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1. A piece of copper is dropped into a beaker of water. If the water’s temperature rises, what
happens to the temperature of copper?
Under what conditions are the water and copper in thermal equilibrium?
Solution:
The copper’s temperature drops and the water temperature rises until both temperatures
are the same. Then the metal and the water are in thermal equilibrium.
2. Markings to indicate length are placed on a steel tape in a room that has a temperature of
22°C. Are measurements made with the tape on a day when the temperature is 27°C too
long, too short, or accurate? Defend your answer.
Solution:
The measurements made with the heated steel tape will be too short—but only by a factor
of of the measured length.
3.
Solution:
The sphere expands when heated, so that it no longer fits through the ring. With the
sphere still hot, you can separate the sphere and ring by heating the ring. This more
surprising result occurs because the thermal expansion of the ring is not like the inflation
of a bloodpressure cuff. Rather, it is like a photographic enlargement; every linear
dimension, including the hole diameter, increases by the same factor. The reason for this
is that the atoms everywhere, including those around the inner circumference, push away
from each other. The only way that the atoms can accommodate the greater distances is
for the circumference—and corresponding diameter—to grow. This property was once
used to fit metal rims to wooden wagon and horsebuggy wheels. If the ring is heated and
the sphere left at room temperature, the sphere would pass through the ring with more
space to spare.
5 ×10
−5
4. Metal lids on a glass jars can often be loosed by running hot water over them. How is that
possible?
Solution:
The coefficient of expansion of metal is larger than that of glass. When hot water is run
over the jar, both the glass and the lid expand, but at different rates. Since all dimensions
expand, there will be a certain temperature at which the inner diameter of the lid has
expanded more than the top of the jar, and the lid will be easier to remove.
5. Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of –195.81°C at atmospheric pressure. Express this
temperature in
(a) degrees Fahrenheit and (b) Kelvin
Solution:
(a)
(b)
6. What are the following temperature on the Kelvin scale:
a) 86 ºC
b) 78 ºF
c) 100 ºC
d) – 459 ºF
Solution:
a) 86 ºC = 359 K
b) 78 ºF = 299 K
c) 100 ºC = 173 K
d) – 459 ºF = 0.37 K
7. What would be the final temperature of a mixture of 50 g of 20 ºC water and 50 g of
40 ºC water?
Solution:
Heat gained by the cooler water = heat lost by the warmer water
mc∆θ = mc∆θ
(θ  20º) = (40º  θ)
θ = 30º
T
F
=
9
5
T
C
+ 32.0°F =
9
5
−195.81 ( )+ 32.0 = −320°F
T = T
C
+ 273.15 = −195.81 + 273.15 = 77.3 K
8. How much heat is required to raised the temperature of 250 ml of water from 20.0 ºC to
35.0 ºC. How much heat is lost by the water as it cools back down to 20.0 ºC?
(Given, c = 1.00 cal/g. ºC)
Solution:
(a) Q = mc ∆T
= (250 g) (1.00 cal/g. ºC) (15.0 ºC) = 3.75 x 10
3
cal = 15.7 kJ
(b) Q = mc ∆T
= (250 g) (1.00 cal/g. ºC) (15.0 ºC) =  3.75 x 10
3
cal =  15.7 kJ
