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AUGUST 2011 Master of Business Administration (MBA) Semester – 1 MB0043 – Human Resource Management - 4 Credits (Book ID: B0909) Assignment - Set- 1
MB0043: Human Resource Management
Roll No. : 541110058
Fall 2011, MBA-1 Semester
Q.1 What are the functions that HR attempts to fulfill in any organization.
Answer: The variety of human relations problems leads to the conclusion that no one program or single approach can create conditions from good human relations. Therefore, it is common for organizations and individuals in an organization to constantly innovate and resolve challenges that will benefit both the organization as well as the employee. The Functions that HR attempts to fulfill in any organization are as follows: 1. Human Resource Planning Estimating the need for resources in order achieve the desired business results. HR plans can be both short term/immediate as well as long term/strategic. The HR team partners with the line managers to understand the business goals and targets for the year and together plan the HR needs in order to meet the goals. 2. Acquisition of Human Resources Staffing the organization with the right mix of skills and competencies at the right time. It also includes HR initiatives like promotions and internal job posting to fulfill this requirement for human resources. Staffing teams in organization are usually separate group of specialists who work closely with the line managers to understand the skills and competencies needed for the job and engage together to elect the best talent for the open position. 3. Training and employee development Focuses in managing training activities to upgrade skills and knowledge as well as soft skills like the ream building and leadership. The training team is again a group of HR specialist who proposes the training program and consults with the line managers to ensure that the program achieves the desired outcomes.
MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. : 541110058 Page 2
Fall 2011, MBA-1 Semester
4. Building performance management systems Focuses on the right processes to set goals for performance as individual / teams and related measurement methods. This is core HR activity and is supported by the Hr generalist. 5. Rewards systems Establishing appropriate compensation systems and reward mechanism that would reward the desired outcome and results in accordance with the cooperate values. The again forms a part of HR generalist’s tasks. Hoe employees progress in a organization how they are paid w.r.t internal and external market factors, what employee benefits are offered are some aspects that this function redresses. 6. Human resources information systems Taking care of operational transactions form the time an employee exits, like personal files, compensation administration, payroll, benefits administration and issuing letters and testimonials. That task is supported by as separate HR operation team who acts as an Hr helpdesk and provides information to the employee/managers.
Q.2 Discuss the cultural dimensions of Indian Work force.
Answer: Cultural Dimension of Indian Work Force The foundation for understanding the unique work practices at a country level can be best is understood by first understanding the culture aspects of the
MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. : 541110058 Page 3
Geert Hofstede dimension are based on research conducted among over 1000 IBM employees working globally. some are high. He identified five cultural dimensions around which counties have been clustered. While their continued to be other studies like the GLOBE (Global leadership and organizational behavior Effectiveness) project and trompenaar’s framework. Indian organization typically have hierarchical structures. The powerful are entitled to privileges. MBA-1 Semester country’s workforce. indicating high power distance as a result of the inequalities both at the level of society as well as the at the workplace. The dimensions are: power distance. and The powerful should yield the power India score 77 on power distance . hofstede’s model is most popular. High power distance countries have norms. Countries in which people blindly obey of superior have high power distance. : 541110058 Page 4 . individualism. The dimension of high power distance at the workplace can be best understood as: People dislike work and try to avoid it. Geert Hofstede is a useful tool in understanding the cultural differences used to differentiate countries. uncertainly avoidance. some are low Most people should be dependent on a leader. Power Distance Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. values and beliefs that support In equally is good. masculinity and long term orientation. everyone has a place. The pioneering work done by Dutch Scientist.Fall 2011. policies yield power and subordination is acceptable.
Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situation. and that life must go on in spite of this specifically. Deviant people and ideas should be tolerated . They will have a large proportion of supervisory personal and The people at the lower level often will have low job qualifications. Organizational structure and systems tend to match the assumption regarding leadership and motivation. Organization tends to have tall structures.Fall 2011. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. values and beliefs which accept that: Conflict should not be avoided. Countries with low to average uncertainly avoidance have people who are more willing to accept that risks are associated with the unknown. Those at the top make most of the decision. and force workers to perform and need to supervise their subordinated closely. high uncertainly avoidance countries are characterized by norms. Decision making is centralized. : 541110058 Page 5 . and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these India scores 40 indicating low to average uncertainly avoidance characterizes. that is. Such structure s encourages and promotes inequality between people at different levels. MBA-1 Semester Managers believe that they must adopt theory X leadership style. they must be authoritarian.
