Document code Target readers Edited by Huawei engineers Optical Network Product Service Department

Product name Product version Document version 1.0

Digital Microwave Communication Principles

Drafted by: Reviewed by: Reviewed by: Approved by:

Chen Shaoying Chen Hu

Date: Date: Date: Date:

2007-01-06

Huawei Technologies Co, Ltd
All Rights Reserved

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0

Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only

Revision Records
Date 2007-1-11 Revised version V1.0 Author Chen Shaoying Description Initial draft

2007-4-4

Huawei Confidential. No disclosure without permission.

Page 2 of 144

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0

Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only

Contents
Chapter 1 Microwave Communication Overview .......................................................................... 7 1.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Microwave ................................................................................... 7 1.2 Microwave Development Course.......................................................................................... 8 1.2.1 Microwave Evolution in the World .............................................................................. 8 1.2.2 Microwave Evolution in China .................................................................................... 9 1.3 Characteristics of Digital Radio Communication System ................................................... 10 1.4 Challenges and Opportunities for Digital Microwave Communication................................ 11 1.4.1 Optical Fiber Communication—Biggest Challenge for Digital Microwave Communication ................................................................................................................. 11 1.4.2 Opportunities for Digital Microwave Communication ............................................... 12 1.5 Microwave Frequency Band Choice and RF Channel Arrangements................................ 14 1.6 Digital Microwave Communication System Model.............................................................. 16 1.6.1 Modulation Method of Digital Microwave ................................................................. 16 1.6.2 Channel Utilization of Each Modulation ................................................................... 18 1.7 Digital Microwave Frame Structure..................................................................................... 19 1.8 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 21 Chapter 2 Introduction to Digital Microwave Equipment ........................................................... 21 2.1 Digital Microwave Equipment Classification ....................................................................... 21 2.2 Microwave antenna and feeder .......................................................................................... 23 2.2.1 Microwave antenna .................................................................................................. 23 2.2.2 Classification of Microwave Antennas ..................................................................... 26 2.2.3 Feeder System ......................................................................................................... 26 2.2.4 Branching System .................................................................................................... 27 2.3 Outdoor unit (ODU)............................................................................................................. 28 2.3.1 Constituents of Digital Microwave Transmitter and Major Performance Indexes .... 29 2.3.2 Constituents and Major Indexes of Receiver ........................................................... 31 2.4 Indoor Unit .......................................................................................................................... 33 2.5 Installation and Adjustment of Split Microwave System ..................................................... 34 2.6 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 36 Chapter 3 Microwave System Networking and Application....................................................... 36 3.1 Microwave System Typical Networking Modes and Station Types .................................... 36 3.1.1 Typical Networking Modes ....................................................................................... 36 3.1.2 Microwave Station Types ......................................................................................... 37 3.2 Relay Station....................................................................................................................... 38 3.2.1 Passive Relay Station .............................................................................................. 38 3.2.2 Active Relay Station ................................................................................................. 42 3.3 Digital Microwave Application ............................................................................................. 43 3.4 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 45 Chapter 4 Microwave Propagation Theory .................................................................................. 45 4.1 Electric Wave Propagation in Free Space.......................................................................... 45 4.1.1 Free Space............................................................................................................... 45 4.1.2 Propagation Loss of Electric Waves in Free Space................................................. 45 4.2 Influence of Ground Reflection on the Electric Wave Propagation .................................... 46 4.2.1 Concept of Fresnel Zone.......................................................................................... 46 4.2.2 Influence of Ground Reflection on Receiving Level ................................................. 48 4.3 Influence of Troposphere on Electric Wave........................................................................ 54 4.3.1 Ray Bend in Atmosphere ......................................................................................... 55 4.3.2 Concept of Equivalent Earth Radius ........................................................................ 56 4.3.3 Refraction can be classified into three categories based on the K value ................ 56
2007-4-4 Huawei Confidential. No disclosure without permission. Page 3 of 144

...................................1.......................4 Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC).. 81 5.........................................................................1 Fading Types....................................................... 97 6...........7 Interference and Main Methods against Interference .... 70 5........................................................................ 94 6.......1 Multi-path Propagation of Electric Waves . 74 5........................................ 91 6.........................................1 Microwave Station Antenna Communication Azimuth Calculation ................... 102 6....................................................................2 Description of Space Diversity ............1 Microwave Fading Model—Rayleigh Distribution Function ................. 67 5.........6...........5...............................................2 Microwave Path Parameter Calculation ..................................................................................6 Gas Absorption.. 89 6.....................................................................2 Influence of Frequency Selective Fading on Transmission Quality of Microwave Communication Systems .................................................. 90 6..............3............................................................................5.2 Basic Methods of Communication System against Interference .......................................................7............... 73 5...............................................3 Fading Rules (microwave frequency bands lower than 10 GHz)...........................1 Purposes of Taking Anti-Fading Measures................................................ no disclosure without permission Page 4 of 144 pages .......... 58 4..... 92 6........................................................................... 83 5.........................Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.......................................................3 Calculation of Elevation and Minus Angles............. 68 5............... 87 6............................................. 62 4.............2................................... 92 6..3......1 Overview ..2................. 89 6................6 Determining Antenna Gain............................................................................... 85 5....................2 Calculation of Path Distance ............... 85 5........................6 Statistic Feature of Fading..................3 Calculation of Microwave Circuit Index...................................3....................... 67 5..........................2 Classification of Anti-Fading Measures..1 Overview .......................................... 91 6.............2 HSB .......4 The Meaning of K Value in Engineering Design .................... 104 6...........................................................1 HSM ...................................... 58 4....... 61 4...........................4..... 92 6.......................................................................................2................. 64 4.............5.....................................6....................... 69 5...........................................................8 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 62 4..................................2................................................4 Conclusion .................. 70 5...........................................................5..........................................4......................................3 Compound Mode of Diversity Signals........................................................ 105 Chapter 7 Microwave Engineering Design Requirement ...2 ATE ....................................3 Evaluation on Anti-Fading Measures .......1 Overview ................................................3...........................6........................4...2...........................................3.......3............................4 Calculation of Circuit Interruption Rate .............................2 Adaptive Equalization ................................................ 59 4........................ 65 4.....................................3 Classification of Digital Microwave Equipment Protection Modes ................7................................................................ 87 Chapter 6 Digital Microwave Engineering Calculation ................ 76 5............... 105 7............... 80 5...............3........ 64 4............2 Engineering Calculation of Rayleigh Fading Probability ..............2...................................................................................................... 105 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential....... 82 5.................................7 Conclusion ..................................5 Frequency Selective Fading .............2.................. 81 5.........................................1 Calculation of Receiving Level and Flat Fading Margin........2.1 Classification of Diversity Reception ...................................................................3 Cross-Polarization Interference Counteracter (XPIC) ...................................... 76 5...............5 Calculation of Reflection Point ......................... 78 5...............2 Calculation of Interference Level.............................................6................... 87 6..... 87 6.............................2 Influence of Troposphere on Electric Wave Propagation ........................................................................ 63 4...............5 Diversity Reception ................................................ 66 Chapter 5 Anti-Fading Technology in Digital Microwave Equipment ............ 67 5.............................4 Calculation of Clearance .............................5.1 Interference Source...................................6 Microwave Equipment Protection Mode ........................1..................................... 72 5.. 87 6..........................................................................................................................5 Rain Fading .................................................................................................................................................... 57 4.....................6.............3 Calculation of Diversity Receiving Parameter.....................................1..................................................4 Fading caused by Several Atmospheric and Earth Effects .......................... 85 5....0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 4...................1 AFE ....

.2.......... 143 9............. 139 8............................ 116 7............................................................1 SDH Microwave Circuit ..1...............4........................... Site and Antenna Height............ 144 9......................4 Access Network Technical Requirement—3..........2.....2 Arrangement of Microwave Frequency and Polarization ................2 Orientation Requirement of Newly Established Tower .............................................. 113 7.................................................0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 7............3 Requirement for Old Tower to be used..............................3.......................3......3.......................3 Antenna Height and Space Diversity Distance ........ 144 9.........4.....................1.................................................................. 118 7...3 Access Network Technical Requirement—26 GHz Local Multiple-point Distribution System (LMDS) .............. 110 7............Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1............................1 PDH Microwave Engineering Design Technical Requirement.......... 142 9.................1 Overview .........................................................................................................................................5 Conclusion .......................................................1 Cross Section and Station Distance .............................................................3.......................... 143 9........1..................................................................2...4 Technical Requirement of Digital Microwave Relay Communication Engineering Design113 7................. 106 7........................................2 Clearance Standard ................................................................................................................................ 142 9.... 120 8....4 Conclusion ........................4........................................... 125 8........................................... 106 7........................2.........2 Design Example..................................................1 Process Requirement of New Established Tower.... 143 9.......................1..... no disclosure without permission Page 5 of 144 pages .....................................................2........1 Equipment Layout.....2 Route........... 120 8.......................................................... 142 Chapter 9 Precautions in Engineering Design .....................2 Basic Requirement of Microwave Path and Cross-section Design ...................3 Process Requirement for the Tower .................................... 119 7..1 Design Method........................2 Installation of Microwave Antenna ......................... 121 8........................5 GHz Fixed Radio Access .................................. 123 8.. 108 7...........................3 Selecting Microwave Band and Configuring Polarization.............2 SDH Microwave Site Type and Polarization Configuration...................................................... 107 7......................................................................2 SDH Microwave Engineering Design Technical Requirement.........4 Circuit Performance Estimate .......................................4. 125 8............1 Selecting Microwave Band.......................................... 144 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.2.......................................................................................................3 Conclusion ..........................................3 Frequency Selection and Polarization Arrangement. 124 8..... 109 7...........................................................................3............................................................. 135 8........................... 120 8................... 109 7.............3 Calculation of PDH Microwave Circuit Indexes....................... 120 Chapter 8 Microwave Engineering Design ..

No disclosure without permission.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. technology against fading. microwave equipment protection modes. these four chapters are optional in reading. The last four chapters relate the microwave engineering calculation. interference and anti-interference technology. microwave engineering design methods and issues that should be attended to in engineering design. There are nine chapters in this document. Page 6 of 144 . the relay site. Abbreviations: None References: None 2007-4-4 Huawei Confidential. As the fundamentals of microwave engineering design.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Key word: Microwave antenna site antenna height ODU IDU fading anti-fading route Abstract: This document describes basic concepts of the microwave and microwave communication to help technical support staff learn microwave products and improve their ability to maintain microwave equipment. transmission theory of the microwave which includes fading in the transmission process. First chapter is an overview about the microwave communication. typical networking modes and application and site types of the microwave. split microwave. succeeding chapters introduce the digital microwave communication equipment. microwave engineering design requirements.

it is optical wave which is also a type of electromagnetic wave.1. they are mainly used in radio and navigation. After the microwave. and it is reflected to the ionosphere.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Microwave Microwave is electromagnetic wave with frequency from 300MHz to 300GHz and it is a finite frequency band of the entire electromagnetic wave spectrum. MF is used in broadcast and is less capable of diffraction than VHF and LF. According to the microwave transmission feature.1 application of each frequency band in the microwave spectrum In figure 1.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Though UHF is used in TV. the plane wave has no longitudinal components of electric field and magnetic field. (that is. see figure 1. the microwave is involved) it is not called microwave. microwave can be viewed as plane wave. the plane wave is called transverse electromagnetic wave and marked as TEM wave. No disclosure without permission. Thus. Along the transmission direction. Page 7 of 144 . For the application of each frequency band in the microwave spectrum. 2007-4-4 Huawei Confidential. HF is not ground wave.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Chapter 1 Microwave Communication Overview Objectives: To understand what is microwave communication To know the challenges and opportunities for the microwave communication To have an overall concept about the microwave communication 1. VHF and UHF are used in TV.1. Both electric field and magnetic field are vertical to the transmission direction. VHF and LF are ground wave which is very capable of diffraction and can diffract hundreds of kilometers. Figure 1.

it is called microwave relay communication. China developed the low. digital microwave communication. no disclosure without permission Page 8 of 144 pages .2 Microwave Development Course Microwave communication technology comes into being half a century ago. transmit independent information and conduct regeneration. which made the transport cost of each channel to the minimum unprecedented. In the 1970’s. in the late 1960’s. China began to study. It is a wireless line-of-sight communication means that propagates information in the radio-frequency band around the ground. digital radio-relay came into being 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. optical fiber communication and satellite communication are considered as the three major means of modern communication transmission. 1. Canada. In the late 1980’s. Original microwave communication systems are all analog. therefore. and till 1980.1 Microwave Evolution in the World In the year of 1947.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Digital microwave communication refers to a type of communication mode which uses microwave (frequency) to carry digital information through the electric wave space. Following sections describe microwave development history both in China and the world. Compared with the optical fiber communication with wire channels. 1. radio-channel capacity of Japanese commercial system was up to 3600 telephone channels. SDH was widely used in transmission system and SDH high-capacity digital microwave communication system of N×155Mb/s was developed. microwave channel is wireless and microwave communication is much more complicated. This circuit used vacuum tube to amplify signals and adopted the frequency modulation (FM) mode. introduce and apply the analogue microwave communication technology. Since early 1950’s. Microwave communication uses microwave as the carrier of signals. France. 4 GHz TD-2 system carried commercial telephone services for the first time. Bell lab built the first analogue microwave trial circuit (TD-X) between New York and Boston. transmitting module and optoelectronic inspection module used for receiving in the optical fiber transmission system are similar to the transmitting and receiving antenna. In the year of 1958. except America.2. American commercial system AR6A adopted single-sideband modulation technology and arranged 6000 telephone channels in 30 MHz bandwidth of 6 GHz frequency band. Italy and Japan were all installed with microwave-relay system similar to the TD-2 system. which was the outcome of communication technology from the analogue to the digital. develop.and medium-capacity (such as 8Mb/s and 34Mb/s) digital microwave communication system. the backbones of Australia. In the year of 1950. Simply speaking. and same as the coaxial cable carrier transmission system at that time.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. To improve the voice quality. they are the major transmission means of the communication network long-distance transmission trunk. it has a limited transmission distance. In the year of 1979. Now. In long-distance transmission. relay is needed to connect sites. Microwave is weak in diffraction and it is only line-of-sight communication. which is similar to optical fiber communication that uses light as the carrier of signals. Thus.

the ITU formulated the SDH transmission network standard. Moreover. introduced from abroad by State Electric Power Ministry). SDH system provides sufficient overhead bytes. In the year of 1979. Therefore. which is easy to install and dismantle. management. China developed 1800 channels analogue microwave system (sixth five year state key technologies R&D program). To improve the frequency spectrum efficiency. During 1987 and 1989. the 6 GHz SDH microwave circuit (achievement of ninth five year state technologies R&D program) developed by China independently passed the verification and was accepted in Shandong. (3) SDH Digital Microwave Evolution SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) was developed in the world in 1992. (2) PDH Digital Microwave Evolution PDH is formulated by CCITT (the previous name of ITU) in 1960’s. It can add/drop lower-order tributary signals directly to/from higher-order tributaries.000 kilometers. China introduced a set of PDH microwave equipment from abroad in late 1960’s. 1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only for the first time. China independently developed 4 GHz 34 Mbit/s PDH microwave system and built it between Fuzhou and Xiamen. China independently developed 6GHz 140Mbps PDH microwave system (achievement of seventh five year state key technologies R&D program) and built it between Wuchang and Yangluo in Hubei province. China built the first trunk PDH microwave circuit (between Beijing and Wuhan. Information Industry Ministry discontinues to build SDH microwave used in national backbone public network. The first SDH microwave circuit in China was introduced and built by Jilin Broadcast Television Bureau in 1995. After the year of 2000. 128QAM. Split microwave system. 960 channels in 1966.2 Microwave Evolution in China (1) Analogue Microwave Evolution China already began to develop analogue radio communication system of 60 channels and 300 channels since 1957 and began the research of 600 channels in 1964. 512QAM appears and the frequency spectrum efficiency is raised to 10bit/s/Hz. During 1995 and 1996.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the former Telecommunications Ministry built 6 GHz 140 Mbit/s PDH microwave circuit between Beijing and Shanghai. which strengthens the operation. no disclosure without permission Page 9 of 144 pages . Due to the industry features and their own 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. In 1992. SDH system adopts synchronous multiplex and flexible mapping structure. maintenance and provision of the network. China built analogue microwave circuits of more than 20. high-status modulation modes 64QAM. In the year of 1986.2. gradually replaces trunk microwave system. the former State Telecommunications Ministry began to introduce and build SDH microwave circuit. In 1997. low and medium capacity PDH microwave systems needed in mobile communication coverage are greatly developed. After 1995. SDH was rapidly developed in the 1990’s. based on the American SONET. In the year of 1988. avoid multiplexing of many hierarchies and simplify the equipment. SDH unifies the standards of Europe and North America and made intercommunication of STM-1 and higher rate in the world become available. Compared with the former PDH. And in 1986. Based on those achievements.

Another example.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. High capability SDH microwave circuit of China should be Beijing-Guangzhou backbone microwave circuit built in 1998. lakes and mountains) Can use point-to-point radio transmission structure in the remote mountains Can rapidly restore the communication after the natural disasters Can protect hybrid multiple transmission media Those advantages not only apply to the fixed nodes or temporary nodes and feeder routes in the urban areas. It is said that. in developed countries. 80%–90%of the transmission used for mobile coverage adopts digital radio system. oil. have total capacity of eight radio frequency (RF) channels (six primary channels and two protection channels) and each channel carries 155 Mbit/s.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only demands.3 Characteristics of Digital Radio Communication System Radio communication system. coal.8 Gbit/s. This network uses the existing infrastructure. industries such as broadcast television. particularly in the developed countries such as European countries and America. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. but also apply to very long long-distance routes. emergent and metro networks. 1. which occupies two frequencies and is configured in 2×2×(7+1) with a total transmission capacity up to 4. especially the digital radio communication system. SDH minimized split microwave systems are already being applied in mobile. has the following advantages: Can be rapidly installed Can use the existing network infrastructure repeatedly (digital radio uses the infrastructure of the analogue radio) Can cross complicated terrains (rivers. Canada uses optical fiber transmission system and radio transmission system together to constitute a transmission network. In fact. it is very expensive to bury underground cables in the metropolises and towns and it is unlikely to get approved to trench in downtown areas. For example. digital microwave is always considered as the only optional means that can parallel optical cables in terms of building digital nodes and distributing networks. water and natural gas pipe have already become the main force of the SDH microwave. Russian Telecommunications build a very long long-distance route (totally more than 8000 km) of SDH digital microwave radio-relay system. In metropolises and urban areas. to overcome the difficulties of geographical conditions. no disclosure without permission Page 10 of 144 pages .

Furthermore. Microwave yet has some disadvantages. deserts. mountains. For the microwave circuit is unlikely to be damaged by human activities and natural disasters. all the coaxial cables between Beijing and Tianjin were broken. In 1976 when the earthquake occurred in Tangshan. Since the optical fiber transmission theory is proposed in 1970’s and the optical fiber is practically used in 1980’s.4 Challenges and Opportunities for Digital Microwave Communication 1. In the middle and late 1990’s. wetlands and other rough areas.1 Optical Fiber Communication—Biggest Challenge for Digital Microwave Communication Rising of optical fiber communication is the most scientific event in the twentieth century. but the six microwave channels were free from any damage. microwave system is an indispensable part to constitute China communication networks and ensure the security of communication networks.4. Line-of-sight transmission conditions should be ensured Transmission distance between two stations should be not too long Frequencies need to be applied for Communication quality is greatly affected by the environment and Communication capacity is limited 1. Therefore. if network planning is carefully and reasonably carried out and proper information volume is used to cover the land. Challenge 1: can the backbone digital microwave systems be used as protection for backbone optical fiber systems? Since the beginning of 1990’s. minimum loss and lowest cost. radio-relay links together with other modern transmission media can support and supplement optical fiber transmission networks. which becomes an overwhelming trend. Due to its huge bandwidth. optical fiber communication becomes a major means of the backbone transmission and enormously impacts the digital microwave communication. for the power consumption of radio-relay links is very low. prairies. no disclosure without permission Page 11 of 144 pages . radio-relay links may be the only available high-capacity transmission medium in crossing thousands of miles of wood areas. Currently. administration of telecommunications begins to use high-capacity optical fiber systems as the major transmission means of the national information highway.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In most parts of the world.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. when China administration of telecommunications notes 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. In microwave transmission. therefore. the optical fiber communication is greatly developed. solar power already becomes a major factor in such rough areas using digital radio-relay systems. microwave is still a most promising means of communications.

such as frequency field equalization. microwave R&D engineers adopts a series of advanced technologies: High-status modulation demodulation. natural gas pipe. digital microwave transmission have the advantages that the optical fiber cannot parallel in terms of flexibility. MLCM and RS A series of anti-multi-fading technologies.4. anti-disaster and mobility. time field equalization. 64QAM/128QAM/256QAM/512QAM XPIC—a cross-polarization interference counteract technology. Then. normally. They do not have the 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. about ten national backbone SDH radio communication circuits are established to protect the backbone optical networks. the opportunities of digital microwave can be included as follows: used as dedicated network or the backup and supplement of the dedicated optical fiber transmission. China dedicated networks.2 Opportunities for Digital Microwave Communication As a radio transmission means. the transmission capacity can multiple under same radio-frequency bandwidth New efficient correction coding technology. optical networks are sufficiently built from west to east and from north to south.8 Gbit/s of the microwave communication systems is very remarkable. such as TCM. no disclosure without permission Page 12 of 144 pages . coal and water. To ensure the normal running of communications. due to many reasons.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. such as broadcast television. this technology is not commercialized in use.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only the huge capacity of the optical fiber communication. do not need high capability transmission. space diversity and all kinds of diversity technologies Other new technologies. At present. some research institutes claimed that they already achieved the technology that under 28 MHz channel bandwidth. which can realize co-channel frequency multiplex. transmitting power spectrum molding technology It is said that. or only built with single-line optical fiber communication links. the previous problems of optical fiber communication can be completely solved by redundant circuit. XPIC and other advanced technologies to transmit STM-4 and make the total transmission capacity up to 4. it also observes the great influence of the optical fiber systems on the telecommunication when the systems are affected by natural disasters and human destructive acts. oil. using high-status modulation-demodulation 1024QAM. Those networks are either built with optical fiber communication circuits. at the end of 1990’s. However. Though capacity of 4. an STM-1 or several STM-1s. 1. it is far less than the capacity of optical fiber communications which is up to dozens of or even hundreds of Gbit/s in a single fiber. and the significance of using digital microwave systems as the protection of optical communications is reduced. such as ATPC.8 Gbit/s in 500 MHz frequency band (such as L6 GHz frequency band). in the twenty-first century. Challenge 2: can the capacity of digital microwave systems be increased? To increase the capacity of digital microwave systems. However.

In addition. Succeeding to the optical fiber transmission. such as point-to-point 2. participation of fixed network operator may further raise the fever of mobile coverage. which adopts upper frequency band point-to-point microwave communication system and can easily settle burst matters in the communications. those networks must be built with SDH or PDH microwave circuits used To transmit data services and telegraphy As the protection for the optical transmission systems in natural disasters In some situations that the optical transmission systems are inapplicable In China. Those various microwave communication methods may last perpetually for their diversity and flexibility. Therefore. 2 G and 2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only advantage like the telecommunication does which is built with sufficient optical networks from west to east and north to south.4GHz spreading microwave data network. (3) Temporary microwave communication. it is called wireless fiber. digital microwave transmission products is also exported. too. no disclosure without permission Page 13 of 144 pages . 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Other methods of microwave communications. and dedicated communication networks.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the transmission capacity is to be expanded. When China telecommunication products. (4) Local multi-point distributed service. point to multi-point 2. (2) Microwave spreading data transmission system. PMP is mainly used in remote areas such as countryside. Along with the award of 3G license. especially mobile communication systems are expanding to the oversea countries. islands. the radio user loop in the microwave frequency band can belong to the PMP. which works at the frequency band from 26 to 28 GHz and can be used in the future wideband services access. for example: (1) Point to multi-point microwave communication system (PMP): it has two categories of user line type and relay line type. the digital microwave transmission is surely to be in increasing demands and the SDH microwave may be in great demand.5 G mobile communication stations use most PDH microwave communication circuits.4GHz spreading microwave.

15G.4 G can be transmitted in the noise. 18G. In using a certain frequency band. Each frequency band is used as follows: Figure1. The microwave used in transmission is above 4G. no disclosure without permission Page 14 of 144 pages . 7 GHz and 8 GHz. 2G is used by mobile communication. Radio resources are restricted by the administrations but the optical cable is not. 15 GHz and 18 GHz. 1. 11G. The channel spacing is equal to channel bandwidth. 1. Frequency bands 7G. use 11 GHz. (3) For long-distance SDH microwave circuit (normally exceeding 15 km). (2) For short-distance PDN microwave circuit (normally used in the access layer. In each frequency band. Microwave frequency needs to be applied for but it does not need to be applied for in a certain period. use 8 GHz frequency band. 6 GHz. In the past. 14 GHz. there are specifications 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. various frequency ranges. consider using 11 GHz.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 1. 23G are not contiguous. 13G.4G are used as spreading frequencies such as microwave oven. consider using 11 GHz.8G and 2.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Choose specific frequency band based on the local weather condition and microwave transmission cross section. within 10 km).5 Microwave Frequency Band Choice and RF Channel Arrangements Frequency bands frequently used in microwave transmission include 7G/8G/11G/13G/15G/18G/23G/26G/32G/38G (defined by Rec.4 G cannot be randomly used. If the distance is not more than 25 km. but now the interference is too heavy and 2. If the distance is not more than 20 km. for the microwave frequency resources are internationally defined and radar needs to use some frequency bands. Bluetooth. 13 GHz. Choose specific frequency band based on the local weather condition and microwave transmission cross section. ITU-R). Microwave communications previously use 1.2 the use of commom frequency band (1) For long-distance PDH microwave circuit (more than 15 km).8 G and 2.5G. transmitting and receiving (T/R) spacing and channel spacing are defined. and later ITU-T decides to allocate 2G to mobile communication and 9G to meteorologic radar. 8 G. use 5 GHz.

