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Pro~lems Solutions and on Mechanics
Major American Universities Ph.D. Qualif~~n~ Questions and Solutions
Problems and Solutions on Mechanics
C o ~ ~ i by:~ d l The Physics Coaching Class University of Science and Technology of China
Refereed by:
~iangYuanqi, Enpu, Cheng Gu Jiafu, ti Zehua,Ylang Detian
Edited by: Lirn Yungkuo
World Scientific
~ e ~ ~ e ~ s ~ y e ~ o f f d eo~~~ n g ~ o n g 'Singapore
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World Scienrific Publishing Co. Pte. 1td
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First published 1994 Reprinted 2001,2002
Major American Zlniversities Ph.D. Qualifying Questions and Solutions PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS ON MECHANICS Copyright 0 1994 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. This book, or pctrts thereof, muy not be reproduced in uny form or by uny meuns, e l e l ~ o n i or m e c ~ i u i i i ~including p h ~ ~ t ~ j c ~ ~recording or any inform~fio~t c ~il~ py~ng, storuge und reirievul sy.ytern v i m ' known or to be invented, with~)i~t wriiren permission from the Publisher.
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PREFACE
This series of physics problems and solutions which consists of seven volumes  Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Optics, Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State Physics  contains a selection of 2550 problems from the graduateschool entrance and qualifying examination papers of seven US. universities  California University Berkeley Campus, Columbia University, Chicago University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New York State University Buffalo Campus, Princeton University, Wisconsin University  as well as the CUSPEA and C.C. Ting’s papers for selection of Chinese students for further studies in U.S.A. and their solutions which represent the effort of more than 70 Chinese physicists plus some 20 more who checked the solutions. The series is remarkable for its comprehensive coverage. In each area the problems span a wide spectrum of topics while many problems overlap several areas. The problems themselves are remarkable for their versatility in applying the physical laws and principles, their uptodate realistic situations, and their scanty demand on mathematical skills. Many of the problems involve orderofmagnitude calculations which one often requires in an experimental situation for estimating a quantity from a simple model. In short, the exercises blend together the objectives of enhancement of one’s understanding of the physical principles and ability of practical application. The solutions as presented generally just provide a guidance to solving the problems, rather than step by step manipulation, and leave much to the students to work out for themselves, of whom much is demanded of the basic knowledge in physics. Thus the series would provide an invaluable complement to the textbooks. The present volume for Mechanics which consists of three parts Newtonian Mechanics, Analytical Mechanics, and Special Relativity contains 410 problems. 27 Chinese physicists were involved in the task o preparing and checking the solutions. f
V
vi
Preface
In editing, no attempt has been made to unify the physical terms, units, and symbols. Rather , they are left to the setters’ and solvers’ own preference so as to reflect the realistic situation of the usage today. Great pains has been taken to trace the logical steps from the first principles to the final solutions, frequently even to the extent of rewritting the entire solution. In addition, a subject index has been included to facilitate the location of topics. These editorial efforts hopefully will enhance the value of the volume to the students and teachers alike. YungKuo Lim Editor
INTRODUCTION
Solving problems in course work is an exercise of the mental faculties, and examination problems are usually chosen from, or set similar to, such problems. Working out problems is thus an essential and important aspect of the study of physics The series on Problems and Solutions in Physics comprises seven volumes and is the result of months of work of a number of Chinese physicists. The subjects of the volumes and the respective coordinators are as follows:
1. Mechanics (Qiang Yuanqi, Gu Enpu, Cheng Jiefu, Li Zehua, Yang Detian) 2. EZectromagnetism (Zhao Shping, You Junhan, Zhu Junjie) 3. Optics (Bai Guiru, Guo Guangcan) 4. Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics (Jin Huaicheng, Yang Baezhong, Fm Yangmei) 5 . Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics (Zheng Jiuren) 6 . Quantum Mechanics (Zhang Yongde, Zhu Dongpei, Fan Hongyi) 7. Solid State Physics and Miscellaneous Topics (Zhang Jialu, Zhou Youyuan, Zhang Shiling)
These volumes, which cover almost all aspects of university physics, contain some 2550 problems solved in detail. The problems have been carefully chosen from a total of 3100 problems collected from the ChinaU.S.A. Physics Examination and Application Programme, the Ph.D. Qualifying Examination on Experimental High Energy Physics sponsored by Chaochong Ting, and the graduate qualifying examinations of seven worldrenowned American universities: Columbia University, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University o Wisconsin, the University of Chicago, f Princeton University, and the State University of New York at Buffalo. Generally speaking, examination problems in physics in American universities do not require too much mathematics. They can be characterized
vii
viii
Introduction
to a large extent as follows. Many problems are concerned with the various frontier subjects and overlapping domains of topics, having been selected from the setters’ own research encounters. These problems show a “modern” flavor. Some problems involve a wide field and require a sharp mind for their analysis, while others require simple and practical methods demanding a fine “touch of physics.” We believe that these problems, as a whole, reflect t o some extent the characteristics of American science and culture, as well as give a glimpse of the philosophy underlying American education. That being so, we consider it worthwhile to collect and solve these problems and introduce them to physics students and teachers everywhere, even though the work is both tedious and strenuous. About a hundred teachers and graduate students took part in this timeconsuming task. This volume on Mechanics which contains 410 problems is divided into three parts: Part I consists of 272 problems on Newtonian Mechanics; Part 11, 84 problems on Analytical Mechanics; Part 111, 54 problems on Special Relativity. A small fraction of the problems is of the nature of mechanics as in general physics, while the majority properly belongs to theoretical mechanics, with some on relativity. A wide range of knowledge is required for solving some of the problems which demand a good understanding of electromagnetism, optics, particle physics, mathematical physics, etc. We consider such problems particularly beneficial t o the student as they show the interrelationship of different areas of physics which one is likely t o encounter in later life. Twenty seven physicists contributed to this volume, notably Ma Qiancheng, Deng Youping, Yang Zhongxia, J i Shu, Yang Detian, Wang Ping, Li Xiaoping, Qiang Yuanqi, Chen Weizu, Hou Bihui, and C h m Zexian.
7 August 1991
CONTENTS
Preface Introduction
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vii
1 3 185 237 367
Part I
Newtonian Mechanics 1. Dynamics of a Point Mass (10011108)
2. Dynamics of a System of Point Masses (11091144) 3. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies (11451223) 4. Dynamics of Deformable Bodies (12241272)
P r I1 Analytical Mechanics at
1. Lagrange’s Equations (20012027) 2. Small Oscillations (20282067) 3. Hamilton’s Canonical Equations 120682084)
459 46 1 521 619
657 659
P r I11 Special Relativity at
Special Relativity (3001 3054) Index to Problems
751
PART I NEWTONIAN MECHANICS
1 DYNAMICS OF A POINT MASS (10011108) .
1001 A man of weight w is in an elevator of weight w. The elevator accelerates vertically up at a rate a and at a certain instant has a speed V. (a) What is the apparent weight of the man? (b) The man climbs a vertical ladder within the elevator at a speed v relative to the elevator. What is the man’s rate of expenditure of energy (power output)? ( Wisconsin)
Solution: (a) The apparent weight of the man is
F=wfa=w
9
g being the acceleration of gravity.
20
(b) The man’s rate of expenditure of energy is
1002
An orbiting space station is observed to remain always vertically above
the same point on the earth. Where on earth is the observer? Describe the orbit of the space station as completely as possible. ( Wisconsin)
Solution: The observer must be on the equator of the earth. The orbit of the space station is a large circle in the equatorial plane with center at the center of the earth. The radius of the orbit can be figured out using the orbiting period of 24 hours* as follows. Let the radius of the orbit be R and that of the earth be &.
*For a more accurate calculation, the orbiting period should be taken as 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds.
3
G is the universal constant of gravitation.4.g g T2 R and R= ( = 4. The mass of the child is 50 kg and the coefficient of friction is 0.4 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics We have mu2 = GMm R R2 ’ where v is the speed of the space station. A child can sit on it at any radius (Fig. the orbiting period is 2xR T=. What is the maximum radius R where he can sit and still remain on the disk? ( WZsconsZn) . GMm % we have GM=Gg. 21 Hence 4x2R2 . m and M are the masses of the space station and the earth respectively. 1. The angular velocity is 2 rad/s. Hence v2 . giving 02 = GM R ‘ As mg=.2) 7x lo4 km 1003 %T2g In an amusement park there is a rotating horizontal disk.R For circular motion with constant speed v.1). the child may slide off if the frictional force is insufficient. As the disk begins to “speed up”.
this is the maximum radius for nosliding. Fig. 1004 A cord passing over a frictionless pulley has a 9 kg mass tied on one end and a 7 kg m s on the other end (Fig.F and m2P = F .m2g .2). 1. we obtain the equations of motion mlx = mlg . m k 2 = pmg . Determine the acceleration as and the tension of the cord. . 1.1. Hence As the centrifugal force is proportional to the radius.Newtonian Mechanics 5 Solution: Under the critical circumstance that the child just starts to slide. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Neglecting the moment of inertia of the pulley.
pmgcostl .5 s. The coefficient of (sliding or static) friction is p = a / 1 2 .225 m/s2 . 1. giving .29 16 X I* mlg m2 9 Fig.2. (m1 .. the equation of the motion of the brick is mx = mgsintl . 1005 A brick is given an initial speed of 5 ft/s up an inclined plane at an angle of 30" from the horizontal. 1.m 2 ) g rnl+mz = 1. For x > 0.. After 0. ( Wisconsin ) Solution: Choose Cartesian coordinates as shown in Fig. .6 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Hence the tension of the cord and the acceleration are respectively and 2 = . how far is the brick from its original position? You may take g = 32 ft/s2.3.
5 The displacement during the time interval t l = 0.= 5/(5g/8) X .25 s and the displacement of the brick is For t > tl. 59 5 = g(sinO+pcosO) = 8 The time of upward motion of the brick is then ti = 50 . 1.Newtonaan Mechanics 7 Fig. = 0.25 s to s is so that the displacement of the brick at t = 0.. ( Wisconsin) .25 ft. x < 0 and the equation of motion becomes mx = mg sin 0 or + pmg cos 0 39 Z = g(sinO .3. Calculate the total force on his legs during deceleration.318 = 0.pcos0) = .5 s is 5 ’ 5 1 + A X = 518 . 1006 A person of mass 80 kg jumps from a height of 1 meter and foolishly forgets to buckle his knees as he lands. 8 t 2 = 0. His body decelerates over a distance of only one cm.
mg = ( . where f is the total force on his legs. or 8 = 30". As El = E2. the normal reaction of the track on the mass. At some value of h. 1. 1+ 80) 00 80 x 1 g = 80809 N 1007 A m a s M slides without friction on the roller coaster track shown in Fig. mgh f=. N+ for which sin 0 = mu2 = mgsinfl & .4. Solution: Before the inflection point A of the track.S 4. Indicate on the diagram where the mass loses contact with the track and calculate the minimum value of h for which this happens. . The m s begins its descent from the height h. . . is mu2 N=+mgsinB R where v is the velocity of the mass. ( Wisconsin) 30° Fig. the mass as will begin to lose contact with the track.8 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics Solution: The person has mechanical energy El = mg(h + s) just before he lands.4. The work done by him during deceleration is E2 = fs. 1. After the inflection point. The curved sections of the track have radius of curvature R. N.
. 2 R sin 8 2 . At the equator. or h>R The earliest the mass can start to lose contact with the track is at A for which 0 = 30".. The velocity of a point on its equator is V. mg= GMm R2 ' giving GM = gR2 . At the pole. 1008 Consider a rotating spherical planet.(R .G M m mV2 mg R R 2 . we have ..mg =2 mg 2 . The effect of rotation of the planet is to make g at the equator 112 of g at the pole. Hence the minimum h required is y.2 mgsin8.= m g . What is the escape velocity for a polar particle on the planet expressed as a multiple of V? (Wisconsin) Solution: Let g and g' be the gravitational accelerations at the pole and at the equator respectively and consider a body of mass m on the surface of the planet.Rsine)] = .Newtonian Mechanics 9 The m s loses contact with the track if N 5 0. which has a mass M. This can only happen as for the second part of the track and only if ...mu2 mu2 R 1 then requires h R R sin 8 + Rsin8 2 . The conservation of mechanical energy mg[h .
Hence the escape or v2 2GM = = 2gR = 4V2 . zero. the coefficient of static friction between the mass and the disk is p. R v=2v. . GMm . i.10 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Hence g = 2V2/R. The body at the pole then has total energy For it to escape from the planet. If we define gravitational potential energy with respect to a point at infinity from the planet. 1009 A small mass m rests at the edge of a horizontal disk of radius R.R ' 7 GMm dr =  Note that the negative sign in front of the gravitational force takes account of its attractiveness. Thus v = m .= pmg R . the body will have potential energy 1. What was its horizontal distance of travel from the point that it left the disk? ( Wisconsin) Solution: The maximum static friction between the mass and the disk is f = pmg.e. The disk is rotated about its axis at an angular velocity such that the mass slides off the disk and lands on the floor h meters below.. i.e. When the small mass slides off the disk. its horizontal velocity 21 is given b Y mu2 . its total energy must be at least equal to the minimum energy of a body at infinity.
Solution: Use unit vectors i. 1. Therefore the horizontal distance of travel before landing on the floor is equal to vt = Jm. hitting each step at the same place and bouncing the same height above each step (Fig. The stair height equals its depth (tread=rise) and the coefficient of restitution e is given.Newtonian Mechanics 11 The time required to descend a distance h from rest is t=e. Find the necessary horizontal velocity and bounce height (the coefficient of restitution is defined as e = vf/vi.5).5. 1. 1010 A marble bounces down stairs in a regular manner. ( Wisconsin) Fig.5 and let the horizontal velocity of the marble be Vh. j as shown in Fig. where vf and vi are the vertical velocities just after and before the bounce respectively). The velocities just before and after a bounce are respectively . 1.
91  glle + 1011 Assume all surfaces to be frictionless and the inertia of pulley and cord negligible (Fig.vf and all constant. m2 and M.12 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics v1 = vhi and + vij vh v2 = vhi + v f j . the above gives v 2 = . are As the conditions at each step remain exactly the same. As by definition vf = eui . = "f 2 + mgl + 291 . The bouncing height H is given by the conservation of mechanical energy q&=. ( Wisconsin ) . The conservation of mechanical energy 1 1 2 mu: = mu2 2 2 gives 7J. ui.* 291 ' va 1e2 The time required for each bounce is t=. Find the horizontal force necessary to prevent any relative motion of m l .6). 1.=. 9 ?If 1 vh giving 'ui .vf (1 e)ui which is the necessary horizontal velocity.
The accelerations of ml. 1. Solution: The forces f i . From these data alone. find the . 2 The equations of motion along the zaxis are (M+rnl +rnz)Z=F.6. 1012 The sun is about 25. The earth is 8 light minutes from the sun. we obtain Fig.000 years. F and mg are shown in Fig. Combining these equations. 1.7.Newtonian Mechanics 13 Fig. m and M are the same when there is no relative motion among them. 1. As there is no relative motion of m along the yaxis. 2 fl = m29 . mix= fi .000 light years from the center of the galaxy and travels approximately in a circle with a period of 170.000.7.
m and m. are the maSses of the earth and the sun respectively.14 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics approximate gravitational mass of the galaxy in units of the sun's mass. Hence M=Using V = 2rR/T. (a) Calculate the velocity Vo on impact with the water and the a p p r e ximate elapsed time from dive until impact (use any method you choose). . . v = 2rr/t. 1013 An Olympic diver of mass m begins his descent from a 10 meter high diving board with zero initial velocity. we obtain M = 1. ( Wisconsin ) Solution: For the motion of the earth around the sun. V is the velocity of the sun and M is the mass of the galaxy.53 x 101lm. we have With the data given. where T and t are the periods of revolution of the sun and the earth respectively. v is the velocity of the earth. where R is the distance from the sun to the center of the galaxy. You may assume that the gravitational force on the sun may be approximated by assuming that all the mass of the galaxy is at its center.Gmm. ~ r r2 ' where T is the distance from the earth to the sun. mu2 . Assume that the buoyant force of the water balances the gravitational force on the diver and that the viscous force on the diver is h2. For the motion of the sun around the center of the galaxy.
( Wisconsin) Solution: = &= d x 9. with x = 0 at t = 0. 2 The time elapsed from dive to impact is (b) AS the gravitational force on the diver is balanced by the buoyancy. estimate the depth at which V = Vo/lO. dx b _ ./lO.4 mu'. we obtain v (c) When V = V. we obtain or . with x = VOat x = 0.4 .8 x 10 = 14 m/s . (d) As dx/dt = &e2x. Solve for the velocity V as a function of the depth x under water and impose the boundary condition V = VOat x = 0. x m Integrating.76 m . eAxdx = Vodt . the equation of motion of the diver through the water is or.5.dx. Integrating. (c) If b/m = 0. x = voeA. (d) Solve for the vertical depth x(t) of the diver under water in terms of the time under water. x=lnlO=b m In 10 0.Newtonian Mechanics 15 (b) Set up the equation of motion for vertical descent of the diver through the water. using x = xdx/dx." .
and the maximum speed on level ground with no wind v= d36 = 12. Let F be this propulsive force. the cyclist can generate 600 watts propulsive power.16 Problems d Solutioru o n Mechanics 1014 The combined frictional and air resistance on a bicyclist has the force F = aV. 1. A pendulum of mass rn and length 1 is released from rest in a horizontal position. then F=aV Eliminating F.2 m/s 1015 .8. What is his maximum speed on level ground with no wind? ( Wisconsin) Solution: When the maximum speed is achieved.8. we obtain 600 V2 = . the propulsive force is equal to the resistant force. ( Wisconsin) Fig. At maximum effort.= 150 m2/s2 a and FV=600W. Find the minimum distance d in terms of I such that the mass will swing completely round in the circle shown in Fig. . A nail a distance d below the pivot causes the mass to move along the path indicated by the dotted line. 1. where V is his velocity and a = 4 newtonsec/m.
Under the critical condition that the mass can just swing completely round in a circle. the gravitational as force is equal to the centripetal force when the m s is at the top of the circle.2 2 or +2mg(l d) 291 = (1 .) (a) What is the tension in the string? (b) What is the angular momentum of m? (c) What is the kinetic energy of m? (d) The tension in the string is increased gradually and finally m moves in a circle of radius & / 2 .d)g then gives the minimum distance as 1016 A mass m moves in a circle on a smooth horizontal plane with velocity vo at a radius &. or V : =(I .d)g .9. The energy equation mu2 mu..Newtonian Mechanics 17 Solution: Take the mass m as a point m s . What is the final value of the kinetic energy? . m has a velocity 2) = The angular momentum of the mass with respect to the point at which the nail locates is conserved as during the collision. . Then the velocity of the m s is still II at the instant after the collision and the motion thereafter is such that the m s is as constrained to rotate around the nail.d)g + 4(1 . and we have m. Let the velocity of the mass at this instant be v1. (“Smooth” means frictionless. The m s is attached to a string which passes through as a smooth hole in the plane as shown in Fig. 1. At the instant when the pendulum as collides with the nail. .
The angular momentum of the mass m is conserved since it moves under a central force. 1. hence F = mug/&.9. (b) The angular momentum of the mass m is J = mvol&. The final kinetic energy is then (e) The reason why the pulling of the string should be gradual is that the radial velocity of the mass can be kept small s that the velocity of the o mass cam be considered tangential. (d) The radius of the circular motion of the mass m decreases when the tension in the string is increased gradually. . This tangential velocity as a function of R can be calculated readily from the conservation of angular momentum. (e) Why is it important that the string be pulled gradually? ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The tension in the string provides the centripetal force needed for the circular motion. Thus or 211 = 2v0 .. (c) The kinetic energy of the mass m is T = mvi/2.18 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Fig.
= 550 ft.P. Note that pound weight (lb wt) is a unit of force and 1 lb wt = g ft. Find the horsepower required to drive this car at 30 mph on the same road.1b wt =37500 mph.V2 dt 6OVo ' and the resistance acting on the car is F = mV2/(6OV0).Newtonian Mechanics 19 1017 When a 5000 Ib car driven at 60 mph on a level road is suddenly put into neutral gear (i.vo _ 60 V 1.lb wt/ s . ( Wisconsin) Solution: Let KJ = 60 mph._= 2050 88 ft.lb wt = 4 5 H. 1 H. The horsepower is defined as 550 ft. Hence dV . 60 mph = 88 ft/sec. allowed to coast).lb wt 60 s S ft.lb/sec. then _ . It follows that the horsepower required is  37500 mph2.lb wt 9 S 22 22 37500 . The propulsive force must be equal to the resistance F ' at the speed of V' = 30 mph in order to maintain this speed on the same road.lb/s2.= . . Useful constants: g = 22 mph/sec.e. . where m is the maas of the car. the velocity decreases in the following manner: where t is the time in sec.P.
Solution: According t o Fig.10. 1. Hence + .mgsine .10.w2 . B = 0. 1. The solution o this equation is 8 = Acos(wt) Bsin(wt) . Assume that the dimensions of the child are negligible compared with 1.20 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1018 A child of mass m sits in a swing of negligible mass suspended by a rope of length 1. ( Wisconsin) Fig. and releases the swing. For what length of time did the father push the swing? You may assume that it is sufficiently accurate for this problem to write sine M 6 for 0 < 1. His father pulls him back until the rope makes an angle of one radian with the vertical.)sine =9 1 (e 2 0 ) With w2 = g/l. then pushes with a force F = mg along the arc of a circle until the rope is vertical.1. where the f constants A and B are found from the initial conditions 8 = 1. e + (. sin0 M 8. the above becomes e + w 2 e = . b = 0 at t = 0 to be A = 2. the equation of the motion of the child is mle = mg or .
This is the length of time the father pushed the swing.Newtonian Mechanics 21 When 0 = 0.e. 1019 A particle of mass m is subjected to two forces: a central force fi and a frictional force f2.h e . If the particle initially has angular momentum JO about T = 0 .. J =Joe$' . . m ( 2 d + re') = Are . find its angular momentum for all subsequent times. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Write out the equations of motion of the particle in polar coordinates: m(i: .x i .we obtain dJ . 1 COS(Wtl) = .= AJ . 2 wt1= 3 lr giving . or 1d(mr29) .we rewrite the last equation as follows: dt m Integrating and making use of the initial angular momentum Jo. 7 i. T dt Letting J = mr28.. where v is the velocity of the particle.Te2) = f ( T ) . with fi = Av (A > 0) .
v is the speed of the test body. R is the radius of the pulsar.= mRw2 <_ R R2 ' or where m and M are the masses of the test body and the Crab pulsar respectively. (This is a remnant of a supernova in 1054 A. Then the centripetal force on a test body at the equator of the Crab pulsar is just smaller than the gravitational force: mu2 GmM . If the only force preventing centrifugal disintegration of the object is gravity.22 Probkms d Solutions on Mechanics 1020 (a) A spherical object rotates with angular frequency w .3 x 1014 ( c ) The nuclear density is given by )' = 1. .5 x lo5 m = 150 km . which was extensively observed in China!) N (b) If the mass of the pulsar is about 1 solar mass (. Hence the minimum density of the pulsar is 3M lo30 41r x 1. what is the minimum density the object must have? Use this to estimate the minimum density of the Crab pulsar which rotates 30 times per second. What then is the radius? ( CUSPEA ) Solution: (a) Consider the limiting case that the Crab pulsar is just about to disintegrate. and G is the gravitational constant.D. (c) In fact the density is closer to that of nuclear matter.2 x 1030 kg or 3 x 105Mearth what is the maximum possible radius of the pulsar? ).
11. If p = pnuclear.Newtonian Mechanics 23 where mp is the mass of a proton and is approximately equal to the mass mH of a hydrogen atom. A smooth string passes through the rings which carries weights at the two ends and at a point between the rings. find the relation between the three weights. kg/m .02 x 1023 kg & M 1.2 x M lOI7 m . 1. pulsar would have a radius the ~ 1 7 k m . Berkeley) Fig. 4n x 1.11. 1. ( UC.5 x we obtain pnuclear 1.7 x 2 x 6. This can be estimated as follows: mp M With mH = 2 x 103 = 1. .2 x 1017 1021 Two weightless rings slide on a smooth circular loop of wire whose axis lies in a horizontal plane. If there is equilibrium when the rings are at points 30" distant from the highest point of the circle as shown in Fig.
the third force must also have magnitude T . Me and Ma be the masses and Re and R. be the radii of the earth and the sun respectively. 7r .127r = . is at an angle of 120" t o the adjacent one. As no friction is involved. and G be the gravitational constant. Berkeley) Solution: Let r be the distance between the sun and the earth. 720R. Each of the three forces acting on it. r 2360 360 i. For the ring A to be at rest on the smooth loop. Hence LOAE = LOAC = LAOE = 30" . 0 being the center of the loop. . and the tensions in the segments B D and B E are also T . r=.r a d . The same argument applies to the segments B D and B E . Let the magnitude be T . 1022 Calculate the ratio of the mean densities of the earth and the sun from the following approximate data: 6 = angular diameter of the sun seen from the earth = +".e. g = 10 ms2.. We then have 7r 2R. ( UC. which are in equilibrium. the tensions in the segments AC and AE of the string must be the same. t = one year = 3 x lo7 s. Consider the point E . otherwise there would be a component tangential to the loop. Therefore the three weights carried by the string are equal. the resultant force on it must be along AO.24 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Assume the string is also weightless. . As two of the forces have magnitude T . 1 = length of 1" of latitude on the earth's surface = 100 km. H being the highest point of the loop. Then by symmetry the point E at which the string carries the third weight must be on the radius H O .
(a) Assuming that air resistance is proportional to speed.Newtonian Mechanics 25 The above gives or For a mass m on the earth's surface. Integrating the differential equation of motion . (c) How far must she bend her knees in order to experience a deceleration no greater then log? Assume that her knees are like a spring with a resisting force proportional to displacement. ( UC. Before the par& chute opens she reaches a terminal speed of 30 m/sec. about how long does it take her to reach this speed? (b) How far has she traveled in reaching this speed? After her parachute opens. (d) Is the assumption that air resistance is proportional to speed a reasonable one? Show that this is or is not the case using qualitative arguments. giving Hence Pe _ glr Pa 18 x 103 (n) (m) 3'31 = 1023 720 3 21r 2 * A parachutist jumps at an altitude of 3000 meters. she flexes her knees to absorb the shock.Berkeley) Solution: (a) Choose the downward direction as the positive direction of the xaxis. As she hits the ground. her speed is slowed to 3 m/sec.
102 m 9 x 9.eQt) . we may neglect any air resistance after she hits the ground with this speed. However. when t t 00. (b) Integrating the above equation. (c) As her speed is only 3 m/s. the actual traveling distance is no more than 3000 m and the traveling time is finite before she reaches the terminal speed of 30 m/s.e.( I . This means that when the parachutist reaches the terminal speed she has covered an infinite distance. < = llmg/k . we obtain 9 v = .kt = 10mg c . we obtain z=+. [==V2 The energy equation then gives 9g 32 = 0. Conservation of mechanical energy gives where is the distance of knee bending and v is the speed with which she hits the ground. we have mg . . cy This solution shows that approaches its maximum. Taking the deceleration lOg as the maximum allowed. the terminal speed g/a. the time taken to reach the terminal speed is 00 and the distance traveled is also 00. dv dt where a is a constant. i.8 (d) We have seen that if the air resistance is proportional to speed. ff gt geat ff2 Thus 5 + 00 as t + 00. considering the knee as a spring of constant k. Hence the assumption that air resistance is proportional to speed is not a reasonable one.26 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics =gffv.
5 9 x 1 0 4 m D . Nm2kg2. m 2 and the tension in the string when p is very large.59 x 104 ) = 3 .59 x lo4 km . (Columbia) . 7R = kg . 6 7 ~ (b) Due to diffraction. A mass ml is suspended by a string which passes over a smooth peg at the upper end of the incline and attaches to a m s m2 as which slides without friction on the incline. the linear size of the required receptor is about % = l x ( 3.Newtonian Mechanics 27 1024 A satellite in stationary orbit above a point on the equator is intended to send energy to ground stations by a coherent microwave beam of wavelength one meter from a onekm mirror. 1025 An inclined plane of maes M rests on a rough floor with coefficient of static friction p.37 x lo4 km . R = 6.98 x using G = 6 . (b) Find the smallest coefficient of friction for which the inclined plane will remain at rest. The incline makes an angle 8 with the horizontal. M = 5. (a) What is the height of such a stationary orbit? (b) Estimate the required size of a ground receptor station. (Columbia) Solution: (a) The revolving angular velocity w of the synchronous satellite is equal to the spin angular velocity of the earth and is given by m(R+ h)w2 = GMm ( R h)2 + Hence the height of the stationary orbit is h= GM ( )3. (a) Solve for the accelerations of ml.
28
Problems d Solutions on Mechanics
Solution:
(a) When p is large enough, the inclined plane remains at rest. The equations of motion of ml and m2 are (see Fig. 1.12)
mlgT=mla)
T  m2gsin8 = 17120 ,
smooth
plane
rough ftoor
Fig. 1.12.
Fig. 1.13.
giving (ml  m sin 8)s 2 , ml +ma mlmz(l +sinO)g T= ml +m2
a=
(b) The inclined plane is subjected to horizontal and vertical forces (see Fig. 1.13) with
f = Tcos8  N1 sin8 N = Nl cos 8
N1 = m2gcos8
)
+ Mg + T(1 + sin 8) ,
.
For the inclined plane to remain at rest, we require
flPN.
The smallest coefficient of friction for the plane to remain stationary is therefore
Pmin = 
J
N

m2 cos O(m1  m2 sin 8 ) M(ml + r n z ) + r n l m 2 ( l +sin8)2+ (ml +rnz)m2cos2e
Newtonian Mechanics
29
1026 A particle of mass m is constrained to move on the frictionless inner surface of a cone of halfangle a,as shown in Fig. 1.14. (a) Find the restrictions on the initial conditions such that the particle moves in a circular orbit about the vertical axis. (b) Determine whether this kind of orbit is stable. (Princeton)
Fig. 1.14.
Fig. 1.15.
Solution:
(a) In spherical coordinates ( r , O , v ) , the equations of motion of the particle are m(i: re2  T
m(r8
+ ~
sin20 ) = F, ,
+ 2 i e  sin O cos 8) = Fe , m(r+sin 8 + 2rq3 sin 8 + 2reg cos 0) = Fq .
As the particle is constrained to move on the inner surfwe of the cone,
8 = constant = cy .
Then 8 = 0, F, = mgcosa, and Q. (1) becomes
m(l  1g2sin2a)= mg
cos a
,
(2)
where 1 is its distance from the vertex 0 (see Fig. 1.15). For motion in a circular orbit about the vertical axis, i = 1 = 0. With 1 = lo, Eq. (2) becomes sin2cy = gcosa . (3)
30
Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics
The righthand side of Eq. (3) is constant so that @ = constant = $0, say. The particle has velocity vo tangential to the orbit given by vo = lo@o sin a. Equation (3) then gives v; = 910 cos a , which is the initial condition that must be satisfied by YO and lo. (b) Suppose there is a small perturbation acting on the particle such that lo becomes 10 Al, $0 becomes $0 A@. Equation (2) is now
+
+
9 a cos or
,
,
A1  21&A@ sin2a  A@: sin2a = lo+’ sin2a  g cos a
where A1 is shorthand for d2(Al)/dt2,by neglecting terms of orders higher than the first order quantities A1 and A@. As the righthand side of this equation vanishes on account of Eq. (3), we have
A1  2lo$oA$ sin2a  A@: sin2 a = 0 .
(4)
There is no force tangential to the orbit acting on the particle, so there is no torque about the vertical axis and the angular momentum of the particle about the axis is constant:
mlv sin a = ml 2 q3 sin2 a = constant = Ic, say, or
1 @=.
2
k
m sin2a
(5)
Substituting 1 = lo Al, = $0 A$ into Eq. (5) and neglecting terms of the second order or higher, we have
+
+
+
Eliminating A@from Eqs. (4) and (6), we obtain
A[+ ( 3 ~ sin2a )01 :
=
o.
As the factor in brackets is real and positive, this is the equation of a
“simple harmonic oscillator”. Hence the orbit is stable.
Newtonian Mechanics
31
1027
Three point particles with masses other through the gravitational force.
ml,m2
and m interact with each g
(a) Write down the equations of motion. (b) The system can rotate in its plane with constant and equal distances between all pairs of masses. Determine the angular frequency of the rotation when the masses are separated by a distance d . (c) For ml >> m3 and m2 > m3, determine the stability condition for > motion of the mass m3 about the stationary position. Consider only motion in the orbital plane.
(MIT)
Solution: Take the center of mass C of the system as the origin of coordinates and let the position vectors of m l , m2, m3 be rl, r2,r3 respectively as shown in Fig. 1.16. Denote
rij = ri  rj
( i , j = 1,2, 3) .
Fig. 1.16.
(a) The motion of the ith particle is given by
m . f . a 1 
c
3 j#i
,
___
r3.
'3
Gmimj
rij
1
or
3
a 
Gm
23
r 3 , rij
j#i
(2
= 1,273)

Note that the minus sign is to indicate that the forces are attractive.
32
Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics
(b) With the given condition
3
rij
= d, Eq. (1) is rewritten as

C mjri  miri + C mjrj
j=1
3
3
r,
Emj+ C m j r j
j=1
3
3
j=1
G   M
d3
1
Ti
7
~
where M = ml m2 m3. Note that the choice of the center of mass as origin makes C mjrj vanish. Thus the force on each particle points towards the center of mass of the system and is a harmonic force. With d constant, the system rotates about C with angular frequency
+
+
.=g.
r:2
(c) For m3 << ml and m3 << m2, the equation of motion of either of the masses ml and m2 can be written as
.. ra.   G ( m i + m 2 ) d3 ri

 G(mi + m2)ri,
i = 1,2 .
With the distance between ml and m2 constant, the system rotates about its center of mass with a constant angular frequency
Use a rotating coordinate frame with origin at the center of mass of the system and angular frequency of rotation w and let the quantities r,r
Newtonian Mechanics
33
m 3
refer to this rotating frame. Considering the motion of particle laboratory frame, we have
in the
or
If
m 3
is stationary,
r3
= r 3 = 0 and the above becomes
With ml,m2 becomes
> >
m3,
C m j r j = 0 gives
mlrl M m2r2
and the above
This relation shows that r3 is parallel to rl and thus the stationary position of m3 lies on the line joining ml and m2. At this position, the attractions of ml and m2 are balanced. Consider now a small displacement being applied to m3 at this stationary position. If the displacement is along the line joining ml and m2, say toward m l , the attraction by ml is enhanced and that by m 2 is reduced. Then m3 will continue to move toward ml and the equilibrium is unstable. On the other hand, if the displacement is normal to the line joining ml and m2, both the attractions by ml and m will have 2 a component toward the stationary position and will restore m3 to this position. Thus the equilibrium is stable. Therefore the equilibrium is stable against a transverse perturbation but unstable against a longitudinal one.
1028
A smooth sphere rests on a horizontal plane. A point particle slides frictionlessly down the sphere, starting at the top. Let R be the radius of the sphere. Describe the particle’s path up to the time it strikes the plane. (Chicago)
34
Problems €5 Solutions on Mechanics
Fig. 1.17.
Solution: As shown in Fig, 1.17, conservation of energy gives
The radial force the sphere exerts on the particle is
mw2 F = mgcose  
R '
When F = 0, the constraint vanishes and the particle leaves the sphere. At this instant, we have
 = gcose ,
R
w2
= 2 g ~1  cos e) (
VZ
,
giving
2 case = , 3
or
e = 48.2" ,
The particle leaves the sphere with a speed w = at an angle 6 = 48.2". After leaving the sphere, the particle follows a parabolic trajectory until it hits the plane.
d
m
Newtonian Mechanics
35
1029 Point charge in the field of a magnetic monopole. The equation of motion of a point electric charge e, of mass m, in the field of a magnetic monopole of strength g at the origin is
The monopole may be taken as infinitely heavy.
(a) Show that the kinetic energy T = m i 2 / 2 is a constant of the motion. (b) Show that J = L egr/r is also a constant of the motion, where L=mrxr. (c) Use part (b) to show that the charged particle moves on the surface of a right circular cone of opening angle t given by
+
eg cost=  ,
IJI
with J as its symmetry axis (see Fig. 1.18). [Hint: Consider r . J.]
Fig. 1.18.
Define a new variable R by
R = J < sin
1 
x (r x J) = [r
1 sin
<
 J(r . J)] ,
A
,
.
where J = J/IJI. R lies in the plane perpendicular to J, but with IRJ = R = Il so that R may be obtained by rotating r as shown in the figure. r You may use the fact that mR x R = J. (d) Find the equation of motion for R. (e) Solve the equation of motion part (d) by finding an effective potential V,tf(R),and describe all possible motions in R. (MITI
36
Pmblerns d Solutions on Mechanics
Solution:
Hence T is a constant of the motion.
T
=mrxi:+mixi++
= mr
egi
a
x i: +
[T
egr
r egr(r
T3
i)
= ge
rx(ixr)
T3
rx(rxr)
+ge
T3
I
=o.
Hence J is a constant of the motion. Note that in the above we have used
= + .r T
r x (r x r) = i ( r . r)  r ( r . i) .
(c) Let
t be the angle between r and J and consider
r e
J = r l ~cost l
=r
. (mr x i
+ "'> = egr .
T
As
eg cost =  = constant
IJI
,
the charged particle moves on the surface of a right circular cone of opening angle (. (d) As J and t are constants of the motion, we have, using
r x r = ,
.
L
m
L = J  eg,
T
r
mi: = ge
r x r
T3
l
Newtonian Mechanics
37
m A J x (r x J) mR = sin
<
e2g2 =  R .
mT4
This is the equation of motion for R. (e) Let q!~ be the angle between R and a fixed axis in the plane of R and r x J . The above equation can be written as
m(R9 + 2$R) = 0 .
Equation ( 2 ) can be written
&s
d m(R2+ 2RR$) = (mR2$) = 0 . dt
+
Hence
mR2$ = constant,
As
Equation (1) can then be written as
m R = mR3
with
..
e2g2
d +  V,a mR3 dR
J2
(R),
(3)
1
2mR2
(J 2  e2g2)
e2g2
2mR2
K tanQ=  ,
R2
38
Pmblems 8 Solutions on Mechanics
where K = e2g2tan2 </2m. Using R = RdR/dR = dR2/2dR, Eq. ( 3 ) can be integrated to give 1 . K mR2 k =E , 2 R where E is a constant. We then have
Integrating, we obtain
which gives the trajectory of the tip of R. Note that if J >> eg the motion is unbounded whatever the initial state, and if J < eg the motion is bounded when E < 0 and unbounded when E 2 0.
1030
Paris and London are connected by a straight subway tunnel (see Fig. 1.19). A train travels between the two cities powered only by the gravitational force of the earth. Calculate the maximum speed of the train and the time taken to travel from London to Paris. The distance between the two cities is 300 km and the radius of the earth is 6400 km. Neglect friction.
(MITI
Fig. 1.19.
Newtonian Mechanic8
39
Solution:
Define 2,h, r as in Fig. 1.20 and assume the earth to be a stationary homogeneous sphere of radius R. Taking the surface of the earth as reference level, the gravitational potential energy of the train at x is
Fig. 1.20.
GmM
GmM rdr =   R 2 ) , (r2 2 ~ 3
where m, M are the masses of the train and the earth respectively. Conservation of mechanical energy gives, as the train starts from rest at the earth’s surface, mu2 GmM(r2 R 2 ) =o, 2 2 ~ 3
 +
or
where g = GM/R2 is the acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface. As
r2 = h2
+ (150  z ) = (R2 150’) + (150  z ) = R2  3002 + x 2 , ~ ~
v 2  94300  Z) R
v is maximum when x = 150 km:
Vmax
=
/
9.8 x 150 x 150 x 1 m = 185.6 m/s 6400
.
40
Problem €4 Solutions on Mechanics
The time from London to Paris is
=L1&&
=7 r = 42.3 min E
.
1031 Three fixed point sources are equally spaced about the circumference of a circle of diameter a centered at the origin (Fig. 1.21). The force exerted by each source on a point mass of mass m is attractive and given by F = kR, where R is a vector drawn from the source to the point mass. The point mass is placed in the force field at time t = 0 with initial conditions r = ro, r = VO. (a) Define suitable coordinates and write an expression for the force acting on the mass at any time. (b) Use Newton’s second law and solve the equation of motion for the initial conditions given above, namely, find r(t) in terms of ro, vo and the parameters of the system. (c) Under what conditions, if any, are circular orbits a solution?
(MW
Fig. 1.21.
Solution: (a) Let r1, r2,r3 be the position vectors of the three fixed point sources. As they are equally spaced on a circle, we have
rl
+ r2 + r3 = 0 .
Newtonian Mechanics
41
The force acting on the particle m is
F = k(r
 r1)  k(r  r2)  k(r  r3) = 3kr
.
(b) The equation of the motion of the point mass is
mr+3kr=O,
with the general solution r(t) = acos
(Et) +
bsin ( E t )
,
a, b being constant vectors. Using the initial conditions r(0) = ro, i(0)= VO, we find
and hence
r(t>= ro cos
(Et) +
G v o sin ( t. g )
(c) It is seen that if rolvo and
~ G V O is a circle. = T O , the trajectory
1032 A phonograph turntable in the z plane revolves at constant angular y velocity w around the origin. A small body sliding on the turntable has location x ( t ) = (x(t),y(t),O).Here z and y are measured in an inertial frame, the lab frame. There are two forces in the lab frame: an elastic force of magnitude klxl towards the origin, and a frictional force c(x  v), where c is a constant and v is the velocity of the turntable at the body's location.
(a) If the body is observed to stay at a fixed offcenter point on the turntable (i.e. it is at rest with respect to the turntable), how big is k? (b) Assume k has the value you found in (a). Solve for v(t) = x ( t ) with general initial conditions. (c) In (b), find x ( t ) . Describe x ( t ) in words and/or with a rough sketch.
(UC, Berkeley)
42
Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics
Solution: (a) The body has angular velocity w around the origin so that mu21xI= klxl,giving k = mu'. (b) In the lab frame the equation of motion for the small body is
m i = kx
 c(x  v)
=W2X
 c(X  w x x) .
Let x, y, k , y, f , ji be the coordinates, velocity and acceleration components in the rotating frame attached to the turntable. In the lab frame we have
x = (kyw)i+(y+zw)j, x = (2  2yw  xw2)i + (y + 2xw  yw2)j , kx = kxi  k y j ,  c ( x  w x x) = &i xyj .
Note that in the above we have used o x i = wj, w x j = wi. The equation o motion in the lab frame is then written as f
m(x  2gw  xw') = kx  ck
,
.
m(y
+ 2xw  yw')
(1)
= ky  q j
(2)
Multiplying Eq. (2) by i = GI adding it to Eq. (1) and setting z = x+iy, w obtain e mi ( 2 w i c)i =0 .
+
+
Integrating once we find
i = ioect/mei2wt
9
(3)
namely,
x = [iocos(2wt) + yo ~ i n ( 2 w t ) ] e  " ~ l ~ ,
y = Ixo sin(2wt) + yo c o ~ ( 2 w t ) ] e  ~ ~ l ~ .
(4)
(5)
By directly integrating Eqs. (4) and (5) or by integrating Eq. (3) and then
with coordinates ((20 + m(d0 + 2 m w a i O ) ) / ( C 2 + 4m2w2).Newtonian Mechanics 43 using z = x x=xo+ + iylwe obtain m(c& 2 ~ ~ 0 ) c2 4m2w2 + + In the above. k o 1 ~are the components of the velocity of the small body o at t = 0 in the rotating frame. (c) Equations ( 6 ) and (7)imply that.m(2mwko .(go . (Princeton) Solution: The equation of the motion of the nonlinear oscillator is Neglecting the term mXx2.q j o ) ) / ( c 2 + 1033 4m2w2)). with the passage of time its velocity in the turntable frame will decrease and the body eventually stops at a fixed point on the turntable. even if x. assuming x = 0 at t = 0. .2 3 l with X small.we obtain the zeroorder solution of the equation x(0) = Asin(wt + 'p) . A nonlinear oscillator has a potential given by kx2 mXx3 U(X) = . for the body on the turntable. y may sometimes increase at first because of certain initial conditions. Find the solution of the equation of motion to first order in A..
2 cos(2wt) .cos(wt) 3 + . try a particular integral 3~1 B = + C COS(~&) Substitution gives 3w2Ccos(2wt) A2 A2 + w 2 B = .44 Probtema €4 Solutions on Mechanics where w = and we have and A is an arbitrary constant.. we have $1 2 + w2 51 = q0) + = [1 A2 2 .cos(2wt)l .. cp = 0 x(0) = Asin(wt) . Substituting it in the equation of motion and neglecting terms of orders higher than A. 2 Comparison of coefficients gives The homogeneous equation has solution x1 = D1 sin(wt) + 0 2 cos(wt) . To solve this equation. Suppose the firstorder solution has the form x(1) = x(0) Ax1 ..2A2 3 2 W and ql) A'sin(wt) = +XA2 w2 " 2 . As x = 0 at t = 0. Hence we have the complete solution x(1) = (A A2 A2 + AD1)sin(wt) + X [+ D2 cos(wt) + cos(2wt) 2w2 6w2 The initial condition x = 0 at t = 0 then gives D = ..
The tension along the rope is then F ( z ) = (meatellite m r o p e ( ~ ) )* u = [950 1 x (50 . (SUNY. The spaceahip is accelerating in a straight line with acceleration 5 m/sec2. (a) What is the force exerted by the spaceship on the rope? (b) Calculate the tension along the rope. (c) Due to exhaustion.5x N. Describe in detail the consequences of this mishap. Buffalo ) Solution: (a> F = (mrope + msatellite) a = (950 + 50) x 5 = 5 x lo3 N. the two vessels will collide at a time t given by vot = 50 + vot . the crew of the spaceship falls asleep and a short circuit in one of the booster control circuits results in the acceleration changing to a deceleration of 1 m/sec2.Newtonian Mechanics 45 where A' is an arbitrary constant. the spaceship moves with an initial velocity vo and a deceleration of 1 m/s2. while the satellite moves with a constant speed VO. 1034 A defective satellite of mass 950 kg is being towed by a spaceship in empty space. (b) Choose the point where the rope is attached to the satellite as the origin and the xaxis along the rope towards the spaceship.z)] x 5 + + = 5 x 103 . (c) After the mishap. additional information such as the amplitude and the velocity at t = 0 is required. or a 2 .t2 . The two vessels are connected by a uniform 50 m rope whose mass per unit length is 1 kg/m. After the mishap. To determine A' and A.
1. ( l c > M g / k ) . (b) Using any technique you like. find sl(t)and zz(t) for t > 0 when F ( t ) has the particular form F(t)= 0. the lower spring will break. (d) Show that both springs break simultaneously when a is a solution of the equation . If one slowly pulls on the end of the lower spring. will cause both springs to break simultaneously. t<O at. The spring will break if it is extended beyond a critical length 1. (a) Find an integral expression relating the length z l ( t ) of the upper spring to the applied force F ( t ) . Fit) Fig. then the lower spring could break first. If one pulls on the lower spring too rapidly. t >o ’ where a is a constant.46 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 1035 A ball of mass M is suspended from the ceiling by a massless spring with spring constant k and relaxed length equal to zero. when applied to the end of the lower spring.22. shown that if a is too large. An identical spring hangs below the ball (Fig. 1. The object of this problem is to determine the force F ( t ) which. ( c ) Use a careful sketch of your solutions to show that if a is too small. Similarly. the upper spring will break.22). the upper spring will break.
which gives or Hence the general solution of (2) is and .Newtonian Mechanics 47 Solution: (a) The equations of motion for the ball and the lower spring are M21 = Mg . A particular solution of (2) is obtained by letting L = e . we obtain Mfl becomes Let z = eiwty(t). where w = + kzl = F ( t )+ M g . m. Equation (1) then Mx + k z = F ( t ) . Substitution gives a = 2iw.2 i w t f ( t ) .k x l + k ~ 2 k ~ = F(t) . =x (1) To eliminate the constant term. let x1 + M g / k . 2 Eliminating 2 2 . above becomes The The homogeneous part of the above. where CI and a are constants. can be solved by letting y = Cleat.
= a . For application to the problem. we require + 4 t 0 ) = 1. tl < t 2 . we have for large a . the lower spring will break first. so that = 0.e. i. This gives where Ci is a constant of integration in place of C1. which is parallel to the 2 2 line minus an oscillatory term asin(wt)/kw whose amplitude is proportional to a.+ .23 (for large a ) and 1. (b) The equation of motion is M X i + kxl = M g for t (4) (5) < 0. the upper spring will break first.t 0 k or . say at time t = t o . if tl and t 2 are the instants x 1 and 2 2 would reach l. Cz are constants of integration.24 (for small a ) are plots of the curves for x 1 and 5 2 .e.+ l c k C 2 At t = 0.sin(wt) . It is seen that the curve for X I is given by a line x = M g / k a t / k . 1. and MXI + k s l = at + M g for t > 0. k The solution of (5) is that of (4) plus a particular solution a t / k : + + x1 = Ci sin(wt) at M g + C 2 cos(wt) + . (d) For the two springs to break simultaneously. i. the critical length. (c) In Figs. Hence. t 2 < t l . C{ = a/kw.... either the real or the imaginary part of the last expression is used as the general solution.48 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics where C 1 . = k k lcw at = k . we have Mg x 1 = Ci sin(wt) C 2 cos(wt) . First obtain the solution of (4) by putting F ( t ) = 0 in (3). x 1 = M g / k . Taking the real part. and for small a . 2 2 = 0. x l = 0. Hence x2(t) at M g a ~ ( t ).
By what factor does the amplitude of oscillations change if the string is very slowly shortened by a factor of 2? ( Chicago) Fig. and Mg a zl(to) = I . .Newtonian Mechanics 49 X xI ( t ) . 1. 1. Fig. 1.23.25.sin k wk (9) . 0 Fig.24.25). is swinging freely in one vertical plane (see Fig. 1036 A pendulum. made up of a ball of maas M suspended from a pivot by a light string of length L . . 1. = + 1. or where w = m.
i. i.7rMg’/’O”L3’’ . 00 + 1. His proof is as follows: Tension of string = Mg(cos8) + (“a’) ~ =Mg(I+$). . with w = m. J = f ML’8 8dt = ML’(02) .50 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Method 1 For a periodic system with a parameter slowly changing. and .6800 .e. Einstein used this example to demonstrate what an adiabatic invariant is. It is assumed that over a period.e. 00 o L3’4 ( When L + L/2. by taking 8 = do cos(wt + P O ) . Method 8 During discussion in a meeting. the amplitude of oscillation is increased by a factor of 1.68. Now J= where Pe = ML’O. Here we have used T = 27r/w. 2?r W . as J is an adiabatic invariant. the length of the string is alrnost unchanged and that 0 is a small angle. ! 4 PedO. the action J is an adiabatic invariant. Then.for the period.
the work done on the oscillator is (N)AL. 2 The work done and the increment of energy must balance. Berkeley) .Newtonian Mechanics 51 When L shortens slowly. Give the sun is I . and repelled by the sunlight reflecting off its surface.AL. the change in the oscillator's energy is A(MgLcos&) = A = MgAL = MgAL 1 + MgA(L@) 2 + 'Mg@AL + MgLOoAOo . giving LOoAOo or L@A l n ( 0 0 L ~= ~ ) ~0 . 4 e 0 ~ 3 /= constant . It follows that 30: AL + = 0 . = 4 x erg/sec and its mass is M. 4 Under the action of the external force. AL is the displacement of the oscillator. 1037 A perfectly reflecting sphere of radius r and density p = 1 is attracted to the sun by gravity. 4 or 00 c L3/4 x When L t L . = 2 x your answer in cm (assume a pointlike sun). (UC. Calculate the value of T for which these effects cancel. 1. The luminosity of gm.6860 2. e0 t . we obtain the work done as O2 MgALMg.A. where N is the tension of the string. Using the above.
1.N . 2hu AF. the change of the momentum of photons of frequency u along the zaxis is hu  c hu + cos(28) c 1 cos8ASAt This gives rise to a force of magnitude AP. as shown in Fig.. be the energy of sunlight of frequency u radiated by the sun in unit time. c0s3 0AS At C Then the total force exerted on the sphere by the sunlight of frequency u is Hence the total repelling force exerted by the sunlight is .52 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics @ sphere Fig. As R >> r . During a time interval At.. I .26. Solution: Let N . and R be the distance from the sun to the sphere. 1. = . be the number of photons of frequency u passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation in unit time. for an elementary surface A S at azimuth angle 8.26. Then The photons collide elastically with the perfectly reflecting sphere at its surface. the incident sunlight may be considered parallel and in a direction opposite to the zaxis.
(a) Find the 5 and y components of the force. 3 4 1033 16 x 3.14 x 3 x 1' x 6. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Differentiating with respect to time. x = xow: cos(w1t) . 1038 A particle of mass m moves along a trajectory given by x = xo coswlt.2 0 ~ 1sin(wlt).97 x 1 0 . Newton's second law gives F = m(Zi + #j)= m[x& cos(w1t)i + you: sin(w2t)jJ = m(wTxi + wzyj) . ~ = gow2 cos(wzt). . r2  4R2c 4GMs7rr3 3R2 ' or T = 318 167rcGM. we have I. we obtain j = . y = yo sin w2t.Newtonian Mechanics 53 The gravitational force the sun exerts on the sphere is where m = p * (4/3)7rr3 = (4/3)7rr3 is the mass of the sphere.67 x 00 x 2 x 1033   = 5. . When the two forces balance. Under what condition is the force a central force? (b) Find the potential energy as a function of x and y.~ cm . (c) Determine the kinetic energy of the particle. Show that the total energy of the particle is conserved. jj = yaw22 sin(&) .
2 = constant .w.cos2(wlt) w z y i sin2(w2t) 1 = m(x.. a is a fixed radius at which the force acts. and 01 is a constant having the dimensions of velocity. as shown in Fig.27. where i is a unit vector along the radius from the force center. F=VV. Note that we take the zero potential level at the origin. (b) From . we obtain the potential energy 1 v = m(w. + + + + It is therefore conserved.T T W ? X .e. . 1. 1039 A particle of mass m is projected with velocity 00 toward a fixed scattering center which exerts a repulsive force F = (mv:/2)6(r . i.x2 +w. (c) The kinetic energy of the particle is The total energy is then E=T+V 1 = m[z!w: sin2(wlt) ygwz cos2(w2t)] 2 w?x.54 Problems 3 Solutions o n Mechanics The x and y components of the force are therefore F. The impact parameter is s. ygw. Fu = W?Y If w1 = w2.a)i. F is a central force F = mw:r. = .y2) 2 .
and that the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. (c) Sketch carefully the orbit you would expect for wo > w1. for for <a . the angles of incidence and reflection. Then as the force is radial to the sphere. IJ. i. If YO < w1. while the component tangential to the sphere will remain the same. For the penetration to take place. we require ' that wo > w 1 . T . A potential can then be defined: V(r) =  F(r') .w? = d 2 .e. . w must be real. ( Wisconsin) Fig.where w is the speed of the particle inside the sphere ' = a. is conservative. Hence. dr' = imw. . (b) Show that if wo < w1. (b) The total energy T V of the particle is conserved: + 1 1 1 2 mwi = . T This is the potential energy of the particle in the field of the force.being a central force.Newtonian Mechanic8 55 (a) Find the potential energy.27. Solution: (a) The force F. the radial component of the particle momentum will be reversed in direction but not changed in magnitude. T >a . but bounces off. the particle cannot penetrate the sphere T = a. which are determined by the ratio of the magnitude of the tangential component to that of the radial component.m d 2 + mu1 2 2 2 i.e. s = a/2. the particle does not penetrate the sphere r = a. 1.
Let the angle it makes with the radial direction be 0. and penetrate the sphere. Neglecting air friction and the rotation of the earth (but using the exact gravitational field).ve) (Fig.56 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y are equal.e. so that 0 is given by 0 = axcsin (2&J * As V is constant (i. Fig. Note that on account o conservation of mechanical energy. the trajectory will be a straight line until the particle leaves the sphere. Solve it t o . no force) inside the sphere. (c) For 'UO > w1 and s = a/2.29). Then conservation of the tangential component of its momentum requires that v'sind = vosin3O" VO =  2 . 1. the particle will be incident on the sphere T = a with an incidence angle 00 = arcsin[(a/2)/a] = 30°.28. obtain an equation t o determine the maximum height H achieved by the trajectory. as shown in Fig.28. 1. Deflection of the trajectory again occurs at r = a . the f magnitude of the particle momentum will not change on collision. and outside the sphere. 1040 A longrange rocket is fired from the surface of the earth (radius R ) with velocity v = (wT. the speed will again be wo with the direction of motion making an angle of 30" with the radial direction at the point of exit. 1.
") . Considering the initial state and the find state when the rocket achieves maximum height.G M m R+H' which gives the maximum height H . a central force.") . we have mRue = m(R+ H)uh .rz m R 2 (1  F)vi R .= 2mvh2.Newtonian Mechanics 57 lowest order in ( H I R ) and verify that it gives a familiar result for the case that v is vertical.R R+H' 1 m(ui 2 where the prime refers to the final state at which the radial component of its velocity vanishes. Combining the above two equations we obtain m(uo 2 1 2 GMm 1 R + u.) + H R R 2 ue. m and M are the masses of the rocket and the earth respectively. Considering only terms first order in H I R . 1.= 2m ( . Solution: Both the angular momentum and mechanical energy of the rocket are conserved under the action of gravity. we have rn(v: and hence 1 2 GMm 1 +vi> .29. GMm 1 GMm + u. ( Wisconsin) Fig.
30). . Assume that this spacecraft is launched into an elliptical orbit about the sun with perihelion at the earth’s orbit and aphelion at Mar’s orbit (Fig. Then . 1. Mean distance of the earth from the sun = 1 A.0 Solution: (a) Let R1 be the distance of the earth from the sun and Rz that of Mars from the sun. w. We then obtain the familiar formula 1041 In a few weeks Mariner 9 will be launched from Cape Kennedy on a mission to Mars. (b) Use Kepler’s third law t o dalculate the time duration of the mission t o Mars on this orbit. (c) In what direction should the launch be made from earth for minimum expenditure of fuel? Mean distance of Mars from the sun = 1.U. 1 3 . ( Wisconsin) T Fig.5 A. we can consider g as constant with g = G M / R 2 . = v. (a) Find the values of the parameters X and E of the orbit equation = X ( 1 + ~)/(1+ EcosO) and sketch the o r t h .58 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics For vertical launching] 210 = 0 .U. and if H / R is small.
find the aphelion distance R. we obtain X = R1 = 1 A. 1042 A comet in am orbit about the sun has a velocity 10 km/sec at aphelion and 80 km/sec at perihelion (Fig. R2=.253/2T1= 1. for the comet.Newtonian Mechanics 59 X R1=. X(1t E) 1& Solving the equations. T 2 / a 3= constant.5 x lo8 km. 1. According to Kepler’s third law.31). the rocket must be launched along the tangent of the earth’s orbit and in the same direction as the earth’s rot ation.U. . ( Wisconsin) Fig.. or Ri + R2 312 TI = 1. E = 0.( 1 + l + E E) A. 1. The mission to Mars on this orbit takes 0.40 years .70 year.31. ( c ) In order to economize on fuel.2. If the earth’s velocity in a circular orbit is 30 km/sec and the radius of its orbit is 1. (b) Let TI and T be the revolutional periods of the earth and Mariner 9 respectively.
m.and m. _ R R2 ' Gm. . (b) Find an equation for the distance of closest approach.vi 2  Gm. L.m ( i 2 + r 2 P ). = Rv2 . 2 ) mcRavUam&vp = . we have Gm. terms in of E .m8 RP +m. ~ or By the conservation of the mechanical energy and of the angular momentum of the comet. The particle is scattered by the potential. the masses of the earth and the sun respectively.and T (and the particle mass m). Then _ mu2 . m and m.Gmm. The above equations give 1043 A classical particle with energy EO and angular momentum L about point 0 enters a region in which there is an attractive central potential V = G(r) centered on point 0. rmin. G(rmin). and va and vp are the velocities of the comet at aphelion and at perihelion respectively. R a +m. 1 2 L = mr2e . where m. G ( r ) .v. is the mass of the comet. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (4 Eo = . L.60 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y Solution: Let v be the velocity of the earth. and find the differential equation for d x / d r in terms of Eo. (a) Begin by assuming conservation of energy and angular momentum. R the radius of the earth's orbit.G ( T ).
(b) At closest approach T = rmin.1 = 0.32.dr 'de' * g= L mr2 ' the above equation can be written as giving Fig.= d6 dt . 1.32.Newtonian Mechanics 61 where 6 is shown in Fig. Then As  dr dt dr d0 . Hence ' Eo = mr$.G(rmin) or .e2 1 2 . 1.
At the closest approach to the sun (closest distance T from the sun’s center). Show that this orbit is stable if . we find b = JT. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Let the impact parameter of the comet be b. 1045 A particle moves in a circular orbit of radius r under the influence of an attractive central force.62 Pmblems d Solutions on Mechanics The result can also be obtained by putting drlde = 0. we have from the conservation of mechanical energy and angular momentum mV2 2  mV2 2 GMm T 7 mbVo = mrV . Take the sun to be at rest and ignore all other bodies. From these. ~ +l If r < R. Hence the total cross section for striking the sun is ( I = r[b(R)12 r R 2 1 f = () : . Find the total cross section B for striking the sun. 1044 A comet moves toward the sun with initial velocity 2’0. The mass of the sun is M and its radius is R. where m is the mass of the comet and V its velocity at closest approach. the comet will strike the sun.
say. As A L M mr268+ 2mr86r . ( CUSPEA ) Solution: For the motion of a particle under the influence of a central force. mi: = f + mre2 . Consider a particle traveling in a circular orbit of radius T subject to small radial and angular displacements 6r.2mrw6r T In the above. dr ew+so. we have mr28 = constant = L .Newtonian Mechanics 63 where f ( r ) is the magnitude of the force as a function of the distance T from the center. df mbi: M 6r + me26r + 2mr868 . we have df m6i: M 6r dr + m 2 6 r + 2w A L . we have retained only terms first order in the small quantities. In other words. The circular orbit is stable only if 6r varies simpleharmonically. 68: where w is the angular frequency of the particle moving in a circular orbit of radius T given by w 2 r = f ( r ) . the stable condition is that the coefficient of 6r is negative: or .
+ .e. 1 = 0. (b) the angular deflection which actually occurs. ( CUSPEA ) Solution: (a) When the particle is at the closest distance from the fixed center of force. Find: (a) the distance of closest approach. Conservation of angular momentum gives J = Vomb = m V R ..Z k: giving the closest distance (b) The trajectory of the particle is shown in Fig. 1. where k is a constant) if it were not deflected. (c) the differential scattering cross section d u / d f l for a homogeneous beam of particles scattered by this potential.b2 =+z.33. The impulse of the force F acting on the particle is m Fdt = mAV .k: 2 R mV2 2 ' where R is the closest distance and V (= Re) is the speed of the particle when it reaches the pericenter. 2 R 2 R or mV. i. Conservation of energy gives : mV.2 . .64 Problems €4 Sohtions on Mechanics 1046 A particle of mass m is projected from infinity with a velocity V in o a manner such that it would pass a distance b from a fixed center of inversesquare repulsive force (magnitude k / r 2 .= . v = VOb Hence R ' m V.
Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 65 where AV = Vf .1) . 1. with E = amV:. the lefthand side is mk cos O'dO' = . We have = mVo(cos20 . As F = 5 . As b = &cote. . Thus d a = 2n (&)2 S d O Then.Consider the component of i the impulse in the direction of Vi.sin 20 J Hence or sin 6 cos 6 = 2 m ~ sin2 6 o 2mk J . (c) The cross section corresponding to impact parameters between b and using the absolute value. b + db is du = 2nbdb. which gives the angular deflection 20.33. dR = 2n sin 20d(20) = 8n cos 0 sin O O d .V with lVfl = IViI = VO. as the scattering angle is 20. mr2& = J .
on account of the inverse distance square nature of gravitation. G and M .66 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics and thus  :.a(&) 1047 2 1 & % ’ I which is just Rutherford’s scattering formula. In other words. G . (a) Show that the effect of the dust is to add an additional attractive central force F ’ = mkr. 3 4ar3p If r is the distance of the planet from the sun. the gravitational force on the planet due to the attraction of the dust is. of density p. You may neglect any drag force due to collision with the particles. throughout the space surrounding the sun and the planet. Assume further that there is a uniform distribution of dust. T o . (d)’Does the axis of the ellipse precess in the same or opposite direction to the orbital angular velocity? ( CUSPEA ) Solution: (a) The mass of the dust in a sphere of radius Mdust = T centered at the sun is . in terms of rg. as if all the dust were concentrated at the sun. where k= 4apG 3 ’ G = gravitational constant. By considering the frequencies of the radial and the azimuthal motion. (b) Consider a circular orbit for the planet corresponding to angular momentum L. You need not solve the equation. p . m and k . in terms of L . (c) Assume F‘ is small compared with the solar attraction and consider an orbit just slightly deviating from the circular orbit of part (b). show that the orbit is a precessing ellipse and calculate the angular frequency of precession. . w p . Give the equation satisfied by the radius of the orbit. Consider a planet of mass m in orbit around a sun of mass M . M .
Writing the radial equation becomes mr= .. Thus the angular momentum L is a constant of the motion. 3 T2 3 (b) The planet has acceleration (Frd'. mr L2 For a circular orbit.e. .T O .Newtonian Mechanics 67 F' = MdustmG T2 .mkro 7 0 = mr0 TO of + (c) Let q express a small radial excursion around terms of which (1) becomes TO. 2 i d + r 8 ) in polar coordinates. i. we have d (mr2b) dt or =o. r = 0. mr2b = L where L is a constant.47rpGmr = mkr . GMm r2 mkr+?. q = r .47rr3p m G . in . Its equations of motion are therefore Multiplying ( 2 ) by T. and we have the equation for the radius the orbit: GMm L2 ___.
L 8== wo .68 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics <( T O . the mr0 To first order in p the azimuthal frequency is not affected by the presence of dust: . as q Making use of the equation for circular orbit. mri The precession frequency is . orbit is a precessing ellipse. we rewrite the 271 GMm mij=G(T)3 1 L2 7 TO mr: above as mk71 or This is the equation of a harmonic oscillator with angular frequency As the radial oscillation frequency is slightly larger than the azimuthal frequency 4.
34. 1. Fig.6 x lo3 kg moves about the earth in a circular orbit at an altitude of 4.0% of its kinetic energy without changing its direction of motion or its total mass. and loses 2. G . 1. It suddenly makes a headon collision with another meteorite that is much lighter. . Berkeley) Solution: (a) The laws of conservation of mechanical energy and conservation of angular momentum apply to the motion of the heavy meteorite after its collision. (c) Find the meteorite's distance of closest approach to the earth after the collision. m and for k = 0 (any error is second order in wp): rg. (a) What physics principles apply to the motion of the heavy meteorite after its collision? (b) Describe the shape of the meteorite's orbit after the collision. (UC. 1048 A meteorite of mass 1.2 x lo6 m above the surface. use the expression of L (d) Since the radial oscillation is faster than the orbital revolution. the axis of the ellipse precesses in a direction opposite to the orbital angular velocity as shown in Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 69 In order to express wp in terms of p .34.
3. the heavy meteorite will move in a n elliptic orbit. the velocity of the heavy meteorite is still perpendicular to the radius vector from the center of the earth.78) x 107m = 1.8 x lo3 x 64002 = 1. the heavy meteorite’s potential energy remains constant.85 .08 x lo7 m = 2. while its kinetic energy is suddenly reduced to 1.93 x 107 1. we obtain the major axis of the ellipse as . Then the distance of the apogee from .89 x  + 4200) 107m Joules . (c) From mu2 . E < 0.78 x 107m Joules .89 x 107m x 98% = 1. The potential energy of the meteorite before collision is r During the collision.m x 9. so after the collision we still have E < 0.8 R2g 1.93 x lO’m Joules GmM . After it loses 2.70 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) For the initial circular motion. From E= 2a = . As after the collision.85 x 107m Joules.0% of its kinetic energy. Hence the total mechanical energy of the meteorite after the collision is E = (1.GmM r r2 ’ we obtain the meteorite’s kinetic energy before collision: 1 mu 2 2 = GmM mgR2 2r 2T 2(6400 .08 x lo4 km . where m is the mass of the meteorite in kg.mR2g 2a 2a .(6400 x 103)2x 9. GmM ~ = mu2 = 3. the meteorite is at the apogee of the elliptic orbit.93 x 107 = 2.
e. 1049 Given that an earth satellite near the earth’s surface takes about 90 min per revolution and that a moon satellite (of our moon. we see that it is unnecessary to know the mass of the meteorite. and Vm are the volumes of the earth and moon respectively. we have or M= e .10600 = 10200 km + . Whatever the m s of the meteorite.Berkeley) Solution: Fkom the equation mrw2 = G m M / r 2 for a body m to orbit around a fixed body M under gravitation. we find r3w2= GM.Newtonian Mechanics 71 the center of the earth is 6400 4200 = 10600 km and the distance of the perigee from the center of the earth is r. It follows that the earth and moon have the same density. i. Then if Me. Thus the meteorite’s distance of closest approach to the earth after the collision is 10200 . the answer is as the same as long as the conditions remain unchanged. a spaceship orbiting our moon) takes also about 90 min per revolution. what interesting statement can you derive about the moon’s composition? ( UC.6400 = 3800 km. From the above calculations. are the radii of the earth and moon respectively..M m V e V m ’ where V. .Mmare the masses and r e .in = 20800 . and the periods of revolution of the earth and moon satellites are the same. T.
s (b) If the total energy of the ion exceeds VO. Berkeley) Solution: (a) The effective potential energy as a function of T is where L is the angular momentum of the ion about the force center. (c) Find the cross section for an ion to strike an atom (Lee.72 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1050 The interaction between an atom and an ion at distances greater than contact is given by the potential energy V ( r ) = . (UC. . where e is the charge and Pa the polarizability of the atom. Its variation with r is shown in Fig.C T .) (a) Sketch the effective potential energy a a function of T . the ion can strike the atom. Find VOin terms of the angular momentum L. 1. (C = e2P2/2.35. 1.~ .35. Assume that the ion is much lighter than the atom.to penetrate t o T = 0) in terms of its initial velocity 210. and rn is the mass of the ion. maximum value of the the effective potential energy. Fig.
2OC +dr2 r6 3L2 mr4 * Substituting T I and r2 in the above we obtain ' L Hence at r = $&.Vo.L dr 7: mr27: r 2 We can then find the angular displacement of the ion with respect to the atom as it travels from infinity to the closest distance r. (c) In terms of the total energy we can write m+= Then as In terms ofL we can write I = 3..Newtonian Mechanics 73 (b) To find the maximum of V d . L Consider d2Veg . r2 = 2 Jcm .a. we set The solutions are r1 = oo. Veg has a maximum value VO= 16c. B e = d= + dt we have dd dr ' L de I ==..in from the atom: .
e. implying that there is no minimum distance from the atom. # 0 and the ion continues approaching i... mm 2mEr4 . When the ion reaches the position at which & = VO. Physically this can be seen as follows. the : a constant. the minimum distance of the ion to the atom. so that with passage of transverse velocity re = $ + time the trajectory will infinitely approach a circle of radius rminand no scattering occurs.4mC 4mE 4mE L2 ’ or Substituting rminin el we obtain Why cannot we have a finite value for 61? It is on account of the fact that. under the condition E = KJ = while 1 + 0 as r + r. the ion will approach the atom infinitely. k. 2m(E . rmin as given above is complex.V ). i.16m2EC . is determined by = 0. = + L2 f dL4.e.in. i..74 Pmblens d Solutions on Mechanics As .L2 .L2r2 2mC = 0 . If E > Vo.n? i . . or Hence T2.= 0 72 L2 .
we can assume that its . suddenly the nucleus emits a negatron and changes to charge +2. Berkeley) Solution: (a) As the negatron leaves the system rapidly. as usual. the speed of the ion.Newtonian Mechanics 75 the atom. to be for zero kinetic energy at infinite distance).2 ' Hence the cross section for the ion to strike the atom is g ac = r b 2 = 2lr VO & 2 . Suppose the ion approaches the atom with impact parameter b and initial velocity vo.) The electron in orbit suddenly has a new situation.Then to strike the atom we require (A+ f 2 ) 5 1 L 4 m2v$b4 E = mvi > Vo= 2 16Cm2 .16C ' or b4 < mv. (b) Describe qualitatively the new orbit. (r2e2+ f 2 ) l I 2 = 112 . if the expression for the potential energy V ( r ) = continues to hold. (c) Find the distance of closest and of farthest approach for the new orbit in units of T O . (The emitted negatron escapes rapidly and we can forget about it. (UC. c 1051 Given a classical model of the tritium atom with a nucleus of charge +1 and a single electron in a circular orbit of radius ro. (a) Find the ratio of the electron's energy after to before the emission of the negatron (taking the zero of energy. will become larger and larger as the atom is approached. But this is not so as other ionatom interactions will come into play when the two bodies are close to each other. (d) Find the major and minor axes of the new elliptical orbit in terms of ro. As L is conserved.
we find its kinetic energy and its total mechanical energy El = mu: e2 . we have . Thus after the emission the total mechanical energy of the orbiting electron is giving In other words.mr2& e2 .i.76 Pmblema €4 Solutions o n Mechanics leaving has no effect on the position and kinetic energy of the orbiting electron.e2 . (c) Conservation of energy gives 3e2  e2 m(..i. (1) for circular motion is no (b) As E2 = . the total energy of the orbiting electron after the emission is three times as large a that before the emission. longer satisfied and the new orbit is an ellipse. s the condition Eq. From the force relation for the electron. = 0.8 ~ ~ 0 ~ 20 2mOr  L2 e2 2mr2 27raor ' . for which 3e2 . After the emission the kinetic energy of the electron is still while its potential energy suddenly changes to 6.2 +~ ' 8 ~ ) 8 ~ ~ 0 ~~ I T E O T T 0 + 2 At positions where the orbiting electron is at the distance of closest or farthest approach to the atom.2 4T€oTo 8 ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 before the emission of the negatron.
interact with Jupiter’s gravitational field and be deflected by 90”’ i. = 1 3’ in units of TO. How much energy did the satellite gain in the collision? Ignore the sun’s gravitational field during the collision and assume that the duration of the collision is small compared with Jupiter’s period. with solutions Hence the distances of closest and farthest approach in the new orbit are respectively 1 Tmin = .Newtonian Mechanics 77 Then with the above becomes 3r2 . Berkeley) .36).4101 + rf = o .e. 1.. r. (UC. and 2c the distance between its two focuses. We have 1052 A satellite is launched from the earth on a radial trajectory away from the sun with just sufficient velocity to escape from the sun’s gravitational field.. (d) Let 2a and 2b be the major and minor axes of the new elliptical orbit respectively. It is timed so that it will intercept Jupiter’s orbit a distance b behind Jupiter. its velocity after the collision is tangential to Jupiter’s orbit (Fig.
After the encounter.52 + 13.01 x 1014 m3/s2.5 km/s .85 x lo4 m/s = 18. When the satellite just enters the gravitational field of Jupiter. T = 7. vi the velocity of the satellite with respect t o the sun at the time it intercepts Jupiter's orbit a distance b behind it and before any interaction with it. its velocity in the Jupiter frame is or v.78 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Let r represent the distance from Jupiter to the sun. The velocity VJ of Jupiter with respect to the sun is given by v : GM. If b does not change during the encounter.e. ' 2 r giving vi=/?=/ 2 x 4. the satellite leaves the gravitational field of Jupiter with a velocity in the sun's frame tangential to Jupiter's orbit. As the satellite just escapes the sun's gravitational field.67 + 13. and rn and M .12 = 22. = 3. we have ~~ mu.33 x 105Me ( M e is the earth's mass). the masses of the satellite and the sun respectively. G M . where we have used M . conservation of the angular momentum of the satellite in the Jupiter frame shows that this is also the speed of the satellite in the Jupiter frame when it leaves the gravitational field of Jupiter. =r T2 ' i.78 x lo1' m.78 x loll = 1.67 km/s.GmM. + V J = 22.01 x 1014 x 3.33 x 105 7. = gR2 ( R is the radius of the earth) = 4.77 km/s . Thus the speed of the satellite with respect t o the sun is vf = v. . = J18.1 = 35.
(Columbia) Solution: (a) The weight of a body on the earth arises from the gravitational attraction of the earth.6 x lo6 J/kg .36.52 = 468.Jupiter's o r b i t . ( c ) The distance from the earth to the sun. (b) The mass of the moon. SUN ."r .__  The energy gained by unit mass of the satellite in the collision is therefore 35. 2 1053 By what arguments and using what measurable quantities can one determine the following quantities with good accuracy? (a) The mass of the earth.18.772 . 1.Newtonian Mechanics 79  .P Fig.m mg=R2 I whence the mass of the earth is . We have Gm.
37. (b) Consider a 2body system consisting of masses ml. The force equation is ml +m2 or G(ml +m2) = 47r273 ~ T2 ’ where mlrnz/(ml m2) is the reduced mass of the system.. two observers A and B at latitudes A1 and A2 in the meridian plane containing Eros and the sun measure the angles a1 and a2 as shown in Fig. 1. under gravitational interaction.37. the radius of the earth R. a and T are the mass.’ T2 where m. we have + G(m. Applying this t o the moonearth system. (c) Described below is a historical method for determining the e a r t h s u n distance using the asteroid Eros. m2. When the sun. can be obtained. semimajor axis and period of revolution of the moon respectively. separated by T . 1. As giving . ha3 + me)= . 1.38. m. earth and Eros are on a straight line as in Fig. With the knowledge of me obtained in (a) and that of a and T determined by astronomical observations. and the gravitational constant G are measurable quantities. Fig.80 Problems €5 Solutions on Mechanics where the acceleration of gravity g.
Kepler’s third law gives a3 T2 where T and TI are respectively the periods of revolution of the earth and Eros around the sun.0 M s i n h . this method is not accurate because the orbits of revolution of the earth and Eros are elliptical.sin a1) a2a1&+X1 . used together.a we have alax Re(sin a 2 . methods are now available for determining the earthsun distance. and Re  sinp2 giving p 2 a1 . not circular (eccentricity of Eros’ orbit = 0. The last two equations. 1.a sinal ’ Re (sina2 . velocity v and negative .sinal) . . 1054 Two long concentric halfcylinders. with cross section as shown in Fig. 1. A particle of mass m.228).Newtonian Mechanics 81 Earth Fig.39. carry charges arranged to produce a radial electric field E = ke. However. More accurate./r between them.. determine a.38. but nonmechanical.a sinaz ’ Re =sinpl a1 .sinpl = 1 a1 . and the angle formed by their orbital planes is greater than loo.
Find the location of that point P .39. For small p the point P at which this new trajectory again crosses the trajectory in (a) is independent of @. Fig. m .. consider only motion in the plane of the diagram for all calculations.) (c) How is the answer to part (a) changed if a uniform magnetic field is introduced parallel to the axis of the halfcylinders? (Columbia) Solution: (a) As the particle moves in il circular path. Since the velocity v has no component along the axis of the halfcylinders.= q E = . 1. we have .82 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics charge q enters the region between the plates from the left in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the halfcylinders and perpendicular to the radial direction as in the figure. what must be the radius r of that path? (b) Next consider a trajectory for which the particle enters the region between the plates at the same distance r from the axis and the same speed as in (a).9 k v . qk mv2 r r or 2 . (Again the particle has no velocity component along the axis of the halfcylinders and remains in the plane of the diagram. (a) If the particle moves on a circular path while between the plates. but at a small angle @ with the direction of the original path.
and 6r. mr2e = mrov . = (&) d dt e=wo+se. Conservation of angular momentum and energy gives 1 m(i2 2 + r2b2)+ qkln (5) . > : [ 1 . By a similar approximation. while between the plates.* 6T 1 0 ( 3 2 ] ro + . We can also write . 66 are small quantities.)2/(l+z)4 (. i. but at a small angle p with the direction of the original path. where wo is the angular velocity for the original circular orbit.Newtonian Mechanics 83 As long as the velocity v of the particle satisfies this relation. = mu2 1 2 As the new trajectory deviates from the original one slightly. (b) The particle enters the region between the halfcylinders at the same distance ro from the axis and with the same speed v as in (a). it will move in a circular path whose radius is equal to the distance between the incident line and the axis of the halfcylinders. Substitution in (1) gives ()== . we set r=ro+6r. rov v 1 2 ' or e2= = (.
84 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Hence (2) can be written. 6r Then taking the time derivative of both sides. neglecting small quantities higher than the second order. as (6r)2+ or. we obtain dt2 sr=o. The second crossing takes place at a time t later given by U JZt=r. TO or t=f i u ’ To and the position of P is given b Y e = et which is independent of 1) 7r p. ( qk TO  mu2 T ) =0 . Hence At the point where this new trajectory crosses the trajectory in (a). or +(O) = v s i n p . The initial conditions r(0)= TO. with solution where A and cp are constants of integration. 6r = 0. . . d 6r dt = vsinp at t = 0 A=% Jz sinp . 6r = 0. noting qk = mu2. give cp=O.
Newtonian Mechanics 85 (c) If a uniform magnetic field parallel to the axis of the halfcylinders is used instead of the electric field.r82) . U 1 . Equation (2) gives or r2S = constant = h . Newton’s second law gives F = m(i:. (Columbia) Solution: Consider a central force F = r F ( r ) acting on a particle of mass m.8) in polar coordinates. say. Determine the potential energy as a function of T . or 8 = hu2 by putting r = . 0 = m ( r l + 2i.. we will have Then the radius T of the circular path will be mu r=qB * 1055 The orbit of a particle moving under the influence of a central force is re = constant.
where C is a constant.. which is often known as Binet’s formula. and in what direction? (b) How long will it take to reach Mars? . Binet’s formula then gives The potential energy is by definition taking an infinity point as the zero potential level. 2 . relative t o earth. (a) With what velocity. (1) becomes F = mh2u2 d2u (su ) + . Neglect the gravitational effects of the planets on Mariner 4.h u U 2 3 = h u . Eq.86 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics Then as . In this problem. does Mariner 4 have to leave earth.1 2 4 TO . let T = $ and write the equation of the trajectory as u=ce. Assume that the orbits of earth and Mars are circular with radii RE and RM respectively. 1056 Mariner 4 was designed to travel from earth t o Mars in an elliptical orbit with its perihelion at earth and its aphelion at Mars.
relative to Mars. will it reach the orbit of Mars? (The time at which Mariner 4 leaves earth must be properly chosen if it is to arrive at Mars. RE 2Rg ' + giving At the perihelion we obtain its velocity relative to the sun as v== RE ~GMRM R E ( R M+ R E ) ' Suppose Mariner 4 is launched in a direction parallel to the earth's revolution around the sun. At the perihelion and aphelion of the elliptical orbit. i = 0. and h = r2e is a constant. The velocity relative to the earth with which Mariner 4 is to leave the earth is then where V E is the velocity of revolution of the earth. which is a central force. Assume this is done. Similarly at the aphelion the velocity. relative to Mars. which Mariner 4 must have is IGM . G is the gravitational constant. we have mi2 E=2 GmM T +mh2 ' 2r2 where m and M are the masses of Mariner 4 and the sun respectively. Then GmM mh2 GmM mh2 E=+=RM 2R2. is conservative.) ( Columbia) Solution: As the gravitational force on Mariner 4.Newtonian Mechanics 87 (c) With what velocity. T = RE and T = RM respectively.
e. = 0. At the closest approach.88 Problems & Solutzons o n Mechanics Applying Kepler’s third law we have for the period T of revolution of Mariner 4 around the sun T 2 = T i RE + R M ( ) RE3. Neglecting nucleus recoil (and atomicelectron effects). and U = &(T T +V ) ’ for T where (Columbia) Solution: Let d be the impact parameter with which a pion approaches the nucleus. the pion “hits” the nucleus if its distance of closest approach is b or less. . 21 = bs.. the pion has no radial velocity. Considered classical. where m is its mass. o. 3 where TE = period of revolution of the earth = 1 year. i. show that the collision cross section for these pions is o= TP(T .) has (nonrelativistic) kinetic energy T . The pion has initial velocity and angular momentum m d . Conservation of angular momentum gives @ . Hence the time taken for Mariner 4 t o reach Mars in years is 1057 A charged pion (T+ or T . A massive nucleus has charge Z e and effective radius b.V ) T I for T+ .
the potential is u = and we have ~T + V~ b ( ~ ) . the work done is (0. where m is the mass of your body and g is the acceleration of gravity.5 + 0. (Columbia) Solution: Generally speaking. 1058 Estimate how big an asteroid you could escape by jumping. In the process. .for n+ we have ~ = n T' ( ~ ) . or The collision cross section is Putting V = F. You can usually reach a height 60 cm above your normal height. before jumping. b V and for n. one always bends one's knees to lower the center of gravity of the body by about 50 cm and then jumps up..Newtonian Mechanics 89 or Conservation of energy gives T =V 1 + rnb2e2 2 . as a potential V now comes into play.6)mg.
we obtain M .27 and .8 m/sec2.GMmm 2 Tm 9 . (b) Compare this speed with thermal velocities of oxygen molecules at the moon’s temperature which reaches 100°C. (VC. You are given that the ratios of moon/earth diameters and masses are Mm Dm .lmg = R ’ If we assume that the density of the asteroid is the same as that of the earth. 1 R ~ ’ or R= Jm J1.=0.0123 De n/r. respectively. (a) Compute the minimum velocity required to escape from the moon’s gravitational field when starting from its surface. .1. Then to escape from the asteroid by jumping we require that GMm l.= 0.19 1 .l = x 6400 x lo3 = 2. then mvki.R3 ME R.7 x lo3 m 1059 You know that the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the earth is 9. ’ where M E and RE are respectively the mass and radius of the earth. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Let the velocity required to escape from the moon’s gravitational field be wmin. As g = GME/Rg..90 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics It is reasonable to suppose that when one jumps on an asteroid of mass M and radius R one would consume the same energy as on the earth. we find GM R3 R = . and that the length of a great circle around the earth is 4 x lo7 m.
27 and Mm/Me = 0. 1 2 3 2 Hence 32 x 1. (b) The average kinetic energy of the translational motion of oxygen molecules at a temperature of 100°C is 3kT/2: mu2 = . 1060 A n object of unit mass orbits in a central potential U ( r ) ./De = 0.0123. g =. a .67 x =538 m/s . which is the rootmeansquare speed of an oxygen molecule at the highest moon temperature.38 x 103'm/s using g = GM.the speed required to escape from the moon. D. v. (MITI Solution: Let Then =de2 d2u b2ebe .b 2 u . Its orbit is r = ae68.JcTF) a D .Newtonian Mechanics 91 giving 0*0123 . is smaller than urnin. where 6 is the azimuthal angle measured in the orbital plane.k T . = 2./r:. Find U ( r ) to within a multiplicative constant.