where as in individualist societies. Such an organization encourages employees to use their initiative and assume responsibility for their actions. Further organizations in collectivist culture base promotions mostly on seniority and age. Denmark and Great Britain are good examples of low uncertainty avoidance cultures. fewer written rules.Fall 2011. Finally in collectivist MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. The opposite of this collectivism which refers to the tendency of people to belong to group and to look after other in exchange for loyalty India score 48 on individualism. Experts and authorities are not always correct and consensus is not important. Group decision making is best. in individualism societies. Low uncertainty avoidance society such as ours have organization setting with less structuring of activities. Japan and Spain typify high uncertainty avoidance societies. favoritism shown to friends and relatives is considered to be unfair and even illegal. Collectivist countries believe that: One’s identity is based on one’s group membership. In contrast. they are based on one’s performance. Germany. and Group protects individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group. MBA-1 Semester Laws are not very important and need not necessarily be followed. indicating somewhat low scores. Individualism Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their family only. : 541110058 Page 6 . more risk ± taking by managers. higher labor turnover and more ambitious employees. Organizations are collectivist societies tend to promote nepotism in selecting managers. therefore tending towards a more collectivistic society.
and therein the planning for the human resources: 1. There are men’s jobs and women’s jobs. Otherwise work would be impacted. Answer: Human resource planning system is a mandatory part of every organization’s annual planning process. important decisions are made by older and senior managers as opposed to individualist cultures. Men usually choose jobs that are associated with short term employment before marriage. jobs are clearly defined by gender. Since employees exit and organization both naturally (as a result of superannuation) and unnaturally (as a result of resignation). In higher masculine society’s. where decision making is an individual’s responsibility. Every organization that plans for its business goals for the year also plan how it will go about achieving them. money and other material things. there is an ongoing need for hiring replacement staff to augment employee exit. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. each organization needs competent staff with the necessary qualification.3 Explain the need for Human Resource planning system. 2. knowledge. To carry on its work. Hofstede measured this dimension on a continuum ranging from masculinity to femininity. Masculinity Masculinity refers to a situation in which the dominant values in a society are success. : 541110058 Page 7 . Q. MBA-1 Semester cultures. work experience and aptitude of work.Fall 2011. skills. India scores 56 tending to be closed to masculinity than femininity.
MBA-1 Semester 3. 4. its position in the market and the general economy. Fair wages 3. Often organization might need to replace the nature of the present workforce as a result of its changing needs. Living wages MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. Options such as redeployment and outplacement can be planned for and executed properly. : 541110058 Page 8 . In situation where the organization is faced with severe revenue and growth limitation it might need to plan well to manage how it will workforce. its competitors. Q. Answer: In India wages system is classified as follows: 1. To meet the challenges of the changed needs of technology/product/service innovation the existing employees need to be trained or new skills sets induced into the organization. Minimum wages 2. In order to meet for the more employees due to organizational growth and expansion. Manpower planning is also needed in order to identify an organizations need to reduce its workforce. this is turn call for large quantities of the same goods and services as well as new goods.4 Elucidate the classification of wages in the Indian System. This growth could be rapid or gradual depending on the nature of the business. 5. therefore the need to hire new set of employees.Fall 2011.
industry to industry and from worker to worker. In other words. For this purpose minimum wages must provide for some measure of education. It is very difficult to determine the minimum wages because condition varies from place to place. the actual wages should depend on consideration of such factor as: i) ii) iii) iv) The productivity of labour. clothing and shelter but a measure of frugal MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. and The place of industry in the economy. MBA-1 Semester 1.1948.Fall 2011. the principles for determining minimum wages were evolved by the government and have been incorporated in the minimum wages act. The level of the national income and its distribution. medical care and other amenities. but for the preservation of the efficacy of the worker. Between these two limits. for the education of his family members. medical requirement and amenities”. However. Fair wage It is the wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living wage. the important principles being that minimum wages should provide not only for the bare sustenance of life but also for the preservation of the efficiency of the workers by the way of education. for their amenities. The prevailing rates of wages in the same or neighboring localities. Living wages One which should enable the earner to provide for himself and his family not only there bare essentials of food. for his efficiency. 2. The lower limit of the fair is obviously the minimum wage. minimum wages should provide for sustenance for the worker’s family. Minimum wages A minimum wages has been defined by the committee as “the wages which must provide not only for the bare substance of life. : 541110058 Page 9 . for their medical care. the upper limit is set by the capacity of industry to pay. 3.
