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DAFTAR OBAT AMAN DAN BERBAHAYA UNTUK IBU HAMIL DAN MENYUSUI

Disusun kembali oleh dr.Abu Hana dari sumber URL : http://www.kellymom.com/health/meds/aap-approved-meds.html

Kelompok Analgetik, NSAIDS, Obat Batuk dan Pilek, Anti Alergi dan Asma, Anestesi

Obat untuk Penghilang Rasa Sakit (Pain Killer) AAP Kategori Risiko Nama Obat approved?* Kehamilan** Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Approved B C (1st, 2nd trim.) Aspirin Caution D (3rd trim.) Approved Azapropazone (Rheumox) Butalbital (Fioricet, Fiorinal, Bancap, Twodyne) Butorphanol (Stadol)

Risiko Notes Menyusui** L1 L3 L2 1

NR Approved

D B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.)

L3 L3

Celecoxib (Celebrex)) Codeine (in Tylenol #3, #4) Colchicine Diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren) Fentanyl (Sublimaze) Flurbiprofen (Ansaid, Froben, Ocufen) Hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin) Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) Ibuprofen (Advil, Nuprin, Motrin, Pediaprofen) Indomethacin (Indocin) Ketorolac (Toradol, Acular) Meperidine (Demerol) Methadone (Dolophine) Morphine (Duramorph, Infumorph, Epimorph, MS Contin) Nalbuphine (Nubain) Naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Naproxen, Aleve) Nefopam (Acupan) Oxycodone (Tylox, Percodan,Oxycontin, Roxicet, Endocet, Roxiprin, Percocet) Pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron) Piroxicam (Feldene) Propoxyphene (Darvocet N, Propacet, Darvon) Rofecoxib (Vioxx) Secobarbital (Seconal) Tolmetin (Tolectin) Tramadol HCL (Ultram, Ultracet)

NR Approved Approved NR Approved NR NR NR Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved NR Approved Approved NR

C C D B B B (1st, 2nd trim.) C (3rd trim.) B C B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B B B B B B

L2 L3 L4 L2 L2 L2 L3 L3 L1 L3 L2 L2; L3 early postpartum L3 L3 L2 L3; L4 for chronic use NR L3

4 5

6 7 8

10

NR Approved Approved

B B C

L2 L2 L2 L3 L3 L3 11 12 13 14

Withdrawn from the market Approved D Approved C NR C

Valdecoxib (Bextra) Withdrawn from the market more * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001.

Approved: (Table 6) Maternal Medication Usually Compatible With Breastfeeding Caution: (Table 5) Drugs That Have Been Associated With Significant Effects on Some Nursing Infants and Should Be Given to Nursing Mothers With Caution NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by the AAP.

** Per Medications and Mothers Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2004 edition). Lactation Risk Categories L1 (safest) L2 (safer) L3 (moderately safe) L4 (possibly hazardous) L5 (contraindicated) Pregnancy Risk Categories A (controlled studies show no risk) B (no evidence of risk in humans) C (risk cannot be ruled out) D (positive evidence of risk) X (contraindicated in pregnancy)

NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale. 1. Aspirin use is discouraged in children and nursing mothers due to the risk of Reyes syndrome and internal bleeding. 2. Fioricet (Fiorinal, Bancap, Two-dyne) contains acetaminaphen or asprin, caffeine, and butalbital. Per Hale, baby should be observed for sedation. 3. Hale suggests weakened or premature infants be observed for sedation and apnea. 4. Hale suggests newborns be observed for sedation, apnea, constipation. 5. Per Hale, use of frequent, higher dose may result in infant sedation. 6. Per Hale, Meperidine use during labor or early postpartum has been associated with sedation, poor sucking reflex, and neurobehavioral delay in infants. 7. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation, respiratory depression, addiction, withdrawal syndrome. 8. Per Hale, higher doses may result in infant sedation. 9. Per Hale, should be used with caution due to its long half-life and its effect on babys cardiovascular system, kidneys and GI tract; short-term, infrequent or occasional use is not necessarily incompatible with breastfeeding. 10. Roxicet, Endocet, Roxiprin, Percocet also contain acetaminophen. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation. 11. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation. 12. Per Hale, observe infant for GI cramping, distress, diarrhea. 13. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation. 14. Per Hale, observe infant for sedation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs) [more] AAP Kategori Nama Generik Nama Dagang approved?* Risiko