Show that the classical cross section for elastic scattering of point particles from an infinitely massive sphere of radius R is isotropic.92 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics and Binet’s formula (Problem 1055) F = mh2u2 gives for m = ($+ u) h2(b2 1 ) T3 1 F = h2(b2 + l ) u 3=  + .40. The angle of scattering is then cp = 28 as shown in Fig. 1061 Hard sphere scattering. The differential scattering cross section per unit solid angle is given by 2xbdb = 22sR2 sin 8 cos 8d8 = 22s dCl or dcr sin p d p . (MIT) Solution: For elastic scattering. If 6 is the impact parameter. db = R cos Ode . . 2 T2 ’ 00. the incidence angle equals the angle of reflection. we have b = Rsin8 and . dU(r) dr T + ’ Integrating and taking the reference level for U ( T )at h2 b 2 + 1 V ( T ) = . 1. we obtain where h = r26 is the conserved angular momentum of the object about the force center and is to be determined by the initial condition.
In other words. . the massive billiard ball will remain stationary during scattering. where 8 is given by (R+ r ) sin8 = b . 1. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 93 . the scattering is isotropic. involving no frictional forces. ( Columbia) Solution: As m << M. 1062 Find the angular distribution and total cross section for the scattering of small marbles of mass m and radius r from a massive billiard ball of mass M and radius R (m << M).R2 4 sincpdq 4 * Thus the classical differential cross section is independent of the angle of scattering. the scattering angle 8 is related to the angle of incidence by e=n2e.41).You should treat the scattering as elastic. As the scattering is elastic (see Fig. Fig. d o  1 R2sin28d8 dR = 5 sinqdq  R2sin cpdcp .40.
(2nbdbl . 1. A V is known as the specific impulse. 1063 A spaceship is in a circular orbit of radius TO around a star of mass M. it is desirable to minimize AV = CE1 lAvi(..42). What is the minimum specific impulse required if the engine is fired in a single rapid burst? In what direction should the engine be fired? . As $$ is isotropic. the total cross section is Fig.94 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics The differential scattering cross section is dR da . The spaceship’s rocket engine may be fired briefly t o alter its velocity (instantaneously) by ari amount Av.2?r(sinBcosd. 1. The direction of firing is specified by the angle 0 between the ship’s velocity v and the vector from the tail t o the nose of the ship (see Fig. To conserve fuel in a sequence of N firings.41. (a) Suppose we want to use the ship’s engine to escape from the star.( R + T ) ~ ~ O I dR 27~d (3 cos  \i(R 1 + T)~ sin QdQl i ( R+ r)2dcos0 d cos 0 d cos 8 = (R+r)2 4 .
i. The timing of the second burst and the strength of each burst should be chosen to minimize the total specific impulse.e.Newtonian Mechanics 95 Fig. the initial velocity of the spaceship and the impulse are in the same direction. (MW Solution: (a) Let vo be the speed of the spaceship in the circular orbit of radius ro. (b) Suppose we wish to visit a planet in a circular orbit of radius r1 > ro. Calculate the minimum specific impulse for both of the following firing strategies: (c) A single rapid burst at 0 = 180". 1. (d) A single rapid burst at 0 = 0" and then a second burst at 0 = 180" at a later time. and 00. Then the specific impulse required for escape is the least for B = 0. What is the minimum specific impulse required to reach the planet's orbit if the engine is again fired in a single rapid burst? Suppose we want to use the ship's engine to cause it to crash into the star (assume the radius of the star to be negligible). and is given by .42.. be the escape velocity for the orbit.
Let vle be the speed of the ship as it arrives at Conservation of angular momentum requires T = r1 and before the burst. the engine is again fired in a single rapid burst (see Fig. 1.96 P r o b l e m €9 Solutions on Mechanics Fig. = 1 .43.its speed must be v l = g . When the ship reaches the circular orbit T = TI of the planet. (b) After the first burst.43). r1 GMm or Then the minimum specific impulse required is given by AV = Iv~  Vlel . the ship escapes from the circular orbit around the star and moves along a parabolic orbit. Conservation of energy gives 5mv:. For the ship to move along the circular orbit of radius rl. 1.
The total impulse required is That this is the minimum impulse can be seen from the following. 00. The speed of the ship u is given by E. thereafter the ship falls down to the star. u +0. AV. r GMm As r . it can escape from the orbit. The second burst can be fired when u E 0 at B = 180° to turn the ship around toward the star with a specific impulse AVz NN 0.= constant. Suppose the first burst fired at 8 = 0" is .. 1 2 e(fi mu . Hence the minimum impulse required is (d) If after the first burst with 8 = O". so that ' it will fall onto the star.Newtonian Mechanics 97 or Hence (c) For a single rapid burst at B = 180". = . the minimum specific impulse is that which makes the speed of the spaceship u = uo .e.AV = 0. the ship acquires the escape velocity uoe = i.l).
The second burst must be such that Av2 is equal to v2 in magnitude but opposite in direction in order that the ship can stop and fall down to the star.98 Problems kY Solutions on Mechanics then the ship will move along an elliptic orbit. Suppose at the aphelion the ship is at distance 72 from the star and has speed 212. the smaller is the specific impulse AV = AV1 AVz. under the condition + . At the aphelion. = Eliminating r2 from the above. then AV1 is given by the energy equation 1 GMm 1 mu2 . v2 Av2 = 0. i. we have giving where the lower sign corresponds to the speed at the perihelion and the upper sign to the speed at the aphelion.= m(vo 2 72 2 and the angular momentum equation + AV1)2 GMm  TO m12~2 mro(w0 + AVI) . Thus + or From the above it can be seen that the larger the value of AV1. The speed is then minimum at the aphelion. at which point the second burst at 8 = 180’ should be fired to make AV2 small.e..
(a) Obtain expressions for the force F(r). Sketch V ( r ) . 0 (b) The bullet has angular momentum L = m(GMR/32)lI2 about r = 0 and total energy E = 5GMm/4R.1) and after an infinitely long period of time. c<o. Solution: (a) The force F acting on the bullet is From the definition of potential energy V ( r ) . 0 < r < 00. obtain an expression for the differential orbit angle dB in terms of d r . outside the cloud. mass M .F = VV(r). you may wish to use dx ~ .R) by integrating your answer to (c). we have . Ignore all nongravitational interactions. suffered by the bullet in terms of the distance r from the cloud center.2 . the first burst should carry impulse AVI = 4 . and for the potential energy V ( r ) . or sometimes inside and sometimes outside? (c) For L and E as in (b).b a+bx+cx2 6 d@=xFc’ Find the turning points and sketch the orbit. Is the bullet always in the cloud.. Consider a uniform spherical cloud of radius R. d m ( 1064 “Interstellar bullets” are thought to be dense clumps of gas which move like ballistic particles through lowerdensity interstellar gas clouds. (d) Obtain an orbit equation r(6. a second burst is fired with an infinitesimal impulse AVZ. and a “bullet” of radius << R and mass m << M . < r < 00.1 arcsin . Find the orbit turning point(s). r and R.Newtonian Mechanics 99 Hence in order to minimize the total specific impulse.
1. 5GMm 2 ~ 3 4R we have for the turning distance r GMm(r2  3~2) +   which has solutions 2fJZ . (b) As shown in Fig. 1.44.M m (3R2 . A sketch of V ( r )is shown in Fig. 1. I Fig. 7: = 0. with total energy E = 5GMm/4R. GMm r (R<r<m). 1.44.44.dr (0 < r 5 R ) . Hence Eliminating vg. the bullet can only move inside the gas cloud in a region bounded by the turning points. v = ve.r 2 ) 2 ~ 3 (0 < T 5 R ) . we find V ( r )= { G . Fig. At the turning points. dr  F .dr ( R5 T < 0 0 ) . F.45.100 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics V ( r )=  V ( r )=  laR 1 :  F . Substituting in the appropriate expressions for F and integrating.
28) = 8 + ~&?cos(~B + p) .x2 ~ 2~ . d8 = [32 () . (d) To integrate the last equation.28 = arcsin 8 f i or x =8 i.I + 16 (f)’.Newtonian Mechanics 101 giving (c) Conservation of energy and of angular momentum give E = V ( T+ ) m ( f 2 r2e2) n 7 + L L = mr28 .11 dx If2 dr T . Substituting in the above we have 5GM =.m 4 R GMm 2 ~ 3 or ($) 2 = r2 [32 ( f ) 4 + 16 ( f ) 2 . + 4&sin(cr .e.11 . i.and rewrite the ~ equation a s 2dB = Integrating. let x = ( T / R ) . . we obtain (Y 432 + 1 6 .e.16 ~ .
and VO.=.we obtain . Conservation of energy and angular momentum give mV: 2 mV2 2 GMm R ' (1) (2) rnVObmax mVR . Hence the turning points are given by Thus there are a total of 4 turning points as shown in Fig. i. o (UC.Neglect the existence of the earth and of the sun. the escape velocity V. (a) What is the collision cross section for the particles to hit the moon? Express the cross section 0 in terms of the moon's radius R. ( l ) . r is either maximum or minimum. 1065 A very broad parallel beam of small particles of mass m and charge zero is fired from space towards the moon... = From Eq. or less.45. The particles will hit the moon if their distances of closest approach are b. At a turning point. By a suitable choice of the coordinate axes. partial credit will be given for a good formula guessed on the basis of dimensional analysis. cos6' = k l . Berkeley) Solution: (a) Let the maximum impact parameter be b. and an argument as to what should be the answer in the two limits that V goes o t o zero and V goes t o infinity. (b) If you are unable to derive the formula. with initial velocity V relative to the o moon. 1.e. from the surface of the moon..102 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics where p is a constant of integration. we can make p = 0..
only those aimed at the moon will arrive there as the potential energy due to the moon’s attraction is negligible compared with the kinetic energy. : u=. Find an approximate expression (to first order in k) for the rate of precession and its sense compared to the direction of revolution. u + . + These results can be understood as follows.rrR2[1+6(+)1] . and the dust adds a small term V = k r 2 / 2 . where a and b are unknown constants which cannot be determined by this method alone.rrR2 for VO 00 . For very small %. To apply the method of dimensional analysis. all the particles will be attracted to the moon as we have neglected the effects of the earth and the sun.. . For very large velocities. = nR2 (b) For the two limiting cases we have U+Oo for V + 0 o .. 1066 Pretend that the sun is surrounded by a dust cloud extending out at least as far as the radius of the earth. The effect of the dust may cause the ellipse to precess slowly. we make a guess that the cross section will be the geometrical cross section of the moon with some dimensionless correction factor involving VOand V. The sun produces the familiar potential V = GMm/r.Newtonian Mechanics 103 Equation (2) then gives Hence the collision cross section for the particles to hit the moon is 2 u = nbm. The earth revolves in a nearly circular ellipse of average radius TO. a however must be positive to satisfy our expectations for the two limiting cases.
. The energy equation T can then be written with 1 mi2 2 . = 0 .) as a Taylor series: as (%). Berkeley) Solution: In the equation for radial motion of a body under central force the effective potential is U ( T )= GMm ~ T Icr2 ++.L2 j =0 . 2 L2 2mr2 TO The earth will move in a closed orbit of radius value.=. Hint: Consider small oscillations about (UC. U(T . if U ( T O is an extreme ) (1) or GMm To” + kro . i. 2 Differentiating with respect to time gives Hence there are small oscillations about TO with angular frequency . retaining only the dominant terms.104 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics TO.T O = x as dr2 () d2U r=ro 1 + x2 = constant ...e. mr0 from which Expand TO can be determined.
and we find U ” ( r ) = 3k +mug . wo being the angular velocity of revolution around the sun. . Berkeley) Solution: The force acting on the particle is (a) If the particle moves in a circle of radius r . what will be the frequency of small oscillations? (UC. we have mu2r=k. the period of radial oscillation is shorter than that of revolution. (1). i. L = mrgwo.Newtonian Mechanics 105 where using Eq. 1067 A particle of mass m is bound by a linear potential U = k ~ . Thus to first order in k. (a) For what energy and angular momentum will the orbit be a circle of radius r about the origin? (b) What is the frequency of this circular motion? (c) If the particle is slightly disturbed from this circular motion.e. we have and the rate of precession is As wr > wo. the direction of precession is opposite to that of rotation. For the nearcircular orbit.
L2 ueff kr + 2mr2 = ~ ' The radius rg of the stationary circular motion is given by i. The energy of the particle is then mu2 w 2 r 2 3kr E = k r + = kr + 2= 2 2 and its angular momentum about the origin is L=mwr2=mr d:r =&P (b) The angular frequency of circular motion is w = (c) The effective potential is JA.e. if it is slightly disturbed from the stationary circular motion. is (Problem 1066) where wg is the angular frequency of the stationary circular motion. To = (2) 113 As the angular frequency of small radial oscillations about ro.e.106 Problems tY Solutions on Mechanics i. .
so that the mass loss may be considered instantaneous.) (UC.Rv. R With K = G M M . As the eccentricity e of the orbit is zero. is the mass of the planet and where the magnitude of the gravitational force between the star and planet is KIT:. Berkeley) Solution: Before the explosion the planet moves in a circle of radius R around the star.Newtonian Mechanics 107 1068 A planet has a circular orbit around a star of mass M. E'=E+ G(M . What is the eccentricity of the planetary orbit after the explosion? (Neglect the hydrodynamic force exerted on the planet by the expanding shell. we have from the given equation for e MpK2 E=2L2 a As M v2 K PR2' R we have L = M. ejecting its outer envelope at a velocity much greater than the orbital motion of the planet. and K' = GM'M. Recall that the eccentricity is given in terms of the energy E and angular momentum L by e2=1+ 2EL2 MpK2 ' where M. Let L' and E' be respectively the angular momentum and total energy of the planet after the explosion. The star explodes. we have for the eccentricity e of the orbit after the explosion . Then L'=L. The remnant of the star has a mass M' which is much greater than the mass of the planet.M')M.
1. does not direct toward the center of the earth (e. because of the rapid decrease in pressure with altitude.46). the forces on the satellite at A and B in Fig.+ y G ( M . As the effect is quite small. is concentrated near the perigee. (b) an atmospheric drag which.108 P r o b l e m €5 Solutions on Mechanics e2=1+ 2El Lt2 M pK t 2 2 [+. Suppose the orbital plane N of the satellite makes an angle 6 with the equatorial plane M of the earth. (UC. Give qualitative arguments showing how these perturbations will alter the shape and orientation of a Keplerian orbit. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Owing to polar flattening of the earth (shaded area in Fig.M‘)M. giving M pKI2 1069 A satellite traveling in an elliptical orbit about the earth is acted on by two perturbations: (a) a noncentral component to the earth’s gravitational field arising from polar flattening. the equipotential surface in the neighboring space is a flattened sphere (dashed ellipsoid). but its torque with respect to the center of the earth does . The effect of the nonradial component of the force cancels out over one period. the orbit of the satellite can still be considered.46).] M Ka L2 =1+ =l+(g)2(lg) . which is normal to the equipotential surface. the earth’s gravitational force acting on the satellite. 1. as circular. As the equipotential surface deviates from the spherical shape.g. to first approximation.
It will cause the total angular momentum vector to precess about L. (c) Determine the maximum value of n for which the circular orbit can be stable.46. This “equivalent” torque is directed into the plane of the paper and is perpendicular to the orbiting angular momentum L of the satellite.Newtonian Mechanics 109 M surface Fig. (b) Determine the relation that must hold among f ( r ) . (Princeton) . (a) Show that by a proper choice of initial conditions a circular orbit can result. Now assume that the force law is of the form f ( r ) = K/r”. (b) Because the atmospheric drag is concentrated near the perigee. not. The circular orbit is now subjected to a small radial perturbation. 1. Further action by the drag will further reduce its distance to the earth until it falls to the earth.r and af/& for this orbit to be stable. which is perpendicular to the orbit plane N and is in the plane of the paper. it makes the satellite slow down at the perigee and reduces the energy and angular momentum of the satellite every time it crosses the perigee. 1070 A particle of mass m moves under the influence of an attractive central force f ( r ). This will make the apogee of the satellite’s orbit come closer and closer to the earth and finally the orbit will become a circle with a radius equal to the distance of the perigee to the center of the earth.
~ Hence the condition 3J2 mr4 i. along the radial direction. .e. then a f / a r = nK/rn+' and (1) gives J2 = m K / ~ .e. 3J2 +mr4 d2V dr2 > 0 .the orbit is a circular one. a t r = ro. The circular motion of the particle in the V field corresponds t o the particle being at rest in the equilibrium position in the V * field.. (c) If f = K/rn. af dr >(). V' must be minimum at r = ro. dr or If the initial condition satisfies the above equality and E = V*(rg). 2 The motion can then be treated as onedimensional. (b) For the orbit t o be stable.0. This requires that i.110 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) The effective potential of the particle is where J is a constant and V is related to f by f = the total energy is F.in terms of which mf2 E=+v*. dV' . At the equilibrium position r = ro. or 3J2 mr4 af dr >o..g .
where Su is a small quantity. There is. a repulsive force on the planet proportional to the distance T from the star. the above becomes A mh2uo = G M m . u = UO. The above equation then gives. 4 . (Princeton) Solution: The force on the planet is f= GMm T2 t AT With u = orbit: : .Newtonian Mechanics 111 requires that n < 3 for the circular orbit to be stable.. mh2 + [s 1 6u) +u0+6u =GMm A If the orbit is exactly circular. F = Ar. Compute the angular velocity of precession of the periastron (point of closest approach to the star). in addition to gravitation. Binet’s formula (Problem 1055) gives the equation for the mh2u2 ($+ u ) = GMmu2 A +U For nearly circular orbit we set u = uo 6u. 1071 Consider a planet of mass m moving in a nearly circular orbit of radius R around a star of mass M . retaining only the lowestorder small quantities.6u = 0..
AO=.rr At==_. Then if 01 and two successive periastrons. As a < 1. the angle of precession is 21r a a The time required for the line joining the periastron and the star to rotate through a n angle AOp is A0 2. uo = 1/R. we have a02 a& = 2lr or 02 are the angles for .112 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Using this equation in (1) we obtain mh2 or (2) 61 [7 + d2 bu] = ~ 3A S . where GMm . 0 a0 Hence the angular velocity of precession is As the angular velocity of revolution of the planet is by the definition of h . U d2(Su) dO2 (3) Choosing suitable coordinate axes we can write its solution as Su = Bsin(a0) .A/mui.AR3 as h2uo = G M .
You may assume the orbit is almost circular. it can be considered as a small perturbation on the circular motion of the planet under the gravitational force of the star. to lowest order in E . . 1. 1. 2r . you are to calculate the angle cp sketched in Fig. Assuming an essentially circular orbit with radius T = TO at t = 0.47. (Princeton) Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 113 1072 (a) A planet of mass m is orbiting a star of mass M .calculate the time dependence of the radius. Assume that in addition to the Newtonian gravitational potential. In other words.47. Calculate the rate of precession of the planetary perihelion. (b) Now ignore the drag force. Solution: (a) As the drag force F is small. The unperturbed energy equation is If the orbit is circular with radius T. we have and thus GMm E=. The planet experiences a small drag force F = CYV due to motion through the star's dense atmosphere. the planet experiences a small additional potential so that its potential energy is actually GMm E V ( r )= +p1 T where E is a small constant.
the radius vector has turned through an angle Acp given by Ap=2 Jdr =2] U (2m(EV)rdr. v = a v 2 = aGM . J = mr2$. v = a v . rmin aJ T2 .)dip.dE _ dt giving rise to GMmi. (b) The planet is now moving in a central potential V ( T ) = and its total energy is +3 E=mi. the orbit is in general an ellipse. 2 1 J2 ++V(T). r. in the perturbed field V .  (. where we have used r = TO at t = 0.114 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics The drag force causes energy loss at the rate . the orbit is not closed.~ 272 T .G M m / r ..F . T This must be equal to . = r 2a m =roe 25734 m whose integration gives T . 2mr2 where J is the conserved angular momentum. During the time in which T varies from Tmin to rmax back to rmin and again.= dcp cpdr 3 dcp dt dcp we have dr = or /. As dr . In the unperturbed field Vo = .= . However. .
Newtonian Mechanics 115 f = VO Writing V = series in powers of SV: + + 6V.e. The firstorder term gives 2mbVdr I 72 ' the angle shown in Fig. The variable over which the integration is to be carried out can be changed in the following way.47. 1. m J dr mr2 dcp So the last integral can be written as With SV = e / r 2 we obtain 1073 (a) Find the central force which results in the following orbit for a particle: r = a(i +case) . we expand the integrand as a Taylor The zeroorder term gives 27r as the corresponding orbit is an ellipse. We have i. .
r e 2 ) = F ( T ).~ . r 2 8 = const.. . = h.48. Note: Parts (a) and (b) may refer to different forces.i. .cose) = h2 ' Using the above we can write (1) as F ( T )= m which is the central force required. we also have .(2 T4 .Find the total cross section for capture for the particle ( coming from infinity with an initial velocity V. say Then With T = a(l + cose). the equations of motion for the particle are m(i:. Ueff 3mh2a Fig. 1. (Princeton) Solution: (a) In the central force field.116 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (b) A particle of mass m is acted on by attractive force whose potential is given by U c T . = aBsinO ah4 .
49). 1. is the angular momentum. (5) mV2 . = dr 7 7 2 ~ ~ r5 which gives L2 a as the distance where Ueff is maximum. letting T and 4 be the polar coordinates in that plane. angular momentum 1 and energy E (Fig. consider L2 dUeR .Newtonian Mechanics 117 (b) As U = 3. the effective potential is Ueff = . (b) Use the result of part (a) to discuss (classical) scattering in this potential. 1. and solve for T as a function of 4. which is conserved in a central force field.+ 4ao . To find the maximum of U e e . Thus the maximum impact parameter for capture is given by E = UO.2mr2 r4 ’ where L = mbV. Relate the impact parameter to 8 . Then 14 The form of Ueff is shown in Fig. Consider motion in the XY plane. 1/4 Hence the total capture cross section is 1074 (a) A particle of mass m moves in a potential V ( T )= k / r 2 .. b being the impact parameter. k > 0. Let 8 be the scattering angle.or giving b = . It is seen that only particles with total energy E > 170 will “fall” to the force center.48.
It can be seen from Fig. Also for r + 00.2.e. Then as r= @.49. given by E = irni. Its solution is u = Asin(w4 + 11. ar 2k r3 Binet’s formula (Problem 1055) then becomes or * + ( 1 + $) u =0 ’ where h = r2$.118 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics Fig. u + 0. 1. i. (Princeton) Solution: (a) The force on the particle is aV F==.49 that for T + 00. = I where the minus sign is chosen because for incidence r decreases with increasing t. 1. dr dr h 4 . and A and 11. where w2 = 1 + 2k/mh2. and E and thereby compute the differential cross section as a function of 0 and E . i. i.) .+ i. 4 + 0. i. are constants of integration to be determined from the initial conditions. = d4 d4r2 = h du d4 = Abcos(w$. Hence $ = 0. u = 1/r.) . .e.
into a solid angle d R = 2n sinedo. at 4 = $0 = &. the scattering angle is Then a l2 = m 2 b 2 f k = 2b2mE. 1. Particles with impact parameters between b and b + db will be scattered into angles between 8 and 0 do. with 1 = h m .k)l 2 = (l+&Ji . Due to the symmetry of the scattering.  .e)e as the relation between 8 and b. Hence the differential cross section at scattering angle 8 per unit solid angle is + a da 2nbdb = 12lrsinedsl=  lazl b db IC ++e) E sin B (27~ 8)282 . This is the distance of closest approach OC .e. we have s I .(Te)2 E (2n . e2 2e lr n2 giving  k b2E+k ’ k b = . i.49. (b) From the above result it can be seen that r is at a minimum when wcj = .e. A=d%Z and hence 1 lw where w is given by w2=1+ 2mk 12 . i. shown in Fig. i.Newtonian Mechanics 119 we have.e = 7r ( 1+.e..
the projectile has total energy E = 1 2 muo . Buflalo) Solution: (a) Let M and R be the mass and radius of the moon respectively. Hence for the projectile t o reach infinity from the surface of the moon.mgR . 2 If wo is the escape velocity. ( S U N Y . At the surface of the moon. P Its kinetic energy.37 x lo3 m/s . The relation gives the gravitational acceleration at the surface of the moon as g= 6.35 x GM R 2 (1. its total mechanical energy must be at least zero. where m is the mass of a body on the surface of the moon.62 m/s2 (b) The potential energy of a projectile of mass rn at infinite distance from the moon p 4 00 is  GmM  P mgR2 4 0 . and (b) the escape velocity from the moon.62 x 1. we require E = 0. where K is a positive constant and r is the position vector of the particle.74 x 106)2 = 1.74 x lo6 = 2. or vo = = d x 1.67 x lo" x 7.120 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics 1075 Derive formulas and calculate the values of (a) the gravitational acceleration at the surface of the moon. Then by the law of universal gravitation and the definition of gravitational acceleration at the surface o the moon we have f GMm R2 =mg. by the conservation of energy. . 2 1076 Consider the motion of a particle of mass m under the influence of a force F = Kr. a positive quantity. is at least zero.
Newtonian Mechanics 121 (a) Prove that the motion of the particle lies in a plane. i. r x F = Kr x r = 0 Then as F = m d V / d t we have rx==O. (d) Find the period. = V . = 0. dt or d v d(r x V) dv =VxV+rx =o. . This proves that the motion of the particle is confined to a plane. (e) Does the motion of the particle obey Kepler’s laws of planetary motion? ( S U N Y . V. y = 0. (c) Show that the orbit is an ellipse. It follows that which shows that r is perpendicular to the constant vector h. (b) The equation of the motion of the particle is mi: = Kr . assuming that at t = 0. r lies in a plane perpendicular to h. V. or. (b) Find the position of the particle as a function of time. in Cartesian coordinates. We shall choose the plane as the xy plane with the origin at the center of the force. Integrating we obtain a constant vector.e. dt dt rxV=h. x = a . Buflalo) Solution: (a) For a central force field F = Kr.
Eliminating the parameter t we obtain the standard equation for an ellipse: 22 y2 +=I a2 b2 with  (d) (x.e. i. The general solution of the above set of equations is 2 = A1 sin(wt + 41) . y = A2 sin(wt With the initial conditions given. +42) .y) return to the same values when t increases by T such that Hence the period is  (e) Kepler’s third law states that ratio of the square of the period of revolution of a planet to the cube of the length of the semimajor axis of its orbit is a constant. . Hence we have . (c) The last set of equations describes an ellipse. x = a s i n ( g t + ~ ) y= g h s i n ( g t ) .122 Problems €d Solutions on Mechanics where w2 = K / m .
. (c) Calculate the differential and total cross section for the scattering from a hard sphere. Kepler’s third law is not obeyed. Buffalo) Solution: (a) If a particle of mass m moves in a central force field of potential energy U ( T ) its mechanical energy E and angular momentum with respect . Express the polar angle p in terms of T . = .Newtonian Mechanics 123 (period) (length of semimajor axis)3 Ka3 ifa>b. (b) If the particle moves in from infinitely far away with initial speed Vo. Thus m(f2 2 1 + r2+2)+ V ( T )= E .d r d p = dt d p dt  +d r dp h dr =__ r2dp ’ the energy equation becomes 1m[$($)2+~2$] 2 +U(r)=E. As this ratio depends on m and a or m and Vo.d r . or As we also have r. (SUNY. From the constants of the motion obtain the equation of the trajectory. and is scattered to a particular direction 6 ... ifa<b. define the differential cross section in terms of b. impact parameter b. 1077 (a) A particle of mass m moves in a central field of potential energy U ( T ) . to the center of the force rnh are conserved quantities.
hdr [I3 or .U ( T ) ] h2  which express 4 in terms of r. 1. : $ The conservation laws give (E= mV: 2 ' mh=mbVo . " r hdr [(E .U ( r ) ] h2  + = I J. 1.50).U ( r ) ] h2  where r. . (b) The orbit of the particle in the central force field is symmetrical with respect to the line joining the center of the force to the point of closest approach ( O A in Fig.e. or E = U ( r )1 ? . i. The angle of scattering of the particle is then 9 = lr . The scattering angle 8 can then be determined.in is given by 1 = 0 in the energy equation.124 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Fig.50.2 9 0 with 90 given by m hdr [[E .
1. d o = 2nbdb. momentum conservation requires that the incidence and refiected angles are equal as shown in Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 125 Let d N denote the number of particles scatterred per unit time into the solid angle corresponding to scattering angles 8 and 8 do. Note that ( c ) A particle moves freely before it hits the hard sphere. We can write the above 8s d o = 2nb sin 8 where d R is the solid angle between two right circular cones of opening angles 8 and 8 do: + ds2 = 2n sin 8dB . The differential cross section is defined as + dN do=. Fig. is known as the differential cross section per unit solid angle. 1. i. and n denote the number of particles passing through unit cross sectional area of the beam per unit time.e.51. n As the scattering angle 8 corresponds to a unique impact parameter b. Because it cannot enter into the interior of the sphere. . we have d N = 2nnbdb .51.
the total scattering cross section is u = 4r = na2.1. As this is independent of the scattering angle.52 oscillates on the frictionless horizontal surface with period n/6 seconds. or x+w2x=o. The equation of the motion of the mass is 2X+kx=O._ _ sin dR 2sin8 (S) = a2 . (a) How large a force is necessary t o displace the mas 2 cm from equilibrium? (b) If a small mass is placed on the 2 kg block and the coefficient of static friction between the small mass and the 2 kg block is 0. what is the maximum amplitude of oscillation before the small mass slips? (Assume the period is unaffected by adding the small mass. the 2 kg mass in Fig.52. . Solution: Let k be the spring constant.) ( Wisconsin) Fig. 1. 1078 When displaced and released.126 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Hence du ba _ . which is equal to the geometrical cross section 7 g of the hard sphere. 1.
8 x 10. Each of the forks alone produces oscillations at this point represented by . then q5 = 0. giving w = 12 sl. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Let s1 and s2 be the distances between a point in space and the two tuning forks. giving 0. a loudness I is heard at A. If x = xo at t and the solution is x = 20 cos( 12t). (a) The force needed is = 0. 144 If 20 exceeds this value m will slip.98 xo = . (b) If the small mass moves together with the 2 kg block. ji. the maximum horizontal force on it just exceeds the static friction: 0. and w2 = The general solution is 5. k = 288 Nml. i. Explain in detail. Hence it gives the maximum amplitude for no slipping.Newtonian Mechanics 127 where x is the displacement of the block from its equilibrium postition.1 x mg = 144m20 . it has the same acceleration as the latter.= 6. 1079 Two synchronous tuning forks of identical frequency and loudness produce zero net intensity at some point A.3 m .76 N . as to a sophomore. Let its mass be m. z = Acos(wt + 4) The period of oscillation is . However if either one is sounded alone. what became of the law of conservation of energy. = 144~0cos(l2t).e. A = xo f = kx = 288 x 2 x lo’ = 5. When it starts t o slip.
Detailed calculations will demonstrate that the energy of the resultant oscillation is equal to the sum of that of the individual oscillations. This does not violate the law of conservation of energy as is evident when we consider the energy stored in the whole wave field. ( Wisconsin) . Then the resultant oscillation is Hence y = 0 if w(s2 2c .. i. 1080 A mass rn moves in a plane in uniform circular motion with angular frequency w . I1 M 12 M 10. ) and 92 = 12 sin [w (t  where c is the speed of sound..128 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics y1= 11 sin [w ( t I) : :)I . at the antinodes. 2 . The centripetal force is provided by a spring whose force constant is K (ignore gravity). If s1 and s2 are both much larger than the distance between the two forks.s1 is some odd multiple of X/2. Find the frequency of the resulting radial oscillation. the amplitude of oscillation is twice and the energy is four times that of the individual value. Thus the resultant oscillation is zero at points where s2 . . A very small radial impulse is given to the mass. Although the amplitude and energy of oscillation are zero at the nodes. we can regard 11and 12 as approximately the same.e.. z n = 0 ) 1 .sl) = (2n + l )7r .
Let T' = T .K ( r . giving the most rapid approach to equilibrium.ro) .? Explain. T' < R and the above becomes < or It follows that the frequency of radial oscillation is w' = b w 2 + s. r4e2 T=i:'73 R4w2 = E(T'+ R . + The second equation gives r20 = const. ( Wisconsin) .R for departure from uniform circular motion. and R < R. For fixed K and arbitrary initial conditions. (R+T')~ m If the radial impulse is very small. 1081 A particle of mass m moves under the action of a'restoring force Kx and a resisting force Rv. The radial equation can be written as .. Is it possible to pick initial conditions (other than 2 = v = 0) so that the approach is more rapid for R > R.Newtonian Mechanics 129 Solution: In polar coordinates the equations of motion for the mass are m(i:. find the value of R = R.re2)= .T O ) .where x is the displacement from equilibrium and v is the particle's velocity. Let R be the radius of the uniform circular motion of the mass. r2e = R2w .rg) . m(r8 274) = o . We have mRw2 = K ( R .
However.4Km 2m In general.4 K m 2m Rid2m > . if R > R. = 2 m (critical damping). Assume x = Aeat.7 R.R & \/R2 . we have a!= so that the general solution is R f i d 2m 7 2m Then the approach to equilibrium is oscillatory with a damping coefficient R . Rc < 2m 2m The approach is always slower than for critical damping. Then the remaining term has a damping coefficient a = R + d R 2 . the mass may approach equilibrium even more rapidly under certain particular conditions.4Km 2m We can choose initial conditions so that A = 0. giving + Kx = 0.130 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: The equation of motion is mx R X obtain the indicia1 equation ma2 Ra + + + K = 0. the mass approaches equilibrium most rapidly.. we a= . For now the general solution is = Aexp 5 )+ ( t Bexp  R  dE12. if R = R. If R < R. ... 2m so that approach to equilibrium is even faster than for critical damping.
Ignore friction and assume that the spring is vertical at all times. Solution: Let the elastic coefficient of the rubber pad be k.53). Estimate the rotational speed (revolutions per minute. 1. Hence when the motor is rotating at a rate w 60 x 9. Berkeley) Fig.9 sl. (MIT) . natural frequency of the system is w= = 9.where = f = 98 s . 1. Determine for the motion of the center of mass of the car while passing over the bump.53. 1.___ = 94. (UC.9 _ . Then kx = mg. RPM) at which the motor will exhibit the largest vertical vibration. 1083 A car is traveling in the xdirection and maintains constant horizontal speed v.cos(l~x/l)] 0 5 x 5 21.e.1 m. yo = 0 otherwise (Fig.5 RPM . Then the m is the mass of the motor. i.  2lr 2T 1 resonance will take place and the motor will exhibit the largest vertical vibration. As x = 0.~ .Newtonian Mechanics 131 1082 A freely running motor rests on a thick rubber pad to reduce vibration (Fig. Represent the car as a mass m attached to a massless spring of relaxed length 10 and spring constant k.54). The car goes over a bump whose shape is described by yo = A[l . The motor sinks 10 cm into the pad.
Therefore the motion of the center of mass of the car is described by 4%.A . 2 C = (B 1 A ) = r n d Q A / ( k P . we can write the above equation as mY + k Y = kAcos (F). + .mn2v2). . Choose the origin so that z(0) = 0. 1. $(O) = 0.mg/k.l o ) . Trying a particular solution of the form Y = B cos( we find mB i.lo + mg/k.m g Putting Y = y . = kA This equation describes the motion of a driven harmonic oscillator.y). the general solution of the equation of motion for the mass is with w = The initial conditions are y(0) = lo .132 Problems i Solutions on Mechanics 3 Y tI rn Fig. The equation of the motion of the mass in ) the ydirection is mji = k(y .yo .54. Solution: Let the location of the mass at time t be (z.e. F). ( y ) + kB 2 Hence. giving C = 0. Then ~ ( t= vt.
1.x ) + y2 .x)2 + y2 . Newton's second law then gives Mit = k[J(210 + x)2 + y2 .x + y2 ~ x)2 M = k[J(210 Y ' + x)2 + y2 . any rotation of the ring will cause a negligible change of length in the springs.lo] d(210 .lo]J(210 + x)2 + y2 Y ..lo] d(210 .m9 1084 A thin ring of mass M and radius r lies flat on a frictionless table. It is constrained by two extended identical springs with relaxed length 10 (lo >> r ) and spring constant k as shown in Fig. any elastic force so arising is also negligible. Solution: (a) As lo >> T .Newtonian Mechanics y(t) = Ci COS(U~) BCOS + (F) + 133 A + l o .k[J(210 . 1.55. (a) What are the normal modes of small oscillations and their frequencies? (b) What qualitative changes in the motion would occur if the relaxed lengths of the springs were 210? (MITI Fig.lo] &10 210 + + x)2 + y2 2 210 + k[J(2Eo .55.z)2 + y2 Y .
. 9.2101 210 . we have The above equations then become m = 2kx .t + cp). are determined by the initial conditions. &. cos(w.x)2 + y2 M 2kx. A. cp. during the motion.t where w. y. cos(w. y give the displacement of the center of the ring from the equilibrium position. .134 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics where x.) . Neglecting terms higher than the first order in the small quantities x. 7 Y = A . Assuming that the spring constant is the same for compression as for extension. the equations of motion are now &. (b) With the relaxed length increased to 210.x J(210 . = and the constants A. with solutions 5 = A. + 9. = w. one spring is extended while the other compressed.. The latter will exert an elastic force on the ring opposite to that when extended.  lc[J(210 ~ x)2 1 y2 . These are the two normal modes of small oscillations. x my = ky .
relativistic effects. etc.Newtonian Mechanics 135 retaining only the lowest order terms in the small qualities 2. is of a higher order. though quite complicated. Find the general solution of the equations of motion. Each particle has mass m and positive charge q.21 = d. What is the frequency? (d) Suppose the particles slide along a horizontal frictionless table instead of the wire. (c) In (a). y. Take into account the particles' Coulomb interaction but neglect magnetic effects. is the mutual Coulomb force between the particles As 22 . find d. You may leave your answer in terms of integrals.56. It can be seen that the motion of the ring in the xdirection is similar to that in part (a) while the motion in the ydirection. 22 = 21. A constant horizontal electric field E = Eoi is applied. (MIT) Solution: (a) Considering the forces on the two particles as shown in Fig. (a) If the particles slide along a frictionless straight wire in the x direction and the distance d between them is constant. radiation. suppose the distance d ( t ) undergoes small oscillations around the equilibrium value you found. Subtracting (2) from (l). 1085 Two particles are connected by a spring of spring constant K and zero equilibrium length. Assume the particles do not collide. (b) Find the acceleration of the center of mass in (a). a constant. we obtain the equations of motion where F. 1.we obtain .
1. qE xo=.136 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 0 E Fig. where A d << d . .21) = 2 7 4 2 q2. the above can be written . Putting 22 . Fig.57. the above becomes q2 m ( A ( i ) + 2k(d + A d ) = 2 ~ & o (+ A d ) 2 ’ d mad where Ad zi as 9As d3 = &$ and A d << d . m(2.It follows that the angular .x1)2 2 . +6kAd = 0 by retaining only the first order terms in frequency of small oscillations is y.x1 = d + A d . 1.  (c) Subtracting (1) from ( 2 ) we obtain 21) + 2k(22 . m where 20 = + 2 2 ) is the center of mass of the system. or (b) Adding (1) and ( 2 ) we have 2qE = m(21 or +2 2 ) ..56.
57. Id re + 2i. mr2 = qEi + k(r1 .r2) + F.Newtonian Mechanics 137 (d) With r1.D2 are constants of integration.F.r1) . say. z (5) Y1 + Y 2 (6) where C1.8 = .r2 and 6 as defined in Fig. . we can write the equations of the twodimensional motion as + k(r2 .( r 2 b ) = 0 . .2k(r2 .rl = r and rewrite the above as In polar coordinates we have so that giving . D1.rl) . Integration gives 2 +22 1 = . .Clt = a t + 0 2 . . Put 12 . C2. Subtracting (3) from (4) we obtain m(r2 . 1.rl) = 2F. r dt r2b = constant = H . qEt2 m + +c .. rnrl = qEi (3) (4) with Adding (3) and (4) we obtain which is equivalent to two scalar equations 3 +y2 1 =0 .
= rdr .e. Integrating again we obtain s’. 2 2 .138 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics As ..2 2H2 ) = ___ + . momr dr m r2 ’ where F is a constant. D1.2kra .i. uniformly rotating) shaft. Also. as shown in .d+ dt dr = (+2) 1d 2dr ’ 2 H2 r0 = 13 ’ it can be written as ((. V.q2 mOmr2 r3 4kr m =F  q2 2kr2 H 2 . y1 and y2 as functions of t .H a ’ momr m =t+W. The four equations (5)(8) allow us to find 5 1 .. as where V is a constant. we have F  9 . 1086 A clockwork governor employs a vibrating weight on the end of a horizontal flywheeldriven (i. Note that the constants of integrations C1. C2. F and W D are to be determined from the initial conditions.2 . z . H .. = . d dr Integrating we obtain . (7) 7 where W is a constant.
gradually increases until a “resonance” occurs (“resonance” here means that the weight swings in a circular orbit). Berkeley) + Fig. 1. (c) At the lower frequency resonance. The flat spring has a spring constant K and can neither twist nor bend except in a direction perpendicular to its (relaxed) flat side. (a) Show that there are two different angular frequencies at which a “resonance” can occur. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 139 Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. However. (d) Show that there is an upper bound on the shaft torque at the lower resonance. You may assume the spring deviation to be so small that the spring is always in its linear regime. as the longitudinal oscillation of the spring is small. For this problem. we can consider the mass as not moving in the direction of the axis. What are the frequencies? (b) Describe the orbit of the weight for each of the two resonant frequencies (i. The angular velocity w of the shaft. write down an equation for the steadystate shaft torque as a function of w and time.59. Air friction (proportional to the velocity of the weight) dissipates the input energy and this limits the resonance to a finite amplitude. externally driven.58. What happens if the driving clock spring yields a torque greater than this upper bound? (UC. . let r be the displacement of m in that direction. ~ I gravity Solution: (a) When the flywheel rotates with angular velocity w .e. the mass m undergoes threedimensional motion. draw a picture of what the problem looks like). The angular velocity is constant when “resonance” occurs and we shall consider the equation of the motion at resonance. As the spring can only bend in one direction.58. you need not explicitly include the air friction.
we obtain the general solution r = acos(At) b + . neglecting the air friction. (1) A circle of radius R can be described by an equation in polar coordinates of the form r = 2RcosB. Then assuming the initial conditions r(0) = a. +(O) = b. homogeneous equation i: A2r = 0 has general solution + r = B cos( A t ) + C sin(At) . As the elastic force is Kr and the component of the gravitational force in the direction of T is mg cos(wt). where = .rw2) i.J . we can. we find A = &.sin(At) + w2 .K r = m(i:.A2 [cos(At) A ~  cos(wt)] .coswt) .e. we shall obtain r = a + bt 9 + (1 W2 . If we let A in (1) to go to zero.59. 1. i: + A2r = gcos(wt) . K . . m The Trying a particular solution r = Acos(wt). write the equation of the motion of the vibrating weight as mgcos(wt) .140 Pmblems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Fig. Equation (1) can be written in this form under certain particular conditions as follows.
the resonance at w2 can occur under any initial conditions which. 1. For the resonance at w1. or which is one of the resonant frequencies. Thus this term can be set to zero (which can be seen by inserting a damping term pi in the equation). Another resonance is obtained if we put X = w in (l). however. The corresponding resonant frequency is given by X = w.60.sin(&) .sin(wt) . the air friction will dissipate the input energy and limit the resonance to a finite amplitude. +w + 2W The last term on the righthand side has an amplitude which diverges as time goes on. ( c ) Consider the equation of the transverse motion of the mass F . w2 is therefore the practical resonance frequency. which then becomes b !It T = acos(wt) . On the other hand.mgsin(wt) = m(rk + 2wi) .a) .Newtonian Mechanics 141 If we then put we obtain the equation of a circular orbit: T = w2 cos(wt) This solution can be realized under the initial conditions a = 3. W which again describes a circular orbit. We therefore neglect the last term and obtain T = acos(wt) b + . However. the initial conditions must be chosen properly.sin(&) = Acos(wt . b = 0. or (b) The orbits corresponding to the resonances are shown in Fig. . determine the amplitude A and the angle a. and with the angular velocity w satisfying X = 0.
61).a ) + gsin(wt)] . (Do not bother t o solve it!) . ml A mass (a) Given the initial position & and velocity Vo in the plane of the table and the masses ml and m2. 1. = wAsin(wta ) .so that F = m[2Aw2 sin(wt . r = Acos(wta). we have w = 0.a ) gsin(wt)] . (d) There is no loss of generality in putting a = 0. + giving the torque as T = F r = mAcos(wt  a)[2Aw2 sin(wt . A mass m2 is tied to the other end of the string (Fig.i.60. w will increase and the resonant state will no longer hold. At the lower resonance. 1. . Then r = mA (4 A d ) sin(2wt) Hence r 5 mA( . 5 1087 moves around a hole on a frictionless horizontal table.142 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics X Fig. If the torque yielded by the driving clock spring is greater than this upper bound. find the equation that determines the maximum and minimum radial distances of the orbit.Aw’) for the lower resonance. The mass is tied to a string which passes through the hole.
f = . (4) Equations (2) and (4) give ml h2 (ml + m2)F .re2) = T . 1. r3 (5) As . Eliminating T from (1) and (3). 4 is the angle between rt. m1r2e = mlh .Newtonian Mechanics 143 m2 Fig. T . where mlh is the angular momentum.+&. and Vo. we obtain (ml + m2)+. a constant. so that h = a h s i n $ . (Princeton) Solution: (a) The equations of motion of ml and m are 2 ml(Y . 7: = ~ C O S re = h s i n 4 .m2g = mzr. where ~ . the above can be readily integrated to give dr At t = 0.= m2g .1&dr . Then the constant of integration C can be evaluated as C = [(ml+m z ) ~ cos24 + m v sin2 4 + mag& .m 1 d 2+ m2g = o . (b) Find the frequency of oscillation of the radius of the orbit when the orbit is only sightly different from circular.61.r = &. : l: 1 1 2 .
w i x . . (b) When the orbit of ml is circular.~ the above becomes Then using (7) we have This shows that x oscillates simpleharmonically with frequency 1088 (a) Consider a damped.yx + A cos(wt) . When the orbit is slightly different from circular. i: = 0. with which (6) becomes : 2m2gr3 . let r = ro + x . and (5) gives where ro is the radius of the circular orbit. x where (Y + ax2 + Acos(wt) .144 Problems B Solutions o n Mechanics For r to be an extremum. 1 = 0. Equation (5) then becomes (ml + As (ro +x ) . where x << ro. is a small constant.2Cr2 + ml h2 = 0 . driven harmonic oscillator (in one dimension) with equation of motion m x = . whose solution gives the maximum and minimum radial distances of r.w . What is the timeaveraged rate of energy dissipation? (b) Consider an anharmonic oscillator with equation of motion mx = .
Bei$ with The rate of work done by the force F = Re(AeawWt) is P = R e F . which is given by the work done against the dissipative term.e.= y ) ~ 2 2 . including terms of first order in a. .( F * i + F i * ) . As noted. Thus the average work done is iwAB (p) (eiP = 4 .( F i + F * i * + F * i + F i * )= .Newtonian Mechanics 145 At time t = 0. (b) The equation o motion is now f mx + m i x . the two approaches give the same result.Acos(wt) = a x 2 . x = 0 and 3 = 0. (Princeton) Solution: (a) The equation of motion is the real part of mf + m w i z + y i = AeiWt.wAB B 2 Slrw=. . Solve for the subsequent motion.v . wAB = sin cp 2 yw2B 2 yw2A2 .2 w2) + 72w2] * In steady state. ii* w2B2 (P') = y ( ~ e i= y.( F 4 + F * ) ( i+ i * ) 1 1 = . 4 4 1 when averaged over one period as F i and F*i* each carries a time factor e f 2 j w t which vanishes on integration over one period. this is equal to the rate of energy dissipation of the oscillator.w2) + iyw .2 2[rn2(W. For the steadystate solution we try z = zoeawt. i. Rei = . Substitution gives 20 = A m(w.
20 mi0 + w i x o = Acos(wt) .146 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics As a is a small number. .cos(wot)J 2 = 1 B'" { 1 + 1cos(2wt) + .w ) t ]. Hence the complete general solution is 20 =CCOS(U~~ II. Substitution gives B = m ( w .cos(2wot) . = 0. A particular solution is obtained by putting 20 = B'cos(wt). we have fl + ax1 in (1) and neglecting powers of a higher than 2 x6 +w0x1 M m = [cos(wt) B'2 m . . of in first approximation. or Substituting 5 = 20 one. in complex form. For a particular solution try z1 = a + be'zwt + ce*2WOt + d e i ( w o . A 2 ) . = The initial condition 20 = xo = 0 at t = 0 then gives II. 5z 20 + a21 is the solution for a = 0.) + + 8' C O S ( U ~ ). we can write the solution as 2 = 20 + a21 + 2 x 2 + .e.cos[(wo+ w ) t ] m 2 2 or.w ) t Substitution gives + fei(wo+w)t .cos[(wo. ' w The general solution of the homogeneous part of the equation is harmonic. i. C B'.
The equation of the motion of the stone is then . . aA2 . Hence the motion of the anharmonic oscillator is described approximately b Y X X A[cos(u~) ~ ~ ~ ( w o t ) ] m(w. and drop a small stone into the hole.)(w. How big should vo be. is then 5 = 50 + ax1 { cos(wot ~ cos(2wot) = B"cos(wt) .w ) t ] + f cos[(wo + w)tl} . you throw it into the hole with an initial velocity 210. (Princeton) 2. nonrotating earth of uniform density from Buffalo through the earth's center and to Ol&b on the other side. it will be seen at Olaffub after a time TI = where wo is a constant.to first order in a . +a The initial conditions 5 = j = 0 at t = 0 then give 0 = 0 and . The gravitational force on it is F = G + = w. so that it now appears at Olaffub after a time T2 = T1/2? Your answer should be given in terms of wo and R. p being the density of the uniform earth.4 w 2 ) + 3m3w.Newtonian Mechanics 147 The general solution of (l). the radius of the earth.w2) + 10aA2 C O S ( U O ~ ) . .w2)2 + w2 + 2wwo 1089 It is well known that if you drill a small tunnel through the solid. Solution: Let T be the distance of the stone. of mass m.mr. where wo = @. instead of just dropping the stone.cos(wot)] + e) + a + b cos(2wt)+ + dcos[(wo.from the center of the earth. Now.4w.(W2 m3(u.
Suppose now the stone starts at r = R with initial velocity 1 = vo. find the range of values of v for which it (1) oscillates. vo = Awe sin cp . r = Acos(wt + cp) . Find the position of stable equilibrium and the period of small oscillations about it. giving TOreach Olaffub a t t = 2 = &. 1090 (a) A particle of mass m moves under a conservative force with potential energy V ( x )= cx/(x2+ a 2 ) . (2) escapes to 00. The solution of the equation of motion is 2. Thus the stone executes simple harmonic motion with a period T = Then if the stone starts from rest at Buffalo. (3) escapes t o +oo. (Princeton) . (b) If the particle starts from this point with velocity v.we require As sin2 cp + cos2 cp = 1.148 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y 2 r = war . where c and a are positive constants. We : have R = A cos cp. we have R2 + R2 R2 R2+(2)2 giving + (t> 2 = 1 . it will reach Olaffub after a time T I = = $.
.3a2) (x2 +a2)3 .c(a2 .Newtonian Mechanics 149 Solution: (a) At the equilibrium position.  dV . Then the equation of motion becomes + d2x' m== dt2  u ' ( 2 a . 2 2 c 2a (1) For the particle to be confined in a region. F = dV/dx = 0 . let x = a x'.5') [(d a)2 + a212  M  c' x 2a3 ' Hence the period of small oscillations about z = a is w v c (b) The total energy of the particle is E = mu2 ( . For small oscillations about the position of stable equilibrium. v>E.mu2 +V . x1 = a. 12 It follows that x 1 is a position of unstable equilibrium and x2 is a position of stable equilibrium.a2)2 Thus there are two equilibrium positions. <o.x 2 ) =O dx ( x 2 +.e. i. E > V(oo) = 0.e. . 11 dx2 >o. i. Consider d2V dx2 We have dx2  2cx(x2 .. we require E < 0. i. 2 2 = a. (2) AS E = $ + V ( Z ) for the particle to reach x = 00.a ) = .e. where x' << a. we require .
P = w 2 r . 1. + Psino . Solution: As shown in Fig.63. Fig. 1. (SUNY.150 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (3) To escape to +w. p 1091 A 345 inclined plane is fixed to a rotating turntable. Thus the conditions for equilibrium are mgsin8 = Pcos8 +psN . N = mgcos8 Hence mgsin8 = Pcostl+ psmgcos8 +p.Psin8 . the static friction f .1e.62.63. 1. the particle must pass through the point 22 = +a at which the potential energy is maximum. the normal reaction N. The block is to remain at a position 40 cm from the center of rotation of the turntable (see Fig. Find the minimum angular velocity w to keep the block from sliding down the plane (toward the center). 1. A block rests on the inclined plane and the coefficient of static friction between the inclined plane and the block is pte = 114. Hence we require E > V ( a )= c .62). . . and the centrifugal force with f = p s N . the forces acting on the block are the gravitational force mg. Buffalo) Fig. Za'  v > ma .
10.4 3 .3 . angular frequency w as shown in Fig. 45 .K ( z .s.Z).K ( z . 1. Solution: Take the upper end of the spring. 1. Set up and solve the equation of motion for ~ ( t ) .14.Newtonian Mechanics 151 giving P= or sin (cos99 + . Then the mass m has equation of motion _" d" m[z A sin(wt)] = mg . P starts to oscillate sinusoidally. Buflulo) Fig.  i. as the origin of the z coordinate of the mass m. w = 3.9. where z is the length of the spring and 1 is its length when relaxed. At t = 0 . $) 0. (SVNY.p8 cos 9 ps sin 9 g = m g = w 2r . At t = 0 the point of support to which the upper end of the spring is attached begins to oscillate sinusoidally up and down with amplitude A.2 rad/s .e. 1092 A mass m hangs in equilibrium by a spring which exerts a force F = .64.1 ) dt2 + .64. P .cose ( { + a . = (cos9+p8sinB) sinOp. so the distance of P from the fixed support is Asin(wt).
The forces on the block and the inclined plane are as shown in the diagram. 1. i.1 .. z = . whose horizontal coordinate in the laboratory frame is denoted by X.65).wo" = 5 .sin(w0t) wo" . or y = 0 K and y = 0. .w2 . Write sufficient equations to find the motion of the block and the inclined plane.e. The above can be written as ji + w = u2Asin(&) .w2A wo" .w2 WO W 1093 A block of mass m slides without friction on an inclined plane of mass M which in turn is free to slide without friction on a horizontal table (Fig. Substitution gives Hence the general solution is y = Ccos(wot) + Dsin(w0t) + w2Asin(&) wo"w2 + . let x . ( Wisconsin) Solution: As shown in Fig. and hence D= x ( t ) = .I ) .152 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Let y = x .65.sin(wt) . we have w3A wo(wo" . 1. y be a coordinate frame attached to the inclined plane. Try a particular solution y = B sin(wt).y . Using the initial condition mg mg = K ( x .I . y : B=.w2) C=O. You do not need to solve these equations.
Newtonian Mechanics N . for the motion of the block along the x direction rn(2 + Xcosa) = mgsina .. R with the same origin. x and X can be solved to find the motion of the system. 153 Y . ( Wisconsin) Solution: Consider two coordinate frames L.02 revolution per second per second. and for the motion of the block along the y direction mXsina = N . 1. A woman sitting on a chair 6 meters from the axis of revolution holds a 2 kg ball (see Fig.mgcosa . 1. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the force she must exert to hold the ball 5 seconds after the merrygeround begins to rotate. These three equations for the three unknowns N. We have for the inclined plane MX = N s i n a . Specify the direction with respect to the radius of the chair on which she is sitting. The time derivatives of a vector A in the two frames are related by .. 1094 A merrygoround (carousel) starts from rest and accelerates with a constant angular acceleration of 0. L is fixed to the laboratory and R rotates with angular velocity w .66). Mg Fig.65.
66 (%).2mw x v’ . 1. .154 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Fig. the equation of the motion of the ball F = m then gives (3) L ma’ = F +mw2r . = (g)R +w x A Then for a point of radius vector r from the origin we have and (g)L( ( = :)L $)R + (2)L ( + * %)L As Putting R R L In the rotating frame attached to the carousel.mLj x r .
As the ball is held stationary with respect to the carousel.6k N . and F = mw2r + mw x r For the rotating frame R. Make a numerical estimate of E for the earth. + 1. v’ = 0. w = 53. r=ri.Newtonian Mechanics 155 as w l r so that r x (ax r) = w2r.743.02 x 27r rad/s2.Rg P2 (cos 8 ) E @(R. take the zaxis along the axis of rotation and the xaxis from the center toward the chair. ( Wisconsin) . The contribution to the gravitational potential resulting from this distortion is ~ G M . Due to the spin the planet’s equatorial radius RE is slightly larger than its polar radius Rp as described by the parameter E = ( R E E P ) / R E . acceleration. of magnitude = 20. With 3 = 0. Then w=&k. r = 6 m. m = 2 kg.51j + 19. The force F acting on the ball is the resultant of the holding force f exerted by the woman and the gravity of the earth: F=fmgk Hence f = mw2ri + mcjrj + mgk . 1095 A planet of uniform density spins about a fixed axis with angular velocity w. a’ = 0.f . State a reasonable condition for equilibrium of the planet’s surface and compute the value where g is the gravitational of E in terms of the parameter X = *. we have f = 4.B) = 5R3 7 where 8 is the polar angle and Pz(cos8) = .2 N.
= tancw RP The unit tangent r to the ellipse at this point is rmidx+kdz= (i+k.kRpsincw)da = (iR& cos cw RE .67.156 Problems d Solections on Mechanics I I I > X Fig.e.67. 1. where cw is a parameter.kRgtan8)da . The centrifugal force fi on Am is fi = iAmRu2 sin 8 . The line of intersection s of the ellipsoid with the xzplane is an ellipse: z = Rpcosa. centrifugal force. The polar angle 0 of a point on the ellipse is given b Y x RE tan0 = . and the constraint exerted by the rest of the planet. Suppose the surface of the planet is an ellipsoid of revolution with the zaxis a its axis of symmetry as shown in Fig. it has no tangential component. x = &Sin& .i:) : : da = (iREcoscw . 1. Solution: The forces acting on a mass element Am on the surface of the planet are gravity. i. The condition for equilibrium of the surface is that the resultant of gravity and centrifugal force is perpendicular to the surface.
5R: + G M e A m ./5R4.6ERi 4 sin8cos2e i 5R4 6. RE = 6378 x lo3 m.Am As ( 1 R2 ~ER& 5R4 6GMe.5 ~sin6P2(cos8) .R&bGMesin 9 M 0 . we have 2. w = 24x3600 2K rad/s.5 A m R& sin6cosee~.8 m/s2.Newtonian Mechanics 157 and the gravitational force on it is f2 = vv = v GMeAm + 2GMe~R%Am ~ 5R3 ~ ( ~ ~ ~ e ) 1 =GM.cos ep2(cos e) R2 5R4 with b = 6€R. = isin6 + kcos8 . as g = T .5Rg + 5R4 sin26 cos 81 k sin8 1 cosd 6. 7 =0 1 which gives for R = R p M RE R i w 2 sin 0 . fi = GMeAm [[ ~ER& sine .9 x 1 0 . 5R4 e. ee = icose . The condition for equilibrium of the surface is (fi + f2). g = 9.~ . .For earth.ksin8 .
1. ( Wisconsin ) Solution: The satellitc revolves around the earth with an angular velocity w.e.158 Problems d Solutaons o n Mechanics 1096 A satellite moves in a circular orbit around the earth. In the above. Fig.68 The equation of the motion of the small object of mass m in the satellite frame is given by (Problem 1094) F = rnr+mw x = mi. r = 0. F is thc gravitational force exerted by the earth: . We assume that one side of the satellite always faces the earth. If the object is released from rest (as seen by the astronaut). an astronaut takes a small object and lowers it a distance Ar from the center of mass of the satellite towards the earth. m w 2 r  (w x r) + 2 m w x r + m G x r + 2 x r . i. describe the subsequent motion as seen by the astronaut in the satellite’s frame of reference. since & = 0. u .2 m w x r . 1. where R is the distance of the satellite from the center of the earth. Thus mi:= F+mw2r .68. its spin angular velocity is also w. Choose a coordinate frame attached to the satellite such that the origin is at the center of mass of the satellite and the center of the earth is on the yaxis as shown in Fig. Inside.
y = 3 w 2y .Newtonian Mechanics 159 F= GMm JR..yez) 2 or. + ye. . Pe. R2 + ~ or w2 = Then the second term of F cancels out the centrifugal force. . + ye.r ) R3 (1. x (xe. The first term of F acts on the satellite as a whole and is of no interest to us.4 3 (Rr)x GMm ( R . A .2 w x . r = Arey . y = 0 at t = 0.2w(key . B being constants. . the object always moves in this plane. Hence the equation of motion becomes g.r ) GMm GMm 3GMmy R.E$L)~ x z  (1 + $) ( R .yez) is the Coriolis force. Substitution in (1) gives y= w2 j = . 0.+ R3 eY . we find y = 3Ar cos(wt) + + + 4Ar . ye. in component form.AT) . + i e z ) = 2mw(xe. we find k = 2w(y . Then r = 28. y = A r at (3) y+4w2Ar. we have GMm' =m ' a 2 . As initially. and all the forces are in the xyplane. x = 2wy . With the initial conditions y = Ar. whose general solution is y = A cos(wt) B sin(wt) 4Ar. Integrating (2) and making use of the initial conditions t = 0. R3 R3 r where mw2r is the centrifugal force and 2mw x r = 2mwe. If the satellite has mass m'. = 3w ye.
sin(wt)] . Integrating and applying the initial condition x = 0 at t = 0. we obtain 2 = 6Ar[wt .69. in certain circumstances.cos(wt)] .sin(&)] . (a) Under what specific condition will the equilibrium o the bead at f 8 = 0 be stable? (b) Find another value of 8 for which.69. the subsequent motion as seen by the astronaut in the satellite’s frame of reference is described by z = 6Ar[wt. Indicate the values of w for which this stable equilibrium takes place.160 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Equation (3) now becomes x = 6wAr[l . the bead will be in stable equilibrium. 1097 Consider a hoop of radius a in a vertical plane rotating with angular velocity w about a vertical diameter. y = AT[^ .3 COS(U~)] . Fig. 1. Hence. 1. . Consider a bead of mass m which slides without friction on the hoop as indicated in Fig.
As g = ge. (a) When 0 is in the neighborhood of zero.O) attached to the hoop and use the derivation in Problem 1094. let 0 = 0. = arccos &9 ) ( . =wcosOe. we have the equation of the motion of the bead in the ee direction in the rotating frame as a6 = gsinO au2sinOcos0 . 0 = 0 and cos9 = 5.+wsinOeo. r = ae. 2 It is evident that if and only if w2 5 g/a. . (b) The other value of 0 for which the bead will be in equilibrium is 0.g sin Oeo e . ( Wisconsin) Solution: Consider a coordinate frame (r. sinOw0. The above then gives. we have in the rotating frame g = r + 2w x r + w x (w x r) . + aeeo w = w e . . for equilibrium. (1) + To find the equilibrium positions. As w is constant. We can approximate (1) to O2 cosO=l.Newtonian Mechanics 161 (c) Explain your answer with the aid of appropriate graphs of the potential energy versus 0 as measured in the rotating frame. will the equilibrium of the bead at O = 0 be stable. = g cos O . . in which case the resultant force acting on the bead is always directed toward the equilibrium position. r = ad2e.
162 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Let 8 = Oo + 68. Substitution in ( 1 ) gives ( I . where 68 << Bo.e.m a 2 w 2 sin2 8 1 2 . m.G) w268=o.e. 9 cos8 = w 2 or or 8=0. i. Figures 1.given by i.70 (a).cos0) .sinQ068 .. gravitational potential energy V and centrifugal potential 1 energy VZ. i. Thus v = v1+ v2= mga( 1  cos e)  1 ma2w2 sin2 8 2 = 0: The two equilibrium positions are given by sin8 = 0. and ( c ) are the graphs of the potential energy versus 8 as measured in the rotating framo for w < w = and w > respectively. Then sin 8 = sin(& + 68) C O S ~ cos(80 + 68) = dt2 + d268 M sin 80 + cos e068 . M cos& .e. Vl = m g z = mga(1 . Hence the condition of stable equilibrium is ( c ) The potential energy of the bead in the rotating frame consists of two parts. (b). && . 8 = arccos (9 3) . 1 v2= 2r2 2 = .
1098 A perfectly smooth horizontal disk is rotating with an angular velocity w about a vertical axis passing through its center. and give the equation of the parabola. both 5. which is such that (d)’ is neglegible. appears to the person on the disk to be a parabola.Newtonian Mechanics 163 The potential energy V must be a minimum for the equilibrium to be stable.m a x (w x r) . This push gives it an initial velocity V relative to the disk. (c). This is the case for 8 = 0 in Figs.2rnw x v . ( a )and (b) and for B = arccos( 5 ) ifi Fig.yaxis being on the plane of the disk. Show that the motion for a time t . The point B = 0 in Fig. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Use a Cartesian coordinate frame attached to the disk such that the zaxis is along the axis of rotation and the xaxis is opposite to the initial velocity V of the coin. (c) is an equilibrium position but the equilibrium is unstable as V is a maximum there. we have (Problem 1094). =FFdt mdv mdo dt x r . A person on the disk at a distance R from the origin gives a perfectly smooth coin (negligible size) of mass m a push toward the origin. In this rotating frame.
so that the general solution of (3) is z = (A + iB)eiWt + (C + iD)teiWt = 0. or V=wB+C+i(DwA).z ) ~ . R=A+iB. we have the characteristic equation This has a double root y = iw. C=V. y = w y2wx.Vt) sin(wt) + Rwt cos(wt) Neglecting the (wt)2 terms. i = V.V t ) + iRwt]ei"t .164 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics As there is no horizontal force on the coin after the initial push and w = wk. or x = ( R .V t )cos(wt) + f i t sin(wt) . (3) With z = e y t .Vt)wt + Rut = Vwt2 . D=wR z = [ ( R. y = ( R . The initial conditions are x = R. Hence B=0. the above become XZRVt. 3 = 0. 5 ( R.w2z = o .( R . x = V. y at t = 0. A=R. which give or z = R. Hence the trajectory is approximately a parabola y = . y = 0 . y M . Let z =x + iy. Then (1) + (2) x i gives i + 2iwi . the above gives x = w2x 2 + 2wy .
in the rotating frame of the earth. From the above. For h = 100 m.71).71. can be obtained. We choose a frame with origin at the point on the earth's surface below the starting point of the body.Newtonian Mechanics 165 1099 A body is dropped from rest at a height h above the surface of the earth and at a latitude 40'N. expressions for x. 1. we can ignore terms of order w2 and write the following: ~ . with zaxis pointing south. Then the equation of the motion of the body in the earth frame is mi: = mgk . As the time of the drop of the body is short compared with the period of rotation of the earth. calculate the lateral displacement of the point of impact due to the Coriolis force. 1.2mw x r i 40" . and i . i 0 w sin 4' 0 L t Fig. 5 and 2. a Coriolis force 2mw x i is seen to act on the body. yaxis pointing east and zaxis pointing vertically up (Fig. y and 2. These results are then used in the expressions for x. which are readily integrated to give x. ( Columbia) Solution: If the body has mass m.
1 y = . F.gt2W~os40' J . 1. makes with the direction pointing to the center of the earth. The gravity mg0 for a nonrotating earth is related to the above quantities by mg=mgo+F.72. Give numerical values for (a) and (b) based on your estimates of L and 8. we obtain x=O. 1100 (a) What are the magnitude and direction of the deflection caused by the earth's rotation to the bob of a plumbline hung from the top to the bottom of the Sather Tower (Companile). . (Columbia) Solution: (a) In Fig. The last equation gives the time of arrival of the body a t the earth's surface t = 0: t= e. is the fictitious centrifugal force. y = 2gtw cos 40' z=g.. (b) What is the point of impact of a body dropped from the top? Assume that Berkeley is situated at 0' north latitude and that the tower is L meters tall. Integrating the above twice and using the initial conditions.017 m ° . a is the angle that mg.166 Problenis & Solutions on Mechanics $=O. Then the lateral displacement of the body at impact is y = ~ / ~ w c o s 4 0= 0. the apparent gravity.
Newtonian Mechanics 167 Fig. 29 28 (b) The lateral displacement of a body falling from rest at height L in the northern hemisphere due to the Coriolis force is to the east and has magnitude (Problem 1099) 6= :Jar 1101 wcos0. The period of rotation w s 14 hours.72. sin 0 ~  mRw2cos 9 sin 9 . a At what latitude and in which hemisphere was the current detected? ( Columbia) . Then by the force triangle. an ocean current circulating counterclockwise when viewed from directly overhead was discovered in a wellisolated layer beneath the surface.Rw2 sin 29 m9 m9 Hence the magnitude of the deflection of the bob is La = Larcsin sin (h2 ) . 1. we have Fe= m9 sina or sins sin8 ’ 29 = F. Under especially favorable conditions.
In a similar way. Then (aH( 2wvsinO = . xaxis pointing south.168 Prublems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics Solution: We choose a coordinate frame attached to the earth with origin at the point on the earth's surface where the ocean current is.k x v . w. yaxis pointing east and zaxis pointing vertically upward. It causes the current to circulate in a circular path. the Coriolis force causes counterclockwise circulation. it does not change the magnitude of the latter but only its direction. This makes v turn right and gives rise to clockwise circulation. Hence the circulating ocean current was detected at a latitude of 59"s. aH = 2wsin8(vyi + vzj) = 2w. Hence or 0 = 59" .k points toward the north pole and aH always points to the right of the velocity v.= vR = T v2 . a=2w i cosO 'ux j 0 vy k sin8 0 . The circulation in the ocean is due to the Coriolis force which causes an additional acceleration (Problem 1094) a = 2w x v . As aH is always normal to v. in the southern hemisphere. Let R be the angular velocity of the circular motion. If the ocean current is on the northern hemisphere. . where T is the radius of the circular path.
73.74. can be disrupted by the tidal forces produced by another massive body. Consider a unit mass of the object on the line OC at distance x from C. we find 1 = 1. x is negative but the above conclusion still holds true. Let M be the mass of the earth.29 x lo4 km . Berkeley) Solution: Suppose the earth is fixed in space and the small celestial object orbits around it at a distance 1 away as shown in Fig. We have from the balance of forces on it (1 . If 1 is less than this value. For an object of diameter 1 km and density 2 g/cm3. find the critical distance from the earth (Roche limit). the earth’s attraction becomes too large for the unit mass to be held by the celestial body and disruption of the latter occurs.Newtonian Mechanics 169 1102 A small celestial object. retaining only the g. (UC. 7 << 1.z ) 2 + y 2 c 2 4 dg r p G ~ ~ c o s ~ . 1. if it comes near enough to that body. held together only by its selfgravitation. m the mass and p the density of the small celestial object. Then as lowest order in f .)2 + y 2 ~ cos e = (1 . p = 2 g/cm3.x)w2 = (1 . If the unit mass is located to the right of C on the extended line of OC. .. 1.29 x lo9 cm = 1.x)2 GM G($)nx3p 52 . we have l With M = 6 x = ( g . We may also consider a unit mass located off the line OC such as the point P in Fig. We also have for the celestial body mlw = 12 GMm which gives w2 to be used in the above. We now have d(i.
painted on it. has no acceleration. What is the total force Fb exerted by the MGR on the bug? Give all components of Fb in the earthframe coordinates X O .170 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics Fig. yo. z ) . y / 1 << 1. 1. A bug of mass m is crawling outward without slipping along the xaxis with constant velocity wo (Fig.o ZI 4JJJ 10 X Fig.75.75).73. with J(1. the bug.X ) Z 312' As x/1 << 1. zo) with constant angular velocity w about a vertical axis. yo. (UC. and retaining only the firstorder terms we would obtain thc samc result. Berkeley) XO a.74. 1. cose = 12 + cosy3 = Jm' 2 1103 A merrygeround (MGR) has two orthogonal axes (x. Fig. zo of the bug. 1. so that the horizontal force acting on it by the MGR is (Problem 1094) . y) and is rotating on the earth (assume to be an inertial frame 20. 1. which crawls with constant velocity wo along the zaxis. Solution: In the rotating coordinate system (z. y.
v’ = voe. so that the MGR exerts a reaction force mgez on the bug. F can thus be written as b F = mvow[2sin(wt) b + wt cos(wt)]i + mvow[2cos(wt). In the earth frame. the corresponding axes coincide with those of the rotating frame. Consider two coordinate frames L and R with origins at the force center such that R rotates with angular velocity w about the common origin. yo... 1104 Consider a collection of charged particles. denoting the unit vectors along the 20. What is the appropriate value of w and what is meant by “small”? (Chicago ) Solution: Assume the magnetic field to be uniform and let the central force on a particle be F(r). Problem 1094 gives the equation of motion (in SI units) . interacting via conservative central forces.Newtonian Mechanics 171 F = 2mw x d + m w x (w x r) . Hence the total force exerted by the MGR on the bug is Fb = 2mvowe. j . assume that the bug was at the origin at t = 0 . ey = . Choose the earth frame (20. yo. + mgez . The bug has a weight mge. e. all with the same charge/mass ratio (elm).wt sin(wt)]j+ mgk .=k. zoaxes by i . where w = we. For simplicity. when viewed in a coordinate system rotating with an appropriately chosen angular velocity w (Larmor’s theorem). we have ex = eos(wt)i + sin(wt)j ... r = xe.sin(wt)i + cos(wt)j . then x = vat. 20) such that at t = 0 . Then. Prove that the motion of the particles in a small magnetic field B is identical with that in the absence of the field. k respectively. .mw2xe.
(2) can be written as ma’ = F(r) + ev x B . < 2m(w x vI .w x r) . m J wx ( w x r)l i. given by ~ ( t = ~ O c o s ( u t ) .2mw x ( v . the above becomes x F(r) = ma’ .mw x ( w x r) = F(r) + v x (eB + 2mw) + m w x (a r) .e. < 2v r w<<. 1105 The pivot point of a rigid pendulum is in forced vertical oscillation. We have assumed that for cvery particle in the system. As v = v’ = ma’ + 2mw x v’ + mw x ( w x r) (2) + w x r. or 4mv B<<. x w=  If R is chosen with eB 2m and if the centrifugal term mw x (w r) can be neglected. i. .The pendulum consists of a massless rod of ) length L with a mass m attached a t the end. er which limits the strength of the field. The particles will move as if the magnetic field were absent but the system as a whole precesses in the laboratory frame with angular velocity w. the motion of the particle when viewed in the rotating frame is the same as that in the absence of the magnetic field.172 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics F(r) + ev x B = m a in L and (1) F(r) + ev x B in R.e. This conclusion applies t o a system of particles with the same elm and subject to central forces with the same center.
cos(wt)] . sin 6 M 0. zaxis horizontal and yaxis vertically downward. where 6 is the pendulum angle indicated in Fig. Solution: (a)Use Cartesian coordinates with origin at point 0 in Fig. g As 6 << 1 rad. 8 =a f i .76. y = L cos6 + qop . + o. We have z = Lsin6. o (c) Evaluate the solutions f r (i) and (ii) at resonance and describe the difference in the two motions.76.vow2 c ~ ~ ( w t )=e ] . 1 + 19 L ji M . and the equation of motion for 8 is 6 * . mji = m .Newtonian Mechanics 173 (a) Derive an equation of motion for 6. (MIT) Fig. 1. we can omit terms involving e2 and take the approximation cos 6 M 1. 1. 6=0. 1. (b) Solve the equation to first order in 770 for the initial conditions (i) and (ii) 6=a.76. mx = Fsin6. Assume 8 << 1 and 70 <( L. Then X w Lee2 +~ e . 6 = 0.Fcos6 .~ e e vow2cos(wt) .
retaining only first order terms of cr. 6 = 0.let 5 . as well as the where cp satisfies the equation @ w i p = 0. with initial conditions for 8. aw2 i'+u.)  1. 8 = asin(w0t) + c r E ( t ) . ) +( ~ t Substitution of the above in (1) gives.2E = aw 2 cos(w0t)cos(wt) = __ {cos[(wo+ w)t] + cos[(wo 2 This has a particular solution cos[(wo w)t] 2wo w  w)t]} .)  The initial conditions 6 = 0. we have cp = acos(wot) .awcos[(wo w ) t ] (2wo W)(2WO . + + + cos[(wo 2w0 + +   w)t] w so that the general solution is = C cos(w0t) 1 + Cz sin(wot)  awcos[(wo w)t] 2(2WO w) + awcos[(wo ww)t] 2(2WO . (ii) For initial conditions 0 = 0. let . 6 = a cp = usin(w0t) = awo. (i) For initial conditions 8 = a . + wi = 8 = ~ C O S ( W O ~ )[ ( .174 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) For an approximate solution to first order in (Y = t. i = 0 at t = 0 then give and 8 = acos(wot) +:{ aw2 cos(w0t) .w) 2(2WO w) + + + d + awcos[(wo ww)t] 2(2wo .
where k is a constant and Vrel is the velocity of the particle relative to the bowl. As w x 2w0.Newtonian Mechanics 1 75 Substitution in (1) gives = {sin[(wo 2 which has general solution m2 + w ) t ]+ sin[(wo. < = 0 at t = 0 then give D =o.77).w ) t ] } . In addition. this particle is subjected to a frictional force F = kV. 1. A particle of mass M moves on the interior surface of the bowl under the influence of gravity (Fig.w ) t ] 2(2wo w) The initial conditions = 0.7?0asin(3wot) = a 4L It is seen that the amplitude at resonance is limited to M a in both cases. aw sin[(wo . + sin[(wo < = D1 cos(w0t) + Dz sin(w0t) .w) + awsin[(wo . the two resonances occur at phases differing by $. However.w)  awsin[(wo w)t] 2(2wo w) + + (c) Resonance occurs at w = 2wo.. 1106 A hemispherical bowl of radius R rotates around a vertical axis with constant angular speed a.aw 2(2wo ++ w)t] w) . we have for case (i) and for case (ii) f3 = asin(w0t) .w)t] 2(2wow) aw2 0 = asin(w0t) +"{ L w2 sin(wot) (2wo + w)(2wo . 1 and hence D = 2 (2wo + w ) (2wo .1 .
By considering behavior of frequencies in the vicinity of Ro.y = R e ( y o e x t ) . for which the particle’s motion is periodic. 1. it is clearly in equilibrium. neglect the curvature of the bowl except in calculating the gravitational restoring force. z ) and y. .)2+ (&) n2 2 =0 . the equation of motion of F = M a ’ + 2 M S l x v ’ + M f l x (0 x r ) + M h x r . v’ are the acceleration and velocity in the rotating frame. Show that for 1 1 << R.where a.. (d) There is a transition from stable to unstable a t 62 = no. we construct a local inertial Cartesian coordinate system (5.77. (P+ + . Ro. Solution: In a frame rotating with angular velocity a particle of mass M is by Problem 1094 a. (b) Suppose the particle is in equilibrium a t the bottom of the bowl. where a‘. prove that the motion is stable for R < Ro and unstable for R > R. IyI < R. the particle position x < satisfies 2 = Re(zoext).176 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics 3 (a) If the particle is a t the bottom of the bowl (0 = 0). (c) Find the angular speed of the bowl. Show that if R > there is a second equilibrium value of 8 and determine its value. (MIT) Fig. To describe the motion of the particle in the vicinity of the equilibrium point.
choose a spherical frame ( T . f2 = R cos ee. = he +sin80. + + cos Be. p) attached to the bowl with origin 0 at the center of the bowl. . e Then for a particle at r = re.kR0 . .re' . cos Bee .Newtonian Mechanic8 177 For the rotating frame. . we have c = Re. (a) For the particle in the rotating bowl. + R sin 8ee .. where Mg = Mgcosee.re2sin' e)e.M R sin e cos e ~ ~ ~ = Mg sin 0 . + . . e. Hence the equations of the motion of the particle in the rotating frame in the ee and eV directions are respectively M R .2MRR$ sin 9 cos 8 k MRR2 sin cos 8 . + reee and the acceleration is + r$ sin ee. = $ sin B . a = (i' .. T + ~ + (re + 274 . 8 . Vrel = Rdee + R$sinee. In the spherical coordinate frame. the velocity is v = l. we have 8. i = T = 0. . = Be. .sin e cos e)ee + (@sin 8 + 2 i $ sin 6 + 2r@ cos B)e. N = Ne.MgsinBee . . and MR@sin 0 + 2MR8$ cos 8 = kR+ sin 8 + 2MRS28 cos 8 ...(L. then b = 0.e.
M g s i n e + A4RR2sint?cos8 = 0 ..Mgyj R R . which is near the bottom of the bowl. is r' = zi + yj + zk M xi + y j . As shown in Fig.Mg sin 8 sin (pj M I Mgx.178 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics At equilibrium. . If R equilibrium position e = arccos 9 RO ' > &$there is another (7) (b) Use Cartesian coordinates (2.kV. L X Fig. . the position vector of the particle. which gives sine = 0. z ) for the local inertial frame with origin at 8 = 0 at the bottom of the bowl and the zaxis along the axis of rotation. 8 = 0.78. 1.. y. (Ej = 0.78. and we obtain . q3 = 0. the component of the force N along r is approximately zero and the component of Mg along r is Mg sin 13cos cpi .. 8 = 0. and its equation of motion is Mf'= M g + . N neglecting the curvature of gthe bowl. In this frame. 1. or cost?= __ 9 R02 ' Hence 13 = 0 is an equilibrium position.
coscp x 5 . sincp x 5. where w is real. o . ~ l s 8s it= vrel+ 51 x r'. c =fRo . we require Hence if this condition holds. there is only one equilibrium (d) As has been shown in (a). position 8 = 0.xR)j . The equilibrium at this point is stable.k ~ . Note that the '+' and '' signs correspond to two opposite directions of rotation. For R > a". y = Re(yoext) .Newtonian Mechanics 179 as sine M f . we have &)2 = 9 R and w =f R. To satisfy these we require that R=f for the motion to be periodic. X = i w . X must be imaginary. kR Let x = zOeXt. M R M For periodic motion. we can describe the particle's position by z = Re(zoext). This conclusion is valid only for 1 1 << R. = yoeXt and the above becomes y For a nonzero solution. (c) The lefthand side of (1) can be factorized and shown to have solutions kX 9 kR X2++=*i. Equating the real and imaginary parts on both sides. Iy( << R since we have neglected x the curvature and considered the particle as moving in a horizontal plane. . l = ki' + kn x r' = k(k + yR)i . if R < 00.Ic(G .
Solution: In a rotating coordinate frame ( T . we have (Problem 1094) F = ma’+2rnw x v ’ + w x (w x r) . 8. there is a transition from stable to unstable at R = Ro.p) attached to the circular tube.180 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics there are two equilibrium positions B = 0 and 8 = arccos(d).79. The tube rotates about a vertical diameter at a constant rate of w rad/sec as shown in Fig. n2 1107 A particle of mass m can slide without friction on the inside of a small tube bent in the form of a circle of radius a. 1. Write the differential equation of motion. If the particle is disturbed slightly from its unstable equilibrium position at B = 0. with . 1.79. find the position of maximum kinetic energy. ( S U N Y . Buffalo) A Fig. However the equilibrium at the former position is now unstable. Hence for 0 = 0 . so that the stable equilibrium is shifted to the latter position if R > Ro.
the velocity of the particle is v = v ' + w x r = adeo +ausinee.$$.cos 8 ) . . we have for the position of maximum kinetic energy .cos e)] .= ma[2w2asin dE de e cos 8 + g sin e] = o . In an inertial frame that instantaneously coincides with the rotating frame. d2E = ma[b2acos2 de2 e + g cos e . a = ad2ep + aeee .Newtonian Mechanics 181 F=mg+N = mgcosf?e. . ' r = ae. . ' w = w cos Oe. + mgsin8ee + Ne. As . v = atlee. (g) =o. The equation for the motion in the ee direction is then mad = mg sin 6 + m u 2 sine cos e e = 0 at As d = $%= . 80 (Z) 80 <o. For E to be a maximum at 60 . the above with the initial condition 8 = t = 0 gives ad2 = au2sin28 + 2g(1.2w2a] . .w sin 8ee . and its kinetic energy is E = m(a2b2+ a2w2 sin2e) = m[w'a2 sin2 = ma[w2asin2 1 2 1 2 e + 2ga(1we require case) + w'a2 sin' e] e + g( 1 .
