DAFTAR OBAT AMAN DAN BERBAHAYA UNTUK IBU HAMIL DAN MENYUSUI

Disusun kembali oleh dr.Abu Hana dari sumber URL : http://www.kellymom.com/health/meds/aap-approved-meds.html

Kelompok Analgetik, NSAIDS, Obat Batuk dan Pilek, Anti Alergi dan Asma, Anestesi

Obat untuk Penghilang Rasa Sakit (Pain Killer) AAP Kategori Risiko Nama Obat approved?* Kehamilan** Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Approved B C (1st, 2nd trim.) Aspirin Caution D (3rd trim.) Approved Azapropazone (Rheumox) Butalbital (Fioricet, Fiorinal, Bancap, Twodyne) Butorphanol (Stadol)

Risiko Notes Menyusui** L1 L3 L2 1

NR Approved

D B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.)

L3 L3

2

Celecoxib (Celebrex)) Codeine (in Tylenol #3, #4) Colchicine Diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren) Fentanyl (Sublimaze) Flurbiprofen (Ansaid, Froben, Ocufen) Hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin) Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) Ibuprofen (Advil, Nuprin, Motrin, Pediaprofen) Indomethacin (Indocin) Ketorolac (Toradol, Acular) Meperidine (Demerol) Methadone (Dolophine) Morphine (Duramorph, Infumorph, Epimorph, MS Contin) Nalbuphine (Nubain) Naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Naproxen, Aleve) Nefopam (Acupan) Oxycodone (Tylox, Percodan,Oxycontin, Roxicet, Endocet, Roxiprin, Percocet) Pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron) Piroxicam (Feldene) Propoxyphene (Darvocet N, Propacet, Darvon) Rofecoxib (Vioxx) Secobarbital (Seconal) Tolmetin (Tolectin) Tramadol HCL (Ultram, Ultracet)

NR Approved Approved NR Approved NR NR NR Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved NR Approved Approved NR

C C D B B B (1st, 2nd trim.) C (3rd trim.) B C B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B (1st, 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim.) B B B B B B

L2 L3 L4 L2 L2 L2 L3 L3 L1 L3 L2 L2; L3 early postpartum L3 L3 L2 L3; L4 for chronic use NR L3

3

4 5

6 7 8

9

10

NR Approved Approved

B B C

L2 L2 L2 L3 L3 L3 11 12 13 14

Withdrawn from the market Approved D Approved C NR C

caffeine. 12. observe infant for sedation. and neurobehavioral delay in infants. distress. Percocet also contain acetaminophen. PhD (2004 edition). higher dose may result in infant sedation. withdrawal syndrome. 7. infrequent or occasional use is not necessarily incompatible with breastfeeding. should be used with caution due to its long half-life and its effect on baby’s cardiovascular system. Per Hale. 4. Per Hale. Per Hale. Roxiprin. Per Hale. observe infant for sedation. 14. addiction. 1. observe infant for sedation. Per Hale. kidneys and GI tract. Fioricet (Fiorinal. Endocet. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs) [more] AAP Kategori Nama Generik Nama Dagang approved?* Risiko Risiko Menyusui** . observe infant for sedation.    Approved: (Table 6) Maternal Medication Usually Compatible With Breastfeeding Caution: (Table 5) Drugs That Have Been Associated With Significant Effects on Some Nursing Infants and Should Be Given to Nursing Mothers With Caution NR: Not Reviewed.Valdecoxib (Bextra) Withdrawn from the market more * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. Aspirin use is discouraged in children and nursing mothers due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome and internal bleeding. observe infant for sedation. 11. Per Hale. 5. Per Hale. Per Hale. respiratory depression. Hale suggests weakened or premature infants be observed for sedation and apnea. and butalbital. 10. 8. diarrhea. 3. Bancap. baby should be observed for sedation. This drug has not yet been reviewed by the AAP. apnea. Two-dyne) contains acetaminaphen or asprin. ** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale. higher doses may result in infant sedation. constipation. 6. observe infant for GI cramping. Lactation Risk Categories  L1 (safest)  L2 (safer)  L3 (moderately safe)  L4 (possibly hazardous)  L5 (contraindicated) Pregnancy Risk Categories A (controlled studies show no risk) B (no evidence of risk in humans) C (risk cannot be ruled out) D (positive evidence of risk) X (contraindicated in pregnancy)      NR: Not Reviewed. Meperidine use during labor or early postpartum has been associated with sedation. poor sucking reflex. Per Hale. 9. short-term. Hale suggests newborns be observed for sedation. Per Hale. revised September 2001. use of frequent. 2. This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale. Roxicet. 13. Per Hale.