Risiko Menyusui**

Azapropazone (apazone) Rheumox Dipyrone (banned in the US & UK) Flufenamic acid Ibuprofen -

Approved Approved Approved

Kehamilan** B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B B C

L2 NR NR L1

Advil, Nuprin, Motrin, Approved Pediaprofin Indocin Approved

Indomethacin

L3

Ketorolac Mefenamic acid Naproxen Phenylbutazone Piroxicam Suprofen Tolmetin Steroid Methylprednisolone [ high dosage methylprednisolone] Prednisolone Prednisone Obat Asma Dyphylline Terbutaline Theophylline

Toradol, Acular Ponstan, Ponstel Anaprox, Naprosyn, Naproxen, Aleve Butazolidine Feldene Profenal Tolectin Solu-Medrol, DepoMedrol, Medrol

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

L2 NR L3 L4 (for chronic use) NR L2 NR L3 [contents] L2 L2 L2 [contents]

Approved

C C C

Approved Deltasone, Meticorten, Approved Orasone

Dilor, Lufyllin, Dyphylline Bricanyl, Brethine Aminophylline, Quibron, Theo-Dur

Approved Approved Approved

C B C

L3 L2 L3

Analgetik Narkotik [more] Butorphanol Codeine Stadol Tylenol #3, #4 B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) Approved C Approved L3 L3

Fentanyl Meperidine Methadone Morphine Propoxyphene

Sublimaze Demerol

Approved Approved

B B B B C

Dolophine Approved Morphine Approved Darvocet N, Propacet, Approved Darvon

L2 L2 L3 (if used early postpartum) L3 L3 L2

Obat Batuk AAP approved?* Codeine yes Dextromethorphan not reviewed Guaifenesin not reviewed Dekongestan (Obat Pilek) AAP Nama Obat approved?* Phenylephrine not reviewed Nama Obat Risiko Menyusui** L3 (moderately safe) L1 (safest) L2 (safer) Risiko Menyusui**

L3 (moderately safe) L3 (moderately safe) for acute use Pseudoephedrine yes L4 (possibly hazardous) for chronic use due to (Sudafed, Actifed) potential for decreasing milk supply * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001. ** Per Medications and Mothers Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2006 edition) Nasal Sprays (Spray Hidung) AAP Nama Obat Risiko Menyusui** approved?* Beclomethasone (Vanceril, Beclovent, not reviewed L2 (safer) Beconase, Vancenase) Cromlyn sodium not reviewed L1 (safest) (Nasalcrom) Fluticasone (Flonase) not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) Mometasone not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) (Nasonex) Phenylephrine (in some forms of Sinex not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) and Neo-Synephrine) Triamcinolone not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) Acetonide (Nasacort) Antihistamin (Anti Alergi)

Nama Obat

Brompheniramine L3 (moderately safe) Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton) not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) CTM Cetirizine (Zyrtec) not reviewed L2 (safer) Dexbrompheniramine maleate yes not reviewed with d-isoephedrine Diphenhydramine not reviewed L2 (safer) (Benadryl) Doxylamine not reviewed L4 (possibly hazardous) Fexofenadine yes L3 (moderately safe) (Allegra) Loratadine (Claritin) yes L2 (safer) Terfenadine yes not reviewed (Seldane) Triprolidine (Actidil, yes L1 (safest) Actifed) * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001. ** Per Medications and Mothers Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2002 edition)

