Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.1

LINEAR MOTIONs
Definition, Quantity, Symbol and unit Distance is the …… Quantity: … (a) The distance in .. …. (b) the distance between …. ….direction. (c) The distance of its final ….. specified …. Quantity: Speed is the

Physical Quantity

Distance, s

SI unit : ..

Displacement, s

SI unit:

Speed,v Speed = Quantity: SI unit:

Velocity is the Velocity, v Velocity = Direction of velocity is Quantity :

SI unit:

Average speed

v=

Example: A car moves at an average speed / velocity of 20 ms -1 On average, the car moves a distance/ displacement of

Average velocity

v

Displacement TotalTime

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Uniform speed Uniform velocity An object has a nonuniform velocity if Acceleration, a

Speed that remains the same in Velocity that remains (a) The direction of motion changes or the motion is not linear. (b) The magnitude of its velocity changes. When the velocity of an object Acceleration is defined as the

a

v u t

Acceleration=
Unit: ms-2

Change in velocity Time taken Final velocity,v - Initial velocity,u = Time taken,t

Acceleration is positive

The velocity of an object increases from an initial velocity, u, to a higher final velocity, v

Deceleration

acceleration is negative.

The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction.

Zero acceleration

An object moving at a constants velocity, that is,

Constant acceleration

Velocity increases at a uniform rate. When a car moves at a constant or uniform acceleration of 5 ms -2, its velocity

1. Constant = 2. increasing velocity = 3. decreasing velocity = 4. zero velocity = 5. negative velocity = object moves at opposite direction 6. zero acceleration = 7. negative acceleration = deceleration

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Comparisons between distance and displacement Distance Total path length travelled from one location to another Displacement The distance between two locations measured along the shortest path connecting them in specific direction

Comparisons between speed and velocity Speed The rate of change of distance Scalar quantity Velocity The rate of change of displacement Vector quantity

Scalar quantity It has magnitude but no direction SI unit SI unit :

Fill in the blanks: 1. A steady speed of 10 ms -1 = A distance of __________________________________________ 2. A steady velocity of -10 ms -1 = A displacement of _________________________________ 3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms -2 = Speed _____________________________________________ 4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms -2 = ____________________________________________________________ 5. A steady velocity of 10 ms -1 = A displacement of 10 m is travelled every 1 second to the right.

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Example 1 Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is 1.5km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house.

Example 2 Every morning Amirul walks to Ahmad’s house which is situated 80 m to the east of Amirul’s house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the south of Ahmad’s house. (a) What is the distance travelled by Amirul and his displacement from his house?

(b) If the total time taken by Amirul to travel from his house to Ahmad’s house and then to school is 15 minutes, what is his speed and velocity? Speed = (a) What is Rahim’s displacement from his house, • when he reaches the junction. Velocity = • when he is at warung Pak Din.

(b) After, Rahim walks back to his house. breakfast When he reaches home, (i) What is the total distance travelled by Rahim? (ii) What is Rahim’s total displacement from his house?

Example 3 Salim running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s. (a) What is his speed in ms-1

Example 4 An aeroplane flies towards the north with a velocity 300 km hr -1 in one hour. Then, the plane moves to the east with the velocity 400 km hr -1 in one hour. (a) What is the average speed of the plane?

(b) If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered?

(b) What is the average velocity of the plane?

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

(c) What is the difference between average speed and average velocity of the plane?

Example 5 The speedometer reading for a car travelling due north shows 80 km hr -1. Another car travelling at 80 km hr -1 towards south. Is the speed of both cars same? Is the velocity of both cars same?

A ticker timer  Use:  1 tick = time interval  The time taken to make 50 ticks on the ticker tape is 1 second. Hence, the time interval between 2 consecutive dots is  1 tick =

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and time using ticker tape. VELOCITY FORMULA Time, t = 10 dicks x 0.02 s = 0.2 s displacement, s = x cm velocity =

ACCELERATION Initial velocity, u = final velocity, v = Elapsed time, t = (5 – 1) x 0.2 s = 0.8 s or t = (50 – 10) ticks x 0.02 s = 0.8 s acceleration, a =

TICKER TAPE AND CHARTS

TYPE OF MOTION

 Distance between the dots increases uniformly 

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

- Distance between the dots decrease uniformly

Example 6 The diagram above shows a ticker tape chart for a moving trolley. The frequency of the ticker-timer used is 50 Hz. Each section has 10 dots-spacing. (a) What is the time between two dots?

