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Purpose: To find out if the amount of centripetal force needed to keep a body in orbit depends on the orbital radius (length of string). III. Hypothesis: If the orbital radius is increased, then the amount of centripetal force increases. The centripetal force increases because the further an object is from the source of force, the greater the force has to be to keep it moving at a constant velocity. IV. Variables: Independent (manipulated): length of string / orbital radius Dependant (responding): tension of string Controlled: mass and velocity

V. Procedure: a. Materials i. Two Meter Sticks ii. String with Plastic Tube and Rubber Stopper Attached iii. Tape iv. Logger Pro Force Probe v. Computer with Logger Pro Software b. Data Collection i. Gather materials. ii. Use tape to attach plastic tube to meter stick. iii. Connect the force probe to the end of the string opposite from rubber stopper. iv. Zero the force probe. v. Hold the force probe firmly to the meter stick at a selected distance so the orbital radius stays constant. Distances used were: .68m, .74m, .80m, and .90m. vi. Measure the radius of the string (from rubber stopper to the plastic tube). vii. Swing the rubber stopper in circular motion above head. viii. Count the number of rotations in a 10 second interval. ix. Collect average force data with Logger Pro over 10second interval. circumference × rotations x. Calculate velocity for selected radius. Velocity = time xi. Choose a different radius and calculate necessary rotations in a 10 second interval to 10sec onds × velocity maintain the same velocity of initial radius trial. rotations = radius × π 2 xii. Repeat steps v-x for four different radius measurements. c. Graphing in Excel i. Enter Radius and average Force in two separate columns. ii. Highlight radius and average force data and create a graph. iii. Label the x-axis with “Radius (m)” and the y-axis with “Force (N)” iv. Add a trend line v. Create an adjusted graph with Radiusn. vi. Find an n value that makes a linear graph and the R2 value less than or equal to 1. VI. Data

**Mason Trang Hour 5 December 11, 2008
**

Mass (g) 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.4 Radius (m) 0.68 0.74 0.8 0.9 Force (N) 1.0145 0.8755 0.8072 0.7204

**Mason Trang Hour 5 December 11, 2008 VII.Calculations for Data Velocity =
**

circumference × rotations = time

π 2 74cm × 17rotations π 2 74cm × 17rotations = 10sec onds 10sec onds

**=790.42cm/s Velocity = 790.42cm/s
**

10sec onds × velocity Initial Radius. For r =74cm, rotations = radius × π 2

10seconds × 790cm /s =18.5 rotations For r =68cm, rotations = 68cm × π 2

** 10seconds × 790cm /s =15.7 rotations For r =80cm, rotations = 80cm × π 2
**

10seconds × 790cm /s =14 rotations For r =90cm, rotations = 90cm × π 2

VIII.Conclusions: The collected data shows that there is a relationship between the orbital radius of an object and its centripetal force. The collected data and graph show that the radius is inverse cubically proportional to centripetal force. So as the radius increases and mass and velocity remain the same, the centripetal force will decrease. The hypothesis was incorrect because as the radius of an objects circular motion is increased, the centripetal force decreases. Comparing the findings with the centripetal force formula (F=mv2/r), they are not correct. The findings showed 1/r3, while the formula would simplify to F=1/r when only factoring radius. It took a while to figure out the best, accurate method to doing this experiment. The data collection could have been improved the force probe was taped to the meter stick at each radius length. It would have taken longer to attach the force probe and remove it for each radius setting. Also, the rubber stopper was difficult to rotate at an exact horizontal. The velocities in the experiment were approximate and were difficult to get exactly a certain amount of rotations in 10 seconds for each radius setting. If there was a device that could keep the rubber stopper at an exact constant velocity, it could increase the accuracy of this experiment. It would be easier to time the stopper with some type of photo gate probe that it could orbit through. Also, if more trials for more radii were conducted, the accuracy could have been improved.

**Mason Trang Hour 5 December 11, 2008
**

Design: Hypothesis: 3 Hypothesis is complete and includes and if… then…. Because statement that is clear and logical. Formulates a focused problem/research question and identifies relevant variables Designs a method for the effective control of variables Develops a method that allows for the collection of sufficient relevant data 2 Hypothesis is incomplete or vague, but still includes if… then… because statement that is clear and logical. Formulates a problem/research question that is incomplete or identifies only some relevant variables Designs a method that makes some attempt to control the variables. Develops a method for the collection of insufficient relevant data 1 Hypothesis is unclear or illogical; does not follow the if…then… because statement. Does not identify a problem/research question AND does not identify any relevant variables Designs a method that does not control the variables. Develops a method that does not allow for any relevant data to be collected

Define the problem and select variables

Controlling Variables Developing a method for collection of data

Data collection and Processing: 3 Recording Raw Data Records appropriate quantitative and associated qualitative data, including units and uncertainties where relevant. Processing Raw Data Processes the quantitative raw data correctly Presenting processed data Presents processed data appropriately and where relevant includes errors and uncertainties

2 Records appropriate quantitative and associated qualitative raw data, but with some mistakes or omissions. Processes quantitative raw data, but with some mistakes and/or omissions. Presents processed data appropriately, but with some mistakes and/or omissions 2 States a conclusion based on reasonable interpretation of the data. Indentifies some weaknesses and limitations, but the evaluation is weak or missing. Suggests only superficial improvements

1 Does not record any appropriate quantitative raw data or raw data is incomprehensible. No processing of raw data is carried out or major mistakes are made in processing. Presents processed data inappropriately or incomprehensibly.

Conclusion and Evaluation 3 Concluding States a conclusion, with justification, based on reasonable interpretation of the data. Evaluating procedures Evaluates weaknesses and limitations

1 States no conclusion or the conclusion is based on an unreasonable interpretation of the data. Identifies irrelevant weaknesses and limitations. Suggests unrealistic improvements

Improving the Investigation

Suggests realistic improvements in respect of identified weaknesses

**Mason Trang Hour 5 December 11, 2008
**

and limitations Manipulative Skills: 3 Following instructions Follows instructions accurately, adapting to new circumstances (seeking assistance when required) Carrying out techniques Competent and methodical in the use of a range of techniques and equipment. Working Safely Pays attention to safety issues Communicates Results: 3 Scientific language Scientific terms are accurately and appropriately applied in report Grammar The application of grammar and conventions do not get in the way of understanding the results of the experiment.

2 Follows instructions but requires assistance

1 Rarely follow instructions or requires constant supervision Rarely competent in the use of a range of techniques and equipment Rarely pays attention to safety issues.

Usually competent and methodical in the use of a range of techniques and equipment Usually pays attention to safety issues

2 Inconsistent use of accurate and appropriate scientific terms throughout the report. The application of grammar and conventions get in the way of completely understanding the experiment or results

1 Little understanding of scientific terms The application of grammar and conventions make it hard to follow the explanations and/or the results of the experiment.

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