Brethine Aminophylline.) Approved C Approved L3 L3 . DepoMedrol.Azapropazone (apazone) Rheumox Dipyrone (banned in the US & UK) Flufenamic acid Ibuprofen - Approved Approved Approved Kehamilan** B (1st.) B (1st. Dyphylline Bricanyl.) D (3rd trim. 2nd trim. Ponstel Anaprox. Medrol Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved L2 NR L3 L4 (for chronic use) NR L2 NR L3 [contents] L2 L2 L2 [contents] Approved C C C Approved Deltasone. 2nd trim.) D (3rd trim. Meticorten. Naprosyn. Aleve Butazolidine Feldene Profenal Tolectin Solu-Medrol.) D (3rd trim.) D (3rd trim. Nuprin. 2nd trim. Approved Orasone Dilor. Approved Pediaprofin Indocin Approved Indomethacin L3 Ketorolac Mefenamic acid Naproxen Phenylbutazone Piroxicam Suprofen Tolmetin Steroid Methylprednisolone [ high dosage methylprednisolone] Prednisolone Prednisone Obat Asma Dyphylline Terbutaline Theophylline Toradol. 2nd trim. Acular Ponstan. Quibron. Lufyllin.) B (1st. Naproxen. Theo-Dur Approved Approved Approved C B C L3 L2 L3 Analgetik Narkotik [more] Butorphanol Codeine Stadol Tylenol #3. #4 B (1st.) B B C L2 NR NR L1 Advil. Motrin.

Actifed) potential for decreasing milk supply * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. revised September 2001. Approved Darvon L2 L2 L3 (if used early postpartum) L3 L3 L2 Obat Batuk AAP approved?* Codeine yes Dextromethorphan not reviewed Guaifenesin not reviewed Dekongestan (Obat Pilek) AAP Nama Obat approved?* Phenylephrine not reviewed Nama Obat Risiko Menyusui** L3 (moderately safe) L1 (safest) L2 (safer) Risiko Menyusui** L3 (moderately safe) L3 (moderately safe) for acute use Pseudoephedrine yes L4 (possibly hazardous) for chronic use due to (Sudafed. Beclovent. Propacet. not reviewed L2 (safer) Beconase.Fentanyl Meperidine Methadone Morphine Propoxyphene Sublimaze Demerol Approved Approved B B B B C Dolophine Approved Morphine Approved Darvocet N. Vancenase) Cromlyn sodium not reviewed L1 (safest) (Nasalcrom) Fluticasone (Flonase) not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) Mometasone not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) (Nasonex) Phenylephrine (in some forms of Sinex not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) and Neo-Synephrine) Triamcinolone not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) Acetonide (Nasacort) Antihistamin (Anti Alergi) . ** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale. PhD (2006 edition) Nasal Sprays (Spray Hidung) AAP Nama Obat Risiko Menyusui** approved?* Beclomethasone (Vanceril.

