ii' WZ[u]^\i oj Y^ZhZg DZ^hijc\ (' YZcc jb Z^cZ hdaX]Z ]VcYZai Xh
h^X]' \Z^hi^\ jcY egV`i^hX]' WZljzihZ^chZkdaji^dcug jcY `jaijgVci]gdedad\^hX] (
ljgYZc h^Z YjgX] Y^Z lrfchrung Jer 7rcnszenJenz, Y^Z he^g^ijZaaZ =g[V]gjc\ eVg
ZmXZaaZcXZ' YjgX] lZaX]Z jch Zm^hiZci^Zaa cVX]kdaao^Z]WVg l^gY' YVz Zh _ZchZ^ih YZh
=\d' _ZchZ^ih YZh AX](@dg^odcih jcY YZg CddgY^cViZc hZ^cZg JZVa^iuihVj[[Vhhjc\
Z^cZc ÖigV\ZcYZc :dYZcÅ' Z^cZ ÖlV]gZ @Z^bViÅ' Z^cZ Ö\gwzZgZ AYZci^iuiÅ' Y^Z c^X]i
VWigZcci' kZgZ^coZai' ^hda^Zgi' \^Wi' `jgo Z^cZc ÖGgiÅ' Vc YZb YVh bZiVe]nh^hX]Z >gVÜ
\Zc jcY KjX]Zc YZh EZchX]Zc Y^Z Z^co^\ WZ[g^ZY^\ZcYZ' _V WZ\axX`ZcYZ 9cildgi [^cÜ
YZi) McY YVz Y^ZhZ =g[V]gjc\ ( kdc 9jhcV]bZc VW\ZhZ]Zc ( c^X]i ojb hdo^VaZc
JxX`oj\' c^X]i ojg OZai[ajX]i [x]gi' hdcYZgc ^b ?Z\ZciZ^a ojg OZaikZgVcildgijc\'
ojb =c\V\ZbZci [xg Y^Z E^ibZchX]Zc jcY jchZgZ E^ilZai #k\a) Bu\Zg' ,440$'
ZghX]Z^ci cjg `dchZfjZci' ^chd[Zgc Y^Z =g[V]gjc\ YZg LgVchoZcYZco lZhZcia^X] ZWZc
Y^Z YZg Rj\Z]wg^\`Z^i' YZh NZgWjcYZchZ^ch b^i VaaZb KZ^ZcYZc VjhbVX]i) ( Kd l^gY
WZgZ^ih Vc Y^ZhZb Hjc`i WZ^b NZg\aZ^X] b^i YZc ?Z\ZWZc]Z^iZc ^b i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc
E^a^Zj Z^cZ \gjcYhuioa^X]Z' ÖeVgVY^\bVi^hX]ZÅ <^[[ZgZco YZjia^X]5 Ou]gZcY Vj[ YZb
Z^\ZchiucY^\Zc =g[V]gjc\h\ZW^Zi YZh Ke^g^ijZaaZc' hd l^Z ^X] Zh ]^Zg kZghiZ]Z' YZg
=^coZacZ ^b RZ^X]Zc YZh he^g^ijZaaZc =gdh YZc Wdgc^ZgiZc JV]bZc hZ^cZg AX](:Zod(
\Zc]Z^i hegZc\i jcY ^c[da\ZYZhhZc h^X] \Vco hZaWhikZghiucYa^X] ^c Y^Z jcVj[awha^X]Z
=^c]Z^i VaaZh DZWZcY^\Zc ]^cZ^c\ZhiZaai h^X]i' lVh l^ZYZgjb WZYZjiZi' VjX] [xg Y^Z
?ZhiVaijc\ YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc RjhVbbZcaZWZch' Y)]) ^c ?ZhZaahX]V[i jcY Hda^i^`'
`dc`gZi NZgVcildgijc\ oj xWZgcZ]bZc' WaZ^Wi YZg ]Zji^\Z L]ZgVe^ZWZig^ZW' Z^cÜ
hX]a^Zza^X] hZ^cZg hZaWhiZg[V]gjc\hWZod\ZcZc OZ^iZgjc\Zc' YZb VchX]Z^cZcY ZcYadÜ
hZc CgZ^hZc jb ÖAX]Å jcY ÖbZ^cÅ kZg]V[iZi) McY ld Vj[ Y^ZhZ OZ^hZ Y^Z :ZaVc\Z YZh
Ö`aZ^cZc AX]Å ^b E^iiZaejc`i hiZ]Zc' ^hi Zh lV]ghX]Z^ca^X]' lZcc c^X]i \Vg [da\Zg^X]Ü
i^\' YVz h^X] Y^Z :ZigZ[[ZcYZc Vjh hdo^VaZc jcY eda^i^hX]Zc RjhVbbZc]uc\Zc jcY
NZgVcildgia^X]`Z^iZc' Y^Z c^X]i \ZgVYZ h^Z hZaWhi jcY ^]gZ cuX]hiZ Mb\ZWjc\ Y^gZ`i
iVc\^ZgZc' ojgxX`o^Z]Zc) <Vh hdo^VaZ EdbZci' YVh b^i YZb LgZcY ojg ?gjeeZci]ZgVÜ
e^Z jcY YZg :axiZ YZg Odg`h ]de(Cjaijg ojb LgV\Zc `dbbi' ucYZgi Vc Y^ZhZg ?gjcYÜ
iZcYZco ojb \ZhZaahX]V[ia^X]Zc JxX`oj\ jcY ojg Hg^kVi^h^Zgjc\ aZ^YZg `Vjb ZilVh6
Y^Z_Zc^\Zc' Y^Z c^X]i ^c YZg =^coZai]ZgVe^Z ÖVWiVjX]XcÅ' g^X]iZc h^X] ^b ?gjeeZcÜ
dYZg ?gxeeX]ZcZ\d^hbjh Z^c' hd YVz Vb =cYZ c^ZbVcY bZ]g xWZg YZc ^cY^k^YjZaaZc
dYZgYZcCaZ^c\gjeeZc(LZaaZggVcY]^cVjhWa^X`i'\ZhX]lZ^\ZYZcch^X]]^cVjhlV\i)
Mb Z^cZb E^zkZghiucYc^h kdgojWZj\Zc5 AX] bwX]iZ `Z^c kdgYZg\gxcY^\ bdgVa^Ü
hX]Zh KX]ZgWZc\Zg^X]i xWZg YZc =h`Ve^hbjh dYZg 9ji^hbjh ^ccZg]VaW YZg HhnX]d(
hoZcZ ]VaiZc) Odgjb Zh b^g \Z]i' ^hi oj kZgYZjia^X]Zc' YVz YVh #ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^Ü
hX]Z HVgVY^\bV #YZhhZc DZ\^i^b^iui ]^Zg hd lZc^\ ^ c >gV\Z hiZ]i l^Z Y^Z :ZgZX]i^\jc\
YZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z Vah Ö\ZhjcY]Z^ia^X]Zh NZghdg\jc\hhnhiZbÅ ^c YZg bdYZgcZc
?ZhZaahX]V[i$ Vj[\gjcY hZ^cZg ^ccZgZc Dd\^` Vj[ ?gZcoZc hiwzi Wol) ?Z[V]gZc jcY
9WlZ\Z ^c h^X] W^g\i) <Vz Vj[ YZg VcYZgZc KZ^iZ Z^cZ Vji]Zci^hX]Z Ke^g^ijVa^iui Y^Z
:Z\gZcoi]Z^iZc YZh i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc CdciZmih xWZgl^cYZi jcY YZhhZc Aggjc\Zc jcY
O^ggjc\Zc kZgbZ^YZi' ^hi ojcuX]hi \ZcVjhdlZc^\ Z^cZ bdgVa^hX]Z >gV\Z' Vah k^ZaÜ
bZ]g Z^cZ 9c\ZaZ\Zc]Z^i YZg ^c]ugZciZc Dd\^` jcY YZh ?gjcYeg^co^eh Y^ZhZg \Z^hi^Ü
90
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh
\Zc l^Z egV`i^hX]Zc Gg^Zci^Zgjc\ #YjgX] Zi]^hX]Z 9eeZaaZ VaaZ^c ^hi cdX] `Z^c he^g^Ü
ijZaaZg=gdh^cY^ZOZai\Z`dbbZc$)
RjcuX]hi VWZg cdX]bVah5 OVh ]Z^zi he^g^ijZaaZg =gdh jcY ldg^c WZhiZ]Zc Y^Z ÖehnÜ
X]^hX]Zc =gaZWc^hfjVa^iuiZc YZg ^]c `dchi^ij^ZgZcYZc LgVchoZcYZcoZg[V]gjc\8 Ke^g^Ü
ijZaaZg =gdh l^gY ^c VaaZc K^ijVi^dcZc jcY EdbZciZc jchZgZh DZWZch Zg[V]gWVg' ^c
lZaX]Zc l^g jch ^c Z^cZc bZY^iVi^kZc RjhiVcY kZghZioi [^cYZc) <^Zh `Vcc jcZglVgiZi
jcY jckZg]d[[i b^iiZc ^b 9aaiV\ \ZhX]Z]Zc jcY d]cZ YVz YZg :ZigZ[[ZcYZ YZc NdgÜ
\Vc\ ehnX]dad\^hX] `dggZ`i Z^cojdgYcZc jcY oj YZjiZc WgVjX]i' hdcYZgc YVh =gZ^\c^h
Z^c[VX] b^i KiVjcZc jcY <Vc`WVg`Z^i gZ\^hig^Zgi jcY Zh [gZjY^\ \Zc^Zzi6 Zh `Vcc VWZg
VjX] Y^Z >gjX]i WZljziZg he^g^ijZaaZg sWjc\hegVm^h hZ^c) <Vh CZccoZ^X]Zc YZh bZY^Ü
iVi^kZc RjhiVcYh' YZg ]^Zg \ZbZ^ci ^hi' ^hi WZ^YZbVa Y^Z \Vco jc\Zlw]ca^X]Z Ö=be[^cÜ
Yjc\Å' Vj[ Z^cbVa [gZ^ oj hZ^c kdc qc\hiZc jcY Kdg\Zc' WZ[gZ^i kdc YZg xWa^X]Zc DVhi
YZh <VhZ^ch #jcY YZb b^i Y^ZhZg DVhi Z^c]Zg\Z]ZcYZc xWa^X]Zc Dugb YZg ?ZYVc`Zc
hdl^Z YZb 9j[ jcY 9W YZg ?Z[x]aZ$' hd YVz VaaZh Ljc jcY DVhhZc h^X] hedciVc jcY
bx]Zadh kdaao^Z]i) Ac hdaX]Zc 9j\ZcWa^X`Zc YZh <VhZ^ch #YZh OVX]( dYZg =glVX]i(
hZ^ch' YZcc l^g ]VWZc iVihuX]a^X] YZc =^cYgjX`' W^h YV]^c ^b KX]aV[ dYZg <ubbZgojÜ
hiVcY \ZaZWi oj ]VWZc$' Y^Z bZ^hiZch aZ^YZg kdc `jgoZg <VjZg h^cY' jb YVcc YZb ÖcdgÜ
bVaZcÅ :ZljzihZ^chojhiVcY l^ZYZg HaVio oj bVX]Zc' ZgaZWZc l^g jch Vc Z^cZc jch
igV\ZcYZc jb[VhhZcYZgZc DZWZchhigdb Vc\ZhX]adhhZc' YZb l^g jch d]cZ O^YZghigZÜ
WZc WZgZ^il^aa^\ jcY b^i >gZjYZ xWZgaVhhZc) ( <^ZhZg `jgoZc e]ucdbZcdad\^hX]Zc
;]VgV`iZg^h^Zgjc\ YZg LgVchoZcYZcoZg[V]gjc\ jcY ^]gZg :Z\Z\cjc\ b^i YZb he^g^Ü
ijZaaZc =gdh WaZ^WZc cdX] olZ^ l^X]i^\Z WZ\g^[[a^X]Z MciZghX]Z^Yjc\Zc Zmea^o^i ]^cÜ
ojoj[x\Zc) =^cbVa Y^Z >ZhihiZaajc\' YVz Zh h^X] ]^Zg jb l^g`a^X]Z' jcb^iiZaWVgZ
=g[V]gjc\ ]VcYZai #jb ÖgZa^\^whZ MgZg[V]gjc\Å' l^Z Zh ?gV[ <xgX`]Z^b cZcci$' lVh
YZc he^g^ijZaaZc =gdh kdb WadzZc Ö?aVjWZch(=gdhÅ' l^Z Zg WZ^he^ZahlZ^hZ ^c Cjai jcY
J^ijh YZg ZmdiZg^hX]Zc JZa^\^dchVjhxWjc\ VcojigZ[[Zc ^hi' jciZghX]Z^YZi) #<Vh ^c YZg
HhnX]d( jcY =hdiZg^`hoZcZ egV`i^o^ZgiZ Öedh^i^kZ <Zc`ZcÅ ZghX]Z^ci b^g oj Z^cZb
?jiiZ^a ZWZc[Vaah Z^cZ NVg^VciZ kdc ?aVjWZch(=gdh YVgojhiZaaZc)$ Rjb VcYZgZc hZ^
lZc^\hiZch YVgVj[]^c\Zl^ZhZc' YVz Y^Z \Zcj^cZ LgVchoZcYZcoZg[V]gjc\ igVcheZghdÜ
cVaZc ;]VgV`iZg WZh^ioi' ^b ?Z\ZchVio ojb egueZghdcVaZc =^c]Z^ihZgaZWZc Vj[ YZg
Kij[Z Z^cZh bV\^hX]Zc dYZg bni]^hX]Zc :ZljzihZ^ch) <Vz Y^ZhZg MciZghX]^ZY bZ]g
Vah cjg Z^cZ i]ZdgZi^hX]Z Ke^io[^cY^\`Z^i WZYZjiZi' oZ^\i h^X] l^ZYZgjb WZ^ Z^cZb
:a^X` Vj[ Y^Z V`ijZaaZ KoZcZg^Z5 <^Z egueZghdcVa(gZ\gZhh^kZ KX]aV\hZ^iZ YZg kdb L]ZÜ
gVe^Z( jcY =hdiZg^`bVg`i WZY^ZciZc =gaZWc^h( jcY KZaWhi[^cYjc\hWZYxg[c^hhZ ^hi
lZhZcia^X] b^ikZgVcildgia^X] [xg YZc hdo^VaZc JxX`oj\ jcY YVh Ö9WiVjX]ZcÅ ^c Y^Z
eg^kViZ AcY^[[ZgZco) <Zb\Z\ZcxWZg [x]gi YZg <jgX]WgjX] ojg ZX]iZc igVcheZghdcVaZc
<^bZch^dc ( gZX]i kZghiVcYZc ( YZc EZchX]Zc b^iiZc ^c Y^Z OZai gZhe) Y^Z ?ZhZaaÜ
hX]V[i ojgxX` #ÖVj[ YZc EVg`ieaVioÅ$ jcY oj Z^cZg j) M) ZcZg\^hX]Zc 9ciZ^acV]bZ Vc
^]gZb?ZhX]^X`)
Ke^g^ijZaaZg =gdh bZ^ci Vahd aZioia^X] c^X]ih VcYZgZh Vah aZWZcY^\Z' h^cca^X] kZg`wgÜ
eZgiZ Ke^g^ijVa^iui jcY YZgZc Vji]Zci^hX]Z 9jhYgjX`h[dgbZc' \ZheZ^hi Vjh YZg IjZaaZ
jcb^iiZaWVgZg Z^\ZcZg LgVchoZcYZcoZg[V]gjc\' ^b ?Z\ZchVio oj Wadz ]VW^ijZaaZc'
g^ijVa^h^ZgiZc AchoZc^Zgjc\Zc YZh Ke^g^ijZaaZc' l^Z l^g ^]cZc ^c YZc ZmdiZg^hX]Zc
JZa^\^dcZc' YZc ^chi^iji^dcVa^h^ZgiZc C^gX]Zc ojbVa' WZ\Z\cZc6 VWZg VjX] ^b MciZgÜ
hX]^ZY oj _ZcZg Ö\ZldaaiZcÅ jcY Ö\ZbVX]iZcÅ jcY ^chd[Zgc ZWZc[Vaah ^choZc^ZgiZc
jcY hjWhiVci^Zaa ZciaZZgiZc Ke^g^ijVa^iui' l^Z h^Z ^c YZg ZhdiZg^hX]Zc KoZcZ ]uj[^\
VcojigZ[[Zc ^hi) Od ]^c\Z\Zc he^g^ijZaaZg =gdh aZWZcY^\ l^gY' lZgYZc Y^Z =g[V]gjc\Zc
jcY @VcYajc\Zc wesentllch jcY ^b 9jhYgjX` ZX]i' YVh Ö?ZldaaiZÅ dYZg Ex]hVbZ
YZg he^g^ijZaaZc HgVm^h #^X] muß bZY^i^ZgZcÅ ( ÖgZ\Zabuz^\Zh sWZc ^hi VchigZc\ZcYÅ$
91
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
kZghX]l^cYZi' YZg he^g^ijZaaZ =gdh l^g`i WZ[ax\ZacY jcY ZcZg\Zi^h^ZgZcY' Zg hX]Zc`i
jch WZ^b sWZc' WZ^b Ö=mZgo^i^jbÅ #l^Z ?gV[ <xgX`]Z^b Y^Z heZo^[^hX] \Z^hia^X]Z
sWjc\ WZoZ^X]cZi$' YZc Zg[dgYZga^X]Zc aVc\Zc 9iZb jcY kZgaZ^]i jchZgZb Ljc ZilVh
Ke^ZaZg^hX]Zh) OZg YZc he^g^ijZaaZc =gdh kZg[Z]ai' lZg `Z^cZc gZX]iZc 9chX]ajz Vc
Y^ZhZ ^ccZgZ IjZaaZ YZg >gZjYZ jcY YZg CgV[i \Zl^cci' YZb \Zgui Zghi gZX]i YZg Öhe^g^Ü
ijZaaZ OZ\Å ojb VjhhX]a^Zza^X] Ydgc^\Zc H[VY dYZg ojg jcZgfj^X`a^X]Zc [gZjYadhZc
H[a^X]ixWjc\' Y^Z Zg lV]ghX]Z^ca^X] VahWVaY [gjhig^Zgi dYZg gZh^\c^Zgi l^ZYZg Vj[\^Wi6
Zg \gZ^[i YVcc k^ZaaZ^X]i jb hd WZ\^Zg^\Zg cVX] YZc Zje]dg^h^ZgZcYZc Kjggd\ViZc YZh
Ke^g^ijZaaZc' l^Z h^Z YZg =hdiZg^`( jcY HhnX]dbVg`i ojg ?Zcx\Z VcW^ZiZi' dYZg `Z]gi
Z^c[VX]ojgxX`ojYZcÖWZlu]giZcÅ9aaiV\hYgd\Zc)
6QJSFQJFNEFR0WFQYJSJTMR#
2QTNELJNJFNFJNFRRPJQJSTFLLFN:BQBEJHMBR
>Vaah Zh [xg YZc ]Zji^\Zc EZchX]Zc YZg hu`jaVgZc ?ZhZaahX]V[i YZh OZhiZch xWZgÜ
]Vjei hd ZilVh \^Wi l^Z Z^cZc ÖCwc^\hlZ\ ojg he^g^ijZaaZc =g[V]gjc\Å ^c ^]gZb
\Z\Zclugi^\ ]^hidg^hX](`jaijgZaa Vc\ZbZhhZcZc igVcheZghdcVaZc KiVY^jb' hd ^hi Zh
bZ^cZg 9ch^X]i cVX] YZg_Zc^\Z YZg bZY^iVi^kZc :ZljzihZ^chhX]jajc\' YZg `dciZbÜ
eaVi^kZc sWjc\hegVm^h' YZh =mZgo^i^jbh) Ab ?Z\ZchVio oj Y^ZhZb OZ\ YZg sWjc\
ZgVX]iZ ^X] YZc VcYZgZc @VjeilZ\' YZc Y^Z gZa^\^whhe^g^ijZaaZc LgVY^i^dcZc YZg
EZchX]]Z^i ( ^chWZhdcYZgZ Y^Z whia^X]Zc sWZga^Z[Zgjc\Zc ( WZgZ^i]VaiZc' cuba^X]
YZc OZ\ YZg @^c\VWZ Vc YZc DZ]gZg' EZ^hiZg' ?jgj [xg jch @Zji^\Z Vjh cV]Za^Z\ZcÜ
YZc #]^Zg VWZg c^X]i Vjhoj[x]gZcYZc$ ?gxcYZc Vah lZc^\ \ZZ^\cZi) ( OZcc [xg jch
Vahd YZg OZ\ YZg sWjc\ YZc VYufjViZc Rj\Vc\ ojg he^g^ijZaaZc' \ZcVjZg ojg igVcheZgÜ
hdcVaZc =g[V]gjc\ jcY ojg :Z\Z\cjc\ b^i YZb he^g^ijZaaZc =gdh YVghiZaai' ZghX]Z^ci
Zh ]^a[gZ^X]' h^X] YZg Cg^iZg^Zc he^g^ijZaaZg sWjc\hegVm^h' YZh =mZgo^i^jbh' oj kZg\ZÜ
l^hhZgc' Y^Z oj\aZ^X] Vj[ Y^Z ?gjcYa^c^Zc Z^cZh he^g^ijZaaZc HVgVY^\bVh kZglZ^hZc
jcYYVb^iY^Z<^[[ZgZcoojbi]ZgVeZji^hX]ZcHVgVY^\bV`Zccia^X]bVX]Zc)
<Zg ZghiZ ]^Zg oj Zglu]cZcYZ ?gjcYhVio Z^cZg _ZYZc \Zcj^c he^g^ijZaaZc sWjc\ ojg
:ZljzihZ^chhX]jajc\ ^hi YZg YZh lch-frelen Ljch) O^g hV\Zc VWh^X]ia^X] ^X]([gZ^ hiVii
^X]adh' YV Y^Z JZYZ kdc YZg AX]( dYZg =\dadh^\`Z^i iZgb^cdad\^hX] ^b Vaa\ZbZ^cZc
YZc WZgZ^ih bZ]g dYZg b^cYZg ZiVWa^ZgiZc Wol) `dchda^Y^ZgiZc ZustcnJ Z^cZh igVcheZgÜ
hdcVaZc' ÖZgaZjX]iZiZcÅ :ZljzihZ^ch WZoZ^X]cZi) AX](>gZ^]Z^i `Vcc YZb\Z\ZcxWZg
Vj[ YZg ?gjcYaV\Z YZh eZghdcVaZc AX] jcY YZh kdc Y^ZhZb ^bbZg cdX] YZ[^c^ZgiZc
WZljzihZ^chbuz^\Zc ?ZhVbi`dciZmih WZljzi Z^c\ZxWi lZgYZc) <Vh \ZhX]^Z]i lu]Ü
gZcY YZh ZmZgo^i^Zcbuz^\Zc sWZch' ^cYZb l^g jch' kdc 9j\ZcWa^X` oj 9j\ZcWa^X`'
WZljzi [gZ^ bVX]Zc' Y^hiVco^ZgZc kdc Z^chZ^i^\(ldaaZcYZc #Y^Zh VWaZ]cZcY' _ZcZh
WZ\Z]gZcY$ jcY lZgiZcY(jgiZ^aZcYZc dYZg hjW_Z`i^k(Vjhlu]aZcYZc #cVX] \ji jcY
WwhZ' gZX]i jcY hX]aZX]i$ ?ZYVc`Zc jcY CdbbZciVgZc YZh AX]) Achd[Zgc Y^ZhZh K^X](
[gZ^(bVX]ZcVah WZljziZg ehnX]^hX]Zg 9`i' Vah =cihX]Z^Yjc\' hZaWZg cdX] ^X](\ZhiZj(
Zgi ^hi' [^cYZi Z^cZ <^[[ZgZco^Zgjc\ ^ccZg]VaW jchZgZh AX]' WZhhZg jchZgZh AX](?Z[x]ah'
hiVii' jcY olVg ol^hX]Zc _ZcZb jghegxc\a^X]Zc [Zhi]VaiZcYZc jcY h^X] ^YZci^[^o^ZgZcÜ
YZc AX] jcY Y^ZhZb cjc ]ZgkdgigZiZcYZc adhaVhhZcYZc jcY h^X] Y^hiVco^ZgZcYZc LZ^a
YZhhZaWZc' lZaX]Zg hX]a^Zza^X] Vah Z^c ^ccZgZg :ZdWVX]iZg' Vah ÖYZg RZj\ZÅ #l^Z Zg ^c
YZg`aVhh^hX]Zc`dciZbeaVi^kZcLZgb^cdad\^ZWZoZ^X]cZil^gY$Zg`ZccWVgl^gY)
Ö<Zg ]wX]hiZ OZ\ ^hi c^X]i hX]lZg' cjg d]cZ OV]aÅ' aVjiZi Z^c RZc(<^`ijb) <Zg_ZÜ
c^\Z ^c jch' YZg c^X]i lu]ai' c^X]i Vc]V[iZi dYZg VWaZ]ci' ^hi ÖYZg RZj\ZÅ) BZYZ Vji]ZcÜ
i^hX]Z he^g^ijZaaZ sWjc\' _ZYZh =mZgo^i^jb' YVg[ Vah =^cxWjc\ ^c Y^ZhZh RZj\Zc(
92
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh
:ZljzihZ^c WZigVX]iZi lZgYZc) ( 9j[h Zc\hiZ kZg`cxe[i b^i Y^ZhZb ZghiZc Cg^iZg^jb
he^g^ijZaaZc dYZg bZY^iVi^kZc sWZch ^hi Z^c olZ^iZh' cuba^X] YVh YZg Zlel-lrelhelt.