746-3 “Radio-Frequency Channel Arrangements for Radio-Relay Systems” recommends that homogeneous patterns are preferred as the basis for radio-frequency channel arrangements. In the pattern of 3. Those subdivided frequency bands are called “channel”. And the specification can be looked up in relevant frequency specifications.5 MHz. the basic channel spacing is 2. it may be subdivided into 1. the capacity and the modulation mode adopted.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.75 MHz spacing to meet the transmission requirement of 1E1 and 2E1 in the low capacity mobile coverage. To configure RF channels is to subdivide the specific frequency band.5 MHz and 3. configure the RF channels. following factors should be considered: (1) Utmost economy and efficiency of the RF frequency (2) Enough spacing between transmitting frequency and receiving frequency in a microwave station to avoid serious interference generated by transmitter to receiver (3) In multi-channel working system.3 simple concepts of microwave frequency band arrangements After deciding the microwave frequency band. to make the bands adapt to frequency spectrum that the transmitter needs. that is. Digital microwave systems that adopt such channel spacing support the bit rate of both North America and Europe. Normally. T/R spacing and channel spacing. no disclosure without permission Page 15 of 144 pages . adjacent channels must have enough frequency spacing to avoid interference generated by each other (4) Enough guard bands should be reserved at the edge of the distributed frequency band to avoid generating interference with the system working on the adjacent frequency band (5) Most RF channel arrangements are based on the homogeneous patterns ITU-R F.5 MHz. any channel is expressed by the center frequency it is configured and an ordinal number. Figure1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only for the center frequency. Normally. The width of the channel is decided by the spectrum of the signals transmitted. In configuring RF channel.

channel coder is used to add some additional code elements to the input digital hierarchy based on certain rules. Channel coding is to improve the reliability of transmitting digital signals.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 1. the digital signals transmitted may generate error bit. signals are checked based on the rules of the new digital code element hierarchy. To make the code element automatically checked and corrected at the receive end. After the modulation. Down-conversion is a reverse process of the 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.4 Digital microwave communication system model Signal source of the transmit end is the equipment that provides original signals. Upconversion is a process to mix the IF signals and a high-frequency local oscillation signal and then get the upper sideband signal after the frequency mixing. that is. and form new digital hierarchy. and the lower 70 MHz. To transmit the signal by the microwave.6. no disclosure without permission Page 16 of 144 pages . implement digital modulation to the carrier based on the baseband signals. Normally. For noise and interference may inevitably exist in the channel. For the baseband signal cannot be transmitted in the radio microwave channels. frequency of the upper IF signal is 350 MHz. Modulation is to modulate the digital signals to the carrier of higher frequencies to make it adapt to radio channel transmission. In some circumstances. and the lower 140MHz. 1. it must be converted to frequency band signal. At the receive end.6 Digital Microwave Communication System Model Digital microwave communication system model: channel decoding channel decoding demodulation signal sink modulation Signal source channel coding radio space signal sink transmit end baseband signal Frequency band Transmission channel Receive end Baseban signal Figure 1.1 Modulation Method of Digital Microwave Digital signal unmodulated is called digital baseband signal. Functions of demodulation and channel decoding at the receive end are opposite to that of modulation and channel code at the transmit end. intermediate frequency (IF) signal is obtained. it outputs digital signals. frequency of the upper IF signal is 850 MHz. it should be converted to RF signals by the upconversion.

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only upconversion with the same principle.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Slight shift of local oscillation signal may cause large frequency shift of the emitting signals and the receiving signals. A and φ are not changed Phase shift keying (PSK): using digital baseband signal to change carrier φ. Wc AND φ are not changed Frequency shift keying (FSK): using digital baseband signal to change carrier Wc. obtains the lower sideband signal after the frequency mixing. But its anti-interference performance and decoding threshold is not better than that of PSK. and it occupies larger channel bandwidth. namely. their frequency stability is dependent on the frequency stability of the local oscillation signals. Therefore. Figure 1. Wc is not changed Currently. It has better anti-interference performance and is a very simple modulation and cost-effective. no disclosure without permission Page 17 of 144 pages . Ericsson and Nokia. but it gets different combination of local oscillation signal and microwave signal. PSK is a critical modulation used in low and medium capacity radio communication systems. A and φ are not changed Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM): using digital baseband signal to change carriers φ and A.5 Modulation process of digital microwave signal Modulation process of digital baseband signal can be simply expressed as Amplitude shift keying (ASK): using digital baseband signal to change carrier A. Current low and medium capacity digital radio communication 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. FSK is also a critical modulation used in low and medium capacity radio communication systems. Current low and medium capacity digital radio communication systems use quaternary phase shift keying (4PSK or QPSK) modulation. Typical manufacturers include NEC.

2 Channel Utilization of Each Modulation Channel utilization is typical concept used to compare the advantages and disadvantages of each modulation. For high-frequency channel. and the nominal digital microwave channel utilization is smaller than the theoretical value. the frequency band utilization of the baseband transmission channel is 2FB/FB=2(bit/s/Hz). Waveforms of typical modulations are as follows: Figure 1.5 Bandwidth utilization of nominal microwave channel <2 2 3 Page 18 of 144 pages Huawei confidential. QAM modulation has higher frequency band utilization. the channel bandwidth should be properly widened. PDH microwave systems mainly use PSK. Table 1. no disclosure without permission . For binary digital signal. This mode has higher frequency spectrum utilization and when the modulation of more than binary. MQAM is a carrier keying mode largely used in high capacity digital radio communication systems.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. 32QAM. 4PSK (4QAM) and 8PSK and some systems also use MQAM such as 16QAM. In practice. Channel utilization is defined as: the ratio of signal baseband bandwidth to transmission channel bandwidth (bit/s/Hz).6. Typical manufacturers include DMC and Harris. for the baseband transmission channel is not ideally rectangular.1 Ratio of channel utilization of typical modulations Modulation modes Bandwidth utilization of baseband transmission channel 4FSK 4PSK 8PSK 2007-4-4 2 2 2 Bandwidth utilization of high-frequency channel <1 1 1. the signal vector set is reasonably allocated and the mode can be easily carried out. Following is the theoretical values of high-frequency channel utilization of each modulation and nominal digital microwave channel utilization. 128QAM and 512QAM). SDH microwave systems typically use MQAM (usually.6 Waveform of typical modulations 1. “baseband signal” is dual-sideband signal that is already modulated. 64QAM.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only systems use quaternary FSK (4FSK) modulation.

the radio frame structure of equipment manufactured by different manufacturers are different. no disclosure without permission Page 19 of 144 pages . that is. Following figure shows the frame structure of equipment using multi-level coded modulation (MLCM) Figure 1.0 16PSK 16QAM 64QAM 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 1. some complementary bits should be added to the main data flow from the SDH multiplexing equipment. modulation and correction modes adopted and types of complementary information needed. Each manufacturer arranges the frame structure based on the transmission rate. therefore.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. to transmit digital orderwire. radio frame complementary overhead (RFCOH).7 Radio frame overhead of equipment using MLCM RFCOH: radio frame complementary overhead MLCM: multi-level coded modulation DMY: Dummy WS: wayside services XPIC: cross polarization interference counteract RSC: radio service INI: N:1 switch instruction ID: Idientificaiton FA: Frame synchronization ATPC: automatic transmitter power control 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. wayside information. channel switching.7 Digital Microwave Frame Structure In digital microwave system. ATPC information correction bit.

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Total rate of the supervision bit that is added for multi-level code is 11. To use the same clock as the main data system.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.84 Mb/s. The WS is 30 PCM telephone channels and the nominal rate is 2. ID is used to separate different microwave channels. Microwave frame is different from others for it is by bit and its alignment is determined based on specific applications and without any order. There are total 13 channels of RSC and control signals. and then enter it to the microwave multiplexing circuit.8 Microwave frame when MLCM is used The frame structure of SDH is a block by byte and it has specific alignment. What are the challenges and opportunities for microwave communication at the present? 4. Have a think: What do you learn in this chapter? 1. What is the basic model of microwave communication? 6. The 13 channels include two user channels which can transmit voice or data signals.048 Mb/s. before the radio frame multiplexing. total rate is 832 kb/s. Convert the rate to be 864 kb/s and enter it to microwave multiplexing circuit. What is the meaning of microwave? 2. Figure 1. What are the modulations of microwave? 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. C1 and C2 indicate correction coding supervision bit of first level and second level. How to arrange the microwave RF channels? 5. no disclosure without permission Page 20 of 144 pages . I indicates information bit. “a” and “b” indicate other complementary overhead bits. each channel is 64 kb/s.24 Mb/s. the other channels are auxiliary switching signal: four channels are used in main channel service switching information and other six channels are system monitor channels. use positive justification to adjust the nominal rate to 2. What is digital microwave communication? 3. FS indicates frame synchronization bit.

and explains the microwave frame structure. the digital microwave equipment can be classified based on the following modes: Table 2. common classification method is. no disclosure without permission Page 21 of 144 pages .8 Conclusion This chapter explains the concepts of microwave and digital microwave communications.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 7. Its RF unit (RFU). only the antenna is 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. constituents and performance indexes of antenna and feeder. to classify the microwave equipment into split microwave. signal processing unit (SPU) and multiplexer reside indoor. all-indoor microwave and all-outdoor microwave. the development course and features of microwave communication.1 Microwave equipment classification Mode Multiplexing mode capacity Structure PDH 2–16E1 34M All-indoor microwave Split microwave All-outdoor microwave Digital microwave SDH STM-0 STM-1 2 x STM-1 Analogue microwave Eliminated Currently. introduces the arrangements of microwave RF channels and microwave modulations. What is microwave frame like? 1.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. All-indoor microwave is commonly called big microwave. based on structure. It describes the current challenges and opportunities for microwave communications.1 Digital Microwave Equipment Classification Based on different classification methods. Chapter 2 Introduction to Digital Microwave Equipment Objectives: To know the classification of microwave equipment To understand roles. outdoor unit (ODU) and indoor unit (IDU) of split microwave equipment To learn split microwave equipment installation and antenna adjustment To have an overall idea of microwave equipment 2.

it is easily damaged.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Figure 2. All-outdoor microwave is easy to install and saves equipment room space. For it is outdoor.1 All-indoor microwave All the units of all-outdoor microwave reside outdoor. but its cost is high. Figure 2. It has a high transmission capacity and is suitable to backbone line transmission. no disclosure without permission Page 22 of 144 pages .0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only outdoor.2 All-outdoor microwave 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.

3. 0. 2.0.3.3 Split microwave Split microwave equipment consists of ODU and IDU. Antenna of different diameters has different specifications for different frequencies. It is the most widely used microwave equipment for the present. 2. Commonly used microwave antenna includes parabolic antenna and cassegrain antenna. 2.2m.6. 1.4.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. The diameter of the microwave antenna produced by China is 0. 3.6.8. Ericsson Mini-link has 46 types of antennas. The antenna and ODU are connected by waveguide pipe. and the IDU and ODU are connected by IF cable. 1.2. 1.5.0m. 2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 2.6. 1.2 Microwave antenna and feeder 2. IF cable is used to transmit the IF service signals between IDU and ODU and the IDU/ODU communication control signals and provides power to the ODU.4 Parabolic antenna antenna 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.2. 0. no disclosure without permission Figure2. 3. Split microwave equipment has a low capacity and is easy to install and maintain and available in quickly building networks.5 Cassegrain Page 23 of 144 pages .1 Microwave antenna The antenna is used to directionally radiate the microwave power emitted by the transmitter ODU and transmit the microwave power received to the receiver ODU. Figure2. There are many types of antennas. and that is imported from abroad is 0.2.

η ranges from 0. The main parameters of the antenna are as follows: (1) Antenna gain Gain is a major parameter of the antenna. voltage standing wave ratio should be low and the working frequency band should be wide. The gain is the ratio of the input power Pio of isotropic antenna to the input power Pi of the surface antenna when the surface antenna and isotropic antenna produce the same electric field at the same place. antenna processing accuracy and the active loss. the requirements for the antenna are that the antenna should be highly efficient. And the separation angle between the two half-power points is half-power angle. Figure2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only N channels in the same frequency band can share the same antenna. the antenna gain directly reflects the efficiency of the antenna.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. when the direction is deviated to the point where the power decreases half. The gain given in the antenna indexes is the maximum radiation direction (main lobe) gain and expressed by dB. normally. wavelength. When the size of the antenna is certain. cross-polarization discrimination should be high. D is the diameter of the parabolic antenna. which is decided by the 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. G (dB) =10logG=10log [(πD/λ) 2×η (2) Half-power angle (3 dB beam width) Deviate to the two sides from the main slobe.6. no disclosure without permission Page 24 of 144 pages .6 same antenna shares N channels In a radio-relay system. the point is called the half-power point.45 to 0. η λ is the working is a surface usability coefficient. Antenna gain of the microwave antenna is expressed by: G= Pio ⎛ πD ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ∗η Pi ⎝ λ ⎠ 2 In the formula. the sidelobe level should be low.

the XPD is tested to be distributed logarithmically and normally rather than a constant value. Antenna protection ratio is an import index in the microwave communication. The XPD should be high to suppress the interference from the orthogonal polarization signal. (4) Antenna protection ratio Antenna protection ratio is the attenuation of the antenna reception capability in some direction to the antenna reception capability in the main lobe direction. the larger the antenna diameter is. you can see that. when the antenna diameter is certain. due to multi-path propagation effect and rain. and the higher the power integration is.5 = (65 0 ~ 70 0 ) λ D From this formula.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Half-power angle is expressed by: θ 0. the higher the working frequency is. the smaller the half-power angle is. For protection ratio of 180°. XPD may degrade. it is also called front/rear ratio. High capacity radio-relay system (SDH microwave system) widely uses co-channel orthogonal polarization frequency multiplexing to improve communication capacity and save frequencies and it has strict requirement for the XPD (such as the XPD should be larger than 40 dB). the smaller the half-power angle is. For the two orthogonal polarization signals reach at different angles in communication. (5) Voltage standing wave ratio 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. (3) Cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) XPD is.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. For frequency band lower than 10 GHz. no disclosure without permission Page 25 of 144 pages . and the influence of the geographical and meteorologic conditions on the two orthogonal polarizations are not totally relevant. XPD=10lgPo/Px In the formula. When the working frequency is certain. “ p 0 ” is the receiving power to the normal polarization wave “ p x ” is the receiving power to the abnormal polarization wave In actual microwave circuit. the main cause to XPD degradation is multi-path effect. Even though there is no fading or there is up fading. which cause the XPD to change in actual practice. the ratio at the reception point of the power received with the expected polarization to the power received with the orthogonal polarization. for a radio wave transmitted with a given polarization.

2. 2.2 Classification of Microwave Antennas Based on installation method.7 Typical feeders Elliptical waveguide has lower loss in certain length and is suitable for long feeders. the feeder must be charged with dry gas.3 Feeder System Feeder system consists of the feeder connecting branching system to antennas and the waveguide components. otherwise. elliptical waveguide is widely used in frequency band ranging from 4 GHz to 15 GHz as the feeder for it makes the layout and installation of the feeders easier. (a) Elliptical waveguide (b) Flexible twist waveguide Figure 2. elliptical waveguide is commonly used. the standing wave ratio of the feeder might be affected. elliptical-rectangular converter. The front and rear of the high-performance antenna is larger than that of the standard antenna with more than 10 dB. To protect feeder.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. The standing wave ratio of normal antenna is between 1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only The connecting impedance between the antenna and the feeder should be matched and the voltage standing wave ratio at the input must be smaller. and it has several installation methods. The entire feeder system includes elliptical waveguide.05 and 1. you must follow the product specification. 2. it is used in frequency band from 2 to 11GHz and it is the most typical microwave feeder. In installing the elliptical waveguide. Based on electric feature. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. it can be classified as standard antenna and high-performance antenna. Normally. Now. sealing section and air-filled waveguide section. Currently. microwave antenna can be classified as hanging antenna and seating antenna.2. no disclosure without permission Page 26 of 144 pages .2.

branching filter. E bend and H bend or flexible waveguide. Normally.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Flexible twist waveguide is used to connect the ODU and the antenna. It is better to use the coaxial cable in occasion that the antenna is near the transceiver.2 m). Following figures show how the PDH/SDH microwave antenna is connected to the ODU (transceiver): Figure 2. in microwave communication. the access layer typically uses portable PDH and SDH microwave systems and adopts indoor/outdoor structure.6–0. no disclosure without permission Page 27 of 144 pages . many channels share the same set of an antenna and feeder system. terminator and connection waveguide. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. The branching system consists of circulator. The disadvantage of the flexible twist waveguide is huge loss.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.9 m (the caliber is more than 1. The indoor unit and the outdoor unit (transceiver) are connected by IF cable.4 Branching System Normally. There are two ways of connecting elliptical waveguide and branching system: a) Waveguide: using hard waveguide. The filter is installed in the rack. which needs branching system to separate them. it is seldom used. b) Coaxial: using coaxial cable In addition.2. currently. Outdoor unit and antenna are connected by flange interface (the feeder loss is reduced) or flexible waveguide of 0. and it has function of twisting. it is used in the frequency band lower than 2 GHz. Coaxial cable has huge loss in certain length.8 Antenna connected to ODU 2. It is easy to install and can ensure the connection accuracy.

9 inner structure of ODU In Figure 2. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. it only allow designed certain frequency band to pass and the frequencies that outside the band cannot pass the filter. The terminator is used to absorb the emitting waves. no disclosure without permission Page 28 of 144 pages .9. normally. ODU types= quantity of the frequency band × quantity of receiving/transmitting spacing × quantity of sub-band ×2 (for different manufacturers. Small manufacturers produce ODU and larger manufacturers integrate ODU.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Branching filter consists of bandpass filter. Therefore. Different sub-band matches different ODU. ODU has many types but small batches. a frequency band can be subdivided into three sub-bands: A. Currently. For an ODU cannot cover a frequency band. and the loop makes the signals progress in a certain direction.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. ODU consists of transmitter and receiver which achieve the conversion from IF to RF and RF to IF respectively. B and C.3 Outdoor unit (ODU) ODU is used to convert IF and RF signals. For specific functional module structure inside ODU. Figure2. Specification of the ODU is related to the RF frequency and independent of the transmission capacity. see the following table. Different receiving/transmitting spacing also matches different ODU and different higher-lower station matches different ODU. 2. different ODU with different capacities may have different types). process and amplify the RF signals.

Typical RF power amplifier is GaAs FET 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.10 system frame of receiver After being amplified by the IF amplifier of the transmitter. Functions and constituents of transmitter Main functions of transmitter are as follows: (1) Generate proper local oscillation (LO) within the RF band. Unilateral filter obtains a sideband after frequency mixing. adjusted IF signal is converted to a frequency of the RF band. To suppress local oscillator leakage and stray outcome. equalization frequency mixer is preferred in use. (4) Achieve amplification of linear RF (5) Conduct RF filter to eliminate useless frequencies (harmonic mirroring frequency. Microwave power amplifier is used to amplify the signals with weak level (-30 dBm to -50 dBm) output by the transmitting frequency mixer to the required level.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.3. and after transmitting mixing frequency. local oscillator leakage. (3) Achieve pre-distortion of IF and RF of signals to compensate the non-linearity of RF amplifier. In the branching system. stray outcome) to keep the frequency spectrum within required frame.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 2.1 Constituents of Digital Microwave Transmitter and Major Performance Indexes I. (2) Use the local oscillation signal from the local oscillator to convert the adjusted IF signal from the adjuster to the required frequency in transmitting. the local carrier is combined with other carriers together and sent to the antenna. Following is the system frame of a typical microwave transmitter IF amplifier transmitting mixing frequency filter microwave power amplifier output power amplifier branching filter varactor frequency modulation Orderwire signal varactor frequency modulation Figure2. IF adjusted signal from the adjuster is transmitted to the transmitting frequency mixer. no disclosure without permission Page 29 of 144 pages .

II. therefore. it has strict requirement for the linearity of the amplifier.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the amplitude of the effective signal demodulated may decrease. If the working frequency of the transmitter is unstable. and then over-high interference may be produced to the adjacent channels. 8 and 11 GHz are mainly used in branch lines. For the SDH microwave system normally uses high-status modulation mode. In normal transmission conditions. (2) Output power Output power refers to the power at the output port of the transmitter. ranging from 15 to 30 dBm. But if the backoff quantity increases. Frequency bands 7. The limitation range of the spectrum is called frequency frame. backoff measures should be taken.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only device. later. pre-distortion is adopted to compensate the residual non-linearity. antenna and feeder by the sub-channel filter. the power is transmitted to branching system. and bit error rate may increase. the working frequency bands mainly used in China backbone microwave system are 4 and 6 GHz. and there is offset. RSC is transmitted by multiplexing modulation. (3) Frequency stability Each channel of the transmitter has nominal RF center working frequency. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. that is. no disclosure without permission Page 30 of 144 pages . Major Performance Indexes of the Transmitter (1) Working Frequency Band Currently. Frequency bands higher than 13 GHz are mainly used in access layer such as station access. Currently. the cost of the amplifier increases. (4) Transmitting frequency spectrum frame Spectrum of signal transmitted must comply with certain limitations to prevent over-wide bandwidth from being occupied. ATPC is used to low the output power. the local oscillator frequency stability of the microwave equipment is normally about 3–10 ppm. Typical amplifier works at output power far lower than the compression point of 1 dB. and then the power is amplified to the required transmitting power by microwave power amplifier. The stability of the working frequency depends on the frequency stability of the transmitting local oscillator.

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 2. receiving frequency mixing. The reason 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. receiving frequency amplifier mixing filter low-noise amplifying bandpass the up filter antenna preset IF from Local oscillator IF output major IF amplifier Automatic equalization inspection IF composition controller (out) shift preset IF receiving frequency filter low-noise amplifying bandpass filter amplifier mixing Figure 2.2. its variable gain is used to compensate the RF signal fading caused by propagation.11 System frame of receiver Direct wave from the upper antenna and the lower antenna and the electric wave that reaches the receiving point by means of all paths pass two same channels: bandpass filter.11. no disclosure without permission Page 31 of 144 pages . In the receiver: (1) Use LAN with low noise coefficient to pre-amplify the RF signals.3. The system frame is shown in Figure 2. the gain is carried by the major IF amplifier.2 Constituents and Major Indexes of Receiver I.3. low-noise amplifier. (3) Use variable gain amplifier to amplify the IF signals to maintain the level unchanged when the propagation fading changes. 2.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.1 Constituents of Receiver The theory of receiver is: to use low-noise amplifier to amplify the RF signal from the antenna and convert RF frequency as follows before the demodulation. (2) Use local oscillator to convert the RF signals from the antenna via the branching filter components to IF signals. mirror-suppressing filter. For most receivers. preset IF amplifier and then they are composed and amplified by the IF amplifier and then the IF modulated signal is output.

(4) IF channel filter II. part of input signals is led out. The passband feature of receiver depends on IF filter and the passband of normal digital microwave equipment can be 1–2 times of transmission code element rate. and it is 5 dB less than that of the analogue receiver. detected by the diode. For a regenerator section. no disclosure without permission Page 32 of 144 pages . 2. and use of the frequency band is the same as that of the transmitter. it is 3–10 ppm. choose suitable passband and the amplitude feature of the passband. the transmitting frequency of the former microwave station is the receiving frequency of the same channel of the local receiver. (4) Passband To effectively suppress the interference. (3) Noise coefficient The noise coefficient of digital microwave receiver is normally 2. (2) Frequency stability of the receiving oscillator Requirement for the frequency stability of the receiving oscillator is consistent with that of the transmitter.2 Major Performance Indexes of the Receiver (1) Working frequency Receiver and the transmitter cooperate in work.2. The gain of those levels can vary with proper controlling voltage. after being amplified. The gain change of amplifiers is achieved by many levels. filtered by AGC filter (this filter can prevent signals outside the usable spectrum from affecting the total frequency response of the amplifier). Normally. it is used as controlling voltage of the variable gain section. obtain the best signal transmission. while the controlling voltage is the function of the IF signal amplitude at the output end of the amplifier.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only why IF amplifier is set with automatic gain control circuit is to make the level of the signal that is transmitted to the modulator keep unchanged. (5) Selectivity 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. This method is to extract some signals from the feedback path and the middle layer to control the variable gain and then to make the IF output level unchanged.5–5 dB.3. In fact.

If an IF board is equal to the line board of optical network equipment. service scheduling. the rating output level of the receiver does not change. and interference between receiving and transmitting of the receiver. the receiver should be able to suppress the interference of other signals outside the passband. it is called upward fading. SLE. cross-connect board (PXC) and SCC. that is.12. when the received level is higher than the reference level. SL1. and when it is lower than the reference level. PH1 and PO1). It is the major part of a microwave system. 2.12 IDU internal structure 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. especially to suppress the interference of the adjacent channels. SD1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only To ensure that the receiver only accepts signals of local channel.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the fading has a dynamic range of 45 dB. no disclosure without permission Page 33 of 144 pages . The structure of IDU internal function modules is shown in figure 2. Figure2.4 Indoor Unit IDU performs the functions of service access. mirroring interference. Supposed the upward fading of the digital microwave system is +5 dB and the downward fading is -40 dB. It has service boards (SDE. (6) Automatic gain control range On the basis of the received level under free space transmission. it is called downward fading. The requirement for automatic gain control is when the received level undergoes variation within this range. IDU is similar to the box-shape equipment of optical network. multiplexing and modulation and demodulation.

14 Antenna side view and top view 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. the key process is to adjust the directional angle of the antenna. See figure 2.5 Installation and Adjustment of Split Microwave System Split microwave system can be divided into two parts: outdoor installation and indoor installation. Separate mounting uses feeder to connect ODU to the antenna.13 Outdoor installation When the antenna is mounted.13. Indoor installation is similar to that of box-shape equipment. no disclosure without permission Page 34 of 144 pages . This section describes outdoor installation which mainly consists of antenna and ODU installation. Figure 2. Figure 2. Integrated mounting does not need feeder.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. There are two methods of outdoor installation: integrated mounting and separate mounting.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 2. and it directly connects ODU to the antenna.

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In the process of adjusting the antenna. Then you need not adjust this direction within great extent. and you only need slightly adjust the antenna to the point where the voltage is highest. which makes the received signal level falling short of the design indexes. that position is the main lobe position of pitching or horizontal direction. they may become sligtly upward and 1–2 dB is wasted to prevent refraction interference. you can only test lower voltage in a direction.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. that is. the antenna is adjusted to the side lobe. you need briefly adjust antennas of the two ends and make them leveled. Tips: When antenna at two ends are leveled. The method of adjusting the pitching direction of the antenna is same as that of adjusting horizontal direction. When the antenna is not accurately adjusted. and you only need slightly adjust the antenna to the point where the voltage is highest.16. Then. When the antenna is not accurately adjusted. you need briefly adjust antennas of the two ends and make them roughly leveled and then adjust them carefully. The method of adjusting the pitching direction of the antenna is same as that of adjusting horizontal direction. if you find the received signal indicates the point of maximum voltage. no disclosure without permission Page 35 of 144 pages . the point of the maximum voltage is the main lobe position of the pitching or horizontal direction. Typical errors occur in the process of antenna adjusting is shown in figure 2.15. Then you need not adjust this direction within great extent. In the process of adjusting the antenna. under this condition. . you can only test lower voltage in a direction. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. you may find voltage wave in figure 2. Then.

antenna and feeder system.6 Conclusion This chapter mainly describes digital microwave equipment. split microwave system and antenna adjustment. no disclosure without permission Page 36 of 144 pages . Chapter 3 Microwave System Networking and Application Objectives: To know the typical networking modes of microwave system To understand all types of stations of microwave system To learn classification of relay station To learn microwave application 3. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.16 Typical errors in adjusting antenna What do you learn in this chapter? (1) The classification of microwave equipment (2) Antenna and feeder system and branching system of split microwave system (3) ODU constituents.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.1 Microwave System Typical Networking Modes and Station Types 3.1. constituents and performance indexes of ODU and IDU. and attaches great importance to explaining functions of each components.15 Voltage wave in adjusting antenna Have a think: Figure 2. functions and performance indexes of split microwave system (4) IDU constituents of split microwave system (5) Installation and adjustment of split microwave system 2.1.1 Typical Networking Modes Microwave network is similar to the optical network in terms of structure.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 2. The basic structure is shown in figure 3.