9. A 1.50kg iron horseshoe initially at 600ºC is dropped into a bucket containing 20.0kg of
water at 25 ºC. What is the final temperature?
(c
w
= 4186 J/kg. ºC, c
i
= 448 J/kg. ºC .)
Solution:
10. How much heat is given up when 20.0 g of steam at 100.0 ºC is condensed and cooled to
20.0 ºC?
(Given, c = 1.00 cal/g. ºC, L = 540 cal/g)
Solution:
Heat change = condensation heat change + heat change of water during cooling
= mL
v
+ mc ∆T
= [(20g) (540 cal/g)] + [(1.00 cal/g. ºC) (20g) (20 ºC – 100 ºC)
=  12 400 cal
= 12.4 kcal.
11. How much energy is required to change a 40.0g ice cube from ice at 10.0 ºC to steam at
110 ºC?
Q
cold
= −Q
hot
mc∆T ( )
water
= − mc∆T ( )
iron
20.0 kg 4 186 J kg ⋅ °C ( ) T
f
− 25.0°C
( )
= − 1.50 kg ( ) 448 J kg ⋅ °C ( ) T
f
− 600°C
( )
T
f
= 29.6°C
(L
f
= 3.33 x 10
5
J/kg, c
i
= 2090 J/kg. ºC, L
v
= 2.26 x 10
6
J/kg, c
w
= 4186 J/kg. ºC and c
s
=
2010 J/kg. ºC)
Solution:
The heat needed is the sum of the following terms:
Thus, we have
12. The PETRONAS CARIGALI pipeline is 1 300 km long, reaching from Duyung Bay to
the port of Miri. It experiences temperatures from –73°C to +35°C.
How much does the steel pipeline expand because of the difference in temperature?
(The coefficient of linear expansion, α= 11 x 10
6
(°C)
1
)
Solution:
13. The active element of a certain laser is made of glass rod 30.0cm long by 1.50cm in
diameter. If the temperature of the rod increases by 65.0°C, what is the increase in; (a) its
length (b) its volume?
Assume that the average coefficient of linear expansion is 9.00 x 10
6
(°C)
1
.
Solution:
(a)
(b)
14. A Flat bimetallic strip consists of aluminum riveted to a strip of iron. When heated, the
strip will bend. Which metal will be on the outside of the curve? Why?
(α
Al
= 25 x 10
6
(°C)
1
, α
iron
= 12 x 10
6
(°C)
1
Q
needed
= heat to reach melting point ( )+ heat to melt ( )
+ heat to reach boiling point ( )+ heat to vaporize ( )+ heat to reach 110°C ( )
Q
needed
= 0.040 0 kg 2 090 J kg ⋅ °C ( ) 10.0°C ( )+ 3.33 × 10
5
J kg
( )
+ 4 186 J kg ⋅ °C ( ) 100°C ( )+ 2.26 ×10
6
J kg
( )
+ 2 010 J kg ⋅ °C ( ) 10.0°C ( )
Q
needed
= 1.22 × 10
5
J
∆L = α L
i
∆T = 11 ×10
−6
°C ( )
−1
1 300 km ( ) 35°C − −73°C ( ) [ ]= 1.54 km
∆L = α L
i
∆T = 9.00 ×10
−6
°C
−1
30.0 cm ( ) 65.0°C ( )= 0.176 mm
∆V = 3αV
i
∆T = 3 9.00 ×10
−6
°C
−1
( )
30.0 π ( ) 1.50 ( )
2
4
cm
3

\

¹

65.0°C ( ) = 0.093 0 cm
3
.
Solution:
When heated, the aluminum expands more than the iron, because the expansion
coefficient of a aluminum is larger than that of iron. Thus the aluminum will be on the
outside of the curve.
15. A cylinder of diameter 1.000 00 cm at 30.0 ºC is to be slid into a hole in a steel plate. The
hole has a diameter of 0.999 70 cm at 30.0 ºC. To what temperature must the plate be
heated? (Given, α
steel
= 1.1 x 10
5
ºC
1
).
Solution:
The plate will expand in the same way whether or not there is a hole in it. Hence, the hole
expands in the same way a circle of steel filling it would expand.
So, the diameter change,
∆L = ( 1.000 00 – 0. 999 70 )cm = 0.000 30 cm.
Using, ∆L = αL
o
∆T
Then, ∆T = 0.000 30 cm / [(1.1 x 10
5
ºC
1
)( 0.999 70 cm)] = 27.0 ºC
The temperature of the plate must be 30.0 + 27.0 = 57.0 ºC
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