MchZg ^X]WZod\ZcZh <Zc`Zc ]Vi Y^Z LZcYZco' h^X] ZcilZYZg ^c YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i
dYZg YZg Rj`jc[i Vj[oj]VaiZc' Vj[[VaaZcY hZaiZc ^hi Zh ^b Mcb^iiZaWVgZc jcY EdbZcÜ
iVcZc YZg ?Z\ZclVgi VcojigZ[[Zc) Ou]gZcY jchZgZh Ljch ( jcY Y^Z bZ^hiZc jchZgZg
Lui^\`Z^iZc ]VWZc Z^c R^Za' Vj[ lZaX]Zh ]^c h^Z Vc\ZaZ\i h^cY jcY kdc YZb ]Zg h^Z
h^cckdaa jcY kZghiucYa^X] ZghX]Z^cZc ( ZgiVeeZc l^g jch ]uj[^\ YVWZ^' l^Z l^g
\ZYVc`a^X] b^i YZb R^Za dYZg =g\ZWc^h WZhX]u[i^\i h^cY' dWld]a Y^ZhZh cdX] \Vg c^X]i
^c Y^Z =m^hiZco \ZigZiZc' oj Z^cZg V`ijZaa \Z\ZWZcZc O^g`a^X]`Z^i \ZldgYZc ^hi) O^g
aZWZc YZbcVX] bZ]g ^b OZgYZc jcY NZg\Z]Zc #YZb' ldkdc l^g lZ\higZWZc$ Vah ^b
KZ^c' Z^c MbhiVcY' YZg jch Z^cZ EZc\Z DZ^YZc jcY Mcld]ahZ^c' Mcgj]Z jcY McojÜ
[g^ZYZc]Z^i WZhX]Zgi) #sWg^\Zch hVbi jcY hdcYZgh VjidbVi^hX]Z 9Wauj[Z' lZaX]Zc YVh
L]ZgVeZji^hX]Z c^X]i cjg ZWZc[Vaah jciZga^Z\i' hdcYZgc Vj[ Y^Z Zh \ZgVYZoj egd\gVbÜ
bVi^hX] [Zhi\ZaZ\i ^hi' aVjiZi YdX] hZ^c 9j[igV\' aZWZch\ZhX]^X]ia^X] WZY^c\iZh' Vahd
Vjh YZg NZg\Vc\Zc]Z^i hiVbbZcYZh DZ^YZc oj WZluai^\Zc SÖYjgX]ojVgWZ^iZcÅ ^c YZg
>gZjYhX]Zc LgVY^a^dcha^c^ZT jcY*dYZg [xg Y^Z Rj`jc[i ÖZ^c cZjZh Ke^ZaÅ SOVioaVl^X`B
^c Y^Z OZ\Z oj aZ^iZc)$ E^i YZb Hg^co^e o^Za[gZ^Zc Ljch [dgYZgi jch Y^Z 9caZ^ijc\ ojb
=mZgo^i^jb Vj[' ^c YZg jcb^iiZaWVgZc ?Z\ZclVgi oj kZglZ^aZc Wol) hiZih Vj[h cZjZ Vc
Y^ZhZc Ggi ojgxX`oj`Z]gZc jcY ^]c Vah Z^cZ IjZaaZ YZh ?axX`h jcY YZg Rj[g^ZYZc]Z^i'
YZh Ac(h^X](gj]Zch jcY YZg >xaaZ oj ZciYZX`Zc) <Vh R^Za YZh _ZlZ^a^\Zc Ljch l^gY
YVYjgX] c^X]i \ZaZj\cZi dYZg Vccjaa^Zgi' R^Za[gZ^]Z^i WZYZjiZi `Z^cZhlZ\h R^Zaadh^\Ü
`Z^i' :Za^ZW^\`Z^i' X]Vdi^hX]Zh @VcYZac5 KZaWhi YZg he^g^ijZaaZ =cil^X`ajc\hlZ\ ]Vi
Z^c R^Za' VWZg' hd <d\Zc RZc_^' lZg h^X] ZcihX]a^Zzi' Z^c :jYY]V oj lZgYZc' bjz ^b
cuX]hiZc 9j\ZcWa^X`' YV Zg h^X] ojg sWjc\' ojg EZY^iVi^dc' ]^chZioi' Y^Z 9Wh^X]i' Z^c
:jYY]VojlZgYZc'[VaaZcaVhhZcjcYÖkZg\ZhhZcÅ)
<^Z WZ^YZc Cg^iZg^Zc YZh ^X][gZ^Zc jcY o^Za[gZ^Zc Ljch [x]gZc jch oj olZ^ lZ^iZgZc
9heZ`iZc he^g^ijZaaZg sWjc\hegVm^h5 ojg Achtscmkelt jcY ojb Annehmen. <jgX] YVh
9j[\ZWZc YZg =\doZcig^`' YVYjgX] YVz jchZgZ 9j[bZg`hVb`Z^i c^X]i auc\Zg Wol)
lZc^\hiZch c^X]i jcZcilZ\i kdc YZc :Zhdg\i]Z^iZc jcY :Z[xgX]ijc\Zc' YZc @d[[Ü
cjc\Zc jcY OxchX]Zc YZh AX] d``je^Zgi l^gY' jcY ^cYZb l^g b^i YZg RjgxX`cV]bZ
YZg \ZYVc`a^X]Zc R^Za[^m^Zgi]Z^i lu]gZcY jchZgZh Ljch l^ZYZg ^c YZg ?Z\ZclVgi
Vc`dbbZc' l^g`a^X] eguhZci h^cY' Ö\Vco ZciheVcci ^b @^Zg jcY BZioiÅ' l^gY Acht-
scmkelt bw\a^X]) K^Z ^hi bZ]g jcY ZilVh VcYZgZh Vah YVh' lVh \Zlw]ca^X] b^i
ÖWZljziZb @VcYZacÅ Vhhdo^^Zgi l^gY' YZcc Y^ZhZh ÖK^X](WZljzi(hZ^cÅ ^hi Vah YZg
?Z\ZchVio ojb jcWZljziZc Ljc Vaaoj hZ]g Vc jchZg AX](=be[^cYZc \Z`deeZai (lch
W^c b^g WZljzi(_Zioi bVX] lch Y^ZhZh' cjc [x]aZ lch _ZcZh$' ldb^i hd\aZ^X] VjX] l^ZÜ
YZg Y^Z ^X]]V[iZc :ZlZgijc\hfjVa^iuiZc jcY MgiZ^ah[ugWjc\Zc Vj[ YZc HaVc igZiZc6 (
VX]ihVb hZ^c ^bea^o^Zgi Z^c hedciVcZh' ^b Kigdb YZg OV]gcZ]bjc\Zc kdc Z^cZb
EdbZci ojb cuX]hiZc [dgihX]gZ^iZcYZh =g[VhhZc #jcY O^ZYZg(aVhhZc$ YZg Ö<^c\ZÅ
dYZg ?ZhX]Z]c^hhZ ^c ^]gZg Kd]Z^i dYZg ÖAhi^\`Z^iÅ #l^Z Zh Z^cZ OdgihX]we[jc\ EZ^Ü
hiZg =X`]Vgih VjhYgxX`i$ hZ^iZch Z^cZh lVX]Zc' c^X]i Vc\gZ^[ZcYZc :ZdWVX]iZgh'
hdojhV\Zc ^b Ke^Z\Za YZh RZj\Zc(:ZljzihZ^ch) <Vz hdaX]Z bZY^iVi^kZ 9X]ihVb`Z^i
^b xWg^\Zc Y^Z IjVa^iui jchZgZh Ljch Zg]w]i jcY hd\Vg hZ^cZ =[[^o^Zco hiZ^\Zgi' hZ^ cjg
cZWZcWZ^WZbZg`i)
<Vh Hg^co^e YZg 9X]ihVb`Z^i WZ^c]VaiZi Z^\Zcia^X] hX]dc YVh VcYZgZ ZWZc \ZcVcciZ
OZhZchZaZbZci YZh =mZgo^i^jbh' YVh Annehmen. <^Z OZai' Y^Z ^c ^]gZb [a^ZzZcYZc
KdhZ^c VX]ihVb WZdWVX]iZi l^gY' l^gY ^c Y^ZhZb ^]gZb KdhZ^c VjX] Vc\ZcdbbZc'
V`oZei^Zgi' jcY Vj[\gjcY YZg 9WlZhZc]Z^i Z^cZg jgiZ^aZcYZc' lu]aZcYZc AX](9`i^k^(
iui l^gY c^X]ih ojgxX`\Zl^ZhZc dYZg WZhdcYZgh Vc\Zod\Zc) McY Y^ZhZh 9ccZ]bZc ^hi
93
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
`Z^c l^YZghigZWZcYZh' gZh^\c^ZgZcYZh @^ccZ]bZc' hdcYZgc Z^c 9ccZ]bZc ^c D^ZWZ
jcY <Vc`WVg`Z^i) O^Z YVh bw\a^X] ^hi ( hd\Vg YVh' l^Z ?gV[ <xgX`]Z^b Zh eVgVYdm
[dgbja^Zgi' #kdb :a^X`ejc`i jchZgZg AX]^YZci^[^o^Zgjc\ Vjh \ZhZ]Zc$ ÖhX]Z^cWVg
McVccZ]bWVgZÅ VcojcZ]bZc' Z^ cZ jc]Z^aWVgZ =g`gVc`jc\ ZilV dYZg Z^cZc jcZghZioÜ
a^X]Zc NZgajhi' Y^Z Zm^hiZci^ZaaZc LVihVX]Zc YZh 9aiZgch jcY KiZgWZch \ZcZgZaa auzi
h^X] i]ZdgZi^hX] cdX] Z^c^\ZgbVzZc hX]axhh^\ WZ\gxcYZc' WaZ^Wi YZccdX] VWZg Vj[ YZg
=WZcZ YZh gZ[aZ`i^ZgZcYZc' kZghiVcYZhbuz^\Zc <Zc`Zch' b^i YZb \Zld]c]Z^ihbuÜ
z^\ jchZg AX](?Z[x]a Z^c]Zg\Z]i' hX]lZg dYZg xWZg]Vjei c^X]i cVX]kdaao^Z]WVg) McY
VjX] YVh ^c YZg ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc NZg[V]gZchlZ^hZ edejaugZ HgdeV\^ZgZc YZh
Ö=ghi(Z^cbVa(VccZ]bZchÅ WZo^Z]i h^X] VaaZc[Vaah Vj[ Z^cZ [dgbZaaZ ehnX]dYncVb^Ü
hX]Z 9cVad\^Z jcY `Vcc h^X] c^X]i Vj[ Z^cZ \Z^hi^\Z CdciZmikZgucYZgjc\ YZh :ZljziÜ
hZ^ch YjgX] Z^cZ r[[cjc\ ojg igVcheZghdcVaZc <^bZch^dc WZgj[Zc6 Zh ]VcYZai h^X]
aZY^\a^X] jb Z^c ehnX]dZcZg\Zi^hX]Zh' d[i gZX]i Z[[^o^ZciZh EVcwkZg' YVh `aj\Z'
WZgZX]cZcYZ AX] hV\i h^X]' ÖZghi Z^cbVa V`oZei^ZgZc jcY ^c YZc hVjgZc 9e[Za WZ^zZc'
hd lZgYZ ^X] Y^Z aZ^Y^\Z KVX]Z Vb Z]ZhiZc adhÅ' dYZg ÖZghi Z^cbVa adhaVhhZc' Vj[ Y^ZhZ
OZ^hZ `g^Z\Z ^X] Zh ]^ciZg]Zg YVcc YdX]Å) FVX] Y^ZhZg EVc^Zg `wccZc l^g jch Vah AX]
jcY ^c jchZgZb AX](?Z[x]a Vah Z^cZb hjWhiVci^Va^h^ZgiZc CdcoZei WZhiui^\i [x]aZc'
lu]gZcY YVh he^g^ijZaaZ 9ccZ]bZc \ZgVYZ YjgX] Y^Z egV`i^hX]Z' egV`i^o^ZgiZ Ac[gV\ZÜ
hiZaajc\ YZh AX](?Z[x]ah Zgbw\a^X]i l^gY #VcYZgc[Vaah lugZ Zh Wadz Z^c bdgVa^hX]Zh
MciZgcZ]bZc' jb c^X]i oj hV\Zc MciZg[Vc\Zc$ jcY cjg YVc` YZg bZY^iVi^k ZgxWiZc
AX]( jcY R^Za[gZ^]Z^i Vah DZ^YxWZgl^cYjc\ jcY Vah @Z^alZgYjc\ #^b K^cc YZh \Z^hi^Ü
\Zc@Z^ahlZ\Zh$Ö[jc`i^dc^ZgiÅ)
<^Z WZ^YZc aZioiZc cjc cdX] Vcoj[x]gZcYZc Cg^iZg^Zc YZh =mZgo^i^jbh' hZ^cZ =^cÜ
[VX]]Z^i jcY hZ^cZ ?aZ^X][wgb^\`Z^i' oZ^\Zc' l^Z h^X] Y^Z he^g^ijZaaZc sWjc\hY^ho^Ü
ea^cZc \Vco Zbe^g^hX] egV`i^hX]Zg jcY gZVa^hi^hX]Zg EZi]dYZc jcY EVzgZ\Zac ojb
NZg[da\ ^]gZg RlZX`Z WZY^ZcZc) ( BZYZh ZX]iZ =mZgo^i^jb ( hZ^ ZhZ^c heZo^ZaaZh =mZgÜ
o^i^jb' Y) ]) Z^cZ Lui^\`Z^i dYZg Z^c 9WaVj[' Y^Z VjzZg YZb RlZX` YZg bZY^iVi^kZc
:ZljzihZ^chhX]jajc\ `Z^cZc hZaWhiucY^\Zc Ac]Vai jcY K^cc Vj[lZ^hZc' dYZg Z^c VaaÜ
\ZbZ^cZh =mZgo^i^jb' lZaX]Zh Vjh Z^cZg WZa^ZW^\Zc olZX`Y^Zca^X]Zc jcY cxioa^X]Zc
9aaiV\hWZhX]u[i^\jc\ WZhiZ]Zc `Vcc' Y^Z VWZg b^i 9X]ihVb`Z^i jcY ^ccZgZg KVbbÜ
ajc\ ^X][gZ^ jcY o^Za[gZ^ Vjh\Z[x]gi l^gY ( ^hi elnfcch: <^Zh `dbbi YZb \Z^hi^\Zc
LgV^c^c\hVj[igV\ Zci\Z\Zc' jchZgZ 9X]ihVb`Z^i oj hX]jaZc jcY Y^Z 9clZhZc]Z^i ^b
\Z\Zclugi^\Zc 9j\ZcWa^X` oj ZgaZ^X]iZgc' VaaZh Cdbea^o^ZgZcYZ lxgYZ YZc AciZaaZ`i
hi^bja^ZgZc jcY b^i YZhhZc 9`i^k^Zgjc\ YZc =]g\Z^o dYZg YZc O^YZghiVcY YZh AX] ^ch
Ke^Za Wg^c\Zc) <Zb l^YZgheg^X]i c^X]i' YVz Z^cZ \Zl^hhZ iZX]c^hX]Z 9caZ^ijc\ jcY
`jgoZ =^c[x]gjc\he]VhZ ^c Z^c =mZgo^i^jb cdilZcY^\ jcY [wgYZga^X] ^hi) <VcVX]
`Vcc Y^Z Z^c[VX]Z sWjc\ d]cZ Ex]Z jcY 9chigZc\jc\ egdWaZbadh YjgX]\Z[x]gi lZgÜ
YZc' h^X] ^c 9WhiucYZc l^ZYZg]daZcY' Vahd gZ\Zabuz^\ jcY hiZi^\ ^c ^bbZg \aZ^X]WaZ^Ü
WZcYZg 9gi jcY OZ^hZ) <Vb^i ig^ii YVh aZioiZ =aZbZci cdX] ]^coj' Y^Z Glelchformlg-
kelt YZh Ljch #J^ijVaX]VgV`iZg$6 c^X]i ]ZjiZ Y^ZhZ' bdg\Zc _ZcZ jcY xWZgbdg\Zc Z^cZ
Yg^iiZ sWjc\ dYZg >dgbkVg^VciZ' hdcYZgc hiZih Z^c( jcY Y^ZhZaWZ ?ZhiVai' YZghZaWZ
9WaVj[) McY Y^Zh xWZg Z^cZc auc\ZgZc dYZg YjgX]Vjh aVc\Zc RZ^igVjb ]^clZ\' xWZg
EdcViZ'BV]gZ'BV]goZ]ciZ)
<^Z he^g^ijZaaZ sWjc\ ( jcY jciZg Y^ZhZb :a^X`l^c`Za VjX] YZg he^g^ijZaaZ OZ\ (
ZcYZi ^b ?gjcYZ c^Z' l^g lZgYZc Wadz ^bbZg bZ]g Z^ch b^i ^]b) <^Z oj 9c[Vc\ cjg
[axX]i^\Zc EdbZciZ' Vaabu]a^X] YVcc ZilVh Vjh\ZYZ]ciZgZc H]VhZc l^g`a^X] bZY^Ü
iVi^kZg HguhZco YZh ?Z^hiZh #Ö?Z^hiZh\Z\Zclugi^\`Z^iÅ$ kZgY^X]iZc h^X] ^b DVj[Z YZg
RZ^i' jchZgZg DZWZchoZ^i' ( hd Yxg[Zc l^g _ZYZc[Vaah ]d[[Zc ( oj Z^cZb WaZ^WZcYZc
ÖkZgucYZgiZc :ZljzihZ^chojhiVcYÅ' YZc l^g WZgZ^ih Vah YVh igVcheZghdcVaZ RZj\Zc(
94
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh
:ZljzihZ^c X]VgV`iZg^h^Zgi ]VWZc) OVh Zh Vj[ YZb OZ\Z YV]^c Vc Rl^hX]ZchiVY^Zc
\ZWZc bV\ jcY YVgxWZg ]^cVjh cdX] [xg Ö=gaZjX]ijc\h\gVYZÅ YZc sWZcYZc ZglVgiZc'
hdaa Vc Y^ZhZg KiZaaZ c^X]i lZ^iZg ^ciZgZhh^ZgZc #Y^Z ZhdiZg^hX]Zc RlZ^\Z YZg gZa^\^whZc
@VjeiigVY^i^dcZc YZg EZchX]]Z^i \ZWZc YVgxWZg YZiV^aa^Zgi 9jh`jc[i' jcY ^c _xc\hiZg
RZ^i a^Z[Zgi VjX] Y^Z igVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z YVoj lZgikdaaZ >dghX]jc\hWZ^igu\Z
jcY i]ZdgZi^hX]Z EdYZaaZ$) OVh VWZg c^X]i \Zcj\ WZidci lZgYZc `Vcc ( \ZgVYZ ]ZjiZ'
ld YVh Ke^g^ijZaaZ VjX] Vah ÖKjeZgbVg`iVc\ZWdiÅ ^c =ghX]Z^cjc\ ig^ii jcY Vah hdaX]Zh
YZc DVjcZc YZg EdYZ jciZgldg[Zc ^hi (' ^hi ZWZc_ZcZ aZWZchoZ^ia^X] c^X]i a^b^i^ZgiZ
<VjZg dYZg >dgihZiojc\ jchZgZh sWZch ^c YZg Z^cZc dYZg VcYZgZc >dgb' Y) ]) YVz h^Z