(b) What is the time for one strips?

(c) What is the initial velocity?

(d) What is the final velocity? (e) What is the time interval to change from initial velocity to final velocity?

(f) What is the acceleration of the object? a=

vu t

2

THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION

v  u  at 1 s  ut  at 2 2 2 2 v  u  2as
2-7

u= v= t= s= a=

Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.2

MOTION GRAPHS
Velocity is obtained from A – B : gradient of the graph is B – C : gradient of the graph = object is C – D : gradient of the graph The object

DISPLACEMENT – TIME GRAPH

VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH

Area below graph Positive gradient Negative gradient Zero gradient

GRAPH Zero velocity

s versus t

v versus t

a versus t

Negative constant velocity

Positive Constant velocity

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

GRAPH Constant acceleration

s versus t

v versus t

a versus t

Constant deceleration

Example 1:

Example 2: velocity/ m s-1 20

10 0 Based on the s-t graph above: (a) Calculate the velocity at (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD 10 20 30 40 time/ s

(a) Calculate the acceleration at: (ii) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM

(b) Describe the motion of the object at: (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD

(b) Describe the motion of the object at: (ii) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM

(c) Find (i) total distance (ii) total displacement

(c) Calculate (iii) The total displacement (iv) The average velocity

(d) Calculate (i) The average speed (ii) The average velocity of the moving particle

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.3
Inertia

INERTIA
The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object Every object The larger the mass,

Newton’s first law Relation between inertia and mass

SITUATIONS INVOLVING INERTIA SITUATION EXPLANATION EEEEEEEEJNVJLKN drops straight into When the cardboard is pulled away quickly, the coin DNFLJKVNDFLKJNB the glass. VJKL;DFN BLK;XC NB[F NDPnDSFJ[POJDE]OJBD]AOP[FKBOP[DF LMB NOPGFMB LKFGNKLB FGNMNKL’ MCVL Chilli sauce in the bottle can be BNM’CXLB out if the bottle is moved easily poured NFGNKEPLANATION down fast with a sudden stop. The sauce inside the bottle moves together with the bottle. When the bottle stops suddenly,

Paste a picture

Paste a picture

Body moves forward when the car stops suddenly The passengers were in a state of motion when the car was moving. When the car stopped suddenly,

Paste a picture

A boy runs away from a cow in a zig zag motion. The cow has a large inertia

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

 The head of hammer is secured tightly to its handle by knocking one end of the handle, held vertically, on a hard surface. This causes the hammer head to continue on its downward motion when the handle has been stopped, so that the top end of the handle is slotted deeper into the hammer head.

• The drop of water on a wet umbrella will fall when the boy rotates the umbrella. • This is because the drop of water on the surface of the umbrella moves simultaneously as the umbrella is rotated. • When the umbrella stops rotating, the inertia of the drop of water will continue to maintain its motion.

Ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia

1. Safety in a car: (a)Safety belt secure the driver to their seats. When the car stops suddenly, the seat belt provides the external force that prevents the driver from being thrown forward. (b)Headrest to prevent injuries to the neck during rearend collisions. The inertia of the head tends to keep in its state of rest when the body is moved suddenly. (c)An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel. It provides a cushion to prevent the driver from hitting the steering wheel or dashboard during a collision.

2. Furniture carried by a lorry normally are tied up together by string. When the lorry starts to move suddenly, the furniture are more difficult to fall off due to their inertia because their combined mass has increased.