Let S' be similarly placed. find the direction of the Coriolis force on a body moving eastward and on one moving vertically upward.k. the time derivative of A is %=(%i+>j+Lk dA dt dt dA dt Let d * / d t denote time derivative in S'. then d'A = d A . with the zaxis pointing north.j+A. Use this to derive an expression for the Coriolis force experienced by a body moving in S'.. approximately. 2a 2a if eo = xccos (2) 2w2a w2 >. the horizontal deflection due t o the Coriolis effect when it reaches the ground.i+A. In S'. but rotating with the earth. forming an inertial frame. In S . 9 1108 Let S be a set of axes centered at the earth's center. (b) In the northern hemisphere. . an arbitrary vector A can be written as A=A. (a) Write down the nonrelativistic equation giving the transformation of the time derivative of any vector from S' t o S. Define all symbols. Neglect air resistance. Find.182 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics eo = if 9 w2< . (SVNY. Buflulo) Solution: (a) Let X Y Z be the inertial reference frame S and X'Y'Z' the rotating frame S' fixed to the earth which rotates with angular velocity w . i + dt dt The kinematics of a rigid body gives dA $Lj+ dtk dA. (c) Consider a body dropped from a height of 10 feet at a latitude of 30"N.
we have  F = mDenoting above as d2r d*2r = mdt2 dt2 * + 2mw x d'r + mw x (w x r) + mddtw x r . (1) When the body moves eastward.+ w x Adt . the east and vertically upward respectively. j + A . so for a particle of mass m at P acted on by a force F. dt f by a dot and noting that for the earth w = 0. This shows that Newton's second law can still be considered valid if. the Coriolis force.w x w = .m u x (0 x r) for the rotating frame. the centrifugal force. 4 dt dk = w x k . i + A .d* ( d * r +wxr dt2 dt dt ) +wx .2 w x v' = 2 m g sin X i + 2mwy cos Xk .:(. v = gj. Then w = wcosXi+wsinXk. dt dt Thus for the radius vector r to a point P . k be directed toward the south. dt2 dt dt Note that in the above d'w du . we introduce two fictitious forces: 2mw x r.j.du dt dt dt Newton's second law applies to the inertial frame.+ w x r ) + d*2r d*r d*w +2w x .2 m x r . Thus a body of mass m moving on earth with a velocity v' is seen by an observer on the earth to suffer a Coriolis force . we have d r . . k ) = .+ w x (w x r) . = .Newtonian Mechanics 183 . dt d A d*A d*A =+ w x ( A . (b) Choose for S' a frame fixed at a point on the surface of the earth at latitude X and let its orthogonal unit vectors i.. in addition to F.. and mw x (w x r)..x r .i= w x i . the Coriolis force is ' F.d'r t w x r . we write the mi: = F . d dt Hence =wxj. dt dt d2r .2 m x v'..
we obtain 2 = 4w2[xsinX h)cosX]sinX .2 m w i c o s 4 . my = 2mw(x sin X i cos A) m. z = h = 10 ft. v‘ = ik. y = 2w[zsinX + 2wycosx + (2  + ( z .the Coriolis force is F. y = 2gtw cos x . x = y Integrating and using the initial conditions. we obtain i = 0 at t = 0. (2) When the body moves upward.Y=mg+2mwycosX.184 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics which has magnitude ~ F J J ( 2 m w ~sin ~ = ) 2 + ( 2 m w cos ~ ~ A) ) = 2 2mw~ arid is pointing south at an inclination angle q5 given by tanq5= __ cos A = t a n ( . which has magnitude 2mw.Y=g. { { x = 2wy sin X i = gt . applying the initial conditions and eliminating t. + . we obtain ( 8w2 cos2 X 9g ) (hZI3 .i cos X and direction toward the west. we have approximately { Y2 = X = O . * Substituting these into the original set of equations. Integrating. sin A . . Neglecting the terms involving w2 . y = 2gtw cos Xy . = 2mw x v’ = .4w2y . ( c ) The equations of motion for the freefall body in S’ are { mx = 2mwy sin X .h)cosX] . = with initial conditions 3: = y = 0. z = g4~~[xsinX+(zh)cos~]cosX.
80). X = 30°. 2. 1. show that the smallest initial velocity for which the ball can go in circles around point P is V = [ ( m M)/m].80.01 cm. Solution: As p < m. 1. Hence the deflection due to the Coriolis effect is toward the east and has a magnitude 0. M . The cart crashes onto another cart of mass m and sticks to it (Fig.05 m. + Neglect friction and assume M .Newtonian Mechanics 185 When the body reaches the ground./5$?.01 x lo* m. If the length of the string is R . The cart and ball have initial velocity V . DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF POINT MASSES (11091144) 1109 A cart of mass M has a pole on it from which a ball of mass p hangs from a thin string attached at point P . > ( Wisconsin) P Fig. z = 0. we find y = 1. momentum conservation M V = ( M m>v’ gives for the velocity of the two carts after collision. rn > p. With h = 10 ft = 3. + .
(a) What is the speed of the cart with m s 3m at the instant of as maximum spring compression assuming conservation of energy? (b) How would your answer differ if energy is not conserved? . V = &gR. M+m Consider the circular motion of the ball atop the cart M if it were stationary. 1 As the ball has initial velocity V and the cart has velocity V’ after the collision. i. 1110 A cart of mass m moves with speed v as it approaches a cart of mass 3m that is initially at rest. we have where T is the tension in the string when the ball is at the highest point.V’. V is the velocity of the ball relative to the cart.pVf = pgR 2 1 2 + 2pgR .186 Problems Solutions on Mechanics MV v’=.e. I With the cart moving. The spring is compressed during the headon collision (Fig. 1. If at the lowest and highest points the ball has speeds V and 1 Vz respectively. the velocity of the ball relative to the cart after the collision is V . Hence the smallest V for the ball to go round in a circle after the collision is given by i. The smallest Vz is given by T = 0. Hence the smallest V1 is given by .81).e.
the two carts will move together after collision. .= . Thus the heavier cart has speed 2 at that instant. the two carts are nearest each other and at that instant move with a velocity v'.e. vi are respectively the velocities after collision of the lighter and heavier carts. (c) Conservation of energy and of momentum give mu2 . + i.Newtonian Mechanics 187 (c) What is the final velocity of the heavier cart after a long time has passed. 1. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) When the spring is at maximum compression. the above result still holds since it has been derived from conservation of momentum which holds as long as no external force is acting. if energy is conserved? (d) Give the final velocity of the heavier cart in a completely inelastic collision. (b) Even if mechanical energy is not conserved. Conservation of momentum gives mu = ( m 3m)v' .mvi2 3mvh2 2 2 2 ' mv = mu: 3mv: . Hence the heavier cart has final velocity . say. Their velocity is then as given in (a).81. + + where vi. v2= 2mv m+3m v _ 2 ' (d) If the collision is completely inelastic. Fig.
The centripetal acceleration of each star is a = v 2 / R .188 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1111 In terms of G.82. where v is the speed of each star in the cms frame. Using these.The radius of circular orbit of each star with respect to the center of mass frame of the double star is R = L/2. . 1. we have Mu2 R or  GM2 L2 ' Hence the period of the double star is Fig. L and the masses: (a) What is the rotational period of an equalmass (MI = M2 = M ) double star of separation L? (b) What is the period of an unequalmass ( M I # M2) double star of separation L? (c) What is the period of an equalmass equilateraltriangle (side L ) triple star? (d) What is the period of an unequalmass ( M I # M2 # M3) equilateral triple star? ( Wisconsin ) Solution: (a) Equalmass double star The gravitational force on each star is f = G M 2 / L 2 .
as in Fig.A41 + A 4 2 . If its speed is u .83). the resultant of the gravitational forces due to the other two stars points towards 0 and has magnitude (2GM2/L2)cos3O0 = &GM2/L2. Geometry gives 41 = f i L / 3 .2 11  &GM2 L2 ' . and the For M I . Then. 1. Hence MlU: . . (c) Equalmass equilateraltriangle triple star Let 0 be the center of mass of the triple star (Fig.A41 +M2' 1  M1 L 11.Newtonian Mechanics 189 (b) Unequalmass double star Let 0 be the center of mass of the double star. f = GM1 A 4 2 1 L2. Fig. For M I . we have Mv .82. the radius of circular motion is centripetal acceleration is a1 = uf/11. 1. 1. 1  M2 L .11 GM1M2 L2 ' giving The rotational period of MI is then 2 Interchange of the subscripts 1 and 2 shows that this is also the period T of M2.83.
M2 and M3 are (O. 1.84. 1.O). respectively.84.O) and ( L / 2 . (L. The coordinates of MI. (d) Unequalmass equilateral triple star Use coordinates as shown in Fig.190 Pmbtems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or so the period of the triple star is Y Fig. and the radius vector of the center of mass C is e) The attractive forces exerted by M2 and M3 on M I are respectively f12 = ~ GMl M2 L2 and so that the resultant force on M l is .
1112 A particle of mass m. Its magnitude is The radius of the circular orbit about the center of mass in which moves is r A41 Then the equation of the motion of M I is giving for the speed v1 of M I .Newtonian Mechanics 191 This shows that f1 is parallel to r.. and initial velocity v collides headon with an identical particle initially at rest. Hence the rotational period of M I is Ti =01 2TR1 which is obviously also the period of M2 and M3. charge q. What is the distance of closest approach between the two particles (in classical mechanics)? What is the .
Conservation of energy gives mu2 . the descending velocity of the smaller sphere is w1 = = 212. Conservation of momentum then gives mu = 2mv' and v = v / 2 as the velocity of each particle at the instant of closest approach. Let the velocities of the larger and smaller spheres after elastic collision be vi and vi respectively d m .4q2 mu2 as the distance of closest approach. ( Wisconsin ) Solution: The relative velocity is zero when the two particles are at closest ' approach. 1.mut2 2 2 and thus q2 +mu" + r 2 r = . ( Wisconsin) Solution: m2. are dropped from a height h (measured from the center of the large sphere) above a steel plate as shown in Fig. The final velocity of the incident particle is zero and that of the particle initially at rest is w.85. The landing velocity of the larger sphere is v2 = &? $@ and its velocity immediately after bouncing back from the steel plate is still v in magnitude. 1113 Two steel spheres. Assuming the centers of the spheres always lie on a vertical line and all collisions are elastic. what is the maximum height the upper sphere will reach? Hint: Assume the larger sphere collides with the plate and recoils before it collides with the small sphere. This can be seen from the symmetry of the problem. the lower of radius 2a and the upper of radius a. At this point.192 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics velocity of each particle at the instant of closest approach? What is the final velocity of each particle? Justify your answers. Let the mass of the smaller sphere be m1 and that of the larger one Then m2 = 8ml.
= 3a + .. and take the upward direction as positive.( h 29 81 . each of mass rn. 1... 1. .2a) ... are initially standing on the car which is at rest. . 1. Fig. N men.86.Newtonian Mechanics 193 6..85. Conservation o momentum and f of mechanical energy give whose solution is Conservation of the mechanical energy of the smaller sphere thus gives the maximum height (measured from the steel plate) of the smaller sphere as Vi2 529 H = 3a + . 1.. . 1114 A railroad flatcar of mass M can roll without friction along a straight horizontal track as shown in Fig.
.. M+Nm' (b) Consider the transition from n men to (n1) men on the car. Let V. (a) or (b). Calculate the velocity of the car after the inen have jumped off. relative to the car just before jumping off. The total momentum of the car with the n men is P. Writing x. Find an expression for the final velocity of the car..V. just before they jump off (all at the same time). we have for the center of mass. . Solution: (a) As there is no horizontal external force acting.. . Vcar = NmV. = Vcar and noting that . are respectively the velocities of the car and each .. each reaching a speed V. we have M I L r + Nm(Kar .. Taking f the xaxis along the track. (b) The N men run off the car.86.194 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (a) The N men run to one end of the car in unison. does the car attain the greater velocity? ( CUSPEA ) Fig. xman= V. one after the other (only one man running at a time). Xcrn Mxcar Nmxman M+Nm xcm = 0 = MXcar+Nmxrn... where kCarand x.. be the velocity of the car when n men are left on it. + nmV. = + . (c) In which case. 1.. man after the men have jumped off.. the center of mass of the system consisting o the flatcar and N men remains stationary. = MV.Vr) giving =0 . their speed relative to the car is V.
l)mVnl + m(Vnl . . or vn1 = v + MmVr m n +n S ' Hence K8 = vn + c i=l &f + mVr 2 + .l. the momentum of the system consisting of the car and n men is Pnl= MVn1 + (TI .V. 1115 A projectile of mass m is shot (at velocity V ) at a target of mass M .87.a 7 / 1 1 v m Fig.mV. Momentum conservation Pnl= Pn gives ( M + nm)Vn = ( M + nm)V. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 195 When the nth man jumps off the car with a speed V. 1 n=l 5M +nrn > N M+Nm' the car in case (b) attains a greater final velocity. with a hole containing a spring of constant k. relative to the car.87) . we have for s = N . (CUSPEA) M . 1. Find the distance Ax that the spring compresses at maximum.) . The target is initially at rest and can slide without friction on a horizontal surface (Fig. VN = 0 initially. . As n = N .
1. . . . Under the influence of the star's gravitational field. * 1 * Fig. Find the drag force on the star with the approximation that the thermal velocities of the atoms are negligible relative t o II and the interactions of V atoms with each other can be neglected. . . Solution: In a frame moving with the star.88. gas atoms move with velocity V toward the star from infinity.. 1. * / V / . . It pulls particles toward itself by its gravitational field and captures all of the atoms that strike its surface.196 P r o b l e m €4 Solutions on Mechmacs Solution: At the instant the spring compresses at maximum. Conservation of energy rnV2 mK2 =++2 MV: 2 lc(A~)~ 2 ' 2 and conservation of momentum mV = (rn + M)Ve give A x = / k(m M ) V + 1116 A heavy star of mass M and radius R moves with velocity V through a very dilute gas of mass density p .88. (CWSPEA) . the trajectories of the gas atoms are as shown in Fig. the projectile m and the target M move with the same velocity V.
If the only force present is the mutual (Newtonian) gravitational force. Conservation of angular momentum gives vR=bV. and conservation of energy gives u2 2 GM . what is the particle density as a function of radius T from the center in order that the density remains constant in time? (Assume that the density is spherically symmetric. p( V) dt At0 At 1117 Consider a collection of point particles of mass m moving in circular orbits about a common center each with the same kinetic energy.V2 R 2 ’ from which we obtain The drag force on the star is equal to the momentum absorbed per unit time: F = dP = ]im r b 2 V A t .) (Columbia) Solution: Let T be the kinetic energy of each particle. As it moves in a circular orbit of radius T under the action of the mutual gravitational forces. we have Thus .Newtonian Mechanics 197 Let b be the largest impact parameter for which a gas atom can just be captured by the star and u the velocity of the gas atom just before capturing.
we have 2Tr from which we obtain the particle density P T n ( r )= . Does this calculation depend upon what point is chosen as the origin of coordinates? (UC. 1118 Given a system of N pointmasses with pairwise additive central forces.198 Problems €d Solutions on Mechanics giving Mfr) = Gm as the total mass of the particles which move in a sphere of radius r at the common center..= m 2nr2Gm2 . For two masses i and j . use Newton’s second and third laws t o demonstrate that the total angular momentum of this system is a constant. i Newton’s second law Fi = % then gives i i j#i i j#i where fij is the force the j t h mass exerts on the ith mass. Berkeley) Solution: The angular momentum of a system of N pointmasses about a fixed origin is by definition L=Crixp. As d~ = 4nr2p(r)dr . Newton’s third law gives .
L = constant. and exerts no reaction force on the remnant. the conclusion is independent of the choice of the origin of coordinates. the star o mass M loses a mass ass f AM.Newtonian Mechanics 199 since ri . spherically symmetric. + (MIT) MAM centre of moss m V 2 ‘ Fig. r 2 be the distance from the center of mass to M. Show that the remaining binary system is bound when AM < (M m)/2. The explosion is instantaneous. In a supernova explosion.rj is parallel to fij. The stars may be approximated by point m s e . dt i.89. It also has no direct effect on the other star. 1119 Two stars with masses M and m separated by a distance d are in circular orbits around the stationary center of mass. As the sum of forces like fij and fji.e. As the origin in this proof is arbitrary. m respectively before the . 1. Solution: Take the center of mass as the origin of a fixed frame and let r1. we have xi CiZi(ri fij) is due to pairs x dL =o.
The momentum of the new system in the fixed frame (Fig. We have The angular velocity w of the circular motion of M satisfies GMm M T ~=w ~ d2 ' or GMm mr2w2 = d2 ' After M explodes a mass A M leaves the star. 1. Therefore.200 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics explosion.M r l w = 0. the total energy of the new system in the new center of mass frame is .A M ) ( T ~ w )m ( r 2 ~ ) ~ ~ T= + 2 To  G(M 2 .89) is (M A M + m)v = mr2w  ( M . where v is the velocity of the center of mass of the new system. As the explosion exerts no reaction force on the remnant and has no direct effect on the other star. as the momentum of the original system mr2w .A M ) r l w = r1wAM . where TOis the kinetic energy of the new system in the fixed frame if its total mass were concentrated at the center of mass. the total potential and kinetic energies of the two stars in a frame attached t o the new center of mass are V = AMfm 1 d ( M .
As A M < M . AM<M.M ) .~ ( T ~ w ) ’ d 2 2 (MAM+m).A M + m )( 2 A M . + V < 0. The condition for the new twostar system to be bound is T i. GMm 1 G + 2 M ( T ~ w ) 1m ( r 2 ~ ) ~ mdA M ~ d 2 1 (AM)2(w)2 .~ ) 2 2(M .e.A M + m ) Md = 2dAM +T I A M + M .A M ( T ~ w. The rest of the boat has a mass of M = 1000 kg. AM > M . the required condition is AM< M+m 2 1120 The captain of a small boat becalmed in the equatorial doldrums decides to resort to the expedience of raising the anchor ( m = 200 kg) to the top of the mast (s = 20 m). 2 1 (AM)2 (r1u)2 (M . 2AM<M+m.A M ) m+ r ( M .G ( M .21 2d d 1 2 ~ ~ ( ~ 1 ~ )( A M ) 2 2 (r1u)2 2(MAM+m) = Mdrlw2 + drlw2AM   1 (AM>2(W42 .M .Newtonian Mechanics 201 1 T + V = .A M ) ( r l w j 2+ .A M + m drlw2 2(M .A M m) + + ~ + =  G M m GmAM + ____ .AM(^^^)^ 2 2(M .m ) ( A M .AM+m)2 . (a) Why will the boat begin to move? (b) In which direction will it move? . or 2AM > M + m .
9 x 1 0 . Let m be the mass of 0and M be the mass of C++. Assume that only motion along the original equilibrium line is possible. the Coriolis force points toward the west. as shown in Fig.90. Hence the boat will move westward. and so the boat moves. (b) As w points to the north and v is vertically upward. giving wo or w . i.Wo) = 2mswo = 4. (c) As the total angular momentum of the boat and anchor with respect to the center of mass of the earth in an inertial frame is conserved. (a) How many vibrational degrees of freedom does this system have? (b) Define suitable coordinates and determine the equation of motion of the masses. 1. ignore rotations. .~m/s M+m The negative sign indicates that the boat moves westward. m)r2 _ . 1121 A simple classical model of the COz molecule would be a linear structure of three masses with the electrical forces between the ions represented by two identical springs of equilibrium length 1 and force constant k.e.wo wo M (A4+ m ) + 2 m s ~ 2ms N N 2ms ( M + m)r ’ Hence the relative velocity of the boat with respect t o the earth is u = r(w . we have (M + m)r2wo= [ M T + m ( r + s ) ~ ] w ~ . T is the radius of the earth.202 Problems €5 Solutions on Mechanics (c) How fast will it move? ( Chicago ) Solution: (a) The vertical motion of the anchor causes a Coriolis force 2mw x v. where v is the velocity of the anchor and w the angular velocity of the earth.( M +( M )+r 2 + 2 m r s ’ m W N where wo and w are the angular velocities of the earth and the boat respectively.
M ~ ~ k k k .91. (d) Calculate the relative amplitudes of the displacements of the particles for each of these modes and describe the nature of the motion for each mode. 1. You may use a sketch as part of your description. 1. kw2 k 0 k 0 2 k . Fig. .Newtonian Mechanics 203 (c) Seek a solution to the equations of motion in which all particles oscillate with a common frequency (normal modes) and calculate the possible frequencies. (e) Which modes would you expect to radiate electromagnetically and what is the multipole order of each? (h4IT) m 0M C" m 0 0 C* 0 Fig.w 2 =O.90.
as c*’ W1 0 0 e.c. Angular frequencies w1 and w2 correspond to possible vibrations.93. The w2 mode can give rise to dipole radiation. as shown in Fig. we find that relative amplitudes are depicted in Fig. W2 C 0e . 1. 1122 Take a very long chain of beads connected by identical springs of spring constant K and equilibrium length a. Fig.204 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics which has solutions w1= c. 1. (a) Far from the “special” bead.92. what is the reflection probability when the wave hits the special bead? Hint for part (b): Try a solution of the form . (e) The w1 mode will not give rise to radiation because the center of the charges remains stationary in the oscillations. 00 (9) (+) for w1 and for w2. + (2m M)k and w3 =o. 1. All beads have mass m except for one which has mass mo < m. while quadruple and higher multipole radiations are possible for both w2 and w3 modes. what is the relation between the wave vector and the frequency of the resulting oscillation? (b) For a wave of wave vector k. while w3 corresponds to the translational oscillations of the molecule as a whole. The mass of the spring is negligibly small.92. A2 and A3. (d) Substituting w1 and w2 into the equations for A l . Each bead is free to oscillate along the 5 direction. w2 = \/7nM.
Newtonian Mechanacs
205
 x
t t t f
n . 4
t t t t t
0
1
3
2
1
2
3
Ir
Fig. 1.93.
Xn 2,
 ikon + Beikan
=c
for for
pan
<0 , n >0 ,
n
where A , B , and C axe functions of time.
( Chicago)
or
fAJ2
= [1
2K m
cos(ka)]
(b) Try a solution of the form
Xn 2n
 (Aeikan + B e  i k a n = cei(kanwt)
for
for
n
50,
n20.
For 7t = 0, the above implies C = A + B . Substituting the solution into the equation of the motion of the n = 0 bead,
we find
2
mo ( A + B ) = 2 ( A + B )  ( A + +aka K
 Aeika  Beika ,
206
f'mblerns t9 Solutzons on Mechanzcs
or
Hence the reflection probability is
1123 Three bodies of equal mass m and indicated by i = 1,2,3 are constrained to perform small oscillations along different coplanar axes forming 120' angles at their common intersection, as shown in Fig. 1.94. Identical coupling springs hold these bodies near equilibrium positions which are at a distance 1 from the intersection on each axis, that is, the equilibrium length of each spring is &l. The following questions can be answered without resorting to general analytic procedures.
Fig. 1.94.
(a) Show that the equations of motion of the three bodies are represented by the coupled system
Newtonian Mechanics
207
where zi(t)+ I indicates their respective distances from the intersection. (Specifically, both K and k equal 3/4 of each spring constant.) (b) Verify that one normal mode is totally symmetric:
Zl(t) = 5 2 ( t ) = 2 3 ( t )
,
and determine its frequency. (c) Show that the remaining normal modes are degenerate and determine their frequency. (d) Find a pair of real solutions { ~ l ( t ) , ~ 2 ( t ) , ~ 3 (that represent t)} orthogonal degenerate normal modes. (e) Find an alternative pair of complex conjugate solutions that represent orthogonal degenerate normal modes. (Chicago)
Solution: (a) Let the constant of each spring be 1 and consider particles i and j 1 which are located at zi and xj from their respective equilibrium positions. The stretch of the spring between the two particles is (xi+ x3)cos30°, so the potential energy of the system is
3rl u = [(q+ 2# 8
+ + .3)2 + ( 2 3 +
(22
21)2]
.
The force acting on the ith particle is then
E  3 a2i 4
giving its equation of motion as
TTL&
(2i+p)
,
22
=  K z ~ k(Zl+
+ 23)
with K = k = (b) If z = 5 2 = 2 3 , all the three equations reduce to the uncoupled 1 form mi$ =  ( K 3k)Zi .
2.
+
The solution is
xi = acos(wt + ‘p)
208
Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics
with
(c) The remaining two normal modes are orthogonal to the above symmetric mode. They satisfy the condition
z 1 + 2 2 + 2 3 = 0 ,
for which the equations of motion reduce to the uncoupled form
mxi = Kx, .
Setting z = bi cos(w’t + cp’), we have i
The frequency is the same for both modes, and hence they are degenerate. (d) The two orthogonal degenerate normal modes have amplitudes b l , b2, b3 satisfying 6i = 0. Hence
xi
61 = 0,
bl
6 2 = b3
= C,
b2 = b3 = 
=c C
,
2
give a pair of real solutions, where c is an arbitrary real number. (e) Alternatively, allowing complex amplitudes, bl = d ,
b2 =de*?,
b3 = &F*
,
where d is a real number, give a pair of orthogonal degenerate normal mode solutions.
1124
Three identical objects, each of mass m, are connected by springs of spring constant K , as shown in Fig. 1.95. The motion is confined t o one dimension. At t = 0, the masses are at rest at their equilibrium positions. Mass A is then subjected to an external timedependent driving force F ( t ) = fcos(wt), t > 0. Calculate the motion of mass G.
(Princeton)
Newtonian Mechanics
209
F
TsiFT)il
0
Fig. 1.95.
* x
Solution:
Let X A , X B , xc he the coordinates of the three masses and a the relaxed length of each spring. The equations of motion are
The above set of equations can be written as
or
fcos(wt) = mgl , fcos(wt)  2aK = m& + Kg2 ,
(1)
(2)
f cos(wt) = my3 + 3Ky3 ,
(3)
with YI = X A X B tx c , g2 = X A  x c , y3 = X A  2 x ~ x c . It can be seen that y1, y2 and 313 are the three normal coordinates of this vibrational system. The initial conditions are that at t = 0,
+
+
or
y1 = 3a,
312
= 2a,
y3 = 0,
k
= & = 3i3 = 0
.
Equation (1) can be integrated, with the use of initial conditions, to give
91 = [1
f
mu=
 cos(wt)]
+ 3a .
210
Problems d Solutions on Mechanics
To solve ( 2 ) , we try a particular solution
~2
= A2 C
OS(~~)
+ Ba
and obtain A2
=
~k2, general solution is Bz = 2a. The
f cos(wt) K  mw2

Yz =
2a
+ Cz cos(w2t) + 0 2 sin(wzt) ,
where
w2 =
6,
Initial conditions then give
c 2
=
f
K w
2 ’
D2=0.
To solve ( 3 ) ,we try a particular solution
y3
=A
~cos(~)
and obtain A3 = f / ( 3 K  m u 2 ) . The general solution is
Y3 =
f cos(wt) C cos(w3t) 3 3K  w2
+
+ 0 3 sin(&)
,
where w3 =
E.
Initial conditions then give
c = 3

f
3K  mu2’
D3=O.
Therefore the solutions are as follows:
f y1 = [l
w
Y2
2
 cos(wt)]
+ 3a ,
,
=
f
KW2
[cos(wt) cos(wzt)]  2a
y3 =  [cos(wt)  cos(wst)] . 3K  w2 The motion of C is a linear combination of y1, yz and y3:
Newtonian Mechanics
211
Yl 9 2 xc =    + 13 = 2a +   cos(wt)] [l 3 2 6 3mw2
+
2m(w,2  w2) Sm(w32  w2)
’
[cos(wt)  cos(wat)] [cos(wt)  cos(wst)] .
’
+
Note that
w2
and
w3
are the normal frequencies of the system.
1125
A model of benzene ring useful for some purposes is a wire ring strung with 6 frictionless beads, with springs taut between the beads, as shown in Fig. 1.96. The beads each has mass m and the springs all have spring constant K. The masses have been numbered for the grader’s convenience. The ring is fixed in space.
(a) Calculate, or write down by intuition, the eigenfrequencies of the normal modes, indicating any degeneracies. In Fig. 1.97, picture each mode by drawing an arrow near each m s indicating the direction of motion and as shading those masses at rest. f (b) With what frequencies can the center o mass oscillate? (c) Which modes could be related to the modes of the red benzene molecule? Hint: Much algebra can be eliminated by considering the symmetries of the problem. (Princeton)
0
5 6
Fig. 1.96.
Fig. 1.97.
212
Problems B Solutions on Mechanics
Solution:
(a) Let Qn be the displacement of the nth bead. Its equation of motion is
Setting G = Aneiwt,we obtain ,
or
where
,
For the set of linear homogeneous equations to have a nonzero solution, the following determinant must vanish, i.e. E l 0 O O l
or
E6
l & 1 O O O
O l & l O O
O O 1 E l O
O O 0 l E l
l O 0 = O 1 e
o,
 6E4
+ 9E2  4 = (& + 1)2(&  1 ) 2 ( & + 2)(€  2) = 0 .
&1= 2, &4
&2 &5
Thus the solutions are
= 2,
=
E3
= 1,
= 1,
1,
&6 =
1
.
The corresponding eigenfrequencies are given by
w2  l  m l
4K 3K , m
w;=o,
w; =
,
W:
=
& !  ,K
m
+.
3K m K m
Newtonian Mechanics
213
It can be seen that modes 3 and 4 as well as modes 5 and 6 are degenerate. Substituting €1, €2,. . . ,€ 6 one by one into the set of equations A,1 +&An+ An+1  0, we can find the ratios of amplitudes for each normal mode. The results are depicted in Fig. 1.98. The displacements of the six beads have the same magnitude in modes 1 , 2 , 3 , and 5 except in modes 3 and 5 the first and fourth beads are stationary. Their directions are shown in the figure, Mode 2 corresponds to rotation of the system as a whole. In mode 4, the displacements of the second bead and the fifth bead are twice as large as those of the others, and in mode 6, the displacements of the third bead and the sixth bead are also twice as large as those of the others. These larger displacements are indicated by two arrows in the same direction in the figures.
Fig. 1.98.
(b) It is seen from Fig. 1.98 that only in modes 5 and 6 can the center of m s oscillate with a frequency as (c) As the center of mass of a real benzene molecule cannot oscillate, only modes 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be related to the real benzene molecule.
m.
1126 Consider a classical system of point masses rn, with position vectors ri, each experiencing a net applied force Fi. (a) Consider the quantity miii . ri, assumed to remain finite at all times, and prove the virial theorem
xi
214
Problems B Solutions on Mechanics
T
=
IF*. ri , 2
1
i
where T is the total kinetic energy of the system and the bar denotes time average. (b) In the case of a single particle acted on by a central inversesquare law force, show that
where V is the potential energy.
( S U N Y , Buffalo)
Solution:
(a) Let Q ( t ) =
xi
miri
. ri. We have
i i
i
i
The time average of Q(t)is
i.e.
where T is the period if the motions are periodic with the same period, or T 4 00 otherwise. In both cases, the lefthand side of the equation is equal to zero and we have
i
a stated. s (b) For a single particle acted on by a central inversesquare law force,
Newtonian Mechanics
215
where C is a constant. The virial theorem then gives
1127 Three masses ml,m2 and m3, placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle of side s, attract each other according to Newton's law of gravitation. Determine the rotational motion which leaves the relative separation of each mass unchanged. Hint: Write down the force in c.m. system on one of the particles. ( Wisconsin )
Y
Fig. 1.99.
Solution:
In the Cartesian frame shown in Fig. 1.99, the three mass m l , m2, m3 have coordinates (O,O), (s, 0) and ( : , respectively, The position of the center of mass C is
9)
Now consider the forces acting on
ml.
There are two attractive forces
216
Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y
due to m2 and m3 respectively. Their resultant is
As f1 is parallel to ro and both originate from the same point 0, f1 passes through the center of mass C. Thus m l is acted upon by a central force with center at C and hence m l moves in a circle about the center of mass C. The radius of this circular orbit is
The linear velocity of m l is u1 given by
2
= If1 1, or
Ri 2  If11 1 ml
= 
G
s
(
m~+m~+m2m3 ml+m2+m3
By permutation of the indices, the above result applies also to m2 and m3. Hence the rotational motion which leaves the separation of each pair of masses unchanged is a circular motion of period
which is the same for all three masses.
1128
Two nonrelativistic particles of equal energy and equal mass as shown in Fig. 1.100 collide almost headon. In a coordinate frame (the center of mass frame) moving with velocity V, the particles appear to collide headon.
(a) Find V,the velocity of the center of mass frame. (b) Compare the total energy in the center of mass system to the original total energy.
Newtonian Mechanics
217
Y
t
Fig. 1.100.
Express your answers in terms of the velocity u and the collision angle
80.
( Wisconsin )
Solution:
Use the laboratory frame as shown in Fig. 1.100 and take the instant of the collision to be t = 0. The position vectors of ml and rnz a t < 0 are t
rl = uti
r2
,
= ut(cosdd
+ sindaj) .
Then the position vector of the center of mass is
=  ~ t [ ( i cosd0)i  sindaj] 
1 2
as r n ~ 7122 = m, say. = (a) The velocity of the center of mass, i.e. of the center of mass frame, is U V = r  [(l  cos80)i  sindaj] . ,2
(b) In the center of mass frame, the velocity of ml is
V :
= il  r, = ui   [(1  cos do)i  sin daj]
U
2
= [(I
U
2
+ cosdo)i + sindOj],
and the velocity of
m 2
is
218
Problems 4 Solutions on Mechanics 3
Vl,= r2 r,
=
= u[cos 8oi
[(I 2
u
U + sin &j] 2[ ( l  cos8o)i  sin8ojl
+ cos8o)i + sin8ojl
.
The total energy of ml and m2 is then
As the original total energy is
E=
m1u2
2
+m2u2 = m u 2 , 2
the ratio of the two energies is
1129
A rocket is projected straight up and explodes into three equally massive fragments just as it reaches the top of its flight (Fig. 1.101). One of the fragments is observed to come straight down in a time t l , while the other two land a t a time t 2 , after the burst. Find the height h(t1,tz) at which the fragmentation occurred. ( Wisconsin)
v3yv2 i
“1
Y
Fig. 1 1 1 .0.
Soldion: The velocity and momentum of the rocket are zero when it reaches the top of its flight. Conservation of momentum gives, after the burst,
Newtonian Mechanics
219
m l v l + m2v2
+ m3v3 = 0 .
+
As
v 1 + v2 v3 = o m1 = m2 = m3, As the second and third fragments land at the same time, the vertical components of v2 and v3 are the same. As v1 is vertically downward the vertical components of v2 and v3 are each  w 1 / 2 . Hence for the first and second fragments we have
giving
211
=
h=
1130 A satellite of mass m moves in a circular orbit of radius R with speed v about the earth. It abruptly absorbs a small mass 6m which was stationary prior to the collision. Find the change in the total energy of the satellite and, assuming the new orbit is roughly circular, find the radius of the new orbit. ( Wisconsin)
GMm R R2 ' giving Rv2 = GM, where M is the mass of the earth. Hence its total energy is 1 GMm 1 E =  m v  mu2. 2 R 2
mu2 =
Solution: Before picking up the small mass, the satellite moves in a circular orbit so that
.102. . 1. ( Wisconsin) Fig.E = mv 2 ( 1 . 1.102.) = m m v 2 _ _ 1 2 m+Sm 2 M 6m m+6m v26m. calculate the period of oscillation if the masses are released from the initial symmetrical configuration shown. the speed of the satellite changes to (considering the new orbit as roughly circular.220 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics After absorbing the stationary small mass 6m. although it is actually elliptic) mu 2' = 1 m+6m ' and its total energy becomes Et = ( m + 6m)vt2 = Hence the energy loss due to the collision is 1 2 1 m2v2 2m+6m El . giving 1131 For the system of 2 identical masses and massless springs shown in Fig. 1 2 If the new radius is R' we also have R'vI2 = G M = Rv2 .
The decrease in the earth’s rotational angular momentum will lead to an increase in the angular . The moon. where s is the displacement from the respective equilibrium position. there are two modes of linear vibration for this system corresponding to two normal modes.Newtonian Mechanics 221 S o htion: Due to symmetry. A similar situation exists on Mars.K‘(Z + z)= (K + 2K’)s . and in the other it is decreasing. 1132 Consider the earthmoon system and for simplicity assume that any interaction with other objects can be ignored. the total angular momentum of the earthmoon system is conserved because the interaction between this system and other objects can be ignored. Show that one consequence of tidal friction is that in one system the moonplanet distance is increasing. Consider one of them and write down the equation of motion m? = Ks . but with the difference that one as of its moons revolves about M r faster than the planet rotates. the oscillations of the two masses are the same. In which one is it decreasing? ( Wisconsin) Solution: For the earthmoon system. the frictional force caused by the tides slows down the rotational speed of the earth. But the symmetrical initial condition determines that only one mode is excited. Then the angular frequency of oscillation is and the period of oscillation is Note that generally speaking. creates tides on the earth. However. which moves around the earth more slowly than the earth rotates.
the moon revolves about Mars faster than the latter rotates. They are connected by a spring of equilibrium length 1 and constant K . Then as J increases. (UC. (a) After a time t . each of mass m. Assume that the spring always lines up along the connecting length I . what will be the total energy and total momentum of the two mass points? (b) What will be the velocity of the center of mass (including direction) and the total angular momentum about the center of mass? (c) What will be the maximum separation between the two mass points during the motion that follows the impulse? (d) What will be the maximum instantaneous speed achieved by either particle? Explain your answer. 1133 Two mass points. the angular momentum of the moon will decrease. whose rotational angular momentum consequently increases. the effect of tides is to increase the distance between the moon and the earth. The argument abovr: then shows that the distance between Mars and its moon will decrease. As the total angular momentum is conserved. about the center of mass of the system). Berkeley) .e. Thus for the earthmoon system. As mRw2 = we have GMm R2 ’ Here we consider the center of the earth to be approximately fixed. are at rest on a frictionless horizontal surface.222 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics momentum of the moon about the earth (to be exact. i. so that R is the earthmoon distance. so the frictional force caused by tides will speed up the rotation of Mars. The angular momentum of the moon is J = mR2w. An impulse I is given at time t = 0 to one of the mass points in a direction perpendicular t o the spring. R will increase also. there is no bending. For the Marsmoon system.
Conservation of angular momentum and of mechanical energy 4. total momentum I. whose positive real root is the maximum distance between the two mass points during the motion that follows the impulse. ( c ) Let l~ denote the maximum separation required.( x ~ + ~ 5') + 4 1 + 2K ( x . the angular momentum of the system about the center of mass is L = By the conservation of angular momentum in the center of mass frame.=. the total momentum and total energy of the two mass points at time t are the same as those at time t = 0 just after the impulse is applied: (b) The system has total mass 2m. give 2mK& .Newtonian Mechanics 223 Solution: (a) On account of the conservation of momentum and of mechanical energy. L is the angular momentum about the center of mass at all later times. 2m Just after the impulse is given. .4mKllL + (2mK12.1)' = constant .so that the center of mass has velocity I v. (d) Let x denote the distance between the two masses.12)& + 1212= 0 . Conservation of mechanical energy gives or m .
This is the case at t = 0. is lowered onto a table as shown in Fig. the kinetic energy of the two mass points. Find the equation of motion for h. 1134 A chain with mass/length = u hanging vertically from one end. only the mass that had been given the impulse has a velocity while the other mass is still instantaneously at rest. Also. The condition that x = 1 can be satisfied again from time to time.103. Therefore the maximum speed that can be achieved by the second mass is less than v . If h and v are respectively the height and velocity of the freelyhanging portion of the chain at time t . where an upward force F is applied to it. given by the first term on the lefthand side. 1. . 1. is maximum. the height of the end above the table ( h is the length of chain hanging freely). Consider the change of momentum of the chain during a time interval t to t +At. its momentum is phv . Thus the first mass achieves a maximum speed VM =  I m at time t = 0. the second mass cannot achieve this maximum speed. Solution: As this problem involves variable mass it is more convenient to work with momentum. ( Wisconsin) F t Fig. at t = 0. However.224 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics shows that when x = 1. as the speed of the first mass will not be zero.103.
As w = h.Ah)(w Aw) at t At (see Fig. in free space is = mdw dt vodm dt ’ . 1.F)At . for a rocket of mass m starting at rest in free space.Newtonian Mechanics 225 at t and p ( h . velocity w .104. The exhaust velocity is a constant WO. retaining only the firstorder terms. As a portion Ah of the chain has reached the table and transferred a momentum M pAhw to the latter during the interval.F)At . phAv = (phg . + + + + or. 1135 Use the rocket equation to find the rocket residual mass m (in terms of the initial mass) at which the momentum of the rocket is a maximum. 1.104).phv = (phg . ( Wisconsin) Solution: The equation of motion for a rocket.F . With At + 0. the above becomes phir = phg .A ~ ) ( wAw) pAhw . we have the equation of motion F f F t t*At Fig. the momentum theorem gives p ( h .
Hence the rocket has maximum momentum when its residual mass is 1136 A rocket is fired straight up with no initial velocity.m g .~ . dt dt As d m l d t = constant and m = m o .udm .. the above gives dm _ . (It is not necessary t o do the integrals._m o g dt U . It is propelled by ejection of mass with a constant velocity of ejection u relative to the rocket and at a constant rate so determined that the initial acceleration is zero. d v l d t = 0 at t = 0. The equation of motion is m d u . Integrating. we require . (b) show how you would find the height of the rocket as a function of time. Assuming constant acceleration due t o gravity. we obtain Y = VO In where m o is the rocket mass at firing. (a) find the acceleration of the rocket as a function of time.= voln dP dm (2) .) ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Let v be the velocity of the rocket. The momentum of the rocket is For it to be a maximum.e.226 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics i.uo = 0 .
g2t u . Then mt M'=M+m. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Let the total mass of the bucket and water be MI.gt' dt' . (b) The velocity at time t is dt' = gt + uln Further integration gives the height of the rocket as a function of time: h = l (gt'+uln 21 . Integrating we obtain The equation of motion now becomes or dv .gt dt ' which expresses the acceleration of the rocket as a function of time. Find the velocity of the bucket at the instant it becomes empty.Newtonian Mechanics 227 at any time t after firing. T . 1137 A bucket of mass M (when empty) initially at rest and containing a mass of water is being pulled up a well by a rope exerting a steady force P. The water is leaking out of the bucket at a steady rate such that the bucket is empty after a time T.
As the leaking water has zero velocity relative to the bucket.228 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics where m is the initial mass of the water.M‘g d t = M’ ( P m 9)dt M+mTt The velocity of the bucket at the instant it becomes empty is Pdt M+mFt PT . the equation of motion is or dv = P . (b) What is the velocity of the vehicle at the instant to when all the fuel has been ejected. 9 and M. in terms of Mo.105. 1. . 1138 A rocket ship with mass MO and loaded with fuel of mass m takes off o vertically in a uniform gravitational field as shown in Fig.g ~ =1n m (T) M+m gT. The fuel is completely ejected during a time TO. where M is the mass of the rocket at time t. It ejects fuel with velocity UOwith respect to the rocket ship. g and to? (MITI V t Fig. mo. (a) Find the equation of motion of the rocket in terms of d M / d t . UO.105. 1. .
V = 0 at t = 0.AM)(V + A V ) + (V i. Asymptotically. It then falls. that it remains spherical and experiences no viscous drag. having mass M and velocity V . .Newtonian Mechanics 229 Solution: (a) Consider a rocket. + Uo)AM . V = Uo In M As M = Mo + mo. or.gto .MV = . +K . Find a. in the limit At dV dM .gt . Taking the vertical upward direction as positive. K = UOln(MO+ ma) .Mg M . .= Vodt dt (b) The equation can be rewritten as dV Integrating we obtain = Uo dM . . we have by the momentum theorem (M . we have + v = ~ 0 1 (MoMomo ) .M g A t . Hence when M = MOat t = to. it falls with a uniform acceleration a: V ( t )t at.Mg AM AV = MUOAt At + 0.gdt M . n 1139 A droplet nucleates in uniform quiescent fog. . in time interval At ejecting a mass AM at a velocity UOrelative to the rocket and gaining an additional velocity OV.e. Assume that it retains all the fog which it collects. for large t . sweeping up the fog which lies in its path.
R ( t ) be the radius and V ( t ) the velocity of the droplet. p2 be the densities of the droplet and fog respectively. where q = p1/p2. we have For a consistent solution. We thus have 4qRR + 12qR2 = Rg .. + dt dt 4 dV dR R.230 P r o b l e m €9 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Let PI. and assume that the buoyancy of the air can be neglected.+ 3 V .with and the replacement v we have 4 v.. c are constants. we take . dt dt The droplet sweeps out a cylinder rR2V in unit time so the rate of change of its mass m is or giving v=4qR. where b. V = at or R = a we set R = bt2+c. 47J' and substitute it in the differential equation. Equating the coefficients of t2 and to separately on the two sides of the equation. Making use of the "rocket equation" in Problem 1138. As for large t . dM d M .= R g .
(MITI Solution: Suppose all the sand falls to the bottom of the lower reservoir so that for all grains the falling height is h.e. . consider the following four periods of time: Period 1: The time t = 0 when the sand is released. A grain falling through this distance will acquire a velocity V = when it reaches the bottom and the whole trip takes a time tl = For the reading of the scale. to the time tl when the sand begins to arrive at the bottom of the lower reservoir. If it exits the upper reservoir at a constant rate dmldt = A. Initially all the sand (mass m) in the glass (mass M) is held in the upper reservoir. At t = 0. i. The reading of the scale in this period is W1=(M+m)gAtg. m. where t l = O<t<tl. draw (and label quantitatively) a graph showing the reading of the scale at all times t > 0.Newtonian Mechanics 231 Hence V = 4qR = 8qbt = f t . the sand is released. the asymptotic acceleration is 1140 An hour glass sits on a scale.
a path roughly like a spiral. t >t 3 . Period 4: The time after all the sand has reached the bottom. t2 < t < t3 . the force on the scale consists of two parts: weight of the sand as given by the above equation with t = t l and a part due to the impulse of the sand on the bottom of the reservoir with magnitude vdm = m A . Period 3: The time t 2 when all the sand has left the upper reservoir to the time t 3 when all sand has reached the bottom. while r2 > T O . The reading of the scale is depicted in Fig. dt Hence the scale reads where t 2 = m/A. The rocket directs its thrust always along the direction of its instantaneous velocity u. In this period. The scale reads w 3 =w 2 + X(t . to the time t 2 when all the sand has left the upper reservoir. . (a) Is the angular momentum of the rocket per unit mass a constant of the motion? Discuss. The angular coordinate from the earth’s center is 4. where the gravitational acceleration is g . By so doing it moves from an initial radius r1 (measured from the center of the earth) to a larger radius ~ 2 remaining in the same plane and following . where t 3 = t 2 t l .107.t 2 ) g . 1141 A rocket of instantaneous mass m achieves a constant thrust F by emitting propellant at a low rate with high relative speed. 1.232 Pmblema d Solutions on Mechanics Period 2: The time tl when the sand begins to arrive at the bottom. The starting radius T I is close to the earth’s > radius T O . The reading of the scale is constant at w = 4 + (M+m)g.
= F : . = . i . JF' F T ~ m(r4 + 214) = j b = J' 5 can be obtained. rn = m(t).r d 2 )= f. can be written as it TO GM T2 (c) The equation of the motion of the rocket is du f=m. + ) as given. (Princeton ) 4.Newtonian Mechanics 233 (b) In terms of T . The angular momentum of the rocket per unit mass is j = T". Hence the equation of motion has component equations + m(i:. Fv = F?. The gravitational acceleration is g = ge. dt where f = F mg. As the thrust F is always parallel to u.and derive expressions for the instantaneous velocity u and the gravitational acceleration g . T O . Solution: (a) Use polar coordinates ( T . (c) Derive expressions for i: and d in terms of the quantities listed above. from which the expressions for i: and .terms involving % having been neglected. + r+ev with magnitude The gravitational acceleration g is g=As go = q.. Hence the angular momentum is not a conserved quantity. the rocket thrust is not. Although gravity is a central force. FT mgor. (b) The instantaneous velocity of the rocket is u = urer + uver = ie. its components are F.
m = ml at t = 0 . find the value of the acceleration of the drop for large times. we have m Hence the maximum velocity is (b) If w is constant.234 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1142 A rocket ship far from any gravitational field has a source of energy E on board. If the droplet starts from rest in the cloud. the maximum velocity is 1143 A spherical dust particle falls through a water mist cloud of uniform density such that the rate of accretion onto the droplet is proportional to the volume of the mist cloud swept out by the droplet per unit time. The ship has initial mass m and final mass m2.ml. E. l (a) Find the maximum velocity v that the ship can achieve starting from rest. dt dt and taking account of the initial conditions v = 0. (Princeton) . but the exhaust velocity w (relative to the 2 ship) may vary as a function of the instantaneous mass m of the ship..= w(m).and m are fixed. (b) What is the maximum velocity v that can be obtained if the exhaust velocity w is constrained to be constant? (Princeton) Solution: (a) Integrating the equation of motion for the rocket ship (Problem 1138) dv dm m.
dMldt 3 M R / R . ag 3= 4P For a particular solution valid for large t . we have ... Then J where p is the density of the water mist. M ( t ) M $ r R 3 p . as Take the initial position of the dust particle as the origin and the zaxis along the downward vertical.M ( t ) i ( t )= Mgdt Using Taylor's theorem to expand M ( t only the lowestorder terms. where X is its velocity.. As the rate of accretion is proportional to this volume.p 4 n R 2 dR . a being a positive constant. + d t ) and x(t + d t ) and retaining dM dt + MX = M g . Let M ( t ) and R ( t ) be the mass and radius of the droplet at time t respectively.= arR2X . and the above becomes R + Rk2 . dt dt The droplet has a cross section r R 2 and sweeps out a cylinder of volume nR2X in unit time. giving dM . we obtain x . . Hence X = 4P . setting R ( t ) = at2 .Newtonian Mechanics 235 Solution: Suppose the spherical dust particle initially has m s MO and radius &. M For large t . R* a The momentum theorem gives dM dt M ( t + dt)x(t + dt) .
in the above we obtain Thus for large t .0. j second =o. If the dust sticks to the spacecraft. Hence the acceleration for large times is g/7.PAV . or m+v=O. solve for the subsequent motion of the spacecraft. 1144 Suppose a spacecraft of mass T T ~ Q and crosssectional area A is coasting with velocity vo when it encounters a stationary dust cloud of density p as shown in Fig. Solution: Suppose the dust olLdrs resistance to the spacecra no law d(mv) dt . Then as d m = pvAdt. (Princeton) Fig. dm dt . ..236 Problems &4 Solutions on Mechanics where a is a constant.108. dv dt dm dt implies that m u = movo. 1. Newtor. 1 1 8 . Assume A is constant over time.
11> 12.+ . has the larger moment of inertia? ( Wisconsin) Solution: Let the radii of the disks be R1 and R2 respectively. If we measure time from the instant the spacecraft first encounters the dust. we obtain 1_ . where C is a constant.ZpAt = 1 v 2 vz movo a 3 DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES (11451223) . giving C = vo2. then v = vo at t = 0. Since the disks have the same mass and thickness. Hence the motion of the spacecraft can be described by 1 . or The moments of inertia of the disks are AS p1 < pz.2pAt v2 movo +C. 1145 Two circular metal disks have the same mass M and the same thickness t. Disk 1has a uniform density p1 which is less than p z . if either. . Which disk. Hence disk 1 has the larger moment of inertia. we have plR: = p 2 g . v 3 mow0 Integrating. the uniform density of disk 2.Newtonian Mechanics 237 we have dv pAdt +=o.
. Then r=ai+aj+ak. = I... = I0 .. find the moment of inertia about an axis through the center of mass and one corner of the cube.238 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 1146 Given that the moment of inertia of a cube about an axis that passes through the center of mass and the center of one face is Io. = ( A 2 + p2 + 2 ) I o .109).2VXIZ.z coordinates all positive.y. where we have taken 2a as the length of a side of the cube. u is I =PI. p.. 1. = 0 . To find the direction cosines of a radius vector r from the origin to one corner of the cube.2puI. Berkeley) Solution: Use Cartesian coordinates with origin at the center of mass and the axes through the centers of the three pairs of faces of the cube. As Irl = &a we have so that I = I0 1147 A thin disk of radius R and mass M lying in the xyplane has a point mass m = 5M/4 attached on its edge (asshown in Fig. (UC.. I..+ . We have I.. The moment of inertia of the disk about its center of mass is (the zaxis is out of the paper) . without loss of generality. we can just consider the corner with its 5. + $ I y y + u21zz . The moment of inertia about an axis having direction cosines A.2XpI. = I. = I y z = I.
) 2 3 . where Liij = 1 if i = j . (b) Find the principal moments and the principal axes about point A. Berkeley) Solution: $3) (a) The contribution of a mass element Am at radius vector r = ($1. according to the theorem of parallel axes. (a) Find the moment of inertia tensor of the combination of disk and point mass about point A in the coordinate system shown. 4 ~ M R 1 1 ~ . (UC.2. x 2 . Thus the moment of inertia tensor (. Describe the angular momentum about A as a function of time and find the vector force applied at B (ignore gravity). 6 i j = 0 if i of the point mass about A is # j.109. (c) The disk is constrained to rotate about the yaxis with angular velocity w by pivots at A and B. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 239 I=[ 1 0 0 MR2 0 1 0 0 0 2 Fig. is . :) 0 The moment of inertia tensor of the disk about A .z. to the moments and products of inertia about the origin is Iij = Am(r26ij .
The solution is X = p = 0.240 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Hence the moment of inertia tensor of the disk and point mass about A is MR2 10 5 0  MR2 l O . p=o. ou=o.. 7 2 = 8 . u = arbitrary.y)(y2 . the direction cosines are X=O. u ) of the principal axes corresponding to Il are given by i. u=l . The direction cosines (A. + 35) = 0 73=8+@.7 5 4 o 5 67 0 0 0 167 =O.167 The solutions are ~1=16. As by definition.a . Hence the three principal moments of inertia about A are I1 = 4MR2.l o p = 0 .e. 6X5~=0. I2 = ( y) 2 . 13 = (2k F) MR2. p . 5x . { 16 .MR2.
where the top sign is for I2 and the bottom sign.677 u=o.1) 9 (0.0. 13.828.0) . z) y.828 We also require that the principal axes for I2 and be orthogonal: W therefore take the principal axes as e (0. 4 = 0.561 13 0. attached to the disk. 2 6" f a 5 .828.0. The solutions are = P X .e.561. (c) The moment of inertia tensor I of the system of disk and mass point about the origin A found in (a) refers to a coordinate frame (5.2 f e 5 = { 1. 5A+(2fd%)p=O.561. In this frame the angular momentum of the system rotating with angular velocity o is L=Iw.5p = 0 .477 . Then as X2 + p 2 + v 2 = X2 + p 2 = 1. . (8 f &)v =0 . we have lCll = ( 2+ ') x2 { 0.828 ' 0.0.561 0.Newtonian Mechanacs 241 The principal axes for I2 and 13 have direction cosines given by ( i.2 f a 0 (2 f *))A .0) . (0.
As x‘ = xcos(wt) zsin(wt).56 MR~W 0 16 Consider a laboratory frame (d.y’. Y:Y Fig. .110. 1.242 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics or (:!)=?(: R)(i)=h(i) 10 . we find the angular momentum about A in the laboratory frame: ( . ) = S L = MR2w 7 ( 5 cos(wt) 6 5 sin(wt) ).y. 1. s=( cos(wt) 0 sin(wt) 0 sin(wt) 1 0 cos(wt) so that a vector V is transformed according to V‘=SV.110.z) such that the respective axes coincide at t = 0. Applying the above to the angular momentum vector. z‘ = xsin(wt) zcos(wt) we can define a transformation tensor + + y‘ = y . . as shown in Fig.z’) having the same yaxis as the rotating frame (z.
g. (a) Find the inertial tensor. using the x.g) = (a.Newtonian Mechanics 243 i. The forces on the pivots are reactions to these forces. In the rotating frame the mass point suffers a centrifugal force of magnitude which is balanced by forces exerted on the disk by the pivots. find. L =‘ Y 3MR2w 2 ’ L’ = 5MR2w sin(wt) 4 considering the disk alone. the angle between the angular momentum vector and n. 0). Hence pivot B suffers a force of magnitude in the same direction as the centrifugal force on the mass point. These are joined by massless rods to form a rigid body. (0. zaxes. 5Mpa. L = ’ ~MR~W 4 cos(wt).0).e. (b) Consider a direction given by unit vector n that lies “equally between” the positive x. BerkeEeg) Solution: (a) The elements Iij of the inertial tensor are given by Iij = C mn(ri6ij . In the laboratory frame this force rotates with angular velocity w . all of value m..xnln.) n where . i. 1148 Four masses. (a. Hence the forces on the pivots are due entirely to the rotating mass point. lie in the xgplane at positions (z. for that instant. +2a). Exhibit the tensor as a matrix. it makes equal angles with these three directions. The yaxis is a principal axis of inertia and so rotation about it will not cause any force to be exerted on the pivots. (c) Given that at a certain time t the angular velocity vector lies along i the above direction i. 2a). zaxes as reference system. (VC. (0.e. y. Find the moment of inertia for rotation about this axis.
) =A(.?I22 4V2133. Iij = 0 for all i = 0 so that # j. Hence I = ma2 (c) The direction n is given by n= 20 3 (. The moment of inertia about this direction is then /.244 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics xixj As at least one of the coordinates of each mass is zero. The direction cosines are subject to the condition giving X2 = $.a2) Hence the inertial tensor is given by the matrix ( I = x2111 = (8ma2 = 20rna2x2 . = 2m(a2 .. 1 2 2 = 2m(a2 . its direction cosines X.0 ) = 8ma2 .u.4a2)= 2ma2 . 133 = 2m(a2 .u are equal.0) = 10ma2 . For i I11 = j. (b) As the given direction makes the same angle with the axes.) At time T . because of symmetry we have + 2m(4a2.2xp112 + 2mw2 + 10ma2)X2 x2 + p2 + Y 2 = 3x2 = 1 .0) + 2m(4a2. w is parallel to n: w=wn=xw (i) The angular momentum at this instant is given by L=Iw. 8ma2 o 2ma2 0 10ma2 ) . .0) + 2m(4a2 .2 / ~ V I 2 3 2 V x I 3 1  .
the earth has a slightly larger moment of inertia about its polar axis than about its equatorial axis.1 20 cosqi = = . Assume axial symmetry about the polar axis. (UC. a is the mean earth radius and r is the distance to the center of mass of the earth. M is the earth's mass. The coefficient ( C . The angle 4 between L and n is then given by + L . .Newtonian Mechanics 245 or with magnitude L = Xma2wd82 22 + 102 = d E X m a 2 w .A ) / M a 2 is about (b) What secular effect will the second term have upon a satellite traveling in a circular orbit around the earth? (c) If the normal to the plane of the satellite is inclined at an angle a to the polar axis of the earth. (a) Show that the dominant terms o the gravitational potential above f the surface of the earth can be expressed as GM U=[l(.891 L Xma2w & % &Wmi i. Berkeley) . derive an expression for the magnitude of this effect by taking a time average over the circular orbit. 1149 Due to polar flattening.1 2 ' >I where C and A are the moments of inertia about the polar and equatorial axes respectively.) T CA Ma2 2 ( 3 ~ 0 ~ ~ 9 . n X2ma2w(8+2+ 10) .0.e.
the integrals of sly’. Hence 3(sz’ + yy’ + z z ‘ y . y. u = .246 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) Choose the polar axis as the zaxis and the equatorial plane as the sy plane.(2 y2 + + 22)(s’2 + y‘2 + 2‘2) 2r2 Due to the symmetry of the earth. Let a mass element dM of the earth have position vector r‘ = (s’. Taylor expansion gives. z’) and let a satellite above the surface of the earth have position vector r = (2.J 7GdM .r4 2 As r is a constant vector and the earth is assumed to be a symmetrical ellipsoid. r’ r2 r12 212 3 (r r’)2] + ~ . y‘z‘ and all zero and we have ] dM . are 2’s’ .y’. neglecting terms of order higher than ($)2. 2).[i+ r .. Then the gravitational potential energy per unit mass of the satellite is integrating over the entire earth.
(d2+y12)]dM  .r2)(zt2 5”) T3 2r2 dM .‘ &2 + y2y‘2 + 2z2z‘2 . U1 = is the potential energy per unit mass the satellite would have if the earth were a perfect sphere. = C. It does not change the magnitude and . albeit not of the inversesquare type..(&’2 dM + x2z12+ y25’2 + y22’2 + Z 2 X t 2 + 22y’2)] . the choice of the x. = Iu = A . so that the integral of x’ is equal to that of y’.22212 . +. 2T2 Now. I. the above can be written as u=T (3cos2 + 8 . As VT = : V T .2z2x’2  (2+ y2)x“ r T3 .= . ~ VF3= Vz2= 2zk. F= Note that the first part in the square brackets is still a central force. where 9 is the angle between r and the polar axis.l)] 2 (b) Equation (1) can be written as U = U1 U Z .&‘2 2T2 .G M T G J (3. ? 9. Uz arises from polar flattening.2222’2 + (222 .2 .T. It gives rise to an additional force per unit mass of the satellite of F = VU2.z = T cos 9. Thus u=T T3 .Newtonian Mechanics 247 .T3 GM G 32 (p  i) / [ ( d 2+ y t 2 ) As I .and yaxes is arbitrary (as long as they are in the equatorial plane).2 2 .y 2 ) P 1 dM 2 9 = .
Hence it does not change the angle cr between L and the zaxis. So over one period. which is in the x direction.248 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics direction of the angular momentum about the center of the earth.111. hence it has no effect on the plane of orbit. The second part. it makes the orbit plane precess about the zaxis. describing a cone of semivertex angle cr in a frame fixed to a distant star. The result is that L will precess about the zaxis. As the angula momentum vector lies in the yzplane and is thus perpendicular to the average torque. so that its average effect on the motion is zero. and L. is perpendicular to L.. the latter does not change the magnitude of the angular momentum. but only makes the satellite deviate from circular orbit slightly. The torque caused by Fz with respect to the center of Let the intersection of the orbital plane and the equatorial plane of the earth be the xaxis (Fig. The angular momentum vector L has two components L. As the . (c) As the motion of the satellite is very nearly a uniform circular motion with center at the origin. 1. 1. it does not affect the latter. yz is always positive while the average value of zx is zero.. the average torque is directed in the x direction. is not a central force.111). As the average torque. Z L T Fig. In the course of rotation. because of symmetry the integral of Fzdt over a period of the circular motion is equal to zero.
Setting 8 = 0 at time t = 0. ( Wisconsin) Solution: The equation of motion for the flywheel is I ~ = .the average of M over one period T = % is = i 3G(C . Hence Mt I 6=wg When the flywheel stops at time t. As y = T sin 6 sin a.A) sin(2a) T2W 4T5W  llbO A flywheel in the form of a uniformly thick disk 4 ft in diameter weighs 600 lbs and rotates at 1200 rpm.Newtonian Mechanics 249 (z.z ) frame is fixed with respect to the orbit. w being the angular velocity of the satellite. we have 0 = wt. Calculate the constant torque necessary .z = r sin 8 cos a.A) sin(2a) 4r3 As (M) is perpendicular to the angular momentum L. to stop it in 2 0 min. where I is the moment of inertia and M is the stopping torque.M . the zaxis will rotate around the center of the earth in the equatorial plane.g.this will cause the angular momentum vector to precess about the zaxis with angular velocity (p=I(M)I .3G(C . 9 = 0 and . Let 6 be the angle between the position vector of the satellite and the zaxis.
1. 1. Fig. W . 1. hinged at the joints A. 1151 A structure is made of equallength beams. Neglect the beam weights.112. Point A is supported rigidly while G is only supported vertically. . Solution: Consider the structure as a whole.G. 1 to 11.112. Solve for the vertical support forces at A and G and find the tension T or compression C in each member.NGY = o . 3 W NGY = . NAY+ NGY . pdl s.AG. .250 Problems l Solutions o n Mechanics 3 W M = I. B. O t With I = 9 1200 lb ft2. Each member is under pure tension T or compression C. .113. The equilibrium conditions for forces at A and G and for torques about A give NAX = o . AE. wo = 4 0 rad/s. as shown in Fig.. NAY= . ( Columbia) D F Fig. A weight w is placed at E. 3 2 w . t = 120 = ~ M = 4 0 0 ~ f t = 39 lb ft..W = 0 . whence NAX = 0 .
Cz Ti ~ 0 ~ 6 = " .(Ti+ C3)~ 0 ~ 6 = " . Considering the equilibrium conditions for joint A we have NAY . F we have T . 1. G . T5) 6 4COS 60" . 00 yielding Consider the balance of vertical forces at B . The coefficient of kinetic friction between the bar and the rollers is p . C . T1 00 + .C. as shown in Fig.113.c = 0 l c 6 . The rod is initially placed at rest asymmetrically. whose axes are separated by a fixed distance a. D .Newtonian Mechanics 25 1 Then let the tensions and compressions in the rods be as shown in Fig. 4 00 c .114. 1.c = 0 .E. (a) Assume that the rollers rotate in opposite directions as shown in the figure.(c. 1.TI sin60" = 0 . Write down the equation of motion of the bar and solve for the displacement .F.113 Then considering the balance of horizontal forces at B.( i Cg)~ 0 ~ 6 = " .( g. C . We obtain by inspection of Fig. 2 T 8 co .)C0S6O0 . yielding 1152 A uniform thin rigid rod of mass M is supported by two rapidly rotating rollers.
For equilibrium along the vertical direction we require NI giving + NZ = Mg. aNz = xM. 1. (b) Now consider the case in which the directions of rotation of the rollers are reversed. Solution: (a) The forces exerted by the rollers on the rod are as shown in Fig. f2 = PN2 1 with directions as shown in the figure. 1. Newton’s second law then gives . a change in the direction of motion of the rod will not affect the directions of these forces. 1. Calculate the displacement x(t). Note that as the rollers rotate rapidly. (Princeton) Fig.116. as shown in Fig.116.114. again assuming x ( 0 ) = 50 and X(0) = 0. . Fig.115. The kinetic friction forces are fl = PNl. x(t) of the center C of the bar from roller 1 assuming x(0) = xo and X(0) = 0.252 Problems €d Solutions on Mechanics I *C I 1 Fig. 1.115. 1.
a)cosh(wt) . the solution is 5 = (220 . The motion is no longer simple harmonic. With the same initial conditions. With the initial conditions 6 = 2x0 . Consider three torsion pendulums which .f 1 .a) cos(wt) . the solution is < <= i. x = (20  : ) cosh(wt) a +. < = 22 . the friction forces also reverse directions and we have M X = fi.f2 With = (a a PMg . (20  %> (ewt + ewt) = (2x0 .e.a. the above becomes which is the equation of motion of a harmonic oscillator. 1153 A torsion pendulum consists of a vertical wire attached to a mass which may rotate about the vertical.. or where = 22 a as before. @.22) .a. until it loses contact with one roller. cos(wt) a +2 I (b) With the directions of rotation of the rollers reversed.Newtonian Mechanics 253 MX = fi . 6 = 0 at t = 0. 2 where w = Note that if 20 # : the rod will move in one direction . at which time the equation cemes to apply. where Hence x = (Xo  ) .
as shown in Fig. the vertical wire passes through the center of mass of the solid cube. What are the ratios of the periods of the three pendulums? ( M W Fig.118 shows a simpleminded abstraction of a camshaft with point masses r and 2m fixed on massless rods. Solution: In all the three cases. around which the thing could rotate with zero torque when the angular velocity is constant. It rotates n with constant angular velocity w around the axis 00' through the long shaft. and one from the middle of a face. Berkeley) Solution: Choose a coordinate system attached to the shaft with origin at the midpoint C of the long shaft. held by frictionless bearings at 0 and 0'. the zaxis along the axis 00' and the xaxis in the plane of the point masses. fixed in the plane of the masses. one from midway along an edge.119. (a) What is the torque with respect t o the midpoint of the long shaft exerted by the bearings? (Give magnitude and direction. 1154 Figure 1.254 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics consist of identical wires from which identical homogeneous solid cubes are hung. . 1. 1. One cube is hung from a corner.117. all in a plane.) (b) Locate a n axis.117. (UC. 1. As the ellipsoid of inertia of a homogeneous solid cube is a sphere. the rotational inertia about any direction passing through the center of mass is the same. Hence the periods of the three torsion pendulums are equal. as shown in Fig.
l ) . we have I=( 6m12 8 ) C2 0 2m12 0 2m12 Considering the angular momentum J and torque M about C . . Iij The inertia tensor with respect to C is calculated using the formula = C mn(rz6ij . As the masses n + .O .xnixnj).1 ) m : (l. as the angular velocity is constant. l ) . 1. m : (1. As J=Iu=I(:) =2m12u(p) . z ) . O . O .O. where ri = xg.l) 2712) . + x z 2 x t 3 . we have d7 d*J M==+ux dt dt J=UX J .119. where the star denotes differentiation with respect to the rotating coordinate system (5. . Fig. 1. + Newtonian Mechanics 255 rt 2mL 21 Fig.118. 2m : ( O . y. have coordinates 2m : ( O .
256 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics we find M=WX J= k w =2ml2w2j. vanishes.119.and 2'axes form a Cartesian frame. about which the torque 75. 1. where the ' .5" or 6. As shown in Fig. For M = 0. In this frame. the angular velocity w is w = ( w sin 0 ) w cos e and 6m12wsin 8 + 2m12wcos t9 J=Iw= Hence 0 2ml2wsin e i2m12wcos e  M=uxJ i  j k wcme w sin 8 0 m12w(6sinB+2cos8) 0 2mZ2w(cose+sin8) = 2mz2w2(sin 28 + cos 2e)j t a 2 e = 1.y. (b) Denote the axis in the zzplane about which the torque is zero as the 2'axis and suppose it makes an angle 8 with the zaxis. is a principal axis of inertia. 2mt2w O 2mi2w o i o j The torque with respect to the midpoint of the shaft exerted by the bearings has magnitude 2m12w2 and is in the y direction.' 2'axis is also in the zzplane. we require that i. the z .e.' Note that the a'axis. 8 = 22. As such it can also be found by the method of Problem 1147. .
the supporting force F and gravity P. both pass through the center of mass. but uncomfortable to force a pace substantially faster or slower. use the simplest model you can to estimate the frequency which determines this pace. namely. ( Wisconsin) Soiution: Consider the human leg to be a uniform pole of length 1. 1. and to find what characteristic of the leg it depends on.120 is set down on a flat surface.120. swinging pace of about one step per second. In the simplest model. Solution: The spinning coin is on a horizontal plane. the angular momentum of the coin about its center of mass is conserved. neglect rolling friction.Newtonian Mechanics 257 1155 A coin with its plane vertical and spinning with angular velocity w in its plane as shown in Fig. the swinging frequency of the leg should be equal to the . Hence the angular velocity is still w after it is set down on the surface. As the forces acting on the coin. Neglecting the effect of the knee joint. 1156 Human legs are such that a person of normal size finds it comfortable to walk at a natural. What is the final angular velocity of the coin? (Assume the coin stays vertical. 1.) ( Wisconsin) Fig.
121. (a) How far vertically upward does C move when the 2 kg mass moves down one meter? (b) What are the magnitude and direction of the acceleration? (c) What are the magnitude and direction of the force of static friction at the contact point P? ( Wisconsin) Fig. The string does not stretch and is wrapped around the cylinder C. v M 1 s'. If we take 1157 Cylinder C (mass 10.39= o . The motion is that of a compound pendulum described by or . .121.250 Problems d Solzctions on Mechanics characteristic frequency of the pole when it swings about its end as a fixed point. 1.4 m. &&.070 m) rolls without slipping on hill H as shown in Fig.0 kg and radius 0.. 1. e + . Then the frequency of swing is v = 1 M 0. e 21 for 8 small.
5749 = 23.5 m. when the center of C moves up the inclined plane a distance Ax.25 m. 1158 A uniform hoop of mass M and radius R hangs in a vertical plane s u p ported by a knife edge at one point on the inside circumference. IB=(Ff)R. Calculate the natural frequency of small oscillations. C will move up the inclined plane 0. Thus when the 2 kg mass moves down one meter. (c) f = 4M(ii+g) = 40 x 0. Furthermore. where I = iMR2.5sin30" = 0. or vertically up 0. ( Wisconsin) Solution: The moment of inertia of the hoop about the supporting knife edge is I = MR2 + MR2 = 2MR2 . 1. as the cylinder rolls without slipping we also have ?=Re. . The above effect means that for the 2 kg mass we have 2mx = mg .F . Its direction is upward along the inclined plane. as an additional length Ax of the string is also released in the process.121. the 2 kg mass will also drop Ax.Newtonian Mechanics 259 Solution: (a) As the string is unstretchable.426 ms2 and acts downward along the inclined plane. For the cylinder we have Mx=F+fMgsin3O0.426 ms2 x = ( 8 m + 3M) Thus the acceleration has magnitude 0. (b) The forces involved are shown in Fig. However.0 N.04359 = 0. The above equations give 4mM g = 0. the 2 kg mass will actually drop 2Ax.
radius R. Find the timevarying force on the bearings if the rotor turns at angular velocity w. 1. of equal mass m. It is mounted on a shaft supported on bearings separated by a distance 2d as shown in Fig.123. Hence the frequency is 1159 An ultr&high speed rotor consists of a homogeneous disc of mass M. . 1. ( Wisconsin) Fig. or I 8 = MgRB for small oscillations. and width 21.123. 1. 1. are arranged symmetrically so that the rotor remains in “static” balance. Referring to Fig.260 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Q Fig.122. The two additional masses. we have the equation of motion I0 = MgRsinO .122.
were suddenly released from its stationary bearings and allowed to start rolling along a horizontal surface with kinetic coefficient of friction p = 0. Hence the bearings each suffers a force = in the same direction as that of the centrifugal force on the nearer mass. How far will it roll before it stops slipping? (c) With what speed is the center of mass moving at that moment? (d) How much energy w s dissipated in heat? a (UC. After its release the only horizontal force . for the full time interval.. the additional masses each suffers a centrifugal force m h 2 . giving im = 1136 radfs . This torque is balanced by a torque of the same magnitude but opposite in direction. whose axle is horizontal. In the fixed frame these rotate with angular velocity w .2 Joules) (b) Suppose the flywheel. 5 1160 A 100 m2 solar panel is coupled to a flywheel such that it converts incident sunlight into mechanical energy of rotation with 1%efficiency. (a) With what angular velocity would a solid cylindrical flywheel of masa 500 kg and radius 50 cm be rotating (if it started from rest) at the end of 8 hours of exposure of the solar panel? Take the solar constant to be 2 cal/cm2/min.1. supplied by the bearings which are separated by a distance 2d. Berketey) Solution: (a) The kinetic energy of rotation of the flywheel is E = !jIu. (b) Measure time from the instant the flywheel is released. (1 c d = 4.where I= R2. resulting in a torque T = 2mRw21.Newtonian Mechanics 261 Solution: In the rotating frame attached to the disk. when it is rotating with angular velocity W O .
on the flywheel is the frictional force as shown in Fig. v = v1 = h i at t = t l . w = wl. mu= f t .f R .3p9 ’ I = amR2. the equation of motion integrates to I(w WO) = fRt  . Note that these equations can also be obtained directly by an impulse consideration. f = pmg. The distance covered by the flywheel before it stops slipping is (c) At tl the speed of the center of mass is . the flywheel both slips and rolls. let its angular velocity be w1. At time tl when the flywheel stops slipping. The equations of motion are mu = f . vl = Rwl = W O R = 189. The boundary conditions are w = WO.3 ms 3 (d) A t time 0 < t < t l . v = 0 at t = 0.124. Only the slipping part of the motion causes dissipation of energy into heat. Iw = . 1.262 ProbZems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Fig. The above equations integrate to give I ( w W O ) = fRtl ~ mv=rnRLJl= f t l . The slipping velocity is . Solving these we have w1= &s WO 3’ WOR tl .124. 1. At 0 < t < t l .
. ( CUSPEA ) Fig. 1. 1161 A man wishes to break a long rod by hitting it on a rock.688 x 10' = mR2w2 6 J . 1. The man wishes to avoid having a large force act on his hand at the time the rod hits the rock.Newtonian Mechanic8 263 and the total dissipation of energy into heat is = 2 2. This can also be obtained by considering the change in the kinetic energy of the flywheel: same as the above. Which point on the rod should hit the rock? (Ignore gravity).126.125.125. Fig. 1. The end of the rod which is in his hand rotates without displacement as shown in Fig.
(x. ( Wisconsin) . 6 2 3 1162 The two flywheels in Fig.= . (x  a> 1 Fdt = Iw ) 1 x = 1+ . as shown in Fig. given that R1 = 2R2.264 Pmblems €5 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Let the point of impact be at distance x from the end 0 held by the hand and the reaction to the force acting on the hand as a result of the application of F be F’. As 0 is to remain stationary. ) where u is the velocity of C. m being the mass of the rod.) ( F . 1.]dt=Iw. The larger wheel has f = 2000 rev/min while the smaller is at rest.127 are on parallel frictionless shafts but initially do not touch. and I = %. we require or wl v=. Considering the motion of the center of mass C.e. w the an ular velocity about C immediately Q after the application of F . I1 = 1612. no further sliding at the point of contact). 2 We also require F’ M 0.21 . find the angular velocity of the second wheel after equilibrium occurs (i.126. so that I which give Fdt = mu.. If the two parallel shafts are moved until contact occurs.F’)dt = mu F’. 1. have we I /[.
128. and w& is the angular velocity of the smaller wheel after equilibrium. They are then displaced until they touch along a common tangent. . After a steady state is reached. w2 be the final angular velocities of the two cylinders respectively after steady state is reached.hl= 3200 rev/min . W. We have Il(w1 . what is the final angular velocity of each cylinder? (CUSPEA ) Solution: Let w1. where w1 and w: are the f angular velocities o the larger wheel before contact and after equilibrium respectively. The above equations give wt .Newtonian Mechanics 265 Fig. the other R2 and M2. 12wi = JR2. 1.w : ) = JR1. R1 = W &R2 . Then the torque of the impulse acting on the larger wheel is JR1 and that on the smaller wheel is JR2. Initially they rotate in the same sense with angular speeds R1 and Rz respectively as shown in Fig.127. which are parallel.l. 1163 Two uniform cylinders are spinning independently about their axes. As there is no sliding between the wheels when equilibrium is reached. Solution: Suppose the impulse of the interacting force between the two wheels from contact to equilibrium is J . One has radius R1 and mass M I . 1.I& + I ~ R . Then .
266 Pmblerna d Solutions on Mechanics Fig. They are brought together until they touch.128. keeping the axes parallel. then or 1164 Three identical cylinders rotate with the same angular velocity s1 about parallel central axes. at each contact line. Let J1 and J2 be the timeintegrated torque 2 exerts on 1 and 1 on 2. A new steady state is achieved when. 1.129. a cylinder does not slip with respect to its neighbor as shown in Fig. How much of the original spin kinetic energy is now left? . 1.
if R’ is the final angular velocity of cylinder 1. Let I be the moment of inertia of each cylinder about its axis of rotation.R) = M2l+ I(R’ .) ( CUSPEA ) Fig. then cylinders 2 and 3 have final angular velocities R’ and R’ respectively. be the angular impulse imparted to the ith cylinder with respect to its axis of rotation by the j t h cylinder. Mij Dynamical considerations give I(n’ . is irrelevant.(3IRf2) = ( V C) i(31R2) 2 . as the cylinders have the same radius.0) = 0 ._1 9 ’ .0) = MI2 .52) = M32 . (1) M23 . 1. I(R‘ . and the second and third touch. + (3) .(2) gives I(3R’ . Newton’s third law requires that. Solution: As there is no slipping.Newtonian Mechanics 267 (The precise order in which the first and second touch.129. or The ratio of the spin kinetic energies after and before touching is T’ T .
130. Each cylinder and disc have equal mass. If A is the restoring coefficient of each wire.268 Prubleme d Solutions on Mechanics 1105 Find the ratio of the periods of the two torsion pendula shown in Fig. Hence the angular frequencies of oscillation of the torsion pendula are w1 = and w2 = For the first pendulum. ( Wisconsin ) Fig. I1 = MR2/2. and for the second. 1. The two differ only by the addition of cylindrical masses as shown in the figure. Solution: Let 11 and I2 be the moments of inertia of the two torsion pendula respectively. Hence the ratio of the periods is . The radius of each additional mass is 1/4 the radius of the disc. 1. m. then the equations of motion are 118+ A8 = 0.130. I28 f A8 = 0.
the initial anguls velocity is Ja 3Ja u s . (a) An instantaneous horizontal impulse J is delivered at B.u o ) .131. MwL 2 Hence Mu J'= . Fig. where wo is the angular velocity of the bar before the impulse is delivered. What is the initial angular velocity of the bar? (b) In general. 1. What is J'? ' (c) Where should the impulse J be delivered in order that J be zero? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Ja = I(w .L 2 2L a=. a distance a below A. we have J+J'=.Newtonian Mechanics 269 1166 A long thin uniform bar of mass M and length L is hung from a fixed (assumed frictionless) axis at A as shown in Fig. as a result of J. So the change in the momentum of the bar is M v = MwL/2. 1. The moment of inertia about A is ML2/3. AS this is equal to the total impulse on the bar. if ...131. I ML2 (b) The initial velocity of the center of mass of the bar is v = wL/2. 3 J'=O. there will be an impulse J' on the bar from the axis at A. As 00 = 0.
1. 1. p a . 1167 The crankshaft shown in Fig. Let N denote the constraint force exerted by the bearing on each shaft. where p is the mass per unit length of the rods. the centrifugal force on each rod can be considered as that on a point of the same mass located at its center of mass. 1. Calculate the resultant forces on the bearings.132. 1.. In a fixed frame these forces are rotating. p b . As the rods are either parallel or perpendicular to the axis of rotation.270 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Hence there will be no impulse from the axis if J is delivered at a point 2 L / 3 below A . (Assume the crankshaft is made of thin rods with uniform density).132 rotates with constant angular velocity w . Fig. au2 = . w2 . (WC.131. together with the crankshaft. we require that the moments of the forces about 0 should balance: 2b. 1. As there is no rotation about the zaxis. Solution: Consider the motion in a frame attached to the crankshaft as shown in Fig. In a sketch show the directions of these reactions and the direction of the angular momentum.133. pb .( a2+ b ) .au2+ 2 b . Berkeley) Fig. 2 2 2 . The reactions on the bearings are equal and opposite to N as shown in Fig. N giving N = . with angular PU2 b 3b a + ..133.
Berkeley) Solution: (a) Use a coordinate frame xyz attached to the dumbbell such that the two point masses are in the xzplane. the axle along the zaxis.xixj). and the dumbbell lies in the szplane at t = 0. IZ5 = 0.Newtonian Mechanics 271 velocity w about the axle. Iy. The center of the rod is at the origin of coordinates.134). (e) Calculate the kinetic energy of the dumbbell. (VC. Hence the angular momentum L has direction in the rotating coordinate frame as shown in Fig. > 0. Furthermore it can be seen that I.133. (c) Using the equation L = r x p. (Be sure to specify the coordinate system you use. are . otherwise there is an additional constant force acting on each bearing. . < 0. Note that gravity has been neglected in the calculation. given by Ijj = Cn mn(r26ij. The angular velocity w is a constant in time and is directed along the zaxis.) (b) Using the elements just calculated. (2a + b)pg in magnitude and vertically downward in direction in the fixed frame. 1. (d) Calculate the torque on the axle as a function of time. find the angular momentum of the dumbbell in the laboratory frame BS a function of time. 1168 Two equal point masses M are connected by a massless rigid rod of length 2A (a dumbbell) which is constrained to rotate about an axle fixed to the center of the rod at an angle 8 (Fig. calculate the angular momentum and show that it is equal to the answer for part (b). The elements of the inertia tensor about 0. The angular momentum of the crankshaft is given by where I is the moment of inertia tensor about 0 with elements n As all z = 0. 1. (a) Calculate all elements of the inertia tensor.
I. I. = 2MA2 cos28. I.. 8 0 2MA2 cos28 M A 2 sin 28 0 I=( 0 2MA2 0 MA2 sin 28 2MA2 sin28 (b) Use a laboratory frame z’y’z’ such that the z’axis coincides with the zaxis of the rotating frame in (a) and that all the respective axes of the two frames coincide at t = 0.. I.M A 2 sin2 8 . = I. = 2MA2 cos @sin = . 0. = 2MA2 sin2 8 . Thus = la/..272 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics X Fig.sin 28 cos wt . . = 2MA2. 1. The unit vectors along the axes of the two frames are related by (“) e3 coswt = (sinwt 0 sinwt 0 coswt 0 ) 0 1 (3) coswt sinwt .134. Then the inertia tensor in the laboratory frame is coswt sinwt 0 0 M A 2 sin 28 2MA2 0 MA2 sin 28 0 2MA2 sin20 2MA2 cw2 8 sinwt 0 coswt 0 0 1 Hence the angular momentum of the dumbbell in the laboratory frame is ..
(d) The torque on the axle is ' 7 dL dt = MA2w2 28 sin wtei [sin . 1169 A squirrel of mass m runs at a constant speed Vo relative to a cylindrical exercise cage of radius R and moment of inertia I as shown in Fig. = A(sin I3 cos wt.cosO) in the rotating frame.e& a f?) c = 2MA2we.ek sin 8 sin wt . Using the transformation for the unit vectors we have rl = A[sin 8(e: cos wt + ei sin wt) + e. Neglect the dimensions of the squirrel compared with R.(r.135.eisin28sinwt + ei2sin28) . The angular momentum of the system in the laboratory frame is L= Cr x p = C M (w x r>= C M [ . = MA2w(ei sin28coswt . 1. sin 8 sin wt. r2 = A(sinO. 0.w2 2 MA^^^ sin28 .O. cos 0) 12 = A(sin8coswt.MA2wcos f?(eisin f? cos wt + e& f? sin wt + e3 cos 0) sin + MA2wcos f?( e: sin f? co8 wt . The cage has a damping torque proportional to its angular velocity. find the motion of .sin8sinwtlcosf?) in the laboratory frame. If initially the cage is at rest and the squirrel is at the bottom and running. w) the rotational kinetic energy of the dumbbell is I T = % . same as that obtained in (b). cos O] . (e) As w = (0.w)r] x ~ ~~W .cos8) .Newtonian Mechanics 273 (c) The radius vectors of M I and M2 from 0 are respectively r1 = A(sinB.O.sin 28 cos wtei] .
and for the cage the equation of motion is I @ = fR k@ . where f is the friction between the squirrel and the cage and k is a constant. Discuss any design criteria for the cage in this case. kV0 (I+ mR2)e+ kB + mgR8 = .135. mg Fig. I + S o ht ion: In a fixed coordinate frame. @ = ..274 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics the squirrel relative to a fixed coordinate system in the small oscillation. the equation of motion is mR8= f mgsin8. define 8 as shown in Fig.$.$) = Vo . R . which means 8 = 8. For the squirrel. underdamped case. 1. In addition. 1. as the squirrel has a constant speed VOrelative to the cage. 1.136. we have R(B . ( Wisconsin) i Fig. 8 << 1 and the above reduces to ~ . Find the squirrel’s angular velocity in terms of its angle relative to the vertical for arbitrary angular displacements for the undamped case.136. Making use of these and eliminating f from the equations of motion give (I+ mR2)e + ke + mgRsin0 = kV0 R For small oscillations.
g=.ICh ' k [coswt sinwt] e6' mgR2 mgR2 3 .. aa 0 = S T .kV0 mgR2 ' while for underdamping the general solution for the homogeneous equation is 8 = e"(Asinwt Bcoswt) . + where b= k 2(1+ mR2)' W = I + mR2 Hence the general solution of the above equation is e= lcv0 + ebt( A sin wt + B cos w t ) . b = find b mgR e = . Hence the cage should be designed with a large moment of inertia.we +( x) For the undamped case (k = 0). using the initial condition for b. mgR2 Using the initial condition that at t = 0. + .Newtonian Mechanics 275 A particular solution of this equation is . 8 = 0. cp = 0. (i? = 0. (I which integrates to + mR2)db2= 2mgR0d8 . Hence We require I mR2 >> k for the undamped case to hold. the differential equation is ( I + mR2)8+ mgR0 = 0 '* 1 ddl or.
makes an angle 8 with the z’axis of the laboratory frame about which the square rotates. We also assume that the 2. ( UC. 1.Berkeley) X’ t Fig. with corresponding moments of inertia ma2 I x x = Iuy = 12 ’ ma2 I. as shown in Fig.and 2’axes are coplanar.= = 6 ’ where m is the mass of the square. (c) Calculate the torque on the axis. The zaxis. take the plane of the square as the xyplane with the 2. (a) Find the principal moments of inertia. y. (b) Find the angular momentum J in the laboratory system.z. Solution: (a) Take origin at the center 0 of the square.and zaxes are the principal axes of inertia about 0.137. which is along the normal.137.and yaxis parallel to the sides. (b) The angular momentum J resolved along the rotating frame coordinate axes is . Then by symmetry the x. 1. For a coordinate frame attached to the square.276 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics 1170 A thin square plate with side length a rotates at a constant angular frequency w about an axis through the center tilted by an angle 8 with respect to the normal to the plate.