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 3. due to microwave frequency configuration. the communication is unidirectional and voice channels need to be added/dropped. Relay station: stations in the middle of any two stations of a microwave link. Pivotal station: the station located in the middle of the microwave link. upper and lower stations are arranged alternatively. stations can be classified as: Upper station: station where the receiving frequency is higher than transmitting frequency. no disclosure without permission Page 37 of 144 pages . the microwave station can be classified as: Terminal station: stations located at two ends of the microwave link. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. and voice channels need to be added/dropped. See figure 3. Obviously. the communication is to more than three directions.1.2. the communication is to directions and the voice channels can be added/dropped (baseband transfer) or cannot be added/dropped (IF or RF transfer).2 Microwave Station Types Based on station types. Lower station: station where the receiving frequency is lower than transmitting frequency. Based on communication frequency.1 Microwave typical networking mode 3.

There are two models of passive relay station: one model of station is formed by two back-to-back parabolic antennas connected by a section of waveguide.2 microwave station types 3. Otherwise.1 Passive Relay Station Passive relay station is like a beam diverter. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.2. it makes the microwave beam surpass the obstacle and form path.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure3. there should be no obstacles in the line-of-sight range between two communication points. a microwave relay station should be added at the obstacle point or other suitable place to communicate the two communication points. 3. Therefore. has proper available area. no disclosure without permission Page 38 of 144 pages . The microwave beam is transmitted along a straight line and it is incapable of diffraction when it encounters obstacles.2 Relay Station Microwave frequency band has higher frequencies. Microwave relay station can be classified into two types: passive relay station and active relay station. and a suitable angle and distance for two communication points. the other is one or two metal planes which is smooth to some extent.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.

1 Dual Parabolic Antennas Passive Relay Station Figure3. 3.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure3.2.G1-G2-G3-G4 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.4 Dual parabolic antennas passive relay station (1) The received power can be expressed by: PR=PT-L0 L0= L1+ L2+ L3+ L4+ L5.3 Passive relay station I.1. no disclosure without permission Page 39 of 144 pages .

But if the caliber diameter of the parabolic antenna is enlarged unrestrained. For passive relay station. the output power of microwave transmitter and the sensitivity of the receiver are fixed. the antenna installation may become complicated and the adjustment of the antenna may be not accurate (for the half-power angle of parabolic antenna beam is in reverse proportion to the diameter of the parabolic antenna). that is. the half-power angle of the parabolic antenna beam may be small.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the net loss between the transmitter and the receiver From the formula. to improve the received power. to increase the received power.8 In the formula: D: diameter of the caliber of the parabolic antenna (m) F: working frequency (GHZ) G: antenna gain (dB) Normally.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In the formula: PT is transmitting power L0 is line net loss. reduce the free space loss and make the two parabolic antennas closer to reduce the feeder loss L3. Therefore. Therefore. the gain maybe quadrupled to affect the received power. no disclosure without permission Page 40 of 144 pages . (3) Parabolic antenna gain Parabolic antenna gain can be expressed by: G=20lgD+20lgF+17. you can only increase the gains of the four parabolic antennas. (2) Methods to Increase PR When the microwave equipment and the model are selected. fading margin is not large and there are four antennas. ground microwave passive relay station is improper to use parabolic antenna with too large diameter. the output power of the transmitter and gains of the four microwave antennas should be increased and feeder losses and the free space loss between two paths should be reduced. the feeder loss L1 and L5 are constant. passive relay station uses large diameter parabolic antenna. the passive relay station may cost a lot and be difficult to install and erect. When relative location of the transmitting antenna and the transmitter and that of the receiving antenna and the receiver are fixed. At the same time. (4) Free space loss 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.

the total free space loss is the sum of the free space loss from the passive relay station to the two communication points. it works in a more stable way. 3. that is. Therefore. The worst condition is that the passive relay station is located in the right middle of the two communication points. no disclosure without permission Page 41 of 144 pages . the distance between the passive relay station and any of the two communication points should be narrowed if possible. has proper available area.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2.1. 2) Parabolic antenna passive relay station is easy to install and adjust. is also a microwave passive relay station.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Free space loss of the path can be expressed by: L=92. II. for the gain of the antenna is used two times in receiving and transmitting.4+20lgD+20lgF In the formula: L: free space loss (dB) F: working frequency (GHZ) G: antenna gain (dB) For communication line that has passive relay station. and a suitable angle and distance to two communication points.2 Plane antenna passive relay station A metal plane that is smooth to some extent.2.1.3 Comparison between two passive relay stations: parabolic antenna and plane antenna 1) Plane antenna is more efficient. The closer the passive relay station next to the communication point. This is a remarkable advantage of this station. to improve the efficiency of the passive relay station. L=L2+L4. 3. The PR is calculated by the same formula that is previously described in parabolic antenna passive relay station. due 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. While the plane antenna passive relay station. the less the L2 or L4 is. because the free space loss is the maximum in this condition. This means that the total free space loss of the passive relay station is related to the relative position of the passive relay station to the two communication points. The station uses the reflection function of the metal plane to change the propagation direction of the microwave beam and round the obstacle to achieve communication. III.

it may not work stably. it is called RF direct station. It can be used as a relay station that needs not add/drop voice channels in the microwave system. dual parabolic antennas passive relay station cost less than the plane antenna passive relay station. Especially when the passive relay station is located on the straight line of the path. bidirectional. it is not easy to install and adjust.2. especially much less than dual plane antennas passive relay station. to reduce the fading caused by propagation condition change. and then investment needs to be increased to ensure stable work of the dual plane antennas passive relay station. 6) In view of the cost. no disclosure without permission Page 42 of 144 pages . if it is adopted. two plane antennas are used. which makes field selection.1 RF Direct Station RF direct station is an active. is of dozens of square meters. When the angle is more than 100°. installation and adjustment more difficult.2 Active Relay Station There are two types of microwave active relay station: RF direct station and regenerative relay station. While the plane antenna passive relay station cannot achieve this. 3) Parabolic antenna passive relay station is not limited by the separation angle of the receiving and transmitting paths at the relay station.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. while the plane antenna passive relay station is limited by this separation angle. When there is a strong wind. 3. For it amplifies signals directly on the RF. 3.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only to large reflection area. 4) Parabolic antenna passive relay station can use polarization selector to convert the horizontal and vertical polarization waves transmitted from the previous station at the relay station. I. the wind loading should be considered.2. non-frequency-shift RF relay system.2. three parabolic antennas passive relay station can be built. polarization conversion can reduce multi-path fading of the path. Dual plane antennas passive relay station has strict requirements for the site location. 5) Based on requirement of transmitting signals and suitable terrain condition. It can be used to solve the block problem caused by 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.

solar energy. (3) It adopts many types of energy to supply power. Normally. and expansion and frequency conversion of the RF direct station is very simple. RF direct station is installed in the outdoor stormproof box and is attached to iron tower next to the antenna to narrow the feeder line. Its total cost is 50%-80% less than that of the regenerative relay station.2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only mountains and large building. and it can also be inserted in the newly built and already established microwave to increase fading margin. (5) It is easy to install and maintain. It can be used to break the distance limit of microwave transmission system or divert the transmission direction to round line-of-sight obstacles. including an entire set of RF unit with regenerative microwave signals. In addition.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. RF direct station is highly applicable due to following characteristics: (1) It has large gains and good transmission performance. Regenerative relay station is similar to back-to-back terminal station. AC. no disclosure without permission Page 43 of 144 pages . and the signal quality is not degraded.3 Digital Microwave Application Microwave system is mainly used in the following scenarios: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. power supply and so on. For RF direct station. equipment room. (2) It has high reliability and can cooperate with the terminal equipment of any manufacturers. It receives signals. (4) It needs low cost and is flexible in choosing sites. II. power line and railway are unnecessary. but it is incapable of adding/dropping voice channels.1 Regenerative Relay Station Regenerative relay station is a high-frequency repeater with high performance. such as DC. 3. 3. fully regenerates and amplifies the signals and then transmits the signals.2. It can extend the signal transmission path and change transmission direction to round obstacles. when selecting the site. wind and heat. you only need to consider the optimal position for transmission without worrying about factors such as transport.

no disclosure without permission Page 44 of 144 pages .Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Currently. microwave transmission is used as a backup for the optical transmission. and then microwave transmission is adopted. such as oil transport pipe or the relay of the TV signals in the field. microwave system is frequently used in mobile base station return transmission. and this process is called “mobile base station return transmission”. and the network model can be ring network which is similar to the optical ring network. Topology structure based on TDM/IP is original and effective. Critical link backup: between two major transmission sites. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. In the networking of wideband radio access. the signals need to be returned to BSC to enter into the core network for transmission. VIP customer access: due to cost limitation. Supplementary network of optical network: due to geographical condition and other reasons. between the HQ of large enterprises and their subsidiaries. fiber cables cannot be laid in wide area.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Mobile base station return transmission: after field mobile base station receives radio signals. and then microwave transmission is adopted. they can supplement each other. Topology structure on the basis of PMP is traditional and frequently used. and then microwave transmission is needed. the topology structure should be chosen based on actual requirements. Have a think: What do you learn in this chapter? (1) Network structures of digital microwave systems (2) Models of digital microwave stations (3) Characterstics of relay stations (4) Application of digital microwave systems You should pay more attention to the characterstics of relay stations. The two structures both have their advantages and have different application environments. fiber cables cannot be laid due to certain limitations. Microwave ring network topology structure is also called consecutive point topology structure. to reduce the impact on the transmission to the minimum when the fiber cables are broken. Enterprise private network: due to limitations of some special industries. it is difficult to lay fiber cables between optical network and BSC.

it equals to the ideal space in vacuum status.1.1. reflection. scattering and absorption. dielectric constant ε=ε0=10-9/36π F/m and magnetic capacity μ=μ0=4π×10-7 H/m. concepts of Fresnel zone. interference and polarization of electric waves. 4. 4. which includes: Huygens-Fresnel theory. it is attenuated for energy is diffused to the space. in this space. electric waves are not affected by factors such as obstacles. for this medium. the light is homogeneously spreading around. That is.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 3. and the place that is far away from the bulb 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. co-oscillation and absorption of materials.2 Propagation Loss of Electric Waves in Free Space For magnetic wave that propagates in free space. the total energy is not lost. Chapter 4 Microwave Propagation Theory  Objectives: To understand microwave propagation in free space To know the influence of ground reflection and troposphere on the electric wave propagation To learn the fadings caused by aerial and ground effect To understand the impact caused by fadings and statistic features of fadings Microwave communication is based on the carrier of microwave and realized by line-of-sight communication in the atmosphere. diffraction. This space is full of homogeneous and ideal medium. diffraction.1 Electric Wave Propagation in Free Space 4. models of microwave stations and characteristics of relay stations. likes a single bulb lighting in the air. no disclosure without permission Page 45 of 144 pages . the conductance σ=0. and the application of the digital microwave systems. absorption and scattering do not occur. We should learn all those theories first to futher study microwave communication. The major theory foundation of microwave communication is electromagnetic propagation. reflection.1 Free Space Free space is also called ideal medium space.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. But when electric wave propagates in free space.4 Conclusion This chapter mainly describes typical networking modes of microwave systems.

the medium around them are flexible. the propagation loss of electric wave in free space is expressed by: LS=Pt / Pr =(4πdf/c) 2 Or LS (dB) =20log(4πdf/c) In the formula: LS: free space loss (dB) d: distance from the emitting source of electric wave to the receiving point (m) f: working frequency of electric wave (Hz) c: speed of light 3 ×108 (m/s) If the unit of d is km and that of f is GHz. which interferes the direct waves. Based on the energy-flux density and antenna theory. The basic idea of Huygens principle is: light and electric-magnetic wave are both a kind of oscillation. For the ground scattering has little influence on the main waves. and at the receiving point. diffraction and ground scattering. the receiving level sometimes is more than the receiving level of the free space and sometimes is less that the receiving level of the free space. the formula can be: LS (dB) =92. based on Huygens’ theory. the oscillation of a point can be transmitted to the adjacent particle and spread around.2 Influence of Ground Reflection on the Electric Wave Propagation Due to different terrain conditions.4+20log d+20logf 4.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only obviously is of less energy. Huygens-Fresnel Principle Huygens formulates electro-magnetic wave character theory. Fresnel formulate the concept of Fresnel zone which further explains the reflection and diffraction of electric waves and is proved in practice. and therefore. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. different relay sections have different influence on electric wave. 4. vector of these signals is added to the vector of the direct waves. it can be ignored.1 Concept of Fresnel Zone I. Major influences are reflection. The influence of reflection is that the ground can reflect some of the signals from the antenna to the receiving antenna (water surface and smooth ground have strong influence of reflection).Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. The diffusion loss of electric wave is called free space loss. and then it becomes the wave that is transmitted in the medium. no disclosure without permission Page 46 of 144 pages . as a result.2.

it can be considered that the oscillation of a point source is transmitted to the adjacent particles and forms secondary wave source and then tertiary wave source and so on. These rings and circles can be approximately considered as plane area graphics that are vertical to the ground and the ray between T and R. if on a flat surface. In practice.1.2 Fresnel Ellipsoid Supposed. 4.3 Fresnel Zone If the Fresnel ellipsoid intersect with the waves transmitted from T or R. the annulus (external circle minus internal circle) next to the first Fresnel zone is called second Fresnel zone and others by analogy. the track of this point is a rotary ellipsoid.1..4 Fresnel Zone Diameter The distance from any point on the Fresnel zone to the link between R and T is called Fresnel diameter and is represented by F.2. the distance from a moving point P to two fixed points (T and R) is a constant. the ellipsoid obtained is called second Fresnel ellipsoid.2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Therefore. the track of this point is an ellipse. In electric wave propagation.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. when the size of transmitting antenna is less than the microwave relay distance. a series of circles and rings can be obtained and the center is a circle which is called the first Fresnel zone. when the point is on the first Fresnel zone. In microwave communication. second… and number N Fresnel zone diameter can be approximately expressed by: F2= (2λd1d2/d) 1/2 = (2)1/2 F1 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. when the constant is d+Nλ/2. when the constant is d+λ/2. And in the space. the diameter is called the first Fresnel zone diameter. 4.. on the intersect interface. III.1. Figure4. and when the constant is d+2λ/2.. 4. the ellipsoid obtained is called Number N Fresnel ellipsoid. the first. the ellipsoid obtained is called first Fresnel ellipsoid. then the wave before the secondary wave formed by the point source is spherical wave and that before the tertiary wave is also spherical wave.2.1 First Fresnel zone diameter Based on definitions of Fresnel ellipsoid and Fresnel zone. the transmitting antenna can be considered to be a point source. II. no disclosure without permission Page 47 of 144 pages . and the other is by analogy. for a microwave relay section. If the wave transmitted by the point source is spherical wave. the influence of Fresnel zone on the project can be ignored. the transmitting point is T and the receiving point is R and the distance between stations is d. IV.

d is km.5 Relationship between Field strength of Receiving Point and Energy of Each Fresnel Zone Based on analysis. thus Fresnel zones interfere with each other.. Clearance Actual microwave propagation may be blocked by buildings. no disclosure without permission Page 48 of 144 pages . the convex of the earth is ignored. I. In practice. If the first Fresnel diameter of this point is F1. and the field strength produced by the third Fresnel zone is opposite to that produced by the second Fresnel. see figure 4. and line section hc that is vertical to the ground is used to indicate the clearance.2. Fn= (nλd1d2/d) 1/2 = (n)1/2 F1 In the formula: The meanings of F1. Field strength of the receiving point is sum of the vectors of the field strength of each Fresnel zone at the receiving point. the field strength produced by the zone with odd number makes the field strength of the receiving point strengthened. To avoid the phenomenon. d are as previously explained. That is. 4. d2. trees and mountains. Take the first Fresnel zone as a reference.2. distance between stations is considered to be short and the ground is with little fluctuation. and unit of F1.2 Influence of Ground Reflection on Receiving Level To make explanation more simple and easy to understand.. for the slant of each Fresnel zone to the receiving point is different. hc/F1 is the relative clearance of this point. λ is m and the unit of d1. d1. The result of the vectors overlapped together is: the field strength of the receiving point which is obtained from all the Fresnel zones in the free space is approximately equal to the field strength produced by the first Fresnel zone at this point in the space. and then the transmission quality is affected. the clearance is introduced. and that produced in by the zone with even number makes the field strength weakened.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only F1= (λd1d2/d) 1/2 . 4.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. additional loss is caused and the receiving level decreases.2. phases of field strength produced by adjacent Fresnel zones in the receiving point R are opposite. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. the field strength produced by the second Fresnel zone is opposite to that produced by the first Fresnel. The vertical distance from the obstacle to line section AB is called clearance of the obstacle in the path. λ. that is.1. d2. If obstacles are high enough to enter the first Fresnel zone. V.

Loss caused by the knife-edge obstacles is called additional loss. When the peak of the obstacle surpasses the link between the two points. that is. the additional loss may rapidly increase.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. additional loss may vary slightly around 0 dB. the additional loss is 6 dB. Loss caused by Knife-edge Obstacles on the Path In actual microwave project. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure4.2 Definition of clearance—schematic II. at the receiving point. When the peak of the obstacle just falls down on the link between the transmitting and receiving points. no disclosure without permission Page 49 of 144 pages . knife-edge obstacles always block the transmission path. H C=0. the transmission loss (or receiving level) on the path is close to that of the free space. at this time. When the peak of the obstacle is below the link between the two points. The level must be lower than that in the free space. there is only partial Fresnel zone energy is diffracted and make the receiving point have somewhat level. The knife-edge obstacles cannot block all the Fresnel zones.

some electric waves are always sent to the ground. the receiving and transmitting antennas are leveled to make the receive end receive stronger direct waves. But based on the Huygens theory. besides the direct waves.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. at the receiving point. We can use the following geometrical relationship to deduce the expression of virtual value of the composite field strength. no disclosure without permission Page 50 of 144 pages . therefore.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure4. In actual microwave communication project lines. Reflection of Flat Terrain to Electric Waves Flat terrain indicates that the earth curvature is not considered and the terrain between two points is considered to be flat. there are reflected waves reflected by the ground and meeting the reflection conditions (angle of arrival equals to angle of reflection).3 Loss caused by knife-edge obstacle III. If: transient value of field strength of direct wave is expressed by: e1=21/2 E0cosωt Transient value of field strength of reflected wave is expressed by: e2=21/2 E0Φcos (ωt-ψ-2π (r2-r1) /2) In the two formulas: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.

no disclosure without permission Page 51 of 144 pages . Bu deduction. The V is expressed by: V=E/E0 = (1+Φ2–2ΦCOS (ψ+2π (r2-r1) /λ) ) 1/2 Expressed in dB: V dB=20logV When the ground influence is considered. ψ is the phase angle of reflectance (when the angle of arrival formed by the incoming wave and the ground are small. the actual receiving level is: PR (dBm) =PR0 (dBm) +V dB Figure4. Φ is the modulus of reflectance.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the effective value of composite field strength is: E=(E02+E02Φ2+2 E02ΦCOS (ψ+2π (r2-r1) /λ) ) 1/2 =E0 (1+Φ2–2ΦCOS (ψ+2π (r2-r1) /λ) ) 1/2 The ratio of composite field strength E to the field strength of free space is called fading factor V when the ground influence is considered.4 Influence of terrain on electric waves 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. ψ is close to 180°) r2-r1 is the progressive error of the field strength of reflected wave and the direct wave.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only e1. e2 are the transient values of field strength of direct wave and reflected wave respectively. E0 is the effective wave of the field strength of waves propagates in free space.

following expression can be obtained V= [1+Φ2+2ΦCOS (π (hc/F1) 2]1/2 This expression indicates the quantitative relationship between fading factor V and relative clearance hc/F1. Using Fresnel zone concept to analyze the influence of ground reflection When section distance d is longer than antenna height (h1 and h2).Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.3 is very small (that is.5: If Φ=1. Figure4. it is equal to 20LOG and different from the fading factor in terms of concept. when the receiving level equals to the level of free space for the first time. no disclosure without permission Page 52 of 144 pages . In engineering. curve indicating the relationship between V and hc/F1 is made to simplify the calculation of the additional loss caused by ground reflection. the ground influence is considered. Hc/F1=0. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. see figure4. ψ is close to 180°). the progressive error of direct wave and ground reflection wave can be approximately expressed by: △r=λ (Hc/F1) 2/2 When θ in figure4.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only IV. In figure4.5 Relation between VdB and hc/F1 In the figure.5. “reflection loss” indicates that compared with incoming wave.577. the level that reflected wave attenuates. Φ is related to ground conditions.

refer to figure4.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only If Φ<1. the calculation method of fading factor V is: Open line: for rough calculation. it is called closed line Corresponding to the previous three conditions.577F1. VdB= V0dB (1-hc/h0) In the formulas: VdB is the fading factor when diffraction is considered. when the receiving level equals to the level of free space for the first time.577F1= (λd1d2/d) 1/2 V. it is called open line If 0<hc <h0. Classification of Microwave Lines Normally. C. It is calculated by parameter μ that reflects the obstacle terrain. μ=2. mountains. the clearance is called free space clearance which is represented by H0. when hc <h0. V=1. For half-open and closed line s caused by large highlands.5 or calculated by diffraction expression. Based on relevant theory. for knife-edge obstacles: VdB=-6dB. h0 is free space clearance. approximate diffraction expression can be obtained. h0=0. the relay lines can be classified into three categories: If hc≥h0. For large-size obstacles: VdB <-6dB.577. in the line-of-sight microwave communication. no disclosure without permission Page 53 of 144 pages . refer to figure4. the fading factor can be checked out in figure4. electric wave reaches the receiving point in the way of diffraction.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. or VdB=0. It is expressed by: H0=0. when hc=h0=0.02[K(1-K)/L]2/3 In the formula: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.5 For knife-edge obstacles. it is called half open line If hc≤0. when hc=0. Hc/F1=0. based on expression C.5. There are three conditions: A. based on the clearance hc of relay lines.577 When Hc/F1=0. Under condition of such lines. B.577F1 hc is clearance of the main ray of relay circuit (m) V0dB is the level value of fading factor when the free space clearance is hc=0.

6.7.7 Curve indicating relation of V0dB and μ 4. For cross-section diagram of calculating terrain parameter μ.3 Influence of Troposphere on Electric Wave The most distinct influence of troposphere on the electric wave is the influence of atmospheric refraction on the electric wave propagation. the width of obstacles can be obtained. Figure4.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Figure4.6 Curve of determining terrain parameter μ The relation between V0dB and μ is shown in figure4. see figure 4.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only K=d1/d L is the link that parallel to the RT. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. no disclosure without permission Page 54 of 144 pages . draw tangent and secant lines over the obstacles based on (λd) 1/2/2.

1 Ray Bend in Atmosphere The propagation speed of electric wave in the free space is: υ=c=1/(μ0ε0)1/2 =3×108 (m/s) In actual atmosphere.3. N=0. thus the velocity that electric wave propagates in atmosphere is: υ=1/(μ0ε0 ε’)1/2 = c/(ε’) 1/2 In the formula: ε’ is called relative dielectric coefficient. This variation is expressed by dn/dh. the atmosphere may vary. n is in reverse ratio to h in variation. in different heights. μ=μ0. and moisture.8 variation of electric wave track influenced by atmosphere When dn/dh <0. Supposed the diffraction of atmosphere is n. “n” is normally between 1.8. dielectric coefficient ε=ε0*ε’.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Figure4. In atmosphere.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 4. which makes electric transmitting ray bend down. N=300. On the surface of the ground. no disclosure without permission Page 55 of 144 pages . influenced by different pressure. it is the velocity that electric wave propagates in the free space to the velocity that electric wave propagates in atmosphere. n=c/υ=(ε’)1/2 Indicated by reflection exponent N: N= (n-1) × 106 In free space.00045.0 and 1. See figure4. temperature. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.

the electric wave is always considered to be a straight line and the actual radius of the earth is equivalent to ae. 4. the refracting index gradient is: dn/dh=-1/4a And then.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the concept of equivalent radius is introduced. the bending direction of the electric wave ray is opposite to that of the earth (3) Positive refraction: dn/dh < 0. when K=4/3.3. k=1/(1+a(-1/4a))=4/3 In temperate region. a=6370 km The relationship between K and the index of refraction is: K=1/(1+a dn/dh) K is a very important concept in microwave engineering. the bending and k > 1 or a <a e. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. and k=1 or a=a e (2) Negative refraction: dn/dh >0. no disclosure without permission Page 56 of 144 pages . Equivalent rule is that the clearance between the ray and the earth is unchanged before and after the equivalence. See figure4. and k <1 or a>a e. Figure4. After the concept is introduced. the refraction is standard refraction. direction of the electric wave ray is same as that of the earth Based on a large amount of test result.9 Conditions after and before the equivalence—schematic K is defined as equivalent earth radius coefficient: K= ae/a In the formula.3.9.3 Refraction can be classified into three categories based on the K value (1) Non-refraction: dn/dh=0.2 Concept of Equivalent Earth Radius To analyze influence on electric wave transmission. it must be considered.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 4. and the atmosphere is called standard atmospheric pressure. ae=4a/3 is called standard equivalent earth radius.

When K=2/3. to avoid over large diffraction. such as mountains.5. control the antenna height based on the following standards.3F1 hc ≥ 0 When K=4/3.4 The Meaning of K Value in Engineering Design In engineering. water reticulation area. control the antenna height based on the following standards. China uses Kstandard=4/3. hc ≥ 0. K= ∞. When K=2/3. that is. that is. When inter-station interference is considered.7. you should control the antenna height based on the following requirements.3F1 hc ≥ 0 (for general obstacles) (for knife-edge obstacles) In this situation. for circuits that have large earth reflectance. hc ≥ 0. to make clearance more economical and rational in use.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. such as flat. influence of earth bulge on the electric wave propagation is not considered. diffraction fading produced is not more than 8 dB. standard equivalent earth radius is ae= (4/3–3/2)a. (2) Φ> 0. hilly grounds. Knegative refraction=2/3. 4. (1) Φ≤0.10 Classification of refraction—schematic In engineering calculation.3.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only At equator. that is. hc ≈ F1 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. for circuits that have small earth reflectance. no disclosure without permission Page 57 of 144 pages (for general obstacles) (for knife-edge obstacles) . cities. to avoid over large reflection fading. Figure4.

