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saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia

Georgian National Academy of Sciences

guram TevzaZe
GURAM TEVZADZE

aRorZinebis epoqis
filosofia
(marsilio fiCinodan iakob boememde)

Philosophy of the
Renaissance Era
(From Marsilio Ficino to Jacob Boehme)

Tbilisi _ Tbilisi
2008
--
redaqtori
filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori Tengiz iremaZe

recenzentebi:
filosofiis mecnierebaTa kandidati nino fifia
filosofiis mecnierebaTa kandidati
giorgi xeoSvili

Editor _ Doctor of Philosophy Tengiz Iremadze

Reviewers:
Candidate of Philosophy Nino Pipia
Candidate of Philosophy Giorgi Kheoshvili

gamocema arakomerciulia

am da sxva amgvari gamocemis SesaZleblobas avtori


umadlis baton biZina ivaniSvils.

Non _ profit publication

The author is indebted to Mr. Bidzina Ivanishvili


for the opportunity of issuing this and similar publications.

© g. TevzaZe, 2008

gamomcemloba `nekeri~

ISBN 978-9941-404-13-9
--
sarCevi

redaqtorisagan 5
avtorisagan 7
Sesavali _ Sua saukuneebis filosofia
da aRorZinebis epoqis filosofia 11
Tavi I. florenciis platonuri akademia 15
1. marsilio fiCino 18
2. jovani piko dela mirandola 32
3. nikolo makiaveli da misi antiutopia 46
4. alamino rinuCini 58
Tavi II. padueli aristotelikosebi aRorZinebis epoqaSi 62
1. petre pomponaci 63
2. jakomo zabarela 72
Tavi III. skepticizmi aRorZinebis epoqaSi 74
1. Sarl de boviliusi 74
2. miSel monteni 84
Tavi IV. reformacia da renesansi germaniaSi 94
1. erazm roterdameli 94
2. martin luTeris msoflmxedveloba 104
3. Teofraste paracelsis filosofia 118
4. sebastian frankis filosofiuri Sexedulebani 135
5. valentin vaigeli 164
Tavi V. aRorZinebis epoqis dasasruli 198
1. bernandino telezio 198
2. ieronimo kardano 202
3. franCesko patrici 208
4. jordano bruno 213
5. tomazo kampanela 225
6. iakob boeme 232
aRorZinebis epoqis filosofia _ axali
filosofiiis Sesavali 239
miTiTebuli literatura 243
pirTa saZiebeli 248
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Contents

From the editor 5


From the author 7
Introduction - Medieval Philosophy and
Philosophy of Renaissance 11
Chapter I. Platonic Renaissance in Florence 15
1. Marsili����������������
o Ficino 18
2. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 32
3. Nicolo Machiavelli and his Antiutopia 46
4. Alamanno Rinuccini 58
Chapter II. Paduan Aristotelianism in the Renaissance Era 62
1. Pietro Pomponazzi 63
2. Giacomo Zabarella 72
Chapter III. Skepticism in Renaissance Era 74
1. Charl de Bovilius 74
2. Michel de Montaigne 84
Chapter IV. Reformation and Renaissance in Germany 94
1. Erasmus of Rotterdam 94
2. The Worldview of Martin Luther 104
3. Theophrastus Paracelsus 118
4. Philosophical View of Sebastian Frank 135
5. Valentin Weigel 164
Chapter V. Way out of Renaissance Era 198
1. Bernardino Telesio 198
2. Geronimo Cardano 202
3. Francesco Patrizi 208
4. Giordano Bruno 213
5. Tommaso Campanella 225
6. Jacob Boehme 232
The Era of Renaissance - Introduction to the New Era 239
References 243
Index of Names 248

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redaqtorisagan

winamdebare wigni evropuli azrovnebis umniSvne­


lovanesa da umdidres periods exeba. masSi aRorZinebis
xanis (renesansis) filosofiis yvela mniSvnelovan mimar-
Tulebasa Tu warmomadgenels saTanado adgili aqvs daT-
mobili _ prof. guram TevzaZe kvlevas iwyebs marsilio
fiCinos azrovnebiT da amTavrebs iakob boemes qristian-
uli Teosofiis ganxilviT.
axlave SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es wigni qarTuli filoso-
fiis didi SenaZenia. qarTul filosofias aRorZinebis
xanis filosofiuri azrovnebis aseTi safuZvliani ganx-
ilva dRemde ar axsovs; winamdebare wigni sasargebloa
renesansis kulturisa da azrovnebis SemswavlelTaTvis
saerTod; is, uwinares yovlisa, xels Seuwyobs qarTul
filosofiur azrovnebaSi gavrcelebuli Salva nucu-
biZis `renesansis Teoriis~ mkvlevrebs. am Teoriis kv-
leva xom saqarTveloSi xSirad iseTi gziT midioda, ra-
sac, albaT, TviT S. nucubiZe ar isurvebda. arada, rene-
sansis miseuli modeli Ria, gaxsnili iyo yoveli axali
ZiebisTvis. `aRmosavluri renesansis~ miseuli Teoria
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi darCeba aqtualuri, Tu misi
mesveurni da mkvlevarni italiuri renesansis mdidari
tradiciis WrilSi ganixilaven mas. swored aRorZinebis
xanis italieli moazrovneebi qmnian im saazrovno hori-
zonts, romlis gaTvaliswinebis gareSec `aRmosavluri
renesansis~ Teoriis qarTveli mkvlevrebi sarwmuno
Sedegebs ver miaRweven.
winamdebare wigni zemoT aRniSnul problemaTa gada-
saWrelad kargi megzuri SeiZleba aRmoCndes!
ar SemiZlia ar aRvniSno am wignis kidev erTi Rirseba!
vfiqrob, rom guram TevzaZis es gamokvleva _ mis sxva did
SromebTan erTad _ kritikuli filosofiis mdidar da
saukeTeso tradicias miekuTvneba. avtori ar Ralatobs

--
Tavis umTavres princips _ aqac codnisa da rwmenis tol-
pirveladobis WrilSia warmodgenili aRorZinebis xanis
didi moazrovneebis Teoriul mcdelobaTa av-kargi.
swored renesansi sTavazobs g. TevzaZes Tavisi konce-
fciis gasamyareblad umdidres masalebs. xazi gausva
codnisa da rwmenis tolpirveladobas _ es imas niSnavs,
rom adamianuri codnis arsebiT Tvisebas swvde: is mara-
diul ganaxlebas eqvemdebareba da principulad axal
WeSmaritebebs saWiroebs! rwmena aq didi stimulis mom-
cemi SeiZleba iyos! guram TevzaZe amgvar xedvas metad
sagulisxmo terminiT _ `sokratuli hegelianeloba~ _
aRniSnavs; iyo `sokratuli hegelianelobis~ mimdevari _
es imas niSnavs, rom yovelTvis axalsa da ucxos eZiebde; es
ki, Tavis mxriv, kritikuli filosofiis umniSvnelovanes
aspeqts, tolerantobis filosofias uyris safuZvels; es
amasTanave isaa, rac, Cemi azriT, filosofiur kvlevas
Rirebuls xdis da rac winamdebare wignis avtors qar-
Tuli sauniversiteto filosofiis bevri, Zalian bevri
warmomadgenlisagan ase mkafiod ganasxvavebs.
dabolos, qarTvel mkiTxvels vurCev, rom es Zalian
saWiro da sasargeblo wigni didi gulisxmierebiT
waikiTxos. visac aRorZinebis xanis azrovnebis mier
moniSnul gzebze xetiali uRirs, prof. guram TevzaZis
am wignis wakiTxva did siamovnebas mianiWebs. es gansa-
kuTrebiT Cvens axalgazrda Taobas exeba, romlisTvisac
avtorma es wigni dawera da romelsac misi mzrunveli
yuradReba arasdros moklebia.

Tengiz iremaZe

q. Tbilisi, 26 ivlisi, 2008 w.

--
avtorisagan

am naSromis ZiriTadi principebi gamoqveynda avtor-


Ta jgufis wignSi „narkvevebi filosofiis istoriaSi`
(Tb., 1993 w.), romelic damxmare saxelmZRvaneloa stu-
dentebisaTvis. es krebuli iyo ideologiuri diqtatisa-
gan Tavisufali filosofiis istoriis Seqmnis erT-erTi
pirveli cda, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis
(1991 w.) Semdeg. ganvlili drois manZilze me ganvagrZob-
di dasavleTis kulturis ganviTarebis am uaRresad mdi-
dari da saintereso periodis kvlevas. SeZlebisdagvarad
gaviTvaliswine axali gamokvlevebi, Sevecade am periodis
moazrovneTa ZiriTadi principebis ukeT gamokveTas. da-
vamate gamokvlevebi boviliusze, montenze, paracelsze,
s. frankze, v. vaigelze da sxva. axali aspeqtiT damuSavda
rigi problema, magram filosofiur-istoriuli koncef-
cia igive darCa, rac Cems sxva SromebSi („imanuel kanti`,
Tb., 1974 w.; „antikuri filosofia`, Tb., 1995 w.; „Sua sau-
kuneebis filosofiis istoria`, Tb., 1996 w.; „XX saukunis
filosofiis istoria`, Tb., 2002 w.) iyo gatarebuli. es
koncefcia gulisxmobs codnisa da rwmenis tolpirve-
ladobis princips. mas iracionalizmi da skepticizmi mi-
aCnia gonebis TviTkritikis specifikur saxeebad; igi aRi-
arebs gonebis Zlierebis hegeliseul rwmenas, magram amas-
Tanave kvlevis yoveli Sedegis sokrateseul Sefasebas
iTxovs, rogorc Semdgomi kvlevis aucileblobis safuZ-
vels _ rogorc axali, ufro Rrma WeSmaritebis kvle-
vis saWiroebis gacnobierebas. amas SeiZleba sokratuli
hegelianeloba ewodos. vfiqrob, es araa xelovnuri
gaerTianeba ori erTmaneTisagan didad gansxvavebuli
filosofosisa, romelTagan pirveli amtkicebda, „me is
vici, rom araferi ar vici`, xolo meore darwmunebu-
li iyo, rom absoluti adamianis gonebaSi aRwevs Tavis
TviTSemecnebas. sokrate sulac ar iyo sakuTar Tavze da-
bali warmodgenis, magram miaCnda, rom adamianis yvelaze
--
didi codnac ki arcodnaa absolutur WeSmaritebasTan
SedarebiT. hegeli ki sulac ar Tvlida, rom igi yvela
WeSmaritebas Caswvda da mis Semdeg sakacobrio mecniere-
bas da kulturas aRaraferi darCeba gasakeTebeli. mas
mxolod imis pretenzia hqonda, rom Caswvda absoluturi
WeSmaritebis logikur struqturas, rogorc im mizans,
romelsac kacobrioba absoluturi WeSmaritebisaken mi-
maval usasrulo gzaze unda uaxlovdebodes. es, cxadia,
sulac araa Tavmdabloba da mokrZalebuli ganacxadi; ma-
gram amis gamo ar unda CavTvaloT, rom hegels sakuTari
Tavi absoluturi codnis mflobeli egona. dakvirvebu-
li istorikosis Tvali erTmaneTs dapirispirebul did
filosofosebSi siRrmiseul msgavsebasac dainaxavs: mgo-
nia, kants rom hegelis „logikis mecniereba` waekiTxa,
didi neokantianeli paul natorpis msgavsad, ityoda:
yvelaferSi veTanxmebi avtors _ adamianis gonebis abso-
luturobis garda. es araa sityvebis TamaSi, aramed da-
pirispirebulTa ganmsazRvrel safuZvelze miTiTeba.
winamdebare saxiT es kursi pirvelad waekiTxa ilia
WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis filosofiisa da
socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis bakalavrebs.

guram TevzaZe

q. Tbilisi, 21 ivlisi, 2008 weli

--
From the author

The basic principles of the present work were published as a prod-


uct of collaborative effort in “Essays in the History of Philosophy”
(Tbilisi, 1993), which still serves as an auxiliary textbook for stu-
dents. In a politically independent Georgia (sovereignty was regained
in 1991), this book represented one of the first attempts to create the
History of Philosophy that is free from ideological dictatorship. Since
then I continued the research of Renaissance, this extremely plentiful
and enticing period of the development of the Occidental culture. I
tried my best to take into account new treatises, attempted to better
outline the basic principles of thinkers from this period. The researchs
on Bovilius, Montaigne, Paracelsus, S. Frank, V. Weigel and others
have been added. A number of problems were re-worked based on
new aspects, but the philosophical and historical concepts remained
same as manifested in my previous works (“Immanuel Kant”, 1974;
“The Philosophy of Antiquity”, 1995; “The Philosophy of the Middle
Ages”, 1996; “History of Philosophy of the XX Century”, 2002).
These include the concept of the equal primace of Knowledge and
Faith, considers Irrationalism and Skepticism as the specific reflec-
tions of the self-criticism of Mind, professes the Hegelian belief in
the power of Mind, but also requires the Socratic evaluation of every
result of any advance in research, as the foundation for the necessity
of the future research, as the awareness of the necessity for the quest
seeking a new, even deeper Truth. This approach can be defined as
“Socratic Hegelianism”. In my opinion, it’s not an artificial unification
of the two vastly different great philosophers, one of whom claimed,
“I know that I know nothing”, while the other was confident that the
Absolute can achieve its self-consciousness in the Human Mind.
Socrates was by no means of a low opinion about himself, but did
consider the Human Knowledge of any depth as the absence thereof
compared to the Absolute Knowledge. Hegel did not think at all that
he perceived every Truth, and that after him there was no work left
for the Human Science and Culture. He only claimed to understand

--
the logical structure of the Absolute Truth, and outlined it as a path to
be followed by Humanity on the everlasting journey to the Absolute
Truth. Naturally, this is hardly a modest and self-deprecating state-
ment, but we should not conclude that Hegel perceived himself as
the possessor of the Absolute Truth. An eye of an observant histo-
rian would detect in-depth similarities between the great philosopher-
adversaries: I think if Kant (1724-1804) were to read Hegel’s “The
Science of Logic”, like the great neo-Kantian P. Natorp (1854-1924)
he would say: I agree in everything with the author, except for the
Absoluteness of Mind. This is not a word game, but rather outlining
the defining basis of opposites.
Such is the author’s approach to the thinkers of Renaissance. The
contents of this book present the names of philosophers to whom these
Principles are applicable.
In given form this cours was first read within the BA Program
Philosophy and Soucial Sciences of Ilia Chavchavadze State
Universitety 2006.

Guram Tevzadze

Tbilisi, 21 Jule, 2008

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Sesavali - Sua saukuneebis filosofia da
aRorZinebis epoqis filosofia

XV-XVI saukuneebSi feodalur urTierTobaTa wiaRSi


kapitalizmis Ca­saxvas Tan axlda axali msoflmxedvelo-
bis warmoSobac. axali progresuli klasi qmnis sakuTari
interesebis Sesabamis ideologias, cdilobs, Tavis samsa-
xurSi Caayenos xelovneba, literatura, mecniereba, fi-
losofia, teqnika da sxva. burJuaziis aRmavlobas fexda-
fex misdevda mecnierebis giganturi aRorZineba. ganaxl-
da interesi astronomiis, meqanikis, fizikis, anatomiis,
fiziologiisadmi. Tavisi samrewvelo warmoebis da vaW-
robis gansaviTareblad burJuazias esaWiroeboda mecnie-
reba, romelic gamoikvlevda fizikur sxeulTa Tvisebebs
da bunebis ZalTa moqmedebis formebs. am dromde ki mec-
niereba, oficialurad, iyo eklesiis morCili msaxuri,
romelsac neba ar hqonda sarwmunoebis mier dadebuli
sazRvrebi gadaelaxa. am kuTxiT danaxuli, is yvelaferi
iyo, garda mecnierebisa. axali mecniereba araoficialu-
rad da oficialuradac aujanyda kaTolikur eklesias
[nikolai koperniki (1473-1543), galileo galilei (1564-
1642), ieronimo kardano (1501-1576) da sxvebi]. rogorc
amboben, burJuazias es awyobda da miiRo kidec am aja-
nyebaSi monawileoba. Zveli samyaros winaaRmdeg brZola
da axali centralizebuli saxelmwifos Seqmna evropis
qveynebSi erTdroulad ar dawyebula, magram es proce-
si yvelgan erTi mimarTulebiT midioda. amas daemTxva
TiTqmis daviwyebuli da Teologiis mier, garkveuli az-
riT, akrZaluli antikuri literaturisa da xelovnebis
axali gacnoba. gabatonebul msoflmxedvelobaSi maxvil-
ma gadainacvla da win wamoiwia oficialurad „miCqmal-
ulma` Rirebulebebma: simdidrem, amqveyniuris mSveniere-
bam, morwmuneTa fizikurma Zalam da silamazem.
cnobilia, rom kacobriobis ganviTarebaSi yoveli
epoqis kultura gardamavalia. igi ganpirobebulia war-
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suliT da amzadebs pirobebs momdevnosaTvis. magram
aRorZinebis epoqa gansakuTrebiT imsaxurebs am saxels,
radgan ori savsebiT Camoyalibebuli da gamokveTili
kulturis, feodalizmis da kapitalizmis kulturaTa
Sorisaa moqceuli. Sua saukuneebTan mTeli misi dapiri-
spirebis miuxedavad, aRorZinebis epoqa mniSvnelovnadaa
ganmsWvaluli misi miznebiTa da problematikiT; axal
epoqasTan mTeli siaxlovis miuxedavad, gansxvaveba mainc
arsebiTi rCeba. aRorZinebis kulturis specifikas ori
didi kulturis swored es urTierTganmsWvalva qmnis.
axali da Zveli aq isea gadaxlarTuli erTmaneTTan, rom
formaluri SesaZlebloba iqmneba, es kultura mTlianad
mivakuTvnoT Zvels (da misi ganviTarebis umaRles wer-
tilad CavTvaloT), an axals (da misi ganviTarebis sawy-
isidan warmovadginoT). aman ganapiroba iseT TeoriaTa
arseboba, romelnic saerTod uaryofen aRorZinebis xa-
nis specifikuri kulturis arsebobas. amgvari midgomiT
ara marto aRorZinebis kulturis specifika ikargeba,
aramed momijnaveTa Taviseburebebis gamokveTac rTul-
deba. es zogadi mimarTeba vrceldeba am kulturebis fi-
losofiur SexedulebaTa urTierTdamokidebulebazec.
aRorZinebis epoqis filosofia, romelic, saboloo jam-
Si, gansazRvravs am epoqis miznebs, Tavis damouki­debel
Rirebulebas mxolod am epoqis ekonomikur da soci­al-
politikur viTarebebTan mWidro kavSirSi ganxilvisas
amJRavnebs.
es epoqa kompasis da didi geografiuli aRmoCenebis
epoqaa, romelmac Sua saukuneebis adamianis SezRuduli
horizonti gaafarTova. am dros Tofis wamlis gamoyene-
bam raindTa ordenebis batonobas bolo mouRo. evropis
Tavisufal qalaqebSi kapitalisturi wyobilebis sawyise-
bi Caisaxa. panTeisturi tendenciis mqone moZRvrebaTa
safuZvelze, TandaTan meti yuradReba mieqceva amqveyn-
iur, grZnobad sinamdviles. filosofiasa da mecnierebas

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ormagi WeSmari­tebis TeoriiT miniWebuli uflebebi aRar
akmayofilebs da WeSmaritebis (rogorc dasabuTebuli
codnis) erTaderT mesveurad acxadebs Tavs. koperni-
kis Teoria, Tundac hipoTezis saxiT warmodgenili, amis
oficialuri ganacxadi iyo. yovelive aman Sua saukunee-
bis evropels SesaZlebloba misca axleburad Seexeda im-
isTvisac, rac mis garSemo iyo: Zveli romis nangrevebi-
sTvis, xelovnebis gadarCenili ZeglebisTvis, platonis
(428/27-348/47) da sxva filosofosTa xelnawerebisTvis.
es axleburi xedva niSnavda Sua saukuneebis gadalaxvis
dasawyiss. am periodis italiaSi yvela yvelaferSi anti-
kurobas baZavda, magram Sua saukuneebs gamovlil evro-
pas, qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis adamians, ar SeeZlo
Tavisi aTaswliani warsulis xelaRebiT uaryofa. ital-
ieli xelovani, politikosi Tu filosofosi arsebiTad
gansxvavdeboda antikurisagan. aq mibaZvis saxeliT axali
iqmneboda.
Sua saukuneebis dasasrulad da aRorZinebis dasawy-
isad Tu raime Tari­Ris dasaxeleba SeiZleba, esaa 1453
weli, rodesac Turqebma konstantinepoli daipyres. bi-
zantieli swavlulebi gadarCenili berZnuli xelnaweriT
ita­liaSi gaeSurnen da mxarSi amoudgnen aRorZinebisT-
vis mebrZolebs. 1453 wels, nikoloz kuzaneli (1401-1464)
ukve Camoyalibebuli mecnieri da gavleniani filoso-
fosi iyo. misi SeuzRudveli Semwynarebloba, romelic
RmerTis neoplatonur gagebas emyareboda, SesaniSnav
pirobebs qmnida florenciis neoplatonuri akademiis
CamoyalibebisaTvis, sadac adamianis Rirsebis da daniS-
nulebis axali gageba savsebiT gamoikveTa. aq, axali epo-
qis moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad, agrZelebdnen im samuS-
aos, romelic Sua saukuneebSi e. w. eretikosebma „areop-
agitikis` problemebis damuSavebiT daiwyes.
axali yovelTvis ZvelSi isaxeba. axali ideologiis
momamzadebelni TavianT Teoriebs saxarebisa da bibliis

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interpretaciebze amyarebdnen. ada­mianSi TavisTavadi
Rirebulebis danaxva, misi Zalebisadmi ndoba, misi su-
lieri da sxeulebrivi miswrafebebis harmoniulobis
SesaZleblobebis rwmena aerTianebda uaRresad gansxvave-
bul Sexedulebebs. amitom miiRo am ideologiam saerTo
saxeli _ humanizmi. roca am epoqas aRorZinebas uwode-
ben, igulisxmeba adamianisa da misi amqveyniuri saqmiano-
bisaTvis im Rirebulebis xelaxali miniWeba, romelic
antikurobas axasiaTebda da romelsac Sua saukuneebis
religiuri msoflm­xedveloba, rogorc wesi, uaryofda.
aRorZineba sxvadasxva kulturul regionSi sxa-
dasxvagvarad mimdinareobda. dRes, Cvens mecnierebaSi,
Salva nucubiZis (1888-1969) aRmosavleTis renesansis
Teoriis safuZvelze, msjeloben ara marto qarTul
renesansze, romelic XII s.-is dasasruls daiwyo, aramed,
agreTve, somxur (XII-XII ss.), Cinur renesansze (VIII-XIV ss.)
da a. S. magram renesansis klasikuri nimuSi mainc dasav-
leT evropis qveyanam, kerZod, italiam warmoadgina. aq
aRorZinebis epoqis kulturam Tavisi ganviTarebis yvela
safexuri ganvlo da moamzada axali filosofia _ bur-
Juaziuli epoqis filosofia, romlis saTaveebTan fren-
sis bekoni (1561-1626) da rene dekarti (1596-1650) dganan.

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Tavi I. florenciis platonuri akademia

konstantinepoli 1453 wels aiRes Turqebma, magram misi


dacema gacilebiT adre daiwyo. is jer kidev 1204 wels
meoTxe jvarosnuli laSqrobis monawileebma daipyres da
daarbies. marTalia, 1261 wels bizantielebma konstan-
tinepoli daibrunes, magram, amasobaSi, xmelTaSua zRvis
auzSi venecieli da genueli vaWrebi savsebiT gabatond-
nen. konstantinepoli ekonomikuradac sasikvdilod iyo
ganwiruli. bizantieli mecnierebi saSvels sxva qveynebSi
eZebdnen da italiaze akeTebdnen arCevans, sadac maTTvis
saTayvano antikurobis kulti TandaTan sayovelTao xde-
boda. dante aligieri (1265-1321) da franCesko petrarka
(1304-1374), Sua saukuneebis uaryofasTan erTad, antikuri
sibrZnis da RirebulebaTa aRdgenas cdilobdnen. axali
orientiacia ufro naTeli xdeba jotos (1276-1332) da
donatelos (1386-1466) qmnilebebSi, romelnic amqveyniur
Rirebulebebs ganadideben. TeologiaSi es Toma aqvineli-
sa (daaxl. 1225-1274) da Tomisturad gagebuli aristo-
teles (384-322) erTmmarTvelobis moxsniT da platonis
win wamoweviT gamoixata. aristoteles kritika xSirad
iniRbeboda arabuli aristoteles uaryofiT. did filo-
sofosTa Rirebulebebis oficialuri Sefaseba mocemuli
iyo XIV s.-is mxatvris, franCesko trainis (XIV s.) fres-
kaze, qalaq pizis wminda ekaterines eklesiaSi. suraTi XIV
s.-is pirvel naxevars ekuTvnis. centrSi zis sqolasti-
kis maswavlebeli Toma aqvineli, mis saxeSi erTiandeba
rogorc zecidan momavali, iseve iqve mdgomi platonisa
da aristoteles wignebisgan gamomdinare oqros sxivebi.
platons `timaiosi~, xolo aristoteles `eTika~ uWiravs.
Toma aq miCneulia zeciuri da miwieri sibrZnis erTiano-
bad. mis muxlze mdebare misive naSromidan gamodian sxive-
bi, romelnic ecemian mis fexebTan Camwkrivebul qristian
Teologebs. erTi sxivi ecema miwaze ganrTxmul Calmians.
es averoesia (1126-1198), Tomas kritikiT damarcxebuli.
- 15 -
franCesko trainim eklesiis dakveTa keTilsindisi-
erad Seasrula. dantem ki, romelic axali epoqis sunTq-
vas grZnobda, averoesi `RvTaebriv komediaSi~ filoso-
fosTa sapatio wreSi Caayena, romlis centrSi aristo­
telea, rogorc `mcodneTa maswavlebeli~. mis gverdiT
platoni, sokrate (469-399) da a. S. aristotelesTan siax-
love aq Rirsebis sazomia. aristoteles upiratesoba
filosofosTa Soris Suasaukuneobrivia. averoesis pati-
viscema ki Tavisufali azris niSania. aRorZinebis anti-
dogmatur, Tavisufal xedvas gamoxatavs rafaelis (1483-
1520) cnobili suraTi `aTenis skola~, sadac platoni da
aristotele centrs qmnian, xolo sxva moazrovneebi maT
garSemo arian ganlagebuli. aqac, iseve, rogorc trainis
suraTSi, platons xelSi `timaiosi~ ukavia, aristoteles
_ `eTika~. ioane petriws (XI-XII ss.) rom amgvari suraTi
daexata, centrSi marto platoni iqneboda, „timaiosiT`
xelSi. masTan uaxloesni iqnebodnen plotini (205-270),
prokle (412-485) da aristotele.
espaneli zRvaosnebis da italieli vaWrebis wyalobiT,
SesaZlebeli Seiqmna msoflios yvela xalxis erT mTliano-
bad warmosaxva. borotebis neoplatonuri uaryofis
idea karg safuZvels qmnida kuzanelis Semwynareblobis
principis gavrcelebisaTvis. es principi mWidrod ukav-
Sirdeboda adamianis mniSvnelobasa da Rirsebebis Sesaxeb
axal Sexedulebas. am garemoSi warmoiSva da Camoyalibda
platonis filosofiis safuZvelze mTeli sakacobrio
kulturis erTianobis idea, romlis ganxorcieleba
daisaxa miznad florenciis platonurma akademiam (1456).
aRorZinebis epoqis moRvaweTa TvaliT danaxuli antiku-
roba yvelaze ukeT Seesabameboda am ideals. amitom iyo,
rom italiis kulturis centrSi yvelaferSi berZnebs ba-
Zavdnen. Suasaukuneobrivi abstraqtuli avtoritaruli
meTodis uaryofa gzas uxsnida rogorc eqsperimentul
kvleva-Ziebas, ise kvlevis WeSmarit dialogurobas. ma-

- 16 -
gram isic unda aRiniSnos, rom ramdenadac aq axali jer
saTanadod gavrcelebuli ar iyo, xolo Zveli mTlad
Zaladakarguli, es dialoguroba iqca antiTetikad, e. i.
debulebis (Tezisis) meoresadmi (antiTezisadmi) dapiri-
spirebad sinTezis gareSe da, mkacrad Tu vityviT, ekleq-
tikadac. Tavad aRorZinebis moRvaweni ar ufrTxodnen
ekleqtikas, zogjer amayobdnen kidec amiT, radgan mi-
aCndaT calmxrivi Suasaukuneobrivi dogmatizmis uaryo-
fad, Semwynareblobisa da goniTi TanamSromlobis
saukeTeso gamoxatulebad. aristoteles is gageba, ro-
melic sqolastikaSi Camoyalibda, amgvari idealisTvis
ar gamodgeboda. Tomam aristotele kaToliked, erT-
pirovnul avtoritetad aqcia. averoesma, maSindeli
oficialuri azriT, aTeistad. aRorZinebas arc erTi
gamoadgeboda da arc meore. amitom iyo, rom am epoqis
mravali didi moazrovne sqolastikis winaaRmdeg brZo-
las aristoteles winaaRmdeg brZolis saxes aZlevda,
sayrdens ki neoplatonizmSi xedavda. amitom iyo, rom
bertran raseli (1872-1970) petrarkas da jovani bokaCos
(1313-1375) sulierad aRorZinebis epoqas miakuTvnebda,
Tumca isini XIV s.-Si cxovrobdnen (49,519).
neoplatonizmi aRorZinebis msoflmxedvelobis saer­
To filosofiuri safuZveli iyo. florenciis platonur
akademiaSi aseTi safuZveli neopla­tonurad ga­gebuli
platoni gaxda. platonze maT miuTiTa bizantielma filo-
sofosma georg gemistos pleTonma (1360-1452), romelmac
italiur azrovnebasTan safuZvlianad daakavSira ber-
Znuli ganaTleba. pleToni peleponesSi (mistraSi) aswav-
lida filosofias. 1438 wels italiaSi Cavida saeklesio
krebaze, romlis mizani aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis
qristianuli eklesiebis SeerTeba iyo. albaT, am mizanma
daaaxlova igi axalgazrda kuzanelTan, romelsac ple-
Tonma urCia berZnul wyaroebs gacnoboda. pleTons an-
tikurobis aRorZineba bizantiis saxelmwifos gadarCenis

- 17 -
erTaderT saSualebad miaCnda. man wamoayena universal-
uri religiis idea, romelSic qristianobisa da berZnuli
warmarTobis safuZvelze yvela danarCeni gaerTiandebo-
da. pleToni aristoteles abralebda sqolastikis un-
ayofobas da imasac, rom dasavleTis azrovneba moswyda
tradicias: piTagoras (570-500), platons, neoplatonizms.
pleTonma moaxerxa samSobloSi dabruneba da mistraSive
xelmZRvanelobda skolas. misi Tayvaniscema berZnuli an-
tikurobisadmi imdenad didi iyo, rom Tavis gamouqvey-
nebel naSromebSi berZnuli miTologiis aRorZinebis
moTxovnasac ki ayenebda. pleTonis wigni `kanonebi~, sa-
dac zevsis msaxurebaa gaTvaliswinebuli, 1460 wels pa-
triarq giorgi sqolaris (1494_1555) brZanebiT dawves.
pleTonTan erTad, italiaSi Cavida misi mowafe
basile besarioni (1404-1473). igi trapezunidan iyo. adre
konstantinepolis patriarqad namyofi, basile besarioni
pleTons eTanxmebida platonis moZRvrebis gagebaSi, ma-
gram mas Semdeg, rac kaTolicizmi aRiara da kardinali
gaxda, aristoteles moZRvrebasTan Serigebas cdilobda.
msgavsi gza sxva bizantielma moRvaweebmac gaiares.

1. marsilio fiCino (1433-1499)

platonisa da aristoteles moZRvrebaTa urTierT-


mimarTebis sakiTxi gviani antikurobis da Sua saukunee-
bis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi iyo. aRorZinebis ep-
oqaSi man gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. platoni-
sa da aristoteles moZRvrebaTa dapirispirebis dros,
qristianul qveynebSi, cxadia, upiratesobis kriteriumi
iyo is, Tu rogor eguebodnen es moZRvrebebi qristiano-
bas. islamis samyaroSi aseTive ideologiuri sazomi iyo
„yuranTan` maTi SeTanxmebis SesaZlebloba.
cnobili filologi, 1434 wels konstantinepolidan
italiaSi gadasaxlebuli ioane argipopulo (1317-1473),

- 18 -
romelic jer paduaSi berZnul enas da aristoteles fi-
losofias aswavlida, Semdeg ki florenciaSi dasaxlda,
amtkicebda, rom aristotelem ar icoda ideebis Sesaxeb
platonis namdvili Teoria, xolo yvela sxva winaaRmde-
goba maT Soris moCvenebiTia (69,III,179-280). paduas skola
gulmodgined icavda aristoteles filosofias da mis
primats yvela sxva moZRvrebaze.
pleTonis mowafem, marsilio fiCinom, florenciaSi
platonuri akademia daaarsa _ paduas skolis peripa-
tetizmis sawinaaRmdegod. florencielebis mier „samSob-
los mamad` wodebuli kozimo mediCis (1389-1464) daxmare-
biT gaxsnil am akademias, romelSic platonis biustis
win uqrobad enTo sanTeli, miznad hqonda mTeli saka-
cobrio kulturis sinTezi platonis moZRvrebis safuZ-
velze. kozimom 1462 wels marsilio fiCinos florenciis
maxloblad karejos vila aCuqa. saCuqrad gadasca aseve
mis biblioTekaSi arsebuli berZnuli xelnawerebis kod-
eqsi. fiCinos axlo megobari da mfarveli iyo lorenco
mediCic (1449-1492).
italiur renesansze SeuZlebelia laparaki evropaSi
erT-erTi udidesi bankirTa ojaxis, mediCebis saqmianobis
gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. am gvaris warmomadgenlebi ukve
XIV s.-Si iqceven yuradRebas, rogorc filantropebi da
xelovnebis mfarvelebi. am saqmianobis dasawyiss, iseve,
rogorc ojaxis did simdidres jovani mediCis (1360-1429)
saxels ukavSireben. kozimo mediCi misi Svili iyo. mis
saxels ukavSirdeba evropaSi pirveli sajaro biblioTe-
kis daarseba. kozimo ar iyo SemTxveviTi kaci akademiaSi.
igi gonivrulad warmarTavda da afinansebda mis muSao-
bas. misi sityvebia: platonis moZRvrebis codnis gareSe
aravin SeiZleba iyos kargi moqalaqe da kargi qristiani.
jovanis STamomavloba TiTqmis ori saukunis manZilze
inarCunebda gavlenas ara marto florenciasa da ital-
iaSi, aramed mTel evropaSic. lorenco mediCis (kargi

- 19 -
poetisa da platonuri akademiis disputebis monawilis)
qaliSvili, maria (katerina) mediCi (1519-1589) safrangeTis
dedofali da regentic gaxda. am gvaris TavgadasavalSi
kargad Cans axali burJuaziuli epoqis specifika: isini
xalxis interesebis saxeliT mividnen xelisuflebaSi,
amave xalxis da saxelmwifos interesebis dacvis sababiT
gaxdnen Semdeg tiranebi, romlebic imave xalxma gandevna
savonarolas (1452-1498) meTaurobiT. amis Sedegad gaba-
tonebulma anarqiam da masebis mdgomareobis gauaresebam,
mediCebis dabruneba SesaZlebli gaxada 1512 wels.
didi florencieli humanisti marsilio fiCino mRvd-
lad ekurTxa 1475 wels. platonis Targmna ki _ ramac
italiur da, SeiZleba iTqvas, evropul humanizms, axali
Sinaarsi misca _ fiCinom 1463 wels daiwyo da am saqmes
oci weli moandoma. 1491 wels plotinis Targmani ga-
moaqveyna. manve gaacno Tanamemamuleebs prokle da dio-
nise areopageli (VI s.). igi Segnebulad qmnida qristiano-
bisaTvis saerTo sakacobrio filosofiur safuZvlebs.
roca mRvdeli gaxda (Semdeg ki kanonikic), mas ar miuCnevia
saWirod platoniT da astrologiiT Tavisi daintereseba
daemala. igi bejiTad agrZelebda Tavisi gegmis ganxor-
cielebas, romlis mizani iyo, platonis moZRvrebis sauZ-
velze, filosofiis mier sakacobrio sibrZnis gaerTiane-
ba. xalxi, albaT, gaicinebs mRvdelze, _ werda fiCino,
_ romelsac sWirdeba astrologia. magram me sparsul,
egviptur da qaldeur avtoritetebze damyarebiT vTv-
li, rom ciuri materiebiT daintereseba da safuZvliani
Seswavla sWideba mRvdels. es misi principuli pozicia
iyo, romlisTvisac ar gadauxvevia, Tumca yovelTvis
emijneboda iseT astrologias da magias, romelic gansa-
kuTrebul mniSvnelobaze acxadebda pretenzias da ada-
mianis da RmerTis Tavisufali nebis princips angariSs
ar uwevda. fiCino saerTod aRorZinebis axali kulturis
safuZvlad adamianis nebis Tavisuflebas miiCnevda. ami-

- 20 -
tom ar unda gagvikvirdes, rom 1477 wels fiCinom mka-
crad uaryo astrologebis pretenziebi, ciur sxeulebze
dakvirvebiT, momavlis gaTvaliswinebis unarze: ra ician,
ra moxdeba 10 wlis Semdeg, roca imasac ver gvetyvian,
Tu ras gaakeTeben Tavad isini xval? mecnierebasTan da-
pirispirebuli astrologia misTvis yovelTvis miuRebe-
li iyo. imis mixedviT, Tu sazogadoebaSi magiis romeli
gageba sWarbobda, icvleboda fiCinos pozicia. zogierT
mkvlevars ukvirs, rom fiCino Tavis Tanamoazred miiC-
nevda pap siqstus IV (1414-1484), romelsac erTnairad
swamda winaswarmetyvelebac da astrologiac; magram 1494
wels fiCino mis megobar anjelo policianos (1454-1494)
werda, rom igi mtkiced uWers mxars jovani piko dela mi-
randolas (1463-1494) brZolas astrologebis winaaRmdeg
da zizRiT ukuagdebs astrologebis crurwmenebs.
fiCino platons miTiuri hermes trismegistosis
(„samgziT amaRlebulis`) memkvidred miiCnevda da Tavad
hermesi egvipteli egona. platonis memkvidreobaze, ro-
gorc sakacobrio kulturis centrze, warsuli mso-
flmxedvelobrivi naazrevis „mosargebad`, man kozimo
mediCis miTiTebiT, Targmna e. w. „hermetuli korpusi`
(xelnaweri kozimos biblioTekaSi aRmoCnda). fiCinos ka-
cobriobis filosofiuri azrovnebis ganviTarebis gza
warmoedgina, rogorc hermesidan platonze da aqedan
qristes gamocxadebaze gadasvla. es aris igive, rac ada-
mianis SesaZlebeli amaRlebis gza RmerTamde. filosofia
da magia masTan mWidro kavSirSia. Tavis erT-erT yvelaze
popularul naSromSi _ „codnis sami wigni` (1489) _ fi-
Cino iZleva magiis renesansul da neoplatonur gage-
bas. kosmosi misTvis cocxali mTlianobaa, romelSic
msoflio suli ukavSirdeba msoflio sxeuls. es aisaxeba
yvela arsebulSi. adamianSi es erTianoba gacnobiereb-
uli SeiZleba iyos. es saSualebas aZlevs adamians, sa-
Tanado meTodebis gamoyenebiT, marTos samyaros sagnebi

- 21 -
da avides RmerTamde. kidev ufro didi gavlena hqonda
fiCinos komentarebs platonis „nadimze` (1489), rac mas-
Tan warmodgenili iyo, rogorc siyvarulis platonuri
Teoria.
zogi mkvlevris azriT, italiuri aRorZineba, faq-
tobrivad, daiwyo fiCinos Tarmanebma da misma Sromam
«siyvarulis Sesaxeb, anu platonis „nadimi`». siyvaruli
man warmoadgina, rogorc samnairi mimarTeba: I. tolisa
_ tolTan; II. qvemdgomisa _ zemdgomis mimarT; III. zem-
dgomisa _ qvemdgomisadmi. es ukanaskneli mimarTeba
samyaros Semqmneli da maarsebeli siyvarulis saxea.
RmerTis maZiebeli siyvaruli adamianisadmi, samyarosa
da misi sagnebisadmi aris is, rac samyaros erTian mTe-
lad kravs. aq Semodis siyvaruli, rogorc filosofiuri
kategoria, romelic exmareba rwmenas, radgan ubralo
daqvemdebareba araa sakmarisi. aqvea msjeloba miwier da
zeciur siyvarulze. faqtobrivad fiCinos yvela Sroma
am principebis safuZvelze msoflmxedvelobis dasab-
uTebis cdaa. am poziciis, ase vTqvaT, ideologiuri
gamarTlebaa fiCinos komentarebi platonis „fedro-
sze`. misi azriT, siyvaruli, romelzedac saubaria pla-
tonTan, pavle mociqulTan da dionise areopagelTan,
erTi da igivea, saxeldobr, esaa siyvaruli absoluturi
mSvenierebisadmi, romelic aris RmerTi, anu absolutu-
ri sikeTe. am pozicias platonisa da pavle mociqulis
Sesaxeb petriwic iziarebda. rac Seexeba dionise are-
opagels, petriwi mas ar axsenebs, albaT, fiqrobda, rom
am rols misive sakuTari „materialurisagan miuxebeli
RmrTismetyveleba` Seasrulebda.
es Teoria aucileblobiT moiTxovda filosofiur
moZRvrebas sulis ukvdavebaze, rac fiCinom windaxedu-
lad, ufro adre moamzada Tavisi wigniT „platonis
Teologia`, romelic 1474 wels gamoqveynda (37,266). am
fundamentur naSroms, romelic oTxi wignisagan Sedgeba,

- 22 -
fiCinos saukeTeso naSromad miiCneven, rac plato-
nis renesansuli aRorZinebis erT-erTi yvelaze mniS-
vnelovani safuZveli iyo. aRmosavluri sibrZnis kanon-
ier memkvidred platonis miCneva da amgvarad gagebuli
platonis qristianobasTan ara marto Tavsebadad, aramed
misTvis didad sasargeblod warmoCena, istoriuladac
da socialuradac progresuli saqme iyo. arsebobda mo-
sazrebac, rom amgvari Serigebis Sedegi oqros xanis da-
bruneba iqneboda. zogierTi mkvlevari am saqmes „plato-
nis evangelizacias` uwodebs.
ontologiuri perspeqtividan gamomdinare, fiCino­
saTvis bibliuri, aseve platonuri RmerTi, rogorc
yvela sagnis centri, aris sikeTe. amis gamo yvelaferi,
rac arsebobs, razec SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom igi yofie-
ria, aris mSvenieri. yvela sagani RmerTis raRacnairi
gamovlinebaa, misi gamosxivebaa. arsebulis safexurebi,
amdenad, sikeTis sxvadasxva safexurebia. esenia: goneba,
suli, buneba, materia. amis dasabuTeba surs fiCinos
platonis „nadimis` komentarebSi. „fedrosSi` fiCino im
azrsac amoikiTxavs, rom adamianis gonebas aqvs simravle-
Si erTianobis da universumSi kerZos naxvis unari, rac
SesaZleblobas aZlevs mas daiwyos gaxsenebis procesi.
fiCino iziarebda Tavisi ufrosi Tanamedrovis, leon
batista albertis (1404-1473) debulebas, rom adamiani
dabadebulia imisaTvis, raTa gaxdes bednieri. Tumca fi-
Cino adamianTa Soris gansxvavebas sulac ar uaryofda.
misi azriT, gansjas (Verstand), rogorc Semecnebis or-
ganos, yvela adamiani flobs, rac Seexeba gonebas (ratio)
igi cotas Tu xvdeba wilad. platonisa da aristoteles
dapirispirebas, romliskenac SeiZleboda ebiZga adami-
anisTvis georgiu gemistos pleTonis cnobil pozicias,
fiCino ar eTanxmeboda. igi misdevs platonisadmi aris-
toteles SeTanxmebis princips, magram platonis sruli
upiratesobiT _ rogorc amas jer kidev boeciusi (480-
524) da Semdeg ioane petriwi amtkicebdnen.
fiCinos daumTavrebeli darCa naSromi „platonisa

- 23 -
da aristoteles Tanxmobis Sesaxeb`. am or did genioss
Soris arsebiTi Tanxmobis sakiTxis kvlevas fiCinos mowa-
fe, piko dela mirandola gaagrZelebs. marsilio fiCino
ki mainc Tvlida, rom aristotele uaryofda adamianis
individuri sulis ukvdavebas, rac misTvis arsebiTi mniS-
vnelobis nakli iyo.
roca mkvlevrebs fiCinos SemecnebisTeoriuli mo-
sazrebebi sistemuri saxiT undaT warmoadginon da maT
gamaerTianebel safuZvels romelime dialogSi eZe-
ben, rogorc wesi, platonis „Teetets` irCeven. mag-
aliTad, aleqsei losevi (1895-1988) Tvlis, rom am dia-
logSi yvelaze koncentrirebuladaa mocemuli fiCinos
Semecnebis Teoria. misi azriT, platoni aq sabolood
angariSs usworebs calmxriv sensualizms da tradiciul
miTologias (45,550). platoni aq asabuTebs, rom cnebaTa
korelaturoba _ e. i. romelime maTganis gaazrebisaT-
vis misi „mewyvile` cnebis aucilebloba, da piriqiT _
codnis SeuZleblobaze ki ar miuTiTebs, aramed imaze,
rom maT saerTo damakavSirebeli hyavT ideis saxiT, da
is maTi safuZvelicaa. amis gareSe Cven araviTari codna
ar gveqneboda, radgan arc Sexedulebis doneze miRebuli
informacia (rom isini mxolod gamoricxaven erTmaneTs)
da arc swori da ganmartebuli codna WeSmariteba ar
iqneba.
germaneli filosofosi burkhard moiziSi swored am
dialogis komentarebSi xedavs fiCinos epistemologiis
sistemis Taviseburebas. aq wamoweulia dialogSi das-
muli kiTxva: „ra aris Semecneba, rogorc aseTi?` (73).
cnobilia, rom platoni am dialogsac iseve amTavrebs,
rogorc sxvebs, e. i. mcdari Sexedulebis uaryofiT da
WeSmaritebisaken gzis CvenebiT. dialogSi sokrate dai-
Tanxmebs Teetets, rom codna araa arc is, risi CvenTvis
Tavze moxveva unda SegrZnebebs, arc is, rasac swor
Sexedulebas uwodeben da arc axsna swor SexedulebebTan

- 24 -
kavSirSi, e. i. Cemi mcdeloba, vinmes swori warmodgena
Sevuqmna. Cveni codna mxolod maSin iqneba namdvili, anu
dasabuTebuli da yvelasTvis savaldebulo, Tu davad-
genT sagnis specifikur, ganmasxvavebel niSans. magram
konkretulad raa aseTi, sokrate arc aq ambobs. cxadia,
zogadi principis (am SemTxvevaSi, ganmasxvavebeli niSnis
dadgenis aucileblobaze miTiTeba), ufro konkretulad
ar gamoiTqmeba; magram, roca amis Sesaxeb platons say-
veduroben, igulisxmeba, rom igi (Tundac erT konkret-
ul magaliTze mainc) ar uCvenebs am principis pozitiur
gamoyenebas. am dialogis pozitiuri Sedegi, platonis
azriT, isaa, rom momavali kvleva aq ukve miRweulis gam-
oyenebiT ufro myar safuZvels SeiZens da kvlevis nay-
ofic ukeTesi iqneba. b. moiziSi eTanxmeba am gavrcele-
bul Sexedulebas, magram fiqrobs, rom fiCinos plato-
nis am dialogis analizisas raRac meti da mniSvnelovani
aqvs naTqvami. es meti italiuri renesansuli azrovnebis
specifikas gamoxatavs.
fiCinos Semecnebis Teoria, rom neoplatonuria, es
imas niSnavs, rom aq miznadaa dasaxuli erTianobaSi ga-
viazroT platonic, aristotelec, hermes trismegisto-
sic. am gegmis Sesabamisad, fiCino „Teetetis` Sua nawil-
Si platonis mier dasmul kiTxvas _ „ra aris Semecneba,
rogorc aseTi?` _ konstruqciulad aviTarebs. amas
b. moiziSi imaSi xedavs, rom fiCino Semecnebas ganixilavs
Cveni sulis erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli funqciebis
mixedviT. eseni ki platonis da fiCinos triadisadmi
cnobili midrekilebis Tanaxmad, samia: 1. suls aqvs aR-
mqmeli funqcia, romlis drosac is sxeulebriv grZno-
bebs iyenebs, rogorc xelsawyoebs, da gansxvavebulad
aRqmuls raRac erTianobad akavSirebs. am erTianobas
SeiZleba Tavad suli vuwodoT; anu suli gamodis, ro-
gorc garkveuli idea, romlis mixedviTac SegrZnebebis
mravalferovneba aRqmad Seikvreba. aq suli gamodis, ro-

- 25 -
gorc erT-erTi idea, romelic sxva ideebs Tavis sagnad
aqcevs (rasac platoni „sofisteSi` aanalizebs); 2. sxva
aspeqtia, roca suli raimes sxeulis da grZnobebis dax-
marebiT ki ar iRebs, aramed Tavad Tavis Tavidan iazrebs.
sulis am aspeqts ewodeba zogadi Sinaarsi, anu cnebebi.
esenia, arsi da ararsi, identoba da ara identoba, erTi
da mravali. am aspeqtiT danaxuli, sulis mier warmoe-
bul Semecnebas ewodeba grZnobad STabeWdilebaTa da am
zogadobaTa Sinaarsebs Soris kavSirebis damdgeni; 3. sxva
aspeqtia Semecnebis Taviseburi, pragmatuli momenti. mis
saWiroebaze axalgazrda platoni „fedonSi` msjelob-
da da mas xatovnad ziarebas (participacias) uwodebda,
rogorc ideis mibaZvas. gviandel platonTan es mniS-
vnelovani cneba gaxda, romelic miuTiTebda, rom zogadi
araa raime abstraqtuli zogadi, araa raRac fenomenebis-
agan mowyvetili hipostazirebuli idea (aristotele, rom
sayvedurobda Tavis maswavlebels). platoni aq pirdapir
ambobs da fiCinoc, rogorc neoplatonikosi, am Sinaarss
wamoswevs, rom „zogadi yvelaSia`, simravleSia.
zogadi eqspliciturad am simravlis yvela erTeul-
Sia da suli mas raime sxviT, magaliTad, SegrZnebebiT ki
ar aRiqvams da Seicnobs, aramed sakuTari TaviT. amitom
suls am erTeulebSive SeuZlia dainaxos maTi warsulic,
awmyoc da momavalic. fiCino darwmunebulia, rom es ar-
istoteles namdvili poziciacaa, aseve plotinis, gvian-
deli da Sua platonizmisac. b. moiziSi am pozicias samar-
Tlianad uwodebs „sinkretul epistemologias` (73,156).
amgvarad gagebuli Semecneba, fiCinosaTvis saimedo gzaa
RvTaebrivi sinamdvilisaken, romelzedac plotinma Tqva:
„yovelive erTia`. amdenad, Semecneba „gza qvemoT` ki ar
aris, rogorc es platonTan SeiZleboda gvefiqra, ar-
amed „gza zemoT`.
antikuri neoplatonizmis am cnebas fiCino SeuerTebs
`RvTaebrivi wyalobis~ Toma aqvinelis mier xazgasmul cne-

- 26 -
bas, rogorc Semmecneblis warmatebisaTvis aucilebels.
wyalobis aucileblobaze xazgasma ar SeiZleba fiCinos
sinkretizmis marcxad anda naklad CaiTvalos, Tu realo-
bisaTvis Tvalis gasworebas, anu adamianuri Semecnebis
SesaZleblobebis sazRvrebis gaTvaliswinebas naklad ar
CavTvliT. obieqturad Tu vimsjelebT, amgvar sazRvars
gviandeli platonic uSvebda Tavisi dauwereli filoso-
fiis TeoriiT. dionise areopagelma es savsebiT naTlad
gamokveTa. Toma aqvinelic da fiCinoc misgan arian dava-
lebulni. es is Sinaarsi iyo, romelic magiasTan fiCinos
Semwynareblur damokidebulebas qristianobisaTvis mis-
aRebs xdida. adamianuri Semecnebis SesaZleblobaTa gam-
Tavisebeli, anu gamanamdvilebeli adamiani, imanuel kan-
tis (1724-1804) sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, „wyalobis Rirsi`
xdeba, morCilad dgeba absoluturis winaSe, wyalobis
molodinSi da ara rogorc moZalade (Savi magiis mim-
devris msgavsad), romelic moiTxovs wyalobas, rogorc
damsaxurebuls da kuTvnils. aq arsebiTi siRrmiseuli
erTianobis danaxva SeiZleba did Teologebs (dionise ar-
eopageli, Toma aqvineli da sxva) da did filosofosebs
Soris (kanti, fridrix vilhelm Selingi (1775-1854), neo-
kantianelebi). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es moTminebis Zala
eyo fiCinos da bolomde neoplatonuri filosofiis
erTguli darCa, rasac ver vityviT mis umniSvnelovanes
da uaxloes mimdevarze, jovani piko dela mirandolaze.
XI s. bizantiur renesansTan platonuri akademiis ka-
vSirze miuTiTebs fiCinos mier miqel fselosis (1018 _
daaxl. 1078 an 1096) Targmna. fiCinos naSromebidan um-
Tavresad miaCniaT _ `platonis Teologia sulis ukvdav-
ebis Sesaxeb~ (1482). hans urs fon balTazari (1905-1988)
Tvlis, rom platonis mTeli Teologia fiCinosTan sulis
ukvdavebis mtkicebaze daiyvaneba (60,627), rac gadaWarbe-
baa. sulis ukvdaveba fiCinos sWirdeba axali adamianis
koncefciis Sesaqmnelad da es koncefcia arasgziT ar

- 27 -
daiyvaneba sulis ukvdavebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebaze. pla-
toni, fiCinos azriT, afuZnebs ara marto Teologias,
aramed bunebismetyvelebasac. axalgazrdobaSi fiCino
paduaSi aristoteles `nikomaxes eTikas~ da sxva Sromebs
swavlobda da komentarebs urTavda. am Sromas is ar
Tvlida unayofod. aristoteles Sromebi misTvis aris
gza platonisaken. gza, misi azriT, ar SeiZleba ewinaaR-
mdegebodes gzis mizans. peripatetikuli moZRvreba ar
ewinaaRmdegeba platonizms. aristotele fizikosi, fi-
Cinos rwmeniT, misdevs platonis nakvalevs. fiCino
plotinis gansakuTrebul pativiscemas avlens. misi az-
riT, plotinma axsna platoni, iseve, rogorc qristem
gamoacxada RmerTis sibrZne adamianebisaTvis. fiCinos
platonizmi ufro neoplatonizmia. platonis ideebis
Teoriis dafarul kvals eZebs igi rogorc bibliaSi, ise
zoroastrizmSi, rogorc orfeosTan, ise hermes tris-
megistosTan.
fiCino, SesaZloa maister ekhartis (1260-1328) ideebis
gavleniT, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs RmerTis
maZiebel siyvaruls samyarosadmi, rogorc arsebulis er-
Tianobad Semkvrels da maarsebels. siyvaruli aq Semodis,
rogorc filosofiuri kategoria, romelic Svelis rw-
menas. es aucilebelia, radgan ubralod RmerTis mor-
Cileba da daqvemdebareba misadmi araa sakmarisi. didi
mniSvneloba hqonda agreTve mis ganazrebebs miwieri da
zeciuri siyvarulis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb. am naS-
romis zegavlenis erT-erTi pirveli Sedegia leon ebre-
os (daaxl. 1460-1523) „dialogi siyvarulze`. igi iyo mose
maimonides (1432-1535) cnobili kritikosis, portugali-
idan gamoqceuli ebraelis, isaak abrabanelis (1432-1535)
ufrosi vaJi. h. u. fon balTazaris azriT, leonis wig-
nis warmatebam da gavlenam, Tavad fiCinos wignsac ki
gadaaWarba. cnobili kaTolike Teologi, frederik ko-
plstoni (1907-1994) ki am gavlenis sferos kidev ufro

- 28 -
afarToebs _ am gavlenas xedavs didi germaneli swav-
lulis (laTinurisa da berZnulis didostatis), iohanes
roixlinis (1455-1522) SromebSi. man Seitana germaniaSi
ebraulis swavleba. igi piko dela mirandolas ideebs
iziarebda, gatacebuli iyo neopiTagorelebis ricxvTa
mistikiT da kabaliT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom fiCino cdilobda platonizmis
Serigebas qristianul aristotelizmTan, magram ara ara-
bulTan. misi naSromis, `platonuri Teologiis~ XV wigni
eZRvneba `averoistuli urCxulis~ uaryofas. aq xazgas-
miTaa naxsenebi, rom averoesma berZnuli ar icoda da
amitom sulac ar esmoda aristoteles WeSmariti azri.
`urCxuli~ gonebis erTianobaze averoesis moZRvrebas
ewodeba. am TeoriiT neba arc erT pirovnebas ar miew-
ereba, auxsneli rCeba nebis da moqmedebis Tavisufleba.
fiCino astrologiasac ki iSveliebs sulTa erTobis
Teoriis uarsayofad. suli ar aris erTiani, radgan arse-
bobs saturnuli, marsianuli, iupiteruli da sxva sule-
bi. uariyofa gangebis averoistuli Teoriac.
fiCinos gavlena misi Tanamedrove folosofos-
ebiTa da TeologebiT ar Semoifargleboda. didi iyo
misi avtoriteti xelovnebaSic. fiCinos Semoqmedebis
Tanamedrove mkvlevari angela fosi werilSi „sferoTa
musika _ fiCino da renesansuli harmonia` sandro botiC-
elis (1445-1510) cnobili suraTis _ „primadona` _ ana-
liziT aCvenebs, rom botiCelis enigmaturi simboliz-
mis programa STagonebuli iyo neoplatonuri cnebebiT
Sesaqmis harmoniis Sesaxeb, romelic aisaxeboda rogorc
rva planetarul sferoze, aseve musikaluri oqtavis rva
tonze. misi mtkicebiT, botiCelis vizualuri metafora
sferoTa harmoniis Sesaxeb STagonebulia marsilio fiCi-
no florencieliT, romelmac scada gaeerTianebina ca da
miwa. amave aspeqtiT ixilavs botiCelis naxatebs verner
baiervaltesi narkvevSi „marsilio fiCinos Teoria mSve-

- 29 -
nierebaze platonizmis konteqstSi` (62,52). roca igi msj-
elobs platonis, plotinis da fiCinos ideebze miwieri da
zeciuri veneras mimarTebis Sesaxeb (Sesabamisad, miwier
da zeciur siyvarulze), aRniSnavs, rom misi ilustracia
iyo ticianis (1477-1576) Sedevri _ „wminda da miwieri si-
yvaruli`, romelic romSi, borgezes vilaSi kedelze iyo
daxatuli. didi mxatvari gadmoscems maT, rogorc erTi
principis orgvari gamovlenis formas. fiCino Tvlida,
rom ramdenadac adamianis suli midrekilia mSvenierebi-
saken da qmnis mSvenierebas, Tavad suls SeiZleba venera
ewodos. am azris pirvelwyarod miTiTebulia plotinis
VI „eneada`, sadac aRniSnulia, rom yoveli suli Tavad
aris afrodite, romelsac romaelebi veneras uwodeben.
Tavis moZRvrebas fiCino ayenebda, rogorc fi-
losofiur religias, romelmac unda gadaarCinos qris-
tianoba. miaCnda, rom neoplatonuri emanaciis Teoria
Tanxmobadia qriatianobasTan. RmerTi, amtkicebda igi,
erTjeradi aqtiT ki ar qmnis samyaros, aramed saTnoebiT,
gamosxivebis darad. samyaroSi adamianis specialuri ad-
gili imiTaa gansazRvruli, rom mas Semecnebis unari da
nebis Tavisufleba aqvs. emanaciis tradiciuli Teoriis
Tanaxmad, gamosxivebis daRmaval safexurebad fiCinosTan
miCneulia zeciuri inteligencia (goneba), adamianuri
suli, grZnobadi Tvisebriobani da materia. Semecnebis
gza qvemodan zemoT amodis. yoveli zemo safexuri ufro
wminda sarkea. materia absoluturad ganusazRvreli da
uZravia. grZnobad TvisebriobaSi materia ukve garkveul
formaSia mocemuli. adamianur sulSi ki koncentrirebu-
lia universumis yoveli Tvisebrioba. masSi umaRlesicaa
da umdablesic. amitom Tavisufali nebis mqone adami-
ans orive mxriv SeuZlia svla. Tu is nivTebSi RmerTs
Seiyvarebs, Semdeg RmerTSi nivTebis Seyvarebasac iswav-
lis. magram es gadawyvetileba TviT adamianma unda mi-
iRos.

- 30 -
es Semecnebis (rogorc Ziebis) procesia da mas ada-
mianis gansja warmarTavs. Semecnebis sagnis da misi kv-
levis mimarTulebis arCevisas is iRebs gadawyvetilebas.
Tu es gadawyvetileba sworia, adamiani amaRldeba gon-
ebamde, rogorc RmerTis xedvamde (visio). es Sedegi, amave
dros, RvTis wyalobaa, es imas niSnavs, rom es aucile-
beli procesi araa da mxolod Teoriul Semecnebaze (ro-
melic gansjis sferoa) rodia damokidebuli. amdenad,
fiCino ar daeTanxmeboda origenes (185-254) apokatas-
tisis (sabolood RmerTSi yoveli Seqmnilis Serigebis)
Teorias, romelic RmerTis sikeTidan gamomdinare ufro
logikuri iyo da ufro zneobrivic. mas eTanxmebodnen
grigol nazianzeli (daaxl. 330 _ daaxl. 390), grigol
noseli (daaxl. 335 _ daaxl. 394), ioane skoti eriugena
(810-877) da mravali sxva. fiCinosaTvis gansjis umaR-
lesi miRweva adamianis cnobierebis gonebis sferoSi
Seyvana, anu adamianis Semmecnebeli gonebis amoqmedebaa.
es sakiTxi Toma aqvinelsac ase esmoda da Tvlida, rom
Tu amqveynad ara, miRma samyaroSi mainc miaRwevs amas
adamiani. fiCino am azrs ar ewinaaRmdegeba, magram pla-
tonze damyarebiT fiqrobs, rom amqveynad Semmecnebel
gonebas cota vinme Tu flobs, gansja ki yvela adami-
ans aqvs (26,157). marTalia, RmerTisken svlis umaRlesi
safexuri `RvTaebriv uvicobaSi~ RmerTTan Serwymaa, ma-
gram es ar gamoricxavs amqveyniuri siamovnebis da si-
lamazis Rirebulebas. isini safexurebia misken, rogorc
absoluturi Rirebulebisaken. fiCinos surs SeaTanxmos
adamianis miwieri da RvTaebrivi daniSnulebani. orive
es aspeqti adamianis Tavisufali nebis gadawyvetile-
bas emyareba. im dros gavrcelebuli astrologiuri
moZRvrebis sapirispirod, fiCino Tvlis, rom adamianis
cxovrebis gza winaswar gansazRvruli ar aris varskvlav-
Ta mier. varskvlavebis Zala, amtkicebs fiCino, ver gad-
auRobavs adamians gzas RmerTisaken. adamianis Sesaxeb es

- 31 -
Sexedulebani ganaviTara fiCinos mowafem da megobarma
jovani piko dela mirandolam.
fiCinos italiuri renesansis pirvel xmas (tenors)
uwodebdnen. misi xma adreve axdenda zemoqmedebas sxva
qveynebSic. ungreTis mefem, matias I (1443-1490), humanizmis
damcvelma, sTxova fiCinos Tavis karze gadasvla. fiCino
florenciis gareT ar gadioda, magram gaugzavna Tavisi
mimdevari franCesko bandini (XV s.), romelic ramodenime
weli darCa am saintereso saxelmwifo moRvawis da moaz-
rovnis sasaxleSi.