(c) The torque on the axis is given by M=($)..t + cos wteyt . 12 This can also be obtained by differentiating L in the laboratory frame: =  .sin ecoswt singsinwt) cos e = (cosdsinwt ( $w d sin e W C08 8 0 0 .sinwt ~ coswt sin 8 (zi) .sin 8 cos wte. Then the unit vectors of the two frames are related by e. .w sin B cos 9 cos wt "1"' ) =(La+ Tw(i yf w sin e cos e sin wt cos2 e) ) . ) ..! + cos eext. ex= .Newtonian Mechanics ma' 277 0 "aaWCos8 We can choose the laboratory frame so that its y'axis coincides with the yaxis at t = 0.sin 8 sin wte. = cos 8 cos wte.sin wte. . + cos 8 sin wte. ey = . + cos wte.ab =(:) el l +wxJ=oxJ rot = ex wsinB gwsine ex 0 o wcos8 $wccW~ mu2 w2 sin 0 cos 8e. Hence the angular momentum resolved along the laboratory frame coordinate axes is c o s coswt .. 12 The torque can be expressed in terms of components in the laboratory frame: ma2 M = w2 sin 8 co8 8( .. + sin 8eZl..sin wte..
(Princeton) Fig.278 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1171 A thin flat rectangular piate. =12 7 Ma2 &%.and zaxes are the principal axes with principal moments of inertia I . as shown in Fig.138.138.y. The axle is supported at the corners of the plate by bearings which can exert forces only on the axle.138.and 2‘axes. the yaxis along the normal. 1. 1. of mass M and sides a by 2a. 2 12 5Ma2 4Ma2 Let z’ denote the axis of rotation and (Y the angle between the z. 1. Then the 2. . find the force exerted by each bearing on the axle as a function of time. = 1 ’ Iz* = . Ignoring gravitational and frictional forces. The angular momentum of the piate is 4 cos a The torque on the axle of the plate is then . and the zaxis parallel to the long side of the rectangle. rotates with constant angular velocity w about an axle through two diagonal corners. Solution: Use a coordinate frame attached to the plate with the origin at the center of mass 0. as shown in Fig.
B respectively. N B = 0 . .~ ~ z* + Considering the torque about 0 we have where d = 3AB = $a. cosa = Let N A .138. y‘axis which is identical with the yaxis.Newtonian Mechanics 279 r=(%) fixed =($) ev +wxL=wxL eZ rot . The above equations give These forces are h e d in the rotating frame. Rotate the coordinate frame OXYZ about the yaxes so that the z and z‘axis coincide. In a fixed coordinate frame they rotate with angular velocity w. we have N A ~+ N B = 0 ~ I ~ . As the center of mass is stationary. In a fixed frame 0x”y”z” with the same 2‘axis and the 2“axis coinciding with the 2‘axis at t = 0. N A ~ . The new coordinate axes are the x/axis.Ma2u2  l2 sina sina 0 o cosa 4cosa as sina = $. and daxis shown in Fig. NB be the constraint forces exerted by the bearings on the axle at A. 1.
139). The rod is free to rotate about A without friction throughout the angular range R < 0 5 m (Fig. . + Lk = 0. The cord passes over a very small and smooth pulley fixed at P . The torque about point A due to gravity is L . It is assumed that b < a and that gravity acts downward. wing the sine theorem C sin0  For equilibrium. Solution: (a) Take the direction pointing out of the paper as the positive direction of the torques. Buffalo) !P Fig.280 Pmblems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1172 A homogeneous thin rod of mass M and length b is attached by means of an inextensible cord to a spring whose spring constant is k. 2 a sin& ’ Lk = kbasinB. When c = 0 the spring has its natural length. where 01 is the angle formed by the rod with the rope. 1. and that caused by the restoring force due to the spring is L k = kc bsin81. and determine in each case if the equilibrium is stable.. (Note: line P A is parallel to g ) .139. (SVNY. 1.Mgb sin0 . unstable or neutral. we require L. or kasin0 = 9 sino. (b) Find the frequencies for small oscillations about the points of stable equilibrium. or. (a) Find the values of 0 for which the system is in static equilibrium.
iii) If ka > M g / 2 . the situation is opposite to that of (ii). The equation of motion is or for small oscillations Hence the frequency of oscillation is . L > 0 for 8 = ?r + E . Let 8 = 0 f e. (b) Take the case of ka > M g / 2 where 8 = 0 is a position of stable equilibrium. the equilibrium condition is satisfied for all 8 and the equilibrium is neutral. Consider the equilibrium at 8 = 0. ii) If ka < M g / 2 . we have L =f Then (s . the equilibrium condition is satisfied if 8 = 0 or 8 = T.Newtonian Mechanics 281 i) If ka = M g / 2 .e . In the case L tends to reduce E and the equilibrium is stable. where e > 0 is a small angle. Hence L tends to increase e in both cases and the equilibrium is unstable.6 . Hence in this case 8 = 0 is a position of stable equilibrium and 8 = A is a position of unstable equilibrium. Let 8 = e where E is a small angle.ka) e L < 0 for 8 = T . L > 0 for 8 = . Then Thus L < 0 for 8 = +e. For the equilibrium at 8 = A f e.
How fast is the bug moving with respect to the table when it reaches the diametrically opposite point on the ring (point X)? (MIT) Fig.2Rw and the angular momentum of the ring about P is J = 2MR2w. 1. Conservation of angular momentum then gives 2MR2w . as shown in Fig.140. Solution: The moment of inertia of the ring with respect to the pivot P is I = MR2 I. . where w is the angular velocity of the ring about P at that instant.MR2 = 2MR2 I When the bug reaches point X . 1.2mR(v . The bug starts from the pivot with the ring at rest.140.282 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Similarly in the case ka < M g / 2 . A bug of mass m runs along the ring with speed v with respect to the ring. the frequency of small oscillations about the position of stable equilibrium at 8 = lr is 21r 2Mb 1173 A thin ring of mass M and radius R is pivoted at P on a frictionless table.2%) = 0 . its velocity with respect to the table is . Initially the total angular momentum of the ring and bug about P is zero.
as shown in Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 283 or mu R(M+2m) ' The velocity of the bug at point X with respect to the table is w= 1174 A cone of height h and base radius R is constrained to rotate about its vertical axis. Assume that the bead stays in the groove. (a) What is the mgular velocity of the cone when the bead reaches the bottom? (b) Find the speed of the bead in the laboratory just as it leaves the cone. The cone is set rotating with initial angular velocity wo around its axis and a small (pointlike) bead of m s m is released at the top of the frictionless groove and is permitted as to slide down under gravity. the angular velocity w of the cone at the time when the bead reaches the bottom satisfies the relation .141. and that the moment of inertia of the cone about its axis is 10. 1. 1. A thin. Solution: (a) As the total angular momentum of the system is conserved. (MITI Fig.141. straight groove is cut in the surface of the cone from apex to base as shown.
R2 +2gh. + mR2 + 2 g h .284 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Iowo = (I0 Hence W = + mR2)w I0 IOU0 mR2 ' + (b) As the energy of the system is conserved. 1 + mgh = mu 2 + low 2 1 1 2 2 2 with u~=$+v:='uI+R~w~. radius a and mass m.I0w2 . where 2111 is velocity of the bead parallel to the groove and u l is that perpendicular to the groove. Thus 1 1 1 1 . is rotating freely on a frictionless bearing with uniform angular velocity w about a fixed vertical . I0 + mR2 This speed could have been obtained directly by substituting the expression for w in the energy equation.m v i = z I ~ w mgh . with magnitude I0 + mR2 Iow.IOW. 1175 A thin uniform disc. giving ?Ji = Iowi  (To + mR2) m Iow2 (Io+mR2)2 + 2gh = I. 1 ~ ~ 0R~ 2 Hence the velocity of the bead when it reaches the bottom is v = u l i + ullj a and j being unit vectors along and perpendicular to the groove respec tively.mR2w2 ~ 2 2 2 + . the velocity u of the bead when it reaches the bottom satisfies .
142. I rna2. the zaxis along the normal to the disc. and inclined at angle (r to the symmetry axis of the disc. and the xaxis in the plane of the zaxis and the axis of rotation z’.142.) . What is the magnitude and direction of the torque. 4 + 2wcosae. y. as shown in Fig. and of the net force acting between the disc and the axis? (Columbia) Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 285 axis passing through its center. Solution: Take a coordinate frame Ozyz attached to the disc with the origin at its center 0. v4 24 The angular momentum about 0 is 0 0 1 = ma2(wsinae. Hence the torque is . 1.and zaxesare the principal axes of the disc with principal moments of inertia 1 1 1 I ma2.2m a 2 . 1. The z. r= .
) (Princeton) Solution: (a) As M >> m.  1 + w cosae.) x ma2w(sinae. It rotates with the disc. 1 4 The torque is in the plane of the disc and is perpendicular to the plane formed by the normal to the disc and the axis of rotation. Suppose there is a mechanism such a tidal friction which can reduce E if w # R. The rotation of the moon can be neglected < but the planet rotates about its axis with angular velocity CL. the net force on the disc is zero. Famous examples of this effect occur in the orbits of the moons of Mercury and Venus.ma2w sin a cos aey .286 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics = (w sinae. it is the lighter body whose rotation is relevant in these examples. The axis of rotation of the planet is perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. the position of the planet can be considered to be fixed in space. + 2 cos aez) 4 . By examining the behavior of E as a function of w. Let I = moment of the inertia of the planet about its axis and D = distance from the moon to the center of the planet. 1176 A moon of mass m orbits with angular velocity w around a planet of mass M . As the center of mass of the disc is stationary. Eliminate D from both these expressions. (a) Find expressions for the total angular momentum L of the system about its center of mass and for the total energy E . (However. Assume m < M . s but conserves angular momentum. (b) Generally the two angular velocities w and R are unequal. The total angular momentum about the center of mass and the total energy of the system of moon and planet are then . show that there is a range of initial conditions such that eventually w = R and a stable final configuration obtains.
Newtonian Mechanics 287 L=IR+mD2w. E = 102 2 (GM~)% . we require that Q Z W .i d w 3  mD (R 2 3 W)dw .E ( G M ) Z w .m D 2 dw 31 * For a configuration to be stable. (b) As angular momentum is to be conserved. giving ds2 . 1 1 GMm E = la2 + mD2w2 .2 2 D ' Considering the gravitational attraction between the two bodies we have  GMm D2 . the corresponding energy must be a minimum. .we have d E = IRdR . d L = 0.mDw2 . d2E dw2 2mD 3 mD2 9 W Hence for the configuration to be stable. or D = GM Substituting this in the above gives (J  L=IR+m(.) 1 G2M2 m 2 . Differentiating (l).
1.208 Prvblems 3Solutions on Mechanics and furthermore that +l>. The rod is pivoted at one end and swings in a vertical plane. mass M . Solution: (a) w h e n the bug has crawled a distance E .143. the moment of inertia of the rod and bug about the pivot is . (c) How slowly must the bug crawl in order that your answers for part (a) and (b) be valid? ( Wisconsin ) Fig. Initially the bug is at the pivotend of the rod. (a) Find the frequency w of the swing of the pendulum when the bug has crawled a distance 1 along the rod. 1177 A pendulum consists of a uniform rigid rod of length L . 1. which is at rest at an angle 60 (60 << 1 rad) from the vertical as shown in Fig. For t > 0 the bug crawls slowly with constant speed V along the rod towards the bottom end of the rod. is released. mD2 4R W I This latter condition can be satisfied by a range of initial conditions. a bug of mass M / 3 which can crawl along the rod.143. (b) Find the amplitude of the swing of the pendulum when the bug has crawled t o the bottom end of the rod (1 = 15).
The first term on the righthand side is the change in the potential energy of the bug. i. 3 For small oscillations it becomes If the bug crawls so slowly that the change in 1 in a period of oscillation is negligible. we can ignore the second term and write Hence the angular frequency of oscillation w is g(21+ 3L) w = J 2(L2 + 12) ' (b) Consider the motion of the bug along the rod. M (1 . while the second term is the change in the energy of oscillation E of the system. cos 6 M 1The above gives Mg Mg M1g2 f=0 3 6 3 . i = v << lw. f. 1 = 0.Newtonian Mechanics 289 1 I = ML2 3 1 1 + M12 = M(L2 + 1 2 ) 3 3 1 The equation of motion of the pendulum is d L .e.. Also for small oscillations. + The work done by f as the bug crawls a distance dl is then which is stored as energy of the system. 3 3 where f is the force exerted on the bug by the rod. As the bug crawls with constant speed..162) = Mgcos6 .( I d ) = Mgsine dt 2 . .Mglsin6 . %.
l n1 = [ Eo 2 (3L+2Z)L 3(L2 1 2 ) ] ' . in single harmonic oscillations the potential and kinetic energy are equal on average. l n E .l1 ( .I(g: ') Now.cosf?) M g L (z+ 3 ) O2 E = .lo2 dl Under the condition 1 < Zw. For each 1. E = Eo.) + K . 1 hardly changes in a period of oscillation and < can be taken to be constant. the kinematic quantities in the above equation can be replaced by their average values i.290 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics d E = . Initially. so that  MgL V = (1 2  .. n 3L+2Z 2 L2+P where K is a constant.. or  02 = 6E Mg(3L 21) + ' Substituting these in the energy equation we have dE or 1 l n E = . 1 = 0.e.cosf?) 1  Mgl + (1 3 . when we consider a full period. i. l and we thus have n =~ ~ 1n 2 1 (S) + + K .
we have 1 2 (5 +L L 3) L 2 Omax = E Z . Mg . (The motion is confined to the plane of the diagram. E 1 5 In. E= .O. 1. 1178 A uniform rod of mass m and length 1 has its lower end driven sinusoidally up and down as shown in Fig.the pendulum will undergo oscillations around the statically unstable position 0 = 0. 8 is equal to the amplitude when = 0 i. A and w . This is the condition that must be assumed for the above to be valid.e. . 1.Newtonian Mechanics 291 When 1 = L . T = 0 and E = V .) (a) List all the components of all forces on the rod. (b) Is the angular momentum of the rod conserved? (c) Is the linear momentum of the rod conserved? (d) Is the energy of the rod conserved? (e) Find the components of the acceleration of the center of mass as functions of time expressed in terms of $ ( t ) . is given by iMg When 1 = 0. the above expressions give (c) We have neglected the radial velocity of the bug as compared with its tangential velocity: i << lw. 5 6E ~ .e. the amplitude Om.= 1nEo 2 6 ' i.144 with amplitude A and angular frequency w. It is a fact that for suitable choices of the parameters m. When 1 = L. Then as E = = Eo .
1. and the origin 0‘ moving along the yaxis such that its radius vector from 0 is ro = Acoswtj . (c) The linear momentum of the rod is not conserved. Then the radius vector of the center of mass of the rod is . 1. Solution: (a) The forces on the rod are the gravity mg. YOU ARE NOT ASKED TO SOLVE THIS EQUATION OF MOTION. Fig. (e) Use a moving coordinate frame O’x’y’ as shown in Fig.292 Prvblems & Solutions on Mechanics (f) Write down the equation of angular motion of the rod in terms of the forces on it. (b) The angular momentum of the rod is not conserved. how is it that oscillations about the upright position can occur? (Hint: how do you expect the frequency of the 8 motion to be related to w?) ( Wisconsin) Y I Fig. what kind of motion is predicted when A = O? ( i ) Physically.145 with the axes parallel to the corresponding axes of the fked frame Ozy.144. 1. f v of the force f exerted by the moving pivot. BUT TO INTERPRET IT: (h) Qualitatively. (g) Use (e) and (f) to find an equation of motion for 8(t). (d) The energy of the rod is not conserved.and the components fz.145.
the motion is just that of rotation of a rod under the action of gravity. m 2 = mji mAw2cos wt = f.A W ~ C O S.sin8mAw2coswtsin8.( g . 1 1 rnl28=mg.cosej 2 2 whence  dr dt 1 2 a d2r 1 . 3 . (f) ( g ) Let x .W ~ Newton’s second law gives mx’=mX= fi. and hence X y=y’+Acoswt. (i) Suppose the rod oscillates about the upright position 8 = 0. a fictitious force mAw2 cos wtj’ has to be added. Then 8 M 0 and the equation of angular motion becomes . ji = = XI. 3 8 = . Consider the rotation of the rod in the moving frame about the origin 0’.sin& + . there being no difference between the moving and fixed frames.Aw2coswt)sin8 . y’ be the coordinates of the center of mass of the rod in ‘ the moving frame. Then x=x’. 3 2 2 or *.b2 sin8)i dt2 AW2coswt 1 . Thus to apply Newton’s second law in the moving frame.Newtonian Mechanics 293 r = ro 1 1 + . 1 + 8sin 8 + 02 cos 8 2 2 The last equation gives the x and y components of the acceleration of the center of mass. 21 (h) If A = 0. We have 1 *. + + mAw2cos wt ..= 2( e c o s 8 .
The moment of inertia about the center may be taken as :MA2. 7r/2 or lr. Fig.146.g ) 6 = 0 . (a) In what direction will the yoyo roll if 6 = 0. 7r/2.147. 21 Thus. (b) The friction acting on the yoyo is f = p N .(3A w 2 c o s w t .147. independent of the smoothness of the table? (Columbia) Solution: Assume that the yoyo is at rest before the application of the force F . A string is pulled with force F from the inner radius B as indicated in Fig. 1. 1. Fig.294 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 8 + . as shown in Fig. 1. 1.146. 7r? (b) For what value of 8 will the yoyo slide without rolling independent of the roughness (coefficient of friction) of the table or the magnitude of F? ( c ) At what angle 0 will the yoyo roll.146. 1179 A yoyo of mass M lies on a smooth horizontal table as shown in Fig. the direction of rolling is only determined by the direction of the torque of the applied force F about its center. where N is the normal reaction of the table. 1. The direction of rolling is shown in Fig. (a) As there is no friction acting on the yoyo. For a certain interval of time we may have Aw2 cos wtg > 0 and oscillations about the upright position may occur. The yoyo will slide without rolling if .147 for 0 = 0. if A # 0 the torque of the fictitious force may sometimes act as restoring torque. 1.
Eliminating a and a gives f = 2F ( A As f 5 pN = p(Mg . i. Mg < F . we require Mg sine= F ’ 2B cost)=  A ’ A tarlo=.Newtonian Mechanics 295 FB =p N A . We have (Fig.F = sine) . It still depends on F unless a = 0. .M A 2 a . Ignore the effect of air friction. The ball has mass m. independent of p.FB = . M g 2B F Thus we require that. 2B < A . for the y+yo to roll without slipping irrespective of the smoothness of the table. with the same I sin81 are possible. a = A@. one positive and one negative. i.146) Ma cos8=+. no motion.e. first of all. FcosO. (c) Let the acceleration of the center of mass of the ysyo and its angular acceleration about the center be a and cr respectively. 1180 A bowling ball of uniform density is thrown along a horizontal alley with initial velocity vo in such a way that it initially slides without rolling. B F A If this condition is satisfied. 1. 2 For rolling without slipping. The acceleration a of the center of mass of the ysyo is given by Fcos8pN = M a . coefficient of static friction pe and coefficient of sliding friction jhd with the floor. 8 is independent of p. 1 Thus f A .f = M a . Then two values of 8.e.
= .pdgt = 210 7 1181 A coin spinning about its axis of symmetry with angular frequency w is set down on a horizontal surface (Fig. + giving 2mv0 . Suppose at time t the ball begins to roll without sliding.148). 1. We require Rat = vo at . (Princeton ) Solution: When the bowling ball slides without rolling the friction f = pdmg gives rise to an acceleration m The moment of f gives rise to an angular acceleration IY given by f a = . . Let x.296 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics Compute the velocity of the ball when it begins to roll without sliding. with what velocity does it roll away? ( Wisconsin) Solution: Take coordinates as shown in Fig. the frictional force is f = pmg. be the x coordinate of the center of mass of the coin. where p is the coefficient of sliding friction.2v0 7f 7pdg The velocity of the ball when this happens is VO t=Raa 5 v = vo+at = vo . After it stops slipping. 1. as the ball has a moment of inertia i m R 2 about an axis through its center. R being its radius. I 8 = pmgR . 2 5 f R = MR2a. The equations of motion of the coin before it stops slipping are mx.149.p d g . Before the coin stops slipping. = pmg .
Newtonian Mechanics
297
Fig. 1.148.
Fig. 1.149.
where r and R are respectively the mass and radius of the coin, and n I = ZrnR2. Integrating and using initial conditions x, = 0, 8 = w at t = 0, we have
When the coin rolls without slipping, we have
xc = 8R
Suppose this happens at time t , then the above give
or
t=* 3P9
wR
At this time, the velocity of the center of mass of the coin is
which is the velocity with which the coin rolls away without slipping.
1182 A wheel of mass M and radius R is projected along a horizontal surface with an initial linear velocity V and an initial angular velocity wo a shown o s in Fig. 1.150, so it starts sliding along the surface (w,~tends to produce
298
Prwblem B Solutions on Mechanics
rolling in the direction opposite to Vo). Let the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the surface be p.
(a) How long is it till the sliding ceases? (b) What is the velocity of the center of mass of the wheel at the time when the slipping stops? (Columbia)
vo
+x
Fig. 1.150.
Solution:
(a) Take the positive 2 direction as towards the right and the angular velocity d as positive when the wheel rotates clockwise. Assume the wheel has moment of inertia : M R 2 about the axle. We then have two equations of motion:
MX
=pMg,
1 MR20 = p M g R . 2
Making use of the initial conditions x, = Vo, $ = wo at t = 0 we obtain , by integration
x = vo  pgt ,
Let T be the time when sliding ceases. Then at T
or
Newtonian Mechanics
299
giving
T = vO+RwO
3P9
.
(b) The velocity of the center of mass of the wheel at the time when slipping stops is 1 X = Vo  PgT = (2Vo  R w o ) . 3
1183
A thin hollow cylinder of radius R and mass M slides across a frictionless floor with speed VO. Initially the cylinder is spinning backward with angular velocity wo = 2V#/Ras shown in Fig. 1.151. The cylinder passes onto a rough area and continues moving in a straight line. Due to friction, it eventually rolls. What is the final velocity Vf?
Fig. 1.151.
Fig. 1.152.
Solution:
Suppose the cylinder enters the rough area at time t = 0 and starts to roll without slipping at time t = to. At 0 < t < t o the equations of motion of the cylinder are (Fig. 1.152)
dt dw fR=Idt
with I = MR2. Integrating we obtain
dV f = M  ,
300
Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics
M(Vf  VO) =
or
1
to
fd t
)
giving
I ( w ~ W O ) = MR(V0  V,) .
The cylinder rolls without slipping at t = t o ) when V, = w f R . We are also given woR = 2Vo. The last equation then gives 1 v, = vo 2
+
.
Hence the cylinder will eventually move backward with a speed ~ V O .
1184
Calculate the minimum coefficient of friction necessary to keep a thin circular ring from sliding as it rolls down a plane inclined at an angle 0 with respect to the horizontal plane. ( Wisconsin)
Y
Fig. 1.153.
Solution:
Use coordinates as shown in Fig. 1.153 and write down the equations of motion for the ring: mx=mgsinO f,
I@= f R ,
Newtonian
Mechanics
301
where m and R are the mass and radius of the ring respectively, I = mR2 is the moment of inertia of the ring about its axis of symmetry and f is the ststic friction on the ring. The above equations combine to give
x + RC;i=gsinO,
The condition for no sliding is R$ = 5 , or R+ = x, giving
1 2
x = gsin9.
Hence
1 2 The normal reaction of the inclined plane is N = mgcos8, and for no slipping we require f < p N , or
f
= mgsin9  mx = mgsin9.
1 mg sin 0 < pmg cos 8 2
i.e.
,
tan8 < p . Hence the minimum coefficient of friction necessary to keep the ring from slipping is p = tang.
1 2
t
1185
A solid uniform cylinder of m s m, radius R is plwed on a plane as inclined at angle 19relative to the horizontal as shown in Fig. 1.154. Let g denote the usud acceleration due to gravity, and let a be the acceleration along the incline of the axis of the cylinder. The coefficient of friction between cylinder and plane is p. For 0 less than some critical angle 8,, the cylinder will roll down the incline without slipping. (a)What is the angle 0,? (b) For 9 < 8,, what is the acceleration a? ( CUSFEd )
Solution:
Let f denote the frictional furce and a the angular acceleration about the axis of the cylinder. The equations of motion are
302
Problems & Solutions on Mechanics
Fig. 1.154.
mgsin8  f = m a , f R = la, with
I
I=MR~.
2
(a) If there is no slipping, we require a = Rcr, f < p N , where N , the normal reaction of the inclined plane, equals mgcos8. The equations of motion give 1 f = mgsin$. 3 Hence we require 1 pmgcos6 >  m g s i n 8 , 3
or
3p
> tan$.
Let tan$, = 3p. Then we require tan 0 < tan8, for no slipping. Therefore the critical angle is BC = arctan 3p. (b) For 8 < 8,, the cylinder rolls without slipping and the above gives
f 2 a = gsin8   = gsin8 m 3
1186
A wheel of radius T , mass m, and moment of inertia I = mR2 is pulled along a horizontal surface by application of a horizontal force F to a rope unwinding from an axle of radius b as shown in Fig. 1.155. You may assume there is a frictional force between the wheel and the surface such that the
Newtonian Mechanics
303
wheel rolls without slipping. In the expression I = mR2 the quantity R is a constant with dimensions of length.
(a) What is the linear acceleration of the wheel? (b) Calculate the frictional force that acts on the wheel.
( Wisconsin )
Solution: Let z be the displacement of the center of mass of the wheel along the horizontal direction and 6 the angular displacement of the wheel from an initial direction through its center of mass. (a) The equations of motion of the wheel are (Fig. 1.155) mj;.=Ff, I e = Fb+ f r .
Fig. 1.155.
The constraint €or no sliding is k = TO or x = re. Hence
mR2
P=
T
Fb+(Fmji.)r,
or
j;.=
F(b T ) T m(R2 + r2)
+
’
which is the linear acceleration of the wheel. (b) The frictional force is
f
=Fmx
304
Problems d Solutions on Mechanics
1187
A flat disc of mass m = 1.8 kg and radius r = 0.2 m lies on a frictionless horizontal table. A string wound around the cylindrical surface of the disc exerts a force of 3 Newtons in the northerly direction (Fig. 1.156). Find the acceleration (magnitude and direction) of the center of mass a and the angular acceleration a about the center of mass. Is a = ra? Explain. ( Wisconsin)
Fig. 1.156.
Solution:
The equations of motion are
where I = mr2/2,giving
f a =  = 1.7 m/s m
mr
)
2f a =  = 17 rad/s,
The direction of a is the same as that o f f . It is seen that a # ar. This is because as the disc lies on its flat surface the two motions are not related even though they are due to the same force.
1188
A wheel of radius R and moment of inertia I is mounted on a frictionless axle at 0. A flexible, weightless cord is wrapped around the rim of the
Newtonian Mechanics
305
Fig. 1.157.
wheel and carries a body of mass M which begins descending as shown in Fig. 1.157. What is the tension in the cord? ( Wisconsin)
Solution: Let F be the tension in the cord, x the position of the center of masti of the body and d the angular velocity of the body as shown in Fig. 1.157.
We have the following equations:
I~'=FR, MX = Mg F , +Re',
which yield
F=
Md
I+MR2
*
1189
Two uniform discs in a vertical plane of masses A41 and M with radii z R1 and R2 respectively have a thread wound about their circumferences, and are thus connected as shown in Fig. 1.158. The first disc has h e d frictionless horizontal axis of rotation through its center. Set up the equations to determine the acceleration of the center of mass of the second disc if it falls freely.
306
Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y
X
Fig. 1.158.
(You need not solve the equations.)
(Wisconsin)
Solution: Let F be the tension in the thread, 5 1 the distance of the center of mass of disc 2 from that of disc 1, and 8 1 , 92 the angular velocities of the discs, as shown in Fig. 1.158. We have the equations of motion
M2X= M z g  F , I,& = FR1
, I292 = FR2 ,
W 2
where I1 = mlR7/2, 12 = m z e / 2 .
also have the constraint
X = Rid1
+ Rzdz ,
+ R2&
.
or
x = Rl&
Elom the four equations the unknowns 81, 32, x and F can be determined.
1190
A yoyo o mass M is composed of 2 large disks of radius R and thickness f t separated by a distance t with a shaft of radius r . Assume a uniform density throughout. Find the tension in the massless string as the yeyo descends under the influence of gravity. (Wisconsin)
Newtonian Mechanics
307
Solution:
Let the density of the yoyo be p, then its moment of inertia and mass
are respectively
I = 2 * 7rtpR4
1 2
1 + 27 r t p r 4
,
M = 27rtpR2 + rtp2 ,
whence
The equations of motion of the yoyo are
MX = M g  F I 8 = Fr ,
,
where F is the tension in the string. We also have the constraint x = re. Fkom the above we obtain
F=
I M g  (2R4 r 4 ) M g I M r 2  2R4 4R2r2 314
+
+
+
+
*
1191
A sphere of mass M and radius R (I = $ M R 2 ) rests on the platform of a truck. The truck starts from rest and has a constant acceleration A. Assuming that the sphere rolls without slipping, find the acceleration of the center of mass of the ball relative to the truck. ( Wisconsin)
Fig. 1.159.
308
Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics
Solution: Let 0 x y and O'x'y' be coordinate frames attached to the truck and fixed in space respectively with__ x and 2'axes along the horizontal as the shown in Fig. 1.159. Denoting 0'0 = 6, we have for the center of mass of the sphere 2 = x + El ' or x'=x+E. As the force acting on the sphere is the friction f , Newton's second law gives, writing A for (,
f
or
= Mj;' = M X +
MA ,
MI=fMA.
Thus in the moving frame there is a fictitious force F =  M A acting on the sphere through the center of mass, in addition to the friction f . Considering the torque about the center of mass, we have
Ie= f R
with I = gMR2. We also have the constraint for no slipping, x = Re, or x = Re. These three equations give x =  $ A l which is the acceleration of the center of mass of the sphere relative to the truck.
1192
Referring to Fig. 1.160, find the minimum height h (above the top position in the loop) that will permit a spherical ball of radius r (which rolls without slipping) to maintain constant contact with the rail of the loop. (The moment of inertia of a sphere about the center is fm?.) ( Wisconsin )
Solution:
Conservation of mechanical energy requires that the kinetic energy of the sphere at the top position in the loop is equal to the decrease mgh in potential energy as it falls from the initial position to this position. The kinetic energy of the sphere is composed of two parts: the transiational kinetic energy of the sphere and the rotational kinetic energy of the sphere
Newtonian Mechanacs
309
Fig. 1.160.
about its center of m s . Let rn,T ,v, w be respectively the m s , kinetic as as energy, velocity of the center of mass, and angular velocity about the center of mass of the sphere. Then
T = mu2 +  Iw2
2
1
1
2
with I = gmr2. As the sphere rolls without slipping, v = wr and
In the critical case, the force exerted by the loop on the sphere is zero when the latter reaches the top of the loop. In other words, the centripetal force needed for the circular motion of the sphere is supplied entirely by gravity:
mu2  rng R
whence v 2 = Rg and
1
7 T = mRg = mgh . 10
Hence h = 7R/10 is the minimum initial height required.
1193 A sphere of radius b is at rest at tJ = 0 upon a fixed sphere of radius Q > b. The upper sphere is moved slightly to roll under the influence of gravity as shown in Fig. 1.161. The coefficient of static friction is pa > 0, the coefficient of sliding friction is p = 0.
310
Problems Ed Solutions on Mechanics
(a) Briefly describe and explain the sequence of sphere motions in terms
of rolling, sliding and separation. (b) Write the equation of constraint for pure rolling of the upper sphere on the lower sphere. (c) Write the equation of motion in terms of 6 and 8 for the part of the motion where the sphere rolls without slipping. (d) Find a related equation between and 8. (el Solve this equation for 8 ( t ) , assuming 0 < O(0) << 8 ( t ) . You may wish to use the relation
e
1””sin ( : )
2lntan(:)
.
Fig. 1.161.
Solution:
(a) At first the upper sphere rolls without slipping, the angular velocity becoming larger and the normal pressure on it smaller with increasing 8. When the condition for pure rolling is not satisfied, the sphere begins to slide and finally when the centripetal force is not large enough to maintain the circular motion of the upper sphere, it will separate from the lower sphere. (b) Suppose initially 0,A, 0’, are on the same vertical line. As the B upper  sphere rolls by an angle cp, its center has traveled through a path 00’8, as shown in Fig. 1.161. Hence the condition for pure rolling is
(a b)8 = bp
+
.
Newtonian Mechanics
311
(c) The equations of motion of the upper sphere are
m(a
+ b)8 = rng sin I3  f,
I+ = mb2+ = f b ,
2 5
where f is the static friction on the sphere. When the sphere rolls without slipping, we have from (b)
(a b)d = b@ .
+
Then the equations of motion give
.. e=
5gsinI3 7(a b)
+
(4 As
the last equation gives
02
=

log cos I3 +K. 7(a b )
+
With 0 = 0 at O = 0, K = &.
82
Hence
log( 1  cos 0) 7(a b )
.
=
+
(el As
dt
we have, with
I30
7(a
+ b)
ft
.
= O(0) at t = 0,
f e dI3
or
In
()
=at,
312
Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics
where cy =
,/&.
Hence
o = 4 arctan (eat tan
2) ,
valid for the part of the motion where the sphere rolls without slipping.
1194
A sphere of mass m, radius a, and moment of inertia $maz rolls without slipping from its initial position at rest atop a fixed cylinder of radius b (see Fig. 1.162).
(a) Determine the angle Omax at which the sphere leaves the cylinder. (b) What are the components of the velocity of the sphere’s center at the instant it leaves the cylinder? ( Wisconsin)
Fig. 1.162.
Solution: (a) The forces on the sphere are as shown in Fig. 1.162. The equations of motion for the center of mass of the sphere are
+ b)d = mgsine  f , m(a + b)e2 = mgcose  N ,
m(a and that for the rotation of the sphere is
2 ma2* = fa . 5
(1)
(2)
(3)
Newtonian Mechanics
313
The condition for it to roll without slipping is
(a b)8 = a@,
+
or
(a b)8 = a+
+
.
(4)
Fkom (3) and ( ) we found 4,
f = m(a + b)8 .
Substitution in (1) gives
2 5
.. 8= 5gsinO 7(a b)
+
.
As 8 =
e = 0 at t = O
and
e = ig, gives it
82 = iog(1  C O S ~ ) .
7(a 6 )
Substitution in (2) gives
+
1 0 N = mgcos6  mg(l  cos6) = mg 7
After the sphere leaves the cylinder, N = 0. We assume that the coefficient of friction is large enough for the period of both rolling and slipping which occurs before the sphere leaves the cylinder to be negligible. Then at the instant N becomes zero, 8 = 8  given by
~086ma =
10 . 17
(b) At that imtant the velocity of the center of the sphere has magnitude
and is parallel to the tangential direction of the cylinder at the point where e = emu.
1195 In Fig, 1.163, the ball on the left rolls horizontally without slipping at speed V toward an identical ball initially at rest. Each ball is a uniform sphere of mass M. Assuming that all the frictional forces are small enough
314
Problems B Solutions on Mechanics
to have a negligible effect during the instant of collision, and that the instantaneous collision is perfectly elastic, calculate: (a) The velocity of each ball a long enough time after the collision when each ball is again rolling without slipping. (b) The fraction of the initial energy transformed by the frictional forces to thermal energy. The moment of inertia of a sphere of mass M, radius R about its center is $MR2. (CUSPEA )
Fig. 1.163.
Solution: (a) Before the collision
v1 = v,
v = 0, z
w1=
R’
V
w2=0.
During the collision, as friction can be neglected, the forces with which the balls interact are directed through the centers so that the angular momentum about the center of each ball i s conserved. Thus
w; = w1,
W;=O.
As the collision is elastic, conservation of translational momentum and that of kinetic energy then require
v = 0, :
v; = Vl = v .
In the above, single primes denote quantities immediately after the collision. After some time, the balls again roll without slipping. Let the quantities at this time be denoted by double primes. The positive directions of these quantities are shown in Fig. 1.164. The angular momentum of each ball about some fixed point in the plane of motion is conserved. Consider the angular momentum of each ball about the point of contact with the horizontal plane.
Newtonian Mechanics
315
For ball 1, MRV;
or
= IV
+ Iwi = MRV; + Iwy ,
(MR+
) ;
v; >
R
giving
For ball 2,
MRV,'
+ IW; = MRV," + I w t ,
giving
Fig. 1.164.
316
Problems Ed Solutions on Mechanics
(b) The initial and final energies of the system are
1 2 1 2 w.21M V . + rW,=  ( M P + p R 2 . ") l2 2 R2
1 W j =  M ( V r 2 + V:2) 2
1 + I(wY2 + w:') 2
VJ2+ V/2

+ 2 (V?' + V 5 )':
1
1 7 29 MV2.  .2 5 49
Hence the loss of energy is
and the fractional loss is
z.
1196
A small homogeneous sphere of mass m and radius r rolls without sliding on the outer surface of a larger stationary sphere of radius R as shown in Fig. 1.165. Let 0 be the polar angle of the small sphere with respect to a coordinate system with origin at the center of the large sphere and zaxis vertical. The smaller sphere starts from rest at the top of the larger sphere (e = 0).
(a) Calculate the velocity of the center of the small sphere as a function
of
e.
(b) Calculate the angle at which the small sphere flies off the large one. (c) If one now allows for sliding with a coefficient of friction p, at what point will the small sphere start to slide? ( Columbia)
Solution:
(a) As the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the small sphere
is a constant of the motion when it rolls without sliding, we have
Newtonian Mechanic8
317
Fig. 1.165.
1 mu2
2
1 2 +  . mr2 2 5
@'
+ mg(R + r ) cos e = mg(R +
T)
with v = T @ = (R
+ r)b, whence
The velocity of the center of the small sphere is
(b) At the moment of flying off, the support force on the small sphere N = 0. From the force equation
mgcos% N = ?FLU2
R+r '
we find the angle 8, at which the small sphere flies off the large sphere as given by 10 case  '  17 Thus
e,
=arccos
(z)
.
Note that this derivation applies only for sufficiently large coefficient of friction.
we require that 8 > 8. .lop.166. Where this can be . or cos8. 5 = ( R + r ) e= r + . 7 At the moment when the sphere starts t o slide. satisfied by the value of p. = 289p2 4 . Solving this we find that the angle 0. we have 2sin8 = 17pcos6 . the frictional force is i. Consider two cases (i) rolling without sliding (ii) frictionless sliding without rolling. 1. d + m However.318 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (c) When the small sphere rolls without sliding. fr = 2 mr2+. > cos6. we have mgsin6 . where f is the frictional force on the sphere... using the expression for v from (a).f = mv . = arccos 1197 A spherical ball of radius T is inside a vertical circular loop of radius ( R + r ) as shown in Fig.e. we generally have t o take the upper sign.) Rn V 2 r+r Then. at which the small sphere starts to slide is given by 170p2 f cost'. Hence 6. From these we find j = tmgsine. mgcos6 .
166. we have Tb=Tt+&. Hence " = + rRe r . = Rg and the corresponding kinetic energy is At the bottom of the loop. if the ball has the required minimum velocity v1. where on the loop will falling begin? (Columbia) Fig. Rd = rcp. the force Nt the loop exerts on the ball a t the top must be such that Thus we require that v 2 2 Rg . In order that the ball does not fall at the top of the loop. The minimum velocity vt that satisfies such condition is v. Solution: (a) For rolling without sliding. 1.v = where v is velocity of the center of the ball.Newtonian Mechanics 319 (a) In each case what minimum velocity v1 must the sphere have at the bottom of the loop so as not to fall at the top? (b) For a 10% smaller v1 and the sliding case. .
the minimum velocity at the top is given by vt = Rg 2 7 and the corresponding kinetic energy is T = mut2 . and with N=O . giving V? = 5 R g .320 Problem tY Solutions on Mechanics i. or (ii) For sliding without rolling. (b) Suppose falling begins at 6.e. i. giving 7 mu.Rcos19) . we still require that v2 2 Rg at the top of the loop.9v1)2 = mu2 2 2 + mg(R .e. At that moment the velocity v of the center of the ball is given by 1 1 m(0. 10 V: = mu. i 1 2 Thus we have 1 1 mu: = mu: 2 2 + 2mgR. 7 10 + 2mRg. or v1=&. = =V : 20 + Rg 7 27 Rg 7 .
it will slide down under the influence of gravity.683 .10 . When the plank is released. . (a) Find the expression (as an integral if you like) for the time that it will take for the plank to reach a new angle 8. 0. (b) At what value of 8 will the upper end of the plank leave the wall? (Columbia) Y t Fig. 1. which gives I 1 ma2d2 2 1 +2 ma2b2 + mgasin8 = mgasindo 3 1 . C O S = ~ . or e = 133. 1198 A uniform plank of length 2a is held temporarily so that one end leans against a frictionless vertical wall and the other end rests on a frictionIess floor making an angle 6 = 60 with the floor. Solution: (a) As no friction is involved mechanical energy is conserved.81v.e.167.0.05Rg = i. = 2.Newtonian Mechanics 321 These equations give 3 R g c 0 ~ 8 2Rg .
dZCOSe 8sinB. being the value of 0 when the upper end of the plank leaves the wall.sineo . Nl = m2 = 0. 3 i. At the instant the plank ceases to touch the wall. 4a Substituting this and (1) in the above we have sin 8 = 2(sin 80 . (b) Take coordinates as shown in Fig. . = Differentiating (1) we have 39 e*. 1.sin 0 ) .ma2 is the moment of inertia of the plank about a horizontal axis through its center of mass. or 2 ad2 = g(sin8o .e. Thus 2 = a(h2 cose + esino) . The forces on the plank are as shown in Fig. or 2 sin8 = . i.e.167. 1.sine) 3 Note that the factor . The center of mass of the plank has horizontal coordinate x = acose .e.167. = case. and that the negative sign is to be used for d as 0 decreases as t increases.322 Problems Ed Solutions on Mechanics i.
1.168. . Hence e=e. the equations of motion are Nmg=mji. 2 12 where y is the vertical coordinate of the center of mass and &mL2 is the moment of inertia about a horizontal axis through the center of mass of the stick. 1 2 as initially e=o.168).Newtonian Mechanics 323 1199 A thin uniform stick of mass m with its bottom end resting on a frictionless table is released from rest at an angle 80 to the vertical (Fig.168. As = LcOse. (UC. Find the force exerted by the table upon the stick at an infinitesimally small time after its release. the forces acting on the stick are the normal s u p port N and the gravity mg as shown in Fig. Within an infinitesimal time of the release of the stick. 1. 1.. Berkeley) Fig. 1 1 NLsinBo = mL28. Solution: As there is no friction.
VB. ( e << 1 m) as shown in Fig. and it extends from x = (1 e ) m to x = e m. Solution: Let I be the impulse rod A exerts on rod B during the collision. the positive y direction. W A .y).mLd.tLtnbia) + Y Y t Fig. x = 0 to 2 = 1 m. Check for equality of energy before and after collision.3N sin2do .324 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics N = m +mji g =m g = mg 1 . 1.sin 60 2 . Rod A is moving at 10 m/s in the positive y direction.169. Fig.169.e. be the velocity of the center of mass and the angular . Find the subsequent motion of the rods. 1. Its direction is the direction of the motion of A. Let 'UA. Rod B is initially at rest at y = 0. or N= *g 1 + 3sin2do 1200 Two long uniform rods A and B each 1 m long and of masses 1 kg (A) and 2 kg (B) lie parallel to each other on a frictionless horizontal plane (x. Rod A reaches y = 0 at t = 0 and collides elastically with B.. ignoring the possibility of subsequent collisions.170. W B . 1. ( Co2. i.
1. as shown in Fig. 1 1 .10rad/s 61 m B for the subsequent motion.2 and after collision is Hence the equality of energy holds. B by m A . The energy of the two rods before collision is 1 E.Newtonian Mechanic8 325 velocity about the center of mass of A and B respectively..10) . us=.I = m 2 12 1 1 AWA I=mBvB ..1*1O2=50 J '.170. m B respectively. .= 20 rad/s m A 61 .I = m 2 12 B W B . The condition of elastic collision means that the relative velocity of the points of collision remains the same in magnitude but reverses in direction: The above equations give WA = . Denoting the masses of A. . we have I = m A ( V A .
Given that the moment of inertia of a sphere is i M R 2 . 7 h=R. find the value of h for which the ball will roll without slipping. ( Wisconsin) Fig.326 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1201 A billiard ball of radius R and mass M is struck with a horizontal cue stick at a height h above the billiard table as shown in Fig.R ) ' The ball will roll without slipping if v = Rw.171. As the ball is at rest initially. 1. the velocity of its center of mass and the angular velocity after impact satisfy v = 2R2w 5(h . We have the equations of motion MAv = f a t .171.R) .R) = 2R or . which yield AU = 2R2Aw 5 ( h . Hence we require 5(h .R)At with I = i M R 2 . 5 . 1. Solution: Suppose that f is the impact force on the ball exerted by the stick and that it acts for a time At causing a change of momentum of the ball of M A v and a change of its angular momentum about the center of mass of IAw. IAw = f ( h .
and as the center of mass of the ball is momentarily at rest after the collision. Assume that no slipping occurs at the impact point. 1.172. and remember that the moment of inertia of a solid sphere with respect to an axis through its center is .h) + ma 2w = mva . 1. Find.Ma2. 5 . We have 2 7 J = mv(a . respectively. in terms of h and a. Conservation of angular momentum requires ma 1 7 2w 5 yielding 7mvamvh  . the minimum velocity for which the ball will “trip” up over the step. Solution: Let LJ and w’. J and J be the angular velocity of the ball with respect ‘ to its center of mass and its angular momentum about the point of impact A before and after collision with the step.mvh 5 5 as v = au for rolling without slipping.Newtonian Mechanica 327 1202 A uniform solid ball of radius a rolling with velocity v on a level surface collides inelastically with a step of height h < a. as shown in Fig. ( Wisconsin ) Fig.172.
328 Problems tY Solutions on Mechanics In order that the ball can just trip up over the step. its kinetic energy must be sufficient to provide for the increase in potential energy: 1 I Iw 2 I2 =mgh. Fll and F l . ql and FL in terms of 8. and at a later time t the door will be passing through the position shown in Fig. L and a. but do not attempt to integrate. You may assume that the door has mass m uniformally distributed along its length L.173(b) such that the door makes an angle 8 with its original orientation. (b) Express 8 = &?/dt2. The door will begin to close. (c) Write down.173(a). (a) Using 0 and its time derivatives to describe the motion. where I' = :ma2 +ma2= . m. 1. (MIT) . FIIis the component of the force parallel to the door in the plane of the diagram and F l is the component perpendicular to the door.ma2 is the moment of inertia of the ball about a horizontal axis through A. of the force exerted on the door at the hinge to the kinematic quantities. write down dynamic equations relating the two components. yielding 1203 A parked truck has its rear door wide open as shown in the plane view in Fig. Hence the minimum velocity required is given b Y ma2 (1 7 10 E)2(>:a = mgh. 1. an expression for the total time elapsed from the start of acceleration to the closing of the door. At time t = 0 the truck starts to accelerate with constant acceleration a.
1 2 L F l = 1 2 mL2e .macos0 = mL8. 4 A0 8 = integrating the expression for 0 and noting that 0 = 8 = 0 initially we have . as (b) The above equations give . In this frame a fictitious force ma acting at the center of mass is included in the equations of motion: 1 * F l .Newtonian Mechanics 329 (b) Fig. 12 1 where &mL2 is the moment of inertia of the door about an axis perpendicular to the top edge of the door through the center of m s . 3asin8 82 = L ' whence 3 5 q = masin8 + masin8 = masin8 .. the center of m s as of the door has components of acceleration i L 8 perpendicular to the door and 3L8' parallel to the door. 1.173(c).masine = m~8' . 1. Solution: (a) In a frame attached to the accelerating truck. 0 = 3 ~ ~ 0 ~ 8 2L ' 1 Fl = macos8. l 2 2 i$. . The directions of ql and F l are as shown in Fig.173. 2 1 4 .
As the total : < . How far does the wedge move in this case? (c) In which case does the cylinder reach the bottom faster? How does this depend on the radius of the cylinder? (UC. Berkeley) Fig.( cos8. (a) How far has the wedge moved by the time the cylinder has descended from rest a vertical distance h? (b) Now suppose that the cylinder is free to roll down the wedge without slipping.174.174). let x be the horizontal coordinate of the center of mass of the wedge. In a fixed coordinate frame. 1.330 Pmblems 3Solutions on Mechanics g= dt /y1 the total time elapsed from start of acceleration to the closing of the door is 1204 Consider a solid cylinder of mass rn and radius r sliding without rolling down the smooth inclined face of a wedge of mass M that is free to move on a horizontal plane without friction (Fig. Solution: (a) Let be the distance of the center of mass of the cylinder from its initial position. The horizontal component of the velocity of the cylinder in the fixed frame is j . 1.
M k 2 =mgcsinO 2 2 with I = i m r 2 . . (M+ m)k = m i c o s 6 . (sin 6 ) and that of the wedge has velocity (i. As the center of mass of the cylinder has velocity (x i COB 6.m)z = mccose . sliding cylinder. = 2 and for the rolling cylinder. we have. conservation of the horizontal component of the total linear momentum of the system still holds. Without loss of generality we set 5 = 5 = 0 at t = 0. since the system is initially at rest. x= mh msm case = Mi M+mCOte. (c) Conservation of the total mechanical energy of the system holds for both cases. @ = f for rolling without sliding. it has moved a distance = and the wedge has moved a distance < A. (b) If the cylinder is allowed to roll.cos q2 2 1 i 1 +.Newtonian Mechanic8 33 1 momentum of the system in the x direction is conserved. we have for the 0). When the cylinder has descended a vertical distance h. Integration of the above then gives ( M 3. It follows that the result obtained in (a) is also valid here.icose) = o . m [ 4(M m) + 3 + ~ ( l + 2 sin2 e)]i2 mgt sin 8 .m [ ( i . the above respectively reduce to m (M 2(M m) + + m sin26)i2 = mgt sin 6 . ~i giving + m ( i . m = . 1 1 1 m[(kicos8)2+i2sin2B]+ 51q32 + . As i= () m m M+ icose .i" sin' e] + ~i~ mgt sin e .
As ( = 0 at t = 0. We have .176. 7 . the sliding cylinder will take a shorter time to reach the bottom. Solution: Consider the instant when the horizontal rope is suddenly cut. 1. identical to each other. By symmetry the forces which the two legs exert on each other at the hinge A are horizontal and the acceleration of A. 3. 1205 A stepladder consists of two legs held together by a hinge at the top and a horizontal rope near the bottom. and neglect all friction. Consider one leg of the stepladder. Let 1 be the length of the leg and a~ the acceleration of its center of mass C at the instant the rope is cut. a A l is vertically downward. Fig. and it rests on a horizontal surface at 60" as shown in Fig. (VC. 1. what is the acceleration of the hinge at that instant? Assume the legs to be uniform. 1. The forces acting on it are as shown 16 in Fig. Berkeley) A 60' 60' Fig.332 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics These equations have the form ( = bJT.175. 1. A.175. 3M+m(l+2sin28)2(M+msin28) = M + m > O . If the rope is suddenly cut. integration gives t = Hence for the same ( = t0 : As id.
has components Consider now the acceleration a8 of point B. At the instant the rope is cut it has only a horizontal component.10cos60° = acy .F1sin6O0 = I8 2 2 with I = Aml2. Thus aBy = 0.A F = mle. i. 1 1 Nlcos60" .or 1 N . Using these in the equations of motion for C we find which gives the acceleration of the hinge as directed vertically downward. 3 The velocity of A in terms of the velocity of C are given by Hence aA.Newtonian Mechanics 333 mgN=mac. . ac.which is in the y direction.18 = 0 The above consideration gives 1 2 ** 1 4 ** .. F = mace . .e.
1 + . 1207 A uniform thin cylindrical rod of length L and mass m is supported at its ends by two massless springs with spring constants kl and k 2 . 1 1 mu2 = Mu: 2 2 . Calculate M .177.177. After the collision. be the velocity of the center of mass of the rod and w the angular velocity of the rod about the center of mass. In equilibrium the rod is horizontal. Conservation of momentum and that of energy of this system give mu = Mu. Conservation of the angular momentum of the system about a fixed point located at the center of the rod before collision gives 1 1mv = I w .178.Iw2 2 with I = M12. 1 being the length of the rod. 1. m is stationary. You are asked . Solution: Let v. (MIT) Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. 1. 2 The above equations give M=4m.334 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics 1206 A particle of mass m and speed v collides elastically with the end of a uniform thin rod of mass M as shown in Fig.
Find the normal mode eigenfrequencies. As the displace ment of the center of mass C is i(y1 + y2).For ]El = k2 = k.L ( k l y l . Find the eigenfrequencies of the normal modes and describe the corresponding normal mode motions..b y 2 . we have Id = .Newtonian Mechanics 335 to consider smallamplitude motion about equilibrium under circumstances where the springs can move only vertically. (b) Now consider the general case where kl and kz axe not necessarily equal.$2 = (PI 6k m . 1.178.178.y2) . 1 2 For smallamplitude rotation about the center of mass. the equations of motion $1 2k + ji2 = (y1 + yz) . its equation of translational motion is 1 p ( j i 1 + ji2) = .~ Y I . Solution: (a) Let y1 and 312 be the vertical displacements from the equilibrium position of the two ends of the rod as shown in Fig. 0 reduce to M y . m 5 1 . (Princeton) Fig. . 1. (a) First consider the special case kl = k2. Here you might well be guided by intuitive reasoning.k2y2) with I = &mL2.
= . The equations of motion now give e. (ii) Asymmetric mode Y a = y1 . 1 ~ 4  L (t + i m L ) (kl + k2)w2 Lklk2 = 0 .$w2 2 =o.9 2 = A2eiwi.@. + or m2w4 . Iw2 1 $Lk2 . in .Y 2 with eigenfrequency w.w2 k2 . let y1 = AleiWt.h ( k 1 + k2)w2 + 12klk2 = 0 .where w is the eigenfrequency of oscillation. Solving for w2 we obtain the eigenfrequencies Note that for kl = agreement with (a). (i) Symmetric mode Y B = y1 with eigenfrequency wd = This mode corresponds to vertical harmonic oscillation of the rod as a whole. k2 = k .Iwa p l 1. (b) For the general case kl # k2. this expression gives w = @./$$ + y2 For a nonzero solution we require 1 kl .e. J. This mode corresponds to harmonic oscillation about a horizont axis perpendicular to the rod and through its center of mass.336 P r o b l e m B Solutions on Mechanics Hence there exist two normal modes.
The wheel is “dynamically balanced”. (MITI t Fig.179. What conditions must the components of w satisfy? Sketch the permitted motion(s) .Newtonian Mechanics 337 1208 A rigid wheel has principal moments of inertial I1 = I2 # I3 about its bodyfixed principal axes 21. say. 1. 1. i. 85 shown in Fig. it can rotate at constant w # 0 and exert no torque on its bearing. we see that (3) can be readify integrated to give w3 = constant = R . 8 2 and x3.179.e. The wheel is attached at its center of mass to a bearing which allows frictionleas rotation about one spacefixed auis. We then rewrite (1) and (2) as .
z y) 7 ( ) w. 1. As w3 = is a constant the total angular velocity vector w makes a constant angle 0 with the x3axis as shown in Fig. = . All external influences (including gravity) are negligible.a X i s with an angular velocity a.179.13 w1= a 2 w1 . Furthermore the plane of w and 2 3 rotates about the 2 3 . which is a constant. . w2 = wo sin(at +E ) . Hence the total angular velocity has magnitude w= 4 2n a = di5q. or a period  2nI (13 . equations gives 2 w1 =  ( . mention any assumptions made. (a) Use Newton’s law to show that angular momentum is conserved. 1209 A rigid body is in space. 1.I ) n * The motion.179. is sketched in Fig. which is the only one allowed. where a = (?)a.338 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics w1=  (T) z 13  Rw2 . The general solution is w1 = wo cos(at +E). Differentiating these which are the conditions that must be satisfied. w2 = (7)z 13  awl .
. 1. . . Must its axis of rotation have a fixed direction? Justify your answer briefly. each such sum adds up to zero. Consider n n n i i j#i By Newton’s third law. 3r Y both acting along the same line joining the two particles. As there axe no external forces. . only internal forces act. This means that the doublesummation on the righthand side of (1) consists of sums like ri x F. As shown in Fig. Hence n Then or L = constant.j is the force acting on mi by particle mj of the rigid body. ( UC. the internal forces Fij occur in pairs such that Fy .Berkeley) Solution: (a) The angular momentum of a rigid body about a fixed point 0 is defined as n where r.j + r. which consists of n particles.180.Newtonian Mechanic8 339 (b) Suppose the center of mass of the body is at rest in an inertial frame. is the radius vector from 0 of a particle mi of the rigid body. and according to Newton’s second law n where F.F.. x Fj.
so that the angular momentum L of the body about the center of mass is a constant vector in the inertial frame. x . However.181). 1210 The trash can beside the Physics Department mailboxes has a conicalshaped lid which is supported by a pivot at the center.180.340 Problems 8 Solutions on Mechanics Fig. the angular momentum of a rigid body about an arbitrary point is conserved. Only when the axis of rotation is along a principal axis of the body is w parallel to L. Hence. the angular velocity w of the body about the center of mass need not be in the same direction as L. Suppose you tip the cone of the lid and spin it rapidly with spin velocity w about the symmetry axis of the cone (Fig. Does the lid precess in the same or opposite sense to the spin direction of w? Document your answer with appropriate formula and vector diagram. 1. (b) The above argument holds also for a point fixed in an inertial frame. ( Wisconsin) Solution: The torque of gravity about 0 is In a fixed frame we have dL =M=dt  oc OCL x mg = mg L L  x L =up L . in general the axis of rotation is not fixed even though the direction of L is. 1. That is.
1. 1211 A rigid square massless frame contains 4 disks rotating as shown in Fig. L and .183. 1. moment of inertia l o . and rotational as velocity WO. 1. Each disk has m s m.Newtonian Mechanics 34 1 Supporting QXlS ’ \  Axis of symmetry 1 c . Fig. 1.182.184. 1.J w mg \ Fig. = q.181. What is the precession rate? (MIT) Fig.182. Fig. where w.the axis of symmetry of the lip Thus hence about the vertical axis in a sense precess with angular velocity up= opposite to that of the spin. The frame is horizontal and pivots freely about a support at one corner. 1.183. . as shown in Fig.
Also use a rotating coordinate frame Ox'y'z' attached to the . 1. i. w ( t ) . and move under the influence of no torque. Derive expressions for L(t). Dm .e. w and the axis of symmetry of the gyro. These vectors are in an inertial frame with respect to which the body rotates. are coplanar. Use a fixed coordinate frame Oxyz with origin at the center of mass of the gyro which at t = 0 has the zaxis along the angular momentum vector L and the yaxis perpendicular to the angular velocity wg. C being the center of mass of the system. Let w ( t ) be the instantaneous angular velocity vector.about the pivot has magnitude L = 2 f i I o w o and a direction along OC.g IOU0 a = . (UC. a rotationally symmetric rigid body (with principal moments of inertia I1 = 1 < 1 3 ) so suspended that it can 2 rotate freely about its center of gravity. 1212 We consider an ideal free gyro.342 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: The angular momentum of each disk about its axis of rotation is Iowa with directions as shown in Fig. Let the unit vector u(t) point along the symmetry axis of the body (associated with the moment of inertia 13). Berkeley) Solution: Let t = 0 be an instant when L. The torque due to gravity is D L M=OCx4mg=~44mg. Note that L is horizontal as the frame is horizontal. u. JZL Hence dL =M=dt where 2aDm L gxL=OxL.2&Dmg 2a10wo is the precessional angular velocity. and ~ ( tin) terms of initial values uo = u(0) and wo = w ( 0 ) . The total angular momentum of the system .184. Hence the precession has a rate and is anticlockwise when seen from above.. and let L ( t ) be the instantaneous angular momentum.
185) L = L sin e cos +it + L sine sin +j' + L cos ek' in the rotating frame. L can be expressed as y' L = Ilwxti' + I1q. It can also be expressed in terms of the Eulerian angles as (Fig.185. ~ + I~ ~~ Wk ~ ~ . :(w$ + w i l )+ I ~ w & = constant . the angular velocity w ( t ) of the gyro can be expressed in the rotating frame in terms of the Eulerian angles as wXr= Osin$ . wzl = +case + + .lj' + 13wztk' (1) for I1 = I z . . the Euler equation I3i. . + +sinesin+ . 1. and 2'axes are principal axes. ~ . 1.and zaxes at t = 0. .185. .Furthermore. which also defines the Eulerian angles 8. Since the d. LsinOcos$ = Iluxl = Il+sinecos$. $. Note that initially the y'. As there is no torque acting on the gyro. Comparing this with (1) we find ~ c o s = 13wOz1 e showing that cose = constant = C O S ~ say.dsinecos+ wul = BCOS+ . cp. 1.1~1 (I1 . ~ =+ gives for 11 = IZ. . L = constant and is along the zaxis. Furthermore. and thus b = 0. Hence = + L = J I .and yaxes coincide and +O = 90 = 0. wZl = constant = wort AS .I z ) c t ~ ~ ~ c O .Newtonian Mechanics 343 gyro such that the z'axis coincides with the axis of symmetry and the &axis is in the plane of z'. The relation between the two frames is shown in Fig. + = wgxl we have wEI wif = constant = wgxl since woY~ woY = 0. As seen from Fig.
Consider now the unit vector u ( t ) . + cos Ook . cp = 0. we have u(0) = sin Boi and. In the rotating frame.= constant. we have for time t . 1. EIS 'p = @t. L I Similarly. What the above means is that the motion of the free. ~ giving ~ I ~ w . Consider the angular velocity w .344 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics giving @ = . z z' . in the fixed frame (Fig.185. Fig.185): u ( t ) = sin 0 cos c i p + sin 0 sin cpj + cos Ok . . 1.~ I ~ ( + c o s ~ + $ ) = = ~ e .which is along the axis of symmetry.' X \ 0 Fig. As 0 = Bo and at t = 0. symmetric gyro consists of two steady motions: a spin of angular velocity $ about the axis of symmetry and a precession of angular velocity $ about the constant I angular momentum vector L. u(t) = uoZcos(@t)i uoZsin(@t)j + + uOzk .186. 1.
+sint?osin$. 11.cos eo + +) At t = 0. w = (Gsinecoscp. that Hence w ( t ) = woZcos(+t)i + woz sin(+t)j + wOzk .wo + Hence w has a constant magnitude.$. w o z ~ ) with w = JTT. cp = $ = o SO e = e. It makes an angle a with the zaxis given by = (+ sin2 eo cos2 W 1 + + +sin2eosin’ + + cos2eo + 4cos e. and for time t = 0 Thus w = (wozf cos $. It makes an angle p with the z’axis given by which is also a constant.Newtonian Mechanics 345 w = (+sinBocos$.w are all constants. as 0 = O0. Q sin eosin cp.. woXf sin $.Qcose++) (Qsin eo cos cp.+cos80 +$) . .$sinosincp= BS 8coscp. WOz’ WOz. e = 0.8sincp. 8 = 0. .) J+ T !  + + $coseo W 7 which is a constant as +.. In the fked hame.
=0 we consider the following cases.I2)(13 . I 3 . the coefficients on the righthand side of the above are both negative and the equations of motion have the form of that of a harmonic . Explain this analytically using Euler’s equations.W3W1(13 . but not exactly aligned with.I 1 ) =0 .11) I 3 Ia w3 .WzW3(12 .I 2 . i. As Iw( = constant and w = to be constant to first order. . the motion is f w i wz x W I . .W1W2(I1 . we can take w 1 stable. One finds that the motion is in fact stable for the principal axes corresponding to I1 and Is.346 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics The precessions of w about L and u are depicted in Fig. the largest and the smallest moments of inertia. using Euler’s equations for zero torque I l k 1 . If w 2 . I 3 be the principal moments of inertia (relative to the center of mass) of a rigid body and suppose these moments are all different with I1 > I 2 > 13. Then. Then dw: + 4 = w:(Il . As I 1 > I 2 . If the body in free space is set to spin around one of the principal axes. ( CUSPEA ) Solution: Let W ~ .1 2 ) = 0 . 1. What happens if the initial spin axis is very close to.e. w 3 remain small in the subsequent rotation. it will continue spinning about that axis. However. 1213 Let I I . W Z .1 3 ) I 2 k 2 .186. Note that u itself precesses about L. a principal axis? Stability implies that the spin axis never wanders far from that principal axis. Wbe the components of the angular velocity along the ~ principal axes. w1 >> w 2 . (i) Suppose initially w directs almost parallel to the zaxis. w 3 . we axe concerned about the stability.
The ball is in a uniform gravitational field. (ii) If o initially is almost parallel to the yaxis. The same conclusion is drawn if w is initially almost parallel to the zaxis. The same consideration gives As 12 > 1 3 . 8 is fixed). Give the relation between w and R (you may assume R/1< 1 though this is not necessary for the form of the solution). the coefficients on the righthand side are both positive and the motion is unstable at least in firstorder approximation. 1214 A spherical ball of m s m. . Hence the motion is stable.e. Supposing the ball and the rod rotate about the zaxis without nutation (i. radius R and uniform density is attached as to a massless rigid rod of length 1 in such a way that the ball may spin around the rod. 1. Does the ball move in a righthanded or a lefthanded sense about the zaxis? (Columbia) Fig. the angular velocity of the rod and ball about the zaxis is w . I I > I2. Thus w2 and w3 will oscillate about same equilibrium values and remain small.187. and the ball spins about the rod with angular velocity R. say that of the earth.Newtonian Mechanics 347 oscillator.
b = 0. .= 8ee + sin 8e. Assume that the rotor can be approximated by a thin circular ring (i. @mlsin Oe. 1. the ball moves in a righthanded sense about the zaxis. 8 is a constant. As de. = le. (In working out this problem it is simpler when writing the angular velocity of the rotor . .e. 1c. is fixed. we have where M is the torque due to gravity.187) is L = mR2@e. . x mg(e. As e. = mR2fler 2 5 2 5 + m12sin2Owe. Taking into account the rotation of the earth. the above becomes 2 mR2Rwsin8e. . the spokes and other parts are of negligible mass).348 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Solution: The orientation of the ball can be described in terms of the Eulerian angles 8. show that an orientation with the axis of spin along the local northsouth is stable and find the period for small oscillations of the spin axis about this direction. As there is no nutation. 5 Hence w= 2R2R ' As + = w > 0. in cylindrical coordinates. cp. dt + = w sin 8e. (Problem 1212). 1215 A gyroscope at latitude 45"N is mounted on bearings in such a way that the axis of spin is constrained to be horizontal but otherwise no torques occur in the bearings. The angular momentum of the ball about the origin 0 (Fig. + 1sin 8 .) = ImgsinOe.
The angular momentum then has components ( C w . A respectively. and the moments of inertia about the x. by C . has the origin 0 at the center of mass of the rotor. O . R Jz 1) . 1. the z'axis pointing vertically up and the 2'axis pointing north. In the fixed frame.Ad) in the rotating frame. and (Cw cos 8. ( VC. about the xaxis (Fig. Berkeley) Solution: Use an inertial frame Ox'y'z' fixed with respect to a distant star which. zaxes.0.188. A . . the earth's rotational angular velocity at latitude X = 45"N has components R(cos45". 1. Cw sin 8. and a rotating frame Oxyz attached to the earth with the same zaxis but with the xaxis at that instant along the spin axis of the rotor as shown in Fig.188.0. which are the principal axes of the gyroscope.sin45") = .188) to lump together the spin term and the term due to rotation of the earth).Newtonian Mechanics 349 I. 1. Ad) in the fixed frame. at the instant under consideration. y. Note that the z component which is the same in both frames is contributed by the precession. Denote the spin angular velocity by w .( l .I ' m Fig.
I = o I As M=(g)fix =(%) rot +flxL=O. as shown in Fig. The disk is free to rotate but it is constrained to move in a plane.189. The period is If the rotor is approximated by a thin circular ring of mass M and radius R. Each spring has an unstretched length of lo. and initially both are stretched to length I > lo in the equilibrium position. A=2a 1216 A thin disk of mass M and radius A is connected by two springs of spring constant k to two fixed points on a frictionless table top. What are the frequencies . the only torques are those that constrain the spin axis to the horizontal so that M. or Ad+  CwR for small 8. Note that for fl x L we have resolved the vectors in the fixed frame.350 Problems €3 Solutions on Mechanics Also. The last equation shows that the spin axis oscillates harmonically about the local northsouth direction with angular frequency WI = g and the orientation is stable. we have C=MR2. 1.
where I = :MA2 and p is given by sin(a . Fig. of the normal modes of oscillation for small vibrations? Sketch the motion for each mode.Newtonian Mechanacs 351 Fig. Let the displacement of the center of mass from equilibrium be x and the angular displacement be 8.189. 18 = (F2 +Fl)Asinp .190. or P + x and 2k M =0 . (Princeton) Solution: The motion of the disk is confined to the vertical plane.p) sin8 =Z+A+x Z+z’ . 1.190. To first order in 8. F~=k(ZXZo). 1.Fl = . 1. as shown in Fig. the restoring forces are Fl=k(Z+xZo). 2kx . The equations of motion are then ~ j i = F2 .
lo)(! A ) M1A w2  + The normal mode frequencies of small oscillations are therefore w1  2lT’ 2T 1 ’ and the motions of the two normal modes are as shown in Fig.352 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or sinp=(7)sine=(i)e. w2= / 4 k ( l . 1.191.e. Neglect nutation and assume that the rate of slowing of w ( t ) is small in one period of procession. 1. (a) Describe the entire subsequent motion of the top. Equation (1) gives the angular frequency for linear oscillation. Fig. l+A 1+A i. 1.191.192. (b) Compute the angular frequency of the (slow) precession. 1217 A simple symmetrical top consists of a disk of mass M and radius T mounted on the center C of the massless cylindrical rod of length 1 and radius a as shown in Fig. . The top is rotated with large angular velocity w ( t ) and is placed at an angle 8 to the vertical on a horizontal surface with a small coefficient of friction. Equation (2) gives the angular frequency for rotational oscillation.
1.192: a fixed frame Oxyz with the zaxis along the upward vertical. both the x.and 2‘axes being taken in the plane of the z. (2) a slow procession R about the vertical axis due to gravity. (b) Use two coordinate frames with origin 0 as shown in Fig. (3) motion of the axis of symmetry to come to the vertical gradually due to the effect of the frictional torque.Newtonian Mechanics 353 Z X’ Y / Fig. (c) Estimate the time required before the axis of the top becomes vertical. the total angular momentum can be taken to be approximately Further.and 2’axes at the instant under consideration. and a rotating frame Oxfyfzfwith the z’axis along the axis of symmetry in the same direction as the spin angular velocity w .192. Berkeley) Solution: (a) The motion of the top consists mainly of three components: (1) spinning with angular velocity w about its axis of symmetry. 1. ($)rot M 0. We then have . (UC. We have (%)fix =(%)rot Under the condition that the spin angular velocity w is very large. as w does not change appreciably in a period of precession.
Neglecting any specific condition of the rod. . the bottom of the rod contacts the ground evenly so that the frictional force is distributed symmetrically.1j 2 . This force causes an acceleration of the center of mass C of the top and generates a torque about C at the same time. (c) When the axis of symmetry makes an angle 8 with the vertical. and g = g(sin 8.0. the frictional force f on the contact point of the rod with the ground is approximately p M g .e. When the axis is vertical. This torque changes the magnitude of the angle 8 and causes the axis of symmetry to eventually become vertical. 1. the above gives 1 13wnsin 8 = . cos 8) In the fixed frame. Actually the torque of the frictional force about the 2’axis (relating to the z component of L) does ‘ .Mlg sin 8 2 i.cos8) . I3w) in the rotating frame.192.0. Actually only the left edge of the bottom end touches the ground. a8 1 3 = 1M r 2 2 .354 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics with 112= R(sin8. we can take the torque about C as approximately r M 1 p M g . L = ( O . O . The total torque about C due to friction is then zero. The frictional force is opposite to the slipping velocity of the contact point and has the direction shown in Fig.
Bufolo) Fig. which gives 1218 A heavy symmetrical top with one point fixed is precessing at a steady angular velocity R about the vertical axis z. What is the minimum spin w’ about its symmetrical axis z’ (z’ is inclined at an angle 0 with respect to the zaxis)? The top has mass m and its center of gravity is at a distance h from the fixed point. but as the rod is so thin the torque is quite small and causes w to decrease only slowly.193.Newtonian Mechanics 355 not vanish altogether. 1. with the axes z.e. . 1. Use the coordinate systems indicated in Fig.193. 1 9I3w = pMgl 2 or . We have for the frictional torque approximately i. z’. (SVNY. x and x’ in the same plane at the time under consideration and assume I1 = I z .
and noting that $ = 0 for steady precession. 1 Euler's equations. 0.1 3 ) w y ~ w z ~ mghsinOsin$ = IILjyj  (I3 I1)wz~w. 1219 The game of "Jacks" is played with metal pieces that can be approximated by six masses on orthogonal axes of length I with total mass M. (a) If you spin the jack around one of the axes so that there is a steady precession around the vertical (Fig. are. +cos~ The angular velocity vector w in the rotating frame has components +sinOcos$. =0 .~ mghsinOcos$ = 13Ljz. . So writing R for CL.195) what is the relation between the . I3R However for R to be red we require that I ~ W ' ~.356 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y Solution: Referring to the Eulerian angles defined in Problem 1212.194.4(11 or w 2 d4(Il ' I3 1  I3)mghcosO .the torque due to gravity is in a direction perpendicular to the xzplane and in the rotating frame Ox'y'z' attached to the top has components mgh sin 0 sin G1 mgh sin 0 cos $. mgh + (Il.13) cos0 .13)R2c o d . for Il& .I3)mghcosO 2 0 . +sinesin+. which apply in the rotating frame. . the first Euler's equation becomes R2(11. +6 as 8 = 0.RI3lj) giving IJ'=$= + mgh = 0 . .(I1. 1. I = 12. as shown in Fig 1.
Euler's equations then give ecos+ + @sinesin+. Solution: Use fixed frame Oxyz and rotating frame Ox'y'z' as in Problem 1212 with 0 at the point of contact with the ground and the latter frame attached to the jack. 0 T. The zaxis is along the upward vertical and the 2'axis is along the mis of spin as shown in Fig. 4+ dcose .194. 8 = O)? (Princeton) Side view *+ Top view Fig. 1.195. with m = (a) In the rotating frame. the torque due to gravity has components 6mgl sin 8 sin +.GsinecosI). 1.and 2'axes are I1 = 1 = 4m12 2 I3 + 6m12 = 10m12 . . 1. Fig.Newtonian Mechanica 357 spin velocity 8 . the precession rate. y'. and the angular velocity w has components esin+ . = 4m12 . and the angle 8 between the vertical and the rotation axis of the jack? (b) What must the spin velocity be for the jack to spin stably around a vertical axis (i. 6mgl sin 8 cos I).195.e. . The moments of inertia about the XI.
s = 4. fourbladed propeller.> 0 1 . B z= 0 and we take the approximac tions sin8 w 8.30' . what relations exist among the moments of inertia? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the torque that must be applied to the propeller shaft by the bearings to maintain level flight in a circle. with a constant angular velocity x with respect to an inertial frame. + where R is the precession rate. Then sin$ x (I) cos+ x (2) gives with C2 = $.358 The last equation gives wzt = 6++case = s + ocose= constant . or 3R s>+2 39 2m 1220 A propellerdriven airplane flies in a circle. (UC. (a) For a flat. cos8 M 1. Its propeller turns at a constant angular velocity d$/dt clockwise as seen by the pilot.9 . counterclockwise when viewed from above.. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Take a fixed frame Oxyz at the instantaneous position of the center of the propeller with the zaxis pointing vertically up and a rotating frame . (b) If the spin axis is nearly vertical.Hence for stable spin at 6 = 0 we require 39 2R.
z Fig.I ~ ) W = ~= M. and 11 = 21 by the perpendicular axis theorem.Newtonian Mechclnacs 369 2’ y/. the zaxis being taken to coincide with the daxes at the instant under consideration. Hence M =2 1 4 ~ .. . = d t ..~ !W~ 12Wyt .(I2 . The rotating coordinate axes are then the principal axes with moments of inertia I2 = I3 = I .196. 1. x’ Oz’y’z’ fixed to the propeller such that the daxis is along the spin axis. Euler’s equations of motion I l k z # .196. . w ~ . W~ then give for the torque M exerted on the propeller shaft as 3 = constant and I2 = 13.(I3 13&. xsin+.I ~ ) W ~= Mz# . as x = constant. Y 2 6 x . . xcos+ . and the z‘axis is along a propeller blade. = M. The angular velocity has components in the rotating frame of 11. 1.(11 I ~ ) w ~ . where II. as shown in Fig..
197. 1221 A perfectly uniform ball 20 cm in diameter and with a density of 5 g/cm3 is rotating in free space at 1 rev/s. As the mass of the flea is much smaller than that of the ball. M is in the plane of the propeller and has a direction along the yaxis of the fixed frame. . The flea decides to move the equator to the house by walking quickly to a latitude of 45" and waiting the proper length of time.M s i n $ . This causes the ball to precess.360 Pmblems €4 Solutions on Mechanics and a s M.! = 0 . How long should it wait? Indicate how you obtain this answer. Mu#= M C O S ~ M. (Princeton) 0 I Fig. 1. 1. Note: Neglect the small precession associated with the motion of the flea on the surface of the ball.197.198. Fig.. Solution: After the flea moves to a position of latitude 45" the angular velocity w no longer coincides with a principal axis of the system. 1. = . An intelligent flea of g resides in a small (massless) house fixed to the ball's surface at a rotational pole as shown in Fig.
+ $) . Let the corresponding 1 1 moments of inertia be 11. Use a fixed frame Oxcyz with the zaxis along the original direction of w and a rotating frame Ox‘y’z’ attached to the ball with the z‘axis through the new position of the flea. w has components in the rotating frame These give Hence at time t. Equations (2) and (3) then give with $2 = 1 1 wo+t. Euler’s equations are then Equation (3) shows that Wz‘ = constant =wozf . The rotating axes are the new principal axes.and 2’axes at t = 0 as shown in Fig. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 361 the center of mass of the system can be taken to be at the center of the ball 0. As the system is in free space. We assume that the flea moves so quickly to the new position that w remains the same at t = 0 as for t < 0.2 and 1 3 with 1 = 1 2 for symmetry.198. w has components . where A and $ are constants. Equation (2) then gives wvf = Asin(flt Initially. there is no external force.and 2‘axes in the plane of the z. Its solution is wXl = A cm(Rt + $) . with both the x.
the zaxis vertically upward and the xaxis along the initial direction of the bar. . or that the time required is .2fi7r 5wm (3 !7rR3p = 7r ) x lo6 = 6 x lo6 s . In other words.199 with origin at the center of the bar.cos(Rt + 7r) W W . the angular velocity w must be midway between the 2. ' This means that Rt = x . i.and z'axes. . Thus. T) = W fi. w precesses about the 2'axis with an angular rate For the equator at be at the flea house. 1. and the angular velocity vector o describes a cone in the rigid body with axis along the 2'axis. The rod is suddenly given an angular velocity w about a vertical axis through its center. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Use a fixed coordinate frame as shown in Fig. (b) the initial increase in tension in each string. Calculate (a) the distance h to which the bar rises.362 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics w wgt WZ' "a = sin(Rt + a I . 1222 A horizontal bar of mass m and length 2 a hangs by 2 parallel strings of length 2 a attached to its two ends. both the magnitude and the z' component of w are constant.e.
Let the height of the bar be z and the angle it makes with the zaxis be 8 at time t.e.199. The coordinates of A and A' are respectively (acos8. (a) Take the zyplane as the reference level for potential energy. i.4az + 2a2(1  =o . Assume the strings to be unstretchable then the distance between a point of support A' and the corresponding end of the bar A is constant. the bar is always horizontal during the motion while it rotates about the zaxis.asin8. Differentiating twice with respect to time we obtain i2+z~2a~+a28sin~+a2b2cos~=~. Thus a2(1cosO)2+a2sin2e+(2az)2 = 4 a 2 . When the bar is at its highest position h.0. it has only a potential energy mgh.2a).z) and (a. z2 . Conservation of mechanical energy then gives 1 rngh = ma2w2 6 or . 1. (b) Due to symmetry. The total mechanical energy of the bar at t = 0 at which instant it is given an angular velocity w is 1 ma2w2 E = Iw2 = 2 6 as I = $ma2.Newtonian Mechanics 363 Fig. or .
(MIT) I 1Fig. we have z = fw2. Thus the vertical force on the bar is increased by mz = . 9 = 0. I Fig. 2 4 At t = 0. (a) Compute the kinetic and potential energies of the rod as a function of 6 . 9 and w . The earth's gravitational field is in the vertical direction. (c) Solve the expression found in part (b) by a graphical technique to find the equilibrium positions in each quadrant of 9 between 0 and 2a. As this is shared equally by the two supporting strings the initial increase in the tension of each string is 1 1 AT = mz = maw2. (d) Which of these equilibrium positions are stable? Unstable? For each quadrant of 9 how does the existence of the equilibrium position(s) depend on the parameters w . m u 2 . (b) Find a general expression for the possible equilibrium positions of the rod. b and a? (e) For each quadrant of 9 make a force diagram to verify qualitatively the existence and nature of the equilibrium positions. . 1.364 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics = w . 1. 1223 A uniform rod of length 2a and mass M is rotated with constant angular velocity w in a horizontal circle of center B and radius b. z = 0. 1. i = 0. Ilf.200.200. The angle between the vertical and the rod is 9 as shown in Fig.201. The rod is hinged at A so that it can move freely only in the vertical plane containing it.
Newtonian Mechanics 366 S o ht ion: Use a coordinate frame Ox'y'z' such that the origin 0 coincides with B.the z'axis is along the axis of rotation of angular velocity w and the x'axis is in the vertical plane containing the zlaxis and the rod.i I z t w 2 . a centrifugal potential and a gravitational potential. (a) In this rotating frame the kinetic energy of the system is The potential energy consists of two parts. The equilibrium positions are given by their intersections. where I. As the gravitational potential is mga cos 8. (d) For an equilibrium position to be stable. nu2 " a2sin28+(b+asin8)2 w2+mgacos8. and + ) as sin 8 is negative. we require that . 1. For the entire system this fictitious centrifugal potential is . corresponding to a potential imx'2w2. % = 0. (c) Let the lefthand side of the above equation be fl and the righthand side be f 2 and draw these curves in Fig. 3 (b + :asin@) a . or tan8=(ad b sin8 a 4 9 . In the rotating frame. we have + + V=m 2 (b) For equilibrium. which gives the equation for possible equilibrium positions of the rod. It can be seen that one equilibrium position occurs in each of the second and fourth quadrants of 8. a fictitious centrifugal force w 2 x ' must be introduced on every mass point m.mgasin 0 = 0 . = $ma2sin28 m(b asin8)2.. otherwise there will be none. It is seen that only if f2 is positive and sdliciently large can there be one or two equilibrium positions. cos 8 .201. In the third quadrant. f~ = tan8 is positive.
 9 .sin26 ) 3 + m a h 2sin 6 ..mga cos 6 .a[ sin6I3. we have as and the equilibrium is stable. sin8 > 0.mw2 dV d6 ( b + :asin6) acos6 . the equilibrium is stable.as sin0 < 0.366 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics at that position. n].mgasin6. When 0 is in the fourth quadrant [%. . we have and the equilibrium is unstable. tan6 < 0.2n]. Then if b < :a[ sin0I3. the equilibrium is unstable.ma cos26 (9 tan3 6 + h2) o > sin 6 for an equilibrium position 6 to be stable. When 6 is in the third quadrant [n. When 6 is in the second quadrant [$. tan0 < 0.we write 1 u2 6 tan2 6 sin + bw2 sec2e  = maw2 Tb ( sin 6 ) as sine < 0. As . we require that d2V do2   4 ma2w2(cos26 . and if b > .
1. What is the wavelength of each of these modes of vibration? ( Wisconsin) Solution: As the two ends of the string are fixed. 240. By considering a small deviation 68 from equilibrium. 4.202. while for (ii) the situation is more complicated. with T and F denoting the support force by the hinge and the fictitious centrifugal force.202. 1. Then nXo = ( n 1)Xl = ( n 2)Xz = 200 160X0 = 240x1 = 32oAz . XI. Let the wavelengths corresponding to frequencies 160. DYNAMICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES (12241272) 1224 A string is stretched between two rigid supports 100 cm apart. XZ respectively. + + . 320 Hz be Xo. are for the second. (ii) and (iii). where (i).Newtonian Mechanics 367 (ii) Fig. In the frequency range between 100 and 350 cps only the following frequencies can be excited: 160. where L is the X length of the string and n an integer. (iii) (e) The force diagram for each equilibrium situation is shown in Fig. we see that (i) is stable and (iii) is unstable.we have n = 2L. third and fourth quadrants respectively. 320 cps. 240. . whether it is stable or not depends on the relative values of the parameters.
(b) Derive your result from Newton’s equations by analysing what happens to a small section of the string. The equation relating F. we can take the xcomponent of the net force on A1 to be zero. 1. 1225 (a) Give the equation which relates the fundamental frequency of a string to the physical and geometrical properties of the string. 1.203. XI = 67 cm . Thus . Solution: (a) Let w be the fundamental frequency of a string of length 1. and Xo = 100 cm . For small oscillations.203. Furthermore as there is no x motion. 1 and p is (b) Consider a small length A1 of a string along the z direction underge ing small oscillations and let Fl .368 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Hence n = 2. 0 x 0 and A0 is a secondorder small quality. A2 = 50 cm . ( Wisconsin) Fig. linear density p and tension F . as shown in Fig. F2 be the tensions at its two ends.
