Fall 2011, MBA-1 Semester

AUGUST 2011 Master of Business Administration (MBA) Semester – 1 MB0038 – Management Process & Organization Behavior (4 Credits) (Book ID: B1127) Assignment Set- 1

MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior

Roll No. : 541110058

Page 1

Fall 2011, MBA-1 Semester

Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5

Write a note on the functions of management.. Discuss any two learning theories in detail. [10]

[10]

Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon.[10] What are the factors influencing perception? [10]

Mr. Solanki is the VP- HR of a leading financial services company. He is having a

meeting with Ms. Ramani leading HR consultant. Mr. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Ramani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Solanki, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction [10] Q.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the “VARK-LEARNING” learning and training

solutions company 1. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends, ex. Colleagues batch mates, relatives. 3. What all needs do it takes care off according to Maslow’s need hierarchy 4. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. What all aspects do it takes care of according to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy? [10]

MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior

Roll No. : 541110058

Page 2

Fall 2011, MBA-1 Semester

MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior Set- 1

Q.1

Write a note on the functions of management?

[10]

Management Functions Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Management functions are as follows (Fayol, 1949): 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Commanding 4. Coordinating 5. Controlling However, in recent time, management functions have been regrouped into four categories, since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extends. The four functions are as follows: 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Leading 4. Controlling Planning It involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving these goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Planning also enhances the decision-making process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Therefore, planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. : 541110058 Page 3

It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. with ideas and resources. traits alone cannot explain leadership effectiveness. how the tasks are to be grouped. Leading involves the following functions: 1. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. grouped. Organizing It involves designing. general strategies. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization's resources to achieve organizational goals. who reports to whom. Teams enable knowledge-based and innovative decision making. working toward common goals. and relationships between departments. overall goals. Supervisors can learn about leadership through research. Flexible networks of team-based structures are occurring within and between companies. and allocating resources. the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and where decisions are to be made. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Competitive arenas require quick decisions by knowledgeable employees who work close to the source of problems. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others. Leading An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. and goals are clearly stated.Fall 2011. : 541110058 Page 4 . lines of authority. Thus. Earliest theories assumed that the primary source of leadership effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders themselves. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. later research focused on what the leader actually did when dealing with employees. Organizations are groups of people. and coordinated. structuring. This collaboration is a revolution in the workplace. contingency. Yet. Leadership studies can be classified as trait. who is to do. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Teambuilding Rigid department boundaries and fixed teams are giving way to ad hoc squads whose membership changes with every project. behavioral. and transformational. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. procedures. MBA-1 Semester Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization's mission. as well as across national borders. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form.

3. employers can determine which skills will be needed and to what degree. Controlling It involves monitoring the employees‟ behavior and organizational processes and take necessary actions to improve them. working together toward a common goal. communicated. interviewing applicants. agreement between managers and employees tends to be low. Training refers to improving an employees’ knowledge. Cross training prepares an employee for a job normally handled by someone else. Orientation sets a tone for new employees’ work by describing job related expectations and reporting relationships. Training After employees are selected. MBA-1 Semester 2. effectiveness grows. creating greater productivity for all involved. 4. Task analysis identifies the elements of current or future tasks to be done.Fall 2011. In general. policies. Selecting Selecting competent. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. During orientation. By focusing on strategy and examining sales forecasts and expected changes in production. so it is important that both parties agree to decisions about the training of employees. if needed. Specific duties and responsibilities and performance evaluation are clarified. A comparison with current skill levels is used to estimate staff and training needs. to analyze their training needs. if necessary. The selection process consists of forecasting employment needs. high-performing employees capable of sustaining their performance over the long run is a competitive advantage. and applied. and hiring employees. Personal needs analysis involves asking employees and managers. Training starts with an organization analysis. equipment or procedures are introduced into the workplace. either in an interview or in a self administered questionnaire. When an individual works together with others. skills and attitudes so that he or she can do that job. Together. Employees are informed about benefits. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action. employees can do more than the collective efforts of each individual working alone. Also. recruiting candidates. the supervisor has the opportunity to resolve any unrealistic expectations held by the employee. Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set. training is advisable when new processes. distribution and support systems. Consensus Building Top performance demands the joint effort of many people. : 541110058 Page 5 . All the new employees (or current employees in new jobs) should be trained. and procedures. they enter an orientation program to be formally introduced to their jobs.