AAP approved?* not reviewed

Risiko Menyusui**

Obat Anestesi Nama Obat Local anesthetics Articaine (Septocaine) Bupivacaine (Marcaine) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) Mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Polocaine) Procaine HCL (Novocaine) General anesthetics Halothane (Fluothane) Isoflurane (Forane) Ketamine Methohexital (Brevital) Nitrous oxide AAP approved?* NR NR Approved NR NR Approved NR NR Approved NR Kategori Risiko Kehamilan** C C C C C B Risiko Notes Menyusui** NR L2 L2 L3 L3 L2 NR NR L3 L3 more 1 more more

more

Sevoflurane (Ultane) NR Thiopental (Pentothal) Approved Other medications often used during anesthesia Sedatives Diazepam (Valium) Concern

B C

L3 L3

Midazolam (Versed) Concern D Propofol (Diprivan) NR B Triazolam (Halcion) NR X Narcotic Analgesics Alfentanil (Alfenta) NR C L2 Fentanyl (Sublimaze) Approved B L2 Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) NR C L3 Morphine Approved B L3 Reversal Medication Flumazenil (Romazicon) NR NR 2 C Naloxone (Narcan) NR NR 3 C Steroids Decadron (Dexamethasone) NR NR more C Stimulants Epinephrine (Adrenaline) NR C L1 Anti-nausea Promethazine (Phenergan) NR C L2 * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001.

L3; L4 for chronic use L3 more L2 L3

Approved: (Table 6) Maternal Medication Usually Compatible With Breastfeeding Concern: (Table 4) Drugs for Which the Effect on Nursing Infants Is Unknown but May Be of Concern Caution: (Table 5) Drugs That Have Been Associated With Significant Effects on Some Nursing Infants and Should Be Given to Nursing Mothers With Caution NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by the AAP.

** Per Medications and Mothers Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2004 edition). Lactation Risk Categories L1 (safest) L2 (safer) L3 (moderately safe) L4 (possibly hazardous) L5 (contraindicated) Pregnancy Risk Categories A (controlled studies show no risk) B (no evidence of risk in humans) C (risk cannot be ruled out) D (positive evidence of risk) X (contraindicated in pregnancy)

NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale.

1. Isoflurane (Forane) is used for c-sections and directly in newborns. Induction of and recovery from isoflurane anesthesia are rapid, so the majority of the medication is out of the body (and milk) very quickly. More here. 2. Flumazenil (Romazicon) is used directly in children aged 12 months and up. 3. Naloxone (Narcan) is used directly in newborns and children. 4. Many forms of Robitussin, Delsym and Benylin are considered compatible with breastfeeding. Always check the active ingredients, as there are many versions.

Kelompok Antasida, Antibiotik, Antivirus, Antijamur, Kontrasepsi, Obat jantung & Hipertensi, Vitamin, dll

Nama Generik Antasida Cimetidine (Antacid) Cisapride (GI tract stimulant) Domperidone (used for nausea & vomiting, stimulates lactation) [more] Antibiotika Amoxicillin Aztreonam Cefadroxil Cefazolin Cefotaxime Cefoxitin Cefprozil Ceftazidime Ceftriaxone Ciprofloxacin [more] Clindamycin Erythromycin Fleroxacin Gentamicin Kanamycin Moxalactam

Nama Dagang

AAP approved?* Approved Approved Approved

Tagamet Propulsid Motilum

Kategori Risiko Risiko Kehamilan** Menyusui** [contents] B L2 C L2 L1 [contents] L1 L2 L1 L1 L2 L1 L1 L1 L2 L3 L3 L1 L3 early postnatal NR L2 L2 NR

Larotid, Amoxil Azactam Ultracef, Duricef Ancef, Kefzol Claforan Mefoxin Cefzil Ceftazidime, Fortaz, Taxidime Rocephin Cipro Cleocin E-Mycin, Erytab, ERYC, Ilosone Garamycin Kebecil, Kantrex Moxam