Polocaine) Procaine HCL (Novocaine) General anesthetics Halothane (Fluothane) Isoflurane (Forane) Ketamine Methohexital (Brevital) Nitrous oxide AAP approved?* NR NR Approved NR NR Approved NR NR Approved NR Kategori Risiko Kehamilan** C C C C C B Risiko Notes Menyusui** NR L2 L2 L3 L3 L2 NR NR L3 L3 more 1 more more more .Nama Obat Brompheniramine L3 (moderately safe) Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton) not reviewed L3 (moderately safe) CTM Cetirizine (Zyrtec) not reviewed L2 (safer) Dexbrompheniramine maleate yes not reviewed with d-isoephedrine Diphenhydramine not reviewed L2 (safer) (Benadryl) Doxylamine not reviewed L4 (possibly hazardous) Fexofenadine yes L3 (moderately safe) (Allegra) Loratadine (Claritin) yes L2 (safer) Terfenadine yes not reviewed (Seldane) Triprolidine (Actidil. yes L1 (safest) Actifed) * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. ** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale. PhD (2002 edition) AAP approved?* not reviewed Risiko Menyusui** Obat Anestesi Nama Obat Local anesthetics Articaine (Septocaine) Bupivacaine (Marcaine) Lidocaine (Xylocaine) Mepivacaine (Carbocaine. revised September 2001.

    L3. L4 for chronic use L3 more L2 L3 Approved: (Table 6) Maternal Medication Usually Compatible With Breastfeeding Concern: (Table 4) Drugs for Which the Effect on Nursing Infants Is Unknown but May Be of Concern Caution: (Table 5) Drugs That Have Been Associated With Significant Effects on Some Nursing Infants and Should Be Given to Nursing Mothers With Caution NR: Not Reviewed. This drug has not yet been reviewed by the AAP. This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale. Lactation Risk Categories  L1 (safest)  L2 (safer)  L3 (moderately safe)  L4 (possibly hazardous)  L5 (contraindicated) Pregnancy Risk Categories A (controlled studies show no risk) B (no evidence of risk in humans) C (risk cannot be ruled out) D (positive evidence of risk) X (contraindicated in pregnancy)      NR: Not Reviewed. . revised September 2001.Sevoflurane (Ultane) NR Thiopental (Pentothal) Approved Other medications often used during anesthesia Sedatives Diazepam (Valium) Concern B C L3 L3 D Midazolam (Versed) Concern D Propofol (Diprivan) NR B Triazolam (Halcion) NR X Narcotic Analgesics Alfentanil (Alfenta) NR C L2 Fentanyl (Sublimaze) Approved B L2 Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) NR C L3 Morphine Approved B L3 Reversal Medication Flumazenil (Romazicon) NR NR 2 C Naloxone (Narcan) NR NR 3 C Steroids Decadron (Dexamethasone) NR NR more C Stimulants Epinephrine (Adrenaline) NR C L1 Anti-nausea Promethazine (Phenergan) NR C L2 * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. PhD (2004 edition). ** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale.

Isoflurane (Forane) is used for c-sections and directly in newborns.1. ERYC. as there are many versions. Flumazenil (Romazicon) is used directly in children aged 12 months and up. Ilosone Garamycin Kebecil. Induction of and recovery from isoflurane anesthesia are rapid. Antivirus. Vitamin. Antibiotik. Delsym and Benylin are considered compatible with breastfeeding. 2. More here. Many forms of Robitussin. so the majority of the medication is out of the body (and milk) very quickly. Duricef Ancef. Kantrex Moxam Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved B B B B B B C B B C B B C D - . Kefzol Claforan Mefoxin Cefzil Ceftazidime. Fortaz. Erytab. Always check the active ingredients. 3. Amoxil Azactam Ultracef. Taxidime Rocephin Cipro Cleocin E-Mycin. Kontrasepsi. Obat jantung & Hipertensi. 4. stimulates lactation) [more] Antibiotika Amoxicillin Aztreonam Cefadroxil Cefazolin Cefotaxime Cefoxitin Cefprozil Ceftazidime Ceftriaxone Ciprofloxacin [more] Clindamycin Erythromycin Fleroxacin Gentamicin Kanamycin Moxalactam Nama Dagang AAP approved?* Approved Approved Approved Tagamet Propulsid Motilum Kategori Risiko Risiko Kehamilan** Menyusui** [contents] B L2 C L2 L1 [contents] L1 L2 L1 L1 L2 L1 L1 L1 L2 L3 L3 L1 L3 early postnatal NR L2 L2 NR Larotid. Naloxone (Narcan) is used directly in newborns and children. Kelompok Antasida. dll Nama Generik Antasida Cimetidine (Antacid) Cisapride (GI tract stimulant) Domperidone (used for nausea & vomiting. Antijamur.