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

• Relationship between mass and inertia • • •

Two empty buckets which are hung with rope from the ceiling. One bucket is filled with sand while the other bucket is empty. Then, both pails are pushed. It is found that

Push and compared to the bucket with sand. • The bucket filled with sand offers more resistance to movement. • When both buckets are oscillating and an attempt is made to stop them, the bucket filled with sand offers 

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.4
Definition

MOMENTUM

Momentum = SI unit: In the absence of an external force,

Principle of Conservation of Momentum Elastic Collision

Inelastic collision

ƒ ƒ ƒ

Both objects move Momentum Kinetic energy Total energy

ƒ The two objects ƒ ƒ ƒ Momentum Kinetic energy. Total energy

Total Momentum Before = m1u1 + m2u2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2 Explosion Paste a picture

Total Momentum Before = m1 u1 + m2 u2 = ( m1 + m2 ) v

Before explosion both object

Total Momentum before collision is zero

Total Momentum after collision : m1v1 + m2v2

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

From the law of conservation of momentum: Total Momentum = Total Momentum Before collision after collision 0 = m1v1 + m2v2 m1v1 = - m2v2 Negative sign means

EXAMPLES OF EXPLOSION (Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum) Paste a picture When a rifle is fired, the bullet of mass m, moves with a high velocity, v. This creates a momentum in the forward direction. From the principle of conservation of momentum,

Paste a picture

Application in the jet engine:

The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels

These high speed hot gases produce By conservation of momentum,

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Paste a picture

In a swamp area, a fan boat is used. The fan produces a high speed movement of air backward. This produces a large momentum backward. By conservation of momentum, an equal but opposite momentum is produced and acted on the boat. So the boat will move forward. A squid propels by expelling water at high velocity. Water enters through a large opening and exits through a small tube. The water is forced out at a high speed backward. Total Mom. before= Total Mom. after 0 =Mom water + Mom squid 0 = mwvw + msvs -mwvw = msvs The magnitude of the momentum of water and squid are equal but opposite direction. This causes the quid to jet forward.

Paste a picture

Example

Example Car A of mass 1000 kg moving at 20 ms -1 collides with a car B of mass 1200 kg moving at 10 m s -1 in same direction. If the car B is shunted forwards at 15 m s -1 by the impact, what is the velocity, v, of the car A immediately after the crash? Before collision MA = 4 kg MB = 2 kg UA = 10 ms -1 r i g h t UB = 8 ms -1 l e f t Calculate the value of VA . After collision

VB 4 ms-1 right

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Example

Example A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at 30 ms-1 collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is travelling in the opposite direction at 20 ms-1. After the collision, the two vehicles move together. What is the velocity of both vehicles immediately after collision?

A man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1.5 kg. If the mass of the bullet is 10 g and it reaches a velocity of 300 ms -1 after shooting, what is the recoil velocity of the pistol?

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.5

FORCE
Example:

Balanced Force When the forces acting on an object are balanced,

Effect : the object [velocity ] or moves [a= ]

Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force

When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there must be The net force is known as Weight, W = Lift, U Thrust, F = drag, G

Effect : Can cause a body to -

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

The acceleration produced by a force on an object is

Force = Mass x Acceleration F = ma

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Experiment to Find The Relationship between Force, Mass & Acceleration Relationship between Situation a& F a& m

Both men are pushing the same mass but man A puts greater effort. So he moves faster. Inference The acceleration produced by an object depends on the net force applied to it.

Both men exerted the same strength. But man B moves faster than man A.

Hypothesis

The acceleration of the object increases when the force applied increases

Variables: Manipulated : Responding : Constant : Apparatus and Material

Force Acceleration Mass Ticker tape and elastic cords, ticker timer, trolleys, power supply and friction compensated runway and meter ruler.

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Procedure : - Controlling manipulated variables.

An elastic cord is hooked over the trolley. The elastic cord is stretched until the end of the trolley. The trolley is pulled down the runway with the elastic cord being kept stretched by the same amount of force Determine the acceleration by analyzing the ticker tape. Acceleration Acceleration

An elastic cord is hooked over a trolley.

-Controlling responding variables.

Determine the acceleration by analyzing the ticker tape.