jch' Z^cbVa Vj[ YZb OZ\' W^h Vch =cYZ jchZgZg LV\Z WZ\aZ^iZi) BZYZ Zg[da\gZ^X]Z dYZg
ZgchiojcZ]bZcYZ #HhnX]d$L]ZgVe^Z YV\Z\Zc #Z^chX]a^Zza^X] YZg AcVchegjX]cV]bZ (
l^Z Zh ]ZjiZ hX]dc [Vhi \Vc\ jcY \uWZ ^hi ( bZ]gZgZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zg @^a[Zc ( =^coZa(
h^iojc\Zc' ?gjeeZc' KZaWhiZg[V]gjc\hldg`h]deh(jciZghX]^ZYa^X]hiZg bZi]dY^hX]Zg
gZhe) hX]ja^hX]Zg HgdkZc^Zco$ l^gY [gx]Zg dYZg heuiZg VW\ZhX]adhhZc hZ^c' VcYZgcÜ
[Vaah'hdbZ^cZ^X]'auj[i^g\ZcYZilVhhX]^Z[)
=h WaZ^Wi Vb =cYZ YZg 9jh[x]gjc\Zc Y^ZhZh CVe^iZah cjc cdX] Vj[ Z^cZc hZ]g ZciÜ
hX]Z^YZcYZc Hjc`i ]^cojlZ^hZc5 Ab @^cWa^X` Vj[ Y^Z 9c[dgYZgjc\Zc Z^cZh =mZgo^Ü
i^jbh \^ai Zh' Z^cZ @xgYZ oj cZ]bZc' h^Z WZ[^cYZi h^X] Vj[ YZb ÖOZ\ ojb O=?Å #hd
Y^Z >dgbja^Zgjc\ kdc ?gV[ <xgX`]Z^b$ jcY igu\i Y^Z 9j[hX]g^[i ÖDjhi jcY DVjcZÅ
dYZg ÖY^Z KX]lZg`gV[i YZg :ZYxg[c^hhZÅ) BZYZg' YZg Z^c =mZgo^i^jb Vj[c^bbi' l^gY
h^X] xWZg `jgo dYZg aVc\ b^i YZg K^ijVi^dc `dc[gdci^Zgi hZ]Zc' YVz ( kdc YZc dW_Z`i^Ü
kZc O^Yg^\`Z^iZc Z^cZh higZzWZaVYZcZc 9aaiV\h \Vco oj hX]lZ^\Zc ( Y^kZghZ hjW_Z`Ü
i^kZ :ZYxg[c^hhZ' VaaZgaZ^ Ki^bbjc\Zc jcY AbejahZ' hZ^cZ LgZjZ ojg sWjc\ ]Vgi Vj[
Y^Z HgdWZ hiZaaZc) <^Z Ki^bbZ hZ^cZh AX] l^gY ^]b 9g\jbZciZ a^Z[Zgc' lVgjb Zh
\ZgZX]i[Zgi^\i jcY ^c GgYcjc\ ^hi' kdb ?ZWdi gZ\Zabuz^\Zc sWZch VWojlZ^X]Zc)
McY lZcc YZg :ZigZ[[ZcYZ \ZgVYZ ^c L]ZgVe^Z ^hi' Yxg[iZ ^]c Y^Z i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z
:Z\aZ^ijc\ ^c YZc bZ^hiZc >uaaZc ZgbjciZgc' ÖhZ^cZc ?Z[x]aZc oj [da\ZcÅ #Z^c Bjc(
\^Vc^hX]Zg L]ZgVeZji lxgYZ jciZg MbhiucYZc Vg\jbZci^ZgZc' YVz YZg Ö9gX]Zine YZh
KZaWhiÅ cdX] \Vg c^X]i Vj[\ZiVjX]i hZ^$) OVh ^cYZhhZc Vaa YZc_Zc^\Zc' Y^Z Vc Y^ZhZc
`g^i^hX]Zc Hjc`i Vc\ZaVc\i h^cY' oj lxchX]Zc lugZ' ^hi Z^cZ fjVa^[^o^ZgiZ he^g^ijZaaZ
OZ\WZ\aZ^ijc\' Y^Z ojb ÖOZ^iZgbVX]ZcÅ jcY Ö<gVcWaZ^WZcÅ Vc]uai Wol) Zgbji^\i
jcY hdojhV\Zc Y^Z aZ^hZ Ki^bbZ YZh ÖOZhZchÅ #?gV[ <xgX`]Z^b$ \Z\Zc YZc aVjihiVgÜ
`Zc HgdiZhi YZh ÖcVixga^X]Zc AX]Å WZ]Vgga^X] jciZghixioi #jcY hZaWhikZghiucYa^X] \^Wi
Xh 9jhcV]bZc' eZghwca^X]Z ehnX]^hX]Z CdchiZaaVi^dcZc' jciZg lZaX]Zc Z^c =mZgo^Ü
i^jb eg^co^e^Zaa dYZg Z^c WZhi^bbiZh =mZgo^i^jb cVX] i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc =glu\jc\Zc
`dcigV^cY^o^Zgi hZ^c `Vcc' YdX] Y^Zh ^hi YVcc Y^Z 9jhcV]bZ' lZaX]Z Y^Z JZ\Za WZhiuÜ
i^\i$)
<Zg kdgoZ^i^\Z 9WWgjX] Z^cZh =mZgo^i^jbh' YVh KX]Z^iZgc Vc _ZcZg @xgYZ kdc Djhi
jcY DVjcZ' WZgVjWi k^ZaZ cVX] bZ^cZg :ZdWVX]ijc\ YZg ;]VcXZ' ojb ZghiZc EVa ^c
^]gZb DZWZc b^i YZg Z^\ZcZc OZhZchi^Z[Z WZljzi ^c CdciV`i oj igZiZc) ?Zl^z WZhiZ]i
^bbZg Y^Z Ew\a^X]`Z^i' YVz Z^cZ hdaX]Z :Zgx]gjc\ ÖgZ^c oj[uaa^\ Z^c[VX] hd
\ZhX]^Z]iÅ' VWZg hZaWhi YVcc WZYVg[ Zh d[i Z^cZh l^hhZcYZc' Z^cZh lZ^hZc :Z^hiVcYh'
jb Y^ZhZh =gZ^\c^h g^X]i^\ oj lxgY^\Zc' YV[xg Kdg\Z oj igV\Zc' YVz Zh c^X]i gVhX] YZb
NZg\ZhhZc Vc]Z^b[uaai dYZg Wadz Agg^iVi^dc jcY JViadh^\`Z^i ]^ciZgauzi) 9aaZ Zg[V]Ü
gjc\hdg^Zci^ZgiZc he^g^ijZaaZc Kigwbjc\Zc ]VWZc Vahd b^i \jiZb ?gjcY Y^Z hnhiZbVÜ
i^hX]Z sWjc\hegVm^h' Y^Z ZmZgo^i^Zcbuz^\Z :ZljzihZ^chhX]jajc\' ^c YZc E^iiZaÜ
ejc`i \ZhiZaai) >xg YZc Vj[ YZg Zkdaji^dcugZc Kij[Z YZh eZghdcVaZc AX] Vc\ZaVc\iZc
EZchX]Zc ^hi Y^ZhZ ÖGei^dcÅ Y^Z Z^co^\ ÖgZ\jaugZÅ jcY Vjhh^X]ihgZ^X]Z HZgheZ`i^kZ'
YZg `jaijgZaa kZg]uc\c^hkdaaZc KVX`\VhhZ' YZb ^cY^k^YjZaa hd aZ^YkdaaZc ?Z[uc\c^h'
95
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
lZaX]Z YVh bZciVaZ =\d Vah kZgbZ^cia^X]Zh Fdceajh(jaigV bZchX]a^X]Zg ?Z^hiZhZci(
l^X`ajc\ cuch YVghiZaai' oj Zci`dbbZc) ( F^X]i #HhnX]d$L]XgVe^Z' hdcYZgc Y^Z
\Zo^ZaiZ jcY [dgi\ZhZioiZ bZY^iVi^kZ sWjc\ Zgw[[cZi jch Y^Z 9jhh^X]i Vj[ l^g`a^X]Z
Ö^c^i^Vi^hX]Z =g[V]gjc\Å #?gV[ <xgX`]Z^b$' YZc OZ\ ^ch >gZ^Z' Vjh YZb ÖAX](
?Z]ujhZÅ ]^cVjh ^c Y^Z Öd[[ZcZ OZ^iZÅ) Ou]gZcY YZg i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z KX]VjeaVio hZ^Ü
cZg \ZhVbiZc 9caV\Z cVX] W^h ojaZioi Z^c KX]aVX]i[ZaY YZh Ö^X]Å jcY YZh ÖbZ^cÅ
WaZ^Wi #YVgxWZg YVg[ VjX] Z^c OV[[Zchi^aahiVcY ]^c jcY l^ZYZg c^X]i ]^clZ\iujhX]Zc$'
^hi YVh jgZ^\ZcZ E^a^Zj YZh bZY^iVi^kZc sWjc\hlZ\h kdc 9c[Vc\ Vc YVgVj[]^c Vc\ZÜ
aZ\i' jch b^i Z^cZg eg^co^e^Zaa VcYZgZc O^g`a^X]`Z^i ^c CdciV`i oj Wg^c\Zc' _ZchZ^ih YZg
<jVa^iui kdc KjW_Z`i jcY GW_Z`i' AX] jcY OZai' b^ihVbi ^]gZb JViiZchX]lVco kdc
HdaVg^iuiZc jcY h^X] WZ`ube[ZcYZc ?Z\ZchuioZc) OZcc\aZ^X] Zh h^X] YVWZ^ h^X]ZgÜ
a^X] jb Z^cZ aVc\[g^hi^\Z' lV]ga^X] Zkdaji^dcugZ HZgheZ`i^kZ ]VcYZai' hd kZgb^iiZai YZg
bZY^iVi^kZ OZ\' `dchZfjZci WZhX]g^iiZc' YdX] hX]dc hZ]g WVaY lZc^\hiZch Z^cZc
?ZhX]bVX` kdc _ZcZg cZjZc #AX]$>gZ^]Z^i ^b =gaZWc^h YZg Ki^aaZ jcY YZh ^ccZgZc >g^ZÜ
YZch' hdl^Z YZg >xaaZ jcY =cZg\^Z' Y^Z jch YVgVjh ZglVX]hZc' ( `jgo' Z^cZc
?ZhX]bVX`kdche^g^ijZaaZb=gdh)
1BYJS
9WhX]a^ZzZcY bwX]iZ ^X] i]ZhZcVgi^\ cdX] Vj[ YgZ^ 9heZ`iZ ]^clZ^hZc' Y^Z ^c YZc
kdga^Z\ZcYZc L]ZbZc`gZ^h ]^cZ^c\Z]wgZc' ]^Zg _ZYdX] c^X]i bZ]g ^b Z^coZacZc VjhÜ
\Z[x]gi lZgYZc `wccZc) =ghiZch5 <Zg bZY^iVi^kZ sWjc\hlZ\ b^i hZ^cZb =mZgo^i^ZcÜ
`Vcdc l^g`i ( \Zl^hhZgbVzZc Vah FZWZcegdYj`i hZ^cZh Z^\Zcia^X]Zc 9j[igV\h ( cVX]
9gi Z^cZg cutogenen (Psychothercµle, Y) ])' Zh \Z]Zc kdc ^]b Vjh\aZ^X]ZcYZ' hiVÜ
W^a^h^ZgZcYZ jcY gZ\ZcZg^ZgZcYZ O^g`jc\Zc Vj[ Y^Z ?ZhVbi]Z^i YZh ehnX]dhdbVi^Ü
hX]Zc Gg\Vc^hbjh Vjh' jcY Zg `Vcc YVoj WZ^igV\Zc' YZc Vaa\ZbZ^cZc FZjgdi^o^hbjh
YZg HZghdc VWojWVjZc) Rj\aZ^X] h^cY Zh VWZg \ZgVYZ VjX] Y^ZhZ ^col^hX]Zc jcWZÜ
hig^iiZcZc i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc =[[Z`iZ' Y^Z YVoj kZgaZ^iZc' Vjh Z^cZb ^ciZ\gVaZc =mZgo^Ü
i^jb ^hda^ZgiZ ÖLZX]c^`ZcÅ ]ZgVjhojawhZc jcY YZb heZo^[^hX] i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc CdcÜ
iZmi oj Ö^beaVci^ZgZcÅ' b^i]^c Z^cZ AchigjbZciVa^h^Zgjc\ he^g^ijZaaZg HgV`i^`Zc jciZg
YZc NdgoZ^X]Zc YZh i]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bVh #ÖQd\V \Z\Zc JxX`ZchX]bZgoZcÅ (
ÖEZY^iVi^dc Vah KigZzegde]naVmZÅ ZiX)$' Y^Z YVh Ke^g^ijZaaZ hZ^cZh heZo^[^hX]Zc R^ZaÜ
\Z]VaihZciaZZgi)
RlZ^iZch5 <Vh Ki^X]ldgi 5elbsterfchrung [Vzi l^Z `Z^c VcYZgZh Y^Z [gV\lxgY^\Zc
OZ^iZgjc\Zc jcY ?adWVa^h^Zgjc\Zc YZh L]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc WgZccejc`iVgi^\ ojhVbÜ
bZc) =^cZghZ^ih Z^cZ WZ\gxzZchlZgiZ NZgkdaahiucY^\jc\ YZh KZaWhi`dcoZeih #kdc YZg
Cde[aVhi^\`Z^i YZh AX] ojg ehnX]dhdbVi^hX]Zc ?Vco]Z^i YZg HZghdc$' W^g\i Y^Z kZgÜ
WgZ^iZiZ ÖKZaWhiZg[V]gjc\h(EVc^ZÅ VcYZgZghZ^ih Zg]ZWa^X]Z cVgo^zi^hX]Z >Vaahig^X`Z)
<V]Zg Zciejeei h^X] Y^Z kdg VaaZb kdc YZc ]jbVc^hi^hX]Zc jcY CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Zc egdÜ
eV\^ZgiZ ÖKZaWhikZgl^g`a^X]jc\Å c^X]i hZaiZc Vah Z^cZ NVg^VciZ kdc ÖAX](NXgl^g`(
a^X]jc\Å) ( <Zg oj Zci[VaiZcYZ ?Z\ZcWZ\g^[[ oj Y^ZhZg KZaWhiZg[V]gjc\h(AYZdad\^Z
`wcciZ YZg YZg 5elbsterforschung hZ^c' Z^c ^c YZg hnhiZbVi^hX]Zc bZY^iVi^kZc sWjc\
bZi]dY^hX] kdgVc\Zig^ZWZcZh >dghX]Zc cVX] YZb ÖlV]gZc KZaWhiÅ' YZg <^bZch^dc
YZhLgVcheZghdcVaZc_ZchZ^ihkdcÖ^X]ÅjcYÖbZ^cÅ)
<g^iiZch5 <Vh H]ucdbZc YZg L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ WZh^ioi VjX] Z^cZ ^ciZgZhhZcehnÜ
X]dad\^hX]Z KZ^iZ' l^aa hV\Zc' YZg :Zgj[hhiVcY YZg L]ZgVeZjiZc ^b Zc\ZgZc l^Z ^b
lZ^iZgZc K^ccZ ]Vi Z^c AciZgZhhZ Vc YZg 9jhYZ]cjc\ hZ^cZg egd[Zhh^dcZaaZc CdbeZÜ
iZcoZc) =h \Z]i Vahd VjX] jb Y^Z =ghX]a^Zzjc\ jcY K^X]Zgjc\ kdc ÖEVg`iVciZ^aZcÅ'
96
L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\jcYNZgajhiYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdh
lZcc \ZgVYZ Y^Z NZgigZiZg cZjZg' cdX] lZc^\ ZiVWa^ZgiZg RlZ^\Z Y^ZhZg ÖOVX]hijbh(
WgVcX]ZÅ Vj[ YZc he^g^ijZaaZc KZ`idg Yguc\Zc jcY ^c KVX]Zc K^cchjX]Z ^]gZ [VX]`jcÜ
Y^\Z RjhiucY^\`Z^i gZ`aVb^ZgZc) <Vh Ke^g^ijZaaZ ^hi [gZ^a^X] Vah LjbbZaeaVio [xg ]VcYÜ
[ZhiZ bViZg^ZaaZ DZWZch^ciZgZhhZc' hd aZ\^i^b Y^ZhZ Vc h^X] hZ^c bw\Zc' Z^c YZc`WVg
jcVc\ZbZhhZcZh >ZaY) <^Z he^g^ijZaaZc LgVY^i^dcZc ]VWZc ^c Y^ZhZg @^ch^X]i YZcc
VjX] YjgX] VaaZgaZ^ ^chi^iji^dcZ^aZ' hdo^VaZ jcY Zi]^hX]Z JZ\Zajc\Zc Ndg`Z]gjc\Zc
\Zigd[[Zc' Y^Z VaaZgY^c\h YZg ]Zji^\Zc ehnX]d(he^g^ijZaaZc KoZcZg^Z kdaahiucY^\ VW\ZÜ
]Zc) =\d(LgVchoZcYZco Vah CZgcegd_Z`i YZh he^g^ijZaaZc 9ca^Z\Zch WZgj[a^X] #Vah
=glZgWhiui^\`Z^i$ dYZg \ZhX]u[ia^X] #Vah =^ccV]bZfjZaaZ$ WZigZ^WZc oj ldaaZc (
\aZ^X]k^Za dW Vah L]ZgVeZji dYZg Vah he^g^ijZaaZg OZ\WZ\aZ^iZg (' auj[i _ZYZc[Vaah YVgÜ
Vj[]^cVjh'YZc:dX`ojb?ugicZgojbVX]Zc)
O^Z Vahd ( jb Z^c >Vo^i oj o^Z]Zc ( YZg L]ZgVeZji^h^Zgjc\ YZh Ke^g^ijZaaZc jcY YZb
YVYjgX]kdgegd\gVbb^ZgiZcNZg[Z]aZcYZhhe^g^ijZaaZc=gdhWZ\Z\cZc8K^X]Zgc^X]i
( l^Z ZWZc hX]dc Vc\ZYZjiZi ( YjgX] fjVh^ eda^i^hX]Z ?Z\ZcbVzcV]bZc' c^X]i YjgX]
`dgedgVi^kZ KigViZ\^Zc' lZaX]Z Y^Z Ö?^aYZÅ YZg L]ZgVeZjiZc jcY L]ZgVeZji^h^ZgZg
ojb ?Z\cZg Wol) \Z\cZg^hX]Zc DV\Zg YZg ÖlV]gZc @xiZgÅ YZh Ke^g^ijZaaZc Zg`augZc
