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IATG 01.80

First edition 2011-10-01

Formulae for ammunition management

IATG 01.80:2011[E]

© UN ODA 2011

IATG 01.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01)

Warning

The International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG) are subject to regular review and revision. This document is current with effect from the date shown on the cover page. To verify its status, users should consult the UN SaferGuard IATG project through the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) website at www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition.

Copyright notice

This document is an International Ammunition Technical Guideline and is copyright protected by the United Nations. Neither this document, nor any extract from it, may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, for any other purpose without prior written permission from UNODA, acting on behalf of the United Nations. This document is not to be sold. United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY 10017, USA

E-mail: Fax: conventionalarms-unoda@un.org +1 212 963 8892

UN 2011 – All rights reserved

i

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 6................................. 6..... 5 Incident Impulse.......................... Kingery and Bulmash............................................................3 9..............3 6.................................................................................................................... 7 8 8.......4......................3.........................................5............ 6....................................................................................... 4 Incident Pressure .1.................................................................................................................4..............................5................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ii Foreword ...1 Normative references ...................... 6..................................1 9............................................................................ 4 Dynamic pressure ........... 11 Fragmentation..............................................4 6.................................................................................................................... 6..............................................2...........................................2...............................3..............................................................................................................................................1 8.............................................................1........11 Air blast ............1 7.................................... 7 General impulse....2................1..................................................................................... 10 Simple noise prediction ............................................................................... 6....2.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Scaled impulse .....2 Hopkinson-Cranz scaling law .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Gurney ............................................1................................. 9 9 9......................................................................................................1........................................................................1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.................. 9 Basic equations (alternative)..................................2 Air blast................................... 3 Shock front velocity.............. 3 Particle velocity......................................................................9 Basic equations... 12 ii .............4 Simple range safety distances...................... 7 TNT equivalence............................................................................................7 Detonation pressure........................................................IATG 01..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 6.......................................................................................................................................... 3 Air density behind the shock front .................................1............................................................ 6 Impulse ........................... Scope............................... 11 10 10............................................................................... 4 Reflected pressure........................................................................................................................... 6...... 6 Reflection coefficient.......................................................................................................2 Ballistics.................................................................................... 6.. 5 Reflected Pressure ....................................................................................... 8 Simple fragment range estimation .................................................................................... v Formulae for ammunition management......................................................................................... 10 Vertical danger areas ................... 7 7 7............................5 6...............................1 Background................. Sachs scaling law ........................... iv Introduction .......2...............................................80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Contents Contents....................................................................................................................................................................1 Terms and definitions .............5......2...........................................1............2................................................................3 Rankine-Hugoniot (shock front parameters) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 10.........1 6....................................2 9.........................2 Effects on structures........................................................ 6.......................... 6 6..................2 Explosive parameters .....................................................1............................................... 5 Reflected Impulse ..........................................................................................................................................

................IATG 01.................................................................1 11........................... 14 12 Underground storage......................................................................................................80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 10....................................................................................................3 Ground shock.............................................................................................................................17 iii ....................................13 Individual risk ............................................16 Annex B (informative) References .............................................................3 Effects on people .............. 14 Secondary blast injury levels................................................................................... 12 11 11............................................................................................................. 13 Primary blast injury levels .......................................................................................................................15 Annex A (normative) References....................................2 11...................................

iv . 6 December 2006. together with information on the work of the technical review panel. Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition. Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus.un. The group noted that cooperation with regard to effective stockpile management needs to endorse a ‘whole life management’ approach. The work of preparing.IATG 01. The latest version of each guideline. 2 December 2008. ranging from categorisation and accounting systems – essential for ensuring safe handling and storage and for identifying surplus – to physical security systems. and to incorporate changes due to amendments to appropriate international regulations and requirements. can be found at www. a United Nations group of governmental experts reported to the General Assembly on 1 problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus. Subsequently. 2 1 UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution A/RES/63/61. The Group was mandated by A/RES/61/72. governmental and non-governmental organisations. A central recommendation made by the group was for technical guidelines for the stockpile management of ammunition to be developed within the United Nations. 28 July 2008. now commonly known as International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG). reviewing and revising these guidelines was conducted under the United Nations SaferGuard Programme by a technical review panel consisting of experts from Member States. These IATG will be regularly reviewed to reflect developing ammunition stockpile management norms and practices. and including surveillance and testing procedures to assess the stability and reliability of ammunition.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Foreword In 2008. (Report of the Group of Governmental Experts). the General Assembly welcomed the report of the group and strongly encouraged 2 States to implement its recommendations. This provided the mandate to the United Nations for developing ‘technical guidelines for the stockpile management of conventional ammunition’. with the support of international. Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus. UN General Assembly A/63/182.