2. both parties agree to refer their dispute agreed arbitrator and his award becomes binding on the parties. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No.third of the total number of members. requirement of essential social needs and a measure of insurance against the more important misfortunes including old age´ in other words. Collective bargaining: It is still in the initial stage in India. The central government and state government may fix minimum wages under the minimum wages act 1948 for the industries in which workers are exploited or too unorganized to protect their own interest. The management considers the state of the labor market and takes into account of what he can afford to pay and the value of the worker to him. a living wage was to provide for a standard of living that would ensure good health for the worker and his family as well as a measure of decency. Although it is a desirable development in the relation between management and labor. : 541110058 Page 10 . comfort. In order to advise them in the matter of fixing minimum wages. Voluntary arbitration: In voluntary arbitration. through they have had no part in fixing it. it cannot be imposed upon either side by compulsion and should evaluate naturally from within. 1.Fall 2011. There on it are annual reviews to make correction per the country’s economic and market/industry trends. The worker¶s willingness for employment at the rate offered implies that they agree to work at that rate. protection against ill-health. education for his children and protection against misfortunate. MBA-1 Semester comfort. Wage Legislation: Wages are fixed according to the law in some industries. 3. the government appoints minimum wages committees and the advisory boards. Generally ascertaining wages and deciding who to pay what is a activity undertaken in the beginning when a organization is set up. including education for his children. The committees and the advisory boards consist of equal number of workers and employers representative and also independent members whose number should not exceed one.
the special feature of industry. may decide to refer the case to industrial tribunal for award. profit. the conciliation officer sends a full report o the proceeding. it becomes binding on the parties and takes effects from the date agreed upon or from the date on which it is signed by the two parties. Economics factors such as capacity to pay. 6. and therefore.Fall 2011. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. and consists of seven members. On the receipt of the report. Wages Board: The board is appointed by govt. unemployment. Adjudication: Labor courts and industrial tribunal are set up under the industrial disputes act 1947. either completely or partly and may be statutorily imposed on the industry in question. there is desire to satisfy both parties to dispute. In case no agreement is reached. : 541110058 Page 11 . the govt. If an agreement is reached in the course of conciliation proceeding. At the same time. provide for consideration in case of dispute between employee and worker. 5. condition of the economy or welfare of the industry concerned. Its recommendation may be accepted by the govt. Conciliation: The industrial dispute act 1947.two management. two of labour. or may be rejected. the requirement of social justice and the necessity for adjusting wage differential in such a manner as to provide incentives to workers for advancing their skill. The board is expected to take into account the needs of the specific industry in a developing economy. MBA-1 Semester 4. are given due prominence. two independent and a chairman. On studying the awards one gets the impression that the adjudication are attempting to justify their decision in social and ethical terms.
What are the challenges in implementing that option? Answer: Individually perceived sequences of a attitude and behavior work related activities and experience over the span of a person’s life. Suggest Ms Sharma the alternative way to vertical promotion. MBA-1 Semester Q. The dynamics of career development in an organizational context has two dimensions: How individuals plan and implement their own career goals . It requires an individual thinking to identify career-related goals and establishing plans towards achieving those goals. S. opportunities and constraints. Having a career plan builds a commitment towards achieving it and is viewed as an excellent personal goal setting exercise for self motivation. An internal focus refers to the way an individual views his/her career and the external or objective focus and refers to the series of job position held by the individual.5 Ms. It is also viewed from time to time that the individual looks for possible new carrier option. which every professional appends some time to dwell on and discuss it with peers or superiors and frame it. Often it is self driven process. Career management is considered to be an organizational process that involves preparing. interest. : 541110058 Page 12 . She is planning for the promotion policy for the faculty members. Moreover the options to promote are limited.Fall 2011. implementing & monitoring career plans undertaken by n individual alone or within the organizational career system. The norms are also ruled by the government policy and criteria. and How organizations design and implement their career implement their career development programs. Career planning is a deliberate attempt by an individual to become more aware of their skills. Organizational establishing polices that provide for multiple career path options that an employee can choose MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. values. Sharma is the General Manager HR of a private educational group. In normal parlance the term career has both an internal and external focus.
: 541110058 Page 13 . These are typically called career ladders or career paths and they help an employee to identify what his options are for future growth and identify the appropriate one based on his personal skills and capabilities/limitation. Some of the activities described are individuals career planning tools and other are commonly used for organizational career management. Often managers recommend relevant other managers and leaders who the employee can link with to seek advice and support.Fall 2011. Organizations also provide for formal ‘mentoring programs´ to which an employee can enroll and sign up a mentor who can then provide the support and counseling on the best career option and how to go about it achieving it. career workshop etc 2. This is supported with a lot of training and development activities that are agreed to with the managers and planned carefully and executed. A variety of career development activities and tools exists for use in organizations. In general the most effective career development program will use both type of activities Career development program are as follows: 1.g career planning workbooks. Information services: organization has establishing policies on what skills and experience that each job in the organization requires. Jobs with similar skills and experience are clubbed together to create parallel career paths. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. Self assessment tools: these are usually technology enabled on line tools that form part of the performance appraisal system and allow the individual to identify areas of strength the best e. Individual counseling: formally the process allows for individuals to discuss this as part of the performance management process with their immediate managers and share and take feedback with their immediate managers and share and take feedback on the appropriateness of the choices and how to go about pursuing it. HR managers should be familiar with these components bemuse the managers often serve as internal consultants responsible for designing the career development system. MBA-1 Semester from and pursue. 3.