For in a wide area (such as a section of relay circuit). atmospheric refraction becomes bad and recovers in a relatively long time. it is called upward fading.4. the composite amplitude at the receiving point is very small and does affect the 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. atmospheric temperature.1 Fast Fading and Slow Fading Fading can be classified into slow fading and fast fading based on the duration. Propagation medium is the low-altitude aerosphere and earth and objects in the route. no disclosure without permission Page 58 of 144 pages . hc ≤1.3 Blinking Fading and Multi-path Fading In engineering. if the paths of each ray in the previous multi-path propagation vary. it is called downward fading III. 4.4. and then slow fading is formed. II.1 Fading Types I. Fast fading is closely related to multi-path propagation caused by thin layer in the atmospheric waveguide and turbulent current. it is slowly formed and then slowly disappears. When the received level is higher than the free space level.1. The phenomenon is called electric wave propagation fading. 4. 4.4.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. When the time (season.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only When K=∞. Obviously. and it is always caused by atmospheric refraction changing slowly in a wide area. Long-duration fading is called slow fading and the duration is from several minutes to several hours. earth reflecting point and reflectance also change. Short-duration fading is called slow fading and the duration is from several seconds to several minutes. Slow fading varies slowly.2 Upward Fading and Upward Fading Fading can be classified based on the field strength of the receiving point. 4. This causes the field strength of the receiving point to change. As a result.1. and when it is lower than the free space level. the composite signals of the rays at the receiving point may vary and then fast fading is formed. fading is very random. The degree of fading is indicated by fading factor and fading reason attributes the earth and ground effect. fog and snow) vary. deep If those requirements cannot be met. In the range of microwave.4 Fading caused by Several Atmospheric and Earth Effects Microwave propagation must adopt direct wave and the field strengths of the receiving point is overlap of the direct space wave and earth reflected wave. Blinking fading is mainly caused by local slight disturbance in atmosphere resulting in electric wave beam scattering. 4.35 F1 fading may appear) (for when the clearance is 21/2 F1. fading is always classified into blinking fading and multi-path fading based on the physical causes of fading.4. Each scattering wave has small amplitude and the phase varies along with the atmosphere. refraction and pressure. day and night) and weather (rain.1. change the antenna height or change the route.

There are many reasons for multi-path propagation. the receiving antenna also receives reflected waves from the ground. In multi-path propagation. and then convection current is formed. no disclosure without permission Page 59 of 144 pages . Therefore.2. multi-path propagation objectively exists and affects microwave. Troposphere gathers 3/4 mass of the entire atmosphere. interfaces and sizes are random. thermosphere. For both analogue microwave and digital microwave. thus multi-path fading is very remarkable in this frequency band. thus this layer is called troposphere. which causes the atmospheric density non-homogeneous. For non-homogeneous positions.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only main waves. and it is the major cause of the deep fading of line-of-sight propagation channels.4.2 Influence of Troposphere on Electric Wave Propagation From the ground.1 Atmosphere Absorption Loss Molecule of any material is constituted by charged particles. this fading seldom affects the stability of the line-of-sight radio-relay circuits. Those particles have constant electro-magnetic resonance frequency. For example. But digital microwave is more sensitive to multi-path propagation than analogue microwave. In the microwave π frequency band. the ground temperature increases. under certain weather conditions.4. The influence of troposphere on the electric wave has following types: I. those materials absorb microwave resonantly. mesosphere. there are various non-homogeneous objects in the atmosphere. stratosphere. atmosphere can be divided into six layers in order: troposphere. Troposphere is low-altitude atmosphere ranging from the ground to 10 kilometers higher upward. and exosphere. In addition. Therefore. 4. it arrives at the receiving antenna through more than two different paths. When the ground is exposed to the sun. Multi-path is mainly caused by multi-path propagation. atmospheric waveguide or reflection. in addition to receiving the direct space wave from transmitting antenna. Oxygen molecule (O2) in the atmosphere has magnetic-coupling polar and vapor (H2O) has electric-coupling polar. those are the causes of multi-path propagation. Multi-path propagation is a kind of propagation phenomenon that when the electric wave leaves transmitting antenna. 4. they can absorb energy from electromagnetic waves and then absorption loss is caused. ionosphere. and heat emitted from the ground make the low-temperature atmosphere inflated.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. electric wave is transmitted to the receiving point along many paths. there is phase variance between each electric wave caused by progressive error. upwardly. and the amplitude error caused by different reflection conditions is also random. Multi-path propagation is described in the following section. When the microwave frequency of these materials is close to their resonance frequency. the phase variance 2λ caused by progressive error changes greatly. for example. on the path where there is earth reflection. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. for the wavelength is very short. refracted waves received by receiving antenna. the composite interference field at the receiving point greatly changes. Microwave communication works in this layer. and this is multi-path fading.

Figure4.57cm( f = 57GHz ) . Therefore.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only The maximum absorption peak of vapor is at λ = 1.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the absorption can be ignored. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. and it cannot be too long.3cm ( f = 22. if the microwave station distance is 50 km. Generally. such as mist.2. is formed in the atmosphere.0 dB.2GHz ) . when the microwave frequency is 12 GHz (wavelength is 2. when microwave frequency is less than 12 GHz. scattered and reflected.5 cm).2 Scattering Loss Caused by Rain and Fog Rain. when the wavelength is longer than 5 cm.11.11 Absorption of vapor and oxygen The curve in the figure shows. Following figure shows the absorption loss of electromagnetic waves caused by atmosphere. mainly refracted. compared with free space propagation loss. See figure4. distance between relay sections is limited by loss caused by rains. 4. this non-homogeneous material can make the electric wave refracted. and that of oxygen is at λ = 0. absorption loss of the atmosphere is about 0. II. absorbed. the attenuation of a relay section is 1.4. no disclosure without permission Page 60 of 144 pages . Sometimes. moisture cluster. for frequency band is less than 10 GHz. For the frequency band is more than 10 GHz. normally the fading between two stations is only several dB. the absorption loss can be ignored. fog and snow can absorb electric wave energy if the microwave wavelength is under 5 cm (frequency is 6 GHz). fading caused by rain and fog is not serious.02 dB/km.

use high-low antenna technology to make the reflecting point more nearer to one end to reduce the impact of reflected waves. IV. lake and smooth ground. the longer the distance is. lake and smooth ground if possible.3 Fading Rules (microwave frequency bands lower than 10 GHz) Based on a large amount of test result.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the progressive error varies with the K value. This fading is very serious when the transmission line crosses river. super reflection phenomenon occurs and atmospheric waveguide is formed. In troposphere. Thus. you can deal with the waveguide fading only based on engineering experience.4 Waveguide Fading Due to influence of all kinds of weather conditions. When electric waves pass those non-homogeneous objects. try to avoid river. and in the high-pressure area. if not. find fading of microwave frequency bands lower than 10 GHz follows the following rules: (1) The shorter the wavelength is. therefore. 4.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure4. and the more serious the fading is. in selecting routes. This fading is caused by mutual interference of the direct wave and ground reflected wave (or diffracted wave under certain conditions) due to phase variance when the two kinds of waves arrive at the receiving point.4. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.3 K Type Fading It is an interference-type fading caused by multi-path transmission.4.2.4. 4. 4.12 scattering loss caused by rain and fog III.2. The interference is related to progressive error. no disclosure without permission Page 61 of 144 pages . this fading is called K types fading. non-homogeneous objects are formed. such as the ground is heated by the sun in the morning and become cold in the night. or use high-low antenna technology plus space diversity technology to reduce the impact of multi-path reflection. Under such circumstances.

the receiving point can receive electric waves from many paths. II.5. 4.1 Frequency Selective Fading Multi-path Propagation of Electric Waves I. the receiving level produces multi-path interfering fading along with this multi-path propagation phenomenon.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. 4.2 Further Analysis on Multi-Path Propagation Multi-path fading can be classified into level fading and frequency selective fading. in addition to receiving direct waves. That is. (4) The field strength of received signals is more stable in sunny days and daytime than nights. it is limited to enlarge fading margin to improve system bit error performance. Influence of frequency selective fading on digital microwave system is equivalent to signal-to-noise ratio decrease. from 19:00:00 to 21:00:00 in the night. Atmospheric effect makes the atmosphere produce some random reflected waves and scattered waves that are independent of any fixed reflecting surface. (6) Signals received in rainy.1. (3) Fading occurs more frequently and is deeper in summer and autumn than autumn and spring. therefore. For level fading. This phenomenon is more apt to occur in plains and water reticulation areas than mountain areas. Therefore. in the basin of the Yellow river. for example. this is multi-path propagation phenomenon.5 4. fast fading always occur.1Basic Concepts From the previous chapters.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (2) Fading of propagation paths crossing rives and plains is more serious than that of the paths crossing mountain areas. 4. and the modulus of this vector sum is subject to Rayleigh distribution.5. deep fading frequently occurs. When the sun shines again after rain and fog scatters. the receiving point can also receive reflected waves from some point of the path. it frequently occurs in July. foggy and windy days are more stable than in sunny days. for example.5. Therefore. no disclosure without permission Page 62 of 144 pages . and from 00:00:00 to 03:00:00. Influence of level fading on digital microwave system is equivalent to receiving level decrease. its analysis model can be indicated by the sum of a constant field strength vector and the innumerable mutually independent random vector. The analysis methods normally use two-path model or simplified three-path model. Multi-path electric waves have random amplitude and phase at the receiving point. and the level of the receiving point is the vector sum of mutual interference of the waves. adequate level fading margin can effectively improve the level fading in multi-path fading channels. August and September. from 05:00:00 to 09:00:00 in the morning. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.1. When day and night shift. This phenomenon typically occurs in hot and humid summer. it is learned that for a relay section.

XPI is mainly caused by multi-path propagation.5. while bandwidth of signals is determined by transmission capacity and modulation mode.5. fading model for research should be based on several composite wave beams. Then.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Multi-path propagation can be concluded to two types: one type of multi-path is formed by direct waves and reflected waves. But XPI exists in the form of background interference (noise) and keeps unchanged.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.5. XPD=10lg(P/PX) (dB) In the formula: P is power of the signal received by some channel of receiving end and having the same polarization with transmitting end. 4. therefore. that is. and the other type of multi-path is formed by co-existing paths caused by low-atmosphere effect. II. For multi-path interfering fading is produced by mutual interference of electric waves of different paths.2. Cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is normally represented by level value. therefore. XPI can be produced by the feature of antenna and feeder system at the receiving and transmitting ends. fading caused by mutual interference of more than three beams has lower probability of making circuit quality bad. 4. the A (f). and this variation is called in-band distortion. due to the influence of the atmosphere on the electric wave transmission. the polarization side may be damaged and part of the energy may become orthogonal status (such as vertical polarization) to the signals. But when ground reflected wave is very weak even feeble. And the second type is not typical and does frequently occur. However. model for research of interfering fading is normally based on two beams.1 Causing In-Band Distortion In-band distortion indicates that amplitude frequency feature and time delay frequency feature of microwave signals (modulated waves) in the band are linear. no disclosure without permission Page 63 of 144 pages . In-band distortion caused by frequency selective fading is related to transmission bandwidth of signals.2 Influence of Frequency Selective Fading on Transmission Quality of Microwave Communication Systems I. 4. after being transmitted by the channel.2. influence of the second type becomes the major factor. the first type is major and frequently occurs. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. this is called cross polarization interference (XPI). Normally.2 Making Cross Polarization Discrimination Decrease For microwave signal under a polarization status (such as horizontal polarization). In the frequency band lower than 10 GHz. T (f) features of each frequency spectrum of the signal vary along with frequency. theoretically. interference between two channels of the same frequencies and with polarization orthogonal may be caused. when co-frequency reutilization scheme is adopted.

sometimes the fading is not deep and the influence of thermal noise is not remarkable. Because transport bandwidth of the digital microwave communication system is relatively wide and the wider the bandwidth is. when thermal noise is increased (only thermal noise is considered). communication is interrupted. to make system work under the condition that the threshold bit error rate is not exceeded. That is. space diversity and automatic equilibrium technologies to improve the capability of the system in terms of frequency selective fading. effective fading margin cannot be added (it is slowly added) in proportion to the flat fading margin. When frequency selective fading is considered. for high and medium capacity digital microwave communication system. III. anti-fading capacity of the system is represented by flat fading margin. it indicates that energy is reduced when a polarization status is changed to orthogonal polarization status via transmission.2. and then actual fading margin of the system is less than flat fading margin. but the bit error rate may quickly increase and when it exceeds threshold bit error rate. For example. performance of digital microwave communication system cannot obtain necessary improvement. when the bit error rate is the threshold value Pe=10-3. You can adopt frequency diversity.5. If the XPD value is large.1 Microwave Fading Model—Rayleigh Distribution Function To understand the reliability of communications. Effective fading margin is always mentioned in digital microwave communication. 4. no disclosure without permission Page 64 of 144 pages . thus adequate level margin must be reserved. Fading depth 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. but multi-path propagation might make the XPD become bad remarkably. it is level margin that must be reserved o make the system still work when the threshold bit error rate is not exceeded and frequency selective fading is considered in comparison to free space propagation. For high and medium capacity digital microwave communication system. the receiving level is -80 dB and its flat fading margin is 45 dB. concept of flat fading is not suitable.6 Statistic Feature of Fading 4. when flat fading margin is added. 4. that is. the more serious the influence of frequency selective fading is. This is because when in-band distortion is serious. the XPD of antenna and feeder system should be larger than 40 dB.6.3 Making Original Fading Margin of the System Decrease When the frequency selective fading is not considered or the narrowband signals are transmitted in the system (frequency selective fading is ignored). the receiving level is -35 dB. you should understand possibility distribution of fading depth and fading duration. Flat fading margin is: compared with free space propagation condition. For frequency bands 4 GHz and 6GHz. under the condition of free space propagation. only by means of increasing flat fading margin such as increasing transmitting power.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. for a digital microwave communication system.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only PX is the XPI signal received by the channel.

consider the condition of electric wave propagation.6. Fading model is described by the sum of innumerable random vectors with independent phase. C: constant factor concerning weather and seasonal geography D: distance between stations (km) W: the received power when there is no fading W0: the received power when there is fading 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. The modulus of the vector sum that can prove fading is subject to this general distribution. Phase interference caused by multi-path transmission effect is the major cause of microwave transmission line-of-sight deep fading. The typical function is Rayleigh distribution function.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only provides interruption level in propagation and fading duration provides interruption time. not more than the probability of the receiving power when there is fading. In the Rayleigh distribution. and constant field strength is subordinated. Simply. Ee2—the effective guide average value of the field strength. When the fading is serious. coherent multi-path vector occupies large proportion. To analyze fading features in different conditions. no disclosure without permission Page 65 of 144 pages . 4. it corresponds to receiving power and sometimes it indicates the receiving power related to threshold condition.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the probability of fading is: Pr=KQfBdcW/ W0 In the formula: Pr: Rayleigh fading probability. K: factor of environment condition Q: factor of geographical condition F: working frequency of microwave (GHz) B. When the fading feature is subject to Rayleigh distribution. probability theory is adopted. and many types of distribution functions that can indicate those features are cited. that is. Rayleigh distribution is the probability of a value that the receiving level might be when there is fading. the fading is fast and deep. It corresponds to average receiving power. the probability of the receiving level lower than a certain level is: P(E)=1-e-(E2/Ee2) In the formula: 2 E —the square of previously defined effective value of the field strength.2 Engineering Calculation of Rayleigh Fading Probability Use Rayleigh fading distribution rules in the microwave communication.

diffraction on smooth spherical surface.63 ×10-4 B 1 1 1 1 C 1.3 1. the values of constant factors are as follows: No. interference and polarization of electric wave. 4. refer to following documents: Microwave Communication Engineering Design Posts & Telecom Press edited by Post & Telecommunication Design Institute 1989-08 Digital Microwave Communication Engineering 1991-11 Posts & Telecom Press 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. it is OK. reflection on different characteristic grounds.75 ×10-3 2. and loss theory. super refraction caused by irregular change of atmospheric medium gradient.884 ×10-3 2. sea. no disclosure without permission Page 66 of 144 pages . propagation in the presence of knife-edge obstacles and multi-obstacles.7 Conclusion This chapter mainly describes the propagation principles of microwave. when Pr value of each relay circuit meets the bit error rate index of the microwave channels. Huygens-Fresnel theory.072×10-2 2. Fresnel theory of electric wave propagation. For more information about microwave transmission.2 In actual engineering. absorption of the electric wave by rains and fogs in atmospheric propagation. when the fading depth is already known “Fd(dB)”.8 2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Based on decades of practices performed by national research institutes. In engineering. influence of troposphere on the electric wave. in China. electric wave reflection caused by non-homogeneous atmosphere. 1 2 3 4 Mountain areas Hilly areas plains Lake. Have a think: What do you learn in this chapter? (1) Electric wave propagation in free sapce (2) Influence of groud reflection on the electric wave propagation (3) Influence of troposphere on the electric wave (4) Fading caused by several atmospheric and ground effects (5) Frequency selective fading and its influence on microwave communication Pay special attention to (4) and (5). swamp lands KQ 1. including propagation theory of free space.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the probability of this depth to occur is: Pr=KQfBdc10(-fd/10) In the formula: meanings of the symbols are previously explained.2 3. 10(-fd/10) is the multiple of fading depth.

To deal with flat fading. anti-fading technology. any kind of anti-fading measure must be adaptive. Hence.1 Purposes of Taking Anti-Fading Measures (1) Compared to fiber transmission system. a better anti-fading effect can be achieved. which varies with the geographical environment and time.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Digital Microwave Communication Posts & Telecom Press Wang Yunfei Gao Fengquan.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. These anti-fading technologies suppress amplitude dispersion and delay dispersion in different ranges of space. all kinds of anti-fading technical measures are proposed. 5. The following three measures are used for frequency selective anti-fading.1 Overview Multi-Path fading may cause fading and distortion of the transmission channel. digital microwave relay system has the following two problems: Reduced received power due to multi-path fading 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. 5. To deal with frequency selective fading. Based on the wave propagation statistical rules. the diversity technology and adaptive equalization technology are adopted. no disclosure without permission Page 67 of 144 pages . the automatic gain control circuit (AGE) of the intermediate frequency amplifier in the receiver and channel switching method are for common use. frequency and time.1. Yin Minguang 1992-01 Microwave Propagation Fading and Anti-Fading Technology Yulong 1984-05 Microwave Propagation Posts & Telecom Press 1988-11 edited by edited by Gao Chapter 5   Anti-Fading Technology in Digital Microwave Equipment Objectives To have a general understanding on anti-fading technology To master principles and features of all kinds of anti-fading technologies To master all kinds of protection schemes for digital microwave equipment Fading phenomenon in microwave propagation has impact on relay transmission. If these technologies are combined. that is.

the designers of the microwave relay system should take proper anti-fading measures to meet indexes on general error performance parameters of the system. Based on physical features Table 5. digital microwave relay system should take anti-fading measures to improve the system performance. all kinds of anti-fading devices are important parts of the system. such as SES probability. (2) ITU-T specifies the error performance indexes of the end-to-end digital channels within 27500km. proper diversity receiver and effective equalizer can overcome the difficulty in long-haul across-the-sea spans. no disclosure without permission Page 68 of 144 pages . For example. both the price and performance need be considered to decide an anti-fading measure.1.3 illustrates the classification based on functional features. Any kind of anti-fading measure requires additional investment. ITU-R also responds and proposes similar suggestions. 5. microwave relay system is always the unique transmission medium to transmit services as required. Table 5.1 Category A . Hence.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Degraded circuit performance due to wave shape distortion Hence. Category A relates to the equipment and category B relates to the system. To meet these indexes. (3) Another purpose of the anti-fading measures is to popularize and apply microwave relay links in relay segments where the propagation conditions are weak. During the design for systems and/or equipment.1 and Table 5. Table 5.anti-fading measure related to equipment Frequency domain equalization Adaptive equalization Linear equalization Time domain equalization Decision feedback equalization XPIC Interference cancellation IC of other route 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. In these cases.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2 Classification of Anti-Fading Measures The anti-fading measures can be classified based on two standards.2 illustrate the anti-fading measures classified based on physical features. the more advanced anti-fading methods the system should be adopted. The stricter the indexes are.

anti-fading measure related to the system Double space diversity space diversity angle diversity frequency diversity multi-carrier transmission* Same frequency band Cross-connect frequency band Triple/quadruple space diversity * Multi-carrier transmission is only used in areas where environments are bad. if the system has large fading margin. The value of I relates to the degree of performance degradation. no disclosure without permission Page 69 of 144 pages . The spectrums within the frequency range is fully (flat fading) or partially reduced (selective fading). the improvement effect is also great. As a kind of dominant fading in microwave system.1.1 and Table 5. The anti-fading measures described in Table 5.3 Evaluation on Anti-Fading Measures The improvement factor of anti-fading measures is defined by I = P/P’. Based on functional features Multi-Path fading may cause power reduction or wave shape distortion when signals are received. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. flat fading may cause relative reduction of C/N and C/I. Table 5. Selective fading is a kind of dominant fading in broad-band digital microwave system. P refers to the system interruption probability in a given fading depth in when there is not anti-fading measure.2 Category B . when there is space diversity.0 ATPC forward error correction (FEC) Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Table 5.1. As shown in Figure 5.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. P’ refers to the system interruption probability in a given fading depth when there are anti-fading measures.2 are used for compensation in case of one or two preceding conditions.3 Classification based on functional features Classification Adaptive equalization (A) Anti-fading measure related to equipment Interference cancellation ATPC forward error correction Space diversity (B) Anti-fading measure related to the system Angle diversity frequency diversity Multi-Carrier transmission Effect Wave shape distortion Wave shape distortion Power reduction Power reduction Power reduction and wave shape distortion Power reduction and wave shape distortion Power reduction and wave shape distortion Wave shape distortion 5.

1 AFE Frequency equalization uses the frequency characteristics of an adjustable network to compensate distortion of amplitude frequency characteristics and phase frequency characteristics of actual channels. However. However. the equalizer is classified into two types.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.1 Space diversity improvement factor Each anti-fading measure has its own improvement factor. to compensate signal distortion caused by multi-path fading and reduce the system interruption time. 5. the improvement effect for two different anti-fading measures is not presented by multiplying two improvement factors.2 Adaptive Equalization In a digital microwave system. For example.2. rather than AFE. The improvement factor is bigger than the product of two factors. 5. Currently. most SDH microwave systems use both AFE and ATE. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. the equalization capability of ATE is stronger. no disclosure without permission Page 70 of 144 pages . the combined effect exists. the common equalizer is intermediate frequency adaptive equalizer. Intermediate frequency adaptive equalizer (IF-EQL) consists of correction network (equalization circuit). the adaptive equalizer is widely used. which may cause combined effect. equalization characteristic detector and controller. if space diversity and adaptive equalizer are combined. Based on different working frequencies and places. Some SDH microwave systems just use ATE.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 5. Adaptive frequency domain equalizer (AFE): used in intermediate frequency (IF) to control transfer function of the channel Adaptive time domain equalizer (ATE): used in time domain to directly reduce intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by bad transfer function Compared to AFE. which is a kind of bandpass equalization.

In this way. II.1 Slope Frequency Domain Equalizer When multi-path fading exists. Hence. the signal distortion will reduce. the actual transfer function can obtain flat amplitude frequency characteristics. information about group delay distortion cannot be obtained.2 illustrates the principle of tunable equalizer: Figure 5.2 IF tunable adaptive equalizer I. The equalizer introduces a tool to correct the amplitude slope and thus recovers symmetry of power spectrum density of received signals.1. In this event. Principle of gap frequency domain equalizer: As a part. However. group delay distortion will double. 5. This kind of circuit always shows concave-down group delay characteristic. if the channel encounters non-minimum phase fading. slope frequency domain equalizer is used to compensate the slope asymmetry in frequency response to microwave channels. the system characteristic curve of the minimum phase fading can be reduced. Figure 5.2.2 Gap Frequency Domain Equalizer The transfer function should be close to the reciprocal of the channel characteristic that complies with the propagation model of two rays. According to the tested slope direction. Note: During spectrum monitoring.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. when the channel encounters the minimum phase fading. Hence. the resonance filter is used to control its gradient coefficient and center frequency and thus trace the fading gap. Thus the amplitude frequency characteristics can be recovered to be flat. 5.1. a detection signal at the opposite direction is generated to mix with the original signal. but the characteristic curve of the non-minimum phase fading is not improved. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. no disclosure without permission Page 71 of 144 pages . Principle of slope frequency domain equalizer: Use a set of narrow-band filters to monitor output power spectrums at three places.2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only IF-EQL is classified into IF tunable equalizer and IF adaptive amplitude frequency slope equalizer. the improvement effect of the equalizer is limited.

visually presenting basic principle of ATE: In the preceding formula: Xk(τ) = xk (kT+τ) is the received composite signal at the sampling moment: kT+τ ak refers to the transmitted data symbol at kT. For the microwave equipment in QAM mode.2.3 illustrates the principle of an IF adaptive transverse equalizer: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. nk refers to the sampling value of additive white Gauss noise (AWGN) hi(τ). the many hardware devices are involved and the control accuracy is bad. the control signals of some frequency domain equalizers are extracted from baseband signals. distortion caused on the propagation channel can interfere in mutual orthogonal carriers. Hence. The preceding equation describes two reasons for the quality reduction of transmitted symbols: additive noise and interference from previous and later symbols. The following formula describes the discrete input/output relation of general channel response. Only when pulse response h(τ) meets the Nyquist rule. though the transmitting and received filters are designed to form the Nyquist filter. Figure 5.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In Figure 5. Actually. time-varying multi-path propagation of attribute microwave channel destroys this characteristic. To avoid intersymbol interference.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2 ATE ATE is used in time domain to directly reduce intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by distortion of amplitude and group delay. time domain controls equalization of frequency domain. Currently. the control signals of most frequency domain equalizers are extracted from signal spectrum by using three bandpass filters.i=–∞……. Time domain equalization is performed between orthogonal carriers to eliminate such orthogonal interference. 5. thus causing severe intersymbol interference. different information is transmitted through orthogonal phase carriers. that is.+∞ is the sampling value of general channel pulse response at the sampling phase τ.2. Hence. an adaptive equalizer should be added out of the receiver. may non-intersymbol interference be implemented. no disclosure without permission Page 72 of 144 pages .

In a light-of-sight propagation route. The ATE can equalize non-minimum phase fading when the reflected wave is stronger than direct wave: ρ > 1 . The interference between two polarization waves is small.4 shows the principle of XPIC (NEC3000 series SDH microwave equipment): 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. to improve the spectrum utilization.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Counteracter (XPIC) In a common microwave radio transmission system. the interwave interference compensation technology of cross-polarization should be introduced. Orthogonal polarization Interference Counteracter (OPIC) can be implemented in radio frequency.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. in SDH microwave transmission. the co-channel or channel-insertion cross-polarization frequency regeneration mode is adopted. Figure 5. intermediate frequency and baseband frequency. The latter two frequency bands are more common. no disclosure without permission Page 73 of 144 pages . the XPI can be improved by about 20 dB. After the XPIC is adopted.3 Principle diagram of an IF adaptive transverse equalizer T refers to the delay line and every class of delay is a bit. However. Hence. 5. In actual use. the frequency of two polarization waves are allocated in different interleave mode.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only ∑ C-2 S(t) X C-1 X C0 X C1 X C2 X S1(t) ∑ T d-2 X d-1 T X d0 T X d1 T X d2 T X ∑ S'(t) S2(t) 90° Figure5. the cross-polarization signals may severely cause interference to co-polarization signals. in the event of multi-path fading. both the AFE and ATE are used. dispersion on the nonuniform layer and ground or rain and fog.

When the level is lower than the lowest received level specified by ATPC and the receiver detects propagation fading in the event of propagation fading. no disclosure without permission Page 74 of 144 pages .0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure5. the transmitter operates at the power 10–15 dB lower than the rated power in most time (over 99%). the reverse communication service channel is used to control the transmitter configured in the feedback loop and thus the output power can gradually reach Pmax. the output power of a transmitter is fixed at a low level that may be about 10–15 dB lower than the normal level.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC) As a key technology in digital microwave area.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. After the ATPC is adopted. lower than 1%.4 Principle of XPIC 5. ATPC uses the RFCOH byte to control the peer end transmitter and thus increase the transmitting power till a rated power value. Usually. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. the time rate occurring on severe propagation fading is short. that is. ATPC helps the output power of a transmitter operates in a normal value (or minimum value) Pnom in most cases. In normal propagation conditions. When the level of the remote receiver reduces. Characteristics of ATPC: The output power of a microwave transmitter can automatically trace the receiving levels at the receive end within the range controlled by ATPC and vary with the levels.