10 Introduction to Risk Management Principles and Processes contains further information on risk-based approaches to conventional ammunition stockpile management. violent reaction makes it necessary to develop recommendations and guidelines for safe conventional ammunition 3 management stockpile management. Risk management decisions based on more complete knowledge can be made if the likelihood of an explosives accident can be taken into account as well as the consequences. This requires. This requires knowledge of the range of scientifically accepted formulae that can be used to support decisionmaking and risk management during conventional ammunition stockpile management. Their detailed use is explained in the other topic-specific IATG in the remainder of the guidelines or in the accompanying IATG software. which should be based on sound explosive engineering and science. 3 IATG 02.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Introduction The nature of ammunition and explosives with their potential for unplanned. effective and efficient stockpile management. This IATG summarise the scientific formulae that are either useful or essential to safe. a risk-based approach . v . by necessity.IATG 01.

Guidance on their appropriate use is either contained within this IATG. 1 . 'may' and 'can' are used to express provisions in accordance with their usage in ISO standards. 'should' indicates a recommendation: It is used to indicate that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly suitable.IATG 01. The term ‘quantity distance’ refers to the designated safe distance between a potential explosion site and an exposed site.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Formulae for ammunition management 1 Scope This IATG introduces and summarises scientifically proven and sound formulae that may be used to support the decision-making and risk management processes essential for the safe and effective 4 stockpile management of conventional ammunition. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references. the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. or that (in the negative form. The term ‘hazard’ refers to a potential source of harm. They are summarised here for ease of reference in their use later. 'should not') a certain possibility or course of action is deprecated but not prohibited. the words 'shall'. as well as the more comprehensive list given in IATG 01. A further list of informative references is given at Annex B in the form of a bibliography. The term ‘brisance’ refers to the shattering effect or power of an explosion or explosive. A list of normative references is given in Annex A. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this guide the following terms and definitions. only the edition cited applies. For undated references. 'may' indicates permission: It is used to indicate a course of action permissible within the limits of the document. or that a certain course of action is preferred but not necessarily required. The term ‘risk’ refers to a combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. a) b) 'shall' indicates a requirement: It is used to indicate requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to the document and from which no deviation is permitted. shall apply. without mentioning or excluding others. Normative references are important documents to which reference is made in this guide and which form part of the provisions of this guide. c) 4 The detailed use of the formulae is explained in the other topic specific IATG in the remainder of the guidelines. The term ‘risk management’ refers to the complete risk-based decision-making process. the complementary IATG software or in other more specific technical IATG. In all modules of the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines.40:2011(E) Terms. 'should'. which lists additional documents that contain other useful information on formulae for the stockpile management of conventional ammunition. definitions and abbreviations.

UK Ordnance Board Minutes 13565.W 1/3 1/3 R = Range (m) Z = Constant of Proportionality (dependent on acceptable blast overpressure) W = Explosive Weight (kg) Table 1: Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law Examples of the constant ‘Z’ used in explosive storage safety are shown in Table 2: Z 8.0 7 Purpose Used to predict separation distances between ammunition process buildings (APB) within an explosive storage area (ESA). It is the basis of much of the work on the estimation of appropriate quantity and separation distances. Remarks Additionally minimum safe distances further apply if R is below a certain level. which is further amended by a range of coefficients. 5 Hopkinson-Cranz scaling law Many States use rules based upon the explosives. and the distance from the explosive to where people are at risk. which are worst case. This IATG contains formulae that should be used to support risk management processes within conventional ammunition stockpile management and summarises their potential use. Lehrbuch der Ballistik. present an inherent risk during storage and. whether material. 7 These are the default ‘Z’ settings in the IATG Software. although the software does allow the user to input alternative ‘Z’ values. yet much of the resultant negative impact on local communities would have been preventable if effective risk management systems had been developed and implemented. a latent hazard to local communities in their vicinity. NOTE 1 It is not always possible to provide the separation distances called for by Q-D. Berlin. Springer-Verlag. The Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law is also referred to as the Cube Root Scaling Law: (R1/R2) = (W1/W2) R = Z. 1915. (See IATG 02. These rules are known as Quantity-Distance (Q-D) criteria. 14. physical or casual. and an alternative risk analysis system of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) may be used. which differs for each ‘Z’ function. The use of proven and sound explosive science and engineering is therefore essential in supporting the risk management processes necessary to achieve safe and efficient conventional ammunition stockpile management.8 Hopkinson B. if not managed correctly. Used to predict separation distances between an explosive storehouse (ESH) and a public traffic route with civilian access.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) d) ‘can’ indicates possibility and capability: It is used for statements of possibility and capability. 4 Background Ammunition and explosives. their quantity. by their very nature.20 Quantity and separation distances for detailed information). 1916. 6 5 2 . 5 6 and are based on the approach derived from the Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law . Undesirable explosive events regularly occur in ammunition storage areas globally.IATG 01. More detailed information on the use of each formula is contained within the topic specific IATG in the remainder of the guidelines. Cranz C.