Newtonian Mechanics fz = F cos(8 2 M 369 + A@). O M  d Y dx’ and the above becomes d . Hence the fundamental angular frequency is 2TV TV 1226 A violin string on a violin is of length L and can be considered to be fastened at both ends. The fundamental of the open string has a frequency fo. this gives which is the equation for a wave with velocity of propagation For the fundamental mode in a string of length 1 with the two ends fixed.F COSB 1 . For small 6 . . the wavelength X is given by 1 = X/2.d2y O dx dx2 ’ by Newton’s second law.F2AOsin0  x F2 F =0 i or F2 M F . The violinist bows the string at a distance L/4 from one end and touches the string lightly at the midpoint. d sin 8 dO (F2 F1)cosO . As A1 M Ax. 1 Then f a r = Fsin(O+AO)FsinOxF= FcosOAx A6 d O dx M d6 FAX dx .
When the violinist bows at L / 4 from one end and touches the string at L / 2 . Hence the string has the shape shown in Fig. 1. 1. what is the maximum of that component of the force on the end support which is perpendicular to the equilibrium position of the string? ( Wisconsin) Fig. (b) What is the frequency of the first overtone under these conditions? ( Wisconsin) .370 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (a) Under these conditions. Fig._ .204 and. (b) The frequency of the first overtone is 4fo.204. Solution: (a) For the open string. the former point is a node and the latter point an antinode so that A0 = L . the fundamental frequency is 2fo.205. as fo o< 11x0. 1. In its fundamental mode the maximum displacement is 2 cm at the middle. the wavelength Xo corresponding to the fundamental frequency fo is given by A012 = L . . what is the lowest frequency he can excite? Sketch the shape of the string. If the tension in the string is 106 dynes. 1227 A guitar string is 80 cm long and has a fundamental frequency of 400 Hz.
= .205. where yo << A. as shown in Fig. find the transverse force F.3 1 . .= 7. = Tsin6 N T6 N Tax ’ where T is the tension in the string. The wave travels toward increasing x. The guitar string has a sinusoidal form y = yosin [w (t ..cM(wt) * 27rT 80 and F.85 x lo4 dynes 40 7T r . Then the two fixed ends are at x = 0 and x = I = 80 cm. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) y = yosin [w (t  $)I. (a) Write an expression for the amplitude y as a function of t and x. The maximum amplitude is yo. where 2: is distance measured along the wire.(t) that it exerts on the wire. 1228 A transverse traveling sinusoidal wave on a long stretched wire of mass per unit length p has frequency w and wave speed c.cm y = 2sin wt  ( 3 Hence at x = 0.. (b) What is the energy density (energy/unit length)? (c) What is the power transmitted along the wire? (d) If the wave is generated by a mechanical device at x = 0. the ycomponent of the force on the support is BY F. F .Newtonian Mechanics 371 Solution: Use Cartesian coordinates with the xaxisalong the equilibrium position of the string and the origin at one of its fixed ends. 1. At x = 0.
The transverse force the mechanical device exerts on the wire at x = 0 is (Problem 1227) fi 1229 A violin string. the energy that passes through a point on the string in time t is E d .)] ) the maximum vibrational velocity of the element is wyo and its total mechanical energy is Hence the energy per unit length of the string is (c) As the wave travels at a speed c. 0.372 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (b) Every point the wave travels through undergoes simple harmonic motion. has a fundamental frequency of 200 Hz. As + y=WyoCos[W(t.5 m long. Consider an element of the wire from x to x Ax. ( c ) Show a sketch of the string in the next two higher modes of oscillation and give the frequency of each mode. Hence the power transmitted is (d) The tension T in the string is given by c = (Problem 1225). (a) At what speed does a transverse pulse travel on this string? (b) Draw a pulse before and after reflection from one end of the string. The mechanical energy of the element is the sum of its potential and kinetic energies and is a constant equal t o the maximum of its kinetic energy. ( Wisconsin) .
Solution: (a) For a string of length 1 fastened at both ends. (c) The frequencies of the next two higher modes are 400 Hz and 600 Hz.207.0. The string has a linear mass density u and is under tension T. What are the allowed frequencies and wavelengths? (b) At time t = 0 the string is pulled a distance s from equilibrium position at its midpoint so that it forms an isosceles triangle and is then released (s << 1.207. 1. (a) Find the allowed solutions for the vibrations of the string. (b) Figure 1. The corresponding shapes of the string are as shown in Fig. using the Fourier analysis method. see Fig. 1230 A piano string of length 1 is fixed at both ends. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 373 Befoe refkctian After reflection Fig.5 x 200 = 200 m/s . the wavelength X of the fundamental mode is given by X/2 = 1. Find the ensuing motion of the string. 1 2 6 . Hence v = Xv = 21v = 2 x 0.208). 1.206 shows the shape of a pulse before and after reflection from one end of the string. (Columbia) Solution: (a) The vibration of the string is described by the wave equation (Problem 1225) . Fig.
.. each must be equal to a constant. dx2  d2A dt2 + v2k2A = 0 . 1.&A u X dx2 T A dt2 ' As the lefthand side depends only on x and the righthand side only on t. c1 = 0. t) = X(t)A(t) and obtain from the above  1 d2X =.208. Let Y(X.374 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics Y Y> X f Fig. where v = Solutions of the above equations are respectively X(x) = c1 cos(kx) 8. t) = Y(l. I X ua2y .ax2 aZy TW =o. let it be k2. t) = 0 for all t. We then have the ordinary differential equations d2X +k2X=0. we have sin(kl) = 0 . A(t) = bl cos(vkt) + & sin(vkt) . + c2 sin(kx) . subject to the conditions Y(0. c2 With the boundary conditions X(0) = X(1) = 0.
and b2c2 by Bn for integer n. Thus the allowed general solution is 00 y(qt)= n=l [ . un v 21 (b) Initially the string is as shown in Fig. Each term in the general solution is an allowed solution corresponding to an allowed mode. 1 the frequency being 1 and the wavelength being n n. n = 1. cos Bn sin sin where we have replaced the integration constants blcz by A.t) would be identically zero)..3.=. nnvt + (T)] . As the initial conditions are Furthermore. we have to choose sin(lc1) = 0 or k l = nz.Newtonian Mechanics 375 As c1 and c2 cannot both be zero (otherwise y(x.2. the string is initially at rest so . 1. (7)nnvt (7) .208. The period for the nth mode is given b Y nm Tn = 2 s .
376 P r o b l e m tY Solutions on Mechanics Hence B.=O. Thus the motion of the string is described by y(z.sin(ax) . l (y)(I) sin sin mTX dx mnx sin2 ( dx ) 7 = A.~ . sin n= 1 00 00 Multiply both sides by sin(mrx/l) and integrate from 0 to 1: Ly(z. and the A. are given by ~ ( x01. t ) = n= 1 c 89 sin (y) nmt nrx cos ( sin ) 7 (c) with v = @.cos(ax) U2 a . = C A .O)sin ( dz = m r x7 ) n=l A . . l .  Jd" 1 sin2 ~4 .. = 2 Hence = 9 [? 89 (mr)2sin xsin (7) 2 s l dx + 1 (1  ) : sin (7) dz]  mr (T> . use having been made of the formulae 1 sin(mz) sin(nx)da: = rbmn 2 J 00 1 X zsin(az)dx = .
One end is fixed and the other end is attached to a mass M. and M moves on a frictionless surface. The orientation is horizontal. (Princeton) Fig. the point x moves and the point x Ax moves to x Ax A< as shown in to x Fig. (a) Derive a wave equation for longitudinal oscillation of this system.209. The net force on the section under consideration is . Let 0 be the Young’s modulus of the spring. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 377 1231 A spring of rest length X and force constant k has a mass m. 1.210. Then as M moves to the right. where a is the area of the cross section of the spring and All1 is the extension per unit length. 1. Solution: (a) Take the xaxis along the length of the spring with origin at the fixed end and consider a section of length Ax extending from x to x Ax as shown in Fig.209.1. (b) Find the frequency of the lowest mode as a function of mass for the case where M and k axe finite and m << M. The restoring force F is given by F = aoAl/l. Write KO for au. 1 2 0 . + + + + + + 0 Fig.
We also have from Newton's second law or m KX tan(KX) = .. Thus or This is the equation for propagation of longitudinal waves along the spring and gives the velocity of propagation as as k = Ko/X by definition. B being constants of integration.being the mass p per unit length of the spring. assumed constant for small extensions. The boundary condition x = 0 gives B = 0. Substitution in the wave equation gives Its general solution is = Asin(Kz) + Bcos(Kz) . M .378 Problems €3 Solutions on Mechanics which by Newton's second law is equal to PAX(a2t/at2)x. = 0 at A. 'p are constants. (b) Try a solution of the form where w .
We then have ( K X ) 2 = . (b) Now consider the case where the string is free at one end and attached to a vertical pole at the other end. Note that this is just the vibrational frequency of an oscillator which consists of a massless spring of force constant k with one end fixed and the other end connected to a mass M . and retain the first two terms only.Newtonian Mechanics 379 which can be solved to give a series of K . and hence of the vibrational frequencies of the spring. expand tan(KX) = KX 1 + 3( K X ) 3 + . and is rotating about the pole at an angular frequency w (neglect gravity) as shown in Fig.p X ) 2 ] . For m << M and the lowest frequency. 1. 1 [l . Set up the equation for small transverse oscillations of the string and then find the eigenfrequencies.1+ . . To obtain a more accurate approximate solution.211. tan(KX) 1: K X and the above becomes w2m m =k M ' giving the lowest angular frequency as w=&.( K X ) 2 ] M or "[ : 1 x . giving 3M+m 1232 (a) Suppose you have a string of uniform mass per unit length p and length 1 held at both ends under tension T . Set up the equation for small transverse oscillations for this case.
212. Solution: (a) Consider a section of the string as shown in Fig. the velocity of propagation being = The general solution is (Problem 1230) .(x) = Tsin8 Similarly at x M TO x T +Ax F.211.) (CUSPEA) Fig. 1. mass P A X .and by applying Newton’s second law to the section we have This is the wave equation for small transverse oscillations. (Hint: the equation you get should look familiar in terms of the Legendre polynomials. 1. z+Az Note that T is constant. +Ax) M T (g) . Thus The section has length A x .(x (3 .380 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (c) Find the eigenfrequencies. The ycomponent of the tension at x is F.
F. (b) Take a rotating frame Oxyz attached to the spring with the yaxis along the axis of rotation and the xaxis along the string.p w 2 x .212..(x) = x2) ax "1 Ax Newton's second law gives . There is a fictitious centrifugal force acting on the string which is balanced by the tension. 1. The difference of tension across its ends is AT = PAX* X whence W ~ . d T .x2) . dx T = jpw2(12. 1 Integrating and applying the boundary condition T = 0 at x = 1 we find Following the procedure of (a) we have F.. Consider a section Ax of the string.Newtonian Mechanics 381 The eigenfrequencies are Fig.(x + AX).
The above q2 . 1233 A long string of linear density (mass per unit length) p is under tension T . This limits the allowable n t o odd integers 1 . Thus the eigenfrequencies are given by n(n + 1) . >> p and short length 1 such that 1 = m / p m ..213. . 1. In .. 3 . For what range of 1 values (for fixed m ) does the answer for (a) remain approximately correct? ( CUSPEA ) Solution: Divide the space into two regions with separation at the location of m.(<) = 0 at 6 = 0 only for odd values of n. The equation is then known as Legendre’s differential equation and the solutions are known as Legendre’s polynomials. which is taken to be the origin of the xaxis. (b) Suppose that the point mass m is replaced by a string of linear density p. since Legendre’s polynomials P. where n = 1’2’3. (a) Calculate what fraction of the incident energy is reflected by the mass m. as shown in Fig. 5 . A wave of angular frequency w traveling along the string is incident from the left. .382 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or for small transverse oscillations..5 )2 a2y N and let 6 = 7. However we still have to satisfy the boundary condition 9 = 0 at ( = 0. (c) Try a solution of the type y equation then becomes (1 .2< dy 85 2R2 + J y =0 . with 0 5 5 5 1. A point mass m is attached at a particular point of the string.. This differential equation has finite solutions if n being an integer. . . .
and the second term of the righthand side represents the reflected wave. In region 2 we have y(2) = BeikX At x = 0.213. considering the forces on the point mass m we have () where for y we can use either y(’) or y ’ .1 + A ) Solving (1) and ( 2 ) we have . region 1. v = being the velocity of the wave (Problem 1225).Newtonian Mechanics 383 Fig. 1.e.w 2 B = ikT(B . Then . where the mass m is located. A= mu2 2ikT t. Furthermore. l+A=B. let the wave function be where k = w/v. we require that = i.mu2’ B= 2ikT 2ikT t mu2 ’ Therefore the fraction of the incident energy that is reflected is .
using approximate numerical methods.. (b) Solve this differential equation using standard (power series) methods (the trick for transforming it into Bessel’s equation is not what is wanted). where X is the wavelength.214.214. and. by Newton’s second law. and from it. Solution: (a) Use coordinate frame Oxyz a shown in Fig. being Hence the condition that the answer to (a) remains approximately correct is . W 1234 A perdctly flexible string with uniform linear mass density p anc length L is hanging from a fixed support with its bottom end free. as shown in Fig. (a) Derive the partial differential equation describing small transverse (in one plane) oscillations of the string.we have.384 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics (b) The calculation in (a) still applies provided 1 << A. solve for the frequency of the lowest normal mode.2.214. following the s procedure of Problem 1232. the differential equation for the form of the normal modes. for a section Ax of the string . 1. 1. X Fig. (Princeton) J.fi. 1.
X being a positive number. g r dt2 dx As the lefthand side depends on t alone and the righthand side depends on z alone. Applying the method of separation of variables by putting y ( x . < ( L )= finite . We thus have the equivalent ordinary differential equations 187 =  < dx [ ( L .Newtonian Mechanics 385 or The tension T in the string at x is related to the gravity by T = i L p g d x = pg(L .x ) g ] + A < =o . . d2T +Xg7=0.x.x) .$] . dt2 The boundary conditions are i. (b) The <equation can be written aa (z.L)<” + <’. t ) = <(X)T(t)7 we obtain I d [ ( L.e. c(0) = 0.A< = 0 . each must be equal to a constant. say A. so the above equation becomes This is the partial differential equation for small transverse oscillations of the string.
=  An (n!yao ' ..... we find a1 = Xao. n=O M m m 1 m m 2 2 1 and the &equation becomes (a1  ~ao) + C[(n 1)2an+i.AU..+1 = ____ (n l ) z a n + x Hence a2 = a1 22 x = a0 x2 22 ' ' a3 z a2 = 32 (3..L)" .L)" on both sides of the equation..386 Problems €5 Solutions on Mechanics As x = L is a regular singular point.2yao x A3 ... the equation has a solution of the form <= Then m c 00 a.](Z + 1 W L )=o . a. giving . a..(x . ~ Equating the coefficientsof (x.
= 1. .5 Xmin = . f i / 2 n . T ( X L ) Z .= 1. + Newton's approximate method gives a better approximate root of f( XL) = 0. which then give the frequencies of the various modes. This equation can be solved to find the roots XL. then 1 a = 1.625 * As f(a3)is quite close to zero we can consider a3 = 1. 0.5 as the smallest positive root.25 0.. ~ ( ( Y z x 0.25 ) . according to the 7equation.5 f(a3) x 0. Thus 1.5. L for the lowest mode.XL .Newtonian Mechanics 387 The boundary condition < ( O ) = 0 then yields f(XL) = c 0 (1)"(XL)rn (n!)2 = 1 . Then for this mode and the frequency is . = 0 . 2 (yg 1 +p .if we input an approximate root cYk by calculating As f'(XL) x 1 if we take a = 0.XL+ X2L2 1 4 . For an approximate solution we retain only the terms up to n = 2 in f (XL): 1 f(AL) M 1 . ak+l..
and the result is a sound wave of frequency 2500 Hz. calculate the speed of sound in aluminium. Berkeley) Solution: (a) The point where the bar is struck is an antinode and the point where it is held a node. A = y p . Hence . (b) Fkom this experiment. Hence the speed of sound propagation in the aluminium bar is V A ~= U X = 2uL = 2 x 2500 x 1 = 5000 m/s . For adiabatic compression 4 of a gas. Does it matter which end of the bar is struck? Explain. where p is its pressure and y the ratio of its principal specific heats. calculate the speed of sound in air. (UC. (c) Where might you hold the bar to excite a frequency of 3750 Hz? Explain. The speed of sound in a fluid is  v = d " . With the bar held at the center and its one end struck. strike one end longitudinally (i. (a) F'rom this experiment. but strike the bar transverse to its length.e. parallel to the axis of the bar) with a hammer. Qualitatively explain why the resultant sound wave is of lower frequency than before.388 Problems €4 Solutione o n Mechanics 1235 A common lecture demonstration is as follows: hold or clamp a onemeter long thin aluminium bar at the center. (d) Suppose you hold the bar at the center as before. the wavelength X is related to its length L by X = 2L.P where M is its bulk modulus and p its density.4 for air. The speed of sound in a solid is where Y is the Young's modulus of its material and p its density. y = 1. a diatomic gas. rather longitudinally.
and sketch their xdependences. (d) If the bar is struck transversely. And as v=V 2L the frequency generated is lower. the wave generated will be transverse. ~ A = 2. v is now smaller.=u 4 4w 5000 . (at 30°C) . where N is the shear modulus. 1236 (a) A violin string of length L with linear density p kg/m and tension T newtons undergoes small oscillations (Fig. Write the solutions for the fundamental and first harmonic.215 (a)). (c) Suppose the bar is held at distance x from the struck end. we would have 2 . g/cm3 pair = 1. 1. x 5000 = 341 m/s .013 x lo6 dyn/cm2 (standard atmosphere) .165 x vair = 6. If it is so held but struck at the other end.83 x (b) V A ~ = 5000 m/s.7 g/cm3 I .1 m.= v 3 4w and the frequency would become 1875 Hz. As the shear modulus of a solid is generally smaller than its bulk modulus.05 x lo1' dyn/cm2 . and the velocity of propagation is then given by v = E . Y = 7. . 4 x 3750 3 Hence the bar is to be held at Q m from the struck end.Newtonian Mechanics 309 With p = 1. We have x = x= . not compressional.
i. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Use coordinates as shown in Fig. 1.215 (b)). and express the new w1 and w2 in terms of the original w1 and w2 of part (a).216 (a)) has wavelength X1 given by m.390 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Give the angular frequency w1 of the fundamental and w2 of the first harmonic.215 (a). 1. 1. The solution for the fundamental mode is y1 = A~ sin (y )cos(wlt + cpl) . Hence the fundamental angular frequency is 2av lr I?. (VC. The equation of motion for the string is (Problem 1225) from which it is seen that the wave propagating along the string has velocity v= As the two ends of the string are fixed the fundamental mode (Fig. . Repeat part (a). derive and sketch the new fundamental and first harmonic.e. (b) The lefthand 1/3 of the string is wrapped so as t o increase its linear density to 4p kg/m (Fig.
Hence for the first harmonic the angular frequency is 2nv 27r 15. L. and y and agldx are continuous at x = L / 3 . and the solution is = A2 sin 312 (T) cos(w2t + (p2) where A 2 . (b) The equations of motion for the two sections are The boundary conditions are that for all t . y = 0 at x = 0. cp2 are constants to be determined from the initial conditions. 1.Newtonian Mechanics 391 where A l l 'pl are constants to be determined from the initial conditions. Thus the solutions of the equations of motion are with and .216 (b)) is A2 = L. The wavelength for the first harmonic (Fig.
. A1cos(G) Lw W V1 +A~$cos(E) =0. =O. 2Lw =n~. .4vl n ( K 2Lw .B sin 2 =0 .392 Problems tY Solutions on Mechanics (A1 cos wt + B sin wt) sin 1 = (A2 cos wt W (&) + B2 sin wt) sin (A1 cos wt Vl  + B1 sin wt) cos (A2 cos wt (E) (E) _ W 2Vl + B2 sin wt) cos Equating separately the coefficients of cos wt and sin wt on the two sides of the last two equations gives A1 sin (&) . Az. B sin 1 (E) .Azsin (E) (&) =0 . 3Vi n = l . B not all zero we require 2 sin (Z) (&) .si )=o i..sin (&) 0 v1 cos COS (E) 3w . B l v1 c o s ( E ) +B~:COS(~) W For A1 . B1. 2 . 3.. Hence the new fundamental and first harmonic angular frequencies are .e.
A2 = A1. . the deformation o the string is given by the function f(x).ax2 v2 at~ =O . B2 = 2B1 The corresponding wave forms are sketched in (a) and (b) of Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 393 For the fundamental frequency w i .. For the first harmonic frequency wa. A2 = 2A1. 1237 A string of infinite length has tension T and linear density 0 . What is the motion of the string for t > O? ( Chicago ) Solution: The deformation of the string travels as a wave following the wave equation a21/ 1 a29 . 1. and its initial f velocity distribution by g ( x ) . At t = 0. Wl I I (b) *z Fig.217 respectively. 1.217. B2 = B 1 .
vt) =1( 2 = [ f ( z + v t ) + V J"+wt g(z')dz' + c] c + [f(x . (1) and (3) we obtain f2(2)= 5 [f(z). .vt) . + vt) + f(z .J.f m = 2 . 9(x')dx' 2 1 11 1 . + vt) + f& . ( = z . t ) = fl(. The initial conditions give fl(2) + f2(5) = f) ( .. Integrating (2) gives (3) C being an arbitrary constant. Hence p(z. I with ( = z + vt. Combining Eqs..J""tg(z')d21 V z+vt 1[f(.vt respectively. 9(X) I fib).vt) + .l :I" g(z')dz'  c 1 .394 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics with The general solution is a sum of waves traveling in the x and +x directions: y =f( 1z + vt) + f2(..vt) .
For waves of angular frequency w . define wave number k==w V 8 For waves with angular frequencies very nearly wo.= o .218.how does the amplitude of the transmitted wave depend on wo? (MITI Fig.. ax2 Tat2 the velocity of wave propagation being v = k m .218. 1. The packet encounters a bead of mass m attached to the string as shown in the sketch. Solution: (a) The equation of motion for the string for small transverse oscillations is 8 wave equation (Problem 1225) a2Y P a2Y . 1.Newtonian Mechanics 395 1238 A long wave packet with amplitude A composed predominantly of frequencies very near wo propagates on an infinitely long string of linear mass density p stretched with a tension T as shown in Fig. (a) What is the amplitude of the transmitted wave packet? (b) In the limit of large rn and high frequency (large WO).. the wave equation has solutions .
B . A+B=C. 1. or Y I 0 Fig. reflected and transmitted waves respectively. X As A + B = C we have c= 2A (z+$)’ . i. 1. Thus s .w . The continuity of the displacement at the boundary requires y1 = yz at z = 0 for all t. C are the amplitudes of the incident. and the position of the bead is taken to be the origin of the xaxis.B ) IikTC .219.396 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y where A. C = ikT(A .e.Oz are the angles the string makes with the zaxis for z < 0 and > 0 respectively a shown in Fig. The equation of the motion of the bead is m (3) z=o = TsinO1 +TsinOz z where &.219.
(i) %+ag=ba. 0) respectively. 7TEwo WO 1239 A uniform string has length L and mass per unit length p. 0) = 0.. A velocitydependent frictional force is present: if a small piece of length 61 has transverse velocity v the frictional force is kv& Using appropriate approximations.O) = 0 while y(5. (b) Find all solutions of (i) and (ii) which have the product form y = X ( z ) T ( t ) .Berkeley) Find y(z.O) = { A(Lx).You may assume a2 c b/L2. o 1 x 1 g . take a and b as given positive constants and go on. (ii) y(0. Find y ( x . instead.Newtonian Mechanics 397 and the amplitude of the transmitted wave is (b) In the limit of large m and large wo we have 2A 1 p ~ = .= A sin 0) (y) +Bsin(F) .t). It undergoes small transverse vibration in the (z. (d) Suppose.~ c x . $I x < L ( UC. If you cannot do this part. t ) . (a) Find the constants a and b in (i). The tension is K.O) and (L. ( c ) suppose Y ( X .y) plane with its endpoints held fixed at (0. . Here A and B are constants. that a = 0 and Q(x. t). the following equations hold for the vibration amplitude y z t): (.t) = 0 = y(L. ~ ( z .
b = K / p . The second equation then becomes T"+aT'+b T= (32O .z) = A.1r2b whose solutions are P* = a f d a 2 .. sin  (n3 where A. say bA2. sin(A. . i. Using the boundary conditions y(O. Thus we have x" + A2X = 0 .f i w . (b) Setting y = X ( z ) T ( t ) and substituting it in the wave equation we obtain T" aT' bX" T + T =x.t) = y(L..1r2b/L2 a = .e. or azY + at= () ay at IC p = ( 7 )dz2 . L2 2 n2.k d y / d t . each must be equal t o a constant.398 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) The frictional force acting on unit length of the string is kv = . X n (x)= A.4n2. . 3 . is a constant and n = 1 .  Letting T ( t )= e p t we obtain the characteristic equation P +ap+=O. so the transverse vibration of the string is described by pa 2 y = KaZy at2 ax2  kay at . As the lefthand side depends only on t and the righthand side depends only on x. 2 2 . X(O) = X ( L ) = O we obtain the solutions for the first equation .t) = 0. . T" + aT' + bX2T = 0 . . K a2y Hence a = k / p . 2 .
n=l Then as y (x . t ) = sin [w".sin(w5t) e .t) + D n cos(wnt)le' ) grouping the constants in each term into one.sin . = [CA sin(w. ('y) sin (wst) + . 00 = n=l A  1 c5= B and all other Cn = 0.O) = 0. w.sin(w. Hence y ( z . and thus yn = sin nrx ( [c.q w5 (") ] with . 7sin(w.Newtonian Mechanics 399 where is real as b/L2 > a2. .0) = A sin we have c = 3 (y )+ B sin (y ) C Cnsin (y) . The general solution o the f wave equation is thus n=l (c) As y(z. sin (. Hence the solution o the second equation can be f written as T.D.t)e+ ny) 00 .t) + Q cos(wnt)]e+ . = 0 for all n and we have y(xl t ) = and C C.
L / 2 _< 2 5 L . sin ( y) ( ) I sin mxx dx we have D.400 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (d) Starting with the general solution we find Cn= 0 for all n as 3i(x. Note that we have used the formula 1% x sin(rnx)sin(nx)dx = &n 2 in the above. . Then y ( x .O) = 0. O )sin (G) dx  4 A L sin mT (y) . x ) . 0) = Dnsin n=l c m = { Ax’L A( L Q 05XlL/2. As L y ( x l 0 ) sin ( ) 7 1 mT2 W dx = n=l D. Finally we have where wn = nx 4 L asa=0. = 2 1 L mxx y ( x .
1241 An organ pipe of length 1 open on both ends is used in a subsonic wind tunnel to measure the Mach number v / c of air in the tunnel as shown in Fig. ( Wiswnstn) Solution: As the organ pipe is open at both ends. (b) For this mode. 1. L = X/4.220. The corresponding period is . The pipe when fixed in the tunnel is observed to resonate with a fundamental period t. 1. Solution: (a) The pressure and air displacement as functions of distance from the closed end are sketched in Fig. the fundamental wavelength of sound in resonance with it is given by X/2 = 1. the frequency of this mode is 3w0. 1.220. L = 3X/4.221. (b) What is the frequency of this mode relative to the fundamental? ( Wiswtasin) pipe pressure . If v / c = 1/2.N e w t o n i a n Mechanics 401 1240 (a) Plot the pressure and air displacement diagrams along a pipe closed at one end for the second mode. calculate the ratio of periods t / t o where to is the fundamental period of the pipe in still air. Hence if wo is the fundamental frequency. while for the fundamental mode.++ t * I PLI I displacement I Fig.
C 21 When the air in the pipe moves with velocity 4 2 .41 = . When the air in the pipe is still. the speed for air is about 340 m/sec at a temperature for which the rms speed of an air molecule is about 500 m/sec.( . v is equal to the velocity of sound in still air. 1.221 t = A . and the fundamental period is to==. 3c 3c 2 Hence we have the ratio t _. On the other hand.c / 2 ) = 3c/2 and the period is t = 21 . c. How then can the process be quasistatic? ( Wisconsin ) .21 = 2 1 2 1 where u is the velocity of sound relative to the pipe. 1242 The speed of sound in a gas is calculated as v=J adiabatic bulk modulus density (a) Show that this is a dimensionallycorrect equation.2 to 3 . (b) This formula implies that the propagation of sound through air is a quasistatic process. Thus 21 = c . the pipe can be considered to move with velocity c/2 in still air.402 Problems clr Solutions on Mechanics Fig.
(b) Locate precisely the antinode near the top of the pipe.45 cm. .222. 48.95cm. 1243 A vertical cylindrical pipe. and 80. Successive resonances of the column with a 512 sec' tuning fork are observed when the distance from the water surface to the top of the pipe is 15. its collision mean free path is only of the order of lod5 cm. How would you criticize their work? ( Wisconsin) Fig. 1.95 cm. which is still adiabatic and quasistatic.Newtonian Mechanics 403 Solution: (a) The dimensions of the bulk modulus are the same as those of pressure while the adiabatic factor is dimensionless. open at the top. Although the rms speed of an air molecule is large. Hence the formula is dimensionally correct.34 m. So the motion of the air molecules does not affect f sound propagation through air. which are the dimensions of w2. Its wavelength is about 0. (c) The above measurements are presented to you by a team of sophomore lab students. (a) Calculate the speed of sound in air. (b) Consider for example sound of frequency 1000 Hz. can be partially filled with water. Thus dimensionally adiabatic bulk modulus N g/cm s2 g/cm3  density = cm2/s2 . much smaller than the wavelength o sound.
As d = 48.15.95 .25 cm15.45 . The velocity in air is then .25 cm and 16. and the accuracy of measurement is rather limited. (b) As X/4 = 16.50 cm X = 2d = 65. Still. Plane acoustic waves of pressure amplitude A and frequency f are generated in medium (l).00 cm .ownin Fig.95 = 80. Medium (1) has density p1 and sound velocity c1.. impermeable interface as &. v = Xu = 0. of the wave reflected back into medium (1) and the pressure amplitude B of the wave transmitted into medium (2). (c) This method of measuring sound velocity in air is rather inaccurate as the human ear is not sensitive enough to detect precisely small variations in the intensity of sound. 223. the air columns differ in height by half a wavelength: d = X/2. (a) What are the appropriate boundary conditions at the interface? (b) Apply these boundary conditions to derive the pressure amplitude A.45 = 32. the data obtained are consistent and give a good result. directed toward medium (2).30 cm above the top of the pipe.30 cm.6500 x 512 = 330 m/s . 1. 1244 Two media have a planar. ( CUSPEA ) Solution: (a) The boundary conditions at the interface are (i) the pressure is continuous.404 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) The wave forms of the successive resonances in the air column are shown in Fig. . The students ought t o be commended for their careful work.222.95 cm = 0. while medium (2) has density p2 and sound velocity c2. It is seen that for successive resonances. Take A and f as given quantities and assume the wave propagation is normal to the interface.48. the uppermost antinode is located at 0.
(b) Take the zaxis perpendicular to the interface with the origin on the interface and let the pressure be Aei(wtkl X ) A ei(wtklr) r ~ ~ i ( ka X ) w t for the incident wave. c j being the velocity of sound in the j t h medium. for the transmitted wave. 1. with kj = w / c j . For a compressional wave. Av being the change of the original volume v by an excess pressure p. (1) where M = p(Av/v)' is the bulk modulus.Newtonian Mechanics 405 A  LB Fig. z (ii) the component of the rate of fluid displacement perpendicular to the interface is continuous.223. for the reflected wave. The boundary condition (i) gives A+Ar =B The velocity of sound in a fluid is given by . Thus . Av is solely longitudinal so that A%= Av v A[ Ax a[ 8z ' where [ is the displacement of fluid layers from their equilibrium positions. otherwise the interface would be permeable.
406 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics or Integrating we have tm * ei(wtykr) ikpc2 * For the three waves we have respectively and thus The boundary condition(ii) states that at z = 0. =i B 1 or Combining Eqs.PlCl + P2C2 2AP2C2 PlCl + P2C2 . (1) and (2) we obtain the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted pressure waves: A. = A B= P2Cz PlCl . {A + {A.
Solution: (a) Let S be the position of the source at time t . (a) For w < c: a pulse of sound is emitted at the origin at time t = 0. ( Wisconsin) Y Y' I Fig.ut. the x.Newtonian Mechanics 407 1245 Let the speed of sound in air be c and the velocity of a source of sound moving through the air be v in the xdirection. Sketch the wavefront set up by the moving source.Sx'y' with origins at 0 and S.224. Write an equation relating the shape of the wavefront to other known factors in the problem. 1. Indicate on your sketch the construction which leads to your result. y = ct sin cp. y'axes parallel to each other as shown in Fig. yl = ct sin cp. Label your sketch carefully. with 0 5 cp 5 21r. (b) Suppose the source moves from point 0 to point S in the time interval t = 0 to t = t and consider the signals emitted at t = 0 and . 2'axes along OS. Then the wavefront as seen from the source is given by xf = ct cos cput. (b) For u > c: a source emits a continuous signal. Write an equation for the position of the wavefront as seen from the source at time t. Sketch the relationship of the wavefront at time t to the position of the sound at time t. yl = y The wavefront at time t is given by x = ct cos cp. We have x ' = x .224. and the y. 1. Take coordinate frames 0x9.
.t2) all these wavefronts will be enveloped by a cone with vertex a t S of semivertex angle 0 given by ct c sin$ = .. An airplane is traveling with velocity 600 m/s at an altitude of 8000 m over an observer as shown in Fig. .225. OS2 = vt2. . respectively. . 1246 The velocity of sound in the atmosphere is 300 m/s. I tv t _I Fig. . with OS1 = vtl. t z .226. Each signal will propagate from the point of emission as a spherical wave. . .c(t . . ..S 2 . . .c(t . ( t .225.408 Pmbtems 8 Solutions on Mechanics intermediate instants t l . . c(tt2). . Hence the resultant wavefront of the continuous signal is a cone of semivertex angle arcsin(c/v) with the vertex at the moving source.t l ) . . .t z ) . $2.t l ) . c As ct . At time t. . S z . 1.. 1.t l ) v ( t ..= . . the wavefronts of the signals emitted at 0. when the source is at 5'1. vt 7) as shown in Fig. . How far past the observer will the plane be when he hears the sonic boom? (Wisconsin) . vt v(t . . 1. . will have radii d .
i.JOS2 . 1. 1247 It is a curious fact that one occasionally hears sound from a distant source with startling clarity when the wind is blowing from the source toward the observer. C h. when the cone sweeps past him. and or O A = ct. The source is now at S. as shown in Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 409 Fig. Solution: As the velocity v of the source S is greater than the velocity c of sound propagation. . (a) Show that this effect cannot be explained by “the wind carrying the sound along with it”.227.d ct x AS . a uniform wind velocity cannot account for the effect. 1.227. the wavefront is a cone with vertex at the moving source (Problem 1245). The observer at A will hear the sonic boom. We have O A IAS.e.39 x lo4 m This is the horizontal distance of the plane from the observer when he hears the sonic boom. x =h / n = SOOOJ = 1. 0s = vt . Note that the semivertex angle of the cone is 0 = arcsin (c/w) as required. which was emitted when the source was at 0. Fig.OA2  Jm . 1.226. Let A’ be a point on the path of the source directly above A.
downwind from a sound source. arclike paths which are well represented by y = hsin (7) . calculate the distance s. for across the path of a uniformly moving wind. What is happening in this case? (Princeton) Solution: (a) The effect cannot be explained by the wind carrying the sound with it. temperature gradient or velocity gradient in the moving wind. This may arise from two possible causes.410 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) Wind blowing over the ground has a vertical velocity gradient which can be well represented near the ground by the formula u = ky2. Fig. at different points of the medium. . 1. with respect to a fixed observer. where the maximum enhancement of sound intensity occurs. HINT: You may assume that the sound rays follows low.228. The velocity of compressional waves in a gas varies with temperature T as @. all observers would then hear the sound with equal clarity. where y is the height above the ground and k is a constant which depends on the wind speed outside of the boundary layer where the parabolic velocity profile is a good approximation. Refraction of sound changes the direction of its wavefront. This not being the case the effect is in fact due to refraction of sound brought about by the variation of the sound velocity. (c) One also notices an enhancement of the transmission of sound over a lake. It also varies if the velocity of the medium itself varies. Near the surface of the earth. For a given value of k and of the speed of sound us. both gradients may be present and the path of sound can bend in different ways. even for no wind. making it possible for a distant observer to hear it with startling clarity.
82 = 8 + do. and V is the velocity of sound with respect to the ground. Consider two points on the sound path with variables el = 8. + vsin8 sin 8 + cos8d8. = Icy2 1 . dx s S . + (v + dv) sin(8 + do) . V2 = V. V = us 2 The law of refraction then gives us + (v + dv) sin(8 + do) . i. On the other hand the given sound path yields slrh KX dy cot8= .= . retaining only the lowest order terms we As sin(8 have + d8) M sin0 Thus or kh2  v. 21 = 2. The law of refraction is sin 8 = constant.Newtonian Mechanics 411 (b) Take coordinate axes as shown in Fig. 1 sine0 1.c o s . so the medium can be considered as consisting of horizontal layers with different sound velocities.228. sin0 = us + vsin8 .sin(8 + do) v. + v.e. 1. V where 8 is the angle between the direction of sound propagation in the layer and the vertical.. It is assumed that the wind velocity near ground is horizontal with a vertical gradient.
Vertically 1248 Consider a plane standing sound wave of frequency lo3 Hz in air at 300 K. The velocity of the wave is Here the bulk modulus M is by definition 1 M=p(?) . . the temperature increases during daytime and establishes a vertical gradient. . Refraction of sound occurs during daytime similar to that described in (b). f i . 1 being the thickness of the gas and n = 1 . . Estimate (order of magnitude) the amplitude of the displacement of the air molecules associated with this wave. 2 .412 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics in particular. Suppose the amplitude of the pressure variation associated with this wave is 1 dyn/cm2 (compared with the ambient pressure of lo6 dyn/cm2). ./k(2vs + kh2) (c) The speed of sound in a gas varies with absolute temperature T as above a lake. (Columbia) Solution: The longitudinal displacement from equilibrium of a point in a plane stationary compressional wave in the x direction can be expressed as < <= sin(kx)eawt . with k = nr/l. . where maximum enhancement of sound intensity occurs as 3= TVS . 1 sin do 2 Substituting this in the above gives the path length s. So does the speed of sound. downwind from the sound source. =Jl+(?). for some range of heights.
R = 8.31 J/mol/K. 2nu =v u being the frequency of the sound wave. We have =Av v AAX A A t x . ax Then where po = Mk(0 = p 2 k ( o is the amplitude of the excess pressure. . giving P=m=p. Consider a cylinder of the gas of crosssectional area A and length Ax. M = 29 x kg/mol. T are the ambient pressure and temperature respectively.a5 . we find t o = 4 x m as the amplitude of the displacement of the air molecules. As po = 1 dyn/cm2 = 101N/m2. Hence 50 = ~ Po pv2k * For the lowest mode n=1. k = . v = 340 m / s .Newtonian Mechanics 413 p being the excess pressure and V the original volume.M V RT ’ where pa. A A=21. Thus For an ideal gas paV = RT M m .2lr . T = 300 K . pa = lo6 dyn/cm2 = lo5 N/m2. u = lo3 Hz .
c being the speed of sound propagation. If the echoes have Doppler shift frequency components departing from 50 kHz by more than 100 Hz. Y” = v f A v .414 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics 1249 An acoustical motion detector emits a 50 kHz signal and receives the echo signal. The Doppler effect has it that if an observer moves with velocity v toward the source he will detect the frequency as . 10’ Hz. a “moving object” is registered. if the source moves with velocity v toward the observer. moving toward the detector. where or v = f cAu 2u f Av Ef CAU 2u . then v/= (+.v u./=(?)u.u c Thus the object. receives a signal of frequency and the signal after reflection by the object is detected by the detector as having frequency For the moving object to be registered. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Consider a source emitting sound of frequency u. For a sound velocity in air of 330 m fsec. calculate the speed with which an object must move toward (or away from) the detector in order to be registered as a “moving object”. Then c+v u f A u = ( c) . who is stationary. Hence the object must be moving toward or receding from the detector a t . as Au << u . we must have Au >. On the other hand.
v + 2. t= ? (&) vo 1 where c is the speed of sound and v is the speed of the train. we have 1.25 and thus . Assume the speed of sound in air to be 360 m/s.720 2v ’ 0. and the frequencies heard by the student when the train is coming and when it is moving away. What is the train’s speed? ( Wisconsin ) Solution: Let vo.u1.25 .25 = or ~ 360 v 360 . The two observed frequencies are 250 and 200 Hz.330 m/s v’2x5x104 for it to be registered. 1250 A student near a railroad track hears a train’s whistle when the train is coming directly toward him and then when it is going directly away.Newtonian Mechanics 415 330 x lo2 = 0. and thus Putting in the data. The Doppler effect has it that v1= ( vo ) cvz .v2 be respectively the frequency of the whistle emitted by the train.
5 x lo6 H is reflected z straight back by blood flowing at 1 m/s. c+v The frequency shift is then v" .229.416 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1251 The velocity of blood flow in an artery can be measured using Dopplershifted ultrasound.) ( Wisconsin) .229. calculate the frequency shift between the incident and reflected waves. Suppose sound with frequency 1.> cv . what beat frequency will you z hear between the direct sound and the echo off a brick building behind the car? (Take the speed of sound as 1000 ft/s. Then the results of Problem 1249 can be applied with v replaced by v: u q . If the speakers are driven by a 1000 H oscillator.and backdirected speakers mounted on its roof. Assuming the velocity of sound in tissue is 1500 m/s and that the sound is incident at a very small angle as shown in Fig.2 x lo3 Hz . 1. 1.. the blood can be considered to be flowing directly away. 1. as shown in Fig. and drives toward you with a speed of 50 ft/s. C+V 1252 A car has front.y = _2vv M  2vv C . ( Wisconsin) S o u n d source and r t c e tver *'))) 1  Y = 1 m/s Fig. Solution: As the sound is incident at a very small angle.230.
Newtonian Mechanics 417 Fig.moves away from the wall at speed v. As the wall is stationary with respect to the observer. ( Wisconsin) Solution: As the tuning fork. and Y is the frequency of the sound emitted.2 m/s away from a wall.V Hence the beat frequency is 1253 A physics student holds a tuning fork vibrating at 440 Hz and walks at 1. the sound that is incident on the wall has frequency . The sound s from the frontdirected speaker has Doppler frequency u l = ( " )Cu . 1. V b is also the frequency a heard by the latter. Does the echo from the wall have a higher or lower pitch than the tuning fork? What beat frequency does he hear between the fork and the echo? The speed of sound is 330 m/s. which emits sound of frequency u. Solution: The sound from the backdirected speaker has Doppler frequency where c and v are the speeds of sound and the car respectively.230. .
Solution: Consider an element of the rope as shown in Fig. 8 and p s . 1. 1. the echo has a lower frequency.? Fig.231(a).231. and the friction f . The forces acting on the element are the tensions T and T AT at its two ends. c+v c 1254 A rope is attached at one end to a wall and is wrapped around a capstan through an angle 0. (Columbia) tcs T. the coefficient of friction between the rope and capstan.2 HZ . who is moving away from the wall at speed v. the reaction N exerted by the capstan. If someone pulls on the other end with a force F as shown in Fig.find the tension in the rope at a point between the wall and the capstan in terms of F . As the element is in equilibrium we have + . hears the reflected frequency c21 cv As Jl ." = 2vv  c+v <O.418 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Then the student.231(b). The beat frequency between the fork and the echo is 2vu 2uv z = 3. 1.
( T + AT) . where C is a constant. Hence T = FeFee .Newtonian Mechanics 419 f + ( T + AT)cos (y) (y) . (b) Find an expression for the tension in the rope at the supports. as shown in Fig. each at height h above a horizontal plane. very flexible rope of length L and mass per unit length p is hung from two supports. (a) Derive the shape of the curve assumed by the rope. and a uniform rope of infinite length is hung over the two pulleys (see Fig. As T = F at 8 = 0. 1.T s i n ( y ) = O .= 0. we find N T or Integrating we have T = Cep*9 . 1255 A uniform. In . or In firstorder approximation the above equations become j ' i . C = F . Suppose the supports are now replaced by frictionless pulleys of negligible size. f=AT.Tcos = 0. HINT: A parameter in your solution will depend on a transcendental equation. 2 2 s Then a f = p. A0 A0 T .(T + AT) sin ( $ ) . 1. any differential equations which you encounter should be solved. N .232. There is no friction between the rope and the table. However.T = 0. which need not be solved. N = TAB.232). N . separated by a distance 220.
(MIT) Y Y + x : x o x. derive a transcendental equation relating h / c to a. (c) Assuming that the rope hangs in a smooth curve with minimum height c.233.420 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics / I / / If I f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f 111 I111 Fig. Conditions for equilibrium are + . Fig. Solution: (a) Use coordinates as shown in Fig. 1.233. 1. 1.234 and let the tension in the rope be T = T ( x ) .234. (e) Relate the shape of the rope in parts (c) and (d) to the shape of a soap film stretched between two circular wires of radius h and separation 2x0 as shown in Fig.dx X I X0 0 Fig. this case the shape of the curve assumed by the rope depends only on a dimensionless parameter a = h/xo. (d) Find an exact solution for the shape of the rope when LY << 1.232. 1. Consider an infinitesimal element between the points z and x dx. 1.
. As y 1 = 0 at x = 0.P9 . (3) Further integrating gives A PSX y = ..Newtonian Mechanics 421 d (T cos 0 ) = 0. C = 0 and y 1 = sinh PSX (A) . . say . / W Z. / ~ ' .' A or d ((sinh' dx and integrating. dx The second equation gives or TcosB = constant = A . we obtain P9 y') = . A where C is a constant.cosh PS (A) B + . As we have sin@= 1 dm' case= JW Ill and the above equations become T = A . Ay" = p g J m Writing (2) as 1 dY' .
Consider the tensions T ( f x o ) at the supports x = f x o . . by Eq. in (c) The tensions T(+xo) the rope on the two sides of each pulley are equal. (5). Acosh PSXO (T) = hpg . Their ycomponents satisfy 2Tsin8 = Lpg i.e. = Lpg from which A can be determined. JW = Lpg Using Eqs. (1) and (3). The tensions in the rope at x = ltxo are given by (1) t o be use having been made of Eq.cosh (6) PS (.i) Let y = c at x = 0. As y = h at x = xo. we find Hence the shape of the rope is described by with the constant A yet to be determined. we can write this as 2 A sinh P W O (A) .422 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics With the boundary condition y = h at x = X O . then c = A/pg. Hence T ( f X 0 ) = hP9 1 or. 2Ty' . Substituting this in (4)gives the equation describing the shape of the rope between the pulleys: A P9" y ( x ) = . (3). we have h=ccosh(:) .
2Ay cos e)z+dz . This equation. Furthermore.ycos8) dx =0 . . (7 ). cosh(h/m) >> 1. Then for h to remain finite. c < h. . (d) Physically. (e) Let 0 be the coefficient o surface tension of the soap. depends only on h/c. the constant is equal to c. so that if a << 1. which describes the shape of the curve. we require c + 0 as indicated by Eq.= cosh Y C h h (k). 2ny cOsel.y) on the film.= cosh C h This equation determines h / c as a function of cr = h/xo only. = o ( or i.(0 .Newtonian Mechanics 423 or . ycos8 = constant . (7).) v = Y (7) If we scale the coordinates by h. . Suppose y = c at x = 0. Equation ( 6 ) can be written as .cosh h C (tt) .e. which in term depends only on a = h/zo through Eq. as we have y =C J G p or .e. (9.$=X h' we have h' q = . d (27r. For equilibrium f in the horizontal direction at a point ( 2 . then as 8 = 0 for x = 0. This means that the whole rope is lying on the ground. i. we have .
As y = c at x = 0. the constant is zero. # ) T I 2 sin O'dr'dO' is the total mass. Suppose the body is made of gas and supported against its own gravity by a pressure p ( r ) . then 4 = q 5 ( ~ ) . z')dx'dy'dd = 2 r 7 J p(r'.z) and is placed in a gravitational potential d(z. Find f(0). then is .424 Problems Ed Solutions on Mechanics with u = y/c.y. Denote its radius by R. others are incorrect by simple numerical factors (positive or negative). What is its gravitational potential energy? (c) Suppose the body in (a) is spherically symmetric. axially symmetric body has mass density p ( x . ( 6 ) of part (c). z ) . p = p ( r ) . That is. At large distances from the body its gravitational potential has the form where p(x'. 1256 (a) A bounded. if U = potential energy/ 47r.e. 0). . y . Integrating we have x = ccosh (!) + constant . i. Hence y=ccosh(:) which is identical with Eq. yl. (b) A small test body has mass density u(z. Identify the correct ones and find the missing factors for the others. y . Some of the following integrals correctly represent the gravitational potential energy of the body. z ) = p(r.
The gravitational potential (potential energy per unit m s of test body) at a distant point P due to the body is as .235. 1. 1. 0. T O ) in a spherically symmetric potential =  MG T . Solution: (a) As in Fig. 1. Find d.Newtonian Mechanics 1 4nG 425 pr3dr d4 dr 2 ? lR(g) R r2dr ? il I 4(T) pQr2dr R ? pr2dr ? (d) The test body in (b) is placed with its center of mass at (0.236. Test body 0 Fig. Berkeley) D P Plf3 Fig.235 take zaxis along the axis of symmetry and origin 0 inside the body. (UC. For large TO the gravitational potential energy has the form  mGM TO d where m = J o d 3 x .
426 Ploblems d Solutions on Mechanics where V‘ is the volume of the body.O’)dr’dO’ .r’1l can be approximated: Substituting it in the integral gives 4 = . J p(r’.e) . (c) For a closed system of mass density p and volume V the gravitational energy is W = 1L p 4 d V .y. z ) and volume V is y. 6 ’ ) ~sin B’dr’de’ ‘~ Comparing it with the given form w find e f(0) = 2nG (b) In a gravitational potential (b(z.. As (r ..z)dJ(z. z)dV .2n r “ S p(r’.r‘)2 = r2 rr2. ’~ w = J.9 .8 ’ ) ~ sin O‘cos(0 .Y. z) the potential energy of a test body with mass density ( ~ ( z . 2 Then for a spherically symmetric gaseous body of radius R we have . + for large distances from the body Ir .2rr’cos(e’ . 4 2 .
for spherical symmetry. As the body is supported against its own gravity by pressure p .Newtonian Mechanics 427 taking the origin at its center.p ( r or + AT)]. Poissons's equation for attracting masses is or. giving Hence Outside the spherical body. we require that for equilibrium 4nr2 [p(r). Thus Thus integral (iii) is correct. Consider a spherical shell of the gaseous body of radius r and thickness AT. Hence . p is zero and dpldr = 0.4nr2pAr d4 dr =0 .
(i).')$( . dT 345 =.=I  1 8xG r R q5z(r2$)dr d LlRr2(g) 8xG 2 dr Consider now integral Thus integral (ii) has to be multiplied by a factor . . Integral (iv) can be written as pdr3 = f [.? .428 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y Equation (1) can then be written as . 8?rG which is the same as Eq.d r .i l R r 2 ($) ($)210 R JdRr2 2 dr. It can be written as  1R r d ( r $ ) l 8?rG 8nG [r3 2  I. Hence integral (i) is correct.if R lRr3$dr] = il 1 r3$dr pr . (2).
it has to be multiplied by a factor 3. What is the largest load L that can be supported . Use spherical coordinates (r'. or r2 = r: giving + rI2 + ror' cos 8' . The elastic limit for oak is a stress of 7900 lb/in2. and consider a volume as element dV' at radius vector r' from C as shown in Fig.we have dV' = T ' ~ B'dr'dB'drp' sin and can write the above as W =TO + Hence d= / %/ 2 u(T'. is 1. The modulus of elasticity. 1 (dpldl). (d) Let C be the center of m s of the test body. 1. The gravitational potential energy of the test body is where V' is the volume of the test body. 8'.Newtonian Mechanics 429 Compared with integral (i). a(#. (p1)d3 28'dr'de'dcp' sin +0 . which is correct. cp') with origin at C.237. We have r=ro+r'. 8'.236. as shown in Fig. It is oriented so as to support the load L with the least amount of bending.62 x lo6 lb/in2. 2 in x 4 in in cross section is built into a concrete wall so as to extend out 6 ft. 1. c p ' ) ~ ' ~ 28'dr'dB'drp' sin 1257 A beam of seasoned oak.8'.
The total moment of the longitudinal stresses about the neutral axis is M ( x )= s T t d A = !/ t 2 d A = . and there is a neutral plane N ' N which remains unstrained. Solution: Neglect shear stresses and assume pure bending..Berkeley) L Fig. the upper fibers will be extended while the lower fibers are compressed.237. During bending. As . The maximum bending moment occurs at the cross section z = 0 and the maximum stress occurs at the upper and lower boundaries.237. The longitudinal stress at 5 from the neutral axis in which the cross section intersects the neutral plane is where E is the Young's modulus of the material. Let the radius of curvature of N'N be T and that of the fibers under consideration T 5. including that it is adequate to equate the radius of the curvature of the beam t o . The latter thus suffer a longitudinal strain + Consider a cross section A of the beam at x.(d2g/dz2)1instead of the exact expression. 1. (uc. ! EI T T I is the moment of inertia of the crosssectional area about the neutral axis. Consider fibers a distance 5 from N'N as shown in Fig.430 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y without permanently deforming the beam and what is the displacement of the point P under this load? In working this problem make reasonable approximations. 1.
we have Further integration with y =0 at x =0 gives .238.=z I I For least bending the beam should be mounted so that its height is 2h = 4 in and width w = 2 in. 3 x 7 2 ~ 2 Y t L Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 431 M ( 0 ) h . this gives the maximum load as 7900 x 32 L= = 585 lb . Thus With 1 = 72 in. Equation ( 1 ) gives Integrating and noting that dy/dx = 0 at x = 0. limiting stress T. = 7900 lb/in2. Figure 1. 1.Llh TmaX .238 shows the bending of the neutral plane N ’ N ..
It assumes the fluid to be incompressible. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Pascal’s principle does not really violate relativity.4. which pan will go down? (b) Determine the percentage error (if any) in the measured mass rnl when the balancing is carried out in air (density of air = P A ) . will the apparatus remain balanced? If not.432 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics The displacement of the point P is therefore ~ 1 3 3EI . which is a simplified model and does not correspond to a real fluid. As the size of an ordinary container is very small compared with the distance traversed by sound in a short time.21 i n . 1259 A beam balance is used to measure the mass rnl of a solid of volume V which has a very low density p1. A change in the pressure at a point of a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid with the speed of sound. the change in pressure appears to be transmitted to all parts of the fluid instantaneously. 1258 Many elementary textbooks quote Pascal’s principle for hydrostatics as “any change in the pressure of a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished and instantaneously to all other parts of the fluid”. p2 are placed in the (a) If the balancing is first carried out in air and then the balance casing is evacuated. This solid is placed in the lefthand 1 balance pan and metal weights of a very high density righthand pan to achieve balance. ( Wzsconsan) . Is this a violation of relativity? Explain clearly what “instantaneously” must mean here.
239. The lefthand pan.Newtonian Mechanics 433 Solution: (a) The apparatus will not remain balanced after the balance casing is evacuated.PAS = m l g .PAS ? P1 pz or i. which carries a lower density solid. . 1. 1260 A bucket of water is rotated at a constant angular velocity w about its symmetry axis. and hence an object of a larger volume.e. Then m ml m g . (b) Let the true and apparent masses of the solid be m and ml respectively. will go down. Determine the shape of the surface of the water after everything has settled down. (MITI Fig. as it had been supported more by air in the earlier balancing.
You may treat the air everywhere as an ideal gas at fixed temperature.. The density and pressure of the external atmosphere are pa and pa respectively. 9 As tan0 is the slope of the curve representing the shape of the surface.as shown in Fig. 7 .240 is immersed in a fluid of density p j . 1261 A device consisting of a thin vertical tube and wide horizontal tube joined together in the way shown in Fig. Hence the surface is a paraboloid generated by rotating the above parabola about the zaxis. and subsequently the device is rotated as shown with constant angular velocity w. and gravity mg.239. ignore capillarity and surface friction. and you may ignore the variation of density with altitude. (Princeton ) . Two forces act on it: a force F normal to the surface due to neighboring water particles.434 Problems i3 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Consider a particle of water of mass m at the surface. in a cylindrical coordinate system with origin at the lowest point of the surface we have Fcose = m g Fsin0 =7 . The end of the horizontal tube is then sealed. 1. Hence w2r tan0 = . Find the height h to which the fluid rises in the vertical tube to second order in w . Finally. ~ ~ ~ where 0 is the angle formed by the normal to the water surface and the zaxis. As it moves in a circular orbit with constant angular velocity w . =dT dz W’T 9 ’ giving as z = 0 for T = 0. 1.
= w 2x p . we have p V = RT m M . or dP . Consider a vertical layer of the air of thickness dx at distance z from the axis of rotation as shown in Fig. or where R is the gas constant. 1.240. A being the crosssectional area of the tube.240. 1. As the tube is rotating with angular velocity w . Solution: The pressure p and density p of the air in the horizontal tube are not uniform.= 2RTx2’ (L) .Newtonian Mechanics 435 Fig.p ( x ) ] A= w2xpAdx . dx Treating air as an ideal gas of molecular weight M . Hence d p = dp and M RT Integration of the above gives Mw2 In . we have I ~ ( x+ d x ) .
L . As p is proportional to p since the temperature is assumed the same everywhere. dx For moderate w .436 Problems €4 Solvtaons on Mechanics where po is the density of the air at x = 0. Q is a small number. For equilibrium we have Pa = P o +&/ 1 or . Thus with a = Mw2/2RT. As the above becomes approximately POL (1 or Po" + p) M paL . po can be determined by considering the total mass of the air in the tube: i. (1 G) pa. Po 1" 1" pSdx = paSL .e. eax= = p. we have the pressure at x = 0 as Po = (1  Consider now the liquid in the thin vertical tube.
and we wait for a while until a steady state is achieved.Berkeley) z f Fig. The cylinder is then set in rotation with angular velocity w about its axis. 1. 1. subject to the influence of gravity. It is first filled with a liquid (assumed to be incompressible) of density p to a level h above its flat bottom. (d) Is the fluid flow as viewed by a stationary observer irrotational? The liquid is. is so supported that it can rotate about its vertical axis. and we assume that the normal atmospheric pressure pa prevails in the environment. as shown in Fig. The angular velocity is kept constant. (a) Find the equation for the upper surface of the liquid.Newtonian Mechanics 437 1262 A cylindrical container of circular cross section. Solution: (a) Consider a vertical plane containing the axis of rotation. Let o be the angle made by the tangent to the upper surface of the liquid with the horizontal at a point distance from the rotational axis and height Q above the lowest point of the upper surface. Following Problem 1260 we have < .241. of course.241. (c) Find an expression for the pressure p o ( z ) along the axis at a height z above the bottom. ( UC. (b) Find an expression for the pressure p ( z ) on the cylindrical surface at a height z above the bottom. It is assumed that the liquid does not overflow. radius R. and it is also assumed that no portion of the bottom is "dry".
the total volume of the liquid is = hlS . the difference in pressure between it and the upper surface being determined by the distance between the two surfaces along the rotational axis.4g 7rW2R4 z (hl  9> w2R2 rR2 . Note that each such revolving parabola in the liquid is an isobaric surface. Let h be the height of the lowest point of the upper surfaces above the bottom of the container.438 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics Its integration gives the parabola The upper surface is obtained by rotating this parabola about the axis of rotation. giving hl=ho+. The height of the highest point of the upper surface above the bottom is then w2R2 hl=h+. (b) The upper surface of the liquid is an isobaric surface with a pressure equal to the atmosphere pressure p a . w2R2 49 and hence h=ho w2R2 49 The pressure on the cylindrical surface at a height z above the bottom is therefore . 29 If S = 7rR2 and ho is the height of the liquid when it is not rotating.
where . D. The disturbing effect of the moon at a point on the earth's surface may be represented by a potential which is approximately where 8 is the moon's zenith distance at that point. Me. Berkeley) Solution: Let Re.. the fluid flow is rotational. the heights of the tides raised by the moon and sun at a point on earth. 1wy wx 0 As V x v # 0.&. h. moon and sun. respectively.. This being equal to gh.. Ma the masses of the earth. M.Newtonian Mechanics 439 (c) The pressure along the axis at a height z above the bottom is i j Y Vxv=Vx(wxr)=Vx o o X k w Z = 2wk. the distances of the moon and sun from the center of the earth. and denote by h.. what statement can you derive about the relative densities of the sun and moon? (UC. and by D. 1263 Given that the angular diameter of the moon and that of the sun are nearly equal and that the tides raised by the moon are about twice as high as those raised by the sun. R. be the radii.
(a) Show that for this material. find the radius of the astronomical object at equilibrium. there is a linear relation between the density and the gravitational potential. The algebraic sign of the proportionality term is important. under conditions of hydrostatic equilib rium. (UC. Berkeley) .pa denoting the average densities of the moon and sun respectively. As the angular diameters of the moon and sun as seen from the earth are approximately equal. we have For the same zenith distance. = ha (3 32 (3 3 Pm . 2 where p is the pressure and p the mass density. h. pa ha which is the density of the moon relative to that of the sun. What boundary conditions or other physical constraints should be applied? (c) Assuming spherical symmetry.440 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanacs is the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. J J (2) = 3 Pa with pm. (b) Write a differential equation satisfied at hydrostatic equilibrium by the density. 1264 A hypothetical material out of which an astronomical object is formed has an equation of state 1 p = Kp2.hm = 2 . we have and hence Pm .
or F=Vp. P 1 As p is given by the equation of state. or 4 + Kp = constant Hence $ and p are related linearly. then f=Vd. thus i. Then if f is the external force per unit mass of the fluid. (b) Poisson’s equation V24= 4nGp then gives .e.Newtonian Mechanics 441 Solution: (a) Suppose the fluid is acted upon by an external force F per unit volume. At equilibrium F is balanced by the pressure in the fluid. we have VP = K P V P and f = KVp If the external force is due to gravitational potential 4. A comparison with the above gives V$+ K V p = 0 . Consider the surfaces normal to the zaxis of a volume element d~ = dzdydz of the fluid. we have f=Vp.
requires wR+p=nn..442 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics This is the differential equation that has to be satisfied by the density at equilibrium.6 = x. This means f = KVp sin(wr + 0) Z + = T w cos(wr + p)] e. 3  . The last equation then becomes 47rGp d2p 2 d . Consider + + p 5 x.. WT = R. (c) For spherical symmetry use spherical coordinates with origin at the center of the object. w2 = 4nG/K and write the above as  d2u dr2 + w2u = 0 . T giving ToPo p = sin(wr T where T O . T Due to symmetry we require f = 0 at tan(wr + p ) . the radius as . dr2 T dr K Let u = p r . . The boundary condition p = 0 at where R is the radius of the astronomical object. + 0) . K= cos(wr T2 + p>[tan(wr+ p) . which has solution u = u sin(wr o + p) . . n = l .WT = p Hence p = 0 and wR = x. The boundary condition is that p is zero at the edge of the astronomical object.+ p + = o . This means that as T + 0 +0 1 + (WT +fly+. 3 . 2 . However... the density p must be positive so that that n = 1 and wR . giving = 0.po and /3 are constants.wrle. .
242. ( UC. The slab is uniform such that the density p(z) is a function of z only.Berkeley) Fig. and the matter distribution is furthermore symmetric about the midplane z = 0. Solution: In hydrostatic equilibrium the applied force on unit mass of the fluid is (Problem 1264) 1 f=Vp.242. P As there is variation only in the zdirection. as . 1. Consider the gravitational force acting on unit mass at a point at shown in Fig.Newtonian Mechanics 443 1265 Consider a selfgravitating slab of fluid matter in hydrostatic equilibrium of total thickness 2h and infinite lateral extent (in the x and y directions). 1. by a layer of the fluid of thickness dz at z: 20. Derive an expression for the pressure p in this midplane in terms of the quantity without making any assumption about the equation of state.
Applying Eq. Using the boundary condition p ( h ) = 0 we finally obtain p ( 0 ) = 27rGu2 .2 ~ G p ( z ) ( z o.z)2 J dz The total gravitational force acting on the unit mass at z = zo is = 27rG Lx0 ZO p(z)dz as p(z) is symmetric with respect to the plane z = 0.444 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics = . we have This gives for symmetric p(z) Setting cp(z0) = p(z)dz. we have dcp/dzo = p(z0) and where D = J t p ( z ) d z .Z) 1 Idr 2 + (zo . . (1) to the point z = zo and integrating.
as shown in Fig. the boat will sink a distance (from water surface) Ah such that an additional buoyancy is made available of magnitude m = PwSbAhg g giving Ah=pwsb This will cause the water level in the tank to rise by A H given by m &AH or &Ah. 1. how much does the water level rise then? (You may assume any reasonable shapes for the tank. Air is blown impulsively into one end of the tube. respectively.244. Solution: (a) Let pw and pr be the densities of water and the rock.243. St and Sh the horizontal crosssectional areas of the tank and boat. You may neglect surface tension effects and the viscosity of the fluid.Newtonian Mechanics 445 1266 (a) A boat of mass M is floating in a (deep) tank of water with vertical sidewalls. 1. Fig. With the rock in the boat. Pw st . 1. (UC. A rock of mms m is dropped into the boat. How much does the water level in the tank rise? If the rock misses the boat and falls into the water.243. if you require.] (b) A Utube with arms of different crosssectional areas A1. boat and rock. A2 is filled with an incompressible liquid to a height d. Describe quantitatively the subsequent motion of the liquid. Berkeley) d Fig. m AH=.
1 =x2 . which then causes the water level in the tank to rise a height m AH=. + p2 + u2 p a42 a 2 at  with pl = p2 = atmospheric pressure u 1 . Consider two surface points 1. 02 u 2 = ( d .446 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics If the rock misses the boat and falls into the water. retaining only first order terms of the small quantities x 1 . Here U is the potential of the external force F defined by F = VU. at distances q . Pr St (b) The motion of the fluid is irrotational and nonsteady.x2)pg . = (d +n ) p g .p84) = at constant .p841 t= p. and 4 is the velocity potential defined by v = V4. 1. v =XI. Bernoulli’s equation becomes ($1 + 22) + 9 d (51 + . x 2 and their time derivations. In the same approximation. 2. This increases the “water” volume by m / p r . it drops to the bottom of the tank. which holds for all points of the fluid at any given time t .244. Bernoulli’s equation gives 1  2Pl+ 2 Pl 1 + u1. Making use of the continuity equation . one on each arm of the vessel. z 2 from the equilibrium level d .2) =0 . and is described by Bernoulli’s equation of the form 1 pv2 2 + p + u . as shown in Fig.
Thus [p(r A r ) . where T and M are the absolute temperature and molecular weight of air and R is the gas constant. dr + The air follows the equation of state of an ideal gas PV = RT M or rn .rrrZpAr . giving dP 2 . what is the ratio of air pressure at the center to the pressure at the rim? (MITI Solution: Consider a cylindrical shell of air of radius r and thickness Ar.+=0. 1267 A space station is made from a large cylinder of radius l filled with & air. Hence . The cylinder spins about its symmetry axis at angular speed w to provide acceleration at the rim equal to the gravitational acceleration g at the earth’s surface.p(Ar)]27rrl= w 2 r . + gx2 .=pw r . where p is the density of the air and 1 is the length of the cylinder. d 2 . =0 d Hence the subsequent motion of the liquid is that of harmonic vibration with angular frequency w = m. If the temperature T is constant inside the station.Newtonian Mechanics 447 we have 9x1 2.2. The pressure difference across its curved surfaces provides the centripetal force for the rotating air.
4 )is a small fraction of the planetary radius.2 5 and consider a point P in 4 the planet. (b) Solve for the pressure near the surface of the planet using the crude approximation that the gravitational field near the surface can be written a GMr/r2. (e) For the case of earth (% = 6400 km. (MIT) Solution: (a) Use coordinate as shown in Fig. In equilibrium the external forces are balanced by the pressure force per unit volume. the equilibrium distance from the center of the planet to its poles is 4. find an approximation to the expression obtained in (c) to describe the deviation of the surface from sphericity. (a) Write down the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for this problem.e. is equal to g . When rotating.Mw2 dr Integrating we have RT p r ' i. . s (c) Find an equation for the surface of the planet. Hence the ratio of the Dressures is 1268 Calculate the surface figure of revolution describing the equatorial bulge attained by a slowly rotating planet. M = 6 x kg) make a numerical estimate of the height of the equatorial bulge. (d) If the equatorial bulge (Re. 1. as the acceleration at the rim.448 P r o b l e m @ Solutions on Mechanics d p . w2&. Assume that the planet is composed entirely of an incompressible liquid of density p and total mass M that rotates with uniform angular velocity w .
where X = . in ‘ the x and 2’ directions. 1. t r2 Substitution in l3q.8 is the latitude. pw2r cos A.246. as given. As d8 = dX.Newtonian Mechanics 449 v p = ( 2 . Then the forces involved are as shown in Fig. has to the introduced. Fig. has compe nents pGM sin X pG M cos X F =. 1.cosA Y X Fig. t F.245. 1. Let F be the gravitational force per unit volume.! = T2 F +pw2rcosX. in spherical coordinates with the assumption that the planet is symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation.sinX= aP & Tax %sinX+cosA=F. Now use a rotating coordinate frame attached to the planet such that the 2’axis coincides with the axis of rotation and the dz’plane contains OP. In this frame a fictitious centrifugal force per unit volume. (2) gives .: ). r .t. . 2 c o s X .246.o . . aP ar raX (b) The gravitational force per unit volume at P. we can write apla8 = ap/aX and have.
450 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics which. 1 h .w2rcosXsinX) .then gives aP =p dr PGM 2 rcos2 x . we have._ 1 r2 . r R = R ~ and (c) The surface of the planet is an equipotential surface. 4 = w2r2 cos2 x + f ( ~ .) 2 As 1 EL = w2r cos x sin x + 1f ’ ( ~= w2r cos x sin x . (l). .R2 = 2Rh. with Eq. Hence for the surface we have  w2R2 cos2 X 1 2 Gm ~ R = constant .h with h << R.r2 As p = 0 at T = R. ) raX r f’(z) = O or f(z)= constant. 84 dr or = w2r cos2 x . The potential (potential energy per unit mass) at the surface due t o gravitational force is GM U =  R + constant .= (w2rcos2X. The potential 4 due to the centrifugal force is given by v#= Thus ( :?Trtt)  . as r = R . its integration gives For a point a depth h under the surface at latitude A.
X = &$. 2 RP (d) At the equator. Neglect the effect the bubbles have on the mass density of the mixture (compared with pure water). where dV is the volume decrease due to a pressure increase dp.Newtonian Mechanics 45 1 At the poles. Re M 4 = 6400 km . (a) Derive the formula for the velocity v of sound waves. we have Re . 1269 The compressibility K of a gas or liquid is defined as K = . and thus find v for . 24 x 3600 G = 6.000times greater compressibility than water. Find the compressibility K of the mixture.( d V / V ) / d p . Air (at STP) has about 15. Suppose you have water filled with a homogeneous mixture of tiny air bubbles (very small compared with sound wavelengths in air) that occupy only 1% of the volume. X = 0. (A simple model will suffice. R = 6400 km. We thus have 1 GM w~cos~XR~R+GM=O. M =6 x kg .Rp = 11 km .) (b) The velocity of sound in air (at STP) is about 330 m/s. l/v2 = Kp. R = Re.RP w2RZ 2GM RP (e) For the earth. where p is the mass density. Sound velocity in water is about 1470 m/s.67 x 10l' Nm2/kg2 . 27r w= sl. R = Rp. and the above equation becomes w2RZ = 2GM (ReRp ) . * The deviation of the surface from sphericity is therefore Re . Use any method you wish.
( p The above two equations give u2dp = d p + . 1.p~ . For convenience we use coordinates such that the compressed region is at rest. pressure changes to p + d p . The change of momentum per unit time crossing the unit area is (p +d p ) ( +d ~ ~. . then the gas particles in the region not reached by the wave will move from left to right at speed u in this frame. to firstorder quantities. i. v = v 2 d p + 2 p d . Thus u2dp 2 p d v = p . The mass of gas passing through a unit area of the wavefront is P = (P + d p ) ( u + du) 7 yielding. as shown in Fig. () U + d v ) . Berkeley) Solution: (a) Without loss of generality. we can consider the problem in one dimension and suppose the front of the compressed region.~ + d p ) = dp . 1. their velocity changes to u + d u . and density changes to p+dp. propagates from left to right at speed u.e. Compare the numerical value of u for the given 1%volume fraction with v for pure water or air.247. (UC.247. the wavefront. When the particles enter the compressed area. Let the pressure and density in the latter region be p and p respectively. By Newton's second law this corresponds to the excess pressure of the righthand side over the lefthand side.452 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics Fig. the mixture.
v= 1 m ” d m = m  . . which is much less than the velocity of sound in pure water or air.e. 212 2  K2P2 . for the mixture.53 x lo4 .Newtonian Mechanics 453 For a given mass m of the gas. Hence. m=pV or d p = pHence dV V .dV= VdP 1 dG* dV1 dV2 . v=(b) For the mixture given.. and so K2 K1 = P2 (g)2 1 1470 1 1. K = .118 m/s .K1V1 K2V2 VdP V 1  + + For water and air we have respectively 2 v1 1 = KlPl .293 x = 1. Or i.
(a) Find v ( R ) . instead. viscosity 9 is pumped in steadystate laminar flow through a circular pipe of internal radius R and length L. u decreases. selfgravitating gas with negligible pressure. and finally u = 0 and expansion stops when the radius becomes 1271 An incompressible fluid of mass density p. (UC. ( CUSPEA ) . Ra and pa. The initial conditions of expansion are unspecified. Let Q be the mass of fluid that Rows through the pipe per unit time.' R where M = 47rp0%/3 is the total mass of the gas. The pressure at the inlet end is p l . (b) Describe the ultimate fate of the gas in terms of vo. you are given that when the density is PO. the pressure at the exit is p z . conservation of mechanical energy gives 1 GM  1 2"o o= . Hence the speed of the unit mass when the radius of the volume of gas is R is (b) As R increases. Compute &. a fluid element at a radius & from the origin has a velocity uo.454 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 1270 Consider the spherically symmetric expansion of a homogeneous. Berkeley) Soiution: (a) Consider the motion of a unit mass at the surface of the gas. Pl > P2.v 2 R 2 GM .
Furthermore. Then in the NavierStokes equation p bv + ~ ( v * V ) . az &/& = 0 for steadystate motion. v = v ( T ) . and the external force per unit volume F is zero provided gravity can be neglected. This becomes for v = v(r)e. T Integration gives (71. z ) with the zaxis dong the axis of the pipe. as v = v. As the righthand side of the first equation depends on while p is a function of z. either side must be a constant. cp. V at av* (v V)v = 21. we have v p = qv2v .pz. For laminar flow the velocity v of the fluid has components 21. which is T aP az PZPl AP L L ' where Ap = pl . = UV = 0. =v . =0 .vV2v + Vp = F . Hence ( T S ) = (Z) . . because of symmetry.. 21.e. Cz being constants.(T).Newtonian Mechanics 455 Solution: Use cylindrical coordinates ( T . v(R)= 0 . As V(T) = finite .
1272 (V 3 A sphere of radius R moves with uniform velocity u in an incompressible V(Z) = 0. Define the velocity potential qI by v = vqI . (c) What is the force necessary to keep the sphere in uniform motion? (Columbia) Fig.2nrdr = ~ n p ~ 4 ~ p 87 1L . 1. Use spherical coordinates ( r .248. 'p) with origin at the center of the sphere such that the velocity of the Auid is in the direction 0 = n. v(z) being the velocity of the fluid). Solution: We can consider the sphere as being at rest while the fluid flows past it with velocity v = u as shown in Fig.r2) The mass of the fluid flowing through the pipe per unit time is then Q =p / 0 R v .8. ideal fluid. 1. (b) Calculate the pressure distribution over the surface of the sphere. (a) Determine the velocity v of the fluid passing any point on the surface of the sphere.248. nonviscous.456 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics we reauire Hence AP v = (R' 47 7L .
The general solution of Laplace's equation is As the geometry is cylindrically symmetric. A # \ m we require bn = 0 for all n # 1 and bl = uR3 1 2 .. Thus 4 satisfies Laplace's equation.. are arbitrary constants. v = V2$ = 0 . As . and $=O for r+oo as = u = constant at large distances from the sphere. . 2r2 .Newtonian Mechanics 457 The incompressibility of the fluid means that v . we require a = 0. Hence uR3 ~ = . As 4 = 0 for r + 00. Thus we have 'p and we 'Cs) where P ( o 8 are the Legendre polynomials. $ is independent of have to take rn = 0. b. The boundary conditions are as the surface of the sphere is impenetrable.c ~ e . and a.
where the pressure is or p ( ~ ).usin0eg 2 . = pu2 sin20 6 8 3 + po . This gives the distribution of the pressure over the surface of the sphere. 6 ) on the surface of the sphere and a point at infinity. . Consider a point (R. where U = constant if there is no external force. 6 ) on the sphere the velocity of the fluid is 1 = ucosOe.458 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (a) At a point (R. (b) Bernoulli’s equation for the irrotational steady flow of a nonviscous. incompressible fluid is pv2 1 2 + p + I/ = constant . = J pc0~6dS =O Hence no force is required to keep the sphere in uniform motion. This can be anticipated as the sphere moves uniformly without friction. (c) The net total force exerted by the pressure on the sphere is in the direction of u and has magnitude F. .
PART I1 ANALYTICAL MECHANICS .
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Solution: (a) In polar coordinates ( r . (a) Write down the Lagrangian. r d ) . where ro is the rest length (hanging with mass m). Under what conditions will the X motion resonate? Can this be realized physically? ( Wisconsin) WE Fig. (c) Discuss the lowest order approximation to the motion when X and 8 are small with the initial conditions 8 = 0. 1 v = mgrcos8 + 2 k ( ~ 10)' . (d) Discuss the next order approximation to the motion. 2. the mass m has velocity v = ( f . A and B are constants.k(r + 2 2 46 1 1 1  . X = A .1. 8 ) as shown in Fig. . 4 = w p B at t = 0.  k being the spring constant.1. = =g/ro. The motion of the system is only in one vertical plane. 2. Use w." k/m. Thus 1 T = m(i2 2 + T W ). X = (r . The Lagrangian of m is therefore L = T .1. 2. (b) Find Lagrange's equations using variables 8.ro)/ro.V = .1.m ( f 2+ r2e2) mgr cos 8 . LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS (20012027) 2001 A massless spring of rest length lo (with no tension) has a point mass m connected to one end and the other end fixed so the spring hangs in the gravity field as shown in Fig. = 0.
case) = o .. (c) When X and B are small.(1+ x ) e 2 . with w. wi = 6 . gives mr2e + 2rnrf8 + mgr sin 8 = o .A.(i.sine = o . Thus with X = ( r . i + (w.lo) = 0 .mgcos8 + k(r . e+w. we can neglect second order quantities in 8.462 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics (b) gives mi: . kX m + 79( 1 70 cos8) = 0 ." e2)x . ." = 9 + 2 i e + .ro)/ro we have and the equations of motion become i + . The rest length of the spring with mass m hanging. is given by Hooke's law k(r0 .e=o . TO $. 8. ro.mre2 . and the equations of motion reduce to i.+w. (1 + ~ )+e2 i 4 + w.l o ) = mg . (1 + or.d2 + w."X=O. A.sinO = o.
1 4 1 + Thus A may resonate if w. and w. the coordinates of the center of mass of the larger disk.' 2  Using the results of the lowest order approximation. a A+u.Analytical Mechanics 463 in the lowest order approximation. (d) If we retain also terms of the second order. . invalidating the original simplified model. the angle of rotation of the larger disk . we find A = Acos(w. = 2wp. Furthermore the nonlinear properties of the spring will also come into play.wp2e2 . the two oscillations differing in phase by 7r/2.e = o . so that it can rotate without friction on the first disk as shown in Fig.y.2.A2 ."X x B2w~[2cos2(wpt) sin2(wpt)] 2 = B2~~[3cos(2wPt)1 . However this is unlikely to realize physically since a the amplitude of X increases toward a resonance the s lowest order approximation no longer holds and higher order effects will take place. the equations become e . the first equation above can be approximated as 1 + w. Describe the motion and identify its constants.t) 8 = Bsin(w. For the given initial conditions. Thus A and B each oscillates sinusoidally with angular frequencies w. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Take generalized coordinates as follows: x. Another disk of mass m and radius T is pinned through its center to a point off the center of the first disk by a distance b. respectively.t) . 2002 A disk of mass M and radius R slides without friction on a horizontal surface. 0. 1 2 (1+ ~ )+e i d + w. 2.
2.~ ( +~ ~ + k 2 ) 2 4 Consider Lagrange’s equations .3.464 P r o b l e m d Solutions on Mechanics A @> X lMal Fig. and velocity components I/ + bsin0 Hence the total kinetic energy of the system of the two disks is T = . 2.b8sin0)~+ (6+ M j c o s ~ )+ ]mr242 ~ 2 4 1 2 1 4 and the Lagrangian is L=TV=T 1 1 = .M ( k 2 + y2) + MR2e2 1 1 + m[(k . 2. Fig.2.3. and cp the angle of rotation of the smaller disk as shown in Fig. The center of mass of the smaller disk has coordinates x + bcos0.
As aL _ . the total kinetic energy s of the system. we have aL/Ojr = constant. % = ~MR2b+mb2~mbxsin6+mbjrcosfl. (M+ m ) j . + 2003 A uniform solid cylinder of radius R and m s M rests on a horizontal as plane and an identical cylinder rests on it.mb8. touching it along the highest generator as shown in Fig 2. . 8 = constant too. or . The upper cylinder is given an infinitesimal displacement so that both cylinders roll without slipping.rnbxsine + m@cosB = 0 . T . + mbe cos 0 = constant As aL/ay = 0. is a conserved quantity.Anatytical Mechanics 465 we have or OL .mbxbcose ae . As aL/a(p = 0.= constant OX .mb$bsinO . Since V = 0 and T + V = constant a there is no external force. Conservation of the angular momentum about the center of mass of the system requires that. sin e = constant (M + m)j. 1 2 (4) Equations (1)(4) describe the motion of the system.4. ae 2 we have the equation of motion MR28 + mb2e . as = constant. or $ = constant . we have a Lfa$ = constant.
For these we use 81.8 . ( Wisconsin) Fig. Solution: (a) The system possesses two degrees of freedom so that two generalized coordinates are required. At a later time. With the angles so defined we have from Fig.4. 2. or O2 = O1 + 28 .466 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (a) What is the Lagrangian of the system? (b) What are the constants of the motion? (c) Show that as long as the cylinders remain in contact e2 = R(17 +4 12g(1 . Initially the plane containing the two axes of the cylinders is vertical.4. at t > 0. for the lower cylinder . and 8. this plane makes an angle 8 with the vertical.48~ 0 8) ~ ~ s ' where 8 is the angle which the plane containing the axes makes with the vertical. the angle of rotation of the lower cylinder. 2. 2. A. the angle made by the plane containing the two axes of the cylinders and the vertical. now moves to A' on the lower cylinder and to A" on the upper cylinder.4 o1 + 8 = e2 . in the vertical plane normal to the y) axes of the cylinders and through their centers of mass. Taking Cartesian coordinates (z.cos 8) ~ 0 . we have. The original point of contact. as shown in Fig.
Analytical Mechanics 467 and for the upper cylinder 22 = z1+ 2Rsin8. Hence the Lagrangian of the system is L=TV 1 = MR2[38f 2 + 281b(1 2 ~ 0 ~ 86d2] .~ ( R . taking the horizontal plane as level of reference. The potential energy of the system.3M R ~ ~.2MR(1+ cos8)g .c o sR +)~ R c o s O = ~ The corresponding velocity components are The kinetic energy of the lower cylinder is thus q 1 = M$: 2 + . is V = Mg(yl+ 9 2 ) = 2MR(1+ cos8)g .1M R ~ ~ . Y ~ = ~ R . M +4ele+4e2) 2 4 + + = MR2[38: 1 4 + 4&b(1 2cos8) + 12b2] . . ) + (b) As only gravity is involved. = 4 and that of the upper cylinder is T = 2 1 1 M(X$ 6 ) . + .2cos8) + 6b2] 2MR(1+ cos8)g 2 = constant. MR2bi 2 4 1 1 = .M R ~ ( ~ :4 e 1 8 ~ ~ ~ e + 4 8 2 ) + R ~ ( ~ . the total mechanical energy of the system is a constant of the motion: E=T+V 1 = MR2[3b: + 2b18(l.
O1 = 0 = 0.cosqg R i. 2004 Two particles of the same mass m are constrained to slide along a thin rod of mass M and length L.2 cos $)I = 0 . is conserved.2 ~ 0 ~+ 662]+ 2MR(1+ C0sO)g = 4MRg . Describe qualitatively the motion. the distances of the two particles from the center of the rod) are equal.(1 . 8) MR2[36l + 6( 1 . Initially. Lagrange's equation aL/aO.e. For the system under consideration. .468 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y Furthermore. These combine to give 12 e"l8 .2cos8) 2] = (1 . which is itself free to move in any manner.e. if aL/aqi = 0. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Use a fixed Cartesian coordinate frame. 8 = 0. Consider only motions of this system in which the lengths of the springs (i. requires that aL/aq. and a moving frame with origin at the midpoint 0 of the rod and its Cartesian axes parallel to those of . find equations of motion for it and solve them (up to the point of doing integrations). = 0 so that (c) As long as the cylinders remain in contact the results of (b) hold. Two identical springs link the particles with the central point of the rod. Taking this to be an isolated system in space. so that MR2i3@ 2 1 + 2&8fl .