This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired. a neutral stimulus (bell) MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. MBA-1 Semester Types of Control Controls are most effective when they are applied at key places. the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. Their goal is to prevent anticipated problems. Feed forward controls focus on operations before they begin. annual) reports so that almost instantaneous adjustments can be made. to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. often reflexive. respectively. during the process (concurrent). monthly. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food – unconditioned response). Thus. and organizational quality programs. automated systems (such as computers programmed to inform the user when they have issued the wrong command). after a few repetitions. Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist. Q. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. : 541110058 Page 6 . or after it ceases (feedback). Examples of feedback controls include timely (weekly. and process designs. Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. Concurrent controls apply to processes as they are happening.Fall 2011. [10] Theories of Learning 1. quarterly. Concurrent controls enacted while work is being performed include any type of steering or guiding mechanism such as direct supervision. They guide future planning. Significant stimulus evokes an innate. Supervisors can implement controls before the process begins (feed forward). It is the Conditioned Response (CR). response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR). inputs. This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs. Ivan Pavlov.2 Discuss any two learning theories in detail. An example of feed forward control is scheduled maintenance on automobiles and machinery. Feedback controls focus on the results of operations. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism.

[10] William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. Principles of operant conditioning are as follows: 1. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. A reinforce is anything that strengthens the desired response. MBA-1 Semester became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US – meat). Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response. 2. 5. apprehensive. Endomorphy – It is focused on the digestive system. extravert. corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic. : 541110058 Page 7 . Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. Skinner (1953. corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant. aggressive. Conditioned Response 2. risk taker. He called this a person’s somatotype. and corresponds to the Somatotonia temperament courageous.F. 3. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to stimuli. Mesophorphy – It is focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm). the individual is conditioned to respond. energetic. 2. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded). particularly the stomach (endoderm). Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur. Operant Conditioning The operant conditioning theory is proposed by B.Fall 2011. This is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. has the tendency toward plumpness. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. They are as follows: 1. 3. Behavior is learned. sensitive. active. introvert. has the tendency towards muscularity. dynamic. 1954). He identified three main somatotypes that are associated with certain personality characteristics. Ectomorphy: It is focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) – the tendency towards slightness. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") 4. 3. assertive. love of comfort and luxury.

Each type is represented by a series of photos. On this scale. based on the degree to which they matched these types. with 4 as average). like "saber tooth tiger" for extreme mesomorph. Most people of course Body traits Type Associated personality Associated personality traits a. Endomorphic Body Type: soft body underdeveloped muscles round shaped over-developed digestive system love of food tolerant evenness of emotions love of comfort sociable good humoured relaxed need for affection MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. "Male Mosquito" for the extreme ectomorph. the extreme or pure mesomorph has a score of 1-7-1. and the pure ectomorph 11-7. in which all possible body types are graded in a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high). and so on. Sheldon created “Atlas of Men” . "Baluchitherium" for mesomorph and endomorph. the pure endomorph 7-1-1.Fall 2011. : 541110058 Page 8 . and is given a comical or descriptive name. MBA-1 Semester On this basis.

MBA-1 Semester b. Mesomorphic Body Type: hard. ii) In the object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made.4 What are the factors influencing perception? [10] Factors Influencing Perception Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver. Through the perceptual process. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. Ectomorphic Body Type: thin flat chest delicate build young appearance tall lightly muscled stoop-shouldered large brain self-conscious preference for privacy introverted inhibited socially anxious artistic mentally intense emotionally restrained But body types have been criticized for very weak empirical methodology and are not generally used in psychology. it allows us to act within our environment. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us. muscular body overly mature appearance rectangular shaped thick skin upright posture adventurous desire for power and dominance courageous indifference to what others think or want assertive. The use of somatotyping is used more often in alternative therapies and Eastern psychology and spirituality. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. bold zest for physical activity competitive love of risk and chance c. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. : 541110058 Page 9 .Fall 2011. Q.

: 541110058 Page 10 .Fall 2011. MBA-1 Semester 1. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. we form more positive impressions of others. When in a positive mood. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for. For example. In addition. a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. For example. most of whom are male. we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. When in a negative mood. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. suppose Mr. Mr X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver's attitudes affect perception. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization . in an organizational context.a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers. we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No.