2. Particle velocity Vp = Particle Velocity (m/s) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) c = Speed of Sound (m/s) Vp = (5Ps/7P0). Amsterdam. density. 6 Air blast The characteristic parameters of a blast wave with a sudden pressure discontinuity at the shock front are as follows: a) b) c) d) e) f) over-pressure.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Z 22. Table 2: Examples of Constant ‘Z’ Remarks 44. shock front velocity. The Dynamics of Explosion and its Use. The Rankine-Hugoniot equations are only applicable under the condition that the particle velocity ahead of the shock front is zero and that the air behaves as an ideal gas (with a specific heat ratio of 1. dynamic pressure. 1979. Used to predict separation distances between an explosive storehouse (ESH) and a vulnerable building inhabited by civilians (e. 6.IATG 01. 8 These parameters can be derived using the Rankine-Hugoniot equations.1.2 Purpose Used to predict separation distances between an explosive storehouse (ESH) and a building inhabited by civilians.20 Quantity and separation distances. a school). (c/(1 + (6 Ps .1 6. (1 + (6Ps/7P0)) 1/2 Table 3: Shock front velocity 6.4) 3 .1.4 Further details on the practical use of this formula are contained within IATG 02. Rankine-Hugoniot (shock front parameters)9 Shock front velocity Vsf = Shock Front Velocity (m/s) c = Speed of Sound (m/s) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Vsf = c . 7P0)) ) 1/2 Table 4: Particle velocity 8 9 Rankine W J H.g. and particle velocity. reflected pressure.1. Elsevier.

Dynamic pressure The dynamic pressure during blast loading of a structure is a function of the pressure over time. The authors used curve-fitting techniques to represent the data with high-order polynomial equations.1.1.1. 3) Reflected Pressure. where functions to represent the air blast parameters versus distance in metres for a 1kg TNT spherical free-air burst are shown for: 1) Incident Pressure.20 Quantity and separation distances or the Explosion Consequence Analysis concept in IATG 02. These equations are widely accepted as engineering predictions for determining free-field pressures and loads on structures and form the basis of the US Conventional Weapons 11 Effects Programme (CONWEP) software. Air density behind the shock front Dsf = Air Density behind Shock Front (kg/m3) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Dair = Air Density Dsf = (7 + (6 Ps /7P0)/( 7 + Ps/7P0)) .IATG 01. Predictions for other explosives will require that the TNT equivalence be first estimated (Clause 7.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 6. Maryland. as opposed to quasi-static blast loading at a given moment of time: Pd = 5Ps + 2(Ps + 7P0) 2 Pd = Peak Dynamic Pressure (kPa) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Table 6: Dynamic pressure 6. Charles N Kingery and Gerald Bulmash. The equations are summarised in Tables 8 – 13 for information.5. Dair Table 5: Air density behind the shock front 6. Reflected pressure 10 Pr = 2Ps . 6. 2) Incident Impulse. and 4) Reflected Impulse. The numerical values for the constants ‘C’ and ‘K’ are those for a 1kg TNT equivalent charge.2).2 Kingery and Bulmash Equations to estimate blast over-pressure at range have been developed by Charles Kingery and Gerald Bulmash. which are included in the accompanying software to the IATG for ease of application.10 Introduction to risk management processes and the accompanying IATG software. Aberdeen Proving Ground. 10 11 Normally reflected pressure. ((7P0 + 4Ps)/(7P0 = Ps)) Pr = Peak Reflected Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) Table 7: Reflected pressure Further details on the practical use of these formulae are contained within IATG 02.4.000kg. April 1984. USA. 4 . Ballistics Research Laboratory.3. US Technical Report ARBRL-TR-02555. Airblast Parameters from TNT Spherical Air Burst and Hemispherical Surface Burst. Their report contains a compilation of data from explosive tests using charge weights from less than 1kg to over 400.

1 etc = Constant T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Table 8: Kingery and Bulmash general polynomial form 6.0531m.0006750681404U4 .35034249993T Then substitute U into Y = 2.00314819515931U6 + 0.168825414684U2 + 0.1 . Reflected Pressure This equation has a range of applicability from 0.0007470265899U8 U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 11: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Incident Impulse 6.69012801396U + 0. Incident Pressure This equation has a range of applicability from 0.214362789151 + 1.30629231803T Then substitute U into Y = 1..00516226351334U4 . in other words immediately next to the explosive charge.IATG 01.00152044783382U7 0. 5 .75305660315 + 0...1.2.CnU Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) C0.00804973591951U2 + 0.34723921354 + 3.24299066475T Then substitute U into Y = 2.0m).05 – 40m.55197227115 .0080086371B901U5 = 0.1. U = -1.792 – 40.3.0348138030308U3 0..80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Y = C0 + C1U + C2U + C3U .0..0.00478507266747U6 + 0.38830516757 .010435192824U4 U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 10: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Incident Impulse (very near field) The equation at Table 11 is applicable for ranges as the blast wave moves away from the explosive charge (0..611368669 .08092286198R8U5 0.40463292088U 0.0007684469735UR U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 9: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Incident Pressure 6.0142721946082U2 + 0..00912366316617U3 0.05 – 40m.2...0. U = -0.. Incident Impulse The equation at Table 10 is only applicable for the near field range of 0.0.443749377691U + 0.2 etc = Constant U = K0 + K1T K0.00793030472242U7 + 0.2.2. U = 2.336743114941U3 0..