jcY ^]gZghZ^ih Z^cZc :Zgj[hhiVcY YZg he^g^ijZaaZc OZ\WZ\aZ^iZg ZiVWa^ZgZc) <ZgVgi^\Z
>Z^cYW^aYZg b^i ^]gZg HdaVg^h^Zgjc\ [x]gZc \Zlw]ca^X] oj c^X]ih' Zh hZ^ YZcc oj jcZgÜ
fj^X`a^X]Zc 9jhZ^cVcYZghZiojc\Zc) N^ZabZ]g ZghX]Z^ci Z^cZ :ZljzilZgYjc\ dYZg
KZch^W^a^h^Zgjc\ [xg Y^Z hVX]a^X]Z HgdWaZbVi^` #jcY \Zl^z VjX] ^]gZ hX]l^Zg^\Zc
^ciZgZhhZcehnX]dad\^hX]Zc 9heZ`iZ$ Vj[ hZ^iZc VaaZg :ZiZ^a^\iZc ZghigZWZchlZgi) McY
YV Y^Z YVh Ke^g^ijZaaZ Z^cWZo^Z]ZcYZc HhnX]di]ZgVeZjiZc #l^Z \ZcZgZaa Y^Z EZcÜ
hX]Zc' Y^Z Vc L]ZgVe^Z Vah ÖOVX]hijbh]^a[ZÅ ^ciZgZhh^Zgi jcY \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ YZg he^g^Ü
ijZaaZc <^bZch^dc ^]gZh <VhZ^ch \Z\ZcxWZg Vj[\ZhX]adhhZc h^cY$ ^c YZg EZ]goV]a Y^Z
WZhiZc 9Wh^X]iZc kZg[da\Zc jcY Z]ga^X] KjX]ZcYZ h^cY ( ÖhX]lVgoZ KX]V[ZÅ [^cYZi
bVc WZ`Vccia^X] xWZgVaa (' hdaaiZc xWZgoZj\ZcYZ 9g\jbZciZ jcY kdg VaaZb Z^cZ WZ^Ü
he^Za]V[iZ HgVm^h Vji]Zci^hX]Zg Ke^g^ijVa^iui Vj[ Y^Z <VjZg Z^\Zcia^X] c^X]i [da\Zcadh
WaZ^WZc) ( <^Z \Z\Zclugi^\Z HhnX]dhoZcZ' Y^Z VaaZh Ke^g^ijZaaZ hd WZ\^Zg^\ Vj[c^bbi
jcY h^X] VchX]^X`i' Zh _ZlZ^ah hd\aZ^X] VjhojegdW^ZgZc' he^Zai Vj[ Z^cZb VbW^kVaZcÜ
iZc LZggV^c5 =h `Vcc eVhh^ZgZc' YVz Zia^X]Z YZg 9`iZjgZ xWZg Z^c Vc[uc\a^X]Zh Cd`ZiÜ
i^ZgZc b^i YZb Ke^g^ijZaaZc c^X]i ]^cVjh`dbbZc jcY h^X] aZioia^X] ^c YZg KVX`\VhhZ
cVgo^zi^hX]Zg KZaWhi\Z[uaa^\`Z^i kZga^ZgZc6 Zh WZhiZ]i VWZg ZWZchd Y^Z Ew\a^X]`Z^i'
YVz VcYZgZ Vj[ ^]gZg KjX]Z iVihuX]a^X] Vj[ Y^Z ÖKejg YZh GX]hXcÅ hidzZc jcY Zh ^]cZc
\Za^c\i'Vj[YZgÖg^X]i^\Zc>u]giZÅojWaZ^WZc)
Ab \xchi^\hiZc >VaaZ [x]gi Vahd YVh i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z E^a^Zj Z^cZc KjX]ZcYZc YjgX]Ü
Vjh W^h Vc Y^Z KX]lZaaZ ojg he^g^ijZaaZc sWjc\hegVm^h) GW Y^Zh \ZhX]^Z]i' ]uc\i
lZhZcia^X] YVkdc VW' ^cl^ZlZ^i Y^Z L]ZgVe^Z c^X]i cjg Y^Z cVgo^zi^hX]Zc OjcYZc
jchZgZg DZWZch\ZhX]^X]iZ kZghdg\i jcY YjgX] ÖFVX]gZ^[ZcÅ jcY ÖAX](KiVW^a^h^Zgjc\Å
ojb NZg]Z^aZc Wg^c\i' hdcYZgc YVgxWZg ]^cVjh Y^Z b^i jchZgZb cVgo^zi^hX]Zc KZaWhiÜ
WZhiui^\jc\hWZYxg[c^h ^bbZg VjX] hexgWVgZ ÖEx]Z jcY :Z\gZcoi]Z^i' cVX] YZgZc
sWZgl^cYjc\ l^g jch hZ]cZcÅ #cdX]bVah BdVX]^b ?Vajh`V$ ^ch :ZljzihZ^c ]ZWi jcY
Y^ZhZg KZ]chjX]i' YZg 5ehnsucht ncch 5eln Vah YZb Z^\Zcia^X] gZa^\^whZc NZgaVc\Zc'
Z^cZ HZgheZ`i^kZ oZ^\i) <Vz Y^ZhZ HZgheZ`i^kZ YVh i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z CddgY^cViZchnhiZb
kZgauzi' YVz h^Z ( \ZYVc`a^X] l^Z kZg]VaiZchegV`i^hX] ( Z^cZc HVgVY^\bV OZX]hZa kdgÜ
VjhhZioi #YZc sWZg\Vc\ kdb ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Zc HVgVY^\bV oj YZc Cg^iZg^Zc YZh
=mZgo^i^jbh' l^Z l^g h^Z dWZc h`^oo^Zgi ]VWZc$' bjz [gZ^a^X] \ZcVjhd `aVg jcY YZjiÜ
a^X]kZgb^iiZailZgYZc)
97
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^h
5ummcry
Ac gZheZXi d[ i]Z Ydb^cVi^c\ i]ZgVeZji^X egdXZhh A gZ[ZgZ id i]Z iZcYZcXn i]Vi ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^X i]^c`^c\
VcY ^ih higViZ\^Zh ^h ZcgdVX]^c\ jcVYb^hhVWaZ dc di]Zg VheZXih d[ ]jbVc VcY hdo^Va a^[Z Vh lZaa) L]^h iZcÜ
YZcXn XVc Vahd WZ dWhZgkZY ^c i]Z cZl he^g^ijVa bdkZbZcih VcY i]Z igVcheZghdcVa VeegdVX]Zh' l^i] i]Z
XdchZfjZcXZ d[ ^ih heZX^[^X ]VaabVg`h WZ^c\ ^\cdgZY dg cdi egdeZgan VeegZX^ViZY) L]^h `^cY d[ i]ZgVeZji^Ü
XVaan dg^ZciZY bZciVa^in ^h ^c YVc\Zg d[ adh^c\ i]Z he^g^ijVa Zgdh eVgi^XjaVgan l]Zc Veea^ZY id egVX^iXVa
ldg`) Ac i]^h [^ghi eVgi A h]Vaa ign id YZa^cZViZ i]Z WVh^X Y^[[ZgZcXZ WZilZZc i]Z i]ZgVeZji^X eVgVY^\bV
#l]^X] ^h h]VgZY Wn Vaa ehnX]di]ZgVe^Zh$ VcY i]Z he^g^ijVa eVgVY^\bV d[ i]Z lVn d[ bZY^iVi^dc) En i]Zh^h ^h
Vh [daadlh5 :VX] i]ZgVen Wn cVijgZ ejih Zbe]Vh^oZ dc i]Z Z\d l]^aZ i]Z lVn d[ bZY^iVi^dc eg^cX^eVaan
V^bh idlVgYh i]Z igVchXZcYZcXZ d[ i]Z Z\d) L]ZgZ[dgZ idYVnh i]ZgVeZji^X hXZcZ ^h hjeedgi^c\ hdX^Va l^i](
YgVlZal]^aZ\Zcj^cZigVchXZcYZciVaYZkZadebZcil^aaZc\ZcYZggZhedchVW^a^ind[i]ZldgaY)
6FX VOQER+ ehnX]di]ZgVen VcY Z\d(dg^ZciVi^dc' lVn d[ bZY^iVi^dc VcY Z\d(igVchXZcYZcXZ' i]ZgVeZji^X
kZghjhhe^g^ijVaeVgVY^\bV'hdX^Val^i]YgVlZakZghjhgZhedchVW^a^ind[i]ZldgaY)
HhnX]di]ZgVeZji^Xi]^c`^c\VcYi]Zadhhd[i]Zhe^g^ijVaZgdh
7JSFQBSTQ
Gcluskc,1.#,440$5AX]'KZaWhijcYKZ^c'LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^ZjcYHhnX]di]ZgVe^Z,'.3(0,)
1öger,w.#,440$5Enhi^`(OZai[ajX]idYZgOZaikZgVcildgijc\8'LgVcheZghdcVaZHhnX]dad\^ZjcYHhnÜ
X]di]ZgVe^Z,'-0(.2)
@Vch(O^aa^OZ^z
EViiZclZ\,/
2413-LdYibddh
98
7JDISFQ9BDIIBLL
8ernJGunJermcnn,8cJllsslngen
lcutloserNcchklcngerst
lößtJle5µrcchesµrechen.
wlelloµµelvonGlocken
weckenworteeln0nlversum,
Jcstlefersttont
lnunserm5chwelgen.
99
8uchbesµrechungen
6FN@JLCFQ"-QTDF0DKFQTNE/JDK,NSIONX3QRH$+8FJRSFQ"2TQTR"8FNRDIFNb
G[NHFQ
sWZgY^ZAciZ\g^iuihe^g^ijZaaZgOZ\Z'
Cgx\ZgNZgaV\'>gVc`[jgi*EV^c',440'.,1KZ^iZc
Ac cZjc kZghX]^ZYZcZc 9j[huioZc xWZg Y^ZhZh L]ZbV l^gY kZghjX]i' OZgiZ jcY
Cg^iZg^Zc oj kZgb^iiZac' Y^Z Zh YZc DZhZgc Zgbw\a^X]Zc hdaaZc' hZaWhi oj Z^cZb `dbÜ
eZiZciZc MgiZ^a oj `dbbZc' lZaX]Z ehnX]d(he^g^ijZaaZc ?gjeeZc jcY Gg\Vch^Vi^dcZc
^b edh^i^kZc K^ccZ igVch[dgbVi^k h^cY jcY lZaX]Z Z]Zg Vj[ Z^cZ egdWaZbVi^hX]Z KZ`iZ
hX]a^ZzZcaVhhZc)
<Zg L^iZa auzi ojcuX]hi Vj[ Z^c edejaug(l^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zh OZg` [xg Z^c WgZ^iZh
HjWa^`jb hX]a^ZzZc) <Vh KeZ`igjb YZg kZghX]^ZYZcZc 9gi^`Za \^Wi VjX] Z^cZc WgZ^iZc
=^cWa^X` ^c Y^Z L]ZbVi^`) <^Z KegVX]Z YZg Z^coZacZc 9gi^`Za ^hi YVWZ^ _ZYdX] hZ]g ^b
_ZlZ^a^\Zc >VX]_Vg\dc YZh _ZlZ^a^\Zc =meZgiZc VW\Z[Vzi' hd YVz Zh ojcuX]hi Z^c^\Z
Ex]Z WZgZ^iZc `Vcc' h^X] ^c Y^Z _ZlZ^a^\Z LZgb^cdad\^Z Z^cojaZhZc) OZg h^X] YZcÜ
cdX] Y^Z Ex]Z bVX]i' l^gY Z^c^\Z cZjZ jcY ^ciZgZhhVciZ =g`Zccic^hhZ YjgX] YVh
KijY^jbYZh:jX]ZhdYZgVjX]Z^coZacZg9gi^`Za\Zl^ccZc`wccZc)
AbZ^coZacZch^cY[da\ZcYZcZjc9W]VcYajc\ZcojaZhZc5
,) sWZgZX]iZjcY[VahX]Zhe^g^ijZaaZ9jidg^iui#Bd]cOZalddY$)
-) =^cZ >gV\Z YZh ?aZ^X]\Zl^X]ih ( ?ZhjcYZh jcY HVi]dad\^hX]Zh ^c YZc cZjZc
gZa^\^whZc:ZlZ\jc\Zc#>gVcXZhNVj\]Vc$)
.) <Vh H]ucdbZc YZg ehnX]^hX]Zc Ac[aVi^dc ^b he^g^ijZaaZc :ZgZ^X] #?Vgn JdhZcÜ
i]Va$)
/) Ndb ?jgj ojb OZ\\Z[u]giZc ( =^c JxX`Wa^X` Vj[ Y^Z aZioiZc oZ]c BV]gZ #JVb
<VhhSJ^X]VgY9aeZgiT$)
0) N^ZaZ ^ccZgZ DucYZg ( =g[V]gjc\Zc b^i YZb L^WZi^hX]Zc :jYY]^hbjh #=^c AciZgÜ
k^Zlb^i;aVjY^dFVgVc_d$)
1) R=F(HgVm^hjcYbdgVa^hX]ZGg^Zci^Zgjc\#KiZkZcE)Lg^eidc$)
2) <Vh KeZ`igjb YZh :ZljzihZ^ch jcY OZ\Z YZg KX]jajc\ YZh ?Z^hiZh #CZc O^aÜ
WZg$)
3) <^Z 9ci]dcn(Lnedad\^Z ( =^c KnhiZb ojg :ZjgiZ^ajc\ YZg 9`i^k^iuiZc he^g^ijZaaZg
jcY YZb ^ccZgZc OVX]hijb kZge[a^X]iZiZg ?gjeeZc #<^X` 9ci]dcn jcY :gjXZ
=X`Zg$)
4) OVccl^g`iJZa^\^dcigVch[dgb^ZgZcY8#=^c?ZheguX]b^iBVXdWFZZYaZbVc$)
9j[ YZc 3) 9gi^`Za xWZg Y^Z 9ci]dcn(Lnedad\^Z bwX]iZ ^X] ZilVh \ZcVjZg Z^c\Z(
]Zc) =h l^gY Z^cZ .(Y^bZch^dcVaZ Lnedad\^Z YVg\ZhiZaai' ^c Y^Z Y^Z kZghX]^ZYZcZc
he^g^ijZaaZcJ^X]ijc\ZcZ^c\ZdgYcZilZgYZc`wccZc)
Edc^hbjh <jVa^hbjh
bZ]g(X]Vg^hbVi^hX]
hX]^X]i^\iZX]c^hX]
yX]Vg^hbVi^hX]
hX]^X]i^\iZX]c^hX]
100
:jX]WZhegZX]jc\Zc
<^Z monlstlschen J^X]ijc\Zc \Z]Zc ^b ?Z\ZchVio oj YZc Jucllstlschen YVkdc
Vjh' YVz Y^Z =m^hiZco hZeVgViZg OZhZc ^aajh^dcug ^hi) OZgYZc he^g^ijZaaZ L]ZbZc eln-
schlchtlg #7 WjX]hiuWa^X]' YZ[^c^i^k' Z^cYZji^\$ ^ciZgegZi^Zgi' WZhiZ]i Y^Z ?Z[V]g' YVz
Y^Z he^g^ijZaaZ DZ]gZ oj\jchiZc Z^\Zccxio^\Zg lZaia^X]Zg R^ZaZ kZgoZggi l^gY jcY
ÖY^Z DVcY`VgiZ [xg YVh ?ZW^Zi \Z]VaiZc l^gYÅ) :Z^ YZg mehrschlchtlgen AciZgegZiVi^dc
#7 hnbWda^hX]' k^ZaYZji^\' edZi^hX]$ l^gY Y^[[ZgZco^Zgi ol^hX]Zc ?cdh^h' =^cWa^X`Zc'
DZ]gZ jcY AciZgegZiVi^dc) :Z^ YZc chcrlsmctlschen J^X]ijc\Zc ^hi Y^Z :Zo^Z]jc\ oj
Z^cZg HZghdc ^b E^iiZaejc`i' ( WZ^ YZc technlschen Y^Z NZglZcYjc\ he^g^ijZaa(bZY^(
iVi^kZgLZX]c^`Zc)
E^i @^a[Z Y^ZhZg :Z\g^[[Z' Vj[ Y^Z ^X] b^X] WZ^b ZghiZc <jgX]aZhZc cdX] `Vjb
Z^caVhhZc `dcciZ' kZghiZ]Zc Zh Y^Z 9jidgZc ^c hZ]g egVm^hWZod\ZcZg OZ^hZ' Y^Z kZgÜ
hX]^ZYZcZc ?gjee^Zgjc\Zc oj jciZghjX]Zc jcY Vj[ Y^Z _ZlZ^a^\Zc ?Z[V]gZc jcY
HgdWaZbWZgZ^X]Z ]^cojlZ^hZc) :ZhdcYZgh Vj[hX]ajzgZ^X]' k) V) VjX] YjgX] Y^Z kZgÜ
lZcYZiZc :Z^he^ZaZ' ( ^hi Z^c RjhVio`Ve^iZa xWZg NZglZX]hajc\hbw\a^X]`Z^iZc
igVchoZcYZciZg=g[V]gjc\)
<g)?xciZgO^bhX]cZ^YZg':VYC^hh^c\Zc
5FBN2FCRFQ"0JNCQTDIEFQAFJS"]ZgVjh\Z\ZWZckdcJjYda[@ubbZga^
FdkVa^hNZgaV\'KX]V[[]VjhZc,440',03K)
ÖOZg a^Zhi YZcc ]ZjiZ cdX] ?ZhVbiVjh\VWZc8Å' hV\iZ JjYda[ @ubbZga^ Vj[ bZ^cZ
>gV\Z' lVgjb Zg Y^Z RjhVbbZchiZaajc\ YZg ?ZWhZg(LZmiZ ]ZgVjh\Z\ZWZc ]VWZ) <Vh
^hi lV]g) Kd Zci\Z]i Z^cZb _ZYdX] Y^Z DZ`ixgZ ?ZWhZgh' YZg W^haVc\ cjg ^c YZg ?ZÜ
hVbiVjh\VWZ Zg]uaia^X] lVg) E^i hZ^cZb \gdzVgi^\ Vc\ZaZ\iZc =ciljg[ YZg :ZljziÜ
hZ^ch\ZhX]^X]iZ YZg EZchX]]Z^i ( ÖMghegjc\ jcY ?Z\ZclVgiÅ ( aZ\iZ ?ZWhZg WZgZ^ih
,4/4 YZc ?gjcYhiZ^c [xg _ZcZh <Zc`Zc' YVh l^g ]ZjiZ Vah 'cZjZh HVgVY^\bVÅ `ZccZc)
=g WZhX]gZ^Wi Y^Z =ci[Vaijc\ YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc :ZljzihZ^ch Vah YgZ^ Vj[Z^cVcYZg[daÜ