Repeating experiment.

v u a t

Acceleration a 

v u t

Repeat the experiment by using two , three, four and five elastic cords

Repeat the experiment by

Tabulation of data

Force, F/No of elastic cord

1 2 3 4 5

Acceleration, a/ ms-2 Mass, m/ no of trolleys

Mass, m/g

1/m, g-1

Acceleration/ ms-2

1 2 3 4 5

Analysing Result

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

1. What force is required to move a 2 kg object 2 with an acceleration of 3 m s- , if (a) the object is on a smooth surface? (b) The object is on a surface where the average force of friction acting on the object is 2 N?

2. Ali applies a force of 50 N to move a 10 kg table at a constant velocity. What is the frictional force acting on the table?

3. A car of mass 1200 kg travelling at 20 ms -1 is brought to rest over a distance of 30 m. Find (a) the average deceleration, (b) the average braking force.

4. Which of the following systems will produce maximum acceleration?

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.6
Impulse

IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE
The change of Unit : The rate of change m= u = v = t=

Impulsive Force

change of momentum mv  mu  time t
Unit = Effect of time Impulsive force is Longer period of time →Impulsive force Shorter period of time → Situations for Reducing Impulsive Force in Sports Situations Explanation Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in events such as high jump so that

Goal keepers will wear gloves to

A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing. This is to so as to

A baseball player must catch the ball in the direction of the motion of the ball. Moving his hand backwards when catching the ball prolongs the time for the momentum to change so as to reduce the impulsive force.

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force Situations Explanation A karate expert can break a thick wooden slab with his bare hand that moves at a very fast speed. The short impact time results in

A massive hammer head moving at a fast speed is brought to rest upon hitting the nail within a short time interval.

A football must have enough air pressure in it so

Pestle and mortar are made of stone. When a pestle is used to pound chillies the hard surfaces of both the pestle and mortar cause the pestle to be stopped in a very short time. A large impulsive force is resulted and thus causes these spices to be crushed easily.

Example 1 A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. His velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms-1. (a) Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground. (b) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he bends upon landing and takes 0.5s to stop? (c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not bend and stops in 0.05 s? (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing? Example 2 Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of his boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is the impulse delivered to the ball? If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball?

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.7

SAFETY VEHICLE

Safety features in vehicles

Component Headrest Air bag

Function

Windscreen Crumple zone

Front bumper ABS Side impact bar

Absorb the shock from the accident. Made from steel, aluminium, plastic or rubber. Enables drivers to quickly stop the car without causing the brakes to lock.

Seat belt

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.8
Gravitational Force

GRAVITY

Objects fall because they are

This force is known as the The earth’s gravitational force

Free fall

    

An object is falling freely when it is falling under the force of gravity only. An object falls freely only In vacuum, They fall with

Acceleration due to gravity, g

 Objects dropped 

Gravitational field

The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which an object experiences a force towards the centre of the earth. This force is the gravitational attraction between the object and the earth. The gravitational field strength is defined as the gravitational force which acts on a mass of 1 kilogram. g=

F m

-1 Its unit is N kg .

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

-1 Gravitational field strength, g = 10 N kg -2 Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m s The approximate value of g can therefore be written either as -1 or as 10 N kg . Weight The gravitational force acting on the object. Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration W = mg SI unit : Newton, N and it is a vector quantity Mass The mass of an object is the amount of matter in the object Constant everywhere Weight The weight of an object is the force of gravity acting on the object. Varies with the magnitude of gravitational field strength, g of the location A vector quantity A derived quantity SI unit : Newton, N 10 m s -2

Comparison between weight & mass

A scalar quantity A base quantity SI unit: kg The difference between a fall in air and a free fall in a vacuum of a coin and a feather. Both the coin and the feather are released simultaneously from the same height. At vacuum state: There is no air resistance. The coin and the feather will fall freely. Only gravitational force acted on the objects. Both will fall at the same time.

At normal state: Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force. Air resistance effected by the surface area of a fallen object. The feather that has large area will have more air resistance. The coin will fall at first.