5. Through the use of assessment center organizations can help an employee identify areas for improvement and means of building those skills.Fall 2011. all prove effective tools to help the individual along. : 541110058 Page 14 . Employee can also approach career resource / talent management centers supported by HR team for more information on how to plan careers and apply for new roles and job. It would also specify the particular qualification or special certification that the position demands. So he can achieve his career plans. An employee aspiring to purpose a career option would need to dedicate time and efforts and the expenses towards acquiring the same. 6. in housing training. Large MNC’s also encourage the reimbursement of these expenses as an annual fixed amount on successfully the exam / certification. tuition refund plans. Development programs focus the efforts of the employee towards helping the employee to achieve his career goals. Certain organizations offer psychological testing instrument which profile the employee’s strengths and roles and responsibility he/she will best fit into. The employee however needs to find the time and expend the efforts away from work. Organization assessment program: it can proactively establish formal process wherein an employee can volunteer to participate and understand himself/herself and his/her strengths. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. job rotations program. MBA-1 Semester These career path would be supplemented with additional information on skills and experience that one must have for each role/job in there career path. 4. The actual move of the employee to the new role would however depend on the existence of the job vacancy in the role. The assessment centers. Initial employment programmed organization also run internship and apprenticeship programs wherein the individual aspiring to do particular jobs can spend some time as a temporary employee to explore interest and skill fitment for the job/role.
Morale or employee satisfaction surveys are generally conducted with a view to: 1. in the company is going well? What practices in the company they think are not doing well? Get the feedback on managerial effectiveness. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. with web based technologies it is easier and cheaper than ever to collect and manage data. Now many enlightened organizations see HR and employee surveys as a powerful business improvement tool. Before doing that it wants to have some details about the following: What the employees think about the company? What do they think. Finding out what employees really think. MBA-1 Semester Q. Answer: Employee survey techniques have developed significantly over the past few years. In the past. any HR driven initiative was seen as tactical and of little real benefit to the organization as a whole. : 541110058 Page 15 .Fall 2011. The Survey Questionnaire Method method is generally used to collect employee opinions about the factors which affect morale and their opinion about the leadership.6 ABC is an organization that wants to revise the HR policies. Suggest the suitable method to collect the employee opinion and explain the method.
merger. Different Types of Employee Survey Programs Annual climate and employee satisfaction surveys are by far the most popular kind of employee survey activity. and 5. Finding out what employee is most unhappy about. Evaluation and design of different benefits schemes. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. the following types of survey programs are also gaining in popularity: Combining employee and customer satisfaction studies. Determining the clarity of company vision/objectives and the top management commitment to it. 3. Internal communications evaluations. etc. Internal customer service evaluations. These include multiple choice.).g. Alignment of employees behind organizational rebranding and repositioning efforts. Procedure/policy evaluation. : 541110058 Page 16 . in the company. acquisition/downsizing.Fall 2011. This questionnaire is usually a scientifically developed instrument and well tested for validity and reliability. Solicit feedback on managerial effectiveness. dichotomous (yes or no)" and open-ended questions. MBA-1 Semester 2. 4. Managing employees through organizational change programs (e. Alignment of employees behind new product development. Finding out what. However. they think is working well and what is not.
to ensure that the correct methodology is used for the type of survey being conducted. you may decide to use focus groups before designing the survey in order to determine the survey content and/or pilot questionnaire. MBA-1 Semester Defining Employee Survey Goals and Objectives Before starting on a staff survey process. : 541110058 Page 17 .Fall 2011. monitored and communicated over time? Quantitative and qualitative research methods can both be highly effective in employee surveys. in an employee satisfaction survey. Without these objectives. though. you will need to consider the following: Are all employees affected and should all employees need to be involved? Will changes and improvement action be required at different levels across the organization? How will managers and employees be engaged in the improvement process? How will awareness of the survey. It is essential. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. its results and improvements be raised and managed among employees? How will the progress of improvement actions be reviewed. For example. All employee survey programs need to be seen as a companywide initiative that is driven by managers and employees from across the whole organization and not something that is solely initiated and managed just within HR Deciding on the Appropriate Survey Methodology Defining objectives at the outset will help to determine the methodology because. Employee satisfaction surveys are the most common form of quantitative research. There are occasions when both methodologies can be effectively combined. to meet the desired objectives. the survey program will lack focus and it will be difficult to raise enthusiasm for the survey among your key influencers and decision makers. it is vital to define a set of objectives for the survey.