2. jovani piko dela mirandola (1463-1494)

sakacobrio kulturis universaluri sinTezis idea,


romlis ganxorcielebasac florenciis platonuri aka-
demia isaxavda miznad, yvelaze masStaburad gamovlin-
da farTo ganaTlebis da interesebis mqone axalgaz-
rda graf mirandolasTan, romelic 21 wlisa Camovida
paduidan florenciaSi da fiCinos daemowafa. paduaSi
igi averoesis mimdevar ilia del medigosTan (1458-1493)
swavlobda da averoesis garkveuli zegavlena bolomde
SerCa. mas surda sakacobrio kulturis sxvadasxva sapir-
ispiro mimarTulebebSi da, amdenad, sqolastikaSic enaxa
dadebiTi momentebi.
piko dela mirandolas ZiriTad naSroms _ „adamia-
nis Rirsebis Sesaxeb` _ renesansis manifests uwodeben.
Tavisi xanmokle moRvaweobis pirvel periodSi, sanam fi-
Cinos ideebis erTguli rCeboda da sastik askets, savon-
arolas srulad ar daemorCileboda, mirandola amt-
kicebda, rom yvela adamiani Tavisufalia da Tavad qmnis
bunebas sakuTari TavisaTvis; is fiqrobda, rom yvela
kulturas Tavisi Seucvleli Rirebuleba aqvs. maTi sin-
Tezi SesaZlebelia da saWiro. es maT Soris mSvidobis
damyarebis safuZveli iqneba. igive azria gatarebuli mis

- 32 -
mier Sesaqmis interpretatiaSi, romelsac „heptaplusi`
(SviddRiuri) ewodeba. misTvis adamiani Tavisufalia sik-
eTisa da borotebas Soris arCevaSi. asarCevi ki Zalian
bevria, radgan adamiani sinTezia zeciuris, ciuris da
mTvarisqveSeTis. am komentarebSi vxvdebiT mirandolas-
Tan sityvas da cnebas „homonkulusi`, romelic SemdgomSi
Teofraste paracelsTan (1493-1541), iohan volfgang fon
goeTesTan (1749-1832) da sxvebTan did yuradRebas mi-
iqcevs. ramdenadac adamianSi yvelaferia, amdenad misi
srulyofilebis doneebs, saTanado mcdelobis pirobebSi,
sazRvari ara aqvs (TviT RmerTTan gatolebis CaTvliT).
ramdenadac yvela adamianis buneba aseTia, da adamians
evaleba arCevanis gakeTeba, amdenad yvela adamianma, da
ara mxolod rCeulma, unda icodes filosofia. sakuTari
SesaZleblobebis gaazrebis da gamoyenebis sxva saSuale-
ba, mirandolas azriT, adamians ara aqvs. am safuZvelze
amtkicebda mirandola, rom filosofiis gareSe adami-
ani adamiani araa. rac Seexeba magias, igi mas, iseve esmis,
rogorc fiCinos esmoda _ rogorc bunebismecnierebis
praqtikuli nawili.
Zveli da gavleniani didgvarovanis ojaxis Svilma,
jovani piko dela mirandolam, 14 wlisam miatova ojaxi.
mamis didi qonebidan Tavisi wili or Zmas dautova, raTa
srulad miscemoda mecnierul kvlevas. miznad saekle-
sio kariera hqonda da boloniis universitetSi wavida
samarTlis Sesaswavlad. magram male filosofiis da
Teologiis daufleba miiCnia ZiriTad saqmed. Svidi weli
swavlobda italiisa da safrangeTis cnobil univer-
sitetebSi. did niWTan erTad, enebis Seswavlis saocar
unars iyenebda da, renesansis saerTo miznis Tanaxmad,
xelmZRvanelobda principiT „wyaroebisaken!`. pirvelwy-
aroebisaken am swrafvam maSin bevri nayalbevi xelnaweris
Seqmna ganapiroba. isini advilad da did fasadac iyide-
boda. es epidemia mirandolasac Seexo. vinme TaRliTma

- 33 -
mas, TiTqosda winaswarmetyveli ezras (VI-V ss.) SekveTiT
gadawerili, ebrauli xelnawerebi mihyida. mirandola
bevrs moeloda maTi Seswavlidan. ezras saxelTan bibli-
aSi dakavSirebulia rogorc ebraelebis babilonis tyve-
obidan dabrunebis xelmZRvaneloba _ artarqserqse I (465-
424) davalebiT _ dangreuli taZris aRdgena da moses
wignebisaTvis (xuTwigneulis) dRevandeli saxis micema,
aseve, ebraelTaTvis sxva rjulis adamianTan qorwinebis
akrZalvac da sxva. mirandola Secdomas male mixvda.
SeiZleba amanac misca biZgi mis kritikul damokidebule-
bas maSin Zalze gavrcelebuli literaturuli humaniz-
mis pretenziebisadmi.
cnobili humanisti ermolao barbaro (1454-1493), ar-
istoteles mTargmneli, romelic mxolod berZnul kla-
sikas Tvlida pativiscemis Rirsad, sayvedurobda miran-
dolas, rom man, berZnuli da laTinuri enebis mcodnem,
waibilwa Tavi `barbarosebis kiTxviT~. ermolao bar-
barosebad Tvlida ara marto arabebs, aramed albert
dids (1193/1205-1280), Toma aqvinels da maT mimdevrebsac.
ermolao fiqrobda, rom is, rac maSin aristoteles sax-
eliT vrceldeboda, Tavad aristoteles rom enaxa, ver
icnobda, Tu visi dawerili iyo. neoplatonizmis Zlieri
nakadi Sua saukuneebis aristotelizSi, gansakuTrebiT
arabulSi, amgvari sayveduris sababs namdvilad iZleoda.
ermolao saeklesio aristokratias ekuTvnoda, pap ino-
kenti XIII (1655-1724) ndobiT iyo aRWurvili. mirandolas
cnobili sapasuxo werili damajereblad uCvenebs am ax-
algazrda moazrovnis poziciis maRal zneobriobas da
misi xedvis siRrmesac. sakacobrio kulturis erTianobis
saCveneblad dawera mirandolam Tavisi 900 Tezisi. Sua
saukuneebSi uyvardaT aristoteles debulebis moSveli-
eba imis Taobaze, rom axalgazrda SeiZleba iyos brZeni,
magram ara swavluli. ioane petriwic iyenebs am mosazre-
bas („vTqua Wabuki brZnad, aramed cnobilad arRa`). Tumca,

- 34 -
adamianis moqceva myar sazRvrebSi ar SeiZleba _ ramdena-
dac adamiani RvTis xati da msgavsia, e. i. aqvs goneba da
Tavisufali neba. axalgazrda mirandola brZenic iyo da
uzarmazari codnis mflobelic. es mis mowinaaRmdegeebs
borot ZalebTan kavSiris braldebis sababsac aZlevda.
sibrZnis da asakis mimarTeba, Cans, marto aristo-
teles, petriwsa da albert dids ar awuxebda. am aspeqtiT
aRorZinebis epoqaSi berZnuli miTologiis RmerTTa ier-
arqiasac gadaxedes. daisva kiTxva: ratomaa, rom RmerTTa
Soris yvelaze umcrosi (Wabuki) merkuri sibrZnis sim-
bolod iTvleba? sibrZne xom udidesia saTnoebaTa Soris?
(25,324).
ermolao barbarom mirandolas, paduidan floren-
ciaSi gadasvlis gamo, aristoteles RalatSi dasdo bra-
li. magram mirandolas paduis aristotelizmi ki ar ua-
ruyvia, aramed sakacobrio sibrZneSi misi WeSmariti ad-
gilis gaazreba surda. unda iTqvas, rom igi yvela puqtSi
damajereblad uaryofs ermolaos braldebebs da kul-
turis ganviTarebis progresul gzaze miuTiTebs. miran-
dola Tvlis, rom igi paduidan florenciaSi gadavida,
ara rogorc paduis moRalate, aramed, rogorc mzveravi.
mas undoda enaxa, ra safuZveli aqvs aristotelikosTa
da platonelTa mravalsaukunovan dapirispirebas da
rogoria is platoni, romelsac paduaSi aswavlian. misi
daskvna aseTi iyo: es dapirispireba, terminTa da sity-
vaTa gansxvavebul gagebas ufro emyareba, vidre am pozi-
ciaTa principul Sinaarss. „Serigebis Tavadma` miran-
dolam (ase uwodebdnen mas Tanamedroveebi) dainaxa, rom
florenciis akademiaSi namdvil aristoteles platonTan
araferi eqneboda sakamaTo. ermolao, _ werda mirandola
yofil Tanamoazres, _ me vnaxulob platonTan homerosis
stilis mSvenierebasac, romelic yoveldRiur metyvele-
baze maRla dgas da im azrebsac, romelic mas aristote-
lesTan anaTesaveben. roca am or moazrovnes vadarebT,

- 35 -
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom isini ramdenadac SeuTavsebeli
Canan sityvebis doneze, imdenadve arsebiT TanxmobaSi
arian erTmaneTTan. am werilis ganxilvisas, ar SeiZleba
xazi ar gaesvas axalgazrda brZenis mier maSindel ital-
iur humanizmidan gamomdinare usiamovno tendenciaze
miTiTebas. esaa humanistebis aristokratizmi, maTi gami-
jvna ubralo moqalaqeebisgan, romelTac zemodan uy-
urebdnen. es gamoixateboda maT mier azris gamoTqmis
formisaTvis, ase vTqvaT, filologiuri mxarisaTvis gan-
sakuTrebuli yuradRebis miniWebaSi _ SeiZleba iTqvas,
mis ganzrax garTulebaSi. mirandola fiqrobda, rom es
iyo Sinaarsis, azris damcireba. isini uaryofdnen azrs,
Tu is saTanado filologiur formaSi ar iyo moqceuli
da xelovnebis doneze ar iyo ayvanili. SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom es iyo erT-erTi gamoxatuleba SedgomSi cnobili
debulebisa „xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis`. warmoSobiT,
ganaTlebiT da rwmeniT aristokrati mirandola uaryof-
da ara marto kulturaTa daxarisxebas, aramed masisa da
inteligenciis dapirispirebasac. igi ar uaryofda az-
ris gadmocemis formis mniSvnelobas, magram TviTkmarad
mainc Sinaarsi miaCnda. maRali literaturuli formis
gareSe gamoTqmuli raime Sinaarsi, misi Rrma rwmeniT,
mainc garkveuli Rirebulebis Secvelia, magram Tu adami-
ani Sinaarss ar flobs, igi saerTod adamianic ar aris.
frangi mwerali da filosofosi, averoesisa da
averoizmis cnobili specialisti ernst renani (1823-1892)
mirandolas pozicias „brZnul ekleqtizms` uwodebda
(50,VIII,42). magram roca sapirispiro SexedulebaTagan
amorCevas (eklegos) safuZvlad Teoriulad da zneo-
brivad gamarTlebuli principi udevs, es ekleqtizmi ki
araa, aramed dapirispirebulTa Soris saerTo safuZvlis
danaxva, anu sinTezi. swored esaa „brZnuli ekleqtizmis`
logikuri Sinaarsi. mas udavod miaCnia, rom Tu adami-
ans gansakuTrebuli adgili aqvs samyaroSi, rac iudaiz-

- 36 -
mis da qristianobis moTxovnacaa, misi aucilebeli maxa-
siaTeblebi unda iyvnen azrovnebis da arCevanis sruli
Tavisufleba. adamians ufleba aqvs nebismier avtoritet-
Si SeeWvdes da sakuTari pozicia daicvas. es exeba TviT
eklesiis mamebis debulebebsac, romlebic savaldebulo
dogmebaTaa miCneuli.
rogorc ernst kasireri (1874-1945) samarTlianad
SeniSnavs, mTeli pativiscemis miuxedavad, mirandola,
arc platonisa da aristoteles gafetiSebis momxrea. mx-
olod es ori geniosi ar warmoadgens saerTod sakaco-
brio kulturas. mas arc saerTod antikuri filosofiisa
da kulturis gafetiSeba surs. misTvis srulyofili mTe-
li mxolod sakacobrio kulturas SeiZleba ewodos, ro-
melic ganuwyvetliv viTardeba, e. i. uaxlovdeba RmerTs.
rac mTavaria, yvela epoqas da yvela kulturas Tavisi
Seucvleli adgili da wona aqvs sakacobrio kulturaSi
(44,249). es exeba rasebs, enebs, kulturebs. SeiZleba iTq-
vas, rom mirandolam omi gamoucxada filologiuri kv-
leviT calmxriv gatacebas, romlis mixedviTac, Sinaarss
Rirebuleba mxolod maSin eqneba, Tu igi Sesabamisi sity-
vakazmuli xelovnebis kanonebs daicavs.
xazgasasmelia, rom mirandola platonsa da aristo-
teles Soris gansxvavebas ki ar uaryofs, aramed maT Soris
Seurigebel dapirispirebas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, maT
damoukidebeli mniSvnelobac ar eqnebodaT. es ki arsebi-
Tia mirandolasaTvis. ara mxolod es udidesi geniosebi,
aramed maTze mniSvnelovnad dabla mdgomni, Tundac mx-
olod maTi komentatorebi, mirandolas sakacobrio kul-
turisTvis saWirod miaCnia. isinic sakacobrio sibrZnis
raRac nawils warmoaCenen. igi asaxelebs ioane duns skots
(1265/66-1308), Toma aqvinels, avicenas (980-1037), al-far-
abis († 950) da sxvebs. Tavad origenec, Tavisi pelagian-
elobiT, romelic pap anastasius I (aRsaydr. 399) mier 399
wels eretikosad iqna gamocxadebuli (da romelsac mra-

- 37 -
vali iyenebda, magram miTiTebas ver bedavda), saWiroa
filosofiisa da kulturisaTvis; saWiroa, raTa adamia-
nis Tavisuflebis raoba gavigoT. mirandolas moswons
origenes azri, rom RmerTis sikeTesTan SeuTavsebelia
maradiuli sasjeli, rom ar SeiZleba sasrulo droSi
usasrulo sasjelis damsaxureba. adamianis raobis gas-
agebad, aucilebelia, rom mas codvaSi Cavardnis unarTan
erTad, codvis daZlevis maradiuli unaric hqondes. aq,
cxadia, mirandola pavle mociquls emyareba, romelic
xazs usvams adamianSi am ori sapirispiro SesaZlebobis
Tanarsebobas. isini aucilebelia adamianis mier sakuTari
Secdomis gacnobierebisa da sakuTari srulyofisaTvis,
rogorc RmerTisaken maradiuli svlis SesaZlebloba.
mirandolas azriT, adamianis Tavisufleba mdgo-
mareobs Semoqmedebis uwyvet procesSi, romelic war-
moadgens sakuTari Tavis Seqmnas da romelic arasdros
ar wydeba. igive SeiZleba iTqvas Jan pol sartrze (1905-
1980) da maqs Selerzec (1874-1928). garkveuli azriT,
maT SeiZleba sioren kirkegoric (1813-1855) mivaTvaloT.
kirkegoris mixedviTac, RmerTs adamianisaTvis ar miucia
arsebobis erTi romelime saxe. beRuras, cxens da a. S. yve-
las garkveuli saxe aqvs, romlis Secvla maT ar SeuZliaT
da, amdenad, misTvis pasuxismgebelni ar arian. amis gamo,
maT RmerTisadmi sayveduris uflebac aqvT. adamiani ki
Tavad irCevs Tavis adgils arsebulTa Soris da Tavis
moralur saxesac. mirandolas idealSi gaerTianebulia
antikurobis rwmena umaRlessa da srulyofilSi, anu
RmerTSi, rogorc uZravSi da ucvlelSi.
mirandolas damsaxureba ar SeiZleba daviyvanoT mx-
olod platonisa da aristoteles Serigebis cdaze.
es mcdeloba xom boeciusidan dawyebuli mraval
TeologTanaa aSkara. magaliTad, didi Turqi moazrovne
al-farabi, ioane petriwi da sxva, sakmaod naTlad anvi-
Tarebdnen am princips. koplstoni xazgasmiT aRniSnavs,

- 38 -
rom mirandola ar iyo arc ekleqtikosi, arc fanatikosi,
arc antiaristotelikosi. vinc amas akeTebs, koplstonis
azriT, maT aristotele ar waukiTxavs. arc mirandolas
moucia amis safuZveli. metic, mirandolas mtkicebiT,
aristotele WeSmaritebas gamoTqvams ufro naTlad, vi-
dre platoni. mirandola arc antisqolastikosi iyo. fi-
CinosTan erTad, igi aqvinels „Cveni Teologiis brwyin-
valebas` uwodebda. amgvari midgoma bunebrivia da misi
saerTo gegmidan gamomdinareobs. pikosagan gansxvavebiT,
Seurigebeli antiaristotelikosi iyo misi ZmisSvili,
jovani franCesko dela mirandola (1469-1533), romelic
aristoteles moZRvrebas qristianobasTan Seurigeblad
Tvlida. misi naSromia „amqveyniuri sibrZnis amaoebis
Sesaxeb`. igi savonarolas gavleniTaa dawerili da war-
moadgens aristoteles uaryofas platonis poziciebi-
dan. platonSi umcrosi mirandola amqveyniuri sibrZnis
ususurobis damsabuTebels xedavda.
mirandola 24 wlisa iyo, roca SesaZleblad CaTvala
sakuTari sinkretuli sistema farTo msjelobis sagnad
eqcia. florenciis gamgebeli mediCebis megobarma miran-
dolam gadawyvita Tavisi gavlena da qoneba TeologTa da
filosofosTa msoflio kongresis mosawvevad gamoeyene-
bina. igi iwvevda yvela misTvis cnobil moazrovnes, xar-
jebs ki Tavad kisrulobda. kongresis Tema unda yofil-
iyo adamianuri codnis erTianobis da misi perspeqtivis
problema. mirandolam sapaeqrod wamoayena 900 Tezisi,
romelTac aerTianebda saTauri `yovelgvari Semecnebis
Sesaxeb~. romis papi jer Tanaxma iyo am ideis, Semdeg
ki, mirandolas mowinaaRmdegeTa waqezebiT, aRniSnuli
Tezisebis Sesamowmeblad komisia gamohyo, romelmac 13
Tezisi eretikulad scno; magram mirandola ar daeTanxma
komisias da Tavisi Tezisebis dacva daiwyo. amas Sedegad
is mohyva, rom yvela Tezisi eretikulad iqna gamocxade-
buli da kongresi aikrZala. am gamocdisaTvis kidevac

- 39 -
rom gaeZlo, kongresis ideas sxva gadaulaxavi siZnelee-
bi daxvdeboda. amgvari yovlismomcvleli Semwynareb­
lobis gansaxorcieleblad maSindeli epoqa mzad ar iyo.
Tezisebis eretikulad cnobis Semdeg, mirandolas dap-
atimreba eloda. man gadawyvita safrangeTSi gascloda
romis inkvizicias, magram gzaSi daapatimres. patimrobi-
dan igi ixsna lorenco mediCim, romelmac daarwmuna papi,
rom mirandolas Tezisebi arcTu ise saSiSi iyo eklesii-
saTvis da Tavad misi pirovnebac imsaxurebda pativisce-
mas.
mirandolas 900 Tezisidan 55 proklesagan iyo aRe-
buli. am TezisebSi, iseve, rogorc naSromSi „Tormeti
wigni astrologTa winaaRmdeg~, uaryofili iyo mnaTobTa
zemoqmedeba adamianis bedze, magram misaRebad iTvlebo-
da magia, rogorc moZRvreba adamianis bunebaze aqtiuri
zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb. magias mirandola, iseve, rogorc
fiCino, amyarebda nivTebsa da bunebis Zalebis sayovel-
Tao simpaTiis kanonze. astrologiis uaryofaSi miran-
dola ulrix cvinglisa (1484-1531) da iohan kepleris
(1571-1630) winamorbedad iTvleba.
mirandolasaTvis Semecnebis safexurebi gamoxataven
ontologiur ierarqias. zeerTi, zearsi da zekeTili
_ RmerTis Semecnebis safexurebi _ gamoricxaven mis-
gan yovelive sxeulebrivsa da arasrulyofils, meore
safexurze RmerTis srulyofileba Seimecneba, rogorc
absoluturad erTaderTi realoba, romelic arafers
ar hgavs. mesame safexurze am erTaderTis zearsobas
da zekeTilobas gavigebT. amiT SevdivarT RvTaebrivi
sinaTlidan RvTaebriv sibneleSi. rodesac am sinaT-
lis Seumecnebadobas da gamouTqmelobas SevignebT, av-
maRldebiT umaRles meoTxe safexurze _ veziarebiT ar-
codnis codnas. is, rac konkretul saganTa Semecnebis
TvalsazrisiT sinaTlea, RmerTis sakuTrivi arsebis
Sesamecneblad sibnelea da arcodnaa. RmerTis am done-

- 40 -
ze Semecneba amqveyniuri netarebaa. xazgasasmelia is,
rom misTvis sakmarisi araa Semecnebis bunebrivi msvl-
eloba. es erTaderTi punqti rodia, sadac mirandola
Teologias uTmobs. filosofias da saRvTo werils igi
RmerTis sxvadasxvagvar gamovlinebad Tvlida _ maTi
Tanxmoba saeWvod ar miaCnda. Tavisi axleburi moZRvreba
adamianis Sesaxeb mirandolas, iseve, rogorc kuzanels,
SeeZlo saRvTo werilze miTiTebiT daecva, sadac adamia-
nis mier TviT angelosTa gankiTxvazea laparaki (korin-
TelTa, 1.6.3).
`sityva adamianis Rirsebis Sesaxeb~ mirandolam mis
mier dagegmili sayovelTao disputisaTvis dawera.
aq saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom adamiani mikrokosmosia,
rom masSi aris rogorc miwieri (cxoveluri), aseve
RvTaebrivi. arc erTi es elementi masSi gabatonebuli
ar aris. RmerTma mas Tavisufali neba mianiWa da Tavad
adamianzea damokidebuli Tavdapirveli gaurkveveli
mdgomareobidan cxovelamde daeSveba, Tu RmerTamde
amaRldeba. amdenad, adamiani Tavadaa sakuTari Tavis
Semoqmedi. es aRorZinebis azrovnebis erT-erTi umniS-
vnelovanesi monapovaria. misi safuZveli neoplatonizmis
panTeisturi tendenciebia. es tendenciebi naTlad Cans
mirandolas naSromSi _ `arsisa da erTis Sesaxeb~. aq igi,
kuzanelis kvalad, aigivebs RmerTs da srulyofilebas
samyaroSi, ise rom, sagani aRebuli mis srulyofilebaSi
(rusTvelis (XII s.) sityvebiT _ „maT savsebaSi~) RmerTia.
is, rac gansxvavebulia RmerTisagan, samyaroSi iwvevs
dapirispirebas da brZolas _ rac, mirandolas azriT,
negatiuri rodia. herakliteze (daaxl. 544 _ daaxl. 483)
da empedokleze (daaxl. 490-430) damyarebiT, igi amt-
kicebs, rom amqveyniuri silamaze mxolod am gziT war-
moiSveba. silamaze megobruli mtroba da Tanxmobadi
ganxeTqilebaa. RmerTis Zalis gamovlineba isaa, rom
ganxeTqilebas mudam sWarbobs Tanxmoba, xolo dapiri-

- 41 -
spirebas erTianoba. mirandolas am mosazrebebma didi
gavlena iqonies jordano brunos (1548-1600) panTeizmis
Camoyalibebis procesSi. rac Seexeba mirandolas pozi-
cias religiaTa Tanxmobisa da Semwynareblobis Sesaxeb,
igi 100 wlis Semdeg gamoiyena frangma moazrovne Jan
bodenma (1530-1596), xolo ufro gvian _ gothold efraim
lesingma (1729-1781) „naTan brZenSi~.
yovlismomcveli ekleqtikuri sinTezi, miuxedavad
mravali sayuradRebo principisa, rogorc Cans, misi av-
torisaTvisac ar iyo mTlad damajerebeli. 1490 wels igi
eqceva cnobili fanatikosis savonarolas gavlenis qveS.
mirandolas xelSewyobiT Cavida savonarola florenci-
aSi, romelic, rogorc amboben, male aaforiaqa da 1492
wlidan faqtiurad savsebiT daimorCila. savonarola
moiTxovda axal morals, uaryofda fufunebas da saero
xelovnebas. misi waqezebiT dawves petrarkas nawarmoebebi
da daangries xelovnebis mravali Zegli. misi moTxovne-
bi TandaTan autaneli gaxda rogorc papisaTvis, aseve
ubralo xalxisaTvisac, romelsac igi ZiriTadad eyrd-
noboda. savonarola 1498 wels koconze dawves. filoso-
fiis cnobili istorikosi karl forlenderi (1860-1928)
mirandolas humanizmis ideebis moRalated Tvlis savon-
arolas mxardaWerisaTvis. magram momavlisaken mimavali
gzis maZiebelma mirandolam, albaT, borjaTa aRviraxs-
nili fufunebiT da garyvnilebiT gulgatexilma, aseve
sakuTari mecnieruli kvlevis SedegebSi SeeWvebulma,
didi yoymanis Semdeg, savonarolas mier wamoyenebuli
rigoristuli principi airCia.
isic unda iTqvas, rom mirandola arc sakuTari
cxovrebaSi gamoirCeoda didi zneobriobiT. savonaro-
las gavleniT, mirandola wvavs axalgazrdobaSi dawer-
il satrfialo leqsebs, sasiyvarulo werilebs, inaniebs
codvebs (erTxel, axalgazrda qali cxenze Semoisva da
gaitaca. roca mdevrebi wamoewivnen, brZola gaumarTa. man

- 42 -
da misma mxleblebma Tvrameti kaci mokles). mirandola
umcrosi igonebda, rom igi xSirad xedavda am periodSi
biZamiss, Tu rogor iSoltavda igi sakuTar Tavs, mas ki
xSirad urCevda gamudmebiT ekiTxa biblia. Tavad bibliis
ganmartebebs mihyo xeli. mis codvaTa Soris SeiZleba
movixsenioT misi intimuri kavSiri fiCinos meore gamo-
Cenil mowafesTan, SesaniSnav filologTan, karg poetTan
(romelsac bokaCos da ludoviko ariostos (1474-1533)
gverdiT moixseniebdnen), lorenco mediCis Svilebis aR-
mzrdelTan, policianosTan.
renesansis mesveurebs Soris es ar iyo erTeu-
li movlena. adamianis pretenzia titanobaze da srul
Tavisuflebaze, saxifaTo principia. mravali maTgani
acnobierebs, rom titani RmerTTan brZolaSi yovelT-
vis marcxdeba. Tumca aRiarebiT, yvela ar aRiarebs amas
(mag., nikolo makiaveli (1469-1527), romelic adamianis
codvilianobisaTvis Tvalis gasworebas cdilobs da
RirebulebaTa sazomad mxolod saxelmwifos keTil-
dReoba miiCnia). mirandolas bedSi, titanizmis, rogorc
msoflmxedvelobis, mcdarobis gacnobierebas vxedavT.
asevea misi Zlevamosili megobris, lorenco mediCis bed-
Sic. gadmocemiT lorenco brwyinvalem (1449-1492) sikvdi-
lis win miiwvia savonarola da codvaTa miteveba sTxova.
savonarolam sami piroba wauyena amisaTvis: I. monanieba,
rogorc religiuri piroba; II. codvis gziT SeZenil qone-
baze uaris Tqma; III. uaris Tqma florenciis mmarTveloba-
ze da demokratiuli mmarTvelobis daSveba, rac niSnavda
savonarolasTvis Zalauflebis oficialurad gadace-
mas. amaze, rogorc politikur moTxovnaze, lorenco ar
daTanxmda. savonarolam ar gaaTavisufla igi codvaTa-
gan (30,78). savonarolam qalaqi masebze damyarebiT aiRo.
florenciaSi respublikis damyareba ZiriTadad am faqt-
ma ganapiroba. magram axalma mmarTvelobam verc wesrigi
daamyara, verc zneoba gaaumjobesa da verc meurneobas

- 43 -
gaugo rame. xalxi mas gadaudga. 1498 wels masebs aravi-
Tari winaaRmdegoba ar gauweviaT, roca savonarola papis
brZanebiT CamoaxrCves. aRorZinebas italiaSi, am periodi-
saTvis, sul raRac ocdaaTi wlis istoria hqonda, magram
ukve naTlad gamoCnda misi sidiadec da naklovanebanic.
Teoriul doneze is yvelafris gaerTianebas, yvelaferSi
sikeTis danaxvas cdilobda. magram Teoriuli debule-
bebi praqtikaSi SesaZlebel, magram gauTvaliswinebel
da arasasurvel gamovlenas hpovebdnen. georg vilhelm
fridrix hegeli (1770-1831) amtkicebda, rom yvela sityva
Tavisi bunebiT zogadia. igi amaSi sityvis, rogorc adam-
ianTa racionaluri komunikaciis saSualebas gulisxmob-
da da amas sityvis RvTaebriv bunebas uwodebda. magram
saerTod istoriam da, gansakuTrebiT aRorZinebisam,
gviCvena aqedan gamomdinare siZneleebi. sityvis zogadma
bunebam misca saSualeba humanistebs qristianobis epi-
kuresTan (342/341-271/270) Serigebis SesaZlebloba da
saWiroeba daesabuTebinaT. aRorZinebis dawyebamde karga
xniT adre, lorenco valam (1407-1457), romis papis mdi-
vanma, am ideis mxardasaWerad, gamoaqveyna traqtati „sia-
movneba, rogorc WeSmariti sikeTe` (1531). magram, Tu epi-
kure siamovnebiT da kmayofilebiT cxovrebisTvis, saTno
da zneobrivi arsebobisaTvis yvelsa da purs savsebiT
sakmarisad miiCnevda, vala amtkicebs, rom siamovnebiT da
komfortulad cxovreba sulac ar ewinaaRmdegeba qris-
tianobas; piriqiT, igi didi siqvelea. metic, komfor-
tulad cxovreba bunebrivia da amitom RvTaebrivicaa
(valasTvis, RmerTi igivea, rac buneba). aravis eeWveba,
rom bunebrivi da gamarTlebulia TviTSenaxvis survili
adamianis mier da siamovneba TviTSenaxvis saukeTeso sa-
Sualebaa. saqme isaa, rom uzneo siamovneba lorenco va-
lasaTvis ar arsebobs. magram es debuleba xom WeSmariti
morwmunis TviTgvemasTan erTad, sastik inkvizitorsac,
borjebisa da mediCebis warmomadgenlebis siamovnebebsac

- 44 -
amarTlebs? uazrobaa adamians umtkico, rac Sen gsia-
movnebs, is sinamdvileSi siamovneba ar aris, Tu saxelmwi-
foSi amis samarTlebrivi sazRvrebi araa dadgenili. piko
dela mirandolam siamovnebis orive gagebis Sedegebi ga-
moscada. mainc ver darwmunda Tavisi arCevanis sisworeSi.
am axalgazrda genioss rom dascloda, Tavisi filoso-
fiis ZiriTadi principis (adamiani mudam Tavisufalia da
mudam SeuZlia airCios) Tanaxmad, cxovrebis sazrisis ax-
ali SesaZleblobebis Ziebas ganagrZobda, e. i. maradiuli
wrebrunvis gzas gaagrZelebda.
rogorc kasireri aRniSnavs, savonarolas arc erTi
adamianis sulisaTvis ar ubrZolia ise sijiutiT, mondo-
mebiT da vnebiT, rogorc mirandolas sulisaTvis da am
brZolaSi mas darCa gamarjveba (16,71). jovani piko dela
mirandolas bedi italiaSi renesansuli kulturis pirve-
li didi tragediaa.
qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis saintereso iqneba imis
aRniSvna, rom mirandolas memkvidreobis umniSvnelova-
nesi da saerTo-sakacobrio Rirebulebis Sinaarsi ilia
WavWavaZem (1837-1907), 1888 wels, `iveriaSi~ kargad gaacno
Tavis mkiTxvels. ganixilavda ra aRorZinebis epoqas, ilia
werda: `am saukunem axali TvaliT miaxeda kacobrioba ada-
mianis Rirsebazed da imis arsebobis saganzeda. humaniz-
mis moZRvreba imaSi mdgomareobso, ambobs erTi mwerali,
rom adamiani Sehxarodes cxovrebas, elinebr sixarulis
TvaliT uyurebdes, imaSi mdgomareobs, rom kacis ada-
mianuri Rirseba Rrmad pativcemuli iyos da ara-nakleb
Rrmadve Canerguli rwmena gvqondes, rom yoveli Rone
da niWi adamianis bunebisa aucileblad saWiroa ganviTa-
rebul da warmatebul iqnas erTianad da gamouklebliv.
es pativiscema adamianis Rirsebisa daiwera Tavis dro-
Sazed humanobis moZRvrebam da es moZRvreba garkveviT
gamoTqva maSin erTma italielma humanistma pikodela mi-
randolam 1486 welsa. am pikos sityviT, ai ras ubrZanebs

- 45 -
RmerTi pirvels kacs adamsa: «me SenTvis, adamo, aravi-
Tari samudamo bina da sadguri ar momicia, araviTari
samudamod ucvalebeli saqme ar amiCenia es imisTvis, rom
saca Sen giamos iq icxovro, rac gindodes is saqme ai-
Cino. me Sen arc sasikvdilod gamiCenixar, arc ukvdavad
daminiSvnixar. es imitom, rom Sen TviTon iyo Senis Tavis
mkeTebeli da iseTi saxe miiRo, rogoric Sen TiTona
gsurs. Sen SegiZlian pirutyvamdinac Zirs Camoxvide da
angelozamdinac ze axvide.»
kacma rom Caixedos am striqonebSi, da masTan unaric
hqondes gamosarkvevi gamoarkvios da dasanaxi dainaxos,
CvenTan erTad ityvis, rom amazed martivad da amazed
naTlad Znelia kacma gamoTqvas-Ra, rogorc arsebobis
sagani, isec adamianis Rirseba~.

3. nikolo makiaveli (1469-1527) da misi antiutopia

Sua saukuneebis wiaRSi didxans mwifdeboda axali


msoflmxedveloba. es procesi gamoixata paduis univer-
sitetSi gabatonebul aristotelizmSi, aseve pleTonis
da misi mowafeebis mcdelobaSi platonis safuZvelze
berZnuli miTologiis aRorZinebisa, kuzanelis mier „gan-
swavluli arcodnis` da „dapirispirebulTa erTianobis`,
aseve usasrulobis kategoriis axlebur gagebaSi, maTema-
tikis gamoyenebiT, humanizmis gabatonebaSi evropul
kulturaSi (gansakuTrebiT, italieli filologebis wya-
lobiT). yvelafer amas daemata saerTod qristianuli sa-
myaros didi kraxi _ konstantinepolis aReba TurqeTis
sulTan mahmud II mier 1453 wels. muslimanur samyaroSi
es aRqmuli iqna, rogorc 1099 wels jvarosnebis mier
ierusalimis aRebis sapasuxo qmedeba. Tanac am aqtis
ideologiur gamarTlebasac Seecadnen, TiTqos TurqTa
tomebma sakuTari, Zveli berZnebis mier mitacebuli sam-
Soblo daibrunes. erT-erT sabuTad homerosis (XII s.-dan

- 46 -
VII s.-mde Zv. w.) „iliadazec` miuTiTebdnen. italiisa da
xmelTaSua zRvis sxva saxelmwifoebi savaWro gzebze gab-
atonebis uSualo mogebiT dabrmavebulni, bizantiis dax-
marebis magier, xelsac uwyobdnen am katastrofas.
mas Semdeg, rac aRorZinebam, rogorc axali da ufro
maRali Rirebulebis epoqis momzadebis da dasawyisis
saxeli daisakuTra kacobriobis kulturaSi, sxvadasxva
regionul kulturaSi istoriulad ganxorcielebulma
siaxleebma met-naklebad dasabuTebuli pretenzia ga-
nacxades am Rirsebaze.
rogorc cnobilia, bizantiis kulturaSi xuT rene-
sanss asaxeleben. Salva nucubiZis aRmosavluri rene-
sansis gamoZaxilis saxiT wamoayenes somxur, azer-
baijanul, rusul da Cinur renesansTa Teoriebi. am
Ziebebisas mravali mniSvnelovani istoriul-kulturu-
li viTareba gairkva, riTac renesansis Rirebuleba,
misi Sinaganoba sakacobrio kulturisaTvis ufro naT-
lad gamoikveTa.
renesansis cnebis Sesatyvisi realobebis Ziebisas, ro-
gorc wesi, florenciis platonur akademias mimarTaven.
marsilio fiCinos mier platonis sxva SromebTan erTad,
„saxelmwifos` laTinuri Targmani, utopiuri saxelmwi-
fos Teoriebis [Tomas mori (1478-1535), tomazo kampanela
(1568-1639) da sxva] garda, saxelmwifos antiutopiuri
Teoriebis Seqmnis stimuladac iqca. ase daiwyo axali,
ase vTqvaT, Seulamazebeli realobis analizis filoso-
fia. am axali politikis filosofiis mamamTavari iyo ma-
Sindeli italiis cnobili saxelmwifo moRvawe, mwerali
da istorikosi nikolo makiaveli. misi ZiriTadi Sromebia:
„mTavari` (daiwera 1513 w., gamoica _ 1532 w.), „ganazre-
bani` (1527), „omis xelovneba` (1519/1520), „florenciis
istoria` (8 wignad. 1520-1525 ww.), „dialogi enis Sesaxeb`
(1514), komedia „mandragora` (1518) da sxva.
misi cxovrebis pirveli naxevari Zalze saintereso,

- 47 -
magram, amave dros, qveynisaTvis tragikuli movlenebiT
aRiniSna. makiaveli, mediCebis gvaris batonobisas, opozi-
cionerTa rigebSi iyo da raime saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis
imedi arc hqonia. kidev ufro damZimda misTvis, da saer-
Tod italiisaTvis, viTareba, roca 1594 wels, mediCebis
gandevnis Semdeg, florencias daepatrona adgilobri-
vi dominikelTa monastris winamZRvari, sastiki aske-
ti savonarola. igi erTnairi SeurigeblobiT ebrZoda,
rogorc mediCebs, ise romis paps. orives amqveyniuri
RirebulebebiT da fufunebiT gatacebaSi sdebda brals,
raSic savsebiT marTali iyo, magram Tavad misma fana-
tizmmac didi ubedureba moutana qveyanas. man rigi mniS-
vnelovani xelovnebis nawarmoebi sajarod daawvevina. ise-
Ti atmosfero Seqmna, rom TviT botiCeli da miqelanjelo
buonaroti (1475-1564) cdilobdnen, maT qmnilebebSi ufro
gamokveTili yofiliyo religiuri suli. savonarola kat-
egoriulad moiTxovda eklesiis reformas da pirvandeli
qristianobis idealebiT cxovrebas. misi gaZleba male arc
sasuliero da arc saero xelisuflebas ar SeeZlo. xalxis
farTo masebsac, romlebic Tavdapirvelad upirobod uW-
erdnen mas mxars da gaabatones kidec, aRar moswondaT
misi gaumarTlebeli sisatike da radikalizmi. sxva saSinel
RonisZiebaTa Soris man SemoiRo mosaxleobis kontrolis
axali saxe: bavSvebs aiZulebda jaSuSobas mSoblebis zneo-
bis Taobaze. es meTodi mogvianebiT Jan kalvinma (1509-1564)
gamoiyena JenevaSi. 1597 wels savonarola rom neoplaton-
ikosebs akritikebda, marto ZagebiT ar kmayofildeboda.
Tavis traqtatSi „mecnierebaTa nawilebi da maTi Rirseba`
(gamoica 1534 w.) igi miuTiTebda, rom viTomc platonis
erTguli filosofosebi, politikosebi da xelovanni ar
aqceven yuradRebas platonis aSkara uaryofiT damokide-
bulebas sagmiro da erotikuli xelovnebisadmi. platoni
xom Tavad homerosis gaZevebasac moiTxovda Tavisi ideal-
uri saxelmwifodan.

- 48 -
savonarola eklesiidan gankveTes, papi aleqsandre
borjas (1431-1503) mcdelobiT. erTi wlis Semdeg ki
sikvdiliT dasajes. amave 1498 wels makiavelis SesTavazes,
mniSvnelovani Tanamdeboba mTavrobaSi (e. w. aTTa kole-
giis mdivnoba). igi florenciis saSinao, sagareo da sao-
mari viTarebebis kuratori iyo. am mniSvnelovan postze
man didi praqtikuli gamocdileba SeiZina. rogorc Cans,
igi erTguli respublikeli iyo da respublikis dace-
mis Semdeg, roca mediCebma dabruneba SesZles, makiavelim
Tavisi posti dakarga. es iyo 1512 wels; igi gadaasaxles
sakuTar mamulSi. erTi wlis Semdeg daamTavra man Tavisi
cxovrebis umniSvnelovanesi saqme _ dawera „mTavari`. ma-
kiavelim igi miuZRvna lorenco brwyinvales SviliSvils,
lorenco mediCis, rogorc patiebis Taviseburi Txovna
da misi mzadyofna samsaxurisaTvis. axalgazrda mediCis
es wigni ar waukiTxavs da arc misi avtorisadmi gamouCe-
nia raime yuradReba.
es saerTod didi dapirispirebebis periodi iyo. ara
marto Zvelsa da axals Soris, aramed axlisaTvis mebrZol-
Ta Sorisac: erazm roterdamelsa (1466-1536) da martin
luTers (1483-1546), Tomas morsa da henri VIII (1491-1547),
luTersa da sebastian franks (1499-1542), savonarolasa
da mediCebs, saerTod, internacionalizmsa da naciona-
lizms Soris.
makiavelim Tavisi Teoriis miznad daisaxa realur
saxelmwifoSi moqmedi konkretuli adamianebis namdvili
miznebisa da SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT moenaxa
qmediTi gza Zlieri saxelmwifos Sesaqmnelad. erT rai-
meSi igi savsebiT eTanxmeboda platons: saxelmwifos in-
teresebs pirovnebis interesebTan mimarTebaSi sruli
upiratesoba aqvs. imaSic eTanxmeboda, rom adamiani sax-
elmwifos gareSe ver icxovrebs adamianurad. es ki niSnavs
icxovro sxva adamianebis gverdiT da mainc SeinarCuno
sakuTari pirovnuloba, SegeZlos sakuTari interesebis

- 49 -
raRacnairi ganxorcieleba. rac Seexeba pirovnebis nam-
dvil mamoZravebels, amaSi makiaveli platonisagan prin-
cipulad gansxvavebul poziciaze idga. misTvis ueWveli
iyo, rom pirovnebis da istoriis mamoZravebeli Zala
aris sakuTrebis SeZena da SeZenilis dacva da gadideba.
platonisaTvis adamianuri arseboba niSnavda zneobriv
arsebobas. makiaveli ki darwmunebuli iyo, rom saxelmwi-
fos interesebi, principulad ufro maRla dganan, vidre
Tundac zneoba, tradicia Tu religia. xolo imas, Tu
rogoria es interesebi, amis gansazRvris sruli ufleba
aqvs saxelmwifos meTaurs. mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, Tu
ra gziT moxvdeba igi saxelmwifos saTaveSi. makiavelis
ar awuxebs ara marto saxelmwifos meTauris zneobri-
vi saxe, aramed arc misi mimarTeba moqmed samarTalTan.
arc maTi sisastike da garyvnileba awuxebs. Tumca Zalian
kargad icis, ra aris kargi da ra cudi. piradadac ar
iyo midrekili cudisa da sisastikisaken. igi darwmuneb-
uli iyo, rom eqimiviT iqceva, romelic mxolod imas ad-
gens, Tu ra gaaZlierebs mis pacients (saxelmwifos). igi
rCevasac aZlevs garewars, Tu rogor gamoiyenos sisatike
Zalauflebis SesanarCuneblad. „rogor iyeneben sisatikes
_ avad Tu kargad? (Tuki borotebis mimarT SeiZleba iTq-
vas _ „kargado`) _ maSin roca erTxel mimarTaven mas, ro-
gorc Tavdacvis aucilebel saSualebas, Semdeg ki, xels
iReben masze da mxolod imas cdiloben, rac SeiZleba
meti sargebloba moutanon Tavis qveSemdgomT. avad iy-
eneben maSin, roca Tavdapirvelad mxolod nawilobriv
avlenen sisastikes, Semdeg ki, droTa ganmavlobaSi,
TandaTan zrdian... aqedan gamomdinare, ama Tu im saxelm-
wifos xelSi Cagdebisas dampyrobelma erTbaSad, erTi
dakvriT, unda gamoiCinos mTeli sisastike, raTa Semdeg
yoveldRiurad ar dasWirdes misi gamoyeneba da amrigad
SesZlos xalxis daSoSmineba da qvelmoqmedebis wyalobiT
misi gulis mogeba`. makiavelis rCevani exeba daqirave-

- 50 -
buli jaris da maTi meTaurebis (kondotiorebis) mor-
CilebaSi yolas, rTul situaciebSi umciresi borotebis
amorCevas, kariskacebis gonebrivi unarebis mixedviT ar-
Cevas, pirmoTneTa gamocnobas da sxvas (30,I,194-5).
rogorc yvela mniSvnelovan moazrovnes, makiaveli-
sac hyavda winamorbedebi da mimdevrebi. aseTebi mrava-
lia, magram evropuli azrovnebis istoriaSi misi adgi-
lis gamosakveTad, upriania or moazrovneze miTiTeba:
warsulidan aseTia platoni, momdevno periodis moaz-
rovneTagan _ fridrix nicSe (1844-1900).
platonis „saxelmwifos` I da II wignebSi samarTliano-
bis sakiTxia ganxiluli. rogorc platonis dialogTa
umravlesobaSi, aqac platonis pozicias sokrate gad-
moscems. igi amtkicebs, rom samarTlianoba, rogorc
sikeTe, TavisTavadi Rirebulebaa da sjobs usamarTlod
daisajo, vodre sxvis mimarT usamarTlod moiqce. so-
fisti Trazimaxe (daaxl. 459-400) ki umtkicebs sokrates,
rom samarTliania is, rac ZlierisaTvisaa sasargeblo
(„saxelmwifo`, 243 d). sokrate advilad uCvenebs, rom
Trazimaxes ar esmis, Tu ras niSnavs Zlieri, rogorc ase-
Ti. man arc is icis, raa es samarTlianoba, aris Tu ara igi
sikeTe. magaliTad, krivSi gamarjvebuli, cxadia, Zlieria
da misTvis sasargebloa saqonlis xorcis Wama. aris es
samarTlianoba anda sikeTe? sofisti xedavs siZneles, ma-
gram ukan ar ixevs, sokrate mainc aiZulebs es aRiaros.
makiaveli ki cdilobs daamtkicos, rom cxadia, kargia,
roca adamiani Sinaganad zneobrivia, magram Tu es zneo-
brioba konkretul viTarebaSi saxelmwifos interesebs
ewinaaRmdegeba, mis Rirebulebas mniSvneloba ara aqvs.
nebismieri usamarTloba da mzakvroba gamarTlebulia.
xolo im sakiTxs, marTla ewinaaRmdegeba es saxelmwifos
interesebs Tu ara, gadawyvets saxelmwifos meTauri.
Tavad saxelmwifos SesaZlebel formebs Soris maki-
avelis umjobesad demokratiuli respublika miaCnia, ma-

- 51 -
gram mis aucileblobas ar icavs. makiavelis ar awuxebda
arc udanaSaulobis da arc, miT umetes, moralurobis
prezumfcia. igi realisti iyo da gamodioda ara iqidan,
Tu rogor unda moiqcnen adamianebi, aramed iqidan, Tu
rogor iqcevian isini da ra miznebi aqvT maT sinamdvile-
Si, miuxedavad imisa, Tu ras acxadeben Tavis miznad. zogi
mkvlevris azriT, makiavelis „mTavarisaTvis` SeiZleboda
gvewodebina: „rogor unda gaxde diqtatori da SeinarCuno
es mdgomareoba.`
saxelmwifos raobis principebis dasdgenad, makiave-
li cdilobda, bunebismetyvelTaTvis miebaZa, e. i. mx-
olod garegani gamocdilebis monacemebs damyareboda,
am faqtebis analiziT daedgina wesebi. iseve, rogorc
maTi saerTo aucilebloba, maTi ucvleli kanoni. ro-
gorc, magaliTad, Semdeg galileim dakvirvebis monace-
mebis ganzogadebiT daadgina materiis mudmivobis kanoni.
Tumca gamocdilebis monacemebi vercerT SemTxvevaSi ver
iqneba kanonis sayovelTaobis garantia, makiaveli mainc
imedovnebda, rom ueWveli da uryevi kanonebi daadgina
adamianis da misi sazogadoebis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, is,
rom yoveli cocxali ibadeba, viTardeba da kvdeba. miuxe-
davad adamianisaTvis am debulebis mTeli ueWvelobisa,
Cven mis sayovelTaobasa da aucileblobas verasgziT ver
davasabuTebT. igi maRali donis hipoTezaa, romlis sab-
oloo safuZveli mainc Cveni rwmenaa. aseve saalbaTo daS-
vebaa makiavelis meore principi: adamianis buneba yvelgan
da yovelTvis erTi da igivea. maT yvela epoqaSi erTnairi
miznebi da vnebani amoZraveben. amitom gasuli sazoga-
doebebis gamocdilebis gamoyeneba samarTliania da sa-
sargeblo. makiavelim, marTlac, kargad gamoiyena, mis
mier Zveli romis imperiis istoriis analizi. igi emyare-
boda titus liviusis (daaxl. Zv. w. 59 _ ax. w. 17) 142 wigni-
ani „romis istoriis` SemorCenili nawilebidan pirveli 10
wignis analizs. kidev erTi debuleba, romelic makiavelis

- 52 -
wamowyebuli saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovania da garkveuli
garantiaa misi daskvnebis qmediTobisaTvis: yoveli real-
uri adamiani kargicaa da cudic, magram adamianis qcevebi-
dan misi politikuri orientaciis gasagebad, umjobesia,
isini miviCnioT TavisTavad cudebad. am mizniT, makiaveli
dabejiTebiT amtkicebs, rom „adamianebi mzakvrebi arian
da Tu ar aiZuleb, rom iyvnen keTilni, isini aucile-
blad borotebad iqcevian`. amgvari iZulebis saSualebas
mxolod saxelmwifo iZleva.
rogorc aRiniSna, nebismieri mcdelobis miuxedavad,
yvela empiristi mainc gamocdilebis, e. i. empiriis ga-
reT gadis. Sesabamisad, makiavelis mier wamoyenebuli
zemoaRniSnuli principebic gamocdilebisTvis miRmurs
emyarebian. yvelaze metad es Cans mis mier sazogadoe-
bis progresis arsebobis principis wamoyenebaSi. cxa-
dia, veraviTari gamocdilebiT ver damtkicdeba is deb-
uleba, rom adamianTa nebismieri boroti da mzakvruli
moqmedeba, saboloo jamSi, mainc progresis samsaxurSi
Cadgeba, e. i., rom kacobrioba midis araTavisuflebidan
Tavisuflebisaken da sisastikidan humanizmisaken. aseTi
daSveba mxolod petitio principii, e. i. sasurvelis ukve das-
abuTebulad miCneva, SeiZleba iyos.
makiavelis, platonis msgavsad, miaCnda, rom kerZo sa-
kuTrebis, Zalian mdidrebis da Zalian Raribebis arsebo-
ba, saxelmwifos stabilurobis mteria. igi ajanyebebs da
mmarTvelobis formaTa cvlilebebs iwvevs saxelmwifo-
Si. is sasurvelad saSualo fenebs miiCnevs, magram „mTa-
varSi` saxelmwifos meTauris postze erT-erTi yvelaze
mdidari da garewari adamiani, Cezare borja (1475-1527)
miiCnia samagaliTod.
kidev erTi ZiriTadi debuleba, romelsac makiaveli
icavda, aris is, rom adamianis neba Tavisufalia. misi
Tavisufali nebis gadawyvetilebis Sedegebic, saboloo
jamSi, aucileblad progress emsaxureba. makiavelis mim-

- 53 -
devari ingliseli filosofosis Tomas hobsis (1588-1679)
terminebiT rom vTqvaT, adamianebi im mdgomareobidan
gamosvlis ZiebaSi, romelsac ewodeba „brZola yvelasi
yvelas winaaRmdeg`, sakuTari Tavisufali nebiT iReben
gadawyvetilebas samSvidobo xelSekrulebis sasarge-
blod. isini am dros sulac ar xelmZRvanelobdnen zneo-
brivi kanonebiT, magram Sedegi iyo progresuli da zneo-
brivic _ saxelmwifos warmoSoba. amrigad, bedma borote-
ba sikeTis samsaxurSi Caayena. aq bunebrivad wamoiWreba
sakiTxebi: ra roli aqvs am saqmeSi Tavisufal nebas? xom
ar aris adamiani ubralo iaraRi sakuTari bedis gadaw-
yvetisas?
makiaveli cdilobs, rom rogorme moawesrigos es
sakiTxi. mas ar unda bedis saerTo ganmsazRvreli rolis
uaryofa, magram icis, rom adamiani yvela Rirsebas da-
kargavs, Tu mas Tavisufali neba ar eqna. igi irwmuneba,
rom adamianebi uZlurebi ar arian bedis (fortunas) wi-
naaRmdeg. rogorc paracelss, masac SesaZleblad miaC-
nia adamianis nebis zemoqmedeba sakuTar istoriaze. igi
sakmaod uxeSad, magram gasagebad gamoTqvams Tavis azrs:
fortuna qalia, da Tu ginda kargad iyo masTan, igi unda
cemo da apanRuro. (paracelsi ki planetebze Cveni nebis
ZaliT zemoqmedebaze, maT dasjaze msjelobda).
makiavelim, cxadia, icis, rom saxelmwifoSi kamaTis
da dapirispirebis acilebis ori gza arsebobs: samarT-
lebrivad mowesrigebuli qceva da Zalmomreoba. zoga-
dad rom aviRoT, pirvels iyeneben adamianebi, meores _
mxecebi. ramdenadac pirveli yovelTvis sasurvel Sedegs
ver iZleva, adamianebi iZulebulni arian Zalmomreobis
gzas daadgnen. rac Seexeba saxelmwifoTa Soris urTier-
Tobas, aq makiavelis isic ar surs, rom maT Soris gulrw-
feli da zneobrivi urTierToba sasurvel idealad mainc
CaTvalos. igi darwmunebulia, rom saxelmwifoTa Soris
urTierToba, saboloo jamSi, mxolod SiSveli Zaladobaa.

- 54 -
iohan eduard erdmanis (1805-1892) azriT, diplomatad
dabadebul da gazrdil makiavelis eyo Zala qveyanas ga-
motydomoda imaSi, rasac yvela drois diplomati, mx-
olod Tavisi qceviT amJRavnebda.
makiavelis eWvic ar epareboda imaSi, rom saxelmwi-
fos meTauris ganusazRvreli uflebebi mavans SeiZleba
usamarTlod gamoeyenebina. Tavadac xom sanimuSod mi-
iCnia borjebis yvelaze saxelgatexili gvaris, yvelaze
saxelgatexili warmomadgeneli _ Cezare borja. evropis
istoriaSi es erT-erTi yvelaze uzneo adamiani iyo pap
aleqsandre VI Svili da feraris mxaris hercogi qalis,
lukrecia borjas Zma. cnobilia, rom Cezare borja ara-
viTari demokrati ar iyo da arc zneobriv principebs
Tvlida pativiscemis Rirsad. amis iluzia arc makiavelis
hqonia, magram maSindeli italiis daqucmacebulobis da
Sida omebis gadamlaxavi gaerTianebisaTvis es pirovneba
CaTvala saimedo kandidatad.
albaT, saWiroa, Tanamedrove mkiTxvelma gaacnobie-
ros, ras niSnavda borjebis gvaris wevroba, raTa makiave-
lis arCevanis riskis xarisxi gasagebi gaxdes. es imis gage-
baSic dagvexmareba, Tu ra sibinZuridan amoizarda (anda
masTan erTad izrdeboda) aRorZinebis diadi xelovneba da
diadi ideebi. leonardo da vinCi (1452-1519) Cezare bor-
jasTan muSaobda samxedro inJinrad. garyvnili da cod-
vili xelisufalni ukveTavdnen rafaels da miqelanjelos
im qmnilebebs, romlebic msoflio kulturis siamayes
warmoadgenen. makiavelim Zalian kargad icoda am ojaxis
saqmeebi, magram mainc amarTlebda. metic, aqebda kidec
aleqsandres da Cezares saqciels. maT marcxs ki gauTval-
iswinebeli SemTxveviTi garemoebebiT xsnida, Tumca Tavad
iseT Secdomebze miuTiTebda, romelic amgvar brZolaSi
Cabmul adamianebs ar unda mosvlodaT.
rogorc losevi Tavis „aRorZinebis esTetikaSi`
(45,139) gadmogvcems: am ojaxis meTauri papi aleqsandre

- 55 -
VI borja Tavis TavSi aerTianebda, pativmoyvareobas, an-
garebas da garyvnilebas, brwyinvale unarebTan da en-
ergiasTan. igi vaWrobda TanamdebobebiT, wyalobebiT,
codvaTa mitevebiT. mis dros arc erTi kardinali ar
daniSnula didi fulis gadaxdis gareSe. Tanamedroveebi
imasac gvauwyeben, rom igi cxovrobda Tavis qaliSvil
lukreciasTan, romelic aseve Tavisi Zmis, Cezare borjas
sayvareli iyo. gaurkveveli darCa, am lukreciam bavSvi
Tavisi mamisagan Soba Tu Zmisgan. es qali, politikuri
Tu dinastiuri mosazrebebiT, oTxjer gaaTxoves. aqve
unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTebi marto borjebi ar iyvnen.
gabatonebul fenebSi msxverplni, iseve, rogorc maTi
jalaTni, rogorc wesi, erTmaneTs hgavdnen.
amgvar sazogadoebaSi mcxovrebi makiaveli mainc
fiqrobs, rom evropuli civilizaciis da evropuli ada-
mianis gadarCena SesaZlebelia da am miznisaTvis yvela
saSualeba kargia. msgavsi problemis winaSe idga nicSe.
dainaxa ra evropuli civilizaciis, misi azriT, tota-
lurad yalbi safuZveli, gabatonebuli nihilizmis dasa-
Zlevad nicSem gacilebiT radikaluri saSualeba CaTvala
saWirod: kerZod, Tanamedrove adamianis mier sakuTari
Tavis daZleva da zekacad qceva. makiavelis da nicSes bev-
ri aqvT saerTo. esaa adamianis egoisturi sawyisis wamow-
eva, Zalauflebis neba, feminizmis miznebis negatiuri
Sefaseba. orives saerTo mtrebi hyavs: erTia, adamianis
gaidialeba da meore, adamianze xelis Caqneva. orivesTvis
evropuli civilizaciis istoria siyalbis istoriaa, ma-
gram makiavelisaTvis istoria mainc progress emorCile-
ba. nicSesTvis ki ueWvelia maradiuli gameoreba igivesi.
makiaveli ar moiTxovs misi Tanamedrove adamianis arse-
biT cvlilebas. nicSes azriT, es aucilebelia, magram
urTulesi procesia saWiro am cvlilebisaTvis (mag.,
lomis moTamaSe bavSvad qceva, rogorc gza zekacisaken.
saWiroa, aseve, saxelmwifos gauqmeba).

- 56 -
nicSe adamianis zekacad qcevas SesaZleblad Tvlis da
elodeba mas, rogorc didi xnis avdris Semdeg gamodare-
bas. makiaveli adamianis SesaZlebel progresul gardaqm-
naSi mniSvnelovan rols utovebs beds (fortunas). Tumca
adamianis Tavisuflebaze uaris Tqma arasgziT ar surs.
adamianis zekacad qcevas igi ar elodeba. am aspeqtiT
makiaveli ufro axlos dgas kantTan. Tumca isic cnobi-
lia, rom kants makiaveli ar uyvarda. makiaveli da kanti
orive pavle mociqulis princips emyarebodnen, rom ada-
mianSi yovelTvis aris sikeTisa da borotebis brZola.
ragind Zala dakargos borotebam, igi adamianSi arasdros
ar qreba, kaci zekaci verasodes ver gaxdeba, usasrulod
ki SeiZleba miuaxlovdes mas.
makiavelis italiis gaerTianeba surda da amitom sax-
elmwifo interesebs pirovnebis uflebebze da intere-
sebze udavo upiratesobas aniWebda. misi Tanamedrove
hugo grociusi (1583-1645) _ saerTaSorisi samarTlis
erT-erTi fuZemdebeli _ saxelmwifoze maRla samar-
Tals ayenebda. igi gaerTianebul da Zlier savaWro sax-
elmwifoSi _ holandiaSi cxovrobda da sxva problemebi
awuxebda. es misi ZiriTadi Sromebis saTaurebidanac Cans:
„Tavisufali zRva`, „omisa da mSvidobis Sesaxeb`.
makiavelis mravali kritikosi hyavda, magram
TanamedroveTagan mis mTavar naklze erazm roterda-
melma miuTiTa. 1516 wels, roca imperatorma karlos V
(1500_1558) erazmi sasaxleSi miiwvia, erazmma dawera wig-
ni „qristiani Tavadis aRzrda`. saTaurSive „qristianis`
xazgasma erazmis mier sami wliT adre daweril makiave-
lis „mTavarze` miniSneba iyo. erazmis principi iyo: gana-
Tlebis da aRzrdis arc erTi forma araa imaze Rirebuli,
romelic aswavlis, Tu rogor unda marTo zneobrivad.

- 57 -
4. alamino rinuCini (1426-1499)

aRorZinebis epoqis idealebis bairaxtari _ flor-


enciis respublika _ XV s.-Si saocrad mdidari, mraval-
ferovani politikuri da inteleqtualuri cxovrebis
arena iyo. florenciam sasurvel stumrebad miiRo bizan-
tiidan devnili filosofosebi, Teologebi da filolo-
gebi. 1456 wels lorenco mediCis wyalobiT da monawile-
obiT florenciis platonuri akademia daarsda. am aka-
demiis keTilismyofeli gavlena male gaxda cnobili da
aRiarebuli.
florenciis inteleqtualebi, marTalia, erTmniS-
vnelovnad iyvnen mimarTuli berZnuli da romauli anti-
kurobisaken, magram es kultura sulac ar iyo erTgan-
zomilebiani da masSi bevri ram iyo amosarCevi. Tundac
yvelaze gavrcelebuli neoplatonizmi rigi gansxvave-
buli da zogjer dapirispirebuli interpretaciis saSu-
alebas iZleoda. n. makiavelim, rogorc davinaxeT, pla-
tonis „respublikaSi` warmodgenil TrazimaxesTan erTad
Zveli istorikosebi airCia sakuTari socialuri Teoriis
dasafuZneblad; misma umcrosma Tanamedrovem, cnobilma
florencielma moazrovnem da politikurma moRvawem,
rinuCinim ki ciceroni (Zv. w. 106 _ ax. w. 43) da mis mier
warmodgenili stoelTa filosofia CaTvala sakuTari
socialuri Teoriis, „samoqalaqo humanizmis` saukeTeso
sayrdenad. am pozicias bevri iziarebda (qristoforo
landino (1424-1504), policiano da sxva). es iyo Zveli
romauli principebis aRorZinebis cda: sazogadoebrivi
keTildReobis piradulze maRla dayeneba.
rinuCini warmatebuli florencieli vaWrebis Zvel
da gavlenian gvars ekuTvnoda, romlis wevrebi XV s.-
Si mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen florenciis re-
spublikis samoqalaqo da inteleqtualur cxovrebaSi.
ciceronis da misi saxiT stoelTa filosofiis sanimu-

- 58 -
Sod miCneva imaze miuTiTebs, rom rinuCinis ar surda
samarTliani saxelmwifo wyobileba, platonisa da T. mo-
ris msgavsad, mxolod utopiurad mieCniaT. magram arc
is miaCnda sworad, rom realuri samoqalaqo cxovreba,
makiavelis msgavsad, mxolod Sav ferebSi daenaxa, anu
moralis principebi da samoqalaqo cxovrebis humanizmi
SeuTavseblad mieCnia. stouri filosofiis mier zneo-
brivi cxovrebis centris gadatana adamianis sulier sa-
myaroSi da, Sesabamis pirobebSi, sazogadoebriv cxovre-
baSi misi danergvisaTvis mzadyofnis moTxovnis principi
kargad gamoxatavda rinuCinisa da misi Tanamoazreebis
mier arCeul mesame, saSualo gzas. mas „samoqalaqo human-
izmsac` uwodeben. am humanizmis kredo SeiZleboda ase
gamogvexata: yvelaferi gaakeTe sakuTari inteleqtua-
luri da zneobrivi srulyofisaTvis; mudam mzad iyavi
emsaxuro Seni qveynis keTildReobas, Tundac es sicocx-
lis fasad dagijdes; magram Tu Sens qveyanas ar surs Seni
samsaxuri da Seni msxverpli, ganze gadeqi da gaagrZele
sakuTari Tavis srulyofa, im imediT, rom roca iqneba,
dasWirdebi Sens qveyanas. am kredoSi Zneli dasanaxi araa
Tavad a. rinuCinis faqtiuri cxovrebis gzis amokiTxva.
misi „dialogi Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb`, romelic tipuri
renesansuli dialogis nimuSia, mogviTxrobs rinuCinis
saxelovan winaprebze da imazec, rom igi dasawyisSi mx-
urvaled uWerda mxars lorenco mediCis da mis gegmebs.
mas maRali Tanamdebobebic ekava: respublikis erT-erTi
priori iyo (1460), mogvianebiT e. w. rvaTa kolegiis wevri
(1472), Semdeg romis papTan lorenco mediCis piradi war-
momadgeneli. mas Semdeg, rac mis erTgulebaSi loren-
com eWvi Seitana, yvela Tanamdebobidan gaaTavisufles.
alamino gaecala dedaqalaqs da CauRrmavda Tavis samec-
niero muSaobas. amis erT-erTi Sedegi iyo wigni „dialogi
Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb` (23,98).
rinuCinis moRvaweobis periodSi florenciaSi Rire­

- 59 -
bulebaTa cvlileba da axlis Camoyalibeba swrafad xde-
boda. lorenco mediCi, mas Semdeg, rac florenciis faq-
tiuri erTmmarTveli gaxda, fiqrobda, rom am mdgomare-
obis oficialuri dakanoneba ufro waadgeboda qveyanas.
am gziT mavali es udavod niWieri poeti, farTo filoso-
fiuri ganaTlebis da interesebis adamiani TandaTan ti-
rani xdeba. Tavisuflebismoyvare florencielebi amas
Znelad eguebodnen. 1478 wels xdeba gavleniani flor-
encieli bankiri pacis ajanyeba lorencos winaaRmdeg. is
adreve gamomJRavnda da SedarebiT advilad Caaqres, ma-
gram brZolaSi daiRupa lorencos Zma _ juliano mediCi
(daaxl. 1520-1588). es kargad gamoiyena lorencom Tavisi
miznebis gasaxorcieleblad. paci mediCebis metoqe
bankirTa saxlis warmomadgeneli iyo, magram SeTqmuleba
imitom daiwyo, rom xalxis mniSvnelovani nawili ukve
lorencos gadaudga.
Tavis traqtatSi rinuCini erTmniSvnelovnad uWers
mxars SeTqmulebas. didi xnis Semdeg, 1494 wels, roca
savonarolas TaosnobiT mediCebi gandevnes floren-
ciidan, rinuCini Tavis matianeSi wers: Tavisufali re-
spublikisaTvis es gakveTili unda iyos raTa moqa-
laqeTagan aravis mieces ufleba sxvebze imdenad ama-
Rldes, rom sxvebis Tanabrad ar daemorCilos kanonebs.
Tavisuflebis gageba rinuCinisTan rom ciceronulia, es
romaeli stoelis mier Tavisuflebis gagebis ubralo
gaxsenebiTac naTelia: Tavisufleba aris saxelmwi-
fos kanonTa da CveulebaTa farglebSi damoukidebeli
cxovrebis SesaZlebloba. rinuCinis es esmis respubli-
kis kanonTa azriT, romelTac xalxi adgens da mis mieraa
dakanonebuli. sxvagvarad gaugebari iqneboda mis mier
pacis SeTqmulebis mxardaWera da savonarolas momxre-
Tagan mediCebis gandevnis gamarTleba. roca am sakiTxs
exebian, istorikosebs uyvarT im faqtis gaxseneba, rom
romSi aTvalwunebuli da devnili savonarola lorenco

- 60 -
mediCim, marsilio fiCinos TxovniT, miiwvia florencia-
Si. lorencos magaliTze kidev erTxel gamarTlda aris-
toteles mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom erTmmarTveloba
saxelmwifosTvis yvelaze kargi formaa, magram, radgan
aseTi pirovneba ar moiZebneba, umjobesia aristokra-
tiuli respublika, romlis xelisufleba Taviseburi
koleqtiuri pirovneba iqneba. mediCis magaliTis aseTive
amxsnelia kantis mosazreba, roca man mefe filosofo-
sis platoniseuli idea daiwuna, imis gamo, rom mefis
SeuzRudveli Zalaufleba, adre Tu gvian, Tavs iCens,
rogorc Tavisufal azrovnebasTan Seurigebeli.

- 61 -
Tavi II. padueli aristotelikosebi
aRorZinebis epoqaSi

zemo italiis patara qalaqi padua, rogorc maudis


mrewvelobis centri, ukve XII s.-Si Tavisufal qalaqad
gvevlineba. 1405 wlidan igi vaWrobis gacilebiT ufro
did centrs, venecias daemorCila. Tavisufali qalaqi-
saTvis damaxasiaTebeli opoziciuri suli paduas didx-
ans SerCa. es qalaqi dResac amayobs Zveli universitetiT
da observatoriiT, evropaSi uZvelesi botanikuri baRiT,
aqvea mantenias da jotos freskebi, donatelos cnobili
qandakeba _ gatemalata. Sua saukuneebSi da aRorZinebis
epoqaSi paduis siamaye misi universiteti iyo. sayovel-
Tao yuradRebas igi XIV s.-Si iqcevs, rogorc averois-
tuli aristotelizmis kera, romelic oficialuri mso-
flmxedvelobisadmi opoziciiT gamoirCeoda. mogvianebiT
paduas universitetma Taviseburi gza airCia Sua sauku-
neebis uarsayofad. is Seecada WeSmariti aristotele
aeRorZinebina. am mizniT averoistuli aristotelizms
daupirispira aleqsandristuli aristotelizmi. es imas
niSnavs, rom isini emyarebodnen aleqsandre afrodisie-
lis (daaxl. 200 w. Zv. w.) mier aristoteles interpreta-
cias, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevdnen mis bunebism-
etyvelur Sromebs. aristotelikosTa ori mowinaaRmdege
partia erTmaneTs ejibreboda aristotelizmisadmi erT-
gulebaSi. am mxriv gamoirCeodnen averoesis interpre-
taciis mimdevrebi. isini ukve dromoWmuli arabuli sqo-
lastikis, kerZod ki, averoesis principebs TavgamodebiT
icavdnen, rac mowinave adamianebis (mag., petrarkas) ziz-
Rsa da dacinvas iwvevda.
averoistuli aristotelizmis umniSvnelovanesi war-
momadgeneli iyo gaetano tieneli (1387-1465). man paduaSi
leqciebis kiTxva 1436 wels daiwyo da SeZlo averoiz-
mis Seryeuli avtoriteti gaeZlierebina. gaetano ar
iyo originaluri moazrovne. igi cdilobda, aristo-
- 62 -
teles moZRvreba sulis ukvdavebis Sesaxeb qristianul
TeologiasTan Seeguebina. misi leqciebis uamravi aslia
SemorCenili evropis sxvadasxva qveynebSi. oratoruli
xelovneba, sazogadoebrivi mdgomareoba da didi qone-
ba gaetanom averoistuli aristotelizmis aRsadgenad
gamoiyena. specialistebis SefasebiT, saukunis bolomde
paduasa da boloniaSi averoesis avtoriteti dauZleve-
li darCa.
1480 wels venecielma qalma kasandra fedelem (daaxl.
1465-1558) paduaSi warmatebiT daicva disertacia, ro-
melic averoistul Tezisebs emyareboda. averoistebi
kritikaze maRla mdgomad Tvlidnen Tavs. Cveulebriv, am
universitetSi leqtori oponentis TandaswrebiT kiTxu-
lobda leqcias; nikoleto verniasi (1420-1499) 1471 wli-
dan 1495 wlebamde Tavisufali iyo amgvari kritikosi-
sagan. rogorc renani aRniSnavs, 1495 wels ukmayofilo
studentTa dasamSvideblad verniass oponentad dauniSnes
axalgazrda filosofosi petre pomponaci (1462-1525),
romelic aleqsandre afrodisielis mier gagebul aris-
toteles amjobinebda averoesiseuls.