1K ( r . Let (r.r 0 ) 2 = K ( r . ~ in the moving frame. where Trot the rotational kinetic energy of the rod.cp) be the spherical coordinates of a point referring to the moving frame.+sinBee . 2. . 6 . 2 . ) The kinetic energy of a system is equal to the kinetic energy it would have if all its mass were concentrated at the center of mass plus the kinetic energy of motion about the center of m s . e resolved along its principal axes.O. the former respectively. Then the point 0 has coordinates ( z . 'p) and (r.5. z ) in the fixed frame and the two masses have spherical coordinates (T. the corresponding moments of inertia Hence = 1M L ~ ( ~ ~sin2 e) 24 + +' The system is in free space so the only potential energy is that due to the action of the springs.Analytad Mechanics I' 469 z A X X' Fig.T o )2 . As 0 is the center of mass of as the system. as shown in Fig. v = 2 . y . we have 1 T = (M 2 + 2m)(k2+ ~2 + i 2 ) m ( f 2+ r2e2+ + T ~ sin2~ + 0) + Trot .8.5. The angular velocity is of the rod about 0 is w = +costlev . 8 . 2.
this means that the angular momentum is conserved.i ) of the center of i mass of the system is a constant vector. Lagrange’s equations also give the following equations of motion: i: . ( M + 2m)b = constant .ro) = 0. Hence L=TV + 1M L ~ ( P +’ sin28) . . and the motion of + . the motion of the center of mass 0 of the system is a uniform rectilinear motion. + 24 Lagrange’s equations then give the following constants of motion: (M + 2m)i = constant .K ( r . The last equation shows that the component of the angular momentum about the 2’axis is a constant of the motion. ( M + 2m)y = constant . These and the equation above describe the motion about the center of mass of the system.ro)2 . L ~ sin2 8 = constant .re2 . Since the axis has been arbitrarily chosen.470 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics where K and ro are the spring constant and the natural length of each spring respectively. Thus under the constraint that the two masses m slide along the rod symmetrically with respect to the midpoint 0.rd2sin2 8 K + (r m . ) (2mr2 + 12M l + The first three equations show that the velocity (i. Thus the center of mass moves in a uniform rectilinear motion with whatever velocity it had initially.
A particle of mass m moves under a force whose potential is V(x. z is rotating relative to an inertial frame with constant angular velocity w about the zaxis.v . expressed in quantities referring to the rotating frame. y ’ .y.y. 2005 A rectangle coordinate system with axes x.xy) + 2w 2 ( x 2 ty2) . + Lagrange’s equations aL . Denote the velocities of the particle in the two frames by v and v’. Set up the Lagrange equations of motion in the coordinate system x.z).w x r + (w x r)2 = x2 + p 2 + i 2 24xp . z ’ . z. As v’ = v + u x r v“ = v2 + 2v . L=TV = m(x2 2 1 1 + j12 + i 2 ) w ( x 6 . + and the Lagrangian of the particle in the inertial frame.y. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Let the inertial frame have the same origin as the rotating frame and axes d .Analytical Mechanics 471 the system about 0 is such that the total angular momentum about 0 is conserved.Sy)+ wy. Show that their equations axe the same as those for a particle in a fixed coordinate system acted on by the force VV and a force derivable from a velocitydependent potential U.2 + y2) . Find U.
2 A comparison of this with the Lagrangian obtained previously gives u=w(xyky)w 1 2 (x2 + y 2) .W 2 X mji dV + = 0 ’ dX + 2mwx  m w 2 y i.. This Lagrangian would obviously give rise to the same equations of motion.472 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics then give mx . VV and an additional velocitydependent potential U . What are the radial and angular velocities of the rod after a long time? (Assume the tube is long enough that the rod is still inside. For a particle of mass m moving in a fixed frame (2. (c) Initially the rod is centered over the pivot and the tube is rotating with angular velocity wo.) ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) By definition the moment of inertia is . and describe its subsequent motion if it is disturbed slightly. 2006 (a) Show that the moment of inertia of a thin rod about its center of mass is rnl2/12. A thin rod of mass M and length I slides without friction in the tube. Choose a suitable set of coordinates and write Lagrange’s equations for this system. the Lagrangian is 1 L = m(k2 2 + y2 + i 2 ) v . z) under a force y.= 0 dV aY . (b) A long thin tube of negligible mass is pivoted so that it may rotate without friction in a horizontal plane.u . Show that the rod is unstable in this position.2mwy .
( c ) The initial conditions x = 0.. as the generalized coordinates. 2 1 say. 2.e. = x2pdx = p13 = ml 12 12 1 1 2 . 2. Lagrange’s equations then give z d X‘ 2e .6. C = Ml2w0 .Analytical Mechanics 473 Fig.6 = wo give i. I = i RqAm. We have 1 1 T = . (b) Take the angle 8 between the thin tube and a fixed horizontal line through the pivot and the distance x of the center of mass of the thin rod from the pivot of the tube.x ( 1 2 + 12)2 ~ ~ . We then have . and the Lagrangian 1 L=M(2 2 1 + 2 2 4 2 ) + M12e2 24 . M x 2 + 12 ( :2) e=constant =c. as shown in Fig.6. 2 24 V =0 .M ( k 2 + x2e2)+ M1262.d x 2 2 dx 14w. 1 = x = .
x 4 00. increases as its distance from the initial position increases.474 Problems d Solutiona on Mechanics Integrating we obtain. (b) Find the equations of motion. after a long time. For t 4 00. using B as one coordinate. 2007 A block of mass M is rigidly connected to a massless circular track of radius a on a frictionless horizontal table as shown in Fig. 2. A particle of mass m is confined to move without friction on the circular track which is vertical. .7. x = 0 . e + 0 and k 4 I w o / ~ .7. (c) In the limit of small angles. solve that equations of motion for 8 as a function of time. Hence. It is noted that the speed of the rod in the tube. as initially x = 0 . Thus the rod is unstable at the initial position. ( Wisconsin) Fig. (a) Set up the Lagrangian. the rotation will slow down to zero while the speed of the rod in the tube will tend to an upper limit. The distance z however will be ever increasing. 2.
0). ad+xcosd+gsine=O. Neglecting higher order terms the equations of motion become (M+m)3+mae=O. use a fixed coordinate frame x. 2.ma2e + max cos e . . 2 aL = Mj.v = .maxflsine  ae aL _ .y and choose the x coordinate of the center of the circular track and the angle t giving the location of m on the circular track 9 as the generalized coordinates 85 shown in Fig. aL _ . . The coordinates of the m s m axe then (x asin 0 .7. + m i 8X + ma8cosO . a cos8). As M is rigidly connected to the as circular track its velocity is (x. alj+g+ge=O. 0 and 6 are small quantities of the 1st order.Analytical Mechanics 475 Solution: (a) As the motion of the system is confined to a vertical plane.  ae Lagrange’s equations give ( M + m)x + madcose . Hence the Lagrangian is + 1 1 L = T .mgasine .M 2 X ~ + aecose>2+ a2d2sin2 e] + mga cose 1 + m[$2 + a2e2+ 2 a d cos el + mga cos e .mae2 sine = 0 . (c) For small oscillations.M $ ~+ rn[(x 2 2 1 =.
r dr dr2 + ar . i and (b) Using the virial theorem show that 4.b = K. ( Wisconsin) . Using polar coordinates in the plane of the orbit: (a) Find pr and pe as functions of T . 8 = A sin(&) + B cos(wt) . Is either one constant? Jr + Je = where k fdt r . (d) Using the results of (c) show that the period of the orbit is the same for the r and 8 motions. + 2008 Consider a particle of mass m moving in a bound orbit with potential V ( r )= . (c) Show that using .476 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Eliminating x we have e+ Hence ( M + m)g6 Mu =o. where w = J ( M m ) g / M a is the angular frequency of oscillation and A and B are constants to be determined from the initial conditions. nameiy. 6. rk = 1 :(u& JZ) .k / r .
As there is no B in L. J. pe (b) = mr29 is a constant of the motion. where r is the period and T is the average kinetic energy of the particle over one period.1/ = . (c) The total energy of the particle where h = r28 = p e / m = constant. + Je = f midr + f mr28de = = frnf’dt + fmr2e2dt f m ( f 2+ r 2 d 2 ) d t =2 f Tdt=2Tr.Analytical Mechanics 477 Solution: (a) We have 1 k L = T . For a particle moving in a bound orbit in the field of an inversesquare law force the virial theorem takes the form Thus J. is a constant.m ( f 2+ r2e2)+ 2 r The generalized momenta are . The above gives . + Je = Vr =  f: dt .
b using the value given for the integral. kr mh2 r +=O. For a bound orbit. (d) As E is a constant.5 r 5 r+. b are positive numbers a = .k / E .e..ar b = 0 .//JrpE. dr 2E . The extreme values of r are given by i. we have . where it should be noted that E < 0 for bound orbits. + where a. i. = 0. we have r* = :(a* Then JG). r. E 2E Writing this as r2 .478 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or += &?/% 2’cr r + m h 2 =*E. b = mh2 / 2 E ./r2 + ar .
Berkeley) Fig. 2 2 + + . whose restoring torque is 7 = Ice where k = given torsion constant for length 1 and twist angle 0.Analytical Mechanics 479 or 1 = (Jr 27 + JO) = 27 ~ ' E l giving 2009 Two identical discs of mass M and radius R are supported by three identical torsion bars. how long does it take for disc 1 to get all the kinetic energy? You may leave this in the form of an implicit function.k [ e : e.) .8. (el . 2.. &(O) = 0. as shown in Fig. &(O) = 0. The discs are free to rotate about the vertical axis of the torsion bars with displacements from equilibrium position. &(O) = R = given constant.I ( & + e. Solution: If I is the moment if inertia of each disc. Neglect moment of inertia of the torsion bars. the Lagrangian of the system is 1 1 L = . For initial conditions el(0) = 0. 2.e2)2] .8. ( UC.
) + k(el + e. will disc 1 get all the kinetic energy. after a time t given by COS(&t) =cos(Gt) . give 'p+ = p= 0. I(& The solutions are respectively el + e2 = A+ sin el . sin t) A. i. ie2+ lc(2e2 el) = o .  These combine to give + e. t) COS t)] Only when 8. = 2 [6 (fi + (g] 'a (& + (fi f i &sin t) [cos . give A+ Hence 02 =fig.e2)+ %(el .480 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics The two Lagrange's equations are iel + lc(2e1 .e. p) e1+e2=o. .) = o .e2 = AThe initial conditions sin (8 + (g + t t p+) .0. . I ( & .= a/&.) = o . e1e2=o h1d2=~ at t=o The conditions at t=O h1+d2=~. =~ 2 e.e2) = o . = a.
Fig. uniform rod of length 2L and mass M is suspended from a massless string of length 1 tied to a nail. Start from rest at t = 0. 2. disk 1 does take all the kinetic energy of the system at that time. As shown in Fig.9. this kinetic energy varies from time to time this happens. ( UC. 2. Write the Lagrange equations for this system.10.Berkeley) Fig. . a horizontal force F is applied to the rod’s free end. For very short times (so that all angles are small) determine the angles that the string and the rod make with the vertical. Draw a diagram to illustrate the initial motion of the rod. 2010 A thin. 2. However. When t satisfies the above equation.9.Analytical Mechanics 481 It should be noted that the kinetic energy of the system is not a constant.
8 .LcosO. the motion is confined to a vertical plane.482 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics Solution: As the applied force F is horizontal and initially the string and rod are vertical. sin el L& sin e. 6 and its potential energy is = Mg(zcosel +~ ~. .) and thus velocity (141 cos el L& cos e.o ~ ) M L ~ sin(e1 .) + MgsinO. d . .e.dr=F(lsin81+2Lsin&).~.Fco & = 0..2Fcos02 = 0 . + Mg sin & . s(0 6 + Mg(Z cos el + L cos 6 2 ) + F(1 sin dl + 2L sin e. The Lagrangian is therefore L=TVU =. The center of mass of the rod has coordinates (1 sin81 Lsin02. 1 2 1 ~+ 2e~ i e. ~ ~ e ~ The potential U of the horizontal force is by definition U= s F.e.) ~ 8 3  MZ~? sin(el .)]~+ ML%. 1cos(ol ~ 0. . Take Cartesian coordinates as shown in Fig.cos(el .). .M [ z ~+ ~ ~. Its moment of inertia about a perpendicular axis through its center is M L 2 / 3 .)] + ML.) 1 2 Lagrhge’s equations then give ~ l & ~cos(01 . 2. Hence its kinetic energy is + Z& + + T = .e.10 and denote the angles made by the string and the rod with the vertical by & . + 4 ~ ~ +8 .) ML + . O 2 respectively. 1 cosOl .e.~ [ i ~ b ? 1 + ~ ~ + 2 ~ z b ~ e ~ c o.
and FLAt = MLae2 Eliminating FAt f o the above. 0 2 . We then have m t = M ( Z & el L& cos e2) cos Ml& + ML& . + Ml& + Mge2 . 2.Analgtical Mechanics 483 Note that if F is small so that el. 81.11. the force can be considered as giving rise to a horizontal impulse FAt and an impulsive torque FLAt about the center of mass of the rod. Fig.the above gives 2L el M e2 .11. . we have rm 1 3 As 81 = &At  2L el M e2 31 NN * &At/2.2F = 0 . 02 NN e 2 A t / 2 .F = 0 . 8 2 can be considered small then. 2.e2 are still small. retaining only first order terms. The motion starts from rest at t = 0. For a very short time At afterwards. + as the angle el. the above become Ml& 4 ML92 3 + M L & + MgB1 . 31 The initial configuration of the system is shown in Fig.
and ri . r 2 .e. r2 be the radius vectors of the binary stars. i. Then and the Lagrangian is i.' ~ ( r I . By definition . m2 from the center of mass respectively. ) ) where cr is a real scaling parameter.m2 respectively.ra be the radius vectors of m i . (a) Write the Lagrangian for the system in terms of the Cartesian coordinates of the two stars rl and r2. the potential energy is a homogeneous function of the coordinates of degree 1. masses m1.e. (c) Find a transformation which leaves the Lagrangian the same up t o a multiplication constant (thereby leaving the physics unchanged) and thus find Kepler's third law relating the period of revolution of the system to the size of its orbit. a r 2= a . from the origin of a fixed coordinate frame. (c) Let R be the radius vector of the center of mass of the binary system from the origin of the fixed coordinate frame. ~ ( a r l . (b) Show that the potential energy is a homogeneous function of the coordinates of degree 1.484 Problem d Solutions on Mechanics 2011 Consider a binary star system. ( Chicago ) Solution: (a) Let r l .
is constant.r2 = rl . Therefore the first term of L.c2. mlre2 = G m l ( m l + m ) 9 T2 or where T = 2x18 is the period of ml about m2.which is the kinetic energy of the system as a whole. and hence (ml +m2)R are constant.Analytical Mechanics 485 t t where r = rl . 2 2012 Two thin beams of mass m and length 1 axe connected by a frictionless hinge and a thread. of the motion of one star in the gravitational field of a fixed star of mass ml +m2. The system rests on a smooth surface in the way shown . a L / d x . This terms can be neglected when we are interested only in the internal motion of the system. The same is of course true for the motion of m about ml. aL/a& aLla. Let m be this “moving” star and consider its centripetal l force: .5 y. z ) explicitly. which is Kepler’s third law.1 which may be consider BS the Lagrangian. Thus L= ( 77111732 ) [$rI2 + G W l + M2)] ml+ m 2 1. apart from a multiplicative constant. We can then write the Lagrangian as As L does not depend on R = (x.
2 y2 = 1ecos8. 1 2 1 .1 8 ~ 0 ~ 8 . Solution: (a) Due t o symmetry.12 and let 8 be the angle each beam makes with the floor.12. In the following you may neglect the thread and the mass of the hinge. 2. the hinge will fall vertically. xl = 18sin8. (a) Find the speed of the hinge when it hits the floor. 1 2 Each beam has a moment of inertial m12/12 about a horizontal axis through its center of mass.t c 0 ~ 8 . At t = 0 the thread is cut. 2 1 . Then the centers of mass of the beams have coordinates XI = 1 cos 8. yl = . and velocity components 1 2 y2 = 1sin8.. 2 1 ' x2 = 18sin8. The Lagrangian of the system is .486 Problems d Solutiona o n Mechanics in Fig. 1 2 y1 = 1 1 sin8 2 . (b) Find the time it takes for the hinge to hit the floor. Take coordinates as shown in Fig. 2.12. x2 = . (Princeton) A. X t Y Fig. 2. expressing this in terms of a concrete integral which you need not evaluate explicitly.
39 .mglsine 4 12 = ml2e2 .mgl sin 6 1 3 . Lagrange's equation Then gives 39 8 + . one of its endpoints.case = 0 21 . IVI = (b) The time taken for the hinge to hit the floor is given by 2013 A uniform rod of the length L and mass M moves in the vertical zzplane.(12sinO) . 9 = 0 and '2 8 . A being subject to the constraint z = .Analytical Mechanics 487 L=TV 1 1 = ml2d2 + m12d2 .e. the above integrates to 21 Hence when the hinge hits the floor. e=g pel = dB i. .
2.Lsin6.13). (Princeton) Fig. x = s c o s a . if so.~ z 2 Lagrange’s equations 0 . 1 . 1 . for which values of 8. 2 z = s s i n a . Derive the Lagrangian equations of motion in terms of the generalized coordinates q1 = s and q2 = 8 (see Fig. i = Bsina + L8sin6 .M ( E ~ i 2 ) . 2 2 and the moment of inertia of the rod about a perpendicular axis through the center of mass is ML2/12.488 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics x t a n a ( a = constant inclination to the horizontal xaxis).13.Lcos8 1 2 .M L ~ M g~ + + 24 . so the Lagrangian is L=TV = 1 1 . Solution: The coordinates and velocity components of the center of mass of the rod are 1 x = SCOSQ . Use these to determine if a pure translational motion (8 = constant) is possible and.L6cos8. 2.
a = ~ 2 iicos(e 2 + a>. 8 = constant. solve for the frequency of these oscillations. 2014 A spherical pendulum consists of a point mass m tied by a string of length 1 to a fixed point. above become d b = 0 . with the zaxis vertical and the zaxis in the vertical plane containing the string and mass . 2. scos(8 Eliminating s gives + a) .14. 2. (a) With what angular velocity will it move on a circle. with the string making a constant angle 00 with the vertical? (b) The mass in the circular orbit as in part (a) above receives an impulse perpendicular to its velocity. + a) = .14.gsin8 = 0 . so that it is constrained to move on a spherical surface as shown in Fig. If the motion is pure translational. (Princeton) Solution: Use a rotating coordinate frame. (c) For the case in which the amplitude of the oscillations about 80 is small.~ b ~ s i n ( ~ + a ) + g s i n. as shown in Fig. Write down (but do not try to solve) the equation which may be solved for the angle the string makes with the vertical when the mass is at its lowest point.Analytical Mechanics 489 then give B 1 &os(e+a)+ 2 1 .LB 3 .sin 8 .gsin8 = 0 . 8 = 0 and the + gsina = 0. resulting in an orbit which has its highest point with the string making an angle 81 with the vertical. sin a cos(8 or e=a.
Let 9 be the angular velocity of m about the zaxis. The mass has coordinates (1 sin 8.Z8sinB).O. =o Lagrange’s equations give 9 8 .o. m.m g z 2 = Am(~b2 2 + 1 2 9 2 sin2 6) + mgl cos 0 .+). (1) gives = w . 8 = 0 and Eq. (a) For circular motion with constant angle 6 = 00. 1 cos B ) . 2.sine = 0.0. L =T V = 1 mv2 . 1 +sin2 e = constant .= (ibcose. where B is the angle which the string makes with the vertical.d2sinecose + . The velocity of m in a fixed frame is given by with i. say.490 Problems €4 Solutions an Mechanics Fig.14. . The Lagrangian is then + = (o.
asin80. cos 8 B . in terms of 80 and 81. (c) Let 8 = a + O0 with ty 4 e0.2cm eocw el .e. and we have which may be solved for 6. Eq.1+ 1 + scot eo] = o . 8 = 62.~ ~ s i n ~ ~ ~ . 6 = 0 and 0 = 81. a+W2(i+3Cos2eo)a!=o. At the highest point of the orbit o m. i. As sin8 M sin00 + a c m e 0 cod M coseo . e = 0. Hence f3 oscillates about e0 with angular frequency .. . + 4 cos2eo)a= o . (1) can be integrated to 82 = w2 sin4 eo sin28 +~W~COSOOCOSO+K. Eq. (1) reduces to t + w2 ~ i n 6 ~ c o s 8 ~ [ a ( t+n 8 ~ i a 3cote0) . giving f K=w2At the lowest point.Analytical Mechanics 491 The equations of motion can now be written as +sin2e= wsin2t+. ii! or + w2(sin2e. sin4 eo sin2el 2w.+ + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s i n ~ = ~ sin3 e As 4 = dd2/2d0. with 8 = &.
2.f cos 8 ) and hence kinetic energy and potential energy V = . The mass m has coordinates ( r sin 8 . Solution: Use coordinates as shown in Fig. Solve the equations of motion in the approximation of small angular and radial displacements from equilibrium. Derive the equations of motion. Assume that the motion of the system is confined to a vertical plane.mgrcos8 1 2 . 2.k ( r . re sin 0 . The Lagrangian is therefore Lagrange’s equations .15.492 Problems & Sol. When no weight is on the spring. The other end of the spring is tied to a fixed support. (SUNY. its length is 1.1)’ .rstions on Mechanics 2015 A spring pendulum consists of a mass m attached to one end of a massless spring with spring constant k . T cos 8 ) and velocity components (re cm 6++ sin 0. Buffalo) Fig.15.
I ) .mrb2 + k ( r . Let p = rro with p << TO and write the equations of motion as or. The equilibrium position in polar coordinates (TO.Analytical Mechanics 493 then give the equations of motion mi: . ~9+2ib+gsin0=0. ( p ~ to be determined from the initial are . B. and where the constants A. 6 0 ) is given by i: = 9 = 0.mgcose = 0. 4. neglecting higher order terms of the small quantities p. 6 is a small angle. k m TO e + 9 = o . or r = l + mg A c m ( ~ t + e ~ ) k+ . 91. p. For small oscillations about equilibrium. conditions. The solutions are m. e * Thus both the radial and angular displacements execute simple harmonic motion about equilibrium with angular frequencies respectively. p+p=o.
V = m(+' 2 (b) Lagrange's equations then give the equations of motion mi:+ k r2 =o. The force acting on the particle is k being a positive constant.L E ' . Its potential energy with respect to infinity is V = . .k Hence the Lagrangian is 1 L = T . The second equation gives immediately a first integral mr2e = constant . (SVNY.k . + r2e2)+. BuflaZo) Solution: (a) Choose polar coordinates with origin at P in the plane in which the particle is constrained to move. (b) Write Lagrangian equations for this particle and find at least one first integral.(mr%) d =0 . (a) Using polar coordinates. . It is attracted to a fixed point P in this plane.494 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 2016 A particle is constrained to be in a plane. write the Lagrangian of this particle. which means that the angular momentum with respect to P is conserved. r The kinetic energy of the particle is 1 T = m(+2 2 +r2@). the force is always directed exactly at P and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from P. d r = .
(a) Obtain the Lagrangian in the center of mass system and show that the energy and angular momentum are conserved. mlrl m2r2 = 0 . mlrl = m2r2 . 2. Solution: As the forces acting on the particles always direct along the line of separation. 2. and that the total energy E is known. By definition of the center of mass.16. + i. the motion is confined to whatever plane the particles initially move in. .Analytical Mechanics 495 2017 Consider two particles interacting by way of a central force (potential = V(T) where r is the relative position vector). (SUNY. where k is a positive constant. or mlrl = m2r2 for the magnitudes. Prove that the motion is in a plane and satisfies Kepler’s second law (that r sweeps out equal areas in equal times). Use polar coordinates in this plane as shown in Fig.e. (b) Suppose that the potential is V = k r 2 / 2 . Bu&lo) Y Fig.16 with origin at the center of mass of the particles. Find expressions for the minimum and maximum values that T will have in the course of the motion.
In the present case.L = constant .j cq dt Bqj d BL . The Lagrangian L does not depend on t explicitly. The Hence the Lagrangian is using ~2 and 8 as the generalized coordinates..q j q3 L d dL aqj dt @j + ) =. Hence BL . So .496 Problems €9 Solutions o n Mechanics (a) The kinetic energy of the particle are T = ml l' 2 r1I2 + m2 Ir2l2 2 where p = mlmz/(ml potential energy is + m2) is the reduced mass of the system. . use having been made of Lagrange's equations.~ dL dt ( B_ .
2Epr2 J 2 = 0 . say .+ kr2 2pr2 2 T When r is a maximum or minimum. Note that this proof is possible because V does not depend on the velocities explicitly. (b) The total energy can be written as 1 E = p+ 2 J21 1 + . 2AS . 1: = 0.constant. The above also implies i.e. Thus Kepler's second law r2A6' =At is satisfied.= 2 = constant 2 a~ m2r28 P ae =J .Analytical Mechanics 497 and the above gives showing that the total energy is conserved. As L does not depend on 6' explicitly. + . At where AS is the area swept out by r in time At. The angular momentum of the system about the center of m s is as Hence the angular momentum is conserved. Hence the extreme values of are given by kpr4 . Lagrange's equation gives .
mrmrO2 (a constant) . As . We use polar coordinates in this plane with origin at the force center. Discuss how the nature of the orbits depends on the parameters of the system.498 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics 2018 A particle is attracted to a force center by a force which varies inversely as the cube of its distance from the center. k +=0 T3 Let u = : The first equation becomes . For the force kr F=r4 ’ where k is a positive constant. Buffalo) Solution: As the particle moves under a central force its motion is confined to a plane. the potential energy is Hence the Lagrangian is Lagrange’s equations then give mr2e = b. (SUNY. . Derive the equations of motion and solve them for the orbits.
Buflalo) . k are positive constants. What is the Lagrange's equation? Are there any constants of motion? How would you describe the motion? Suppose a point transformation is made to another generalized coordinate S.Analytical Mechanics 499 the second equation becomes d2u + de2 Hence. Here (rot&)is a point on the orbit. u = cos TO 1 dF 1 .. i.e.given by s = exp (T) q .(ee.) ].e. i. m. if b2 < mk. 2019 Assume the Lagrangian for a certain onedimensional motion is given b Y where 7. if b2 > mk. What is the Lagrangian in terms of S? Lagrange's equation? Constants of motion? How would you describe the relationship between the two solutions? (SVNY.
t explicitly. m As L contains q. q = e . B . :b and consider the three possible cases. (iii) $ > b = 0 and G.= 0 . A’. let it be m ig.g (cebt + Debt) . A. (ii) = b = 0 and we have : &. 9=9oe y I showing that the motion is nonoscillatory with q attenuating from the value qo at t = 0. f b is imaginary. Thus the motion is oscillatory with attenuating amplitude. Try solutions of the form q 2 eQt.500 P r o b l e m & Solutiow o n Mechanics Solution: Lagrange’s equation gives e+(mq or + rmq + Icq) = o ) kq 4 +rq + . The general solution is ) q = e% (AeiPt + &*Pt) or q = e%(A’cospt + B’sinpt) . . Substitution gives cy2+fcy+=O1 k m whose solutions are Write this as cy = (i) 3< 6. B’being constants. there is no constant of motion.
As w2S = 0 3 = ig. the situation is not altered.pS)' 1 2  ikS2 . For 7/2 < w2 is positive. For 7/2 > w is imaginary and the motion is nonoscillatory with time attenuation. m. The three cases can be characterized as underdamped.(7/2) 2 . As S. Hence there is now a constant of motion. However. This motion is also nonoscillatory and timeattenuating .S both contain t implicitly. If we include the time factor in the generalized coordinate by a point transformat ion the Lagrangian becomes L = irn ( S . m. We may conclude that both sets of solutions describe identical physical situations but in the second set the attenuating time factor exp( . m.17. w is real. however.Analytical Mechanics 501 C and D being constants.7 t / 2 ) is absorbed in the generalized coordinates and the treatment proceeds as if it were nonexistent. The constant angular velocity of the hoop is w. Physically. integration gives S2 + w 2 s 2 = constant . Lagrange's equation then gives the equation of motion s +with w2 = k/m .e. . as noted above. i. S contains a hidden attenuating factor exp(yt/2c) which causes time attenuation in all the three cases. and the equation of motion in S describes a simple harmonic motion without damping. 2020 A bead of mass rn slides without friction on a rotating wire hoop of radius a whose axis of rotation is through a vertical diameter as shown in Fig. For 7/2 = w = 0 and the motion in S is uniform. 2. critically damped and overdamped. this constant actually changes with time.
mg = (mgcos 8 . f can be expressed in terms of a potential Vf by i. = mr2w2 sin2 6 2 1 . mg sin 0) . mg.e. = Which of these positions of equilibrium are stable and unstable? (d) Calculate the oscillation frequencies of small amplitude vibrations about the points of stable equilibrium. . (WC. in additional to the gravitational force on the mass.a fictitious centrifugal force f as shown has to be introduced. and w > w. Berkeley) m.17. 2. Solution: (a) Use a rotating polar coordinate frame attached to the loop as shown in Fig. V. In this frame. where w. w 2 rsin e cos e) . 2.. (b) Locate the positions of equilibrium of the bead for w < w.502 Problem €4 Solutions on Meehanics (a) Write the Lagrangian for the system and find any constants of the motion that may exist.17. Fig. In polar coordinates f = ( w 2 rsin28.
and we have two equilibrium positions at 8 = 0. At a position of equilibrium. 9b’Llb’e . (b) Lagrange’s equation gives the equation of motion aBau2sinecos8+gsine= 0 . so sin6(aw2coseg) + =o. to + uii + (g cos eo . 8 = 0.mgacose = constant 2 2 . s ) . retaining up to first order terms.2) = o cos with wf = t. which means that T V = constant. + ( ~ c o ~ e o .“ and hence sin 8 = 0. The equation of motion reduces. T . where Q is a small quantity.V = ma2e2 ma2w2sin28+mgacos8. the Lagrangian is 1 1 L = T .L = constant (Problem 2017). t l . If w < wc.w. Hence 1 1 ma2e2 . w2 cos 0 < w.au2cos 2eo)a.ma2w2 sin2e .w 2 c o ~ 2 e o= o .we have in addition to the above positions an equilibrium position at 2 9 case = wc = .Analytical Mechanics 503 Similarly the gravitational potential is Vg = mgr cos 6 . Q or. re). 2 2 + As aL/at = 0 and V does not contain 8 explicitly. w2 ad ( c ) Suppose 80 is an equilibrium position and let 8 = 80 a .au2sin eocos eo + g sin eo = o . The particle velocity is ( i . If w > wc. or a sin qW2 e . a 8 = 0 at 8 = eo.. With the constraint r = a.
the coefficient of a is %oseo2w a 2cos2eo+w2= m.x i . equilibrium also occurs at coseo = g / a w 2 . How far will m move before coming to 2 rest for the first time? (b) Is it possible by delivering a short impulse to r n l to have the system move from rest so that it is rotating without oscillation? Explain.?> O . So this is a position of stable equilibrium. = 0 .1 ) 2 . In this case If w > . (UC. (a) An impulse I of very short duration is delivered to ml.k(x2 . 2 +2 2 . 2021 Particles of mass ml and m2. f) so that the equilibrium is a stable one.504 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics If w < the coefficient of a is positive for the equilibrium at 60 = 0. are at rest on a frictionless horizontal surface./&. W2 ( w . Berkeley) Solution: (a) Take the initial position of ml as origin and the direction from ml t o m2 as the positive direction of the xaxis. (d) The angular frequency of small vibrations about a point of stable equilibrium is at 0.V = rnlxi mzx2 . The Lagrangian of the system is 1 1 2 1 L = T . connected by a light spring with spring constant k . The direction of the impulse is from r n l to mp. The coefficient is negative for the equilibrium at 00 = 7rl showing that it is an unstable equilibrium.
21 at t = 0. . . = 0. I ml awsino= .21 = 1 + Icos (wt + mlw ) .1 ) . m2x2 = Ic(z2 .1 = acos(wt + a) .Analytical Mechanic8 505 where 1 is the natural length of the spring. z1 giving 2 2 . Lagrange’sequations give mlfl = k(x2 . w2 = k(m1 + rn2)/mlm2. Integrating and applying the initial conditions we obtain mlxl + m2x2 = m2l+ I t . 2 2 where a and a are constants. The initial conditions 51= I/m1. The general solution is u = acos(wt + o) . x 2 = 0 at t = 0 then give acoso = 0 = 1.21 . From the above.21 . being equal to 22 . we obtain or.x1 . by setting u = 22 .XI . mlw Hence 2 2 .. with solution 71 f f =  2’ I a=.1. Conservation of momentum gives mlx1+ m2x2 =I . ii+w2u=o.I ) .
m. s (a) Find the Lagrangian and state Lagrange’s equations for this system subject to the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. 2022 A sphere of mass M and radius R rolls without slipping down a triangular block of mass m that is free to move on a frictionless horizontal surface. and the above gives comes to rest for the first At that time m 2 has moved a distance 2 TI 7 ~ /m. (b) If the impulse given to m has a component perpendicular to the line l joining the two particles the system will rotate about the center of mass. (UC. Berkeley) . in addition to the linear motion of the center of mass. 2. In a rotating frame with origin at the center of mass and the zaxis along the line joining the two particles.506 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics This and Eq. besides the rotation of the system as a whole. there will be (fictitious) centrifugal forces acting on the particles in addition to the restoring force of the string. given that all objects are initially at rest and the sphere’s center is at a distance H above the surface. Hence when time. cos(wt) = 1 for the first time.18. (b) Find the motion of the system by integrating Lagrange’s equation. = 0. At the positions of the particles where the forces are in equilibrium the particles have maximum velocities on account of energy conservation (Problem 2017). (1) together give x2=1+ It ml +ma .I sin(wt) (m1+mz)w and thus 5 = 2 I m1+m2  I cos(wt) m1+mz x2 m 2 When m2 comes to rest for the first time. Hence oscillations will always occur. a shown in Fig.
MR2d2. = 0. x = 8 = 0. its center will have coordinates (z ( l o + R6)cos (p.gsincp = 0 .M ( x 2 2 2 1 1 + R2d2 + 2Rdcos’p) . As the sphere rolls without slipping down the inclined plane.18 and let 8 be the angle of rotation of the sphere. [ = Note that at t = 0. 5 (b) Eliminating X from the above gives . Re sin ‘p) . 1 + .R8 sin cp) and velocity + (x+ Re cos cp.y =H. 2. Then the L =T V = mx2 + .Analytical Mechanics 507 Fig.M g ( H . H . Lagrangian is to. 2. 7 + Re .R8 sin cp) 5 Lagrange’s equations give ( m + M)X xcoscp + MR9~0scp= 0 . Solution: (a) Use a fixed coordinate frame as shown in Fig.18. x = 0.
. 2.MRCWe = m+M 5M sin(2p) gt2 . as the sphere rolls down the plane. on integration and use of initial conditions. the block moves to the left as expected from momentum conservation. (a) What initial velocity must ml be given so that m2 will remain motionless a distance d below the surface of the table? (b) If m2 is slightly displaced in a vertical direction. 2023 Two mass points ml and ma (ml # m2) are connected by a string of length 1 passing through a hole in a horizontal table. (UC. Use Lagrange’s equations to find the period of these oscillations.19. Berkeley) I Fig.5Mcos2‘p] R ’ x = . The string and mass points move without friction with ml on the table and m2 free to move in a vertical line. small oscillations ensue.508 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or.5M cos2 ’p] Note that. e= and thus 5(m + M ) sin ‘p gt2 2[7(m + M ) . 4[7(mt M ) .
T = 1 .d)g/ml = VO. = . At t = 0. so Hence m1r2e = ml(l ..3 (1  ”)d l .T ) and thus velocity r.d).d)280 = m giving r82 l / w .( I .19.Analytical Mechanics 509 Solution: (a) ml must have a velocity v perpendicular to the string such that the centripetal force on it is equal to the gravitational force on mz: = m2g . mz has zcoordinate . 2. v = JmZ(1 .( 1. say.3 (1 4 A) 3 M ( I .d . T3 . The Lagrangian of the system is then L =T V 1 = ml(i2 r2b2) 2 + 1 + m2i2 + mZg(1. where p << ( I . Then = (I i: = g.d ) .r ) . 2 Lagrange’s equations give mlr2b= constant .d ) .m. (ml+rnz)i: . ld or m1v2 (b) Use a frame of polar coordinates fixed in the horizontal table a~ shown in Fig.3 g r4d2 m z d) ~3 m l and Let T = (I d) + p.ri2 + m2g = o .
Find the motion of the rods immediately after the impulse is applied.510 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics and the above equation becomes Hence p oscillates about 0.d. BC axe freely joined at B .y). 2.20 and let the coordinates of of mass of BC has coordinates B be (x. Then the center . point A .e. each of length a and mass m.20. i. Solution: As the two rods AB. B .e. 2. with or period 2024 Two rods AB and BC. (Columbia) Y 0 I X Fig. An impulse is applied at point A in a direction perpendicular to the line ABC. Initially the two rods (i. are frictionlesdy joined at B and lie on a frictionless horizontal table. C ) are collineax. take coordinates as shown in Fig. angular frequency T oscillates about the value 1 .
yEach rod has a moment of inertia about its center o mass of ma2/12. :ah1 cos 0 1 ~ 1  and that of AB has coordinates (z and velocity + iasind2. As . 82 = ~ / 2 Furthermore. Hence f the total kinetic energy is 5’ 1 + zi2 + a2@ + ael(xcosel . Thus the virtual moment of the impulse is Pb(y + ac0~62) and the generalized components of the impulse are Qz = 0. for the initial state. Note that at t = 0 when the impulse is applied. = 42 = x = y = .$sine2) 2 l 4 = l2 m k(52 + 1 2 ) + a j ( e . f refer to the initial and final states of the system relative to the application of impulse. cosel + e2cos62) .isinel) 4 1 + m [x 2 + fi2+ a2@ + a&(icose2 . 0. . Lagrange’s equations for impulsive motion are where i. 6.aL(e1sine1 + e2sine2)] 1 + may@ + 4) . Qar= P . = 0. 81 = 7r/2.Analytical Mechanics 511 and velocity (+ j .y + acose2 ) 2 l (j. Qe. 6 The impulse is applied at A in a direction perpendicular to the line ABC.+:ae2cosez. Qea = aPsin& .
3 1 1 ma$ 2 . = a& a T 1 1 1 .= 2 m x + ma(& cos 81 + 82 cos 8 2 ) . The solution is Hence immediately after the application of impulse. 2 Lagrange's equations give a T 1 ae2 2 1 3 2mk 2mlj =o.m a y 2 1 + ma2& 3 = aP  .. (assume k > 0).malj sin 81 + ma2& 2 2 3 1 . dT ax ay 1 2 1 . .= .m a y sin 8 2 + ma2& .512 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics . + ma(& .&>= . k k ' +T3 .m a x cos 8 2 . and that of AB has velocity 2025 Consider a particle of mass m moving in a plane under a central force F ( r ) = 7 it.g) ..m a x cos 81 . 1 P 2 1 . .lj+ iatj1) = (o. ' aT _  2my  ma(O1 sin61 2 + &sin02) . the center of mass of BC has velocity (k. + ma281 = o .
Find the equation for the orbit. m do2 12 m2 dd2 ' mr42 = = .L F ( T ) d r = The Lagrangian is then k' +2r2 (b) Lagrange's equations give the equations of motion '2 k k' m(i:. mrd. T a a ' s function of 8. (1) becomes 12u3 . 8 and their velocities? (b) Write down the equations of motion for T and 8.Analytical Mechanics 513 (a) What is the Lagrangian for this system in terms of the polar coordinates r.2+e) = 0 . (c) Let u = rl. r2 r3 m(re 4.= 0 .r8 ) + . and show that the orbital angular momentum 1 is a constant of the motion. As r = ul.. (c) Assume that 1 > mk'.. The second equation has first integral mT2b = constant.du 12 u2 1 = 1 du d8mr2 md8 ' d2u . i. = . + = 2129du d8 * = u2. mr3 m Q. This quantity is the angular momentum of the mass about the origin 1 = T .. . (Columbia) Solution: (a) As k F ( T )= T2 k ' +' T3 T k V ( r )= ..e. = 81 d2u.
when the particle comes to the bottom of the hoop? Simplify your answer in the limits m / M + 0 and M / m + 0. mlc' 1 + y > o 1 and the general solution is u = A c o s ( ~ ~ 8 + c r ) E2 mlc mk' + + ' where A. Then the mass m has coordinates (z + r sin 8. The point particle is acted on by gravity exerting a force along the negative yaxis. i. 2. What is the velocity vf. uniform density and mass M.y). By a suitable choice of coordinates. with respect to the fixed axis.21 and let the coordinates of the center of the hoop be (z. can roll on a fixed line (the zaxis). nor can it lose contact with the xaxis. > 1. cr are constants. At this time the particle is at the top of the hoop and is given a velocity wo along the zaxis. The hoop is in the zyplane. cr can be put to zero. but does not slide.e. Hence the equation of the trajectory can be written as r= [Acos (JG 4 + 8) 12 I 2026 A point particle of mass m is constrained to move frictionlessly on the inside surface of a circular wire hoop of radius r . r + r cos 0) . At t = 0 suppose the hoop is at rest.514 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics A special solution is mk As l 2 > mk'. ( Columbia) Solution: Use a fixed coordinate frame as shown in Fig.
When m is at the bottom of the hoop. and Eq.re . 2 As a L / a x = 0. m is at the top of the hoop. the system has kinetic energy T = .Analytical Mechanics Y I 515 Fig. 0 = 0. rb = vo.21. giving the value of the constant as muo. x = 0.m ( i z + r2e2+ 2 ~ x 8 ~ 0+ . As the hoop has moment of inertia Mr2. 2.V = Mi? 1 + m(x2 + r2e2 + 2r38 cos 0) . re sin 0) .mgr( 1+ cos 0) . = muo + 2 m g r . L = T .M P + s~) and potential energy 1 2 1 2 2 V Hence the Lagrangian is = mg(r +rcos0) . 1 1 2 2 2 . 0 = T . m)k (1) At t = 0. the velocity of the mass is vf = x +recosIr = x . The total energy is conserved so that between these two points we have M x 2 + mu. and velocity (i+ r8 cos 0. (1) becomes 2Mx + mvf = mvo . Lagrange’s equation gives ( 2 + ~ + mrb case = constant .
mass m. ~f + chosen as for M > m. What is its direction? constant . The solutions are + 8Mgr] = 0 . sign is to be The negative N re. 2.22.[(2M . (1) Set up the Lagrangian function in a spherical coordinate system which is rotating with angular velocity w about the xaxis. has coordinates (T In cos cp. . Cartesian coordinates the particle. (1 (b) A particle of mass rn is acted on by a force whose potential is V(r). (3) Calculate from U the components of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces in the radial ( r ) and azimuthal (4) directions. In the limit m / M + 0. ( Wisconsin) + $) 3 Solution: (a) Use cylindrical coordinates (r. i ). 7: sin cp + rdcos cp. z) .+sin cp. velocity (7: cos cp .m)v.cp. 2027 (a) A particle slides on the inside of a smooth vertical paraboloid of revolution r2 = ax.516 Problems I Solutions on Mechanics 3 Eliminating x between the last two equations gives ( 2 M + m)$ . (2) Show that your Lagrangian has the same form as in a fixed coordinate system with the addition of a velocitydependent potential U (which gives the centrifugal and Coriolis forces). In the limit M / m + 0. *Jm. r sin cp. Show that the constraint force has a magnitude = .2mvovj .z) as shown in Fig. k is small and vf > V f + 210.
cp. The equation of constraint z = $ gives z= . +az=O.Analytical Mechanics 517 @. X rl Y Fig. mi: . . a z= . and hence Lagrangian L = T . making use of Lagrange's undetermined multiplier A. 2rr a 2f2 +. (3) and (4).m ( f 2 + r2+' 2 1 + i 2 + mga . 2.22. aqi i where Qi are the generalized forces of constraint.V = .. we rewrite the total energy E = .aL _ 8 L _ dt aq. 2ri.m ( i 2 + r2g2+ i 2 . then give. mr2+ = constant = J .a)=r 2 1 . ) .mr+' = 2rA mi+mg=aX.mgz ) 2 The constraint equation is f(r. a (4) Using Eqs. . say. or 2rdr Lagrange's equations + adz = 0 Qi I d.
as _ . this becomes .8.+ mg = aX . i . ~ and its velocity as i = (+. Then the velocity of the particle with respect to a fixed frame 1 s v =r ' +w x r . This force is in the rzplane and is perpendicular to the inside surface of the paraboloid._ _ _2T 2 ) _ 2E J2 g _ (1 m m2r2 a ~ 4~~~)~' 1 (5) and Eq.518 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics which is conserved.23. ~) a Making use of Eqs. in spherical coordinates ( r . . . 'p) an infinitesimal displacement of the particle can be resolved as Sr = ( b ~ .r+ sin e) . of magnitude + aXe. (1) Suppose the coordinate frame rotates with angular velocity w about the zaxis.re. (It makes an angle arctan(a/2r) with the raxis while the slope of the parabola is 2 7 . (b) As shown in Fig. 2. (1) and (3). rS8.(2ri: 252 +mg+mar2 Expression ( 5 ) then reduces it to The force of constraint is thus f = 2rAe. (2) as m + ~ . T S sin 8) .l ~ ) .
0) w x r = (0.wrsin0) 1 2 .u . (2) The Lagrangian can be written as L with = m(i2 1 2 +. Note that this is the Lagrangian of the particle with respect to a fixed frame.Analytical Mechanic8 519 Fig. so the kinetic energy of the particle is T = m[r2 + 2i . w = (wcos6. which is to be used in Lagrange's equations.O. Referring to the rotating frame and using spherical coordinates we have = (r. L=TV = m(i2 2 1 + r2e2+ r2+' sin26 + 2ur2+sin' 0 + w2r2sin26 ) .v .wsin6. 2r w x r = 2wr2+sin26 (w x r)' = w2r2sin2 6  .V ( T ) . using coordinates referring to the rotating frame. ~ . sin' ~ + 6 i2= 1 2 + r2b2 + T Hence .w x r + (w x r)2] . 2. .23.O.O).r2e2+ T 2 g 2 sin2e) .
V 1 are the kinetic and Lagrangian the particle would have if the coordinate frame referred to were fixed. Differentiating U we find + w 2 rsin2B . Fr6r + FerSB+ F. Lagrange's equations can be written as Q: are the generalized forces that have to be introduced because of the fact that the frame referred to is rotating. 2 w r 2 +sin B cos B + w 2 r 2sin B cos B .e.e.u . (3) Write the Lagrangian as + L = T' where u v = L' . with an additional velocitydependent potential U . 2 Thus L has the form of the Lagrangian the particle would have if the coordinate frame referred to were fixed and the particle were under a potential U V. T' = . = QL = 2mwri sin20 . + + .T sin869 = QV6r Qe68 Q. 2 L' = T' .520 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 1 u = . QL = 2 w r + sin2B The generalized components Q$ of a force F' are defined by i.2 w r 2 8sin 0 cos 0 .m ( i 2 + r2e2+ r2+2sin2 e) . i.m(2wr2+ sin2e + w2r2sin26 ) . Q'.Gp .
ee.. . f (c) Find expressions for the normal coordinates as functions o time. k Q ' Fe = 2 = 2 w r ~ s i n ~ c o s B + w 2 r s i n 8 c o s 8 . SMALL OSCILLATIONS (20282067) 2028 A mass M is constrained to slide without friction on the track A B as shown in Fig. 2. e.) (a) Write a Lagrangian for this system. Note that the velocitydependent terms are due to the Coriolii force while the remaining terms are due the centrifugal force.24.24.. (b) Find the normal coordinates (and describe them).. 2. T are the components of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces in the directions of er. A mass m is connected to M by a massless inextensible string. 2. (Makesmall angle approximation. (Wisconsin) Y Fig.Analytical Mechanics 621 Hence F. = Q = 2 w r d sin28 + w 2 r sin28 .
bcosO) respectively. 0). 8. Hence q and 8 are the normal coordinates of the system. 2. constant. is the angle the string makes with the vertical. Hence 17 is the 2coordinate of the center of mass.24.V = Mx2+m(x2+b282+2bx8~~~8)+mgbcos8 2 2 1 1 (b) For small oscillations. a then give (m M)? In the above. Equation (1) shows that the horizontal motion of the center of mass is uniform. The Lagrangian of the system is then L = T . M and m have coordinates (2. the second equation can be written as The two new equations of motion are now independent of each other. (x+ bsin8. The other normal coordinate. the first equation can be written as (rn + +ma + + + M)?j = C by setting mbe v=z+m+M’ As ( m+ M ) 2 + mb8 = 0.522 Problem3 €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) Use coordinates as shown in Fig. The center of mass of the system occurs at a distance from M along the string. 2 be g0 = 0. 0 and approximate Lagrangian 1 L = Mk2 2 8 are small quantities and we have the +26kb)+mgb 1 + 2m ( P + b 2 P Lagrange’s equations = C. (c) Equation (1) has the solution r]= Ct m+M + D . .
(2) has solution 8 = ACOS(&+ B) . 2.25. (c) For small angular displacements and a sinusoidal motion of the support y = yocos(wt) . 2029 A simple pendulum is attached to a support which is driven horizontally with time as shown in Fig.25. f (b) Find the equation of motion for 8.Analytical Mechanics 523 and Eq. are constants. where D is the angular frequency of small oscillations of the string and A. 2. . where 8 is the angular displacement from equilibrium and y(t) is the horizontal position o the pendulum support. ( Wisconsin) Fig. Find the steadystate solution to the equation of motion. B . (a) Set up the Lagrangian for the system in terms of the generalized coordinates 6 and y. C.
I cos 8 ) and velocity Hence the Lagrangian is (9s+ 18 cos 8 .26. yow2 cos(wt) l(W$ . Substitution gives YOUZ l(W$ . ~ (c) For ys = yocos(wt) and small 8. 2. the above reduces to e + u. l 8 sin 8) (b) Lagrange’s equation =o gives 18+ g* c o s + gsine = 0 . A= The general solution is then 8= E w 2 cos(wt) 1 with wo = A particular solution is obtained by putting 8 = A cos(wt). the motion of the 2030 A solid homogeneous cylinder of radius I and m s m rolls without as slipping on the inside of a stationary larger cylinder of radius R a shown s in Fig.WZ) + A cos(w0t) + B sin(w0t) . M # WO.w2) .524 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) The mass m has coordinates (ys + I sin 8.ze = fl. . As long a w s Resonance will take place if wo system is steady. w.
Solution: Take coordinates as shown in Fig.26.T ) = mg(R .r)cos80 .2 2 4 + . (a) Initially 6 = 0 at 8 = 80.r ) sin8. .Analytical Mechanics 525 (a) If the small cylinder starts at rest from an angle 80 from the vertical. Suppose the cylinder has velocity 21 when it passes through the lowest point 8 = 0.mg(R . (R and velocity .m 2~ mr 2 rf.26. 2. 2. (c) Find the period of small oscillations about the stable equilibrium position. The cylinder has moment of inertia i m r 2 and the condition of rolling without slipping means (R .rlbsine) . ( R .r ) cos 0) ((R r)bcos8. Conservation of the total energy T V gives + 1 1 ' . ( Wisconsin) Y f X Fig. The center of m a s of the rolling cylinder has coordinates ((R .r)8 = rcp . what is the total downward force it exerts on the outer cylinder as it passes through the lowest point? (b) Determine the equation of motion of the inside cylinder using Lagrangian techniques.
r ) 4 + mg(R .T)(I .4coseo) .m ( .r)282 mr2ci.cos &)mg 3 = L g ( 7 . The force exerted by the cylinder on the outer cylinder as it passes through the lowest point is vertically downward and has magnitude 4 3 = mg 4 + . mv2 = .m ( .r)8. Lagrange’s equation gives (c) For small oscillations about the equilibrium position 0 equation of motion reduces t o = 0 . = ( R .v = .r)’b2 ~ & n + mg(R .’ ~ +4 2 = .cos&)mg . v = ( R .526 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics or. 3 (b) The Lagrangian of the cylinder is 1 1 L = T .r)8. Hence the equilibrium is stable and has period . the B+ (A) e = o I This has the form of the equation for simple harmonic motion.r ) cos 8 .(1 . with rci.( R .
1W 2 b 2 sin28 . .V = mb2(@ + u2sin28) . ( c ) Find the stable equilibrium position for w > R. 2.U . In addition to the potential mgbcos8 due to gravity. 2.Analytical Mechanics 527 2031 A bead of mass m is constrained to move on a hoop of radius b. The mass m hascoordinates (bsin8. dU mxw2 = dX .bcosO) and velocity (bBcos6. a potential due to a fictitious centrifugal force mxw2 has to be introduced. 2 2 1 L = T .27. As Y Fig. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Use a rotating frame attached to the hoop as shown in Fig. we can take u = .27.1w 2 x 2 = . (b) Find the critical angular velocity R below which the bottom of the hoop provides a stable equilibrium position for the bead.mgbcos9 2 Lagrange’s equation Hence . &sin@) referring to the rotating frame. (a) Set up the Lagrangian and obtain equations of motion of the bead. The hoop rotates with constant angular velocity w around a vertical axis which coincides with a diameter of the hoop.
w must be smaller than a critical angular frequency R = . To test the stability of this equilibrium.psinOO . As sin 0 = sin(& p = 8 . case = c0+ + a ) = . the equation of motion becomes bfl . Having considered the case 0 = 0 in (b).O s a = 1 .528 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics then gives be . . where p is a + p) = sin 80 + p cos 00 . (c) At equilibrium. i. we can take sin0 # 0 and so the above gives coseo = 9 bw2 for the other equilibrium position.bw2sin0cos0 . 0 = ?r.sin2 O0)p./f. we require Hence for stable equilibrium. where a is a small quantity. 8 = 0 and the equation of motion becomes bw2sinecose+gsine=~. the equation of motion becomes For a to oscillate about the equilibrium position. =0 . .gsine = 0 I (b) At the bottom of the hoop.s i n a = .g sin 0.h2(cos2do .bw2 sin Oo cos Oo .80.e. let small quantity..a . As sinO=sin(?r+a)= .g p cos 0. c o d = cos(e0 + p ) fi: cosO0 . for the equilibrium to be stable. Let 8 = r + a .
using the value of cos 00. Hence the equilibrium is stable since 88 w 2032 Consider the longitudinal motion of the system of massea and springs illustrated in Fig. (a) What are the normalmode frequencies of the system? (b) If the lefthand mass receives an impulse Po at t = 0. the middle mass is driven harmonically at a frequency wo = 2&. P+ (1  6) p =0 .Analytical Mechanics 529 or. 1 .28. find the motion of the lefthand mass as a function of time.22)a 2 Lagrange’s equations 2. 2 2 1 1 1 + 2M k i .k(13 .28. Z ~ the displacements of the three masses. X ~ . (c) If. > R.& > 0. will it move in or out of phase with the driving motion? Explain. . (wdsconszn) M k m k M Fig. 2.k(z2 . (”> . from their equilibrium positions..21)2 1 2 1 . The Lagrangian of the system is L = T .v = Mk?+ m2. Solution: (a) Let Z I . alternatively. 2. counting be from the left. with M > m. aq.= 0 aL dt ad.
23 = 21 . .x l ) + k ( z 2 . Eqs.530 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics then give MZ1 m32 + k(x2 . + k(X1 + k(zc. k w2M k k 2kw2m 0 k which has solutions 0 k =0. b are constants. Eqs. . w3 = {gEJ. ( 2 ) give Equations (1) then give 21 =22=23=at+b. ( 2 ) give 22 = 0. where a . (b) For w = w1.x a0 e i W t . k w2M w = 0. .x 3 ) = 0 . For w = w2. Substitution gives . w2 = &. Hence the system has three normalmode (angular) frequencies w 1 = 0. showing that in this mode the three masses undergo translation as a. rigid body without oscillation.  52) =0 =0 . M33 22) Try a solution of the type x z..
21 = C sin(w3t) =  + D cos(w3t) . m P O x2 = x3 = 0 then give . 21 = 2 2 = x3 = 0. In this mode the middle mass stays stationary while the two end masses oscillate harmonically exactly out of phase with each other.B cos(w2t) + C sin(w3t) + D cos(w3t) . =o. m 23 = at + b . x1 = . 2M 2 2 = at + b . The general longitudinal motion of the system is some linear conibinsr tion of the normalmodes: + b + A sin(w2t) + B cos(w2t) + C sin(w3t) + D cos(w3t) . = 21 23 . while the inner one oscillates out of phase and with a different amplitude. XI = at The initial conditions that at t = 0.Analytical Mechanic8 531 and Eqs. For w = w3.A sin(w2t) . (1) give The solutions are then x1 = A sin(w2t) 22 + B cos(w2t) .[Csin(w3t) + D cos(w3t)l . we have. 22 2MXl m ' x3 = x1 . similarly. Here the two outer m w e s oscillate with the same amplitude and phase.
the lefthand mass will move out of phase with the driving motion.4M < 0. The unstretched length of the spring is equal to the distance between the supports.P 2Mw2 ' ' P0m c =2M(m+2M)W3 b=B=D=O.532 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics a= P O m+2M ' O A=. The first equation of (1) now becomes 2 1 + wix1 = ~ 2 2 x 2 0 sin(w0t) . 2. Hence the motion of the lefthand mass is given by 21 =P o [m + t 2M + sin(w2t) + m sin(w3t) 2M(m + 2M)w3 (c) Suppose the middle mass has motion given by 22 = 220sin(wot) . Substitution in the above gives As m .29. . 2033 Two pendulums of equal length 1 and equal mass m are coupled by a massless spring of constant k as shown in Fig. (a) Set up the exact Lagrangian in terms of appropriate generalized coordinates and velocities. x1 = zlosin(w0t) In steady state 2 1 moves with the same frequency as the driving motion: .
Analytical Mechanics 533 (b) Find the normal coordinates and frequencies of small vibrations about equilibrium.1 s i n 8 1 ) 2 + ( 1 ~ ~ ~ 0 2 .29. (14. Let the distance between the two supports be d. 2. and use Cartesian coordinates 8s shown in Fig.29./(d+1sin02 . (c) Suppose that initially the two masses are at rest. . What is the motion of the system in terms of the normal coordinates? ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Assume the masses are constrained to move in a vertical plane. respectively.1 c o ~ 0 1 ) 2 m Fig. sin el). An impulsive force gives a horizontal velocity w toward the right to the mass on the left. Hence the Lagrangian of the system is . cos el. The masses have coordinates and velocities (14. l4. The length of the spring is the distance between the two masses: . cos e2. 2. 142 sin e. which is also the unstretched length of the spring.).
91= O . 882 Thus the equations of motion for small oscillations are aL . Similarly.) k Z M mgl& (82 [Jd2 + 2d1(& .) ./d2 + l 2 sin(& .= mgM2 + Let 1 9 = ~ ( 8 1 82)) + 1 < = (81 2 i j + .212 cos(& .sin 61) + 212 .0.81) .sin 81) + 212 . i1  82) and the above give .kl + @2 .534 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) As d L 861 = mgl sin 81 .81) d cos el Z  d) X . kZ2(82 .el)] neglecting second and higher order terms in & .d] x Jd2d + l2dZ(8281)01) + 1 [d M mgl81 .8.212 cos(82 .81) + 2dl(sin 8 2 . 8 2 which are small quantities.k (Jd2 + 2dZ(sin8. .
Thus and q= vsin(w1t) 21Wl ' v sin(w2t) <= 21w2 ' giving the motion of the system in terms of the normal coordinates. O1 = O2 = 0.Analytical Mechanics 535 These show that q and 6 are the normal coordinates with the corresponding normal (angular) frequencies (c) The solutions of the equations of motion in the normal coordinates axe q = Acos(w1t) + Bsin(w1t) . giving q = [ = 0.30. 82 = 0. 2034 Four identical masses axe connected by four identical springs and constrained to move on a frictionless circle of radius b as shown in Fig. .30. (a) How many normalmodes of small oscillations axe there? (b) What are the frequencies of small oscillations? ( Wisconsin) Fig. [ = Ccos(w2t) + Dsin(w2t) . Y . 2. 2. giving At t = 0. and O1 = + = < =5 .
. S and s4 of the four masses from their ~ .4. When the neighboring masses are displaced from the equilibrium positions. (b) The T and V matrices are so the secular equation is which has four roots 0. Thus the potential energy is This system has four degrees of freedom and hence four normalmodes.G. The kinetic energy of the system is T = m(sf I 2 + . As the springs are identical. S ~ . the nth and the (n + l)th. Hence the angular frequenciesof small and . at equilibrium the four masses are positioned symmetrically on the circle. @. the arc between two neighboring masses. initial equilibrium positions as the generalized coordinates. the spring connecting them will extend by for small oscillations for which s are small. subtends an angle at the center. e.e. oscillations are 6 O. + sg + si) .536 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) Take the lengths of arc S I . i.
41 cos 8.2+ 24Z261b2 cos(el . 2.31. Locate that point.)] 1 2 + rng(61 coa 81+ 41 cos 82) . It is possible for this system to 1 perform small oscillations about equilibrium such that a point on the lower pendulum undergoes no horizontal displacement.Analytical Mechanics 537 2035 A simple pendulum of length 41 and mass m is hung from another simple pendulum of length 3 and mass rn. The upper and lower masses have. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Use Cartesian coordinates as shown in Fig. 31 cos el) .v = m[18Z2b? + 16Z28. (31 sin and velocities + 41 sin e2. respectively.) m Fig. . coordinates (31sin el. 31 cos . 2. The Lagrangian of the system is then L = T .e.31.
t 2820 Try 81 = 810eiwt.b2) .sin 82 and thus xcomponent velocity < .2~ 810 The secular equation =0 has roots w=*fi. sin(& .82) + 28. A point on the lower pendulum at distance from the upper mass has xcoordinate 31 sin 81 $. 391 and.. + 961 = 0 . The above equations give (f . 1 '. similarly. + 482 + s& = 0 . < 820 or 82 = el.8 2 ) + ___ = 0 1 or. retaining only first order terms for small oscillations. = Blo Hence there are two normalmode frequencies.82 = 820eiwt. The general small oscillations are a linear combination of the two normalmodes.538 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Lagrange's equations dL give 381 g sin 81 + 282 cos(81 . For w1 = 8. 381 + . *&.
assuming massless strings or connecting rods. this requires (31 . For the w2 mode. fi. How does the amplitude of vibration of rn vary with t? ( Wisconsin) . For the w1 mode. 2.32. 8 2 = :el. 2. From them find the normal frequencies of the system. Therefore when the system undergoes small oscillations with angular frequency a point on the lower pendulum at distance 31 from the upper mass has no horizontal displacement. x = 0 would require As [ is positive this is not possible unless 8. 5 = 0. 8 2 = 81.32 in the vibration limit. i. there is no motion. so that the fractional change in 1 over one period is small.33). 2. again in the smallvibration limit. Fig. (b) Now consider a simple pendulum of mass m. Suppose the string of length 1 is shortened very slowly (by being pulled up through a frictionless hole in the support as shown in Fig.Analytical Mechanics 539 For it to have no horizontal displacement. 2036 (a) Find the Lagrangian equations of motion for the coplanar double oscillator shown in Fig.e. or [ = 31 .()dl = 0. = 0.
11 cos el and their velocities are . Lagrange’s equations then give . Z1 cos el) .33. The Lagrangian of the system is then neglecting terms higher than second order in the small quantities 81. 2. m2 are (Il sin el. Solution: (a) The coordinates of m l .1.) respectively.540 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics mg Fig. (ZI sin el + l2 sin d2.& in the small vibration limit. cos e.
As the change in T.e. i. When the string is shortened by d r . 8 = 80 cos(wt + ‘p) . These provide for the centripetal force: f . the length of the string.mrd2 ) dr = mgdr +d E .mgcoso = mrd2 . the work done by f is d W = f dr = f d r a M mgdr + (:mgO2 .33. or ~ ~ .g(zl ~ ~ + i2)w2+4g2 = o . for small angle oscillations. w The normal frequencies w1.Analytical Mechanics 541 Let 0 =O 1 l ~ eO2 = OzOeiWtand obtain the secular equation ~ ~ ~ . we can take average Also. is small over a period. . w2 are given by the solutions of this equation: x [(m+ m2)(l2+ 1 2 ) * J(w+m2)2(11+ 1 2 ) ~ 4(ml+ nad)mllllz] . The forces on m are the tension f in the string and the gravity mg.  (b) As shown in Fig. 2. where dE is the part relating to the oscillations. the vibration can be considered simple harmonic.
2 = constant.Then if T = % is the period we have i.e. Hence d z _ ._ E Integrating we have  2r .  mrdz = mg82 The energy of the pendulum is 1 mr2d2 .542 Problems & Solutions o n Mechanics = where w E. Er2 = constant . then 2037 A particle in an isotropic threedimensional harmonic oscillator potential has a natural angular frequency WO. T. Find its vibration frequencies if it .. 1 + mr202 + mgr8' 2 2 = mgrp . 1 7 E = mr2d2 2 1 + mgr@ 2 . or e.mgrcosd x mgr 2 so that  1 .1 Let the amplitudes at string lengths be d. 4 respectively._ dr _ .
are mutually perpendicular and take their directions as along the z.y.. B and E. @ = Ex As the particle is an isotropic harmonic oscillator of natural cuigular frequency wo and has charge e. Hence the Lagrangian is 1 + eEx + eB(ky + xy) . 2 Lagrange’s equations then give eBy eE 2 +&&.. ( Wisconsin) Solution: Assume that the uniform magnetic and electric fields.A. in SI units. m .and xaxes respectively.. 0 m m ij eBx + w.y + = 0 . 2 where r = (2. z ) is the displacement of the particle from the origin. we can take the vector and scalar potentials as 1 A = (Byi 2 + Bxj). its potential energy is 1 V = wir2+e@ei. Discuss your result in the weak and strong field limits. Then as Bk=VxA. say. Ei=V@.Analytical Mechanics 543 is charged and is simultaneously acted on by uniform magnetic and electric fields..
w 2 eB ()w 2 =0 then gives eBw W 2 f .. .w2)2  ieBw w.544 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics The last equation shows that the vibration in the zdirection takes place with the natural angular frequency W O . I +wox I . 2m w=wo. m and we obtain the matrix equation The secular equation = (wo" .eBY. w+ and w. For weak fields. Letting x = X I the first two equations become + 3. 2 x. we have 4 eB w+=wo+. m which has two positive roots Hence the three normalmode angular frequencies are W O .wo" = 0 . =m o y Try a solution of the type eBxl + w. Note that the last two modes of oscillations are caused by the magnetic field alone. eB 2m .y + = 0 . $ << W O . . whereas the electric field only causes a displacement along its mu0 direction.
Lagrange’s equations . 2.34 and let 21. >> W O . Find normalmodes of oscillation and their corresponding frequencies.z3 ass be the displacements of the respective masses from their equilibrium positions.34. 2. we have 1 eB 2 m w+x [+ eB 2m2wg 1+m e2B2)] ( 2038 T r e particles of equal mass m move without friction in one dirnenhe sion.Analytical Mechanics 545 For strong fields. The Lagrangian of the system is l k 2 rn k 3 m m Fig. Two of the particles are each connected to the third by a massless spring of spring constant k. (CUSPEA ) Solution: Number the m s e from the left as shown in Fig. z2.
The displacements are . mjiI 21) ~ 2 ) Trying a solution of the type we can write the above as a matrix equation (kFz k . or XI =at+b.x 2 ) = 0 . where a .3k = k These are the normalmode angular frequencies of the system. b are constants. (1) then gives XI = 0 . (i) w1 = 0 Equation (2) gives A = B = G and thus X I = 2 2 = x 3 . In this mode the middle mass remains stationary while the outer masses oscillate symmetrically with respect to it.m2 0 k 0 k kmu2 = m 2 ( k. A = C.m 2 k 2k . The first of Eqs. 2 mf3 + k ( ~ 3 =O .w ~ ) ( w) ~0 . The corresponding normalmodes are as follows.546 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics give + k(x1 .m 2 k 2kmw2 k k . (ii) w2 = & Equation (2) gives B = 0. m 2 + k(xz X +k ( ~ 53) =O . Hence in this mode the three masses undergo uniform translation together as a rigid body and no vibration occurs.
the zaxis vertically upwards. For small amplitudes. 2 1 = Acos(w3t 1 3 = Acos(w3t + ‘p) . 23 + . find the normalmodes of vibration and their frequencies.35. The springs are confined so that they can move only in the vertical direction. Berkeley) Solution: Use Cartesian coordinates with origin at the center of mass C of the plate when the plate is in equilibrium. Describe each of the modes. The displacements are fi + ’p) .Analytical Mechanics 2 1 547 =ACOS(U~~ . 9) = ACOS(W~~ 9) + 22=0. 2. length a and width b is supported at each of its corners by a spring with spring constant k as shown in Fig. Fig. 2.36. The three normalmodes are shown in Fig. 2039 A rectangular plate of mass M . 5 2 = 2Acos(w3t + ‘p) . (UC. In this mode the two outer masses oscillate with the same amplitude and phase while the middle mass oscillates exactly out of phase with twice the amplitude with respect to the other two masses. cp being a constant. C = A. 2.35. (iii) w3 = Equation (2) gives B = 2A. the I .
M g z . If z is the vertical coordinate of C. 2 2 + ZB = z . the vertical coordinates of the four corners are 1 1 Z A = z .up 2 1 . 2. 0 respectively.b e . As the coordinates are relative to the equilibrium positions.k(zi 2 1 + : + Z. for small angle oscillations. 24 24 2 Lagrange’s equations then give .Mgz 1 = M i 2 2 1 1 1 + Ma2+’ + Mb2b2 .36.zbe 2 1 2 1 2 z E = z + apt . the L a grangian is L=TV 1 = Mi2 2 1 1 + Ma2@‘ + Mb202 24 24 a .548 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Fig.37. 2.) Z . + z.zM9 . 2.and yaxes be cp.acp be . Fig. 1 ZD = Z + 1 1 acp. as shown in Fig.k(4z2 + a2cp2+ b202) . and yaxes along the axes of symmetry in the plane of the plate. . and let the angles of rotation about the x.37.
It can be seen that if w = w1 then zo # 0. . + wi5i32) . and one or both of pol 00 are not zero. neglecting a constant term in the potential energy. Denoting the amplitudes of z'. cpol80 respectively. If we define 2 g we can. write 1 v = (w2I t 12 + 4 5 .Analytical Mechanics 549 Mf+4kz+Mg=O. then zo = 0.the first equation can be written as Mf' + 4kz' = 0 . & are the normalmode coordinates. we obtain from the equations of motion (4k . 5 2 . w2 = w3 = The equations show that the normalmode angular frequencies axe w1= 2 g . cpo = 80 = 0. If w = w2 or wg. slowing that 5 1 . 8 by z.M w 2 ) a = 0. M9 12 1 + k8 = 0 . 2 These are both in quadratic form. cp.. M$ 12 1 +kp =0 . By putting z = z'  2.
(a) The particle is moving in a circular orbit at height z = zo.38. 2. Obtain its energy and angular momentum in terms of zo.38.550 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics 2040 A particle moves without friction on the inside wall of an axially symmetric vessel given by z = . Obtain the frequency of oscillation about the unperturbed orbit for very small oscillation amplitude. 2 where b is a constant and z is in the vertical direction. and the mass m of the particle. As the vessel can be represented by 2 The Lagrangian of the particle is 2 = T cos 8. Berkeley) 1 + Y X Fig. g (gravitational acceleration). (b) The particle in the horizontal circular orbit is poked downwards slightly.b ( 2 y2) . 2. 2. b. as shown in Fig. (UC. z = 1 ( s 2 + y2) = br 2 b 1 2 = 1 1 m(i2 + ~ ’ 6 ’+ bZr2i2) Z m g ~ 2 2 .38. Solution: (a) Use coordinates as shown in Fig. y = T sine.
re2 + gbr = 0 . As the particle motion is confined to a circle of height zo and radius say.3  r. 1 . (1) becomes = r3 r4b2 _ r. r9 = mr$= 2mzo (b) For the perturbed motion.) and the angular momentum about the center of the circle is J = mr . 2. Hence. let r = TO p where p << T O . Lagrange's equation for 8 shows that the angular momentum mr2eis conserved.R2 _7. The wedge is free to slide on a horizontal frictionless surface.39. . we have T = To.gb r3 (1 + b2ri)fi + 4gbp = 0 by neglecting terms of order higher than the first in the small quantities p. p. e2 = gb = R2. The total energy of the particle is then T + V = sm(riR2+ gk.b2rf2. The angular frequency of small amplitude oscillations about ro is therefore 2041 A block of mass m is attached to a wedge of mass M by a spring with spring constant k. as shown in Fig. p. The inclined frictionless surface of the wedge makes an angle a to the horizontal. + and Eq. + b2r2)i: . say zo = br. = mgbri = 2mgz0 . i = i: = 0.Analytical Mechanics 55 1 Lagrange's equation for (1 T then gives (1) TO. 2 1 2 .
2 .s s i n a ) 1 2 1 1 + M ) k 2 + mi2 + mkscosa . mg sin a +d.~ + m~(j.39.d ) = O yielding .s s i n a ) . Write the equations of motion.39 and let the horizontal coordinate of the left side of the wedge be 2.mg(h .mg(h .552 P r o b l e m d Solutions on Mechanics (a) Given the relaxed length of the spring alone is d. 2. Use coordinates as shown in Fig.2k ( s .k(s0 . icosa)' 2 + 2 2 + (Ssin~u)'] . k (b) Let the height of the wedge be h. (b) Find the Lagrangian for the system as a function of the x coordinate of the wedge and the length of the spring s. h .d ) 2 . Berkeley) Fig. 2.d ) 2 . Solution: (a) When the block is in equilibrium. find the value SO when both the block and the wedge are at rest.k(s 2 = (m 1 . Then the mass m will have coordinates so = ~ (x + s c o s a . L=TV = 1 1 . (c) What is the natural frequency of vibration? (UC. the sum of forces parallel to the inclined surface is zero: mgsina .s s i n a ) The Lagrangian of the system is then .
w2 yielding w1 = 0. 2042 An uniform log with length L. crosssectional area A and mass M is floating vertically in water ( p = 1. (a) Find the normalmodes (frequencies and ratio of displacements) for small displacements of the beam.Analytical Mechanics 553 Lagrange’s equations then give the equations of motion (m+M)5+mscosa=O.0) and is attached by a spring with spring constant K to a uniform beam which is pivoted at the center as shown in Fig. The log is constrained to move vertically and the natural length of the spring is such that the equilibrium position of the beam is horizontal. mgcosa (c) Setting s=s’+ + ms + ks . 2. kd + mg sin (Y k 7 we can write the above equations a s (m M)Z + mi’cosa = 0 .40(a). The beam has the same mass and is twice the length of the log. . 02 + = J m k(m ( +~ a) msin2 + M) . w2. As the motion related to w1 is not oscillatory but as a whole translational along the xaxis. +S = AeiWty sf = B e i W t > + Consider a solution of the form 2 the above give the secular equation (m M)W2 .there is only one natural frequency of vibration.(kd + mgsina) = 0 . m5cosc~ m ‘ + ks’ = 0 .w 2 c o s a w2 COSCY k .
2.LO and the upward thrust of the water is [L giving .( h . and O the angle of rotation of the beam.40(a)).~ o ) ] A.xO)IAgx 1 + Agx2 .40(b) with x denoting the displace ment of the top of the vertical rod from its equilibrium position (the downward direction being taken as positive). At equilibrium (Fig.( h . 2.( h . ~ ax v. the spring is in its natural length xo and does not exert a force on the rod..( h .ZO)] + 2‘) dx’ [ L . . 2 + s1A g z 2 = Mgx Hence the total potential energy is . Berkeley) Solution: Use coordinates as shown in Fig. With p = 1 we have M g = [L. (UC.554 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y (b) Discuss the physical significance of the normalmodes in the limit of a very strong spring. 2. = Ag = 1’ { [ L .x ) ] A= .40(b)) the spring is extended by x .xo av.g When the beam has rotated an angle 8 (Fig.
1 6 The beam has moment of inertia $ M L 2 .M w 2 ) D . 3KD + (3KL . M L . ~ ( ~ 'Tky a solution of the type x = DeiWt 8 = BeiWtand write the above 85 . (K + A9 .LO) = o . + Ag f J ( 4 K + Ag)' .Mw2 3K The secular equation is then I or K 3 K L.K L B = 0.3 ~ .2K ( x . + Ag .LO)' 2 1 + K ( x 2 1 2 .Agx2 .l2KAg 2M are the two normalmode angular frequencies of the system for small oscillations of the beam.M ( 4 K The two positive roots 4K w*=d + Ag)w2 + 3KAg = 0 .MLw2)B= 0 .so the total kinetic energy is T = .M ? ~+ .M L ~ O ~ Thus the Lagrangian is 1 2 L =T V = Mi2 2 Lagrange's equations 1 1 1 1 + ML202 .MLw2 = KL I ' M2w4 . .LO)' 6 2 .. give MP + Agx + K ( x .Analytical Mechanics 555 V = Mgx = Agx2 1 1 + Mgx + Agx2 + 2K ( x .LO) = 0.
Note that these results cannot be obtained from the previous ones by putting K + 00 because the constraint relations are different. this requires that x .e. Find the normalmode frequencies for the small oscillations along the line between the two masses. the constraint x M L means that the system O oscillates with the spring keeping its length constant. Eliminating the K ( z . 2.LO) terms from the equations of motion and making use of L6 M x. m is at rest at its equilibrium position. which is expected for a very strong spring. If the total energy of the system is Eo and the spring is very weak. ML6 are all finite. As MX.L8 + 0.Ag J(4K Ag)' .41. Physically.3K . find the . Give the relation between the motion of M and that of m in each mode. 2043 Two unequal masses M and m ( M> m) hang from a support by strings of equal lengths 1. The ratio of the displacements is and they are in the same phase. K + 00. Now specialize for the case where at t = 0.Mw' BL 3K  2K . i. x + LO. Agx. The masses are coupled by a spring of spring constant K and of unstretched length equal to the distance between the support points as shown in Fig.12KAg 6K + with the top sign for w+ and the bottom sign for w. (b) In the limit of a very strong spring.556 Pmblems €4 Solutions on Mechanics The ratios of the displacements are x L O  D . Write down the most general solution. we find 4MX 3Agx = 0 + and hence the angular frequency of oscillation W = p 4M . and M is released from rest with an initial positive displacement.
KZ2(sin& . Berkeley) Solution: Use coordinates as shown in Fig.Analytical Mechanics L 557 Fig.41 with origin 0 at the equilibrium position of the maas m and the 2and yaxes along the horizontal and vertical directions respectively and let the distance between the two supports be L." ZK12(02 tI1)' 2 . The Lagrangian of the system is L=TV = mZ28?+ 5M128. The masses m and M then have coordinates and velocities respectively. 2. maximum energy acquired by m during the subsequent motion for the case = 2.") 2 1 for small oscillations in the horizontal direction.gl(me: +Me. 2.sin81)2 2 1 1 1 2 x rnZ2eT 1 2 1 1 + MZ%.". (Where did you use the assumption that the spring is weak?) (UC. Lagrange's equations .41.
Mg+KlMlw2 B Kl we have A =1 7 B for w=w1 . . 61 = A’COS(WZ~ cpz).  A’ B’ M __ m for w = w2 Hence.mlw2 K1 yielding the normalmode angular frequencies A _ . ml81 Try a solution of the type (mg + ?ki el = AeiWt. and the most general solution is .K161 = 0 .558 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics then give + (mg + K1)& .K162 = 0 . Ml& + ( M g + Kl)& . + 82 = A’cos(wzt m M + cp2) .8 2 = BeiWtand write the above as K1 Mg+KIMlw2) mlw2 (t) =“ The secular equation is then 1 As mg + Kl . for w = w2. for w = w1.
82 = 80. the general solution reduces to 2 el = eo[cos(wlt) . 3 ez = eo[cos(wlt) . 1 2 2mt eo = 1 + mgle: . + / r (2mg K2)Z . then as Eo = K12# we have. 2 . and 81= 0. M = 2m.M m+Meo7 A'=A. +2 3 with w1 = 2 1 fi. The energy of m is E~ = rn12@ If the spring is very weak. as 60 is positive.Analytical Mechanics 559 Initially at t = 0. giving $1 = @Z = 0. we can take K1<< so that mg where .cos(w2t)l .cos(w2t)l . 81= 82 = 0. 2 If in addition. If the initial total energy is Eo. giving A=. 1 2 1 + MgZ9: . wz = /.
mz have . from their respective positions of equilibrium. the sideway motion is to be interpreted as longitudinal along the springs. rn1.42.43. numbered from the left. (UC. The three springs are equal. Fig. Solution: Since the motion is confined to the plane of the diagram of Fig. Berkeley) Fig.cos(w16t)]. 2. 2. Using coordinates as shown in Fig. 9 neglecting 6 as compared with unity. The springs are assumed massless and perfectly elastic. sideways and up and down. We assume that both particles can move in the plane of the figure. 2.y2) be the horizontal and vertical displacements of the spheres. Hence the maximum energy of m is ~Eo. 2. The springs are under tension: in its unstretched condition each spring would be of length %. find the frequencies for the four normalmodes of the system.yl) and (zz.42. of spring constant K.42. Let (z1. 2044 Two small spheres of mass M are suspended between two rigid supports as shown in Fig.2cos(wlt) cos(wat)] + + M 4 Eo[l .560 P r o b l e m d Solutions on Mechanics We then have 2 E~= mgl@ [I + (1 s )sin2(w2t) cos2(w2t) ~ 9 2(1+ 6) sin(w1t)sin(w2t) . Assuming small oscillations about the equilibrium configuration shown above.43. 2.
I2 fK (i)2 Consider a2 a 2 + x: + 2axl+ 9: + . the above becomes . T&ing the equilibrium configuration (Fig. (2u x2.u d u 2 +x: + 2axl+ y : 4 As the term involving the squareroot sign can be written as x: a2 (I+ + 2ax1+ I : ) a2 MU2 1 x.5 ) 1 + 4x1 F] = a2 . y1.42) as the state of zero potential.Analytical Mechanics 561 coordinates (a x1...) 2 ( ) f (i) ( .yz) respectively. 2.+2ax1 +yT [l+ 5 a2 1 + (x: + 2ax1+ y.y1). we have for the system the potential energy V = 1K 2 + + [ d M .x: 2 1 retaining only terms of orders up t o the second in the small quantities X I .
Kyl+ Mg = O .562 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics The same approximation is taken over the other terms. 2 It is seen that the equations naturally separate into two groups.Mw’ K = (3K .22122 . 1 Mjiz +Ky2 .Mw2) = 0 2K . ~ MXl + 2 K ~ 2 K x = 0 . ~ MXl Mgl + K y 1 .Kyz+Mg 2 I =o .w 2 : 1 2 + 22.Mw2)(K. = AieiWt Then the first two equations give the secular equation 2K . Let ~ 5. The Lagrangian is then L=TV Lagrange’s equations give +2 K ~ l K x =0 .y2.y1y2) + Mg(y1+ yz) .Mw2 1 . + y: + 9: . those in 2 1 . and those in y1. Hence =.
let They can then be written as M& w i n g a solution of the type + Kyk .44). (a) Write an exact differential equation of motion for the angular displacement 8 of the bob. . 2. Also write a simplified form valid when the oscillation amplitude is very small.Analytical Mechanics 563 yielding two normalmode angular frequencies for longitudinal oscillations. We consider only the motion in which the bob of the pendulum swings in the plane of the wheel. For the second group of two equations. 2045 A simple pendulum of length L is suspended at the rim of a wheel of radius b which rotates within the vertical plane with constant angular velocity R (Fig.Ky: 1 2 =0 we obtain the secular equation which yields the normalmode angular frequencies for vertical oscillations.
. 2. Solution: (a) Use coordinates as shown in Fig.564 Prublem d Solutions on Mechanics (b) Assume that both the radius 6 and the oscillation amplitude of the bob are very small. (You may ignore transients which will die out.) (UC.bcos(fit+ 'p) + Lcos6) (bR cos(Rt + 'p) + Le cos 8. where 'p is a constant. 2.44.Rt .45. The mass m has coordinates (bsin(Rt and velocity + 'p) + Lsin@.a t .Le sin 6 ) . Give an approximate steadystate solution of the equation of motion valid under the assumptions. Fig.45. bR sin(0t + 'p) .'p)] + mgpcos(fit + 'p) + L cos el I 1 2 Lagrange's equation gives + bR2sin(B. if there is a slight dissipation. 2. BerkeEey) n r Y Fig. The Lagrangian of m is then L=TV = m[b2R2 + L2b2+ 26LRbcos(B .'p) +gsinB = 0 .
bR2 sin(Rt + 'p) = 0 . Substitution in the equation of motion gives / 3 (LO2 + g)[acos(Rt + 'p) + psin(Rt + 'p)] . g p . where a. we have.Analytical Mechanics 565 For smallamplitude oscillations. 8. In the steady state. As this equation must be true for any arbitrary time.bR2 = 0 .'p) M Bcos(Rt + 'p) . the pendulum will swing with the same frequency as the rotation of the wheel. we must have a = 0 in the first equation.bR2sin(Rt +'p) = 0 . axe constants. . + ep + e7) . sin 8 M 8.e.La2 'p) 2046 Three equal point masses m move on a circle of radius b under forces derivable from the potential energy ~ ( a 7)= vo(e" p. + 'p) = 0 .bR2 sin(Rt (b) For b and 8 small. cos 8 x 1. and the equation of motion becomes Le + [bR2cos(Rt + 'p) + 918 . sin(8 . The second equation gives p=Hence the steadystate solution is bR2 gLR2' sin(Rt + e = bR2g . L e + g 8 . retaining terms of only up to the first order of b.sin(Rt + 'p) . so we can assume 8 = acos(Rt + 'p) + psin(Rt + 'p) . aLR2 + g a = 0 . the coefficients of cos(Rt 'p) and sin(Rt + 'p) must separately vanish: + As R is given. .@LO2.Rt .
(Note that a.. When a = p = y = the system is in equilibrium. Find the normalmode frequencies for small departure from equilibrium. 2.46. + + Fig.83 be the angular displacements o the three masses from their f equilibrium positions as shown in Fig.566 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics where a.. 2. we can write the potential energy as . 2. Fig.+ + 1 .. p. 3 2n As e= M 1 . We have 2n 2n a = . p=+e3e2. y are their angular separations in radians.47.+ . 3 ~ = .&.p.5 52 l! 2! . as shown in Fig.46.+3e 2 .) ( UC. 2. Solution: Let el.Berkeley) F. y are not independent since a /3 y = 27r.e 1 .8 3 .47.
e2)2 + (el .8. As the velocities are &.e3el) .B(8: + 8. + 8.) . The Lagrangian is therefore 1 2 + 8. retaining terms of orders up to the second in the exp small quantities el. . with B = mb2.~ ( +3 + e. 2ABw2 3A + 0 0 2A ABw2 = Bw2(3A + B w ~= 0~ ) 2A . .e3e1) e: 1 with A = VO (%).el) .03.ele2 . b&.Bw2 A A 2ABw2 Bw2 .e2e3. the kinetic energy is T = .(e2 .e.e1e2 .Bw2 A A 2ABw2 A A A A =O.(83'92) +e(fhe3)] V0ev 3 .) L=TV =~ ( e+.(e2el) M + .e2e3 .e3) [ =~ 1 1 1 + p2 + (e3 .Analytical Mechanics 567 V = Voe?g[.(e3. + e. d3. e: Lagrange's equations 2A . + e.(el .e3)2 2 2 (+ 3: + e.) . 02.
