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Review of literature shows the previous studies carried out by the researcher in this field. Previous studies are reviewed in order to gain insight into extent of research. The research problem can be more understood and made specific referring to theories, reports, records and other information made in similar studies. This will provide the researcher with the knowledge on what lines the study should proceed and serves to narrow the problem. The main objective of the study is to measure Brand Awareness of TNPL products among the people and the reviews are as follows: Brand A traditional definition of a brand was: “the name associated with one or more items in the product line, that is used to identify the source of character of the item(s)” (Kotler, 2000). The American Marketing Association (AMA) definition of a brand is “a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors” Brand Equity (Rooney, 1995) defines brand equity as a set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to or subtracts from the value provided by a product or service to a customer. However, many factors can be attributed to the value of the brand for example awareness, recall and recognition. Brand equity as a differentiating factor that can influence consumers’ response to brand’s marketing activities. In an attempt to define the relationship between customers and brands, the term brand equity in the marketing literature emerged There have been different perspectives or considering brand equity; the customer-based perspectives, the financial perspectives and combined perspectives. The first perspective of brand equity is from a financial market’s point of view where the asset value of a brand is appraised (Farquhar, 1991). Customer-based brand equity is evaluating the consumer’s response to a brand name (Keller, 1993). While this study focus on the customer based perspectives.
A conceptual framework for measuring customer-based brand equity is developed by using the conceptualization of Aaker’s five dimensions of brand equity Five Dimensions of Brand Equity: The Proposed Model A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASURING CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY .A Framework for Measuring Customer-Based Brand Equity Aaker (1991) defines Brand equity as the value that consumers associate with a brand. Brand equity refers to consumers’ perception rather than any objective indicators. It is the consumers’ perception of the overall superiority of a product carrying that brand name when compared to other brands.
Marketers can create awareness among their target audience through repetitive advertising and publicity. Brand awareness can provide a host of competitive advantages for the marketer. brand recall. These include the following: Brand awareness renders the brand with a sense of familiarity. to a conviction that it is the only one in the product class. It requires that consumers can correctly discriminate the brand as having been previously seen or heard. ranging from an unsure sensation that the brand name is recognised. It may be extremely difficult to dislodge a brand that had achieved a dominant awareness level. Brand Awareness Aaker (1991) defines brand or name awareness as “the ability of a potential buyer to recognise or recall that a brand is a member of a certain product category. It requires consumers to correctly generate the brand from memory when given a relevant cue.” Therefore it is important that a link between product class and brand is implicated because the scope of brand awareness is very wide. Brand awareness is an asset that can be inordinately durable and thus sustainable.1. Brand awareness is vitally important for all brands but high brand awareness without an understanding of what sets one apart from the competition does one virtually no good. the needs fulfilled by the category or a purchase or usage situation as a cue. The salience of a brand will decide if it is recalled at a key time in the purchasing process. which may include brand recognition. Brand recognition: It related to consumers’ ability to confirm prior exposure to that brand when given the brand a cue. top of the mind brand and dominant brand. commitment and substance. Brand awareness refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumer’s mind. Brand recall: Brand recall relates to consumers’ aptitude to retrieve the brand from memory given the product category. . It is a measure of the percentage of the target market that is aware of a brand name. Brand awareness is measured according to the different ways in which consumers remember a brand. Name awareness can be a sign of presence.
Product Associations Product associations include functional attribute associations and non-functional associations. 1989).H (2001) categorized two types of brand associations . perceived value. images. Brand associations consist of all brand-related thoughts. Functional attributes are the tangible features of a product (de Chernatony and McWilliam. Associations represent the basis for purchase decision and for brand loyalty. Brand Associations A Brand association is the most accepted aspect of brand equity (Aaker 1992). most consumers can only provide the name of a single brand. a. According to Aaker (1996). feelings. perceptions. attitudes (Kotler and Keller 2006) and is anything linked in memory to a brand. trustworthiness. Non-functional attributes include symbolic attributes (Farquhar & Herr 1993) which are the intangible features that meet consumers’ needs for social approval. Brand knowledge and brand opinion can be used in part to enhance the measurement of brand recall. where in a recall task.C. experiences. Top-of-mind brand: This is the brand name that first comes to mind when a consumer is presented with the name of a product classification. beliefs. Performance is defined as a consumer’s judgment about a brand’s fault-free and long-lasting physical operation and flawlessness in the product’s physical construction. for new or niche brands. For wellknown brands recall and top-of-mind are more sensitive and meaningful. differentiation and country of origin to a brand. 2. Social Image . While evaluating a brand. If a brand does not perform the functions for which it is designed. consumers link the performance of the functional attributes to the brand (Pitta and Katsanis 1995). recognition can be important. the brand will has low level of brand equity. Dominant Brand: The ultimate awareness level is brand name dominance.product associations and organizational associations. Chen A. personal expression or self-esteem Consumers linked social image of a brand.