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

(a) The two spheres are falling with an acceleration. The distance between two successive images of the sphere increases showing that the two spheres are falling with increasing velocity; falling with an acceleration.

The two spheres are falling down with the same acceleration The two spheres are at the same level at all times. Thus, a heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational acceleration Gravitational acceleration is independent of mass

Two steel spheres are falling under gravity. The two spheres are dropped at the same time from the same height.

Motion graph for free fall object Free fall object Object thrown upward Object thrown upward and fall

Example 1 A coconut takes 2.0 s to fall to the ground. What is (a) its speed when it strikes the ground (b) ) the height of the coconut tree

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.9
Forces in Equilibrium

FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM When an object is in equilibrium,

rd Newton’s 3 Law Examples( Label the forces acted on the objects) Paste more picture

Paste more picture

Resultant Force

A single force that

Addition of Forces

Resultant force, F =

+

Resultant force, F =

+

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Two forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method]

STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor, draw the two forces F1 and F2 from a point.

STEP 3 Draw the diagonal of the parallelogram. The diagonal represent the resultant force, F in magnitude and direction.

STEP 2 Complete the parallelogram scale: 1 cm = ……

Resolution of Forces

A force F can be resolved into components which are perpendicular to each other: (a) horizontal component , FX (b) vertical component, FY Inclined Plane

Fx = F cos θ Fy = F sin θ

Component of weight parallel to the plane = mg sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane = mg cos θ

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Find the resultant force

(d)

(e)

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Lift Stationary Lift Lift accelerate upward Lift accelerate downward

Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale =

Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale =

Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale =

Pulley

1. Find the resultant force, F

2. Find the moving mass, m

3. Find the acceleration, a

4. Find string tension, T

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

2.10
Work

WORK, ENERGY, POWER & EFFICIENCY

Work done is

W = Fs

W=

,F=

s=

The SI unit of work is the joule, J 1 joule of work is done when

The displacement, s of the object is in the direction of the force, F

The displacement , s of the object is not in the direction of the force, F

W = Fs s F

W= F s Example 1 A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance of 3 m. Example 2 A girl is lifting up a 3 kg flower pot steadily to a height of 0.4 m. Example 3 A man is pulling a crate of fish along theW = (Fwith θ)force of floor cos a s 40 N through a distance of 6 m.

Calculate the work done by the boy.

What is the work done by the girl?

What is the work done in pulling the crate?

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Concept Power

D ef The rate at which work is in done,or iti on  

Formula & Unit P= W

t p = power, W = work / energy t = time

Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work.

Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field.

m= h= g= E=

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of an object due to its motion.

m= v=

E= No force is applied on the object in the direction of displacement (the object moves because of its own inertia) A satellite orbiting in space. There is no friction in space. No force is acting in the direction of movement of the satellite.

No work is done when:

A waiter is carrying a tray of food. The direction of motion of the object is perpendicular to that of the applied force.

A waiter is carrying a tray of food and2-32 walking

Physics Module Form 4

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GCKL 2011

Principle of Conservation of Energy

Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The energy can be transformed from

Example 4 A worker is pulling a wooden block of weight, W, with a force of P along a frictionless plank at height of h. The distance travelled by the block is x. Calculate the work done by the worker to pull the block.

Example 5 A student of mass m is climbing up a flight of stairs which has the height of h. He takes t seconds.. What is the power of the student?

Example 6 A stone is thrown upward with initial velocity of -1 20 ms . What is the maximum height which can be reached by the stone?

Example 7

A ball is released from point A of height 0.8 m so that it can roll along a curve frictionless track. What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches point B?

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Example 8 A trolley is released from rest at point X along a frictionless track. What is the velocity of the trolley at point Y?

Example 9 A ball moves upwards along a frictionless track of height 1.5 m -1 with a velocity of 6 ms . What is its velocity at point B?

Example 10

A boy of mass 20 kg sits at the top of a concrete slide of height 2.5 m. When he slides down the slope, he does work to overcome friction of 140 J. What is his velocity at the end of the slope?