1. petre pomponaci (1462-1524)

qarTveli filosofosi ioane petriwi aleqsandre af-


rodisiels aristoteles filosofiis materialist ko-
mentatorad Tvlida. amdenad, Teologiis miznebisaTvis
nakleb gamosadegad. magram dasavleTSi misi gavlena didi
iyo. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis paduis universitetze, sa-
dac mas averoesis winaaRmdeg iyenebdnen, rogorc dasav-
luri kulturis warmomadgenels. ori saxis WeSmaritebis
Teoriis (mecnierulis da rwmeniTis) gavrcelebis Semdeg,
meti SesaZlebloba Seiqmna am didi komentatoris mosaz-
rebani bunebismecnieruli meTodis specifikasTan daeka-
vSirebinaT. amisaTvis aucilebeli iyo mkvlevars „meore

- 63 -
WeSmaritebis`, saxeldobr bibliaSi mocemulis da mec-
nierulad dausabuTebadis, upirobo upiratesoba eRi-
arebina. aman SesaZlebeli gaxada is, rom aleqsandre af-
rodisielis materialisturi da aTeisturi mosazrebani
naTlad asaxuliyo paduis universitetis umniSvnelova-
nesi warmomadgenlis, pietro pomponacis moRvaweobaSi,
riTac paduis aristotelizmis istoriaSi axali era dai-
wyo. pomponaci ar iyo damonebuli romelime mis mier sakv-
levad arCeul filosofoss _ aristotele iqneboda igi,
averoesi Tu Tavad platoni. axalma gamokvlevebma kidev
ufro ganamtkices tradiciuli azri pomponacis, rogorc
originaluri da gabeduli filosofosis Sesaxeb. igi ar-
istotelesac, averoessac, afrodisielsac, Tavad pla-
tonsac kritikulad iyenebda, sakuTari ZiriTadi prin-
cipis dasasabuTeblad. pomponaci, kuzanelis da fiCinos
msgavsad, zogadadamianuri Semecnebis principebs eZebda
da maT msgavsad am Semecnebis struqturis, sazRvrebis
da Rirebulebis Semecneba surda. saboloo jamSi, isic im
miznisaken midioda, romelic platonis udidesma qris-
tianma komentatorma, dionise areopagelma warmoaCina.
udidess, filosofiis istorikosTa Soris, hegels,
Tavis „leqciebSi filosofiis istoriaze`, ar gamopar-
via pomponacis originaloba. paduis universitetSi pom-
ponacis dros, manamdec da mis Semdegac aristotelizmi
iyo gabatonebuli; hegelis azriT, pomponacis aristote-
likosic ar SeiZleba vuwodoT. igi iyenebda aristotele-
sac, averoessac da aleqsandre afrodisielsac sakuTari
poziciis (adamianis suli mokvdavia) dasacavad. igi amt-
kicebda, rom adamianis sulis is „nawilebi`, romelTac
mcenareul da grZnobad suls uwodeben, mokvdavia. adami-
ani ukvdavebas mxolod azrovnebiT da gonebiT eziareba.
ukvdaveba ki pomponacis savsebiT axleburad esmis. esaa
adamianTa mexsierebaSi, kulturaSi arsebobis gagrZele-
ba. es azrebi gamoTqmulia mis wignSi „sulis ukvdavebis

- 64 -
Sesaxeb` (1513). es, cxadia, paduaSic SeamCnies da romSic.
wigni dawyevles. Tavad pomponaci inkviziciis komisiam
gamoiZaxa. pomponaci orgvari WeSmaritebis Teorias amoe-
fara. man aRniSna, rom saxarebis principebi mecnierul
azrovnebas ewinaaRmdegeba, magram mas, rogorc qristians,
gulwrfelad swams es principebi. inkvizitorebisaTvis
es damajerebeli ar iyo, magram pomponacis kardinalTa
Sorisac aRmoaCnda mfarvelebi da igi sasjels gadaurCa.
unda aRiniSnos, rom inkviziciac sxvadasxva qveyanaSi da
sxvadasxva drosac sxvadasxvanairad iqceoda. luCilio
vaninis (1585-1619) da galileis gasamarTlebani amis sak-
marisi sabuTia.
renani amtkicebs, rom paduis skolaSi pomponacis
misvliT axali era iwyeba. paduelebi problematikiTac
evropuli renesansis Tanamedroveebi gaxdnen. pompo-
nacim uaryo paduelTa filosofiis savsebiT uwyinari
metafizika, romlis gabeduleba zogad frazebs ar
scildeboda. man miukerZoebeli kvlevis da gabeduli
kamaTis sagnad aqcia adamianis sulis ukvdavebis, ada-
mianis sulis personulobis, misi Tavisuflebis da sxva
sakiTxebi. Tavdapirvelad aristoteles da averoesis
principTa farglebSi myofma, pomponacim SeZlo axal-
gazrda msmenelebis daintereseba da maTi saSualebiT am
tradiciuli universitetis orientaciis Secvla.
axali aspeqtiT aZlierebs koplstoni pomponacis
originalobis momxreTa argumentebs. igi miuTiTebs pom-
ponacis mier Tomistebis saintereso kritikaze da, aseve
(rac Zalze mniSvnelovania), adamianis zneobrivi gadaw-
yvetilebis da qmedebis sulis ukvdavebis sasargeblo ar-
gumentad gamoyenebis umarTebulobaze.
pomponacis aleqsandristobas koplstoni ase azus­
tebs: mas ainteresebda ufro aristoteluri elementebi
afrodisielTan, vidre afrodisielis mier aristoteles
doqtrinis sakuTari interpretacia (66,III,222). misi mizani

- 65 -
iyo, aristoteles gawmenda araaristoteluri element-
ebisagan. igive amoZravebda mas averoesis winaaRmdeg,
radgan igi aristoteles damaxinjebad miaCnda. igive
mizani hqonda mas Tomistebis kritikisas. Tavis naSromSi
„sulis ukvdavebis Sesaxeb`, ganixilavs ra aristoteles
azrs sulis, rogorc formis, anu sxeulis enteleqiis
Sesaxeb, pomponaci ebrZvis Tomistebs, romlebic amtkice-
ben, rom adamianis suli bunebrivad gamoeyofa sxeuls da
ukvdavia. pomponacisaTvis adamianis suli rogorc Tavis
grZnobad, ise racionalur moqmedebaSi damokidebulia
sxeulze. mas Tavad aristoteledan mohyavda empiriuli
faqtebi, anda, Tu isini sakmarisi ar iyvnen, aristoteles
msgavsad sabuTebs empiriaSi eZebda.
igi eTanxmeba aristoteles, rom adamianis mTeli cod-
na empiriidan warmoiSoba, da rom inteleqts yovelTvis
sWirdeba mis dasaufleblad warmosaxva, anu fantazia.
aq igi hegelis fenomenologiis dasawyisSi wamoyenebuli
debulebis Tavisebur anticipacias (winaswarwvdomas) ax-
dens, romlis Tanaxmadac, adamianis gonebam icis sakuTari
Tavi mxolod raRac sakuTari Tavisagan gansxvavebulis
codniT. misi azriT, es cxovelebSic vlindeba sakuTari
TviTcnobierebis (da sakuTari gvaris), rogorc sxvebisa-
gan gansxvavebulis, fiqsirebiT. sxeuli rom ar hqondes,
cxoveli amas ver mixvdeboda, adamiani, cxovelisgan gan-
sxvavebis miuxedavad, mainc damokidebulia sulis sxeul-
Tan kavSirze. Cveni inteleqti arc sxeulebrivia da arc
raime raodenobrivi, magram es kidev ar amtkicebs, rom
mas sxeulisagan gamoyofa da ise arseboba SeuZlia. sxva
sityvebiT Tu vityviT, suls, rogorc sxeulis formas,
misgan damoukidebeli arseboba ar gaaCnia. pomponaci
fiqrobs, rom Tomistebs, romlebic yovel wams aristo-
teleze miuTiTeben, arc amaSi aqvT garkveuli pozicia.
sulis ukvdavebis dasasabuTeblad, pomponacis az-
riT, unda dasabuTdes, jer erTi _ is, rom rom Cvens

- 66 -
inteleqts SeuZlia faqtebs miRma gasvla (transcendi-
reba); da meore _ unda dasabuTdes, rom Cveni inteleqti
sxeulisagan damoukidebelia codnis masalis mopovebaSi.
am ori debulebidan pomponacisTvis pirveli dasabuTeba-
dia, meore _ ara.
rac mTavaria, pomponaci darwmunebulia, rom misi
koncefcia Zirs ar uTxris moralurobas, miuxedavad
imisa, rom igi uaryofs saiqioSi zneobrivi amqveyniuri
qmedebis mniSvnelobas (mag., codvaTa Semsubuqebis az-
riT). pomponaci savsebiT samarTlianad SeniSnavs, rom
es ar amcirebs zneobrivi qcevis Rirebulebas. moral-
uri qmedeba TviTkmaria. Tu igi namdvilad aseTia, maSin
igi arc garedan da arc sxva samyaroSi elodeba jil-
dos. jer kidev sokratesganaa cnobili, rom zneobrivi
qmedeba Tavadaa jildo imisaTvis, vinc mas axorcielebs
da adamiani amis mets ar unda eZebdes Tavisi zneobrivi
moqmedebisaTvis.
sakuTari empirizmis erTguli pomponaci, naSromSi
„gansxeulebisaTvis`, cdilobs bunebrivad axsnas sas-
waulebi da moCvenebani. iyenebs astrologiasac da
ciklur Teoriasac, magram sulis ukvdavebis Teoriul
sabuTs versad poulobs; Tumca, irwmuneba, rom qristi-
anad rCeba, radgan miuxedavad argumentebis ararsebobi-
sa, CvenTvis cnobilia gamocxadeba _ e. i. suli ukvdavia.
arc amjerad daujeres pomponacis da V lateranis krebam
misi es Sromac dawyevla. yovelive aRniSnuli sakmarisze
meti safuZveli iyo imisaTvis, rom padueli aristotel-
izmis cnobil mkvlevars, martin l. pains 1986 wels gamo-
qveynebuli Tavisi naSromisaTvis ewodebina „pietro pom-
ponaci _ renesansis radikaluri filosofosi` (85).
kidev ufro STambeWdavad warmoaCens pomponacis kv-
levis Sedegebs b. moiziSi Tavis narkvevSi „epistemolo-
gia humanizmSi: marsilio fiCino, pietro pomponaci da
nikoloz kuzaneli`, romelic 1995 wels gamoica „frai-

- 67 -
burgis filosofiisa da Teologiis JurnalSi` (73,152-
172). b. moiziSi aviTarebs painis kvlevis Sedegebs. masac
miaCnia, rom pomponaci erT-erTi yvelaze Tanmimdevruli
empiristia, romelic cdilobda neoplatonizmis da
averoizmis, aseve tradiciuli aristotelizmis gadaWar-
bebuli spekulaciis acilebas. igi, aristoteles
naturfilosofiidan amosuli, akritikebda aristoteles
metafizikas. amtkicebda, rom Semecnebis raoba mxolod
aristoteles sabunebismetyvelo Sromebidan SeiZleba
gavigoT (magram ara misi ubralo gameorebiT). unda dave-
myaroT bunebrivi gansjis (ratio) aristoteliseul gagebas
da Tanmimdevrulad gavataroT aristoteles naturfi-
losofiaSi mocemuli principi, romlis Tanaxmadac, ada-
mianuri Semecnebis amxsneli mxolod warmodgenis cneba
SeiZleba iyos. mas centraluri funqcia eniWeba. es azri
bolode Tanmimdevrulad unda miviyvanoT, Tumca amisaT-
vis Tavad aristoteles daskvnebis winaaRmdeg dagvWird-
eba wasvla. amis magaliTia, stagirelis mier imis mtkice-
ba, rom warmodgenas, marTalia, didi mniSvneloba aqvs
SemecnebaSi, magram igi yoveli Semecnebis safuZvlad ar
gamodgeba, radgan warmodgenas SecdomaSi SevyavarT da
mas sxvisgan unda kontroli.
pomponacis filosofiis centraluri punqtis gamoyo-
fis Semdeg, b. moiziSs SesaZleblad miaCnia am moazrovnis
mimarTeba gamokveTos warsulis da mis Tanamedrove moaz-
rovneebTan: „pomponacis azriT, cdebodnen platonic da
fiCinoc, radgan miaCndaT, rom warmodgena aucilebeli
araa SemecnebisaTvis. cdeboda averoesi, radgan dauSva,
rom SesaZlebeli da moqmedi inteleqtebis erTianoba
aris maradiuli substancia da, amdenad, igi transcenden-
turia SemecnebisaTvis. magram Toma aqvinelic cdeboda,
radgan igi warmodgenas, erTi mxriv, aucileblad Tvlida,
Semecnebis procesisaTvis, meore mxriv, Semmecnebel suls
miiCnevda savsebiT umateriod da, amdenad, aucileblad

- 68 -
ukvdavad, rac, pomponacis azriT, Teoriis winaaRmde-
gobaze miuTiTebs` (iqve, 161).
platonidan moyolebuli, araerTi moazrovne miiC-
nevda, rom, marTalia, warmodgena Semecnebis procesSi
unda gamoiyeno, magram mas Semdeg, rac materialurisgan
ganTavisuldeba, sulma warmodgena unda moicilos. am
moazrovneebisagan gansxvavebiT, pomponaci yvelgan mt-
kiced icavs debulebas, rom yoveli Semecneba warmod-
genazea damokidebuli. es asea, radganac, suli arasode-
saa savsebiT imaterialuri, vinaidan mas yovelTvis aqvs
mimarTeba sagnebTan da, amdenad, materiasTan. aqedanaa
misi mokvdavobac. am safuZvelze pomponacis aleqsandre
afrodisielis epigonad miiCnevdnen, magram mas afro-
disieli (b. moiziSis mtkicebiT) originalSi arasdros
waukiTxavs da mis Sesaxeb mxolod buridanis (daaxl. 1295
-1358) Sromebidan icoda. buridani ki amtkicebda, rom,
aleqsandres azriT, inteleqtma sakuTari Tavi materi-
idan Seiqmna, e. i. materia aris inteleqtis fundamenti
(subjectum). Tu asea, inteleqti ara mxolod materiazea
mimarTuli, aramed Tavadaa materialuri. amis gamoa, rom
kritika, romelsac pomponaci aleqsandres sawinaaRmde-
god mimarTavs, mxolod buridanis Sromebs exeba (iqve,
163). xazi unda gaesvas imas, rom pomponacisaTvis ada-
mianis suli imitomaa mokvdavi, rom raRaca zomiT mudam
materialurzea mimarTuli. materialuris es aucile-
bloba pomponacisaTvis sulis wminda idealobis uaryo-
fas niSnavs, radgan, misi azriT, wminda idealobisTvis
korelati ar SeiZleba materialuri sagani iyos. Tumca,
amave logikiT, pomponacis unda daeSva, rom wminda ma-
terialuric (petriwis terminiT Tu vityviT, ideal-
urisgan „miuxebeli`) ar SeiZleba arsebobdes, vinaidan,
neoplatonuri da religiuri moZRvrebebis mixedviT,
materialurs yovelTvis aqvs mimarTeba, an aracnobier-
Tan, an cnobierTan, an idealurTan. pomponaci uazrobas

- 69 -
uwodebs RmerTSi sulTa erTobis averoistul Teorias,
romelsac, rogorc igi aRniSnavda, araferi aqvs saer-
To aristotelesTan da romelic, amitom, wminda Toma
aqvinelma gaakritika. pomponacis mowafe neapoleli si-
mon porta (†1555) averoistebs abralebda Semecnebis day-
vanas mogonebaze. mis mier averoizmis kritika renans
samarTlianad agonebs lokis mier dekartis TanSobili
ideebis kritikas. simon portac erTgulad icavda maswav-
leblis moZRvrebas adamianis sulis mokvdavobis Sesaxeb
Tavis SromebSi: „bunebis saganTa principebi` da „adamia-
nis suli da goneba`. Tu imasac gavixsenebT, rom pom-
ponacim adamianis moraluri qmedebis „TviTmizezobis`
faqtze miTiTebiT individuri sulis ukvdavebis damcve-
lebs transcendenturTan damakavSirebeli mniSvnelovani
argumenti Seuryia, gasagebi gaxdeba is didi Zalisxmeva,
romelic wlebis manZilze sWirdeboda mis dasacavad ro-
mis paps leo X (1475-1521).
sayuradReboa, rom pomponaci saswauls adamianis
aRgznebuli fantaziiT da eklesiis msaxurTa mier maTi
yalbi interpretaciiT xsnis. Cven araviTari safuZveli
ara gvaqvs pomponacis mier codnas dapirispirebuli rw-
menis principis wamoweva mxolod misi materializmis da
aTeizmis gadarCenis da inkviziciis SiSiT avxsnaT. savse-
biT SesaZlebelia, rom am mkvlevars gacnobierebuli
hqonda ra mecnieruli Semecnebis sazRvrebi, gulwrfe-
lad gaecnobierebina rwmenis faqtoris mniSvneloba,
rogorc adamianis bunebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi
aspeqtisa, radgan mxolod mecnieruli kvlevis safuZ-
velze ver aageb optimistur msoflmxedvelobas, rac ase
sasurvelia yoveli adamianisaTvis. filosofosma icis,
rom wmindanis Zvlebi iseve uZluria, rogorc ZaRlis, _
werda pomponaci. magram Tu sruli rwmeniT mivmarTavT
maT, isini marTlac moaxdenen saswauls. amave poziciidan
uaryofda igi locvis, rogorc transcendenturTan da-

- 70 -
makavSireblis mniSvnelobas. magram, rogorc qristians,
wers pomponaci, mas yvelaferi es swams da WeSmaritad mi-
aCnia. ase gagebuli ornairi WeSmaritebis Teoria Zalian
awyobdaT mecnierebs, magram sul ufro autaneli xde-
boda oficialuri eklesiisaTvis.
pomponaci da misi mowafeebi averoistebis sapirispi-
rod empirizms avi­Tareben, misi `wminda dafis~ TeoriiT
da nominalizmiT. suli aristotele­saTvis, misi azriT,
sxva araferia Tu ara sxeulis forma (enteleqia). sxeu-
lis sikvdili ki formis daSlaa, e. i. sulis sikvdilicaa.
ukvdavebaze mxolod imdenad SeiZleba laparaki, ramde-
nadac adamianis suli gansxvavdeba cxovelisagan, ramde-
nadac mas Semecnebisa da logikis azrovnebis unari aqvs.
magram es ukvdavebac amqveyniurobiT ifargleba. amiT
adamianis Rirseba ar ikargeba, radgan misi daniSnuleba
amqveyniuria. filosofosma qvelmoqmedeba ar unda dau-
kavSiros rwmenas. faqtia, rom sam did religias (iuda-
izms, qristianobas, mahmadianobas) igi sxvada­sxvagvarad
esmis da amitom darwmunebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ori
maTgani mainc mcdaria.
RmerTi pomponacisaTvis Tavisufalia anTropomor-
fuli warmodgenebi­sagan da mis TeoriaSi materialuri
samyaros kanonzomierebis upirovno gamoxatulebad iqca.
samyaroSi arsebuli boroteba miCneulia SefardebiTad,
romelic mTelis srulyofilebas emsaxureba. is, rac
calke aRebuli borotebad gveCveneba, mTlianobaSi dan-
axuli samarTlianoba aRmoCndeba. samyaros srulyofile-
ba moiTxovs amgvar gansxvavebebsa da dapirispirebebs.
miuxedavad imisa, rom es Sexedulebebi ormagi
WeSmaritebisa da mistikis formaSi iyo gaxveuli, mainc
gabatonebulma eklesiam mas averoistuli aristotel-
izmi arCia. papma leo X averoist nifuss (daaxl. 1473-
1538/45) daavala pomponacis uaryofa. magram paps arc
averoizmis gaZliereba surda. man pomponaci ar daaneba

- 71 -
inkvizitorebs dasawvavad, Tavis Tavze aiRo misi gamos-
woreba. pomponacim dawera naSromi Tavisi Sexedulebebis
gasamarTleblad da averoistebis winaaRmdeg.

2. jakomo zabarela (1533-1589)

jakomo zabarela pomponacis yvelaze mniSvne­lovani


mowafe iyo. mis oponentad paduis universitetSi vxe-
davT franc pikolominis (1520-1604), romelic averoe-
sis Sexedulebebs icavda. magram maTi brZola simZaf-
res kargavs, radgan am periodSi aleqsandristebma da
averoistebma mravali saerTo naxes aleqsandre afro-
disielTan da averoesTan. zabarela averoess xSirad
iyenebda, rogorc aristoteles, ise aleqsandre afro-
disielis debulebaTa gasagebad. igi gamoyofda averoess
sxva arabi filosofosebisagan, mkacrad akritikebda avi-
cenas. averoesTan TanxmobiT, igi fiqrobda, rom absolu-
turi arsebis aucilebloba ar amtkicebs RmerTis arse-
bobas. TavisTavad amgvari arsebuli SeiZleboda yofil-
iyo ca. magram ramdenadac ca moZravia, igi ar SeiZleba
iyos arsebulTa Soris pirveli. amrigad, aristoteles
Tvalsazrisi uZravi mamoZraveblis Sesaxeb RmerTis ar-
sebobis erTaderT sabuTad iTvleba.
fsiqologiaSi zabarela mkacrad ebrZvis averoistebs,
Tumca asxvavebs averoesis da misi mimdevrebis
Sexedulebebs. averoistebis azriT, goneba sxva arafe-
ria Tu ara mesaWe gemze, amdenad, maT Soris aucile-
beli kavSiri ar aris (yovel SemTxvevaSi, mesaWisaTvis).
sinamdvileSi ki goneba aris forma, romelic aformebs
adamians, aqcevs mas imad, rac is aris. maT Soris ganuy-
ofeli kavSiria. gonebasa da, saerTod, adamianis suls
SeiZleba `sxeulis sisrule` vuwodoT. zabarela Tavis
Sexedulebebs icavda saeklesio avtoritetebze miTiTe-
biT. gansakuTrebiT xSirad igi Toma aqvinels iyenebda.
- 72 -
sulisa da sxeulis kavSiris sakuTari Sexedulebebis
gasamarTleblad mas SeeZlo agreTve II s.-is qristianuli
apologetikis warmomadgenels, tatiane asiriels (110-
180) dayrdnoboda, romelic amtkicebda, rom `suli aris
sxeulis kavSiri`, e. i. is, rac sxeulis, rogorc materi-
aluris, nawilebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs.
paduis filosofiurma skolam xeli Seuwyo
aRorZinebis epoqis bunebis­metyveluri da aTeisturi
Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebas, magram aristoteles av-
toritetis gaabsoluturebam am skolis zogi warmomad-
geneli sul ufro daupirispira axali epoqis mecnierebis
mesveurebs, romelnic kvleva-ZiebaSi avtoritetisagan
srul Tavisuflebas moiTxovdnen da afarToebdnen arse-
buli codnis farglebs, e. i. xSirad imas aRmoaCendnen da
asabuTebdnen, rac aristoteles naSromebSi ar gvxvde-
boda. paduis skolis am warmomadgenlebisaTvis ki ada-
mianuri codnis SesaZleblobani aristoteles Sromebis
SinaarsiT amoiwureboda. maTTvis ZalaSi rCeboda Sua
saukuneebSi gavrcelebuli debuleba: „buneba axsna aris-
totelem, aristotele axsna averoesma`.

- 73 -
Tavi III. skepticizmi aRorZinebis epoqaSi
1. Sarl de boviliusi (1470-1553)

frangi Teologi da filosofosi Sarl de boviliu-


si, aRorZinebis epoqis msoflmxedvelobrivi azrovnebis
mniSvnelovan aspeqts wamoswevs. igi ar ahyolia luTer-
isa da kalvinis reformaciis ukiduresobebs. boviliu-
si (zogi swers bovili, zogic _ boveli) cdilobda ax-
ali drois filosofiisa da mecnierebis moTxovnebTan
Seeguebina kaTolikuri eklesiis moZRvreba. am mxriv
igi erazm roterdamelis xazis gamgrZelebelia, Tumca
erazmisnairi simZafriT ar akritikebs kaTolicizms.
SeiZleba am pasiurobis gamo iyo, rom misi Sromebi didi
xniT daviwyebas mieca.
mose gogiberiZe (1897-1949) boviliuss kuzanelis
mowafes da mniSvnelovan maTematikoss uwodebs, xolo
kasireri, romelmac pirvelma wamoswia am moazrovnis
mniSvneloba, boviliuss imdenad uaxloebs germanuli da,
amave dros, saerTo-evropuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis
magistralur xazs, rom hegelis filosofiis central-
uri amocanis winaswarWvretasac miawers. amgvar amoca-
nad ki mas, savsebiT samarTlianad, miaCnia gonis cvaleba-
dobis mTavar miznad subieqtis substanciad gadaqcevis
Cveneba.
boviliusi, marTalia, franguladac aqveynebda Tavis
Sromebs, magram erTaderT enad, romelic namdvilad
Sesaferisia seriozuli kvlevis Sedegebis gadmosacemad,
laTinuri miaCnda. am aspeqtiTac igi, sxva Tanamedrove
moazrovneTagan, yvelaze ufro erazm roterdamels uax-
lovdeba. SeiZleba amitomac iyo, rom maSindeli sazoga-
doebis or dapirispirebul mxareTagan, orive misi ukmay-
ofilo darCa: rogorc tradiciis xelSeuxeblobis dam-
cvelebi, ise axali franguli kulturis, frangul enaze
ganviTarebis momxreebi. magram boviliuss erazmisode-

- 74 -
na popularoba da gavlena ar hqonia. igi orive mxarem
daiviwya. rogorc misi rusi mkvlevari oleg kudriavcevi
aRniSnavs, Sarl de bovili (ase wers igi boviliusis sax-
els) mxolod XX s.-is ocdaaTian wlebSi gaixsenes. 1943
wels misi Sromis italiuri Targmani gamovida, xolo
1982 wels _ fragulad gamoica. misi ZiriTadi naSromi
„brZenis Sesaxeb` 1996 wels gamoica. mas uamravi narkvevi
ekuTvnis da isini problemaTa farTo speqtrs moicavs:
«mamao Cvenos ganmarteba dionise arepagelis „zeciuri
ierarqiis mixedviT`» (1511), „praqtikuli geometria`
(1512), „bunebismetyvelebis pirvelsafuZvlebis Sesaxeb _
aT wignad` (1512), „aRTqmis, nebis Tavisuflebis da loc-
vis gansxvavebul saxeTa Sesaxeb` (1529), „oTxi wigni uflis
vnebaTa Sesaxeb` (1533), „sami dialogi sulis ukvdavebis
Sesaxeb` (1552) da sxva. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom rwmenisa da
codnis mimarTebis sakiTxi boviliusis kvlevis ZiriTadi
Temaa.
boviliusi yovelTvis cdilobs codnasa da rwme-
nas Soris dapirispireba uaryos. 1504 wels specialuri
narkvevic gamoaqveyna am sakiTxze. mas ukve sakmao gamoc-
dileba hqonda filosofiuri da Teologiuri kvlevisa.
magram, sakuTari poziciis sabolood Sejamebamde, gadaw-
yvita, Semoeara mTeli evropa, sxvadasxva qveynis filo-
sofosTa da TeologTa naSromebi gaeTvaliswinebina.
niderlandebSi igi ekhartis cnobili mimdevris iohanes
ruisbrekis (1294-1384) Sromebs gaecno, espaneTSi _ cno-
bili sqolastikosis, raimond lulis (1235-1315) memkvi-
dreobas. romSi maSin mimdinare Teologiur disputebSi
monawileobda, karga xans muSaobda mediCebis mdidar bib-
lioTekaSi da sxva. 1511 wels, samSobloSi dabrunebis
Semdeg, gamodis boviliusis naSromTa krebuli, romelic
Seicavs mis umniSvnelovanes narkvevs _ „brZenis Sesaxeb`.
aqvea Sromebi gnoseologiis da logikis Sesaxeb, aseve
narkvevi RvTismetyvelebisadmi maTematikis miyenebis

- 75 -
Sesaxeb, ganazrebani RvTaebrivi winaswarmetyvelebis da
saRvTismetyvelo daskvnebis Sesaxeb.
„brZenis Sesaxeb` boviliusis memkvidreobaSi umniS-
vnelovanesad iTvleba. brZenis, rogorc saxelmwifos
mmarTvelis, Tu cxovrebis sazrisis maswavleblis da,
amave dros, sakuTari cxovrebiT Tavisi moZRvrebis ni-
muSis saxe TiTqmis yvela qveynis miTologiis aucile-
beli nawilia. berZnul filosofiaSi igi miTologiidan
gadavida da berZnulma gonma aqac uCvena Tavisi gamor-
Ceuloba: delfos samisnoze warwerili cnobili sityvebi
„Seican Tavi Seni` swored im brZenTa gadawyvetilebiT
gaCnda, romelTa Soris ukve aRiarebuli filosofos-
ebic iTvlebodnen. swored brZenTa da filosofosTa
saerTo gadawyvetilebiT moaTavses delfos samisnoSi
Svidi brZenis Sroma. platonis mier Tavis „protagora-
Si` moTxrobili es ambavi berZnul kulturaSi filoso-
fiaSi miTosis gadasvlis optimalur SesaZleblobaze
miuTiTebs. momdevno xanis mwerlebTan, brZeni, rogorc
wesi, profesiuli filosofosis da adamianebisaTvis sani-
muSo wesiT mcxovrebs aerTianebda. brZeni, stoelTa moZ-
Rvrebis Tanaxmad, konkretuli adamianis saxiT arsebul
RmerTs uigivdeboda. Sua saukuneebis literaturasa da
TeologiaSi brZenis ideals platonis „saxelmwifos` gav-
lena etyoba (mag., avgustinesTan (354-430), al-farabisTan
da sxvebTan). aRorZinebis epoqaSi marsilio fiCinos mier
platonis Targmanis Semdeg, utopiuri (aseve, antiutopi-
uri) saxelmwifoTa modelebi gaCnda. boviliusis „brZe-
nis Sesaxeb` am tipis naSromebs miekuTvneba.
brZeni, rogorc mas boviliusi warmoadgens, araa
RmerTTan mebrZoli titani. Tumca boviliusi, brZe-
nis saqmis didi mniSvnelobis saCveneblad, mas promeTes
adarebs. misi azriT, promeTem RmerTTa sacxovrisSi ce-
cxlze ukeTesi veraferi naxa. amitomac cecxli moit-
aca adamianebisaTvis. amiT man WeSmariti sicocxle da

- 76 -
SemoqmedebiToba STabera adamianebs. brZenmac, boviliu-
sis azriT, aseve unda SeaRwios sibrZnis umaRles caSi
da moitacos sibrZnis ukaSkaSesi cecxli, e. i. goneba.
es Sedareba misTvis sibrZnes samyaros uZiriTades sawy-
isebTan akavSirebs. goneba Tavisi bunebiT cecxlis ms-
gavsia. saerTod bunebam oTxi Svili Seqmna: arsi (yofna),
sicocxle, SegrZneba da goneba. oTxive adamianSi Sedis,
magram sakuTari SesaZleblobebis realizaciis saSuale-
bas adamians goneba aZlevs. brZeni am sawyisis yvelaze
sruli ganxorcielebaa adamianSi. amitom SeiZleba iTq-
vas, rom rogorc promeTem Seqmna, aseve brZenic qmnis
adamians. am azriT, imeorebda boviliusi stoelTa cno-
bil debulebas, rom „brZeni dedamiwaze meore RmerTia.
misi Zala codnaa. codniT amaRldeba igi bedisweraze.
igi zizRiT uyurebs fortunas da sulac ar eSinia misi`.
iseve, rogorc stoelebi, boviliusic Tvlis, rom didi
codna brZens SesaZleblobas aZlevs bunebis Sesabamisad
icxovros da iyos, bunebis msgavsad, Semoqmedi, Tu
TanaSemoqmedi. aqedan gasagebia, rom brZeni sulac ar
emorCileba SegrZnebebs, romlebic mxolod zedapirulad,
faqtobrivad ki damaxinjebulad warmogvidgenen bunebis
moTxovnebs. mas, vinc Tavis cxovrebaSi SegrZnebebiT
xelmZRvanelobs, boviliusi, brZenis sapirispirod,
sulels uwodebs. brZenis bunebaSi srul TanxmobaSia az-
rovneba da neba. amis gamo brZeni yvelafers Tavisuflad
akeTebs. am naSromis erT-erTi Tavia „nadiroba brZenze`.
igi kuzanelis erT mTavar naSroms _ „nadiroba sibrZne-
ze` _ marto saTauriT rodi gvagonebs. brZenis gansa-
kuTrebuli unaria, boviliusis azriT, erTiani (sinopti-
kuri) xedviT moicvas da ase Seafasos yvelaferi. „brZenis
Sesaxeb` naSromi naTlad aCvenebs ara marto kuzanelis
da platonuri akademiis wamyvani moazrovneebis gavle-
nas, aramed Suasaukuneobrivi msoflmxedvelobis tipuri
warmomadgenlebisac, magaliTad, areopagelisas.

- 77 -
rogorc aRiniSna, bunebaSi arsebuli oTxi saxis ar-
sebobidan, boviliusis azriT, adamiani oTxives Seicavs
Tavis TavSi. arcerTi maTgani araa mxolod material-
uri. yoveli materialuri sagnis materias raRacnairad
miRebuli aqvs specifikuri forma. TiToeuls Tavisi
garkveuli forma da arseboba aqvT sivrceSi. Tumca maTi
mniSvneloba im arsebis bunebaSi, romelsac adamiani ewo-
deba, sxvadasxvagvaria. esenia: ubralod arseboba, mag-
aliTad, oden fizikuri arseboba, rac axasiaTebs, vTq-
vaT, qvas (igive SeiZleba iTqvas, nebismier araorganuli
bunebis Semadgenel konkretul viTarebaze, qviSa iqneba
es, talaxi Tu sxva); gansxvavebul sferos Seadgenen arse-
bulni, romelTac fizikur arsebobasTan erTad, gaaCniaT
is, rasac sicocxles vuwodebT (mag., xe, an mcenaris yove-
li saxe); mesame sferos qmnian is arsebulni, romelTac
aRniSnul TvisebebTan erTad gaaCniaT SegrZnebis unar-
ic (mag., nebismieri saxis cxoveli); meoTxe saxis sferos
Sesaqmnelad saWiroa aRniSnul Tvisebebs daematos is,
rasac goneba ewodeba. rogorc vxedavT, calke, sxvaTa
Tanarsebobis gareSe yofna, mxolod fizikur arsebo-
bas gaaCnia. arsebobis am oTx wess boviliusi akavSirebs
antikurobidan cnobil oTx elementTan (wyalTan, mi-
wasTan, haerTan, cecxlTan). adamianis goneba, misi az-
riT, cecxls ukavSirdeba. arsebobis sami danarCeni saxe
Taviseburi mosamzadebelia gonebis Sesaqmnelad. ded-
abunebam warmoSva isini, rogorc Tavisi qaliSvilebi,
magram gonebas gansakuTrebuli adgili miuCina da gan-
sakuTrebuli Rirseba mianiWa. goneba umSvenieresi da
ubrZenesia, msgavsi da tolic dedabunebisa. boviliusis
azriT, dedabunebam sxva qaliSvilebic mas daumorCila,
radgan maT sakuTari Tavis batonoba ar SeuZliaT. is,
rom bunebam, mxolod meoTxe safexurze gaaCina adamiani,
boviliusisaTvis SemTxveviTi rodia. es arsebiTia ada-
mianis struqturis Sesaqmnelad. Tu didi berZeni eqimi

- 78 -
da moazrovne hipokrate (460-377) yvelgan da yvelaferSi
ricxvi 7-is Zalis gamovlinebas xedavda, boviliusi cdi-
lobs dagvarwmunos, rom yvelaferi ricxvi 4-is Zalas
gviCvenebs. magaliTad, adamianis ganviTarebis cvaleba-
dobas oTx etapad yofs: bavSvi saSoSi, ZuZuTa bavSvi,
xel-fexis daxmarebiT mxoxavi bavSvi da sakuTar fexebze
mdgari adamiani. oTxadaa gayofili masTan sinaTlis gza
mzidan dedamiwis centramde. am sferoebSi ganalagebs igi
yvelafers, rac moazrebadia. aqac dionise areopagelis,
bonaventuras (1221-1274) da sxvaTa sinaTlis metafizikis
gavlenis danaxva Zneli araa. emanaciis oTx safexurs bo-
viliusi ase warmoadgens: (1) naTlis sfero; (2) misgan ga-
momdinare sinaTlis sfero; (3) Crdilis, rogorc sinaTlis
kvalis sfero; (4) wyvdiadis, rogorc naTlis aryofnis,
e. i. ararsebobis sfero. es meoTxe sfero iwyeba maSin,
roca naTeli Seejaxeba miwas, romelic gaumWvirvalea.
aq qreba naTeli, radgan igi veRar aformebs miwas, ro-
gorc gaumWvirvals. am sferoTa raobaze cota meti
gvecodineba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT maTSi arsebulTa
Taviseburebebs. es, amave dros, RirebulebiTi danawile-
bacaa: RmerTi naTelSia, angelozebi _ sinaTleSi. ada-
mians Crdilis sferoSi aqvs miCenili adgili. wyvdiadis
sferoSi ki moqceuli arian gonebis armqone cxovele-
bi. naTlis mxolod ori forma arsebobs _ sinaTle da
Crdili, rogorc sinaTlis kvali. amitom gonebas, ro-
gorc RvTaebriv codnas, mxolod am sferoSi arsebulni
SeiZleba eziaron, e. i. mxolod adamianebi da cxovelebi.
am azrs masTan, metaforulad, asec vxvdebiT: angelozebi
Wvreten RmerTs, ase vTqvaT, caSi; adamianebi, TiTqos,
RrublebSi xedaven igives, cxoveli ki mxolod imas, ra-
sac miwa gveubneba maT Sesaxeb.
oTxi elementis da ganviTarebaSi oTxi safexuris
wamoweva aRorZinebaSi sokratemdelebze gansakuTrebul
orientacias miuTiTebs, magram ar unda vifiqroT, rom

- 79 -
manamde sqolastikosebi maT ar iyenebdnen. naTlis em-
anaciis oTx safexurze msjelobda 1437 wels gardacv-
lili cnobili espaneli Teologi raimund sabundeli
(†1437). am gvars zogjer weren, rogorc sadunskis, aseve
_ sebonds, xan ki _ sabunds. magram yvela, germaneli fi-
losofosi osvald kiulpes (1862-1915) msgavsad, xazs us-
vams imas, rom am Teologma Semoitana saocrad swrafad
gavrcelebuli termini: „bunebrivi Teologia` (Theologia
naturalis). mis sapirispirod gaCnda, rogorc „racional-
uri Teologia`, aseve „transcendentaluri Teologia`.
am moazrovnes frangi mwerali, politikosi da filoso-
fosi miSel montenic (1533-1592) iyenebs, rogorc Tavisi
kritikis sanimuSo obieqts.
boviliusTan aSkaraa warmosaxvis unarisa da
SegrZnebebis gaigiveba. misi azriT, isini ver gvawv-
dian imas, rac Cvengan damoukidebel sinamdvileSia.
es aRorZinebaSi is xazia, romelic axal filosofiaSi,
fr. bekonTan, warmosaxvas mecnieruli kvlevidan gaa­
Zevebs da mxolod xelovnebis sferosaTvis gamosadegad
cnobs. boviliusis azriT, orive _ warmosaxvis unaric
da SegrZnebebic _ adamianis materialuri Tvalia da
mas wlebis simZimiT daCaCanakebul da dedamiwaze qveda-
zidul moxucs agoneben, romelsac sul ufro aviwdeba
da veRarc aRiqvams im unaTles mzes, romelic yvelaf-
ris mizezia. aseT mdgomareobaSi adamianebi emsgavsebian
pirutyvebs. es ukanasknelni, maTi mimarTebiT bunebas-
Tan, romlis nawilic isini arian, veraviTar codnas ver
iReben uflis Sesaxeb, maT arc sakuTari Tavi ician da
arc sakuTari Semoqmedi. maTze pirdapiri azriT unda
gavigoT sityvebi: miwisagan warmoiSvnen da miwadve iqcev-
ian, anu qrebian. boviliusis SromebSi naTelia gavlena
fiCinos da mirandolas moZRvrebisa adamianze. adamians,
rogorc gonebis (da SesaZleblobaSi sibrZnis) mflobels,
SeuZlia Tavad airCios Tavis unarTagan is, romelic

- 80 -
ZiriTadi da sxva danarCeni unarebis ganmsazRvreli
iqneba. mas SeuZlia ubralod iyos, qvis msgavsad, da sxva
SesaZleblobebi ar gamoiyenos, magram SeuZlia adamianis
saxelis Rirsi gaxdes da yvela Tavisi SesaZlebloba az-
rovnebis miznebs dauqvemdebaros; rogorc akademiis wi-
namorbedebi, raimond sabundeli da kuzaneli Tvlidnen,
adamiani SeiZleba mxeci gaxdes da SeiZleba RmerTic iyos,
anda angelozi. vfiqrob, gasagebia, risi Tqma surda am
moazrovnes: qvis, anda cxovelis arsebobis wesis arCeva
ukve gulisxmobs adamianSi azrovnebis arsebobas da ar-
Cevanis Tavisuflebas.
italiuri renesansis warmomadgenlebis msgavsad,
Tavisufali arCevanis unari specifikuri Tviseba ki aris,
magram TavisTavad upiratesobad ar iTvleba, radgan
adamians SeuZlia mxecze dabla daeSvas. boviliusisaT-
vis es unari iyo saocari ufskruli adamianis gonebi-
saTvis, romlis winaSe, faqtobrivad, sakuTar uZlurebas
moaweres xeli, rogorc bernar klervoelma (1090-1153),
ise Toma aqvinelma. boviliusis azriT, adamiani mudam
dgas am ufskrulis winaSe, magram igi adamianis saxels
mxolod maSin imsaxurebs, Tu maTSi azrovneba, rogorc
goneba, aris dazesTavebuli. Tumca, mkacrad Tu vity-
viT, sakiTxavia, Tu ramdenad SeuZlia qristians, dauS-
vas gonebisa da zneobisagan savsebiT daclili adamianis
arseboba. aseTi daSveba mxolod sakiTxis mniSvnelobis
naTelsayofi xerxi iyo. arc boviliusi da arc fiCino
amas ar uSvebdnen, radgan Tavisufali nebis arseboba, e.
i. amorCevis SesaZlebloba, ukve gulisxmobs adamianSi
arsebobis sxva wesTa Sesaxeb cnobierebis qonas.
boviliuss yvelaferi es imisaTvis unda, rom dagvarw-
munos: namdvili adamiani, mxolod ganaTlebuli adami-
ania (studiosus homo), brZenia, romelic swored amis gamo
zneobrivad cxovrobs. amgvari adamiania namdvili mikro-
kosmosi da, SeiZleba iTqvas, partnioria makrokosmosisa.

- 81 -
isini Sinagan erTianobasac amJRavneben. rogorc adamian-
Sia suli da sxeuli da mTavari ki sulia, aseve mikrokos-
mosi sulia samyarosi. igi ise mniSvnelovania samyarosaT-
vis, rom SeiZleba iTqvas: mis gareSe samyaros SeiZleba
ararsi vuwodoT. samyaros WeSmariti suli brZeni ada-
miania. oriveni erTdroulad (mikro- da makrokosmosi)
maqsimumicaa da minimumic. erTi materialurad Seicavs
yovelives adamianis (rogorc mikrokosmosis) CaTvliT,
meore _ Tavis gonebaSi Seicavs yovelives. roca bovili-
usi ambobs, rom adamiani samyaros sulia, es misTvis imas
niSnavs, rom brZen adamianSi samyaro sakuTar Tavs imec-
nebs da, amdenad, flobs sakuTar Tavs. brZenis gonebaSi
samyaro sakuTar Tavs xedavs, rogorc sarkeSi. brZeni sa-
myaros bunebrivi sarkea (16,609). rogorc kasireri ganmar-
tavs, adamiani ubralo Tvali da sarke ki araa samyarosi,
romelic mis gareT arsebuli sagnebis ubralod amsaxve-
lia, aramed saganTa saxeebis sakuTar TavSi Semoqmedi da
makonstruirebelic.
is, rasac Semdeg, germanuli reformaciis gviandeli
warmomadgeneli, luTerze gulgatexili germaneli prot-
estanti mRvdeli, valentin vaigeli (1533-1588), bunebaSi
arsebuli sagnis, Cvens mier ara ubralod asaxvis, aramed
proeqtirebis (windagdebis) Sesaxeb ityvis, boviliusis
poziciis Sinaarss kargad gamoxatavs.
brZeni adamiani, ufro zustad, misi goneba, cnobiere-
ba, Seicavs Tavis TavSi, platonis ideebis msgavsad, im
arsebiTs, rac yovel arsebulSia. magaliTad, magidaSi _
magidoba, cxenSi _ cxenoba da a. S. marTalia, vaigeli
platons ar axsenebs, magram platonis ideaTa Teoriis
gavlena masTanac naTelia. am azriTaa brZeni adamiani sa-
myaros kvintesencia. igi samyaros msajuli da mbrZane-
belia da, amave dros, masze mzrunvelic. brZens Tavis
TavSive aqvs gasaRebi, rogorc samyaros, ise sakuTari
Tavis.

- 82 -
yvelaferi es TanxmobSia paracelsTanac da biblia-
sTanac. magram, ramdenadac boviliusi paracelss miRma
neoplatonur tradiciasac swvdeba, miaCnia, rom brZens,
romelic Tavis Tavsac, samyarosac da RmerTsac imecnebs,
SeuZlia samyarosTan erTad sawyiss daubrundes. sawyi-
si ki RmerTia. amrigad, adamianis mier sakuTari Tavis
gadarCena, samyaros gadarCenacaa. didi gadaWarbeba ar
iqneba Tu vityviT, rom boviliusi amzadebs im pozicias,
romelic SesaZlebels gaxdis adamianis bibliur da para-
celsiseuli gagebis gaerTianebas iohan gotlib fixtes
(1766-1814) anTropologiasTan. boviliusi, albaT, pirve-
lia evropul azrovnebaSi, romelic, erazmis miznis
Sesabamisad, Tavis moZRvrebaSi „brZenis Sesaxeb`, Sua sau-
kuneebis qristianuli da evropuli aRorZinebisaTvis ar-
sebiTi mniSvnelobis moZRvrebis wamoyenebiT, safuZvels
umzadebs saerTo evropul msoflmxedvelobas, rac, unda
iTqvas, sadReiso da samomavlo amocanaa.
Tavis traqtats „brZenis Sesaxeb` boviliusi dionise
areopagelis am sityvebiT amTavrebs: codniT ganaTle-
buli adamiani aris bunebrivi adamianis sinaTle da brwy-
invaleba, romlis wyalobiTac, adamianis Wkua, romelic
Tavdapirvelad sibneleSi imyofeboda, mivida yovelives
naTelyofamde da codnamde, rogorc dionise areopage-
li gvaswavlis „zeciur ierarqiaSi`. „adamiano, codnisa
da maZiebeli gulis mqonev, iswrafe maRla, Seican naTel-
Ta mama, romlisganac gamodis da dasawyiss iRebs yoveli
naTeli. da nurasdros gacvli mas imaze, rac ar arse-
bobs`.
dionise areopageli boviliusis mTavar naSromSi „brZe-
nis Sesaxeb`, SeiZleba iTqvas, kvlevis erT-erTi ZiriTadi
maorientirebelia. mis sityvebs vxvdebiT SesavalSive,
sadac damowmebulia „saRmrToTa saxelTaTvis` imis
Taobaze, rom codna aerTianebs TavisSi Semmecnebels da
Sesamecnebels, xolo ucodinaroba ki TiSavs maT.

- 83 -
2. miSel monteni (1533-1592)

SesaniSnavi frangi mwerali, sazogado moRvawe da


moazrovne, skeptikosi miSel monteni safrangeTSi
aRorZinebis specifikis yvelaze naTeli gamomxatvelia.
Suasaukuneebrivi msoflmxedvelobis upirobo batonobi-
dan ganTavisuflebis dasawyisidanve, rac antikuri human-
izmis gavrcelebas emTxveva, bunebrivad dadga sakiTxi,
adamianTa Tanacxovrebis, axali wesrigis SesaZlebeli
saxeebis Taobaze. germanuli da Sveicaruli reformaci-
is mier kaTolicizmis dogmebisadmi axali dogmebis da-
pirispirebam es sakiTxi kidev ufro aqtualuri gaxada _
Tundac imitom, rom dasavleT evropis qveynebSi kaToli-
cizmis poziciebi, marTalia, Sesustda, magram mainc sak-
maod Zlieri darCa. amgvar viTarebaSi gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas imsaxureben is moazrovneebi, romlebic ar-
sebul, mkveTri dapirispirebis da yovelives gadafasebis
periodSi, cdiloben zeklasobrivi da zogadadamianuri
poziciebidan adamianis cxovrebis axali wesis arCevi-
sas, SeZlebisdagvarad srulad gaiTvaliswinon, rogorc
warsulis da awmyos, ise awmyoSi mkveTrad dapirispire-
bul poziciaTa Soris SesaZlebeli Tavsebadi Sinaarsi.
amgvari ram daZabulobas amcirebda sazogadoebaSi da
mSvidobiani Tanarsebobis SesaZleblobas iZleoda. aman
mniSvnelovanwilad ganapiroba is, rom safrangeTis mniS-
vnelovani sameurneo da kulturuli centris qalaq
bordos moqalaqe, keTili bunebis adamiani, romelsac
qoneba saSualebas aZlevda didi dro daeTmo mogzauro-
bebisa da dakvirvebebisaTvis, am qalaqis meri gaxda da
TanamedroveTa mogonebebis Tanaxmad, „rogorc refor-
maciis, ise kontrreformaciis liderTa mrCeveli iyo`
(37,505). montenma literaturaSi, narkvevis, romanis,
moTxrobis gverdiT, daamkvidra avtoris poziciis gamox-
atvis axali forma _ esei. es saxeli aRniSnavs momcro

- 84 -
zomis nawarmoebs, romelsac Sesabamis dargSi dasrule-
bulobaze da yovlismomcvelobaze pretenzia ar aqvs, ma-
gram SedarebiT adekvaturad gamoxatavs avtoris realur
mimarTebas, bunebisa Tu sazogadoebis ama Tu im aspeqti-
sadmi. mTlianobaSi erTi avtoris eseebi, rogorc wesi,
erTmaneTs avseben da garkveul erTianobas warmoadgenen,
tradiciuli sistemebisagan gansxvavebuls. Tu gaviTval-
iswinebT, rom monteni skeptikosi iyo, SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom es misi miznisaTvis gamoxatvis adekvatur formas
warmoadgenda. qarTulad igi SeiZleba iTargmnos, ro-
gorc „mcdeloba`, anda „werili`; magram axal filosofi-
aSi avtoris Sexedulebis am saxiT gamoTqmis saWiroebis
gacnobierebis gamo, esei, didi winaaRmdegobis gareSe,
kidev erTi internacionaluri franguli sityva gaxda.
„stenfordis filosofiur leqsikonSi` (2006) es aspeqti
kargadaa gamoTqmuli: „uwyinari ambebis safariT, mon-
tenma filosofiaSi humanistur revolucias miaRwia`.
Tavad montenis meTods rom mivyveT, e. i. yoveli viTa-
rebis gansxvavebuli aspeqtebis mixedviT Tavisufali ga-
nazreba ganvaxorcieloT, nicSes Sefasebac unda gavix-
senoT. igi montens zogjer keTilganwyobilad ixsenebs,
radgan Tavadac iyenebda erTi da igives gansxvavebuli
Sefasebebis uflebianobis princips, rac, rogorc cnobi-
lia, karneades (daaxl. 213 _ daaxl. 129) izosTeniis (sa-
pirispiro mtkicebulebaTa tolZalovnebis) meTodidan
modis. montens da sxva skeptikosebs yovelive es diqtati-
sagan Tavis daRwevis, ufro zustad ki, erTmniSvnelovan
gadawyvetilebaze pasuxismgeblobisagan Tavis dasaRwevad
undodaT. cnobilia, rom nicSes skeptikosebi ar uyvars
da, sabolood, arc montens indobs. masac gabedulebis
deficits abralebs. es nicSesaTvis seriozuli avadmyo-
fobaa, magram iseTi, romelzec avadmyofia pasuxismgebe-
li. igi amoefareba Zvel formulas _ „ra vici me?` _ raTa
gadawyvetileba ar miiRos. Tavisive meTodis erTguli

- 85 -
monteni, albaT, upasuxebda, rom amgvar Sefasebasac aqvs
arsebobis ufleba, magram SesaZlebelia sxvagvaradac
SevafasoT es pozicia. Tu miukerZoebeli viqnebiT, unda
iTqvas, rom skeptikosis TavSekavebac gadawyvetilebis
erT-erTi saxea, da zogjer didi gabeduleba unda, rom
dapirispirebulTagan arc erTis mxareze ar dadge, radgan
amiT erTis magier SeiZleba ori mteri gaiCino.
miSel de montenis ZiriTadi naSromi „eseebi` dResac
inarCuneben mecnierul damajereblobas da mxatvrul
Rirebulebas. monteni safrangeTSi gaaznaurebuli bur-
Juaziis saukeTeso warmomadgenelia. montenis winaprebs
mxolod fuliT ar miuRiaT keTilSobilis wodeba. mama
safrangeTis mefis, francisk I (1494-1547) armiaSi ibrZo-
da italiaSi imperator karlos V winaaRmdeg. safrangeT-
Si dabrunda mtkice gadawyvetilebiT, rom samSobloSi
Seetana italiuri daxvewili kultura. es saqme sakuTari
ojaxidan daiwyo. antikur-romaul vilas stilze gadaa-
keTa Tavis mamulSi cixe-simagre. mamam Svils, italiuri
kultura misTvis Sinagani rom gaexada, dauqirava ger-
maneli maswavlebeli, romelic bavSvs mxolod laTinu-
rad elaparakeboda. patara miSeli skolamde laTinurad
laparakobda da virgiliuss, ovidiuss da horaciuss
kiTxulobda. 6 wlis monteni bordos humanistur kole-
jSi miabares. niWierma da didad ganTlebulma axalgaz-
rdam male daimsaxura TanamemamuleTa pativiscema, ro-
gorc mecnierTa Soris, ise sasaxleSi. orjer iyo arCeu-
li qalaq bordos merad (Tavad mefe sTxovda montens,
uari ar eTqva am postze). 37 wlis monteni pensiaze gadis
da brundeba mamis cixe-simagreSi, sadac SesaniSnavi bib-
lioTeka hqonda. aq sakuTar Tavs da Tavis Tanamedrove
samyaros aanalizebda, mis mier ukve mopovebuli didi
codnis safuZvelze. cdilobda, rac SeiZleba gulwrfe-
lad da obieqturad warmoedgina sakuTari principebi.
rogorc hans ioahim Stiorigi aRniSnavs, es iyo mzadeba

- 86 -
sikvdilisaTvis, magram ara saiqio netarebis dasamsax-
ureblad (monteni xom skeptikosi iyo?!), aramed sakaco-
brio samsjavros winaSe warsadgomad. es iyo arseboba
iluziebis gareSe da mainc Rirebulebis danaxva am sa-
myaroSi, rac SesaZleblobas aZlevda mas moralis da sik-
eTis gulwrfeli msaxuri yofiliyo (89,632).
1576 wels, 43 wlis monteni, Tavis biblioTekaSi
gaecno Zveli berZeni skeptikosis seqst empirikosis (200-
250) Sromebs, ramac mas Soki mohgvara. aq man dasabuTe-
buli saxiT naxa is, rac mis Ziebebs warmarTavda. man pi-
radi medalioni gamoaWedvina da masze cnobili skepti-
kuri principi amoakveTina: „epoxe` (Tavs vikaveb). aseve
gaaformebina cnobili skeptikuri kiTxva: „ra vici me?`
(im azriT, rom WeSmariti codna adamians ar SeiZleba
hqondes).
skeptikuri TavSekaveba montenisaTvis ar niSnavda
umoqmedobisaken mowodebas, aramed uars _ TavisTavadi
sinamdvilis Semecnebis, Tu asaxvis imedze. garda amisa,
monteni, kampanelasa da dekartisagan gansxvavebiT, ar
cdilobda skepticizmis gadalaxvas. skepticizmi, misT-
vis petitio principii iyo, romelic sakmao asparezs stovebs
adamianis aqtivobisaTvis. h. u. fon balTazaris TqmiT, es
aris sofistebis cnobili principis („yvela sagnis sazomi
adamiania`) SezRudva istoriuli da socialuri viTarebe-
biT (60,632). aq ki adamians mcire Zala da pasuxismgebloba
rodi aqvs. adamiani iZulebulia Rirebulebis sazomi sa-
kuTari pasuxismgeblobiT airCios. montenmac gaakeTa ar-
Cevani: safuZvlad antikuri skepticizmi airCia, magram
pirovnebis aqtiurobis dasafuZneblad antikurobidanve
moiSvelia epikureizmi da stoicizmi. es ar iyo mou-
lodneli im epoqaSi. montenis umcrosma Tanamedrovem,
iustus lipsiusma (1547-1606) „stoicizmis fiziologiis`
(e. i. stoicizmis bunebismetyvelebis) avtorma, antikuri
stoicizmi wamoswia. es ori moZRvreba, epikurelobasTan

- 87 -
erTad, romelsac aseve gamouCndnen gavleniani momxree-
bi, magaliTad, cnobili frangi filosofosi, epikureli
pier gasendi (1592-1655), sakmaod advilad poulobda ar-
istotelesadmi undoblad ganwyobil TanamedroveebSi
saerTos.
monteni, sakuTari poziciis meti damajereblobisaT-
vis, efeqtur xerxs mimarTavs. igi Targmnis im dros cno-
bil, espaneli Teologis, raimond sabundelis naSroms
„bunebrivi Teologia, anu wigni kreaturebze`. albert
Stiokli (1823-1895) Tavis „Sua saukuneebis filosofiis
istoriaSi`, calke ganixilavs sabundelis naazrevs, ro-
melic, misi azriT, mTlianad iziarebda lulis moZRvrebas.
igi uSvebs ori toluflebiani wignis arsebobas: bunebis
wignis da wminda werilis. pirveli maTganidan umaRlesi
WeSmaritebis amokiTxva SesaZlebelia mxolod kvlevisa
da dasabuTebis gziT. saRmrTo wignebSi igive WeSmariteba
mocemulia kategoriuli formiT, romelic avtoritets
emyareba da ara dasabuTebas. bunebis wignis Seswavla
Sesavalia gamocxadebis taZarSi. sabundeli darwmunebu-
li iyo, rom kaTolikuri qristianobis Sinaarss uryevad
daasabuTebda. amasTanave igi xazs usvams, rom adamianuri
goneba amas ver SesZles gamocxadebis gareSe. amitom es
Teosofiuri racionalizmia: gamocxadeba bunebis kvle-
vis Sedegebs uryev damajereblobas aZlevs; e. i. Sesavali
TeologiaSi sabuTdeba imiT, rasTanac is mivida _ ga-
mocxadebis SinaarsiT. aq Taviseburi winaTgrZnobaa dek-
artis meTodisa, romlis Tanaxmadac, RmerTis keTiloba
aris maTematikis utyuarobis sayrdeni. Tumca dekarti
fiqrobda, rom avtoritets esec (anu RvTis keTiloba)
ar unda emyarebodes. amitom man anselm kenterberielis
(1033-1109) dasabuTeba Taviseburad gamoiyena.
montenma sabundeli Targmna, rogorc ukiduresi
sqolastikuri racionalizmis gamomxatveli da, amdenad,
sasinji qva sakuTari skeptikuri poziciis upiratesobis

- 88 -
saCveneblad. mkvlevrebi aRniSnaven, rom es esei moculo-
biTac mis yvela sxva eseze didia da misi mniSvnelobac
gansakuTrebulia montenis gasagebad. sebondis apolo-
gia, anu dacva imaze miuTiTebs, rom miuxedavad am sqo-
lastikosis ukiduresobebisa, miuxedavad RmerTis arse-
bobis Sesaxeb misi daskvnebis sisustisa, misi ZiriTadi
debulebebi sxva sqolastikosebze met sayvedurs ar im-
saxureben, manam, sanam misi sapirispiro (aseve sqolas-
tikuri debulebebis) damajerebeli dasabuTeba ar iar-
sebebs. amis Semdeg iwyebs monteni sakuTari skeptikuri
poziciis dalagebas. es pozicia seqst empirikosisa da
ciceronis memkvidreobas emyareba. naTqvamidan gasagebi
unda iyos, rom e. w. renesansuli titanizmi, romlis erT-
erT Sedegs makiaveli da borjebi warmoadgendnen, fran-
gul aRorZinebaSi ar gvxvdeba.
montenis skepticizmis Tavisebureba isaa, rom igi
ar midis agnosticizmamde, rogorc amas skepticizmis
Sinagani logika moiTxovs. skepticizms igi iyenebs nebi-
smier sferoSi adamianuri Semecnebis absoluturobaze
pretenziis uarsayofad, aseve sakuTari msjelobebis
RirebulebaTa Sesamowmeblad. amis Semdeg ki, adamianis
aqtivobis da imediani cxovrebis dasafuZneblad iyenebs
epikureizmsa da stoicizms. montenis moZRvreba aris
anTropologia, romlis analizis ZiriTadi sagania misi
sakuTari meoba da sakuTari mdidari gamocdileba. igi
aravis axvevs Tavs Tavis Sexedulebebs, magram sasarge-
blod Tvlis gaacnos sxvebs sakuTari mosazrebani, imedi
aqvs, rom sxvebic bevr rameSi daeTanxmebian, radgan igi
cdilobda maqsimalurad obieqturi yofiliyo da sa-
kuTar TavSi zogadadamianuric daenaxa (15,39).
montenis skeptikosobas aravin eWvobs, magram sx-
vadasxva epoqa da sxvadasxva mkvlevari sxvadasxvanairad
afasebda misi memkvidreobis arss da mis gavlenas ro-
gorc Tanamedroveobaze, ise momdevno epoqebze. magali-

- 89 -
Tad, hegeli, Tavis „leqciebSi filosofiis istoriaze`,
montens, mis mimdevar pier Sarons (1541-1603), aseve maki-
avelis SesaniSnav adamianebs uwodebs, magram, radgan isi-
ni tradiciuli ontologiis problemebs ar amuSavebdnen
da saR adamianur sazrisTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs
aanalizebdnen, maT cxovrebis filosofiis warmomadgen-
lebad Tvlis. isini ufro saerTo ganaTlebis sistemaSi
imsaxureben adgils da ara sakuTriv filosofiis isto-
riaSi. gogiberiZe Tavis „filosofiis istoriaSi` (1941)
ase ajamebs montenis filosofiur pozicias da mis rols
frangul kulturaSi:
„montenis Semparavi skepticizmi da azris advili
konstruqciiT gonebis damakmayofilebeli weris manera
dRemde ver mouSorebia Tavidan frangul literatu-
rul da filosofiur publicistikas. filosofiurad
RirsSesaniSnavi axali ram montens kacobriobisaTvis ar
uTqvams. man antikuri pironizmi ganaaxla, gamoawyo igi
franguli civilizaciis msubuq kostumSi da momavali
burJuaziis gemovnebasa da zereled msjavrmdebel gan-
sjas Seuqmna msjelobis sakuTari stili da tradicia.
adamiani ubeduria imiTo, gvaswavlis Cveni skeptikosi,
rom darwmunebuli dadis, TiTqos WeSmariti codna Tan
dahqondes. monteni ki eubneba adamians, rom mas ar aqvs
araviTari codna; codnisa da WeSmaritebis gamonaxva
arc mis grZnobas da arc mis gonebas ar SeuZlia. ada-
mianis Sinagani da garegani qveyana, orive Tvalaxvevisa
da sicruis nimuSia. Semecneba daeZebs, ver naxulobs da
mis mier SeTxzuls obieqtur WeSmaritebad acxadebs [...]
erTaderT pozitiur saqmed montens miaCnia senekadan
(daaxl. 4 Zv. w. _ 65 ax. w.) nasesxebi ataraqsiis prin-
cipi da bunebisadmi adamianis daqvemdebarebis moTxovna,
gaWirvebaze amaRleba da miRweuliT sulieri kmayofile-
ba` (4,III,375). qarTveli mkvlevris ZiriTadi sayveduri
montenis mimarT isaa, rom igi meryevi aRmoCnda poli-

- 90 -
tikisa da religiis sakiTxebis analizisas da man refor-
macias mxolod imitom gamoucxada omi, rom igi socialur
aRviraxsnilobas Tavisufal gasaqans aZlevs (iqve, 395).
imave, 1941 wels, moskovSi gamosuli „filosofiis isto-
riis` meore tomis avtorebi ufro Semwynarebelni arian
montenis mimarT. aq montens umadlian brZolas reli-
giis winaaRmdeg. amas moiTxovda ideologia! rogorc
cnobilia, sabWoTa mkvlevrebi saerTod maRal Sefasebas
aZlevdnen frang ganmanaTleblebs da maT winamorbedebs,
swored religiis kritikisa da skepticizmisaTvis. isini
Seuferxeblad iTargmnebodnen, iqneboda es pol anri
holbaxi (1723-1789), etien bono de kondiliaki (1715-1780)
Tu sxva. montenis „eseebis` Semoklebuli Targmani ki
tradiciiT gadmoecaT (gamoqveynda peterburgSi 1891 w.).
1941 wlis rusul „filosofiis istoriaSi` gazviadebu-
lia montenis brZola Teologiis winaaRmdeg. wamoweulia
mis mier aristoteles, rogorc dogmatikosis da sqolas-
tikosis kritika. gogiberiZis qarTveli oponenti, sergi
danelia (1888-1963) montenis Sesaxeb TiTqos mis azrs
iziarebs, roca aRniSnavs, rom montenis Tanaxmad, zneo-
brivi Sefasebis msjelobebSi araviTari kanonzomiereba
ar arsebobs (41,211).
koplstoni Tavisi filosofiis istoriis III tomSi, ar-
sebiTad, iseve afasebs montens, rogorc gogiberiZe. igi
miuTiTebs, rom, montenis azriT, adamianis inteleqts ar
SeuZlia relativizms daaRwios Tavi, ar SeuZlia daadgi-
nos absoluturi WeSmariteba. monteni Tvlis, rom re-
ligiis arsebas qmnis moraluri cnobiereba da bunebis
morCileba (69,III,228). albaT, sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac,
rom gogiberiZe da, mogvianebiT, koplstoni saerTo wy-
aroze, fridrix iubervegis (1826-1871) „filosofiis is-
toriaze` miuTiTeben. am sakiTxis Sesaxeb ufro axali
poziciaa warmodgenili helmut flasaris redaqciiT
bazelSi 1994 wels gamocemuli „filosofiis istoriis

- 91 -
narkvevebis` IV tomis II wignSi. aq aRniSnulia, rom „mon-
tenis skepticizmi naTlad emyareba pironis (daaxl. 365
_ daaxl. 275) naazrevs da frangul klasikaSi pironizmi
stoasa da aristotelizmis gverdiT warmoadgens anti-
kurobis erT-erT did filosofiur mimarTulebas` (gv.
755). amave tomis pirvel wignSi, aRniSnulia montenis
Rrma interesi epikuresadmi, rom igi, Tavisi skepti-
cizmisagan gamomdinare, midis epikuresTan. sadavo araa,
rom monteni gansakuTrebiT afasebs epikures eTikur
Sexedulebebs, eTanxmeba, agreTve, epikures moTxovnas
politikaSi Caurevlobis Sesaxeb.
montenis skepticizmma mravali moazrovne daarw-
muna, rogorc safrangeTSi, aseve mis farglebs gareT.
maT Soris, upirveles yovlisa, asaxeleben mis megobar
mRvdels, pier Sarons. mas adre eWvic ki ar epareboda
kaTolikuri qristianobis WeSmaritebaSi. es pozicia
asaxulia mis SromaSi _ „sami WeSmariteba yvela aTeistis,
kerpTayvanismcemlis, ebraelis, mahmadianis, eretikosisa
da sqizmatikosis winaaRmdeg` (1593). Svidi wlis Semdeg
daweril naSromSi _ „sibrZnis Sesaxeb` _ Saronma miiRo
montenis skepticizmi, Tumca ueWveli darCa misTvis, rom
adamians aqvs TviTcnobiereba, romelic, Tavis ganuy-
ofel Sinaarsad udavod gulisxmobs Cveni Tavisufali
nebis arsebobas. es ki, Tavis mxriv, aucileblad niSnavs
moralur sakiTxebSi adamianis damoukideblobis aRiare-
bas da raimes ueWvelobiT dadgenis unars.
montenis pironul skepticizms sxva mimdevrebic ga-
mouCndnen. maT Soris gamoirCeoda portugalieli eqimi,
pier sanCesi (1552-1622), romelic faqtobrivad frangul
kulturas ekuTvnoda. igi cdilobda daesabuTebina, rom
Cven ara marto gare (garegan gamocdilebaSi mocemul)
sagnebze ar SeiZleba gvqondes sando codna, aramed sa-
kuTari Tavis Sesaxebac. Tumca Cveni arseboba Cven ueWv-
elobiT mogvecema. sanCesi amtkicebs, rom is, rasac Cven

- 92 -
codnas vuwodebT, mxolod miaxloebiTi codna SeiZleba
iyos sagnebis Sesaxeb. es ki mainc imaze metia, risi mo-
cemac aristoteles silogistikas SeuZlia.
pier sanCesi daibada da gaizarda safrangeTSi. igi
montenis naTesavi iyo. eqimis xarisxi miiRo monpelieSi.
erT xans tuluzis universitetis profesori iyo. misi
ori ZiriTadi debulebidan, erTi cnobili sofisti
gorgias (daaxl. 483-375) memkvidreobidanaa aRebuli
(„araferi araa Secnobili`), xolo meore _ sokrates cno-
bili principis modificirebaa („me isic ki ar vici, vici
Tu ara raime`). sanCesi aristoteles Semecnebis Teoriis
sastiki winaaRmdegia. is fiqrobs, rom _ raki raimes cod-
na misi mizezis codnas niSnavs, mizezis mizezis Ziebas
ki aucileblad mivyevarT ususrulo regresSi _ raimes
codnis SesaZlebloba gamoricxulia. sanCess ar aviwyde-
ba, rom maTematikur codnas aucileblobas miaweren, ma-
gram es sakuTari poziciis naklad ar miaCnia, radgan es
codna, Tu zustad vityviT, mxolod hipoTeturi bunebis
SeiZleba iyos, e. i. mxolod „Tu da maSin`-is fargleb-
Si aqvs Zala. es ki Cvengan damoukidebeli sagnis Sesaxeb
obieqtur, anu namdvil codnas ver mogvcems. aseTi cod-
na mxolod RmerTs SeiZleba hqondes da ara adamians.
aRniSnaven, rom termini „mecnieruli codna` pirvelad
sanCesma gamoiyena. cnobilia, rom sanCesis skepticizmma
gavlena moaxdina frangi filosofosis, gasendis zomier
skepticizmze.

- 93 -
Tavi IV. reformacia da renesansi germaniaSi

Sua saukuneebSi germaniaSi Zlieri safuZveli Seiqmna


imisaTvis, rasac aRorZineba anu renesansi hqvia. maister
ekhartidan modis rogorc kuzanelis filosofia, ro-
melic italiuri renesansis (magram ara germanulis) erT-
erTi safuZveli iyo, ise luTeris da misi mimdevrebis
naazrevi. germaniaSi italiuri humanizmis gavlena roix-
linis da erazm roterdamelis naazrevis saxiT Sevida.
maT luTeris reformacia moamzades. erazmisa da luTer-
is dapirispireba, erTi mxriv, reformaciis da humanizmis
gansxvavebis maCvenebelia, meore mxriv _ germaniaSi rene-
sansis specifikisa.