\ZcYZ Kigj`ijgZc ( bV\^hX]' bni]^hX] jcY bZciVa (' Y^Z hZ^i :Z\^cc jchZgZh BV]gÜ
]jcYZgih Vc Z^cZc Hjc`i \ZaVc\i ^hi' Vc YZb h^X] Z^c cZjZg \gdzZg MbWgjX] kZgl^g`Ü
a^X]Zc l^aa) OZcc h^X] YZg Ö=^cWgjX] YZg RZ^iÅ' YZg /) <^bZch^dc' W^h ]^cZ^c ^c jchZg
9aaiV\hWZljzihZ^c `dc`gZi^h^Zgi ]VWZc l^gY' ]VWZc l^g Y^Z ÖLgVcheVgZcoÅ Vah cZjZ
:ZljzihZ^chfjVa^iui ZgaVc\i5 Ö:ZljzilZgYjc\ jcY <jgX]h^X]i^\lZgYjc\ YZh ?Vc(
oZc
<Vh Ö^ciZ\gVaZ :ZljzihZ^cÅ' l^Z ?ZWhZg Zh cZcci' Zciheg^X]i YZb' lVh l^g ]ZjiZ
'igVcheZghdcVa" cZccZc' d[i d]cZ \ZcVj oj YZ[^c^ZgZc' lVh l^g YVb^i bZ^cZc) :Z^
?ZWhZg [^cYZc l^g c^X]i cjg Z^cZ [Vho^c^ZgZcYZ 9cVanhZ YZh ÖAciZ\gVaZcÅ' hdcYZgc
ZgaZWZc ^b DZhZc Y^Z ?ZWjgihlZ]Zc Y^ZhZg :ZljzihZ^chbjiVi^dc b^i' WZ[^cYZc jch
b^iiZc ^b ZggZ\ZcYZc EdbZci YZh 9j[heg^c\Zch Z^cZg cZjZc OZai) KZ^cZ [Z^ch^cc^\Z
@ZgVc\Z]ZchlZ^hZ jcY hZ^c hdg\hVbZg Mb\Vc\ b^i KegVX]Z Wg^c\i jch YZb ?Z]Z^bÜ
c^h Vj[ Y^Z Kejg) ?ZWhZg c^bbi jch Vc Y^Z @VcY jcY aZ^iZi jch Vc' Y^Z H]ucdbZcZ hd
\gxcYa^X] oj WZigVX]iZc' W^h l^g h^Z ^c ^]gZb OZhZc Zg[VhhZc) =g lVg HdZi jcY O^hÜ
hZchX]V[iaZg) KX]dc hZ^cZ EZi]dYZ YZg 9cVanhZ auzi jch Z^cZ 9]cjc\ YZg ÖLgVcheVÜ
gZcoÅ \Zl^ccZc' hZ^cZ ?ZY^X]iZ h^cY YVcc \ucoa^X] YVkdc YjgX]higV]ai) KZ^c OZg` ^hi
kwaa^\ YVgVj[ Vjh\Zg^X]iZi' YZb ^ciZ\gVaZc :ZljzihZ^c ojb <jgX]WgjX] oj kZg]ZaÜ
[Zc) Od]a YZh]VaW ^hi ?ZWhZg YjgX]Vjh c^X]i aZ^X]i oj aZhZc ( lVh h^X] YVWZ^ ^c jch
101
:jX]WZhegZX]jc\Zc
Vah DZhZg^ccZc jcY DZhZg kdaao^Z]i' ldaaZc l^g ^]b [da\Zc' ^hi `Z^cZ O^hhZchVcZ^\Ü
cjc\'hdcYZgcZX]iZ:ZljzihZ^chhX]jajc\)
Ab ZghiZc LZ^a YZh :jX]Zh l^gY b^i Z^cZg 9jhlV]a kdc . LZmiZc YVh ÖKeZ`igjb YZh
:ZljzihZ^chÅ jbg^hhZc) <Zg olZ^iZ LZ^a ^hi \Vco YZb RZ^ii]ZbV \Zl^YbZi' YZhhZc
NZghiucYc^h ?ZWhZg Vah cdilZcY^\ VchV]) YVb^i l^g ÖY^Z cZjZ O^g`a^X]`Z^i VjX] kdc
jch Vjh b^i\ZhiVaiZc `wccZcÅ) <Zc 9jh`aVc\ W^aYZc Z^c^\Z kdc ?ZWhZgh ?ZY^X]iZc)
JjYda[ @ubbZga^ ^hi b^i hZ^cZg RjhVbbZchiZaajc\ Z^c :jX] \Zajc\Zc' YVh ojb =^cÜ
aZhZc ^c ?ZWhZgh <Zc`Zc Z^cauYi jcY Z^cZc \jiZc sWZgWa^X` kZghX]V[[i) KZ^c WZhdcÜ
YZgZh NZghiucYc^h ( Zg lVg KX]xaZg jcY eZghwca^X]Zg NZgigVjiZg ?ZWhZgh ( \^Wi YZb
DZhZg kdgVW l^X]i^\Z KX]axhhZa jcY \aZ^X]hVb Z^cZc gdiZc >VYZc ^c Y^Z @VcY' YZg
YjgX]Y^ZDZ`ixgZYZh:jX]ZhaZ^iZi)
MaaV@Z^hi'Nd\i^b9aa\uj
0EJSIATNEFLTNE:JFSFQ7OOMBNR3QRH$"4M0NFQHJFKQFJREFR7FCFNEJHFN
CwgeZgVgWZ^ijcYhe^g^ijZaaZ=g[V]gjc\'@ZgYZg'>gZ^Wjg\,440'..1K)
<^Z CwgeZgVgWZ^i Vah HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z[dgb ]Vi h^X] ^c YZc aZioiZc BV]gZc ^ciZch^k
Zcil^X`Zai) Ac YZb kdc RjcYZa jcY DddbVch ]ZgVjh\Z\ZWZcZc :VcY hiZaaZc [Vhi VaaZ
CwgeZgi]ZgVeZjiZc kdc JVc\ ^]gZ 9gWZ^i kdg) =^cZ hdaX]Z sWZgh^X]i ^hi cdilZcY^\
jcYkZgY^Zchikdaa)
<^Z KZZaZ jcY VjX] YZc ?Z^hi xWZg YZc CwgeZg oj ]Z^aZc' ^hi Vah CdcoZei jcY Vah
i]ZgVeZji^hX]Z HgVm^h ^c YZg lZhia^X]Zc OZai gZkdaji^dcug) Ac jchZgZg kZg`de[iZc
Cjaijg ljgYZ _V c^X]i cjg ^c gZa^\^whZc sWZgoZj\jc\Zc YZg CwgeZg ojb Ñ:gjYZg =hZaÉ
\ZbVX]i' hdcYZgc VjX] kdc H]^adhde]^Z jcY O^hhZchX]V[i YZg CwgeZg kdc YZg KZZaZ
VW\ZheVaiZi) 9b YZjia^X]hiZc oZ^\i h^X] YVh ^c Z^cZg gZ^c `wgeZga^X] dg^Zci^ZgiZc
EZY^o^c)
CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z ^hi d]cZ Z^cZ JZk^h^dc YZh NZghiucYc^hhZh YZh DZ^W(KZZaZ(RjhVb(
bZc]Vc\Zh c^X]i bw\a^X]) McY c^X]i cjg ]^Zg' hdcYZgc VjX] ^c VcYZgZc @jbVcY^ho^Ü
ea^cZc ( ^c YZg bdYZgcZc HhnX]dhdbVi^`' Y^Z kdc sm`xaa \Zegu\i ]Vi) WZ^ YZb NdgÜ
YZc`Zg YZg LgVcheZghdcVaZc :ZlZ\jc\ CZc O^aWZg jcY k^ZaZc VcYZgZc ( hZioi h^X]
]ZjiZ Z^cZ \Vco]Z^ia^X]Z hnhiZb^hX]Z K^X]i jcY L]Zdg^ZW^aYjc\ YjgX]) <^Z CwgeZgÜ
i]ZgVe^Z\Z]wgi^cY^ZhZcRjhVbbZc]Vc\)
<^Z CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z ^hi cdX] ^c Z^cZg VcYZgZc >dgb \Vco]Z^ia^X]) K^Z xWZgc^bbi
CdcoZeiZ' HgV`i^`Zc jcY =g[V]gjc\Zc VjX] Vjh VcYZgZc CjaijgZc' heZo^Zaa Vjh YZb
LVd^hbjh' YZb @^cYj^hbjh #LV^ ;]^' Qd\V' ;]^( jcY CjcYVa^c^(ZcZg\^Z ZiX$) <Vh
bVX]ih^ZcdX]k^Za\ZhiVai^\ZgVahh^Zd]cZ]^chX]dc^hi)
=^c :jX] xWZg CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z WZYVg[ YV]Zg Z^cZg :Vh^hdg^Zci^Zgjc\' jb YZc l^hÜ
hZchX]V[ia^X]Zc KiVcYdgi oj `augZc jcY Y^Z \gdzZ RV]a YZg >dgbZc oj dgYcZc) =Y^i]
RjcYZa ]Vi ^c Z^cZg [jcY^ZgiZc =^c[x]gjc\ Y^ZhZ 9j[\VWZ xWZgcdbbZc) K^Z \^Wi
YVb^i YZb DZhZg l^X]i^\Z @^a[Zc [xg hZ^cZ Z^\ZcZc =g`jcYjc\Zc jcY a^Z[Zgi Z^cZc
9chVioojgL]Zdg^ZW^aYjc\'Y^ZZhW^haVc\Vj[Y^ZhZb?ZW^Zi`Vjb\^Wi)
<^Z :Z^igu\Z hX]^aYZgc hZ]g jciZghX]^ZYa^X]Z >dgbZc YZg CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z) =h \^Wi
Z^coZai]ZgVeZji^hX]Z KZii^c\h #:dVYZaaV' :dnZhZc' E^cYZaa' EdhZg' DddbVch' HVc(
[wgYZg$ ZWZchd l^Z \gjeeZci]ZgVeZji^hX]Z #HaZhhZ*Ki) ;aV^g' BdVX]^b jcY <dgdi]ZV
?Vajh`V' E^cYZaa' :dnZhZc$ jcY ?gdz\gjeeZcVgWZ^i) =h \^Wi 9chuioZ' Y^Z h^X] kdgÜ
l^Z\ZcY b^i YZb 9iZb #E^YYZcYdg[*HVc[wgYZg$' YZb 9WYdbZc #?) :dnZhZc jcY
^]gZ LwX]iZg$ dYZg YZb :^cYZ\ZlZWZ #KX]l^cY$ WZhX]u[i^\Zc) <^Z [Zgcwhia^X]Zc
102
:jX]WZhegZX]jc\Zc
EZi]dYZc h^cY YjgX] Qd\V #OZ^h$ jcY RZc #kdc :gxX`$ kZgigZiZc) <Vz Zh Z^c \gdzZg
MciZghX]^ZY ^hi' dW bVc [Zgcwhia^X]Z sWjc\Zc b^i YZb Cjaijg`gZ^h WZigZ^Wi' ^c YZb
h^X ZcihiVcYZc h^cY dYZg ^c YZg lZhia^X]Zc OZai' l^gY ^c YZb 9gi^`Za kdc >jX]h gZX]i
YZjia^X])
<^Z WZ^YZc ?Vajh`Vh [x]gZc hZ]g `aVg ^]gZ `a^c^hX]Z 9gWZ^i kdg jcY hX]^aYZgc ^b
<ZiV^a' lZaX]Z Ndg\Z]ZchlZ^hZc WZ^ ehnX]di^hX]Zc' :dgYZga^cZ(' jcY cZjgdi^hX]Zc
Kigj`ijgZc jcY WZ^ Kiwgjc\Zc ^b igVcheZghdcVaZc :ZgZ^X] ]^a[gZ^X] h^cY) <Zg HhnX]dÜ
VcVani^`Zg EdhZg xWZgc^bbi `g^i^hX] jcY hZ]g Y^[[ZgZco^Zgi c^X]i cjg CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z'
hdcYZgc VjX] '9cYVX]iÉ ^c hZ^c Ljc) OZ^h xWZgoZj\i b^i hZ^cZg AciZ\gVi^dc kdc @Vi]V
Qd\V jcY Ac^i^Vi^hX]Zg L]ZgVe^Z #<xgX`]Z^b$) ?ZgYV :dnZhZc kZgW^cYZi Gg^\^cVa^iui'
Y^Z OZ^h]Z^i ^]gZg aVc\_u]g^\Zc =g[V]gjc\ jcY \gdzZ EZchX]a^X]`Z^i) E^X]VZa kdc
:gxX` VcVanh^Zgi b^i hdjkZgucZg egV`i^hX]Zg jcY i]ZdgZi^hX]Zg >VX]`Zccic^h YVh
DZ^Wa^X]Z ^c YZg RZcZg[V]gjc\) KZ^c :Z^igV\ WZhX]a^Zzi Y^Z <VghiZaajc\Zc jcY `dggZÜ
hedcY^Zgib^iYZg=^caZ^ijc\kdc=Y^i]RjcYZa)
9c\Zh^X]ih YZg CwgeZg[Z^cYa^X]`Z^i k^ZaZg @dX]gZa^\^dcZc #c^X]i cjg YZh ;]g^hiZcÜ
ijbh$ ZglVgiZi bVc Z^\Zcia^X] `Z^cZ NZgW^cYjc\ ol^hX]Zc CwgeZgVgWZ^i jcY Ke^g^Ü
ijVa^iui) >xg ZghiVjca^X] k^ZaZ CwgeZgi]ZgVeZjiZc ^hi Y^ZhZ NZgW^cYjc\ VWZg \Vco
hZaWhikZghiucYa^X]6 h^Z ]VWZc d[[ZcWVg ZcihegZX]ZcYZ =g[V]gjc\Zc) McY Z^c hZ^c(
\gdzZg LZ^a YZg he^g^ijZaaZc OZ\Z #EZY^iVi^dc' Qd\V' >VhiZc' OVX]Zc jcY :ZiZc$
WZo^Z]ZcYZcCwgeZgZ^cdYZgh^cYkdckdgc]ZgZ^c`wgeZga^X]ZOZ\Z)
>xg Y^ZhZ >V`iZc aVhhZc h^X] Z^c^\Z :Z\gxcYjc\Zc [^cYZc) Rj YZc ^ciZgZhhVciZhiZc
\Z]wgi Y^Z 9ccV]bZ Z^cZg heZo^ZaaZc' c^X]i Vc Gg\VcZ \ZWjcYZcZc CwgeZgZcZg\^Z)
<Zg L^iZa YZh :jX]Zh 'Ab =cZg\^Z`gZ^h YZh DZWZcY^\ZcÉ kZglZ^hi YVgVj[) K^Z he^Zai ^c
YZc bZ^hiZc CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z[dgbZc Z^cZ JdaaZ) '=cZg\^Z" jcY YVh 'DZWZcY^\ZÉ
ZghX]Z^cZc ^c lZhia^X](VcVani^hX]Zg :ZigVX]ijc\ l^Z Z^c W^dad\^hi^hX]Zh CdcoZei)
LVihuX]a^X] ]VWZc VWZg jcVW]uc\^\ kdcZ^cVcYZg YZg 9aikViZg YZg CwgeZgi]ZgVe^Z'
O^a]Zab JZ^X] jcY hX]dc aVc\Z kdg ^]b Y^Z AcYZg' Y^Z ;]^cZhZc jcY VcYZgZ OZ^hÜ
]Z^ihigVY^i^dcZc Z^cZ =cZg\^Z ZciYZX`i' Y^Z oj\aZ^X] CwgeZgZcZg\^Z jcY `dhb^hX]Z
=cZg\^Z ^hi #Gg\dc' CjcYVa^c^' ;]É^$) =aZbZciZ Y^ZhZg =cZg\^Z he^Z\Zac h^X] ^b
>gZjYÉ hZ]Zc CdcoZei YZg D^W^Yd ZWZchd l^Z ^c :Zg\hdcÉh =aVc k^iVa jcY ^b @Z^a^\ZcÜ
hX]Z^c jcY YZg EVcYdgaV Vj[ b^iiZaVaiZga^X]Zc :^aYZgc) E^i Y^ZhZg =cZg\^Z ^hi bVc
YZb ?Z]Z^bc^h YZg NZgW^cYjc\ ol^hX]Zc CwgeZg jcY Ke^g^ijVa^iui d[[ZcWVg WZhdcÜ
YZgh cV]Z) >xg E^X]VZa kdc :gxX` ^hi YZg lV]gZ CwgeZg Y^Z '=^c]Z^i YZg jc^kZghVaZc
=cZg\^ZÉ) H^ZiZg DddbVch VgWZ^iZi Zg[da\gZ^X] b^i Y^ZhZb CwgeZgZcZg\^Z`dcoZei WZ^
YZg:Zluai^\jc\ehnX]dhZcV]ZgRjhiucYZ)
Ach\ZhVbi ^hi Y^ZhZh :jX] l^X]i^\ [xg CwgeZgi]ZgVeZjiZc' qgoiZ' HhnX]dad\Zc jcY
kZglVcYiZ :Zgj[Z) =h Yxg[iZ _ZYdX] c^X]i cjg >VX]aZjiZ VchegZX]Zc) 9jX] YZg ^ciZgÜ
Zhh^ZgiZ DV^Z l^gY WZ^ YZg DZ`ixgZ ojg JZ[aZm^dc xWZg hZ^cZ DZ^WZm^hiZco Vc\ZgZ\i jcY
lV]ghX]Z^ca^X]VjX]ojbegV`i^hX]Zc=gegdWZcYZgZ^cZcdYZgVcYZgZcEZi]dYZ)
CVga(@Z^coMgaVjW'Cwac
3FJNY3FMLJNH">NRJDISCBQF;FBLJS[SFN+-FQJDISF#0QLFCNJRRF#=BSRBDIFN
NZgaV\<^Z:aVjZ=jaZ'=hhZc,440'00-KZ^iZc
<Zg <^eadb(HhnX]dad\Z @Z^co @Zba^c\ bVX]i ^c hZ^cZb xWZg 0++ KZ^iZc hiVg`Zc
:jX] YZc NZghjX]' Z^c OZ^iZgaZWZc cVX] YZb LdY ^c Z^cZg WZZ^cYgjX`ZcYZc KVbbÜ
ajc\ kdc XV) ,0+ hedciVcZc eVgVcdgbVaZc =g[V]gjc\Zc' Y^Z Zg ^b'Gg^\^cVaidc% hZ^cZg
103
:jX]WZhegZX]jc\Zc
AciZgk^Zlh kdghiZaai' oj WZ\gxcYZc) =h ]VcYZai h^X] xWZgl^Z\ZcY jb iZaZeVi]^hX]Z
CdciV`iZ ol^hX]Zc DZWZcYZc' YZgZc ?ZhZioZ ( o) :) ^]g \Z]uj[iZh 9j[igZiZc ^c
LgVjbojhiucYZc hdl^Z ^c Cg^hZch^ijVi^dcZc Zc\ kZgWjcYZcZg EZchX]Zc ( YZg 9jidg