As a result.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 5.5 Principle of ATPC According to the change rate of the transmitting power of a transmitter. when the received level ranges between two thresholds. when the received level of a receiver reduces to the startup threshold level of ATPC. In the middle-high BER area (10-9 ≤ BER ≤ 10-6). ATPC is classified into mutation ATPC system and progressive ATPC system. severe interference may occur.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. power consumption of high-power amplifiers is obviously reduced and the power 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Otherwise. In common frequency heteropolarizing frequency reuse mode. the transmitting power operates at a low level at once. For the mutation ATPC system. the trace speed of the ATPC system should be 100 dB/s. thus avoiding one in a high level and the other in a low level. no disclosure without permission Page 75 of 144 pages . Figure 5.5 Mutation and progressive ATPC systems Advantages of using ATPC are as follows: (1) In the event of strong fading. any bit error should not occur due to the ATPC during the operation of ATPC. the gain of an available system is added and the impact on BER performance due to bad linear performance of a transmitter can be omitted. When the received level increases to a set upper level. For the progressive ATPC system. (2) Joint adaptive DC feeding may be provided. To adapt the change of electric wave fading. In addition. the transmitting power of a transmitter operates at a high level at once. the level of the transmitting power changes gradually. two polarizations should start ATPC at the same time. output backoff (OBO) can be reduced.

but the equipment involved is complex. (5) At the crowded railroad terminals. that have been modulated with identical information-bearing signals. The count of antennas decides the count of diversity.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only consumption of the radio frequency amplifiers is equal to 50% of the normal level. which facilitates to largely improve the mean time between failures (MTBF) of FET power device.5 Diversity Reception Diversity reception: a resultant signal is obtained by combining or selecting signals.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. ideally separated by one or more wavelengths. These advantages are very important for the new generation SDH microwave system.5. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.1 Classification of Diversity Reception Diversity reception is classified into the following types: (1) Space diversity (SD): a method of transmission or reception. As the antennas are separated physically. from two or more independent sources. no disclosure without permission Page 76 of 144 pages . Diversity reception is used to minimize the effects of fading. or both.6 Space diversity Space diversity can effectively solve K type fading caused by interference from the ground reflected wave and direct wave and interference fading caused by the troposphere. Two or more sets of antennas and feeders are needed. Figure 5. 5. (3) The upward fading problem of the receiver is removed. but which may vary in their fading characteristics at any given instant. The space diversity can save frequency resources. in which the effects of fading are minimized by the simultaneous use of two or more physically separated antennas. (4) The impact due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) is reduced and the performance improvement is interrupted. 5. the reduction of nominal received level is prone to frequency coordination. the correlation is small.

equivalent to paths through different scatter volumes in the troposphere. When the diversity in the same frequency uses 2% of the working frequency as a frequency spacing. This is the reason for high improvement coefficient of frequency diversity in microwave systems. The main antenna is parallel with the main radial. Only in this event.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. The structure of angle diversity consists of two antennas installed side by side. However.7 Frequency diversity Frequency diversity has obvious effects and needs an antenna and a feeder only. the effect of polarization diversity is smaller. the diversity improvement effect can be obtained.05. In SDH microwave systems. As shown in the trial result on an actual microwave circuit ranging from 5925 to 6425 MHz. the main reason for circuit interruption is not the reduction of signal level. The example is seldom seen. Figure5.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (2) Frequency diversity (FD): Transmission and reception in which the same information signal is transmitted and received simultaneously on two or more independently fading carrier frequencies to reduce the effects of fading. and the beam of diversity antenna is elevation angle ө. Compared to other diversities. In frequency diversity systems.97. no disclosure without permission Page 77 of 144 pages . the utilization of its frequency bands is low. that is. They have different elevation angles or directions. the selective fading is seldom irrelevant and the coefficient is only 0. the correlation of two diversity received signals (frequency correlation) should be small. the smaller the correlation of deep fading at the same time. The second beam can be provided by an independent antenna or dual-feed antenna.8 is a typical structure. (3) Polarization diversity: Diversity transmission and reception wherein the same information signal is transmitted and received simultaneously on orthogonally polarized waves with fade-independent propagation characteristics. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. a feature with low probability of co-interruption on two frequencies. The bigger the spacing of two frequencies is. (4) Angle diversity: Diversity reception in which beyond-the-horizon tropospheric scatter signals are received at slightly different angles. However. deep fading on two frequencies can be avoided in a given path and good diversity effect can be implemented. the correlation of flat fading depths of signals between two channels at a spacing of 60 MHz is high and the correlation coefficient is 0. Figure 5. but the occurrence of frequency selective fading. Frequency diversity improves the digital microwave system much greater than the analog microwave system. The frequency diversity uses the irrelevance of fading in different frequencies.

2 Description of Space Diversity Frequency diversity and space diversity are used more widely. current frequency resources are more insufficient and frequency diversity has a good effect only when the frequency spacing is big. Hence. no disclosure without permission Page 78 of 144 pages . analyze and check whether multi-path fading on the specified path is caused by aerosphere or ground reflection. 5.4 to 0.0021 fS 0. S refers to the upright spacing between the center of the upper received antenna and lower received antenna. the “half lobe distance” principle is adopted to calculate the spacing as follows: S1 = λd 4h ' 2 ' h2 = h2 − 2 d2 2kR0 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. use the following formula: ρ c = exp[−0.6. For the path with weak ground reflection on foothills. space diversity is better. However. a large number of test results related to the angle diversity system exist. when the performance depends on the thermal noise effect.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 5.8 Angle diversity Space diversity with the angle diversity has much better improvement effects than space diversity without the angle diversity.4d ] ρc refers to the correlation coefficient of two antenna signals and the value ranges from 0. Currently. In engineering practice. space diversity is applied more often and thus is described as follows.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. When deciding the antenna spacing. when space diversity focuses on air multi-path fading. the value of S can be calculated simply as follows: S ≥ (100–200)λ For plain areas and water circuit. that is. These results show that the performance of angle diversity and space diversity is equivalent when the performance of a digital microwave system depends on the amplitude dispersion. “diversity antenna spacing” (m).5. Space diversity needs several antennas in the same tower. especially when a big upright space between two antennas cannot be ensured in paths with strong ground reflection. However.

including one main antenna (receiving and transmitting the main signal) and one diversity antenna (receiving diversity signal). hybrid space diversity cannot be used. Space diversity reduces impact on flat fading and in-band amplitude dispersion and thus improves the transmission quality of digital microwave circuits. (2) Hybrid diversity: Hybrid space diversity is a common receiving mode of the PDH microwave system (one transceiver unit has one transmitter and one receiver). space diversity can be used. 1+1 protection scheme need be configured. b. the values calculated by using the preceding formulas will be small. Each station needs two antennas. To use hybrid space diversity. (3) Non-standard space diversity: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. In common engineering application. Space diversity largely reduces the received power and improves signal distortion.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. h1 h2 When the preceding formulas are adopted. no disclosure without permission Page 79 of 144 pages .0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only S2 = λd 4h '1 h1' = h1 − d12 2kR0 S1 refers to the diversity antenna spacing of the received station and S 2 refers to the diversity antenna spacing of the transmitting station (m). the values calculated by using the preceding formulas will be big. the spacing of space diversity for a digital microwave system can range from 8 to 12m and 10m is available. Space diversity is further divided into the following: (1) Standard space diversity: Standard space diversity is a common receiving mode of the SDH microwave system. refers to the height from the received antenna to the mountaintop and refers to the height from the transmitting antenna to the mountaintop (m). When the clearance of a long path is small. Select a proper value according to the formula: S ≥ (100–200)λ. One station uses one antenna (one antenna can receive and transmit two main signals) and the other station uses two antennas (each can receive and transmit one main signal). Select a value according to the formula: S ≥ (100–200)λ and the value can be taken as the integer multiple of “half lope distance”. A transceiver unit needs one transmitter and two receivers (one is diversity receiver). pay attention to the following two issues: a. Note: When PDH microwave system is configured with 1+0 protection scheme. Note: When the SDH microwave system configured with 1+0 protection scheme. the frequency is low and the height difference of antennas on both ends is big. When the clearance of a short path is big and the frequency is high.

in switching.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Non-standard space diversity is also a common receiving mode of the PDH microwave system (one transceiver unit has one transmitter and one receiver). no disclosure without permission Page 80 of 144 pages . Note: When PDH microwave system is configured with 1+0 protection scheme. 1+1 protection scheme need be configured. Based on different rules.5.9 is the sketch map of common space diversity in engineering design: Figure5. there are following compound modes: maximum power compound (co-phase compound). (2) Maximum Power Compound 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. The advantages and disadvantages of each diversity signal compound modes are described as follows: (1) Switching Diversity For switching diversity. This diversity mode is very simple and it is mainly used in PDH microwave communication and normally realized in baseband.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. there are problems of amplitude and phase jump and waveform distortion. Switching diversity is to choose one of the two signal paths based on maximum signal-to-noise ratio or minimum bit error rate. maximum signal-to-noise ratio co-phase compound and minimum chromatic dispersion compound.3 Compound Mode of Diversity Signals There are two modes to process receiving signals from different diversity paths: switching diversity and compound diversity. Figure 5. Each station uses two antennas (one antenna can receive and transmit one main signal).9 Classification of space diversity 5. To use non-standard space diversity. Integrated diversity is to compound two signals based on certain rules. non-standard space diversity cannot be used.

6. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. active/standby channels switch independently. the main objective of space diversity is to overcome frequency selective fading and thus minimum chromatic dispersion is adopted. Multiplexing module selects and receives the signal of the best quality of all the signals. After demodulating RF signals. At this time. 5. both are cross dual fed. and at the receiving end. when it is FD. there are two protection mode widely used in microwave equipment: hitless switch module (HSM) and hot standby (HSB). and then hitless switch of the baseband signal can be performed. no disclosure without permission Page 81 of 144 pages . only an antenna is needed.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. Maximum power compound is easily realized in IF. Transmitting process of FD and SD are the same. (3) Maximum Signal-to-Noise Ratio Co-Phase Compound To ensure optimal signal-to-noise ratio of the diversity receiving compound signal. the two are combined in use to protect microwave equipment. this compound ignores frequency selective fading and only considers the flat fading caused by multi-path effect. The advantage is that when a receiving signal tends to be 0. If the signal-to-noise ratios of the two paths are different. It is ineffective to enhance receiving level. the signal-to-noise ratio of the compound signal may decrease.1 HSM As it is described previously. local IF board not only sends signals to its own multiplexing module but also sends one signal to the backup IF board. 5. and the two ODUs transmits same services with different frequencies. The difference is. This compound mode does not consider separate signal-to-noise ratio of the two receiving signals. Normally.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only It is also called co-phase compound. which may cause thermal noise to increase and deteriorate bit error rate.6 Microwave Equipment Protection Mode Currently. it can be replaced by the signal of another channel. FD and SD are channel backup. you can adopt maximum signal-to-noise ratio co-phase compound. the signal-to-noise ratio of the compound signal is not less than the signal-to-noise ratio value when single antenna is used to receive signals. (4) Minimum Chromatic Dispersion Compound In the condition of wideband modulation. ODU of the backup channel does not transmit signals but only receives signals. when it is SD. The disadvantage of minimum chromatic dispersion compound is that the compound output power is less than that of co-phase compound. When the signal of some channel is unavailable. frequency selective fading cannot be ignored for its influence is even more serious than flat fading.

11 HSB protection mode—schematic There are two ways to realize HSB: Add a hybrider between two ODUs and the antenna. HSB switching may damage the service.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. cross-connect board only receives one signal and when this signal fails.2 HSB HSB is similar to 1+1 hot standby of the cross-connect board and SCC in optical network equipment. Figure5. Normally. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. no disclosure without permission Page 82 of 144 pages . Use two antennas to achieve 1+1 HSB protection. See figure 5.10 HSM protection mode—schematic 5. You can use FD and SD technologies to improve system availability. the cross-connect board is switched to another signal.12. The receiving end completes selective receiving at the cross-connect side. Therefore. and then you can achieve 1+1 HSB protection by using one antenna and use FD technology at the same time.6.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure5. it realizes the backup of IF board and ODU to be dual fed and selective receiving. and HSB can be mixed with FD or SD to provide protection.

see figures 5.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.6. For connection of other protection modes. equipment and antenna Channel protection.16. 5. Table 5.3 Classification of Digital Microwave Equipment Protection Modes Classification of microwave equipment protection modes is shown in table 5. equipment protection equipment and antenna proteciton protection of channel.4.13–5. while HSB is completed in cross-connect board and may damage services.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure5. 1+0 non-protection is that both receive and transmit ends use one IDU and one ODU. no disclosure without permission Page 83 of 144 pages .4 Classification of Digital Microwave Equipment Protection Configuration 1+0 1+1 1+1 1+1 1+1 N+1 NP HSB HSB+FD HSB+SD FD+SD FD Protection mode Non-protection Equipment proteciton Channel protection. equipment protection Intra-frequency Inter-frequency Intra-frequency Inter-frequency Inter-frequency Remark Application Terminal of the network circuits where distance between the stations is short Select proper mode based on geographical conditions and customer’s requirement High capacity backbone transmission 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.12 connection of single antenna and two antennas used in HSB It should be emphasized that HSM switching is completed in IF board and can achieve hitless switching.

channel backup is inter-frequency backup and this protection mode (FD) is mainly used in all indoor microwave equipment.14 HSB+FD Figure5. They both include independent demodulator and modulator. This protection mode is always called N+1 (N≤3. receiving and transmitting units.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.15 HSB+SD In figure5.15. Mn is the active channel and P is protection channel. In figure5.13 HSB Figure5. 11) protection and different manufacturers support different specifications. it isHSB+SD+FD. When failure or fading occurs to the active channels.16. signals may be switched to standby channels. no disclosure without permission Page 84 of 144 pages . if frequency transmitted by each antenna is inter-frequencym. 7.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure5. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. signal radiation from other radio stations.1 Interference Source Interference on the communication system is from all kinds of sources which mainly are: (1) Circuits thermal noise. which is mainly caused by shot effect when charges inside devices move discontinuously. such as alternating current hum. (2) Inner noise of electric devices. (3) Thermal radiation noise of objects (including absorption noise) which is caused by thermal radiation of objects. which is caused by thermal disturbance of the electrons in conductor. compounding noise. micro-phonic effect.2 Basic Methods of Communication System against Interference Major factors that affect communication quality are defects (including failure) in equipment and interference. electric radiation from electrical equipment. 5. (7) Radio station interference. a noise radiation from universal objects (5) Atmospheric noise.7.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure5. (6) Industry interference. (8) All kinds of interference produced inside receiver. which is caused by electric discharge in the atmosphere and is in the shape of pulse.16 N+1 5. But interference always exists and it is accelerated to some extent when the electric equipment is widely used. non-linear result and oscillator phase jitter and so on. such as electrical spark interference. no disclosure without permission Page 85 of 144 pages . Thus it becomes more crucial to prevent communication systems against interference. (4) Space interference. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Quality of communication equipment can be improved under the development of scientific technology.7 Interference and Main Methods against Interference 5. Influence of interference on communications is increasingly aggravated.7.

You can also use directional suppression method to weaken the strength of signals. In addition. no disclosure without permission Page 86 of 144 pages . frequency-expanding communication technology and digital modulation technology are used to improve anti-interference ability. it is always used together with narrowband filtering. wideband modulation (such as frequency modulation). When the input signal of correlator and the interference level are both very low to ensure correlator is under linear working status. Currently. radio management administrations always set strict limitations on the maximum transmitting power of stations. thus the method is also limited to great extent. its anti-interference ability is always superior to narrowband filtering.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. But complex and huge antennas are always required in this method. However. Therefore. and it is greatly used in communication systems that have strict requirement for reliability. improving the level of input signals of the receiving end This method is very effective but limited by many aspects such as equipment size. (5) Improving modulation and demodulation Based on different features of interference. almost all the communication equipment adopt this method. Therefore. (3) Using narrowband filterer to conduct frequency selection This is the basic method to prevent communication systems against interference. when input interference level exceeds the linear working area of correlator. research on communication technology is always research on the anti-interference technology (or closely related to anti-interference technology). it should cooperate with other anti-interference measures to achieve required anti-interference performance. weight and power-consumption quantity. amplifying transmitting power may aggravate interference on other radio stations or lines. When working frequency is higher.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Anti-interference in communication systems already becomes a specialized subject which attracts a great deal of scholars and engineers. (4) Using correlator to conduct waveform selection If narrowband filtering considered to be processing signals in the frequency domain and then correlated receiving method is to process signals in the time domain. Narrowband filterer is complicated in crafts. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. this method attracts more and more attention. Therefore. satisfactory attenuation feature cannot be guaranteed. anti-interference performance may obviously degrade. the basic methods are: (1) Amplifying the power of transmitting signals. Summarizing existing anti-interference methods. (6) Using error correction and detection technology to check errors This is an effective anti-interference measure which is developed in digital communication technology. Technology of this aspect is rapidly developed now. narrowband modulation (such as single sideband modulation). (2) Using directional antenna to conduct space selection Directional antenna is good for improving the strength of available signals and it can suppress interference from other directions on some particular high-level interference at the same time. Thus.

it introduces the interference in microwave propagation and main anti-interference methods. and clearance and reflection point.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Have a think: What do you learn in this chapter? (1) Objectives. diversity technologies related to systems.2 Microwave Path Parameter Calculation Microwave path parameter calculation includes calculation of station distance. classifications and evaluation of measures against fading. elevation/minus angle. calculate the true northern azimuth α A from A to B. 6.2. no disclosure without permission Page 87 of 144 pages . communication azimuth.1 Microwave Station Antenna Communication Azimuth Calculation (1) Based on the longitude and latitude of A and B. classifications and evaluation of measures against digital microwave fading (2) Principles and features of technologies related to protect equipment (3) Diversity (4) Protection modes of microwave equipment (5) Interference and main methods against interference Diversity is very import. and then explains theories and features of anti-fading technologies related to microwave equipment. Chapter 6 Digital Microwave Engineering Calculation  Objectives: To understand microwave path parameter calculation To understand microwave circuit indexes calculation 6.1 Overview Microwave engineering calculation includes two major parts: path parameter calculation and circuit indexes calculation.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. 5. at last.8 Conclusion This chapter first describes the fading of digital microwave transmission and objectives. and protection modes of microwave equipment. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. you should pay more attention to this section. 6.

Y1 ≥Y 2 (ΔX 2 + ΔY 2 ≠ 0) In the formula: X 1 : Longitudinal coordinates of A X 2 : Longitudinal coordinates of B 2007-4-4 Y1 : horizontal coordinates of A Y2 : horizontal coordinates of B Page 88 of 144 pages Huawei confidential. Y1 ≥ Y2 α A = π − α + θ m X 1 ≥ X 2 . α A= π + α When tan α < 0. α A= 2π − α In the formula: φ1 : Latitude of A φ 2 : Latitude of B V1 : Longitude of A V2 : Longitude of B (2) Based on projection coordinates of A and B. sin(φ 2 − φ1 ) (rad ) cos V1 tan V2 − sin V1 cos(φ 2 − φ1 ) V1 < V2 . V1 > V2 .Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. α A= π − α V1 < V2 . α A= α A V1 > V2 . α = tan −1 ΔY (rad ) ΔX ΔX = X 2 − X 1 ΔY = Y2 − Y1 α A = α + θm X 1 ≤ X 2 . Y1 ≤ Y2 α A = 2π − α + θ m X1 ≤X 2 .0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only α = arctan When tan α >0. calculate true northern azimuth α A of A and B. no disclosure without permission . Y1 ≤ Y2 α A = π + α + θ m X 1 ≥ X 2 .

C = φ1 − φ 2 (3) Calculation method of coordinate path distance: d = ΔX 2 + ΔY 2 (Km) The meaning of the parameters in the formula is same as that of 6. [ ] 2 (Km) R0 =6370 km.2 Calculation of Path Distance (1) Calculation method when ground is flat ( d < 10 km): d = R0 (V2 − V1 ) 2 + (φ 2 − φ1 ) cos V2 In the formula: R0 : earth radius.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2. Coordinate of A is at the left side of true meridian.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Separation angle between the true meridian marked below A and the coordinates.2. no disclosure without permission Page 89 of 144 pages . Parameters of longitude and latitude are both radian. Coordinate of B is at the right side of true meridian. β = π / 2 − V2 .3 Calculation of Elevation and Minus Angles Elevation and minus angles of antenna can be calculated by the following formula: θA = H 2 + h2 − (H 1 + h1 ) d − d 2kR0 (Radian) θB = H 1 + h1 − (H 2 + h2 ) d − d 2kR0 (Radian) In the formula: θ A : Elevation and minus angle of antenna at A 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. θm 6.1 (2). θm : θm is a negative value is a positive value.2. 6. (2) Calculation method of great-circle path: d = cos −1 (cos α cos β + sin α sin β cos C )R0 In the formula: a = π / 2 − V1 .

microwave circuits are similar to this cross section. clearance hce is expressed by: hce = (h1 + H 1 )d 2 + (h2 + H 2 )d1 − d H 3 − he d1 d 2 2kR0 (m) he = In the formula: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.1 Clearance Sea level Considering atmospheric refraction. In practice.4 Calculation of Clearance Following is a typical microwave path cross-section figure. R0 = 6370 km 6.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2. no disclosure without permission Page 90 of 144 pages .0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only θ B : Elevation and minus angles of antenna at B H 1 + h1 : Height above sea level at A H 2 + h2 : Height above sea level at B k : Equivalent earth radius R0 : Earth radius. Figure 6.

When there is no direction diagram.5 Calculation of Reflection Point Basic equation of microwave relay section reflection point is as follows: d13 − 3dd12 / 2 + d 2 / 2 − kR0 (h1 + h2 ) d1 + kR0 h1 d = 0 Refer to the following equation group for calculation in practice. λ is wavelength. d2 ( km): distance from the receiving point to the obstacle (reflection point) H3 (m): height of the obstacle above sea level he (m): height of the obstacle (reflection point) relative to the ground k : Equivalent earth radius coefficient R0 : Earth radius.2. R0 =6370 km.37 kd (h2 − h1 ) / 4 d1 is the distance of h1 from the reflection point (for smooth earth surface). estimate antenna gain by the following equation: Supposed D is antenna diameter.5k (h1 + h2 ) / 4 r = 6.2. [ ] d1 = d / 2 + 2 q ' cos(φ / 3 + 240) φ = cos −1 (r / q' q' ) q' = d 2 / 12 + 8.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only h1 .Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. h2 site (m): height of the receiving/transmitting antenna relative to the peak H1 . H 2 (m): height of the peak above sea level of the receiving and transmitting d1 . when D / λ >100: ⎧G0 − 2. 6. 6.5 × 10 −3 (φD / λ ) 2 Λ Λ Λ 0 0 ≤ φ ≤ φ1 ⎪ ⎪2 + 15 lg( D / λ ) Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ φ1 ≤ φ ≤ φ r G (φ ) = ⎨ 0 ⎪32 − 25 lg φ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ φ r ≤ φ ≤ 48 ⎪− 10 Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ 48 0 ≤ φ ≤ 180 0 ⎩ When D / λ <100: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.6 Determining Antenna Gain Antenna gain is determined by actual antenna direction diagram. no disclosure without permission Page 91 of 144 pages .

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only ⎧G0 − 2. rain los and interference. frequency diversity improvement degree.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.85(D / λ )−0. there are following types of interference of digital microwave communication: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. 6. Lr is branching system loss. Gr are receiving/transmitting antenna gain. Flat fading margin: Fd = Pro − Pth In the formula: Pth (dBm) is the threshold receiving level of the receiver. Gt .3. unit (degree) 6.1 Calculation of Receiving Level and Flat Fading Margin Free space receiving level: Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gr ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LBr − L f L f = 92. 6. space diversity improvement degree. L f are loss of receiving/transmitting is free space transmission loss.5 × 10 −3 (φD / λ ) 2 Λ Λ Λ 0 0 ≤ φ ≤ φ1 ⎪ ⎪2 + 15 lg( D / λ ) Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ φ1 ≤ φ ≤ 100λ / D G (φ ) = ⎨ 0 ⎪52 − 10 lg( D / λ ) − 25 lg φ Λ Λ Λ 100λ / D ≤ φ ≤ 48 ⎪10 − 10 lg( D / λ ) Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ Λ 48 0 ≤ φ ≤ 180 0 ⎩ In the formula: G0 = 10 lg 0. no disclosure without permission Page 92 of 144 pages .3 Calculation of Microwave Circuit Index Calculation of microwave circuit indexes includes calculation of free space receiving level.6 ( 0 ) φ : Field angle away from the main beam central axis. feeder.2 Calculation of Interference Level In the radio relay communication system that adopts two-frequency system. interruption ratio.44 + 20 lg[d (km)] + 20 lg[ f (GHz )] In the formula: pt (dBm) is the transmitting power. LBr Lt .55(πD λ ) [ 2 ] φ1 = 20λ / D G0 − 2 − 15 lg( D / λ ( 0 ) φ r = 15.3.

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. especially co-frequency interference. reverse transmitting interference. Specific methods are as follows: (1) Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gr ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LBr − L f Calculation of useful signal level: In engineering design. lateral receiving interference. normally. L fi is calculated based on hce ≤ H0 . and lateral transmitting interference and reverse transmitting lateral receiving interference. For digital microwave engineering design. radar interference. (2) Inter-system interference: system interference in the adjacent lines. the former two types of interference are considered. dispersion system interference. (2) Calculation ' t ' r ' t hce ≥ H0 L f . (3) Interference from other systems: satellite communication system interference. inter-system interference at the joint point. no disclosure without permission . (2) When interference path clearance is 2007-4-4 ≥ H0 . level: of ' Br interference signal Pri = Pi + (G + G ) − ( L + Lr ) − L − L fi In the formula: pi Gi' (dBm): transmitting power of interference transmitter (dBi): gain of the antenna at the interference station in the direction of station interfered with (dBi): gain of the antenna at the station interfered with in the direction of interference source Gr' L't (dB): feeder system loss at the transmitting end of the interference station (dB): feeder system loss at the receiving end of the station interfered with Lr L'Br L fi (dB): tributary system total loss of the interference station and the station interfered with (dB): transmission loss of interference path Calculation of L fi is as follows: (1) When interference path clearance is hce free space transmission loss.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (1) Intra-system interference: reverse receiving interference. broadcast interference. L fi is calculated as: Page 93 of 144 pages Huawei confidential. path clearance of useful signals can be calculated based on free space transmission loss. cross-station interference.