48.568 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Hence the normalmode angular frequencies are = 0. w2 w1 = w3 = mb2 Note that w1 does not give rise to oscillations.) 1 3o v . each of constant K .48. (a) describe qualitatively the modes of motion that are simple harmonic in time (the normalmodes). 2.Berkeley) . two of mass m and one of mass M . Assuming motion that stretches the springs only by a small amount from the equilibrium length ( 2 ~ / 3 ) . are constrained to lie on a horizontal circle of radius r . M Fig. one corresponding to each mode. (b) find a precise set of normal coordinates.P(. The other two normalmodes are degenerate and there is only one normalmode frequency &e. for in this case the equations of motion give el = e2 = 0 3 and the system as a whole rotates with a constant angular velocity. They are mutually connected by springs. 2. (c) find the frequency of each mode. 2047 Three point particles. ( UC. that follow the arc of the circle and that are of equal length when the system is at rest as shown in Fig.
e3) = o 4 ( 2 . + ( b + re. .rel . we can take the total angular momentum of the system to be zero.el) = o e . Consequently there are only two Vibrational degrees of freedom. 27rr b= 3 ’ The Lagrangian of the system is L=TV 1 + rez . c3. i.~ =o e and the first and third equations give m(el  i3) 3 + e3) .re2 . .&.e2 .) 8 ~ =o The above sum up to mi$ + M & + me3 = o . ( e3 2 . ~ (.~ .re3 Lagrange’s equations : g ($)  =0 then give the differential equations of motion mel M& +~ +~ me3 + ~ ( 2 . #3 be respectively the angular displacements of m. This means that there is a normalmode in which the system rotates as a whole. + ( b + re3 . When considering the vibration of the masses relative to their equilibrium positions. . M .a). Then the two vibrational normalmodes correspond (b) Let the natural length of each spring be a and denote the equilibrium length by b. Let $I.c2.Analytical Mechanics 569 Solution: (a) As the system is not acted upon by external torque. .e.el .e. m from their equilibrium positions and let their amplitudes be c1 .u). its angular momentum is conserved.
Equation (1) shows that w1 = 0. mij + 3 K q = 0 if we set q=81 83. We already have Assume the third normal coordinate to be It should be orthogonal to the <. 42 = 8g 43 = 03 2. q2. Thus corresponding to this mode in which the system rotates as a whole and there is no oscillation. The transformation between 43 the three normal coordinates and the three “Cartesian” coordinates 41. to make the kinetic energy a sum of squares: T = mr2(q. Hence and q are normalmode coordinates of the system.77axes. must be linear. To find the third normal coordinate. ql..=E. 92.43 are just like Cartesian coordinates. Equation (2) shows that < .570 Problems @ Solutions i on Mechanics These can be written as mc=O. Resolving along the qiaxes we have . we choose the coordinate transformation 41 = 81. + qg + 4 ) : 1 2 .
about which it is free to rotate in its own vertical plane. (a) Write the Lagrangian for this system. after multiplying it with a nonzero constant. w2.B = .Analytical Mechanics 571 Orthogonality means that Since a normal coordinate remains so which yield A = C. (b) Write the equations of motion. (d) Find the frequencies of the normalmodes of small oscillations for general m and M. 2048 A ring of mass M and radius R is supported from a pivot located at one point of the ring. w3 are the normalmode angular frequencies corresponding to q. 2. The mass m and the center of mass of the ring have coordinates . Berkeley) Solution: (a) Use coordinates as shown in Fig. ( VC. C respectively. (c) Describe the normalmodes for small oscillations in the limits m>> M a n d m < M . the three normal coordinates <. then The equations of motion then give yielding w3 =p m +M)K mM (c) w1.2 A f i .49.49). 2. A bead of mass m slides without friction about the ring (Fig. we can set A = 1.
572 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics xGqM Pivot m Y Fig. R@+Rd+gp=O. RbsinO) respectively. Rcos8f Rcoscp). (b) Lagrange’s equations dL dL give the equations of motion (2M + m)Rd + mRgcos(8 cp) + mRd2sin(8 .Re2 sin(8 .cp) + gsincp = 0 .  (c). 1 2 taking the pivot as the reference level of potential energy. (RsinB + Rsincp. are small and the above reduce to (2M + m)Rd + mR$ + ( M + m)g8 = 0 .(d) For small oscillations. The Lagrangian of the system is then L=TV =M + + (M + m)gRcos8 + mgRcoscp .aQz = O d R ~ + ~ m ~ ~ [g2 + . cp. and velocities (Rbcos8 (Rsin8. 2. Resin8  Rgsincp).cp) + ( m+ M)g sin 8 = 0. (I. Rcos8) + Rgcoscp. .legcos(e . R$ + Rdcos(8 . The ring has moment of inertial 2MR2 about the pivot.49. dt (&) .cp) . 8.cp)] O e ~ . 8. (R8cos8.
( 2 Rw2 The secular equation +~ m)Rw2 mh2 g .(m M ) g ] = 0 has positive roots + which are the normalmode angular frequencies of the system.h 2 ) (t) =O. = BeiWtand write these equations 'p as a matrix equation ( M + m)g . i. for w = w 2 . 8 and 'p have the same amplitude but opposite phases.(2M Rw2 + +m ) h 2 . Ifm<M. "l=@' =l.. for w = w l .e. 8 and 'p have the same amplitude and phase as in the above. A i. (m M ) g . i. The ratio of the amplitudes is _B Rw My.e.:g: I = ( 2 h 2 . 8 and 'p have the same amplitude and phase.e. A m . A u1=& =l.g ) [ M h 2.Analytical Mechanics 573 Try a solution of the type 0 = AeiWt.
(e) Solve the equations you get in (d). 2049 A particle of mass m is constrained to move on the parabola z = $ in the plane. or x=o. (c) Where is the equilibrium position for the particle? (d) Write the equation for small oscillations about this equilibrium. Then z = 0 also.574 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics i.e. (Columbia) Solution: (a) We choose x as the generalized coordinate of the particle. and there is a constant gravitational force acting in the negative z direction.$) = x (i!. a is a constant length. ) = ( x . $) and velocity ( k . Neglecting terms of orders greater than two we obtain . Then 1 T = m(*' 2 + i 2= ) mgx2 a V=mgz=The Lagrangian is therefore (c) The equilibrium position is given by bV 2m . .O). (a) Define a suitable generalized coordinate for the problem.%). 8 has a much smaller amplitude than cp and the two oscillations are opposite in phase. Thus the equilibrium position is (0.? are small quantities. x. (d) For small oscillations about equilibrium. (b) Write the Lagrangian in terms of your generalized coordinate and velocity.==g x ax a 0. (b) The particle has coordinates (5.
. 2. Give the normal frequencies and normalmodes for small oscillations in a plane. (Columbia) Solution: Use coordinates as shown in Fig. 2. 1 coscp.50.Analytical Mechanics 575 Lagrange’s equation then gives a (e) This equation has general solution x=Acos(Ei!+e) . 2050 A thin uniform bar of mass m and length $ is suspended by a string of length 1 and negligible mass. The bar has moment of inertia + Fig.50.$1 cost)) and velocity (l@coscp+ ~lecosf3. The center of mass of the bar has coordinates (1 sincp+ $1 sine.l@sincp il9sin8). &are constants of integration to be determined from the initial conditions. where A .
glw2 1w2 i=o. 4 18+llJ+gB=O. 4. +. retaining only terms of up to the second order of the small quantities 8. Lagrange's equation give 3 *. lB+llJ+gCp=O. .576 Problems B Solutions on Mechanics Hence its Lagrangian is L=TV for small oscillations.e. With a solution of the form the above give glw2 The secular equation 2EW2 1w2 =o glw2 i. 'p.
(b) Find the frequencies for small oscillations. 2051 A simple pendulum consisting of a mass m and weightless string of length 1 is mounted on a support of mass M which is attached to a horizontal spring with force constant k as shown in Fig.l d 1w2 A $ $ forw=w1 for w = w 2 . (a) Set up Lagrange's equations. f ~ or w= (h*l)fi.51.51 . (Columbia) X Fig. In both cases the ratio of the amplitude of 'p to that of 8 is &:2. 2. while in that given by w2. 2. 0 and 'p are opposite in phase. . Thus in the normalmode given by w1. since w has to be positive.Analytical Mechanics 577 has solutions ~ ~ = ( 4 i 2 h ) f = ( l & h ) . Hence the normalmode angular frequencies are The ratio of amplitudes is B g . 6 and cp are in phase.
8 = Bexp(iwt) These equations become k  ( M + m)w2 mlw2) g . ze+x+ge=o. 2.1Icos8) (i. the equations of motion become ( M +m)Z + mlB+ ka: = 0 . a:. The Lagrangian of the system is LzTV 1 = Miz 2 + 1m ( i 2 + 1’8’ + 2 1 5 8 ~ 0 ~ )Mgl . o).(g(M + m) + kl]w2 + gk = 0 .k.l). The secular equation k  (M + m)w2 mlw2 g .and y.m g l f l . (b) For small oscillations. Lagrange’s equations then give (M+m)xm182sin8+m18cos8+ka:=0. Then M and m have coordinates and velocities (z.1w2 I = Mlw2 .578 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y Solution: (a) Use coordinates with origin at the position of m when the system is in equilibrium.l8 sine) respectively. (i+ 18 cos e.axes along the horizontal and vertical directions respectively as shown in Fig. are small quantities.lw2 (. (z+lsin8.51. Set z = Aexp(iwt) . 1i+ji. and the 2. Neglecting 8 terms of orders higher than two.) =o.cose+gsin8=0.cos8) 8 2 8L  1 kx2 2 .Q.
52. and denote the positions of the upper and lower masses by yl. Calculate the subsequent motion of the lower mass m. so that the system performs free oscillations. (a) Calculate the frequencies of the normalmodes of oscillations of this system. Solution: (a) Let the natural lengths of the upper and lower springs be 1 1 . 2. 2m and m.Analytical Mechanics 579 has two positive roots w1= [ g(M + m ) + kl + d [ g ( M+ m) + klI2 . are suspended from a fixed frame by elastic springs as shown in Fig. y2 as shown in Fig.4Mlgk 2M1 which are the normalmode angular frequencies of the system. (Columbia) Fig.52. respectively. / 2 . The Lagrangian is then . 2. 2. 2052 Two masses.52. The elastic constant (force/unit length) of each spring is k. (b) The upper mass 2m is slowly displaced downwards from the equilib rium position by a distance 1 and then let go. Consider only vertical motion.
we have k .11) 1 mg With a solution of the type = k(y2  y1 .y2 = 02 are the equilibrium positions of the masses 2m 1 and m respectively. +772The above can be written as 2my: + 2kyi .580 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics i L=TV Lagrange’s equations give Let Y1 =y: t01.Ic 2 W The secular equation 2k .2 w 2 )(+. as can be seen from the force equations 3mg = H Y l . k . =0 3mg +k l ~ 1 q2= 4mg + kll + kl2 k Note that g1 = 0 .w 2 .1 2 ) . +ky.  my. =0 . if we set 01 = kyi .Icy.Y2 =Y.
~4 = hAcos(w+t + + JZA'cos(wt + 9 2 ) . = A cos(w+t cpl) The initial condition is that at t = 0. As  B 2 k . = ?. and 92) (b) The general motion of the system is given by + 91)+ A' cos(wt + . y.= 0 j .2 ~ ~ =r A k h. l).( 1 . l ) . the corresponding normalmodes are (b) (&). This gives = 1.Analytical Mechanics 581 has two positive roots which are the angular frequencies of the normalmodes of osciIlation. y! = y. Hence the motion of the mass 2m is described by 2053 Three massless springs of natural length fi and spring constant K are attached to a point particle of mass m and to the fixed points (1.
we find one stable equilibrium position (0. Solution: (a) Let the coordinates of the mass m be (x. (a) Write the Lagrangian for the system.582 Problem €4 Solutions on Mechanics and (1.1)2 . (CoZumbica) Y Fig. 2. (e) Sketch the normalmodes of vibration. y). 2.K[J(x 1)2 2  + (y .K[J(x 1)2 2 1 . (d) Introduce normal coordinates and solve for the motion of the particle in the small oscillation approximation. =o.53. Its Lagrangian is then L=TV 1 K[J(x . The point mass m is allowed to move in the (x.1)2 .1)2 2 1 .53. 1) as shown in Fig. . y)plane only. (b) Is there a stable equilibrium for the point mass? Where is it? (c) Give the Lagrangian appropriate for small oscillations. + + + (y + 1)2 .J2]2 + (y .O).&I2 a2v ++2 a ax2 axay (b) R o m the conditions of a stable equilibrium aV _ C3X  0. aV a Y ~ a2v ay2 .J 2 ] 2 .o.
B.4K ( 3 x 2 + 2xy + 3 y 2 ) . The normal coordinates are given by id where aij are the elements of the matrix T. Thus for the normal coordinate is = Ulmx w1 mode.m d ) ( K . Its two positive roots give the normal frequencies and the corresponding normalmodes of vibrations w1= w2 = E. L (d) The kinetic and potential energies can respectively be represented by matrices We have the matrix equation For nonvanishing solutions we require that or (2K. x . = The general motion of the particle for small oscillations is then where A. Expanding L p and retaining only the lowestorder terms in these small quantities we have 1 L = .cpl.m w 2 ) = 0 . the + U2my = U l m ( x + y ) . u.mp2 . (I1) .Analytical Mechanics 583 (c) For small oscillations.mi2 L 1 1 + . i. y .q2 are constants to be determined from the initial conditions. are small quantities. . u1= (i) E.
For w2 = @. and the point mass oscillates along the line y = 2 as shown in Fig. that is. Use the angles each string makes with the vertical as generalized coordinates.54(a). What are the normalmodes? What are the corresponding frequencies? Show that in the special case of equal masses and equal lengths the frequencies are given by single piece? J. the string of the lower pendulum is tied to the bob of the upper one. set up the Lagrangian of the system. so the point mass oscillates along the line y = x as shown in Fig. q are the normal coordinates of the system.584 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y The constant factor U l m is immaterial and we can take t=x+y. Discuss small oscillations of this system. 2. (e) For w1 = dg. 2. c . 2054 One simple pendulum is hung from another. Similarly for the w2 mode and we can take v=xy.54(b). Under what conditions will the system move as a (Columbia) . Using arbitrary lengths for the strings and arbitrary masses for the bobs.
m2 have coordinates (11 sin&. 81.V. 82. as shown in Fig. The Lagrangian of the system is given by L = T . l2 the lengths of the two strings. 2. 82. 11 cos& .55. Let ml. we have retained only terms of up to the order two of the small quantities 81. To find the normalmodes we write these in matrix form: . Then the kinetic energy T of the system is given by and the potential energy V is given by For small oscillations. Z1 cos81). 2. The two bobs ml.Analytical Mechanics 585 Solution: Fig. ( E l sine1 + Z2 sin&. m2 be the masses of the bobs and 1 1 .t2cos02) and velocities respectively.55.
12w2) m21112w2 ) () : .) (2. we have (K . A i. 6' and 8'.j=l 2V = VO with C 2 Mijeiej 2 = O'MO . 6 respectively.h w 2 ) mlh12w4 . =o. (mi + ma)li(g . Considering a solution of the type (.e.llw2) m21112w2 or md112w2 m2h(g .) = cos(wt + E) .l1w2) m2l l2w2 m212(9 . + K&Oj i. A2 not to be zero identically we require ( m l + m z ) l l ( g .( Its positive roots ~ 2 12)(m1+ m2)gw2 + + (ml + m2)g2 = o . For Al. being the transpose matrices of 8.586 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y 2T = i.j=l = VO + Q'K8 .W ~ M ) = o .
rnl = r n 2 = m. where A+. ass 11 = 12 = 1. As the normalmodes are given by x A&COS(W&~ Q) + . The general solution is e2 = A+ cos(w+t + &+) + A. For the system to move as a single piece. we require 81 = 62. where the top and bottom signs correspond to w+.Analytical Mechanics 587 are the normalmode angular frequencies of the system. and w. E+ and E . A _ .are constants to be determined from the initial conditions.respectively.e. In the specid case of equal m s e and equal lengths.1 . the normal frequencies are Wf = J$z). or .cos(wt + E . i.
as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.56. Fig. yaxes along the horizontal and vertical directions. Then the two bobs have coordinates and velocities . Furthermore. and use coordinates with the origin at the equilibrium position of the bob of pendulum 1and the z. (b) Now consider an infinite row of pendulums with each pendulum connected t o its neighbors just as the pair in part (a) is connected. Number the pendulums from the left.56(b).57. the bottom sign of the righthand side has to be used. (Columbia) Fig. or 12 = 0. squaring both sides gives Zlzzml(m1 + m2) = 0 This requires either 11 = 0. or ml = 0. 2.56(a). 2. 2. Each of these cases will reduce the twopendulum system into a onependulum one. 2.57. Find the frequencies and normalmodes for the small oscillations of this system about equilibrium. 2. Find the normalmodes and the corresponding frequencies for this new system. Hence the twependulum system cannot move as a single piece. The distance between the pivots is chosen so that the spring is unstreched when the pendulums are vertical. Solution: (a) Let a be the natural length of each spring. 2055 (a) Consider two simple pendulums each of mass m and length 1 joined by a massless spring with spring constant k as shown in Fig.588 Problems & Solutaons on Mechanics As the lefthand side is positive .
ld2 sin ez) 4 ~ respectively. The sum and difference of the above two equations give mZij + (mg + 2kZ)q = 0 . Lagrange's equations give m12& + mgMl .cos& .el) = o .1 s i na)' 0~ 2 for small oscillations.. ( ~ cos e2.k12(02. The Lagrangian of the system is L=TV = im(1 4 2 1 2 1 + 1 2 8 22 ) .e2. Let 5 = O1 + e2.) = 0 .cos02) . zi'+gt=o. Z& sin el).mgZ(2 . Hence and 7 ) are the two normal coordinates of the system with the normal angular frequencies As their amplitudes 211. 7 ) = el . mP82 + mgze2 + kz2(e2.212 have the ratio 211 : 212 = 1 : 1 .Analytical Mechanics 589 (lbl cos el.k ( a + ~ s i n 8 ~ .0.
a)] . mle. X = pa.e.)’ + 1 .2.. . Since 8. and for the w2 mode.0. .590 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics for the w1 mode. assume the amplitude varies periodically where the “wave number” K. Substitution gives F.cos(K. .kl [(e2 2 (On+l * 1 Lagrange’s equations then give i. + (en . for which < = 0. i.3.en1)2+ . (b) The same treatment gives L=TV + (e. . 4 . The first few normal angular frequencies are for .enl) = 0 . for which 77 = 0.e2)2 + . + mgOn + kl(28. . = with the “wavelength” X being integral multiples of a.e. w= 2k + [1 m . p = 1. remains finite a n s along the xaxis and try 00. . .
..2. AeiWt 1 Aeiwt . \i'+ ... . 2056 Consider a particle of mass m moving in two dimensions in a potential (a) At what point (20. . {G. p = 4...yo) is the particle in stable equilibrium? (b) Give the Lagrangian appropriate for small oscillations about this equilibrium position.. w3 = wq = . .Analytical Mechanics 59 1 p = 3.3. .. l 3k m The corresponding normalmodes (for p = 1... .... ) are ...4...
2 0 . a2V/8y2 > 0 (dx)2 ax2 a2V a2v + 2dxdyy axa a2v + (dy)2 aY2 >0 is a point of stable equilibrium.yo). At a neighboring point (2. to second order of the small qualities 2 . xf=x&. y’=y. Translate the coordinate system to the new origin (fi. m. Y . we have. for the equilibrium point 0).592 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics (c) What are the normal frequencies of vibration in (b)? ( Columbia) Solution: (a) A point where aV/ax and = 0. (a.yf) = . W / a y = 0. a2V/ax2 > 0. (b) V is a minimum at a point of stable equilibrium (xo. and take the new origin a the reference level for potential energy.k 2 and the Lagrangian is ( 2 l2 + y : 12) . For the given potential we find two such points. Then s V(x’.Yo. 0 ) and (0). y).
2057 A negligibly thin piece of metal of mass m in the shape of a square hangs from two identical springs at two corners as shown in Fig.Analyticnl Mechanics 593 Similarly for the other point of equilibrium. but with (c) The secular equation XI’. The springs can move only in the vertical plane. Calculate the frequencies of vibration of the normalmodes of small amplitude oscillations. 2. =O 2k .58. 2. about either of the points of equilibrium.59. we set and obtain the same Lagrangian. y” replacing X I .W2TI = 0 . yl. 2. . Fig. (UC.58.w 2 0 A1 0 62 has positive roots These are the normal angular frequencies for small oscillations of the system. Berkeley) Fig. I V or .
The square has moment of inertial i m s 2 . 2 1 2 + ms2e2 1 12 .mg = 0.594 Problems @ Solutions on Mechanics Solution: Let x be the vertical displacement of the center of mass of the square from its equilibrium position and 8 the angle of rotation of the square in the vertical plane containing the springs as shown in Fig.59. 1 2 2 1 + ms262 + mgx . 2. taking the potential reference level at the equilibrium position. s being the length of each side of the square.so. 6 2 + + Let XI =x  2 and we can write the first equation as mx' + 2kx' =0 . Thus x and 6 are the normal coordinates of the system with the corre' sponding normal angular frequencies .v = mj. the extensions of the springs are x is8 and x . and the Lagrangian is L =T . 1 1 ms2e ks28 = 0 . For small 0. Hence the kinetic and potential energies are + T = mj.. where k is the spring constant.k 12 Lagrange's equations give mx 2kx .
€ 0 being the permittivity of free space. from an insulating rod of length 1. BS shown in Fig. Calculate the frequency of small oscillations and specify for what conditions of the voltage V such oscillations occur.Berkeley) Solution: We assume that the m s of the insulating rod and the radius of the as sphere are very small and can be neglected. Fig. hangs like a pendulum between two plates of a capacitor.60. mass m and radius r . The plates are grounded and the potential of the sphere is V. Make reasonable approximations to simplify the calculation.Analytical Mechanic8 595 2058 A small sphere. ( UC. 2. The kinetic and potential energies of the system are respectively . According to the method of images. The charge on the sphere is q = 47r~0rV .60. 2.60. The position of the sphere is displaced by an amount Ax. 2. the forces between the sphere and the plates of the capacitor are the same as those between the charges on the sphere and its images symmetrically located at positions as shown in Fig. Take zaxis along the horizontal with origin at the equilibrium position.
.4x2 and the Lagrangian is Lagrange's equation gives Hence the angular frequency of small oscillations is The condition for such oscillations to take place is that w be real. 1 b2 . i.x M 119.596 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics For small z.e.
. C 1 and the condition for oscillations .61.l ) b .22 1 + 1 (2n .Analytical Mechanics 597 I I I II I I Fig.61 Note that the above solution is only approximate since the images themselves will produce more images. 2. 2.l ) b 4x2 + 22 2nb q2 m “ . Thus the potential due to electrostatic interactions is m 1 (272 . which also have to be taken into account.1)’ P = n=l (2n . some of which are shown in Fig.113 .C ( ( 2n=l l ) b are0 n  [l’(2nl)2b2] &} + =( 2reob q2 a+ 4i2e2p b2 ) m with m a = n=l This would give C 1 2n(2n .
acos 8 . 2. (a) Find the equations of motion for 8 and cp. + + . As p4 = 0.98. A bead B of mass rn slides without friction on the hoop. ad sin 8+a+ sincp) . With maximum n = 3. 2059 A smooth uniform circular hoop of mass M and radius a swings in a vertical plane about a point 0 at which it is freely hinged to a fixed support.62.62 (a) The moment of inertia of the hoop about 0 is I = Ma2 + Ma2 = 2Ma2 . 2.05 and the third decimal remains unchanged when more terms are added.598 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics The /3 series converges rapidly. The coordinates and velocity of the bead are respectively (asin8 asincp. Use coordinates as shown in Fig. (ad cos 8 a 9 cos cp. ( Chicago ) Solution: Fig.acos cp). Denote the inclination OC (where C is the center of the hoop) to the downward vertical by cp. the twoimage calculation gives a good approximation. (b) Find the characteristic frequencies and normalmodes for small oscillations about the position of stable equilibrium. p = 1.
For nonzero solutions the determinant of the coefficients must vanish.'p) + a+ .aPsin(8 .cp) + ( M i.cp)] 1 2 + Mga cos 8 + mga(cos 8 + cos cp) = (2M 1 2 1 + m)a2e2+ ma2+2 + ma28+cos(8 . . cp. +=O For R solution of the type 8 = Aexp(iwt). retaining terms up to second order in the small quantities 8.9 ) 2 +(M+m)gacosO+mgacoscp.Analytical Mechanics 599 The Lagrangian of the system is L = T . cp = Bexp(iwt).m)g sin B = o . Thus whose two positive roots .+2M+m 9 e + cp+@ a =0 . 2M+m + 2 ~ + (! w2) B=O.p.V = Maze2+ ma2[e2 + d2 + 2&cos(8 . the above become w2 B=O. 6. aBcos(8 . Lagrange's equations give ( 2 + ~ ) a j + ma+ cos(8 .cp) +gsincp = 0 (b) For small oscillations. we have from the above M + m g8 m '+(2M+m).cp) m + map2sin(@.
2. the equilibrium angular velocity of the body around the inside of the cone. ( rcos cp. 5 6 * 2 m 2060 A small body of mass m and charge q is constrained to move without friction on the interior of a cone of opening angle 2 a . = and the normalmode ( M1 + ~ ) . Assume ZI << c so that radiation is negligible.Berkeley) X yq Y Fig. as z = r cot a.m ( i 2 csc2a 1 2 q2 sin a + r2$') + ___ .1. rcot a). There is no gravity. i cot a) . 2. or. m has coordinates ( rcos cp. = 1 and the normalmode tions. 4mor . and velocity (icoscp . z ) . = .63 Solution: Use coordinates as shown in Fig. 2.63. A charge q is fixed at the apex of the cone as shown in Fig.rsincp The Lagrangian is then + r$coscp. r sin cp.63.r@sincp. r sin cp.600 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics are the characteristic angular frequencies of the system for small oscilla. (i). ( UC. In the Cartesian system. we have for w = w1. Find the frequency of small oscillations about equilibrium trajectories of the moving body in terms of $0. As $ = for w = w2.
q2sina 47r~. the above becomes J 2_ . mr3 4?reor2 For the equilibrium trajectory.Analflied Mechanics 601 Lagrange's equations give mi:csc2a . let T = TO +<. Then < and Eq. J2 q2sina mfcsc a+=O. combining the above. (1) becomes Hence the angular frequency for small oscillations is as . mri For small oscillations about equilibrium.mrg2 q2 sin a + = O 4ff&oT2 mr2+= J (constant) .where << T O .2 . or..r.
(MIT) Fig. Use the result of part (a) to determine the relation between Ro and T O and the frequency of small oscillations about this initial configuration. i .1)' 2 2 . .64. Solution: (a) Let T be the distance of m from the center and 8 the angular velocity of the flywheel at time t . (b) Suppose the flywheel initially has a constant angular velocity Ro and the spring has a steady extension r = T O .1)2 2 52 m2 .602 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 2061 A flywheel of moment of inertia I rotates about its center in a horizontal plane. The system has angular momentum J = IS and energy + mr2b T + V = Ie2  1 2 1 1 + m(i2 + r2b2)+ 2k ( r . 2. A mass m can slide freely along one of the spokes and is attached to the center of the wheel by a spring of natural length 1 and force constant k as shown in Fig. (a) Find an expression for the energy of this system in terms of r . and the angular momentum J .64.) 2(I+ 1 1 + mi2 + k(r . 2.
let r = TQ + p . where p << T Q .I ) = 0 . J = (I mr. or.)2 = mro@ = k(r0 .Z)2 .2)2 .)2 mro J 2 mroJ2 p ro 4mr0~ I +mr. .V = Id2 Lagrange's equations 1 2 1 1 + mt2 + mr202 . r = T O . ( I + mr2)d = constant = J .1 ) &. As (I+ mr2)2 M mr J 2 (I+ m(ro mr.1 ) = 0 .. + P )J 2 + 2mrop)z (1+ (I + mr. (2) becomes P+ [L + ( 3mr.1( r . For small oscillations about this equilibrium configuration. ) M (I + mr. mi:  (I+ mr2)2 mr J 2 + k(r .I I +mr. Therefore. provided that I is such that . mroJ 2 N mroJ 2 (I + m~. i: = 0.)Ro. = Ro.mrd2 + k(r . combining the two. ) "Q] k P =0 . + Initially. k 2 2 2 give mi: .Analytical Mechanics 603 (b) The Lagrangian of the system is L = T .
e. This system is in gravitational field ( g ) as shown in Fig.66.66.Re:). Using Lagrangian methods. 2. Berkeley) a m P <bs T 0 M c Fig. Note that Eq.I I mrg + after a small perturbation. The springs are of zero length at equilibrium and the masses may move through one another. R(l . neglecting . or (xi.. ~ ) shown in Fig. find the normalmodes of small vibration about the position of equilibrium of this system and describe each of the modes.65. For small oscillations these can be approximated as (R&. Solution: Use Cartesian coordinates ( 1 . TO kl kmR$ ’ itself is related to Ro. 2. 2062 Three pointlike masses (two of them equal) and the massless springs (constant K) connecting them are constrained to move in a frictionlesstube of radius R. (UC. Fig. Then.cosdi)). (1) implies rg = i. 2. The ith mass as has coordinates (Rsindi. iz:) with zi = Rdi.604 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics the system will oscillate about the initial configuration with angular f r e quency 3mrg .65. 2.
Mw2 K K K + ? . : 2 ) ~ 3:) and the Lagrangian L = mx:+ .Analytical Mechanics 605 terms of orders greater than two of the small quantities zi.M x i 2 2 1 + mi: . ii.we have for the kinetic and potential energies 1 1 T = mx:+ .M x i 1 + mx: 2 Lagrange’s equations give 22 K ( z ~ + =0 .d =o. 2 ) ~ ~ 3 V = K(xI 2 1 2 1 2 1 ~ 2 1 + 2 K ( x ~  1 + 1m ( ~ + + 2 M x ~. 23) Letting x j = AjeiWt in the above we obtain the matrix equation K 0 2K + 9 . .
c 2 C 1 Hence the three corresponding normalmodes are ("0" A1 (2): (g) M2 €or w1.= positive.. w2. forwz: for w3: B = B1. where C2= .+ m 2 M " 4m2 mM The three normal modes are depicted in Fig..+ A1 A3 mg mu2 RK K ' These equations give for w1: A3 = A1. A2 = 0. B1 C3 = C1. w3 respectively. 2.67 . 3 B2 = negative.606 Problems 8 Solutions on Mechanics S K K ++fK R 2m M Equation (1) gives 1 A2 .= .= IA2.. .
V .e. (b) Prove the existence of the matrices A*i. ( S U N Y .j=l The matrices A = ( a i j ) and B = (bjj) are real and symmetric. (c) Introduce new coordinates 0. for an arbitrary column matrix x.j=l N i. Show that we need not be concerned with zero eigenvalues. Interpret the diagonal elements of the transformed B. Show that S can be chosen so that A and B are diagonalized. i.Analytical Mechanics 607 2063 In the theory of small oscillations one frequently encounters Lagrangian of the form L = T . by N where S is an N x N matrix. After a linear transformation it becomes . where N i. in Cartesian coordinates. (a) Prove that A is positive definite. Prove that in general the eigenvalues of such a matrix are greater than or equal to zero. Buflalo) Solution: (a) By definition.
we have T =x +2 o~ ~ for an arbitrary column matrix x.xLx. Suppose x.x. > 0 . In matrix form. . and hence the generalized velocities q 1 .e. Ax. The vibrational degrees of freedom are simply reduced by one. As the velocities 2 1 . = A. A real symmetrize matrix can be diagonalized by an orthogonal matrix S.x.608 Problems B Solutions on Mechanica but is still >_ 0. . where q= (") QN and the dagger denotes its transpose matrix. = A. . .. the eigenvalues A. one for which StS = I. = A. If A. i. . are arbitrary. where A. A is positive definite. there is no oscillation for the corresponding mode. = xfiX. . 4 2 . is a real number as A is symmetrical and real. x 2 . . C xi. which then does not concern us. is an eigenvector of A with eigenvalue A.j = A&. i=l N As this is greater or equal to zero as shown above. 2 0. By definition. That is. the unit matrix: StAS = A . IAl = lAllStllSl = IStAS( = 11 = x n N i=l A. we have Writing IAl for det IAI. where X is a diagonal matrix elements A. Then xLAx. . (b) For the matrices A*+ to exist we require that det IAl >0 . = 0.
. At = A and (Ai)t = (At)i = A3 . (c) Introduce new coordinates 8. (A&BAi)t = (At)tBt(At)t = A4BAt . j=1 N N v j=1 .02) 3 3 3 j=1 and Lagrange's equations . by N j=1 where S which diagonalizes A is orthogonal. i. We therefore have T= Ed.e.v = C(e?B.~= B ~ ~ . V = qtBq = tItStAiBAiStI.Analytical Mechanics 609 by the result of (a) (any zero X has been eliminated). the above becomes Similarly T = btstse = btIb .~ B A . s ~ ~ s) ~ N The Lagrangian is L =T . Hence A*i exists. B are real symmetric. As A . ( s ~ A . As A is real symmetric.se . where Bj are the diagonal elements of the diagonalized matrix of A*BA~.4 s ~ ) ~ A Ase 44 ) ~ A A . A4BAi is real symmetric and can be diagonalized by the orthogonal matrix S. Consider T= = at^^ = (A.
2 1 ~ 0 ~ 8 ) . (Princeton) m Fig..O. N . . (c) Does the frequency of small oscillation change? If so. 2. 1cosQ). 2. (a) Calculate the equilibrium height of the mass M . calculate the new value. In this frame the masses m.0.m and M have coordinates (1sinQ.68..68. and assume that the diameter of the mass M is small.68. (b) Calculate the frequency of small oscillations around this value. Neglect the mass of the arms. Solution: (a) Use a rotating coordinate frame with the zaxis in the plane of the governor arms as shown in Fig. i = 1 . 2 . Suppose the shaft is now allowed to rotate freely. O . (1sin8. 1cosf3).. Hence B are the squares of the normal angular frequencies w of the system. ( O . i i 2064 A Ayball governor consists of two masses m connected to arms of length 1 and a mass M as shown in Fig. air friction.. Suppose first that the shaft is constrained to rotate at an angular velocity wo. The assembly is constrained to rotate around a shaft on which the mass M can slide up and down without friction.610 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics give 8i+Bjei=O. 2.
Lagrangian of the system are respectively T = m12w. + 28’ cos 28. V = 2mgl cos 8 .8 = go and the above becomes + M ) g sin o0 . responding velocities are ( 4 8cos 8. (lecos 8. potential energy and 0. the governor collapses and there is no oscillation. (0. 4 = 0.80. sin28 + m12e2+ 2M12e2sin28 .mlw. 8 = 0. sin 2e0 = 2(m At equilibrium. Thus the kinetic energy.Z8 sin e ) . then gives 2(m + 2M sin28)le + 2M1b2 sin 28 . then 8 = small oscillations. Hence the cor0.V = rnl2w. 18sin O ) . where wo = (0. lwo sin 8. (1) Solving for 80 we obtain two equilibrium positions: (i) 80 = 0. sin 28 x sin 2e0 . The distances of the mass M at the two equilibrium positions from the top of the shaft are respectively (i) 21 cosOo = 21. the velocity is given by r’ = i + o o x r. For Consider the equilibrium given by (ii). In a fixed coordinate frame with the same origin and zaxis. . Zwo sin 8. mlw. (b) When 80 = 0. wo). 8‘ << 8 0 . sin 8 x sin o0 + 8’ cos o0 . L = T . Let 8’ = 8 .2Mgl cos 8 . 218 sin 8 ) . e’. sin28 + m12e2+ 2M12e2sin28 + 2( M Lagrange’s equation + m)gl cos 8 .Analytical Mechanics 611 respectively. sin 28 + 2 ( m + M ) g sin8 = 0 .
Putting w = (L. retaining only first order terms of the small quantities 8'. 8' and taking account of (l). d = 0 and 8 = 00. +sin2 8 = c which combine to give cm e (m+2M~in~f3)l~+M18~sin2f?mlc~.. ( m+ 2~ sin2e. . let 8 = 60 cose mlc2sin3e M + O'. 2 ( m + 2 M ~ i n ~ 8 ) l e + 2 M 1 8 ~ s i n 2 8 . + s1n3e At equilibrium. (2) becomes .(m+M)gsinfI=O. 8' cos 00)3 + M cm eo mk2( 1 . in the Lagrangian we have L = m12e2 8 sin2 + ml2e2+ 2M12d2sin28 + 2(m + M)gl cos6 .mlwg cos 28.)ie' + [(m+ ~ ) cos e.8' sin 0. = (m + M)gsin80 [1. Hence the oscillation frequency is = m l ( J + M)g cos e. where 8' << 8. e'.( m M)g sin 60 sin3 eo (2) + . 8 = 0. ~~ 2n (m 2M sin260)l + (c) One would expect the oscillation frequency to be different since the angular velocity wo in the above is arbitrary. . cos 0. mlc2. which is given by cos e.mlwi cos ae. Lagrange's equations give (a constant) . For small oscillations about 60.38' cot eo) sin3 eo sin 0.(1 + 2cos2 8 0 ) @/I 7 Eq.r n l ~ ~ s i n 2 8 + 2 ( r n + M ) g s0 n 8 = i. As cos 0.]el = o g .612 P r o b l e m d Solutions on Mechanics The equation of motion becomes. .e' tan eo . mlc2 (sin 0. Let p be the angle of rotation about the shaft.
axo)eazo = .3cos260) ( m + 2M sin2 0o)l cos80 ' 2066 A particle of mass M moves along the xaxis under the influence of the potential energy V ( x ) = .K x e x p ( .Analytical Mechanics 613 Hence the frequency of small oscillations is (m + M)g(l 4. For 20 to be an equilibrium position. a ak = aK(2 . Then the potential is < .a x ) .5 0 ) + 5 (a2v)zo. Find the equilibrium position and the period of small oscillations about this equilibrium position. (z .1)eOZo = 0 . e A8 the equilibrium is stable. (Princeton) Solution: Expand the potential near a point V ( x )= V(X0) + (s)zo 50: (z.> 0 . . Let < = x . Consider also the cases where K and/or a are negative. . 1 xo=. (3zo giving = K(az0 .xo)2 +.xo = 2 1 a at and take zo as the reference level of potential energy. where K and a are positive constants.
xy. K is negative then which means that the potential at equilibrium is a maximum and the equilibrium is unstable. If only one of a.614 Probtems €4 Solutions on Mechanics The Lagrangian is then Lagrange's equation yields aK Mi'+<=O. This can also be seen from the equation of motion. pointing upwards. (b) Find the frequencies of the normalmodes for small oscillations about the position of stable equilibrium. 2066 A particle of mass m moves under gravity on a smooth surface the equation of which is z = x2 y2 . Hence no oscillation occurs. the zaxis being vertical. + (a) Find the equations of motion of the particle. e This shows that the angular frequency of small oscillations about the equilibrium position is and the period is W If both a and K are negative. which would give an imaginary w . then a K is positive and the above results still hold. .
y)2 y(2x . The Lagrangian is L=TV = m[P 1 2 + y2 + P ( 2 2 . .2) .= mg(2y .y)2 + $(2y .Y)(2Y . give d [k k(2x . 2. + g2 .211 dt = 2@2(2y x ) .Andgtacal Mechanics 615 (c) If the particle is displaced from equilibrium slightly and then released.y) .)I + . are small quantities and the equations of motion reduce to y x+2gxgy=o y+2gygx=o.kQ(22 .y.2) 2kY(2y .iy .kQ(2y ..)I dt = 2k2(2x .xy = S(22 .y) + y(2y .= w ( 2 x .2) .y) .2931  + + + + gy . what must be the ratio of the 5 and y displacements to guarantee that only the higher frequency normalmode is excited? ( Wisconsin) Solution: (4 As z = x2 + y 2 29.2) . L 9 X dV . + + . + 2yy .292 d [y Q(2y.P ( 2 2 .. dV & equilibrium occurs at the origin (0.mg(z2 y2 .y)(2y .2) . i. For small oscillations about the origin.y)(2y .2)2 2i6(22 .xy) Lagrange’s equations + . t = 223.O).y) .yy2y .y) + 2kY(22 . .y).2)2 i ( 2 2 .
w2 20 9 for the higher frequency mode to be excited we require = 1.w2)(3g. Note that as w1. 9 g I Its position roots w1=& w2=& are the angular frequencies of the normalmodes of the system. Note that under this condition the lower frequency mode. What is the oscillation frequency? What is the limit on 1 for stable oscillations? (CUSPEA ) Solution: The structure oscillates in a vertical plane.616 Problems €5 Solutions on Mechanics Considering a solution of the type we find the secular equation I (c) As 29 .w2 2g .70 with the origin at the point of support D and the yaxis vertically upwards. 2.w2) = 0 . which requires yo/xo = 1. . 5 2067 A rigid structure consists of three massless rods joined at a point attached to two point masses (each of mass m) as shown in Fig. 2. B D = 1 . Take it as the xyplane as shown in Fig. Yo . w2 are real the equilibrium is stable.29 . Hence the initial displacements of x and y must be equal in magnitude and opposite in sign.69. the angle ABD = DBC = 8. is not excited.2L1 c088 . The rigid system is supported at the point D and rocks back and forth with a small amplitude of oscillation. We have _ _  AD = C D = b = JL2 + 1' .w 2 = (9 . with AB = BC = L.
69. Fig. where a = 8 + @. 2.Analytical Mechanics 8 617 Fig. 2 have coordinates m and velocities .cp sin$ a The masses ml. a .70. 2. + being given by b =sin8 1 and with the vertical are a + cp. and the angles between respectively.
giving the angular frequency as w= / F g cos a As cos a = cos(8 + $) = cos 8 cos $ .cp)] . oscillations are stable if cosa requires that Lcos81 > o .618 P r o b l e m €4 Solutions on Mechanics L = T .cp)] .1sin28 ~ b = (Lcos8 . or 1 > 0.1 ) 12 . . cp << a and sin(a f cp) w sina f cpcosa so the equation of motion reduces to b+ + cpgcosa = 0 .sin 8 sin $ =1( d m c o s .1 ) 1 b . This < Lcos8.V = mb2$2 + ntgb[cos(a + cp) Lagrange’s equation + COS((Y .cp)l at the equilibrium position cp = 0. . mgb[cos(a = 2mgbcosa COS(Q . we have = Since Jv + g(Lcos8 . d then gives aL aL dt(STjJ6 2mb2+j mgb[sin(a =O =0 + + cp) .2L1 COS 8 .sin(o . For small oscillations.
. 2. (b) Discuss the motion.2 ( m 2M sin2 8)12 + M)gZ cos 8 . €or steady motion.( m + 2M sin29)12e2. H = ep. Find the frequency of small oscillations about this steady motion. Thus H = $0 . The lower sleeve has mass M and negligible moment of inertial.m12w2sin2 9 . Neglect weights of arms and rod. each of mass m. (c) Determine the height z of the lower sleeve above its lowest position. and is free to slide up and down the rod without friction. each of length 1. attached by means of four hinged arms.68 of Problem 2064. The system is constrained to rotate with constant angular velocity w . (a) Choose suitable coordinates and write the Lagrangian and Hamilt* nian functions for the system.m12w2sin28 . HAMILTON’S CANONICAL EQUATIONS (20682084) 2068 A flyball governor for a steam engine consists of two balls. as a function of w .Analytical Mechaniclr 619 3.L with the generalized momentum pe defined as pe = aL ae = 2(m + 2M sin20)126 . and neglect friction. Referring to the coordinates as shown and using the results obtained there.2 ( m + M)gl cose n 4(m + Pi . ( Wisconsin ) Solution: (a) The governor is as shown in Fig. The upper sleeve is fastened to the rod. we have L=TV = m12w2sin2 8 The Hamiltonian is + m12e2+ 2M12e2sin20 + 2 ( m + M)gl cos9 . to sleaves located on a vertical rod.
has an axis of symmetry.( : Yg m )] w [ 2069 Consider the twobody system consisting of (1)a point particle of maas m and (2) a rotator of finite size and mass M (see Fig. 2. Briefly. is free to move.2zcoseO = 21 1  [ (m l d m M)gl 2 .620 Pmbiema # Solutions on Mechanics (b) Lagrange's equation gives 2(m + 2M sin20)le + 2Mle2 sin 28 .mlw2sin 28 + 2(m + M)gsin 8 = 0 . Hence its height above the lowest point is The angular frequency of small oscillations about the equilibrium position is (Problem 2064) m + M)g cos 8. Discuss the motion of this system if the particle is attracted to every element of the rotator by a Coulomb + 21 . and.mlw2cos 2d0 (m + 2M sin2 &)l + 2~ m sin2 eo sin2eo m with sin2 e0 = 1 . This rotator is a rigid body which has uniform density. M has z coordinate 21 cos 80.71). M will oscillate up and down the vertical rod about an equilibrium position given by (c) At equilibrium. like the particle of mass m. The motion is discussed in Problem 2064. . .
3 Coordinates X . (c) The kinetic energy of the system consists of three parts: kinetic energy of the point m s m and the translational and rotational kinetic as energies of the rotator.) (d) On what coordinates does the interaction between the particle and the rotator depend? (e) How many constants of motion can you infer.Analytical Mechanics 621 or gravitational force. 2.71. 3 Euler's angles cp. Fig. Solution: (a) The system has 9 degrees of freedom. .g. namely. describing 2 the position of the center of mass of the rigid rotator. yj describing rotation relative to the center of mass of the rotator. Include in your discussion answers to the following questions. of which 3 belong to the m s as m and 6 belong to the rigid rotator. T=Ti+Tz+Ts with . (a) How many degrees of freedom does this system have? (b) What would be a suitable set of coordinates? (c) What is the Lagrangian (or Hamiltonian)? (Write it down or say how you would try. 8.Y . (b) One may take generalized coordinates as follows: 3 coordinatw z. What is the nature of the motion of the rotator relative to its center of mass? (Wisconsin) m / 0'. t describing the position of the mass m. the axis of symmetry of the rotator being taken as the 2'axis of the rest coordinate system of the rotator. and what are they physically? (f) What orbits of this system are closely similar to orbits of two point masses? Describe the nature of their (small) difference.
their orbits are closely similar to those of two point masses. Imagine a series of spherical shells centered at the mass m and consider a shell of inner and outer radii r and T dr respectively. (d) The interaction between the particle and the rotator depends on X . can then be obtained. L = T . The calculation of the potential energy is more complex.GmdM . Z . The difference stems from the fact that for the rotator the center of mass and the center of gravitational force do not coincide. Then the total potential of the system is V = . (e) As the interaction is conservative and the space is uniform and isotropic. so the torque of the gravitational + .y. the constants of motion are the energy T V . r where G is the gravitational constant. (f) When the mass and the rotator are far removed from each other. w ~w3 are related to Euler's angles (Problem 1212) by .x.V. The Lagrangian of the system. w~=+cos6+~.622 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics T = 1W l r W 2 1 W 3 ) 3 ( 2 (::::: :) ( 2 ) 0 I33 . and the inertia tensor is with respect to the center of mass of the rotator with the Z'axis in the direction of the axis of symmetry. The potential due to Coulomb interaction between the element dM of the rotator in the shell and the particle is + d V = . w2 = @sin+ + +sinOcos+ . total angular momentum (each of the three components) and total momentum (each of the three components) of the system.G m / F .+sinOsin+ + . Y . where w1. cp and 6 .z . w1 = ~ C O S ~ C .
(e) Is the total energy of this system constant in time? Is the Hamilte nian function constant in time? Explain briefly.m a in the plane of oscillation of the pendulum. (c) Find the angular frequencies of any oscillatory motions. (a) Find the equations of motion of the mass m. For this part use small angle approximations.and z . 2070 A motor turns a vertical shaft. 2. (d) Find an expression for the torque that the motor must supply. This plane is rotated at constant angular speed w by the motor. 2. (b) Solve the equations of motion. Solution: (a) Use rotating coordinates as shown in Fig. obtaining the position of the mass as a function of time for all possible motions of this system. 2.72.72 with the x. (VC. to which is attached a simple pendulum of length I and mass m as shown in Fig. The pendulum is constrained to move in a plane.Analytical Mechanics 623 force about the center of mass makes the rotator revolve around its center of mass. Berkeley) Fx \ motor I m Fig. In this frame the mass m has coordinates .72.
14sin 8 ) .O) . a+ (fw2cos0~+w2asine~( s i n ~ Z + a c o s ~ ~ ) = ~ . fl.V = m128’ Lagrange’s equation 1 2 1 + m12w2 sin’ 8 + mgl cos 8 2 .w) x (lsin8. equilibrium is stable. For oscillations near 02. (b) For equilibrium.1cos8) = (0. e2 = mccos 9 . Hence the Lagrangian of the system is L = T . (Iwz) For oscillation near 8 = 0. where A l l cp1 are constants to be determined from the initial conditions. wl sin 8.0. let 0 = 8’ + a. . In the fixed frame m has an additional velocity w x r = (O. 1cos8) and velocity (l4 cos 8. If w < fi. 8 = 0. If w> the equilibrium is unstable. The equation of motion gives the equilibrium positions as el = 0.0. then gives B+($wzcos8)sine=O. The equation of < motion is then.O. / is the angular frequency of small angle oscillations.624 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics (1sin8. in the first approximation. in the small angle approximation the 1 equation of motion reduces to d+($w2)e=o.0. 8 is harmonic and can be represented the qt)= cos(alt bY + cpl) . and $21 = .where a < 82.
cp2 are constants to be determined from the initial conditions. In the rotating frame fixed to the motor.is not a homogeneous quadratic function of the generalized velocity.ml2w2 sin28 . Hence e ( t ) = A2 cos(R2t + + cp2) 82 . d p . not being an explicit function oft. (e) The kinetic energy in the fixed frame. as the system is an unstable holomorphic one and all the external forces are conservative.Ancrlytiml Mechanics 625 or ii+aw2sin282=~. the angular frequency is $21 = and about 82. M = . Note that while in the fixed frame the mechanical energy is not conserved. We have = ml2b2 . the Hamiltonian H is conserved.= m~~usin(28). So the constraint is not a stable one and the mechanical energy is not conserved. 80 the mechanical energy is not conservative. R2 = (d) The angular momentum about the zaxis is &d m . Physically. J = ml sin8 . A2. . T. the pendulum is constrained to oscillate in a plane which is rotating. mlw2sin 8 =  aV a(lsin8) ’ . because of the fictitious centrifunal force a.mgl cos e = constant 2 2 1 1 . On the other hand. The solution is a(t) = A2 cm(R2t + cp2) .1 sin8 w = m12wsin28 The torque the motor must supply is therefore . the generalized energy H is conserved. dJ dt de dt where for 0 the expressions obtained in (b) are to be used. where R2 = wsin82 = &dis the angular frequency of small oscillations about 02. (c) For small angle oscillations about 81.
z ) . 2 1 Therefore. what are the possible frequencies of the motion of the system? ( Wisconsin) Solution: r2) = reduced mass is p = = y .p ( r.12 . is given by the potential 2A V ( T )= T6 B + . the g. (b) Describe completely the lowest energy classical state(s) of this system.1 2 .mgl cos 8 . Then the kinetic energy of the system is (a) The center of mass of the system is given by R = f(rl (2. each of mass m.ml2w2 sin2e . T12 A . (c) If the energy is slightly higher than the lowest [part (b)]. (a) Give the Hamiltonian for the system of the two atoms.r21 . B > 0. 2071 The classical interaction between two inert gas atoms. & + T = MR2 2 1 1 + pi 2 = .2 1 1 2 +2 + r2e2+ r2qj2sin2e) and the Lagrangian is L=TV =M(?~ 1 2 2A B + G~ + i 2 ) 2p ( i 2 + r2S2+ Pqj2sin26 ) + . whether the mechanical energy is conserved or not depends on the choice of reference frame..626 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics the potential energy is 1 v = .. and the total mass is M = 2m.. T = Irl .’ +1 T6 . 2 so that the total energy is ml2b2 + v = H = constant .M R ~ . Let r = rl .
we have As . r12 Letting d (F + 2A $) =0 7 we obtain TO = ( B / A ) Qas the distance between the two atoms for the lowest energy classical state. = reo pe = p .p are not excited yet (pz = p . = pr = pg = p . = pv = p .Analyticnl Mechanics 627 where r . For this state the energy of the system is (c) If the energy is only slightly higher than the lowest and the degrees of f e d m corresponding to 2. The generalized momenta are as The Hamiltonian is t (b) The lowest energy state corresponds to p . 0. = p .y. = 0 and an ro which minimizes 2A r6 + B . z.6. = 0). cp are the spherical coordinates of a frame fixed at the center of m s .
As there are no external forces.TO << T O .028 Pmblems B Solutions on Mechanics the Lagrangian is where p = T . (b) Choose (0. There are no external forces of any kind on the particle. (a) What is the number of generalized coordinates necessary to describe the problem? (b) Choose a set of generalized coordinates and write the Lagrangian of the system. there are two degrees of freedom and hence two generalized coordinates are needed. ) Hence 2072 Consider a particle of mass m which is constrained to move on the surface of a sphere of radius R. (c) What is the Hamiltonian of the system? Is it conserved? (d) Prove that the motion of the particle is along a great circle of the sphere. V = 0. Lagrange’s equation gives a P + 7 2 A ( sA 4 p = o . The Lagrangian of the system is . ‘p) of spherical coordinates as the generalized coordinates. (Columbia) Solution: (a) As the particle is constrained to move on the surface of a sphere.
have we pe = mR28. We can choose the set of coordinates ( 8 . or. Then the above constant is zero at all time: sin28 = 0. mass per unit lengthp) as shown in Fig. 3) What quantities are conserved in the motion? Give expressions for these quantities. uniform Ushaped tube is partially filled with mercury (total mass M . 2) Give the equation of motion. + + + 2073 A light. conserved. 1) Give the Lagrangian for the system. . = mR2+sin28 .Analytical Mechanics 629 (c) As pi = E. in other words. the mass and moment of inertia of the glass tube. = +sin2 e = constant . As 8 cannot be zero at all time. The tube is mounted so that it can rotate about one of the vertical legs. or cp = constant. (d) Hamilton’s equation gives p . 2. Since the Hamiltonian H is not an explicit function of time. and the moment of inertia of the mercury column on the axis of rotation. ~so that the initial condition is ) = 0 at t = 0. Neglect friction. (b) The tube is set in rotation with an initial angular velocity wo with the mercury column at rest vertically with a displacement zo from equilibrium. the motion of the particle is along a great circle of the sphere. (a) Calculate the potential energy of the mercury column and describe its possible motion when the tube is not spinning.73. p. it is a constant of the motion. = 0.
73.pgz2 . Lagrange’s equation gives Hence the mercury column will oscillate with an angular frequency (b) The system has 2 degrees of freedom when the Ushaped tube is spinning. the mercury column will oscillate about the equilibrium position and the Lagrangian of the system is 1 L = . Then F = 2pzg and its work done is dW = F d z = 2 z p g d z . z and the angle of rotation 0 are taken as the generalized coordinates. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Let z be the distance of the top of the mercury column from its equilibrium position. Hence the potential energy of the mercury column is V = p g z 2 . 2 where s = 1 + 2 h .p s i 2 . . 4) Describe the motion qualitatively as completely as you can. This work is stored as potential energy d V .630 Problems 8 Solutiona on Mechanics ri h I 7” Fig. Suppose an external force F acting on the descending top causes it to descend slowly a distance d z . 2. If the tube is not spinning.
t = 20 at t = 0.+h+z)pl2 . In terms of the canonical variable we have H = . where p . i = 0.Analytical Mechanics 631 1) We have T = p(h . With the initial conditions 0 = W O .i+peO= :psi2 L 2 +1 (i + h+Z) 12b2+ pgZ2 = T + V . the last equation can be written as pe = constant. = $$ = p s i .z ) i 2 + 2 1 pl 1 2 ' 1 ( i 2 s 2 b 2 ) d z Zp(h + + + z)(z2 + Z'b') . we have PO = p e (i + h + a 12wo ) 3) The Hamiltonian of the system is H =p. . 2 12b= constant. Thus H is equal to the total energy of the system.the Lagrangian is 2) Lagrange's equations give sz 1 + 292 . v = pgz2 .P2 + 2ps Pi +pgz2 2(.z2e2 = 0 . As p e = g . so .
632 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics As H does not depend on t explicitly. 2921 = For small oscillations let z equation of motion becomes sf’ (i+ h + 21)’ = 2 + z’ where zf is a small quantity. to keep the angular momentum about the vertical axis constant. and vice verse. One is the rotation together with the tube. 1 ’ The + 292’ = 2A2 (4 + h + z 1 ) 3 ’ giving the angular frequency of oscillations . in addition to the constant Pe = P (j ! +h+z) 1’8. it is a constant of the motion. there are three equilibrium positions corresponding to the three roots of the equation 2gz = 6 A ( 4 + h + z)’ A ’ Near each equilibrium position. Suppose z1 is one of the equilibrium positions. The other component is the motion of the column in the tube. the column undergoes small oscillations. Using the initial conditions given we obtain 4) The motion of the mercury column consists of two components.e. The equation of motion in z is sf + 292 = A (i+h+z)’ ’ where A = is a constant. The angular velocity of rotation changes in connection with the upanddown motion of the column. i. Generally speaking. When z increases the rotation slows down.
Using the distance from the axis. (b) The generalized momenta and the corresponding Hamiltonian. where A is a positive constant. (b) The generalized momenta are p . dT dL . and the azimuthal angle cp as generalized coordinates. (d) If f = 0. (Columbia) Solution: Suppose the paraboloid of revolution is generated by a parabola which in cylindrical coordinates ( T . T . 2074 A particle under the action of gravity slides on the inside of a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical.= m(1 + 4A2r2)+. = .Amg? . (a) The Lagrangian of the system is 1 = m(l 2 1 + 4 A 2 r 2 ) i 2+ mr2$2 2 . show that the particle can execute small oscillations about the lowest point of the paraboloid.Analytical Mechanics 633 As R is real . cp. (c) The equation of motion for the coordinate T as a function of time. find (a) The Lagrangian of the system. the equilibrium positions are all stable. and find the frequency of these oscillations. z ) is represented by 2 z=AT.
the particle executes simple harmonic motion about T = 0 with angular frequency w=&. 2075 A nonrelativistic electron of mass m. i . the first equation of (c) becomes + 4A2r2)i:+ 4A2ri2+ 2Agr = 0 . P? (c) Lagrange’s equations give m(1 4A2r2)i:+ 4mA2rf2.634 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics and the Hamiltonian is = . i: are small quantities.m ~ ~ Amgr2 @ ~  1 2 +1 2 + 2m( 1 ” + 4A2r2)+2mr2 + A m g r 2 .mr+’ mr 2 = constant. For small oscillations in its vicinity. + + + 2Amgr = 0 . = 0. from the first equation. T . As the coefficient of T is positive. charge e in a cylindrical magneton moves between a wire of radius a at a negative electric potential . The lowest point of the paraboloid is given by T = 0. Then to first approximation the above becomes i. Letting the constant be m h and eliminating CL.+2Agr = 0 .m ( l + 4A2r2)f2 . we obtain the equation for T : (1 + 4A2r2)r3i:+ 4A2r4P + 2Agr4 = h2 . (1 (d) If CL.
and for B > B. Find B. and make a sketch of the electron's trajectory for this case. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) In SI units. the Lagrangian is L = T . the above becomes 1 A = (0. (a) Write the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions. There is a uniform constant magnetic field B parallel to the axis.Analytical Mechanics 40 635 and a concentric cylindrical conductor of radius R at zero potential. (b) Show that there are three constants of the motion. = ( f .re. As i. and discuss the kinds of motion which can occur. Write them down. (c) Assuming that an electron leaves the inner wire with zero initial velocity. Br.V = mr2+eder.A. there is a value of the magnetic field B. the electron can reach the outer cylinder. the electron cannot reach the outer cylinder. 0) 2 1 2 . You may assume that R >> a. Use cylindrical coordinates r . i ) . The generalized momenta are and the Hamiltonian is . 0. The electric and magnetic vector potentials can be written as (ee is a unit vector in the direction of increasing 0). z. such that for B 5 B.
C 1 = eBa2. As then p . 1 = 13= i = 0 at t = 0 give : E = .e 4 2 =2 P.e. . p . 1 2 C2 = 0 . a s b p 1 .ed = L [p: + 2m :( + ZeBr)'+p:] 1 .+ + p e e +p . p .. H = E gives Suppose a value B. C2 are constants. it is a constant of the motion. where El C1.L 1 = m(+' + r2e2+ 2') .4.eq5 = E . = 0 at r = R. Hence p e . Explicitly. ' 1 pe = m r 2 0 . = m i = C2 . Also. the above gives . 2 p . = C.636 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics H = p.H . i . a1 9 if H does not contain qi explicitly.eb = ebo. of the magnetic field will just make the electron reach the outer cylinder. H = L [p: 2m + : + . (b) As H is not an explicit function of time.e B r 2 = C1 . 2m 1 + ( p . pi is a constant of the motion.eBr)'+p:] ( . (c) The initial conditions r = a. = 0 means that there is no motion along the adirection. + l1e B r 2 ) + P2 2mr2 2 . are constants of the motion.
. 2.74. (b) Interpret the equation of motion by stating the kinds of force to which the particle is subject. Hence under this condition the electron can reach the outer cylinder. and w are real and positive. this reduces to BC'R At T = R. For the latter case the trajectory of the electron is as sketched in Fig.Analytical Mechanics 637 If we assume that a << R. p . p . p . is real at T = R if B 5 Bc.B 2 ) ( a e R ) .W 2 2 2 ) e y ' 2 for the motion of a particle of mass m in one dimension ( ) The constants z. m . is given by 2 (Bf . Fig. If B > B. 2076 Consider the Lagrangian 1 L = m(k2 . is imaginary at T = R and the electron cannot reach the outer cylinder. ~ (a) Find the equation of motion. . 2.74.
causing dissipation of energy.638 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (c) Find the canonical momentum. what is x ( t ) asymptotically as t + oo? ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Lagrange’s equation gives the equation of motion x k w2x = fx .  . (e) For the initial conditions x ( 0 ) = 0 and k ( 0 ) = W O . Substitution in the equation of motion gives R2 .iyR . (c) The canonical momentum is and the Hamiltonian is  p2ert 2m 1 + mu2x2eYt . It follows that energy is not conserved also. (b) The particle moves as a damped harmonic oscillator. it is not a constant of motion. Physically. (d) Is the Hamiltonian a constant of the motion? Is the energy conserved? Explain. the damping force continually does negative work. and from this construct the Hamiltonian function. 2 (d) Since H depends explicitly on time.aRt.w2 = 0 . in the course of the motion.m 2 x and a damping force myx proportional to its speed. (e) Try a solution of the type x . It is subject to an restoring force .
both y f are real and positive so that there will be no oscillation and x will decrease monotonically to zero as t + 00. If y < 2w. (b) When the walls are a distance x apart what average external force must be applied to each wall in order to move it at constant speed V? (UC. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Consider a collision of the particle with one of the walls.Analytical Mechanics 639 which has solutions Hence The initial conditions x = 0. (a) If the momentum of the particle is po when the walls of the box are at a distance 20 apart. find the momentum of the particle at any later time. d 2077 A particle is confined inside a box and can move only along the xaxis. we have ' . 5 = 210 at t = 0 give B=A.75). Collisions with the walls are perfectly elastic. If the particle is incident with speed v and reflected back with speed v and the wall has speed V towards the particle. The ends of the box move toward the center with a speed small compared with the particle's speed (Fig. the relative speeds before and after the collision are equal. Then so that x + 0 as t + 00. 2. As the collision is perfectly elastic. If y > 2w. let A= 4  VO &/ = i w l . Assume that at all times the speed of the particle is much less than the speed of light.
as V is much smaller than the speed of the particle. m being the mass of the particle. (b) Consider a collision of the particle with one wall. X As p = po when x = XO. Then Pdx d p = . 2. x=xo2Vt.  i.640 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Fig. v'=v+2V.POX0 x xo2Vt . its integration gives p = POX0 .e.= . the interval between two consecutive collisions is x T= ($1 xm  p ' p being the particle momentum. Thus after each collision. v + v = v' v. The momentum acquired by the particle is p + 2mV . When the walls are at a distance x apart.(p) = 2p + 2 m V . the magnitude of the particle momentum gains an amount 2 m V .75. measuring time from the moment x = 5 0 . T X As the walls move toward each other with speed V . The change of momentum in time dt is dt 2Vpdt d p = 2 m V .
aH pix. This is the force exerted by the wall on the particle.t ) . p = . The problem can also be solved using the Hamiltonian formalism. As shown in Fig.HI da dt da +.. the particle has velocity $ . T' + Hence dP dt (P+mV)P M .a x . The Hamiltonian is H=m 2 1 :.= [. say the lefthand wall.mx3  207a The Poisson bracket is defined by (a) Show that for a dynamicd quantity a ( q . 2.P2 .V .75. To keep the walls moving at constant speed.. Use a reference frame attached to one of the walls.+ v ( >2 The force on the particle is p which is given by Hamilton's equation: . p . .Analytical Mechanics 641 The interval between two consecutive collisions with the wall is so that the change of momentum due to collisions with the wall in a time dt is dt dp = 2 ( p mV).P * xm xm mx3 as 5 >> V .. a force of the same magnitude must apply to each wall. a t .
( Wisconsin ) Solution: (a) Using Hamilton’s canonical equations Qk = a .H apk p k =dqk dH ’ we find da = dt  aa qk dqk + da pk dpk + da a aa da d H da d H = [a.642 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics A twodimensional oscillator has energies + y2) . = m(P y) where C and K are constants. at 1 (b) Introducing the new variables 1 1 7 = (x+Y). (d) If C = 0 find a third constant of the motion.H] da +. 1 V(x. 2 T ( f . (e) Show that for the isotropic oscillator the symmetric matrix is a constant of the motion by expressing each element in terms of the known constants of motion.y) = K(x2 + y2) + Cxy . (b) Show by a coordinate transformation that this oscillator is equivalent to a nonisotropic harmonic oscillator. Jz E = (XY) Jz I we have . (c) Find two independent constants of the motion and verify using part 1 2 (4.
=m f) l3L fi.K"V + o2+ (V . Jz 1 Y= 4 v . (c) As the canonical momenta are by definition p ..t 2 ) + = 1 1 K(V2 2 1 2 + S2) + f1 ( v 2 .o Jz 1 * Then 1 T = m 4 1 2 [(fi+02(fi 02] + = m(7i2 + ('1 . l3L pc=r=m<. Hence the system is equivalent to two harmonic oscillators with angular frequencies respectively. 0 7 7 a< . 1 v = . Note that the form of L1 and L2 indicates that q and [ are normal coordinates.021 p ( V 2 . L=L1+L2.Analytical Mechanics 643 2 = (v+<).C)c2.( K 2 2 c)<'.E 2 ) = (K + C)q2+ s1( K . As the frequencies are different the system acts as a nonisotropic harmonic oscillator. with ~2 1 '2 1 = m< .
H2 are two independent constants of the motion. C = 0 and 2. L2 respectively. .dt o = Hence H I . (e) For the isotropic oscillator. 2m 2 1 E2 = ! k 2m 2 + 2K y 2 .y already are normal coordinates. ) . J =m ( ~ p. w1 = w2 and the oscillator becomes an isotropic one.644 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics This can also be written as with H I .e. . i.+ . (d) If C = 0 .y p Z ). there are three known constants of the motion: PZ 2 El = . As shown above.K x 2 .J p . The Hamiltonian is H = p. H2 corresponding to L1. 2m 1 2 1 + 2m + 1K q 2 + 1K J 2 pi 2 2 Let J = m ( q p t . dH2 . Then a s  dJ dt = [&HI J is also a constant of the motion.
(c) Write the Hamiltonian for the system.Analytical Mechanics 645 As A11 = E l . 2.76. Solution: (a) Use spherical coordinates with origin at the top of the cone as shown in Fig.ypz) 2 Since the lefthand side is a constant. Consider E1E2 .Kx p p 1 ) ( 4m .O. 2.76. ( Wisconsin) Fig. (b) Write the Lagrangian of the system and the equation of motion for each generalized coordinate. the rope passing through a hole at the top of the cone as shown in Fig.cp). 2079 Consider the system of particles ml = m2 connected by a rope of length 1 with r n 2 constrained to stay on the surface of an upright cone of halfangle a and ml hanging freely inside the cone. . (d) Express the angular frequency for 7732 moving in a circular orbit in terms of the variables of the problem. the diagonal elements of the matrix Aij are constants of the motion.= K J~ 4m3 (% + 1 K x 2 ) 2 2m 2 ($ + 2m 5 ~ g 2 . 2. A12 = A21 = constant. (a) Give an appropriate generalized coordinate system for the problem.76. Neglect friction. The coordinates of m1. Hence A is a matrix of constant elements.mz are respectively (r. A22 = E2.
O . .+ .a ) = p a .646 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics (1 .( .r+sinO)..r)2bsin2(r. 2mr2 sin26 + p. 2mr2 + p. The variables r. (c) Two other canonical momenta are The Hamiltonian is = Pr + 4m 2 P.lr . p are taken to be the generalized coordinates. 2 m ( ~ r)2 sin2a  (d) If m2 moves in a circular orbit.rd. a constant m(Z . 2i: . dL Lagrange's equations give mr2+ sin2 8 = p.a . ( l r)bsin(. cp.The Lagrangian of the system is then L=TV 1 = m[2f2 2 + r2e2+ T ~ sin2~8 + (Z.m2 are respectively (+.a ) ] + .T .a ) ) .r12b2sin2(r .mgr cos 8 + mg( 1 .r(d2 + d2sin28) + (Z r)b2sin2a + g(cos o + cos a ) = o . frequency of revolution is T = constant and the angular P = m(Z . 8. a constant .P). (b) The velocities of ml.PO sin2a r)2 ' . T .r ) cos a .  ~8+2+er+~sin0cosegsin0=0.
Since the transformation is canonical. (b) Solving the transformation equations for q and p we obtain q = (eQ .aF3 aP ' aQ give the transformation equations. (b) Show that the function that generates this transformation between the two sets of canonical variables is F3 = [exp(Q) .p) such that aF3 q = .. P = 2eQ(eQ . Then if Q.1)tanp .Analytical Mechanics 647 2080 The transformation equations between two sets of coordinates are Q = l n ( l + q i cwp) P = 2(1+ q* cosp)qi sinp . (a) Show directly from these transformation equations that Q. the transformation is canonical. so are Q.p are canonical variables.112tanp . As . P are canonical variables if g and p are.. there exists a generating function F3(Q. p = .112sec2p . P .
(a) Show that the equation of motion can be obtained from the Lagrangian 1 and that the Hamiltonian is where p = mqexp(2yt) is the momentum conjugate t o q.648 Problem 8 Solutions on Mechanics = d[(eQ  t a n p . find the transformed Hamiltonian K ( Q :P. we obtain ~3 = (eQ  1)2t a n p 2081 A particle of mass m moves in one dimension q in a potential energy field V ( q )and is retarded by a damping force 2myq proportional to its velocity. You may need the . (b) For the generating function W Qp. 2m 2 ( c ) Obtain the solution q ( t ) for the damped oscillator from the constant of the motion in (b) in the underdamped case y integral < w .(8 1)’dtanp  = d[(eQ .1)’tanpl . For an oscillator potential show that the transformed Hamiltonian yields a constant of the motion P2 1 K=+W~Q+~QP.t ) = exp(/t)qP . t).
P. The Hamiltonian is given by % with Thus (b) For the generating function &(q. t ) we have As F2 = qPert.sin’ x . Q = qert . For an oscillator of potential . Hence the given Lagrangian is appropriate. ( Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Lagrange’s equation gives The particle is seen to be subject to a potential force and a damping force 2m7q proportional to its speed. p = Pert.Anal~tical Mechanics 649 dx .
w >y W] and we may set = Jm. As it does not depend on time explicitly. 'p) where w1 is real positive. we have K = 5m[(QrQ)2+~ZQ2+2yQ(QyQ)]= 5m(Q2+wTQ2) = :A2. The solution is then Q = Asin(w1t f where A. + In the underdamped case. AS . K is a constant of the motion. cp are constants.r 2 ) Q = 0 . (c) Hamilton's canonical equations are Differentiating the second equation and making use of the original equations we have Q (w2 .650 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics the transformed Hamiltonian is P2 K =2m + 1 w ~ Q +~ " 2 I ~ ~ . 2 giving 1 1 1 Hence the solution is .
What is the “new” Hamiltonian? ( Wisconsin ) Solution: (a) A possible interpretation is shown in the following example.E =p aq W cos(wt) .p ) has imposed on it an external oscillating field. and wish to find a new Hamiltonian K ( Q . .P) by a canonical transformation. A particle of charge e moves in an electric field uniform in space but oscillating in time. The transformation equations are p = m2 . AS m2 = K at . p ) . P )= Ho(q. P. (a) What is the physical interpretation of E sin wt? (b) How are the canonical equations of motion modified? (c) Find a canonical transformation which restores the canonical form of the equations of motion. aH aq aH0 . we take F = qP 2 .H = qsin(wt) . Let the generating function be Fz(q. (b) Hamilton’s canonical equations of motion are now q==aH aP P =  aHo aP =  ’ & ! +Esin(wt) .t). where E and w are given constants. namely an electrical field whose strength is represented by ( E / e ) sinwt.Analytical Mechanics 651 2082 Suppose that a system with timeindependent Hamiltonian Ho(q. Then E sin wt is the force exerted on the particle by the electric field.COS(&) W EQ .Eqsinwt. so that the Hamiltonian becomes H = H o ( q .
then a will no longer be constant. Express the transformed Hamiltonian K (using the same transformation found in part (a)) in terms of a . (b) If there is a perturbing Hamiltonian H’ = :q2. Hence the transformation restores the canonical form of the equations of motion with the Hamiltonian Ha. a ) .. Find the canonical transformation q = q(0. 2083 (a) Solve the HamiltonJacobi equation for the generating function S(qla . = p . You may need the integrals . use having been of the results in (b). Interpret your result. W Then = Ho(q.Esin(wt) = P  aK aQ  aH0 aq aH0 aQ aq .C O S ( W ~ ) ) W __ .cos(wt) .P .E q sin(wt) = & + E q sin(wt) Ho(Q._ _  aK ap aHo a p ap a P aq dHo ap Q=Q. P and t. p ) .652 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics or P =p and & + .t ) in the case of a single particle moving under the Hamiltonian H = i p 2 . Solve for P ( t ) and a(t) and show that the perturbed solution is simple harmonic.a ) .. and p = p ( P .. where /3 and a are the transformed coordinate and momentum respectively.
7 .p system. we Setting a = f i . we can take the two terms on the lefthand side as equal to . for this case. where 7 is at most a ~ function of p.respectively. (b) The perturbed Hamiltonian is H = P2 .Analytical Mechanics 653  1 tan xdx = ln(cos x) ( Wasconsin) Solution: (a) The HamiltonJacobi equation with p = $ becomes.the particle moves with uniform velocity /3 in the q. t explicitly. Then s=&qyt.. The transformation equations are thus As g = /3+at. $ as+’(”) a t 2 a q 2 =o As H does not depend on q . q2 + 2 2 It is transformed to . have the generating function S=aqa 1 2 2 t The constant a can be taken to be the new momentum P.
2. The transformation equations then give p = a = cro sin(t q=p+at= + p) . aOCOS(t+p).at = aO[cos(t + 'p) + tsin(t + p)] . p=. Derive the equations of motion for the displacement. Find the relation between the displacement u and the applied force within elastic limits. + 'p are constants. Assume a transverse plane wave which proceeds in the xdirection and whose oscillations are in the ydirection. (SVNY. &= Hence the solution for the perturbed system is harmonic. and thus 0 = & .654 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics by the transformation equations in (a). dK dP ' .77. The last equations combine to give showing that a is harmonic: a = a0 sin@ p) . (c) Find the expression for the speed of the transverse elastic wave. 2084 (a) Let us apply a shearing force on a rectangular solid block as shown in Fig. (b) The elastic properties of a solid support elastic waves.d K 8Q & = (p give 6 = ( p + at)t. Note that a = P . + at) . Hamilton's equations Q= . Bufl'alo) Solution: (a) Hooke's law for shearing . where (yo. p 3 Q can no longer be considered constant as H has been changed.
F x=ncp. . . 2. energy is considered and Hamilton's principle 6 l r Lift = 0 (T.V ) d t = 6 l Jd' [ r 14 (">I2 ax $ (g) 1' Adxdt = 0 . n the shear modulus of the material of the block. (b) The potential energy of a unit volume of the block due to shear strain is 1 The kinetic energy of the block during shearing is Jd' applies. Within the elastic limits. //./// .//. p being the density of the block.Y Fig.77. Thus $pA ( $ ) ' d x . .. gives the resulting displacement as as cp is a small angle... cp the shear angle.Analytical Mechanics X 655 A I U F . where F is the shearing force. and A the cross sectional area of the block parallel to F.
which is in the ydirection. t Z .% . ( c ) The equation shows that u.the above becomes giving 6% . integrating by parts.pa =o ax2 n at2 as the equation of motion for the displacement u. we have and as 6u = 0 at y = 0. propagates along the xdirection as a transverse wave with speed .656 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics As. 1 and t = t l .
PART I11 SPECIAL RELATIVITY .
.
c. 659 . The detectors were at different locations which had the same distance from the place where the annihilation took place .SPECIAL RELATIVITY (30013054) 3001 (a) Briefly describe the dilemma which necessitated the development of the special theory of relativity. (c) Describe one modern experiment which lends credence to the special theory of relativity. is a constant independent of the velocity of the source of the electromagnetic radiation. ( Wisconsin ) Solution: (a) According to Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. even though both appeared to be well established. it would not hold in another inertial frame that has relative motion with respect to the first. (b) An earlier theory which attempted to resolve the dilemma was the theory of ether. This is contrary to the Galilean transformation which was known to apply between inertial frames. It was found that the two photons arrived at the detectors simultaneously. This indicates that light emitted in different directions from a rapidly moving source has a constant speed. Thus the presence of ether cannot be demonstrated and the ether theory has to be abandoned. the velocity of prop agation of electromagnetic waves in free space. If Maxwell’s theory holds in one inertial frame. The dilemma was that either Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory or Newtonian mechanics holds but not both. (b) Describe an earlier theory which could have eliminated the need for special relativity and name an experiment which proved this theory to be wrong. But Michelson’s experiment purported to measure the velocity of the earth relative to the ether always gave a zero result even though the earth moves in the solar system and the solar system itself moves. (c) Take as example Herter’s experiment measuring the time of arrival of two photons emitted in the annihilation of a positron in flight. It presupposed that the universe was filled with a fictitious allpervasive medium called the ether and that Maxwell’s theory holds only in a frame at rest relative to the ether.
(a) Calculate the time r' between the reception of the pulses at x = 0 ' as a function of r and p = i.660 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 3002 A space traveler with velocity v synchronizes his clock (t' = 0) with his earth friend ( t = 0). calculate A' in terms of X and p. x1 = xi = 0 when the clocks are synchronized. = y(x'. Pl at t = 0 and P at t = T . t directly and t' through a telescope. + Pd'z) = yPcth . 3003 A light source at rest at position x = 0 in reference frame S emits two pulses (called PI and Pz) light. The transformation equations are d 2 52 where = : y= . where A and A' are the vacuum wavelengths of light as measured in S and S' respectively. that is.C' be inertial frames attached to the earth and spaceship respectively with the xaxes along the direction of relative velocity. Berkeley) Solution: Let C. An observer in frame S' receives the initial pulse PI at time t' = 0 at x' = 0. J1p + Px'. The earthman then observes both clocks simultaneously. a.)= y d ' . . (b) From (a) determine an exact expression for the longitudinal Doppler effect. 1 as xk = xi = 0. Light signal takes a time to reach the earthman. A frame S' of 2 moves with velocity v x with respect to S. Hence his clock will read when he sees th = 1 hour through a telescope. Consider the event that the spaceship clock reads t:. and set t l = t i = 0 . = y(d'. What does t read when t' reads one hour? (UC.
1. (a) The inertial frames S. ‘ The emission of Pz is at x = 0.33 A) from the neutralization to H atoms of protons accelerated through a potential of 20 kV. or . Hence the observer records the time of arrival as t ’ + At’ = y(1 + p ) r . S’ are as shown in Fig. x = 0. t = 0. t’ = 0 as given. ( Chicago ) Solution: Fig.Special Relativity 661 (c) Calculate to first and second order in the Doppler shift of the Hp emission (A = 4861. assume that the optical axis of the spectrometer is parallel to the motion of the protons. in S. t = r in S and 2’ = y x ( pct) = ypm .1. Assuming that emission occurs after acceleration and while the protons drift with constant velocity. 3. Also. Assume that the origins 0 and 0’ coincide at t = t’ = 0 so that the emission of PI and its arrival at the observer both occur at z = 0. 3.= $7 Ix’ 1 C to arrive at the observer. The signal take a time At’ = .
we have the frequencies v = 1 . and S' and S" are moving in the positive xdirection. 7 v ' = 1 TI and wavelengths in S and S' respectively. 3. . Prove that for this type of transformation the inverse of an LT is an LT. 3004 (a) Consider Lorentz transformations (LT) between the frames S.8 A. so that their velocity can be obtained nonrelativistically. we can expand X'(p) as a power series 3 The first order shift of the Ho emission is Ax = X = 4861 x 6.54 x p and the second order shift is = 31. S' respectively. where the xaxes are all parallel. S' and S" indicated in Fig.r' are the intervals between two consecutive pulses in S. and that the resultant of two LT's is another LT. much smaller that the rest mass energy of 936 MeV.2.662 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) As r. (c) The protons have energy 20 keV each. Thus C mc2 936 As / is small.
where According to the principle of relativity. Solution: The Lorentz transformation between the frames S . (SUZVY. Prove that the particle exchanged is not real but virtual. the inverse transformation. d’= Y l ( C t . which is seen to be also a Lorentz transformation. 3.and the velocity of S” relative to S’ is 212. Buffalo) Fig. .3. 3. The transformation from S’ to S . If the velocity of S’ relative to S is q . is therefore 2 = y1(d +PICt‘). 2 = z’. all inertial frames are equivalent. z’ = z .P l C t ) ) 12 y’ = y. ct = y1(d‘ +Pl2‘) . 3.Special Relativity 663 Y Y’ Y” Fig. However. the interaction between particles is thought of as arising from the exchange of a particle as shown in Fig. Fig. derive the expression for the velocity of S” relative to S. as the velocity of S’ relative to S is 211 the velocity of S relative to S‘ is 211.3. so the transformation from S to S’ should have the same form as the transformation from S’ to S.2. 3.e. y = y’.P12) . (b) In particle physics. S‘ is given by 2’ = 7 ( . i.4.
PlZ)] I = Y2Y1[(1+ Ct” PlPZ). Thus the resultant of two LT’s is also an LT.PlCt) .664 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics Consider 5 = Y2(Z’ ‘ ‘ . Note that Pc is the velocity of S” relative to 5’. If the point is at rest in S”. 2’’ = z . where Writing P= we have 1 P1 1 + 0102 ’ + P2 1 = J r .P x ) . showing that it is also a Lorentz transformation.P25’) = y2y1[(1 + PlP2)Ct  (P1 +P 2 ) 4 . Consider the transformation between S and S’. (01+ P 2 ) C t I = y2@’ . Hence the transformation from S to S“ is given by Z” + = r ( x . the velocity of the point relative to S is given by the above ‘ relation. the velocity of S’ relative to S . y“ = y. and 01.Pet). This can be shown directly as follows. then v = 212 and the relation gives .P2Ct’) =W  I [ ( Z.p’ or y = y1y2(1 PlPZ) . d” = y ( d . the velocity of a point relative to S’.h ( c t . Differentiating we have + cdt = y1 (cdt‘ + 0 dx’) ’ 1 dx = 71( d ~ ’ Plcdt’) I and v = dx = dt v’+v~ I + % ’ Thus with v’.
by exchanging a particle of 4momentum q in the interaction.1. respectively.Special Relativity 665 P= P1 1 + PlP2 + P2 as expected.1)CW2 6 < ( 1 :. (b) As shown in Fig. but has to be virtual. the Cmomenta of particles 1 and 2. P'z = P2 . + ~ 1 r i P l Pcos6) . P : 2 I2 2 9 Equations (1) and (2) combine to give m2 = 2m:(1. 3. (7.1y 77 This would be true if the following is true: . = Pl + Q. we have to show JF Jy.2lcose or 1 .1)($ . The momentum part gives 4 = p . The conservation of Cmomentum requires P'. P1 1 or Q P1 + P l . (+ . p l and p2 change to p i and pb.2 P l .r1y. As y2p2= y2 .4. : < rly: We have to show that m2 < 0 so that the interaction cannot be real.  w2 1) < (717: 9 .Q  Let the mass of particle 1 be ml and that of the exchange particle of Cmomentum q be m and consider the first Cmomentum equation.
(UC. r’ . the field vectors E’. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Consider a plane electromagnetic wave E = Eoei(k. In another inertial frame C‘ moving with relative velocity w along the xdirection.rwt) 7 H = Hoei(k. Since (r.ct) is a relativistic Cvector. . (b) Given that an atom at rest emits light of angular frequency wo and that this atom is traveling at velocity v either directly towards or away from an observer.666 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or 471  <0 Since this always holds. use the Lorentz transformation to derive a formula for the frequency observed by the observer for the two cases (towards or away from the observer). ct) is a Cvector. H’ are given by These relations require that the exponential function in E and H be invariant: k’ . r .wt . w ) is a relativistic 4vector.wit’ = k . z‘ = z . justify the statement that (ck. 3005 (a) Given that (r. ct’ = y(ct .rWt) in a n inertial frame C.  y’ = y. the interaction has to be virtual. its components transform according to 2’ = /(” pet>.px) .