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

B B B B B B C B B C B B C D -

Nitrofurantoin Ofloxacin Penicillin Streptomycin Sulbactam

Macrobid Floxin Streptomycin Gantrisin, AzoSulfisoxazole Gantrisin Achromycin, Tetracycline Sumycin, Terramycin Ticarcillin, Ticarcillin Ticar, Timentin Proloprim, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Trimpex Antikoagulan Bishydroxycoumarin (dicumarol) Coumadin, Warfarin Panwarfin Antikonvulsan (Anti kejang) Carbamazepine Tegretol, Epitol Ethosuximide Zarontin Magnesium sulfate Epsom salt Phenytoin Dilantin Depakene, Valproic acid Depakote Anti Jamur Fluconazole [more] Diflucan Nizoral Ketoconazole Shampoo, Nizoral Antivirus Acyclovir [more] Zovirax Alferon N, Interferon-alpha [more] Interferon Alpha Arthritis meds (see also: pain meds) Ridaura, Gold salts Myochrysine, Solganal Kontrasepsi, Hormon Estratab, Estradiol Permarin, Menest

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

B C B D C D B C

L2 L2 L1 L3 NR L2 L2 L1 L3 [contents]

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

D C C B D D C C

NR L2 [contents] L2 L4 L1 L2 L2 [contents] L2 L2 [contents] L2 L2 [contents]

Approved Approved

C C

Approved

L5 [contents] L3 (may interfere with milk

Approved

Clogestone

Contraceptive pill with estrogen/progesterone

Levonorgestrel

Preven, Seasonale, Norinyl, Norlestin, OrthoNovum, Ovral, Lunelle injection, OrthoEvra patch, etc. Norplant, Mirena, Plan B Provera, DepoProvera, Cycrin Enovid Crinone, Prometrium

Approved

production) NR

Approved

L3 (may interfere with milk production)

Approved

L2 L1 L4 (if used first 3 days postpartum) L2 L3

Medroxyprogesterone Norethynodrel Progesterone

Approved Approved Approved

D X -

[contents] Obat Diabetes Note: Insulin has not been reviewed by the AAP. Pregnancy risk category = B; Lactation risk category = L1. Oramide, Tolbutamide Approved D L3 Orinase [contents] Obat Diare Imodium, Pepto Diarrhea Control, Maalox Antidiarrheal Loperamide Caplets, Approved B L2 Kaopectate II Caplets, Immodium Advanced ** Note: Pepto-Bismol & Kaopectate (bismuth subsalicylate is the active ingredient in both) are not recommended for routine use by nursing moms, due to the association of salicylates with Reyes syndrome in children. [more] [contents] Diuretik (Peluruh Kencing) Dazamide, Acetazolamide Approved C L2 Diamox L4 (may Bendroflumethiazide Naturetin inhibit Approved D lactation) Chlorothiazide Hydrodiuril Approved D L3

Chlorthalidone Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)

Spironolactone Anti Muntah [more] Domperidone Motilum Anti Hipertensi, Obat Jantung Anti aritmia Norpace, Disopyramide Napamide Flecainide Tambocor Mexiletine Mexitil Pronestyl, Procainamide Procan Quinaglute, Quinidine Quinidex Anti Hipertensi Captopril Capoten

Hygroton Hydrodiuril, Esidrix, Oretic Aldactone

Approved Approved Approved Approved

D D D -

L3 L2 L2 [contents] L1 [contents] L2 L3 L2 L3 L2 L3 (if used after 30 days) L3

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

C C B C C

Approved

Diltiazem/Diltiazem HCL

Cardizem Sr, Dilacor-XR, Diltiazem, Cardizem CD Vasotec Apresoline Trandate, Normodyne Aldomet Toprol XL, Lopressor Loniten, Minodyl, Rogaine Corgard, Nadolol Adalat, Procardia Apsolox, SlowTrasicor, Trasicor Inderol