35034249993T Then substitute U into Y = 3.4 Reflection coefficient The Reflection Coefficient is used during explosion consequence analysis (ECA) to compare Peak Reflected Pressure against Peak Side-On Pressure: Sachs R G.243076636231U5 0.0.0141818951887U4 .4. USA.21400538997U + 0.0.101771877942U2 . Ballistics Research Laboratory.0. (T0/Tz) Scaled Impulse at Altitude ‘z’ 1/3 1/2 St = (P0/Pz) .10 Introduction to risk management processes and the accompanying IATG software.160K) Tz = Temperature at Altitude ‘z’ (K) St = Scaled Times at Altitude ‘z’ (s) 6.2.m/s) T0 = Ambient Temperature (K) (288.3 Sachs scaling law In the case of blast waves from explosions produced at altitude.035119031446U2 + 0.204004553231 + 1.37882996018T Then substitute U into U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Y = 2.22958031387 .00227639644004U8 .80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) U = -0.0.IATG 01.0158699803158U6 + 0. 12 6 . 6.903118886091U + 0.2. Aberdeen Proving Ground. where ambient conditions can be 12 very different from those at sea level.657599992109U3 + 0.33kPa) Pz = Pressure at Altitude ‘z’ (kPa) Spz = Scaled Pressure at Altitude ‘z’ (kPa) Siz = Scaled Impulse at Altitude ‘z’ (kg.55875660396 .0492741184234U7 + 0. Scaled Distance at Altitude ‘z’ 1/3 Sdz = (P0/Pz) Scaled Pressure at Altitude ‘z’ Spz = (Pz/P0) Scaled Impulse at Altitude ‘z’ 2/3 1/2 Siz = (Pz/P0) . The dependence of Blast on Ambient Pressure and Temperature.214362789151 + 1. Technical Report 466. May 1944. Maryland.05 – 40m. (T0/Tz) Table 14: Sachs scaling factors Sdz = Scaled Distance at Altitude ‘z’ (m) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) (101.00397126276058U9 U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 12: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Reflected Pressure 6. Reflected Impulse This equation has a range of applicability from 0. The application of the Sachs scaling law leads to the formulation of altitude scaling factors. U = 0.0242139751146U3 Table 13: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Reflected Impulse Further details on the practical use of these formulae are contained within the Explosion Consequence Analysis concept in IATG 02. the most commonly used scaling law is that due to Sachs.

2. It should be determined by integration of the positive over-pressure phase.5. 7 . and it is therefore desirable to convert the explosive mass into equivalent TNT charge mass.e.m 1/3 Table 17: Scaled Impulse on Individuals 7 7. (i. It can be approximated as shown in Table 18: Pdet = 2.IATG 01. defined by the total area below the pressure-time curve).1.2 TNT equivalence The majority of air blast and impulse equations predict for TNT. t.5 6. dt Is = Side-On Impulse (kg. Is = ʃ Ps . Vd .m/s) Is = Side-On Impulse (kg.m/s) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) M = Mass of Individual (kg) Isi = Is / 1/2 P0 .5 . (D/0.0000001) Pdet = Detonation Pressure (GPa) Vd = Velocity of Detonation of Explosive (m/s) D = Density (g/cm3) Table 18: Detonation Pressure 7.1 Explosive parameters Detonation pressure The Detonation Pressure of an explosive provides an indicator of its ability to do work and determines whether it is a high brisance or low brisance explosive.m/s) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) t = Time (s) Table 16: General Impulse 6.5.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Cr = Pr / Ps Cr = Reflection Coefficient Pr = Peak Reflected Pressure (kPa) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) Table 15: Reflection Coefficient 6. Impulse General impulse The decisive parameter for the damage caused by air blast is the positive overpressure impulse. Scaled impulse The scaled impulse is often used to predict the effects of blast on humans: Isi = Scaled Impulse (kg.