1. erazm roterdameli (1466-1536)

erazm roterdameli evropuli humanizmis erT-erTi


udidesi warmomadgenelia. gamoCenili italieli fi-
lologis da humanistis lorenco valas mimdevari. piko
dela mirandolas mowafe iohanes roixlinTan da german-
uli humanizmis did warmomadgenel, cnobil poet ul-
rix fon hutenTan (1488-1523) erTad, man safuZvlianad
Searyia kaTolicizmis zneobrivi avtoriteti ara mar-
to germaniaSi, aramed mTel evropaSi. erazms cnobilma
holandielma moazrovnem ioanes huizingam (1872-1945),
gaxmaurebuli wignis, „homo ludens`-is avtorma, Tavis
naSromSi „erazmi da reformaciis epoqa` (1924), „evropis
istoriaSi Tanamedrove gagebiT pirveli inteleqtuali`
uwoda.
sayovelTaodaa cnobili, Tu rogori dartyma miayena
romis eklesiis avtoritets lorenco valam, roca, dama-
jerebeli filologiuri analizis safuZvelze, uCvena,
rom e. w. „konstantines sigeli` yalbia. imperatoris am
naboZvaris safuZvelze, papebi saero xelisuflebazec

- 94 -
acxadebdnen pretenzias. aranakleb mniSvnelovani iyo
imis damtkiceba, rom qristianuli rwmenis simbolo, ro-
melic tolZalovani samebis erTarsebobas gamoxatavs,
gviandeli formulaa da mociqulebi mas ar icnobdnen.
titus liviusis wignebis SesaniSnavi analiziT, lorenco
valam nikolo makiavelis moumzada niadagi, xolo gasen-
dis ki im debulebaTa dacviT, rom „yvela adamiani sia-
movnebisaken miiswrafis`, rom „siamovneba aris WeSmariti
sikeTe`. lorenco valas saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli Zvel
stoelTa cnobili principis _ „buneba da RmerTi iden-
turia` _ aRorZineba.
rac Seexeba roixlins, man Tavisi gaxmaurebuli wig-
niT _ „kabalisturi xelovneba` (1494) _ undoblobis at-
mosfero Seqmna maSin Zalze gavrcelebuli magiisa da
astrologiisaTvis. swored roixlinis wridan gamovida
sqolastikuri ganaTlebis erT-erTi yvelaze mwvave kri-
tika _ „bneli adamianebis werilebi` (1517). am krebulis
erT-erTi avtori iyo Tavad roixlini, papis winaaRmdeg
brZolis aucileblobis dauRalavi agitatori.
erazm roterdameli, dezideriusi _ aseTi fsevdonimi
airCia, Tavisi dabadebis adgilis mixedviT, germanelma
gerhard gerhardsma, kaTolike mRdvlis ukanono Svilma.
sasurveli (deziderii) ojaxisaTvis namdvilad ar iyo
da amitom mamis saxlSi ar izrdeboda. garkveul yur-
adRebas mama mainc iCenda misadmi. sibejiTisa da niWis
wyalobiT es Cia da garegnul momxibvlelobas mokleb-
uli bavSvi gaxda maSindeli evropis yvelaze gavleniani
moazrovne, romelsac rCevas ekiTxebodnen da megobro-
bas sTavazobdnen Tavadebi, kardinalebi, mefeebi, papebi.
Zlierni ama qveynisani, iseve, rogorc gamoCenili mec-
nierebi, amayobdnen imiT, rom erazmisagan miiRes weri-
li.
maSindel evropaSi laTinuri enis sayovelTaoba sa-
suliero da saero saqmianobaSi, saSualebas iZleoda in-

- 95 -
teleqtualTa sruliad evropuli TanamSrolobisaTvis.
rogorc cnobilia, evropuli humanizmis warmomad-
genlebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevdnen am enis
SesaZleblobebis warmoCenas. marto erazmi ar fiqrobda,
rom sazogadoebaSi adamianis adgili warmoSobiT ki ar
ganisazRvreba, aramed ganaTlebiT. igulisxmeboda, rom
es laTinuri enis gareSe SeuZlebeli iyo. laTinuris
Semdeg, did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen berZnulisa da
ebraulis codnas, magram ganaTlebis safuZvlad maTi
moTxovna aravis ufiqria.
axali evropis mowodeba „wyaroebisaken!` axal da did-
mniSvnelovan datvirTvas aZlevda naTargmni teqstebis
filologiur kvlevas da analizs. msoflmxedvelobrivi
problemebis kritikul ganazrebas udavod Seuwyo xeli
qristefore kolumbis (1451-1506) mier 1492 wels amerikis
aRmoCenam. aRmoCnda materiki da xalxi, romelic bibliaSi
naxsenebic ar iyo. arc is unda daviviwyoT, rom laTinuri
enisa da filologiuri ganaTlebis safuZvelze warmodge-
nili Tanasworoba sazogadoebaSi, marTalia, rogorc aRi-
arebuli faqti, didi mniSvnelobisa iyo, magram arsebiTad
ama qveynis ZlierTa keTilganwyobasa da Tavmomwoneobas
emyareboda, romelic maT xasiaTze iyo damokidebuli.
konfliqtur situaciaSi naTlad gamoCndeboda xolme,
rom mTavari mainc sazogadoebis tradiciul ierarqiaSi
dakavebuli adgilia. amis kargi magaliTi iyo inglisis
ganaTlebuli mefe henri VIII (romelsac, rogorc human-
ists, erazmi Zalian aqebda) da misi kidev ufro ganaTle-
buli lord kancleris, „utopiis` avtoris, Tomas moris
urTierToba. oriveni erazmis garSemo gaerTianebul hu-
manistTa wres ekuTvnodnen, magram, roca mori realur
politikaSi daupirispirda Tavis mefes, am ukanasknelma
mas Tavi mohkveTa. erazmi, rogorc Cans, amgvar faqtebSi
SemTxveviTobas xedavda da ara aucileblobis gamovle-
nas. igi sicocxlis bolomde eloliaveboda Tavis ideas:

- 96 -
laTinuri enis safuZvelze, enisa, romelic mTeli evro-
pis ganaTlebis da rwmenis saerTo ena iyo, humanisturi
miznebis erTgulebiT, gadaelaxa saxelmwifoTa Soris
dapirispirebani da axali, ufro maRali samecniero,
politikuri da socialuri mimarTebebisaTvis Caeyara
safuZveli. erazmi Tavis samuSao oTaxidan uyurebda
evropas. vinc aqedan Canda, ZiriTadad, misi adresatebi
iyvnen. eseni, maSindeli sazogadoebis elita, konkret-
ul sakiTxebSi uTanxmoebaTa miuxedavad, mainc Tanaxmani
iyvnen qristianuli, maTi azriT, erTaderTi WeSmariti
zneobrivi moZRvrebis safuZvelze gaerTianebuliyvnen.
1516 wels erazmma dawera wigni: „qristiani xelmwifis aR-
zrda`. rogorc cnobilia, makiavelim, romelic, erazmis-
agan gansxvavebiT, marTlac kargad icnobda realur
cxovrebas, sami wliT adre daasrula Tavisi „mTavari`.
makiaveli yvelaze maRla ayenebda nacionalur interess.
mas realurad sxvagvari interesebis qmediToba ver war-
moedgina. es wigni sakmaod gvian gamoica, magram erazmi
rom mis Sinaarss icnobda, Cans ara marto wignis mTeli
Sinaarsidan, aramed miZRvnidanac: „sibrZnis araviTari
saxe araa imaze maRali, romelic aswavlis mTavars, Tu
rogor unda marTos zneobrivad`.
erazmis mxolod Sromebi ki ara, aramed, ubralod,
megobrebisadmi miwerili baraTebi, anda vinme gasaWirSi
myofi adamianis werilobiTi nugeSi, saxelmZRvanelos
saxiT vrceldeboda mTel evropaSi, magram mainc, yvelaze
cnobili mis mier 1509 wels gamocemuli Sroma _ „sisule-
lis qeba` _ gaxda.
1534 wels es naSromi s. frankma germanulad Targmna.
es iseTi mkacri kritika iyo maSindeli sazogadoebis
mmarTveli fenebis (feodalebis da samRvdeloebis) uvi-
cobisa da amoralizmisa, rom zogs ubiZga eTqva: erazmi
luTeris ideebiT iyo gatacebulio. sinamdvileSi ki, am
dros, luTeri 26 wlis ucnobi beri, aRtacebuli mkiTx-

- 97 -
veli Tu iqneboda misi.
erazmis aRniSnul naSromSi qalbatoni sisulele amt-
kicebs, rom mas didi (udidesi Tu ara) mniSvneloba aqvs
amqveyniur cxovrebaSi. mis gareSe arafers ar eqneboda
arc saRi azri da arc lazaTi. mas udavod miaCnia, rom
sisulele da sibrZne ganuyrelni arian da gadadian erT-
maneTSi. es naSromi frangi enciklopedistis, deni di-
dros (1713-1784) cnobili naSromis, „ramos Zmiswulis`
winamorbedia.
1509 wels daiwera erazmis kidev erTi cnobili naS-
romi _ „damcveli` („hiperaspisi`. daibeWda 1511 wels).
dacvas saWiroebda zneoba da qristianoba, romlebic
erazmisaTvis Sinaganad igiveobrivi Sinaarsisani iyvnen.
es ki, rogorc cnobilia, sulac ar Seefereboda kaToli-
kuri qristianobis realur Sinaarss. erazmma es, cxadia,
kargad icoda, magram mainc sasurvelad da SesaZleblad
miaCnda evoluciuri gziT progresis miRweva.
realurad arsebuli kaTolikuri qristianobis kri-
tikas isaxavda miznad erazmis mier „axali aRTqmis` axali
laTinuri Targmani. Targmani Sesrulebuli iyo berZnu-
lidan, darTuli hqonda mniSvnelovani komentarebi. spe-
cialistebi erTxmad aRniSnaven, rom am naSromis Semdeg
SeuZlebeli iyo luTerisTana reformatorebi ar gamo-
Ceniliyvnen. metic, isini Tvlian, rom es Targmani da ko-
mentarebi Tamamad SeiZleba SevadaroT luTeris cnobil
95 Teziss, romliTac man mTeli kaTolikuri samyaros
da, upirveles yovlisa, romis paps, aSkara brZolis gar-
da, sxva gamosavali ar dautova.
magram erazmi yovelive amas sTavazobda mkiTxvels,
rogorc Tavis mosazrebas, igi yvelas sTxovda dafiqre-
buliyvnen mis mier naTlad dasmul aucilebel prob-
lemebze. erazmis gasagebad aucilebelia gvaxsovdes,
rom, roca erazmi papis instituts akritikebda, igi
akritikebda cud paps, anda cud kardinals da samagali-

- 98 -
Tod miaCnda am institutis sxva warmomadgenlebi (mra-
vali maTgani misi piradi megobari iyo). amdenad, erazms
ufleba hqonda eTqva, rom luTers misgan gansxvavebuli
araferi uTqvams, magram Tqva sxva toniT da sxva mimarTe-
biT, ramac reformacia gamoiwvia. amitom ambobdnen, rom
erazmma dado kvercxi, romelic luTerma gamoCekao.
erazmi azustebda: me qaTmis kvercxi davde, luTerma ki
sxva jiSis frinveli gamoCeka. isic unda iTqvas, rom am
dros erazmis mdgomareobac ar iyo usafrTxo. trientSi
saeklesio sabWom igi daswyevla, rogorc „usircxvilo
eretikosi`, misi „sisulelis qeba` akrZalul wignTa siaSi
aRmoCnda. kargi da cudi mmarTvelis es dapirispireba
ZvelisZvelia da, zogjer, mmarTvelobis arsebuli for-
mis dacvis moxerxebuli saSualebaa. magram, amave dros,
igi saSualebas iZleva, ase vTqvaT, legalurad, yvelas-
Tvis naTeli gaxado, arsebulis uazroba. erazmma es
meTodi airCia. gansxvavebul gzas daadgnen erazmis wris
wevri, didi ingliseli humanisti, inglisis lord kan-
cleri Tomas mori da erazmis madlieri mowafe fransua
rable (1494-1553).
Tomas mori ar Semoifargla arsebulis kritikiT da
misi uaryofis aucileblobis mtkicebiT (magram arasg-
ziT revoluciis gziT). man gamoiyena marsilio fiCinos
mier laTinurad Targmnili platonis „saxelmwifo` da
misi modernizebuli varianti warmoadgina, rogorc iseTi
wyoba, romelsac warmatebiT SeuZlia Secvalos arsebuli
saxelmwifos formebi. Tanac Seecada eCvenebina is eko-
nomikuri da socialuri principebi, romlebic amgvari
wyobilebis ganxorcielebas SesaZlebels gaxdidnen.
morma sxvadasxva sazogadoebrivi Tanamdebobebis gav-
liT lord kancleris Tansamdebobas miaRwia. magram mas
bedma isic uCvena, rom axal klass, burJuazias, namdvili
Zalauflebis mopovebamde bevri aklda. mori sikvdiliT
dasaja inglisis mefe henri VIII, romelic erazmisa da mo-

- 99 -
ris Tanamoazred iTvleboda evropul humanizmSi. moris
bedi gadawyvita iman, rom mas, erazmis msgavsad, zogad-
sakacobrio mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, ar surda, in-
glisuri eklesia romisas gamoyofoda, rasac, anselmis
droidan dawyebuli, mravali ingliseli cdilobda. ro-
mis mier kenterberiis episkoposad daniSnuli anselmi
xom orjer gaaZeves inglisidan! inglisuri eklesiis me-
Taurad henri VIII miCnevis mowinaaRmdege mori sikvdil-
iT dasajes da iq cezare-papizmi damyarda.
isic unda aRiniSnos, rom mori Tavidanve damoukideb-
el politikas atarebda, rogorc burJuaziis warmomad-
geneli parlamentSi. 1504 wels parlamentarma Tomas
morma mefe henri VII (1457-1509) ar misca neba axali ga-
dasaxadebi SemoeRo. axalma mefem, henri VIII, romelic
ekekluceboda humanistebs, SeiZleba iTqvas, aiZula
mori kancleri gamxdariyo. Tanac sindisis Tavisufleba
aRuTqva (66,537). konfliqtis mizezi ki is gaxda, rom mef-
es meore colad ana boleinis (1507-1536) SerTva surda,
romis eklesiam ki pirvelTan ganqorwinebis neba ar mis-
ca. kaTolikurma eklesiam mors ar dauviwya damsaxureba.
1887 wels netarad miiCnies, xolo 1935 wels wmindanad.
inglisurma burJuaziam ki oliver kromvelis (1599-1658)
dros, 1649 wels, mefe karlos I (1600-1649) sasikvdilo
ganaCeni gamoutana da sisruleSi moiyvana.
Tomas moris „utopia` ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: pirvel
nawilSi mori, rogorc ekonomisti, politikosi da soci-
ologi, naTlad uCvenebs inglisSi xalxTa farTo masebis
autanel mdgomareobas, romelic TandaTan uaresdeboda.
meore nawilSi uCvenebs imas, Tu riTi SeiZleba Seicvalos
amgvari autaneli mdgomareoba. wigns ewodeba „utopia,
anu oqros wignaki, sasargeblo da amdenadve gasarTo-
bi saukeTeso saxelmwifo wyobisa da kunZuli utopiis
Sesaxeb`. aq humanisti Jil egidiusi esaubreba mezRvaurs,
romelic amerigo vespuCis (1454-1512) pirveli eqspedi-

- 100 -
ciis monawiled acxadebs Tavs, mis mier (kunZul tapro-
banze) nanaxi ucnauri saxelmwifos Sesaxeb. iq araa kerZo
sakuTreba, yvela Tanasworia, Sroma yvelasaTvis saval-
debuloa, morali, Tanamdebobebi arCeviTia. Sromis
Sedegebi nawildeba mosaxleobaSi moTxovnilebis mixed-
viT. ar arsebobs sikvdiliT dasja. igi Secvlilia mono-
biT. mTeli maTi keTildReoba damokidebulia Sromaze
da mecnierul miRwevebze. naTelia, rom aq bevria saer-
To platonTan. umTavresi ki isaa, rom orivesTan ker-
Zo sakuTreba iTvleba saxelmwifos yvela naklovanebis
mizezad. ZiriTadi ganmasxvavebelia is, rom moris uto-
piaSi yvela adamians aqvs ojaxi, rogorc saxelmwifos
safuZveli.
mkvlevrebi „utopiaSi` antikuri da momdevno epoqebis
solidur codnas xedaven. aq igulisxmeba avgustines
„RvTis qalaqi`, berZeni satirikosis, lukianes (125-180)
memkvidreoba, amerigo vespuCis Sromebi, erazm roterda-
meli.
Tomas mors, garda „utopiisa`, ekuTvnis, saintereso
narkvevi _ „cxovreba ioane pikusi, mirandolas grafisa`,
„riCard III istoria`, romelic Seqspirma gamoiyena Tavisi
dramisaTvis da sxva.
utopiuri (kampanela, fr. bekoni da sxva) da antiutopi-
uri (n. makiaveli da sxva) literaturis fonze, gancalkev-
ebiT dgas erazmis Rirseuli mowafe, yofili franciskane-
li beri, eqimi, erT-erTi udidesi frangi humanisti, „gar-
gantua da pantagruelis` (1532) saxelganTqmuli avtori
fransua rable. gansxvavebiT erazmisagan, rable, luTeris
msgavsad, xalxur salaparako enas mimarTavs; masebisaTvis
gasagebad dascinis arsebul wyobilebas da Cvevebs; icavs
ganaTlebis da aRzrdis axal ideals. ganaTleba realur
cxovrebas unda emsaxurebodes. ar unda azepirebinebdnen
teqstebs Tavidan bolomde da bolodan dasawyisamde, az-
ris raimenairi gagebis gareSe. swavleba ki ise unda warim-

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arTos, rom mas sasjelis SiSi ki ar warmarTavdes, aramed
sasiamovno procesad iqces, swavlisa da TamaSis gonivru-
li monacvleobiT. am mxriv, rable, zogi aspeqtiT, Jan-
Jak rusoze (1712-1778) ufro progresulia. Tavisi sityva
Tqva rablem utopiuri proeqtebis Sesaxebac. oRond, misi
utopia erTi monastriT Semoifargleba: esaa Telemis mon-
asteri „gargantua da pantagruelis` I wignSi aRwerili.
am monasterSi yvelaferi sikeTea, uzarmazari simdidre,
religiuri Tavisuflebac (saerTod ar aris eklesia), arc
kerZo sakuTrebaa, sadac, rogorc kote baqraZe (1898-1970)
aRniSnavs, „Tavisufalia ara calkeuli adamiani, aramed
mTeli sazogadoeba`. magram rables gamanadgurebeli iro-
nia ar indobs arc axlobel da arc Sorebel Tanamoazreebs.
TelemSi araa savaldebulo Sroma. ris da vis xarjze ar-
seboben da visi wyalobiT? _ esec garkveulia: gargan-
tuias didsulovnebiT! ufro met eWvebs aRZravs is, rom
aq progresi ukavSirdeba mcenare kanafis fsiqikaze zemo-
qmedebis Tvisebas da misi ukeTesi saxeobebis aRmoCenas.
rables Telemi, SeiZleba iTqvas, raRac sakarnavalo cen-
trs ufro hgavs.
moris utopia, iseve, rogorc platonis „saxelmwifo`,
imis cdaa, rom uCvenon erT qveyanaSi komunizmis aSenebis
SesaZlebloba. im dros, roca garemocva megobruli
araa da omebic mosalodnelia, e. i. maTTvis mzadebacaa
saWiro. cnobilia, rom es sakiTxi arsebiTi gaxda sabWoTa
xelisuflebisaTvis 30-iani wlebidan da dadebiTad pa-
suxobdnen masze. sabWoeTis am periods exmianeba moris
azri imis Taobaze, rom taprobanze oqro ar fasobda da
iq sapirfareSoebs akeTeben oqrosagan [aseTi iyo vladi-
mer leninis (1870-1924) dapireba]. moris utopia araa age-
buli socialur viTarebis gauTvaliswineblad. rogorc
sociologi da politikosi, igi uCvenebs, rom inglisSi
farTo masebis gaRatakeba swrafi tempiT mimdinareobda.
matylis warmoebis ganviTarebisaTvis glexTa meurneobe-

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bi gaanadgures da saZovrebad aqcies (amas gamoxatavda ga-
moTqma „cxvarma SeWama adamiani`). sazogadoebis progresi
moris „utopiaSi` mecnierebis winsvlas emyareba. es xdis
SesaZlebels eqvssaaTian samuSao dRes, fulis ararsebo-
bas, Zlier jars da maRali donis SeiaraRebas. koplstoni
aRniSnavs, rom mori pirveli iyo, vinc religiuri tol-
erantoba saxelmwifo principad aqcia. tolerantoba vr-
celdeboda yvelaze, visac RmerTis arseboba da sulis
ukvdaveba swamda (sulerTia, ra saxiT). magram es ar vr-
celdeboda aTeistebze. taprobanze sikvdiliT dasja ar
arsebobs. vinc aseT sasjels imsaxurebs, mas monad aqcev-
en. unda iTqvas, rom, gansxvavebiT platonis „saxelmwifo-
sagan`, sadac monebi ar arseboben, iq monebis didi raode-
nobaa (TiToeul ojaxze ori monaa miwerili).
Tu zustad vityviT, savsebiT axali arc erazms uTq-
vams raime. igi gulmodgined da Tanmimdevrulad icavda
antikuri humanizmidan momdinare ideebs. magram udavoa,
rom saWiro dros Zveli saWiro azrebis gaxsenebas da maTi
sikeTis damajerebel Cvenebas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs.
erazmi Tvlida, rom es ideebi WeSmaritad gagebuli qris-
tianobis igiveobrivia. mas, albaT, SemTxveviT ar uTqvams
(igi xom mainc episkoposi iyo!): „wmindao sokrate!` misT-
vis es iyo renesansis namdvili Sinaarsi, e. i. misi saxiT
(da ara saerTod) humanizmi da renesansi erTmaneTs em-
Txveoda. igi imedovnebda, rom antikuri humanizmi bune-
brivad Seezrdeboda qristes mier naqadageb zneobrio-
bas. amitom cdilobda erazmi antikurobis aRorZinebas
Sua saukuneebis ukiduresobaTa gareSe. misi humanizmi
internacionaluri iyo. am mimarTebaSi mniSvneloba aqvs
imis aRniSvnasac, rom erazms arc Zveli aRTqma uyvarda
da arc Zveli ebrauli ena. Zveli aRTqmis humanizmi mas
saeWvod miaCnda da ramdenadac SesaZlebeli iyo gverds
uvlida mas, gansxvavebiT luTerisagan, romelic am enas
gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda.

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2. martin luTeris (1483-1546) msoflmxedveloba

filosofiis istorias zogjer uxdeba yuradReba mi-


aqcios im adamianTa msoflmxedvelobas, romelTac, mar-
Talia, axali filosofiuri principi ar wamouyenebiaT,
arc Zveli principebis originaluri filosofiuri das-
abuTeba mouciaT, magram maTi saqmis da naazrevis gaT-
valiswinebis gareSe, saTanadod, verc maTi da momdevno
epoqebis suliskveTebas gavigebT. amgvari moazrovneebi
adamianis daniSnulebis im aspeqts aqceven yuradRebas,
romelic aravisTvis ucxo ar aris, TiTqos yvelas mier
igulisxmeba, magram konkretul momentSi misi wamowe-
va xalxis cxovrebaSi yvelafers axal Sinaarss aZlevs,
kulturis yvela sferos warmomadgenels axleburad
daanaxebs mis daniSnulebas. amgvari ram, Cveulebriv, ma-
Sin xdeba xolme, roca qveynis cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela
sfero CixSia Sesuli, roca Zvel saxelmZRvanelo prin-
cips Zala daukargavs, Sinaganad gamofitula, magram ar-
sebobas ganagrZobs mxolod garegan Zalaze dayrdnobiT,
anda imitom, rom ukeTes Secvlel princips ver xedaven.
aseTi situacia iyo germaniaSi XVI s.-is dasawyisSi.
germania emorCileboda romis paps da kaizers. orive
ucxo Zala iyo misTvis. sakuTari saxe germanias ar hqon-
da _ arc politikurad da arc religiurad. es garemoeba
xels uwyobda nacionaluri TviTSegnebis Camoyalibebas.
es germaniaSi axalgazrda burJuaziis gamoCenas mohyva.
es procesi sakmaod adre daiwyo. cnobilia kuzanelis
mogzauroba germaniaSi, romis eklesiiT ukmayofiloTa
dasaSoSmineblad. es misia marcxiT damTavrda. kuzanelis
sikvdilidan reformaciamde gavlili dro am naciona-
luri TviTSegnebis zrdis dro iyo, rac Seesabameboda,
rogorc nacionaluri burJuaziis, ise germanel TavadTa
interesebs.
italia, romis papis meTaurobiT, mCagvrel saxelmwi-

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fod gamodioda. SemTxveviTi ar iyo, rom roca leonad-
ro da vinCi, miqelanjelo, rafaeli da sxvebi adamianis
Zalisa da Rirsebis sadidebel saxeebs qmnidnen, maTi
Tanamedrove didi niderlandeli mxatvris hieronime
bosxisaTvis (daaxl. 1450-1516) cxovreba saSinelebebiT
iyo savse, saidanac gamosavals igi ver xedavda.
amiT aixsneba isic, rom 1510 wels romSi myof martin
luTerze, anda, ufro adre, erazm roterdamelze, pe-
tres grandiozuli taZris mSereblobas romSi, sasikeTo
reaqcia ar gamouwvevia, iseve rogorc renesansis diad
mxatvrobas.
germaniaSi xalxis yoveli fena ukmayofilo iyo. cno-
bili germaneli filosofosi vilhelm dilTai (1833-1911)
Tavis fundamentur gamokvlevaSi „adamianis gageba da
analizi me-15-e da me-16-e saukuneebSi` (1882) werda: `lu-
Terma TavisSi gaaerTiana opoziciis yvela moTxovna`.
luTerma wamoayena konkretuli pirovnebis RmerTTan
uSualo mimarTebis SesaZleblobis da samarTlianobis
principi. am safuZvelze uariyofoda kaTolikuri qris-
tianobis, rogorc RmerTTan mimarTebaSi aucilebeli
mosaSualis saWiroeba. es niSnavda germaniis ganTavi-
suflebas romis eklesiis religiuri da kulturuli
batonobisagan. amave dros es iyo pirovnebis Rirsebis
dafuZneba, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi
individuri SemoqmedebisaTvis gzis oficialuri gaxsna.
niSandoblivia, rom 1517 wels, roca mTel germaniaSi
luTeris 95 Tezisis mier gamowveuli qariSxali bobo-
qrobda, didma germanelma mxatvarma albrext diurerma
(1471-1528) am misTvis ucnob axalgazrda bers usasyid-
lod gaugzavna zogi Tavisi naxati.
luTeris principebis gamarTleba da misi saqmis didi
mniSvnelobis gageba SeiZleba mxolod maSindeli ger-
maniis specifikuri pirobebidan. mxolod amis gaTval-
iswinebiT SeiZleba gavigoT, Tu rogor moxda, rom ada-

- 105 -
mianSi Tavisufali nebis arsebobis uaryofa da damsab-
uTebeli gonebis Rirebulebis ugulebelyofa gagebul
iqna rogorc adamianis Tavisuflebis dafuZneba. amitom
T. manis mcdeloba, luTeri warmoadginos, rogorc saer-
Tod evropuli Tavisuflebis mociquli, Znelad gasazi-
arebeli debulebaa. Tumca man SesaniSnavad gaigo luTer-
is ZiriTadi saqme. werilSi _ „germania da germanelebi`
(1945) _ igi werda: roca luTerma „adamianis RmerTTan
mimarTebis uSualoba daadgina, amiT win waswia evropuli
demokratia~, radgan „yoveli adamiani sakuTari Tavis
mRvdelia`; „es aris demokratia`.
luTeris codnis gareSe germanuli kulturis
Semdgomi ganviTareba gaugebari darCeba. kulturis is-
torikosi mxolod aqedan Tu gaigebs im faqts, Tu ra-
tom ar upirispirdebodnen didi germaneli idealisti
filosofosebi qristianobas. rogorc cnobilia, hegelma
frangi ganmanaTleblebis brZola religiis winaaRmdeg
imiT gaamarTla, rom es xalxi luTerisagan ganuwmendel
religias ebrZoda. misi azriT, frangma ganmanaTleblebma
„sxvanairi formiT` moaxdines luTeranuli revolucia.
luTeris mier qristianobis axleburma gagebam mZlavri
iaraRi misca germanel moazrovneebs faqtiuri qris-
tianobis (papizmis) winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. germaniaSi
aRorZinebis epoqis moRvaweebisaTvis igi gaxda oficial-
uri msoflmxedveloba da sulieri iaraRi. yvela miiCnev-
da, rom luTerma qristianoba saR da realur niadagze
daamyara. gacilebiT gvian, hegelic ki amtkicebda, rom
luTerma da filipe melanqtonma (1497-1560) „savsebiT
uaryves sqolastika da yvela sakiTxs wyvetdnen bibliis,
rwmenis da adamianis gulis mixedviT`. ase fiqrobdnen
luTeris drosac. 1521 wels, roca xma gavrcelda, rom
luTeri Seipyres da mokleso, diurerma Tavis dRi-
urSi aRniSna: „o, RmerTo! luTeri mkvdaria, awi vinRa
gagvimartavs Cven ase naTlad wminda saxarebas?!` (42,129).

- 106 -
luTeris amgvari gavlena faqtia. Tumca Tanamedrove
mkiTxvels Zalian gauWirdeba misi fanatikuri, zogjer
aSkarad winaaRmdegobrivi, zogjer sofisturi mtkicebi-
saTvis didi Rirebulebis miniWeba.
luTeris gavlena germanul kulturaze Zalian Rrma
iyo da ufro Sorsmimavali, vidre amas luTeri moeloda
da, SeiZleba iTqvas, vidre es mas surda.
gaCnda qristianobis da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis
amxsneli mravali axali Teoria. glexTa omis ideologi
Tomas miunceric (1490-1525) xom luTeris moZRvrebi-
dan amodioda? man Tavdapirveli qristianobis msgavsad,
sazogadoebrivi Tanasworoba moiTxova. luTers ki amis
gafiqrebac danaSaulad miaCnda. germanul filosofiaSi,
vaigelidan dawyebuli, arc erTi mniSvnelovani moaz-
rovne ar darCenila luTeris gavlenis gareSe. luTer-
is gavleniT germanuli nacionaluri kultura sakuTar
niadagze dadga, Sinagani SemoqmedebiTi Zala gaacnobiera.
germaneli poeti da moazrovne, hainrix haine (1787-1856)
marto sakuTar azrs ar gamoTqvamda, roca amtkicebda,
rom germanul kulturas luTeris Secdomebic ki ufro
gamoadga, vidre sxvebis qvelmoqmedeba (76,9).
germaniaSi ara marto qristiani moazrovneebi
Tvlidnen, rom luTeris saqmes agrZelebdnen. iseTi an-
tiqriatiani, rogoric nicSe iyo, amkicebda, rom yvelaze
mniSvnelovani, rac luTerma gaakeTa, iyo undoblobis
gaRviveba wmindanTa da saerTo qristianuli mWvretelo-
biTi cxovrebis winaaRmdeg. mis Semdeg xelaxla gaxda
evropaSi SesaZlebeli araqristianuli vita contemplativa.
amqveyniuri moRvaweobis da saeroobis siZulvils bolo
moeRo.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulma ganapiroba is, rom germani-
is patara da umniSvnelo qalaqis _ vitenbergis (romelic
sul 2000 mcxovrebs iTvlida), aseve patara da umniS-
vnelo universitetis (orasiode studentiT) Teologiis

- 107 -
profesori martin luTeri mTeli eris beladi gaxda. es
universiteti 1502 wels daarsa saqsoniis kurfiurstma
fridrix brZenma, romelic didad exmareboda luTers.
Tavad luTeri, saerTo aRiarebiT, arc didi organi-
zatori yofila, arc didi mecnieri da arc didi filo-
sofosi, magram igi yvelaze ukeT mixvda, ra iyo im dros
qveynisaTvis aucilebeli. misi erTpirovnuli beladoba
1517 wlidan 1525 wlamde gagrZelda, e. i. im dromde,
roca luTeri Tavadebis mxareze gadavida da ajanyebuli
glexebis gaJleta moiTxova. rogorc fridrix engelsi
(1820-1895) aRniSnavda Tavis SromaSi „glexTa omi ger-
maniaSi`, glexTa beladis, miunceris mowodebebi mxolod
logikuri danaskvebi iyo bibliidan da Tavad luTeris
nawerebidan (71,47). magram reformators (ase uwodebdnen
luTers) ase Sors wasvla ar surda. man ukve imis mtkice-
ba daiwyo, rom qriste ar mosula imperatorebisaTvis
mmarTvelobis saswavleblad da maT saqmeSi Casarevad.
Tanasworoba mxolod saiqioSi iqneba SesaZlebeli, _ irw-
muneboda igi. Tumca Tavdapirvelad glexTa 12 moTxovnas
samarTlianad Tvlida. Cems kiserze iyos magaTi sisxli,
_ eubneboda igi glexTa gasanadgureblad mimaval rain-
debs.
1521 wels raixstagma Tavisufal qalaq vormsSi
luTeris reformaciis problema ganixila. iq, rogorc
cnobilia, germaneli Tavadebi XII s.-dan ikribebodnen
xolme saerTo germanuli problemebis gansaxilvelad.
1489 wlidan masSi qalaqTa warmomadgenlebic iRebdnen
monawileobas. luTeri am krebas ar eswreboda. misi
warmomadgeneli iyo melanqtoni. 25 ivniss melanqtonma
raixstags warudgina qristianuli rwmenis luTeriseuli
gageba. igi moiwones, miuxedavad imisa, rom imperatorma
karlos V is romis papTan erTad kategoriulad uaryo.
protestantizmi germanelTa did nawilSi, ukve gaba-
tonebuli mrwamsi iyo.

- 108 -
luTeri araviTar Sesworebebs ar iRebda. igi ver
SeuTanxmda verc cvinglis, verc kaspar Svenkfelds
(1489-1561), verc franks. 1540 wels Smalkandis saele-
sio krebam, luTeris miTiTebiT, cvingli da Svenkfeldi
gankveTa, franki, luTerisave miTiTebiT, sastik devnas
ganicdida. ase rom, kontreformacias, romelic 1545
wels daiwyo, ukve gaTiSuli protestantizmi Sexvda.
luTeri maZiebeli bunebis kaci iyo. jansaRsa da
mTlian adamians surda imgvari cxovrebiseuli pozicia
moenaxa, romelic adamianuri bunebis daumaxinjebel ar-
sebobas gaamarTlebda. misTvis gaugebari iyo, Tu ratom
unda ewinaaRmdegebodes adamianisaTvis RmerTisagan bo-
Zebuli Tvisebebi RmerTis rwmenas. Tavad mas RmerTic
swamda da eSmakic, romelic, rogorc luTeri irwmunebo-
da, aqtiurad uSlida xels bibliis TargmanSi. Targmanis
siZnele luTers buzis formiT warmoesaxa da luTerma
samelne esrola mas. vartburgSi, luTeris oTaxSi, ax-
lac uCveneben kedelze melnis farTo laqas. luTeri
arc garTobebze ambobda uars. xSirad imeorebda: „visac
ar uyvars Rvino, qalebi da simRera, mTeli sicocxle
suleli rCeba` (80,77). amave dros, igi mTeli seriozu-
lobiT swavlobda Teologias da egzegetikas. jer kidev
monasterSi yofnisas, man safuZvlianad SeiTvisa uiliam
okamis (1300-1348) moZRvreba, rom gamocxadebis WeSmariti
gageba adamianis gonebas ar SeuZlia. es misTvis mTeli
cxovrebis manZilze ueWveli WeSmariteba iyo. rogorc
martin haidegeri (1889-1976) aRniSnavda, luTeris azriT,
Teologiis dogmaturi sistematika iseT fundaments
emyareba, romelic pirveladi rwmenis sakiTxebidan ar
aris amozrdili, da romlis gagebac ara marto sakmarisi
araa Teologiuri problematikisaTvis, aramed faravs da
anadgurebs mas.
luTers sakuTari pozitiuri principi sWirdeboda
sayrdenad. icoda, rom mxolod uaryofiT axali araferi

- 109 -
Seiqmneba. amgvari principis „danaxva`, yoveli novato-
risaTvis aucilebelia. sxvadasxva epoqaSi es sxvadasx-
va saxiT xdeba da sxvadasxvanairad aRiqmeba. morwmune
adamiani amas RvTis wyalobad Tvlis. mas arsebiTad mi-
aCnia am principis saZiebeli winaswari samuSao. ZiebaSi
Tvisebrivi cvlilebis naxtomisebri xasiaTi mTeli wi-
namavali kvlevisagan gansxvavebul wyaroze migvaniSnebs.
sakuTari kvleva-Ziebisa da mTeli Tavisi cxovrebisaTvis
aseT gardatexis punqtad luTeri Tvlida 1513 wlis da-
sawyiss, roca man, mis mier manamde aTasjer wakiTxul
romaelTa mimarT pavle mociqulis werilSi, adamianis
cxovrebis sazrisi amoikiTxa: Tu ginda marTali iyo
RmerTis winaSe, mxolod rwmeniT unda cxovrobde. amaze
luTeri dawvrilebiT werda Tavis werilSi „xilva koSk-
Si`. es iyo ara ubralod rwmenis mniSvnelobis aRiareba,
aramed arsebobis ZiriTad principad misi qceva. Tu ar
gwams RmerTi, ver iarsebeb, amtkicebda luTeri (80,43).
TavisTavad aq, TiTqos, axali araferi ar aris qristian-
isaTvis, magram es siaxled gamoCnda Sua saukuneebis
Semdeg. es iyo swored pirveladi qristianuli pozici-
is aRdgenis cda. luTeri uaryofda rwmenis siwmindis
„SebRalvas` raime Teoriuli msjelobiT. igi daupirisp-
irda „filosofiuri azrovnebis negatiur Teologias`,
radgan igi RmerTis idumalebas argumentebis saSualebiT
adgens. amas luTeri upirispirebs qristianul negatiur
Teologias, romlis mixedviTac RmerTis namdvili idum-
aleba da dafaruloba mxolod rwmeniT Seimecneba. magram
amgvari rwmena, Tu is araviTari Teoriuli mimarTebiT
SezRuduli araa (Tu aseTi ram civilizebuli adamian-
isaTvis saerTod SesaZlebelia), SeiZleba mxolod da mx-
olod piraduli iyos. es individuri rwmena, pirovnebas,
rogorc mis uSinaganes da usakuTrives, „sakuTar RmerTs`
warmousaxavs. es ki kaTolicizmTan SeuTavsebeli prin-
cipia, radgan misTvis mxolod is RmerTia savaldebulo,

- 110 -
romelTanac pirovnebis Suamavali romis eklesiaa.
„sakuTari RmerTi`, romelic piradi rwmenis ZaliTaa
daSvebuli, adamians avtonomias aZlevs. mas angariSis
Cabareba, sxvisTvis, gareSesaTvis ki ar uxdeba, aramed sa-
kuTari Sinagani samyarosaTvis. didi germaneli mistiko-
sis maister ekhartis swavleba adamianSi RvTaebrivi na-
perwklis Sesaxeb, luTerTan adamianSi sakuTari ZalebiT
RmerTis dadgenis saSualebad iqceva. marTalia, es RmerTi
dadgenilia, rogorc transcendenturi, Seumecnebadi da
idumali, magram mas ar SeiZleba pirovnebis individuri
rwmenis gavlena ar aCndes. sxvisi nanaxi da gancdili
RmerTi CemTvis umniSvneloa. is mec iseTive unda vnaxo.
RmerTi isaa, rac me mwams Cemad, ityvis luTeri (81,II,403).
pavle mociqulis aRniSnuli epistoles wyalobiT lu-
Terma, amgvari, sxvisgan nanaxi RmerTisagan gaiTavisufla
Tavi. amitom Tqva man: pavlesTan me dakarguli qriste
xelaxla vipove. luTeri Tvlida, rom misi sakuTari mso-
flmxedvelobis Semdgomi ganviTareba aRniSnuli prin-
cipis sul ufro da ufro Rrma gageba iyo.
amgvari pirovnuli rwmena morwmunes Zalas, mizans
da imeds aZlevs, _ amtkicebda luTeri. WeSmaritad mor-
wmunes yvelaferi SeuZlia. visac qriste swams, iseve
Zlieria, rogorc Tavad qriste. morwmunisaTvis mxolod
is arsebobs, rac mas swams. rwmena yvelaze Zlieria _
caze, miwaze, saerTod samyaroze. Tu morwmunes sjera,
rom ziarebisas is Wams qristes xorcs, es namdvilad asea,
magram Tu mas sjera, rom igi Seeqceva Cveulebriv, xr-
wnad xorcsa da Rvinos, esec sworia.
ucnauri isaa, rom pirovnebis Zalisa da RmerTTan
misi uSualo mimarTebis uflebis damcveli luTeri
kategoriulad uaryofs pirovnebis nebis Tavisuflebis
SesaZleblobas. igi mas absoluturad umorCilebs
RmerTs, riTac faqtobrivad uariyofa konkretuli
pirovnuli Rirsebisa da Zalis SesaZlebloba. ger-

- 111 -
manuli mistikis tradiciis Tanaxmad, luTeri rwmenis
sruli avtonomiurobis principidan amosuli, adamianis
Sefasebis kriteriums rwmenaSi xedavs da ara misi moq-
medebis SedegSi, Tundac es Sedegi keTili saqme iyos.
misi azriT, nebis Tavisufleba adamians ki ara, mxolod
mas aqvs, visac absoluturi Zala gaaCnia, e. i. RmerTs.
igi qmnis da, sanam surs, amyofebs Seqmnils. 6000 wlis
winaT samyaro arara iyo. RmerTma Seqmna igi da roca
moisurvebs gaaqrobs mas (81,II,344). saswaulisaTvis, ro-
gorc RmerTis Zalis sabuTisaTvis, luTeri Sors ar
midis (Tumca „sabuTi` morwmunes ar unda sWirdebodes).
is, rom haeriT vsunTqavT, is, rom kldidan wyali gad-
modis, miwidan puri izrdeba da sxva _ yvelaferi es
saswaulia, e. i. SesaZlebeli mxolod RmerTis ZaliT.
miznis misaRwevad luTeri arc sofistur daskvnebs er-
ideba. aRniSnul yoveldRiur movlenaTa msgavs ueWvel
faqtad Tvlis igi iesu navinis mier mzis SeCerebas da
ritorikulad agrZelebs: Tu ra didi iyo es saswauli,
astronomebs SeekiTxeTo. TiTqos dasadgeni iyo ara is,
marTla moxda Tu ara es araCveulebrivi movlena, ar-
amed is, Tu ramdenad arabunebrivia igi.
qristianobis amgvari gagebisaken ikvlevda gzas
luTeri 1513 wlidan, roca man iohanes fon Staupitcis
(daaxl. 1468-1524) kaTedra daikava vitenbergis univer-
sitetSi da leqciebis kiTxva daiwyo bibliaze. aq, pirvel
leqciaze muSaobis dros, ganicada man „xilva koSkSi`,
rasac Semdeg „reformaciis dabadebis saaTi daarqves`.
es leqciebi fsalmunis komentarebs exeboda da didi
interesi gamoiwvia. 1515 wels luTeri iwyebs romael-
Ta mimarT pavles epistoles ganmartebas. aq arsebiTad
mocemulia misi Teologiis ZiriTadi principebi, rac
safuZvlad daedo luTeris cnobil 95 Teziss. 1513 wels
luTeris sulSi dawyebuli reforma am TezisebiT obi-
eqturobas iZens _ iwyeba reformacia germaniaSi. es iyo

- 112 -
1517 wels 31 oqtomberi, TezisebSi luTeri kaTolikur
eklesias abralebda, rom man rwmena mxolod garegnulad
aqcia.
oficialuri kaTolikoba gansakuTrebul yuradRe-
bas aqcevda rwmenis Sesabamis saqmianobas, morwmuneTa
cxovrebas, ritualebs. sxvanairad SeuZlebelia adamianis
rwmenis Semowmeba sazogadoebrivi instanciis mier. gansa-
kuTrebulad damarwmuneblad iTvleboda xorcis tanjva,
amqveyniurze uaris Tqma qristes gulisaTvis da sxva. es
principi absurdamde davida indulgenciebiT vaWrobiT.
am saxiT codvis gamosyidvis dadgena, marTlac, cini-
kuri uaryofa iyo qristianobisa. mdidar borotmoqmeds
SeeZlo uamravi indulgencia eyida da momavali codve-
bic winaswar gamoesyida. es Zalze saWirboroto sakiTxi
iyo. amis gamo gaxda luTeris mier vitenbergis eklesiis
karebze gakruli 95 Tezisi germaniaSi reformaciis da-
sawyisi. SeiZleba avtori arc apirebda reformaciis daw-
yebas, magram Tezisebis rezonansma aiZula am gzas dad-
gomoda. reformaciis Teoriuli safuZveli am 95 Tezisis
dasabuTeba gaxda.
Tezisebi ase iwyeboda: „WeSmaritebis siyvaruliT da
misi dafuZnebis surviliT, vitenbergSi Tavisufal xe-
lovnebaTa da wminda Teologiis doqtori, am ukanaskne-
lis ordinaruli profesori, Rirsi mama martin luTeris
TavmjdomareobiT, gaimarTeba disputi qvemoT CamoTvlil
debulebebze. amitom is sTxovs maT, vinc aq ar imyofe-
ba da sityvierad kamaTSi monawileobas ver miiRebs, es
werilobiT gaakeTos` (80,20). sapirispiro poziciis dac-
vis msurveli ar aRmoCnda. moazrovne germanelTa didi
umravlesoba luTeris momxre gaxda da amiT faqtiurad
daupirispirda romis eklesias.
luTeri iwyebs qristes sityviT. esaa mowodeba mor-
wmuneTa mimarT _ moinanion! luTeri fiqrobs, rom es
araa erTjeradi aqti. morwmunis mTeli cxovreba unda

- 113 -
iyos monanieba. rac Seexeba paps, mas ar SeiZleba preten-
zia hqondes adamianis im danaSaulisagan ganTavisufle-
baze, romlisTvisac sasjeli TviT mas, anda saeklesio
krebas ar daudvia. xalxis didi nawili am baqiur dapir-
ebas SecdomaSi Sehyavs (Tezisi 24). luTeri moiTxovda
imaT dawyevlas, vinc amgvar raimes aswavlis (Tezisi 32).
„[...] RatakTaTvis micema, anda gaWirvebulTaTvis sesxe-
ba ukeTesia, vidre mitevebis sabuTis yidva` (Tezisi 43).
zogi Tezisi dascinoda imas, Tu ra Rirs, romis ekle-
siis TvalsazrisiT, miteveba mRvdlis qaliSvilis gaupa-
tiurebisaTvis, ra safasuri unda gadaixados mRvdelma
qalis gaupatiurebisaTvis da ra _ saero kacma da sxva
(12).
isic unda iTqvas, rom Tezisebi mTlad mourideblad
ar iyo dawerili. zogan luTeri ukandasaxev gzasac
itovebda. 50-e Tezisi aseTia: „papma rom icodes mite-
vebis sabuTTa gamyidvelebis gamoZalvis meTodebi, igi
irCevda, petres taZari umal daferflili enaxa, vidre
Tavisi samwysos tyaviT, xorciT da ZvlebiT aeSenebina`.
es urcxvi vaWroba, luTeris azriT, uxerxul mdgomareo-
baSi ayenebs mecnierebs, romelTac uWirT papis dacva
boroti kritikosebisagan. am boroti kritikosebis sax-
eliT, luTeri svams kiTxvas: „papi, romelic dRes ufro
mdidaria, vidre umdidresi krasusi, ratom aSenebs wmin-
da petres taZars sawyali morwmuneebis fuliT da ara
sakuTariT?` (Tezisi 81) da a. S.
hegeli aRniSnavs, rom luTeri daupirispirda saer-
Tod sqolastikuri azrovnebis da Sua saukuneebis
cxovrebis wess. hegelis mier SesaniSnavad formulire-
buli luTeranuli protestantizmis cxovrebis wesi,
sxva araferia, Tu ara burJuaziuli cxovrebis wesi. Sua
saukuneebSi oficialurad sami didi ideali batonobda:
uqorwinoba, siRatake da morCileba. luTerma samive
gaauqma. man „RvTaebrivad gamoacxada, qorwinebisa da

- 114 -
simdidris gverdiT, Tavisuflebac`. es Tavisufleba ada-
mianis sxva adamianebis morCilebisagan Tavisufleba iyo.
igi garantirebuli iyo yoveli adamianis RmerTTan uSu-
alo mimarTebis SesaZleblobiT. es ki adamianis umaRles
msajulad sakuTar sindiss acxadebs. amiT „qreba yovel-
gvari monoba`, paTetikurad acxadebs hegeli.
luTeris ganmanTavisuflebel moRvaweobas hegeli
damajereblad ukavSirebs mis mier bibliis germanulad
Targmans, rogorc msoflmxedvelobiT sakiTxs. misi az-
riT, axali rwmena ver gaxdeboda Sinagani germanuli kul-
turisaTvis, luTers rom adamianis uSinaganesi gancdebis
germanul enaze gamoxatvis saSualeba ar Seeqmna. kacisT-
vis sakuTreba mxolod isaa, rac mis mSobliur enazea
gadmoxatuli: „subieqturi Tavisufleba SeuZlebelia,
Tu sakuTar enaze azrovneba ar SegiZlia`. xolo Tu ada-
miani Tavisufali ar aris, igi ver iqneba Sinaganad morw-
mune. amitom luTeri Tavis reformacias ver daasruleb-
da, biblia germanulad rom ar eTargmna, _ amtkicebda
hegeli Tavis „leqciebSi filosofiis istoriaze`.
luTerma kargad dainaxa, rom Zvelsa da axal aRTqmas
Soris umniSvnelovanesi gansxvaveba swored pirovnebis
gagebaSia. Zveli aRTqma pirovnebis sakuTriv Rirebulebas
ar scnobda. amitom adamians RmerTTan misasvleli gza
mxolod garegani samyarodan hqonda. axal aRTqmaSi ki
Sinaganobis principi gadamwyvetia. galatelTa mimarT pav-
le mociqulis komentarebSi luTeri werda, rom adamiani
marTali SeiZleba iyos ori sapirispiro gziT: 1. garega-
niT, roca cdiloben daicvan adamianuri samarTlianoba
da sakuTari Zalebis imediT, varjiSiTa da SeCveviT mi-
aRwion imas, rom maTi moqmedeba kanons Seesabamebodes.
amgvar gzas aRwerdnen aristotele da sxva filosofos-
ebi. amis safuZveli iyo TviT moses kanonebic. aTi mcneba
(dekalogi) garegnulze iRebda orientacias. Zvel aRTq-
maSi sasjelisa Tu sikeTis dapirebiT sTxoven adamians

- 115 -
RmerTis samsaxurs. meore gza Sinagania. igi rwmenas da
wyalobas emyareba. es gza maSin iwyeba, roca adamiani sa-
sos warikveTs pirveli gzis sisworeSi, roca igi sakuTar
garduval codvilobas gaacnobierebs, RmerTis winaSe
daemxoba da mimarTavs mas _ Semiwyale, RmerTo, cod-
vili! aq yvelaferi gulwrfelobazea damokidebuli. rw-
mena im siRrmisa unda iyos, rom imedi gqondes: „odesRac,
RvTis wyalobiT, RmerTiT marTali, keTili da wminda
iqnebi` (80,83).
Teologia, marTalia, filosofias msaxuris rols ani-
Webda, magram ramdenadac dasabuTebas raRac Rirebuleba
mieniWa, cxadia, dausabuTebads amiT moaklda raRac
Rirebuleba. frTxili Teologebi eWvis TvaliT uyure-
bdnen amgvar msaxurs. luTermac moisurva Teologiis
ganTavisufleba filosofiisagan. igi, pavle mociqulis
cnobili poziciidan gamomdinare, filosofias (aristo-
telidan moyolebuli) sofistikas abralebda. luTeri
cdilobs pavles poziciis gamarTlebas imaze miTiTebiT,
rom qristemdeli moRvaweebis (mag., sokrates) garegnul
qcevaSi, marTalia, eWvis Setana SeuZlebelia, magram isi-
ni mainc zemoaRniSnuli pirveli gzis warmomadgenlebi
arian. maTi codva, Turme, is yofila, rom „miuxedavad
yovelivesi, maT ar SeeZloT, Sinaganad Tavi SeekavebinaT
imisagan, rom sakuTari Tavi mowonebodaT da, yovel
SemTxvevaSi, TavianT gulSi mainc, sakuTari Tavi ar eqoT.
Turme amitom Tqva pavle mociqulma maT Sesaxeb: `ityo-
den TavTa TvisTa brZen da gancofnes`. Tu gavixsenebT,
rom luTers, erfurtis universitetSi swavlis dros,
unariani kamaTis gamo, „filosofoss` uwodebdnen met-
saxelad, SegveZleba warmovidginoT, Tu ra sakiTxebze da
rogori wesiT, mimdinareobda es diputebi.
luTerisaTvis udides mtrad maSindel univer-
sitetebSi gabatonebuli aristotele iqca. albaT, imasac
hqonda mniSvneloba, rom aristotele, Toma aqvinelis

- 116 -
gavleniT, kaTolikuri Teologiis sayrdenad iyo aRi-
arebuli. gamodis ra iqidan, rom aristoteles logika
miCneuli iyo „organonad` _ e. i. neitralur iaraRad,
romelsac sapirispiro poziciebis damcvelebi iyenebdnen
_ luTeri logikis Semqmnel gonebas „quCis qals` uwo-
debs. misTvis aristotele am „quCis qalis` mTeli urcx-
vobis yvelaze aSkara warmomadgenelia. igi filosofiis
personifikaciaa. Tumca luTeri sxva filosofosebsac
ar aklebda lanZRvas. magaliTad, Zvel berZen material-
ist epikures Rors uwodebda. luTerma specialuri wer-
ilic miswera „germaneli eris qristian Tavadebs`: uni-
versitetebi Tavisufal cxovrebas ewevian. iq qristeze
metad brma warmarTi aristotele batonobs. „Cemi rCevaa,
aristoteles naSromebi savsebiT moviciloT`. mas gan-
sakuTrebiT aRizianebda aristoteles Sroma „sulis
Sesaxeb`, sadac konkretuli adamianis sulis sxeulTan
erTad mokvdavobazea msjeloba. es imis sapirispiroa,
rac saxarebaSi naTlad sweria. aseTi ram ki aravis unda
epatios. aristoteles luTeri „filosofosTa mefis`
nacvlad wyvdiadis „mefes uwodebs`. aseve darwmunebu-
lia luTeri imaSi, rom adamianis neba Tavisufali araa.
es Tavisufleba mas absoluturi azriT esmis. amitom igi
erazmis winaaRmdeg amtkicebs, rom mxolod RmerTis ne-
baa Tavisufali.
deistebis RmerTi misTvis RmerTi araa. igi kunZiviT
devs caSi. RmerTi yovlisSeZle da qmediTi unda iyos,
romelsac sasowarkveTili adamiani mouxmobs. igi yvelas
imdenad exmareba, ramdenadac mas swams. „RmerTi cari-
eli dafaa, romelzec araferi sweria, garda imisa, rasac
Sen daswer masze` (81,462). am pozicias zogi TavisTavadi
nivTisa da movlenis kantiseuli gagebis anticipaciad
miiCnevs. aseTi retrospeqtuli xedviT aRniSnuli pozi-
cia, artur Sopenhaueris (1793-1860) msgavsad, SeiZleba
platonTan da indur vedebSic davinaxoT. Tavad kanti

- 117 -
erTxelac arc axsenebs Tavis SromebSi luTers. kantTan
ufro axloa luTeris da pavles debuleba imis Taobaze,
rom adamiani erTdrouladaa codvilic da marTalic.

3. Teofraste paracelsis (1493-1541) filosofia

Teofraste paracelsi germaniaSi reformaciis epoqis


msoflmxedvelobrivi azrovnebis gamoCenili warmomad-
genelia. misi naazrevi gascda germanuli kulturis saz-
Rvrebs da gavlenian filosofiur da samecniero mimdin-
areobad iqca. man myari adgili daimkvidra axlis gabedul
maZiebelTa Soris. paracelss didad afasebdnen bruno,
iakob boeme (1575-1624), gotfrid vilhelm laibnici (1646-
1716), Sopenhaueri, karl gustav iungi (1875-1961) da sxva.
laboratoriaSi gamoyvanili universaluri adamianis, ho-
monkulusis ideam mniSvnelovani adgili daikava goeTes
`faustSi~; paracelsi Tavad doqtor faustis saxis erT-
erT prototipad iTvleba. mis memkvidreobaze preten-
zias acxadeben ara marto eqimebi, bunebismetyvelebi,
filosofosebi, aramed gavleniani socialuri Teoriebis
damcvelebic (rozenkroicerebi, faSistebi, komunistebi
da a. S.).
paracelsis filosofiuri Teologiis Tanaxmad,
romelsac xSirad iatrofilosofias (eqimis filosofias)
uwodeben, RmerTis mier Seqmnili samyaro erTiani cocx-
ali organizmia. adamiani mikrokosmosia makrokosmosSi.
eqimi RmerTis Tarjimania, romelic sagnebSi RmerTis
mier Cadebul Zalas aaSkaravebs da adamianTa mimarT mis
gamoyenebaSi siyvaruliT xelmZRvanelobs.
Teofrastus bombastus aureolus filipus hohen-
haimeli, paracelsad wodebuli, daibada Sveicariis pata-
ra qalaq ainzidelnSi 1493 wels gaRaribebuli Svabieli
aznauris ojaxSi. misi gvari _ bombast (Tu bambast) ho-
henhaimeli _ XII s.-dan ixsenieba wyaroebSi. mama, vilhelm

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hohenhaimeli (1457-1534), imave qalaqSi taZris eqimi iyo.
mas, rogorc maSindel eqimTa umravlesobas, alqimia ita-
cebda. deda amave taZars miwerili glexis ojaxidan iyo.
ojaxs uWirda. patara paracelsi batebs mwyemsavda. gad-
mocemiT, naxevrad SiSvel bavSvs batma sasqeso kvercxebi
moawyvita. zogi amiT xsnis imas, rom qals mis cxovrebasa
da nawerebSi araviTari roli ar uTamaSia. es araa swo-
ri! is ki aRsaniSnavia, rom 9 wlis asakSi dediT daoble-
buli paracelsi (deda SizofreniiT iyo daavadebuli)
Tavis moZRvrebaSi dedas da `dedebs~ uwodebs yovelives
pirvelsawyisebs da brZenT. mamam daainteresa patara
Teofraste alqimiiT da botanikiT. 7-8 wlis asakidan Tan
dahyavda, roca avadmyofebTan midioda. saxeli Svils ar-
istoteles mowafis, bunebismetyvelis, botanikis fuZem-
deblis Teofrastes (daaxl. 372-287) sapativcemulod
daarqva. gasakviri araa, rom konkretulisaken, empiri-
ulisaken miswrafeba da misi ndobac, paracelss adreuli
asakidan daewyo da mTeli moRvaweobis manZilze gahyva.
am safuZvelze esmoda mas alqimia, rogorc yvelafris
dedebis, anu mizezebis Zieba. igi amtkicebda, rom eqimi-
saTvis aucilebelia am dedebis ara marto alqimikosis
laboratoriaSi Zieba, aramed balaxebSic, wyalSic, maRa-
roebSic. man pirvelma SemoiRo wamlebisaTvis mineralTa
da metalTa xmareba. miuxedavad mamis Tavdadebuli zrun-
visa da Tanadgomisa, rasac paracelsi mudam madliere-
biT aRniSnavda, man bavSvs deda mainc ver Seucvala. amas
gulisxmobdnen, albaT, paracelsis sityvebi: `bavSvs ar
sWirdeba varskvlavebi da planetebi, dedaa misi plan-
etac da varskvlavic~.
es patara (150 sm.) da susti agebulebis kaci saocrad
energiuli da dauRalavi iyo. misi suli marTlac memkvi-
dreobiT miRebuli raindulia. aseTad gviCveneben mas su-
raTebi. uyvarda xmliT pozireba (iseve, rogorc nicSes,
romelsac aseve avadmyofi sxeuli hqonda).

- 119 -
tanmorCilobiT mas kants, Sopenhauers, rixard vag-
ners (1813-1883), mose mendelsons (1729-1786) adarebdnen,
Tumca ase patara, albaT, arcerTi ar iyo. Tavis sust sx-
euls man, iseve, rogorc kantma, saocrad bevri gaakeTe-
bina. igi bejiTad iTvisebs universitetSi SesvlisaTvis
saWiro sagnebs da swavlas agrZelebs germaniis, safran-
geTis da italiis universitetebSi. feraraSi, romelic
XII s.-dan sauniversiteto qalaqi iyo da paracelsis dros
renesansis erT-erT centrs warmoadgenda, paracelsi
1515 wels iRebs medicinis doqtoris xarisxs. rogorc
Cans, mas, iseve, rogorc ufro adre luTers, didad ar
ainteresebda italiuri renesansi da arc aRorZinebis
mxatvroba, romelic feraraSi kazimo turas (1430-1495),
franCesko del kosas (1436-1478) da sxvaTa saxiT iyo war-
modgenili. arc saerTo renesansuli devizi _ `wyaroebi-
saken!~ _ izidavda; igi Tvlida, rom warsulidan is icoda,
rac sWirdeboda, da amocanad masze maRla dadgoma ganiz-
raxa. misTvis xelSeuxebeli avtoriteti arc platoni
aris da arc aristotele; arc neoplatonizmi, romelic
aRorZinebis moRvaweTaTvis saerTo msoflmxedvelobriv
safuZvels warmoadgenda. masTan platonis, prokles, iam-
blixosis saxelebsac ver SevxvdebiT. mkvlevrebs ukvirT,
rom aseTi kaci platonisa da prokles mTargmnel da ko-
mentator fiCinos dadebiTad axasiaTebs, magram aqve Cans,
rom maincdamainc kargad ver erkveva mis moRvaweobaSi da
TviT biografiaSi (108 weli icocxlao). imasac aRniSnaven,
rom misi filosofia struqturulad ar iyo neoplaton-
uri. es ki imas miuTiTebs, rom reformacia da renesansi
erTi da igive ar aris. romis kaTolicizms politikurad
dapirispirebuli germaneli moazrovneebi ingliselebTan
(mag., Tomas morTan da mis TanamoazreebTan) poulobdnen
saerTos. oriveni romis eklesiisagan ganTavisuflebas
miiCnevdnen umniSvnelovanes saqmed.
paracelsma renesansis kritikuli da antiavtoritet-

- 120 -
uli principi ukiduresobamde miiyvana. misi pragmatuli
humanizmis Tanaxmad, erTi uxeiro eqimi ufro sasarge-
bloa, vidre mTeli klasikuri literatura erTad aRe-
buli. mas eWvic ar epareba imaSi, rom antikur poetTa
Soris yvelaze saxelganTqmuli bevrad CamorCeba eqim-
Ta da bunebis mcodneTa Soris `yvelaze dabla mdgoms~.
cnobili romaeli eqimi enciklopedistis, `medicinis~ av-
toris aurelius kornelius celsusisadmi (daaxl. 25-
50 ww.), romelic imperator markus avreliusis (129-199)
piradi eqimi iyo, upiratesobis pretenzia paracelsma
sakuTar metsaxelSic gamoxata: `paracelsi~ celsusze
ukeTess, masze maRla mdgoms niSnavs.
mkiTxveli moelis, rom ase orientirebuli adami-
ani hipokratesTan mainc naxavs Rirebuls, magram para-
celss arc misi madlobeli surs iyos. aseTi umadurobiT
SeSfoTebuli mkvlevrebi fiqroben, rom mas hipokrateze
damyarebuli medicinis Rirebulebis uaryofaSi da me-
dicinaSi savsebiT axali etapis dawyebis aucileblobis
gamarTlebaSi isic `daexmara~, rom igi medicinis mama-
mTavris Sromebs saTanadod ar icnobda. es, upirveles
yovlisa, exeba `hipokrates korpuss~ da masze komentar-
ebs. etyoba, paracelss hipokrates raRac daskvna ar moe-
wona da erTianad uaryo didi eqimi da moazrovne. xSirad,
rasac paracelsi hipokrates miawers, is am berZen moaz-
rovnes ar ekuTvnis, zogjer ki is, rac sakuTari hgonia,
hipokrates gavlenis kvals atarebs.
amgvari pretenziebis mqone kacs mtrebi rom hyavda,
gasakviri ar aris. sakvirveli ufro isaa, rom mas erT-
guli mimdevrebi da momxreebic ar aklda. es ki warmoud-
geneli iqneboda paracelsis saeqimo praqtikis xelSesaxeb
warmatebaTa gareSe.
samecniero xarisxis miRebis Semdeg, paracelsi
TiTqmis 10 weli mogzaurobda mTel evropaSi _ ikvlev-
da mis garemos, mTisa da baris, haerisa da wylis zemo-

- 121 -
qmedebas adamianze. swavlobda mosaxleobaSi arsebul
saeqimo codnas (gansakuTrebiT eklesia-monastrebSi da
samkurnalo balaxTa SemgrovebelTa Soris). igi am mxri-
vac hgavda did saeklesio da socialur reformators,
luTers, romelic bibliis germanulad Targmnisas (ra-
mac Tanamedrove germanul enas daudo safuZveli), moed-
nebze da bazrebSi eZebda xolme saWiro sityvebsa da ga-
moTqmebs. paracelsi amtkicebda, rom yvela qveyana da
yvela mxare warmoSobs raRac specifikur avadmyofobas,
romlis wamalic iqve unda daiZebnos.
1516, 1517, 1519 da 1520 ww. evropaSi mimdinare brZo-
lebSi paracelsi monawileobda rogorc samxedro eqimi.
misi gulkeTiloba, dauzarebloba, uSurveloba yvelgan
iCenda Tavs. Tu amas mkurnalobaSi warmatebebsac davu-
matebT, gasakviri ar iqneba, rom mis saxels male daukav-
Sireben legendebs.
amis Sedegia, rom am pretenziul axalgazrdas 1524
wels qalaq zalcburgis eqimad daniSnaven. 1525 wels iq
man saavadmyofo gaxsna da patara laboratoriac moaw-
yo. mis popularobaze isic miuTiTebs, rom aRorZinebis
epoqis erT-erTi beladi erazm roterdameli paracelss
werilobiT Txovs rCevas Tavisi avadmyofobis mkurnalo-
bis Sesaxeb.
zalcburgSi paracelsis yofna germaniaSi glexTa omis
periods daemTxva. mas glexobisadmi simpaTias da masTan
kavSirs abraleben. misi social-politikuri Sexedulebani
marTlac uaxlovdebodnen germaniaSi glexTa omis ide-
ologis da beladis _ miunceris, aseve luTeris yofili
mowafis, Semdeg ki mowinaaRmdegis, frankis Sexedulebebs.
paracelsi miwaze kerZo sakuTrebis gauqmebis momxre
iyo, radgan RmerTma igi yvelasTvis Seqmna. miuxedavad
amisa, ajanyebul glexTa ganadgurebis Semdeg, mainc misi
saeqimo warmatebebi daayenes wina planze da 1526 wels
paracelss qalaq bazelSi vxedavT. igi qalaqis eqimia da,

- 122 -
maSindeli wesis Tanaxmad, imavdroulad universitetSi
qimiis leqtoria. Cemberis avtoritetul „bibliografi-
ul leqsikonSi` vkiTxulobT, rom, winaaRmdeg tradi-
ciisa, paracelsi aswavlida germanulad da ara laTinu-
rad. es ar moswondaT avtoritetebs, romelTac erCiaT
im enaze ekiTxaT leqciebi, romelic xalxs ar esmoda.
paracelss gamorCeuli studentebi saavadmyofoSi dahy-
avda. avadmyofTan rom miiyvanda students, jer avadmyo-
fobis istorias acnobda. es siaxle misi SemoRebulia.
avadmyofobas pirovnebis saerTo mdgomareobasTan kav-
SirSi ixilavda. eqimi kurnavs pirovnebas da ara mxolod
mis fexs, anda xels, _ ambobda igi. gadmocemiT, xelmokle
studentebs paracelsi materialuradac exmareboda. igi
yvela Tavis siaxles gamowvevis saxes aZlevda. bazelSi
leqciebis dawyebis win man studentebi ezoSi Caiyvana da
yvelaze avtoritetuli tradiciuli saxelmZRvanelo _
didi tajiki eqimis da filosofosis _ avicenas „saaqimo
wigni` sajarod dawva. amiT imis Tqma undoda, rom dogmad
qceuli avicenas wignebi moeqcnen eqimsa da bunebas Soris.
isini xels uSlidnen rogorc tradiciuli WeSmaritebis
Semowmebas, ise axlis Ziebas.
paracelsis am gamowvevas luTeris mier vitenbergSi
1517 wels romis papis bulis dawvas adareben. im SfoTian
droSi, roca germaniaSi axali adamiani yalibdeboda da es
romis eklesiisagan gamoyofis niSniT xdeboda, yvela maZ-
iebeli Tavis saqmes bibliis sakuTar gagebaze afuZnebda
da, amdenad, Teologiis ZiriTad problemebs ukavSireb-
da. Zalian bevrs surda pirveli yofiliyo. maT Soris
iyo paracelsic.
me luTeri ara var, _ werda igi bazelidan wasv-
lis Semdeg qalaqis mesveurebs, _ me Teofraste var.
is Teofraste (berZ., RmerTis gamomTqmeli), romelsac
Tqven bazelSi kakofraste (berZ., sibinZuris mTqmeli)
uwodeT. luTersac ukve karga xania aRar moswonda mis

- 123 -
mier gamowveuli qariSxlis Sedegebi. Tavidan igi yvela
adamianis uflebad Tvlida uSualo kavSiri hqonoda
RmerTTan da, rogorc Tavad ambobda, mxolod wminda
nawerebisaTvis (`sola scriptura~) daejerebina (e. i. imi-
saTvis, Tu rogor esmoda piradad mas). aRmoCnda, rom
misgan gansxvavebuli xedva bevrs aRmoaCnda. amitom iyo,
rom luTerma jer kidev 1520 wels Tqva: eqimebma avad-
myofebs mouaron, Teologia ki me damanebono.
bazelSi paracelsi TandaTan afarToebs Tavisi kvle-
vis sferos. iq man sulierad avadmyofi prof. Sileri
gasinja da dawera gamokvleva „SeSlilobis warmoSo-
ba`. XX s. fsiqoanalizis didi warmomadgeneli, k. iungi
swored paracelss umadlis empiriuli fsiqologiis da
fsiqologiuri mkurnalobis SemoRebas.
sapatio da Semosavlianma Tanamdebobam ver Secvala
paracelsis xasiaTi. igi kvlav Seurigeblad icavda mas,
rac WeSmaritebad miaCnda. 1528 wels mas bazelis dato-
veba mouxda. samuSaod qalaq niurnbergSi gadadis. kon-
fliqturi situacia iqac male Seiqmna. im dros ameriki-
dan Semotanili sifilisi Zalian gavrcelda evropaSi. mas
„frangul avadmyofobas` uwodebdnen. savaWro saxlebs
sifilisis samkurnalod amerikidan SemohqondaT guaiakad
wodebuli xis qerqi. es mniSvnelovan biznesad iqca. par-
acelsma am avadmyofobis Seswavla da kvlevis Sedegebis
gamoqveyneba daiwyo. man daadgina, rom am xis qerqisagan
damzadebuli fxvnili sifiliss arafers Sveloda. am avad-
myofobis pirveli seriozuli kvleva da misi rigi maxasi-
aTeblebis dadgena paracelsis damsaxurebaa. mis saxels
sxva siaxleebic ukavSirdeba. guaiakis qerqiT movaWreebi
aRSfoTdnen. maT sauniversiteto wreebSic ar gauWirdaT
paracelsis mowinaaRmdegeTa moZebna. metic, maT iseTi
gavleniani pirovneba uWerda mxars, rogoric iyo u. f.
huteni. igi darwmunebuli iyo, rom am saSineli senisagan
guaiakos qerqis fxvnilma gaanTavisufla. amis Sesaxeb sa-

- 124 -
madlobelo wignakic gamosca, misi azriT, am saswaulmoq-
medi wamlis Sesaxeb. es niurnbergis ambebamde karga xniT
adre iyo, magram guaiakos fxvniliT movaWreebma maqsim-
alurad gamoiyenes hutenis avtoriteti. huteni, cocxa-
li rom yofiliyo, fxvniliT movaWreebs dauWerda mxars.
paracelsma igi erTxel inaxula, rogorc eqimma. hutens
ar moewona maRalfardovnad mosaubre, pretenziuli ax-
algazrda. CaTvala, rom es eqimi Tavis gvars (bombast _
maRalfardovani, gapranWuli) amarTlebda.
niurnbergis qalaqis sabWom paracelsis Sromebis
gamoqveyneba akrZala. bazelis datovebidan erTi welic
ar iyo gasuli, rom paracelsma kvlav moxetiale eqimis
cxovreba daiwyo. mis siaxleebs sxva qalaqebis univer-
sitetebSic mtrulad xvdebian. ase moiqca parizis uni-
versitetic, sadac paracelsi leqciebs eswreboda da
kamaTSic monawileobda. paracelsis sikvdilis Semdeg,
am universitetSi gamoica brZaneba, romelic doqtoris
xarisxis CamorTmeviT emuqreboda yvelas, vinc ki para-
celsis wamlebs da mis meTods gamoiyenebda. magram es
wamlebi da meTodebi, Tu yovelTvis ara, zogjer mainc
amarTlebdnen. es ki, rogorc wesi, qmnis legendebis
sababs da amave dros aRviZebs kolegebis Surs.
venaSi, sadac paracelss mefec did pativs scemda,
darCa legenda imis Sesaxeb, rom paracelsma sastum-
ros patrons fulis Cveulebrivi erTeuli _ feningi _
oqrod gadauqcia, im pirobiT, rom sastumros patroni
Tavis vaJs nebas darTavda colad moeyvana msaxuri qali,
romelic TavdaviwyebiT uyvarda. es legenda dResac am
sastumrosTvis kargi reklamaa.
kolegebis intrigebis magaliTad miuTiTeben xolme
paracelsis mier badenis markgrafis _ filipe II (1527-
1598) mkurnalobis ambavs. sasaxleSi paracelsi maSin moi-
wvies, roca sxva eqimebma veraferi gaawyves. paracelsis
mkurnalobis Sedegad avadmyofi momjobinda, magram es

- 125 -
procesi sakmao xans gagrZelda. karis eqimma daarwmuna
markgrafi, rom paracelsi gangeb Wimavda dros, raTa
honorari gaezarda. markgrafma paracelsi gaaZeva hon-
oraris gareSe.
unda aRiniSnos, rom paracelsi honorars ar moiTxov-
da. eqims avadmyofi ise uyurebs, rogorc RmerTs, _ wer-
da igi. roca eqimi honorars iTxovs, eSmakis saxes iRebs.
paracelsis azriT, avadmyofma, Tu SesaZlebloba aqvs,
Tavad unda dauniSnos eqims honorari da unda dauniSnos
imdeni, ramdenadac afasebs eqimis daxmarebas. eqimoba
paracelsisTvis Taviseburi religiuri saqmianoba iyo.
yvela avadmyofi erT saavadmyofoSi wevs, _ amtkiceb-
da paracelsi. es RmerTis saavadmyofoa. eqimi RmerTis
Tarjimania da misi moadgile. mkurnalobis umaRlesi
safuZveli ki aris adamianisadmi siyvaruli. paracel-
sis moZRvrebis am aspeqts yuradReba pirvelebma, albaT,
rozenkroicerebma miaqcies. isini fiqrobdnen, rom maTi
aRmsareblobis miTiurma damfuZnebelma, qristian rozen-
kroicerma TiTqosda daasrula luTerisa da paracel-
sis fragmentebis saxiT darCenili nawerebi da yvelaferi
daumorCila harmonias, rogorc kacobriobis saboloo
mizans. Tu hipokrate fiqrobda, rom mkurnali ZiriTadad
damkvirvebelia da mis SesaZleblobaTa mwvervali iqneba
adamianis sikvdilis Jamis gansazRvra, paracelsisTvis es
RmerTis Tavisufal nebazea damokidebuli da mas veravin
gansazRvravs. eqimma, upirveles yovlisa, is unda gai-
gos, avadmyofi gankurnebadia Tu ara, anu uSvebs Tu ara
RmerTi eqimis Carevas. avadmyofi, romelic mTel Tavis
imedebs medicinaze amyarebs, ar aris qristiani. sikvdi-
lis sawinaaRmdego wamali ar SeiZleba arsebobdes, ar-
amed mxolod avadmyofobis. ai, am wamlis moZebnaa eqimis
saqme da mas veraviTari Teologi, rogorc Teologi, ver
moZebnis. aq bunebis gulmodgine kvlevaa saWiro, raTa
RmerTis mier bunebis sagnebSi da procesebSi Cadebuli

- 126 -
SesaZleblobani gavigoT da gamoviyenoT. „eqimi aris
bunebis yma, xolo RmerTi aris bunebis batoni`. Tu
RmerTs ar surs, avadmyofs veraviTari eqimi ver uSve-
lis. wrfeli rwmena da didi codna erTnairad aucilebe-
lia eqimis warmatebisaTvis. eqimis ficic hipokratesagan
gansxvavebuli saxiT Seadgina paracelsma. Tumca medici-
nis fuZemdeblis gavlena aSkaraa. es gansxvaveba paracel-
sis epoqis zneobis da adamianis uflebis gacnobierebis
aSkaraa dokumenticaa. misi Sinaarsi aseTia:
vficav, Cemi saeqimo xelovneba srulvyo, misgan ar
gadavuxvio, sanam RmerTi me am Tanamdebobaze eqimobas
miboZebs; uarvyo yvela yalbi xeloba da moZRvreba me-
dicinaSi; avadmyofze vizruno ufro metad, vidre Cems
Tavze vizrunebdi, Tavad rom mWirdes raime; arc wamali
davuniSno gansjis gareSe; fuli ar aviRo, Tu ar davim-
saxureb; arc afTiaqars vendo brmad; arc bavSvze vix-
maro odesme Zala; qalebs Tavad gavuwio daxmareba; ucxo
wamali avadmyofs ar mivce, ragind mevedros.
aqve isicaa aRniSnuli, rom urwmunos, romelsac eqimi
sZuls, ar umkurnalebs da sxva.
rogorc paracelsi ar erideboda tradiciul avto-
ritetebs da maT damcvelebs, iseve mourideblad ute-
vdnen mas mowinaaRmdegeebi. bazelSi yofnisas pamfle-
ti dauweres da eklesiis karebze gaakres, Tanac iseT
adgilas, yvelas rom daenaxa. am Tavawyvetil lanZRvaSi
aseTi sityvebic iyo: „regveni viyo, Tu Sen imsaxurebde
hipokrates Ramis qoTnis tarebas, anda Cemi Rorebis
mwyemsobas, Se umaqniso, ratom imkob Tavs, Se kaWkaWo,
moparuli frTebiT? Sens trabaxs, icode, mokle fexebi
aqvs. da mainc ra gsurs Sens leqciebSi Tqva? Sen xom
mxolod moparuli sulieri ganZiT arsebob? SenTvis
saukeTeso iqneboda Toki, romelzedac SegeZleboda Tavi
CamogexrCo, mas Semdeg, rac gaigeben Sens qosatyuilo-
bas`. xelmowera: „saiqiodan`.