For an organization. we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. Assume that you are Ms. Because our individual interests differ considerably. f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure. What suggestions you will give to Mr.5 Mr. or personality dispositions. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction [10] Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well.HR of a leading financial services company. Others tend to focus more on central traits. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem. satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and increased productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers' self-concept. absenteeism. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. When in a positive mood. the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. Ramani leading HR consultant. In contrast. Solanki. MBA-1 Semester Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job". and appearance. we form more positive impressions of others. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. When in a negative mood. you may find it hard to be attentive in class. And MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. more readily. a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Solanki is the VP. For example. Q. such as height. expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. regardless of the intention of the subordinates. also affects perception. : 541110058 Page 11 . weight. The research findings of information that is inconsistent with our mood state. the HR consultant. and termination. turnover. He is having a meeting with Ms. an individual's pattern of thinking. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits. Ramani. Mr. g) Expectations: Finally.Fall 2011. Job satisfaction is also linked to a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person.

ii) Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs.Fall 2011. unambiguous. light. freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. and industry pay standards. and in line with their expectations. : 541110058 Page 12 . Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and and productivity. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. employees prefer working relatively close to home. it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers. therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. The most important factors conductive to job satisfaction are: i) Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks. having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor's leads to increased job satisfaction. Temperature. iv) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers. MBA-1 Semester although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. Similarly. v) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Under conditions of moderate challenge. 1996). 1996). more responsibilities and increased social status. The most important factors conductive to job satisfaction are: i) Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks. freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. satisfaction is likely to result. noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. Further. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands. and because of this success. they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth. in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. It is important. iii) Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just. most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. Therefore. thus protecting the "bottom line (Brown. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. individual skill level. employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. thus protecting the "bottom line (Brown. Under conditions of moderate challenge. most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction.

satisfaction is likely to result. those who offer praise for good performance. 3. and in line with their expectations. iv) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. v) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Similarly. iii) Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just. ex. more responsibilities and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. : 541110058 Page 13 . they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. light. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behavior in an intense desire to succeed. individual skill level. noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. unambiguous. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands. What all needs do it takes care off according to Maslow’s need hierarchy MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly. in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. Clearly delineating wrongful behavior and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions.Fall 2011. Q. having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor's leads to increased job satisfaction. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth. Colleagues batch mates. Therefore. and industry pay standards. vi) Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Further. listen to employees' opinions and show a personal interest in them. relatives. MBA-1 Semester ii) Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs. employees prefer working relatively close to home.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the “VARK-LEARNING” learning and training solutions company 1. and because of this success. It is important. Temperature.

such as. 4. 3. humanness and psychological health a person will show. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. thirst. from the basic to the complex. satisfied needs cannot. The needs are arranged in order of importance. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. MBA-1 Semester 4. Physiological: Includes hunger. 2. The further they progress up the hierarchy. achieving one’s potential. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. such as. sex. self-respect. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Pyramid The five needs are: 1. shelter. and self-fulfillment MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. and other bodily needs Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm Social: Includes affection. proposed by Maslow (1943). and achievement. and external esteem factors. Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.Fall 2011. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. and attention 5. status. : 541110058 Page 14 . What all aspects do it takes care of according to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy? [10] Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. recognition. includes growth. the more individuality. autonomy. and friendship Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. acceptance. belongingness.

Fall 2011. self-motivated. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. whereas. and exercise self-control. anxious to accept greater responsibility. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Social. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. MBA-1 Semester 6. : 541110058 Page 15 . From the above. It is also believed that. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. esteem. externally. self-direction. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. autonomy and empowerment. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. if they can.

They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of window to truth’ To start implementing. Explain.4 Credits (Book ID: B1127) Assignment Set. Q. Explain the type of power they use often [10] Q. Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context. [10] MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. Now explain what base of power does Mr.6 “Fashion4Now” is a famous and old magazine. The top management decides to start the eedition of the magazine. [10] Q.2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. [10] Q. [10] [10] Q. Dutta . : 541110058 Page 16 . Q.1 Write a note on classical era for evolution of Organization behavior.3 Explain the approaches of conflict management. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also give them warnings regarding suspension etc. Mr. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain the perspective of change. this change. Patnayak – He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving those recommendations and appreciations.2. Answer all the questions. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc.5 Given below are certain instances observed by the summer trainee – Ritu. 2.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. MBA-1 Semester Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . they frequently call meetings of employees. Dutta belongs to. 1. Patnayak and Mr. Write a note on different types of groups.He is an aggressive person.Fall 2011. Mr. This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. She makes the following observation about two key people in the organization. He frequently loses his temper. while making an observational study at GlobalGreen consultants.