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Physics Module Form 4

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2.11
Elasticity

ELASTICITY

A property of matter that enables an object

No external force is applied. Molecules are at their equilibrium separation. Intermolecular force is equal zero.

Compressing a solid causes its molecules Repulsive intermolecular force

Stretching a solid

Its molecules are Stretching a wire by an external force: When the external force is removed:  The attractive intermolecular forces

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

Hooke’s Law

The extension of a spring

F= k x

where F= x= k=

Force extension graph

Based on the graph: Relationship between F & x : The gradient of the graph represent = Area under the graph

= elastic potential energy = ½ F x = ½ k x

2

The elastic limit of a spring

The maximum force that

If a force stretches a spring beyond its elastic limit, the spring

Force constant of the spring, k

The force required to produce one unit of extension of the spring.

k is a measurement of the stiffness of the spring  The spring with a larger force constant is  A spring with a smaller force constant is

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

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Factors that effect elasticity Factor Length Diameter of spring wire Diameter spring Type of material

Change in factor Shorter spring Longer spring Smaller diameter Larger diameter Smaller diameter Larger diameter

How does it affects the elasticity

Springs made of different materials Elasticity changes according to the type of material

Arrangement of the spring In series In parallel

The same load is applied to each spring. Tension in each spring = W Extension of each spring = x Total extension = 2x If n springs are used: The total extension = n x

The load is shared equally among the springs. W Tension in each spring = 2 x Extension of each spring = 2 If n springs are used: The total extension =

x n

Example 1 The original length of each spring is 10 cm. With a load of 10 g, the extension of each spring is 2 cm. What is the length of the spring system for (a), (b) and (c)?

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Physics Module Form 4

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Example 2 Diagram below represent a 50 cent coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf.

Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects, compare the mass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the position of the coin and the leaf and finally deduce the physical quantity which causes the objects to fall.

coin Mass of the taken to fall in a vacuum Time coin Position of the coin and the leaf

leaf

Coin and leaf of different mass reach the bottom of the container at the same time. Coin and leaf fall down due to gravitational force. The magnitude of gravitational pull is constant. It does not depend on the mass Example 3 Diagram 10 shows a student trying to launch a water rocket. You are required to give suggestion on how to design a water rocket for National Competition. Based on your knowledge on forces, motion and properties of materials, explain your suggestion based on the following aspect: (i) material used (ii) shape of the rocket (iii) suitable angle to launch the rocket (iv) volume of water in the rocket (v) added structure for the motion of the rocket

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

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Water Rocket Aspect Acceration of the Rocket Structure Make from light material Explanation

Structure of the Rocket

Aerodynamic

Upthrust force

Fill with erated water or gasy drink with water Use plasticine to make the head of the rocket Add fins at the back portion of the rocket

Stability of the rocket during flight

Example 4

Diagram 4.1 shows a cradle with a baby in it is oscillating vertically. Diagram 4.2 shows another identical cradle with a heavier baby in it is oscillating vertically. It is observed that the cradle with a heavier mass baby oscillates at a higher frequency. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis using spring, slotted weight and other suitable apparatus. 4 (a) Inference : The extension of the spring depends 1 (b) c (i) Hypothesis : As the Aim : To investigate the relationship between Variables : 2-59 1 1

Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

c(ii)

Manipulated variable : Responding variable : Constant variable :

1

1 1

c(iii)

Apparatus : Metre rule, retort stand with clamp ,steel spring, slotted weight and pin. Set-up the apparatus

1

c(iv)

c (v)

Method of controlling the manipulated variables : 1. Arrangement the apparatus as shown in the diagram. 2.Mark the initial

1

Method of measuring the responding variables : Record Extension of spring : Measure the Repeat the 1 1

2-60

Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 – Forces & Motion

GCKL 2011

c ( vi)

Tabulate Results Initial length , l0 = cm 40 0.4 80 0.8 120 1.2 160 1.6 200 2.0

1

Mass of the Slotted weight , m / g Weight of slotted mass / N Length of the spring ,l / cm Extension of the spring x = l- l0

(vii)

1

Total

12

2-61

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