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paracelsis sikvdilis Semdegac ar Semcirebula da-
pirispireba mis SemfasebelTa Soris. aq, erTi mxriv,
uSiSar reformators vxedavT, romelic mravali raimes
Semoqmedia, meore mxriv, gvixataven sakuTar fantazias
ayolil alqimikoss, romelsac sasurveli ukve ganx-
orcielebuli eCveneba da sxvebisganac moiTxovs amis
dajerebas. am xazs XX saukunis cnobili argentineli mw-
erali xose luis borxesis (1899-1985) „paracelsis vardi`
amTavrebs. masSi paracelsi, rogorc alqimikosi, RmerTs
Rirseul mowafes sTxovs. aseTi mowafe marTlac moadge-
ba kars. mas frazebis mosmena ki ar surs, aramed faqto-
brivi sabuTebi. igi moiTxovs, paracelsma mis Tvalwin
vardi dawvas da Semdeg ferflidan aRadginos. paracel-
si cdilobs saubari sxva mxriv waiyvanos. bolos igi aRi-
arebs, rom amis gakeTeba ar SeuZlia. mowafe dacinviT
stovebs paracelss.
mTavari Sromebi paracelss sicocxleSi ar gamouqvey-
nebia. misi saxeli, ZiriTadad, mis saeqimo praqtikas da
siaxleebis Sesaxeb mokle gancxadebs emyareboda. ga-
moaqveyna mxolod oriode traqtati sifilisis Sesaxeb
(1528 da 1530 ww.). sikvdilis Semdeg laTinur enaze
gamoica misi „labirinthus medikorum` (1553). sxvebi xel-
nawerebis saxiT vrceldeboda germanul da laTinur
enebze. 1589-1591 ww. germanelma mkvlevarma iohan iakob
huserma (daaxl. 1545-1594) paracelsis naSromTa krebu-
li gamosca 10 tomad. SromaTa sruli krebuli 14 to-
mad gamoica berlinSi 1922-1932 ww. karl zudhofis (1853-
1938) redaqciiT.
pirvel msoflio omSi damarcxebuli germania, roca
Tavisi aRorZinebisaTvis sulier wyaroebs wamoswevda,
paracelsis memkvidreobas erT-erT pirvel adgils ani-
Webda. 1932 wels gamoica huseris 10 tomiani gamocemi-
dan g. axneris mier Tanamedrove germanulze Targmnili
4 tomi.

- 128 -
paracelsis ZiriTad naSromebad iTvleba: „paramirum`,
`paragranum~ da „filosofia sagaqs`. pirveli laTinuri
kompoziti SeiZleba iTargmnos, rogorc „zesaocreba` (mi-
rum _ saocreba); meore, yovelgvari sazRvris miRma mde-
bare uRrmesi arsis wvdomaze (granum _ marcvali, birTvi)
pretenzias gamoxatavs; xolo mesame _ „STamwvdomis fi-
losofiaa` (sagaqs _ alRoiani, gamWriaxi).
mainc ras warmoadgens paracelsis moZRvreba, ro-
melic oTx saukuneze metia ar asvenebs evropuli kul-
turis warmomadgenlebs: eqimebs, Teologebs, filoso-
fosebs, sociologebs, mwerlebs?
paracelsis iatrofilosofia aris adamianis Sesaxeb
filosofiuri moZRvrebis _ filosofiuri anTropolo-
giis erT-erTi saxe. igi miznad isaxavs samyaroSi ada-
mianis adgilisa da misi SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb das-
abuTebuli Teoriis agebas. gamosavlad iRebs adamianis
Sesaxeb eqimis mier dagrovil codnas, adamianis, rogorc
mikrokosmosis Sesaxeb. misi azriT, mikrokosmosi (ada-
miani) makrokosmosSia (samyaroSi), rogorc Sedegi Tavis
mizezSi. samyaro da masSi yoveli arsebuli erTiania,
rogorc organizmi. mikrokosmosi am organizmis imgvari
nawilia, romelic simetriulad asaxavs makrokosmoss.
adamians sakuTar Tavze dakvirveba, TiTqos, mikrokos-
mosis gasaRebad aqvs, raTa aqedan gaigos RmerTis, ro-
gorc yovelives transcendenturi (miRmuri) Semoqmedis
namdvili arsi. mxolod am ori samyaros erTianobidan
SeiZleba amovikiTxoT RmerTis is gageba, romelic ada-
mianisTvis misawvdomia. xilul bunebaSi arsebuli sagne-
bi Taviseburi gzavnilebia, Taviseburi asoebia, bunebis
kanonebis da Semdeg ki Tavad RmerTis gasagebad. amde-
nad, filosofia xiluli bunebis uxilavi struqturis
amokiTxvaa. paracelsi alqimikosia, magram ara am ter-
minTan dakavSirebuli gavrcelebuli azriT, romlis
Tanaxmadac, alqimikosebi, ZiriTadad, filosofiuri qvis

- 129 -
saZiebel fantastikur proeqtebs qmnidnen. paracelsi
Zvel terminebSi axal Sinaars debs. amitom marTebulia
azri, rom swored paracelsma daiwyo alqimiisagan qimiis
ganTavisufleba.
alqimia paracelss esmoda, rogorc grZnobis orga-
noebSi mocemul sinamdvilesTan mizandasaxuli, praq-
tikuli mimarTeba. misi mizania RmerTis mier sagneb-
Si Cadebuli saidumlo Zalebis da unarebis amokiTxva,
Semdeg ki maTi adamianis, rogorc RvTis xatis da msgav-
sis, sasikeTod gamoyeneba. alqimikosi adamianis jerar-
suli saxelia, igi miTiTebaa ara imaze, rac aris faq-
tobrivad adamiani, aramed imaze, rac unda iyos, radac
unda gaxdes igi. es aris TeTri magia, _ amtkicebda para-
celsi Tavis erT-erT ZiriTad naSromSi, romelsac „para-
granumi` ewodeba. is upirispirdeba Sav magias, romlis
warmomadgenlebsac surT Tavad gaxdnen RmerTi. TeTri
magiis mizania gulwrfelad emsaxuros RmerTs. RmerTis
samsaxuri isaa, rom gamoavlino sagnebSi RmerTis mier
Cadebuli SesaZleblobani, erTi sagani meored aqcio da
isini adamianis sasikeTod gamoiyeno. es ar aris raRac
idumali da gaugonari. misi martivi gamovlinebani yve-
las Tvalwinaa. paracelsi gvarwmunebs, rom alqimikosia
mepure, romelic purs acxobs, mevenaxe, romelic Rvinos
ayenebs, mqsoveli, romelic xelsaxocs qsovs. principu-
lad amgvar amocanaTa rigSia filosofiuri qvis saidum-
los amocnoba, adamianis spermidan laboratoriaSi uni-
versaluri adamianis (homunkulusis) gamoyvana da sxva.
paracelsis devizia: „Seiswavlo da ar akeTo _ es cotaa,
Seiswavlo da akeTo _ aris didi da sruli.` qarTvel
mkiTxvels, cxadia moagondeba rusTvelis (XII s.) sityvebi:
„ara viqm, codna ras margebs, filosofosTa brZnobisa`.
eqimi-filosofosi qarTuli miTosis mindiasavi-
Taa. mas unda SeeZlos gaigos mcenareTa da cxovelTa
saubari, romlis saSualebiTac isini TavianT daniSnule-

- 130 -
bas auwyeben adamians. es ena mravalnairia. igi saSuale-
bas gvaZlevs sagnis sasargeblo Tviseba, romelsac ga-
mocdilebaSi SemTxveviT wavawydiT, gamovikvlioT da
misi regularulad gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba davadgi-
noT, SemTxveviTi aucileblad vaqcioT. Taviseburi ena
da Setyobinebaa wamlis msgavseba imasTan, risi wamalic
is aris. magaliTad, kakali rom Tavis tkivilis wamalia,
amaze migviTiTebs misi gulis ori nawilis naoWebi da ms-
gavseba Tavis tvinis naxevarsferoebTan. amgvari rwmena
aRmosavleTSicaa gavrcelebuli. cnobili samkurnalo
wamali Jen-Seni miT ufro Rirebulad iTvleba, rac ufro
hgavs misi Ziri adamianis tans. paracelss isic swams, rom
garkveul sityvebs, garkveul sxeulebriv gamosaxule-
bebs aucilebeli zemoqmedeba aqvT cxovelTa samyaroze.
saxelganTqmul frang filosofossa da fsiqiatrs miSel
fukos (1926-1984), romelic, garkveuli azriT, paracel-
sis tipis moazrovne iyo, amgvari dakvirvebebis safuZv-
lebis Zieba usargeblod ar miaCnia. mas paracelsis „arx-
idoqsis magikadan` mohyavs sityvebi imis Taobaze, rom
„gveli helveciaSi, algoriasa da SvedeTSi` erTnairad
ufrTxis berZnuli sityvebis _ osi, osia, osis _ gagone-
bas da sxva.
sagnebis Sinagan bunebas paracelsi xan sagnebis sik-
eTes uwodebs, xan unarebs, xan kidev „sikeTes anu Zalebs`.
isini RmerTma Tavdapirvelad varskvlavebSi Cado, Semdeg
ki adamianis asageb masalaSi gaanawila. amitom ara marto
adamiani, aramed samyaros yvela sagani aris waruvals na-
ziarebi warmavali.
roca ca da miwa da yvelaferi maTgan Sedgenili
daiSlebian, gvarwmunebs paracelsi, maTSi arsebuli sik-
eTeni, anu Zalebi daubrundebian astralur samyaros,
magram daubrundebian Tu ara isini transcendentur
RmerTs, amaze paracelsi arafers ambobs. Tumca sab-
oloo samsjavros Sesaxeb misi principebi am kiTxvaze

- 131 -
dadebiT pasuxs moiTxoven. es ki mniSvnelovania paracel-
sis neoplatonizmis filosofiasTan mimarTebis dasad-
genad. aqac saqme gvaqvs oTxi elementisagan adamianis su-
lis ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb rusTveliseuli naazrevis
analogiur ZiebasTan.
erTiani samyaros, rogorc adamianis samyofelad
Seqmnilis, Semswavlelia paracelsis Teoriuli medicina,
rogorc misi filosofiis mTlianobis gamomxatveli da
Teologiisagan gansxvavebuli. igi mas oTxsvetian, anu
oTx svetze damyarebul Teorias uwodebs. am svetebis, anu
zogadi Teoriis ZiriTadi nawilebis urTierTmimarTebas
paracelsi ase warmogvidgens:

es svetebi (filosofia, astronomia, alqimia, Rirseba),


rogorc vxedavT, emyarebian RmerTs da bunebas, rogorc
SualobiT da uSualod Sesaswavl sagnebs.
is, rasac aq paracelsi filosofias uwodebs, naTe-
lia ar moicavs am terminTan dakavSirebul Tanamedrove
gagebas. igi arsebiTad aris bunebis, rogorc maSindel
gamocdilebaSi mocemuli sinamdvilis, anu dedamiwis
kvleva. astronomia (Tumca varskvlavebic grZnobadad
mocemulia) gansxvavebuli mecnierebaa, romelic as-

- 132 -
tralur (da ara Cveulebriv) maTematikaze damyarebiT
RmerTisa da samyaros SesaZlebel kavSirebs adgens. alq-
imia am SesaZleblobebis praqtikuli ganxorcielebis
cdaa; Rirsebis sveti zneobis problemebs Seiswavlis. igi
winmaval mecnierebebze damyarebiT adgens imas, Tu ras
SeuZlia adamianma gonebisa da nebis daxmarebiT miaRwios,
rogorc zneobrivma arsebam. amrigad, aq warmodgenilia
filosofia, rogorc Teoriuli medicinis sruli kursi,
romlis mizania adamianis sxeulebrivi, sulieri da zneo-
brivi gankurneba.
paracelsi 48 wlis gardaicvala qalaq zalcburgSi.
es is qalaqia, sadac volfgang amadeus mocarti (1756-
1791) daibada. sikvdilis mizezad imas asaxeleben, rom
metalebis Seswavlisas mZimed daiavada RviZli. igi zal-
cburgis wm. sebastianes eklesiis SesasvlelSi dakrZales
_ winaaRmdeg paracelsis anderZisa, romelic mokrZa-
lebul adgilas dakrZalvas iTxovda. anderZi episkop-
osma Secvala, raTa imisaTvis gaesva xazi, rom paracelsi
Seurigda kaTolikur eklesias da moinania Tavisi prot-
estantuli codvebi. saflavis qvaze laTinuri warweraa:
aq ganisvenebs filipus Teofrastusi, medicinis gamor-
Ceuli doqtori, romelic saocari xelovnebiT kur-
navda sxeuls iseTi ganukurnebeli avadmyofobebisagan,
rogoricaa mZime Wrilobebi, Wiri, nikrisi, wyalmanki da
sxva. man mTeli qoneba Raribebs daunawila da seqtembris
24-e dRes sicocxle sikvdilze gacvala.
Sveicariasa da germaniaSi paracelsis araerTi sazoga-
doeba arsebobs. xanmokle cxovrebis manZilze, man Tavisi
grandiozuli gegmebidan cotas ganxorcieleba moaswro,
magram misma wamowyebebma da gegmebma mTeli kulturuli
evropa daainteresa da kvlevis perspeqtivebic dausaxa.
rogorc didi germaneli qimikosi da eqsperimentato-
ri iustus fon libigi (1803-1873) werda, „paracelsiT
bunebis kvlevis axali periodi daiwyo. misi Secdomebic

- 133 -
ki, misgan naxevari saukunis Semdeg, bunebismetyveleba-
ze mastimulirebel gavlenas axdendnen`. goeTem Tavis
„ferTa TeoriaSi` imedi gamoTqva, rom am „araCveulebri-
vi sulisa da niWis adamianis mimarT axali epoqa ufro
samarTliani iqneba, vidre winandeli`.
paracelsi gzas ukafavda da amzadebda im filoso-
fiur Teoriebsac, romelTa didi warmomadgenlebi saTa-
nadod ar afasebdnen mis Rvawls. germanuli filosofiis
erT-erTi udidesi warmomadgeneli, klasikuri germanu-
li filosofiis fuZemdebeli, kanti Tavis mravalricxo-
van SromebSi Tu pirad werilebSi erTxelac ar axsenebs
paracelss, magram misi uaRresad mniSvnelovani da no-
vatoruli Teoria warmosaxvis Zalis, rogorc ZiriTadi
SemoqmedebiTi Zalis (rogorc xelovnebis, ise mec-
nierebis sferoSi) Sesaxeb sawyisebs paracelsTan iRebs.
did germanel racionalists, kantis mier dawyebuli
filosofiuri mimarTulebis mwvervals, hegels ar mo-
swonda paracelsi, zogi misi debulebis bundovanebisa
da araTanmimdevrulobis gamo. Tavad hegeli adamianis
gonebis yovlisSemZleobis dauRalavi damcveli iyo da
moiTxovda, yvelaferi logikurze daeyvanaT, anda mis-
gan gamoeyvanaT. rac Seexeba paracelss, igi Tavisi epoqis
gadasaxedidan Seecada erTian xedvaSi moeqcia adamiani,
samyaro da RmerTi, ise, rom adamians SesZleboda Tavis
Tavidan amoekiTxa samyaros yvela saidumloeba. amitom
igi sxva winamorbedebze ufro uaxlovdeba hegelis rwme-
nas adamianis gonebis SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. „araferia
zRvaTa uRrmes fskerze da cis maRal gumbaTze, risi aR-
moCenac ar SeeZlos adamians`, _ gvarwmunebda paracelsi.
TiTqmis 300 wlis Semdeg, 1818 wels, berlinSi logikis
leqciebis dawyebis win hegelma msmenelebisadmi mimarT-
vaSi aRniSna: samyaros dafarul arsebas Tavis TavSi ara-
viTari iseTi Zala ar gaaCnia, rom Semecnebis siTamames
winaaRmdegoba gauwios.

- 134 -
4. sebastian frankis (1499-1542) filosofiuri
Sexedulebani

XVI s. germaniis msoflmxdvelobrivi da filosofi-


uri azrovneba araCveulebrivi intensiobiTa da mraval-
ferovnebiT xasiaTdeba. erTsa da imave dros moRvaweo-
ben erazmi da huteni, luTeri da kalvini, miunceri da
cvingli, franki da paracelsi, Svenkfeldi da melanq-
toni da sxva. am moazrovneTa Soris, wminda Teoriuli
TvalsazrisiT da internacionaluri gavleniTac, yvelaze
maRla erazmi idga. magram sakuTriv germanuli sulieri
kulturis ganviTarebaSi centralur figuras, romlis
mixedviTac izomeba sxva, warmoadgenda martin luTeri.
luTeris moRvaweobis sawyiss periodSi, 1520 wlamde,
mis garSemo gaerTianda germanuli kulturis yvela si-
cocxlisunariani elementi. ZiriTadi saerTo mizani iyo
kaTolikuri eklesiis, e. i. romis batonobisagan germanu-
li kulturis ganTavisufleba. amis Semdeg yvela Tavisi
gziT midioda da, rogorc wesi, erTmaneTs upirispird-
eboda. magram iseve, rogorc garegani mtris winaaRmdeg,
maT antipapizmi aerTianebda, aseve umravlesobas Sinagani
gamaerTianebeli mowinaaRmdege hyavdaT luTeris yofili
mimdevris, reformaciis plebeuri fraqciis warmomadgen-
lis, sebastian frankis saxiT.
didia frankis damsaxureba germanuli kulturis wi-
naSe. igi yovelgvari oficialuri eklesiis da kerZo sa-
kuTrebis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli mistikosi panTeistia, mS-
vidobis mniSvnelovani Teoretikosia, ibrZvis adamianTa
sruli TanasworobisaTvis. didia misi damsaxureba ro-
gorc istorikosisa, romelic Seecada germaneli xalx-
is sruli istoriis warmodgenas bibliuri noes vaJis,
iafetidan dawyebuli. sayuradReboa frankis geografi-
uli naSromi „samyaros wigni`, sadac igi, sxvaTa Soris,
somxeTsa da kolxeTsac aRwers ludoviko de varTemas

- 135 -
(daaxl. 1470-1517) da iohanes bohemus aubanusis (VI s.) ma-
salaze damyarebiT.
iSviaTia frankisTana martosuli filosofosi. mas
devnidnen luTeric da kalvinic, keTilSobili erazmic
da martin frextic (1494-1556). luTeranuli Teologiis
warmomadgenlebi iseve gulmodgined devnidnen mas, ro-
gorc papis momxreebi. verc erTi qalaqi ver bedavs didi
xniT TavSesafris micemas am adamianisaTvis. mas saxels
utexen rogorc ucodinars da uRmerTos. „Sxamiani biWi`
(luTeri), „Tavqariani` (melanqtoni), „uWkuo da savsebiT
uazro` (kalvini) da sxva salanZRavi sityvebi Tan sdevnen
frankis naazrevis oficialur Sefasebas. miuxedavad amisa,
franki saocrad bevris gakeTebas axerxebs. misi gamoqvey-
nebuli naSromebis siuxve da mravalferovneba yovelmxriv
garantirebul adamiansac SeSurdeboda. mas sazogadoebis
garkveul fenebSi sakmao mxardamWeric hyav­da.
sebastian franki daibada 1499 wels Tavisufal qalaq
donauvorTSi. 1515-1517 ww. swavlobda ingolStadtis
universitetSi. aqve iRebs xelovnebis bakalavris
xarisxs. 1518 wels axalgazrda bakalavri haidelbergSi
dominikelebTan Teologias swavlobs. amave wels igi es-
wreba aq gamarTul kamaTs luTeris debulebebis dasaca-
vad. paeqrobas luTeric eswreboda, magram ar monawil-
eobda masSi. Semdeg franks vxedavT augsburgis saepis-
koposoSi, rogorc evangelist mRvdels, xolo ori wlis
Semdeg, e. i. 1528 wels, qalaq genesenis eklesiaSia. amave
wels irTavs cols _ otilia behaims. es qali diureris
mowafeebis, cnobili „uRvTo niurbergeli mxatvrebis`
barTul (1502-1540) da hans sebald (1500-1550) behaimebis
da iyo. isini, rogorc franki, samebis uarmyofelni _ an-
titrinitaristebi iyvnen. luTeris reformaciis Sedegma
da Tavad luTerma franksac gaucrua imedebi. protes-
tis niSnad frankma, 1529 wels, Tavi daaneba sasuliero
Tanamdebobas da cxovrobda rogorc Tavisufali mwe­

- 136 -
rali. 1528 wels niurnbergSi gamodis frankis naSromi
„loTobis saSineli senis Sesaxeb`. niurnbergi am dros
mniSvnelovani kulturuli centri iyo. 1524 wels aq
germanul enaze pirvelad Sesrulda wirva. sxvadasxva
dros aq moRvaweobdnen ulrix fon huteni, diureri,
vait Stosi (daaxl. 1445/1450-1533). hans zaqsic (1494-1576)
frankis dros cxovrobda niurnbergSi. 1530 wels aqve
gamoscems franki naSroms „TurqeTis qronika da aRwera`.
es sakiTxi maSin Zalze aqtualuri iyo mTeli evropisaT-
vis. rogorc cnobilia, 1529 wels TurqeTis jari venis
kedlebTan idga. miuxedavad amisa, franki sruli obieq-
turobiT aRwers TurqeTs da Turqebs. 1531 wels franki
strastburgSia da scems Tavis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes
naSroms „qronika, JamTaaRwera da istoria _ biblia da-
sabamidan dRemde, 1531 wlamde`. aq gansakuTrebuli yur-
adReba eqceva eresebis rols istoriaSi. 1534 wels franks
qalaq ulmis moqalaqed vxedavT. am wels igi or wigns
aqveynebs: 1. „kosmografia, anu qveynis yoveli nawilis
WeSmariti aRwera`, romelic germanul enaze geografiis
pirvel wigns warmoadgens da 2. „paradoqsa` _ frankis
ZiriTadi filosofiuri naSromi. amave wels Targmnis
erazmis werilebs laTinuridan. 1536 wels gamodis „is-
toria _ biblia`, II gamocema, xolo 1538 wels „oqros
kidobani` da „germaniis qronika`.
qalaq ulmis mRvdeli martin frexti, romelic hai-
delbergSi frankTan erTad swavlobda, qalaqis sabWoSi
uCivlebs franks. saCivarSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom franki
Tavis „paradoqsaSi` uaryofs rwmenasTan dakavSire-
bul yovelgvar garegan atributebs, saRmrTo werilis
gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas da moiTxovs qristianebs
Soris kerZo sakuTrebis mospobas. amave dros, melanqto-
nis TxovniT, landgrafma filipe hesenelma qalaq ulms
sayveduri SeuTvala frankisTana saSiSi adamianisaTvis
TavSesafris micemis gamo. es iyo 1534-1535 wlebSi. Tu ra

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didi iyo am qalaqSi Tavisufali azrovnebis SesaZlebloba
iqidanac Cans, rom franki ulmSi rCeba da muSaobs. 1539
wels fr. vernStraiTis fsevdonimiT franki aqveynebs
wigns „mSvidobis sabrZolo wignaki`. amave wels franki
iZulebulia datovos ulmi da dasaxldes bazelSi, sadac
1541 wels gamoscems „andazebis krebuls` saintereso
socialur-politikuri da istoriuli komentarebiT. am
wels gardaicvala frankis meuRle. igi irTavs margarita
bekins. misi mziTeviT yidulobs stambas da saxls. 1542
wels xelmeored gamoscems „paradoqsas`. misi keTil-
dReoba didxans ar gagrZelebula. franki gardaicvala
bazelSi 1542 wlis oqtomberSi.
frankis filosofiuri Sexedulebebis kvlevas ger-
maniaSi ukve ori saukunis istoria aqvs. mas ikvlevdnen
iseTi cnobili mecnierebi, rogoric iyvnen dilTai da
leopold cigleri (1881-1958), k. hageni da vil erix poi-
kerti (1895-1969). ludvig andreas foierbaxi (1804-1872)
masSi germanuli materializmis did winamorbeds xedavda,
romelic „germaneli spinozas` saxels imsaxurebs; karl
marqsi (1818-1883), fridrix qristof SloserTan (1776-
1861) TanxmobiT, mas „did sebastian franks` uwodebda,
romlisaTvisac qriste mxolod „adamianuri reformato-
ri` iyo.
rusulenovani literatura frankis Sesaxeb Zalze mc-
irea. igi, albaT, amoiwureba viqtor levinis weriliT „se-
bastian frankis filosofiuri Sexedulebani`, romelSic,
rogorc frankis cnobili mkvlevari da gamomcemeli
zigfrid volgasti aRniSnavs, mravali faqtobrivi da
Teoriuli Secdomaa. Cveni mizania frankis „paradoqsas`
analizis safuZvelze, volgastis, dilTais da poikertis
gamokvlevaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, vcadoT frankis adgilis
gansazRvra germanuli filosofiuri azrovnebis ganvi-
TarebaSi.
luTeris mier dawyebuli saqmis safuZvelze germanul

- 138 -
kulturaSi yovelive tradiciulis da, upirveles yovli-
sa, qristianuli religiis xelaxali Sefaseba, axleburi
aTviseba daiwyo. amitom aq Taviseburad meordeba qris-
tianobis Camoyalibebis periodis religiuri dapirisp-
irebani. aq SesaZlebeli gaxda farTo gavrceleba mieRo
oficialur qristianobasTan ise dapirispirebul pozi-
cias, rogoricaa samebis uaryofa (antitrinitarizmi),
eklesiis uaryofa da sxva. am brZolaSi bevri aTeizmi-
saTvis sasargeblo saqmes akeTebda, magram es sulac
ar niSnavs imas, rom isini aTeistebi iyvnen. yvela isini
RmerTisaken ukeTes gzas eZebdnen. amgvar maZiebeli iyo
frankic.
franki uars ambobs saeklesio samsaxurze, roca lu-
Terma pirovnebisa da RmerTs Soris mosaSualeobaze
kaTolikur eklesias uari uTxra, magram es roli sakuTar
eklesias daakisra. frankma Tanmimdevrulad gaagrZ-
ela luTeris dawyebuli saqme da logikurad mivida
yovelgvari eklesiis, yovelgvari oficialuri sazoga-
doebrivad savaldebulo religiuri Teoriis mizanSe-
wonilebis uaryofamde.
Tavisi damokidebuleba maSin arsebul religiur mim-
dinareobaTa mimarT frankma naTlad gamoTqva simReraSi,
romelsac ewodeba „oTxi urTierTwakidebuli eklesiis
Sesaxeb, romelTagan TiToeuls sxvebi ezizReba da sw-
yevlis` (1530 w.). es eklesiebia: kaTolikuri, luTeranu-
li, cvinglianuri da naTlismcemluri (anababtisturi).
franki sxvadasxvanairad afasebs maT, Tumca yovel maT-
gans emijneba. yvelaze metad igi kaTolikur eklesias
akritikebs. kaTolikuri rwmena, misi azriT, mxolod
garegnulia. eklesias mxolod piradi sargeblobisaT-
vis, muclisaTvis iyeneben da adamianebs morCil mimba-
Zvelebad, maimunebad aqceven. franki uaryofs ara mar-
to eklesiis mizanSewonilobas, aramed wminda nawilebis
Tayvaniscemasac, xatTa, an, rogorc Tavad ityvis, su-

- 139 -
raTebis Tayvaniscemasac. igi amtkicebs, rom es biblias
ewinaaRmdegeba. franki erT-erTi pirvelTagania, vinc pe-
tre mociqulis, rogorc episkoposis, saqmianoba da misi
mowamebrivi sikvdili sakamaTo gaxada.
rac Seexeba luTers, frankis azriT, misi naqadagebi
Tavisufleba moCvenebiTi gamodga. man mxolod daangria
Zveli da samagierod axali ver aaSena. amis Sedegad xalxi
ufro gafuWda. cvinglianelebi misTvis ufro maxlo-
belni arian, vidre aRniSnuli ori eklesiis warmomad-
genlebi, magram franki arc Sveicareli reformatoris
mimdevrad Tvlis Tavs. eklesiis damorCileba saero xe-
lisuflebisaTvis frankisaTvis mainc RmerTis bunebis
gaugebroba iyo, radgan adamianebs Tavs axvevda ofi-
cialur da, amdenad, maTTvis garegnul da saziano rw-
menas. franks arc is moswons, rom cvinglianelebi sxva
mimarTulebebTan brZolas axarjaven Zalebs. naTlismcem-
lebi yvelaze axloblebi arian frankisaTvis, rogorc
Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT, ise pirovnuli kavSirebiTac.
igi am devnil seqtas keTilganwyobili obieqturobiT
aRwers xolme, rac maSin ar iyo ubralo saqme. maT sx-
vebze ukeT esmiT, Tu ra aris RmerTi, magram mainc did
yuradRebas uTmoben ritualebs, magaliTad, xelaxla
monaTvlas wyliT da calke eklesiis Camoyalibeba surT.
franks arc maTTan yofna surs. igi Tvlis, rom oTxive
daSorebulia WeSmaritebas, sworad ar esmiT, Tu ra aris
qriste da mama RmerTi (14,13).
ra surs franks da rogori rwmena miaCnia WeSmaritad?
amaze pasuxs vnaxulobT amave 1530 wels gamocemul, mis
mier gadakeTebuli naSromis _ „TurqeTis qronika da aR-
wera` _ damatebaSi. franki wers: axal droSi sami rwmena
warmoiSva: luTeranuli, cvinglianuri da anababtisturi.
iqmneba meoTxe, romelic uaryofs garegnul qadagebas,
wminda nawilebs, ceremonias, gankveTas, Tanamdebobas,
rogorc iseT raimes, romelic saWiro ar aris da cdi-

- 140 -
lobs maT magier uxilavi sulieri eklesia daaarsos,
romelic sulisa da rwmenis erTianobiT Semoikrebs
Tanamzraxvelebs yvela xalxTagan da marTavs maT uxila-
vi sityvis saSualebiT _ garegnuli saSualebebis gamoy-
enebis gareSe.
am Sinagani, uxilavi eklesiis Camoyalibebis idea franks
arasdros ar uaruyvia. ufro dawvrilebiT laparakobs
igi masze 1531 wels, yofili luTeraneli humanistisadmi,
iohanes kampanusisadmi (aqtiuri moRvaw. 1620-1640) miwer-
il werilSi. igi amtkicebs, rom RmerTs ar sWirdeba ada-
mianis samsaxuri, igi erTnairia yoveli adamianis mimarT,
qristiani iqneba Tu ara. asxvavebs „garegan qristes`, ro-
melic aqamde swamdaT da „Sinagan qristes`, rogorc indi-
vidis RvTaebasTan Sinagani kavSiris gamomxatvels, ramac
yvela WeSmariti morwmune unda gaaerTianos yovelgvari
saeklesio Senobis da oficialuri savaldebulo dawe-
sebulebis, anda moZRvrebis gareSe. aqvea erTmaneTs da-
pirispirebuli Zveli da axali aRTqma, rogorc garegani
da Sinagani rwmenis gamoxatulebani.
frankis filosofiur naSromebSi gamoyenebulia an-
tikuri, Sua saukuneebis da aRorZinebis epoqaTa TiTqmis
yvela mniSvnelovani moazrovne, magram misi msoflmxed-
velobiTi poziciis da misi filosofiuri debulebebis
wyaro mainc maSindeli evropuli, upiratesad german-
uli azrovnebaa. am wyaroTagan umniSvnelovanesia ger-
manuli enciklopedisti erazm roterdamelis humanizmi
da moZRvreba Semwynareblobis Sesaxeb, luTeris Teoria
RmerTisa da adamianis pirovnuli mimarTebis Taobaze.
yovelives, rasac franki iyenebs, am ori ZiriTadi wy-
aros gavleniT iyenebs. istoriul moZRvrebebs Soris
misTvis umniSvnelovanesia germanuli mistika, mocemuli
iohanes tauleris (1300-1361) naSromebSi da „germanul
TeologiaSi`. didia frankze naTlismcemeli hans denkis
(daaxl. 1495-1527) gavlena. denkis da erazmis Sromebidan

- 141 -
frankTan yvelaze metia aRebuli. es Tanxmoba zogjer
TiTqmis sityvasityviTia. denki amtkicebda, rom RmerTi
mxolod keTilia, igi araa borotebis mizezi. codna, misi
azriT, arsebiTad gansxvavdeba rwmenisagan da zneobrivad
CaiTvleba mxolod is pozicia an moqmedeba, romelic sik-
eTesa da borotebas Soris brZolis Sedegadaa mopove-
buli. netari, denkis azriT, mxolod isaa, visac codvis
Cadena SeuZlia da ar sCadis. frankis gansakuTrebul mo-
wonebas imsaxurebda iohanes bunderlini (XVI s.), romlis
wigni „ratom gaadamianda RmerTi` (1529) xazs usvamda ori
sawyisis brZolas adamianSi, Tvlida, rom ormagi bune-
ba adamianma codvaSi Cavardnis Semdeg miiRo. uaryofda
eklesias da akritikebda Zvel aRTqmas.
franki ar faravda Tavis solidarobas cnobili espan-
eli antitrinitaristis, mixail servetis (*1511) mimarT.
serveti 1531 wels strasburgSi Cavida; aq igi kapitos
da martin butcers (1491-1551) ekamaTeboda. am dros
gamoica servetis mistikuri antitrinitaruli wigni,
maSindeli eretikuli literaturis erT-erTi yvela-
ze sayuradRebo naSromi _ „samebis mcdarobis Sesaxeb`.
Tavis Tanamoazred franki yofil luTeranels, kampanuss
Tvlida, romelic Semdeg naTlismcemlebs dauaxlovda.
kampanusis wigni _ „luTeranobis winaaRmdeg da im saSi-
nel Secdomebze, romelTac qveynad mociqulTa Semdeg
hqonda adgili`������������������������������������
_ 1527 wels gamovida. am naSrommac
Seuwyo xeli frankis mier luTeranul eklesiaze da mso-
flmxedvelobaze uaris Tqmas. agripa neteshaimelis wign-
ma „okulturi filosofia` (1510) franks da, albaT, mis
did Tanamedroves, paracelssac, moumzada Sexeduleba
adamianze, rogorc mikrokosmosze, rogorc universumis
centrze, romelSic yovelivea mocemuli da amitomac
mas yoveli arsebulis Semecneba SeuZlia. agripa netes-
haimeli neoplatonizmis did gavlenas ganicdida. misgan
da hans denkidan eziara franki kuzanelis moZRvrebas

- 142 -
dapirispirebulTa erTianobis da ganswavluli arcodnis
Sesaxeb. wyaroebze miTiTeba SeiZleboda gagvegrZelebina,
magram es frankis originalobas Crdils ver miayenebs.
igi Seecada mTlianobaSi moeyvana misi Tanamedrove da
tradiciuli Sexedulebani da Seeqmna Tavisufali mor-
wmunis da moqalaqis filosofiuri msoflmxedveloba,
romelic RmerTis da sakuTari sindisis garda, aravis
winaSe ar iqneboda valdebuli. frankis moZRvreba winga-
dadgmuli nabijia panTeisturi filosofiis ganviTareba-
Si, romelmac uSualod boemes panTeizmi moamzada, xolo
iribad ki gavlena moaxdina barux spinozas (1632-1677)
filosofiis Camoyalibebaze.
luTeris Tavdapirveli moZRvrebis arsebidan gamom-
dinareobda, rom yovel adamians ufleba aqvs saRvTo
werilis sakuTari gagebis safuZvelze, yovelgvari saSu-
alo instanciis gareSe, pirovnuli mimarTeba daamyaros
RmerTTan. amasTan aucileblobiT iyo dakavSirebuli
sruli Semwynareblobis idea da RmerTis Ziebis gzebis
Tanasworuflebianobis aRiareba. luTerma orive am prin-
cips uRalata da pirovnebasa da RmerTs Soris axali,
protestantuli eklesia Caayena kaTolikuris magier.
saerTod, reformatorebi inkvizitorebze naklebi sim-
kacriT rodi uswordebodnen sxvagvarad moazrovneebs.
SveicariaSi reformaciis erTpirovnuli mbrZanebelis,
kalvinis moTxovniT cocxlad dawves espaneli anti-
trinitaristi, serveti. franki erT-erTi imaTgani iyo,
vinc luTersac daupirispirda da saerTod reforma-
ciasac; WeSmaritebis ZiebaSi adamians, misi azriT, ori
iaraRi aqvs: saxareba da sakuTari sulis simdidre. maT
arsebiTad erTi da igive Sinaarsi aqvT. saxareba exmare-
ba adamians Tavis TavSi amoikiTxos WeSmariteba. amitom
SesaZlebelia, rom qristiani iyos isic, visac qristes
Sesaxeb araferi gaugonia. germanuli mistikis tradiciis
mixedviT, franki axali msoflmxedvelobis dafuZnebas

- 143 -
cdilobs amqveyniurobisTvis zurgis SeqceviT, sakuTari
sulis wiaRSi arsebuli SesaZleblobebis gacnobierebiT.
amqveyniurze uaris Tqma aris sakuTar arsebaSi uarsayof
sinamdvilesTan dakavSirebuli miznebis da Rirebulebebis
uaryofa. esaa miuRebeli awmyos uaryofa sasurveli moma-
vlisaTvis. esaa garegani adamianis, grZnobadi sinamdvil-
iT datyvevebulobis uaryofa WeSmariti Rirebulebebis
sasargeblod. frankis kvleva-Zieba zneobriv problema-
Ta dafuZnebas isaxavs miznad. mas ar awuxebs samyaros
fizikuri an maTematikuri kanonzomierebis aRmoCenis
da maTi WeSmaritebis dafuZnebis problemebi. zneobrivi
TvalsazrisiT, WeSmariti, e. i. swori moqmedebis maqsimis
codna da Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebis miReba dafarulia
ara im azriT, rom ar ician misi Sinaarsi an misi moTxov-
nani. aramed im azriT, rom adamianebi sakuTar TavSi Zalas
ver pouloben am moTxovnaTa Tanaxmad rom icxovron.
keTili da boroti yoveliveSia, rac konkretulad ar-
sebobs. Cveulebrivi adamianebi sxeulebriv moTxovnilebas
damorCilebulni cdiloben daasabuTon saerTo miznebis,
SeCveuli egoisturi yofis WeSmariteba. am mizniT iyene-
ben isini saRvTo werils. saRvTo werili ki mkvdari asoa,
Tu mas wrfeli guliT ar mivudeqiT. misi teqstis mixed-
viT, yvelaferi SeiZleba gavamarTloT. farisevlebma
Zveli aRqmis kanonebis Tanaxmad acves qriste jvars.
saRvTo werilis azri, amtkicebs franki, sxva araferia,
Tu ara maradiuli miTiTeba imaze, rom WeSmariti ada-
mianuri cxovreba amqveyniurobis, misi grZnobadi mxaris
uaryofaSia. adamianebi ki mas egoisturi miswrafebebis
gasamarTleblad iyeneben. „yvela ubedureba RvTis sax-
eliT iwyeba`. sisastikes, kacis kvlas, omebs RvTis sax-
eliT amarTleben. RvTis saxeliT imarTlebs Tavs beri,
roca monazonTan cxovrobs. adamianebi cdiloben daamt-
kicon, rom keTili RmerTi, romelic CvenTvis jvars ecva,
Cven arafers gvavalebs. igi mxolod gvaZlevs fuls,

- 144 -
qonebas, lamaz colsa da Svils. es adamianebi RmerTsac
ki ar apatieben xorcielis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebas da mas
eSmakad miiCneven. franki aq, albaT, luTers gulisxmobs,
romelmac 1528 wels monastridan gamoiyvana katerina fon
bora (1499-1552) da colad SeirTo, riTac sabolood gaau-
qma reformaciaSi monazvnobis instituti. aman didi miTq-
ma-moTqma gamowvia. bevri dResac am aqts mxolod luTer-
is gadaWarbebuli seqsualuri ltolviT xsnis. frankis
„paradoqsa` 1534 wels gamovida da is SemTxvevas ar uSvebs
xelidan, ironiulad gadahkras Tavis yofil kerps.
sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, gvarwmunebs franki, ada-
mianebs ar surT dainaxon jerarsi, maSinac ki, roca esmiT
misi moTxovna. sityvierad SeiZleba aRiarebdnen kidevac
mas, magram sinamdvileSi sawinaaRmdegosken iswrafvi-
an. amgvari jerarsiseuli filosofiis amokiTxva unda
franks saRvTo werilidan da sakuTari sulieri simdid-
ridan. amodis ra im faqtidan, rom sazogadoebaSi ofi-
cialurad saxelmZRvanelod aRiarebul principebsa da
realur stimulebs Soris yovelTvis arsebobs winaaRm-
degoba, franki Tavisi moZRvrebis ZiriTadi debulebebis
gamomxatvel naSroms „paradoqsas` uwodebs. paradoqsi
TavisTavad WeSmariti, magram realuri cxovrebis ukuR-
marTobis winaSe uZluri debulebaa.
„paradoqss, sayvarelo megobrebo da Zmebo, berZnebi
uwodeben debulebas, romelic miuxedavad imisa, rom sar-
wmuno da WeSmaritia, mTeli qveynis da imaT mier, vinc ada-
mianuri wesiT cxovrobs, sulac ar miiCneva WeSmaritad.
magaliTad, debuleba imis Taobaze, rom mxolod brZenni
da saTnoni arian mdidarni, anda, rom qristiani ar sco-
davs da ar kvdeba; aseve, rom RvTis mcnebani advilia da
maTi dacva Zneli ar aris, rom jvari, tanjva da daTrgu-
nuloba bednierebaa; rom sikvdili gzaa da Sesavalia si-
cocxleSi: metic, wamalia namdvili sikvdilis winaaRm-
deg... da sxva` (14,12).

- 145 -
frankis „paradoqsaSi` mocemulia 280 amgvari de-
buleba da maTi analizi. pirveli da ukanaskneli para-
doqsi RmerTis Seumecnebadobaze miuTiTebs: 1. „aravin
icis, ra aris RmerTi` ; 280-e, „sityva, romelic sinaTle,
goni da sicocxlea, ver iTmens raime adamianur sinaTles
an ganmartebas`. TiToeuli, an naTesauri Sinaarsis para-
doqsTa jgufi mocemulia laTinur da germanul enebze,
rogorc dasamtkicebeli debuleba. amasTan erTxel
damtkicebuli viTareba gamoiyeneba safuZvlad Semdgom
paradoqsul debulebaTa dasabuTebisaTvis.
pirveli debuleba, „aravin icis, ra aris RmerTi`,
tipur paradoqss warmoadgens frankisaTvis, radgan am
debulebas yvela aRiarebs, magram yvela TavisTvis sa-
surveli saxiT warmoisaxavs RmerTs da imowmebs mas Tavis
gasamarTleblad. franki am terminis berZnul gagebaze
miuTiTebs berZnulad: „para-doqsos` aRniSnavs imas, rac
„doqsas`, anu gavrcelebul azrs ewinaaRmdegeba da ami-
tom ucnaurad da araCveulebrivadaa miCneuli. cicero-
ni, romelic frankisaTvis didi avtoritetia, paradoqss
uwodebs moCvenebiT, erTi SexedviT, mcdar da uazro
debulebas. franki arafers ambobs Zenonze, romelTanac
pirvelad moxda amgvari debulebebis refleqsuri anal-
izi. am termins Tanamedrove Teologiac iyenebs, magram
gansxvavebuli azriT. prof. iozef ratcingeri _ dRes,
romis papi benediqte XVI (*1927) _ paradoqss uwodebs
debulebas erTi arsebisa da sami saxis Sesaxeb. misi az-
riT, „yvelaze ufro paradoqsuli, amave dros, yvelaze
ufro naTeli da mxsnelia`. frankisaTvis paradoqsi ra-
cionalurad SeuZlebeli debuleba ki araa, aramed is-
eTi, romelic dasabuTebiT ki dasabuTdeba, magram mainc
ar sruldeba, realuri cxovrebis saxelmZRvanelo wesad
mainc ar gadaiqceva.
franki mouwodebs ikvlion „sakuTari gonis suli-
eri TvaliT`, e. i. „Sinagani adamianis TvaliT, romelic

- 146 -
amqveyniurobaze orientirebuli xedvis sapirispiroa`.
franki winaaRmdegia mikerZoebuli kvlevis, darwmunebu-
lia, rom yovelives Tavisufali kvleva gaaerTianebs ada-
mianebs uxilav sulier eklesiaSi.
franki mis mier paradoqsebad wodebul WeSmaritebebs
realuri cxovrebisadmi imdenad dapirispirebulad mi-
iCnevda, rom am dapirispirebas Tavisebur kriteriuma-
dac iyenebda: Tu ginda gaigo, ras iTxovs saxareba, e. i.
WeSmariteba, „daakvirdi Tu ras akeTebs brbo, ra swams
mas da gaakeTe misi sawinaaRmdego` (14,16).
aris Tu ara umravlesobis Sexedulebebs da miswrafe-
bebs dapirispirebuli es moazrovne filosofiaSi aris-
tokratuli tendenciis gamomxatveli, razedac xSirad
miuTiTeben specialur literaturaSi? visgan Sedgeba es
brbo? mkvlevarTa rigi miiCnevs, rom franki aq mosaxle-
obis dabal fenebs ar gulisxmobs. volgasts surs franki
gaaTavisuflos amgvari braldebisagan da miuTiTebs, rom
franki qedmaRlurad laparakobs ara mSromel masebze,
aramed lumpenproletariatze, e. i. sazogadoebis yove-
li fenis deklasirebul elementebze, romelic tvir-
Tad awva sazogadoebas. volgasti imaze miuTiTebs, rom
frankis SromebSi, gansakuTrebiT, „germaniis qronikaSi`,
aSkaraa mSromeli masebisadmi siyvaruli da pativiscema.
es sworia, magram arc imis uaryofa SeiZleba, rom franki
glexTa omis damarcxebis Semdeg garkveul pesimizms mieca.
vfiqrobT, am periodSi, frankisaTvis „brbo` aris mTeli
qveyana, ramdenadac is (adamianebi saerTod) WeSmaritebas
paradoqsad miiCnevs da eSmaks RmerTad Tvlis. amave
dros, igive xalxi, igive qveyana, misi Sinagani sulieri
aspeqtiT, anu masSi arsebuli Sinagani WeSmariti adamia-
nis aspeqtiT, iqceva frankis pativiscemis da zrunvis sa-
gnad.
aseve konkretul-istoriul midgomas saWiroebs fran-
kis azri codnisa (mecnierebis) da xelovnebis uaryofis

- 147 -
Taobaze. aq, rasakvirvelia, igulisxmeba sqolastikuri
unayofo mecniereba da xelovneba, rogorc amaze mkv-
levrebi miuTiTeben. magram saWiroa imis gaTvaliswinebac,
rom franki mistikosia da RmerTis Seumecnebadobas aRi-
arebs. amis gamo, misTvis codnis ganusazRvreli preten-
ziebi miuRebeli iyo. miT umetes, gasaTvaliswinebelia,
rom frankisaTvis RmerTi bunebis arsebas Seadgenda.
franks mohyavs senekas debuleba imis Taobaze, rom
RmerTi da samyaro erTi da igivea, rom isini uerTman-
eTod ar arseboben. es debuleba germanel moazrovnes
SezRuduli panTeizmis azriT esmis. RmerTi bunebasTan
aucilebel kavSirSia, misi arsebaa, magram mainc tran-
scendenturia misadmi. „seneka da aseve petrarka, bunebas
da gonebas zogjer RmerTs uwodeben, radgan RmerTis
goni CvenSia, rac sikeTisaken da RvTaebrivi nivTierebi-
saken svlaSi gadagvalaxvinebs Cvens sakuTar Tavs` (91,238-
239).
yoveli principulad agnostikuri debuleba Tavis
TavTan winaaRmdegobrivia. frankTan es winaaRmdego-
ba Seucnobad RmerTze msjelobis saxiTaa mocemuli.
isic ver icavs bolomde RmerTis yovlismomcvelobis
da Seumecnebadobis debulebas. franki RmerTs aSkarad
iseT rames miawers, rac mis Semecnebadobaze laparako-
bs. RmerTis definicia TiTqmis SeuZlebelia, radgan igi
yovelgvar gansazRvrulobasa da konkretulobaze maR-
laa, magram mas aRweren eklesiis mamebi: RmerTze Cven
isic viciT, rom igi yvelaferia yvelaferSi. franki am
debulebasac azustebs, rac RmerTis kidev ufro met
Semecnebas gulisxmobs: „RmerTi aris da moqmedebs yove-
liveSi codvis gamoklebiT`. es gamonaklisi, RmerTisagan
garkveuli sferos gamoyofa, TiTqos misi gansazRvrebis
saSualebas unda iZleodes. magram es RmerTis absolu-
turobas safrTxis winaSe daayenebs. franki am siZnelis
gadasalaxavad Zvel sqolastikur xerxs iyenebs: arara

- 148 -
imis araraa, rom verafers ver gansazRvravs realuri az-
riT. codva swored araraa. igi raime realuri rom iyos,
maSin masSic iqneboda sikeTe da misi mizezi RmerTi iqne-
boda. RmerTis bunebaSi sikeTis monizmi da, am azriT,
arsebulisa da sikeTis gaigiveba frankTanac daculia da,
amdenad, igi, principulad, neoplatonizmis poziciaze
rCeba.
magram frankTan neoplatonuri monizmis gagebaSi,
kerZod, araras cnebis gagebaSi, antikuri dualizmi iCens
Tavs, rac neoplatonizmSi arsisa da ararsis dialeqti-
kaSi aSkarad ar Canda. franki Tvlis, rom arara ar aris
araraoba. samyaroSi rom boroteba arsebobs, amaSi brali
RmerTs rom ar daedos, araras garkveuli, RmerTisagan
damoukidebeli Tavisebureba eniWeba, riTac monizms
safrTxe emuqreba. arara isaa, risganac adamiania Seqmnili
RmerTis mier. misgan, rogorc materiisagan, gamohyva ada-
mians codva, Tumca RmerTma am masalaSi mxolod sikeTe
Seitana. yuradReba ar eqceva imas, rom es ukve RmerTis
yovlisSemZleobis SezRudvaa. frankisaTvis aq mTavaria
is, rom RmerTs ar dabraldes is boroteba, romelic ada-
mianma sakuTari Tavisufali nebisyofiT unda daZlios.
adamiani „wminda araradan Seiqmna` da misi bralia CvenSi
codvis arseboba. rogorc vxedavT, araras mcire Zala ar
hqonia. misganaa ganpirobebuli is, rom qveyana RmerTs
upirispirdeba da WeSmariteba paradoqsad eCveneba.
aqedanac naTelia, rom Teologia Tanmimdevruli ma-
Sin iqneba, roca RmerTs codvis, borotebis mizezadac
gamoacxadebs da masSive dainaxavs orives, sikeTisa da
borotebis arsebobas. es iqneba WeSmariti idealisturi
panTeizmi, romelic materialisturis Sesavali iqneba.
es Tanmimdevruli Teologia iqneba, radgan borotebis
ararsebobis mtkiceba TavisTavad nakleb damajerebe-
lia, da Tu is arsebobs, RmerTisagan unda iyos. amgvari
RmerTi samyaros kanonzomierebas savsebiT daemTxveva,

- 149 -
dakargavs eklesiisaTvis da gabatonebuli klasebisaT-
vis gamosadeg funqciebs. amitom ambobda l. foierbaxi,
rom `panTeizmi _ es Teologiuri aTeizmia, Teologiuri
materializmia, Teologiis uaryofaa, magram Tavad
Teologiis Tvalsazrisidan, radgan panTeizmi materias,
rogorc RmerTis uaryofas, aqcevs RvTaebrivi arsebis
predikatad, anu atributad~. am dones dasavleT evropis
Teologiam boemes naazrevSi miaRwia. frankis azrovneba
misi winasafexuria _ v. vaigelTan erTad. igi grZnobs
amgvari poziciis logikur aucileblobas, magram ver
bedavs masze damyarebas. RmerTs, amtkicebs franki, ara
aqvs raime saxeli, radgan saxeli raimes raimesagan gas-
asxvaveblad ixmareba. RmerTi ki yvelas arsebaa. am azriT
ambobdnen ebraelebi, rom RmerTis saxeli gamouTqme-
lia. igi arsebiTobis mimcemia yovelivesaTvis. mas raime
konkretuli saxeli ar SeiZleba ewodos. am azriT upa-
suxa RmerTma moses kiTxvas sityvebiT: „me var, romeli
var!`. „paradoqsaSi` xSiradaa laparaki RmerTze, rogorc
pirovnebaze, romelsac garkveuli neba da mizani aqvs,
magram roca franki am sakiTxze specialurad msjelobs,
misTvis amgvari warmodgenebi anTropomorfizmis Sedegad
iTvleba. RmerTs ara aqvs neba, e. i. is arc personaa. igi
kanonzomierebas uigivdeba. „RmerTi swored is aris, ra-
sac is brZanebs`, xolo „is brZanebs siyvaruls, sikeTes da
WeSmaritebas`. igi „arc aravis emsaxureba da arc aravis
vnebs`. igi srulyofilebaa, romelsac araferi sWirdeba
da Cveni sanToeba CvenTvisaa da ara RmerTisaTvis. araa
swori, rodesac vambobT, rom RmerTi gvsjis. Cven Cvenive
boroteba gvsjis da ara RmerTi. RmerTi „ucvlelia da
uZravi`. amgvari RmerTi, cxadia, qristianuli ver iqne-
ba. Tumca franks eWvi ar epareba imaSi, rom namdvili
qristianoba, romelic yoveli keTili nebis adamianis
sarwmunoeba da msoflmxedveloba iqneba, amgvari unda
iyos. misi antitrinitarizmi da qristes miCneva adamia-

- 150 -
nis RmerTisadmi miswrafebis personifikaciad swored am
mizans isaxavs.
rogoria frankis panTeizmi? am sakiTxze pasuxi mniS-
vnelovania, rogorc saerTod panTeizmis, ise qristian-
uli neoplatonizmis bunebis gasagebad. franki ambobs,
rom yvelaferi RmerTSia da RmerTi yvelaferSia. aq
„yvelaferi` ar unda gavigoT am sityvis pirdapiri az-
riT, aramed, aq igulisxmeba is, rasac namdvili arsebo-
ba miewereba. aranamdvil arsebobas, romelic araraoba
araa, miewereba yovelive, rac uaryofiTi Rirebulebis
da miswrafebis Semcvelia. frankis naazrevSi naTlad
ikveTeba „Sinagani` da „garegani` qristes, Sinagani da
garegani adamianis, keTilisa da borotis gayofa. stoel-
Ta debuleba, rom samyaros saerTo gegmaSi yvelaferi
sikeTea, Tumca konkretul pirovnebas is savsebiT sapir-
ispirod eCveneba, marTalia, Zneli dasajerebeli, magram
Tanmimdevruli mainc iyo. misi ZiriTadi nakli konkre-
tuli pirovnebis Rirebulebis uaryofa da saerTo mizni-
saTvis ubralo saSualebad warmodgenaa. franks surs,
erTi mxriv, pirovnebis Sinagani arsebobis damoukide-
beli Rirebuleba SeinarCunos, meore mxriv, adamianis
Tavisufali nebisyofisagan gamomdinare boroteba RmerTs
ar mieweros. igi cdilobs, sikeTis monizmi SeinarCunos
imis saSualebiT, rom boroteba, rogorc materiisagan
da mcdari miswrafebebisagan gamomdinare, uarsod, anu
ararsad warmoadginos. rac arsia, is RmerTisganaa da
keTilia, magram ararsic arsebobs, rogorc garegnuloba
da mcdari orientacia. franki qristianobis daniSnule-
bas swored am ararsis, am garegnulobis dasaZlevi gzis
CvenebaSi xedavs. es ararsi, moCvenebiTi arsi, franks su-
lac ar miaCnia advilad dasaZlevad. amisaTvis aucilebe-
lia adamianma Secvalos Tavisi namdvili ZiriTadi ori-
entacia sxeulebrivze da sxeulebrivTan dakavSirebul
pirovnulze. adamianma sakuTari Tavis daZleviT unda

- 151 -
daZlios es garegnuli samefo, romelsac igi Zvel same-
fos uwodebs. es samefo codviTaa ganmsWvaluli. „cod-
va araraa da aararavebs`. Tu amas ar gaviTvaliswinebT,
gaugebari iqneba frankis mtkiceba, rom RmerTis batono-
ba xorcze arasgziT ar vrceldeba.
aSkara panTeisturi debulebebi frankTan yovelTvis
aseTi SezRudvebiTaa mocemuli. amgvari msoflmxedvelo-
ba, albaT, yvelaze ukeT winaaRmdegobrivi terminiT „pan-
Teisturi dualizmi` SeiZleba gamoixatos. amgvari du-
alizmi dasturdeba neoplatonizmSi boememde, romelic
frankisa da spinozas panTeizms Soris dgas. unda iTqvas,
rom es dualizmi Zalze gamWolia frankTan. monizmSi (pan-
TeizmSi) borotis uarsoba miiRweva mxolod grZnobadi
sinamdvilis da grZnobadi cxovrebis ararad, moCvenebi-
Tad gamocxadebis xarjze. am araras anu moCvenebis same-
foSi Sedis amqveyniuri batonoba, marTalTa (qristianTa)
sikvdiliT dasja; isic, rom umravlesoba adamianis da
ara RmerTis Tanaxmad cxovrobs da WeSmarit RmerTs eS-
maks uwodebs. franki imasac ityvis, rom qveyana wyvdia-
dia. axali rwmenis safuZvelze Zvelis xelaxla dabadebis
gareSe, adamianic wyvdiadia. qveynis es RirebulebiTi
„gaararaveba` da misi Zalumi dapirispireba WeSmaritebis
samefosadmi, RmerTisa da Sinagani adamianisadmi, frank-
Tan isea dakanonebuli da ontologizirebuli, rom
gamoricxulia SesaZlebloba borotebis saboloo damar-
cxebisa. es frankis pesimizmis ontologiuri safuZvelia.
mas mxolod rCeulTa mcire jgufis arsebobis imedi aqvs,
magram amis damajerebel dasabuTebas ver axerxebs. dama-
jerebels Tundac sakuTari TavisaTvis, radgan qveynis
miseuli aRwera xSirad gamoricxavs borotebis samefoSi
marTalis arsebobis SesaZleblobas. am dapirispirebis
maradiulobis sabuTad franki piTagoraze miuTiTebs,
romelic saerTo Rirebulebebs ar Tvlida WeSmarit
Rirebulebad da rCeulTa mcire jgufis gzis siswores

- 152 -
amtkicebda. piTagorelebi TavianT Sexedulebebs umala-
vdnen masebs, rogorc uunaros maTi WeSmariti gagebisa.
franki ki imaze wuxs, rom masebi maTTvis kargad cnobil
WeSmaritebebs ar icaven. es rwmenis aristokratizmi pesi-
misturi aristokratizmia, romelic, samwuxarod, miiC-
nevs, rom qveyanas rwmenis mixedviT cxovreba ar SeuZlia.
is araviTar privilegias ar iCemebs. „esaa yvela filo-
sofosis filosofia, yvela qristianis qristianoba, rom
Cven qveyanasTan da adamianTa umravlesobasTan ar vrCe-
biT, farTo, kargad gatkepnili gziT ar mivdivarT`
(14,18).
franki cdilobs gadalaxos dualizmi da borotSic
RmerTis borotad gamovlena Tavad am movlenis bralad
CaTvalos. magram amiT, problema ar gadaiWreba, radgan,
amjerad mocemuli movlenis boroti buneba, romelic
RmerTis sikeTes borotebad iTvisebs, warmoqmnis
RmerTisagan damoukidebel samyaros. RmerTi qveyanas
da adamians arafers ar aZlevs, _ irwmuneba franki. igi
yoveliveSia, „magram yoveliveSi aris is, rac TiToeuls
surs. Tumca RmerTi Tavad mxolod sikeTea, magram ara-
vis aZalebs iyos keTili. igi is masalaa, romelsac, roca
futkari iRebs mas yvavilidan _ Taflia, xolo roca
oboba Seiwovs _ Sxamad iqceva`. RmerTis yovlisSemZleo-
bis problema, cxadia, franksac awuxebs. amitom araTan-
mimdevrulobas gverds ver uqcevs. marTalia, „RmerTs
survili da neba ara aqvs`, magram vinc ra unda gaakeTos,
mainc is sruldeba, rac RmerTs surs.
ramdenadac RmerTi borotSicaa, amdenad, boememde
cotaRa rCeba. magram es „cota` principuli mniSvnelo-
bisaa da franks ar surs misi gadalaxva, e. i. ar surs
RmerTSi borotebis aRiareba. arc is surs, qveynad arse-
buli borotebis wyarod RmerTi iqnes miCneuli, Tumca,
rogorc „paradoqsaSi` ixsenebs franki mociqulis si-
tyvebs: RmerTis nebis gareSe, Cveni Tavidan Tmis Reric

- 153 -
ar Camovardeba. franks arc stouri warmoSobis da mas-
Tan fausturad qceuli motivi akmayofilebs (romlis
Tanaxmadac, boroti ganzraxva mainc RmerTis keTil
mizans emsaxureba). igi spinozas msgavs debulebas wamoay-
enebs imis Taobaze, rom RmerTSi araa SemTxveviTi an afeq-
ti. magram mas ar unda SemTxveviTi mxolod Semecnebis
Secdomad CaTvalos da uaryos misi mniSvneloba qveynis
agebulebaSi. misi RmerTi „dafaruli RmerTia`, romlis
sasufeveli qveyana da garegani adamiani ki ar aris, ar-
amed goniTi samyaro, romlesac mxolod Sinagani adamiani
xedavs.
roca saqme Segnebul refleqsias exeba, franki savse-
biT naTlad dgas neoplatonuri sikeTis monizmis safuZ-
velze. RmerTi misTvis ucvleli da uZravi wminda sik-
eTea, magram es monizmi Tavis farul sisustes masTan
ufro aSkarad avlens, vidre sxvebTan. es sisuste dual-
izmis faruli daSvebaa. is, rom RmerTi yovelives sisavse
da arsia, emyareba imas, rom misgan gansxvavebuli, e. i.
boroteba, araraobad da uarsobad iTvleba, romelSic
yovelgvari SemTxveviToba da afeqti Sedis. „damoukide-
beli, uZravi da ucvleli RmerTi arsebobs yovelgvari
adamianuri SemTxveviTobisa da afeqtis gareSe, uvnebod,
uafeqtod, umiswrafebod, marad TavisTavTan toli,
savsebiT sikeTe, marad megobari da Tavad siyvaruli`. es
gansazRvreba naTlad gvagonebs spinozas, romelic, zo-
gierTi mkvlevris azriT, icnobda frankis naSromebs. es
msgavseba kidev ufro damajerebeli gaxdeba, Tu gavix-
senebT imasac, rom spinoza RmerTs substancias uwo-
debs. „igi yvela xiluli da uxilavi nivTis substanciaa`.
franki TiTqos winaswar emijneba boemes mier RmerTis
gagebas. RmerTi amgvari rom ar iyos, ambobs franki, „ma-
Sin RmerTSi erTsa da imave dros iqneboda sikeTe da
boroteba`. aq naTelia, rom borotebis uarsobis deb-
uleba refleqsurad gadalaxuli araa, Tumca sakiTxis

- 154 -
analizis dros yvelaferi iqiTken midis, rom es debule-
ba gadailaxos RmerTSi borotebis arsebobis daSvebis
safuZvelze. ganviTarebis TeoriaSi da msoflmxedvelo-
bis istoriaSic es Tvisebrivad axali safexuri iqneba,
rac boemes saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli.
frankis moZRvreba adamianis Sesaxeb iqidan amodis,
rom qveyanas, rogorc nivTTa erTianobas, msoflmxedv-
elobrivi TvalsazrisiT, mniSvneloba ar aqvs. mas RmerTi
marTavs. igi arc keTilia da arc boroti. sul sxvaa ada-
miani. mas Tavisufali neba aqvs, e. i. sikeTesa da borote-
bas Soris amorCeva SeuZlia. franki cdilobs, mas daabra-
los qveynad borotebis arseboba da amave dros RmerTis
yovlisSemZleoba SeinarCunos. platonma marjved Seadara
RmerTi mzes. RmerTi mzesaviT erTnairad anaTebs karg-
sac da cudsac. erTnairad anaTebda igi petresac da iu-
dasac. magram iudam daxuWa Tvalebi da ver dainaxa RvTis
wyaloba. RmerTs, marTalia, veraferi aRudgeba win, ma-
gram mas TavisTavad araferi ar surs. survili mas mx-
olod CvenSi uCndeba; da am survils veraferi aRudgeba
win. miuxedavad amisa, franki mainc ambobs, rom RmerTs
ar surs aiZulos neba, ise, rogorc igi aiZulebs sagnebs.
RmerTi nebis arCevans xels ar uSlis. qveyana, rogorc
codvis samefo, am arCevanis Sedegia. magram franks arc
is unda, rom es qveyana RmerTis nebas ar emorCilebodes.
RmerTis pasuxismgeblobidan ganTavisufleba dualizms
moiTxovs, misi yovlisSemZleoba ki borotebis arsebobis
uaryofas, e. i. monizms, anda RmerTSive borotebis arse-
bobis aRiarebas. franks arc erTis aRiareba ar surs da
arc meorisa, misi mizani nebis Tavisuflebisa da RvTis
nebis sayovelTaobis SeTavsebaa.
germaneli moazrovne am miznis miRwevas imiT cdi-
lobs, rom nebas gadawyvetilebis miRebis srul
Tavisuflebas aZlevs, Tumca es Tavisufleba ar exeba am
gadawyvetilebis ganxorcielebas. Cveni gadawyvetilebis

- 155 -
mixedviT moqmedebis Sedegi aRaraa Cvens neba-survilze
damokidebuli, is RmerTis miTiTebas mihyveba. am azriT,
„nebaSi yovelTvis ori ram aris: adamianis da RvTis neba`.
adamiani Tavisufalia, rac surs, is amoirCios, magram ar
aris Tavisufali moqmedebaSi. „amitomaa, rom RvTis neba
sufevs caSic da miwazec`. RvTis sasufevelSi adamianis
nebis adgili ar aris, ramdenadac is Tavisi Tavis batonia.
am gzas Semdeg kanti mosinjavs, xolo fixte Taviseburad
ganaviTarebs, roca moralsa da religias Soris kavSirisa
da gansxvavebis dadgenas Seecdeba.
boroteba da sikvdili mxolod CvenSia, _ kvlav da
kvlav imeorebs franki. mxolod Cven vewinaaRmdegebiT
RmerTs. erazmisa da luTeris kamaTSi nebis Tavisuflebis
Sesaxeb franki erazmis mxares iWers. luTeri, rogorc
cnobilia, adamianis nebis TanSobil ganpirobebulobas
icavda, melanqtonTan erTad. am safuZvelze, frankis
azriT, borotebis arseboba savsebiT gaugebari iqneba.
RmerTi gansazRvravs Cveni nebis gadawyvetilebis mixed-
viT moqmedebis Sedegs. mizezs, Cvens survils da Sedegs,
e. i. mis ganxorcielebas Soris arsebobs „uxilavi raRac`,
romlis ZaliTac SedegSi iseTi Sinaarsic gvaqvs, romelic
mizezSi ar iyo. esaa is safuZveli, rac Tavisuflebis
SeuzRudavad uSvebs mizezebisgan Sedegis gansxvavebas.
mizezsa da Sedegs Soris arsebuli es mesame, anu
RmerTi, sayuradReboa imdenad, ramdenadac mizezsa da
Sedegs Soris dadgenil mkacr neoplatonur subordina-
cias arRvevs, Tumca ar moxsnis mas, radgan es gansxvave-
buli umaRlesi mizezis, e. i. RmerTis CareviT aixsneba.
adamianis neba absoluturad Tavisufalia arCev-
anSi, magram ganxorcielebaSi ara. erTimeoris gverdiTaa
adamianis da RmerTis Tavisufali nebani. franki aqac
SemzRudvel garemoebas naxulobs. roca adamiani (mag.,
adami) borotebas airCevs, mere is aRaraa Tavisufali,
sanam qristes daxmarebiT ar ganTavisufldeba, anu xe-