AzoSulfisoxazole Gantrisin Achromycin. Epitol Ethosuximide Zarontin Magnesium sulfate Epsom salt Phenytoin Dilantin Depakene. Timentin Proloprim. Gold salts Myochrysine. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Trimpex Antikoagulan Bishydroxycoumarin (dicumarol) Coumadin. Solganal Kontrasepsi. Interferon-alpha [more] Interferon Alpha Arthritis meds (see also: pain meds) Ridaura. Tetracycline Sumycin. Menest Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved B C B D C D B C L2 L2 L1 L3 NR L2 L2 L1 L3 [contents] Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved D C C B D D C C NR L2 [contents] L2 L4 L1 L2 L2 [contents] L2 L2 [contents] L2 L2 [contents] Approved Approved C C Approved C L5 [contents] L3 (may interfere with milk Approved X . Ticarcillin Ticar. Terramycin Ticarcillin. Estradiol Permarin. Warfarin Panwarfin Antikonvulsan (Anti kejang) Carbamazepine Tegretol.Nitrofurantoin Ofloxacin Penicillin Streptomycin Sulbactam Macrobid Floxin Streptomycin Gantrisin. Nizoral Antivirus Acyclovir [more] Zovirax Alferon N. Valproic acid Depakote Anti Jamur Fluconazole [more] Diflucan Nizoral Ketoconazole Shampoo. Hormon Estratab.

Approved B L2 Kaopectate II Caplets. Plan B Provera. Immodium Advanced ** Note: Pepto-Bismol & Kaopectate (bismuth subsalicylate is the active ingredient in both) are not recommended for routine use by nursing moms. Ovral. OrthoEvra patch. [more] [contents] Diuretik (Peluruh Kencing) Dazamide. Lunelle injection. Seasonale.Clogestone Contraceptive pill with estrogen/progesterone Levonorgestrel Preven. Mirena. Acetazolamide Approved C L2 Diamox L4 (may Bendroflumethiazide Naturetin inhibit Approved D lactation) Chlorothiazide Hydrodiuril Approved D L3 . Pregnancy risk category = B. due to the association of salicylates with Reyes syndrome in children. etc. Prometrium Approved - production) NR Approved X L3 (may interfere with milk production) Approved X L2 L1 L4 (if used first 3 days postpartum) L2 L3 Medroxyprogesterone Norethynodrel Progesterone Approved Approved Approved D X - [contents] Obat Diabetes Note: Insulin has not been reviewed by the AAP. Norplant. Norinyl. Lactation risk category = L1. Norlestin. Cycrin Enovid Crinone. Tolbutamide Approved D L3 Orinase [contents] Obat Diare Imodium. Oramide. Maalox Antidiarrheal Loperamide Caplets. Pepto Diarrhea Control. DepoProvera. OrthoNovum.