00 0.350 0.035 .19 1.035 . Mexp MTNTe = TNT Equivalent Mass (kg) Edexp = Specific Detonation Energy of Explosive (J/kg) EdTNT) = Specific Detonation Energy of TNT (J/kg) Mexp = Mass of Explosive (kg) Table 19: TNT Equivalence Table 20 contains pre-calculated TNT equivalence factors for a range of high explosives.0. Shells. mortar bombs and missile warheads. BRL-405.09 1. Aberdeen.070 . 14 First order approximation for most high explosive artillery shells.11 1. Explosive Composition B Composition C3 Composition C4 Octol 75/25 PETN RDX RDX / TNT 60/40 (Cyclotol) Tetryl TNT Tritonal TNT Equivalent Mass Peak Pressure 1. Cylindrical Charge Equation -1/2 (V/√2E) = ((M/Cexp) + ½)) 14 Spherical Charge Equation -1/2 (V/√2E) = ((M/Cexp) + 3/5)) 15 V = Initial Fragment Velocity (m/s) √2E = Gurney Constant for a given explosive (m/s) M = Mass of Fragment (kg)16 Cexp = Explosive Charge Mass (kg) Table 21: Gurney Equations17 13 Gurney.700 Table 20: TNT Equivalence 8 8.14 1.350 0.96 Pressure Range (MPa) 0.035 . asymmetrical.350 0. Ballistic Research Laboratory.021 .0.0. open faced and infinitely tamped sandwiches.00 1. 15 Use for military grenades and some cluster bomblets. This initial fragment velocity can then be used with other ballistic equations to predict either danger areas or fragment penetration.27 1.07 Impulse 0.0.06 1.01 1.700 0.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) MTNTe = (E d exp/E TNT) d .14 1.0. 16 For an artillery shell this is usually the base for which an estimate of mass is made from the total body mass. R.37 1.IATG 01.140 Standard 0. and Grenades.08 1. These are accurate enough for design purposes. 8 .98 1.035 . W.700 0.0.1 Ballistics Gurney 13 The Gurney Equations are a range of formulae used in explosives engineering to predict how fast an explosive will accelerate a surrounding layer of metal or other material when the explosive detonates.06 1. 17 There are other Gurney equations for symmetrical. This determines how fast fragments are released on detonation of an item of ammunition.0.035 . USA.09 1.07 1. Maryland. The Initial Velocities of Fragments from Bombs. 1943. These are beyond the scope of this IATG and have hence been excluded.

20/01 Estimation of Explosion Danger Areas (Version 2.860 6. 20 Air Drag.896 2.260 8.100 7. 5) drag coefficient.800 7. Mott Fragmentation etc.530 2.71 1.570 6.920 7.438 2. If used on demolition areas with no formal danger 18 19 Densities and detonation velocities are approximate as explosive mixtures vary.78 1. 18 Table 22 contains the Gurney Constants for a range of high explosives: Explosive Amatol Composition B Composition C4 HMX Octol 75/25 PETN RDX RDX / TNT 60/40 (Cyclotol) Tetryl TNT Tritonal Density 3 (kg/m ) 1. 8) target composition etc.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) The Gurney Constant √2E is usually very close to 1/3 of the Detonation Velocity of the explosive.1 Simple range safety distances22 Basic equations The following simple safety distances can be used to estimate range danger areas when planning the destruction of ammunition by open detonation.2 Simple fragment range estimation19 A simple equation to predict the range of a fragment is at Table 23.63 1. Geneva.0). 3) material density.71 1.72 Detonation Velocity (m/s) 6. 22 These equations are based on work conducted by Mr Pilgrim. QInetiQ uses derivatives of these equations in their trials work.972 2. They may be used for ‘quick planning’ on demolition ranges with existing danger areas.71 1. Sin 2θ More accurate predictions rely on a range of complex ballistic equations due to the large number 21 of variables involved. Therefore more detailed range analysis should only be used by qualified personnel and hence are not discussed further in this IATG.316 Table 22: Gurney Constants 8. 2) fragment shape. Fragment Slow Down. Further details on their use are available there.81 1.IATG 01. 7) ballistic flight stability. 20 9 9. This information was obtained from a UK MOD KGH/Safety Services Organisation paper on Danger Areas dated 31 July 1990.800 8.72 1.71 1.402 2.926 2.700 Gurney Constant √2E (m/s) 1. 21 For example: 1) fragment size. UK.774 2. but as it does not reflect any of the characteristics of the munition. See Technical Note for Mine Action (TNMA) 10. nor account for drag. GICHD.62 1.830 8. 4) initial velocity.886 2. 9 . 6) effects of gravity.480 8. AWE Foulness.82 1. it should be used with great caution: R = Range (m) V0 = Initial Fragment Velocity (m/s) g = Gravity (m/s2) θ = Launch Angle (Radians) Table 23: Simple Range Prediction R = (V0/g) .926 2.499 2.700 8.