- 156 -
laxla ar daibadeba.
Tu boroteba araraa, maSin ratom sjis RmerTi adami-
ans ararasaTvis? pasuxi aseTia: mamac sjis Svils, roca
araraTia igi dakavebuli. „raimes keTeba niSnavs sikeTis
keTebas,` _ agrZelebs franki sofistikur dasabuTebas.
amgvari dasabuTeba mas ar mougonia; is man memkvidre-
obiT miiRo taulerisa da sxva Zveli mistikosebisgan,
romlebTanac codva ararad iwodeboda. franks sikeTis
monizmis dasacavad sxva argumenti ar gaaCnia.
RmerTs ar SeuZlia borotebis da codvis Seqmna,
radgan isini araraa. RmerTma ki raRaca unda Seqmnas da
ara arara. adamianis mier RmerTis Semecnebis sakiTxSi
franki misdevs dionise areopagels da sxvebs, romelTac
RmerTis Semecnebis umaRlesi xarisxi ganswavlul ar-
codnaSi dainaxes. es gagebulia, rogorc RmerTisa da sa-
myaros principuli dapirispirebis gacnobierebis safuZ-
velze, sakuTari Tavisa da qveynis uaryofa da sruli
mindoba RmerTisadmi. es RvTaebrivi arcodna mxolod
amqveyniuri sazomiTaa uazroba.
frankis mistika da panTeizmi araa amqveyniurobis
damamtkicebeli. mas sasowarkveTileba eufleba, roca
RmerTsa da qveyanas erTmaneTs upirispirebs, RmerTis
Sesaxeb adamianis codna imdenad mcdarad miaCnia, rom ay-
enebs debulebas _ mavani „rac ufro mecnieria, miT ufro
dabneulia`. amas is Tavis leqsSi „mecnierebi _ gzaabneb-
ulebi` (1530) ambobs da „paradoqsaSic` imeorebs. fran-
kis mkvlevrebs aqvT garkevuli safuZveli, roca franks
mizologias abraleben. franki aq mxolod Teologiur
codnas ar gulisxmobs, rogorc amas volgasti amtkicebs.
man ver monaxa codnisa da rwmenis kavSiri da urTierT-
gamomricxvelad miiCnia isini. „codna da rwmena erTma-
neTs ver itanen`, „rwmena veraviTar kanons ver itans`.
rwmenas da siyvaruls _ imeorebs igi Tavisi da luTeris
saerTo maswavleblis iohan fon Staupicis sityvebs _

- 157 -
verc sxvebisgan iswavli da verc werilisagan, Tu SenSi
wminda suli ar aris. codna ki iseTi ramaa, risi swavlac
SeiZleba da garegani adamianis, e. i. codvebis iaraRia.
codna, rogorc raimes aucileblobiT gagebis preten-
zia, RmerTis winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli. kanonic aseTive
bunebisaa. kanons Tu davawesebT _ Tundac RmerTisave
nebis saxeliT _ is RmerTis uarmyofeli iqneba. qristes
gageba mxo­lod codvisagan, kanonisagan Tavisufali rwme-
niT aris SesaZlebeli, _ imeorebs franki bernard kler-
voelis sityvebs. rogorc Cans, glexTa omis damarcxebis
Semdeg franks qveynad samarTlianobis ganxorcielebis
yovelgvari imedi amoewura. is, rom igi Tavis geografiaSi,
anda istoriaSi mSromel masebs siyvaruliT aRwers, am mo-
sazrebas ki ar abaTilebs, aramed piriqiT. codna, kanonis
daufleba, xom adamianis mier sakuTar Tavze damyarebis,
misi TviTmyofobis saSualebaa? amis ki franks ukve aRar
sjera. rac Seexeba praqtikul saqmianobas, xelobas, es,
frankis terminologiiT, codna ki ar aris, aramed si-
cocxlisaTvis aucilebeli moqmedebaa. igi codnad maSin
iqceva, rodesac mis safuZvelze RvTis sawinaaRmdego an
RvTis Semcvleli kanonzomierebis dadgena iqneba nacadi.
praqtikuli moqmedebis aRiareba ar niSnavs rwmenis sa-
pirispirod codnis aRiarebas, iseve, rogorc is gare-
moeba, rom franki sapnis damamzadebeli ostati iyo, ar
gamoricxavs mis misticizms. yvelafers, rasTanac adami-
ans mimarTeba aqvs, ianusiviT orsaxovania, _ vkiTxulobT
„paradoqsaSi`. masSi adamianis boroti neba da RmerTis
keTili winaswarxedva xorcieldeba. „yvelafers ori
saxe aqvs imis mixedviT, sxeulis poziciidan SevxedavT,
Tu sulis`. sulis poziciidan SexedvisaTvis ki adamia-
nis arsebiTi gardaqmnaa saWiro. adamianma Tavisi Tavi
unda gadalaxos, radgan „rac adamianuria _ eSmakisganaa`,
„yvela adamiani dawyevlilia. aravinaa netari maT Soris`.
es exeba adamians, rogorc adamis modgmas, romelic dai-

- 158 -
wyevla, radgan man RmerTs zurgi Seaqcia. saWiroa axali
adamiani, romelic amjerad adams Seaqcevs zurgs da „xe-
laxla daibadeba RmerTidan`. manamde ki, adamiani, ram-
denadac sxeulisagan da gonisagan Sedgeba, ar SeiZleba
savsebiT saTno iyos. amitom ityvis franki, rom „saT-
nonic ki ar arian saTnoni`. gulwrfelnic ki mxolod
sanaxevrod arian saTnoni. sulisa da sxeulis kavSiri es
sicocxlis, xilulisa da uxilavis, Sinagani da garegani
adamianis saocari kavSiria. Zveli adamiani RmerTis mier
aris Seqmnili, axali ki RmerTisgan unda daibados, ro-
gorc qriste.
garegan adamianSi mxolod sxeuli ar igulisxmeba. sxe-
uli sulis gareSe umoqmedoa, e. i. adamianSi aris sxeuli,
suli da goni (rogorc maT dapirispirebuli RvTaebrivi
principi). sxeuli eqneba axal adamiansac, iseve, rogorc
qristes hqonda igi. arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom
brZola sxeulsa da gons Soris orive adamianSia, oRond
maT Soris sxvadasxvaa gabatonebuli. sapirispiro ki ar
ispoba, aramed iTrguneba. axal adamianSi goni ki ar mo-
spobs sxeuls, aramed daTrgunavs mas, ise, rom sakuTari
interesebi ar ganaxorcielos. brZola or princips Soris
mxolod sikvdilis Semdeg wydeba.
yvela adamiani Sinaganad erTnairia. germaneli, espan-
eli, Tu Turqi mxolod garegnulad, tanisamosiT da qce-
viT, e. i. araarsebiTad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan. yvela
erTnairad codvilia da yvelas erTnairad sWirdeba xe-
laxla dabadeba. es principi uflebas mogvcems, RmerTs
mama vuwodoT. RmerTma rom Segvqmna, es araa sakmarisi.
xarazic qmnis waRas, magram misi mama rodia. saWiroa
RmerTSi dabadeba.
debuleba imis Taobaze, rom yvela adamiani erTnairad
codvilia, frankTan SemTxveviTi araa. esec ukidureso-
baa _ RmerTis transcendenturobidan gamomdinare. igi
adamianTa qcevis mowesrigebis TvalsazrisiT aSkarad

- 159 -
dezorientaciis Semtania. franki, nicSes msgavsad, erTi
ukiduresobidan meoreSi gadadis, ise, rom sapirispi-
roTa gamaerTianebel safuZvels ver poulobs. igi xan
Tavisufali nebis arsebobas amtkicebs da erT adamians
obobas adarebs, meores ki _ futkars; xan ki yvela adamianis
erTnairad codvilianobas amtkicebs. amgvari midgomiT
mxolod amqveyniuris uaryofa da adamianis radikaluri
gardaqmnis moTxovna sabuTdeba. magram raa gardaqmnis
WeSmaritebis garantia? aseTi ram frankTan ar arsebobs,
radgan adamiani mxolod ise xedavs Seucnobad RmerTs,
rogorc mas esmis igi. gamodis, rom am axali gardaqmnis
mizanic anTropomorfistulia. es winaaRmdegoba axlavs
yvela Teorias, romelic Seumecnebadi RmerTis arsebo-
bas uSvebs. Seumecnebadobis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi, cno-
bierebis yoveli debuleba, misgan damoukideblad arse-
bulis Sesaxeb, mxolod anTropomorfistuli SeiZleba
iyos. am safuZvelze anTropomorfizmi gadaulaxavia.
nicSe da franki _ orive gulwrfeli maZiebelia. orive
winaaRmdegobaSi vardeba, magram maTi miznebi sapirispi-
roa. franki amqveyniurobis, biologiuris araraobas amt-
kicebs da mainc misi aRiareba uxdeba. nicSe idealuris
araraobas amtkicebs biologiuris sasargeblod, magram
mainc misi gavlenis qveS rCeba. amis sabuTia mis mier ga-
ziarebuli maradiuli wrebrunvis uZvelesi principi.
frankis mier paradoqsis dasabuTebis xerxi xSirad
sofisturia. analizis Sedegad aRmoCndeba, rom parado-
qsSi is Sinaarsi ar igulisxmeba, rac mas paradoqsaluro-
bas aniWebda. aviRoT debuleba „RmerTi da bedniereba
maT misdevs, vinc maT gaurbis`. qristiani zizRiT uyure-
bs amqveyniur bednierebas, magram es bedniereba swored
mas xvdeba wilad. Tumca es bedniereba ar aris is, rasac
Cveulebriv am sityvis qveS gulisxmoben. „mas garegnulad
araferi aqvs`. roca me ar minda raime mqondes, maSin ise
maZRari da savse var misiT, TiTqos mqondes igi. xolo

- 160 -
vinc amqveyniur bednierebas misdevs, mas, rac ufro meti
aqvs, meti unda, e. i. mudam arqonebis gancda aqvs da,
amdenad, gaurbis mas bedi da simdidre. amgvari Sinagani
simdidris floba TiToeulma SeiZleba mxolod Tavis
Tavs daumtkicos. sxvisTvis mas araviTari argumenti ar
eqneba. realuri sinamdvile aqac xeluxlebeli rCeba. du-
alizmi aqac naTelia, Tumca garegani da boroteba ara-
raobad cxaddeba. yvelaze pesimisturi frankTan, albaT,
aris antiqristes maradiuli batonobis aRiareba grZno-
bad sinamdvileSi: „antiqriste kvlav cocxalia da, saer-
Tod rom vTqvaT, araferi arsebobs iseTi, rac jerac misi
wesis mixedviT ar iyos da ase ar iqneba aRsasrulamde`.
amgvari msjelobis gverdiT, frankTan SevxvdebiT imis
mtkicebasac, rom Tu vinme miaRwevs xelaxla dabade-
bas, qristes WeSmarit gagebas, misTvis ar iqneba saWiro
amqveyniurobaze uari Tqvas. „wmindasi yovelive wmindaa:
Wama, sma, laparaki, dumili, simdidre, siRaribe, bavSvi,
coli, Rvino`, Turme „maTi Secodebebic ki wmindaa`.
Secdoma da misi grZnobadi Sedegi frankisaTvis araa
mTavari. mTavaria gadawyvetileba da misi motivi. qur-
di qurdia aT guldens moiparavs is, Tu ass. zarali sx-
vadasxvaa, magram codva erTnairia.
rogorc dilTaim aRniSna Tavis naSromSi „adamianis
gageba da analizi me-15-e da me-16-e saukuneebSi` (70,85),
franki religiis kantiseuli gagebis winamorbedia. fran-
kis moZRvreba adamianSi ori sawyisis maradiuli brZolis
Taobaze, damajereblad asabuTebs am azrs. Tavad kanti
franks mxolod erTxel axsenebs, isic ara gamoqveynebul
SromebSi, aramed anTropologiis xelnawerebSi. mas mos-
wons cnobili germaneli pedagogi, iohan bernar bazedovi
(1723-1790) 1774 wels qalaq desauSi „filantropinumis`
damaarsebeli. bazedovs igi uwodebs enTuziasts, ro-
melic saerTo sikeTes isaxavda miznad da sasargeblo
saqmes akeTebda; franki ki „iyo meocnebe`. kants, albaT,

- 161 -
ar moswonda frankis qristianuli anarqizmi.
frankis social-politikuri Sexedulebani, „german-
uli Teologiis` avtoris da iohanes tauleris kvalad,
qristianuli komunizmis gamarTlebas isaxavs miznad. igi
xedavs sakuTrebis da sazogadoebis naklovanebaTa kav-
Sirs, xvdeba, rom saxelmwifo SeuZlebelia sakuTrebis
gareSe; magram, pirovnebis interesebidan gamomdinare,
uaryofs kerZo sakuTrebas da saxelmwifos. „saerTo
wmindaa, xolo Cemi da Seni _ uwminduri`. sakuTreba
bunebis winaaRmdegia, rogorc amas Zveli qristianebi,
papi klemens I (aRsayd. 88), tertuliane (155-222) da sxve-
bi amtkicebdnen. yvelaferi saerTo unda iyos, rogorc
saerToa mze, wvima, haeri, Tovli da wyali. sakuTrebis
arsebobas adamianis neba moiTxovs, roca igi RvTis ne-
bas upirispirdeba da amqveyniuri miaCnia umTavresad.
amas ukavSirebs franki cisa da jojoxeTis gansxvaveba-
sac. caSi araferia kerZo, amitomaa iq mSvidoba da bed-
niereba, jojoxeTSi ki yvelaferi kerZoa. mesakuTre eS-
makad iqceva da jojoxeTia amqveynadac. sakuTrebis gamo
arsebobs usamarTloba da omebi. ramdenadac sakuTreba
pirovnuli nebis gadawyvetilebis Sedegad arsebobs, misi
uaryofisaTvis sakuTari nebis uaryofa da RvTaebrivTan
damTxvevaa saWiro, rac, iseve, rogorc stoelebTan,
pirovnebis uaryofac iqneba. aq Taviseburad iCens Tavs
is garemoeba, rom frankisaTvis, rogorc burJuaziu-
li epoqis winamorbedisaTvis, sakuTreba pirovnulobis
aucilebeli niSania. misTvisac, rogorc Semdeg hege-
lisTvis, sakuTreba pirovnebis obieqtivaciaa. gamodis,
rom sakuTrebis uaryofa saerTod amqveyniuri cxovrebis
uaryofaa, xolo uamisod adamianis neba RmerTisas daem-
Txveva, e. i. wyvets damoukideblobas.
es frankis poziciis saboloo Sedegia, magram man ar
unda dagvaviwyos is, rom sazogadoebis da misi istoriis
kvlevis procesSi franki mraval saintereso mosazrebas

- 162 -
gamoTqvams. masTan Cven klasobrivi azrovnebis Canasaxebs
vxvdebiT. isini Tavs iCenen gabatonebuli klasebis
Sefasebisas, romelTac, frankis azriT, ukve dakarges
sazogadoebisaTvis dadebiTi mniSvneloba. sazogadoebis
oTxi wodebidan, rogorc franki ambobs, orma _ sasuli-
erom da Tavadaznaurobam _ Tavisi dro moWama da mxolod
negatiur movlenad iqca. moqalaqeebi da mSromeli xalxi,
romelic aSenebs, saqonels uvlis, sakvebs awarmoebs da
sxva, saWironi arian. frankis gansakuTrebul simpaTias
imsaxurebs es meoTxe wodeba. rac Seexeba moqalaqeebs,
franki maTSic gamoyofs or fenas, romelTagan mdidrebi
„cdiloben daimonon Raribebi`. exeba ra Tavadaznauro-
bas, franki cdilobs misi warmoSobis mizezebis axsnas.
igi iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxva Sexedulebas da ayalibebs
misi warmoSobis eqvs mizezs. saxeldobr, igi warmoiS-
va: 1. keTili adamianebisagan, romlebic sazogadoebaSi
gavrcelebul mankierebas ebrZodnen; 2. brbos ucodinro-
bis safuZvelze; 3. omSi maTi gansakuTrebuli mamacobis
safuZvelze, romelTac Semdeg keTilSobilni ewodaT; 4.
RaribTa damonebis safuZvelze; 5. zogi Tavadis gvari _
„RvTaebrivi Cagonebis` safuZvelze; 6. wminda tiraniis
safuZvelze. franki yuradRebas aqcevs imasac, rom mef-
esa da Tavadaznaurobas saerTo interesebi aqvT. keTili
mefis an mmarTvelis ideals igi filosofosTa usafuZ-
vlo gamonagonad Tvlis.
omebs da uTanasworobas franki saxelmwifo aucile-
blobad miiCnevs. brZola mSvidobisaTvis da omebis wi-
naaRmdeg, romelsac franki ase Seurigeblad awarmoebda,
amave dros aris brZola saxelmwifos, rogorc insti-
tutis winaaRmdegac. „qristianul saxelmwifos`, ro-
melic am qveynad RvTaebriv wesrigs ganaxorcielebs,
franki Tavis TavSi winaaRmdegobriv daSvebas uwodebs.
igi uaryofs ara mxolod saxelmwifos, rogorc saerTo
organizacias, aramed eklesiasac, rogorc sasuliero

- 163 -
kanonmdebels. raime wesi, romelic saeklesio krebis sa-
SualebiT savaldebulo kanonad iqceva, saxarebis suls
ewinaaRmdegeba. ar arsebobs saxarebis savaldebulo
ganmarteba. man yvelas gulSi uSualod unda imoqmedos.
qristianoba, romelic savaldebulo kanonad da wesad
iqceva, aRaraa qristianoba. „sityva, romelic sinaTle,
goni da cxovrebaa, ver itans adamianur sinaTles da
ganmartebas`. frankis qristianobac anarqistulia. am
idealuri, sruli Tavisuflebis saxeliT ebrZvis igi sa-
kuTrebas, omebs da yovelgvar oficialur iZulebiT or-
ganizacias. omebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi mas paracelsi
hyavs TanamebrZolad, xolo winamorbedad erazm roter-
dameli. erazmi da Semdeg luTeri asxvavebda samarTlian
da usamarTlo omebs. paracelsisa da frankisaTvis ki
yovelgvari omi borotebaa. franki xazs usvams omis mier
adamianebis moraluri bunebis Seryvnas. mSvidobisaTvis
brZola frankisaTvis adamianTa sruli Tanasworobis da
zneobrivi srulyofisaTvis brZolaa.

5. valentin vaigeli (1533-1588)

filosofiis istoria, rogorc calkeul kulturul


regionSi, ise masSi Semaval romelime qveyanaSi, mxolod
imdenad arsebobs, ramdenadac misi msoflmxedvelobrivi
kulturis sakvanZo punqtebs Soris gacnobierebul kav-
Sirs amyarebs da am Ziebas erTiani procesis saxiT war-
moadgens. germaniis patara qalaqi cSofaus protestanti
mRvdeli, valentin vaigeli aseT kavSirs warmoadgens
germanuli da evropuli kulturis or did warmomad-
genels _ paracelssa da boemes _ Soris.
farTo ganaTlebis Teologi, popularuli mqad-
agebeli, wynari da Tavmdabali luTeraneli mRvdlis
gabeduli msoflmxedvelobrivi Ziebebis Sesaxeb, mxolod
megobrebis viwro wrem Tu icoda. magram am ZiebaTa so-

- 164 -
cialur mniSvnelobaze maTac ar hqondaT sruli warmod-
gena. vaigelis sikvdilis Semdeg gavrcelebulma misma
xelnawerebma mniSvnelovani inteleqtualuri moZraoba
Seqmna germaniaSi. vaigelizmi gaxda gardamavali safex-
uri paracelsis filosofiuri mistikidan da naturfi-
losofiidan boemes filosofiamde, romelSic neopla-
tonuri emanaciuri Teoriidan gansxvavebul, RmerTis
TviTganviTarebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas Caeyara safuZveli
_ rogorc axali evropuli filosofiis erT-erT ZiriTad
maxasiaTebels.
paracelsis erTguli mimdevari vaigeli Tavis Sro­
mebSi gasagebi stiliT, germanul enaze, siZneleebis da-
ufaravad, ganixilavda paracelsis mier gagebuli qris-
tianobis Znel da xSirad bnel adgilebs. ar erideboda
arc luTerTan dapirispirebas da qmnida ufro Sinagan da
maRali donis mistikuri rwmenis atmosferos. rogorc
Stiorigi aRniSnavs, Svenkfeldma, frankma da vaigelma
warmoadgines Sua saukuneebis mistikis didi tradicia da
luTeris rwmena (ramdenadac es ukanaskneli mistikosi
iyo). koplstonis azriT ki, vaigeli cdilobda SeerTebina
kuzanelis metafizika da paracelsis filosofia im re-
ligiur misticizmTan, romelic nasesxebi hqonda ekhar-
tis tradiciisagan. es Cans terminSi Fünklein („sulis
naperwkali`). magram yovelive es iyo Zlier Seferili
protestantuli pietizmis individualuri da antiekle-
siuri saxiT, ris gamoc igi panTeizmisken ixreboda. didi
gadaWarbeba ar iqneba Tu vityviT, rom paracelsis fi-
losofia ara marto boemesaTvis, aramed, saerTod, ger-
manuli kulturisaTvis ase Sinagani da gasagebi ver gaxde-
boda vaigelis Sromebis gareSe. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom
vaigelis mier qristianobis msoflio religiad gadaqce-
vis SesaZleblobis gageba aSkarad enaTesaveba k. iungis
ZiebaTa Sedegs _ daskvnas adamianis Sinagani mTliano-
bis gasaazreblad qristes Sinaganobis, e. i. CvenSi sxe-

- 165 -
ulebrivad yofnis gancdis aucileblobis Sesaxeb.
vaigelma, frankTan erTad, aCvena luTeris mier ax-
algazrdobaSi wamoyenebuli, marTlac revoluciuri da
yoveli pirovnebisaTvis mimzidveli principis saSiSroeba
yoveli saxelmwifo religiisaTvis. igulisxmeba RmerTTan
pirovnebis uSualo kavSiris SesaZleblobis principi. am
stimuliT azvirTebuli religiuri grZnobis mosaTokad,
rogorc cnobilia, luTers mis mier uaryofili kaToli-
cizmidan bevri raimes gamoyeneba dasWirda. raSic misi
yofili mimdevrebi, miunceri, franki da sxvebi ar daeTa-
nxmnen. vaigelic maT xazs agrZelebs. masac usamarTlo-
bad miaCnia socialuri uTanasworoba, adamianze adamianis
sulier Tu socialur batonobaSi gamoxatuli (90,362).
rogorc specialistebi aRniSnaven, vaigelis sasuliero
moRvaweobis dasawyisSi germaniaSi ganaTlebis da zneo-
bis done ise dabali iyo, rom xelisuflebac iZulebuli
gaxda mdgomareobis gasaumjobesebeli gzebi eZia. ro-
gorc Cans, luTeranobis gavrcelebamac ver SeaCera sa-
suliero wreebSi im mankierebaTa zrda, romelzedac jer
kidev bokaCo laparakobda Tavis „dekameronSi`. prot-
estantebis mier RvTismsaxurTaTvis celibatis moxsna
zneobrivi cxovrebis gasaumjobesebeli qmediTi saSu-
aleba iyo, magram, materialuri sayrdenis gareSe, igi
ar gaxldaT efeqturi. sasuliero pirebi maTi mwyalo-
beli-marCenlebis arcTu sapatio msaxurni darCnen. xe-
lisuflebam daiwyo mRvdelTaTvis xelfasebis momateba,
skolebis daarseba da niWieri axalgazrdebisaTvis xelis
Sewyoba. keTilSobilTa saswavlebelSi vaigelic adgi-
lobrivi Tavadis wyalobiT moxvda. Semdeg, kurfiurst
avgustis (1526-1586) gankargulebiT, laifcigis univer-
sitetSi miiRes. garkveuli dro vitenbergis univer-
sitetSi gaatara, sadac im dros melanqtonis Teologia
batonobda. bakalavris xarisxi 1558 wels miiRo; momdevno
wels ki samagistro promocia gaakeTa (Tema cis usasru-

- 166 -
lobis problemas exeboda). sakuTari poziciis dacvisas,
mas aristoteles Sromebis uSualo da kargi codna ga-
moumJRavnebia. kurfiurstis brZanebiT 21 wlis vaigeli
cSofaus mRvdelia. 1567 wels misi saeklesio qadagebani
yvelas moswonda, urTierTobaSic sanaqebo iyo. magram
amave wels erT-erTi komisiis CanawerSi aRniSnulia, rom
igi „kalvinizmSia eWvmitanili` (90,33). am dros luTeris
memkvidreebs sxva protestantuli momdinareobebis gav-
lenis zrda ukve kaTolikebze aranakleb awuxebdaT da
xSirad amowmebdnen TavianT oficialur momxreebs.
vaigelis msoflmxedvelobis mTlianoba yvelaze ukeT
Cans mis yvelaze cnobil naSromSi „Seican Tavi Seni`.
delfos samisnos Sesasvlelis warwera „Seican Tavi
Seni`, berZnul miTologiasTan am samisnos kavSiris gamo,
gvafiqrebinebs, rom es principi filosofiaSi miTologi-
idan gadavida; magram platonis gadmocema, brZenTa mier
sakuTari naSromebis taZrisTvis Sewirvis da am principis
taZris SesasvlelSi warweris gadawyvetilebaze, saber-
ZneTSi miTologiis da filosofiis Tanarsebobis da
TanamSromlobis saintereso aspeqtze miuTiTebs.
aSkaraa, rom sokrates mier am sakiTxis wamowevam didi
biZgi misca azrovnebis ganviTarebas; _ raTa adamianSi
(rogorc mikrokosmosSi) mocemuli Sinaarsi, sofistebis
msgavsad, yvelafris gamarTlebis SesaZleblobisaTvis
ki ar gamoeyenebinaT da azrovneba skepticizmisaken ki
ar waremarTaT, aramed, Semecnebis relatiuri Sinaarsis
analizis gziT, is daedginaT, Tu raa konkretuli ada-
mianis WeSmariti sayrdeni, romlis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi
adamianis cnobierebis Sinaarsi erTianobas inarCunebs da
SeiZleba pasuxismgebelic iyos misTvis. es erT-erTi gzaa
antikuri filosofiisa qristianobisaken.
ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom vaigeli gamarjvebuli
protestantizmis germaniaSi moRvaweobs da, cxadia, icis
luTeris uaryofiTi azri filosofiis Sesaxeb. amitom

- 167 -
igi cdilobs daarwmunos mkiTxveli filosofiis saWiroe-
baSi. vaigelis Tanaxmad, terminSi „filosofia` ar unda
avurioT filosofiis Zveli da axali gageba. aravis ar
unda aRizianebdes sityva „filosofosoba`. „filos` ber-
Znulad siyvaruls, anda megobrobas niSnavs. „sofia` _
sibrZnes. aqedanaa filosofosoba. SeuZlebelia ufro
RvTaebrivi da ufro maRali siyvaruli WeSmaritebisa, vi-
dre qristeSi yofna. diax, qriste aris Tavad WeSmariteba.
amitom, mkiTxvelo, nuRar Seicden Tavs gamoTqmiT „qris-
teSi filosofosoba`. is araviTar vnebas ar mogitans.
arc filosofosoba da „eTnikuri filosofia` unda avu-
rioT erTmaneTSi, e. i. ar unda avurioT aristotele
da wminda werili. arc is unda vTqvaT, rom es filo-
sofosoba, rogorc adamisa da qristes Soris sakuTar
TavSi arCevanis gakeTeba (da amgvari „Seican Tavi Seni`)
CvenTvis miuwvdomelia. es arcaa saWiro, ramdeni uswav-
leli gamxdara netari amgvari TviTSemecnebis gareSe?
vaigeli amas ar uaryofs, magram miuTiTebs, rom maT, vi-
sac surs iyos magistri, doqtori, wminda werilis mqa-
dagebeli, maswavlebeli, xom ufro meti unda icodnen,
vidre maTma msmenelebma da glexebma? rogor SeZleben
isini am brmebis winamZRolobas? isic araa swori, vinc
ityvis, yvelafer amas im qveynad viswavlio. radgan, rac
meti gvecodineba am qveynad sikeTis Sesaxeb, miT ufro
gagviadvildeba imqveyniuri cxovreba (90,218). adamianis
guli xom rwmeniT xdeba keTili. yovel mxriv sjobs ada-
mianma am qveynad gaigos, „ra aris is bunebiT da rogor
gardaiqmneba is da ra unda gaxdes wyalobis saSualebiT,
qristesa da pavles moZRvrebis Tanaxmad` (90,219).
„ekrZale Tavsa Sensa, romel ars suli Seni`, _
ase Seajama basil didma (330-379) sulisa da sxeulis
mimarTebis problema. magram am mTavarma nawilma ada-
mianisa (sulma), male Tavad mTelad yofnaze ganacxada
pretenzia. suli, rogorc mikrokosmosi, da rogorc

- 168 -
cnobiereba adamianisa, sxeulsac Tavis SinaarsSi aqcevs.
es aranakleb sirTuleebis winaSe ayenebs sakuTari Tavis
raobis maZiebel adamians. amis gacnobierebis erT-erTi
Sedegi is iyo, rom dekartem, mecnieruli meTodis in-
teresebisaTvis xelaxla gaTiSa isini „fsiqofizikuri
paralelizmis` TeoriiT.
zemoaRniSnul Sromas _ „Seican Tavi Seni` _ vaigeli
ase iwyebs: „am wignaks berZnulad ewodeba „gnoTi seau-
ton`, laTinurad _ „kognoske te ipsum` da germanulad _
„erkenne dix zelbst`. igi miTiTebaa imaze, rom adamiani
aris mikrokosmosi, RvTis udidesi saqme cisa qveS. igi
aris patara samyaro da Tavis TavSi atarebs yvelafers,
rac ki moiZebneba caSi da miwaze da agreTve miRma`
(90.167). es paracelsiseuli poziciaa da hohenhaimeli
moazrovne, rogorc udidesi avtoriteti, yvelgan naT-
lad Cans vaigelis naazrevSi. es pozicia aq ufro metadaa
dafuZnebuli filosofiur-istoriuli da Teologiuri
TvalsazrisiT, rac ufro gasagebs da ufro misaRebs
xdis paracelsis ZiriTad debulebebs.
paracelsiseul pozicias vaigeli uSualod ukav-
Sirebs aristoteles „metafizikis~ pirvelsave winadade-
bas („yoveli adamiani bunebiT miiswrafis codnisaken`),
rogorc udavo faqtobrivi viTarebis asaxvas. mas savse-
biT bunebrivad miaCnia aristoteles am debulebis dakav-
Sireba adamianis bunebis im gagebasTan, romelic saRmrTo
werilSia mocemuli da dakonkretebulia pavle mociqulis
mier. „da radgan yoveli adamiani Tavisi bunebiT Zalian
miiswrafis codnisaken, advili gasagebi unda iyos, rom
pirveli da upiratesi aris sakuTari Tavis sworad cnoba
da codna; ara mxolod bunebis Tanaxmad, ramdenadac aq
igi aris didi samyaros Svili, aramed, agreTve wyalobis
mixedviT, radgan igi Svili da memkvidrea RvTisa qris-
teSi. es ki imas niSnavs, rom man ara mxolod filosofiis
mixedviT unda icodes da Seicnos sakuTari Tavi, aramed

- 169 -
ufro wminda werilis mixedviT. es ornairi Semecneba
aris ukeTilSobilesi adamianSi, radgan amiT gaigebs igi
saidan modis, risTvis Seiqmna, rogor unda icocxlos da
iqceodes, rogorc amqveyniur droSi, ise mis momdevno
maradisobaSi` (90,167).
am codnis WeSmariti gamoyeneba, sulac araa garan-
tirebuli, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi RvTis wyalobiT
mieca adams samoTxeSi, xolo angelozs _ caSi (igulisx-
meba liuciferi). vaigeli fiqrobs, rom am TavisTavad
WeSmariti codnis, araswori gamoyeneba iyo orives das-
jis mizezi. adami gaamayda, roca gaigo, Tu ra Rirseba
hqonda mas da ra SesaZleblobani. igi gvelma moatyuila
da man „sakuTari Tavi ufro Seiyvara, vidre RmerTi`. amiT
igi moswyda RmerTs. sakuTari TaviT aRtacebuli adami
fiqrobda, rom isic iseTivea, rogoric RmerTi. amiT igi,
iseve, rogorc RmerTs dapirispirebuli angelozi, mo-
swyda RmerTs da oriveni ganidevnen samoTxidan. magram,
dacemuli angelozisagan gansxvavebiT, adamma, amjerad,
Tavisi naklovanebani da danaSauli gaacnobiera, moswyda
sakuTar Tavs da RvTis wyalobiT miubrunda RmerTs. am-
jerad sakuTari Tavis WeSmariti Semecneba daiwyo.
vaigelis azriT, es erTjeradi procesi araa, igi me-
ordeba epoqebSi da pirovnebebSic. sakuTari codniT
gaamayebas da RmerTisagan mowyvetas xedavda igi berZnu-
li filosofiis bedSic. igi imeorebs pavle mociqulis
cnobil sityvebs berZnuli filosofiis Sesaxeb, korin-
Telebisadmi pirvel werilSi mocemuli versiiT: „war-
moidgines, rom raRac icodnen, magram maT sinamdvileSi
ar icodnen ise, rogorc unda codnodaT`. sakuTari Tavis
WeSmariti Semecneba, rogorc sakuTar TavSi RmerTisagan
gansxvavebulis TandaTanobiTi gadalaxva, vaigels netar
Semecnebad da TviTSemecnebad miaCnia. maister ekhar-
tidan momdinare moZRvreba, siRatakis upiratesobis
TandaTan gacnobierebis Sesaxeb (TandaTan RmerTTan

- 170 -
daaxloeba da bolos masTan pirovnebis sakuTrivis sru-
li uaryofiT SeerTeba) aq srul ZalaSia. magram gansx-
vavebiT ekhartisagan, araa wamoweuli „naperwklis` mo-
menti. furklaini, ekhartTan, erTaderTi saSualebaa,
raTa adamians, RmerTisagan gansxvavebuli meobis sruli
uaryofis Semdeg, darCes misi specifikuri (sakuTari) ad-
gili RmerTSi. es adgili arara ki araa, aramed is, rac
RmerTisagan gansxvavebulis uaryofis Semdeg adamianSi
darCeba _ is, rac masSia, rogor RmerTis „nawili`, anda
rusTvelis sityvebiT Tu vityviT, rac aris is, rogorc
„RmerTis wili`; anu is, risTvisac, ekhartis azriT, ara
marto adamiani eZebs RmerTs, aramed RmerTic eZebs ada-
mians. RmerTTan amgvari SeerTeba vaigelisaTvis mxolod
qristeTia SesaZlebeli, romelic misTvis sibrZnisa da
Semecnebis yvela ganZis gamaerTianebelia (90,168).
marTalia, vaigeli am wminda RvTaebrivis aRsaniSnavad
ar xmarobs sityva „funklains` (arc laTinur scintilla-s),
magram gulisxmobs mas, roca TviT SemecnebaSi or arse-
biTad gansxvavebul dones ganasxvavebs. pirvelia bune-
brivi Semecneba, e. i. imis gageba, Tu raa adamiani, ro-
gorc RmerTis mier miwis goroxidan (Erdenkloß) Seqmnili;
meorea zebunebrivi Semecneba, anu imis gageba, rac am
qmnilebaSi moxda, roca RmerTma masSi sakuTari suli
STabera. vaigeli gamarTlebulad miiCnevs, rom adamiani,
rogorc mikrokosmosi, Tavdapirvelad Seiswavlis Tavis
sagans misi bunebrivi sami ZiriTadi nawiliT (sxeuli _
Leib, goni _ Geist da suli _ Seele). amaze vaigeli msj-
elobs swored pirvel wignSi „Seican Tavi Seni`; meore
naSromSi ki _ romelsac ewodeba „meore wignaki saku-
Tari Tavis Semecnebis Sesaxeb` (90,199) _ Seiswavlis imas,
rac am RmerTis mier gaformebul miwierSi _ adamianSi _
moxda, roca RmerTma mas sakuTari suli STabera. pavle
mociqulis damowmebiT, vaigeli amtkicebs, rom adamianSi
ori sulia (Geist) da ori buneba. amitom amboben, rom ada-

- 171 -
miani orjer ibadeba: erTxel mSoblebidan da meored ki
RmerTisagan _ caSi (90,173). orive maTgans sami nawili
aqvs (sxeuli, suli, goni). adamians adamianad mxolod
RvTis mier STaberili suli aqcevs. uamisod isic mxolod
cxoveli iqneboda. rogorc TiTqmis yvelaferSi, vaigeli
aqac paracelss misdevs. paracelsis msgavsad asxvavebs
igi adamianSi sxeulebrivs, rogorc miwiers da firmanen-
turs (ciurs, varskvlavurs). igi imaSic darwmunebulia,
rom realuria paracelsis mtkiceba imis Taobaze, rom
arseboben Winkebi, oCopintreebi, haeris arsebani da sxva,
romlebic ierarqiulad, cxovelebsa da adamianebs Soris
arian. am arsebebs ara aqvT RmerTisgan naboZebi suli.
yoveli adamianis individurobis gamosakveTad, vaigeli
xazs usvams imas, rom suli adamians arc adamidan da arc
misi mSoblebidan ar gadaecema, aramed TiToeul adami-
ans uSualod piradad RmerTisagan. xilulidan uxilavis,
miwieridan zeciuris, bunebrividan zebunebrivis kvlevis
gzis arCevaSi, igi iSveliebs cnobil qristian Teologs,
hugo wm. viqtorels (1097-1141), romelsac miaCnda, rom
TviTSemecneba caSi da miwaze yovelives Semecnebas niS-
navs. magram mainc Tvlis, rom miwieris Seswavla imTa-
viTve yvelafris Seswavlas niSnavs, kerZod ki imisa, Tu
ratomaa gadasvla aucilebeli da ras efuZneba es gadas-
vla. Tumca vaigels mohyavs ax. w. II s.-is filosofosis,
demonaqs kviproselis azric, rom filosofosoba ada-
mianma maSin unda daiwyos, roca sakuTari Tavi namdvilad
Secnobili eqneba (90,171).
es ori Sexeduleba SedarebiT advilad Sesarigebelia,
radgan orive aRiarebs adamianisaTvis orgvari, princi-
pulad gansxvavebuli codnis saWiroebas, magram ufro
rTulia sam terminTan _ sxeuli, suli, goni _ dakavSire-
buli Sinaarsebis SeTanxmeba.
samiveni adamianis, rogorc bunebrivi, ise zebune-
brivi arsebis aucilebeli Semadgeneli nawilebia, magram

- 172 -
vaigeli xSirad cvlis maT rigsac da maTTan dakavSire-
bul Sinaarssac (is xan „sxeuli-suli-gonze` saubrobs,
xan ki _ „sxeuli-goni-sulze`) (90,174). vaigeli msjelobs
aseve „bunebriv gonze`, siderul, anu varskvlavur gonze,
cxovelur gonze, „RvTaebriv gonze` (90,183). imasac am-
bobs, rom konkretuli adamianis goni aris Tavad adami-
ani. TiToeuli am terminis mniSvneloba Sesabamis konte-
qstSi unda Semowmdes. ase marto germanul enaSi rodia.
magaliTad, didi qarTveli mTargmneli efrem mcire (XI s.)
areopagelis sakuTari Targmanis komentarebSi specialu-
rad aRniSnavda, rom „berZulad ziari saxeli aqus sulsa
uxilavsa masca da mSvinvierebiTsac` (23,262).
rogorc zogadad qristianuli msoflmxedvelobrivi
Sinaarsisagan, aseve maSindel germaniaSi Teologiuri
Ziebebisagan gamomdinare, gasagebia, ratom msjelobs
vaigeli adamianis sxeulSi (tanSi) ori gonis, anu ori ba-
tonis arsebobaze, romelTagan erTi bunebisganaa, meore
_ RmerTisgan. paracelsis msgavsad, vaigelic miiCnevs,
rom adamians sxeuli varskvlavebisgan aqvs; da Tu Cveni
sxeuli mikrokosmosia, igi mineralebsac Seicavs da sxva
cocxaliviT ikvebeba, mravldeba. yvela cxovelisgan ra-
Raca aqvs TavisSi (balaxis, Tevzis, frinvelis da sxva.
es filogenezis ontogenezSi gameorebis Taviseburi mix-
vedraa). goni amqveyniurobaSi cxovrebisaTvis aucilebe-
li gagebis, moxerxebulobis, maxvilgonierebis specifi-
kuri erTianobaa. adamianisa da samyaros am erTianobas
swavlobs kabala, romelsac vaigeli ratomRac gabalias
uwodebs. paracelsi mas TeTr magias uwodebda (1,209).
es ori gansxvavebuli nawili adamianSi RmerTma SeaerTa
da sikvdilis Semdeg adamianis TiToeuli aRniSnuli
nawili sakuTar wyaros (dedamiwas da cas) ubrundeba, is-
eve, rogorc mesame da umTavresi nawili _ suli (Seele) _
RmerTs (90,175). am „nawils` vaigeli „adamianSi RvTaebriv
sibrZnes` uwodebs, romlis Sinaarsis gacnobierebas

- 173 -
„varjiSi da gaRviZeba esaWiroeba`. Cveni sxeuli saxlia
imisi, rasac WeSmaritad warmoadgens adamiani. adamiani
qmnis xelobas, xelovnebas. es misi gansjisa da gonebis
nayofia da ara xelebi da fexebi. isini Sinaganis, uxilav-
is xelsawyoebi, misTvis arian Seqmnilni (90,184). amrigad,
adamiani, rogorc mTeli samyaros Semcveli (makrokosmo-
sis TavisSi Semcveli mikrokosmosi), meeqvse dRes Seiqmna
da mas daemata is, rac samyaroSi ar iyo da mTel samyaros
mis SemoqmedTan arsebiTad daakavSirebda, rogorc RvTis
xati, adamiani xom, rogorc mTeli samyaros TavisTavSi
Semcveli, amave dros samyaros, makrokosmosis xatia?
adamians Semoqmedma sakuTari suli STabera. es axali
aspeqtia. igi saWiroa samyaros gasulierebis da mis mier
TviTSemecnebis gasagebad. adamiani Tvalia samyaros mier
sakuTari Semoqmedis dasanaxad.
Cven iseTi Zlieri Semoqmedi gvyavs, ambobs vaigeli,
rom man makrosamyaro erT muWSi, e. i. mikrokosmosSi
moaqcia. adamiani, Tumca mTel samyaros TavisSi atarebs,
mainc rCeba am samyaroSi (90,178-9). amiT adamians eZleva
msoflmxedvelobis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba. mas SeuZlia sa-
myaroSi darCes da amave dros garedan, e. i. mis mier da-
naxuli RmerTis poziciidan Sexedos samyaros. naTelia,
rom vaigelisaTvis, paracelsis msgavsad, imas, risganac
(bibliis Tanaxmad) RmerTma Seqmna adamiani miwa, Tu mtve-
ri, Tu goroxi, Tu Tixa ki ar aris, aramed mTeli samyaro
_ misi xiluli Tu uxilavi nawiliT. miwa, goroxi mTeli es
didi samyaro, makrokosmosia (90,181), romelsac emateba
RvTaebrivi suli. amis gamo vaigeli pirvel adamians ara
dabadebuls, aramed Seqmnils uwodebs. vaigeli aq dausax-
eleblad iyenebs sokratemdelTa debulebas, romelic
neoplatonikosebma wamoswies _ „yvelaferi yvelafer-
Sia`. ioane petriwi prokle diadoxosis Targmnisas am
princips sruli saxiT wamoayenebs: „yoveli yovelsa Sina,
xolo sakuTrebiT TiToeulsa Soris` (9,33).

- 174 -
azrovnebis istoria xSirad aCvenebs, rom raime prin-
cipi, romelsac Cven garkveuli miznis gasamarTleblad
viyenebT, kvlevas Tavs axvevs sakuTar logikas _ iseTs,
rogoric Cvens mizans ar Seesabameba. asea aqac. vaige-
lisave moxmobili magaliTebidanac Cans, rom garkveuli
Crdili adgeba adamianis gansakuTrebulobas. marto ada-
mianSi ki ara, lobios marcvalSic „yvelaferi yvelafer-
Sia`. adamianis TeslSi, romelic dedis saSoSi sulac
ar aris am marcvalze didi, moqceulia adamianis yvela
nawili _ Tvali, yuri, guli, Tmebi da a. S. asevea muxis
rkoSic. masSi moqceulia didi raodenobis SeSa, fesvebi,
totebi, uamravi rko da a. S. raki mxolod adamians aqvs,
makrokosmosis xatobis garda, RvTaebrivi suli, igi ba-
tonia samyaroSi. magram es batonoba ar aris TavisTavad
garantirebuli adamianisaTvis. imisaTvis, raTa realu-
rad gaxdes batoni, saWiroa adamianis mcdeloba da neba.
vaigeli amas gamoTqvams debulebiT, romelic fixtes
pozicias mogvagonebs: adamiani „aris batoni, Tu es misi
nebaa`, e. i. Tu mas es namdvilad surs. mkvlevrebi am adg-
ils gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWeben. volgasti-
saTvis vaigeli aq gaucnobiereblad gadis idealisturi
panTeizmis miRma (90,210). es sakamaTo sakiTxia. albaT,
ufro mniSvnelovania kavSiri saerTod germanul ide-
alizmTan da, kerZod, fixtesTan, romelic amtkicebda,
rom adamianisaTvis, rogorc gonieri arsebisaTvis, „ar
SemiZlia` niSnavs mxolod Semdegs _ „ar msurs`. aq is
igulisxmeba, rom Tu adamiani TavisSi myof absoluturs
gaacnobierebs, mas yvelaferi SeuZlia _ Teozisis anu
RmerTTan gaerTianebis CaTvliT. fixtesaTvis es imas ki
ar niSnavs, rom erTi konkretuli adamiani sxva adamian-
ebze batonobs, aramed imas, rom yovel adamianSi arse-
bobs efeqturi qmediTi „me`.
azri imis Taobaze, rom RmerTma adamiani raime erTgva-
rovani miwieri sxeulisagan (Tixa, Tu mtveri) ki ar Seqmna,

- 175 -
aramed samyaros sxvadasxva nivTierebidan, SesaZlebelia
paracelsis gavleniT gavrcelda aRmosavleT evropaSi _
kerZod, ruseTSi (paracelsi aRniSnavda, rom ruseTSic
umogzavria). Sesaqmis rusul apokriful ganmartebebSi
„rogor Seqmna RmerTma adami` aRniSnulia, rom RmerTma
miwisgan Seqmna adamis tani, qvisgan _ Zvlebi, zRvisgan _
sisxli, Rrublebisgan _ azrebi, qarisagan _ sunTqva, ce-
cxlisagan _ siTbo (36,79).
Tavis mxriv, xiluli sxeuli sam nawilad iyofa: muce-
li, mkerdi, Tavi. es aris bina, misi miwieri qoxi. adamiani
xedavs TvaliT da laparakobs eniT. magram adamianSi ar-
sebul siderul gons (Geist) eseni ar sWirdeba. igi Tavadaa
Tvali, ena da moZraoba. piriqiT, es organoebi moqmedeben
misi saSualebiT. mkvdarsac xom aqvs Tvali, ena, fexebi,
magram masSi aRar aris goni, romelic Sinagan, uxilav ada-
mians warmoadgens (90,189). adamianis suli adamianSi aris
Tavad adamiani. vaigeli imeorebs hugo wm. viqtorels,
romlis Tanaxmadac, adamians samgvari Tvali aqvs: sxe-
ulis, gonebis da gansjis. es mesame _ inteleqtis Tvali
_ umaRlesia da adamiani misiT RmerTsa da angelozebs
xedavs. mas SeuZlia ZiriTadad sxeulebrivi Tvali gamoi-
yenos, e. i. cxovelTa doneze darCes; SeuZlia xelovne-
bas da xelobas eziaros da praqtikaSi gamoiyenos, magram
isic SeuZlia, rom sxva adamianebsac ajobos da sibrZ-
nis, anu gansjis doneze da wrfel locvaSi Seumecnebadi
RmerTi sakuTari Tavis zemoT dainaxos, angelozebi ki
Tavis gverdiT (90,190).
vaigeli grZnobad da goniT unarebze msjelobisas
warmosaxvis mniSvnelobazec saubrobs. misi azriT, warmo-
saxva (imaginatio) grZnobis xuTive organos saqmes akeTebs.
imas warmoadgens, rac win ar gvidgas. warmosaxva eZebs
imas, Tu ras emyareba samyaro _ gansxvavebiT gansjisa-
gan, romelic xvdeba, rom samyaro arafers ar emyareba
da mainc myaria. vaigeli grZnobs am unaris specifikas da

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amis xazgasasmelad Seele-sa da Geist-is gverdiT Semoaqvs
mesame termini _ Gemüt (xasiaTi). warmosaxva yvelafers
TavisSi atarebs. vaigelis TqmiT, warmosaxva aris Sinagani
adamiani, varskvlavuri goni, varskvlaveTi adamianSi.
adamiani gonebis (ratio) unars iyenebs, magram racio mainc
warmosaxvaze maRla dgas. is xedavs da imecnebs imas, ra-
sac warmosaxva ver xedavs da ver Seimecnebs (90,192). war-
mosaxva drosa da sivrcis iqeT ver midis. vaigels surs
Cveni cnobierebis unarebis diferencireba, magram amave
dros maT Soris tradiciul emanaciur daqvemdebareba-
sac icavs (zemoTas SeuZlia yvelaferi qvemoTas gareSe,
magram ara piriqiT). gansjas SeuZlia sagnis danaxva gon-
ebis gareSe, magram goneba amas ver gaakeTebs gansjis gar-
eSe; aseve „gonebas SeuZlia warmosaxvis daxmarebis gareSe
mravali sagani warmoidginos, warmosaxvas arafris Seqmna
ar SeuZlia gonebis gareSe`. rac Seexeba warmosaxvas, mas
SeuZlia moqmedeba garegani grZnobebis gareSe, magram es
grZnobebi verafers Seqmnian warmosaxvis gareSe (90,193).
amrigad, zemoTas Tavisufleba, e. i. sruli upiratesoba
aqvs qvemoTas mimarT.
Semmecneblisa da Semecnebis sagnis mimarTebis vaige-
liseul gagebaSi Cans Semecnebis aqtiuri roli da faq-
tobrivi ganmsazRvreloba Semecnebis mier Semecnebis
sagnisa, romelsac igi Gegenwurf-s uwodebs. es asaxvis
tradiciuli Teoriis winaSe mdgari siZneleebis gac-
nobierebis safuZvelze SemecnebaSi Semmecneblis aqti-
urobaze („Semecnebis sagani iqmneba Semecnebis proces-
Si`) gezis aRebaa, e. i. XIX s.-is germanuli idealizmisaken
ekhartis gzis gagrZeleba.
vaigelis germanul idealizmTan Soreul naTesaobaze
roca vmsjelobT, imazec SeiZleba mivuTiToT, rom vaige-
lisaTvis SemecnebaSi Semecnebis sagani ar gansazRvravs
Semecnebis Sinaarss. cnobilia, rom kantisaTvis Semecnebis
sagani aigeba Semecnebis procesSi. vaigelisaTvisac igi

- 177 -
ganisazRvreba Tavad Semmecneblis Taviseburebis mixed-
viT _ rogorc vaigeli wers _ Semmecneblis „Tvalis gva-
ris mixedviT`. magram vaigelisaTvis es araa aprioruli
Semecneba. vaigeli imasac usvams xazs, rom erTi gvaris
SemecnebaSi, iqneba es grZnobadi Tu goniTi (racional-
uri), yvela adamianis Tvali erTnairi ar aris da erTsa
da igives erTnairad ar xedavs. zogs naTeli Tvali da
naTeli goneba aqvs, zogs _ bneli da naklovani. TviT
umaRlesi SesaZleblobis Tvali (ocula mentalis) mraval-
nairi gansxvavebebiTaa mocemuli adamianSi (90,194-195).
rogorc yvela ganviTarebul kulturaSi, germanul-
Sic, terminebis da cnebebis mimarTeba erTmniSvnelovani
ar aris. sxvadasxva periodSi, zogjer ki erTsa da imave
dros, sxvadasxva avtori sxvadasxva termins iyenebs. Seele
berZnuli psyche-s da laTinuri anima-s germanuli ekviv-
alentia. Geist-i pneuma-s Targmani iyo, Semdeg sicocxlis
princips aRniSnavda, ise, rom RmerTic, rogorc persona,
ase iwodeboda. XVI s.-Si am terminebis „metoqe` iyo Gemüt-
i, romelmac Semdeg ukan daixia da dRes SeiZleba iTargm-
nos, rogorc xasiaTi, guneba (vaigelTan vxvdebiT Verstand
des Gemütes-ac). amgvari terminebis cnebiTi Sinaarsi yov-
elTvis konkretul konteqstSi unda dadgindes. magali-
Tad, goeTes „faust`-Si laparakia Geist der Erde da zwei
Seele-ze adamianSi, hegelTan ki _ „gonis (Geist) fenomeno-
logiaze`. hegelis am termins (Geist) qarTulad XX s.-is
ormocian wlebamde Targmnidnen, rogorc „suls`. sax-
arebis qarTul TargmanSi „samSvinveli` ewodeboda sunTq-
vis organos, suls ki idealuris ierarqiaSi umaRlesi
adgili ekava (adamianis sulidan suliwmidamde). efrem
mcires azri amis Sesaxeb zemoT iyo aRniSnuli. rusT-
velTan ki suli yvela cocxali arsebis maxasiaTebelia
(avTandilis simReras ismens „yovli sulieri`). nikoloz
baraTaSvili (1817-1844) saubrobs „borot sulze`. geron-
ti qiqoZe (1885-1960) cdilobda xelaxla Semoetana „samS-

- 178 -
vinveli` xmarebaSi, rogorc pirovnebis sulis aRmniSvne-
li. am wignSi, gaugebrobis Tavidan asacileblad da, amave
dros, terminebis gamoyenebis cvalebadobis saCveneblad,
„sulsa` da „gons` frCxilebSi germanul ekvivalentebs
davurTavT.
TiTqos cxadia, rom, Cveni nebelobisagan damoukide-
beli sagnebis Semecnebis dros, Cvens cnobierebaSi
Sinaarsi Tavad Sesamecnebeli sagnidan unda modiodes.
es rom faqtiurad ase ar aris, amis saCveneblad vaigeli
moixmobs yvela TeologisaTvis mniSvnelovan magaliTs:
biblia yoveli bunebrivi Teologiis TavisTavad ucvle-
li sagania. misi Semecneba da gageba marTlac sagnidan
rom modiodes, maSin bibliis gageba yvela Teologs erT-
nairi eqneboda Sesabamisi problemisaTvis. magram yvela
xedavs, rom ase araa, yvela sakuTari Tvalis mixedviT
afasebs biblias (90,196). naTelia, rom ganmsazRvrelia
ara is, Tu ra weria bibliaSi, aramed is, Tu rogor esmiT
igi. asoebi TavisTavad arafers akeTeben, „Cven asoebis
gansjam unda gviSvelos`, anu CvenSi qristesgan Sobilma
axalma adamianma. vaigeli, aqac, emyareba adamianis, ro-
gorc mikrokosmosis paracelsiseul gagebas, romelic
kvlav boemes da germanuli idealizmisaken midis. ram-
denadac yvelaferi CvenSia, mTavaria Cven SevZloT misi
Semecneba, e. i. sakuTari Tavis Semecneba. mTeli xiluli,
grZnobadi samyaro Cvens sxeulSia, xolo Cvens sulSi _
mTeli uxilavi samyaro. amdenad, maT saZebnelad arc caSi
unda avbobRdeT da arc zRva unda gadavlaxoT. oRond
esaa, rom Cven Tavad vuSliT xels Cvensave Tavs sakuTari
dafaruli simdidris danaxvaSi, romelic „ufro didia,
vidre ca da miwa` (90,202).
aq ori ramaa gasarCevi: is, rom yvelaferi CvenSia,
SeiZleba CvenTvis principulad miuwvdomeli iyos. is-
eve, rogorc, magaliTad, qvam ar icis da verc vera-
sodes gaigebs, rom „yvelaferi masSia`, magram RmerTma

- 179 -
es icis da SeuZlia masSi es yvelaferi amoikiTxos. igive
SeiZleba iTqvas dedamiwaze yoveli arsebulis Sesaxeb.
adamianisaTvis specifikuri isaa, rom mas SeuZlia, RvTis
wyalobiT, Tavis cnobierebaSi, rogorc sxeulisa da su-
lis momcvelSi, mTeli samyaro amoikiTxos. aqedan is ga-
momdinareobs, rom adamianis TviTcnobiereba, princip-
Si, SesaZlebelia daeuflos absolutur codnas. es ki
isaa, rac hegels gacnobierebul miznad hqonda dasaxuli
Tavis „logikaSi`, romelTan mimarTebaSic konkretuli
mecnierebani „gamoyenebiT logikas` warmoadgendnen.
adamianis codvaSi Cavardnas arsebiTi cvlileba
Seaqvs adamianis mier sakuTari SesaZleblobebis gagebaSi.
vaigeli fiqrobs, rom, codvaSi Cavardnamde, adamians ar
sWirdeboda im xerxebisa da unarebis floba, romelic
sakuTari Tavis sarCenadaa saWiro. igi Tavisufali iyo.
arc araviTari xeloba ar icoda, arc metyveleba SeeZlo.
codvaSi CavardniT, es yvelaferi aucilebeli gaxda
misTvis. es unarebi ki cisganaa adamianSi RmerTis mier
Cadebuli. amitom, codvaSi Cavardnis Semdeg, adamiani
varskvlavebs daeqvemdebara. igi iZulebuli gaxda eswav-
la enebi, xeloba, xelovneba. gvelisgan SemoTavazebuli
am codvis (rasac vaigeli Zvel adamTan aigivebs) gamo
Cven varskvlavebs davemorCileT _ rogorc cxovelebi.
qristes wyalobiT, roca Cven xelaxla davibadebiT, gan-
vTavisufldebiT am morCilebisagan da Tavad „Cven gavba-
tondebiT varskvlevebze` (90,202). esec aSkara paracel-
siseuli xedvaa da iseve, rogorc paracelsTan, es (amave
dros) bediswerisaganac ganTavisuflebasac niSnavs.
es asea, radgan Cven ukve qristes vemorCilebiT, xolo
qristes nebis varskvlavebSi amokiTxva ki, qristianis az-
riT, SeuZlebeli unda iyos. asevea adamianis bedic. qris-
teSi dabadebulis bedic SeuZlebelia amoikiTxo varskv-
lavebSi, ramdenadac adamianic naziarebia Tavisuflebas.
amitom amtkicebs vaigeli, rom morwmunes gzas veraviTari

- 180 -
astronomi ver Seimecnebs (9,204). mowmed ekhartis cno-
bil mimdevars, taulers moixmobs. vaigels ar surs, rom
es gaugon rogorc astrologiis (astronomiis) uaryofa.
paracelsis mimdevarisaTvis es gamoricxulia. misi mizani
mxolod isaa, rom rogorc WeSmaritma qristianma, adami-
anze da mis bedze varskvlavTa zemoqmedebis Zalis gaab-
soluturebis umarTebuloba uCvenos. varskvlavebi mniS-
vnelovnad zemoqmedeben adamianze da mis bedze, magram
Tavadac eqvemdebarebian RvTis nebas. qristes SeuZlia
bedisweris Secvla. amitom SesaZlebelia varskvlavebis
Tanaxmad moqandaked dabadebuli adamiani gamovides me-
waRe, anda mqsovelad dabadebuli _ oqromWedeli da
a. S.
qristeSi dabadeba vaigelisaTvis gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovania, radgan igi aigivebs keTils da borots,
morwmunes da urwmunos. „boroti guli aris urwmuno`,
xolo „rwmenis saSualebiT guli keTili xdeba` (90,219).
TavisTavad TiTqos Zneli ar unda iyos adamianma, Tanac
erTxel ukve codvaSi Cavardnilma da dasjilma, sakuTar
TavSi adamsa da qristes, anu sikeTesa da borotebas
Soris airCios. magram TavisTavad es rTuli procesia
da vaigeli cdilobs aCvenos, Tu ratomaa ase. es arCevani
mudam raRac codnas emyareba. vaigeli miuTiTebs, rom
Tu ar arsebobs raRac codna, raRac gageba, adamiani swo-
rad ver gaigebs „pavlesa da qristes moZRvrebas`. Tumca
amaze saTanadod ar amaxvilebs yuradRebas. Cven viciT
istoriulad qristes jvarcmis Sesaxeb da realuradac
ganvicdiT am ori sawyisis dapirispirebas CvenSi. adamiani
xedavs, rom codva _ arc Tandayolili da arc Cveni, e. i.
pirovnuli _ mainc araa im Zalis, rom mTeli Cveni arseba,
mTeli Cveni substancia Seqmnas. aqedan gamomdinare, vaige-
lisaTvis codva Cvens arsebasTan mimarTebaSi yovelTvis
darCeba SemTxveviTad, aqcidenciad. sxvagvarad adamianis
codvisgan gamoxsnis problemac arc iarsebebda. es imas

- 181 -
niSnavs, rom adamianis gansxvavebul SesaZleblobaTagan
es mxolod misi erT-erTi SesaZleblobis ganxorciele-
baa. codvaSi Cavardna SesaZlebeli rom ar yofiliyo,
adamiani Tavisufali arseba, e. i RvTis msgavsi da xati ar
iqneboda da, amdenad, arc raimeze pasuxismgebeli. ase-
Tive viTareba iqneboda im SemTxvevaSic, adamianis arseba,
misi substancia codvas rom Seeqmna da misgan gamoxs-
nis SesaZlebloba gamqraliyo. vaigeli icavs qristiano-
baSi neoplatonizmis gavleniT gacnobierebuli sikeTis
monizms da borotebis uarsobas. am azriT, vaigeli _
ekhartis, tauletis da luTeris kvalad _ inarCunebs
pavle mociqulis princips adamianSi sikeTe-borotebis
dapirispirebis Sesaxeb da safuZvels umzadebs kantis
kategoriul imperativs (romlis Tanaxmadac, adamiani,
ragind codvili iyos, mainc yovelTvis Seicavs TavisSi
Seucvlel Rirebulebas da mxolod saSualebad aras-
dros SeiZleba gadaiqces _ aramed yovelTvis unda iyos
agreTve mizanic). adamiani, miuxedavad RvTis wyalobis
aucileblobisa, Tavadaa Tavisi moqmedebis mizezi, Tavad
am wyalobis miRebis azriTac. „araviTar garegan raimes
ar SeuZlia adamiani dawyevlos, anda netari gaxados`
(90,220).
es probleba vaigels, an ekharts ar dauyenebia. av-
gustines brZola pelagianelebis winaaRmdeg swored am
problemas exeboda. Semdeg mas anselmi Seexeba naSromSi
„ratom gaxda RmerTi adamiani?`
pelagianeloba sakmaod gavleniani mimarTuleba iyo
IV saukuneSi. 431 wels avgustines momxreebma saeklesio
krebaze igi daamarcxes. magram es sulac ar niSnavda nebis
Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb maT mier dasmuli problemis mox-
snas Teologiuri diskusiebidan. beri pelagias (daaxl.
354-420/440). momxreebi (avgustine ukve gardacvlili iyo)
icavdnen im azrs, rom, ramdenadac adamians Tavisufali
neba aqvs da sakuTari gadawyvetilebiT Sescoda, es

- 182 -
imas unda niSnavdes, rom mas SeuZlia sakuTari ZaliT
daubrundes samoTxes, Seurigdes RmerTs, misgan axali
wyalobis miRebis gareSe. Tu vaigelis am mcdelobas im si-
maRlidan SevxedavT, rac evropulma kulturam kantis da
Semdeg sartris TeoriaTa saxiT mogvca, unda iTqvas, rom
vaigelis terminebi „maradiuli dawyevlilobis` da „mara-
diuli netarebis` Sesaxeb, adekvaturad ver gamoxataven
saqmis viTarebas; kerZod, swored imas, risi dasabuTebac
vaigels unda: adamianis dacema ar yofila gamouswore-
beli, e. i. mis substrats, mis arsebas didmniSvnelovani
ziani miadga codvaSi CavardniT, magram igi mainc darCa
pasuxismgebeli, e. i. adamiani, anu arseba, romelic mainc
Tavisufalia garkveuli azriT. mxolod es iZleva misi aR-
dgomis, anu qristeSi xelaxla dabadebis SesaZleblobas.
adamiani amjeradac Tavisufali unda darCes (amjerad
sikeTeSi) _ e. i. mas unda darCes imis SesaZlebloba, rom
kvlav SeiZleba (SesaZloa) Secdes. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
igi verc Tavisufali iqneba da, amdenad, verc adamiani _
radgan, Tavisufleba, misi dakargvis SesaZleblobis ga-
reSe, qristianisaTvis adamians ki ara, angelozsac ara
aqvs (amgvar xedvas ki xSirad moiTxovs vaigeliseuli
gageba. magaliTad, roca igi maradiul tanjvaze, anda
netarebaze, aseve qristesa da adamsa Soris amorCevaze
msjelobs). Zveli da axali aRTqmis mTeli Sinaarsi, misi
azriT, swored da yovelTvis or viTarebaze miuTiTebs:
saxeldobr adamze, Tu rogor unda mokvdes igi CvenSi da
qristeze, Tu rogor unda aRdges igi CvenSi da icxov-
ros.
adami, anu miwieri adamiani CvenSi aris Cveni egois-
turi midrekilebebis safuZveli (sakuTari Tavis siyvar-
uli, sakuTari TaviT siamovneba, survili savsebiT iseTi
darCes rogoric aris, Tavmoyvare, SurismaZiebeli da
a. S.). amgvari marto is adami ki ar iyo, gveubneba vaigeli,
romelic 4000 wlis win gardaicvala da hebronSia dasa-

- 183 -
flavebuli, aramed misi yoveli Camomavali, romelsac
jer kidev ar gardauqmnia sakuTari Tavi rwmeniT. man uari
unda Tqvas sakuTar Taze, e. i. adamze sakuTar TavSi. es
imas niSnavs, rom man ara sakuTari nebiT, aramed RmerTis
nebiT unda icxovros _ uari unda Tqvas sakuTari Tavis
siyvarulze, SeiZulos igi; eZebos ara sakuTari sikeTe,
aramed sxvisi, uyvardes Tavisi mteri, loculobdes misT-
vis. pavle mociquli TiToeuli adamianisagan moiTxovs
amis gakeTebas.
vaigelis azriT, Tu adamiani SeZlebs amqveyniur,
pirovnul interesebze gamiznuli sakuTari me, sakuTari
TviTi daZlios, maSin adamiani _ iseve, rogorc erTxel
iobi _ moipovebs aTasjer mets, vidre „dakarga`, razedac
uari Tqva. Tu kacs sakuTari Tavi uyvars, mas RmerTi ar
uyvars. Tu Tavis Tavs eZebs, maSin RmerTs ar eZebs.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom rwmenisa da codnis mkveTri
dapirispirebis es antirenesansuli luTeriseuli pozi-
cia mis mimdevrebTan gvxvdeba. es kidev erTi sabuTia imi-
sa, rom reformacia da misi istoria miviCnioT Sua sau-
kuneebidan aRorZinebis epoqis axal msoflmxedvelobaze
gadasvlis Tavisebur paralelur xazad da ara mxolod
renesansis Tavisebur gamovlinebad.
vaigelis poziciis amgvari interpretacia ufro ufle-
biani mogveCveneba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom Tavad vaigeli
svams kiTxvas imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogoraa SesaZlebeli, rom
CvenSi orive adami (RmerTis Seqmnili da zeciuri adami,
anu qriste) „erTi meoris gverdiT arsebobdnen?` (90,222).
kantis sityvebiT Tu vityviT, Zveli adamis, anu CvenSi
arsebuli borotebis sikvdili aris ara misi mospoba, ar-
amed daTrgunva da sikeTisadmi damorCileba. amitom am-
bobs vaigeli, rom orive es xe (xe codnisa da xe sicocx-
lisa), rogorc gvelis Tesli da qalis (mariamis) Tesli
(90,230), anu qriste, mudam erTad iqneba adamianSi. magram
es ori xe erTdrulad ar iZleva nayofs _ roca erTi

- 184 -
yvavis, meore Wkneba da piriqiT (90,225). vaigelis azriT,
ase iqneba meored mosvlamde. manamde maTi morigebis, anu
keTili principis saboloo gamarjvebis imedi ara aqvs.
am Sepirispirebis dros vaigeli, bibliidan momdinare
tradiciis Tanaxmad, codnis xes uwodebs sikvdilis xes,
xolo rwmenisas _ sicocxlis xes.
magram vaigelTan qali sxva konteqstSic gvxvdeba.
roca igi adamianSi sikeTisa da borotebis dapirispire-
baze saubrobs, keTilis principad, borotebis sapir-
ispirod, ayenebs „qalis Tesls`, e. i. imas, rac qalSi,
anu mariamSia RvTaebrivi (90,230). kapadokielebisa da,
gansakuTrebiT, sqolastikis Semdeg, amaze yuradRebis
gamaxvileba amJRavnebs luTeris gavlenas, romelsac sa-
kuTari RirsebisaTvis mebrZoli filosofia (Tundac fi-
losofiuri Teologiis saxiT) rwmenisaTvis saxifaTod
miaCnda. Tumca vaigeli filosofias ar uaryofda da
fiqrobda, rom sikeTisa da borotebis erTianobis dan-
axva adamianSi aris WeSmariti filosofosoba. orive am
principis erTdrouli arseboba CvenSi maTi Sinaganobis
sabuTia, e. i. imis sabuTi, rom es Cveni arCevania da gare-
dan Tavsmoxveuli araa. TiToeul CvenganSi sikvdilis
da sicocxlis xe iseve srulad dgas, rogorc samoTxeSi
idga hebronSi (90,227). adamianma unda SesZlos brZola
„sakuTari TviTis da eSmakis winaaRmdeg`. esaa brZola
RvTis mcnebis Sesasruleblad, rom ar Wamo codnis xi-
dan, romelic akrZalulia ara samudamod, aramed meored
mosvlamde (90,231).
am azris wyarod vaigeli miuTiTebs bibliaze, magram
arcerT CemTvis xelmisawvdom TargmanSi es teqsti am
saxiT araa mocemuli. magaliTad, Tanamedrove germanul
TargmanSi vkiTxulobT: „SegiZlia yvela xis nayofi Wamo,
magram ara im xisa, romlis nayofi codnas iZleva, Torem
Sen mokvdebi` (berlini, 1986). luTeris Targmani gveubne-
ba: „keTilisa da borotis codnis xidan Sen ar unda Wamo`,

- 185 -
radgan, ra dResac Sen mas SeWam, Sen sikvdiliT mokvdebi
(1888); qarTulSi asea: „mxolod keTilisa da borotis
Secnobis xis nayofi ar unda SeWamo, radgan, rogorc ki
SeWam mokvdebi` (Tbilisi, 1989). vaigeli, rogorc Tavad
aRiarebs, Targmanisas ar misdevs asos da gadmoiRebs ise,
rogorc mas esmis bibliis suli. asea, Tu wminda nawerebis
suls gavigebT da asoebs ar gamovekidebiT. uamisod Cven
iseve daveqvemdebarebiT varskvlavebis Zalas, rogorc
urwmunoebi. urwmunoba xorcis batonobaa, magram maSin-
ac ki adamianSi aris sikeTis Tesli, magram dafaruli.
TiToeul Cvengans amiT SeuZlia Seimecnos da Seamowmos
sakuTari Tavi da sakuTari gza airCios.
es ori Tesli (vaigeli tolmniSvnelovani azriT iy-
enebs terminebs „Zveli da axali sxeuli`, „Zveli da ax-
ali rwmena`, „adami da qriste`) erTad arasdros iZleva
nayofs. aqedan gamomdinare vaigeli ityvis, rom adami-
ani Tavadaa sakuTari Tavis yvelaze didi mteri da ise
aravisagan xams sakuTari Tavis dacva, rogorc sakuTari
Tavisagan. vaigelis amgvari Teodicea qarTvel mkiTxv-
els moagonebs grigol xanZTelis (759-861) sityvebs imis
Taobaze, rom „adam Wama xili igi romel arRa mwife iyo`
(33,130).
am safrTxis gaTvaliswinebiT, adamianma unda gaaxse-
nos sakuTar Tavs pavle mociqulis sityvebi: me vici, rom
Cems xorcSi araferi keTili araa (rom.7). vinc es ar icis,
ar aris netari. protestantuli azrovnebisaTvis damaxa-
siaTebeli simkacriT, vaigeli yvelafer cuds adamianSi
mis xorcs da masTan dakavSirebul nebas abralebs da
gacilebiT nakleb obieqturia, vidre eklesiis adreuli
mamebi; magaliTad, maqsime aRmsarebeli (daaxl. 589-662)
da Tavad ioane damaskeli (daaxl. 676 _749), romelic sx-
eulSi adamianis sakuTar nebas ar abralebda yvelafers,
maqsimes efeqturi sabuTic mohyavs: „eSmakT xorci ara
aqvT, magram borotni arian` (7,75).