S: vertical distance between the centers of the upper and lower receiving antenna. In engineering. Obstacles frequently encountered in the microwave engineering design are knife-edge. 6. and knife-edge diffraction loss is calculated as: ⎧ h h ⎪6 − 6.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only L fi = 92. space diversity can be calculated when space multi-path fading is mainly considered: ρ c = exp[−0. shortened as “diversity antenna distance” the unit is “m”.9 ce Λ Λ Λ − 1 ≤ ce ≤ 1 H0 H0 ⎪ ⎪ h h ⎪ Ld = ⎨9 − 4 ce Λ Λ Λ Λ − 3 ≤ ce ≤ −1 H0 H0 ⎪ ⎪ h h ⎪11 + 20 lg ce Λ Λ Λ ce ≤ −3 H0 H0 ⎪ ⎩ In the formulas: hce (m): path clearance H0 (m): free space clearance Note: the above additional diffraction loss calculation formula is only for knife-edge obstacles.3 Calculation of Diversity Receiving Parameter Calculation of Space Diversity Antenna Distance In hilly areas where the ground reflection is not strong.0021 fS 0. refer to GB/T 13619-92 of Microwave Relay Communication Interference Calculation. S can be easily calculated by selecting a suitable value based on the following formula: S≥ (100–200) λ For circuits of plains and water area. For the calculation of additional diffraction loss of single circular obstacle and multiple obstacles. the calculation formula is as follows: 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.4 to 0. S is calculated based on “half-lobe distance” theory. generally.44 + 20 lg[d (km)] + 20 lg[ f (GHz )] + Ld Ld : Additional diffraction loss.3. no disclosure without permission Page 94 of 144 pages .4d ] In the formula: ρ c : Correlation coefficient of signals of the two antennas.6. it ranges from 0.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.

but it is better to be integral multiple of half-lobe distance. h1 . path length is very long. S 2 : diversity antenna distance of receiving and transmitting stations respectively.04 )] × 10 ( Fd −V ) 10 I: improvement degree of space diversity G1 . value selected should be also based on S≥ (100–200) λ.48 P −1. and difference of heights of the antennas at the two ends is huge. 43 km≤d≤243 km When each parameter applies to normal situations. I sd = 1. G 2 : gain of the diversity receiving and transmitting antennas respectively. Improvement degree of Space Diversity (1) When there is no strong reflection. P: average fading probability of the worst months Fd : fading depth related to fading probability P The range of other parameters in the formula is as follows: 3 m≤S≤23 m. improvement degree of vertical space diversity can be calculated as follows. At this time. use the previous formulas to calculate H and S. the result tends to be larger. and frequency is relatively high.87 f V = G1 − G2 In the formula: −0.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only S1 = S2 = λd 4h ' 2 ' h2 = h2 − 2 d2 2kR0 λd 4 h '1 h1' = h1 − d12 2kR0 In the formulas: S1 . At this time. path length is very short.34 × 10 −4 × S 0. frequency is relatively low.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. 2 GHz≤f≤11GHz. select a proper value based on S≥ (100–200) λ (2) When path clearance is very large. no disclosure without permission Page 95 of 144 pages . the result tends to be smaller.2 S 2 ( f d ) × 10 −3 × 10 ( Fd −v ) 10 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. be aware of the following two issues: (1) When path clearance is very small. h2 : height of the receiving and transmitting antenna respectively relative to the top of the mountain When using the previous formulas. When d and S apply to wide range I sd = [1 − exp(−3. use the previous formulas to calculate H and S.12 d 0.

9 5+1 2. Δf / f ≤5%.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only The range of other parameters in the formula is as follows: 5 m ≤S≤15 m. frequency diversity improvement degree can be calculated by: I fd = 80 Δf × × 10 Fd fd f 10 In the formula: Δf / f is the ratio of the difference of two frequencies to the center frequency.5 3+1 1. error is thus caused. 30km≤d≤70km. Frequency diversity improvement degree: if the value is more than 10. it can be 8m to 12m. the ranges of the three parameters Space diversity spacing: for digital microwave. Space diversity improvement degree: normally. the previous formula is only effective when I≥10. normally. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. take the value of improvement degree as 200. 2GHz≤f≤6GHz. it is 10m. The range of each parameter is as follows: 2GHz≤f≤11GHz.0021Sf (0. 40km≤d≤75km. This formula is only effective when I≥5. (2) Under the condition of Rayleigh fading.0 In practical engineering design. If the parameter is beyond the range. vertical space diversity improvement degree can be calculated by: I sd = [1 − exp(−0. n+1 n+1 (reduced coefficient) 1+1 1 2+1 1. frequency diversity improvement degree can be calculated by dividing a coefficient.7 4+1 1. For n+1 microwave relay communication system.4d )1 2 )] × 10 ( Fd −V ) 10 The range of each parameter is as follows: 5m≤S≤25m. If the space value is more than 200. Frequency Diversity Improvement Degree For 1+1 microwave relay communication system. it is calculated by the second method. 2 GHz≤f≤11GHz. 24 km≤d≤70 km If value of the parameters exceed the range. no disclosure without permission Page 96 of 144 pages . take the improvement degree as 10.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. ground reflection can be neglected.

it is better to have antenna difference. mountain area.25×10-5 .4 Calculation of Circuit Interruption Rate I.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. it is better to have large antenna height difference than small antenna height difference. sea and water area where fading is severe.1 Value of the Parameter in different conditions Terrain types A KQ 1. (2) Considering the variation of C Advantage: for relay sections with different types. The calculation formula is as follows: Pfr = K (10 + Δh ) f 1. (m).072×10-4 B 1 C 1. In China. Table 6.3. The calculation formula is as follows: Pfr = KQf B d C 10 In the formula: − Fd 10 KQ is related to weather conditions and terrains. for two relay sections. 6. Type B: k=1.3 Conditions Highly dry mountain areas 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. F: working frequency (GHz).0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 6. Type D: k=3.1 Interruption Rate caused by Flat Fading There are two ways to predict flat fading: (1) Considering the influence of antenna height difference Advantages: in a group of relay sections with the same type. hilly area. K: factors of terrain and weather conditions. Type C: k=6×10-6 .26×10-6 . for a relay section. relative height difference of two antennas.3. The value of the parameter in different conditions is as follows.4. if the frequency and station distance are the same.3 d 3. plain.110 − Fd 10 In the formula: Δh = h2 − h1 D: station distance (km). Fd: flat fading margin. the value of C is different and it reflects different influence of different station distance of relay sections on the interruption rate. no disclosure without permission Page 97 of 144 pages . terrains are divided into four types: Type A: k=6×10-7 .

2 × PRe × Plo PRe = KQf B d C In the formula: Plo is the possibility of L>L0 PRe is the possibility of Rayleigh fading Possibility of LAD being exceeded Non-space diversity 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.4. in normal engineering design. the dispersion interruption rate of MQAM system in the M state can be estimated. (2) LAD Advantage: normally.2 3. II.8 2. The empirical formula of interruption rate caused by selective fading is as follows: Pfr = 0. L0 is the LAD value related to the threshold bit error rate and it is defined by equipment suppliers.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. which makes calculation easy and the transmission database or characteristic curve actually tested unnecessary.750×10-5 2. L is the receiving power ratio of two frequency points with spacing Δf = f s inside the band. Thus. characteristic curve or dispersion fading margin. Amplitude dispersion interruption rate Interruption caused by selective fading can be predicted by the possibility of the LAD L inside the signal band exceeding the definite value L0.884×10-5 2.630×10-6 B 1 1 1 C 1. engineering design adopts the second method.0 Terrain types B C D KQ 2.2 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Conditions Continental temperate zone and middle-altitude hilly areas Coastal temperate plain areas Cross-sea circuits Normally. no disclosure without permission Page 98 of 144 pages . 6. (1) Characteristic curve Characteristic curve is restricted because the characteristic size expressed by GHz must be known. it is not used.3.2 Interruption Rate caused by Frequency Selective Fading Interruption rate caused by frequency selective fading can be calculated based on linear amplitude dispersion (LAD).

4 l max = 1000 × PM (4GHz ) 0.5 − (1 − x0 ) + tan π⎪ 4 (1 − 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ) 2 ⎩ In the formula: x 0 = ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ( 1 + sin θ − 1 − sin θ / 2 ) sin θ = 4 × (1 − R f ) × 10 ( L / 10 ) (1 − 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ) 2 + 4 × (1 − R f ) × 10 ( L / 10 ) Frequency correlation coefficient: R f = cos( 2πΔf 2πΔf × Lm ) × exp(− × R1 ) 2 c c In the formula: Δf : Frequency spacing between f1 and f 2 .Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (1 − 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ) 2 Plo = 1 − (1 − 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ) 2 + 4 × (1 − R f ) × 10 ( L0 / 10 ) Space diversity 4 × (1 − R f ) × 10 ( L0 / 10 ) 8⎧ 1 ⎪ 2 2 2 −1 Plo = ⎨ x0 1 − x0 0.47 × PM (4GHz )0.43 t⎞ ⎛ × exp⎜ − 0.63 ⎞ ⎟ × exp⎛ − 0. no disclosure without permission .13 t ⎞ R1 = k1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ d⎠ 2 PM (FGHz ) ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 28. ⎛ 34.4 ) (cm) − 1 1.4 ⎟ × l min − l max L m = k1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ PM (FGHz ) ⎝ ⎠ ( ) In the formula: l min = l max + 0. C: Speed of light Lm : Average value of the progressive error between direct wave and interference wave R1 : Standard deviation of the progressive error between direct wave and interference wave For the progressive error between direct wave and interference wave is a random variable.45 × ⎟(cm ) d⎠ ⎝ Page 99 of 144 pages 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.25 × PM (4GHz ) ⎞ −0.124 ( −1. empirical formulas of its average value Lm and standard deviation R1 are as follows.4 −0.

1 MHz Δf are as follows. normally.08 MHz Δf (3) Dispersion fading margin Normally.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In the formula: PM (4GHz ) : Possibility of Rayleigh fading of 4 GHz PM (FGHz ) : Possibility of Rayleigh fading of F GHz k1: it is decided by the distribution coefficient of the progressive error in the terrestrial areas. (C / I )ri −(C / I )th Fd F n ⎛ − 10 − s − 10 10 ⎜10 + RD 10 + ∑10 Fe = −10 lg ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.0 dB 30. The formula is as follows. in mountain areas. the suppliers provide one or more dispersion fading margin of equipment under one or more bit error rates. L0 and Modulation mode L0 64QAM 20. Because the dispersion fading margin is provided by suppliers under certain conditions.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.5–1 3 5–7 9 To calculate circuit interruption rate based on dispersion fading margin.5 For the improvement coefficient of frequency diversity to chromatic fading. 128QAM 18. combination fading margin is introduced. refer to the improvement coefficient of frequency diversity to the flat fading or the empirical data provided by equipment suppliers Specific value of Δf is provided by equipment suppliers For NEC SDH microwave equipment. it is 5–7 t: sea level elevation difference of two stations (m) d: station distance (km) Note: The maximum of t / d is 7. no disclosure without permission Page 100 of 144 pages . and on the sea or coastal areas. k1 is 1–2. the possibility RD of selective fading occurring on the actual microwave path is as follows: Microwave cross section Mountain area Hilly area Plain areas Cross-sea circuits Possibility (RD) of selective fading 0.0 dB 24.

3. When two fadings are 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. III.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. more than 20 dB). 6. ξ = 1 . and another fading is ineffective. it is related to dispersion fading margin and flat fading margin. Pr 0 : Interference signal level and available signal level (C / I )th : Threshold carrier interference ratio IV. absolute value of the difference between dispersion fading margin and flat fading margin is very large (for example. 6.3 Interruption Rate caused by Interference For the radio-relay communication equipment that adopts two-frequency system. that is.3.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Interruption rate of actual circuit (flat fading. Pt = ξf ( Pfr . the combination fading margin is replaced by flat fading margin. When only one fading is effective. Therefore. Interruption rate caused by interference is expressed by: Pi = KQf B d C ∑10 i =1 n − (C / I )ri − (C / I )th 10 (C / I )ri = Pr 0 − Pri1 In the formula: Pri1 . selective fading and interference are considered): Pt = RD × KQf B d C 10 − Fe 10 In calculating the improvement degree of space diversity and frequency diversity.4. total interruption rate is related to all the three fadings. no disclosure without permission Page 101 of 144 pages . frequency selective fading or fading caused by interference. Ps . Pi ) In the formula: Pt : Total interruption rate Pfr : Interruption rate caused by flat fading Ps : Interruption rate caused by frequency selective fading Pi : Interruption rate caused by interference ξ : coordinate effect coefficient. no matter it is flat fading.4. front and back interference and cross-station interference are mainly considered in terms of the interference in the digital microwave channel. in design. then the coordinate effect coefficient is the minimum.4 Total Interruption Rate Interruption rate is likely to occur during the fading.

frequency selective fading and interference are considered to be approximately independent from each other. that is. E. the difference between two fading margin is 0. C. Table 6. B. Tienshan mountain. K. the total interruption rate is: Pt = Pfr + Ps + Pi 6. J. western mountain areas of Zhunge’er basin. rain is a quite important factor that affects electric wave propagation. And of all the data.01% of the time. Inner Mongolia (northern part of Yinshan mountain chains. and coordinating interference in the radio management. D. F. Shaan Xi (Weihe plains). M. raininess is especially important. Rain not only absorbs electric wave energy.5 Rain Fading 1. but also diffracts electric wave. western side of Kunlun mountain) Inner Mongolia (small part). Gansu (middle areas). Rain diffraction can also result in radio interference in a large area.2.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2 China rain climatic province division Area A Standard 8 Range Sinkiang (Zhunge’er basin. Talimu basin). Inner Mongolia (Daxinganling. See the following table 6. The absorption and diffraction together form fading of the electric wave.3. reliable data is needed for both predicting electric wave fading when planning and designing terrestrial and space radio systems. China is divided into 12 rain climatic provinces: A.8. Heilongjiang (eastern mountain country) Shaan Xi (middle areas). Rain Climatic Province Division and Raininess Isoline Rain climatic province division is based on the raininess cumulative distribution. N and P.R. the coordinate effect coefficient is the maximum. Xilinguole plateau) Shanxi (northern part). H.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only both equally effective. no disclosure without permission Page 102 of 144 pages . G. Overview For frequency range higher than 10 GHz. Jilin (northern mountain country). If the interruption rates caused by flat fading. Gansu (northern areas) B D E F G H 12 19 22 28 30 32 2007-4-4 Tibet (Altai. Tibet (southeastern areas) Inner Mongolia (northern side of Xianshan mountain chains). 2. QB “Transmission Feature of Terrestrial Mobile Service and Fixed Service”: rain climatic province division according to line-of-sight microwave relay communication system transmission feature. Qinghai (large part). mainly based on the raininess standard of 0. Tibet (Zangbei plateau). Shanxi (southwestern areas) Huawei confidential. Inner Mongolia (Alashan plateau). ξ is about 2. Heilongjiang (northern part). Sichuan(Chuanxi plateau) Gansu (southern part). Yinshan mountain chains). Therefore. Tibet( southern areas). Ningxia. Qinghai (Chaidamu basin). Based on the third part of P.

87 2. Liaoning (northern areas).15 1.78 0.53 1. Hubei (western mountain country). no disclosure without permission Page 103 of 144 pages .30 1.04 13G V 0.26 1.37 1.72 15G V 0.25 H 0.40 0.28 1. Sichuan (northern areas). Jilin (western areas).46 0.46 H 0.01 × 0.10 1. Jilin (partial areas).34 3. Jiangxi.11 1. Tibet (southeastern areas) Heilongjiang (Xiaoxinganling). Calculation of Rain Fading Fading caused by rain is related to the possibility of raining. Tianjin.47 1.55 1. Beijing.60 0.40 0.01% of the time Rain zone A B C D E F G H 0.60 0. Following is the rain fading rate of different rain zones under different frequencies and polarization: Table 6. Yunnan ( large part of Yungui plateau).55 2.50 0.71 0.11 2. Shandong.3 Rain fading rate exceeded of 0.51 0. Guangxi (southern areas).67 H 0. Zhejiang.44 H 0.72 1.50 1. d (km): path length or horizontal projection length of the skewed path sunk in rain zone.34 0.91 1.94 1. Hainan island (northern areas).00 18G V 0.87 H 0.84 1.74 0. Hebei (western areas and northern areas).48 14G V 0.17 1.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only J K 35 42 M 63 N P 95 145 Heilongjiang (partial areas).60 1.41 2.95 1.34 1.34 0.26 0. r: path length reduction factor R0.31 0.96 1. Shaan xi (Chinling mountain areas and middle areas of Shaan Xi). Hainan island (western part).12 P − ( −0.24 1.71 0.65 0.54 0. Guangxi (northern areas). Henan (large part).80 1. Sichuan (Basin).99 1.01 (mm/h): raininess of 0. Hubei (large part).79 0.58 0. Shanghai Taiwan (mountain country).09 1.043 lg p ) A0.88 0.36 2.46 0. South China Sea islands Guangxi (coastal areas) 3.47 0.18 0.81 1.47 1.23 Huawei confidential.95 1.24 0.39 0. Fading caused by the rain in p% of the time is calculated by: A p = A0.74 (dB/km) 23G V 0.01 = VR × r × d r = 1 /(1 + d / d 0 ) d 0 = 35e −0.54 0.80 2.80 0.26 H 0.35 0. Anhui. Jiangsu.86 2.44 1.66 3.01% (mm/H) 8 12 15 19 22 28 30 32 2007-4-4 11G V 0. Hebei (northern part).94 4.93 1.28 0.67 0.29 0.65 0.83 3.16 0. Taiwan (western part) Liaoning (southern part).Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.01% of the time in a year.55 0.81 0.55 0. Guangdong (southern areas).23 3. Fujian.24 1.06 1.01 2. Hunan (large part).96 2.01 3.546+0. Yunnan (part). Yunnan (southern areas).93 1. Taiwan (part). Guizhou. Henan (mountain country).01% of the time in a year exceeding one minute VR (dB/km): rain fading rate exceeded of 0.57 2.01 In the formula: Ap (dB): rain fading exceeding p% of the time in a year. Guangdong (northern areas). Tibet ( southeastern areas).15×R0.

4 Gas absorption loss rate Frequency band Oxygen absorption loss rate Vapor absorption rate 2007-4-4 8G 0.2 1.32 8.61 2.05 3.5 ( f − 183.60 6.49 3.67 8.9 + + rw = ⎢0.97 1.14 4.97 2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only J K L M N P 35 42 60 63 95 145 0.05 8. g/m3. there are also oxygen and vapor absorption loss in the line-of-sight path transmission.8 16. Fading caused by gas absorption is calculated by: L g = (r0 + rw )d In the formula: Lg : fading caused by gas absorption dB.0083 0.6 Gas Absorption Besides free space transmission loss.91 2.03 3.1544 Huawei confidential.0067 0. 6.48 7.021ρ + ⎥ ( f − 22.41 11.6 10.89 2.02 6.04 1. microwave frequency lower than 10GHz.71 2.227 ( f − 57 ) + 1.85 2.0077 0.74 7.82 6.72 5.22 1.34 5.81 −3 r0 = ⎢7.09 4.0080 0. rain fading exceeded of pw% of the time can be calculated by the previous formula.0678 23G 0.81 1.8 3.49 4.5 In the worst month.45 9.50 ⎦ ⎣ f < 57GHz ⎡ ⎤ 3.30 14.36 1. Following table 6.0094 0.38 1.60 1.37 3.8 4.19 10.65 2.3)2 + 9 ( f − 325.4)2 + 26.61 3.0119 13G 0.77 13.0143 0.19 × 10 −3 + 2 + ⎥ f × 10 2 f + 0.55 5.15 3. rw : ratio of the fading caused by oxygen and vapor dB/km.16 1.87 9.27 2.22 × p w 1.70 9.5 2.6 21.2)2 + 8.80 4.41 4.01 3.9 3.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.05 + 0.59 5.98 3.4 displays the fading of different frequencies caused by gas absorption per kilometer when the vapor density is ρ = 10 g / m .0295 18G 0.3. ⎡ ⎤ 2 6.66 5.45 2.3 ⎦ ⎣ • f 2 ρ ×10 −4 In the formula: f < 350GHz ρ : vapor density.6 8.27 3.76 4.22 1. no disclosure without permission Page 104 of 144 pages .2462 (dB/km) 26G 0.15 5.03 11. r0 .02 10.62 1.0121 0.22 2.0057 11G 0.0072 0.0186 14G 0. “p” is calculated by p = 0.67 7.33 5.74 4. unavailability index caused by rain fading does not need to be considered.0233 15G 0.18 2.39 3.16 In actual engineering design.38 7.04 4. 3 Table 6.

when the microwave frequency is 18 GHz.4 Conclusion This chapter mainly describes microwave engineering calculation in two sections: the first is the calculation of microwave route and the second is the calculation of microwave circuit index. flat fading margin.2583 0. path distance. Have a think: What do you learn from this chapter? Calculation of microwave path parameter. reflection point. including calculation of receiving level. 6.1 Overview Microwave engineering design includes selection of microwave path. gas absorption loss can be neglected. gas absorption loss is 0.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. microwave antenna height.0772 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 0. configuration of microwave frequency and polarization. 7. compared with free space transmission loss. Calculation of microwave circuit indexes. the loss of a relay section is 0. and diversity receiving parameter. If the station distance is 10 km.77 dB. clearance.0378 0. when microwave frequency band is less than 18 GHz. including calculation of antenna azimuth.0772dB/km. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.0263 0. and antenna gain. Chapter 7 Microwave Engineering Design Requirement  Objectives: To understand the basic requirements for microwave path and cross section design To know the mounting height of microwave antenna To learn how to choose microwave frequency band and configure polarization To get familiar with the technical requirement of microwave engineering design.0313 0.0191 0. elevation and minus angle. Therefore. and selection of microwave antenna.1688 Based on the table. interference level.0123 0.0 Gas absorption rate 0. no disclosure without permission Page 105 of 144 pages .

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 7. that is. that is. without wide valleys and lakes lying between. the decrease of receiving level caused by ground reflection wave is less than 10 dB. without wide valleys and lakes lying between.5 and antennas at the two ends are quite different in height. For example. both belong to cross section of type B. due to the grounding reflected wave. antenna height and electric wave propagation.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2 Basic Requirement of Microwave Path and Cross-section Design 7. The equivalent ground reflection coefficient of this cross section is less than 0. with dry weather and consisting of knife-edge mountains with fluctuations more than 20m.1 Cross Section and Station Distance (1) Cross Section Cross section of relay section of digital microwave relay communication system can be classified into four types based on terrains. and this coefficient cannot be neglected. where the heights of the antennas are not so different and equal grounding reflectance is more than 0. Fading caused by water reflection and gas non-homogeneous layer is more serious 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. The equivalent ground reflection coefficient of this cross section is less than 0. the cross section. For example.5. city buildings or combination of the two. Type D Cross section of type D is cross-water circuits along coastal paths. water reticulations and equal grounding reflectance not less than 0. Type C Cross section of type C consists of flat grounds and water reticulations. Type A: The cross section consists of mountains.7. the decrease of receiving level caused by ground reflection wave is not more than 6 dB. For example. For cross section of this type. where the elevation angle of electrical wave beam is larger than 0. receiving level undergoes a decrease of more than 10 dB. probability of multi-path fading caused by gas non-homogeneous layer cannot be neglected. weather condition.7. flat ground lines. if the cross section has no wide valley and lakes lying between and the gas is dry. Though there are no wide valleys and lakes lying between and weather is dry. and plains lines where the weather is dry and the heights of antennas are every different. Type B The cross section consists of hilly areas with tiny fluctuations. multi-path fading is unlikely caused by gas non-homogeneous layer. both belong to type A. and the cross section of hilly areas. in the area where reflection might be caused. and it refers to humid cross section with many flat grounds. due to tiny fluctuations. At the same time. no disclosure without permission Page 106 of 144 pages . belong to cross connection of type C. multi-path fading caused by gas non-homogeneous layer is serious. cross section with dry weather consisting of fluctuated hilly areas which may cause reflection. And because there are many water reticulations and the weather is humid.2.7.

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0

Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only

than cross sections of type A, B and C. it is a very bad cross section seriously affecting electric wave transmission stability. In conclusion, the feature of cross section is mainly depending on the influence of grounding reflection and gas non-homogeneous layer on the electric wave transmission. The two factors result in multi-path transmission of electric wave beams, cause frequency selective fading of the receiving signal level at the receiving end, and they seriously affect digital microwave especially the digital microwave system with higher capability and multiple level modulations. On one hand, the two factors can give rise to waveform distortion to the digital signals making BER deteriorate. On the other hand, they reduce polarization discrimination and increase the inter-channel interference of the system. Therefore, to ensure the transmission quality of digital signals, relay sections of cross sections of type A and type B should be preferred and that of type C and type D should be avoided. In line design, for the bad cross section and relay sections that seriously affect transmission quality, equalization measure and diversity receiving technology should be adopted to overcome the influence of selective fading. (2) Choosing Site Distance The site distance of digital microwave relay communication lines should be determined based on parameters of equipment, geographical conditions, weather, antenna height, electric wave transmission and the technology measure that is adopted. For relay section with longer or shorted site distance, technology measure should be adopted to ensure that the difference between the free space receiving level that the receiver inputs and the nominal value is not more than 3 dB.

7.2.2

Clearance Standard
(1) For each relay section of SDH microwave relay communication line, considering the range of equivalent earth radius coefficient K, there is certain clearance between electric wave direct rays and the lower obstacle. For single obstacles, the clearance of relay section should meet the following requirements. Clearance of relay section of multiple obstacles, the K should be Kmin, and the electric wave diffraction loss introduced by the obstacles should be not more than 10 dB. If K=4/3, when there is no fading, the receiving level should be not less than the requirement of free space receiving level. (2) For the relay section that adopts space diversity, path clearance of the main antenna should comply with the following regulations: when path clearance of the diversity antenna meets the requirement of K=Kmin, the electric wave diffraction loss introduced by the obstacles should be not more than 15 dB (for single or multiple obstacles).

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(3) Besides meeting the following requirement for clearance, for microwave relay section electric wave rays, the clearance of other sides within

d ≥ 17.1D 2 / λ should be not less than 3H 0 , within d ≤ 17.1D 2 / λ ,
the clearance value must meet the antenna headroom requirement. (D is the antenna diameter, λ is working length, and H0 is free space clearance) Table 7.1 Standard for SDH Microwave Relay Section Clearance Range
K value clearance Obstacle type Knife-edge type Kmin 4/3 Description K: equivalent earth radius coefficient Kmin: 0.1% of the statistical K value H0: free space clearance

H ≥0

H ≥ H0
H 0 6m − 5 ≤ H ≤ H 0 6m − 1
(Note)

Smooth ground and others

H ≥ 0.5 H 0

Note: m=1, 2, 3…, is the number of interference lobe. When K=Kmin, m should be the minimum if possible to avoid the antenna working at lobe of high-order when K=4/3.

7.2.3 Antenna Height and Space Diversity Distance
I. Principles of Selecting Antenna Height
(1) The antenna height should meet the requirement of relay section clearance standard and antenna headroom. For specific requirement, see the following figure. (In the figure, D is the radius of the antenna, λ is the working length).

20°

D

1m

10D

20°

1m

L=17.1 λ

D2

Figure 7.1 Antenna headroom requirements

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(2) Ensure that the antenna height can control the reflection point of the electric wave beam from falling onto the water surface and the area with large reflection coefficient. And at the same time, the difference between the altitudes of the transmitting and receiving antennas should be larger if possible to reduce the influence of the K fading and channel fading.