He stressed on selecting the right people for the job. Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work. His scientific principles of management stressed the following principles: 1. specifying the precise way in which the work is to be done. He insisted the use of time-and-motion study as a means of standardizing work activities. Select the best person to perform the job thus designed. Train the worker to do the work efficiently. With passing time. Mary parker Follet and Chester Barnard. Frederick Taylor’s main emphasis was on finding one best way of doing each job. He favored wage plans to motivate the workers. Monitor worker performances to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and that appropriate results are achieved. to find the optimum mode of performance. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Henri Fayol. managers should do all the thinking relating to the planning and design of work. 4. Shift all responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager.Fall 2011. train them to do it precisely in one best way. Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyze human behavior at work. 2.1 Write [10] a note on classical era for evolution of Organization behavior. assign the workers task accordingly. The Classical Era We see this trend to continue in what is called as the classical era which covers the period between 1900 to mid 1930s. new organizational functions like personnel and quality control were created. in breaking down each task to its smallest unit to find what Taylor called „„the one best way to do each job. 5. : 541110058 Page 17 . His scientific approach called for detailed observation and measurement of even the most routine work.2 (60 Marks) Q. with productivity increasing significantly. Max Weber. leaving the workers with the task of implementation. Hence he lay the ground for the mass production techniques that dominated management thinking in the first half of the twentieth century. MBA-1 Semester MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior Assignment Set. the effect was to remove human variability. The results were dramatic. 3. Of course. the first general theories of management began to evolve and the main contributors during this era were Frederick Taylor.

General and Industrial Management. 11. 9. people must be suited to their posts so there must be careful organization of work and selection of personnel. Esprit de corps: efforts must be made to promote harmony within the organization and prevent dissension and divisiveness. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good leadership. authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. 6. In it. MBA-1 Semester Henri Fayol. order. defined the nature and working patterns of the twentieth-century organization in his book. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. : 541110058 Page 18 . otherwise authority. Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks so that expertise is developed and productivity increased.Fall 2011. 3. and the judicious application of penalties. such as size and the capabilities of the personnel. 5. Initiative: all employees should be encouraged to exercise initiative within limits imposed by the requirements of authority and discipline. 4. published in 1916. Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with rewards and penalties. 2. 7. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be allowed to override those of the business. Order: both materials and personnel must always be in their proper place. discipline. encourage effort. and not lead to overpayment. Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be cocoordinated by a single plan under one head. Stability of tenure of personnel: rapid turnover of personnel should be avoided because of the time required for the development of expertise. This theory is also called the Administrative Theory. clear and fair arguments. Equity: personnel must be treated with kindness and justice. he laid down what he called 14 principles of management. 8. Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair. 12. an employee should receive orders from one superior only. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics. 13. a mining engineer and manager by profession. but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirable so long as superiors are kept informed. 14. Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization. 10. Unity of command: for any action whatsoever. and stability are threatened. The principles of the theory are: 1.

but have right of appeal (in contrast to more diffuse structure in traditional authority). list these functions as the core of their activities. Officials are selected on basis of technical qualifications. The official is a full-time employee and looks forward to a life-long career. Security 5. Intention. The detailed features of Webers ideal bureaucratic structure are a follows: 1. detailed rules and regulations and impersonal relationships. Decisions are recorded in permanent files (in traditional forms few explicit rules or written records). 4. Fayol laid down a blueprint that has shaped organization thinking for almost a century. Max Weber developed a theory based on authority relations and was the pioneer in looking at management and OB from a structural viewpoint. Rules are stable. He suggested that organizations could be sub-divided into six main areas of activity: 1. : 541110058 Page 19 . Many practicing managers. organizing. MBA-1 Semester The management functions. appointed not elected. Financial 4. He wanted this ideal types construct to be taken as a basis for creating organizations in real world. Management. abstract rules govern decisions and actions. that Fayol stated. Fayol was also one of the first people to characterize commercial organization’s activities into its basic components. He described ideal types of organization and called it a bureaucracy. consisted of planning. a clearly defined hierarchy. This was a system marked by division of labor. Employment by the organization is a career. even today. In defining the core principles governing how organizations worked and the contribution of management to that process. 2. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Personal property separated from office property. 5. After a trial period they get tenure of position and are protected from arbitrary dismissal. and compensated by salary. Jurisdictional areas are clearly specified.Fall 2011. commanding. and can be learned. Organization follows hierarchical principle -.subordinates follow orders or superiors. activities are distributed as official duties (unlike traditional form where duties delegated by leader and changed at any time). 3. co-coordinating and controlling. Commercial 3. Accounting 6. His theory is also known as bureaucratic theory in management. 6. exhaustive. Means of production or administration belong to office. Technical 2.