Approved

C C (1st trim.) D (2nd, 3rd trim.) C C C B C C C C

Enalapril/Enalapril Maleate Hydralazine Labetalol Methyldopa Metoprolol Minoxidil Nadolol Nifedipine Oxprenolol Propranolol

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

L2 L2 L2 L2 L3 L2 (topically) L3 (orally) L4 L2 NR L2

Sotalol Timolol Verapamil Cardiac stimulants

Betapace Blocadren Calan, Isoptin, Covera-HS

Approved Approved Approved

B C C

L3 L2 L2

Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps Laksan (Pelancar BAB) [more] Cascara/Cascara Sagrada Danthron Magnesium sulfate Epsom salt Senna Obat malaria Aralen, NovoChloroquine chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Pyrimethamine Daraprim Quinine Quinamm Medical Testing [more] Diatrizoate Fluorescein Gadopentetic (Gadolinium) Iohexol Omnipaque Iopanoic acid Telepaque Metrizamide Amipaque Metrizoate Isopaque Obat Migren [more] Sumatriptan Imitrex Obat Sedativ [more] Aquachloral, Chloral hydrate Noctec Methyprylon (withdrawn from use in US & Canada) Bromide Secobarbital Seconal Obat Tidur Zolpidem/Zolpidem Tartrate Ambien Obat Anti Tiroid [more] Carbimazole Methimazole (active metabolite Tapazole of carbimazole) Propylthiouracil PTU Digoxin

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

C C B C C C D C C B D B B C C D D B D D D

L2 [contents] L3 NR L1 L3 [contents] L3 L2 L4 L2 [contents] NR L3 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 [contents] L3 [contents] L3 NR L5 L3 [contents] L3 [contents] L3 L3 L2

Thiouracil Levothyroxine Obat TBC Cycloserine Ethambutol Isoniazid Rifampin VITAMIN [more] B-1 (thiamin) B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) B-6 (pyridoxine)

Synthroid, Levothroid, Thyroid, LevoT, Levoxyl Seromycin Ethambutol, Myambutol INH, Laniazid Rifadin, Rimactane Calciferol, Delta-d Soriatane Zyloprim, Lopurin Belladonna, Atropine Rheumox

Approved Approved

NR L1 [contents] L3 L2 L3 L2 [contents] NR L1 L2; L4 in high doses (may inhibit lactation) L3 (do not overdose) L1 L1 L1 [contents] NR L3 L2 NR L3 L2 L2 NR L2 NR NR L4

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

C B C C A A

D, vitamin Folic acid K-1, vitamin (Phytonadione) Riboflavin/B2 Lain-lain Acitretin (Anti-psoriasis) Alcohol/Ethanol [more] Allopurinol Antimony Atropine (Anticholinergic, drying agent) Azapropazone/apazone (Antirheumatic) Baclofen (muscle relaxant) Barbiturate

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

A A (1st, 2nd trim.) C (3rd trim.) C A D C C C B D

Lioresal, Atrofen Vivarin, NoDoz, Caffeine [more] Coffee Carbetocin (Antihemorrhagic) Duratocin Chloroform Cisplatin (Anti-cancer) Platinol

Dapsone (Antileprosy) Hydroxychloroquine (Antirheumatic, lupus) Iodides Iodine Iodine (povidone-iodine, eg, in a vaginal douche) Ivermectin (Antiparasitic) Nalidixic acid (Urinary Antiinfective) Norsteroids Pyridostigmine (Muscle stimulant)

Avlosulfon, DDS Plaquenil Mectizan NegGram

Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved

C C C B

L4 L2 NR NR NR L3 L4

NR Approved Mestinon, Approved C L2 Regonol Transderm Scopolamine (Motion sickness) Approved C L3 Scope Sulfapyridine Dagenan NR Approved Timolol (glaucoma med) Blocadren Approved D L3 * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk, revised September 2001.