Fall 2011. Pre Survey During the Survey Post Survey Between Surveys AN INTRODUCTION TO EMPLOYEE SURVEY TECHNIQUES Planning for Employee Satisfaction Surveys The following outlines some of the factors that should be communicated at each stage of the process: Pre Survey Objectives of the survey. third-party agency for data collection and analysis Timing of the data collection Senior management commitment to the survey Importance of getting a good response rate so that all employee opinions are heard Importance of participation Methodology to be used Assurance that the study will protect anonymity and preserve confidentiality During the Survey Reminder of the objectives and assurance that action will be taken Assurance that individual surveys cannot be seen MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. : 541110058 Page 18 . MBA-1 Semester Employee Satisfaction Surveys It is worthwhile examining employee satisfaction surveys in more detail given that they are the most popular type of employee survey. rationale for the survey and how the results will be fed back Use an independent.
MBA-1 Semester Regular reminders and a notice of when the survey completion period will end How the results will be acted upon Update on current response rate Reinforce the importance of participation How employees can participate and what employees should do if having problems accessing or completing the survey Reinforce anonymity and confidentiality of the results Post Survey Thank employees for participating and communicate how results will be shared Final response rate (Company wide vs. Business Units/Divisions) Detail on how employees should get involved in the improvement action planning process Local results and local improvement action planning Provide top-level summary results Reminder of the action planning process Between Surveys Highlight and recognize successful examples of action planning and progress made Recognize the contributions of teams and individuals to the action planning process Senior management endorsement and support of the final action plan/survey outcomes Detailed plans for the next survey Highlight any areas where action cannot be taken and the reasons for this Highlight the impact of action planning on customer service and business performance MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. : 541110058 Page 19 .Fall 2011.
then do not conduct the survey in the first place. The key incentive In contrast to the weak influence of incentives. research shows that employees are more likely to participate in an employee survey if they believe that the results will be acted upon. You have spent time and effort getting employees enthusiastic about the survey and they now have high expectations that there will be improvement activity in which they will be involved. if you do not intend to act on the results. then do not conduct the survey in the first place. Then moving down to Divisional and Unit levels. Results Analysis and Reporting There are many different ways of analyzing. Improvement action planning should be ³top down´ process where the priorities for the organization are identified. Questionnaire Design The design of the questionnaire is important as it can have as much influence over the response rate as the method of completion. The golden rule of this type of survey is that.Fall 2011. IMPROVEMENT ACTION PLANNING Background As noted earlier. communicated and acted upon at the senior management level. cutting and reporting results and each organization has to decide individually on the best method for their needs. MBA-1 Semester Electronic and Web-Enabled Increasingly. the guiding principle of employee survey is that. if you are not prepared to act on the results. : 541110058 Page 20 . organizations are starting to move towards electronic methods of surveying their employees and the most common method is hosting a webenabled survey. local teams MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No.
Resources: Specify and determine what individual resources are required such as personnel. Area for improvement: What is the problem? What impact is it having on employees and customers? What is causing the problem? 2. 4. What Needs to Happen: Specify the specific improvement action that is required to address the problem. Our recommendation is that not more than three to four improvement actions should be tackled at one time and that further actions should not be pursued until at least one of the existing actions has been fully completed. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. This does not necessarily mean that this person is solely responsible for the delivery of the action. How It Will Happen: Specify the process and activities required as part of the improvement action. 5. materials or support from other parts of the organization. The specific components of the plan should be as follows: 1. Some organizations struggle with improvement action planning because they try to tackle far too many improvement actions at once and start spreading the valuable resources they have too thinly over too many actions. 6. : 541110058 Page 21 . MBA-1 Semester should identify and tackle the things that they have direct control over and escalate anything else back upwards. This sets the focus that any target delivery date is realistic and achievable and it may be stretched if not met. Action Owner: It is important for one person to be allocated ownership for the action. Prioritizing Improvement Actions Prioritization of improvement actions should be taken under consideration. Timelines: It is important to have a target date for completing the delivery of the action. money.Fall 2011. but they are responsible for ensuring that the delivery does actually happen. Ownership for actions should be spread around the team so that no one person is overburdened. 3.
Review Dates: Specify all of the dates when the improvement action will be reviewed. 9.Impact: Completed after the action has finally been delivered to define the impact and difference that the improvement action has made to employees. 12. The survey can be used as a source for this by pulling out appropriate questions and setting targets for improving the results to these questions in the next survey. 8. enables progress to be tracked and identifies any barriers that may exist.Review of Progress: This step should be completed after each review to outline the progress made against the action. 11. Improvement Targets: It is important to be able to determine whether improvement actions are having the desired effect by setting improvement targets. 10.Fall 2011. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. Method of Measurement: List the data sources that will provide the information needed for improvement targets. : 541110058 Page 22 . Reviewing the Action Plan Regular review of the action plan is perhaps the most important element of the improvement action planning process because it ensures that the momentum is being maintained.Completion Date: The date when the action was finally completed. customers and the business overall. MBA-1 Semester 7.