- 186 -
vaigelis azriT, vinc es ar icis, arasdros iqneba ne-
tari. masTan Zveli adami, adamianis xorcis moTxovnebis
da eSmakis mixedviT cxovreba garkveuli aspeqtiT ui-
givdeba erTmaneTs. es araa rwmenaSi cxovreba. vinc rwme-
naSi cxovrobs, misi batoni RmerTia (90,238).
sruli TviTuaryofiT da simSvidiT (Gelassenheit), ada-
miani xelaxla moipovebs aTasjer mets, vidre „dakarga`,
ufro zustad, razec uari Tqva. Tu kacs sakuTari Tavi
uyvars, mas RmerTi ar uyvars; Tu Tavis Tavs eZebs, igi
ar eZebs RmerTs. vaigeli damatebiTi damajereblobisaT-
vis mkiTxvels urCevs waikiTxos gavrcelebuli naSromi
„germanuli Teologia` da maister ekhartis cnobili mim-
devris iohanes tauleris mosazrebebsac gaecnos.
RmerTis Zieba niSnavs imis gacnobierebas, rom adami-
ani mowodebulia „RvTis saxli da taZari iyos`. adamiani
ar unda gaeqces am pasuxismgeblobas, arc SeSindes, rom
yvela nivTi unda ganvixiloT, rogorc CvenSi arsebuli
da ara Cvens gareT. vaigeli ekhartis sityvebs iSveliebs:
„ar SeZrwunde, rom umaRlesi sikeTe da RvTis samefo
SenTan axloa, radgan is aris Sinagani SenSi~. „aravinaa ise
uxeSi, rom is amas ver mixvdes da es ver igrZnos sakuTar
TavSi` (90,238).
vaigelis pozicia sayuradReboa im azris naTelyofi-
saTvis, rom keTili da boroti ara marto yovelTvis
aris yvela adamianSi _ ra donezec ar unda idges igi
ganaTlebis, kulturis Tu zneobis TvalsazrisiT. mas-
Si yovelTvis aris keTilsa da borots Soris brZola.
yvela adamiania RvTis xati da msgavsi. es ki imas niSnavs,
rom yvelas da yovelTvis SeuZlia sakuTar TavSi, imis
gulwrfeli SeZulebiT, rac RvTisgan gansxvavebulia
CvenSi da rasac, ekhartis tradiciiT, vaigelic „TviTs`
(Selbst) uwodebs, gza gaikvalos RmerTisaken. sakuTari
Tavis siZulviliT „Tavisis ararad qcevis gziT, yvelaze
advilia caSi asvla, winaswarmetyvelad da mociqulad

- 187 -
qceva` (90,250). am gzis maCvenebelia qriste. amitom vam-
bobT Cven, rom CvenTvis qriste karebia mamisaken gas-
avlel gzaze da am gzaze dadgomis niSania simSvide. es
is simSvidea, romelic vaigelisaTvis WeSmariti rwmenis
igiveobrivia, romelic SesaZleblobas aZlevs adamians
sakuTari mteri uyvardes (90,244-245). uamisod adamiani
iseve ver iqneba RvTis namdvili xati, rogorc raimes,
magaliTad, xis Crdili, romelic hgavs xes, magram araa
misi namdvili xati; anda sarkeSi Cveni gamosaxuleba. Tu
adamiani sikeTis gzaze ar dgas, mas araviTari ufleba
ar eqneba RvTisaken mimaval gzaze mdgomad gamoacxados
Tavi. es imis msgavsi iqneba, sarkeSi Cvenma anareklma rom
gviTxras _ me namdvilad varo SenisTana da a. S. (90,247-
248).
vaigeli ganasxvavebs qristes Sesaxeb arsebul istori-
ul codnas da qristes misiis Sinagan gagebas. gavrcele-
buli istoriuli codna qristeze, vaigelisaTvis daax-
loebiT isaa, rasac nicSe da mis kvalad fuko genialo-
gias uwodeben. „Cven meti araferi viciT, Tu ara istoria
da JamTaRmwerloba`. masSi ki qristes Zalas ver vnax-
avT. is, vinc sakuTari Tavis SeZulebis da rwmenis gareSe
daadgeba qristesken gzas, tauleris sityvebiT rom vTq-
vaT, „moisurvebs ifrinos sanam frTebi gamoesxmeba`.
kacobriobis Sinagani erTianobis Rrma rwmenidan ga-
mosulma vaigelma momavali sakacobrio religiis pro-
eqti Seadgina. „dialogi qristianobis Sesaxeb` man dawera
1584 wels, gardacvalebamde 4 wliT adre. misi gamoqvey-
neba arc ufiqria, mosalodneli dapirispirebebis gamo,
Tumca darwmunebuli iyo, rom es momavali sazogadoe-
bisaTvis arsebiTi mniSvnelobis dokumentia, romelsac
SeuZlia Caswvdes qristes movlinebis WeSmarit mizans,
naTelyos igi yvelasTvis; visac ki qristiani hgonia
Tavi, namdvilad gulwrfelia (luTeraneli iqneba igi,
Tu sxva mimdinareobis warmomadgeneli). metic, vaigeli

- 188 -
darwmunebulia, rom es iqneba misaRebi saerTod yvela
morwmunesaTvis, vinc ki namdvilad gulrwfelia Tavis
aRmsareblobaSi. igi daeTanxmeba im azrs, rom WeSmariti
RmerTi sakuTar TavSi unda naxon da SesZlon netareba
mis mibaZvaSi ganicadon. iwamon, rom RmerTi maTSia da
isini RmerTSi (90,577). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es naSromi,
garkveuli aspeqtiT, winamorbedia kantis Sromisa „re-
ligia mxolod gonebis farglebSi`. vaigeli aCvenebs, rom
religia SesaZlebelia mxolod gulwrfeli rwmenis far-
glebSi, magram amgvari rwmena realurad SeuZlebelia
gonebis gareSe.
am dialogSi ramdenime piri monawileobs. maTgan
mTa­varia sami: auditori, romelic morwmuneTa saero
fenebis warmomadgenelia, konsionatori, anu sasuliero
pirTa, religiis oficialur mqadagebelTa warmomadgene-
li da morsi (laTinurad _ sikvdili), rogorc amqveynad
qristes sruluflebiani, masTan igiveobrivi warmomad-
geneli, ramdenadac, vaigelis azriT, jvarze sikvdilis
gareSe qriste qriste ar iqneboda (90,470).
es dialogi vaigels adamianis RmerTTan arsebiTi er-
Tianobis, amqveynad RmerTis sufevis aucilebel saSu-
alebad miaCnia. amitom igi SesaZlebel mkiTxvels arw-
munebs, rom vinc am wignis gamoqveynebas xels Seuwyobs,
igi Tavad RmerTs daexmareba misi miznis ganxorciele-
baSi (90,470).
saero da sasuliero morwmuneTa warmomadgenlebi
(auditori da konsionatori) kamaToben imaze, qristes
xorci da sisxli amqveyniuri, e. i. adamianisa iyo Tu
ara. auditori erTgulad anviTarebs maister ekhartisa
da paracelsis azrs imis Taobaze, rom adamiani, ragind
codvili ar unda iyos igi, mainc aqvs RmerTTan raRac
saerTo da igiveobrivi. amas emyareba moZRvreba sayovel-
Tao xsnisa da Sendobis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb. konsion-
atori, rogorc religiis oficialuri warmomadgeneli

- 189 -
aRSfoTebulia, rom morwmunisagan iseT azrs ismens,
romelsac igi verc romelime eklesiaSi, verc umaRles
skolaSi moismenda da verc „batoni filipes SromebSi`
waikiTxavda (igulisxmeba filipe melanqtoni).
auditori, romelic aq axalgazrda luTeris pozi-
cias ufro gamoxatavs da diqtatorad qceul xandazmul
luTers upirispirdeba, sulac ar wuxs imaze, rom aqamde
oficialurad auRiarebel mosazrebebs gamoTqvams. igi
darwmunebulia, rom sworad esmis winaswarmetyvelTa da
mociqulTa sityvebi. igi mis mier wakiTxulis sakuTar
gagebas emyareba da mosaSuales ar eZebs, iseve, rogorc
erT dros axalgazrda luTeri. igi darwmunebulia, rom
bibliis gasagebad keTili guli ufro saWiroa, vidre
wminda mamaTa interpretaciebi (90,480).
luTerisa da misi inteleqtualuri garemocvis ukeT
gasagebad saWiroa oriode sityviT melanqtonis daxasi-
aTeba. es saxeli mudam ismis luTeris gverdiT. zogjer
luTeris meore `me~-d miaCniaT. magram mas Tavisi saqme
da misia hqonda. mas arsebiTad swamda luTeris, magram
riTac gansxvavdeboda misgan, is sulac ar iyo umniSvne-
lo. mas luTeris mTavar Teologad miiCnevdnen, Tumca,
luTerisagan gansxvavebiT, igi aristoteleTi iyo gatace-
buli. luTerTan erTad Seadgina man avgusturi, anu augs-
burguli aRmsareblobis teqsti, romelic germanelma re-
formatorebma saerTo safuZvlad aRiares. vaigels melan-
qtoni ar moswonda, ar miaCnda sayuradRebo Teologad
da „aristoteles filosofiis berZen gramatikoss` uwo-
debda. zogadad luTersa da melanqtons Soris gansx-
vaveba SeiZleba dayvanili iqnes germanuli reformaciisa
da humanizmis, rogorc saerTo evropuli kulturuli
movlenis mimarTebis gansxvavebul gagebaze. melanqtons
maT Soris kavSiri ar eeWveboda, surda es kavSiri daenaxa,
SeenarCunebina da ganeviTarebina. luTers ki saerTod ar
moswonda filosofiaze damyarebuli rwmena.

- 190 -
erT dros erTguli luTeraneli melanqtoni, luTer-
is sikvdilis Semdeg, xelaxla iwyebs gansxvavebul prot-
estantul mimarTulebaTa saerTo safuZvlis Ziebas. misi
pozicia, romelsac erazm roterdamelis gavlena etyoba,
cnobilia sinergizmis saxeliT. qristianul TeologiaSi
is aRniSnavs adamianis cnobierebaSi Tavisufali nebis da
RvTaebrivi wyalobis TanamSromlobas. melaqtons daup-
irispirdnen orTodoqsi luTerelebi, e. w. monergiz-
mis TeoriiT. didi kamaTis Semdeg, 1577 wels miRebul
SeTanxmebis formulaSi (konkordansSi) aisaxa orTodo-
qsebis poziciac (monergizmi). am SeTanxmebas vaigelmac
xeli moawera.
melanqtons miaweren germaniaSi humanizmis pedago-
giuri programis dafuZnebas, XV s.-is sauniversiteto
reformebs, aseve gimnaziis burzJuaziuli modelis
Seqmnas.
am informaciis Semdeg, albaT, ufro gasagebi gax-
deba vaigelis dialogis personaJTa pozicia. konsion-
atori, xangrZlivi paeqrobis Semdeg garkveul inter-
ess amJRavnebs axali poziciisadmi, magram gulaxdilad
aRiarebs: es rom Cems SromebSi davwero, „meocnebes`
(Schwärmer) damiZaxeben da qveynidan ganmdevniano. es
maSin aqtualuri sakiTxi iyo. luTeri ase uwodebda
Tavisi moZRvrebis radikalurad ganmaviTareblebs,
romlebic, misi azriT, realobas ar iTvaliswinebdnen
da zogjer upirispirdebodnen kidec mis moZRvrebas.
auditors esec sulac ar miaCnia sabuTad. „ukeTesia
qveynad SemiZulon da mdevnidnen WeSmaritebis gamo,
vidre qveynad maqebdnen, magram sicrueSi vrCebode`
(90,481). mas uryev WeSmaritebad miaCnia yovel adamianSi
qristes imanentoba, anu is, rom yovel adamianSi aris
qriste Tavisi goniT, xorciT da sisxliT. sulerTia
adamiani amas Tavad acnobierebs Tu ara. adamians amis
SesaZlebloba mudam aqvs. oponenti auditors osian-

- 191 -
deris eresSi sdebs brals. auditors andrea osianderis
(1498-1552) wignebi ar waukiTxavs da arc ainteresebs,
radganac man es mosazrebebi winaswarmetyvelebTan da
mociqulebTan amoikiTxa da, rac ufro mniSvnelovania,
amas Tavad qriste ambobs. misi sityva ki aris wminda
suli (90,482). auditors ueWvelad miaCnia, rom qriste
yovel adamianSi sxeulebrivad aris _ ramdenadac mama da
Ze erTia da adamiani RvTis taZaria. morwmuneSi RmerTi
qristes saxiTaa. amitom WeSmariti morwmune _ e. i. is,
vinc SeZlebs sakuTar sulSi Caixedos _ ar Secdeba da
mas verc ganswavluli komentarebi Seacdens. „yvelam
Tavisi rwmeniT unda icxovros, sxvis magier jojoxeTSi
veravin wava` (90,485-6). qriste CvenSi isevea, rogorc
aris CvenSi eSmaki. da es, vaigelis mtkicebiT, swored
pirdapiri azriT unda gavigoT. misi azriT, swored ami-
tom aRiareben wmindanebi „mamao CvenoSi`, rom codvilni
arian (90,494).
osianderis pirovnebac axsnas moiTxovs. andrea osia-
nderi ufrosi, luTeris gavlenis qveS myofi germaneli
filosofosi da Teologi, erT-erTi pirvelTagania, vinc
luTeris moZRvreba aRiara (1524). saidumlo serobis Sesaxeb
luTersa da cvinglis Soris kamaTSi osianderi luTeris
pozicias iziarebda. Semdeg mniSvnelovnad dascilda mas.
igi sakmaod popularuli da mniSvnelovani moazrovne iyo.
kargad icnobda luTers da melanqtons. megobrobda kar-
danosTan, romelmac osianders Tavisi wigni „ars magna`
miuZRvna. ebrauls aswavlida niurnbergSi da iq mRvdelic
gaxda. 1546 wels osianderi gaemijna luTeranizms. misi
mtkicebiT, adams kidevac rom ar Seecoda, qriste mainc
adamiani gaxdeboda da Tavis misias Seasrulebda maSinac,
jvars rom ar ecvaT. am gziT igi TandaTan daubrunda piko
dela mirandolas moZRvrebas, romelsac adre icnobda.
igi amtkicebda, rom adami Tavdapirvel mdgomareobaSi
qristes mosvlis mauwyebeli iyo. Tavad qriste ki aris

- 192 -
mikrokosmosi adamianis formaSi. zogis azriT, es osian-
derze Talmudis gavlenis Sedegia.
luTeris kvalad da paracelsisagan gansxvavebiT gae-
mijna osianderi glexTa oms germaniaSi. aRniSnaven, rom
mas aSkara midrekileba hqonda mistikuri azrovnebisadmi,
magram luTers dapirispirebul „meocnebeebs` uaryofda.
osianderi 1549 wlidan kionigsbergSi moRvaweobda, ro-
gorc profesori. amtkicebda, rom Cven verasodes ver
viqnebiT qristesTan „erT sul`, Tu jer masTan „erT
xorc` ara varT. Cven unda gvjerodes, rom qriste marT-
lac binadrobs yovel qristianSi da SegviZlia ganvicadoT
is, rac man ganicada. osianderi xSirad aSkarad upirisp-
irdeboda melanqtons. miiCnevda, rom adamiani rwmenaSi
urigdeba RmerTs da uerTdeba qristes _ masSi xelaxla
dabadeba swored amas niSnavs. is CvenSia da Cven masSi. es
SeuZlebeli iqneboda, Tu Cven masTan erTxorc ar viqne-
bodiT. xolo Tu qriste CvenSia, maSin mamaca da suliwmi-
dac CvenSia, radgan qriste sisrulea (RvTaebriobaa). Cven
vWamT mis xorcs da vsvamT mis sisxls. visac es ar swams,
mas isic ar swams, rom qriste namdviladaa adamianSi. orT-
odoqsebTan dapiripirebaSi osianderi mkveTrad ganasx-
vavebda xsnasa da gadarCenas. veravin gamarTldeba, sanam
Tavad ar icocxlebs _ e. i. 1500 wlis winandeli sikvdili
qristesi, TavisTavad ver iqneba Cveni gamarTleba. ro-
gorc vxedavT, osianders vaigelTan sakmao aqvs saerTo,
magram igi, auditoris piriT, mainc uaryofs masTan nac-
nobobas.
konsionatori, rogorc oficialuri Teologi, cdi-
lobs imaze miTiTebiT SeinarCunos pozicia, rom Tu
qriste CvenSia, maSin Cven codvis gareSe viqnebodiT
(9,504-505). auditori isea darwmunebuli, rom sworad
gaigo qristes misia, rom araviTar avtoritets ar er-
ideba _ iqneba es romis papi, luTeri, filipe melanqto-
ni, cvingli, Svenkfeldi, osianderi Tu mahmadi. igi Tavs

- 193 -
mxolod qristeze damokidebulad miiCnevs da sxvagvar
gagebas seqturs uwodebs. „Cemi ganZi me Cems gulSi maqvs,
romlis warTmevas veraviTari seqta ver SeZlebs, iqneba
es papi, luTeri, cvingli Tu sxva` (1,502). „eklesia arc
papia da arc luTeri` (1,517).
situaciis ukeT warmosadgenad saWiroa sxva pirebic
gavixsenoT, romelnic maSindeli evropis sulier cxovre-
baSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobdnen. cvingli Sveicareli
reformatori, mosaxleobis dabali fenebis, glexebisa
da xelosnebis ideologi iyo. saeklesio cxovrebaSi re-
formebi man luTerisagan damoukideblad daiwyo. ukve
1523 wels mas qveynis politikaze mniSvnelovani zegav-
lena hqonda. saerTo ZiriTadi miznebis gaTvaliswinebiT,
cvingli didxans cdilobda Tavisi Zalebis da luTeris
momxreebis gaerTianebas. es ar moxerxda. mogvianebiT cv-
inglis momdevrebi kalvins SeuerTdnen. es ukanasknelic
Sveicareli iyo _ frangi Teologi. man filosofia kar-
gad icoda, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas stoelebs ani-
Webda. senekas gavleniT, igi aRiarebda gangebis yovlis-
momcvelobas (e. w. erTmxriv determinizms), romelic
yoveli adamianis beds winaswar gansazRvravs. kalvini,
luTeris gavleniT, safrangeTSive daupirispirda kaTo-
likur eklesias. Semdeg gadavida JenevaSi. 1536 wels
TanamoazreebTan erTad wamoayena axali eklesiis prin-
cipebi. igi moiTxovda saero xelisuflebis saeklesio-
sadmi daqvemdebarebas. saeklesio ritualebis maqsim-
alur gamartivebas. man presviterianul (e. i. samamasax-
liso) eklesiaSi Seamcira sadResaswaulo uqme dReebi: 7
saidumlodan (naTlisReba, mironcxeba, ziareba, monanieba,
mRvdloba, qorwineba, zeTiT kurTxeva) mxolod ori (zi-
areba da naTloba) datova. kalvini amtkicebda, rom rw-
menis principebi gonebas ar unda upirispirdebodes.
qriste ar SeiZleba RmerTi yofiliyo, radgan RmerTi
ar kvdeba. samyaro ararasagan RmerTs ar SeeZlo Seeqmna,

- 194 -
aramed mxolod pirveladi materiisagan; SeuZlebelia
sameba erTarseba iyos da. a. S. kalvini TiTqos gonivru-
lobis ganxorcieleba iyo, magram zogjer gaugebar da
ugunur sisastikes iCenda. 1553 wels misi brZanebiT ko-
conze dawves cnobili espaneli eqimi da Tavisuflad
moazrovne, serveti. sikvdilamde erTi wliT adre, 1563
wels, kalvinis mier Sedgenili katexizmo, aSkarad ewi-
naaRmdegeboda melanqtoniseuls. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom
evropuli Teologiuri tradiciisagan gansxvavebiT [pier
abeliari (1079-1142), ekharti] igi moiTxovda adamianis
zneobis Sefasebas misi saqmianobis faqtiuri Sedegidan.
vaigelis dialogSi miTiTebulia kidev erTi mniS-
vnelovani germaneli Teologi k. Svenkfeldi (igi mTe-
li cxovrebis manZilze luTeris momxre iyo, magram am
ukanasknelis mier xSirad uaryofili). luTeris msgavsad,
isic upirobo avtoritetad mxolod biblias miiCnevda.
mis gasagebad savaldebulod ar miaCnda, ukve TiTqmis da-
kanonebuli, „germanuli Teologia` da arc tauleri, ro-
melic, specialistebis azriT, kargad icoda. Svenkfeldi
uaryofda andreas rudolf bodenStain fon karlStadtis
(1486-1541), miunceris, frankis radikalur moZRvrebebs.
aseve uaryofda adamianis gaRmerTebis SesaZleblobas.
is da misi mimdevrebi gansakuTrebiT did yuradRebas
aqcevdnen Tavisuflebas da Tanasworobas morwmuneTa
Soris. isini 1534 wels reformaciaze dawolas gaeqcnen.
gadasaxldnen amerikaSi, pensilvaniaSi da merilendSi. iq
maTi STamomavlebi dResac cxovroben (90,668).
vaigelis zemoaRniSnuli naSromis IV TavSi dialog-
Si CaerTveba morsi. igi aZlierebs auditoris pozi-
cias: acxadebs, rom visac misi (e. i. sikvdilis) eSinia,
mas qriste ar gaugia da ar ugemnia rwmenis gziT, radgan
„me da qriste erTni varT` (90, 529). igi auditorTan er-
Tad amtkicebs, rom „goni Cven gvaqvs mamisagan, tani ki _
Zisagan. Cven misi xorcisa da Zvlebisagan varT agebulni.

- 195 -
Cven mis sicocxlesa da sikvdils Cvens mokvdav tanSi va-
tarebT` (90,537). morsi eTanxmeba auditoris am pozicias
da acxadebs, rom „wminda kaTolikuri eklesia arc pa-
pebisaa, arc luTerebis, arc mahmadebis, arc garkveuli
seqtebisa, aramed is aris yvela xalxSi, warmarTebSi da
erebSi, rogorc uxilavi sulieri erToba wmindanTa da
axalSobilTa` (9,538).
auditori da morsi Tanxmdebian imaze, rom Cven qris-
tianebi varT mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qriste Cvens
sisxlad da xorcad migvaCnia, Tu gvjera, rom „misi
sikvdili, jvarcma, misi tanjva Cvens sxeulSi unda mox-
des da ara imputirebuli iyos. erTiania maTi pozicia
kaTarebis (XIX) cnobili eresis warmomadgenlebTan,
Tanamoazreobis braldebis uaryofaSi. kaTarebi IX s.-is
bulgareTSi bogomilobis moZraobidan maTi gamoyofis
Semdeg, yvela qristianisTvis safrTxobelas warmoad-
gendnen. maT WeSmarit qristianebad mxolod sakuTari
Tavi (kaTari niSnavs wmindas) miaCndaT. jvars ar scemd-
nen Tayvans, saWirod ar miiCnevdnen arc naTlobas, arc
aRsarebas, arc ziarebas. xiluli, materialuri samyaro
satanis Seqmnilad miaCndaT. keTilma RmerTma ki mxolod
idealuri Seqmna (Cveni sulis CaTvliT).
garkveuli msgavsebis miuxedavad, vaigelis momxreebi
kategoriulad uaryofdnen kaTarebTan naTesaobas. pavle
mociqulis erTaderT gamgebad miaCndaT Tavi. maTi az-
riT, yvela qriastians jvarcmuli TavisSi unda hqondes
da mxolod masze iyos damokidebuli, e. i. mzad iyos
misi gza gaiaros da misi wameba miiRos (90,532). es ufle-
bas aZlevs adamians Tqvas, rom mas sakuTar TavSi hyavs
Tavisi msajuli, mRvdeli da warmmarTveli qristes sax-
iT. amis gamo (imis gamo, rom qristea erTaderTi msaju-
li) imeoreben isini mkacri asketis bernar klervoelis
sityvebs: CemTvis araferia deda, coli, Svili da a. S.
amgvari rwmena qmnis Sinagan adamians, rogorc WeSmarit

- 196 -
morwmunes. RmerTi mxolod Sinagan adamians usmens, ro-
gorc WeSmarit morwmunes, radgan, maister ekhartis si-
tyvebiT Tu vityviT, RmerTi „SigniT aris da ara gareT,
is absoluturad CvenSia`.
moridebuli protestanti mRvdlis valentin vaige-
lis mier warmodgenili proeqti, momavali kacobriobis
sulierad gadasarCenad, ar darCenila yuradRebis gar-
eSe. rogorc Cans, es gza erT-erTi Sinagania da, amdenad,
bunebrivi, zneobrivi erTianobis maZiebel kacobriobis
cnobierebaSi. albaT, amitomaa, rom iungi, dausaxele-
blad imeorebs vaigelis mier SemoTavazebul gzas, ro-
gorc erTaderTs (11,576).

- 197 -
Tavi V. aRorZinebis epoqis dasasruli

aRorZinebis epoqis warmomadgenlebi xedavdnen, rom


sqolastikis naklovanebaTa erT-erTi ZiriTadi safuZveli
gamocdilebisagan, empiriisagan abstraqtuli azrovnebis
mowyveta iyo. es ki, mniSvnelovanwilad, neoplatonizmTan
iyo dakavSirebuli. aRorZinebis epoqis mravali moRvawe
Zveleburi ndobiT aRar uyurebs neoplatonizms. isini
ubrundebian gamocdilebas. magram cdiloben es ise gaa-
keTon, rom aristotelizmi ar dabraldeT. maTi meTodi
xSirad gulubriyvilo da fantastikuria, magram kvlevis
mizandasaxuloba sworia. is moazrovneebi, romlebic ku-
zanelisa da platonuri akademiis Semdgom gamodian samo-
Rvaweo asparezze, ufro radikalurad upirispirdebian
Sua saukuneebs. bernardino telezio (1509-1588), kardano
da franCesko patrici (1529-1597), jordano brunos mate-
rialisturi panTeizmisken gardamaval safexurs qmnian.
ormagi WeSmaritebis Teorias isini adamianuri gonebis
damoukidebeli Rirebulebis dasasabuTeblad iyenebdnen;
aRiarebdnen maTematikis, rogorc kvlevis saimedo iara-
Ris, aucileblobas filosofiaSi. isini upirispirdebod-
nen ara mxolod aristoteles, romelSic sqolastikuri
azrovnebis personifikacias xedavdnen, aramed, zogjer,
platonsac da WeSmaritebas sokratemdel filosofiaSi
eZebdnen.

1. bernardino telezio (1508-1588)

paracelsisa da kardanosagan gansxvavebiT, telezio


uars ambobs alqimiasa da astrologiaze da neapolSi
aarsebs evropaSi pirvel sabunebismetyvelo sazoga-
doebas, romlis programa am sayuradRebo moazrov-
nis ZiriTadi naSromis saTauriT gamoixateba: `saganTa
bunebis Sesaxeb maTi sakuTari principebis Sesabamisad~

- 198 -
(romi, 1565 w.). telezioc aristoteles logikas akri-
tikebs, isic orientacias sokratemdel moazrovneebze
iRebs, magram amasTan erTad etyoba stoelTa natural-
izmis gavlenac. yovelive es cdilobs SeuTavsos qris-
tianuli RmerTis, rogorc Semoqmedis, aRiarebas, ris
gamoc materia esmis rogorc wminda pasiuri masala.
telezio italiis inteligenciis elitis warmomad-
geneli iyo. misi biZa da pirveli maswavlebeli, antonio
telezio mefe filipe meores aRmzrdelic iyo. teleziom
safuZvliani ganaTleba miiRo paduaSi da romSi. man male
moixveWa saxeli da papis, pavle IV (1476-1559) keTilgan-
wyoba daimsaxura. papi telezios episkoposobas aCuqebs.
misi miReba niSnavda imas, rom telezios ojaxis Seqmnaze
uari unda eTqva. eklesiis mesveurT ar gakvirvebiaT, rom
teleziom saCuqari Tavis Zmas gadasca, Tavad ki coli
SeirTo da farTo mecnieruli programis ganxorciele-
ba daisaxa miznad. mis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli evro-
paSi pirveli sabunebismetyvelo sazogadoebis daarseba,
romelsac pativiscemis niSnad misma Tanamoazreebma, misi
dabadebis adgilis mixedviT kozentinis akademia uwodes.
mogvianebiT italiaSi Janbatista portam (1534-1615) _
romelsac kepleri teleskopis gamogonebisaTvis aqebda
da romelmac marTlac bevri gaakeTa xedvis unaris mona-
cemebze damyarebuli bunebismecnierebis dasafuZneblad
_ Camoayaliba e. w. „bunebis saidumloebaTa akademia`
(Academia dei secreti). es is J. portaa, romelic kampanelamde
amtkicebda, rom empirizmi magiis gadalaxva ki ar aris,
aramed magiis kodifikacia.
mwyalobeli papis sikvdilis Semdeg, telezios
ZiriTadi naSromi eklesiam akrZala. mis garSemo didx-
ans mimdinareobda brZola da progresuli moazrovneebi
TavgamodebiT icavdnen mas (mag., tomazo kampanela). saku-
Tari memkvidreebis, patricisa da kampanelasagan telezio
imiT gansxvavdeboda, rom metafizikis Seurigebeli kri-

- 199 -
tikosi iyo. mas surda bunebis filosofia ise aego, rom
empirizmis farglebSi darCeniliyo. amis gamo mas didad
afasebdnen fr. bekoni, gasendi, hobsi da sxvebi.
marTalia, telezio ibrZoda aristotelizmis (tele-
ologizmis) winaaRmdeg da saganTa maTive Sinagani bune-
bidan axsna surda, magram bunebis gasagebad mainc dauSva
ori usxeulo principi (e. i. iseTebi, romlebic gamoc-
dilebaSi ar mogvecema), romelic amoZravebs pasiur ga-
nusazRvrel materias. es ukanaskneli, rogorc substan-
cia, yvela saganSi erTi da igivea, arc imatebs da arc ik-
lebs. materia, romlis Semdgomi diferencirebiT miiReba
oTxi elementi (miwa, wyali, haeri da cecxli), avsebs
mTels sivrces, romelic usxeulo da umoqmedoa, igi
TavisTavad mxolod avsebis SesaZleblobas warmoadgens.
rac Seexeba dros, igi moZraobis sazomia, Tavad moZraoba
ki siTbos Sedegia. samyaros yvela xdomileba saboloo
jamSi daiyvaneba usasrulo materiis SekumSva-gafarToe-
baze, rac xorcieldeba urTierTdapirispirebuli aqti-
uri principebis, siTbosa da sicivis mier. es principe-
bic usxeulo, sulieri Zalebia, magram yovelTvis raRac
sxeuls ukavSirdebian. siTbos ZiriTadi samyofi adgili
mzea, sicivis _ dedamiwa. Suasaukuneobrivi dapirispireba
miwiersa da zeciers Soris telezios naazrevSi am saxiT
gamovlinda.
samyaros amgvari xedva SesaZleblobas iZleoda sa-
ganTa raoba axsniliyo ricxovnobis principis safuZ-
velze: sagnebSi siTbo-sicivis Tanafardobis cvlilebiT,
RmerTis Caurevlad. amdenad, telezio deistia. am safuZ-
velze axdens italieli empiristi tradiciuli prob-
lemebis gaazrebas. msoflio sulis adgils masTan iWers
msoflio siTbo, rogorc cecxlisa da haeris specifi-
kuri yovlisganmsWvalavi narevi. misi gamovlinebaa cxov-
elTa da admianTa suli. igi mTel sxeuls msWvalavs, ma-
gram misi centri tvinia.

- 200 -
telezios moZRvreba Semecnebaze mkacrad empiris-
tulia. codnas mxolod gamocdileba iZleva. sulieri
cxovrebis da azrovnebis ZiriTadi struqturuli momen-
tia grZnobadoba. goneba grZnobis organoebis Taviseburi
nawilia. igi aRqmiT aSenebuli Semecnebis xarvezebs as-
worebs. imis Sesaxeb gvauwyebs, rasac aRqma uSualod
ver swvdeba. magram goneba moqmedebs mxolod grZnobadi
Semecnebis safuZvelze da mis davalebas asrulebs. gon-
ebis iaraRia daskvna am monacemebis safuZvelze.
aristoteles sawinaaRmdegod, telezio gansakuT­
rebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs daskvnas analogiis saSuale-
biT. amgvari daskvna erTaderTia, romelic axlis mop-
ovebis saSualebas iZleva, Tumca misi Sedegi aucileblad
gamocdilebas, empirias unda SevudaroT.
samyaroSi adamianis adgilis gansakuTrebulobis dasa-
fuZneblad, misi Rirebulebis asamaRleblad telezio
kvlav RmerTs mimarTavs. igi uSvebs adamianSi sxeulisa-
gan damoukidebeli ukvdavi sulis arsebobas, romelic
Tavad RmerTma, uSualod, msoflio sulis gareSe, Cado
adamianSi. amitom misi Semecneba mecnieruli principiT
ar SeiZleba, iseve, rogorc arc Tavad RmerTis.
telezio eTikaSi naturalistur hedonizms icavs.
es imis daSvebas niSnavs, rom yoveli cocxali arse-
ba TviTSenaxvisa da siamovnebisken iswrafvis. adamiani
cxovelisagan gansxvavdeba imiT, rom awmyoSi siamovnebiT
ar kmayofildeba, momavlisa da uSoresisaken iswrafvis.
esaa imis mowmoba, rom adamiani mxolod materialuriT
ar ganisazRvreba. mis zedroul suls ar akmayofilebs
amqveyniuri. roca igi sxeulSia, moqmedebs, rogorc in-
teleqti da neba. igi adamianis pirovnulobis gamomx-
atvelia. umaRles sikeTed misTvisac TviTSenaxva iTv-
leba. sixaruli sxva araferia Tu ara sakuTari meobis
garantirebulobis gancda. aqedan ganisazRvreba adamia-
nis moqmedeba, amis mixedviT iwodeba raime „kargad` an

- 201 -
„cudad`. telezio fizikaSi materialistia, metafizikaSi
da eTikaSi _ idealisti. mravali mas araTanmimdevrulo-
bas abralebs. magram imas ar iTvaliswineben, rom roca
empirists (sulis ukvdavebisa da zneobis gadasarCenad)
gamocdilebis farglebis gadalaxva surs (radgan xedavs,
rom uamisod skepticizms da agnosticizms ver aicilebs),
mas ara aqvs sxva, raime ufro Tanmimdevruli gamosava-
li. losevi telezios Teorias primitiul sensualizms
uwodebs. Tavis „aRorZinebis filosofiaSi` losevma
telezios neoplatonizmis Ralati ver apatia. magram
am sayveduris Rirsi telezio maSin ufro iqneboda, em-
pirizmis (sensualizmis) farglebSi rom darCeniliyo da
misi gadalaxva ar ecada. patrici, romelic telezios
TanamoazreTa Soris neoplatonizmis didi erTgulebiT
gamoirCeoda, losevis gacilebiT met pativiscemas imsax-
urebs.

2. ieronimo kardano (1501-1576)

ieronimo kardano aRorZinebis dasasrulis im moaz-


rovneTa rigSi dgas, romlebmac zeciuris da miwieris,
dadebiTisa da uaryofiTis yovlismomcveli erTianobis
principidan amosulebma, pirovnebis, rogorc mikrokos-
mosis gagebaze damyarebiT, sakuTar Tavs ufleba misces,
Tvali gaesworebinaT sinamdvilisaTvis da Tavisi yvela
dadebiTi da uaryofiTi Tviseba da qmedeba erTianobaSi
waredginaT sazogadoebis samsjavros winaSe. waredgi-
naT ara Sewyalebis TxovniT, aramed imis SegnebiT, rom
TviT yvelaze dacemul adamians (kardanos ki, upirveles
yovlisa, sakuTari Tavi hyavda mxedvelobaSi), gulwrfe-
li monaniebis SemTxvevaSi, unda mietevos, rogorc amas
qristianuli rwmenis erT-erTi ZiriTadi principi gvas-
wavlis.
kardano gamoCenili maTematikosi, cnobili eqimi da

- 202 -
evropaSi avtoritetuli varskvlavTmricxveli iyo. misi
samecniero miRwevebi gadmocemuli aqvs Tavisi droisaT-
vis gaxmaurebul wignSi, romelsac „diadi xelovneba` ewo-
deba (1545) da mis avtobiografiul nawarmoebSi, romelic
„piradi cxovrebis` saxels atarebs. aq igi rusos aWar-
bebs gulaxdilobaSi. Tu vinmes moundeba eWvi Seitanos
frangi eqsistencialistis, sartris im mosazrebaSi, rom
„aravis ar SeuZlia sakuTar Tavze yvelaferi marTali
Tqvas`, sabuTad kardano gamoadgeba.
kardano, aRorZinebis mravali warmomadgenlis ms-
gavsad, maSin gavrcelebuli lozungis _ „wyaroebisaken!`
_ momxrea da gulisxmobs sokratemdel filosofos-
ebs, upirveles yovlisa, empedokles moZRvrebas. magram
sokratemdelebis miseuli gageba, mniSvnelovanwilad,
mainc platonze da aristotelezea damokidebuli. igi
hiloZoistia, e. i. gasulierebul materias uSvebs, magram
sulier Zalas, rogorc mamoZravebels, mas sxva aZlevs.
empedokles s. danelia Tanamedrove qimiis winamor-
beds uwodebda. renani iTvaliswinebda ra misi moZRvrebis
da cxovrebis mistikur mxares, empedokles miiCnevda
erT pirovnebaSi niutonisa da kaliostros (1743-1795)
gaerTianebad. orive es daxasiaTeba sruli uflebiT
SeiZleboda kardanos mimarTac gamogveyenebina.
ieronimo kardano cnobili milaneli advokatis
ukanono Svili iyo. mama farTo ganaTlebis adamiani iyo,
romelic zogjer, Turme, leonardo da vinCis esaubre-
boda geometriis problemebze. igi milanSi da paduaSi
geometrias aswavlida. mSoblebi erTad cxovrobdnen, ma-
gram eklesiurad daqorwinebuli ar yofilan. ieronimo
Tvlida, rom es mas xels uSlida cxovrebaSi, mecniereba-
Sic da sazogadoebaSic Sesaferi adgilis dakavebaSi. man
maTematika airCia da mamis asistenti iyo paduis univer-
sitetSi. profesorebs ar moswondaT brwyinvale codnis
da niWis, magram zedmetad Tavdajerebuli da kritikuli

- 203 -
studenti. sadoqtoro 1525 wels daicva milanSi. eweo-
da TavaSvebul cxovrebas. cdilobda maTematikis cod-
na fulze TamaSSic gamoeyenebina. did valSi Cavarda.
kacis daWrisaTvis cixeSic ijda. erTxans RaribTa
TavSesafarSic mouwia yofna. sakuTari cxovrebis oTx
udides ubedurebad Tvlida: daqorwinebas, ufrosi Svilis
sikvdiliT dasjas, sakuTar patimrobas da umcrosi vaJis
garyvnil bunebas. kardano, miuxedavad yvelafrisa, didi
niWis wyalobiT, raRacnairad mainc axerxebda mecnierul
muSaobasac (maTematikaSi, filosofiaSi, medicinaSi, hi-
drodinamikaSi, geologiaSi). daaxloebuli iyo cnobil
maTematikos nikolo tartaliasTan (1499-1557), gaxmaure-
buli naSromis, „Nova scientia`-s (1537) avtorTan. isini er-
Tad muSaobdnen mesame xarisxis algebrul gantolebaTa
amoxsnaze. maT Soris konfliqti warmoiSva pirvelobis
Sesaxeb. Tumca kuburi gantolebebis amoxsnis xerxi kar-
danos meTodis saxeliTaa cnobili. garda amisa, dRes
mecnierebaSi xmarebaSia „moZraobis kardanuli gadatana`,
„kardanuli meqanizmi` da sxva. kardano, rogorc didi
eqimi, miwveuli iyo SotlandiaSi. iyo aseve inglisSic,
mefe henri VI astrologiuri ruqis Sesadgenad. cnobi-
lia isic, rom Tavad papi mas wyalobda da pensiac ki
dauniSna. kardanom gamoaqveyna bunebismecnierebaSi ori
enciklopedia. specialistebis azriT, maTSi mecnierul
meTodTa gverdiT vxvdebiT alqimiisa da okultizmis, anu
dafaruli codnis mniSvnelobis dacvas da filosofiuri
qvis mopovebis gzebis codnis pretenzias. es aspeqti bo-
lomde gahyveba kardanos da imaze miuTiTebs, rom igi
paracelsis, melanqtonis da sxvaTa msgavsad, cdilobs
Suasaukuneebrivi msoflmxedvelobis zegavlena ki ar
uaryos, aramed axalTan, mecnierulTan Searigos. karda-
nos imis Seswavlis imedic hqonda, rac mecnierul meTo-
debsa da gamocdilebaze dakvirvebas ar eqvemdebareba,
magram mainc mniSvnelovan zemoqmedebas axdens samyarosa

- 204 -
da adamianze. kardano xSirad gamodis xan mistikis, xan
telepaTiis, xan magiis saxeliT da yvelgan pretenzia aqvs
sxvebisaTvis dafarulis privatul codnaze. kardanos am
aspeqtebs mTlianobaSi ixilavs norvegieli maTematikosi
ostin ore (1899-1968) 1953 wels gamoqveynebul wignSi _
„kardano, yomarbazi doqtori`.
oficialur religiasTan, rasakvirvelia, yvelaze
Zneli Sesarigebeli iyo astrologebis moZRvreba imis
Sesaxeb, Tu rogor da ramdenad zemoqmedeben ciuri sx-
eulebi dedamiwaze da adamianebze. frTxili astrolo-
gebi tovebdnen xolme adgils RmerTis da adamianis
Tavisufali nebisaTvis. kardano maT Soris ar iyo. igi
daapatimres kidec imisaTvis, rom cdilobda qristes
samerTianoba da misi bedic astrologiurad aexsna, maSa-
sadame, Tavad qriste Tavisufali nebis gareSe gaeazrebi-
na. amdenad, adamianis Tavisufal nebazec ar SeiZleboda
laparaki. kardanosac, iseve, rogorc mraval astro-
logs, uWirda mnaTobebis dedamiwaze da mis arsebule-
bze garkveuli zemoqmedebis faqtidan gamosulT, Tavi
SeekavebinaT imis mtkicebisagan, rom adamianis bedi sru-
ladaa gansazRvruli mnaTobebis mier.
kardano Zalian cdilobda, argumentebi moeZebna sa-
kuTari msoflmxedvelobisaTvis. aman sababi misca mkv-
levrebs, ironiulad aReniSnaT, rom kardanos es Zvirad
daujda. mas mouxda sakuTari sikvdilis dRe gamoeTvala
da roca es dRe moaxlovda, SimSiliT moekla Tavi. aRniS-
nuls garda, kardanos Sromebia: „sizustisaTvis` (1550),
„saganTa gansxvavebulobis Sesaxeb` (1556/1557), „fizion-
omikis Sesaxeb`. misi Sromebis krebuli 1663 wels aT to-
mad gamoica.
kardano panTeistia, igi samyaros mamoZravebels da
amxsnels samyaroSive eZebs. sokratemdeli filosofos-
ebisTvis gvian darqmeuli saxelis, hiloZoizmis mixedviT,
masac SeiZleba hiloZoisti vuwodoT. sokratemdelebi-

- 205 -
dan igi yvelaze axloa empedoklesTan, romelic itali-
uri samedicino skolis fuZemdeblad miaCnia. empedokles
msgavsad, isic amosavlad wertilad iRebs cocxal mate-
rias, romelic moZravia. magram misi mizandasaxuli moZ-
raobisa da cvalebadobisaTvis, empedoklesave msgavsad,
uSvebs kidev or Zalas, or sawyiss, romelTac empedokl-
em „siyvaruli` da „siZulvili` daarqva da cocxal arse-
baTa evolucia maT Zalas daamyara. kardano evoluciis
amgvar gagebasac iziarebs. magram, empedoklesagan (da ar-
istotelesagan) gansxvavebiT, aRiarebs mxolod sam ele-
ments: wyals, miwas da haers. cecxls kardano ar miiCnevs
damoukidebel, sakuTari safuZvlis mqone elementad.
misi azriT, cecxli ufro sxva elementebis garkveuli,
SeiZleba umaRlesi, magram ara damoukidebeli mdgo-
mareobaa. cecxli wvavs raRacas, e. i. predikatia raimesi
da ara Tavad is, rac iwvis. amdenad, SeiZleba vivarau-
doT, rom uiliam okamis samarTeblis principis Tanaxmad,
siTbos gverdiT cecxlis aRiareba, kardanom sawyisTa
iseT gamravlebad CaTvala, rac aucilebeli araa, radgan
sxvebze daiyvaneba.
empedoklesgan iRebs kardano Semecnebis Teoriis
ZiriTad principsac: msgavsi imecnebs msgavss. koplsto-
nis azriT, kardanosTan pirveladi, aradiferencirebuli
materia avsebs samyaros mTel sferos. moqmedi da moZ-
raobis principi aris msoflio suli (platonisgan nas-
esxebi). es suli adamianSi vlindeba, rogorc mokvdav
sulTan droebiT kavSirSi myofi; xolo Tavad rogorc
msoflio sulis „nawili` (msoflio suli xom yvela ada-
mianSi vlindeba), metemfsiqosis process eqvemdebareba.
rac mTavaria, kardanos RmerTi, romelic maTematikuri
kanonebiT marTavs samyaros, araa Tavisufali nebis mqone.
empiriul samyaroSi igi vlindeba rogorc siTbo, anu
sinaTle, anu forma. igi asulierebs sagnebs, romelTa
Soris aris simpaTia-antipaTiis mimarTeba. mravali mkv-

- 206 -
levari paduis universitetSi ganswavlul kardanosTan
averoesis gavlenasac xedavs.
renani, narkvevSi „averoesi da averoizmi`, roca ar-
istoteles didi komentatoris evropul filosofiaze
gviandel gavlenas exeba, aRniSnavs, rom kardanos moZ-
Rvrebas garkveuli msgavseba aqvs andrea Cezalpinis
(1519-1603) naazrevTan, romelsac mowinaaRmdegeebi
averoizms abralebdnen. braldebas seriozuli safuZve-
li ar hqonia. empiriisaken misi midrekilebis miuxeda-
vad (Cezalpini papis piradi eqimi iyo), racionalizmi mis
SromebSi iseTi Zalisa iyo, rom mas axali filosofiis
erT-erTi udidesi racionalistis, spinozas winamorbe-
dad miiCneven (50,IX,53).
sakiTxi exeboda individualuri sulis da universal-
uri sulis mimarTebas. averoesi da mravali misi mimdevari
qristiani Teologi Tvlida, rom adamianis individual-
uri suli mokvdavia. ara im azriT, rom igi gardaicvleba
da saiqioSi gaagrZelebs arsebobas, aramed pirdapiri az-
riT _ igi qreba. magram es mxolod nawilia pirovnebis
sulisa. CvenSi aris agreTve sayovelTao sulis nawili.
es aris CvenSi sayovelTao sulTan ziarebis Sedegi, risi
wyalobiTac Cven gonieri arsebani varT. igi Cveni saku-
Tari araa da ubrundeba sayovelTao suls.
Cveni es arsebiTi nawili, Cveni sikvdilis Semdeg
(roca individualuri suli qreba), uerTdeba msoflio
gonebas, universalur suls. kardanos surda eCvenebina,
rom universalur sulSi individualuri sulebi isea, ro-
gorc matli mcenareSi, romliTac is ikvebeba. e. i. gon-
ebis da, amdenad, ukvdavebis droebiTi Tanaziari xdeba.
naSromSi „erTisaTvis` kardanos es averoistuli pozicia
daufaravia. mogvianebiT kardanom uaryo es Sexeduleba.
igi amtkicebs, rom saerTo goneba sulac ar arsebobs,
arc cocxal arsebaTaTvis da arc adamianisaTvis. goneba
yovel adamians Tavisi aqvs. igi cdilobs, es axali pozi-

- 207 -
cia Searigos sapirispiro Sexedulebas. es ori gonebis
daSvebaa. erTia maradiuli goneba, meore _ misi droSi
gamovlena. maradiuli da erTi goneba vlindeba simrav-
leSi. aqedan Cans, rom kardanos paduaSi Camoyalibebuli
azrovnebis stili bolomde SemorCa.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rasac ar unda ixilavdes kardano,
igi mudam cdilobs damoukidebeli pozicia Seiqmnas
da bolomde gaataros igi. Tavis naSromSi, romelsac
„subtilitate` ewodeba, kardano erTmaneTs upirisp-
irebs qristianis, ebraelis, musulmanis da warmarTis
Sexedulebebs. arc erTi ar miaCnia sruli WeSmaritebis
mflobelad. amis gamo, masac ararsebuli, magram relig-
iur dapirispirebebSi xSirad braldebad gamoyenebuli
wignis _ „sami didi crumoZRvari` _ avtoroba miaweres.
kasireri kardanos sanimuSod miiCnevs imis saCvene-
blad, Tu ra didi gavlena hqonda aRorZinebis epoqaSi
magias, kabalas, astrologias TviT mowinave mecniere-
bzec. maT gavlena hqondaT mkvlevarTa mecnierul muS-
aobazec da maTi cxovrebis weszec. es exeba TviT koper-
niksa da galileisac. magia, kabala da astrologia maT-
Tanac garkveuli Zalis mqonea. maTTanac ki ara gvaqvs
erTmniSvnelovani gamarjveba gamocdilebisa „Teoriaze`,
gamoTvla-aRricxvisa _ goniT Wvretaze (44,111).

3. franCesko patrici (1529-1597)

franCecko patricic, telezios msgavsad, paduis


universitetSi swavlobda. iq man Svidi weli gaatara.
magram universitetSi gabatonebuli aristotelizmis
Seurigebeli kritikosi iyo. gansxvavebiT teleziosagan,
misi filosofiuri pozicia savsebiT neoplatonuria. igi
imedovnebda, rom gamocdilebis telezioseul gagebas
Seuxamebda neoplatonur spekulacias. gansxvavebiT pa-
dueli aleqsandristebisa da averoistebisagan, igi, ro-

- 208 -
gorc Cans, arCevda ra iyo aristoteles saxeliT cnobil
SromebSi namdvilad aristotelesi da ra ara. paduelebi,
rogorc wesi, ver asxvavebdnen aristoteles saxeliT
cnobil neoplatonur Sromebs namdvili aristotele-
seulisagan. patricis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom igi aSka-
ra antiaristotelikosi iyo filosofiis, Teologiis
da bunebismetyvelebis TiTqmis yvela arsebiT sakiTxSi
da amgvarad ganwyobil moazrovneTa liderad iTvle-
boda. misi mosazrebebi maTematikaze fizikis orien-
taciis aucileblobis Sesaxeb, agrZelebda kuzanelis
Sexedulebebs, aRiarebulia misi gavlena galileis mso-
flmxedvelobaze. man (neo)platonuri filosofiis sando
warmomadgenlis saxeli daimsaxura italiel naturfi-
losofosTa Soris. amitom iyo, rom masze uTiTebdnen
ara marto neoplatonurad ganwyobili moazrovneebi _
magaliTad, kepleri _ aramed yovelgvari platonuris
uarmyofelnic _ magaliTad, fr. bekoni. patrici gansa-
kuTrebiT usvamda xazs filosofiis istoriis codnis
mniSvnelobas.
filosofosi, berZnuli enidan mTargmneli, istor-
ikosi da poeti franCesko patrici warmoSobiT dalmati-
idan iyo. es mxare sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva mezoblis
gamgeblobaSi Sedioda (xorvatiis, bizantiis, ungreTis).
patricis dros igi veneciis gamgeblobaSi imyofeboda. mas
aRzrda-ganaTlebac italiuri hqonda da amitom italie-
lad moixsenieben. filosofias rig universitetSi aswav-
lida da yvelaferSi neoplatonurad gagebuli platonis
upiratesobis damtkicebas cdilobda. eWvi ar epareboda,
rom platoni ufro sasargebloa qristianobisaTvis, vi-
dre aristotele. sicocxlis bolo wlebSi platonis fi-
losofias aswavlida romSi. patricis ZiriTadi Sromebia:
„peripatetikuli analizis XV wigni` (1571), „universumis
axali filosofia` (1591). platonizmis aRorZineba patri-
cis mier neoplatonuri sinaTlis metafizikis variantia:

- 209 -
pirveli da Seuqmneli sinaTlea RmerTi. misganaa is, ra-
sac xiluli sinaTle SeiZleba ewodos. igia pasiuri ma-
teriis gamformebeli, e. i. aqtiuri principia. amitom mas
ar SeiZleba savsebiT materialuri ewodos. igi gardama-
valia wminda materialursa da wminda suliers Soris.
mas Semoaqvs formaTa simravle da am formaTa erTianoba
samyaroSi. es adamians RmerTisaken gzis gakvlevis saSu-
alebas aZlevs (4,III,254).
1553 wels gamoica patricis utopiuri xasiaTis naS-
romi _ „bednieri qalaqi`; 1560-1563 ww. _ „dialogebi is-
toriaze da ritorikaze`; 1571 wels _ „peripatetuli
diskusiebi`. es naSromebi aristoteles Sromebis erT-
erT yvelaze ufro Rrma da safuZvlian analizad iT-
vleba. igi platonisa da aristoteles Serigebas ki ar
cdilobs (rasac maSin mravali moazrovne cdilobda),
aramed yvelaferSi platonis upiratesobas amtkicebs.
patrici kategoriulad uaryofda aristoteles mier
poeziis, rogorc mibaZvis gagebas. winaaRmdeg aristote-
lesi, icavda carieli sivrcis arsebobis SesaZleblobas.
amgvari poziciis mqone mkvlevrisagan gasakviri araa,
rom aristoteles „metafizikaze` ioane filoponosis
(VI s.) komentarebi berZnulidan Targmna. masve ekuTvnis
prokles „Teologiis elementebis` da „fizikis element-
ebis` Targmanebi. 1592 wels misi Sromebi dawyevles da
akrZalul wignTa siaSi Seitanes.
patricis „universumis axali filosofia` oTxi
nawilisagan Sedgeba: panaugia (yovlad brwyinvaleba), pan-
arxia (principTa mTlianoba), panfsiqia (yovlis suli-
eroba), pankosmia (yovlad kosmiuroba). yvelaferi gamo-
dis pirveli sinaTlidan, romelsac alegoriulad mze
SeiZleba vuwodoT. misganaa, rogorc usxeulo (ideal-
uri), ise sxeulebrivi sinaTle. patricis sinaTlis gamo-
dinebis metafizika aTi safexuriTaa warmodgenili: yov-
lad erTi, erTianoba, arseba, sicocxle, inteligencia,

- 210 -
suli, buneba, Tvisebebi, forma, sxeuli. dedamiwa univer-
sumis centrSia, xolo mzisaTvis amgvari adgili uaryo-
filia (albaT, religiis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT).
unda aRiniSnos, rom patrici ZiriTadi gansazRvre-
bebis dadgenis dros, antikuri neplatonizmis msgavsad,
frTxilia da sapirispiro gansazRvrebebSi darCenas
irCevs. koplstonis azriT, patricim sivrcis gansazRvre-
ba platonis „timaiosisgan` aiRo. igi garkveuli gamaSu-
alebeli iyo momdevno italieli moazrovneebisaTvis
platonisaken mibrunebis saqmeSi. koplstoni miuTiTebs,
rom brunom patricisgan aiTvisa azri „minima-s` Sesaxeb,
rogorc imgvari raimesi, romelic arc didia, arc mc-
ire, magram SesaZleblobis TvalsazrisiT, an erTia, an
meore. ramdenadac, patricis azriT, es sivrce avsebulia
„TxieriT`, amdenad ZvelisZveli oTxi principi masTan
amgvar saxes iRebs: sinaTle, siTbo, sivrce, Txieri.
misma saxelma gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miipyro
1963 wels, roca gamoqveynda misi dausrulebeli xel-
naweri „siyvarulis filosofia`. am saintereso naSromis
ZiriTadi cnebaa filavTia (sakuTari Tavis siyvaruli).
am naSroms aRorZinebis xanis siyvarulis filosofiisad-
mi miZRvnili literaturis ganuyofel nawilad Tvlian.
sabWoTa kavSirSi Semavali xalxebis enebze am naSro-
mis analizi didxans ar arsebobda. es xarvezi Sevsebul
iqna cnobili rusi mkvlevris, aleqsandre gorfunkelis
saintereso werilSi „patricis sasiyvarulo filosofia
da tarkvinia molcas siyvarulis filosofia`, romelic
gamoqveynda krebulSi „Sua saukuneebi` (moskovi, 1971).
gorfunkeli Tvlis, rom filavTia, e. i. sakuTari Tavis
siyvaruli, rogorc yovelgvari siyvarulis safuZve-
li, vrceldeba RmerTzec. manac qveyana Tavis Tavis si-
yvarulis gamo Seqmna, rogorc Tavisi msgavsi. aseTive
Sinaarsisaa qristes mowodeba: giyvardeT mtrebi, ro-
gorc sakuTari Tavi (45,466).

- 211 -
zogi mkvlevari aq xedavs patricis gadasvlas neopla-
tonizmidan gviandel naturalizmze. losevis azriT, aq
araa laparaki empiriul, anu naturalistur siyvarulze,
da arc egoisturze (filavTiis gagebiT); arc qristiano-
bis sapirispiroa raime, romlisTvisac „RmerTi saerTod
siyvarulia`. „rogorc yvelaferSi, patrici esTetika-
Sic ebrZvis aristoteles`. Tavis naSromSi „esTetikis
Sesaxeb` igi amtkicebs, rom poezia arc raimes mibaZvaa da
arc ganzogadeba, aramed RvTaebrivi aRtacebis, sigiJis
nayofia. es RvTaebrivi sibrZnea. advili dasanaxia, rom
patrici aq aviTarebs platonis dialogidan, „ionidan`
wamosul azrs poeziaze. patricis naazrevis loseviseu-
li Targmanis Tanaxmad, es moazrovne antikur neopla-
tonikoss ufro hgavs, vidre aRorZinebis epoqisas. igi
plotinisa gegonebao, Tumca azrebi swored plotinisaa,
misi sinaTlis metafizikaa, romelmac ase didi roli
Seasrula Sua saukuneebSi (mag., bonaventura da sxvebi).
yoveli Semecneba sawyiss iRebs gonebidan, magram
amodis SegrZnebebidan. SegrZnebebSi ki pirveli adgi-
li, ZaliTac da RirebulebiTac, ekuTvnis mxedvelobas.
pirveli, rasac aRiqvams Tvali, aris sinaTle. amiT gai-
go adamianma saganTa ganlageba da wesrigi. es mas moe-
wona (rogorc RmerTs moewona Tavisi saqme da gaagrZela
Sesaqme) da daiwyo misi Wvreta. es ukve filosofiis sawy-
isia. patricis panTeizmi telezios panTeizmze monoTeis-
turi iyo.
RmerTs patricTan mravali saxeli aqvs. RmerTi, sik-
eTe, erTi, sawyisi, pirveli misTvis identuri terminebia.
sinaTlis emanaciiT iqmneba sagnebi sivrceSi da Semdeg
ubrundebian RmerTs.
erTi Seicavda TavisSi yvela arsebas, sanam isini mis
gare gaCndebodnen. magram igi ar ganibna da ganifanta
yoveliveSi, romelnic misken miiswrafvian. dasabuTeba
patricisgan xdeba antikuri neoplatonizmis (da plato-

- 212 -
nis) cnobili (maTTvisac tradiciuli) meTodiT, absur-
damde dayvanis wesiT: raimes, rom TavisSi hqondes usas-
rulo, maSin igi (raime) dasazRvravda mas, da maSin raime,
romelic usasruloze naklebia, dasazRvravda usasru-
los da aqcevda mas sasrulod. am SemTxvevaSi erTi aR-
moCndeboda usasrulo Tavis TavTan da sasrulo sxvasTan
mimarTebaSi. es ki SeuZlebelia. xolo Tu swori isaa, rom
erTi yvelganaa, maSin mcdari iqneba imis mtkiceba, rom
igi mxolod sadmea. mcdaria aseve isic, rom is arsadaa.
aqedan ki gamodis, rom igi yofila yvelgan da yvelafer-
Si, arsSic da ar-arsSic; amave dros, yvelgan, sadac is
aris, is iqneba Tavis TavSi da yvelaferi masSi. amrigad,
erTi Tavadac imyofeba yvela saganSi da araferSi ar
imyofeba, aramed Tavad Seicavs Tavis TavSi yvelafers.
yvelaferi aris erTSi, magram erTis saxiT (ioane petriwi
ityoda „erTebriv`) da erTi aris yvelaferi SeerTebuli
erTad. erTi aris yvelaferi da erTi. Tu SeiZleba ase
gamovTqvaT, igi aris yovladerTi.
samyaro patricisaTvis aris qmnadi, usasrulo, gasu-
lierebuli organuli mTlianoba. swored masTan dakav-
Sirebul problemebs ixilavs patricis Sroma „universu-
mis axali filosofia`.

4. jordano bruno (1548-1600)

italiuri naturfilosofiis mwvervali jordano


bruno renesansis epoqis erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso
pirovnebaa. igi kulturis istoriaSi darCa ara marto,
rogorc Rrma filosofiuri sistemis Semqmneli, ar-
amed, agreTve, rogorc WeSmaritebisaTvis mecnieruli
da moqalaqeobrivi Tavganwirvis nimuSi. mis saxelTanaa
dakavSirebuli aRorZinebis epoqis pirveli sruli pan-
Teizmis dacva, romelic, rogorc materializmze, ise
idealizmze maRla dgas. bruno sokratemdeli berZnuli

- 213 -
filosofiis hiloZoizms, anu gasulierebuli, cocxali
materiis pirvelsawyisobis dasabuTebas Seecdeba. masve
ekuTvnis dapirispirebulTa erTianobis, rogorc maTi
damTxvevis, kuzaneliseuli principis arsebiTi ganviTa-
reba da Sevseba `erTianobis gaorebis~ principiT. brunom
erTianobis gaoreba, iseve, rogorc dapirispirebulTa
erTianobaSi moazrebis aucilebloba, miuyena materi-
alur sinamdviles, romelic erTaderTia da warmoadgens
usasrulo, gasulierebul materialur realobas. bruno
sityvierad aRiarebs ormagi WeSmaritebis Teorias, faq-
tiurad ki masTan yvelaferma Tavi unda gaimarTlos ada-
mianuri gonebis winaSe. kuzanelis da fiCinos msgavsad,
brunoc dialogis formiT werda Tavis naSromebs; magram
maTgan gansxvavebiT (sxva winamorbedebze rom araferi
vTqvaT), brunos dialogebSi Cven ver vxedavT locvas,
rogorc RmerTisadmi daqvemdebarebis gamoxatule-
bas. locvis adgils ikavebs adamianis rwmena sakuTari
Zalebisadmi. amitom brunos dialogebs samarTlianad
uwodeben „gmirul dialogebs`. rogorc amboben, es xalxi
titanebi iyvnen da RmerTebTan brZolas bedavdnen (igu-
lisxmeba RmerTis im gagebasTan, rac maSindel sazoga-
doebaSi iyo gabatonebuli da romlis xelSeuxeblobasac
eklesia icavda).
mravali sxva moazrovnis msgavsad, brunoc sxavdasx-
vagvarad SeiZleba iqnes gagebuli. magram misi gagebisaT-
vis aucilebelia imis gacnobiereba, rom igi arc materi-
alistia (e. i. ar Tvlis, rom yvelaferi materiis da misi
moZraobis produqtia) da arc idealisti (e. i. ar Tvlis,
rom yvelaferi ideis, Tu RmerTis Zalis sxvadasxvagvari
gamovlinebaa). amasTanave RmerTi am gamovlinebaTa miRma
arsad arsebobs, aramed aris rogorc saganTa da pro-
cesTa usasrulo mTlianobis Sinagani arseba. bruno
Tanmimdevruli panTeistia. am principis dasacavad, igi
arafers erideba: arc RmerTis dasavleTSi gabatonebu-

- 214 -
li gagebis uaryofas da arc tradiciuli logikisaTvis
gaugebari principis, usasrulo samyaroTa erTianobis
dacvas. es principi xom dausruleblis dasrulebas da
mis Semecnebasac gulisxmobs adamianuri gonebis mier.
sxva gonebaze bruno ar laparakobs.
racionalistis mier usasrulo erTianobis daSveba
gonebis gabedulebaa: es sakuTari pasuxismgeblobiT,
sakuTar racionalizmze maRla dgomaa. gmiroba, aq, mx-
olod sakuTari Tavis imedad yofnas niSnavs. SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom es aris „ganswavluli arcodnis` gaSifvris
mcdeloba: gmiruli dialogisa da gmiruli enTuziazmis
Sedegi. amgvari „gmiruli` goneba empiriuls, gamocdile-
bas kvlevisas mxolod tramplinad iyenebs, magram ara-
sodes uaryofs gamocdilebis, rogorc samyaros aucile-
beli da arsebiTi nawilis mniSvnelobas. swored aseTi
racionalisti iyo bruno. adamiani, rogorc samyaros
erTianobis sakuTar TavSi momaazrebeli (da, am azriT,
mikrokosmosi), Tavs uflebas aZlevs, rom sakuTari Tavi
samyaros centrad warmoidginos, msgavsad hegelis ab-
soluturi gonebisa, romelic pirovnebaSi acnobierebs
mTels Tavis simdidres da siZlieres. brunosTan, iseve,
rogorc, Semdeg hegelTan, specifikuri aspeqtiT Cans
rwmenis roli. swored rwmenis da amorCevis Sedegia, rom
bruno uyoymanod daadga gmiruli siyvarulis gzas da
savsebiT darwmunebuli iyo, rom idga absoluturisaken
usasrulo gzaze da araviTar empiriuls, arc sapyrob-
iles, arc koconze dawvas misTvis arsebiTi mniSvneloba
ar hqonda.
bruno daibada neapolis maxloblad mdebare patara
qalaq nolaSi. misi mSoblebi samxedro aristokratias
ekuTvnodnen. 15 wlis axalgazrda dominikelTa monas-
terSi miabares. aTi wlis Semdeg mRvdlis wodeba miiRo.
male, aristoteles kritikisa da kopernikis SexedulebaTa
dacvisTvis, eresSi dasdes brali. Tavis marTlebis magier,

- 215 -
bruno monastridan gaiqca da, italiis farglebs gareT,
sajarod daiwyo am ideaTa dacva. araCveulebriv niWsa da
udides TviTdajerebas xSirad gamarjveba mohqonda misT-
vis, TviT uaRresad mtrulad ganwyobil auditoriaSi.
igi didxans versad Cerdeboda. misi moRvaweoba yvelgan
konfliqtiT mTavrdeboda. JenevaSi kalvinsa da Teodor
bizes (1519-1605) waeCxuba, parizSi yvela Teologi gadaim-
tera da aristotelikosebisagan marcxi iwvnia. gamonak-
lisi vitenbergis univertiteti iyo. aq warmoTqva man ga-
mosaTxovari sityva germanuli azrovnebis sadideblad.
pativi miago albert dids, kuzanels (romelic germaneli
piTagora iqneboda, anaforas rom ar SeeSala xelio), ko-
perniks (romelic mas germaneli egona, da romelmac, misi
azriT, marto or wignSi meti codna mogvca, vidre ar-
istotelem da mTelma aristotelizmma) da paraceless.
ufro adre, ori weli, SedarebiT mSvidad cxovrobda
londonSi, magram misi moZRvreba mravali samyaros da
mravali mzis sistemis arsebobis SesaZleblobis Taobaze
sul ufro aRizianebda oficialuri eklesiis warmomad-
genlebs da brunom gacla amjobina. bolo wlebSi bruno
praRaSi da mainis frankfurtSi kiTxulobda leqciebs.
italielma aristokratma, vinme mokenigom, romelic
brunos mimdevrad Tvlida Tavs, bruno veneciaSi miiwvia.
igi jer paduaSi Cavida, iqidan ki _ veneciaSi. zogi mkv-
levris azriT, mokenigo fiqrobda, rom bruno mas raRa-
cas umalavda, mTavars ar eubneboda Tavis moZRvrebidan
da amitom Seatyobina misi samyofeli inkvizicias. sinamd-
vileSi bruno arafers malavda, ubralod mokenigos ar
SeeZlo misi moZRvrebis gageba. es iyo 1592 wels. erTi
wlis Semdeg veneciis inkviziciam bruno romis inkvizicias
gadasca. Zieba mravali weli gagrZelda. 1600 wels mux-
lmodrekil brunos moasmenines didi inkvizitoris ga-
naCeni. Tqven ufro geSiniaTo am ganaCenis wakiTxvis, vi-
dre me mosmenis, mSvidad ganucxada brunom msajulebs.