1/3 D = 130(AUW) Table 24: Simple Range Safety Distances D = Distance (m) AUW = All Up Weight of Ammunition or Bare Explosives (kg) 9. D = 370(AUW) 1/5 D = Distance (m) AUW = All Up Weight of Ammunition or Bare Explosives (kg) Table 25: Simple Range Safety Distances (Alternative) 9. Results from the equation in Table 25 compare favourably with those for the public access denied equation in Table 24: a) b) c) the ordnance is arranged in a linear array and NOT a stack. 1/5 D = 470(AUW) Table 26: Vertical danger Areas D = Distance (m) AUW = All Up Weight of Ammunition or Bare Explosives (kg) 10 . 1/6 D = 444(AUW) For bare exposed explosive only. They are NOT absolutely safe.2 as no ballistic parabola needs to be taken into account. For single ammunition item only. the ordnance is detonated simultaneously. 1/6 D = 634(AUW) For fragmenting munitions when public access is denied to the demolition range area.3 Vertical danger areas The equations to estimate the vertical danger areas necessary to warn air traffic of demolitions taking place on the ground differ slightly from Clauses 9. They concluded that fragmentation explosion danger areas for multi-item demolitions can be reduced to that of the largest Net Explosive Quantity single munition in the demolition provided.IATG 01.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) areas the user should remember that the distance produced by these equations is that distance outside which no more than one fragment would be expected to fly. 1/3 D = 314(AUW) For multi-item fragmenting munitions. and the items are GREATER than one charge diameter apart.2 Basic equations (alternative) The Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) conducted research in March 1997 into multi-item demolition of ammunition and explosives. For fragmenting munitions when public access is possible to the demolition range area.1 and 9.

5) drag loading effects.4 Simple noise prediction 23 24 The following equation can be used to predict the distance at which 140dB expected to be achieved: D = 215 (Mexp) 1/3 of sound could be D = Distance (m) NEQ = Net Explosive Quantity (kg) Table 27: Simple Noise Prediction 10 Effects on structures The prediction of weapons effects on structures is a complex undertaking due to the large number 25 of variables involved and the impact that these variables have on structural response to blast loading. Explosion induced damage categories for brick built housing have been developed which may be used in explosion consequence analysis to illustrate the potential severity of the effects of an undesirable explosion: Category A B Definition Houses completely demolished. Minor fragmentation effects on walls and glazing. Article 1. The blast effect of explosions. 23 24 Source: QinetiQ Shoeburyness. 152. and 2) Jarrett D E. The most extensive data is available for brick-built structures due to studies undertaken in World 26 War 2. 10. 26 Through the work of: 1) Scilly N F and High W G. Houses so badly damaged they are beyond repair and require demolition. 1986. Remaining walls have gaping cracks that are unrepairable.75% of external brickwork destroyed. Partitions and joinery wrenched from fittings. CA D Table 28: Brick Built Housing Damage Categories The data analysis used to produce Table 28 led to an empirically derived formula to estimate damage range. CB Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired with extensive work. 25 For example: 1) structure type. Loss prevention and safety promotion 5. Severe damage to load bearing partitions necessitating demolition and replacement. Houses requiring repairs to remedy serious inconvenience but remain habitable. Partial or total collapse of roof structure. Derivation of the British Explosives Safety Distances. 6) building orientation to blast loading. UK. This analysis correlates the structural damage with the distance from the explosion and the charge mass involved. 7) local topography etc.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 9. Damage to ceilings and tiling.IATG 01.1 Air blast Rough estimates for structural damage due to air blast may be obtained from empirically derived models based on an analysis of accidents. Remarks 50% . Does not exceed minor structural damage. 11 . elasticity and ductility. Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired reasonably quickly. The EU maximum permissible noise level for a single event. Partial demolition of walls up to 25% of the whole. 1968. 3) structural response to blast loading. 1999. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 2) structure material strength. trials and war damage data. 4) diffraction loading effects.