: 541110058 Page 23 .Fall 2011.Set.4 Credits (Book ID: B0909) Assignment . MBA-1 Semester AUGUST 2011 Master of Business Administration (MBA) Semester – 1 MB0043 – Human Resource Management .2 MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No.
evaluating the success at-work of the new recruits are some methods used by organizations to ensure that quality hiring practices are in-place.constantly reviewing the effectiveness of the recruiting methods and the selection tools used.1 Discuss the factors affecting recruitment? Answer: The ability to identify the correct talent for not just the role/job but also from the organizational values perspective can be summarized as the key recruiting challenge. the selection tools that are most suited and the legal framework that bear on the employer are some aspects that need to be considered.Fall 2011. though not to the same intensity.the phase in the lifecycle of the firm is a measure of the recruiting effort. The risk in case of job-candidate mismatch can prove equally expensive for a smaller organization as compared to the larger one. The methods for recruiting. whether large or small.the smaller the organization the more the need to carefully scrutinize the candidate for a job and the fitment to the organizational culture. (v) The rate of growth of organization. The affects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate and keep good performing people. : 541110058 Page 24 ii) iii) iv) MB0043: Human Resource Management . All organizations.critically impacts the recruiting strategy. Few factors that impact the nature of recruitment: i) The size of the organization. do engage in recruiting activity. Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by the organization – this may influence turnover and necessitate future recruiting. The employment conditions in the country where the organization is located. MBA-1 Semester Q. Roll No.
vi) Q. a watch manufacturing training since they will be involved in manufacturing and assembling of watches.2 Right Time is a watch manufacturing company. In other words. Vestibule / Classroom Training: This method attempts to duplicate on-the-job situations in a company classroom. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. MBA-1 Semester v) The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and production programs – ensuring that the recruitment numbers come form a well-planned Human Resource Plan is critical to ensure that there is no over-hiring or under-hiring of the required talent to achieve the organizational objectives. They will be using different machines and tools for this.Fall 2011. Theoretical training is given in the classroom. What type of training is best for them? What may be the advantages and limitations of the training method? Answer: Vestibule/classroom training is best for twenty people hired by Right Time. This technique enables the trainee to concentrate on learning the new skill rather than performing an actual job. Cultural. while the practical work is conducted on the production line. assembling of watches. They will be involved in manufacturing. It has hired 20 people recently for the company. it is geared to job duties. It is a classroom training which is often imparted with the help of the equipment and machines which are identical with those in use in the place of work. : 541110058 Page 25 . economic and legal factors – these too affect the recruiting and selection methods that are used.
the emphasis has shifted to employee feedback from the full circle of sources depicted in the diagram below. This multiple-input approach to performance feedback is sometimes called "360degree assessment" to connote that full circle. One can also often attain a given level of skill more quickly in the specialized learning situation. a specialist. The instructor. Q. More individualized instruction can be given. We have more assurance that adequate time and attention will be given to training and that it will not slighted in favour of other problems. performance appraisal has been limited to a feedback process between employees and Managers. Second. should be more skilled at teaching. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. and customer service. with the increased focus on teamwork. though the cost may be reduced by getting some productive work done by trainees while in the school. Third. However. and training activities do not interfere with the regular processes of production.3 Write a note on 360 degree appraisal method. this method is of limited value for the jobs which utilize equipment which can be duplicated and finally the training situation is somewhat artificial. an additional investment in equipment is necessary. Answer: Typically. MBA-1 Semester The advantages of using the vestibule-training system are the disadvantages of specialization. Among the disadvantages are the splitting of responsibilities leads to organizational problems.Fall 2011. : 541110058 Page 26 . employee development. The student avoids the confusion and pressure of the work situation and thus is able to concentrate on learning.