Vc]VcY hZ^cZg >uaaZ jcY ojhuioa^X]Zg D^iZgVijgVc\VWZc ^bbZg l^ZYZg ]Zgkdg]ZWi)
<VWZ^ lZ^hi Zg b^i JZX]i YVgVj[ ]^c' YVz WZhdcYZgh Kej`e]ucdbZcZ jcY hX]Z^cWVg
eVgVcdgbVaZ CdciV`iZ b^i NZghidgWZcZc VjX] he^g^i^hi^hX] jcY YVb^i Vah @^clZ^h Vj[
Z^cOX^iZgaZWZccVX]YZbLdYojYZjiZch^cY)
Ac hZ^cZg hiucY^\Zc 9WlZ]g YZg bZ]g Vc^b^hi^hX] dg^Zci^ZgiZc HVgVehnX]dad\^Z
\Z]i @) @Zba^c\ _ZYdX] c^X]i hZaiZc oj lZ^i) Kd kZghujbi Zg WZ^ YZc hd\ZcVcciZc
bZY^VaZc jcY VjidbVi^hi^hX]Zc DZ^hijc\Zc bVcX]Zg EZchX]Zc Z^cZ Y^[[ZgZco^ZgiZ
=g`augjc\ Vjh YZc bdYZgcZc CZccic^hhZc YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc bjai^(b^cY(KnhiZbh
?Z]^gc' o^i^Zgi olZ^[Za]V[iZ ZhdiZg^hX]Z jcY 'bZY^VaZÉ HjWa^`Vi^dcZc Vah l^hhZcÜ
hX]V[ia^X]ZLVihVX]ZcdYZggZhxb^Zgil^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Z9gWZ^iZcc^X]i^bbZgg^X]i^\)
:Z^he^ZahlZ^hZ ]VWZc Gh^h jcY @VgVaYhhdc c^Z Y^Z =cYdge]^c(@nedi]ZhZ YZg KiZgÜ
WZZg[V]gjc\Zc l^YZgaZ\i' YZgZc eVgVcdgbVaZ CdbedcZciZc jcY gZa^\^whZ :^aYZg o) L)
YjgX]Vjh cdX] Vjh YZb McWZljziZc YZh =gaZWZcYZc oj Zg`augZc h^cY6 Y^Z =m^hiZco
Z^cZh 9higVa`wgeZgh ^hi h^X]Zg `Z^cZ ÖVcZg`VcciZ LVihVX]Z' Y^Z c^X]i bZ]g WZl^ZhZc
lZgYZc oj WgVjX]iÅ6 Z^c hiucY^\Zh b^i(h^X](hZaWhi(JZYZc ^hi c^X]i Vj[ BZchZ^ih`dcÜ
iV`iZ ojgxX`oj[x]gZc' Z^c Ki^bbZc]wgZc ^hi ojbZ^hi Z^cZ V`jhi^hX]Z @Vaajo^cVi^dc
jcY YZg EV\^Zg ;deeZg[^ZaY `Vcc h^X] WZhi^bbi c^X]i YXbViZg^Va^h^ZgZc) :ZhdcYZgh
olZ^[Za]V[i ^hi YZg NZghjX]' #[gV\a^X]$ HVgVcdgbVaZh xWZg [gx]ZgZ DZWZc oj Zg`augZc'
jcY Zh [Z]ai Z^cZ YZjia^X]Z OVgcjc\ kdg he^g^i^hi^hX]Zc HgV`i^`Zc l^Z YZb 9cgj[Zc
kdcNZghidgWZcZck^V?auhZggxX`ZcdYZgYZghd\ZcVcciZcLdcWVcYhi^bbZciZX]c^`)
?ZgVYZ kdc YZg X]g^hia^X]Zc C^gX]Z' YZg YZg 9jidg ^bbZg l^ZYZg kdgl^g[i' h^Z
jciZgYgxX`Z Y^Z Ö:ZlZ^hZÅ [xg Z^c DZWZc cVX] YZb LdY' `wcciZ Zg aZgcZc' YVz WZ^ YZg
:ZjgiZ^ajc\ YZg k^ZaZc ZhdiZg^hX]Zc @Z^ahaZ]gZc jcY ÑBZchZ^ih`dciV`iZÇ Y^Z W^Wa^hX]Z
OVgcjc\ kdg Ö[VahX]Zc Hgde]ZiZcÅ jcY YVb^i kdg [VahX]Zb' jcl^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zb
>xglV]g]VaiZchZ]gVc\ZWgVX]i^hi)
OZcc bVc Y^ZhZ <Z[^o^iZ kdg 9j\Zc ]Vi' ^hi YVh :jX] kdc @) @Zba^c\ _ZYdX] Vah
>jcY\gjWZ kdc hedciVc Vj[igZiZcYZc jc\Zlw]ca^X]Zc jcY eVgVcdgbVaZc =g[V]gjcÜ
\Zc YjgX]Vjh oj Zbe[Z]aZc) <VWZ^ ^hi Zh WZhdcYZgh Y^Z 9jh[x]ga^X]`Z^i jcY YZg Gg^Ü
\^cVaidc YZg AciZgk^Zlh' Y^Z ^]gZ =X]i]Z^i WZoZj\Zc jcY YZb DZhZg Z^c lZgikdaaZh
EZ]g Vc Ac[dgbVi^dcZc kZgb^iiZac) Fjg hd l^gY cuba^X] Jle wlrkllche 8eJeutung
Y^ZhZg jc\Zlw]ca^X]Zc Wol) eVgVcdgbVaZc =g[V]gjc\Zc lm lehen Jer 8etroffenen
YZjia^X]' lVh ^c eVgVehnX]dad\^hX]Zc KVX]WxX]Zgc b^i ^]gZg :Zidcjc\ Vj[ YZg i]ZdÜ
gZi^hX]Zc Gg^Zci^Zgjc\ YZh 9jidgh ojbZ^hi kZgadgZc\Z]i) E^i Y^ZhZb KX]lZgejc`i
kZgb^iiZac @Zba^c\h AciZgk^Zlh VjX]' YVz hdaX]Z =g[V]gjc\Zc c^X]i cjg [xg YZc =gÜ
aZWZcYZc' hdcYZgc VjX] [xg YZc 9jidg ( jcY hX]a^Zza^X] VjX] [xg YZc jckdgZ^c\ZÜ
cdbbZcZcDZhZg(Z^c@^clZ^hVj[Z^cDZWZccVX]YZbLdYhZ^c`wccZc)
E)KX]gwiZg(Cjc]VgYi'OZ^chWZg\
,XXB6IFMB"/BR2Q\^SFJRSEJF7JFCF
<^Z:Zg\egZY^\ijcYYVh@d]Za^ZYYZgD^ZWZVjhWjYY]^hi^hX]ZgK^X]i
B]VcVNZgaV\'MiiZcWx]a,440',+/KZ^iZc
Rj Z^cZg RZ^i' YV h^X] Y^Z whia^X]Zc OZ^h]Z^ihaZ]gZc jcY Y^Z O^hhZchX]V[i YZh
OZhiZch Z^cVcYZg cu]Zgc' ^hi Zh 9nnV C]ZbV b^i ^]gZb cZjZhiZc :jX] \Zajc\Zc'
104
:jX]WZhegZX]jc\Zc
?ZbZ^chVb`Z^iZc YZh :jYY]^hbjh jcY YZh ;]g^hiZcijbh YVgojaZ\Zc) Ac ^]gZg jckZgÜ
lZX]hZaWVg `aVgZc jcY Z^c[VX]Zc KegVX]Z oZ^\i h^Z Vj[' YVz WZ^YZ JZa^\^dcZc YVh
\aZ^X]ZR^ZakZg[da\Zc)
Ab ZghiZc CVe^iZa WZo^Z]i h^X] Y^Zh WZ^he^ZahlZ^hZ Vj[ Y^Z WZY^c\jc\hadhZ D^ZWZ'
Y^Z hdld]a ^b ,.) CVe^iZa YZh Cdg^ci]ZgWg^Z[Zh Vah VjX] ^c YZg D^ZWZcYZc(?xiZ(
DZ]ggZYZ :jYY]Vh Vc\ZhegdX]Zc l^gY) <^Z 9jidg^c Zg`augi c^X]i cjg YZc :Z\g^[[ YZg
ÖWZY^c\jc\hadhZc D^ZWZÅ ^b <ZiV^a' hdcYZgc \^Wi VjX] \ZcVjZ 9clZ^hjc\Zc' l^Z l^g
Y^ZhZ ÖgZ^cZÅ =bdi^dc ^c jch Zcil^X`Zac `wccZc5 ÖAb Hg^co^e `dbbi Zh \Vg c^X]i
YVgVj[ Vc' lZaX]Zg JZa^\^dc l^g [da\Zc' hdcYZgc cjg' dW l^g Y^Z 9clZ^hjc\Zc egV`Ü
i^o^ZgZc)Å
Ac YZc CVe^iZac AAAÄNA Zg`augi 9nnV C]ZbV Y^Z :Zg\egZY^\i Vjh WjYY]^hi^hX]Zg
K^X]i) :Z^he^ZahlZ^hZ WZYZjiZi ÖVgb hZ^c ^b ?Z^hiÅ c^X]ih VcYZgZh Vah Y^Z EZY^iVi^dc'
Y) ]) YZg RjhiVcY' ^c YZb YZg ?Z^hi Vj[]wgi oj YZc`Zc' oj eaVcZc jcY oj lxchX]Zc'
jcY Z^cbVa l^g`a^X] ojg Jj]Z `dbbi) <Zb_Zc^\Zc' YZg Y^Zh ZggZ^X]i ]Vi' Ö\Z]wgi YVh
@^bbZagZ^X]Å' lVh ^c YZg WjYY]^hi^hX]Zc DZ]gZ Y^Z ?axX`hZa^\`Z^i YZg bZY^iVi^kZc
NZgi^Z[jc\ZcWZYZjiZi)
<^Z WjYY]^hi^hX]Z FdccZ 9nnV C]ZbV ljgYZ ,4-. Vah C^cY _xY^hX]Zg =aiZgc ^c
:Zga^c \ZWdgZc jcY WZ\Vcc YjgX] Y^Z >ajX]i Vjh <ZjihX]aVcY hX]dc Vah ,0_u]g^\Z Z^cZ
GYnhhZZ' Y^Z h^Z ^c k^ZaZ DucYZg YZg OZai [x]giZ) K^Z ^hi EjiiZg jcY ?gdzbjiiZg' ]Vi
olZ^ CawhiZg hdl^Z YVh :jYY]V(@Vjh ^b 9aa\uj \Z\gxcYZi' ^c YZb h^Z Y^Z bZ^hiZ RZ^i
aZWijcYaZ]gi)
<Vh :jX] hiZaai Z^cZc l^X]i^\Zc EZ^aZchiZ^c Vj[ YZb OZ\ YZh w`jbZc^hX]Zc
?ZheguX]ZhYVg'YVhYZg9jidg^cWZhdcYZghVb@ZgoZca^Z\i)
LgVjYZaJZ^z'Gn(E^iiZaWZg\
8elJerkeJcktlonelngegcngeneNeuerschelnungen:
@JLLJ8BRRB+<DIVFJHFNTNE@OQS
AX](>^cYjc\' <j(>^cYjc\' ?dii(>^cYjc\' Ndgigu\Z ojg EZY^iVi^dc ^b Ki^a YZh
R=F' 0) ZglZ^iZgiZ 9j[aV\Z' ,440' b^i Vjh[x]ga^X]Zb lZ^iZg[x]gZcYZc D^iZgVijgkZgÜ
oZ^X]c^h',,4KZ^iZc'FZjbx]aZ(NZgaV\'EZiiaVX])
0QJDI6FLLFQ+/]GSFCFVT^SFQGBIQFNTNENTSYFN
?gjcYaV\Zc' egV`i^hX]Z 9clZcYjc\' :Z^he^ZaZ' KX]Zgo(NZgaV\' ExcX]Zc' ,440'
-01KZ^iZc'.-9WW^aYjc\Zc)
4NHQJE6QBBYk);OIQ+1OQMFN"1BQCFNTNE<XMCOLFCFVT^SFQGBIQFNTNENTSYFN
<^Z cZjZ AciZ\gVa(L]ZgVe^Z' b^i KdcYZgiZ^a >Zc\(K]j^' KX]Zgo(NZgaV\' ExcX]Zc'
,440'--+KZ^iZc'-39WW^aYjc\Zc)
?BQEB3BRRFLMBNN"1QBNK<DIMOLKF+@FJRIFJSEFQ<FFLF
LgVcXZ(:dihX]V[iZc xWZg YZc K^cc YZg =m^hiZco' ?daYbVcc(NZgaV\' ExcX]Zc'
,440'/23KZ^iZc)
?JDSOQ.IT+7JFCF"=QFTFTNE?FQQBS
Ndc YZg KX]l^Zg^\`Z^i' h^X] hZaWhi jcY YZb HVgicZg igZj oj hZ^c' CwhZa(NZgaV\'
ExcX]Zc',440'-41KZ^iZc)
105
7cgungen
,0) AciZgcVi^dcVaZ igVcheZghdcVaZ Cdc[ZgZco kdb ,1) W^h -,) 0) ,441 ^c EVcVjh'
:gVh^a^Zc
=FDINOLOHJFROGSIF<BDQFE
JZ[ZgZciZc5 9) 9gg^Zc' <) ;]degV' ;) jcY K) ?gd[' K) Cg^eecZg' J) EZiocZg' 9)
E^cYZaa'JVb<Vhh'E)JdhhZaa^'H)JjhhZaa'>)NVj\]Vc'J)OVah]'j)k)V)
Ac[dgbVi^dc5 AciZgcVi^dcVa LgVcheZghdcVa 9hhdX^Vi^dc #AL9$' -+ Kjccnh^YZ 9kZ)'
Kj^iZ9-02'E^aaNVaaZn';94/4/,'MK9)
OdgaY ;dc[ZgZcXZ d[ HhnX]dhnci]Zh^h' -,) W^h -1) Bja^ ,441' KVc <^Z\d' ;9' MK9
:RXDIORXNSIFRJRGOQSIF9FWS.FNSTQX
Ö))) aZi jh gZVa^oZ i]Z Xdcig^Wji^dc lZ XVc bV`Z id i]Z XgZVi^dc d[ V cZl X^k^a^hVi^dc'
X]VgVXiZg^oZY Wn V ]Vgbdc^djh ^ciZ\gVi^dc VcY XddeZgVi^dc' eZgkVYZY Wn i]Z he^g^i d[
hnci]Zh^h)ÅJdWZgid9hhV\^da^
JZ[ZgZciZc5 O^aa^h @VgbVc' EVgi]V ;gVbidc' H^Zgd >ZggjXX^' <^VcV O]^ibdgZ'
@VgdaY:addb[^ZaY'EVhh^bdJdhhZaa^'L]dbVhQZdbVchj)V)
Ac[dgbVi^dc5 HhnX]dhnci]Zh^h AciZgcVi^dcVa' H)G) :dm -24' G_V^' ;9 4.+-/(+-24'
MK9
Ndb ,0) W^h -+) KZeiZbWZg ,441 [^cYZi ^c LdYibddh*KX]lVgolVaY Z^cZ ^ciZgcVi^dÜ
cVaZCdc[ZgZcohiVii)<VhL]ZbVYZgCdc[ZgZco]Z^zi5
6QJRFNEFQ<FFLF#6QJRFNEFQ0QEF#
.IBNDFNG]QFJNNFTFR5BIQSBTRFNE
NZgVchiVaiZg5Ke^g^ijVa=bZg\ZcXZFZildg`'K=F<ZjihX]aVcY(MK9
=h ^hi c^X]i aZ^X]i' ^c YZc AcYjhig^Z\ZhZaahX]V[iZc YZh OZhiZch Gg^Zci^Zgjc\'
?ZWdg\Zc]Z^i jcY K^cc oj [^cYZc) N^ZaZ [x]gi ^]gZ KjX]Z YVcVX] ^c Cg^hZc' ^c Y^Z
KjX]i cVX] 9a`d]da jcY <gd\Zc' cVX] KZm' ?ZlVai' :Zh^io jcY EVX]i' dYZg ^c
<ZegZhh^dcZc jcY VcYZgZ hZZa^hX]Z KX]l^Zg^\`Z^iZc) OVh \ZbZ^c]^c Vah 'kZggxX`iÉ
dYZg '`gVc`É WZoZ^X]cZi l^gY' ^hi d[i Z^cZ [Z]a\ZaZ^iZiZ KZ]chjX]i cVX] jchZgZb
Z^\Zcia^X]Zc OZhZc' cVX] YZg IjZaaZ jcY YZb R^Za jchZgZh DZWZch' cVX] LgVchoZcÜ
YZco)
<^Z OZaiWZkwa`Zgjc\ luX]hi ^c WZuc\hi^\ZcYZb EVz' Y^Z Caj[i ol^hX]Zc Vgb jcY
gZ^X] l^gY ^bbZg \gwzZg' jcY ^bbZg \gwzZg l^gY VjX] Y^Z NZgc^X]ijc\h`gV[i jchZgZg
OV[[Zc) O^g kZg\^[iZc jchZgZc HaVcZiZc' kZgucYZgc jchZg Ca^bV' YVh GodcadX] YZ]ci
h^X] Vjh) OZgYZc jchZgZ =c`Za cdX] OVaY `ZccZc' `wccZc h^Z cdX] hVii lZgYZc' l^gY
Y^Z=gYZcdX]WZld]cWVghZ^c8
106
LV\jc\Zc
Ac Cg^hZc `wccZc KX]bZgo jcY DZ^Y [Vhi jcZgigu\a^X] lZgYZc) Cg^hZc Zci]VaiZc
VWZg VjX] ;]VcXZc) K^Z `wccZc jch d[[ZcZg bVX]Zc' [xg jchZg Z^\Zcia^X]Zh OZhZc' [xg
Y^Z Z^\Zcia^X]Z igVchoZcYZciZ O^g`a^X]`Z^i YZg OZai) O^g `wcciZc b^i jchZgZc ]Zji^Ü
\Zc iZX]c^hX]Zc Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc Y^Z OZaiWZkwa`Zgjc\ Zgcu]gZc jcY jchZgZ =gYZ
Zg]VaiZc) 9WZg l^g bxziZc aZgcZc' jch oj Z^c^\Zc' ojhVbbZcojVgWZ^iZc jcY \ZgZX]i
ojiZ^aZc)MchZgZCg^hZc`wcciZcjchYVhaZ]gZc)
y 9j[ YZb Cdc\gZz l^gY Zh k^ZaZ Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc ojg :Z\Z\cjc\ \ZWZc' WZ^ NdgiguÜ
\Zc'<^h`jhh^dcZcjcYOdg`h]deh'WZ^bLVcoZc'EVaZcjcYEjh^o^ZgZc)
y =h l^gY VjX] k^ZaZ Ew\a^X]`Z^iZc ojg :Zh^ccjc\ \ZWZc' WZ^ EZY^iVi^dcZc' ^b
JVjbYZgKi^aaZjcYWZ^OVcYZgjc\ZcYjgX]Y^ZMb\ZWjc\kdcLdYibddh)
y BZYZc FVX]b^iiV\ lZgYZc Odg`h]deh jcY <^h`jhh^dch[dgZc Vc\ZWdiZc' jcY