O (: ) Jc+v * by definition.P)wo = wo/. k’ = ( k i l kh. O ) = . The angular frequency as measured by the observer is w. The transformation relation then gives w = y(w‘ . cv . O .y(w‘ + pck’. (b) Let the observer be at the origin of C and the atom be at the origin of C‘ (the atom is moving away from the observer with velocity Pc). k $ ) we have k’ .P W ’ ) = y ( l .w ) is a relativistic Cvector.k f l 0 .x direction. ct): z = y(z’ + P d ’ ) . Pc in the above is to be replaced by /3c and we have w = w o / g1 + P = . As light from the atom that reaches the observer must have been emitted in the . ck3 = c k i .P If the atom is moving towards the observer. * These relations are exactly the same as those for (r.p c t ) + k i y + khz . w = Y(W’ + Pck. ct = y(ct’ + P..kz. ckz = ckb.w’t’ = k : y ( x ..’) Hence ( c k .w‘y z tk i y + k i z . we have k’ = ( . t on the two sides of the equation.Special Relativity 667 Letting k = ( k l . glz .1 ..)t Comparing the coefficients of the independent variables x . r’ .) . k3). y = y’./=. we find ckl = y(ck: + Pw‘). z = z’.
(b) Consider the problem in C. It is received by the spaceship at time tl. How long will it take for the signal to reach the ship: (a) As measured in the ship’s reference frame? (b) As measured in the earth’s reference frame? (c) Also give the location of the space ship when the signal is received. a radio signal is sent out t o the spaceship by an observer on earth. (a) Consider the two events Eo El : sending out of signal by the observer on earth..668 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 3006 A spaceship is moving away from the earth at a speed v = 0.When the ship is at a distance of 6. a radio signal is sent out by the observer. In C the x and t coordinates are . At time t = to when the ship is at x. For convenience consider (b) first.8~.66 x lo8 km from earth as measured in the earth’s reference frame. in both frames. Bu’alo) Solution: Let the observer on earth be at the origin of the inertial frame C and the spaceship be at rest in the inertial frame C’ moving with velocity /3c relative t o C along the x direction. (SUNY. : arrival of the signal at the ship. As the velocity of propagation of the signal is c we have yielding as the time taken for the signal to reach the ship.
to)c = 1.Special Relativity 669 tb = y (to  t: = 7 (t. is moving with a speed v with respect to an observer located a large distance away.= /3l > c .t’ .p>tl +Pto] Hence the time of travel of the signal in the ship’s frame is t’ .t o )= 3.33 x lo9 km in the earth’s frame. 3. and xi = 0 in the ship’s frame. What does he see when he develops the film? (Columbia) Solution: Consider a thin square ABCD of (rest) side 1 moving with velocity v relative to an observer P at a large distance 1 away such that the plane of the square contains the line of sight as shown in Fig.7 x 103 .t o )= .. Then . = y[(l . E I A = DID .11 x lo4 x 3 x lo5 = 3.DID .p)(tl .. and the instant when AB is perpendicular to the line of sight. Light from D‘ emitted at an earlier time when D waa at D’intersects the extension of the line AB at El at the instant under consideration.DIE’ . 3007 A globe of (rest) radius &. with identifiable markings on it.y(l.I V c ccose ’ sec0 .  F) 5) = yto . The observer takes a picture of the globe at the time that he sees the globe moving perpendicular to the line joining himself with the globe.tan8 M .5. (c) The location of the spaceship when the signal is received is 2 = 1 (tl .1tan0 = 1 tv .
m' D' D c \I Y P Fig. 0 M 0.6. 3. . As account of Lorentz contraction. 3. 3. AB'= lcosrr = l d m .5. Consider now the square ABCD after rotating through an angle a .670 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics with 0 = :. it will still be photographed as a sphere. We have E'A = l s i n a = 10. with Q given by sinrr = /3. As the object is a sphere. The relationship among the points El. B' in the above two cases are exactly the same. it will be seen as AB' = where y = 1 AB is moving with velocity v.5 will be photographed as the stationary square shown in Fig.6. Hence the moving square in Fig. 3. 3. since for L >> I .6. on = ldw. A . Fig. as shown in Fig.
Lorentz transformation ct = y(d' px') give for Ax' = 0. The earth has radius 6400 km. At = Tat'.2 x 1 0 .where 7 = Then + for p << 1. The two frames can be considered as approximately inertial.At'= 1000 x = 2. 1 2 Take for example a jet fighter flying at 1000 m/s.Special Relativity 671 3008 An atomic clock is carried once around the world by a jet plane and then compared with a previously synchronized a.02 x 104 At . Idlu . since the clock is fixed in C'.nd similar clock that did not travel.At' N p2At' . we have m.~ . (b) Show that the Doppler effect on light frequency can be expressed its i) v = vo when the source and observer are approaching.02 x lo4 1000 to fly once around the earth. 3 x 10s 2 () 3009 (a) Write down the Lorentz transformation for the position 4vector and derive the transformation for the momentum 4vector. so the fighter takes 27r x 6400 x lo3 = 4. Let its rest frame be S' and the earth's frame be S. Approximately how large a discrepancy does special relativity predict? (Columbia) Solution: Suppose the jet plane moves with velocity pc. about three times the speed of sound. or At . The clock carried by the fighter will be slower b Y 2 4.
y. z . w ).672 Problems 8 Solutions on Mechanics ii) u = UOJZ uo when the source and observer are receding. ct) F (2. The Lorentz transformation for the position 4vector x" (r.C' with the corresponding axes parallel to each other such that C' moves with a velocity v = . . m when the source and observer are in perpendicular directions passing each other. As all Cvectors transform in the same way. Buflalo ) Solution: (a) Consider two inertial frames C.Oc along the x direction and that the origins coincide at t = t' = 0. (SUN Y. The momentum 4vector is defined as Y where E = mc2 is the total energy. its transformation is given by (b) The wave Cvector is defined by k" Its transformation = ( k c . ct) is iii) u = = where Y Q.=(: 0 0 PY 0 1 1 0 :) PY 0 0 withy=(1p2)i.
ii) When the source and observer are receding from each other. W =~ ' (w PkZc) . To obtain the Doppler effect. we have ' w = $1 or + p0)W' = wq. ki = 0. kh = k. The inverse transformation is w = ?(W' + PkLc) = ?(W' . we have p = Do. They pass each other at t = t' = 0. when ki = 0. DOC being the velocity of the former relative to the latter. = k. k: = k.1 + Po 1Po where w' = 2nuo is the proper angular frequency of the light and w is the angular frequency as measured by the observer.Special Relativity 673 can be written as kL = ? kz . = k2 = 0f k' t = k' = id . = k as the light has to be emitted backwards to reach the observer.. Then = PO. let the frames of the light source and observer be ElC respectively. y. let the source be at (0. k. 0) in C' and the observer be at (0. Thus or iii) When the source and observer are in perpendicular directions passing each other. The transformation equation for w then gives w = ?(w' + PkLc) = TW' = W ' Jcp' .O) ' in C. 0. i) When the source and observer approach each other let DOC be the relative velocity of the former relative to the latter.7 ( Ow) .PokLC) As k.. Note that k.
BuflaEo) Solution: The frame K of the light source moves with velocity pc relative t o K'.c +ow). then k. or The above can also be written as . (b) What is the angle of observation in the K' frame? (SUNY. The angular frequency of the wave in K is w = 2 ~ u . k. = ksin8. (a) Determine the measured frequency u in terms of the proper fre' quency u of the wave. where y = (1. The (inverse) transformation of the components of the wave 4vector is given by kLc = y(k. k. = kcos8.4. = 0. W' = T ( W t/3kxc) . w = kc. If the angle between the light and the zaxis is 8. the observer's frame. khc = kyc. The observer measures the frequency of the wave. The source moves in the xdirection at speed v = $c towards an observer at rest in the K' frame (where his z'axis is parallel to the zaxis).p2).674 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics or 3010 A monochromatic transverse wave with frequency v propagates in a direction which makes an angle of 60" with the zaxis in the reference frame K of its source. k:c = kzc.
5 14 ' 3011 Consider two twins. The traveler starts at rest at time zero.8. He sends out pulses during the entire trip of the traveler.8 x 0. ( UC. From time zero to t 2 (by his clock) he receives Dopplerloweredfrequency pulses. and each twin broadcasts a radio pulse at each heartbeat. all the while sending out pulses and receiving pulses from home. 0.P 1 pcose + * With O = 0. The traveler travels for time tl by his clock. and without perturbing his heart!). How many pulses does he receive during interval t 2 ? During t ~ ? What is the ratio between these? What is the ratio of the total number of pulses he sends to the total he receives? Compare this result with the analogous result for the traveler. very rapidly accelerates up to velocity v (within less than a heartbeat. Each twin's heart beats once per second.8 13 1 + 0. How many pulses did he send out altogether? How many pulses did he receive during the outgoing trip? How many did he receive on the ingoing half of his trip? What is the ratio of total pulses received and sent? Next consider the twin who stays at home.Special Relativity 675 As the angle k makes with the 2'axis is given by ' . The stayathome twin remains at rest in an inertial frame. (4 u'=( 1 + 0. Then at time tl he suddenly reverses his velocity and arrives back home at time 2tl. Berkeley) . He receives pulses from the traveler.c o s 8 + P cose = .8".8 cos 60" ) v = f1.5 +0. .we have . Let t 3 be the time interval from time t 2 till the end of the trip.4v = i d m = 3 V ) 7 (b) cos giving 8' = 21. k. 8 = 60°. At time t 2 he starts receiving Dopplerraisedfrequency pulses.
k.  F).vt). being the frequency. t = y (t' w = y(w' + $). + vk:) . with A. At the start of the journey of B. Let C. ' 2 = y(x' + vt') .. C' can still be considered inertial. . t = t' = 0. respectively. C' with C moving with velocity 2) relative to ' C in the direction of the xaxis. Measure time in seconds so that Y has numerical value one in the rest frame.(t z'=z.676 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y Solution: Consider inertial frames C. Hence B receives pulses during the outgoing trip. Y = Y. (i) The total trip takes time At' = 2tl. The transformation relations for spacetime and angular frequency fourvectors are 2 = r(x . Y Consider fmm the point of view of B.C' be the rest frames of the twin A who stays at home and the twin B who travels.). (ii) For the outgoing trip.VIE. where k: = k. k& = k. . B located at the respective origins. and the pulses received by B since Y = 1 as C is the rest frame of A. w' = y(w . = z. Thus B sends out 2tl pulses for the entire trip. As the times of acceleration and deceleration of B are small compared with the time of the trips. have frequency = H. ' t' = .
since v = 1 as C‘ is the rest frame of B.0 ) t l ~ ( p ) t l = l total pulses sent by B 2tl + + = 1 dKp* Consider from the point of view of A (i) In the interval t = 0 to t = t2.P)v’ = y(l . p = .P)tz = t2 J :l.Special Relativity 677 (ii) For the ingoing trip.0) . (. Hence i.pv’) = $1 . V’tl = $1 + P ) t l = t l / 3 pulses during the ingoing trip. kk = Thus z. = z. must be taken into account. moves away from A is transformed by since Ax‘ = 0. i1 total pulses received by B . . the pulses have to be emitted in 2’ direction to reach A. and v’ = y(1+ Hence B receives 0). However. A receives Dopplerloweredfrequency pulses indicating that B is moving away during the interval. and the number of pulses received ‘ is $1 . A and B communicate by light pulses. B being stationary in C’. = : As . : k. The interval of time during which B. whose time of travel where x is the coordinate of B in C. = y ( l + p) .e.. i. starting at t = t’ = 0. the number of pulses received is $1 .e.t .p ) t 2 . v = y(v’ .y(1 .
Y(1 + + 0)tl + Y(1 . (a) At the time when the radar pulse bounces off the earth what is the position of the earth as measured in the spaceship frame? (b) What is the velocity of the spaceship relative to the earth? . By a similar argument as that in (i) we have Hence the number of pulses received is $1 (iii) loweredfrequency pulses received by A = .’) = $1 + P). The ship.t 3 . As k ‘ C (ii) In the time interval t 3 from t = t z to the end of journey. as expected since counting of numbers is invariant under Lorentz transformation. total number of pulses sent by A total number of pulses received by A t2 . sends back a signal pulse which is reflected from the earth. indicating that C’ moves toward C. i. = . W c’ = y(v‘ + 0.= 1 t1 raisedfrequency pulses received by A tl + P)t3 = tl ..678 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics P = ?!.P)tl 2tl ?= 2tl d m  1 This is the same as the ratio of the number of pulses received by B to that sent by B during the entire trip. A receives Dopplerraisedfrequency pulses.’ = $1 +P) . 3012 A spaceship has a transmitter and a receiver. which is proceeding at constant velocity directly away from the mother earth.e. Forty seconds later on the ship’s clock the signal is picked up and the frequency received is one half the transmitter frequency.
p)w. So in C' the pulse takes a time Q = 20 s to reach the earth. k.@ k Z ) with kz = '$. and 7 = Thus w = y(l . .w = y( 1 . Thus w" = y(l . the proper angular frequency of the signal. the angular frequency will be observed in C' as W" = T(W . Hence the velocity of the spaceship relative to the earth is v =x 1 3 3 x 1 = 108m/s . .Berkeley ) Solution: Let the spaceship and the earth be at the origins of inertial frames C' and C respectively with C' moving with velocity pc relative to C in the x direction such that x = x = 0 at t = t' = 0. (b) In C the angular frequency w of the signal is observed to be w = y(w' + pck. 0 ' (c) In C'. Hence the position of the earth when the pulse bounces off the earth is x = 20 c = 6 x lo9 m as ' measured in the ship's frame.p y w o yielding = (.P)wo. = ? as the signal has to go in the XI direction to reach the earth. After reflection from the earth's surface. ) WO =p 1 o 7 .) with w' = W O .Special Relativity 679 (c) At the time when the radar pulse is received by the spaceship where is the ship in the earth frame? ( UC. when the signal bounces off the earth the time is . ma . ' (a) The velocity of the radar pulse is c in all directions.p)w = y y 1 .
80.8. When the signal is received by the ship. Fig.7. As the ship is stationary at the origin of C’. the time is t’ = 60 20 = 80 s. This instant is perceived in C as a time + As the ship moves away from the earth at a velocity pc = i c . (a) Derive an expression for the observed frequency as function of the distance x from the point of closest approach 0. its position in C at this instant is 80 x = Pct = yc = 8. An observer A moves at constant speed v along a straight line that passes at a distance d from the source as shown in Fig. Solution: (a) Let the rest frames of the light source S and the observer A be C and C’ respectively.680 Problems i Solutions on Mechanics 9 as the earth moves with relative velocity pc. 3. taking the direction of the relative velocity v as along . 3. 3 3013 A point source S of monochromatic light emits radiation of frequency f . 3. (UC. Berkeley) Fig.5 x lo9 m .7. (b) Sketch an approximate graph of your answer to (a) for the case of = 0. x’ = 0.
cps. where Il = : k .DW). we have . With sin8 = freauencv as &2.5 f‘ f 3‘ f is given in Fig..Special Relativity 681 the x. An approximate sketch of the graph of 3014 Consider monochromatic radiation emitted at the sun with frequency us cps.8. Use the Ftiemannain matrix form g o = (1 o + 7) 7 911 = g22 = 933 = 1. and received at the earth with frequency u. . w = 2nf’. the above gives the observed (b) If @ = 0. .pwsin8) = yw(1. 2’axes. W’ = T(W . k = z. 7 = 1 and To find the shape of f . 7 = w’ = y(w .. As kx = k sin 8. 3.8.consider the following: 2 = 0. gp#” = 0 . The transformation of the wave 4vector components is ckk = y(Ck.pckx) . p = t. k. . = k.psin8) * = k: = k. . w = 2nf.
to derive the “gravitational red shift” as a function of the difference of gravitational potentials at the sun and earth. T 2 is a constant and the period measured in the coordinate time is + + + + 2 However. Buffalo) Solution: In a gravitational field it is always possible to define a frame relative to which the field vanishes over a limited region and which behaves as an inertial frame.P2 are on the sun and the earth respectively. where T is the difference between the coordinate times of emission at PI and reception at P . (SUNY. A frame freely falling in the gravitational field is such a frame. a standard clock measuring the local proper time at P will give the period as 7’ = tdzm. t o t are received at another fixed point P at coordinate times 2 to T and to T t . this gives the gravitational red shift as . A standard clock at rest in such a frame measures the local proper time interval. the period T in the local proper time is T=tdm. Suppose successive crests of the radiation emitted from PIat coordinate times t o . are related by If P I . If the period is t in the coordinate time. Consider the emission of monochromatic radiation by an atom at rest at point PI in a gravitational field and use a coordinate frame in which the atom is at rest. If the gravitational field is static. as measured by identical standard clocks. Hence the frequency Y of the line emitted at P and the frequency Y i ‘ observed at P2.682 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics where 9 is the gravitational potential energy per unit mass.
c and v? (b) What is the energy of each reflected photon? ( c ) The average energy flux of the incident beam is Pi (watts/m2). The transformation for angular frequency is given b Y w' = /(U pck.) . (' .683 3015 A mirror is moving through vacuum with relativistic speed w in the x direction. Solution: (a) Let C. A beam of light with frequency wi is normally incident (from 2 = +oo) on the mirror.9. and of the mirror respectively.). (a) What is the frequency of the reflected light expressed in terms of w. C' be the rest frames of the light source and observer.9. w = y u + pck.. What is the average reflected energy flux? (MITI Y Y' Fig. 3. 3. as shown in Fig.
as shown in Figs. = y ( 1 + P)w:. w = w i . .10. = (*) P. at an angle 8 to the normal. These photons are reflected . photons of frequency u are incident. k. w: = w l . or w. The observer in C will perceive wr = Y(W.684 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics where /? = : . 3. cv 3016 As seen by an inertial observer 0. . on a plane mirror. to the normal and at a frequency u' as shown in Fig. c+v cv (c) If n is the number of photons per unit volume of the beam. On reflection. back at an angle 8. = nctiw. C' be the rest frames of the observer and the mirror. the mirror perceives u.11 respectively and use the transformation relations . ' . = () c+v cv nctiw. Find 8 and Y in terms of 8 and u if the mirror is moving in the 2 direction . = For * ?. = y(wi + &a) =y 1 ( + P)w. 3. its average energy flux is n c f w . = y2(1+/?)"a = ( m+)Pw i = ( z ) u i l as the angular frequency of the reflected light. y = 1 the incident light.=(>tiwi.10 and 3. (b) The energy of each reflected photon is b. The average energy flux of the reflected beam is therefore P. with velocity v relative to 0. + /?ck!J : with k = w:/c. What is the result if the mirror were moving with a velocity v in the y direction? (Princeton) Solution: Let C .
Fig. On reflection.=&EL . we have for the incident light or kicos8: =yki(cos&+p).10.e. 8: = 8i. 3. 3. =C % = k c ’ k7 &!.(l+pcOSBi).11. wk = w i . k: =rk. so for the reflected light we have or i.Special Relativity 685 Y Y’ Fig. .c ’ . W i t h k .
u and u’.686 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics v = / u(l+213cos~1+P~) I 1. the hero. 3. 3. We want t o see who w s right.p 2 If the mirror moves in the ydirection. (a) Derive (or recall) a n expression for the relativistic aberration and use it to calculate (Fig.12. traveling at high Lorentz factor a t right angles to the plane of our galaxy (Fig.99 and the angle cp in the frame of the galaxy t o be 45” (Fig.12). Berkeley) Solution: (a) Let C’. = B~ 3017 In a simplified version of the ending of one of Fred Hoyle’s novels.13) the direction from which light from the edge of the galaxy appears to come when viewed in the spacecraft.12). Take the relative speed to be a /3 = 0. the motion will have no effect on the reflection process and we still have v = u.13). The velocities of a point. ‘ e. Feynman betted 25 cents that the light from the galaxy would not look that way. said he appeared to be inside and heading toward the mouth of a “goldfish bowl” with a blue rim and a red body (Fig. C be inertial frames attached to the spaceship and the galaxy respectively with El moving with velocity u along the xdirection which is perpendicular t o the galactic plane as shown in Fig. 3. 3. in C and C‘ are related by the transformation for velocity . 3. (UC. (c) Calculate cpl and v l / u at enough angles ’p t o decide who won the bet. (b) Derive (or recall) the relativistic Doppler effect and use it t o calculate the frequency ratio u‘/u for light from the edge.
Pck cos ~ p ) = y w ( 1 . Consider light coming from a point at the uy = csincp.071 . For light from the center.l ) = 0.13 . 3. = ccoscp = ' ccoscpv 1 . cp = 0 and .Special Relativity 687 Y f Fig. where y = 2with rim of the galactic circle as shown in the figure.707 .Pcoscp) .6'.Pck.= y(1 u w Pcoscp) = 1 .13.0.13. =0 = ccoscp. 3.707 diTEii=F (c) The above result shows that the light from the rim is blueshifted. for which UZ + F P = :.0.707 . U.99 x 0.= . gives u' WI . W' = T(W . 3.PCOS cp 1 .99 x 0.99 coscpI = coscpP = 0. giving cp' = 160.12. This is the angle the direction of the light makes with the direction of motion of the spaceship as seen by the traveler. Then or u:.943 1 .) = Y ( W . = 2. P V v ' . This angle is supplementary to the angle cp' shown in Fig.pcoscp ' 0.0. (b) The transformation for angular frequency. Fig.= ~ (.
As it gains distance from the galaxy. Thus the statement of Fred Hoyle's hero is correct and Feynman loses the bet. . cp = 29.= 7 = 7. 3. Y .071.09 . or ' cos cp = 1 (1 . As the spaceship leaves the center of the galaxy. so all the light from the galaxy is redshifted.$)= 0. P i. 5 3018 As observed in an inertial frame S. U U ' so all the light from the galaxy appears blueshifted.14. The critical direction between blue shift and red shift is given by v = u. The speed of each ship is c/2.868 .8".688 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics showing that it is redshifted. 3.14. Finally at a large distance away. parallel trajectories separated by a distance d as shown in Fig. light from a larger and larger central region will appear redshifted. two spaceships are travelling in o p posite directions along straight. light from the center starts to become redshifted. cp = 0 and = 0.'c X Fig. where c is the speed of light.e. Only light from the rim is blueshifted. at first cp = 90" and . As the spaceship goes further out.
the package must have velocity components Let S’ be the inertial frame attached to ship (1) with its coordinate axes x‘. relative to S.y.at what angle must the package be aimed for it to be received by ship (2)? Assume the observer in ship (1) has a coordinate system whose axes are parallel to those of S and. (b) What is the speed of the package as seen by the observer in ship (I)? ( CUSPEA ) Soht ion: (a) Consider the events in the frame S. z of S. Thus in S. which is in the ydirection.Special Relativity 689 (a) At the instant (as viewed from S) when the ships are at the points of closest approach (indicated by the dotted line in the figure).From the point of view of the observer in ship (l). as shown in the figure. z‘ parallel to the corresponding axes x. the transformation for velocity is given by . As S’ has a velocity v1 = 5. the direction of motion is parallel to the yaxis. ship (1) ejects a small package which has speed 3 4 4 (also as viewed from 5’). where 1 2 Hence Thus ship (1) must aim the package at an angle ship (2) given by 01 with the direction of . y‘. The package must have uy = 5 so that after traveling a distance Ax = d it will have the same ycoordinate as ship (2).
what is the velocity of the faster particle.the slower particle has momentum mylvl = mylplc = 5mc . (b) The speed of the package as seen by the observer in ship (1) is 3019 Two particles with the same mass m are emitted in the same direction. is . the velocity is Let K1.2' . with momenta 5mc and lOmc respectively. As seen from the slower one. ( Wisconsin) Solution: In the laboratory frame KO.690 Problems . The transformation for velocity between KO and K . Kz be the rest frames of the slower and faster particles respectively. which moves with velocity w in the z direction relative to KO. Similarly for the faster particle.Solutions on Mechanics 3 or a = 64. giving or 72 = 26 1 . and vice verse? (c = speed of light).
Berkeley) Solution: Let K. Observer 2 is moving with velocity u relative to observer 1 along the zdirection.v ' C2 I uxv 1 Thus in K1.v 2 211 v2 C2 = 0. (UC. . be the rest frames of the observers 1 and 2 respectively with K' parallel axes such that the zaxis is in the plane of v and u as shown in Fig. the velocity of the faster particle is In K2. 3.595~~ 3020 Observer 1 sees a particle moving with velocity v on a straightline trajectory inclined at an angle cp to his zaxis.Special Relativity 691 u. the velocity of the slower particle is I v1 = 1 v1 . The transformation for velocity gives Fig.15. Check that you get the proper result in the limit v + c. 3. = u. Derive formulas for the velocity and direction of motion of the particle as by seen observer 2.15.
u 2 v 2C2 cp 1 v2  uv cos cp C2 Thus observer 2 sees a particle moving with velocity v' on a straightline trajectory inclined at an angle cp' to the z'axis.2vucoscp . as shown in Fig.16. 3021 (a) A photon of energy E is scattered by an electron. using special relativity. in agreement with the basic assumption of special relativity that c is the same in any direction in any inertial frame. In the limit v 4 c. a formula that relates E f and Ei to 8. The photon has a final energy E f . mass me. .ucoscp 1C l ucoscp = c * C This shows that c in any direction is transformed into c. which i is initially at rest. c . Derive.692 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics 1 vz= vzu vcoscpu uv. where 8 is the angle between the incident photon and the scattered photon. uv cos cp IC2 C2 ' withy= JW' Hence sin2 + u 2 . 3. This suggests that our answer is correct.
Conservation of momentum gives Pi=Pf+Pei where Pi and Pf are the momenta of the photon before and after scattering respectively. Solution: (a) The scattering is known as the Compton effect.Ef)2= Ef + Ej . Ei = Pic. Pe is the momentum of the electron after scattering.Ef)2= m$c4+ (Pi . one frequently observes the production of an electronpositron pair by a photon. Show that such a process is impossible unless some other body.P f ) 2 ~. 3. We also have from the contraction of the momentum 4vector of the electron E.2 For the photon.Special Relativity 693 (b) In bubble chambers."c2. What is the minimum energy that the photon must have in order to produce an electronpositron pair? (Princeton) Fig. and this becomes 2mec2(Ei. for example a nucleus.16. Conservation of energy gives Ei mec2 = Ef E . .c2 + Ei . Ef = Pfc. is involved. Suppose that the nucleus has mass M and an electron has mass me. e + + where Ee is the energy of the electron after scattering."= mqc4 + P. or (m.Ef) + (Ei .2EiEj c8 .
e+ is possible.where y=and the system has total energy 2meyc2. with p = i. However. Momentum conservation give * E + Mc2 = Myc2 + 2mec2 . Energy and momentum can both be conserved if another particle. the electron and positron will move in a straight line passing through the origin away from each other with the same speed v and the total momentum in zero. Consider a frame attached to the center of mass of the created pair. In this frame. say a nucleus of m s M . ~ . It follows that the original photon must have a momentum 2meyc. ~ = 2 Mme ) m . Hence the reaction is not possible. Then the energy and momentum of the system must be conserved in all inertial frames. contradicting the result obtained by momentum conservation.694 Pmb1em. by energy conservation.e. Conservation of momentum requires that the momentum of the original photon is also zero. ( M . v being the velocity of the nucleus after the As yP = d v . This must also be the energy of the original photon. each particle has energy meyc2. the pair will be created at rest. gives this Y 2 = 1+ (A) 2 and the energy equation becomes (E giving + Mc2 .c2)' = E2 + M2c4 . + h7 where 7 = pair creation.s €4 Solutions on Mechanics or (b) Suppose the reaction y + e. is involved. i.2m. In the case the photon just has enough as energy E to create such a pair and M is initially at rest.2me .
C' be the laboratory frame and a frame attached to the center of m s of the excited system respectively with C' moving with velocity Pc as relative to C in the zdirection. P sin 8 7(P cos e + P) ' = 1 . In this system mesons are emitted with velocity Pc. 3022 (a) A cosmic ray proton collides with a stationary proton to give an excited system moving highly relativistically (y = 1000). What will 0 be if 8 is go"? What will be the maximum value of 0 observed in the laboratory? (UC.0. If in the moving system a meson is emitted at an angle 8 with respect to the forward direction. the minimum photon energy required is just slightly more 4 > than the rest energy of the created pair. 2mec2. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Let C.5 GeV/c. The velocity of a meson emitted in C' with velocity Pc at angle 9 to the 2'axis is transformed to C as Hence the meson is emitted in C at an angle 0 to the zaxis given by tme = where = 1000 .9999995 .5 x lop6 = 0.Special Relativity 695 As A > me. . at what angle 0 will it be observed in the laboratory? (b) Apply the result you obtained in (a) above to mesons (rest energy 140 MeV) emitted in the moving system with momentum 0.
4O 0.e.31' .696 P r o b l e m €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) If 8 = go'.2  Hence e=ttane= 0'963 = Jm 9. since 2 (7s) 7. the angle of emission 8 in C is given by The momentum of the emitted meson is p = mr@c 0. .963 0.571 7 = 0.963 Jm . 1 .5 = 3. ' 23 1000 x (0.963~0s 164.9999995 ) = 164.4' = 0.571 =  0.9999995) + 1 . or by (pcos 8 + p) cos S + psin2 8 = o .0 . The maximum value of 8 is given by dtan8 .52 x deg = 3. which gives e = mctm [ 0.571 .4' . de i.63 x rad = 5. m being the rest mass of the meson.. with 7 = &. 0.3.0 case = 6 = axccos Hence ( 0.205' = 1 .5 GeV/c = . Then 70 = __ or p = . P .14 3.963 x sin 164.
17.6 x (c) What is the length of the decay pipe a~ measured by observers in the pion rest frame? (d) The pion ( 7 ~ )decays into a muon ( p ) and a neutrino (v).Special Relativity 697 This is obviously the maximum angle observed in the laboratory since the minimum angle is 0" for 6 = 0" and @ = 180". pions decay in the 400 m? The pions' proper mean lifetime is 2.2 km from the point where the pions decay. Hence the pion 0. (e) The neutrino detectors are. momentum is . What fraction of the sec.14 GeV/c2. Berkeley) Solution: (a) The momentum of a particle of rest mass m and velocity Pc is P = m7Pc where 7 = 1 the same velocity For . is given by where M is the pion rest mass and m is the muon rest mass. How large should the transverse dimension (radius) of the detectors be in order to have a chance of detecting all the neutrinos that are produced in the forward hemisphere in the pion rest frame? (UC.94 GeV/c2. This is the most probable momentum that the produced pions have when 400 GeV/c protons strike the target at Fermilab. on the average. The pion rest mass is 0. q. is a constant. The proton rest mass is 0. 3023 (a) Calculate the momentum of pions ( T ) that have the same velocity as protons having momentum 400 GeV/c.) Using the relationship between total relativistic energy and momentum show that the magnitude of the decay fragments' momentum in the pion rest frame. (b) These pions then travel down a decay pipe of 400 m length where some of them decay to produce the neutrino beam for the neutrino detector located more than 1 km away as shown in Fig. (The neutrino has zero rest mass. approximately 1. 3.
7P = ~ 59..17. As At = 7 (At'+ y) =?At' . no being the number of pions at t = 0.e0. If n is the number of pions in the beam.x .6 GeV/c .14 400 . where x1. = (%)p .6 GeV/c.698 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics proton beam 400 GeV focusing system P7r shielding neutrino detector Fig. + Bct'). For a pion of momentum 59.5 0. and t T  1 ~PCTO  425. we have or n = noexp (:) .x$ are the coordinates of its two ends taken at the same instant t'.C' be the laboratory frame and the rest frame of the pions respectively. 22 =yx (. As 2 =yz 1 (.1205 = 0.35% .0. (b) Let C. . + pet') .1205 . (c) The length of the decay pipe in C' is by definition 1' = xi .5 x 3 x 10' x 2. 3. = 0.6 = 425.1135 = 11. the laboratory lifetime r of the pions is equal t o yroj where TO is the proper lifetime of the pions and y its Lorentz factor in C.6 x lo' Hence the fraction of pions that decays in the pipe is 1 .xi.94 0 14 400 = 59.
lpPl = lpvJ q. C’.2 km away to detect all the neutrinos with 9’ 5 $. 400 425.rP < 1 = 1 425. velocity pc. (d) The energy of a particle of rest mass m. having zero rest mass. the momenta of the p and Y must = be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Energy conservation gives Mc2 = & G T G G + q c .e.82 m.Special Relativity 699 we have 52 21 = y(5L .m2 2M )“ ’ (e) A neutrino emitted with velocity PIC at angle 9’ to the 2’axis in the rest frame of the pion. Hence 9 5 2. . For 9’ 5 5. which in turn yields + ‘=( tane = M 2 . Consider the decay T .2 x lo3 x 2. p v in the rest frame of the pion. Lorentz factor y is E = m y 2 = m c Z J y m = Jm2c472~2 m2c4 = + since p = m y p c .94 m i.= 400 %= 400 y 7 rP .2. it must have a transverse dimension R = 1.35 x = 2. For a detector at 1. As the momentum is initially zero.5 . where 9 is given by (Problem 3022) B’ sin 8‘ sin gf y(P’cos9’fP) y(cos9’+P) as the neutrino. use having been of the fact that the pion is at rest in C’ and that the neutrino has zero rest mass. 1 1I = . momentum p . is observed to move in a direction at angle 9 to the xaxis in the laboratory frame C.) or 1 = yl‘ . must always move with velocity c.35 x lop3 rad.5 = 0. tane 5 1 r(cos9’ + p) .
(a) For a system. In 1 the laboratory frame C. (UC.2 at 0.(m1rlPd2 I In the center of mass frame E. Hence ' EE = (mi71 + m2)2 . (a) Derive relativistically correct relations for Po and €0.p 2 = (mlrl + m2)2 . Find its laboratory speed /3l and laboratory direction 0 to within a few percent.(m171P1)~ = rn:y. the system of ml. These are conserved quantities so that after the collision the composite system will move with velocity . = 60" to the forward direction in the frame of the recoiling Ar U system. (c) A proton is emitted with Oc = 0. Assume no new particles are created. m2 has total momentum mly& and total energy mlyl + m2. El2 .8 on a 238Unucleus. The composite system recoils at speed PO and with center of mass energy € 0 . making 1 nonrelativistic approximations if they are warranted.700 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics 3024 In a simplified model of a relativistic nucleusnucleus collision. E2 .) + 2rnlm271+ rn. writing 7 = 2 m' E2 . (b) Calculate Po and EO (in MeV) for a 40Ar nucleus impinging at P1 = 0.(1= rn: + m3 + 2mlmzyl . P.pr2 = E:. Berkeley) + Solution: As implied by the question the velocity of light is taken to be one for convenience. a nucleus of rest mass ml and speed 0 collides headon with a target nucleus of mass 1 m2 at rest.p 2 is invariant under Lorentz transformation. or In the laboratory.
272 0. .270 . Plv f l c u dom 0.2' = PCu= 0.175 x + . 1 0.16g2 = 0. applying nonrelativistic approxim% tions we can still achieve an accuracy of more than 96%: Plz Pcz + PO= 0.6Tx 4223. 2 Then EO =b .168 (027) = 31. Note that as 1 1 = 0.175  1+ 0 . 2 ~ 0 ~ 6 00.175% = 0.7 GeV .318 .Special Relativity 701 (b) The masses are approximately ml = 40 x 0.6 x 0.175 . .8 223.72 + 2 x J37.2sin60'dl = 1 + &&I Pi = 1 0 .173 6 = arctan 1 () 0. .6 + (c) The velocity components are transformed according to Pl5 = = Pc5 1 +&& + +Po .175 1+Pczpo + both differing from 1 by less than 4%. 2 ~ 0 ~ 6 0 "0. = 32.168 so the laboratory speed and direction of emission are respectively d0.175 x ~ = 0.9' + 8 = arctan 1 . 6 ' + 223. 2 ~ 0 ~ 6 0 ' 0.6 GeV . 0.94 = 37.1 x 0. = 282 GeV = 2.983 .0 .7 l . m = 238 x 0.275 .82 x lo5 MeV Po = 37.275 .7 x = Jm0.0.173 0. 37.94 = 223.
(b) the minimum energy for reaction (1) to take place when the projectile dissociates into a proton and 4 pions.702 Problems Ed Soiutions on Mechanics 3025 In high energy protonproton collisions. one or both protons may “diffractively dissociate” into a system of a proton and several charged pions.)2 . 2 = ( E o + m P) ’ . E2 . Then in the laboratory frame C. If the system undergoes a nuclear reaction that conserves energy and momentum. ( Chicago ) Solution: The quantity E 2 . rnp = 0. an incident proton of total energy E (the projectile) strikes a proton at rest (the target).p 2 for a system.140 GeV . (a) The energy for the reaction P +P + P + (P + 4r) is minimum when all the final particles are at rest in an inertial frame. where we have taken c = 1 for convenience. particularly the center of mass frame C’. .( ( E 2 pt2 = (2m. In particular for a particle of rest mass m. Find the incident proton energy EOthat is (a) the minimum energy for reaction (1) to take place when the target dissociates into a proton and 4 pions. (c) the minimum energy for reaction (2) to take place when both protons dissociate into a proton and 4 pions.938 GeV .p and in C’. The reactions are (1) P + P P + (P+ n r ) . the quantity will also remain the same after the reaction.p 2 = m 2 . (2) P + P + ( p + n r ) + ( p + m 7 r ) . Here n and m count the number of produced pions. In the laboratory frame. m i ) = 2rn.Eo + 2mi . El2  + 4m. + m. E2 . is invariant under Lorentz transformation. = 0.
847 GeV 3026 Consider the elastic scattering of two spinless particles with masses m and p as shown in Fig.mg) = ( 2 m .225 GeV.K)’ with K 2 = K t 2 = p2 and P2 = PI2 = m2. 3.) ~ P ) ~ (K + + and t = (KA . (c) For the reaction P+P we have + (P+4T) + (P+ 4T) . + + = 2.( E i . Obtain the physical (i. (Eo mP)’ . giving the minimum incident energy as + + 8m. The Lorentzinvariant scattering amplitude (Smatrix element) may be considered as a function of the two invariant variables s = ( K ~ P ~. 2.e. ( Chicago ) .225 GeV Eo = m. allowed) region in the (5. + 8 m P m T 8mq m P as the minimum energy the incident proton must have t o cause the reaction.18.)’ .KO)’ . (b) Since both the initial particles are protons and the final state particles are the same as before. t ) manifold. the minimum energy remains the same.(K’ . Compute the boundary curve t ( s ) and make a qualitative drawing.Special Relativity 703 so that 2mpE0 = 2mi giving + 16mpm?r 16m: . Eo = mi + 1 6 m p m a + 32m: m P = 3.
= ( d s T p+ JSTG)’ = (JsTj2 + J S G F ) 2 as P2 = K2 in the center of mass frame. where 6 is the angle of scattering of k.K)2 = (K” + K2. Solution: In the elastic scattering k+p+k’+P’ . K) = 2K2(1 .704 Problems t Solutions on Mechanics Y mass p mass m Fig. t) manifold. In the center of mass frame of the system. where 6 varies from 0 to 7r: . as the scattering is elastic.(K’ . the total energymomentum 4vector is conserved: K+P= K’+P‘. if the system is isolated. the total momentum is zero: K’ + P’ = K + P = 0 .KO)’ . Thus s = (KO +Po)’ . consider cos 6.C O S ~ ).18. 3. and t = (Kh .2K’.K)’ = (K’ . To find the physical region in the ( 5 .(K + P)’ = (KO+ Po)’ .
P I 2 ] . Hence the physical region is given by t<o and s ~ ( J < + / q ) ' . 3. 3027 Consider the pion photoproduction reaction 7+P+P+T0 9 where the rest energy is 938 MeV for the proton and 135 MeV for the neutral pion. C O S ~ = 1.( m. Fig. the boundaries being t = 0 and that given by or t= 4m2p2. 8 =T. 3. cos8=1.(s .Special Relativity 705 e=o. t = 4K2 . .19.p2)2 9 = [s 1 S .19. The physical region is shown as shaded area in Fig.m2 . t=O.( m + p ) 2 ] [ 8.
235 x lo1" and the minimum proton energy is E p = 0.)c4 2m. (b) That the proton collides headon with the photon means that their momenta are opposite in direction. Thus (E. Hence 3 y = 7. is the energy of the photon and % its momentum.938 x 7. where y = 1 being the velocity of a proton with the minimum /3c G' energy t o initiate the photoproduction reaction. where E.706 Problems €9 Solutions on Mechanics (a) If the initial proton is at rest in the laboratory.m. + m. The threshold yray energy is that for which the final state particles are all at rest in the center of mass frame. (b) The isotropic 3K cosmic blackbody radiation has an average photon energy of about lop3 eV. C + m. = (m: + 2m.7 MeV as the threshold yray energy. = lo' MeV.c2 144. mpc2)2 + (+) 2 c2 = (m. . Find the minimum proton energy that will allow this pion photoproduction reaction to go.)2c4 . giving with E.P2c2 is invariant under Lorentz transformation and for an isolated system is the same before and after a reaction.787 x 10" GeV .)2c4 . Berkeley) Solution: (a) The quantity E2 . Then c2 = (m. Consider a headon collision between a proton and a photon of energy lop3 eV. As this implies y >> 1. giving = E. we can take / = 1. ( U C . (c) Speculate briefly on the iniplications of your result [for part (b)] for the energy spectrum of cosmicray protons.235 x lo1' = 6. find the laboratory threshold gammaray energy for this reaction t o "go".
(This is called coherent regeneration.79 x lo1' GeV will be depleted to some degree due to interaction with the cosmic blackbody radiation.Special Relativity 707 (c) The result implies that the part of the energy spectrum of cosmicray protons with E > 6. As . 5 is observed to + Brick + K. Thus El = E.m(K.5 x eV/c . m ( K l ). the energy and momentum are respectively q=rnly~c=fi. the energies of the beam before and after the reaction must also be the same." may F also be considered to be identical. Berkeley) Solution: Denote m(Kl). respectively.m.) = 3. The directions of motion of the incoming K and outgoing K." + Brick with the internal state of the lead brick identical before and after the reaction. 1 Jz Since the internal state of the lead brick remains the same after the reaction.m(K. For an incoming Kl meson.) Using m ( K l )= 5 x lo8 eV/c2 . 3028 A beam of lo6 Ki' mesons per second with /3 G f = interact with a lead brick according to the reaction K. . (UC.mlc=mlc. give the magnitude and direction of the average force (either in dynes or in newtons) exerted on the brick by this process.) by mi.
87 x N.c makes an elastic collision with a proton (mp = 7m. reference frame? (b) What is the total energy in c. Fig.m.m.m. Berkeley) . The change of momentum per second of the beam due to the reaction is This is the average force exerted by the brick on the beam.)c = 3.m.) which is initially at rest (Fig.c4 2 M . system? (c) Find the momentum of the incident pion in the c.m a )2]c4 m.8 )M (ml . system.)c2 = a c + (ml .5 x .(ml .m.m.c 4 2 2 = E: .20.)c4 2 or PC a M mlc2 + (ml . ( UC. 3029 A T meson with a momentum of 5m.c 2 = Ez . 3.20).708 Problems & Solutions on Mechanics P.m. << ml. this force is in the direction of the beam.c4 + 2ml(ml.c 4 = 2m.m. As the momentum of the beam becomes larger after the interaction.m. 3.m.)c eV/c as ml . Consequently the force exerted by the beam on the brick is opposite to the beam and has a magnitude 1. (a)What is the velocity of the c. Hence (Pa.[ml .
c and total energy E=d m + mpc2= dEmnc2+ 7m. so the total energy E' in the c. = 5m.. From (b) we have p1 pI E' = d m mxc2. Hence El2 = (a . we have 35m. Erame is given by E2 .18m. + 7)2m:c4 (c) The total energy in the c.c2 . in the laboratory given by (b) E 2 . system. frame and mp = 7m. Substituting this in the above and solving for p k .p2c2 = El2 .m.25m:c4 = ( 1 4 d E + 50)m:c4 . which is also the velocity of the c m . 50 1 4 a + 3030 Highenergy neutrino beams at Fermi laboratory are made by first forming a monoenergetic 7r+ (or K+)beam and then allowing the pions .m frame is by definition zero.P2c2is invariant under Lorentz transformation.m. as the total momentum in the c. frame is E'=dm+d&ij2 since l b = l : in the c.c . Hence it moves with a velocity B.c = 3.Special Relativity 709 Solution: (a) The system has total momentum P = p .m.
the energy of the neutrino depends on the decay angle 0 (Fig.710 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics to decay by T + t p+ v. = 2p:” + m.21).p 2 = E i . Suppose the T+ beam has an energy of 200 GeV. In the rest frame of the pion. : Equating the above two expressions gives .p : = m : . ( Chicago ) Fig. 3. (b) Find the energy of a neutrino produced in the forward direction (e = 0). + In laboratory frame. after the decay E’2 .(ph + P:)~ . 3. In laboratory frame. (a) Find the energy of the decay neutrino in the rest frame of the T+. + 2 p : & 5 3 as p = pL.21. E . Recall that the mass of the pion is 140 MeV/c2 and the mass of the muon is 106 MeV/c2. Consider the Lorentzinvariant and conserved quantity E 2 .p 2 .pt2 = (EL + . before the decay E2 . Solution: (a) For convenience use units such that c = 1 ( m . 3 (c) Find the angle f at which the neutrino’s energy has fallen to half of its maximum energy. and EL = p . p are all in MeV). assuming the neutrino to have zero rest mass.
4GeV .m2 ’ As E.. =p. the last two equations give : Pu = 2(Em. p = EE .p . >> m.2Ei .Special Relativity 711 (b) ln the laboratory frame (Fig.cos8+ppcosa.(2E: . 8 = 0 and E.NN 1 [ (32]  ET=85. E.m:.21). at half the maximum value.EE)ET mz 2 .mz)cos8 ’ ( ) . we have p. p. =En/% E. (mz . m: . + Ell As p. i.m i E. cos8) m2. and energy conservation gives E.sin8=ppsina. momentum conservation gives p. . For E. and hence For neutrinos emitted in the forward direction.e.. = E. 3. is maximum €or neutrinos emitted at 8 = 0. [ l  f (2)2] . = E.
how fast should m be traveling in order 2 to produce a composite that will have the same velocity that you found for the composite in part (a)? (SUNY.168~. Hence Thus the composite has rest mass 12.712 Problems 5 Solutions on Mechanics 5 as 8 is obviously small. How fast should m be moving 2 in order to produce a composite with the same rest mass as in part (a)? (c) Again. . where y = mypc = m l y A c . . Conservation of energy and of momentum give m y 2 = (mlyl+ m2)c2. Hence 8 = . 3031 (a) A particle of mass ml = 1 g traveling at 0.1 g and velocity 0.9 times the speed of light collides headon with a stationary particle of mass m = 10 g and 2 is embedded in it. Buflalo) Solution: (a) Let the composite have mass m and velocity pc. What is the rest mass and velocity of the resulting composite particle? (b) Now suppose ml to be stationary.4’ m.0007 rad = 2. E. m’etc.= 0. if ml is stationary.
(b) Find the numerical value of 8 in the following limits: (i) low energy (V << c ) .& . relating it to m and Eo.9~. (c) As in (b). pz= (1+%)/3=0. we have P= or (mi 2 2 2 m2Pz m +mlJm. (ii) high energy (V c) . Then as rnl.2 m 3 ? ~ 2 (mi . (a) Determine 8. that is. the above can be reduced to + . Buflalo) . m 2 p= Hence m should travel at 0. /32 must have the value of p1 before. and they are seen to scatter elastically at the relative angle 8 with equal kinetic energies. m2. m remain the same.m:)p2 = o As m$ >> mipa.mz. 2 or 3032 A particle with mass m and total energy Eo travels at a constant velocity V which may approach the speed of light.185. m must 2 move with velocity 0.2 m 3 & + (mi .185~ 0. N (SVNY.m:)p2 = 0 .Specid Relativity 713 (b) The roles of ml and m2 are now interchanged so that which is the same expression as before with p1 t P 2 .151~. It then collides with a stationary particle with the same mass m. 2 ’ + mlP )p2 .
These can be investigated by studying highenergy .) M 1. p are the energy and momentum of each scattered particle. > cos (. Squaring both sides of the energy equation we have m2c4 E i or + + 2Eomc2 = 4(p2c2+  d C 4 ) .) = E: .714 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics Solution: (a) As the elastically scattered particles have the same mass and the same kinetic energy. EO> mc2. Conservation of energy and of momentum give mc2 g + Eo = 2E. where E .m2c4 cos2 ' (g) (b) (i) V < c. their momenta must make the same angle with the incident direction and have the same magnitude. 3033 Of particular interest in particle physics at present are weak interactions at high energies. Ei giving + 2Eomc2 3m2c4 = Pic2 ~ cos2 (. < giving 7r ex 2 (ii) V 4 c. Eo M mc2. giving 0 M 0.
and its rest energy is 139. we have 70 = d and can take 200 m = = 1432.Special Relativity 715 neutrino interactions. The lifetime of a IT meson is 7. (b) Calculate the maximum angle of the muons (relative to the pion direction) in the laboratory. y = 1433. As myPc2 = 200 GeV. E'c1 = (m: 2% + mz)c2 = 109.726 x x 3 x 10' = 1. (b) The total energy of the system in the rest frame C' of the pion is its rest energy mTc2. and the neutrino is massless.c2 = EL +EL .c.) giving 1 2 =p.E. = 7 1433 x 2. One can produce neutrino beams by letting IT and K mesons decay in flight.1396 O X 1.m. the prime being used to denote quantities in the C' frame. The rest energy of the muon is 105.6 x lo' = 3. On account of time dilation.60 x lo' s in its rest frame. (a) Calculate the mean distance traveled by the pions before they decay. Berkeley) Solution: (a) Let m be the rest mass of a pion.8 MeV . As the total momentum is zero in C'.726 x s. p. So the mean distance traveled by the pions before they decay is TC = 3. (UC.7 0.2 km .6 MeV. + m. (c) Calculate the minimum and maximum momenta the neutrinos can have. the laboratory lifetime of a pion is T = 7 .c2 .c 1 2 2 = EF . c '22 p.i = 2. Conservation of energy requires that for 7r + LL u . Suppose a 200 GeV/c IT meson beam is used to produce neutrinos via the decay IT + p + u. = pL and EL = pLc = p. assuming the neutrino to have zero rest mass.c 2 4 .12 x lo4 m = 11. .7 MeV. Thus (m.
675' . = y ( ~ : pp:ccosei) . = Y(1+ P M = 7 8. = pvc. the above can be written as p.=7(i+Pcosei)p:. This in turn gives e = 0.0 . we require dt .8 MeV/c in El. sin e = pL sin 8' . giving For 8 to be maximum.109.e. Note that this is the maximum angle of emission in the laboratory since the minimum angle is 0. will have the largest momentum in the laboratory of (Pv)m.716 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Take the x'axis along the direction of motion of the pion._a n 8 . Hence neutrinos emitted in the forward direction of the pion rest frame.EL = 139. do' which gives or 8' = 105. Transformation equations for the muon momentum are C p . EL can be transformed to the C frame by E. i. (c) The neutrino has energy EL = m. EL = pLc. corresponding to 8' = 0.0112" = 0. + As E.6 .8 MeV and momentum p: = 29.c2 .7". 8' = 0 .54 x lo4 MeV/c . 2yE'  .8 = 29.
Special Relatiuitg 717 while neutrinos emitted backward in C' will have the smallest momentum in the laboratory of 3034 A K meson of rest energy 494 MeV decays into a p meson of rest energy 106 MeV and a neutrino of zero rest energy. for momentum conservation.4 MeV.4 MeV . Hence Thus = 235. = p. Therefore the kinetic energy of the neutrino is 235. = p.106 = 152.6 MeV . or p.6 MeV. and that of the muon is 258.. . = 258.. Berkeley) Solution: Conservation of energy gives as p. ( VC.4 . Find the kinetic energies of the p meson and neutrino into which the K meson decays while a t rest..
t and u.22. in terms of s . In the c. Consider the reaction shown in Fig.B.q 2 ) 2 . as well as the scattering angle.m. (SUNY. The variables given below are commonly used to describe such a reaction: s = (91 + P d 2 . t = (91 . Interpret s. t and u in terms of k and k .22 in which particles of masses ml and m are incident and particles of masses m and m4 emerge. The p's 2 3 and 9's are their four momenta. (a) Show that 4 a= I (b) Assume the reaction is elastic scattering and let ml = m3 = p . 3. t and u. Express s. m 2 =m =m 4 . u = (gl p2)2 .718 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 3035 The dot product of two fourvectors is here defined as A'"B. ' ' simplifying as much as possible. . frame let the initial and final threemomenta of the particle of mass p be k and k respectively. Buflulo) Fig. 3. Express the initial and final laboratory energies of particle p. (c) Assume that in the laboratory frame the particle of mass m is initially at rest.=A"B"A.
2 d ( p 2 k2)(p2+ P 2 )+ 2k .+Pq+P.k2 + 2 d ( p 2 + k2)(m2 k2) + 2k2 + m2 2 d ( p 2 k2)(m2 k 2 ) + 2k2 . q). Hence and 3 = (Q1 + = p2 = p2 + + + P d 2 = q. Evaluating it in the rest frame of the particle: q2 = ( q o ) 2 .P2I2 q2+Pl q2 =d+q. (a) q2 is defined as qaqa with qo = (q'.k2 m2 + k2 .Special Relativity 719 Solution: Use units for which the velocity of light c = 1 for convenience.q2= m2 . The quantity qoqa is invariant under Lorentz transformation. +m: +2q1.p z ) 1 As the 4momenta satisfy the energymomentum conservation law +P1 = 42 +PZ 4 7 we have i=l (b) In the center of mass frame.k' + + + . qa = (q'.q 2 I 2 + (91 . .q2)2 = 4. Now s + t + u = (Q1 = m. q). + P d 2 + ((11 . ( q 1 Q1 +Pl . + p : 2q1 'PI k2 .q2 = E2 . + + + t = ((21 . q.q2 = 2p2 .2q1 .+2ql*(ql P2) +mi +m. .
92 = p 2 2 * 7 9 1 + Pl = q2 + P2 Then ~=(~l+P1)2=9:+P:+291'Pl = p 2 + m 2 +2q?m. + m2 . s. we have and 9 = Q. t = (91 . and the scattering angle 0 is given by . = p2 + q.IQla= p : 2 .29:9.92 + 2% .t.+P:2q2'p.2q1 . .q2I2 = 9: = 2p2 . q 2 .2qgm . (c) In the laboratory frame. the final laboratory energy of p is u q. u which are Lorentz invariant quantities are known as Mandelstam variables. sp2m2 2m Hence the initial laboratory energy of particle p is q?= . '1L=(91P2)2=(42P1)2=4.720 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics Thus. is the square of the total energy of the incident particles in the center of mass frame. t is the square of the forward transfer and u is the square of the backward transfer of 4momentum during the collision.= + p 2 + m2 2m .
Hence for the photon to escape the star.G M m R ' where G is the constant of gravitation. C2 (3 x 1010)Z The density p of the sun must then be p2M (i xR3 )' = (i) 2 x 1033 (1. + mc2 I  GMm R ' or GM 6.= 1. i. Show that if pressure can be neglected the interparticle distance increases as t2I3. or E 2 V. (b) The universe can be thought of as a sphere of gas of uniform density p ( t ) and zero total energy expanding against its selfgravity. a photon of energy E = mc2 m.48 x lo5 cm = 1.Special Relativity 721 3036 The following question is a question on Newtonian gravity. Conversely the photon will be confined to the star if E 5 V.e. The potential of a particle of mass m at the surface of a star of mass M and radius R is V=. where u'=u ( Z) 1 . (UC.47 x 10l x 1033 = 1. Berkeley) Solution: has an equivalent mass (a) By the equivalence of mass and energy.48 x 105)3 = 1.47 x 1017 g/cm3 1015 Note that this result is consistent with the gravitational red shift.67 x 108 x 2 x 1033 RS. A photon of frequency u emitted by the star will have a frequency u' at a large distance from it. (a) Calculate the radius and density of a solarmass star (M = 2 x g) from which light could not escape. we require E V 2 0.48 km .
722 Problems d Solutions o n Mechanics For the photon to escape the gravitational field of the star we require that v 2 0. According t o Newton's law of gravitation. p being the density of the gas. K = 0 if the total energy is zero.1 d R 2 dt2 dR dt 2 dR and noting that M does not change during the expansion. (b) In the expansion of a gas under the condition of uniform density. . B separated by a distance R. the distance between two given particles is proportional to the linear dimension of the gas and the position of any gas particle can be taken to be the center of expansion.d k d R . At large t >> t o . Hence  "=*/%. Consider two gas particles A .G M . R >> & and Rcctz. Neglecting pressure the equation of the motion of B is Writing d2R . B will suffer an attractive gravitational force toward A of per unit mass... V being the kinetic and potential energies of the particle per unit mass. Integrating. 2 R T .R j ) = m 3 t.to) ..M G . dt ( The positive sign has t o be taken for expansion. or ' GM R2c2 . is the mass of the sphere of gas. &  2 (Rj ._ _ . 2 R or K = k2. we have by integration R2 . we have.T + V . Note that the mass of the gas outside the sphere does not exert a net force on B . with R = I at t = to.+ K . We can treat A a at the center of expansion and B as on the surface of s a sphere with center at A . where M = $7rR3p.
Berkeley) Solution: Let the total energy of all the photons emitted before the light reaches the velocity o = pc be E .3 kg. 3038 A hypothetical flashlight emits a wellcollimated beam and is capable of converting a significant fraction of its rest mass into light. If the power of the flashlight is N watts and the time interval it is turned on is t . Then the total momentum of the photons is . find its rest mass m when it reaches a velocity v relative to its original rest frame. Do not assume c > o. if N = 1 W. If the orientation of the flashlight does not change.Special Relativity 723 3037 An astronaut takes an ordinary flashlight. If the flashlight starts at rest with mass mo. has a V= 1 x 2 x 3600 =8 x 0. since a photon of energy momentum For example. the total energy of the photons emitted is E = N t . t = 2 hours. it will gain a momentum E Nt mu==c c or an additional speed v=N t mc E m being the mass of the flashlight. turns it on. m = 0. > (UC. and leave it out in space (spinstabilized by some rotation about its axis).3 x 3 x lo8 m/s . and is then turned on and allowed to move freely along a straight line. What additional speed will this “photonrocket” have gained by the time the batteries give out in two hours? (Columbia) Solution: Suppose the flashlight bulb is located at the focus of a paraboloid reflector so that almost the entire light output goes out in one direction. E.
Conservation of energy gives m y 2 + E = moc2 .Eliminating E from the above gives myU+ m’ P ) = mo 1 3039 A particle of charge q . R. Solution: (a) The equation of motion of the particle in the laboratory is dP . and the angular frequency w. see the particle’s speed as constant. dt As p and u are parallel. however. mass m moves in a circular orbit of radius R in the zyplane in a uniform magnetic field B = Bz.724 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics and is opposite in direction to v.= ~ u x B . An observer moving with uniform velocity PX does not. U x B = 0 . How can the energy of the particle change? (Princeton) $.qp . What is ub ( the zero component of the particle’s Pvelocity) as measured by this observer? (c) Calculate $$ and . (b) The speed of the particle is constant (since the B field does no work on it).= _ _ . thus. dt 2 dt . dp 1dp2 p . m. Let the rest mass of the flashlight be m when its velocity is w. and conservation of momentum gives with y = . (a) Find B in terms of q . .
+ cp) .yo = Rsin(wt + cp).u.xo = Rcos(wt pe'("t+'P) + to.cp are real constants and is equivalent to is a complex constant. Then. equation of motion can be the written as du  dt =uxw with w = qB/my. ?j. showing that the motion is circular with a radius R given by u=@qLRw.c. it becomes X=&.w. defined as ua = (y. Since the motion is confined to the xyplane.Special Relativity 725 Hence p2 and thus the magnitude of p and u are constant.. the e equation need not be considered. y=j.P r u 4 1 . It has general solution e= x . : = 7(7d.S' be respectively the laboratory frame and the rest frame of the moving observer.transforms according to 7. 2=0. The other two equations combine to give i'+i w i = 0 by putting x + i y = <. w = (O. As = (5.. w ) . Hence 1 nw 1 (b) Let S. This solution y .y.O. It follows that 1 is also a constant. The zeroth component of the velocity fourvector.u). O). ... where p. as p = rn~. w being the angular velocity of revolution.
726 Problems d Solutions on Mechanics where y = 1 Thus JcjF.= yytpwu cos(wyur + cp) du6 dr =R(g) 2 d7cos P 1P If the fourmomentum is defined as p" = (rnuo.= cdr dr Note that in the S' frame.' = yyu(c + PwRsin(wt + cp)] + Pu sin(Wir + cp)l > = yyu [c where r is the proper time of the particle. Thus u& is not constant in S'. the available energy for reactions is the same a for a single beam of what kinetic s energy colliding with stationary protons? (Use relativistic expressions). which signifies a change of energy dE dpL . then. (c) .Berkeley) .p ) . the electromagnetic field is given by so that there is also an electric field in the S' frame which does work on the particle. 3040 When two beams of protons of kinetic energy T collide headon. ( UC. as rn is a constant. uI 0 = 7uc = yyu(c .
p 2 for a system is invariant under Lorentz transformation.pt2c2 = (El + mc2)2. what is the momentum of the final photon in the laboratory frame? ( UC. (a) What is the total relativistic energy of photon plus particle in the center of mass frame of reference? (b) What is the magnitude of the particle's momentum in the center of mass frame? (c) If elastic backward scattering of the photon occurs.BerkeZey ) Solution: (a) Consider the quantity E2 . each of kinetic energy T . Hence the energy available for reactions is 2T2 4Tmc2 E' . and suppose that in the rest frame S' of one of the protons the other proton has total energy E' and momentum p'. As in the laboratory frame the total momentum of the two protons is zero.Special Relativity 727 Solution: The quantity E2 . Hence . which is by definition the inertial frame in which the total momentum vanishes.m 2 c 4 ) = 2E'mc2 + 2m2c4 .(El2. we have (2mc2 2T)2 = (E' + + mc2)2.mc2 = mcL n E' = 2T2 3041 A photon of momentum p impinges on a particle at rest of mass m . where El is total energy of the system in the center of mass frame.P2c2 of the system which is invariant under Lorentz transformation: (pc + mc2)2.p2c2= El2 . + 4Tmc2 + m2c4 + or mc2 where m is the rest mass of the proton. Consider the headon collision of two protons.
reaction ’ + P +P+$‘. Conservation of energy and of momentum give These combine to give or 3042 We consider the possibility that one of the recently discovered particles. ./ for the center of mass frame.7). using the transformation equation again. can be produced when a photon collides with a proton in the the $’ (3. The particle momentum in the center of mass frame is then.728 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics (b) In the center of mass frame. Momentum transformation gives p = P c = E pc pc+mc2’ 1 ’=. (c) Let the final momenta of the photon and the particle be .p l and p2 respectively. the total momentum P’ = 0 and p the momentum of the particle is equal and opposite to that of the photon p‘.
~ ~ ) ~ Eo = 12M. Using the fact that the quantity E2P2c2is invariant under Lorentz transformation and for an isolated system is conserved. the finalstate particles p. Berkeley) Solution: (a) At threshold.+' are stationary in the center of mass frame. The target proton is initially at rest and the incident photon has energy E in the laboratory system. (Eo M P c ~. as a photon of energy E has momentum 5. v / c . (UC. i. Calculate the total energy ( E 8 )of this particle and show that it is independent of m. each with mass m. (a) Determine the minimum energy E that the photon must have for the above reaction to be possible. .c2 as the threshold photon energy.e. for the $' particle when the photon energy E is just above the threshold energy Eo. the $' is produced at rest in the center of mass frame.c' )E giving + +4 ~ 4 . of the system: Pc2 v== E EOC Eo + M P c 2 12 . as well as of Eo. we have.~ i = (M. The answer can be given in units of MPc2 (=938 MeV). which is a reasonable approximation. (b) Near threshold. (UC. One of these produced particles is detected at an angle of 90' to the incident beam as measured in the laboratory. 3043 An antiproton of energy EO interacts with a proton at rest to produce two equal mass particles. (b) Determine the velocity. i.c 13 .e. Berkeley) .Special Relativity 729 In this problem we shall take the mass of $' to be 4Mp. so its velocity in the laboratory is the velocity of the center of mass.. where Mp is the proton mass.
E. = P i + P? Fig.23. 3. Combining the last two equations gives (Eo + mc2)2 E." .730 Problems €4 Solutions o n Mechanics Solution: Antiproton and proton have the same mass m. It is seen that E .2(Eo or since E i = p8c2 + + mc2)E. + dpic2 + m. depends only on the proton mass but is independent of either m. = mc2 .Hence E. 3. Momentum conservation gives po = p2 cos 8. The collision is depicted in Fig. p1 = p 2 sin 8 . 2m2c4 2Eomc2 = ~ ( E o mc2)ES. or p." = pfc2 + m%c4. + + + m2c4.c4 . the orbit being normal t o a static. = pic2 + p:c2 + mac4 .23. Energy conservation gives E~ + mc2 = E. say. 3044 (a) A particle of mass m and charge e moves at relativistic speed v in a circle of radius R. homogeneous . or Eo.
b . d t = Zl d p 2 d~ d t= emyv. we have *=evxB.the orbit is a circle of radius R given by v = Rw. 3. where it is instan$ taneously at rest? (iii) What causes the acceleration at c as seen by O’? (Princeton) Fig. Hence p and so y and w have constant magnitudes. (ii) What is the acceleration $ of the particle at c.Special Relativity 731 magnetic field B as shown in Fig. (i) What is the distance y . 3. c .I measured by O’? .24. Find R in terms of the other parameters (radiation may be ignored). e on the two figures correspond.y. (b) An observer 0‘ moving at fixed velocity v along the yaxis sees an orbit that looks like Fig. with C’ moving relative to C in the ydirection with velocity w. Fig.25. As shown in Prbblem 3039.C’ be the laboratory frame and the frame of the moving observer respectively. 3. 3. where (b) Let C.25. Lorentz transformation becomes .24. The points a .vx~=O. where 7 = *. dt and thus p . Solution: (a) If p is the momentum of the particle. d .
2)mv  W eB (1 $) (ii) At point c. &s p = x (i) As =y 2R+W ) (7r  ( V7r 2)yv  (7r .act> = T(Y z' = 2. . ' . 2 = v.py) = .732 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics y' = y(y . .y (ct + ) VY . ct' = y(ct + vt> 7 x =2 . (centripetal acceleration) (tangential acceleration) d2x v2 _ _ dt2 R d2Yo = dt2 . 4= 0. The velocity component $ transforms according to In a similar way.
+ + (In the usual geometry let y replace 2. (iii) The transformation equations for the electromagnetic field are Eh = E.Ex) = y B .Speeial Relativity 733 =(d d2x' dtl2 dt' dx' dt' 1 ) 1  dx 2 'yvw=* yevB m  At point c. . dy' = dtt v+ 3 + v ==o. = 0. or F' = Fi = 7evB . = 0 .2 va As $$ = 0.) = TUB . = EL = r(Ez @B. x replace z to obtain the above)..P C B ~ ) 0. v I + 3% 1 . Then in C' the Lorentz force acting on the particle at c is F' = e(E' + u' x B') = eE' . BI = 7 ( B z P . $$ = 0 also. L EL = 7 ( E Z. B = B. the particle velocity u' = 0. z replace y.
E= we have a + buLz/.E = emuz. Under what conditions (on E and B) are all components of the fourvelocity bounded along every trajectory? (Princeton) Solution: The motion of the particle is described by the 4vector equation . 3045 A charged particle (with charge e and rest mass rn) moves in an electrc+ magnetic field which is constant in space and time and whose components are E = ( a ."") C hX. Hence the accelem tion arises because of the presence of an electric field in C'.0 . F) . and determine the exponents. It is assumed that (El # IBIS State the differential equations for the particle's fourvector velocity (as function of the proper time). O ) and B = (O. Show that the solutions may be expressed as superpositions of exponentials. (a. B = (O. b) in a Lorentz frame S. Hence the equations of motion are . 0. in agreement with (b). and u .uy. ds where d s = cdr. L u . With u = (ux. F = eu.b). F* = (TF. r being the proper time of the particle.734 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics and the acceleration is ?. and The force acting on the particle is the Lorentz force F=e(E+uxB).O.0). c with y = 1 u being the velocity of the particle.= dP" = a .uz).O.O.
e. Thus 213 is a constant and need not be considered further. mc X 3 = .. X2=5@=2G. The roots are A1=0. s The general solution for the equation of motion is a superposition of exponentials with these exponents. . The equations now become e m X A l . To solve the other equations. ebAl+ mXA2 = 0 . e aA1+ mXA4 = 0 . try U3.aA4 = 0 C . .mc/ i G 5 G . we require i.Special Relativity 735 dul e m= (cbu 2 dr c duz m=ebul dr m du3O . C For a solution where not all A’s vanish.e. a 5 cb.ebAz . eaul = dr C + a=4). = dr m du4 .2.3e j = 1. or IEl Sc/BI .A . For all components of the 4velocity to be bounded along every trajectory we require that the X’s are either zero or imaginary. i.4.
magnetic dipole of moment M at the origin is Jx In spherical coordinates as shown in Fig. T2 . Hence 4~ r . A=4T 7 '' r ' With u = ( i re.0) r = (r. @ = 0. L does not depend on cp explicitly. Note that as u2 = i 2 +r2b2+r2d2sin2 8.A.736 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics 3046 A particle of charge e.O. rest mass m and velocity u moving in an electromagnetic field of scalar potential @ and vector potential A has Lagrangian L =  mc2 e@+eu.+y  mc2 PO eM sin2 8 4~ d. Y where y = 1 . 3. Msin8.. give the minimum and maximum radii it will reach (assume the orbit is bounded). ( Chicago ) Solution: A particle of charge e. L = . T @ sine). If the particle is initially in the zyplane at a distance R from the origin and moving radially outward. energy E . and velocity v moves in a magnetic field generated by a magnetic dipole of strength M located at the origin and directed along the zaxis. the Lagrangian is . we have M = (Mcos8. The vector Since there potential d u e t o .26. is no electric field.O) 7 so that po M s i n e .
the magnetic force is also in this plane and the motion is confined to the plane. Thus + . 0 = 4 at all times. Since magnetic force does no work as u u x (V x A) = 0 . 3. R For the upper sign the roots are For the lower sign the roots are . giving g T for the constant. i. Furthermore. Letting (y= T+ = f v . P PoeM myr 2 v+. Hence 6 = 0.26. i.Special Relativity 737 T X J' Fig.o e M = 4n T 4n R . At the maximum and minimum radii. 8 = %.e. and y is a PO e M ~ 4n myv ' we have f~~~ C W + ~ = 0 . constant. Initially the particle is at T = R and moves with velocity v = 1 in the : syplane. T = R. the magnitude of u is equal to the initial speed v. = 0 initially. as the only force on the particle is that due to the magnetic dipole at the origin whose magnetic lines of force at the xyplane are perpendicular to the plane.e. 7: = 0 and u = r+ip.
(This effect does not. of course.738 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics r=E(l+/). calculate the precession of Mercury's orbit in seconds of arc per century. the orbit is a precessing ellipse of the form where a = 1 corresponds to the classical result of zero precession. i.) (b) Given that the mean radius of the orbit of Mercury is 58 x lo6 km and that its orbital period is 88 days.6 ) with the sun at the origin.e. use polar coordinates (r.) ( Chicago ) Solution: (a) Consider a planet of mass m and velocity v. As it moves in an elliptical orbit.nax= 5 (1 2R + /) . 2R where the positive sign is to be used since r is positive. Examining these roots we find r. if the effects of special relativity only are taken into account. 3047 It is well known that planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun and the derivation of the orbit equation is a standard exercise in classical mechanics. in a plane. account for the total precession rate of Mercury. However. etc. (a) Derive this equation and express a and rg in terms of fundamental constants of the orbit (such as energy. angular momentum. The Lagrangian of the system is L=+Y mc2 GmM r .
a de2 +GmMp) ’ .v2 = C2 . (1) becomes + = ~ GmME b2c2 where a2= 1 (T)L GmM . + Letting u = : the last two equations combine to give . a constant .myr02 0 . f or (:%) +hub.G m M u 2 =0 .2 + r2e2 c2 ’ M being the mass of the sun. GmM (my+) . as The total energy of the planet is E = m y c .Special Relativity 739 where y = with & p2 . As Lagrange’s equations give d . Thus GmM r GmMu2 GmM (E be b2c2 d2u . dt T2 myr23 = b. and Eq.i.
Hence the perihelion advances an angle in one period of revolution. 8. From a consideration of the gravitational attraction we have GmM r2 = myFb2 . The orbit is therefore given by with A. Then a(&. (b) Suppose T is minimum at 81 and it next returns to this minimum at 82.) = 2n. a is close to unity and can be expressed as and we have GmM 2 per period of revolution.Oo)] where A and 00 + GmME ' b2c2a2 ~ are constants. where F is the mean radius of the orbit of Mercury. == GmM bc Fb 21rF c rc . Since the amount of precession is small compared with 2n. Note that there is no precession if a = 1.740 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics A special solution of Eq. being constants.8. and b. As b = myF2b . (2) is and its general solution is thus u = Acos[a(O . E being the angular momentum about the sun and the total energy of the planet respectively.
Special Relativity 74 1 where r = 88 days is the period of one revolution.8 88 revolutions. in Cartesian coordinates. 3048 . C2 c2 ’ . assumed to have charge q.326 x 58 x lo6 (88 x 24 x 3600 x 3 x lo5 rad = 6. Buffalo) Soht ion: The Lagrangian of the particle. and its Hamiltonian is defined as H = where xi Ciipi L . which can only be accounted for if general relativity is used for the calculation. (SUNY. This is about Q of the observed d u e . so that the total precession per century is €3 = 414. i is the velocity component given. As 1 _y21 x: + x.m Derive the Hamiltonian of a particle traveling with momentum p = when it is placed in the fields defined by H=VxA. & .86 seconds of arc . + x..8 x 47r3 x = 3.\is in Gaussian units . In a century there are 100 x 365 = 414. . k ~ and pi is the canonical momentum given by pi = ) E. by v = (?I.
i we have and To write H in terms of p. we note that or and thus Therefore H= /W+@ 3049 What is the velocity of a particle if its kinetic energy equals its rest energy? ( Wisconsin) .742 Problems €4 Solutions on Mechanics and v .A = CXiAi .
As this equals mc2.27. (a) What is the velocity of the incident electrons? (b) What are the magnitude and direction of the force on the scattering target due to the electrons? (Wisconsin) Fig.Special Relativity 743 Solution: The kinetic energy of a particle of rest mass m is o where 7 = *.moc2 = moc2(r. 3.27.1) . = 2. Each electron has an energy E = %moc2 and the beam has a flux of Q electrons per second. Hence 7 3050 A beam of electrons is scattered by a fixed scattering target as shown in Fig. . The electrons are elastically scattered. 3. T = E .
Calculate the effect on the frequency of the photon. Suppose a photon is falling toward the earth and it falls a distance of 10 m. 8 ~ . y = and = = $. 3051 The principle of equivalence asserts that gravitational and inertial masses are equal. When the photon falls a distance I in a gravitational field g. The force F on the target due to the beam of electrons is equal to the impulse given to it per unit time by the beam. Hence the electron velocity is 0 . What experimental technique could be used to measure this frequency change? ( Wisconsin) Solution: The gravitational mass of a photon is not zero but is equal to the inertial mass E hv m z . they have the same speed before and after scattering and conservation of the momentum parallel to the target requires that the incident and scattering angles are equal. Hence 4Jz Ap = 2pn = 2moyv cos45' = moc 3 4  .Q = S Q m o c . its energy increases and so does its frequency: .744 Problems & Solutions o n Mechanics Solution: (a) As E = moyc2 = gmoc2. Does a photon have nonzero gravitational mass? Explain. F = 2p.= c2 c2 ' in accordance with the principle of equivalence. 3 and it acts vertically onto the target. As Q electrons impinge on the target in unit time. (b) Since the electrons are elastically scattered. even though its rest mass is zero. Then after scattering the normal component of the momentum changes sign but remains the same in magnitude.
p 2 2 = m$c4. 1+ + Au.p2c2 = 2~moc' + 2m. (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The system of two particles has total energy E moc2 and total momentum p in the laboratory system.p2c2 of a system is invariant under Lorentz transformation. (a) Find the velocity of the center of mass p' = $. the frame in which the total %momentum is zero).Special Relativity 745 hv'=hv+mgl=hv Writing Y = v ' ( 2) . we have Thus falling through a distance of 10 m in the gravitational field of the earth. Hence . one initially at rest and the other incident with momentum p and total energy E. the frequency of a photon will increase (blue shift) by a factor 1+1. (b) In the extreme relativistic limit pc >> m0c2.c4 as E2.1 x The slight increase in frequency can be detected experimentally using the Mossbauer effect. In the center of mass frame it is (2E>21 where E is the total energy of each particle. find the total energy E' of the system in the center of mass frame (i.e. The velocity of the center of mass. In the laboratory frame it is (E + moc2)2. is then + p' = E + moc2 Pc (b) The quantities E2 . which is the velocity of the system as a whole. 3052 Consider a very high energy scattering experiment invoIving two particles with the same rest mass ma. in units of c.
Find its velocity at any time t . where 70 = ~ m y y = Ft &. F ) . p c > > m O c 2 . ( Wisconsin) Solution: The equation of motion F=(~Tv) where y = 1 be written as can d dt m' d 0 = . As F is constant for t d = 0.746 Problems F4 Solutions on Mechanics in the extreme relativistic limit for which pc >> moc2. the above integrate to give > 0 and initially 2 = vo. since in this case E= 4 m F j . dt d F = (mry) dt with v = (k. m y x = myouo. and show that Iv)+ c as t + 00.d)l F = (0. F = 0. Hence or . 3053 A particle of rest mass m and initial velocity uo along the zaxis is subject after t = 0 to a constant force F acting in the ydirection.( myk).
For t + 00. Y where y=.and eframes respectively. in the L. as rnyovo. which is taken to be the direction of the xaxis. x = TOVO . the photon energy transforms according to . What are the minimum and maximum values of the energy of the scattered photon in the laboratory ( L ) frame? ( Wisconsin ) Solution: (a) Suppose the photon makes angles 8. + m2c2 + F2t2 rn2$v: ‘ v=pc= rn2$c2 + F2t2 Ft ‘ The velocity components are . 8’ with the initial direction of motion of the electron. (a) What is W ’ . myoc remain constant we have 3054 An electron of energy E >> mc2 and a photon of energy W collide. As ( p c . my . the electron recoil can be neglected and the energy of < the photon in the eframe is unchanged as a result of the scattering process.Special Relativity 747 giving 82 = + F2t2 m27.2v.E ) forms a Cvector. the energy of the photon in the electron (e) frame of reference? (b) If W’ < m c 2 .
mc2 2E 1 (b) In the eframe. the incident photons must be scattered back along the line of incidence with the same energy in accordance with the conservation of energy and of momentum. = . E with p = $ d E 2 . (3) Equation (1) shows that for W’ to be maximum. The transformation of energy and momentum of the photon is given by or tan 8’ = and sin 8 7 ( c 8 ~ ~ p) ’ E ~ = ~ ( i + p ~ ~(i+cose~)co~e’ ~ e ’ ) w ~2E ~ mc2 [ mc2 1 w‘.748 Problems3 Salution~on Mechanics !.m2c4being the momentum of where y = =. As E >> me2.case) + case w . Equation (3) then gives the corresponding energy in Gframe: 2E .d the electron in the Lframe. If its recoil can be neglected. cos8 = 1 or 8 = A and 2E w. the electron is initially at rest. The photon is scattered back so that after the collision 8’ = 0. Hence (I E .=x mc2 ~ Equation (2) gives 8’ = IT.
and w . cos 0 = 1. for the minimum energy. .Special Relativity 749 Similarly. ~=~w. or 0 = 0. 2E After scattering 8' = ?r and mc2 el =o .
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Index to Problems Acceleration of gravity on moon 1075 Air in spinning cylinder 1267 Ball bouncing down steps 1010 Beam balance 1259 Bending of beam 1257 Benzene ring 1125 Billiard ball 1201 Binary stars 1111 1119 2011 Bowling ball 1140 Camshaft 1154 Canonical transformation 2080 2082 Capstan 1254 Celestial systems earthmoon 1059 1132 earthsatellite 1002 1024 1049 1069 1096 1130 1176 earthsun 1022 1053 1066 3047 planetstar 1047 1068 1071 1072 Charge particle between plates 1054 between wire and concentric cylinder 2075 connected by spring 1085 in cone 2060 in electric and magnetic fields 2037 3045 3048 in magnetic field 1029 3039 3044 3046 Collision between ball and steps 1202 bodies through spring 1110 1115 charged particles 1112 equal masses 1112 1128 3025 3032 3035 3040 3043 3052 751 .
752 Index kaon and lead block 3028 nuclei 3024 particle and rod 1206 photon and particle 3021 3022 3027 3041 3042 3054 rods 1200 spheres 1195 unequal masses 3026 3029 3031 Comet 1042 1044 Compton effect 3021 Coriolis force 1099 1100 1101 1108 1120 COZ molecule 1121 Crankshaft 1167 Cross section for capture 1073 collision 1044 1050 1057 1065 Cylinder inside cylinder 2030 on cylinder 2003 on horizontal plane 1182 1183 1186 1187 on inclined plane 1157 1184 1185 1204 Decay rate 3023 Disk constrained by springs 1216 Disk on disk 2002 Doppler effect 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 3003 3009 3011 3017 Elastic waves 2084 Energymomentum fourvector 3009 Escape velocity 1058 1075 Expansion of gas 1270 Falling chain 1134 spheres 1113 stick 1199 water droplet 1139 1143 Flashlight in space 3037 3038 Floating log suspended by spring 2042 Flywheel 1150 1160 1162 1163 1164 1182 Governor 1086 2064 2068 Gravitational m s 3051 as .
Index 753 Gravitational potential 1256 Gravitational red shift 3014 Gyroscope (top) 1211 1212 1215 1217 1218 HamiltonianJacobi equation 2083 Hoop on knife edge 1158 Hour glass 1140 Hydrogen atom 1051 Hydrostatic equilibrium 1264 1265 Impulse on rod 1166 2024 Larmor’s theorem 1104 Leaking bucket 1137 Leaning plank 1198 Liquid flow rate 1271 Liquid in rotating Ltube 1261 spinning cylinder 1260 1262 Utube 1266 Lorentz transformation 3004 3007 Man diving 1013 escaping from asteroid 1058 in elevator 1001 jumping 1006 1023 on bicycle 1014 walking 1156 Mass (particle) between moving walls 2077 constrained by springs 1078 in central force field 1043 1050 1055 1060 1070 1073 1074 1076 1077 2008 2016 2018 2025 2027 in circular motion 1016 1045 1067 1080 in cone 1026 1174 in cylinder 1169 in fixed orbit 2008 2049 in interstellar cloud 1064 1116 in onedimensional potential field 1090 2019 2065 2081 in paraboloid 2027 2040 2074 in rotating bowl 1106 .
754 Index in twedimensional potential field 2056 interacting with rotator by gravitation 2069 on circular track 2007 on fixed inclined plane 1005 on given trajectory 1038 on rolling hoop 2026 on rotating disk 1003 1009 1032 1091 1094 1098 1103 on rotating ring 1173 on sliding block 1011 on sliding wedge 1025 1093 2041 on smooth surface 2066 on sphere 1028 2072 on spinning hoop 1097 1107 2020 2031 on spinning planet 1008 1221 on spoke of flywheel 2061 on swinging loop 2048 2059 on swinging rod 1177 suspended by spring 1035 1092 2001 2015 under attractive forces 1031 under central force and friction 1019 under restoring force and friction 1081 with onedimensional Lagrangian 2076 Mass of galaxy 1012 Masses (particles) in circular motion 1117 interacting by central forces 1027 2017 2071 joined by rod 1168 joined by springs 1122 1123 1124 1131 1133 2004 2021 2032 2034 2038 2044 2047 2052 2053 2062 joined by string 1087 2023 2047 2079 on circle 2046 2047 Matrix theory of small oscillations 2063 Men jumping off flatcar 1114 Meteorite 1048 Moment of inertia 1145 1146 1147 1148 Motor on rubber pad 1082 Moving mirror 3015 3016 Moving vehicle 1017 1083 .
Index 755 Movingvehicle door 1203 Muon as decay product 3033 3034 Neutrino as decay product 3030 3033 3034 Nonlinear oscillator 1033 1088 Pair production of electrons 3021 Pascal’s principle 1258 1266 Pendulum 1015 1018 1036 2036 between capacitor plates 2058 double 2035 2036 2050 2054 joined by spring 2033 2043 2055 on colliding cart 1109 on moving support 1105 2028 2029 2045 2051 2070 spherical 2014 spring 2001 2015 torsion 1153 1165 Plate supported by springs 2039 2057 Poisson bracket 2078 Polar flattening of planet 1095 1149 1268 Propeller 1220 Pulley system 1004 1188 1189 Pulsar 1020 Rigid body in space 1209 1213 Ring constrained by springs 1084 Rocket 1040 1135 1136 1138 1141 1142 exploding 1129 Rod hitting rock 1161 in rotating tube 2006 on rollers 1152 suspended by springs 1027 suspended by strings 1222 2010 2013 with moving pivot 1178 Roller coaster 1007 1192 Rotating coordinate frame 2005 plate 1170 1171 1175 rod 1172 1223 Rotor 1159 .
756 Index Scattering 1039 1046 1061 1062 1074 1077 3050 Sonic boom 1246 Sound at interface between media 1244 from moving source 1245 1246 in moving medium 1247 standing waves 1248 Spacecraft 1034 1041 1052 1056 1063 1411 1267 3006 3018 through dust cloud 1047 1144 Special relativity. basis for 3001 3003 3012 Speed of sound 1235 1242 1243 1269 Sphere as reflector of light 1037 in fluid 1272 inside ring 1197 on cart 1191 on cylinder 1194 on horizontal plane 1180 on inclined plane 2022 on sphere 1193 1196 Spinning ball on rod 1214 coin 1155 1181 cone 1210 disk 1147 1175 structure (jack) 1219 Static equilibrium 1021 1151 Stepladder (hinged beams) 1205 1209 2012 String hanging between supports 1255 Swinging structure 2067 System of particles 1118 1126 1127 Tides 1102 1263 Time dilation 3002 3008 Torsion bars 2009 Tuning fork 1079 Tunnel through earth 1030 1089 Velocityenergy relation 3049 3053 Velocity transformation 3004 3019 3020 .
Index 757 Vibrating air column 1240 1241 1243 1248 bar 1235 string 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 Viral theorem 1117 1126 2008 Wave fourvector 3005 3010 3013 Yoyo 1190 on horizontal plane 1179 .