Procainamide Procan Quinaglute. Nadolol Adalat. Obat Jantung Anti aritmia Norpace. Normodyne Aldomet Toprol XL.Chlorthalidone Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) Spironolactone Anti Muntah [more] Domperidone Motilum Anti Hipertensi. SlowTrasicor. Quinidine Quinidex Anti Hipertensi Captopril Capoten Hygroton Hydrodiuril. 3rd trim. Minodyl. Procardia Apsolox. Rogaine Corgard.) C C C B C C C C Enalapril/Enalapril Maleate Hydralazine Labetalol Methyldopa Metoprolol Minoxidil Nadolol Nifedipine Oxprenolol Propranolol Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved L2 L2 L2 L2 L3 L2 (topically) L3 (orally) L4 L2 NR L2 . Disopyramide Napamide Flecainide Tambocor Mexiletine Mexitil Pronestyl. Trasicor Inderol Approved C C (1st trim. Oretic Aldactone Approved Approved Approved Approved D D D - L3 L2 L2 [contents] L1 [contents] L2 L3 L2 L3 L2 L3 (if used after 30 days) L3 Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved C C B C C Approved D Diltiazem/Diltiazem HCL Cardizem Sr. Lopressor Loniten. Cardizem CD Vasotec Apresoline Trandate. Esidrix. Diltiazem. Dilacor-XR.) D (2nd.

Lanoxicaps Laksan (Pelancar BAB) [more] Cascara/Cascara Sagrada Danthron Magnesium sulfate Epsom salt Senna Obat malaria Aralen. NovoChloroquine chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Pyrimethamine Daraprim Quinine Quinamm Medical Testing [more] Diatrizoate Fluorescein Gadopentetic (Gadolinium) Iohexol Omnipaque Iopanoic acid Telepaque Metrizamide Amipaque Metrizoate Isopaque Obat Migren [more] Sumatriptan Imitrex Obat Sedativ [more] Aquachloral. Chloral hydrate Noctec Methyprylon (withdrawn from use in US & Canada) Bromide Secobarbital Seconal Obat Tidur Zolpidem/Zolpidem Tartrate Ambien Obat Anti Tiroid [more] Carbimazole Methimazole (active metabolite Tapazole of carbimazole) Propylthiouracil PTU Digoxin Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved C C B C C C D C C B D B B C C D D B D D D L2 [contents] L3 NR L1 L3 [contents] L3 L2 L4 L2 [contents] NR L3 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 [contents] L3 [contents] L3 NR L5 L3 [contents] L3 [contents] L3 L3 L2 . Isoptin. Covera-HS Approved Approved Approved B C C L3 L2 L2 Lanoxin.Sotalol Timolol Verapamil Cardiac stimulants Betapace Blocadren Calan.

Delta-d Soriatane Zyloprim. Rimactane Calciferol. LevoT. vitamin Folic acid K-1. Laniazid Rifadin.) C A D C C C B D Lioresal. Levoxyl Seromycin Ethambutol.) C (3rd trim.Thiouracil Levothyroxine Obat TBC Cycloserine Ethambutol Isoniazid Rifampin VITAMIN [more] B-1 (thiamin) B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) B-6 (pyridoxine) Synthroid. Levothroid. L4 in high doses (may inhibit lactation) L3 (do not overdose) L1 L1 L1 [contents] NR L3 L2 NR L3 L2 L2 NR L2 NR NR L4 Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved C B C C A A D. drying agent) Azapropazone/apazone (Antirheumatic) Baclofen (muscle relaxant) Barbiturate Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved A A (1st. Atropine Rheumox Approved Approved A NR L1 [contents] L3 L2 L3 L2 [contents] NR L1 L2. Thyroid. vitamin (Phytonadione) Riboflavin/B2 Lain-lain Acitretin (Anti-psoriasis) Alcohol/Ethanol [more] Allopurinol Antimony Atropine (Anticholinergic. Myambutol INH. Lopurin Belladonna. Atrofen Vivarin. NoDoz. Caffeine [more] Coffee Carbetocin (Antihemorrhagic) Duratocin Chloroform Cisplatin (Anti-cancer) Platinol . 2nd trim.