MBA-1 Semester Q. i) Command Group: A command group consists of a manager and the employees who report to him or her. an executive committee. Examples include a bookkeeping department. or they may be open ended. Explain. Committee usually has their own committee member comprising of advisory authority. ii) Task Group: A task group is made up of employees who work together to complete a particular task or project. Committee. Membership in the group arises from each employee's position on the organizational chart. Write a note on different types of groups. In formal groups. : 541110058 Page 20 MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior .g. Classification of Groups Groups can be of two types:  Formal  Informal [10] Groups can be either formal or informal. A task group's boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. considering. Recommendation is sent to the authority that is responsible for implementing them. such as investigating.2. or acting on a matter. Characteristics of Formal groups  Created to carry out some specific task or to meet a required goal      Explicitly stated defined structure.and directed toward . the behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by . or take action on a particular matter. Task group may be temporary with an established life span. steering group or problem solving group) Defined roles and designated work assignments Well Defined norms Specified goals and deadlines Roll No. It investigates analyses and debates the problem and makes recommendation. A formal group is set up by the organization to carry out work in support of the organization's goals. It can cross command relationships. it is defined in terms of the organization's hierarchy. Thus. reporting. An employee's membership in the group arises from the responsibilities delegated to the employee -that is. procedural rules and membership Relatively permanent of temporary (e. iii) Committee: A group of people officially delegated to perform a function. 1.organizational goals. Formal groups may be command groups or task groups.Fall 2011. secretary and others. one or more persons appointed or elected to consider report on. and a product development team. Formal Groups: A designated work group defined by the organization's structure. the employee's responsibility to carry out particular activities.

they are likely to form friendships. They developed their own set of beliefs. Clique membership acted as a form of social control. iv) Membership Groups: When a person does belong to a group (formal and informal groups to which employees actually belong) the group is called a membership group (or affiliation group) for that person. iii) Reference Groups: Sometimes. Social alliances. explaining things to each other. MBA-1 Semester 2. The groups established norms regarding output. In a membership group. : 541110058 Page 21 . friends. attended the same college. That likelihood is even greater when people also share similar attitudes. the family is the most important reference groups. The groups included several different professions. when people work near one another every day. it is a reference group. They developed ideas about each other. Most of the relationships came down to two cliques. For most people. ii) Interest Groups: People who may or may not be aligned into common command or task groups may affiliate to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. same political view. or economic status. Some reference groups serve as a negative reference. Other important reference groups typically include co-workers. and some isolates. When a group is used in this way. This is an interest group. The employee need not admire a group for it to serve as a reference group. each member would be expected to contribute to the group's well being and would enjoy the benefits arising from the group members' friendship. We call these formations 'friendship groups'. v) Cliques: A relatively permanent informal groups that involves friendship. personalities. the employee tries to be unlike members of these groups.Fall 2011. and members of the person's religious organization. Many factors explain why people are attracted to one another. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. One explanation is simply proximity. Informal Groups: An organization's informal groups are the groups that evolve to meet social or affiliation needs by bringing people together based on shared interests or friendship. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. Thus. people use a group as a basis for comparison in making decisions or forming opinions. etc. Members of a group have some collection of benefits and responsibilities that go beyond the group serving as a reference point. Employees have reference groups inside or outside the organization where they work. forcing people to conform to group desires. reciprocity and other interpersonal relations. which frequently extend outside the work situation. each with a hanger-on. treatment of supervisor. The cliques served as a system for sense making about organizational events. informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. can be based on similar age. i) Friendship Groups: Groups often develop because the individual members have one or more common characteristics.