- 216 -
inkviziciis mTeli cinizmi imaSi Canda, rom igi msxver-
pls ganaCenianad gadascemda xolme saero xelisuflebas,
TxovniT: damnaSave daesajaT, rac SeiZleba gulmowyaled
da usisxlod. bruno dawves romSi, yvavilebis moedanze.
1865 wels studentebma iqve, brunos Zeglis win, romis
papis enciklika dawves. znekeTilma papma ioane-pavle meo-
rem (1920-2005) inkviziciis saqmianobisaTvis da kerZod
brunos koconze dawvisaTvis 1997 wels kacobriobis wi-
naSe bodiSi moixada.
mkvlevrebi svamen kiTxvas brunos dasjis namdvili
mizezis Sesaxeb, radgan aseTive, an daaxloebiT aseTi
azrebisaTvis ar dausjiaT arc kuzaneli, arc fiCino,
arc miqelanjelo, arc botiCeli, arc koperniki, arc ke-
pleri. losevis azriT, es imitom moxda, rom bruno an-
tikuri tipis neoplatonikosi iyo, e. i. antiqristiani da
antieklesiuri (45,470-471).
adamianis bedi xSirad mxolod fsiqologiur doneze
wydeba; Tanac arcTu mudam zneobrivi principebis mixed-
viT. amjerad ki saqme exeboda, inteleqtis da zneobis
Tanxmobis ZaliT, sxeulebrivis srul daqvemdebarebas,
rogorc ityvian, ukanasknel amosunTqvamde. roca mas,
ukve almodebuls, viRacam grZel joxze damagrebuli
jvari pirTan miutana, brunom saxe miibruna da ar emTx-
via. TviTmxilveli, vinme kaspar Sope, werda: igi muqariT
pasuxobda SekiTxvebze da ar moinania. ubeduri mokvda
cecxlis alSi da datova es qveyana, raTa mouTxros sxva
samyaroebs, romlebic man gamoigona, Tu rogor eqcevian
romaelebi RmerTis uarmyofelT (56,165).
bruno mravali Sromis avtoria. evropis qalaqeb-
Si xetialis dros, igi xSirad aqveynebda wignebs. zogi
SeiZleba jerac araa aRmoCenili. dResdReobiT mis naS-
romTagan umniSvnelovanesad iTvleba `mizezis, prin-
cipisa da erTis Sesaxeb~, `usasrulos, universumisa da
samyaros Sesaxeb~, `gmirul vnebaTa Sesaxeb~. amaT gar-

- 217 -
da, SeiZleboda dagvesaxelebina sqolastikis winaaRmdeg
dawerili satira `pegasuri cxeni da silenis viri~, sa-
dac mimdinareobs kamaTi imis Taobaze, Tu romeli sjobs,
adamiani _ virad qceuli, Tu viri _ adamianad qceuli.
londonSi yofnisas, brunom ramodenime dialogi ga-
moaqveyna. maT Soris erTs ewodeboda „pegasis kabala`.
masSi bruno mkacrad akritikebs qristianobas, aristo-
telizms da skepticizms. „gmirul vnebaTa Sesaxeb`, _
ase erqva brunos bolo gamoqveynebul naSroms. is misi
naazrevis Semajamebel narkvevad iTvleba. aq samyaroSi
arsebuli yofierebis, mSvenierebis da sikeTis erTiano-
bas adamianSi warmoadgens WeSmaritebis, mSvenierebis da
sikeTis Tavganwiruli siyvaruli. adamians sxva vnebanic
aqvs, romlebic dabali donis SemecnebasTanaa kavSirSi,
magram maTgan ganwmenda sworad mimarTuli SemecnebiTaa
SesaZlebeli.
bruno amtkicebda, rom umaRlesi avtoriteti adamian-
isaTvis aris is, rasac goneba Tavisufali kvleviT daad-
gens. Semecnebis sagania universumi, Semecnebis niadagia
gamocdileba, xolo Semecnebis sawyisi eWvia. universumi
aris gasulierebuli materia. Semecnebis mizania univer-
sumis danaxva, rogorc dapirispirebulTa erTianobis,
sadac dapirispirebuloba SenarCunebuli iqneba. moZrao-
ba da Semecneba gasulierebuli materiis Sinagani predi-
katTagania.
brunos gamokvlevaTa Sinaarsi SeiZleba ori mTa-
vari Temis mixedviT davalagoT da Tavisebur sistemaSi
movaqcioT. esenia: ontologia da moZRvreba Semecnebis
Sesaxeb.
ontologia, anu moZRvreba arsebulis rogorc arse-
bulis Sesaxeb, brunosTan warmoadgens universums, ro-
gorc erTiani gasulierebuli mTelis analizs. `mizezis,
principisa da erTis Sesaxeb~ naSromis mexuTe dialogis
SesavalSi vkiTxulobT: `universumi warmoadgens erTians,

- 218 -
usasrulos da uZravs... is ar warmoiSoba, radgan ar ar-
sebobs raime sxva yofiereba, romliskenac is SeiZleba mi-
iltvodes, anda romlisganac SeiZleba gamovides; mas xom
Tavada aqvs yoveli yofiereba. is ar SeiZleba moispos,
radgan ar arsebobs raime sxva, radac igi SeiZleba gadai-
qces, is xom Tavadaa yovelive? mas ar SeiZleba raime mie-
matos an moakldes, radgan is xom usasruloa da amitom
erTianad SeuZlebelia mas raime garedan miematos, anda
raime moswydes?~
ase gagebul samyaros RmerTi garedan ar SeiZleba
marTavdes. radgan `gareT~, rogorc aseTi, ar arsebobs.
igi mxolod da mxolod am universumis Sinagani kanon-
zomiereba SeiZleba iyos. Cven RmerTs veZebT, acxadeb-
da bruno, mzis brwyinvalebaSi, nivTTa mSvenierebaSi,
mSobliuri miwis wiaRSi. uZravia Tu ara es samyaro? is
uZravia, ramdenadac am sityvis qveS sivrceSi adgilis
gadanacvlebas vgulisxmobT; magram is Sinaganad uaR-
resad moZravi da cvalebadia. misi nawilebi erTmaneTs
upirispirdebian, erTmaneTSi gadadian. RmerTi swored
am Sinagani moZraobis da urTierTkavSiris ganmsazRvre-
lia. bruno RmerTs mwarmoebel bunebas uwodebs (natura
naturans), gansxvavebiT mis mier mowesrigebuli movlena-
Ta mravalgvarobisagan _ warmoebuli bunebisagan (natura
naturata). es mwarmoebeli buneba, romelic aerTianebs da
acocxlebs samyaros, rogorc universums, aris msoflio
suli. is platonis demiurgi ki araa, romelic garedan
aformebs universumis materias, aramed ganmsWvalulia
materiis yovel nawilSi da warmoadgens yoveli sagnis
Tu movlenis formas, silamazes, mis mWidro urTierT-
kavSirs samyaroTa usasrulo raodenobasTan. materiis
ragindara nawilSi, amis gamo, rogorc mikrokosmosSi,
warmodgenilia mTeli, amitom raodenobrivad minimumi,
Tavisi SesaZleblobebiT, maqsimumia. amis danaxvas, ker-
Zod, erTeulSi universumis winaaRmdegobebis aRmoCenas

- 219 -
da SenarCunebas uwodebs bruno magias. misi mizania gai-
gos msoflio suli, rogorc mTeli, romelic saganTa
Sinagani imanenturi mizania, materiis Sinagani imanenturi
mizezia, materiis Sinagani mxatvaria.
brunom pirvelma gaiazra kopernikis Teoriis mso-
flmxedvelobrivi mniSvneloba. aRiarebda ra usasrulo-
baSi mzis sistemaTa simravlis arsebobas, bruno uaryof-
da universumis centris, raime winaswargarantirebuli
adgilis arsebobas. RmerTi ar SeiZleba sadme, raRac adg-
ilas, „iq` an „aq` iyos. gamorCeuli adgili arc dedami-
was aqvs da arc adamians. magram miT ufro metia gonebis
Rirseba. erTgvarovan samyaroSi, sadac ar arsebobs aris-
toteleseuli gansxvaveba zeciur da amqveyniur sinamd-
vileTa Soris (aseve, oTx elementsa da mexuTes Soris),
adamianis Rirseba misi gonebis Zalas emyareba. gonebas
didi upiratesoba aqvs. naSromis, „usasrulo, universu-
mi da samyaro` pirvelsave dialogSi bruno miuTiTebs,
rom SegrZnebebs ar SeuZliaT swvden usasrulos raobas.
saerTod usasruloba ar SeiZleba grZnobadi Semecnebis
kvlevis obieqti iyos. is, vinc usasrulos Semecnebas
cdilobs grZnobebis saSualebiT, imas emsgavseba, vinc
cdilobs grZnobadi TvaliT dainaxos substancia da ar-
seba. Tuki vinme usasrulos uaryofs imis safuZvelze,
rom is xedvaSi ar mogvecema da arc grZnobadi uSualoba
aqvs, iZulebuli iqneba uaryos sakuTari substancia da
yofiereba, radgan arc isaa grZnobebisaTvis misawvdomi.
gansxvavebiT kuzanelisagan, bruno icavs aqtualuri
usasrulobis gaazrebadobas. misTvis gasulierebuli ma-
teria aqtualurad usasruloa. usasrulobaSi ki moZrao-
ba da cvlileba gamoricxulia, radgan masSi yvelaferi
ganxorcielebulia. amgvari daskvnis asacileblad bruno
aqtualur usasrulobas warmoadgens, rogorc wyvetilo-
bisa da uwyvetobis erTianobas. wyvetadobis, e. i. ganuy-
ofeli erTeulis arseboba universumis Semecnebis da

- 220 -
misi Sinagani moZraobis SesaZleblobaa. Semecneba eZiebs
ra im umartives elements, risganac aigeba misi kvlevis
sfero, yovelTvis awydeba raRac ganuyofels, romelic
mxolod SesaZleblobaSia gayofadi. yovel Semecnebas,
rogorc kvlevis damoukidebel meTods, Tavisi ganuy-
ofeli sawyisi aqvs. maTematikisaTvis es aris wertili,
fizikisaTvis _ atomi, metafizikisaTvis ki _ monada, ro-
gorc gasulierebuli atomi. es sokratemdelTa hilo-
ZoizmTan dabrunebaa, aristoteleseuli teleologizmis
sapirispirod.
Semecnebis Teoria. brunom uaryo RmerTisa da sa-
myaros, rogorc transcendenturis da imanenturis da-
pirispireba, magram maT Soris gansxvaveba SeinarCuna, ro-
gorc arsebis da movlenis, Sinagani mizezis da Sedegis.
maT Soris damokidebulebis gageba neoplatonuri emana-
ciis msgavsad gaiazreba. samyaros msWvalavs siyvaruli,
romelic axlavs yovlismomcvel RvTaebriv sinaTles.
sxeuli miiswrafis sulisaken, suli _ gonisaken, goni _
RmerTisaken. es ukanaskneli, marTalia, imanenturia, ma-
gram arsebiTad gansxvavebulia yoveli arsebisagan. igi
maradis miswrafebis sagania. esaa „heroikuli siyvaru-
lis` dedaazri, romelic faqtiurs upirispirdeba, misi
arsis SesanarCuneblad. amitom `heroikuli (gmiruli) si-
yvaruli~ brunosTan niSnavs wamebulad yofnis aucile-
blobas.
universumi, marTalia, materialuria, magram grZno-
bis organoebiT miuwvdomelia rogorc misi arsi, ise
misi mTlianoba. grZnobis organoebs SeuZliaT daiwyon
Semecneba, magram usasrulo universumis mTlianobaSi
warmodgena mxolod Cveni warmosaxvis Zalas SeuZlia,
romelic Tavad usazRvroa. SemecnebiT ki, usasrulos
mxolod goneba Seimecnebs. brunom imasac miaqcia yur-
adReba, rasac kanti bunebismetyvelebis meTods uwodebs
da mecnieruli kvlevisaTvis mis sanimuSod aRiarebas

- 221 -
apriorulis sakuTar gagebas daudebs safuZvlad. bru-
no koperniks emxroboda da Tvlida, rom igi, marTalia,
grZnobadi monacemebiT iwyebs, magram am monacemebis gas-
agebad goneba imas uSvebs, rac grZnobadi monacemebis sa-
pirispiroa: dedamiwa brunavs mzis garSemo da ara piriq-
iT _ rogorc es Cvens grZnobad xedvas ueWveli hgonia.
warmosaxvis Zala Cven dagvanaxebs, rom Cveni dedamiwa
erT-erTi umniSvnelo atomia usasrulobaSi. am usasru-
lobis sawvdomad adamianisaTvis aucilebeli araa eqsten-
siuri kvleva. adamiani mikrokosmosia. man Tavis TavSi unda
aRmoaCinos universumis erTianobis da dedaarsis ganmsaz-
Rvreli _ anu RmerTi. amitom ityvis bruno: adamianis miza-
nia iyos `RvTis taZari~. sakuTar TavSi RmerTis aRmoCena
araa dazRveuli tkivilisa da tanjvisagan. es procesi
Semecnebac aris da poeturi Semoqmedebac. WeSmariti fi-
losofia, amave dros, aris musikac da mxatvrobac. Tavis
TavSi aRmoCenili kanonzomiereba filosofoss sakuTar
Semoqmedebad moecema. mas bedi ki ar ubrZanebs, aramed
misi gabeduleba bedavs bedis xmis mosmenas.
Tu am filosofiur-poeturi xedviT samyaros arse-
bobas CavwvdebiT da erTianobaSi davinaxavT mas, gaqreba
samyaros moCvenebiTi nakli. samyaros dapirispirebulo-
bani, romelTa logikur cxrils bruno iZleva naSromSi
`mizezis, principisa da erTis Sesaxeb~, srulyofil har-
monias qmnian. Semecnebis mizania samyaros amgvari xedvis
miRweva. Semecnebis SesaZlebloba imas efuZneba, rom ada-
miani samyaros nawili da mikrokosmosia. magram nawili
araa mTeli da verc gaxdeba. amitom mTelis absoluturi
Semecneba marad miuRweveli mizania. swor gzaze dad-
gomac da xedvaSi usasrulobis moqcevac, samyaros har-
moniaSi Wvretac mxolod erTeulTa xvedria.
eWviT dawyebuli Semecneba, romelic gamocdilebidan
amodis, samyaros (universumis) erTianobis wvdomamde da
adamianis raobis dadgenamde midis oTxi safexuris gavliT:

- 222 -
. grZnobadi Semecneba _ erTeul sagnebs Seiswavlis aR-
qmisa da warmodgenis doneze;
. gansjadi Semecneba _ akavSirebs erTeulebs da sagnis
pirvel gansazRvrebas iZleva. es msjelobis unaria;
. gonebiTi Semecneba _ sxvadasxva msjelobaTa Sinaarsis
erTianobaSi wvdomiT gadis mocemuls gareT. usasru-
lobis arsebobas da misi wvdomis problemas pirvelad
is acnobierebs. es daskvnis unaria;
4. sulis safexuri _ gonebiT mocemul urTierTsapir-
ispiro Sinaarsis daskvnebs aerTianebs, maT safuZv-
els swvdeba. mas sistemis unari SeiZleba ewodos. am
safuZvelze adamiani daadgens, rom Semecnebis gas-
aRebi usasrulobaSia, rom usasrulobis amomwuravi
Semecneba SeuZlebelia, magram misken swrafva aris
adamianis umaRlesi daniSnuleba. es is azria, ro-
melic Semdeg spinozasTan RmerTis inteleqtualuri
siyvarulis saxes miiRebs.
kuzanelis moZRvreba, brunos meSveobiT, evropuli
racionalizmis ganviTarebis magistralur xazs ukav-
Sirdeba (spinoza, laibnici, germanuli ganmanaTlebloba,
Selingi). garda amisa, brunom axal filosofias dausaxa
Taviseburi logikuri manqanebis Seqmnis problema. man
aaRorZina raimund lulis moZRvreba momsjele manqanis
Seqmnis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb. zogi cnobiT, igi amgvari
manqanis demonstrirebasac axdenda. amgvarma kvlevam igi
imdenad gaitaca, rom zogjer mexsierebas da azrovnebas
erTmaneTs uigivebda.
brunos mravali mimdevari hyavda, magram maT Soris
gamoirCeoda brunosaviT daudegari bunebis da misi be-
dis mqone moazrovne luCilio vanini. romsa da paduaSi
ganswavluli vanini kardanos, pomponacsa da brunos moZ-
Rvrebas aerTianebs. Tavis maswavlebelTa Soris averoess-
ac asaxelebs. igi principuli naturalizmis gzas adgas.
- 223 -
paduaSi swavlas misTvis uSedegod ar Cauvlia. amtkiceb-
da, sulTa gadasaxlebis kanonis ZaliT averoesis suli
pomponacSi gadavidao. vanini aristoteles fizikuri
Sromebis axali TvalsazrisiT komentirebasac eweoda.
brunos msgavsad, yvelgan, sadac ki leqciebs kiTxulob-
da (safrangeTSi, niderlandebSi, SveicariaSi), konfliq-
tur situaciebs qmnida. 1616 wels gaiqca inglisSi. iqac
msgavsi sutuacia Seqmna.
vaninis mTavari naSromi _ `bunebis, rogorc mokvdav-
Ta qalRmerTisa da dedoflis saocari saidumloebani~
(1616) _ dialogis formiTaa dawerili. aq warmodgenil
kamaTSi gonebis argumentacia filosofiis mxarezea,
qristiani ki mxolod rwmenaze miuTiTebs da misi sisuste
aSkarad Cans. vaninis satira imdenad Zlieria, rom zogi
mas volteris (1694-1778) winamorbedadac Tvlis. igi
Tavis marTlac did niWs imis dasasabuTeblad iyenebda,
rasac misi mkvlevrebi ukidures materialistur pan-
Teizms da „uzneo skepticizms` uwodeben. Tavis dialo-
gebSi vanini mogviTxrobs imaze, Tu rogor upasuxa man
kiTxvas RmerTisa da materiis mimarTebis Sesaxeb. pasuxi
emyareba averoesis cnobil „kibes`, romlis Sinaarsi isaa,
rom ramdenadac materia yvela formis SesaZleblobaa,
is, Tu moZravia, TandaTan ava arsebulTagan yvelaze
umdablesidan umaRlesze, umaRlesi ki RmerTia. es, vani-
nis azriT, mas uflebas aZlevda eTqva: „RmerTi anu mate-
ria` (69,55). ara marto Teologebi Tvlidnen, rom vanini
yvelas da yvelafers dascinis da darwmunebulia, rom
yvelafris dasabuTeba SeuZlia. amiT ganasxvavebdnen
mis aTeizms XVIII s.-is frangi moazrovneebis pirdapiri
da gulwrfeli aTeizmisagan. misi erT-erTi yvelaze
gavrcelebuli wignis saTauric ki sakmao safuZvelia
amgvari SexedulebisaTvis: „maradiuli, ciur-jados-
nuri, qristianul-fizikuri, astrologiur-kaTolikuri
gangebis amfiTeatri, Zveli filosofosebis, aTeistebis,

- 224 -
epikurelebis, peripatelebis da stoelebis sapirispi-
rod`. misi mowinaaRmdegeebi cdilobdnen eCvenebinaT,
rom vanini panTeizms iyenebs sakuTari ukiduresi aTeiz-
mis dasafaravad.
hegeli fiqrobs, rom tuluzaSi vaninis koconze daw-
va (dawvamde mas ena amoglijes) gamoxatavs codnis da
rwmenis damokidebulebaSi saeklesio wreebis poziciis
Secvlas. vanini xom, gansxvavebiT brunosagan, aRiareb-
da orTodoqsuli RmerTis arsebobas, magram igi mainc
dasajes, radgan mis SromebSi argumentebi Teologiis
sawinaaRmdegod iyo mimarTuli. hegeli fiqrobs, rom es
faqti im viTarebas asaxavs, rom am droisTvis eklesia
acnobierebs gonebis sapirispiro rwmenis usafuZvlobas.
magram didi filosofosi aqac, sakuTari principebis
Sesabamisad, Tvlis, rom SemTxveviToba (vaninis dawvis
faqti) yovelTvis aucileblobis gamovlenaa. amdenad,
vaninis bedi rwmenisa da codnis mimarTebaSi axali isto-
riuli etapis gamovlinebad miaCnia.

5. Tomazo kampanela (1568-1639)

axali epoqis moTxovnebi Tavs iCenda ara marto pro-


gresulad ganwyobil moazrovneebSi, aramed imaTSic,
vinc yovel Rones xmarobda Zvelis gadasarCenad. isini
Zalauneburad emsaxurebodnen progress da es axlis
Zalis erT-erTi naTeli gamoxatuleba iyo. Tomazo kam-
panela dominikeli beri iyo da papis Zalauflebis abso-
lutizaciaze ocnebobda. cixeSi 27 weli man politikuri
moRvaweobisaTvis gaatara. marTalia, galileis icavda,
magram astrologobazec debda Tavs. mis naturfiloso-
fiaSi didi adgili ukavia mistikasa da magias. miuxedavad
amisa, misi damsaxurebaa is, rom empirizmiT sayovelTao
gatacebis periodSi miuTiTa empirizmisa da skepticizmis
Sinagan kavSirze da skepticizmis gadalaxvis safuZveli

- 225 -
Sinagan gamocdilebaSi, adamianis mier sakuTar sulier
procesebze dakvirvebaSi dainaxa, riTac igi dekartis wi-
namorbedi gaxda. kampanelas utopiuri nawarmoebi `mzis
qalaqi`, marTalia, Tomas moriseuli utopiis gakaToli-
kurebis STabeWdilebas tovebs [kampanela romis papis,
urban II (1568-1644) megobari iyo], magram kunZul `tapro-
banze` sakuTrebis uaryofa, sayovelTao Sroma, oTx-
saaTiani samuSao dRe, amasTan saxelmwifos mecnierebis
safuZvelze marTvis qadageba, istoriulad progresuli
movlena iyo. Tumca religiuri fanatizmi (romelsac es
didi niWis adamiani, rogorRac „aTanxmebda` mowinave
mecnierul ideebTan) mas pirovnebis saxelmwifosadmi
sruli daqvemdebarebis gamarTlebamde miiyvans, rac imis
pirdapir sawinaaRmdego iyo, risTvisac florencielma
akademikosebma platonis moZRvreba wamoswies. kampanelas
„mzis qalaqi`, makiavelis „mTavaris` gverdiT, antiutopi-
is erT-erTi saxea. amitom mis moZRvrebas zogi mkvlevari
renesansis Ralatad miiCnevs.
kampanelas ZiriTadi filosofiuri Sromebia: `univer-
saluri filosofia` da `grZnobadi Semecnebis upirateso-
bis Sesaxeb`. isini warmogvidgenen moazrovnes, romelsac
arc Zveli emeteba da arc axlis Seufasebloba SeuZlia.
misTvis fizikas da Teologias Sua dgas metafizika, ro-
melic `filosofosTa bibliaa`. man ara marto mecniereba,
aramed politika da kanonmdeblobac unda daafuZnos da
yvelaferi Teologias daumorCilos. kampanelas azriT,
Cveni codnis Sinaarsi ornair WeSmaritebas gviCvenebs.
rwmena Teologiis wyaroa, aRqma _ filosofiis da saer-
Tod mecnierebis. WeSmariteba Cven ornairad gvecxadeba:
adamianma unda icodes biblia da unda icodes buneba.
jovani domeniko kampanela, romelmac berobaSi Tomas
saxeli miiRo, daibada kalabriaSi. biografebi miuTiTe-
ben misi cxovrebis im SemTxveviT viTarebaze, romelmac
mTeli misi cxovreba gansazRvra. 15 wlis kampanela ukve

- 226 -
dominikelTa monasterSi iyo. am dros kozentinelma
franciskanelebma disputSi gamoiwvies dominikelebi.
beri, romelic yvelaze Zlier Teologad iTvleboda, avad
gaxda. iZulebulni gaxdnen 15 wlis bavSvi gaegzavnaT,
Tundac imitom, rom ambavi moetana. es bavSvi gabedulad
CaerTo kamaTSi da brwyinvaled gaimarjva. gakvirvebuli
Teologebi irwmunebodnen, rom masSi telezios suli
gadavida (telezio kozentineli iyo). ymawvilic, amis
Semdeg, telezios miiCnevda Tavis idealad. Tumca pira-
dad ver gaicno. 20 wlis kampanelas pirveli wigni am gan-
wyobis gamoxatulebaa.
rogorc mirandolas, kampanelasac ar apaties didi
niWi. xmebi dauyares, vinme moxucma ebraelma kabalaSi
gawvrTna da am gziT moipova zebunebrivi codnao. mogvi-
anebiT, „sami crumoZRvaris` avtorobac daabrales. kam-
panela ki ise gawvrTniliyo tradiciulad miRebuli
faqtebis uaryofaSi, rom raRac monacemebze dayrdno-
biT, TviT karlos didis (747-814) arsebobaSic Seitana
eWvi. misi pirveli wignis gamocemis sababi gaxda vinme
i. a. martis wigni, romelic 1587 wels gamovida da telezi-
os mier aristoteles kritikis ususurobas amtkicebda.
sapasuxo wignSi _ „grZnobebiT dasabuTebuli filosofia`
_ kampanelam warmatebiT daicva telezio da SesaZlebel
oponentebsac kamaTis xalisi daukarga. 1591 wels man
neapolSi gamosca wigni „saganTa SegrZnebis Sesaxeb`. aq
igi ukve scildeba telezios, radgan iyenebs bunebriv ma-
gias da astrologias, romelTac telezio uaryofda. es
siaxle ganpirobebuli iyo cnobili neapoleli Teologi
portas wigniT „bunebrivi magia`, romelmac daafuZna
„bunebis saidumloebaTa akademia`. magram kampanela aqve
aRniSnavda, rom Tavis maswavlebelze uaris Tqma arc
ufiqria.
kampanelam moisurva, rom azrovnebis sferoSi miR-
weuli gabeduleba socialur praqtikaSi gadaetana. ga-

- 227 -
mosca wigni „mimarTva italieli Tavadebisadmi`; mou-
wodebda daepyroT espaneTi da papis msoflio monarqia
SeeqmnaT. Cans, rom mas momxreebic hyavda. ajanyebis or-
ganizeba Tavad ikisra. dRec daniSna _ 1599 wels 10 se-
qtemberi. daapatimres da samudamo patimroba miusajes.
cixeSi dawera Sromebi „mzis qalaqi`, „galileis dacva`
da „rogor SeuZliaT adamianebs varskvlavebidan nauwyeb
beds gaeqcnen?`. astrologiiT gatacebuli papi urban
VIII, 25 wlis patimrobis Semdeg, aTavisuflebs kampanelas.
magram mas italiaSi ar daedgomeboda: safrangeTSi gai-
qca, sadac p. gasendi yovelmxriv exmareboda.
bunebaSi kampanelasaTvis yvelaferi gasulierebu-
lia. yvelafers axasiaTebs grZnoba, e. i. cnobierebisa
da Zalis erTianoba. aRqma da codna emTxveva erTmaneTs.
mogoneba, msjeloba, daskvna aRqmis modifikaciebia.
am Tanamimdevruli empirizmis poziciebidan kampane-
la uaryofs brunos mier SemecnebaSi gonebisaTvis da-
moukidebeli rolis miniWebas. magram manve dainaxa, rom
am safuZvelze Semecnebis veraviTar sayovelTaobas ver
davasabuTebT, rom absoluturi skepticizmi gardauva-
lia. kampanela eZebs gamosavals. misi azriT, sruli
skepticizmi gardauvalia, Tu garegani gamocdilebidan
gamovalT; magram, Tu Sinagan gamocdilebas davemyare-
biT, vnaxavT rig ueWvel debulebebs da Semdeg analogiis
saSualebiT gadavitanT ueWvelobas garegan sagnebzec.
Sinagani gamocdilebis uryevi monacemebia: 1. „Cven varT`;
2. „Cven varT, viciT da gvsurs`; 3. „Cven viciT, rom gare-
ganiT varT gansazRvruli`; 4. „viciT da gvsurs ara marto
awmyo, aramed momavalic`. amgvari safuZvlis mopovebis
Semdeg, kampanela mimarTavs RmerTis ideas, rogorc
TanSobils, romlis srulyofileba ar gvaZlevs uflebas
igi naklovani adamianebis mier Seqmnilad CavTvaloT. am
ideis gageba RmerTis uSualo Wvretas niSnavs.
mivida ra eWvidan RmerTamde, kampanela cdilobs neo-

- 228 -
platonuri emanaciis Teoriis daxmarebiT gaiazros saer-
Tod arsebuli: 1. RmerTi; 2. idealuri samyaro; 3. sulTa
(adamianis sulis CaTvliT) samyaro; 4. maTematikuri sa-
myaro (geometriis sagani); 5. sxeulebrivi samyaro (dro-
Si da sivrceSi arsebuli sagnis pirveladi Tvisebebi);
6. empiriuli samyaro, anu saganTa warmodgena meoradi
TvisebebiT. yoveli sagani (materiis CaTvliT) moZraobs,
moZraoba aris aracnobieri swrafva TviTSenaxvisaken,
e. i. maradiulobisaken, e. i. RmerTisaken.
kampanela maTematikas fizikis msaxurad acxadebda.
cdilobda axali geografiuli aRmoCenebi gamoeyenebina
msoflmxedvelobrivi sakiTxebis gaazrebisas. igi werda:
`avgustine uaryofda dedamiwis sferulobas zogadi
argumentebiT, kolumbma ki faqtiurad daamtkica, rom
dedamiwa mrgvalia. aq WeSmariteba mogveca grZnobadad,
rac gamoricxavs kamaTs`. amave naSromSi igi adamians `sa-
myaros qvakuTxedad` acxadebs, ramdenadac igi cnobierad
iswrafis RmerTisaken. aq TiTqos axali drois adamiani
laparakobs, magram axali filosofiis damaarseblebisa-
gan, igi mainc mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba. Tu kampanela-
saTvis grZnobadi WeSmariteba gamoricxavs kamaTs, dek-
artisaTvis yvelaze naTeli grZobadi mocemulobac ki
saeWvoa, radgan naTeli, sizmris da sifxizleSi raimes
naTlad danaxvas Soris ganmasxvavebeli logikuri krite-
riumi ar SeiZleba arsebobdes. isic gasaxsenebelia, rom
axali filosofiis meore didi mamamTavari, fr. bekonic,
empirizmis didi damcveli, araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar da-
kmayofildeboda ragind naTlad daenaxa raime. arsebu-
lis WeSmaritebis dasasabuTeblad igi Tavis cxrilebs
da jvris eqsperiments mimarTavda. kampanela yuradRebas
ar aqcevda imas, rom „faqti` Tavadaa interpretacia. ko-
lumbs rom amerika indoeTi egona, esec „ueWveli faqti`
iyo. kampanelasagan gansxvavebiT, am moazrovneebs ada-
mianis bunebaze gabatonebac gansxvavebulad esmodaT.

- 229 -
cnobilia, rom bibliaze damyarebuli religiebis warmo-
madgenlebisaTvis, RmerTma adamians bunebaze batonoba
daavala. RmerTis es sityvebi mowmobs, rom buneba mzad
iyo damorCileboda adamians. fr. bekonisa da dekarte-
saTvis ki adamiani ar aris dedamiwis batoni, aramed unda
gaxdes aseTi, mecnierebis daxmarebiT. man unda daimor-
Cilos buneba. esaa axali filosofiis ara marto racio-
nalizmis, aramed „racionalizmis yaidaze gamoWrili`
(haidegeri) evropuli iracionalizmis da empirizmis
mizani, ris Sedegebsac XX saukuneSi ganmanaTleblobis
dialeqtikis meqanizmiT axsnian. es dialeqtika gulisx-
mobs, rom adamianis gonebis didi warmatebebi, romliTac
kacobrioba amayobs da romlis Zalac teqnikaSi yvelaze
naTlad Cans (atomuri energia, genetika, kompiuter-
izacia), pirovnebis, sazogadoebis diqtatis qveS moqcev-
is arnaxul SesaZleblobebs qmnis da axali didi krizisis
winaSe ayenebs kacobriobas.
galileisTan vatikanis gamwvavebuli urTierToba
iyos imis mizezi, rom kaTolicizmis erTguli damcveli
kampanela mogvianebiT galileis ar axsenebs. ar axsenebs
mas arc „mzis qalaqis` meore gamocemaSi, roca galileim
mis mierve agebuli teleskopiT oTxi planeta aRmoaCina;
es teleskopi 30 jer adidebda sagans (67,74). es ucnauri
faqti kacs gaaxsenebs imasac, rom didi astronomi da
maTematikosi kepleric, teleskopis gamogonebisaTvis,
Janbatista portas aqebda da ara galileis. Tumca isi-
ni icnobdnen erTmaneTs. galilei Tavad werda keplers,
rom misi Txovnis miuxedavad, universitetis filoso-
fosebs teleskopSi Caxedva ki ara, misi danaxvac ar un-
daT (69,III,398).
kampanelas „mzis qalaqi`, platonis „saxelmwifoSi`
warmodgenili utopiis kaTolikuri eklesiis miznebi-
saTvis daqvemdebarebis cdaa. am naSromSi dialogi mim-
dinareobs genuel mezRvaursa da kaTolikuri monas-

- 230 -
tris sastumros mamasaxliss Soris. faqtiurad orives
unda uCvenos, Tu rogor gamoadgeba kaTolikur ekle-
sias daqvmdebarebul samyaroSi, aqamde ucnobi kunZul
taprobanis (zogis azriT, es ceilonia) religia, astro-
logia, mecniereba, teqnika da ganaTlebis organizacia
kacobriobas. es kunZuli kacobriobis gamaerTianebeli
saxelmwifos Taviseburi modelia. amitomaa, rom sax-
elmwifos meTauris, anu metafizikosis (ase uwodebs
mas kampanela) arCevisas, mecnierebaTa da teqnikis gver-
diT, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqceven mis mier yvela
xalxis religiis da istoriis codnas. cxadia, am kacs
RmerTic nawvdomi unda hyavdes, ramdenadac es mokvda-
visaTvis SesaZlebelia. sainteresoa, rom yovelive amis
codnis SemTxvevaSic, 35 wlamde misi arCeva ar SeiZleba,
gansxvavebiT platonisagan, romelic amisaTvis 50 wels
miiCnevda aucileblad. rac Seexeba qveynad ubedurebis
arsebobas, kampanela platonis da, kidev metad, boeciu-
sis kvalad imeorebs, rom borot adamianTa warmateba
amqveynad oden moCvenebiTi bednierebaa.
kampanela vrclad msjelobs imaze, rom astrologia
ar ewinaaRmdegeba mecnierebas. planetebis zemoqmedeba
adamianTa bedze misTvis ueWveli faqtia. igi fiqrobs, rom
arc ricxvTa magias ewinaaRmdegeba Teologia. RmerTma
yvelaferi ricxviT, zomiT da woniT Seqmna. mzis qa-
laqelebma Seqmnes safreni manqanebi da uialqno da uniC-
bo xomaldebi. yovelive amisken Cven RmerTi wagvmarTavs,
magram ara ZaldatanebiT. adamiani Tavisufali arsebaa,
imdenad, rom mas RmerTze ciliswamebac SeuZlia. kampan-
ela cdilobs Tavisi optimisturi molodini kaToli-
cizmis momaval triumfze, astrologiaze daamyaros; is
espanelebis mier genuelebis didi gmiris, kolumbis mcd-
elobiT amerikis aRmoCenas RvTis niSnad miiCnevs. espan-
elebi oqros eZebdnen, magram RmerTma isini gacilebiT
didi miznebisaTvis miiyvana iq. es mizani qristianobis

- 231 -
mTels msoflioze gabatonebaa. optimizmis safuZvels,
kampanelas azriT, iZleva isic, rom im saukuneSi gamogo-
nil iqna wignis beWdva, Tofis wamali, kompasi.
„mzis qalaqSi` saxelmwifos, mecnierebis da filoso-
fiis mimarTebac idealuraTaa mowesrigebuli mamasax-
lisi-metafizikosis xelmZRvanelobiT: fizika aucile-
belia saxelmwifosaTvis _ bunebasTan teqnikis saSuale-
biT warmatebuli damokidebulebisaTvis. maTematika aris
fizikis msaxuri. fizika aucilebelia aseve filosofi-
isaTvis. metafizika fizikasa da Teologias Sua dgas. is
Tavis mxriv, msaxuria Teologiis.
kampanelas „mzis qalaqSi` Cveulebriv Tomas moris
„utopiis` ideebis kaTolikuri eklesiis miznebisaTvis
gamoyenebas xedaven. marTalia losevi, roca amtkicebs,
rom namdvili antikuri platonizmi am naSromSi ufro me-
tia, vidre inglisel utopistTan. ufro mniSvnelovania,
losevis mier imis xazgasma, rom aq kampanela platons
italiuri renesansisaTvis damaxasiaTebel titanizmze
da egocentrizmze uaris saTqmelad iyenebs. platonTan,
saerTod, gansakuTrebiT, mis saxelmwifoSi pirovneba da
misi intersebi xom savsebiT eqvemdebardeba saxelmwifos
intersebs? renesansis mizani ki sul sxva iyo. losevisave
terminebiT rom vTqvaT, kampanelasTan Cven gvaqvs ti-
tanizmis safrTxis gaazreba da kvlav pirovnebis mimarT
sazogadoebisa da RmerTis primatisaken mibruneba.

6. iakob boeme (1575-1624)

samyaros da adamianis daniSnulebis axleburi, Sua


saukuneebisagan gansxvavebuli, xedva am epoqaSi kul-
turis yvela sferoSi Taviseburad vlindeba. am saqmeSi
Tavisi wvlili Seitana germanulma mistikamac, romelic
jer kidev maister ekhartTan gamoikveTa da giorliceli
xarazis, iakob boemes naazrevSi samyaros dialeqtikuri

- 232 -
xedvis, neoplatonurisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebuli, ni-
muSi mogvca.
boemem, sakuTari sulieri gancdebis da bibliis
Sinaarsis analizis safuZvelze, moxaza msoflmxedvelo-
ba, romelic ara marto aigivebs samyaros RmerTTan, ar-
amed mas RmerTis TviTganviTarebad miiCnevs. am qmnadi
RmerTis mamoZravebeli aris masSive arsebuli dapiri-
spirebuli sawyisebis brZola. RmerTSi sikeTis gverdiT
boroti sawyisis daSvebiT moixsna borotebis arasu-
bstanciurobis debuleba. aq saqme gvaqvs ara or, erTma-
neTisagan damoukidebel sawyisTan, rogorc amas, magali-
Tad, zoroastrizmi aswavlida, aramed erTi viTarebis,
saxeldobr, RmerTis or mxaresTan. Tu areopagitikaSi
borotebas, garkveuli mizniT, Tavad sikeTe aZlevda
Zalas, `mbrZolsa missa mis mierve miuRies Zali, raiTa
dges da hbrZodis mas` (23,47), boemesaTvis sikeTe da
boroteba erTnairad apirobeben erTmaneTs.
megobarma eqimma da alqimikosma balTazar valterma
(XVI-XVII ss.) boemes uwoda `filosofos tevtonikus`. es
saxeli SerCa boemes. igi hegelmac samarTlianad miiC-
nia, radgan Tvlida, rom boemem imas miaqcia yuradReba
(Tumca ara cnebiTi azrovnebis doneze), rac germanuli
sulis specifikur saqmed iTvleba azrovnebis istoriaSi.
igulisxmeba dialeqtika, rogorc ganviTarebisa da axlis
warmoSobis meTodi.
iakob boeme daibada 1575 wels. igi dekartis ufrosi
da fr. bekonis umcrosi Tanamedrovea. maSindeli germania
glexTa omis damarcxebis mZime Sedegebidan jer kidev ver
ganTavisuflebuliyo. ekonomikurad, kulturulad da
politikurad CamorCenil qveyanaSi sasikeTo gamosavalic
ar Canda. qveyana ocdaaTwliani omisaken midioda, romelic
1616 wels daiwyo. amanac ganapiroba germanuli progresu-
li azris mistikuri da religiuri samoseli.
mSoblebma momavali filosofosi skolaSi miabares,

- 233 -
radgan mZime glexuri SromisaTvis susti janmrTelo-
bis ymawvils Zala ar eyofoda. mcireodeni ganaTlebis
miRebis Semdeg, bavSvi xarazs daumowafes. aq saqme ukeT
wavida. maSindeli praqtikis mixedviT, axalgazrda xelo-
sans aucileblad unda emogzaura, gamocdileba mieRo. am
mogzaurobis dros gaecno iakobi germaniaSi gavrcele-
bul uamrav seqtas da mimarTulebas. igi cdilobda maT
safuZvelze aexsna mis winaSe mdgari msoflmxedvelobi-
Ti problemebi, is idumaleba, rac mis xilvebs axlda.
1612 wels, rodesac boeme qalaq giorlicis moqalaqe da
sakuTari damRis mqone ostati iyo, gamoica misi umniS-
vnelovanesi naSromi _ `avrora, anu ciskris varskvlavi`.
wigni swrafad gavrcelda, ramac luTeranuli orTodoq-
siis ganrisxeba gamoiwvia. giorlicis mRvdeli, ganaTle-
buli, magram despoti luTeraneli gregor rixteri (1560-
1624) boemes dasjas moiTxovda. boemes icavda qalaqis
biurgermaisteri, germaniaSi humanizmis sayuradRebo
warmomadgeneli, paracelsis mimdevari, barTolomeos
skultetusi (1540_1614). boemes ar sjian, magram weras
aukrZalaven. igi erTxans emorCileba ganaCens. magram ga-
nagrZobs sakuTari problemebis kvlevas. gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas alqimiis Seswavlas aqcevs. 1622 wels mainc
aqveynebs naSroms `saganTa xelwera, anu yoveli arsebis
warmoSobisa da aRniSvnis Sesaxeb`. amas sxva naSromebic
mosdeven. boemes momxreTa ricxvi izrdeba. kvlav aukrZa-
les wera, magram am dros sikvdilma mouswro. megobrebs
did Sromad daujdaT eklesiis ezoSi misi damarxvis ne-
barTva. saflavis jvarze cnobili sityvebi daaweres: veni,
vidi, vici (mivel, vnaxe, davamarcxe).
boemes naazrevs germanul enaze mweral filoso-
fosTa gavlena atyvia, esenia: maister ekharti, kuzane-
li, luTeri, paracelsi da sebastian franki; boeme ax-
senebs da iwonebs paracelsis mowafes, `meore reforma-
ciis` mniSvnelovan warmomadgenels _ valentin vaigels.

- 234 -
vaigeli samyarosa da RmerTs erTmaneTs utolebda, gan-
sakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevda makrokosmosis da mik-
rokosmosis mimarTebas, amtkicebda, rom boroteba sik-
eTidan warmoiSveba da isini yvela saganSi ebrZvian erT-
maneTs, magram boroteba mainc meoradia.
luTers biblia rom germanulad ar eTargmna, boemes
msoflmxedveloba, albaT, ar warmoiSveboda. didi stim-
uli iyo misTvis luTeris principi: yovelma adamianma
Tavad unda monaxos Tavisi gza RmerTisaken da mixvdes
Tavis daniSnulebas.
idealisturi panTeizmis principi „RmerTi yvelafer-
Sia da yvelaferi RmerTSia` da, aseve, vaigelis principi
„adamiani araferia RmerTis gareSe da RmerTi araferia
adamianis gareSe, orive yovelTvis erTadaa`, boemem gai-
go, rogorc individis mier sakuTar sulSi mTeli sa-
myaros danaxvis SesaZleblobis sayrdeni.
boeme aTeisti ar iyo, magram yovel oficialur re-
ligias ewinaaRmdegeboda. `CemTvis cxadia, rom yoveli
Cxubi da kamaTi religiidan warmoiSva`, _ gvauwyebs bo-
eme. idealizmisa da religiis kavSiri masTanac naTelia;
magram misi opoziciuri religia im periodSi progresul
rols TamaSobda, xolo misi panTeizmi materializmis ga-
Zlierebasac ki uwyobda xels.
samyaro da RmerTi boemesTvis, marTalia, erTi da
igivea, magram mxolod mas Semdeg, rac samyaro warmoiSva.
manamde RmerTi araviTari garkveuloba ar iyo, e. i. arc
RmerTi iyo da arc samyaro. manam is iyo pirvelsawyisi-
ufskruli, romelsac boeme, mistikuri tradiciis mixed-
viT, araras uwodebs, radgan yovel arss, anu raobas
aqvs Tavisi safuZveli Tu mizezi; pirvelsawyiss ki is ar
SeiZleba hqondes. magram RmerTSi maSinve aris borotebi-
sa da sikeTis brZola. am brZoliT, am tanjviT (quel), iqm-
neba Tvisebrioba (qualitet). es imas niSnavs, rom RmerTi
samyarod qmnis Tavis Tavs. arara (Nichts), raobad (Ichts)

- 235 -
iqceva. mTavari isaa, rom es RmerTis Rirebulebis damd-
ableba ki ar aris, aramed amaRleba. es qmnadi RmerTia.
aq brZoliT ukeTesis warmoSoba xdeba. amdenad, winaaRm-
deg neoplatonuri daRmavali emanaciisa, gacnobierebu-
lia aRmavali ganviTarebis idea. am azris Tanmimdevruli
gatareba boemem ver SeZlo. winaaRmdegobani mis naazrevSi
araa iSviaTi movlena. masTan imis mtkicebasac vxvdebiT,
rom RmerTi absoluturad negatiuria da imasac, rom sa-
myaro RmerTis sxeulia.
paracelsis gavleniT, boeme gansakuTrebul mniSvn-
elobas aniWebs TviTcnobierebas. igi daaxloebiT ise
gaiazrebs suls, rogorc SemdgomSi laibnici sulier
monadas warmoadgens. masSi mTeli samyaroa. me caSi ki
ar avsulvar, raTa iq damenaxa RmerTi da misi saqmeebi,
aramed igive ca Cems sulSi aRmovaCine da davadgine, rom
yvela sagania RmerTi da ca. me, _ ganagrZobs boeme, _ Cemi
sulis asoebSi vkiTxulob da ara wignebSi.
zogierTi istorikosis azriT, boeme samebis erTiano-
bis mtkicebisas mivida meoTxe principis aucileblobam-
de. es oTxerTianobis mtkiceba (mama, Ze, suliwmida da
maTi erTianoba RvTis sibrZneSi) misma mowinaaRmdegebma
eresSi braldebisaTvis gamoiyenes (20,171). azrovnebis is-
toriis perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiT, aq saintereso isaa,
rom XIX saukuneSi hegelis dialeqtikis zogi mimdevari,
magaliTad, boris CiCerini (1828-1904), saWirod CaTvlis
hegelis dialeqtikis samwevriani sqemis oTxwevrianiT
Secvlas.
ramdenadac yoveli arsebuli boemesaTvis RmerTis
gamovlinebaa, is, garkveuli azriT, RmerTis enas war-
moadgens. yoveli arsebuli raRacas gveubneva RmerTze.
sagnebi RmerTis enaa da Cven igi unda gavigoT. boeme-
saTvis es gareganis da Sinaganis, fizikurisa da fsiqi-
kuris, sulisa da sxeulis kavSiris problemaa da misi
enis Teoriac, am globaluri aspeqtiT, cdilobs enis

- 236 -
raobis gagebas. naSromSi `saganTa xelwera`, romlis erT-
erTi qvesaTauria `imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gardaiqmneba
boroteba sikeTed da sikeTe borotebad`, boeme werda:
`Sinagani gareganSi arsebobs da Sinagans garegani uWi-
ravs, rogorc sarke, romelSic is xedavs Tavisi yove-
li formirebis Taviseburebas. garegani misi xelweraa,
misi niSania`. aseTi dialeqtikuri kavSiri rom ar iyos
garegansa da Sinagans Soris, enas araviTari mniSvnelo-
ba ar eqneboda. adamianebi verc RmerTs gaugebdnen da
verc erTmaneTs. enis xmauri im specifikisaa, rom ada-
mians umxels missave Sinagan formas. xmaSi suli Tavis
formas aqsovs. mavanis xmis JRera amoZravebs sxvebSi ms-
gavs formebs. amdenad, sxvisi suli Taviseburi sakravia,
romelzedac adamianis ena ukravs.
yvela adamianuri enis safuZvelSi, boemes azriT, Zevs
`bunebis ena`. es isaa, riTac adami nivTebs saxels aZlev-
da. magram mas win uZRvis ena, romliTac RmerTma Tavisi
neba gamoxata samyaros Seqmnisas. igi arsebiTad gansx-
vavdeba adamianTa enisagan. RmerTis ena sagnebs qmnis. ena
TavisTavad ar niSnavs metyvelebas. metyveleba yovelT-
vis dialoguria. adamis Seqmnamde RmerTi ar laparako-
bda. misi azris gaxmovaneba ar iyo saWiro.
boeme cdilobs enaTa genealogiaSic gaerkves. igi
laparakobs `enaTa xis oTx alfavitze`: I. _ bunebrivi
enisa, romelic ferSi mdgomareobs da mxolod imas esmis,
vinc RvTaebriv gamocdilebas eziareba; II. _ ebrauli al-
faviti, romelic gaxsnis Savi feris misterias (Tu enebs
xis saxiT warmovidgenT, es iqneba xis totebi da Stoebi);
III. _ berZnuli alfaviti, romelic xis nayofs warmoad-
gens da mis mSvenebas gamoxatavs; IV. _ laTinuri, romelic
mraval ers daexmara da enaTa xis Zalas da qvelobas
gamoxatavs. babilonSi, enaTa aRrevis Semdeg, warmoiSva
72 ena, romelnic Tav-TavianTi gziT wavidnen. laibnici,
romelic saerTod boemes mistikas amreziT uyurebda,

- 237 -
Tavis `axal gamokvlevebSi` seriozulad ixilavs enaTa
saerTo Ziris da misi ganStoebebis boemiseul Teorias.
Tanamedrove azrovnebaSi enaTa Rirebulebis boeme-
sul klasifikacias yuradReba miaqcia fukom, Tavis gax-
maurebul wignSi „sityvebi da sagnebi`. igi Tvlis, rom
ebrauli ena saerTo iyo RmerTs, adamianebsa da cxove-
lebs Soris. masSi SemorCenilia pirveladi sibrZnis nam-
sxvrevebi, im sibrZnisa, roca sityva da saxeli sagnis ar-
sebas gamoxatavda (32,71).
boemes gavlena didia momdevno TaobaTa rogorc re-
ligiur, ise filosofiur azrovnebaze. XIX s.-Si safran-
geTSi igi wminda martinma aaRorZina. niutoni gatacebuli
iyo misiT. romantikosebi, Selingi, hegeli pativiscemiT
ixseniebdnen mas. mniSvnelovani iyo misi gavlena rusul
religiur da idealistur azrovnebaze, magaliTad, niko-
lai berdiaevze (1874-1948).

- 238 -
aRorZinebis epoqis filosofia - axali
filosofiis Sesavali

epoqidan epoqaSi gadasvla droSi sakmaod gaWimuli


procesia, romlis drosac Zvelisa da axlis maxasiaTebe-
li ideebi xSirad mezobloben, ecilebian kidevac erTma-
neTs kulturis, mecnierebisa da filosofiis mTavari ma-
moZraveblis adgils. amitom axali filosofiis dawyebad
sxvadasxva filosofoss, anda filosofosebs asaxeleben
xolme. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom, rogorc wesi,
filosofiis sxvadasxva sferoSi da sxvadasxva qveyanaSi
amgvari moazrovneebis erTnairi gansazRvra gaZnelebu-
lia Sesabamisi qveynebis kulturis donisa da tradiciebis
gansxvavebebis gamo. miuxedavad amisa, saorientaciod
mainc SesaZlebelia gamovyoT moazrovneebi, romelTac
filosofiaSi yvelaze naTlad wamoswies filosofiis
sakuTrivi axali meTodis da codnisaTvis ara mxolod
spekulaturi, aramed realuri, pragmatuli mniSvnelo-
bis miniWebis aucilebloba („codna _ Zalaa`). es princi-
pebi ki axali drois ori didi moazrovnis, frensis beko-
nis da rene dekartis saxelebs ukavSirdeba. fr. bekonis
aRniSnuli principis _ „codna Zalaa` _ siaxlis gasagebad
unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom aq igulisxmeba mecnieruli,
dasabuTebas da eqsperiments damyarebuli codna. sx-
vagvarad, Cven rojer bekons (1214-1294) ver ganvasxvaveb-
diT misi didi mogvarisagan. amitomacaa, rom zogi mkvl-
evari am did sqolastikoss aniWebs upiratesobas, axali
drois empirizmis mamamTavarTan SedarebiT. saqme isaa,
rom rojer bekoni codnaSi, maTematikis da empiriis
garda, gulisxmobda magiasac, kabalasac, filosofiuri
qvis (romelsac didxans eZebda da irwmuneboda, rom misi
saidumloeba gaigo) Zalasac. fr. bekonisaTvis ki Zala,
romelsac SeuZlia adamiani bunebaze gaabatonos, aris
mxolod mecnierebis da eqsperimentis Zala. paracelsi,

- 239 -
kardano, bruno da a. S. gansakuTrebulobaze da titanu-
robaze mTeli maTi pretenziebis miuxedavad, yovelTvis
raRacas, da xSirad sakmaod mniSvnelovans, utovebdnen
astrologias, magias, kabalas. rogorc kasireri aRniS-
navs, isini cdilobdnen eCvenebinaT, rom astrologia da
magia ki ar ewinaaRmdegeba maT mier Semotanil bunebis
axal gagebas (vTqvaT, maTematikis eniT dawerils), ar-
amed erTianobaSi da TanxmobaSia masTan. fr. bekonTan ki
RmerTi saerTod araa mecnieruli kvlevis sagani da es
sulac ar miaCnia mas mecnieruli azrovnebis naklad da
misi Zalis damcirebad. rac Seexeba imas, rom dekarts mis
mier adamianis gonebis bunebrivi sinaTlis (Lumen natu-
rale) rogorc WeSmaritebis kriteriumis dasafuZneblad,
RmerTis arsebobis dasabuTeba dasWirda, aq ZiriTadia
is, rom mecnierebisaTvis RmerTis, rogorc keTilis ar-
seboba, saWiroa mxolod rogorc dasabuTebulis. Torem
dekarts mis arsebobaSi eWvi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar ep-
areboda. amdenad, aqac dasabuTebaa ZiriTadad miCneuli
da isic naTelia, rom RmerTi masTan, iseve, rogorc fr.
bekonTan da T. hobsTan, mecnierebis kvlevis sagani araa.
RmerTis arsebobis dasabuTebiT azrovneba TviT qmnis
Tavis safuZvels. amitom ar moswonda, Tavis droze, Toma
aqvinels anselmis dasabuTeba (dasabuTebaze damokide-
buls xdiso RmerTsa da rwmenas); xolo hegels ki swored
amitom moswonda dekartis meTodi. igi aRniSnavs, rom dek-
artTan azrovneba mxolod sakuTar safuZvels emyareba.
raseli aRorZinebis dasasrulad, social-politi-
kuri TvalsazrisiT, miiCnevs karlos V mier 1527 wels
romis aRebas da gaZarcvas (49,518). es TariRi udavod
mniSvnelovani iyo aRorZinebis istoriaSi. isic sworia,
rom aRorZinebis triumfaluri winsvlis xana damTavrda
(gardacvlilni iyvnen botiCeli, rafaeli, leonardo da
vinCi, magram kidev didxans moRvaweobda miqelanjelo da
zogierTi gamoCenili xelovani da mecnieri).

- 240 -
martivad rom vTqvaT, aRorZineba dasrulda maSin,
roca axali epoqa (fr. bekoni, dekarti) daiwyo, e. i. XVII
s.-is pirvel naxevarSi. manamde aRorZineba ganagrZobda
arsebobas da garkveuli damajereblobiT icavda kidec
sakuTar principebs, axal filosofiis warmomadgen-
lebTan dapirispirebaSi (mag., gasendi dekartis winaaR-
mdeg da sxva). amitom, sworia mosazreba, rom romis da-
pyroba da darbeva iyo maRali renesansis dasasruli da
Tavad romis, rogorc renesansis samyaros araoficial-
uri dedaqalaqis, mzis Casveneba. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom
renesansisa da axali filosofiis warmomadgenlebis ka-
maTi WeSmaritebis dasadgenad mravalwlian gulmodgine
TanamSromlobas ganasaxierebda. pier gasendisa da dek-
artis safuZvliani da nayofieri kamaTi, azrovnebis, ro-
gorc sakuTari Tavis safuZvlis Sesaxeb, amis kargi maga-
liTia. misi gavlena axal filosofiaze, TviT kantze da
fixteze, sakmaod naTelia.
ra formiTac ar unda gamosuliyvnen axali filoso-
fiis warmomadgenlebi, maTi pozicia, saboloo jamSi, or-
magi WeSmaritebis uaryofa iyo. maTTvis WeSmariteba er-
Tia, is gonebis da mecnierebis mier aris dasabuTebuli.
„codna Zalaa` da misi WeSmariteba bunebaze gabatonebaSi
gamoixateba. racionalizmis da empirizmis mravali war-
momadgeneli axal epoqaSi iziarebda fr. bekonis mier
wamoyenebul am princips. safrangeTis akademiis saamayo
qmnilebis, „mecnierebaTa, xelovnebisa da xelobaTa en-
ciklopediis` devizi es iyo da kantis, axali epoqis erT-
erTi yvelaze safuZvliani moazrovnis, „wminda gonebis
kritikasac` azrisa da saqmis kavSirze, fr. bekonis si-
tyvebi amSvenebda. racionalizmis, iseve, rogorc empi-
rizmis batonoba, am epoqaSi upirobo ar iyo. maTi urT-
ierTdapirispirebis Sedegi, rogorc wesi, urTierTgamdi-
dreba iyo. ase iqmneboda didi epoqa, romelmac laibnici,
devid hiumi (1711-1776), kanti da germanuli idealizmis

- 241 -
bumberazi moazrovneebi warmoSva. Tavad XVII-XVIII ss. fi-
losofia karneades izosTeniis (sapirispiro debulebaTa
tolZalovnebis) principis karg magaliTs warmogvidgens
da am principis maradisobaze miuTiTebs WeSmaritebis
maZiebel kulturebSi.

- 242 -
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- 247 -
pirTa saZiebeli

avgusti, kurfiursti 166 barbaro, ermolao 34, 35


avgustine 76, 101, 182, 229 basile besarioni 18
averoesi 15-17, 29, 32, 36, 62- basili didi 168
66, 68, 72, 73, 207, 223, 224 baqraZe, kote 102
avicena 37, 123 bekini, margarita 138
albert didi 34, 35, 216 bekoni, rojer 239
alberti, leon batista 23 bekoni, frensis 14, 80, 101,
aleqsandre afrodisieli 62- 200, 209, 230, 233, 239
64, 69, 72 berdiaevi, nikolai 238 M
al-farabi 37, 38, 76 bernar klervoeli 81, 158, 196
anselm kenterberieli 88, 100, behaimi, barTul 136
182, 240
behaimi, otilia 136
ariosto, ludoviko 43
behaimi, hans sebald 136
argipopulo, ioane 18
bize, Teodor 216
aristotele 15-19, 23-26, 28,
bodeni, Jan 42
29, 34, 35, 37-39, 61-63, 65,
66, 68, 70-73, 88, 91, 93, boeme, iakob 118, 143, 150-155,
115-117, 119, 120, 167-169, 164, 165, 179, 232-238
190, 198, 199, 201, 203, 206, boeciusi 23, 38, 231
207, 209, 210, 212, 215, 216, boviliusi, Sarl de 7, 9, 74-83
220, 224, 227 bokaCo, jovani 17, 43, 166
artarqserqse I, 34 boleini, ana 100
aubanusi, iohanes bemus 136 bonaventura 79, 212
axneri, g. 122 bora, katerina fon 145
borxesi, xose luis 128
bazedovi, iohan bernar 161 borja, lukrecia 55
baiervaltesi, verner 29 borja, Cezare 53, 55, 56
balTazari, hans urs fon 27, bosxi, hieronime 105
28, 87
botiCeli, sandro 29, 48, 217,
bandini, franCesko 32 240
baraTaSvili, nikoloz 178 bunderlini, iohanes 142

- 248 -
buridani, iohanes 69 duns skoti, ioane 37
butceri, karl 142 donatelo 15, 62
bruno, jordano 42, 118, 198,
211, 213-225, 228, 240 ebreo, leon 28
egidiusi, Jil 100
gaetano tieneli 62 ezra 34
galilei, galileo 11, 52, 65, ekharti, maister 28, 75, 94,
208, 209, 225, 228, 230 99, 111, 165, 171, 177, 181,
gasendi, pier 88, 93, 95, 200, 182, 187, 189, 195, 232, 234
228, 241 empedokle 41, 203, 206
giorgi sqolari 18 engelsi, fridrix 108
gogiberiZe, mose 74, 90, 91 epikure 44, 92, 117,
goeTe, iohan gotlib fon 33, erazm roterdameli 49, 57,
118, 134, 178 74, 83, 94-103, 105, 117, 122,
gorgia 93 135-137, 141, 156, 164, 191
gorfunkeli, aleqsandre 211 erdmani, iohan eduard 55
grigol nazianzeli 31 eriugena, ioane skoti 31
grigol noseli 31 efrem mcire 173, 178
grigol xanZTeli 186
grociusi, hugo 57 vagneri, rixard 120
vaigeli, valentin 7, 9, 82,
danelia, sergi 91, 203, 107, 150, 164-197, 234, 235
dante aligieri 15, 16 vala, lorenco 44, 94, 95
dekarti, rene 14, 70, 87, 88, valteri, balTazar 233
169, 226, 229, 230, 233, 239, vanini, luCilio 65, 223-225
240, 241 varTema, ludoviko de 135
demonaqs kviproseli 172 verniasi, nikoleto 63
denki, hans 141, 142 vespuCi, amerigo 100, 101
didro, deni 98 vilhelm hohenhaimeli 118/119
dilTai, vilhelm 105, 161 volgasti, zigfrid 138, 147,
dionise areopageli 20, 22, 157, 175
27, 64, 77, 79, 83, 157, 163 volteri 224
diureri, albrext 105, 106,
136, 137
zabarela, jakomo 72-73
- 249 -
zaqsi, hans 137 dolf bodenStain fon 195
zudhofi, karl 128 kasireri, ernst 37, 45, 74, 82,
208, 240
TevzaZe, guram 5, 6, 8 kardano, ieronimo 11, 192,
198, 202-208, 223, 240
Teofraste 119
kalvini, Jan 48, 74, 135, 136,
Toma aqvineli 15, 26, 27, 31,
143, 194, 195, 216
34, 37, 39, 68, 70, 72, 81,
116, 240 karlos I 100
Trazimaxe 51, 58 kepleri, iohan 40, 199, 209,
217, 230
kirkegori, sioren 38
ioane damaskeli 186
kiulpe, osvald 80
ioane petriwi 16, 22, 23, 34,
35, 38, 63, 69, 174, 213 kolumbi, qristefore 96, 229,
231
iohanes tauleri 141, 162, 187
kondiliaki, etien bono de 91
ioane filoponosi 210
koperniki, nikolai 11, 13,
iremaZe, Tengiz 6
208, 215, 216, 217, 220, 222
isaak abrabaneli 28
koplstoni, frederik 28, 38,
iubervegi, fridrix 91 39, 65, 91, 103, 165, 206, 211
iungi, karl gustav 118, 124, kosa, franCesko del 120
165, 197
kudriavcevi, oleg 75
kuzaneli, nikoloz 13, 16, 17,
kazimo tura 120 41, 46, 64, 67, 74, 77, 81, 94,
kampanela, tomazo 47, 87, 101, 104, 142, 165, 198, 209, 214,
199, 225-232 216, 217, 220, 223, 234
kampanusi, iohanes 141, 142 kromveli, oliver 100
kanti, imanuel 8, 10, 27, 57, 61,
117, 118, 120, 134, 156, 161, laibnici, gotfrid vilhelm
177, 182-184, 189, 221, 241 118, 223, 236, 237
kapito 142 landino, qristoforo 58
karlos didi 227 levini, viqtor 138
karlos V (imperatori) 57, 86, lenini, vladimer 102
108, 240
leonardo da vinCi 55, 203, 240
karneade 85, 242
lesingi, gothold efraim 42
karlStadti, andreas ru­
libigi, iustus fon 133
- 250 -
lipsiusi, iustus 87 miunceri, Tomas 107, 108, 122,
lorenco brwyinvale 43 135, 166, 195
losevi, aleqsei 24, 55, 202, miqel fselosi 27
212, 217, 232, miqelanjelo buonaroti 48,
luTeri, martin 49, 74, 82, 55, 105, 217, 240
94, 97-99, 101, 103, 104-118, moiziSi, burkhard 24-26, 67-69
120, 122-124, 126, 135, 136, molca, tarkvinia 211
138-141, 143, 145, 156, 157,
mokenigo 216
164-167, 182, 185, 190-196,
234, 235 monteni, miSel de 7, 9, 80,
84-93
lukiane 101
mori, Tomas 47, 49, 59, 96, 99-
103, 120, 226, 232
marti, i. a. 227
markus avreliusi 121
maimonide, mose 28
mocarti, volfgang amadeus 133
makiaveli, nikolo 43, 46-57,
58, 59, 89, 90, 95, 97, 101, 226
natorpi, paul 8, 10
marqsi, karl 138
nifusi, augistino 71
matias I, mefe 32
nicSe, fridrix 51, 56, 57, 85,
maqsime aRmsarebeli 186
107, 119, 160, 188
mahmud II 46
nucubiZe, Salva 5, 47
medigo, ilia del 32
mediCi, kozimo 19, 21
mediCi, lorenco 19
okami, uiliam 109, 206
mediCi, maria (katerina) 20
ore, ostin 205
mediCi, jovani 19
origene 31, 37, 38
mediCi, juliano 60
osianderi, andrea ufrosi
melanqtoni, filipe 106, 108, 191-193
135-137, 156, 166, 190-193,
orfeosi 28
195, 204
mendelsoni, mose 120
pavle mociquli 22, 38, 57,
mirandola, jovani piko dela
110-112, 115, 116, 118, 168-
21, 24, 27, 29, 32-46, 80, 94,
171, 181, 182, 184, 186, 196
101, 192, 227
paini, martin l. 67, 68
mirandola, jovani franCesko
dela 39 papi anastasius I 37

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papi aleqsandre VI (borja) 49, poikerti, vil erix 138
55, 56 policiano, anjelo 21, 43, 58
papi benediqte XVI, pomponaci, petre 63-72, 223, 224
ratcingeri, ioseb 146
porta, simon 70
papi ioane pavle II 217
porta, Janbatista 199, 227
papi inokenti XIII 34
prokle 16, 20, 40, 120, 174, 210
papi klemens I 162
papi leo X 70, 71
rable, fransua 99, 101, 102
papi pavle IV
raimund sabundeli 80, 81, 88
papi siqstus IV 21
raseli, bertran 17, 240
papi urban II 226
rafaeli 16, 55, 105, 240
paracelsi, Teofraste 7, 9,
renani, ernst 36, 63, 65, 70,
33, 54, 83, 118-134, 135, 142,
203, 207
164, 169, 172-174, 176, 179-
181, 189, 193, 198, 204, 234, rinuCini, alamano 58-61
236, 239 rixteri, gregor 234
patrici, franCesko 198, 199, rozenkroiceri, qristian 126
202, 208-213 roixlini, iohanes 29, 94, 95
paci 60 ruisbreki, iohanes 75
pelagia 182 rusTveli, SoTa 41, 130, 171, 178
petrarka, franCesko 15, 17, ruso, Jan Jak 102, 203
42, 62, 148
petre mociquli 140
savonarola 20, 32, 39, 42, 43,
pier abeliari 195 44, 45, 48, 49, 60
piTagora 18, 152, 216 sanCesi, pier 92, 93
pironi 92 sartri, Jan pol 38, 183, 203
pikolomini, franc 72 seneka 90, 148, 194
platoni 13, 15-32, 35, 37, 38, serveti, mixail 142, 195
46-51, 53, 58, 59, 61, 64, 68,
seqst empirikosi 87, 89
69, 76, 77, 82, 99, 101-103,
117, 120, 155, 167, 198, 203, skultetus, barTolomeos 234
206, 209-212, 219, 226, 230-232 sokrate 7, 9, 16, 24, 25, 51,
plotini 16, 20, 26, 28, 30, 212 67, 93, 103, 116, 167
pleToni, georgiu gemistos spinoza, barux 143, 152, 154,
17, 18, 19, 23, 46 207, 223

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tartalia, nikolo 204 Saroni, pier 90, 92
tatiane asirieli 73 Seleri, maqs 38
iohanes tauleri 141, 157, Selingi, fridrix vilhelm
162, 181, 187, 188, 195 27, 223, 238
telezio, bernardino 198-202, Svenkfeldi, kaspar 109, 135,
208, 212, 227 165, 193, 195
tertuliane 162 Sopenhaueri, artur 117, 118,
ticiani 30 120
titus liviusi 52, 95 Sope, kaspar 217
traini, franCesko 15, 16 Sloseri, fridrix qristof 138
Stiokli, albert 88
fiCino, marsilio 18-32, 33, Stiorigi, hans ioahim 86, 165
39, 40, 43, 47, 61, 64, 67, 68, Stosi, vait 137
75, 80, 81, 99, 120, 214, 217 Staupitci, iohanes fon 112
fixte, iohan gotlib 83, 156,
175, 241
Cezalpini, andrea 207
fedele, kasandra 63
CiCerini, boris 236
filipe II 125
flasari, helmut 91
cvingli, ulrix 40, 109, 135,
foierbaxi, ludvig andreas 192-194
fon 138, 150
cigleri, leopoldi 138
forlenderi, karl 42
ciceroni 58, 89, 146
fosi, angela 29
kornelius celsusi 121
franki, sebastian 7, 9, 49, 97,
109, 122, 135-163, 165, 166,
195, 234 WavWavaZe, ilia 8, 45
francisk I 86
frexti, martin 136, 137 joto 15, 62
fridrix brZeni, kurfiursti
108 hageni, k. 138
fuko, miSel 131, 188, 238 haidegeri, martin 109, 230
haine, qristian iohan hainrix
qiqoZe, geronti 178 107

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hegeli, georg vilhelm hipokrate 79, 121, 126, 127
fridrix 7-10, 44, 64, 66, hiumi, devid 241
74, 90, 106, 114, 115, 134,
hobsi, Tomas 54, 200, 240
162, 178, 180, 215, 225, 233,
236, 238, 240 homerosi 35, 46, 48
henri VII 100 holbaxi, pol anri 91
henri VIII 49, 96, 99, 100 hugo wm. viqtoreli 172, 176
heseneli, filipe 137 huizinga, ioane 94
heraklite 41 huseri, iohan iakob 128
hermes trismegistosi 21, 25, 28 huteni, ulrix fon 94, 124,
125, 135, 137

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