which is the degree of energy imparted to the primary fragments from the casing. 4) fragment material strength.6 28. 1994.8 .3 42. thereby reducing the air blast energy available.6 10. Mexp ) / ( 1 + (3175/Mexp) ) 1/3 2 1/6 Rx = Range for Damage Level ‘x’ (m) Kx = Constant for Damage Level ‘x’ (See Table 29) Mexp = Mass of Explosive (kg) Table 29: Damage Range to Buildings Estimation Values for Kx were initially derived by Jarrett and subsequently revised by Gilbert. 12 . For x/d < 2 x = Fragment Penetration Depth (m) d = Fragment Diameter (m) D = Fragment Density (kg/m3) s = Compressive Strength of Concrete (Pa) V = Fragment Velocity (m/s) x = (2.1 12. Therefore the prediction of fragment induced structural damage from hypothetical explosions cannot be easily predicted without access to a massive range of data. 10 (((D . ductility and elasticity etc. hence leading to very complex expressions for each possible case.0 Table 30: ‘K’ Factors for Table 29 Gilbert. The wave takes the form of a sin wave and hence amplitude is a characteristic parameter. d )/s ) . 3) fragment shape on impact.4 21. Kx for Damage Category A B CB CA D Jarrett 3.6 9. Miami. V For x/d > 2 -5 1/5 1/2 -5 1/5 1/2 1. 4d )) 2 1/2 x = 2.74 .0 56. A Model Hazard Assessment of the Explosion of an Explosives Vehicle in a BuiltUp Area.8 5. 10 (((D . V 1.3 Ground shock Ground shock can be understood as a vibration wave travelling through the ground.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Rx = (Kx .IATG 01. 28 For example: 1) building material strength. 2) fragment velocity. 3) fragment mass. d + d) Table 31: Structural Penetration (Concrete v Flat Faced Cylinder) 10. 27 Gilbert S M. Minutes of the 26th US Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board Seminar. This data is often held by the military and hence classified. Lees and 27 Scilly. Lees F P and Scilly N F. ductility and elasticity. Lees and Scilly 4.2 Fragmentation The extent to which fragments will penetrate structures on impact is dependent on a range of 28 variables.8 . d )/s ) . The revised values take account of the casing factor.74 . The example at Table 31 is for the penetration depth of flat-faced cylindrical fragments impacting on concrete.8 7. It may be used in an ECA as an example of damage that could be expected to modern building structures. USA. These expressions are empirically derived for specific building materials and fragment combinations.

These include blunt trauma.m . Langefors U and Kihlstrom B.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) A = x . These include internal displacement of body organs or injuries caused by impact when the body is thrown against hard surfaces. and 3) tertiary. when measured quantitatively. 11 Effects on people There are three modes of blast injury to people: 1) primary.m whereas for structures built on harder rock the degree of damage may be expected at a 3/2 lower ɸ value of 0. The Modern technique of Rock Blasting.25 kg. Third Edition. AWE/GERBERS. The most common injuries are eardrum rupture and lung haemorrhage. 1983. secondary blast injuries are those caused as a direct consequence of damage to buildings or structures. lacerations. 1978.0 kg. tertiary injuries are those caused by body movement induced by the blast wave. 11. Therefore the Annual IR can be defined as: IR = Pe x P f l e x Ep Pe = Events per Year Pf I e = Probability of Fatality32 Ep = Probability of Exposure to Hazard Table 34: Annual Individual Risk of Fatality (IR) 29 30 31 32 The value of K is inversely proportional to the hardness of the ground. major cracking damage can be expected to occur at ɸ values of 3/2 1. Elsevier. ((K/Mexp )/D)) 1/2 A = Amplitude (m) x = Constant Mexp = Mass of Explosive (kg) K = Constant29 D = Distance (m) Table 32: Ground Shock Estimation30 Buildings of solid construction are unlikely to be damaged by amplitudes of less than 2 x 10 m whilst those of a more vulnerable construction should remain undamaged if the amplitude remains -5m 8 x 10 .IATG 01. may be used to support quantitative risk assessments (QRA) where the Individual Risk of Fatality (IR) as a result of an undesired explosion is compared to ‘tolerable risk’ of other activities or industrial processes. Explosion Hazards and Evaluation. Examples of x and K may be found in Baker W E et al. 2) secondary. Amsterdam. A damage index ground: 31 -4 has been developed which relates the mass of explosives and the type of ʃ = Mexp/R 3/2 ɸ = Damage Index Mexp = Mass of Explosives (kg) R = Range (m) Table 33: Damage Index For structures built on soft rock. a) b) c) primary blast injuries are caused by direct action of the blast wave on the body. For a continually exposed person.1 Individual risk Risk is defined as ‘likelihood x consequences’ and. 13 . suffocation and crushing. Sweden.