Approved: (Table 6) Maternal Medication Usually Compatible With Breastfeeding Caution: (Table 5) Drugs That Have Been Associated With Significant Effects on Some Nursing Infants and Should Be Given to Nursing Mothers With Caution NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by the AAP.

** Per Medications and Mothers Milk by Thomas Hale, PhD (2004 edition). Lactation Risk Categories L1 (safest) L2 (safer) L3 (moderately safe) L4 (possibly hazardous) L5 (contraindicated) Pregnancy Risk Categories A (controlled studies show no risk) B (no evidence of risk in humans) C (risk cannot be ruled out) D (positive evidence of risk) X (contraindicated in pregnancy)

NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale

Keamanan obat pada kehamilan


Diterbitkan Juni 3, 2008 Artikel , Gaya Hidup , Health , Informasi , Kedokteran , Kesehatan , Reviews 42 Komentar Tag:Artikel, Gaya Hidup, Hamil, Health, Informasi, Kedokteran, Kesehatan, Obat, Reviews, Wanita

Pada umumnya para ibu hamil akan memberitahu dokter saat berobat bahwa dirinya hamil sekian bulan. Demikian pula jika berobat saat menyusui (ASI bayinya. Informasi tersebut diberikan si ibu dengan harapan dokter akan memberikan obat yang aman bagi janin yang dikandungnya. Itupun tak jarang si ibu masih mananyakan kepada dokter apakah obat yang dgunakan benar-benar aman. Hal ini sangat wajar dan kita patut menghargainya. Di sisi lain, ketika seorang ibu hamil sakit adakalanya enggan ke dokter lantaran takut menggunakan obat. Alhasil keluhannya makin bertambah dan akhirnya datang juga ke dokter untuk berobat. Seorang dokter tentu sangat paham bahwa saat memberikan(meresepkan) obat bagi wanita hamil akan dipilihkan obat yang aman, baik dalam hal jenis obat (berdasarkan indeks keamanan obat), dosis maupun lamanya penggunaan. Selain itu akan dipertimbangkan pula aspek-aspek lain berdasarkan penyakitnya, misalnya: resiko penularan kepada anggota keluarga lain, dan pertimbangan lain terkait kondisi janin maupun si ibu sendiri. Pun manakala seorang dokter dihadapkan pada 2 pilihan sulit yang menyangkut life saving, aspek manfaat akan dikedepankan dibanding resiko yang bakal dihadapi baik bagi janin maupun ibunya. Sebagai contoh, seorang ibu hamil yang kebetulan menderita asma, justru seyogyanya segera berobat agar tidak mengalami sesak berkepanjangan yang justru tidak baik bagi janin karena beresiko terjadinya hipoksia (kekurangan oksigen) yang akan mempengaruhi pasokan oksigen bagi janin. INDEKS KEAMANAN OBAT PADA KEHAMILAN Hingga kini kita di Indonesia masih menggunakan kriteria keamanan obat bagi ibu hamil yang dilansir oleh FDA (Food and Drug Administration) sebagai pedoman dalam memberikan obat pada ibu hamil. Pada posting ini penulis hanya menampilkan garis-garis besar batasan keamanan obat bagi ibu hamil yang tersusun dalam 5 kategori (kategori A, B, C, D dan X) beserta contoh-contohnya agar diketahui khalayak dengan harapan dapat memberikan informasi yang bermanfaat. Kategori-kategori tersebut dibuat berdasarkan ada tidaknya (besar kecilnya) resiko terhadap sistem reproduksi, efek samping dan manfaat yag diharapkan. Obat Kategori A: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi (terkontrol) pada kehamilan tidak menunjukkan resiko bagi janin pada trimester 1 dan trimester berikutnya. Obat dalam kategori ini amat kecil kemungkinannya bagi keselamatan janin. Obat Kategori B: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi terhadap sistem reproduksi binatang percobaan tidak menunjukkan resiko bagi janin. Belum ada studi terkontrol pada wanita hamil