cVixga^X] \^Wi Zh VjX] Odg`h]deh kdg jcY cVX] YZg Cdc[ZgZco) KiVc jcY ;]g^hi^cV
?gd[W^ZiZcYVWZ^ojbZghiZcEVaD^[Z(Ejh^`ojb@dadigdeZc9ibZcVc)
y 9jX] A]gZ C^cYZg h^cY Z^c\ZaVYZc) 9j[ Z^cZg C^cYZg`dc[ZgZco lZgYZc h^X c^X]i
cjgkZghdg\i'hdcYZgcZgchi\ZcdbbZcjcYV`i^kWZiZ^a^\i)
y <Zc E^iiZaejc`i _ZYZh Cdc\gZziV\Zh l^gY Z^c HaZcjbhg^ijVa W^aYZc) N^Zg cVX]
aVc\Zc DZ]g_V]gZc ^c^i^^ZgiZ jcY Vjidg^h^ZgiZ @Z^aZg jcY DZ]gZg Vjh ^cY^Vc^hX]Zc
jcY VcYZgZc VaiZc CjaijgZc \ZhiVaiZc Y^ZhZ J^ijVaZ ^b K^ccZ YZh ^cY^Vc^hX]Zc
EZY^o^cgVYZh) K^X ldaaZc YjgX] Cg^hZc jcY =gcZjZgjc\ Z^cZ \ZbZ^chVbZ N^h^dc
[xg Y^Z @Z^ajc\ jchZgZh HaVcZiZc jcY jchZgZg KZZaZc Zg[V]gWVg bVX]Zc jcY hd
_ZYZbLV\hZ^cZWZhdcYZgZ9ibdhe]ugZ\ZWZc)
y <^Z Ndgb^iiV\Z h^cY [xg Ndgigu\Z WZhi^bbi) MciZg YZc Z^c\ZaVYZcZc JZ[ZgZciZc
h^cY5
9nnV C]ZbV' 9cVcY^(EV' E^X]VZa kdc :gxX`' ?ZgigjYZ ;gd^hh^Zg' F^`daVjh =^cÜ
]dgc' =e]\Zcn >V^Y^h]' BdVX]^b ?Vajh`V' BVn ?daY[VgW' MghjaV 9abZ^YV(?daY[VgW'
:dcc^Z ?gZZclZaa' ;]g^hi^cV ?gd[' KiVc^haVk ?gd[' O^aa^\Zh Bu\Zg' Ac\d BV]ghZio'
Bndi^ #BZVcc^cZ$ HgZkVii' ?adg^V CVge^ch`^' QkdccZ CVhdc' BVX` Cdgc[^ZaY' H^ZiZg
DddbVch' BjY^i] E^aaZg' L^abVc EdhZg' @ZYZ kdc FV\Za' JjhhZa HVg`' Bd]c HZggn'
Kd\nVa J^bedX]Z' ?VWg^ZaZ Jdi]' L]ZdYdg KZ^[Zgi' KZg\ZjZ^ LZgZh]`^c' E^X]VZa
NZcijgV'KnakZhiZgOVaX]'=Y^i]RjcYZa)
Ac[dgbVi^dc jcY 9cbZaYjc\ ojg Cdc[ZgZco Cg^hZc YZg =gYZ ( Cg^hZc YZg KZZaZ
kdb,0)W^h-+)KZeiZbWZg^cLdYibddh*KX]lVgolVaY5
JxiiZ(>dgjb
?gV[(<xgX`]Z^b(OZ\,1
2413-LdYibddh
K=F(Cdc[ZgZco
LZa)5+212/*30,,#4(,2M]g$6>Vm5+212/*301,
107
/JF,TSOQFNEJFRFQ,TRHBCF
lrcmbcch' luJwlg, <g) i]Zda)' BV]g\Vc\ ,40/' ZkVc\Za^hX]Zg L]Zdad\Z' H[VggZg
jcY HhnX]di]ZgVeZji' 9jhW^aYjc\ ^c ?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z*AciZ\gVi^kZg L]ZgVe^Z #KnbWd(
adc Achi^iji*>HA$' aVc\_u]g^\Z RZc(HgVm^h #@) E) =cdb^nV(DVhVaaZ' 9) E) 9gd`^V(
hVbn6 ;]) B) :ZX`$' DZ^ijc\ kdc EZY^iVi^dch`jghZc' NZgw[[Zcia^X]jc\5 AYZci^iui jcY
:Z[gZ^jc\^c?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z'RZcjcYX]g^hia^X]ZgKe^g^ijVa^iui#,44/$)
Gcluskc, 1occhlm, <g) bZY)' B\) ,40/' >VX]Vgoi [xg HhnX]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Z EZY^o^c
jcY [xg HhnX]^Vig^Z jcY HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z' ;]Z[Vgoi YZg >VX]`a^c^` @Z^a^\Zc[ZaY ^c :VY
C^hh^c\Zc6 ?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z jcY AciZ\gVi^kZ L]ZgVe^Z #>HA$' Gg\dYncVb^`' Vjidg)
DZ]gZg WjYY]^hi^hX]Zg EZY^iVi^dc #9nnV C]ZbV$' -) Ndgh^ioZcYZg YZh K=F(<ZjihX](
aVcY)
GunJermcnn, 8ernJ, B\) ,4/2' :ZhX]u[i^\jc\hi]ZgVeZji ^c YZg EVgWVX]iVa`a^c^` ^c
:VY C^hh^c\Zc' DZ]gVbihhijY^jb ^c YZc >uX]Zgc Ejh^` jcY :^dad\^Z' aVc\_u]g^\Z
9jhxWjc\ YZg LgVchoZcYZciVaZc EZY^iVi^dc' :Z[Vhhjc\ b^i ^cY^hX]Zg jcY ZjgdeuÜ
^hX]ZgH]^adhde]^Z)#9chX]g^[i5<g)?Zdg\(@Z^b(KigVzZ/V'42133:VYC^hh^c\Zc$
lömmerll, kuJolf, <g) e]^a)' B\) ,4/4' ?nbcVh^VaaZ]gZg jcY HhnX]dhnci]ZhZi]ZgV(
eZji' FVX]aVzkZglVaiZg YZh Cjaijge]^adhde]Zc BZVc ?ZWhZg' @ZgVjh\ZWZg YZg VX]iÜ
WucY^\Zc ?ZhVbiVjh\VWZ kdc BZVc ?ZWhZg jcY YZh ?ZWhZg(KVbbZaWVcYZh Ö=^cÜ
WgjX] YZg RZ^iÅ) KZ^c @Vjei^ciZgZhhZ \^ai YZg =g[dghX]jc\ YZg kZghX]^ZYZcZc :Zljzi(
hX^chhigj`ijgZc' YZg :ZljzihZ^chZcil^X`ajc\ YZh EZchX]Zc jcY YZb KijY^jb YZg
KX]axhhZae]ucdbZcZLgVjbjcYRZ^i)
lcnnert, 1onnc, H]) <) ^c Xa^c^XVa ehnX]dad\n' @necdi]ZgVeZji^c' ]dhe^XZ XdjchZadg'
heZo^Va^h^Zgi ^c he^g^ijZaaZc jcY gZa^\^whZc L]ZbZc ^c YZg HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z) HjWa^`Vi^dÜ
cZc^ckZghX]^ZYZcZcRZ^ihX]g^[iZcZ^chX]a)BdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n)
5chroter-lunhcrJt, Mlchcel, \ZW) ,401' 9hh^hiZcoVgoi ^b HhnX]^Vig^hX]Zc DVcYZhÜ
`gVc`Zc]Vjh OZ^chWZg\) DVj[ZcYZ 9jhW^aYjc\ ^c NZg]VaiZchi]ZgVe^Z' VcVani^hX]Zg
HhnX]di]ZgVe^Z jcY @necdhZ) DZ^iZg YZg YZjihX]Zc KZ`i^dc [xg FV](LdYZh[dghX]jc\)
>dghX]jc\hhX]lZgejc`iZ5 H]ucdbZcdad\^Z' <^[[ZgZci^VaY^V\cdhZ jcY :ZlZgijc\
gZa^\^whZg*bnhi^hX]Zg =g[V]gjc\Zc jcY ZhdiZg^hX]Zg DZ]gZc' ^chWZhdcYZgZ kdc Ke^g^Ü
i^hbjh' G``jai^hbjh jcY JZ^c`VgcVi^dchkdghiZaajc\Zc6 MciZghjX]jc\Zc ojg AcYj`Ü
i^dcehnX]^hX]ZgKiwgjc\ZcYjgX]EVhhZcbZY^Zc)
7crt, Chcrles, 7., Hgd[Zhhdg [xg HhnX]dad\^Z Vc YZg Mc^kZgh^iui ^c <Vk^h' ;Va^[dgc^V)
EZ]gZgZ NZgw[[Zcia^X]jc\Zc ^b BdjgcVa d[ LgVcheZghdcVa HhnX]dad\n jcY kZghX]^ZÜ
YZcZg :xX]Zg' YVgjciZg5 LgVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z #,423$' JZ^hZ YZh =glVX]Zch
#,430$'@ZaalVX]jcYWZljziaZWZc#,433$)
vcughcn, lrcnces, H])<)' [gx]ZgZ Hguh^YZci^c YZg VbZg^`Vc^hX]Zc NZgZ^c^\jc\ [xg
LgVcheZghdcVaZ HhnX]dad\^Z' iui^\ Vah HhnX]dad\^c ^c ehnX]di]ZgVeZji^hX]Zg HgVm^h
jcY ^c YZg bZY^o^c^hX]Zc >V`jaiui YZg Mc^kZgh^iui Agk^cZ' ;Va^[dgc^V) EZ]gZgZ NZgw[Ü
[Zcia^X]jc\Zc ^c kZghX]^ZYZcZc RZ^ihX]g^[iZc Z^chX]a) BdjgcVa d[ LgVcheZghdcVa HhnÜ
X]dad\n' 9jidg^c kdc5 <^Z JZ^hZ ojg ?Vco]Z^i #,44+$' @Z^ajc\ Vjh YZb AccZgZc
#,44.$'Acij^i^kZgaZWZc#,44,$)
108
9jidgZc
wclJmcn, Mcrk, b^c^hiZg^Va XdjchZadg' Ndgh^ioZcYZg YZh Ddh 9c\ZaZh LgVcheZghdcVa
AciZgZhi ?gdje' <^gZ`idg kdc @ZVgia^cZ) Z^cZb ehnX]dhe^g^ijZaaZc Fdigj[( jcY Ac[dgÜ
bVi^dchY^Zchi' @ZgVjh\ZWZg kdc KeZX^Va JZedgih5 LgVcheZghdcVa HZgheZXi^kZh ^c
HhnX]dad\n' @ZgVjh\ZWZg YZh LgVcheZghdcVa JZk^Zl' HjWa^`Vi^dcZc ^c kZghX]^ZÜ
YZcZcRZ^ihX]g^[iZcZ^chX]a)BdjgcVad[LgVcheZghdcVaHhnX]dad\n)
wclsh, koger, M. D., H]) <)' Hgd[Zhhdg YZg HhnX]^Vig^Z' H]^adhde]^Z jcY 9ci]gdedÜ
ad\^Z Vc YZg Mc^kZgh^in d[ ;Va^[dgc^V' Agk^cZ) =g ]Vi ^b BdjgcVa d[ LgVcheZghdcVa HhnÜ
X]dad\n k^Za[uai^\Z 9gi^`Za kZgw[[Zcia^X]i jcY ^hi VjzZgYZb 9jidg k^ZaZg 9gi^`Za ^c
VcYZgZc HjWa^`Vi^dcZc hdl^Z Y^kZghZg :xX]Zg ^b :ZgZ^X] YZg LgVcheZghdcVaZc HhnÜ
X]dad\^Z' FZjgdehnX]dad\^Z' HhnX]^Vig^Z jcY 9ci]gdedad\^Z) 9jidg kdc5 <Zg ?Z^hi
YZhKX]VbVc^hbjh#,44-$)
wels, lcns-wllll, <g) e]^a)' \ZW) ,40,' Kdo^Val^hhZchX]V[iaZg' Qd\V( jcY EZY^iVÜ
i^dchaZ]gZg6 kZg\aZ^X]ZcYZ >dghX]jc\ xWZg he^g^ijZaaZ LgVY^i^dcZc ^c ^]gZb hdo^d`ja(
ijgZaaZc CdciZmi) NdgigV\h( jcY KZb^cVgiui^\`Z^i j)V) ^c LdYibddh(JxiiZ #?gV[
<xgX`]Z^b(RZcigjb$) Bxc\hiZ NZgw[[Zcia^X]jc\5 Ö@Vi]V(Qd\V Vah DZ^WZmZgo^i^jb
jcY ?ZWugYZchegVX]ZÅ ^c ÖAb =cZg\^Z`gZ^h YZh DZWZcY^\ZcÅ #@gh\)5 =) RjcYZa jcY H)
DddbVch'@ZgYZg,440$)
r
109
llnwelsefurAutoren:
Allgemelnes:
Gestcltung:
lormunJ0mfcng:
Zuscmmenfcssungen:
llterctur:
lnformctlonen
uberJenAutor:
EVcjh`g^eiZ^chZcYjc\Zc lZgYZc Vc Z^cZc YZg KX]g^[iÜ
aZ^iZgZgWZiZc#h)AbegZhhjb$)
>xg Y^Z RZ^ihX]g^[i lZgYZc cjg jckZgw[[Zcia^X]iZ :Z^Ü
igu\Z Vc\ZcdbbZc' Y^Z c^X]i \aZ^X]oZ^i^\ Vc VcYZgZg
KiZaaZ ojg NZgw[[Zcia^X]jc\ Z^c\ZgZ^X]i lZgYZc) E^i YZb
9WYgjX` YZh :Z^igV\h Zgl^gWi YZg NZgaV\ VaaZ JZX]iZ'
^chWZhdcYZgZ YVh VaaZ^c^\Z jcY VjhhX]a^Zza^X]Z JZX]i [xg
Y^Z NZgw[[Zcia^X]jc\' [xg Y^Z lZ^iZgZ NZgk^Za[uai^\jc\
jcYojgsWZghZiojc\[xgVaaZKegVX]ZcjcYDucYZg)
<Vh EVcjh`g^ei hdaaiZ `aVg jcY xWZgh^X]ia^X] hZ^c jcY
YjgX] Rl^hX]ZcxWZghX]g^[iZc \Z\a^ZYZgi lZgYZc) <^Z
KX]g^[iaZ^ijc\ WZ]uai h^X] YVh JZX]i kdg' cdilZcY^\
ZghX]Z^cZcYZNZgWZhhZgjc\ZckdgojcZ]bZc)
<Vh EVcjh`g^ei ^hi ^c olZ^[VX]Zg 9jh[Zgi^\jc\ bVhX]^Ü
cZc\ZhX]g^ZWZc' bw\a^X]hi a"*
g
oZ^a^\ Z^cojhZcYZc) =h
hdaaiZbVm^bVa-+EVcjh`g^eihZ^iZcc^X]ixWZghX]gZ^iZc)
<Zb EVcjh`g^ei ^hi Z^cZ YZjihX]Z RjhVbbZc[Vhhjc\
b^i YZb Mb[Vc\ kdc ,+(,0 RZ^aZc jcY Z^c Zc\a^hX]Zh
KjbbVgn b^i YZb Zc\a^hX]Zc L^iZa YZg 9gWZ^i WZ^oj[xÜ
\Zc) Ab 9chX]ajz Vc Y^Z RjhVbbZc[Vhhjc\Zc lZgYZc
_ZlZ^ah . W^h 1 YZjihX]Z KX]axhhZaldgiZ jcY . W^h 1 Zc\Ü
a^hX]ZCZnldgYh[dgbja^Zgi)
Ab LZmi YZg 9gWZ^i h^cY ^c CaVbbZgc 9jidgZccVbZ jcY
=ghX]Z^cjc\h_V]g Vcoj\ZWZc' o):) #OVah]' ,44.$) Ab
hZaWZc BV]g ZghX]^ZcZcZ 9gWZ^iZc YZh \aZ^X]Zc 9jidgh
lZgYZc YjgX] V' W' X' jhl) ]^ciZg YZg BV]gZhoV]a \Z`ZccÜ
oZ^X]cZi'o):)#,44-W$)
Ab D^iZgVijgkZgoZ^X]c^h lZgYZc VaaZ ^b LZmi o^i^ZgiZc
9gWZ^iZc Vj[\Z[x]gi) =h ^hi Vae]VWZi^hX] \ZdgYcZi)
RZ^ihX]g^[iZcWZ^igu\Z lZgYZc [da\ZcYZgbVzZc o^i^Zgi5
Kubia^X]Z 9jidgZccVbZc b^i cVX]\ZhiZaaiZc Ac^i^VaZc
YZg NdgcVbZc' =ghX]Z^cjc\h_V]g ^c CaVbbZgc' :Z^Ü
igV\hi^iZa' FVbZ YZg RZ^ihX]g^[i ^c YZg \xai^\Zc 9W`xgÜ
ojc\h[dgb' :VcY( jcY KZ^iZcoV]a) :Z^he^Za5 OVah] J
#,44.$ L]Z LgVcheZghdcVa EdkZbZci5 9 @^hidgn VcY
KiViZ d[ i]Z 9gi) L]Z BdjgcVa d[ LgVcheZghdcVa HhnX]dÜ
ad\n'-0',-.(,.4)
:xX]Zg lZgYZc [da\ZcYZgbVzZc o^i^Zgi5 Kubia^X]Z 9jidÜ
gZccVbZc b^i cVX]\ZhiZaaiZc Ac^i^VaZc YZg NdgcVbZc'
=ghX]Z^cjc\h_V]g ^c CaVbbZgc' kdaahiucY^\Zg :jX]i^iZa'
NZgaV\' NZgaV\hdgi) :Z^he^Za5 O^aWZg C #,433$' <^Z YgZ^
9j\ZcYZg=g`Zccic^h'CwhZa'ExcX]Zc)
Rjg DZhZg^c[dgbVi^dc h^cY [da\ZcYZ 9c\VWZc h^cckdaa5
?ZWjgih_V]g' L^iZa' :Zgj[ jcY \Z\Zclugi^\Zh Lui^\`Z^ihÜ
[ZaY' >jc`i^dcZc l^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zg' WZgj[a^X]Zg dYZg
eda^i^hX]Zg FVijg' AciZgZhhZchX]lZgejc`iZ jcY @^cÜ
lZ^hZVj[Z^\ZcZHjWa^`Vi^dcZc)
OZ^iZgZ:xX]ZgVjhYZbNZgaV\N^VFdkV5
FZjZghX]Z^cjc\Zc,4415
OZccZhkZgaZioi'^hiZh`Z^cZD^ZWZ