Serious Injury or Light Injury) Damage Category Aa Ab A B Damage Definition (Fatality) P(K) Houses totally demolished.009 0. These are shown in Table 36. October 1968. UK Explosive Storage and Transportation Committee. Selection and Use of Explosion Effects and Consequence Models for Explosives.5m. Houses demolished.71 0.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 11. 34 33 An alternative methodology is to use the ESTC Outdoor Blast Model. which is based on a review 35 of available literature on primary and tertiary blast effects.0 0. Probability Probability (Fatality or Serious Injury) Probability (Fatality. See Chapter 3 to UK Health and Safety Executive.57 0. (R / M1/3) +19.62 0.kg < S < 5.kg the fatality probability is zero whilst for S < 2.3 m.785 .3 m.2 Primary blast injury levels These should be estimated from: a) b) use of Kingary to estimate blast over-pressure at range.84 0.13 0 0.096 Cb Ca 0. 11. UK. P (K + I) 1.047) /100) Table 35: ESTC Outdoor Blast Model 1/3 The ESTC Model is only valid within the limits of the scaled distance ‘S’ (S = R/M ) where 2. (34. 14 . 207kPa for lung damage and 690kPa for fatality).IATG 01.3 Secondary blast injury levels Gilbert. Estimate of Mans Tolerance to the Direct Effects of Air Blast. HSE.5 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 m. Lees and Scilly developed probability values for building occupants suffering fatal. with the addition of Aa for complete demolition and Ab for almost complete demolition.kg .006 33 34 35 Bowen.82 0. serious 36 or light injuries. 2000. Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired reasonably quickly. Houses almost completely demolished. For S > 5.15 P (K + SI + LI) 1. Houses so badly damaged they are beyond repair and require demolition. and compare blast over-pressure to injury threshold levels derived from Bowen curves.043 0. Pfatality = Probability of Fatality e = Exponential R = Range (m) M1/3 = Cube Root of Explosive Mass (kg) Pfatality = (e (-5. 36 These equate to the damage levels at Table 29.66 0.kg 100% fatalities should be expected. Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired with extensive work.96 0.38 0.0 0.002 0.5kPa for onset of hearing damage.

80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Damage Category Probability Probability (Fatality or Serious Injury) Probability (Fatality. which should be derived from the formula MF = 1 / (1 + (θ/56)2)0. They are repeated here for completeness of the formulae IATG.IATG 01. Annex M contains formulae to be applied for the estimation or calculation of quantity and separation distances for underground storage. Chapter 3. (Fatality) P(K) D 0 P (K + I) 0 P (K + SI + LI) 0 Table 36: Probability Values for Secondary Blast Injury 12 Underground storage IATG 02.20 Quantity and separation distances.4.4 x HD x LD1/3 As above Table 38: Process Building Distance (PBD) (Blast from Tunnel Adit) 37 The distance in a non-axial direction may be reduced using a multiplication factor (MF). Clause 3. Where: IBD = 77 x HD x LD 1/3 HD = Hydraulic Diameter of Tunnel Mouth LD1/3 = Loading Density (kg/m3) Where: A = Cross-sectional Area of Tunnel Entrance (m2) C = Circumference of Tunnel Entrance (m) 3 HD = 4A/C LD1/3 = NEQ (VCh+ VTunnel) VCh= Chamber Volume (m ) VTunnel = Tunnel Volume (m3) Table 37: Inhabited Building Distance (IBD) (Blast from Tunnel Adit) 37 38 D = 27. 38 15 . This is a simple approximation.1 (b) and (c).3.76. A more accurate methodology is in AASPT-1. where θ is the angle from the tunnel centre line in degrees. Serious Injury or Light Injury) Damage Definition Houses requiring repairs to remedy serious inconvenience but remain habitable.

or revisions of. 39 Where copyright permits. The latest version/edition of these references should be used. through reference in this text.40:2010[E] Terms. which. any of these publications do not apply.IATG 01. National authorities. For dated references. and can be read on the IATG website: www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition. A register of the latest version/edition of the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines is maintained by UN ODA. 16 . UNODA. constitute provisions of this part of the guide. Members of ISO maintain registers of currently valid ISO or EN: a) IATG 01. parties to agreements based on this part of the guide are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. employers and other interested bodies and organisations should obtain copies before commencing conventional ammunition stockpile management programmes. glossary and definitions. The UN Office for Disarmament 39 Affairs (UN ODA) holds copies of all references used in this guide. the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Annex A (normative) References The following normative documents contain provisions. For undated references. However. 2010. subsequent amendments to.

UK.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Annex B (informative) References The following informative documents contain provisions. The latest version/edition of these references should be used. employers and other interested bodies and organisations should obtain copies before commencing conventional ammunition stockpile management programmes. National authorities. 2000. 40 Where copyright permits. 2010. (ISBN 0 7176 1791 2). IATG 02. Geneva. Elsevier.IATG 01. The UN Office for Disarmament 40 Affairs (UN ODA) holds copies of all references used in this guide. which should also be consulted to provide further background information to the contents of this guide: a) b) c) d) Explosion Hazards and Evaluation. and Technical Note for Mine Action (TNMA) 10. Selection and Use of Explosion Effects and Consequence Models for Explosives. GICHD. 17 . Amsterdam. and can be read on the IATG website: www.20/01 Estimation of Explosion Danger Areas (Version 2. 1983. UNODA. W E Baker et al. A register of the latest version/edition of the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines is maintained by UN ODA. (ISBN 0 444 42094 0).0). UK Health and Safety Executive.un.10:2010[E] Introduction to Risk Management Principles and Processes.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition.

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