Kesehatan . Wanita . Approved C L2 Regonol Transderm Scopolamine (Motion sickness) Approved C L3 Scope Sulfapyridine Dagenan NR Approved Timolol (glaucoma med) Blocadren Approved D L3 * Per the AAP Policy Statement The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. eg. Health . Reviews. Kesehatan. Reviews 42 Komentar Tag:Artikel. revised September 2001. Informasi . 2008 Artikel . Informasi. Lactation Risk Categories  L1 (safest)  L2 (safer)  L3 (moderately safe)  L4 (possibly hazardous)  L5 (contraindicated) Pregnancy Risk Categories A (controlled studies show no risk) B (no evidence of risk in humans) C (risk cannot be ruled out) D (positive evidence of risk) X (contraindicated in pregnancy)      NR: Not Reviewed. Gaya Hidup . in a vaginal douche) Ivermectin (Antiparasitic) Nalidixic acid (Urinary Antiinfective) Norsteroids Pyridostigmine (Muscle stimulant) Avlosulfon.    Approved: (Table 6) Maternal Medication Usually Compatible With Breastfeeding Caution: (Table 5) Drugs That Have Been Associated With Significant Effects on Some Nursing Infants and Should Be Given to Nursing Mothers With Caution NR: Not Reviewed. DDS Plaquenil Mectizan NegGram Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved Approved C C C B L4 L2 NR NR NR L3 L4 NR Approved Mestinon. Gaya Hidup. Obat. Hamil. Kedokteran. Health. ** Per Medications’ and Mothers’ Milk by Thomas Hale. PhD (2004 edition). This drug has not yet been reviewed by Hale Keamanan obat pada kehamilan Diterbitkan Juni 3. lupus) Iodides Iodine Iodine (povidone-iodine. Kedokteran .Dapsone (Antileprosy) Hydroxychloroquine (Antirheumatic. This drug has not yet been reviewed by the AAP.

Demikian pula jika berobat saat menyusui (ASI bayinya. Pun manakala seorang dokter dihadapkan pada 2 pilihan sulit yang menyangkut life saving. Informasi tersebut diberikan si ibu dengan harapan dokter akan memberikan obat yang aman bagi janin yang dikandungnya. dan pertimbangan lain terkait kondisi janin maupun si ibu sendiri. Obat dalam kategori ini amat kecil kemungkinannya bagi keselamatan janin. Obat Kategori B: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi terhadap sistem reproduksi binatang percobaan tidak menunjukkan resiko bagi janin.Pada umumnya para ibu hamil akan memberitahu dokter saat berobat bahwa dirinya hamil sekian bulan. seorang ibu hamil yang kebetulan menderita asma. Kategori-kategori tersebut dibuat berdasarkan ada tidaknya (besar kecilnya) resiko terhadap sistem reproduksi. D dan X) beserta contoh-contohnya agar diketahui khalayak dengan harapan dapat memberikan informasi yang bermanfaat. Hal ini sangat wajar dan kita patut menghargainya. Obat Kategori A: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi (terkontrol) pada kehamilan tidak menunjukkan resiko bagi janin pada trimester 1 dan trimester berikutnya. C. efek samping dan manfaat yag diharapkan. B. INDEKS KEAMANAN OBAT PADA KEHAMILAN Hingga kini kita di Indonesia masih menggunakan kriteria keamanan obat bagi ibu hamil yang dilansir oleh FDA (Food and Drug Administration) sebagai pedoman dalam memberikan obat pada ibu hamil. baik dalam hal jenis obat (berdasarkan indeks keamanan obat). justru seyogyanya segera berobat agar tidak mengalami sesak berkepanjangan yang justru tidak baik bagi janin karena beresiko terjadinya hipoksia (kekurangan oksigen) yang akan mempengaruhi pasokan oksigen bagi janin. Sebagai contoh. misalnya: resiko penularan kepada anggota keluarga lain. Di sisi lain. dosis maupun lamanya penggunaan. aspek manfaat akan dikedepankan dibanding resiko yang bakal dihadapi baik bagi janin maupun ibunya. Belum ada studi terkontrol pada wanita hamil . Pada posting ini penulis hanya menampilkan garis-garis besar batasan keamanan obat bagi ibu hamil yang tersusun dalam 5 kategori (kategori A. Itupun tak jarang si ibu masih mananyakan kepada dokter apakah obat yang dgunakan benar-benar aman. ketika seorang ibu hamil sakit adakalanya enggan ke dokter lantaran takut menggunakan obat. Selain itu akan dipertimbangkan pula aspek-aspek lain berdasarkan penyakitnya. Alhasil keluhannya makin bertambah dan akhirnya datang juga ke dokter untuk berobat. Seorang dokter tentu sangat paham bahwa saat memberikan(meresepkan) obat bagi wanita hamil akan dipilihkan obat yang aman.