Collaboration – it involves a recognition by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention. Compromise – it occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. whereby a formal authority simply dictates a solution and specifies what is gained and what is lost by whom. or domination by one party. It stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. The figure below shows the five conflict management styles using these two dimensions. They are based on the relative emphasis on cooperativeness and assertiveness in the relationship between the conflicting parties. future conflicts over the same issues are likely to occur. Competition – here a victory is achieved through force. As a result of no one getting its full desires.3 Explain the approaches of Conflict Management. It may also occur as a result of authoritative command. Accommodation involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement. MBA-1 Semester Q. Conflict Management Approaches [10] There are two types of Conflict Management approaches:   Direct Indirect Direct conflict management approaches There are five approaches to direct conflict management. superior skill. the antecedent conditions for future conflicts are established.Fall 2011. This is a case of win-lose situation and as a result. : 541110058 Page 22 . They are as follows: Avoidance – it is an extreme form of inattention. everyone simply pretends that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will go away. This peaceful coexistence ignores the real essence of a given conflict and often creates frustration and resentment.

To reduce the conflict. and alterations in the use of mythology and scripts (Schermerhorn et al 2002). appeals to common goals. between the two groups so that any output slowdown or excess is absorbed by the inventory and does not directly pressure the target group. 1969). They include the design of the individual's job. : 541110058 Page 23 . and each can be provided separate access to resources. Appeals to Common Goals An appeal to common goals can focus on the mutual interdependence of the conflicting parties to achieve the common goal of an organization.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. Buffering is another technique to build an inventory. and the physical work layout. The conflicting units can then be separated from one another. a lack of predictability in a person's daily tasks and activities and may be caused by job MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. hierarchical referral. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. Changes and lack of control are two of the most stressful demands people face at work. or buffer. Q. Change leads to uncertainty. working conditions. Reduced Interdependence When work-flow conflicts exist. Hierarchical Referral – Here conflicts are reported to the senior levels to reconcile and solve. MBA-1 Semester Indirect conflict management approaches Indirect conflict management approaches include reduced interdependence. Such stressors can have a considerable impact on work performance and adjustment. contact between conflicting parties may be reduced. managers can adjust the level of interdependency among units or individuals (Walton & Dutton. [10] Environmental Stressors Environmental and internal conditions that lie beyond an individual's control are called environmental stressors. Task Demands: Task demands are factors related to a person's job.Fall 2011. We can organize environmental stressors into the following categories: 1.

as well as for others.Fall 2011. For example. education and skill development. to select tools or methods for accomplishing the work. sexual harassment and the leadership style in the organization are interpersonal demands for people at work. Inter-personal Demands: are pressures created by other employees. requiring adjustments in training. such as employee and parent. Leadership Styles: Whether authoritarian or participative. creating a stressful working environment for the person being harassed. Person-role Conflict: Ethics violations are likely to cause person-role conflicts. Employees expected to behave in ways that violate personal values. 3. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress. b. Role conflict results from inconsistent or incompatible expectations communicated to a person. Lack of control is a second major source of stress. Role ambiguity is the confusion a person experiences related to the expectations of others. MBA-1 Semester insecurity related to difficult economic times. The Abrasive Person: May be an able and talented employee. Sexual Harassment: The vast majority of sexual harassment is directed at women in the workplace. especially among employees with a high social need. such as employee. c. beliefs or principles experience conflict. 2. The lack of control may be caused by inability to influence the timing of tasks and activities. especially in work environments that are difficult and psychologically demanding. a. the manager who presses employees for both very fast work and high-quality work may be viewed at some point as creating a conflict for employees. The conflict may be an inter-role. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and the employee is not sure what he or she is to do. For example. Abrasive personalities. Intra-role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to a single role. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. Employees who feel secure with firm. Technology and technological innovation also create change and uncertainty for many employees. : 541110058 Page 24 . b. the employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home is likely to experience inter-role conflict. c. to make decisions that influence work outcomes. but one who creates emotional waves that others at work must accommodate. Inter-role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to two separate roles. create stress for different personality types. directive leadership may be anxious MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. not knowing how to do it. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. or to exercise direct action to affect the work outcomes. or not knowing the result of failure to do it. Role Demands: The social-psychological demands of the work environment may be every bit as stressful as task demands at work. Role ambiguity may be caused by not understanding what is expected. intrarole or person-role conflict. a. The second major cause of role stress is role ambiguity.