.ITDK<PFYYBNO
.3/KZ^iZc'\ZWjcYZc(AK:F.(4-31.-(-+(0
<^ZhZh :jX] kZgucYZgi A]g DZWZc) =^c O^hhZcYZg oZ^\i YZc OZ\' l^Z K^Z Z^c
DZWZc [x]gZc `wccZc' YVh Zg[xaai ^hi kdc D^ZWZ jcY NZghiZ]Zc' kdc >gZjYZ
jcY ?axX`) K^Z Zg[V]gZc ^c .11 CVe^iZac l^X]i^\Z DZWZch\gjcYhuioZ' Y^Z
A]gZol^hX]ZcbZchX]a^X]Zc:Zo^Z]jc\ZcVj[Z^cZ]w]ZgZ=WZcZ]ZWZc)
<^Z OZ^h]Z^i YZg D^ZWZ' Y^Z YZg NZg[VhhZg ^c _V]goZ]ciZaVc\Zg >dghX]jc\hÜ
VgWZ^i Vah HhnX]di]ZgVeZji' Vah lZ^ilZ^i WZ`VcciZg KZb^cVgaZ^iZg' Vah k^h^dÜ
cugZg DZWZchaZ]gZg ZciYZX`i jcY ^c `aVgZ OZ^hjc\Zc jb\ZhZioi ]Vi' kZgÜ
lVcYZaiK^ZjcYWZgx]giA]glV]gZhOZhZc'YVhD^ZWZ^hi)
<jgX]Y^ZVc\ZWdiZcZcsWjc\Zc'Y^ZYVhi]ZdgZi^hX]=g`VcciZVjX]^cYZc
egV`i^hX]Zc9aaiV\jbhZioZc'l^gYYVh:jX]ojZ^cZbOZ\WZ\aZ^iZgjcYJVi\ZWZg^cWZYguc\ZcYZc
:Zo^Z]jc\hcwiZc) OZcc K^Z KX]g^ii [xg KX]g^ii ^c Y^Z l^X]i^\hiZc ?gjcYeg^co^e^Zc YZg D^ZWZ Z^c\Z(
[x]gi lZgYZc' gZ^[Zc K^Z ^c A]gZg KZaWhiZg`Zccic^h' `wccZc A]gZ :Zo^Z]jc\Zc ^c HVgicZghX]V[i jcY
>gZjcYhX]V[i cZj dgYcZc' kZgi^Z[Zc jcY ^ciZch^k^ZgZc) K^Z `wccZc Y^Z MghVX]Zc [xg A]gZ KX]l^Zg^\Ü
`Z^iZc^cYZgD^ZWZZg`ZccZc':adX`VYZcVj[awhZcjcYhZZa^hX]ZOjcYZc]Z^aZcaVhhZc)
?^WYZcOZ\[gZ^[xgY^ZD^ZWZ
7FNDX<PFYYBNO
,13KZ^iZc'\ZWjcYZc(AK:F.(4-31.-(,4(,
Ahi Zh A]g @ZgoZchljchX]' Y^Z Rugia^X]`Z^i' Y^Z KX]wc]Z^i jcY Y^Z >Vho^cVÜ
i^dc Z^cZg \gdzZc D^ZWZ oj Zg[V]gZc8 Ahi A]cZc Y^Z cVixga^X]Z >u]^\`Z^i kZgÜ
adgZc\Z\Vc\Zc' ?Z[x]aZ l^g`a^X] oj Zbe[^cYZc jcY NZgigVji]Z^i oj ZgÜ
aZWZc8OZccY^Zhojig^[[i'^hiY^ZhZh:jX]Z^cZ9cildgiVj[A]gZc@^a[Zgj[
=h ^hi Z^c =gaZWc^h' YVh A]g @Zgo WZlZ\Zc l^gY jcY K^Z ^c Z^cZg OZ^hZ
WZgx]gZcl^gY'l^ZK^ZZhkdg]ZgcjghZaiZcZg[V]gZc]VWZc)
<Vz l^g VaaZ Z^cZ jcVjhawhX]a^X]Z KZ]chjX]i cVX] YZg =^c]Z^i YZg D^ZWZ
]VWZc'WZhX]gZ^Wi DZcXn KeZooVcd ^cheVccZcYZc jcY^ccZga^X] WZgx]gZcÜ
YZc =gaZWc^hhZc' Y^Z Vjh ^]gZg Z^\ZcZc aZWZcY^\Zc DZWZchZg[V]gjc\ jcY
^]gZc Vch OjcYZg \gZcoZcYZc @Z^aZg[da\Zc' ^]gZg L]ZgVe^Z( jcY :ZgViZgiui^\`Z^i ZcihiVcYZc h^cY)
Ac YZg i^Z[\gZ^[ZcYZc KZZaZcVcVanhZ YZh bZchX]a^X]Zc OZhZch YjgX]Wg^X]i Y^ZNZg[VhhZg^cY^ZEVhÜ
`ZcjcYJdaaZc'Y^Zh^X]YZgEZchX]VahkZgbZ^cia^X]ZcKZaWhihX]jioVc\ZaZ\i]Vi)
?^Wc^X]iVj[
4LONB1ODBLJ
2-KZ^iZc'\ZWjcYZc'.-[VgW^\Z>didh
AK:F.(4-31.-(-.(P
N^ZaZ EZchX]Zc hjX]Zc ]ZjiZ cVX] `aZ^cZc ?ZhX]Zc`Zc' Y^Z YZb :ZÜ
hX]Zc`iZcbZ]g\ZWZcVahcjgZ^cZbViZg^ZaaZ?VWZ)<^Z`aZ^cZ:jX]gZ^]Z
ÖKe^g^ijZaaZgJZ^X]ijbZg[xaaiY^ZhZOxchX]Z)
y E^i ^]gZc KZciZcoZc jcY OZ^h]Z^ihldgiZc' Y^Z Vjh YZg L^Z[Z Z^\ZcZc
bnhi^hX]Zc =gaZWZch ZcihiVcYZc h^cY' bVX]i Y^Z NZg[VhhZg^c AadcV >dXVa^
Eji' VjX] ^c hX]l^Zg^\Zc DZWZchh^ijVi^dcZc c^X]i Vj[oj\ZWZc) A]gZ
9e]dg^hbZchX]Zc`Zc@d[[cjc\jcYhe^g^ijZaaZ=g`Zccic^h)
y =^cYgjX`hkdaaZ >didh jciZghixioZc ^c ^]gZg L]ZbVi^` jcY 9jhg^X]ijc\ Y^Z OdgiZ YZh LgdhiZh jcY
YZg RjkZgh^X]i' aVYZc ojg :ZigVX]ijc\ jcY EZY^iVi^dc Z^c) <Zg RjhVbbZc`aVc\ kdc Odgi jcY
:^aYawhi_ZcZWZ[gZ^ZcYZKX]l^c\jc\YZg=g`Zccic^hVjh'Y^ZYVhDZWZckZgucYZgc`Vcc)
y Kd l^gY Y^ZhZh :xX]aZ^c b^i hZ^cZg he^g^ijZaaZc CgV[i oj Z^cZb lZgikdaaZc ?ZhX]Zc` [xg EZcÜ
hX]Zc' Y^Z cdX] c^X]i kZg\ZhhZc ]VWZc' YVz Z^c Odgi' YVh ^c YZg Ki^aaZ YZh @ZgoZch `a^c\i' cZjZ
Cgu[iZbdW^a^h^ZgZc`Vcc)
<^ZN^h^dcYZh\wiia^X]ZcEZchX]Zc
-BQCBQB<DIFNKCJFQ
/.-KZ^iZc'\ZWjcYZc'-,\VcohZ^i^\Z:^aYZg'RlZ^[VgWZcYgjX`'
AK:F.(4-31.-(,3(.
<Vh :jX] ^hi \ZhX]g^ZWZc [xg VaaZ EZchX]Zc' Y^Z Z^cZ 9]cjc\ jcY Z^cZ
\gdzZ KZ]chjX]i cVX] Z^cZb DZWZc ]VWZc' YVh kdc D^ZWZ) >g^ZYZc' >gZjYZ
jcY>gZ^]Z^iZg[xaai^hi6[xgY^Z_Zc^\Zc'Y^ZhX]dclVX]\ZldgYZch^cY[xgZ^c
he^g^ijZaaZh DZWZc jcY cdX] E^iiZa jcY OZ\Z hjX]Zc' ^]gZ LgujbZ oj kZgÜ
l^g`a^X]Zc6 [xg VaaZ' Y^Z Z^cZc \Z^hi^\Zc OZ\ WZhX]gZ^iZc' YVz h^Z ^]c WZhhZg
kZghiZ]Zc'^]cWZljziZg'bji^\ZgjcY`dchZfjZciZglZ^iZg\Z]Zc)
<^ZhZh :jX] Zgw[[cZi YZc :a^X` ^c Z^cZ Rj`jc[i' Y^Z Y^Z Zkdaji^kZ KX]we[ZgÜ
`gV[ihZaWhihX]V[[Zcl^gY)=hhe^Z\ZaiY^Z^che^gVi^kVj[\ZcdbbZcZcD^X]ihX]l^c\jc\ZcVjhYZg\Z^(
hi^\(\wiia^X]ZcOZail^YZg)=h^hiVjhYZgNZgW^cYjc\b^iYZb\wiia^X]Zc?Z^hijcYYZgZ^\ZcZc'he^Ü
g^ijZaaZc =g[V]gjc\ YZg 9jidg^c ]ZgVjh \ZhX]g^ZWZc) =h WZgx]gi ^c hZ^cZg edZi^hX]Zc KegVX]Z YVh
@ZgojcYkZglVcYZaiYVh:ZljzihZ^c)
=h lZX`i NZgigVjZc jcY ?aVjWZc' YVz \ZgVYZ ^c YZg ]Zji^\Zc RZ^i YZh MbWgjX]h jcY YZg FZjdg^Ü
Zci^Zgjc\YZg?Z^hi?diiZhh^X]VahkZglVcYZacYZCgV[iojb9jhYgjX`Wg^c\i)
<^Zolwa[?gVYZYZg>gZ^]Z^i
.IQJRSJBN7BQRFN
.-+ KZ^iZc' .-/ AaajhigVi^dcZc' >didh jcY `xchiaZg^hX]Z MbhZiojc\Zc' ?gdzÜ
[dgbVi'RlZ^[VgWZcYgjX`'AK:F.(4-31.-(,1(2
=^cZb :^aY]VjZg kZg\aZ^X]WVg' \ZhiVaiZc K^Z oZ^iaZWZch A]gZc Z^\ZcZc CwgÜ
eZg) Fjg kZglZcYZc K^Z :ZljzihZ^c jcY :ZlZ\jc\ VchiZaaZ kdc @VbbZg
jcYEZ^zZa)
<^Z Kejg [x]gi ojg kZgWax[[ZcYZc O^ZYZgZciYZX`jc\ YZh KZaWikZghiucYa^(
X]Zc) <^Z :ZlZ\jc\Zc YZh EZchX]Zc [da\Zc YZchZaWZc Hg^co^e^Zc kdc
JVjb jcY RZ^i' kdc =cZg\^Z jcY EViZg^Z' lZaX]Z :ZlZ\jc\h`ddgY^cVi^dc
xWZgVaa^cYZgFVijgWZhi^bbZc)<ZgEZchX](Z^cÖKixX`Mc^kZghjbÅ)
<^ZhZh :jX] hX]jai A]g 9j\Z ^c Odgi jcY :^aY) K^Z lZgYZc h^X] hZaWhi jcY VcYZgZ b^i VcYZgZc
9j\Zc WZigVX]iZc aZgcZc) <Zg ÖY^V\cdhi^hX]Z :a^X`Å ZgaVjWi A]cZc oj Zg`ZccZc' lVh `ddgY^c^Zgi ^hi
jcY lVh c^X]i) <VgVj[ WVh^ZgZcY [^cYZc K^Z Z^c k^Zghij[^\Zh sWjc\hegd\gVbb' YVh A]gZc 9aaiV\ ojg
l^g`jc\hkdaaZcsWjc\lZgYZcauzi)
K^Z lZgYZc Z^c l^hhZchX]V[ia^X]Zh CjchiWjX] WZh^ioZc ( Z^co^\Vgi^\ ^c hZ^cZg 9gi) =h kZgY^X]iZi' lVh
K^Z hX]dc ^bbZg xWZg :ZlZ\jc\ l^hhZc ldaaiZc' oj eZghwca^X]Zc =g`Zccic^hhZc) =^c WZlZ\ZcYZh
:jX]'VcYZb`Z^cOZ\kdgWZ^[x]gi)
L]Zdg^ZjcYHgVm^hYZh@Vi]V(Qd\V
=^cDZ^i[VYZcojg=g[V]gjc\YZg=cZg\^Z
:dg^hLVio`n'9ccVLgw`Zh'BjiiVH^ciZg(FZ^hZ
?gdz[dgbVi'\ZWjcYZc)..1KZ^iZc'-2+>didh
jcY1+RZ^X]cjc\Zc)AK:F.(4-31.-(,0(4
))L]Zdg^Z jcY HgVm^h YZh @Vi]V(Qd\V ZcihiVcY Vjh YZb :ZYxg[c^h cVX]
Z^cZb Qd\VWjX]' YVh [jcY^Zgi jcY aZ^X]i kZghiucYa^X] Y^Z @^ciZg\gxcYZ YZh
sWjc\hlZ\ZhZgaujiZgi'YZg^bOZhiZckdchdk^ZaZcEZchX]Zc\ZxWil^gY)
( Ac]Vaia^X] W^ZiZi Zh Z^cZc sWjc\hiZ^a' YZg xWZg Y^Z gZ^cZc CwgeZg]VaijcÜ
\ZcYZh@Vi]V(Qd\V]^cVjh\Z]i)
( =cZg\^ZaZc`jc\ZcojgNZgi^Z[jc\YZgO^g`jc\Zc'
( Z^cZYZiV^aa^ZgiZ'hij[ZclZ^hZ:ZhX]gZ^Wjc\YZgl^X]i^\hiZcQd\V]Vaijc\Zc
#VhVcV$b^iYZgZcihegZX]ZcYZc9iZbaZc`jc\#egVcVnVbV$'
( CdcoZcigVi^dchiZX]c^`Zc'Y^Zine^hX][xgYZc@Vi]V(Qd\Vh^cY)
Ac `aVgZg jcY kZghiucYa^X]Zg KegVX]Z lZgYZc Y^Z CdcoZeiZ jciZghX]^ZYa^X]ZgIjVa^iuiZc YZg =cZg\^Z
#\jeVh$' YZg CwgeZg]xaaZc #`dhVh$ jcY YZg =cZg\^ZoZcigZc YZh CwgeZgh #XV`gVh$ ZgaujiZgi) <^Z NZgÜ
[VhhZg oZ^\Zc' l^Z Y^Z DZWZchZcZg\^Z YjgX] WZljziZc =^chVio ^b 9aaiV\ jcY Vj[ YZg Qd\VbViiZ
\ZaZ^iZijcYkZghiug`ilZgYZc'`Vcc)
MciZglZ\hcVX]^ccZc
BdhZe]RVe[
-0+KZ^iZc'\ZWjcYZc'VX]i[VgW^\Z'\VcohZ^i^\Z:^aYZg
AK:F.(4-31.-(+/(.
<^ZhZh :jX] auYi ojg JZ^hZ cVX] ^ccZc Z^c' [x]gi ^c Y^Z EZY^iVi^dc Z^c'
lZX`iKZ]chjX]icVX]Z^cZbWZljziZgZcDZWZc'YVhVjhYZcMgfjZaaZc
YZh KZ^ch \ZheZ^hi l^gY) O^X]i^\Z he^g^ijZaaZ DZWZch]^a[Zc W^ZiZc Y^Z
9jh[x]gjc\Zc xWZg Y^Z :^aYjc\ YZh ?Z^hiZh ^c hZ^cZc YgZ^ =cil^X`Ü
ajc\hhij[Zc Vah AciZaa^\Zco) NZgcjc[i jcY Acij^i^dc) :Z^ YZg >dgbjc\
YZg KZZaZ hZioi YZg NZg[VhhZg [xg Y^Z he^g^ijZaaZ DZWZch]^a[Z olZ^
KX]lZgejc`iZ5 Y^Z Caugjc\ YZg ?Z[x]aZ jcY YZgZc NZglVcYajc\ oj
]w]ZgZc Kij[Zc jcY Y^Z 9jh[dgbjc\ YZh ;]VgV`iZgh Vjhhe^g^ijZaa(ehnÜ
X]dad\^hX]Zg K^X]i cVX] YZb EdYZaa YZh =ccZV\gVbbh) Z^cZg LneZc(
aZ]gZ kdc cZjc ;]VgV`iZghigj`ijgZc' Y^Z Vj[ ^haVb^hX]Z Enhi^`Zg Vjh
YZb E^iiZaVaiZg' YZc hd\) Kj[^h' ojgxX`\Z]i) Ac YZb CVe^iZa xWZg Y^Z
=g[xaajc\ YZh EZchX]Zc ^c YZg D^ZWZ lZgYZc VaaZ lZhZcia^X]Zc JZ^(
[jc\hhij[Zc YZg D^ZWZ WZhX]g^ZWZc) A]gZ ?gjcYZaZbZciZ) =^\ZchX]V[iZc jcY Cgu[iZ lZgYZc WZljzi
\ZbVX]ijcYVj[YZcNZglVcYajc\hegdoZzYZh^ccZgZcOZ\ZhWZod\Zc)
AYZci^iuijcY:Z[gZ^jc\^c?ZhiVaiÜ
i]ZgVe^Z'RZcjcYX]g^hia^X]Zg
Ke^g^ijVa^iui
DjYl^\>gVbWVX]
/,3KZ^iZc'\ZWjcYZc'/0RZ^X]cjc\ZcjcY>didh
AK:F.(4-31.-(,+(3
9jh YZb NZg\aZ^X] kdc ?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z) RZc jcY `dciZbeaVi^kZg X]g^hia^Ü
X]ZgKe^g^ijVa^iuiZcil^X`ZaiYZg9jidgZ^c\gjcYaZ\ZcYZhHgdoZzbdYZaa'YVh
HhnX]di]ZgVe^ZjcYKe^g^ijVa^iuikZgW^cYZi)
<^Z <VghiZaajc\ YZg ?ZhiVaii]ZgVe^Z `dcoZcig^Zgi h^X] Vj[ Vji]Zci^hX]Z 9jhÜ
hV\Zc kdc >g^io Perls. K^Z lZ^hi _ZcZ Kigj`ijg Vj[) Y^Z Vah =cihegZX]jc\ ^b
:Z[gZ^jc\hegdoZz YZh Zen jcY chrlstllcher lontemµlctlon cVX]ojlZ^hZc ^hi) <Vh :jX] `Vcc EZcÜ
hX]Zc)Y^ZVj[YZbOZ\h^cY']Za[Zc'Y^ZH]VhZcjcYKiVY^Zc'Y^Zh^ZYjgX]aZWZc'WZhhZgojkZghiZ]Zc
jcY oj V`oZei^ZgZc) =h l^aa Zgbji^\Zc' h^X] Vj[ Z^cZ WZ[gZ^ZcYZ LgVch[dgbVi^dc YZg AYZci^iui Z^cojÜ
aVhhZcjcYh^X][xgY^ZcdilZcY^\ZcehnX]^hX]ZcjcYhe^g^ijZaaZcHgdoZhhZojw[[cZc)
,!)-+$,-*)!($
-0"&*(*%'$/)#
-0"&*.&$,!+'$
089,04,:4()/?4.0.,
',098*/70-9
8*/:2,41:29:7:4+7,20.0548
@),7.7,0-,4+
;,7)04+,9+(8&088,4860709:,22,7
&,.,:4++,7$/025856/0(
6,7,440830935+,74,7$8=*/525.0,
:4+$8=*/59/,7(60,
2,089,9 ",097?., >:7 <088,48*/(-920*/,4
#:4+0,7:4.+,8%7(486,7854(2,4!

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->