Pantothenic acid *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Cefaclor. Obat golongan ini tidak boleh dipergunakan (kontra indikasi) untuk wanita hamil.8 mg per hari*. sedangkan pada trimester berikutnya tidak didapatkan bukti adanya resiko. Potassium citrate. Ceftazidime. Potassium gluconate. Cefotetan disodium. Nystatin vaginal sup *masuk kategori C jika digunakan per oral dan topikal*. Cefradine. Azatadine. CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI A (nama generik): Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Cefalexin. Obat golongan ini hanya dapat dipergunakan jika manfaatnya lebih besar ketimbang resiko yang mungkin terjadi pada janin. Ceftibuten. Amiloride *masuk kategori D jika digunakan untuk hipertensi yang diinduksi oleh kehamilan*. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Cefoperazone. Cefmetazole. Ampicillin. Ceftriaxone. Obat Kategori X: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi terhadap binatang percobaan maupun pada manusia menunjukkan bukti adanya resiko bagi janin. Camitine. Ammonium chloride. Cefprozil. Amphotericin B. Hydroxocobalamine *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Cefalotin. Cefamandole. Obat Kategoti D: adalah golongan obat yang menunjukkan adanya resiko bagi janin. Chlortalidone *masuk kategori D jika digunakan untuk hipertensi yang diinduksi oleh kehamilan*. Cefuroxime. Cefoxitin. Budesonide *inhalasi. Ciclacillin. Ergocalciferol *masuk kategori D jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Cefapirin. Cefotaxime. Liothyronine. Ammonium lactate *topical*. Folic acid *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi 0. Cefixime. Vitamin E *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Penggunaan obat golongan ini terutama untuk mengatasi keadaan yang mengancam jiwa atau jika tidak ada obat lain yang lebih aman. nasal*. Caffeine. Ciclipirox. Cefazolin. Ceforanide. Ceftizoxime. Cefadroxil. Doxylamine. Cefonicid. Riboflavin *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Cefditoren. Cefpodoxime.yang menunjukkan adanya efek samping. CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI B (nama generik): Acetylcysteine. Bisacodyl. Cetirizine. Potassium chloride. Vitamin D *masuk kategori D jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Cimetidine. atau kemungkinan dalam keadaan hamil. kecuali adanya penurunan fertilitas pada kehamilan trimester pertama. Benzylpenicillin. Acyclovir. Thyroid hormones. . Chlorhexidine *mulut dan tenggorokan*. Obat Kategori C: adalah golongan obat yang pada studi terhadap sistem reproduksi binatang percobaan menunjukkan adanya efek samping bagi janin. Atazanavir. Buspiron. Azelaic acid. Cefatrizine. Cefdinir. Amoxicillin. Sedangkan pada wanita hamil belum ada study terkontrol. Thyroglobulin. Chlorpenamine. Thiamine (vitamin B1) *masuk kategori C jika dosisnya melebihi US RDA*. Carbenicillin. Pada keadaan khusus obat ini digunakan jika manfaatnya kemungkinan lebih besar dibanding resikonya. Cefepime.