yang menunjukkan adanya efek samping, kecuali adanya penurunan fertilitas pada kehamilan trimester pertama, sedangkan pada trimester berikutnya tidak didapatkan bukti adanya resiko. Obat Kategori C: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi terhadap sistem reproduksi binatang percobaan menunjukkan adanya efek samping bagi janin. Sedangkan pada wanita hamil belum ada study terkontrol. Obat golongan ini hanya dapat dipergunakan jika manfaatnya lebih besar ketimbang resiko yang mungkin terjadi pada janin. Obat Kategoti D: adalah golongan obat yang menunjukkan adanya resiko bagi janin. Pada keadaan khusus obat ini digunakan jika manfaatnya kemungkinan lebih besar dibanding resikonya. Penggunaan obat golongan ini terutama untuk mengatasi keadaan yang mengancam jiwa atau jika tidak ada obat lain yang lebih aman. Obat Kategori X: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi terhadap binatang percobaan maupun pada manusia menunjukkan bukti adanya resiko bagi janin. Obat golongan ini tidak boleh dipergunakan (kontra indikasi) untuk wanita hamil, atau kemungkinan dalam keadaan hamil. CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI A (nama generik): Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Doxylamine, Ergocalciferol *masuk kategori D jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Folic acid *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi 0,8 mg per hari*, Hydroxocobalamine *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Liothyronine, Nystatin vaginal sup *masuk kategori C jika digunakan per oral dan topikal*, Pantothenic acid *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Potassium chloride, Potassium citrate, Potassium gluconate, Pyridoxine (vitamin B6), Riboflavin *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Thiamine (vitamin B1) *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Thyroglobulin, Thyroid hormones, Vitamin D *masuk kategori D jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*, Vitamin E *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI B (nama generik): Acetylcysteine, Acyclovir, Amiloride *masuk kategori D jika digunakan untuk hipertensi yang diinduksi oleh kehamilan*, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium lactate *topical*, Amoxicillin, Amphotericin B, Ampicillin, Atazanavir, Azatadine, Azelaic acid, Benzylpenicillin, Bisacodyl, Budesonide *inhalasi, nasal*, Buspiron, Caffeine, Carbenicillin, Camitine, Cefaclor, Cefadroxil, Cefalexin, Cefalotin, Cefamandole, Cefapirin, Cefatrizine, Cefazolin, Cefdinir, Cefditoren, Cefepime, Cefixime, Cefmetazole, Cefonicid, Cefoperazone, Ceforanide, Cefotaxime, Cefotetan disodium, Cefoxitin, Cefpodoxime, Cefprozil, Cefradine, Ceftazidime, Ceftibuten, Ceftizoxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime, Cetirizine, Chlorhexidine *mulut dan tenggorokan*, Chlorpenamine, Chlortalidone *masuk kategori D jika digunakan untuk hipertensi yang diinduksi oleh kehamilan*, Ciclacillin, Ciclipirox, Cimetidine,

Clemastine, Clindamycin, Clotrimazole, Cloxacillin, Clozapine, Colestyramine, . dll .. dll

buanyak CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI C (nama generik): Acetazolamide, Acetylcholine chloride, Adenosine, Albendazole, Albumin, Alclometasone, Allopurinol, Aluminium hydrochloride, Aminophylline, Amitriptyline, Amlodipine, Antazoline, Astemizole, Atropin, Bacitracin, Beclometasone, Belladonna, Benzatropine mesilate, Benzocaine, Buclizine, Butoconazole, Calcitonin, Calcium acetate, Calcium ascorbate, Calcium carbonate, Calcium chloride, Calcium citrate, Calcium folinate, Calcium glucoheptonade, Calcium gluconate, Calcium lactate, Calcium phosphate, Calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Capreomycin, Captopril, Carbachol, Carbidopa, Carbinoxamine, Chloral hydrate, Chloramphenicol, Chloroquine, Chlorothiazide, Chlorpromazine, Choline theophyllinate, Cidofovir, Cilastatin, Cinnarizine, Cyprofloxacin, Cisapride, Clarithromycin, Clinidium bromide, Clonidine, Co-trimoxazole, Codeine, Cyanocobalamin, Deserpidine, Desonide, Desoximetasone, Dexamethasone, Dextromethorphan, Digitoxin, Digoxin, Diltiazem, Dopamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Fluconazole, Fluocinolone, Fosinopril, Furosemide, Gemfibrozil, Gentamicin, Glibenclamide, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Griseofulvin, Hydralazine, Hydrocortisone, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, Isoniazid, Isoprenaline,