For this reason. customers. or always appropriate. peers. The circle. The organizational culture and mission must be considered. subordinates. or perhaps more accurately the sphere. and credible information. For example. and MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. and one’s self. peer feedback can be the heart of excellence in teamwork. reliable. HR Management supports the use of multiple rating sources as an effective method of assessing performance for formal appraisal and other evaluative and developmental purposes.Fall 2011. for assessing performance. to include all of the feedback sources in a particular appraisal program. Research has shown assessment approaches with multiple rating sources provide more accurate. in addition to the employee’s Manager. of feedback sources consists of Managers. It is not necessary. subordinate assessments of a Manager’s performance can provide valuable developmental guidance. and the purpose of feedback will differ with each source. : 541110058 Page 27 . MBA-1 Semester The 360 degree matrix There are no prohibitions in law or regulation against using a variety of rating sources.
batch mates and relatives. Maslow proposed an individual’s motivation as a predetermined order of needs which he MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. The objectives of performance appraisal and the particular aspects of performance that are to be assessed must be established before determining which sources are appropriate. : 541110058 Page 28 . It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know. He arranged the human needs of an individual in a hierarchical manner. a multimedia company 1. colleagues. Superiors: Evaluations by superiors are the most traditional source of employee feedback. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. 3.4 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of “ZoomVideo”. ex. MBA-1 Semester customer service feedback focuses on the quality of the team’s or agency’s results. This form of evaluation includes both the ratings of individuals by Managers on elements in an employee’s performance plan and the evaluation of programs and teams by senior managers. Identify what all aspects does it take care of. Maslow’s theory of basic needs draws chiefly from human psychology. maybe their friends. It recognizes good performances and gives good titles and trophies to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. Q. based on different levels of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ? Answer: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory The importance of motivation to human life and work can be judged by the number of theories that have been propounded to explain people’s behaviour.Fall 2011.
These needs are cyclic. viz. shelter and companionship among others. tyranny. MBA-1 Semester strives to satisfy. They are relatively independent of each other and in some cases can be identified with a specific location in the body. the needs for love and affection and belongingness will emerge and the cycle will repeat itself with this new centre. In an ordered society. iii) Social Needs: If the physiological and safety needs are fairly satisfied. they are satisfied for only a short period. then they reappear. ii) Safety Needs: If the physiological needs are relatively satisfied.Fall 2011. a set of needs emerge for protection against danger and threats. and hunger for ‘food. a person usually feels safe from extremes of climate. : 541110058 Page 29 . thirst. In other words.. His model of ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ indicates the following propositions about human behavior. violence and so on. i) Physiological Needs: These are basic to life. If he is deprived of these needs he will want to MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No.
Q. mother or an eminent artist.Fall 2011. What however is different is that the employee is encouraged to frame it as a suggestion and make a recommendation for a change. A person may achieve self – actualization in being the ideal fitter. The ESS has proved effective in allowing employees a discrete method of voicing their opinions and suggestion for what can be better managed in the company. Answer: In today’s organizations the focus is moving towards collaboration at the workplace. People who are satisfied with these needs are basically satisfied people and it is from these that we can expect the fullest creativeness. It must cover basic as well as higher needs and it must be flexible to cater to changes in the environment. to become actualized in what one is potentially good at. rather than MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. MBA-1 Semester attain them more than anything else in the world. The typical industrial and commercial organization does not offer much opportunity for their satisfaction to employees at the lower levels. supervisor.3 above are open for comment. The management invites the employees suggestions on all/any issue that is a source of irritation for the employees including topics mentioned in 13. prestige. A sound motivational system to be successful must take care of this hierarchy of needs of the team members in order to work efficiently.5 Describe the emerging employee empowerment practices. One of the most common instruments established in large organizations has been the Employee Suggestion Schemes (ESS). iv) Esteem Needs: Everyone has a need for self-respect and for the esteem of others. v) Self-actualization Needs: The term "self-actualization" was coined by Kurt Goldstein and means. These egoistic needs are rarely completely satisfied. confidence. This results in the desire for strength. : 541110058 Page 30 . recognition and appreciation. An individual desires affectionate relationships with people in general and desires to have a respected place in his group.
The committee meets and discusses each suggestion in depth and evaluates the scope for implementation of the suggestion. This usually is a quarterly or a half-yearly meeting to which all employees are invited. The Suggestion Committee includes line managers. MBA-1 Semester the classic fault finding approach about what is going wrong or what is not working well. The feasibility of implementing the suggestion and its other implications are evaluated closely and the suggestion accepted/set aside for future review/rejected. customer satisfaction etc. HR representative and Finance and Facilities & Administration team members and senior management representative who can provide the necessary guidance for approval of the suggestions. There are awards given away for excellent ideas that help the company optimize costs. : 541110058 Page 31 . Often employees might not feel comfortable asking tough questions in a open forum. These suggestions are then collated by the HR team and on a quarterly basis the Suggestion Committee meets to review all of the suggestions received.. The HR then communicates the suggestion committee report with all employees through a mail or during the employees Open-house sessions. hence there are drop-boxes provided where the employee can write and drop a question or a opinion that he wants the senior management to answer. Usually the HR is the custodian of this mailed and they do the necessary review to suitably answer MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No.Fall 2011. This is often followed with by a informal interactions over lunch/breakfast. where once again employees can speak to the senior executives and ask general questions. The employee need not mention his name on the question slip. productivity and improve quality. The employee’s ‘open house’ also called the ‘all hands’ meeting is one more communication forum effectively used by the senior management of a company to connect with its employees. There is a brief sharing of the company’s performance and the rest of the time devoted to answering any queries that employees might have on any issue that concerns the company and its employees. If the senior management is unable to answer a question then and there the same is reviewed subsequently by the senior management and a response shared with all employees over mail or posted on the notice board or on the intranet site for everyone to read. There are ESS forms/ templates that are left in common places or the employee can download from the company intranet and fill in the suggestion for change and drop it in boxes left common places like the coffee area or the lunch rooms etc.. Some organizations also operate a email communication method where any employee who has a query or a observation can write his question to the mail alias and obtain a response.