II. Principles of Selecting Space Diversity Distance
Space diversity receiving is effective to overcome the influence of electric wave fading. The principles of determining the distance between diversity receiving antennas are: (1) For the smooth ground path with grounding reflection coefficient not less than 0.5, overcome K fading (2) For mountains areas and largely fluctuated ground with grounding reflection coefficient not more than 0.5, overcome channel fading. In digital microwave engineering design, diversity distance can be adjusted in the range of 200λ—300λ, that is, distance between the diversity antennas can be 8 to 12 m.

7.3

Selecting Microwave Band and Configuring Polarization

7.3.1 Selecting Microwave Band
In selecting microwave band, system transmission capacity, communication network plan, the status quo of the communication lines already built and the local conditions should be considered. Basic principles of selecting microwave band: (1) For PDH microwave circuit of long site distance (generally longer than 15 km), 8 GHz frequency is recommended. If the site distance is not more than 25 km, 11 GHz frequency is recommended. Frequencies should be determined based on local weather condition and microwave transmission cross section. (2) For PDH microwave circuit of short site distance (generally the access layer, within 10 km), frequencies of 11GHz, 13GHz, 14GHz, 15GHz and 18GHz can be adopted. (3) For SDH microwave circuit with long site distance (generally longer than 15 km), frequencies of 5 GHz, 6 GHz, 7 GHz and 8 GHz are recommended. If the
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frequency of 11 GHz is optional. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. no disclosure without permission Page 110 of 144 pages . Frequency Arrangement Method (1) Two-frequency system and four-frequency system Two-frequency system: the transmitting frequencies of each middle station in the two directions are the same. The basic principle of selecting frequency arrangement method is to minimize interference in the system and maximize frequency spectrum utilization. Advantages: narrow frequency band occupied. high frequency spectrum utilization. For the construction of microwave antenna tower cost too much. requirement for the antenna can be lowered. frequencies of the adjacent channels must have enough spacing to avoid mutual interference. II. Four-frequency system: each middle station uses four frequencies to receive and transmit signals.2 Arrangement of Microwave Frequency and Polarization I. and so are the receiving frequencies. Disadvantages: the transmitter of a direction can receive co-frequency interference signal from the opposite direction and the antenna should be highly defensive towards the opposite direction to reduce signals from the opposite direction attenuated 65–75dB or more than the signals from right ahead. a unidirectional channel should use different frequencies with enough spacing to receive and transmit signals. Frequencies should be chosen based on the local weather and microwave transmission cross section. Following factors should be considered. When many channels work at the same time. thus. But transmitting frequency and receiving frequency changes station by station. to avoid that signals transmitted from this station are received by this station and prevent normal signals received from being interfered.3. 7. four-frequency system is not troubled by opposite receiving interference and the antenna can be less defensive towards the opposite direction. The arrangement of the entire frequency spectrum must be compact to make the designated communication frequency can be economically used. Factors should be considered in frequency arrangement Microwave frequency arrangement involves transmitting and receiving frequencies of all channels. In a middle station. But four-frequency system occupies frequency band one time wider than two-frequency system. If the system has ATPC function.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. system with multiple channels should use the same antenna.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only site distance is not more than 20 km.

Following figure shows frequency arrangements of two-frequency and four-frequency systems. The other is the station that the receiving frequency is lower than transmitting frequency. the site positions must be zigzag-shaped when designing the lines. Figure 7. called “low” station. no disclosure without permission Page 111 of 144 pages . High/low station is named based on the receiving frequency. four-frequency system (2) High Station and Low Station Based on the feature that the transmitting and receiving frequencies change station by station. there are two types of stations on the microwave line: one is the station that the receiving frequency is higher than transmitting frequency. To avoid cross-station interference.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. cross-station interference. Figure 7.2 frequency arrangements of two-frequency and four-frequency systems Two-frequency system. called “high” station. may occur to the two systems.3 High and low stations 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. that is.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Another co-frequency interference.

two directions cannot work in the same channel. The polarization should be opposite. Principles of Microwave frequency and Polarization Arrangements (1) Digital microwave equipment of the same frequency band should be consistent in the station type when they are co-located. b) When microwave equipment is co-located: if they use adjacent frequencies and the separation angle is less than 20°. When the deflecting angle of the middle station is Φ< 80°. When the deflecting angle of the middle station is 135°≤Φ≤180°.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. two directions cannot be in the same channel. mainly for the sake of frequency arrangement. If two-frequency system is adopted. When the deflecting angle of the middle station is Φ< 20°. (2) Microwave system of access layer a) When microwave equipment is co-located: frequency arrangement should adopt four-frequency system. and that of different frequencies can be either consistent or inconsistent in the station type when they are co-located.0 High station. no disclosure without permission Page 112 of 144 pages . low station Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only III. vertical polarization should be preferred. two directions can be in the same channel. one should be odd and the other should be even. two directions can be in the same channel and with same polarization. When the deflecting angle of the middle station is 80°≤Φ< 135°. but the polarization should be opposite. the polarization should be reverse. c) For long-haul microwave system with high frequency more than 10 GHz. high-performance antenna should be used. d) Cross-station interference should be considered in the arrangements of frequency and polarization. one should be even and other should be odd. but the polarization can be the same. (3) Microwave system of backbone layer a) b) Frequency arrangement should adopt two-frequency system Microwave circuit should be zigzag arranged if possible to avoid cross-station interference.

User-level digital microwave channel is used to the relay line between local network terminal office and users.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. used to transmit digital microwave relay larger than secondary group.4 Technical Requirement of Digital Microwave Relay Communication Engineering Design 7. (2) Intermediate assumed reference digital channel of microwave relay communication system. (3) User-level assumed reference digital channel of microwave relay communication system. Intermediate digital microwave channel is used between level-2 exchange center and local exchange center. Assumed reference channel of digital microwave relay communication system (1) Advanced assumed reference digital channel of microwave relay communication system. used to transmit digital microwave relay larger than secondary group. which can reduce cross-station interference.4. in 0. 2500 km long. no disclosure without permission Page 113 of 144 pages .4% or more of the total time.1 PDH Microwave Engineering Design Technical Requirement I. Bit Error Performance Index of Digital Microwave Relay Communication System (1) Considering fading inside the system. 1250 km long. 7. bit error performance of the 64kbit/s output end of the advanced assumed reference digital channel should meet the following requirements: In any month. which can reduce the ante-dorsal interference of the antenna.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only c) Typical polarization arrangement methods are as follows: Alternate polarization every hop. 50 km long. (4) Advanced digital microwave channel is used between level-2 and higher toll exchange centers. interference and other bad factors. Alternate polarization every other hop. average bit error rate of one minute should be not more than 1*10-6 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. II. used to transmit digital microwave relay larger than secondary group.

interference and other bad factors. total time of the bit error should be not more than 1. considering fading inside the system.5% or more of the total time. those indexes are applicable. in 0.04 % or more of the total time. average bit error rate of one minute should be not more than 1*10-6 In any month. in 0.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In any month. average bit error rate of one minute should be not more than 1*10-6 In any month. average bit error rate of one second should be not more than 1*10-3 In any month. in 1. interference and other bad factors. (3) Considering fading inside the system. (4) Assumed reference digital section of 5 or 280 km.32% of the entire month. (2) Considering fading inside the system. interference and other bad factors.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. no disclosure without permission Page 114 of 144 pages . in 0. total time of the bit error should be not more than 1. average bit error rate of one second should be not more than 1*10-3 In any month.5% or more of the total time. Table 7. bit error performance of the 64kbit/s output end of the user-level assumed reference digital channel should meet the following requirements: In any month.2% of the entire month. bit error performance of the 64kbit/s output end of the intermediate assumed reference digital channel should meet the following requirements: In any month.054 % or more of the total time.015 % or more of the total time. When there is only one transport method of digital microwave channel. III.2 Assumed reference digital section bit error performance index 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. average bit error rate of one second should be not more than 1*10-3 In any month. in 1. total time of the bit error should be not more than 0. bit error performance of the 64kbit/s output end should meet the following requirement.2% of the entire month. based on different types.

between intermediate and user-level circuits.2L/1250 ≤1.0075% 0. should be n+1 times of that of the assumed reference section of relevant type.) Table 7. and the intermediate actual digital microwave channel with circuit length L larger than two digital sections. interference and other bad factors.5×10-9 2.2% 0. between advanced and intermediate circuits. is larger than 50 km. (7) When the length of actual digital microwave channel of type 2.0 Assumed reference digital section type Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Length (Km) 280 280 50 50 Bit error rate larger than 1×10-6 (minute) 0.036% 0.2% 0. type 2. bit error performance of the 64kbit/s output end should meet the following requirements.3 Advanced and intermediate actual digital microwave channel bit error performance index Channel quality level Time percentage of the entire month (%) Bit error performance item Degrading score with bit error ratio larger than 1×10-6 SES with bit error ratio larger than 1×10-3 (second) Bit error rate Residual bit error rate ≤0.005% Bit error rate Residual bit error rate 5. 3 and 4 is not more than two digital sections.5L/1250 ≤0. no disclosure without permission Page 115 of 144 pages .32L/2500 ≤5×10-9L/2500 ≤1.045% 0.04L/1250 ≤1. L.55% Bit error rate larger than 1×10-3 (second) 0. and the digital section length L and the length of assumed reference digital section L0 of relevant type has the following relation: “n L0< L< (n+1) L0”. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. (5) For advanced actual digital microwave channel with the circuit length L not less than 280 km.8×10-8L/1250 Advanced circuit Intermediate circuit (6) When the length of user-level actual digital microwave channel. based on the difference of circuit structure between actual and assumed digital microwave channel. refer to that of L=50 km.006% 0. the bit error performance of 64kbit/s output end. (For advanced actual digital microwave channel with circuit length less than 280 km. for error rate performance index.5×10-9 6×10-10 Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 0. type 3 and 4.002% 0.16% 0. considering fading inside the system.6×10-10 2.054L/2500 ≤0.4% Note: assumed reference digital section of type 1 is suitable to constitute advanced assumed reference digital channel of 2500 km.4L/2500 ≤0.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.16% 0. the bit error performance indexes are as same as that with length of 280 km.

4 Unavailability index of assumed reference digital section Digital section type Type 1 (280 Km) Type 2 (280 Km) Type 3 (50 Km) Type 4 (50 Km) 0. among this.5%. (4) For principles of unavailability index of actual circuit.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. caused by propagation is 1/3. that caused by propagation is 1/3.2 SDH Microwave Engineering Design Technical Requirement I. local network and access network. make linear distribution based on circuit length. (2) The unavailability index of intermediate assumed reference digital microwave channel (bidirectional). in any year.2%–0. should be not more than 0. Unavailability index of microwave relay communication system (1) The unavailability index of advanced assumed reference digital microwave channel (bidirectional).08%–1%. that caused by propagation is 1/3. should be not more than 0. (2) For the SDH microwave relay communication system with each IF channel at transmission basic group and higher constant bit rate. in any year. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only IV. Local network is used to connect local network terminal office (or transit exchange) and toll exchange center.4. among this.3%. Table 7. based on its position in the network.1% Unavailability index (bidirectional) 7. can be classified into inter-provincial backbone. (3) Inter-provincial backbone is used between toll exchange centers and between exchange center and international interface office. provincial backbone. SDH Microwave Relay Communication System Assumed Reference Channel (1) Connecting length of international circuit of national L1 backbone line that uses microwave relay with transmission basic group and higher constant bit rate is 5000 km. (3) The unavailability index of user-level assumed reference digital microwave channel (bidirectional). Provincial backbone connects provincial toll exchange center. among this.05% 0. no disclosure without permission Page 116 of 144 pages . Access network is used to connect user to local network terminal office (or transit exchange).05% 0. (5) Unavailability index of assumed reference digital section (bidirectional) should meet the following requirement. should be not more than 0. in any year.033% 0.

error performance index of inter-provincial backbone channel.5%+1%×L/500 L: actual length of the circuit (3) Considering fading inside the system.002×B 2×10-4×B >15000– 55000 4000–20000 0.002×A 2×10-4×A In the table: A=6%×L/5000 L: actual length of the circuit (2) Considering fading inside the system.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only II.075×A 0. in any direction and any month. Table7.04×A 0.5 bit error performance index of inter-provincial backbone channel Channel rate (Kbit/s) Bits/block ESR SESR BBER 1500–5000 2000–8000 0.002×A 2×10-4×A >55000– 160000 6000–20000 0.04×B 0. should not exceed the following standard value.16×C 0.002×D 2×10-4×D >15000– 55000 4000–20000 0. should not exceed the following standard value.16×A 0.002×C 10-4×C In the table: C=5% (4) Considering fading inside the system. no disclosure without permission Page 117 of 144 pages . error performance index of local network channel.002×C 2×10-4×C >160000– 3500000 15000–30000 (to be defined) 0.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.002×C 2×10-4×C >55000– 160000 6000–20000 0.075×C 0. in any direction and any month.04×D 0. interference and other bad factors.002×D 10-4×D 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. interference and other bad factors.16×D 0.075×B 0.04×C 0.002×A 2×10-4×A >160000– 3500000 15000–30000 (to be defined) 0.002×B 2×10-4×B >55000– 160000 6000–20000 0. error performance index of provincial backbone channel.002×A 2×10-4×A >15000– 55000 4000–20000 0.002×B 2×10-4×B >160000– 3500000 15000–30000 (to be defined) 0. in any direction and any month. Bit Error Performance Index of SDH Microwave Relay Communication System (1) Considering fading inside the system. in any direction and any month. Table7. Table7. interference and other bad factors.002×B 10-4×B In the table: B=2.002×D 2×10-4×D >55000– 160000 6000–20000 0.16×B 0. error performance index of access network.6 bit error performance index of provincial backbone channel Channel rate (Kbit/s) Bits/block ESR SESR BBER 1500–5000 2000–8000 0.002×C 2×10-4×C >15000– 55000 4000–20000 0. should not exceed the following standard value. interference and other bad factors.8 bit error performance index of access network channel Channel rate (Kbit/s) Bits/block ESR SESR BBER 1500–5000 2000–8000 0.075×D 0. should not exceed the following standard value. Table7.002×D 2×10-4×D >160000– 3500000 15000–30000 (待定) 0.7 bit error performance index of local network channel Channel rate (Kbit/s) Bits/block ESR SESR BBER 1500–5000 2000–8000 0.

bit error performance of 2048 Kbit/s digital connection should meet requirements in the following table.5×10-4 Bit error performance of 2048 Kbit/s channel As to high bit rate channel.5% of all the indexes of 27. actual bit error performance design index should be distributed in direct proportion based on actual channel length by referencing the standard value in the previous table. (2) Unavailability index of actual circuit is linearly distributed based on circuit length. when radio access is used in the access network. Unavailability Index of SDH Microwave Relay Communication System (1) Unavailability index of toll assumed reference digital channel. bit error performance of digital connection should meet requirements in the following table.06% in every 500 km. Table 7. Table 7. and that caused by propagation occupies 1/3. III. no disclosure without permission .4. 7.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.10 Bit error performance index of 2048 Kbit/s digital connection Rate 2007-4-4 ESR SESR BBER Equivalent BER Page 118 of 144 pages Huawei confidential.3 Access Network Technical Requirement—26 GHz Local Multiple-point Distribution System (LMDS) Based on PRC communication industry standard (YD/T1186-2002) “Access Network Technical Requirement—26 GHz Local Multiple-point Distribution System (LMDS)” (1) Bit error performance index: 1) Bit error performance Bit error performance of Nx64 Kbit/s digital connection Between the SNI and UNI of LMDS fixed radio access system. the total bit error performance indexes should reach 7. should not exceed 0. in any year.500 km.9 Bit error performance index of Nx64 Kbit/s digital connection Rate Nx64kbit/s ESR 1.2×10-2 SESR 1. Between the SNI and UNI of LMDS fixed radio access system.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only In the table: D=8% (5) For inter-provincial and provincial backbones.

annual availability: 99.5 GHz Fixed Radio Access Based on PRC communication industry standard (YD/T11586-2001) “Access Network Technical Requirement—3. no disclosure without permission Page 119 of 144 pages .99% 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. bit error performance of Nx64 Kbit/s digital connection should meet requirements in the following table.5% of all the indexes of 27. when radio access is used in the access network. the total bit error performance indexes should reach 7.5×10-4 Bit error performance of 2048 Kbit/s channel As to high bit rate channel. annual availability: 99.5×10-5 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 1.46×10-9 (2) Availability Index Intermediate quality requirement. Table 7. annual availability: 99.12 Bit error performance index of 2048 Kbit/s digital connection Rate 2048kbit/s ESR 3.4 Access Network Technical Requirement—3. annual availability: 99.46×10-9 (2) Availability Index Intermediate quality requirement.2×10-2 SESR 1.99% 7.5×10-4 1.0 2048kbit/s 3. Table 7.5×10-4 BBER 1.5 G fixed radio access system. bit error performance of 2048 Kbit/s digital connection should meet requirements in the following table.8% Advanced quality requirement.0×10-3 SESR 1.0×10-3 1.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.9% Advanced quality requirement.11 Bit error performance index of Nx64 Kbit/s digital connection Rate Nx64kbit/s ESR 1.5 GHz Fixed Radio Access” (1) Bit error performance index: 1) Bit error performance Bit error performance of Nx64 Kbit/s digital connection Between the SNI and UNI of 3.5×10-5 Equivalent BER 1.4.500 km. Between the SNI and UNI of 3.5G fixed radio access system.

Chapter 8 Microwave Engineering Design   Objectives: To master the methods of microwave engineering design To understand actual practices of microwave engineering design 8.1 Design Method 8. Microwave frequency band selection and polarization arrangement 3.1 Overview Digital microwave relay line engineering design mainly includes three aspects: Selecting route. and the third part describes technical requirement of digital microwave relay communication engineering design.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Have a think What do you learn in this chapter? 1. second part is about microwave frequency band selection and polarization arrangement.5 Conclusion This chapter mainly describes microwave engineering design requirement in three parts: first part is about the basic requirements of microwave engineering route and cross section design.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.1. clearance and calculating receiving level Determining frequency arrangement and polarization Evaluating the performance of circuit 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. determining antenna height. no disclosure without permission Page 120 of 144 pages . Basic requirements of microwave engineering route and cross section design 2. Technical requirement of digital microwave relay communication engineering design 7.

smog and other hazardous substances. rather than the place that is too remote or isolated. (2) Environment around the site should be safe. (3) The site should be located at the place where the soil is homogeneous rather than fault areas.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 8. (4) To ensure reliable communication.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. ancient relics and flood-beaten areas. make antenna of one end highly mounted and the other lowly mounted.1. try to avoid cross-station interference. and firefight. dust. (5) Site should meet the requirements of communication security. Methods of selecting routes (1) Indoor line selection 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Principles of selecting site: (1) The site should be located at the place where the transportation is convenient and reliable power supply is available. The site should not be located at the place that near industrial factories which emanates harmful gases. Specific distance should be based on actual cross section. Note: use obstacles to prevent reflection waves. (3) If areas with strong reflection cannot be avoided.2 Route. If possible. For microwave system with 6–8GH. For earthquake-sensitive areas.1. Route Selection and Technical Requirements Principles of selecting route: (1) Based on the features of line-of-sight microwave system. and make full use of the terrains. site distance should not be too long. control it between 30 km and 50 km. and suggestions of construction organization and the existing siting (site position) should be considered. You must not locate the site at potential mineral mountain areas. (6) Route selection should be based on the construction scheme of transmission network. no disclosure without permission Page 121 of 144 pages . to prevent deep fading caused by strong reflection of the water surface and the ground. 8. ancient watercourse and places with potential land slip and slide. select fluctuated cross sections as the routes. the distance between two sites must be within the line of sight. and the circuit should be zigzag arranged. locate the site at the place favorable against earthquake. Site and Antenna Height I.2. (4) Environment of the site should be quiet. edge of earth slope. (2) Avoid water surface and flat wide area.1. (5) For microwave backbone adopts two-frequency system. and the reflection point can fall on the low end.

and then make the optimal scheme. Determining Antenna Height Based on the route and sites determined. and then determine the optimal route. length of the cable. selection which may lay the basis for next design task. calculate the antenna heights of each station and check electric wave propagation. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Finally. (2) On-site inspection and survey In survey. geological condition. If schemes are up to these two premises. quantity of all the stations on the line. and then determine the tower height. living condition. check the transportation. 8. technically and economically compare the routes in an overall view. no disclosure without permission Page 122 of 144 pages . electrical test is always conducted. to guide on-site survey. For each site. but it is not indispensable. According to the previous experience accumulated in similar line design. check whether contradictory to the map. compare the microwave route schemes and make a decision: first check whether the scheme meet technical requirements. and whether the local contradictory to the site plan. II.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only The major task of indoor line selection is to provide route scheme by drawing a map. the actual layout is construction plan is review the indoor line After the survey is done. List the basic data of each station and each relay section.1. whether the scheme can assure available living conditions and convenient maintenance. total tower height. if new line cannot be estimated. On a military map of 1/50000. economically compare the schemes in an overall view: total investment. and then engineers can choose during on-site survey. determine the site of teach middle station by carefully calculation and then draw a complete circuit. draw landform profile. If space diversity is adopted.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. determine the general layout of the circuit and the possible positions of adding/dropping circuits. determine the antenna mounting height by calculating the clearance. On a map (written or electronic) of 1/500000. Principles of determining antenna mounting height: (1) Antenna mounting height should meet the clearance requirement and there should be no obstacles near the antenna (draw the profile and calculate the clearance). Select two or more routes. stations that need independent power supply rather than that from city. from one terminal station to another terminal station. second. weather condition of the entire line.2.2. Based on these materials. electrical test should be conducted. two optional places should be provided. length of the route. the mounting height of primary antenna and diversity antenna should be determined.

no disclosure without permission Page 123 of 144 pages .0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (2) For cross section of C and D types. frequency spacing between center frequencies of adjacent RF channels 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. (5) If conditions are satisfied. and reduce possible RF interference of the system.1.1 Three solutions of RF channel configuration Alternate channel configuration solution. co-channel band multiplex solution.3 Frequency Selection and Polarization Arrangement Principles of frequency selection and polarization arrangement: make full use of existing frequency resources. microwave antenna should be lowly mounted to save the cost. meanings if symbols are as follows: XS (MHz): on the same polarization and in the same transmission direction.1. cross band multiplex solution In figure 8. XS 1 3 1' DS 3' V(H) H(V) 2 XS 4 n YS 2' 4' n' ZS (a)交替波道配置方案 XS 1 2 3 4 n 1' DS 2' 3' 4' n' V(H) H(V) 1r 2r 3r 4r nr YS 1'r 2'r 3'r 4'r n'r ZS (b)同波道方式频带复用方案 XS 1 2 3 4 n 1' DS 2' 3' 4' n' n'r 1r XS 2r 3r 4r nr YS 1'r 2'r 3'r 4'r ZS V(H) H(V) (c)交插方式频带复用方案 Figure 8. (4) Height of antennas in microwave relay section should be arranged in a “high—low—high—low” order. (3) Enlarge the height difference between the receiving and transmitting antennas. There are three solutions for RF channel configuration in actual engineering design. which may be helpful to reduce K-shape fading and channel-shape fading. See the following figures. make sure that he reflection point does not fall on the water surface or areas with larger reflectance or the reflected wave can be prevented by obstacles. 8.

Compare the estimate result with defined value to determine whether system design can meet the requirement.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. and determine whether it matches the index requirement of SES/SESR.4) (2) For SDH microwave. The requirement of block is higher than BER. in engineering design. calculation of interruption rate described in 2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only YS (MHz): frequency spacing between center frequencies of nearest coming and outgoing RF channels. no disclosure without permission Page 124 of 144 pages . Frequency selective fading and the interruption rate caused by interference are independent of each other (that is. (2) Estimate transmission system interruption rate based on fading margin. considered the difference between actual receiving level and theoretically calculated receiving level.1. propagation loss. and antenna gain. you only need to predict the -3 possibility of SESR with bit error ratio exceeding 10 (that is.2. equipment and power supply fault. The interruption rate of the system only needs to consider the influence of electric wave propagation fading. Therefore. it is not used in engineering design. (1) Estimate receiving level based on transmitting power. space diversity and selective fading margin. the error performance parameter is established based on blocks and block is set as the basic measurement spacing for index system.4 Circuit Performance Estimate There are two ways to estimate digital microwave line performance: one is based on unavailability degree. DS (MHz): frequency spacing between the center frequencies (such as fn and fn′ ) of each pair of coming and outgoing RF channels. 8. bit error performance parameter is established based on BER and the index system of setting second as the basic measurement spacing. Determining threshold level: (1) For PDH microwave. Calculate fading margin based on receiving level and receiving threshold level. At the same time. fading caused by gas absorption is not considered and it is considered to be approximately flat fading. For the estimate result of the unavailability degree caused by equipment. Following introduces the second method of estimate. When the upper and lower spacings are different. to predict the possibility of SEBS. The other is to determine whether interruption rate meet the index requirement based on severe error second (SES) or severe error second ratio (SESR). frequency diversity. and ZS2 is called upper frequency spacing. you need to predict the possibility of BER exceeding 10-5–10-4 of SESR. ZS1 is called lower frequency spacing. power supply fault is relatively large. therefore. estimate the unavailability degree of the transmission system caused by propagation fading. in engineering design. the circuit interruption rate predicted should be 7–10dB less that 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Comparison between Calculation and Target Value: In actual engineering design. normally. ZS (MHz): frequency spacing between the center frequency of the outmost RF channel and frequency band edge. coordinate effect coefficient ξ = 1 ).

Considering that B is too far way from A. 8. B and C A:Beilu B:Wansong Hill. and the distance between A and C is 25km. Specific times should be based on cross section. no disclosure without permission Page 125 of 144 pages .Ruian C:Yandun Hill From the map.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only the target value. the distance between A and B is 58km.1 SDH Microwave Circuit I. for the sake of microwave transmission quality. 8. Following is a map about the location of A and B.1.2. In a project. you can see the nearest place to A is C. Yandun Hill Wansong Hill Ruian Figure 8. a hop of SDH microwave is to be established to facilitate the transmission of A.2 location of A. another route is needed rather than A—B. 5 to 10 times. Microwave transmission quality can be assured in 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.2.1 Route Selection A is an sea island subject to B.2 Design Example 8. crossing over the sea. that is.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0

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the route A—C. therefore, route A—C is chosen. The cross section of microwave transmission is type D.