Isosorbid dinitrate, Ketoconazole, Ketotifen fumarate, Magaldrate, Mefenamic acid, Methyl

prednisolone, dll dll CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI D (nama generik): Amikacin, Amobarbital, Atenolol, Carbamazepine, Carbimazole, Chlordizepoxide, Cilazapril, Clonazepam, Diazepam, Doxycycline, Imipramine, Kanamycin, Lorazepam, Lynestrenol, Meprobamate, Methimazole, Minocycline, Oxazepam, Oxytetracycline, Tamoxifen, Tetracycline, Uracil, Voriconazole dll dll. CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI X (nama generik): Acitretin, Alprotadil *parenteral*, Atorvastatin, Bicalutamide, Bosentan, Cerivastatin disodium, Cetrorelix, Chenodeoxycholic acid, Chlorotrianisene, Chorionic gonadotrophin, Clomifen, Coumarin, Danazol, Desogestrel, Dienestrol, Diethylstilbestrol, Dihydro ergotamin, Dutasteride, Ergometrin, Ergotamin, Estazolam, Etradiol, Estramustine, Estriol succinate, Estrone, Estropipate, Ethinyl estradiol, Etretinate, Finasteride, Fluorescein *parenteral*, Flurouracil, Fluoxymesterone, Flurazepam, Fluvastatin, Floritropin, Ganirelix, Gestodene, Goserelin, Human menopausal gonadotrophin, Iodinated glycerol, Isotretinoin, Leflunomide, Leuprorelin, Levonorgestrel, Lovastatin, Medrogestrone, Medroxyprogesterone, Menotrophin, Mestranol, Methotrexate, Methyl testosterone, Mifeprestone, Miglustat, Misoprostol, Nafarelin, nandrolone, Nicotine *po*, Norethisterone, Noretynodrel, Norgestrel, Oxandrolone,Oxymetholone, Oxytocin, Pravastatin, Quinine, Raloxifene, Ribavirin, Rosuvastatin, Simvastatin, Stanozolol, Tazarotene, Temazepam, tetosterone, Thalidomide, Triazolam, Triproretin, Urofolitropin, Warfarin.

Ooopsss banyak banget, mana namanya rumit pula. hehehe, maaf

Obat-obat kategori A (yang paling aman pada kehamilan) dan obat kategori X (kontra indikasi pada kehamilan) sengaja ditulis lengkap agar dapat diketahui oleh khalayak. *padahal alasan

sebenarnya karena itemnya ga banyak* sedangkan obat kategori B, C dan D hanya ditulis sebagian kecil saja karena saking banyaknya item dan jenisnya. PESAN-PESAN: Bagi khalayak, penggunaan obat menyangkut jenis, dosis dan lamanya pemakaian seyogyanya atas petunjuk dokter. Tawaran obat (dengan jargon apapun) disertai klaim-klaim aduhai (seolah paling aman dan paling ampuh) tanpa diketahui dengan jelas kandungan yang ada di dalamnya, patut diwaspadai,

apalagi jika tidak mencantumkan efek samping, peringatan hati-hati pada kondisi tertentu dan kontra-indikasi. Obat hanya akan bermanfaat jika digunakan dengan tepat sesuai indikasi, dosis dan lamanya pengobatan berlandaskan pengetahuan yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. Semoga bermanfaat.