[10] Bases of Power Power can be categorized into two types: Formal and informal A. participative style. MBA-1 Semester with an open. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc. Patnayak – He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving those recommendations and appreciations. which carry over into the work environment or vice versa. a manager may threaten to withhold a pay raise. 4. Dutta . [10] 1. child rearing and parental care may create role conflicts or overloads that are difficult to manage. Physical Demands: Non-work demands create stress for people. In addition to family demands.He is an aggressive person. demote. Formal power may be categorized into four types which are as follows: MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Patnayak and Mr. For example. Now explain what base of power does Mr.5 Given below are certain instances observed by the summer trainee – Ritu. Workers subject to family demands related to marriage. : 541110058 Page 25 . Mr. while making an observational study at GlobalGreen consultants. Explain the type of power they use often.Fall 2011. depending on their compatibility with the person's work and family life and their capacity to provide alternative satisfactions for the person. The availability of coercive power also varies across organizations. The presence of unions and organizational policies on employee treatment can weaken this power base significantly. These demands become more or less stressful. people have personal demands related to non-work organizational commitments such as religious and public service organizations. Those comfortable with participative leadership may feel restrained by a directive style. or to transfer. Mr. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also give them warnings regarding suspension etc. Dutta belongs to. Formal Power: It is based on the position of an individual in an organization. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/ her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. He frequently loses his temper. Such coercive power is the extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people. or even recommend the firing of a subordinate who does not act as desired. This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. She makes the following observation about two key people in the organization. Q. 2.

compliments. Thus this type of power has the following elements: · · · It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain. Legitimate power represents a special kind of power a manager has because subordinates believe it is legitimate for a person occupying the managerial position to have the right to command. others become dependant on them. Information Power: This type of power is derived from access to and control over information. or enriched jobs. Reward Power: The opposite of coercive power is reward power. In an organization one can exercise power over another if they have the power to dismiss. 3. Although all managers have some access to rewards. 2. the more information would be accessed by managers. : 541110058 Page 26 . (For example. managers have access to data that subordinates do not have). 4. or overtime work. Legitimate power. is not limited to the power to coerce and reward. Legitimate Power: The third base of “position” power is legitimate power. It is based on the application. or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs.Fall 2011. The lack of this is legitimacy will result in authority not being accepted by subordinates. Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. MBA-1 Semester 1. personal time off. or the threat of application. Coercive Power: The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. or formal authority . Normally the higher the level. Reward power is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. demote another assuming that the job is valuable to the person on whom power is being unleashed. success in accessing and utilizing rewards to achieve influence varies according to the skills of the manager. It encompasses the acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization. equipment purchases. the generation of frustration through restriction of movement. the boss may have the formal authority to approve or deny such employee requests as job transfers. promotions. Examples of such rewards include money.It stems from the extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior. When people have needed information. however. suspend. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. For example.

but needs. not absolute. Expert power is relative. This is one of the reasons why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather using just one. since. MBA-1 Semester B. experience. · Dependency. When an individual possess anything that others require but that which alone the individual controls. rational persuasion. Expert power is the ability to control another person’s behavior by virtue of possessing knowledge. gain power over them. he / she can make others dependent and. the greater the power A has over B. those individuals or groups who can absorb an organization’s uncertainty will be perceived as controlling an important resource. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes. through the individual’s efforts. : 541110058 Page 27 . or judgment that the other person lacks. the thing(s) you control must be perceived as being important. Rational persuasion is the ability to control another’s behavior.Fall 2011. However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge or skills than his/ her boss. Charismatic Power is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. the second proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is dependent heavily on the juniors for technologically oriented support. Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions. demonstrate follower sensitivity. Three bases of personal power are expertise. It also explains why individuals in general aspire to financial independence. etc. A subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power because the boss ordinarily knows more about what is to be done or how it is to be done than does the subordinate. Three factors are responsible for dependency. Personal Power Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position. then. In this age of technology driven environments. and reference. is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. Organizations actively seek to avoid uncertainty and hence. Dependency: The Key to Power The General Dependency Equation is as follows: · The greater B’s dependency on A. take personal risks. They are as follows: · Importance To create dependency. therefore.

MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. The top management decides to start the e. They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of window to truth’ To start implementing. · Reaction can be both positive and negative. · Status quo is challenged. they frequently call meetings of employees.) to deal with shifting political current. Theories of Change This section will orient you towards various theories of change. Characteristics: · It is deliberate.Fall 2011. · Focuses on long-term change. Let’s start with Force Field Analysis theory. · Political nature of organization (changes in internal control structures. this change. etc. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain the perspective of change.) where organizations attempt to redefine their relationships with changing social and political environment. The forces for change: · Organization-environment relationship (merger.edition of the magazine. etc. Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context. strategic alliances. · Velocity of change depends on the degree or level of significance. [10] Organizational Change: Now let us discuss the various characteristics of organizational change along with the forces responsible for this change. · Organizational life cycle (changes in culture and structure of organization’s evolution from birth through growth towards maturity).6 “Fashion4Now” is a famous and old magazine. systematic and well thought of. : 541110058 Page 28 . MBA-1 Semester Q.

Refreezing: At this stage. These are as follows: 1. MBA-1 Semester Force Field Analysis theory Lewin (1951) proposed a three step sequential model of change process: Unfreezing At this stage. Schien has suggested some measures which are quite helpful in undertaking unfreezing process. identification and internalization (Rao and Hari Krishna 2002). felt need to improve the style of work. 3. Internalization occurs when individuals are forced to encounter a situation that calls for new behavior. Therefore. There is a tendency that individuals revert back gradually to their old behaviors. It is facilitated by environmental pressure such as increased competition. the forces. The physical removal of the individuals being changed from their accustomed routines. and social relationships. in the absence of suitable reinforcement. 4. technology and people. are reduced by refuting the present attitude and behavior to create a perceived need for something new. Identification occurs when individuals recognize one among various models provided in the environment that is most suitable to their personality. actions are taken to sustain the drive for change and to facilitate the institutionalization process of the change even in a day-to-day routine of the organizations. Changing/Moving: This stage involves a shift in behavior of organizations by modifying system. This phase can be explained in terms of compliance. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. etc. Demeaning and humiliating experiences to help individuals to see their old attitudes or behavior as unworthy and think to be motivated to change. The undermining and destruction of social support. reinforcement is necessary for the internalization of new behavior. which they were displaying before the change. the desired outcomes are positively reinforced and extra support is provided to overcome the difficulties. : 541110058 Page 29 . sources of information. Here. declining productivity and performance. 2. process. which maintain the status quo in the organizational behavior.Fall 2011. Compliance or force occurs when individuals are forced to change whether by reward or by punishment. The consistent linking of reward with willingness to change and of punishment with lack of willingness to change.

2) Consultation with the expert: It is the phase where the organization consults with the experts in the same field to generate the ideas for improvement of the situation. It emphasizes on the significance of data collection and diagnosis prior to action planning and implementation and careful evaluation of the actions. technology and the environment of the organization. At this stage an open and collaborative atmosphere is intended to be set up. At this stage. specific actions are taken depending on the culture. planned change is a cyclical process in which initial research about organizations provides the data to guide the subsequent action to bring the required changes. This is the beginning of the movement process (refer to Lewin’s model). process observation.Fall 2011. 5) Joint diagnosis of the problem: At this point. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. the diagnostic data is fed back to the client usually with a group or work team meeting. This model describes change in eight steps: 1) Problem identification: It starts with the identification of one or a combination of problems in the organization and consequent requirement of bringing change in organizational practices. The four basic modes of data gathering are interview. 6) Joint action planning: The consultant and the client then jointly decide on the further action. The consultant provides the client with all the necessary data. the clients and the expert jointly decide whether they want to work on the identified problems. 4) Feedback to key client or group: Because action research is a collaborative activity. : 541110058 Page 30 . MBA-1 Semester Action Research model: Action research model is another model of planned change. 3) Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis: This stage is usually completed by the expert often with the organizational members’ help. questionnaires and organizational performance data. According to this model.

data must also be gathered after the action has taken place. Strategies for Change Management According to Bennis. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior Roll No. MBA-1 Semester 7) Action: This stage involves actual change from one organizational state to another. It may include new methods and procedures. : 541110058 Page 31 . Change is based on the communication of information and the proffering of incentives.Fall 2011. Data gathering after action: Since action research is a cyclical process. Benne and Chin (1969). reorganizing structures and work designs. and new behaviors. four basic strategies can be adopted to manage change: Empirical-Rational People are rational and will follow their self-interest once a change is revealed to them.

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