II. 8.2.1.2 Determining the Site
Known conditions: (1) There is a microwave site at C with a microwave tower 40m high. The latitude and longitude of the C are: east longitude is 121°07'31.4'', north latitude is 27°50'23.5'', and the altitude is 220m. (2) From the military map of 1/50000, you can see that on the line from A to C, 3km away from A, there is a small island with altitude of 60m. Determining the site: (1) Select the site based on the map, and requirements for the site are as follows: Microwave route crosses the small island with the altitude of 60m and 3 km away from B. Ensure that the reflected wave can be prevented by the island (note that the altitude of this point should be controlled at about 60—80m). Due consideration should be excised for the microwave to be established in other directions when initially choosing the site. (2) On-Site Survey: The objective of on-site survey is to check whether transportation of the site is convenient and whether the place is suitable to establish site. (3) Electrical Test The objective of electrical test is to check whether the site meet design requirement, that is, whether the receiving level of electrical test is consistent with the receiving level in theory, and whether the reflected wave is prevented (whether the receiving level fluctuate). These three steps are can be circulated to verify the site. (4) Determine the site: Finally, the microwave site of A is determined to be: east longitude 121°11'59.6'', north latitude 27°37'22.5'', altitude 74 m. Specific site is as follows:

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Figure 8.3 Site map A:Beilu island D:Beilong direction C:Dongtou direction small island with altitude of 60m Note: initially two sites are selected; see the two five-pointed stars on figure 8.3. Based on on-site survey and electrical test, the two sites both meet the requirements. Considering that microwave may be established from A to D, from the black five-pointed star to D, microwave needs to cross an island of 120m high but the altitude of the black five-pointed star is only 80m. If choosing the place that the black five-pointed star shows, a tower of 60m needs to be built, which may need large investment. While from the place that the red five-pointed star shows to D, microwave only needs to cross an island of 70m, which does not need high tower and saves the cost. Therefore, the place that the red five-pointed star shows is selected as the microwave site.

III. 8.2.1.3 Determining Antenna Mounting Height
Known conditions: (1) From the military map of 1/50000, find there are two obstacles from A to C. the first obstacle is 75m above the sea level and 280m away from the microwave site of A. and the second obstacle is 52m above the sea level, 3.75km away from the microwave site of A.
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(2) The caliber of microwave antenna is 2m, the frequency band of microwave is 6G (U), and that is, the center frequency is 6.775 GHz. (3) Microwave antenna mounting height of C is 32/22m. (4) Site of C: east longitude is 121°07'31.4'', north latitude is 27°50'23.5'', and altitude is 220m. Site of A: east longitude is 121°11'59.6'', north latitude is 27°37'22.5'' and altitude is 25.21km. Calculation: (1) Calculation of antenna near zone 1. Requirement for the headroom length of the antenna near zone Headroom length of
2

antenna

near

zone:

L0 = 17.1

D

2

λ

= 17.1 ×

2 = 1544.7(m) 0.3 / 6.775

2. Requirement for the headroom height of the antenna near zone. Headroom height of
0

antenna

near

zone:

d 0 = D / 2 + 10 × D × tg (20 ) = 8.28(m)
(2) Calculation of Antenna Height of A 1. Based on the previous calculation, the first obstacle is located at the near zone of antenna, and the mounting height should meet near-zone headroom requirement. Microwave antenna minimum mounting height:

H 0 = 8.28 + (75 − 74) = 9.28(m)
According to the antenna near-zone headroom requirement, the antenna mounting height should not be less than 10m. 2. For the second obstacle is located at antenna far-zone, antenna mounting height should meet the clearance standard. That is, when k=4/3, and when k=2/3, H ≥ 0 . Antenna mounting height of A should be 10m. Free space clearance: H 0 = 18.26

H ≥ H0 ,

λd 1 d 2
d

=

F1 3

= 0.577 F1 = 6.86(m)
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09 km (antenna height of C is 32m and that of A is 20m).4'' 27°50'23. (3) Calculation of Reflection Point Based on the formula in section 6. the reflected wave is prevented by the small island. (4) Microwave Route Parameter Calculation List Table 8. Antenna heights of the two stations are determined as follows: Antenna height of C is 32/22m and that of A is 20/10m. space diversity is adopted and diversity spacing is 10m. when k=4/3.6. For the microwave of this hop is cross-sea microwave. 1 Position 2007-4-4 Site name East longitude North latitude A 121°11'59. microwave antenna mounting height meets clearance requirement.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Projection height of the obstacle: k=4/3: he = d1 d 2 = 4.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.52(m) k=2/3: (h1 + H 1 )d 2 + (h2 + H 2 )d1 d Based on calculation.6'' 27°37'22. no disclosure without permission . site distance is very long.2.43(m) For reflected wave clearance calculated is a negative value.26(m) − H 3 − he = 47. Projection height of the obstacle: k=4/3: he = Clearance: k=4/3: hce = d1d 2 = 0.5'' C 121°07'31.47(m) 2kR0 hce = hce = (h1 + H 1 )d 2 + (h2 + H 2 )d1 d − H 3 − he = 52.1 C—A Microwave route technical parameter list No.5'' Page 129 of 144 pages Huawei confidential. therefore. the distance between the reflection point and A is 7.74(m) 2kR0 (h1 + H 1 )d 2 + (h2 + H 2 )d1 d − H 3 − he = −8.74(m) 2kR0 k=2/3: Clearance: k=4/3: he = d1 d 2 = 9.

03 4.71 54.0 3.52 4.99 52.11 59.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.75 11.26 4. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Site name County Altitude (m) Relative mounting height of the primary antenna (m) Relative mounting height of the secondary antenna (m) Altitude of the primary antenna (m) Site distance (km) Communication azimuth (direct north) Minus/elevation angle of the primary antenna Minus/elevation angle of the secondary antenna Frequency band (GHz) Reflection point (K=4/3) Altitude of the obstacle (m) Position of the obstacle: d1(km) F1(m) Clearance (m) K=4/3 primary antenna Relative clearance Clearance (m) K=4/3 diversity antenna (C) Relative clearance Clearance (m) K=4/3 diversity antenna (A) Relative clearance Clearance (m) K=2/3 primary antenna Relative clearance Clearance (m) K=2/3 diversity antenna (C) Relative clearance Clearance (m) K=2/3 diversity antenna (A) Relative clearance Pingyang 74 20 10 94 25.59 47.09 52.89 60.775 7.40 56.77 5. no disclosure without permission Page 130 of 144 pages .00 A Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only C Dongtou 220 32 22 252 163°04'44'' -0°26'39'' -0°25'17'' (5) Microwave Profile 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.28 4.21 343°06'49'' 0°16'26'' 0°17'48'' 6.54 4.0 No.

0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 8.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.4 C—A microwave profile 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. no disclosure without permission Page 131 of 144 pages .

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.19 6. tributary system loss is 5.2 S 2 ( f d ) × 10 −3 × 10 ( Fd − v ) 10 = 0. (3) Microwave transmitting power is 32 dBm.5) = 39.08 = × × 10 10 = 49.1. and total loss of the feeder line is 4. no disclosure without permission Page 132 of 144 pages .775 39.5 10 = 286. Frequency diversity I fd 80 Δf = × × 10 Fd fd f 10 80 0. (4) Φ2.10(dB) (2) Free space receiving level Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gr ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LBr − L f = 32 + 2 × 40.5 db and the receiving threshold is -73.775 + 20 lg 25.5(dB) (4) Calculation of diversity improvement degree Free space diversity I sd = 1. (2) Microwave equipment configuration is 1+1.5 In actual engineering design. space diversity is adopted and the transmission capacity is STM-1.21 = 137.44 + 20 lg[d (km )] + 20 lg[ f (GHz )] = 92.44 + 20 lg 6. Known conditions: (1) Microwave working center frequency is 6. site distance is 25.4 Calculation of Circuit Index Interruption rate of this microwave circuit selective fading is calculated by linear amplitude dispersion.775 / 25. Calculation: (1) Calculation of free space transmission loss L f = 92.14 × 10 2 39.5 db. 8.14 km.42 − 5.0012 × 10 × 6.14 6.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only IV. maximum free space diversity improvement degree is 200.5 − 137.42 db. (5) Calculation of flat fading interruption rate (BER<10-4) 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. and the cross section type is type.5 dBm.10 = −34(dBm) (3) Flat fading margin Fd = Pro − Pth = −34 − (−73.775 × 25.82 In actual engineering design.0m microwave antenna gain is 40.2.5 − 4. maximum frequency diversity improvement degree is 10.775 GHz.

L0 is 20dB. this microwave circuit is evaluated by the local network 5.5 − (1 − x 0 ) 2 + tan −1 4 π ⎪ ⎩ = 3 .4. Microwave circuit of this hop allows SESR to be Pt = p e + Pfd / I = 6.14 × 10 −5 / 10 + 1.002×5%/500=2×10 .2.213. refer to the improvement coefficient of frequency diversity flat fading.0 − Fd 10 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only − Pe = KQf B d C 10 = 2. SESR of the predicted circuit that adopts frequency diversity is Pt = p e / I fd + Pfd /( I ffd × I ) = 6.61 × 10 −4 . here the improvement degree is 2.2 KQf d × ⎨ x 0 1 − x 0 0 .Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. For the parameter: Δf is 30.2 KQf B d C ⎢1 − (1 − 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ) 2 + 4 × (1 − R f ) × 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ⎢ ⎣ With space diversity: ⎤ ⎥ = 1.64 × 10 − 6 B C ( ) 4 × (1 − R f ) × 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ( L0 / 10 ) 2 (1 − 10 ) ⎪ ⎭ For improvement degree of frequency diversity selective fading.775 × 25.61 × 10 −5 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.1 MHz.14 × 10 −5 (6) Calculation of selective fading interruption rate (BER<10-4): For details.3.00 × 10 −4 / 2 = 1.630 × 10 -6 × 6. Here. Without space diversity: ⎡ (1 − 10 ( L0 / 10 ) ) 2 Pfr = 0.00 × 10 −4 /(2 × 10) = 1. and progress error distribution coefficient K1 is 5. (7) Calculation of total interruption loss (BER<10-4) Based on new national standard.00 × 10 − 4 ⎥ ⎦ 8⎧ 1 ⎪ 2 2 P fr = 0 .04×10-6.2 × 10 39. it is 10. SESR of the predicted circuit that does not adopt space diversity and frequency diversity is circuit index: -7 SESR of each kilometer is distributed as 0. Since SDH microwave equipment has decision feedback equalizer which can improve selective fading.5 10 = 6. refer to the calculation method described in section 2.14 × 10 −5 + 1. no disclosure without permission Page 133 of 144 pages .

64 × 10 −6 / 2 = 2.3 digital microwave selective fading index estimate list No.5 40.775 (1+1)*STM-1 Page 134 of 144 pages C . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Site name Frequency (GHz) Arrangement Modulation Site distance (km) Cross section type Antenna polarization Caliber of the primary antenna (m) Caliber of the diversity antenna (m) Primary antenna gain (dB) Diversity antenna gain (dB) Transmitting power (dBm) Free space loss (dB) Primary feeder line length (m) Primary feeder line loss (dB) Tributary loss (dB) Normal receiving level (dBm) Threshold level (dBm)( (BER=1E-4) Flat fading margin (dB) Possibility of flat fading occurrence Predicted possibility of flat fading interruption rate (BER<1E-4) Diversity antenna vertical spacing (m) Frequency diversity spacing (MHz) Space diversity improvement degree (Isd) Frequency diversity improvement degree (Ifd) Diversity predicted flat fading interruption rate (BER<1E-4) Predicted selective fading interruption rate Diversity predicted selective fading interruption rate Predicted fading interruption rate (BER<1E-4) Permitted interruption rate (BER<1E-4) A C 6.2 C—A digital microwave transmission index estimate list No.14 × 10 −5 /(200 × 10) + 3.775 (1+1)*STM-1 64QAM 25. Pt = p e / I sd + Pfrsd / I = 6.0 40.82E-07 2.2 -73. 1 2 Frequency (GHz) Arrangement 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.00 200 200 10 3.50 -34.00E-06 1.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.5 40.10 40 45 2.0 2.5 39.5 40.04E-06 Table 8.13 × 10 −7 From the predicted result.14 × 10 −5 / 200 + 3.5 54.14E-05 10 10 80.0 2. the microwave circuit can meet design requirements only by adopting space diversity and frequency diversity.64 × 10 −6 /(10 × 2) = 2.5 32 137.41 5.13 × 10 −6 SESR of the predicted circuit that adopts space diversity and frequency diversity is Pt = p e /( I fd × I sd ) + Pfrsd /( I ffd × I ) = 6.13E-07 5.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only SESR of the predicted circuit that adopts space diversity is 4.07E-08 5. (9) Digital microwave transmission index estimate list Table 8.0 2.415 6.14 2.21 D H 2.60×10-6. no disclosure without permission Site name A 6.

Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.0 No. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Site name Modulation Site distance (km) Cross section type Antenna altitude height (m) Antenna height difference (m) Frequency channel bandwidth (MHz) Progress difference distribution co-efficient (k1) Rayleigh fading possibility (F GHz) Rayleigh fading possibility (4 GHz) Average value of progress error: lm(cm) Standard deviation of progress error: r1(cm) Frequency relative coefficient: rf Linear amplitude dispersion (BER=10^-3) Chromatic fading possibility (PLO) Frequency diversity improvement coefficient Decision feedback equalizer improvement coefficient Possibility of linear amplitude dispersion exceeding L0 Space diversity Possibility of linear amplitude dispersion exceeding L0 (with diversity) Predicted selective fading interruption rate

Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only A 64QAM 25.21 D 94 242 148 30.01 5 10.88% 6.79% 23.01 30.04 0.95 20 9.19E-04 10 2 5.00E-06 S/D 3.34E-05 1.82E-07 C

8.2.2 SDH Microwave Site Type and Polarization Configuration
This section describes how to configure two-frequency microwave polarization and site type, and how to calculate interference. (1) A hop of SDH microwave is previously established from C to B, C is the high site, B is the low site, and frequency is f1 and f3 of L6G. Polarization is vertical. (2) In this phase, a new hop of SDH microwave is to be established between A and D. Frequency still adopts f1 and f3 of L6G. (3) For the sake of calculation, supposed the microwave antenna caliber of each site is Φ3.2m, feeder line length, tributary circuit loss and transmitting power are the same. Specific microwave routes are as follows:

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Figure 8.5 Microwave route
A:Dayang B:Daju C:Daxiang Hill D:Maguan

Calculation: (1) Supposed D is high site, since frequencies of the two hops are the same, cross-station interference may be produced. Interfering paths are as follows: Interference from A to C and that from C to A Interference from B to D and that from D to B Here, interference from B to D is calculated.

Figure 8.6 Interference—schematic map A:Dayang B:Daju C:Daxiang Hill D:Maguan

Useful signals: Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gr ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LBr − L f Interference signals: Pri = Pi + (Gt + G r ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LBr − L fi
' ' ' '

Carrier-interference

ratio

(carrier

power

at

the

input

end

of

the

receiver/interference level): C / I = p r 0 − p ri The feeder line length, tributary circuit loss, and transmitting power of the two routes are the same, thus,

C / I = p r 0 − p ri = (Gt − Gt' ) + (Gr − Gr' ) − L f + L fi
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If the polarization of the two microwave routes is the same, that is, from A to D, horizontal polarization is adopted, The separation angle from the antenna of site B to that of site D is 0.25°, then,

(Gt − Gt' ) = 0.5(dBi)
The separation angle from the antenna of site D to that of site B is 42.6°, then, (Gt − Gt ) = 55( dBi )
'

(Note: antenna gain is determined by actual antenna direction map, if there is no direction map, you can predict it based on engineering calculation formula.) Then: C / I = 0.5 + 55 − 20 * log(37.06 / 31.45) = 54.1(dB ) For digital microwave relay communication line, since the propagation path of the useful signals and that of interference signal are different, when considering permitted C/I ratio, normally, lower fading margin of 40 dB should be reserved. For the threshold C/I ratio (bit error rate is 10-4) of this microwave equipment is 26.8dB, then: Co-polarization interference fading margin is: 54.1 − 26.8 = 27.3( dB ) The result indicates that the interference fading margin is inadequate. From the previous calculation, you can see that if D is the high site, interference may be serious, and this solution is unacceptable. In the same way, you can calculate the interference from C to A, from B to D and that from D to B. The result still indicates that the interference is serious. (2) Supposed D is low site, interference paths are as follows: Interference from B to A Interference from A to B Interference from D to C Interference from C to D

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Page 137 of 144 pages

4 Interference calculation list Interference path Description 1 Interference from B to A 2 Interference from A to B 3 Interference from D to C 4 Interference from C to D 67 28 Front/Back ratio of receiving antenna: F/B(dB) Front/Back ratio of transmitting antenna: F/B(dB) Transmitting power difference (Pt-Pt’) (dB) Antenna gain difference (G-G’) (dB) Feeder line length difference (m) Feeder line loss difference (Lf. horizontal polarization is adopted.03 26.8 40.Lf’) (dB) Tributary circuit loss difference (dB) 20Log(D/D’) (dB) Other loss (dB) D/U(dB) C/N [ BER=10-4](dB) Interference margin (dB) 60 46 46 60 67 28 3.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. the interference from D to C is not so serious. when D is the low site. and the design requirement can be met. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. In actual design.8 77.97 66.93 2.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only Figure 8.73 26.10 26. and from D to A.90 67.23 From the table.00 27.8 39.27 102.7 Interference paths when D is the low site A:Dayang B:Daju C:Daxiang Hill D:Maguan Interference of each path is calculated as follows: Table 8.80 26.20 103.8 75. D is low site. no disclosure without permission Page 138 of 144 pages .30 28.

8. (2) Considering the influence of rain fading.2. (3) For small capacity digital microwave system used in base access. unavailability index caused by rain fading also needs to be considered. vertical polarization is preferred. Calculation Basis: (1) Circuit index evaluate the circuit based on national standard. rain fading should be considered.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. II. 2E1. electrical test and microwave profile are unnecessary. and for microwave lower than 10 GHz. 4E1.2.3 Calculation of Access Layer Microwave Circuit Indexes Known Conditions: (1) Site distance is 10 km. and it belongs to rain zone M (2) Transmission capacity of microwave equipment is 4E1. no disclosure without permission Page 139 of 144 pages .2. I. microwave cross section is of type B.2 Access Layer Microwave Frequency Polarization Configuration Principle and Calculation Basis Frequency and Polarization Principle (1) Frequency configuration normally adopts four-frequency system.3.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 8.3. normally. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. that is. 8.2.1 Access-Layer Microwave Features Base access microwave features: (1) Site distance is short. generally.3. 8. rain fading is not considered.3 Calculation of PDH Microwave Circuit Indexes Following examples describes the calculation of base access-layer PDH microwave circuit indexes in mobile engineering design. and cross-station interference should be considered. III. within 10 km (2) Microwave band always adopts the upper band (such as 13 GHz. path clearance needs not to be calculated (4) Microwave transmission capacity is 1E1. for the band is narrow and modulation is simple. (2) For microwave higher than 10 GHz. 15 GHz) (3) Distance can be viewed. for long-haul upper-band microwave. and 13 GHz frequency band is adopted. 8E1 and 16E1 (5) Besides fading. frequency selective fading is not considered.

7 dB.9 10 = 4.6m antenna gain is 35. And 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.70 = −40. all factors should be included. When estimating unavailability indexes. Calculation of Circuit Unavailability Index: Circuit availability index is another important quality index of digital microwave relay communication system.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (3) Main technical indexes of microwave equipment: antenna transmitting power is 18 dBm. And for IF cable is adopted. such as transient interruption of more than continuous 10 seconds caused by radio equipment. that is.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. caliber of microwave antenna of this hop is 0. Calculation: Calculation of Circuit Interruption Rate (1) Calculation of free space transmission loss L f = 92. propagation.6 × 10 −6 can meet the requirement. Based on this rule. interference. maximum receiving level is less than -30 dBm.4 dB. and the antenna gain is 39. (4) Major technical indexes of microwave antenna: Φ0.04% × L / 1250 = 1.44 + 20 lg 13 + 20 lg 5 = 128.3 − 128.9(dB ) (3) Calculation of flat fading interruption rate (BER<10-3): Pe = KQf B d C 10 − Fd 10 = 2. power supply and human act.75 × 10 -5 × 13 × 51.44 + 20 lg[d (km )] + 20 lg[ f (GHz )] = 92. Permitted SES (bit error rate larger than 1×10-3) 0.1 − (−82) = 41.3 dB.2m antenna gain is 41.22 × 10 −7 (4) Circuit index evaluation: Circuit index of microwave of this hop is evaluated according to intermediate circuit. Φ1. the basic rules of selecting antenna is that fading margin of 35 dB should be reserved and normally. Free space receiving level: Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gr ) − L f = 18 + 2 × 35.70(dB) (2) Receiving level of free space For PDH microwave. feeder line loss needs not be considered) Flat fading margin: Fd = Pro − Pth = −40. tributary circuit loss needs not be considered. statistical predicted availability and accidental transient interruption. no disclosure without permission Page 140 of 144 pages . and receiving threshold is -82 dBm.1(dBm) (For transmitting power of PDH microwave provided by general factories is antenna mouth power.6m.8 × 10 − 41.

01 × 0. rain fading exceeded: A0.01 ) = 1 /(1 + 5 / 35e −0. exceeded rain fading rate V R is 2.05% × L / 50 / 3 = 1.14 × 10 −4 Circuit unavailability index evaluation: (1) Based on evaluation circuit index of intermediate circuit.01 = VR × r × d = 2. system unavailability index is not considered.01 × 0. In actual engineering design.76 dB/km.01% of the year.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.1(dB) Horizontal polarization.33 × 0. 0. exceeded rain fading rate V R is 3. path length reducing factor: r = 1 /(1 + d / d 0 ) = 1 /(1 + d / 35e −0.73 For 13 GHz microwave.73 × 5 = 12.01% of the year.01 = VR × r × d = 3. rain fading exceeded (1) Vertical polarization p % = (−0.086 = 2.2.01% of the time. 0. standby channel can be set. unavailability of transient interruption caused by rain fading.15×63 ) = 0. needs to be considered.67 × 10 (%) . For rain zone M.01 = 63mm / h . to improve the availability index of the system. Have a think? 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. rain fading exceeded: A0.2% ~ 0.01% of 5min. For microwave higher than 10 G band. Unavailability index caused by propagation requirement is met.546 2 − 4 × 0.9 × 10 −5 (2) Horizontal polarization p % = (−0. 0. Under horizontal polarization.546 + 0.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only unavailability of transient interruption caused by propagation and interference should occupy 1/3.33dB/km. 0. unavailability index caused by propagation . no disclosure without permission Page 141 of 144 pages is 0.043 × lg( Fd /( A0. −4 −4 design (2) Evaluate the circuit index based on assumed reference digital section type 3.01% of the year. The is (0. 0. −3 design .73 × 5 = 10. for microwave lower than 10 G band.67 × 10 ~ 6. raininess R0.12) ) / 0.546 2 − 4 × 0.67 × 10 requirement can be met only when vertical polarization is adopted. the assumed reference digital section length is 50 km.043 × lg( Fd /( A0.15×R0. Vertical polarization.12) ) / 0.086 = 8. 0. under vertical polarization.546 + 0.5%) × L / 1250 / 3 = 2.01% of the year.(dB ) P% of the year.76 × 0.

to save cost. and one subrack can accommodate many sets of microwave equipment.1 Equipment Layout ODU and IDU (portable microwave equipment) IDU is small in size. Chapter 9 Precautions in Engineering Design   Objectives: To understand the overall requirement for microwave equipment layout To learn the precautions in antenna installation To know the craft requirement for tower 9. ensure safe operation. save installation materials and cost (2) Tidy and well arranged 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. Normally. easy for construction.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only What do you learn in this chapter? (1) Design of route. reserve vacancies for new microwave equipment in next expansion or installation. no disclosure without permission Page 142 of 144 pages . site and antenna height in microwave engineering. try to reduce bends of the feeder line. it describes deign methods of route. (2) Frequency selection and polarization configuration. Normally. curvature of the feeder turning point should meet the requirement of curvature radius. last. After describing microwave engineering design methods. First. When installing equipment. At the same time. design example of microwave engineering is listed to help engineers have a further understanding about the design. they can be installed in 19’ standard subrack. Requirements for equipment room layout (1) Convenient for maintenance.3 Conclusion This chapter mainly describes microwave engineering design. (3) Microwave circuit performance estimate methods 8. and IDU and ODU are connected by IF cable. and then the microwave frequency selection and polarization configuration. microwave circuit performance estimate methods. they have no special requirement for installation. the bending times should be less than two. If there is no 19’ standard subrack in the equipment room. IDU can be installed into the subrack of equipment (such as transmission equipment subrack). Trunk microwave (all-indoor microwave) For feeder line adopts elliptical soft guide. site and antenna height.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.

9. 9. bends and twists (4) Reserve vacancies for new microwave equipment of next installation on the equipment layout map based on actual needs.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1. The mast should be connected closely to the beam on the top of the building.3. vertical lean of the centerline should not exceed 1/500 of the tower height. and an operation platform can be properly set on the tower body. and sign signal should be made on the top of the tower. (4) When the tower is free of load.1 Process Requirement of New Established Tower (1) Besides technical requirement. (2) Structure of the tower should be favorable to the installation. should also meet the requirement of the antenna that will be mounted in the future. but the mast diameter should between 70mm and 114mm.3 Process Requirement for the Tower 9. When installing antenna onto a mast. if the microwave antenna caliber is larger than 0. the angle that the maximum tower twist makes the microwave antenna beam deviated from the communication direction should not exceed 1/2 of the half-power angle (external force indicates the maximum wind speed in ten minutes. (3) Earthquake-proof design should comply with the national standard.6m. (7) Anticorrosion duration of the tower should be more than 30 years. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential.2 Installation of Microwave Antenna Microwave antenna can be installed on tower or the mast at the top of a building. the antenna can be installed on the same mast with the antenna of mobile station (microwave antenna should be installed on the upper mast).6m. no disclosure without permission Page 143 of 144 pages . commissioning and maintenance of the antenna and feeder. When the antenna is mounted onto an independent mast on the top of a building. there should be a lighting rode on the top of the mast and the microwave antenna should be under 45° protection area of the lighting rode. another mast of 114mm is needed. a pole of φ114mm should be bound to the tower. When installing antenna onto a tower. if the caliber of microwave antenna is not more than 0. (5) Under maximum external force.0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only (3) Reduce the length of feeder line.) (6) Structure of the tower. that occur every 30 years. 10m above the ground. location and height of the tower should comply with relevant regulations of the Administration concerned. besides meeting the installation load requirement of the antenna recently mounted.

and precautions in microwave engineering. 9. If the tower cannot meet the load requirement.4 Conclusion This chapter describes the requirements of equipment layout. no disclosure without permission Page 144 of 144 pages . (2) For the microwave with many directions. it is suggested that the antenna mounting height should not exceed 2/3 of the tower height. the orientation of the tower should be considered and make it meet the requirement of (1).3. especially for the antenna with caliber larger than 2m. the original tower design institute needs to propose reconstruction scheme or suggestions. the construction contractor needs to entrust the original tower design institute to check the loading condition of the tower. before the construction of tower base.3 Requirement for Old Tower to be used For the tower that is previously established. if caliber of microwave antenna is 2m. Specific orientation should meet the following requirements: (1) The separation angle between microwave communication zenith and the tower body should be within the range of 110°—160°.Digital Microwave Communication Principles V1.2m. And if caliber of microwave antenna is 3.3. if new microwave antenna needs to be mounted on it. it is suggested that the antenna mounting height should not exceed 1/2 of the tower height. provide specific orientation to the construction contractor. try to control microwave antenna in different directions are installed on different rolled angle. (3) Based on (1) and (2).0 Confidentiality Level: Internal Use Only 9.2 Orientation Requirement of Newly Established Tower For newly established tower. 2007-4-4 Huawei confidential. microwave antenna mounting and the tower. Have a think? What do you learn in this chapter? Requirement of the equipment layout in microwave engineering Precautions in microwave antenna mounting Process requirement of the tower 9. Suggestions: For original base tower.

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