: 541110058 Page 32 . MBA-1 Semester the questions and seek the manager’s inputs on a as needed basis. there is no leader. While the technology companies are more informal the traditional brickand-motor companies have formal processes. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. For example a leading medical transcription company wanted to review its incentive policy and in order to have a collaborative approach put together a team of employees one each from each of the departments including representatives from HR and Finance. After the first presentation to them and having incorporated the feedback received the taskforce then presented the new scheme to the employees. Today’s organizations therefore adopt a collaborative approach to employee issues. if there is no follower. Answer: According to Chris Argyris. Finally it was approved as a policy and made effective. leadership is classified into three groups as follows: a) The Directive type b) The Permissive type c) The participative type Leadership is "the relationship in which one person influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that level which he desires. permissive and participative type of leadership. Whatever the approach whether formal or informal employees are encouraged to open-up and ask questions and perform as contended employees. The team was provided with all the historical information they would need and were given all of 6 weeks to work on the project and make a presentation to the senior management of the company.Fall 2011. Q. The concept of taskforce is also a common mechanism that organizations use to build crossfunctional teams (with one representative each from each department) that will work on concerns that are commonly voiced." So.6 Write a note on directive.
He initiates the action about the things to do and and tells subdorinates exactly what is expected of them.” Directive Leadership Directive Leadership is a common form of leadership we see in the world today. This leader tells the subordinate what to do. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. and how to do it. This is because when a leader behaves in such a way. and especially so in Asian countries. specifying standards and deadlines. they want to be lead. it restricts the potential of individuals in the organization by not valuing their creativity and initiative.Fall 2011. As a leader. : 541110058 Page 33 . But people don’t want to be managed. They exercise firm rule and ensure that subordinates do follow. guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals by mediation between the individual and organisation in such a manner that both will obtain the maximum satisfaction. you must strive not to become like that because this is how you ‘manage’ people. MBA-1 Semester Haiman defined Leadership as "the process by which an executive or a manager imaginatively directs. Employees in these organizations will find it hard or sometimes even frustrating to work there. This kind of leaders are usually found in more traditional and long standing companies where the prevalent culture in the country is a more authoritarian type of rule.
like in the military where strictness and accuracy in performing tasks is often a virtue. MBA-1 Semester However. for most other cases. you may not be the most equipped in your team to handling situations so you might want to make a collective decision with your MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. However. Permissive leadership may swing too far away from any form of leadership -. This type of leader is useful especially in situations where you can tap on the talent of your team. A permissive leader does not attempt to influence the members of the group.K. The group is allowed and even expected to solve its own problems and accomplish goals using methods developed by group members.resulting in a vacuum of leadership – which can result in confusion. Permissive Leadership Permissive leadership can also be called “hands-off” leadership.Fall 2011. : 541110058 Page 34 . lack of productivity. at the time. although a group of disciplined and well motivated individuals may be able to get things done. and even chaos within an organization. Ultimately. In other words there is an absence of effective leadership. I believe that this form of leadership in this day and age is counter-productive. Participative Leadership A participative leadership style takes into consideration the opinions and thoughts of the subordinates before making a decision. of course there are some cases where this form of leadership is important. They are allowed to work on projects using whatever methods appear O. The truly permissive leader uses very little leadership pressure.
The responsibility of the decision will be bore by the whole team as a result. you must have the skill of facilitation. where before a decision is made.Fall 2011. : 541110058 Page 35 . MBA-1 Semester team. MB0043: Human Resource Management Roll No. A board of directors often behave in this fashion. To have skills as a leader in this area. This is important because everyone must be willing to bear equal responsibility for a decision that is put forward. Sometimes people don’t speak up for various reasons and your job as a leader in this case is to draw everyone to speak up so that you can tap on everyone’s thoughts and potential. to learn how to facilitate discussion and idea generation in a group. the whole board is consulted and then a decision be made unanimously. This form of leadership probably works best in the setting of large organizations where there are a lot of shareholders or directors.
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