Lassar (1995) limit the reference of the image dimension to the social dimension. It includes the attributions a consumer makes and a consumer thinks that others make to the typical user of the brand. Social image is defined as the consumer’s perception of the esteem in which the consumer’s social group holds the brand. Country of origin . Differentiation/Distinctiveness The Marketing Science Institute (Leuthesser 1988) states that the underlying determinants of consumer-based brand equity are that brands provide benefits to consumers by differentiating products. Also define trustworthiness as the confidence a consumer places in the firm and the firm’s communications and as to whether the firm’s actions would be in the consumer’s interest. Perceived Value Value appeared in several brand equity models (Feldwick 1996) define perceived value as the perceived brand utility relative to its costs. as they facilitate the processing and retrieval of information. A brand can have a price premium if it is perceived as being different from its competitors. Other marketing literatures (Ries and Trout 1985) also stress the importance of the distinctive character of brand positioning in contributing to the success of a brand. Consumers place high value in the brands that they trust. A consumer is willing to pay premium prices due to the higher brand equity. Consumer choice of a brand depends on a perceived balance between the price of a product and all its utilities (Lassar 1995). Distinctiveness is defined as the degree to which the consumer perceives that a brand is distinct from its competitors. Trustworthiness Brand equity models (Lassar 1995) regard trustworthiness of a product as an important attribute in assessing the strengths of a brand. calling it social image as social image contributes more to brand equity. assessed by the consumer and based on simultaneous considerations of what is received and what is given up to receive it.
Country of origin is known to lead to associations in the minds of consumers. is known to influence consumers’ perceptions. Brand-as-organization can be particularly helpful when brands are similar with respect to attributes. Perceived quality . He defines brand origin as “the place. b. similar to brand name. which. where. country of origin in the proposed framework referred to the brand’s country of origin. or when a corporate brand is involved. CSR can be defined in terms of legitimate ethics or from an instrumentalist perspective where corporate image is the prime concern. which are those associations related to the company’s expertise in producing and delivering its outputs and corporate social responsibility associations. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) must be mentioned as another concept that is influencing the development of brands nowadays. and more to the place where people perceive the brand’s country of origin to be. consumers consider the organization that is the people. and programs that lies behind the brand. Therefore. which include organization’s activities with respect to its perceived societal obligations According to Aaker (1996). or the country where the product is manufactured or assembled. 3. especially corporate brands as the public wants to know what. and how much brands are giving back to society. 1985). Organizational Associations Organizational associations include corporate ability associations. values. when the organization is visible (as in a durable goods or service business).Thakor and Kohli (1996) argue that brand country of origin must also be considered. The country of origin of a product is an extrinsic cue. Also states that less concern should be given to the place where brands manufacture their products. Country of origin refers to the country of origin of a firm or a product (Johansson et al. region or country to which the brand is perceived to belong by its customers”. Both branding and CSR have become crucially important now that the organizations have recognized how these strategies can add or detract from their value (Blumenthal and Bergstrom 2003).
He classified the concept of perceived quality in two groups of factors that are intrinsic attributes and extrinsic attributes. Grembler and Brown (1996) define brand loyalty as the attachment that a customer has to a brand and describe different levels of loyalty.g. store. Objective quality refers to the technical. form and appearance).g.g. Chaudhuri & Holbrook (2001) mention that brand loyalty is directly related to brand price. Price premium is defined as the amount a customer will pay for the brand in comparison with another brand offering . Thus. measurable and verifiable nature of products/services. The intrinsic attributes are related to the physical aspects of a product (e. Cognitive loyalty which means that a brand comes up first in a consumers’ mind. on the other hand. which the consumers recall first. price. brand name. colour. a brand should be able to become the respondents’ first choices (cognitive loyalty) and is therefore purchased repeatedly (behavioural loyalty).g. flavour. price. but not in the physical part of this one (e. It’s difficult to generalize attributes as they are specific to product categories (Olson and Jacoby 1972) 4. stamp of quality. The intrinsic attributes are related to the physical aspects of a product (e. store. stamp of quality. where the matter of interest also is the brand. flavour. colour. processes and quality controls. extrinsic attributes are related to the product. Brand Loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity. when the need to make a purchase decision arises. Behavioural loyalty is linked to consumer behaviour in the marketplace that can be indicated by number of repeated purchases or commitment to rebuy the brand as a primary choice. extrinsic attributes are related to the product. Zeithaml (1988) classify the concept of perceived quality in two groups of factors that are intrinsic attributes and extrinsic attributes. in a given category. brand name. but not in the physical part of this one (e. Identify price premium as the basic indicator of loyalty. on the other hand.Perceived quality is the customer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority that is different from objective quality (Zeithaml 1988). packaging and production information It’s difficult to generalize attributes as they are specific to product categories. packaging and production information. that is the consumers’ first choice. form and appearance). The cognitive loyalty is closely linked to the highest level of awareness (top-of-mind).
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