dll … buanyak CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI C (nama generik): Acetazolamide. Amlodipine. Fosinopril. Atropin. Calcium chloride. Co-trimoxazole. Adenosine. Beclometasone. Aminophylline. Cilastatin. Hydralazine. Calcium carbonate. Clinidium bromide. Astemizole. Cloxacillin.. Chlorothiazide. Chloramphenicol. Fluconazole. Clarithromycin. Glimepiride. Calcitonin. Glibenclamide. Cinnarizine. Belladonna. Dexamethasone. Desonide. Albumin. Aluminium hydrochloride. Calcium ascorbate. Digoxin. dll …. Hydrocortisone. Cidofovir. Isoprenaline. Clindamycin. Bacitracin. Carbachol. Cyprofloxacin. Digitoxin. Calcium citrate. Acetylcholine chloride. Buclizine.Clemastine. Chloral hydrate. Calcium acetate. Clonidine. Deserpidine. …. Calcium lactate. Benzatropine mesilate. Chloroquine. Dextromethorphan. Captopril. Isoniazid. Calcium glucoheptonade. . Calcium folinate. Griseofulvin. Desoximetasone. Chlorpromazine. Epinephrine. Clotrimazole. Clozapine. Carbinoxamine. Ephedrine. Capreomycin. Antazoline. Dopamine. Glipizide. Fluocinolone. Cyanocobalamin. Calcium polystyrene sulfonate. Alclometasone. Diltiazem. Gemfibrozil. Cisapride. Butoconazole. Calcium gluconate. Calcium phosphate. Furosemide. Colestyramine. Choline theophyllinate. Amitriptyline. Hyoscine. Allopurinol. Hyoscyamine. Carbidopa. Codeine. Albendazole. Gentamicin. Benzocaine.

Coumarin. Medrogestrone. Goserelin. Chorionic gonadotrophin. Simvastatin. Mifeprestone. Clomifen. Amobarbital. Desogestrel. Voriconazole… dll … dll. Ribavirin. Methotrexate. Uracil. Methyl prednisolone. Mefenamic acid. Chlordizepoxide. Etretinate.Isosorbid dinitrate. Estazolam. Fluoxymesterone. Cerivastatin disodium. Estropipate. Lynestrenol. Oxytetracycline. nandrolone. Kanamycin. Misoprostol. Ketotifen fumarate. Ergometrin. Methyl testosterone. Dutasteride. Danazol. Menotrophin. Oxazepam. Warfarin. Chenodeoxycholic acid. Cilazapril. Levonorgestrel. Lovastatin. Atenolol. Triproretin. Miglustat. Estrone. Thalidomide. Finasteride. Dienestrol. Noretynodrel. Lorazepam. Tamoxifen. Temazepam. Estriol succinate. Oxytocin. Tazarotene. Cetrorelix. Doxycycline. Raloxifene. Medroxyprogesterone. Minocycline. Atorvastatin. Flurazepam. Quinine. Fluvastatin. Meprobamate. Chlorotrianisene. Leuprorelin. Human menopausal gonadotrophin. Ketoconazole. Nicotine *po*. Carbamazepine. Norgestrel. Isotretinoin. Bosentan. Methimazole. Rosuvastatin. Ethinyl estradiol. Oxandrolone. Etradiol. Clonazepam. Leflunomide. Bicalutamide. Magaldrate. Pravastatin. Iodinated glycerol. Stanozolol. Flurouracil. Norethisterone. Alprotadil *parenteral*. …dll …dll … CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI D (nama generik): Amikacin. Mestranol. tetosterone. Dihydro ergotamin. Gestodene. Imipramine. Tetracycline. Carbimazole.Oxymetholone. . Triazolam. Ganirelix. Nafarelin. Diethylstilbestrol. Ergotamin. Fluorescein *parenteral*. Diazepam. Estramustine. Urofolitropin. CONTOH OBAT KATEGORI X (nama generik): Acitretin. Floritropin.

… hehehe. dosis dan lamanya pemakaian seyogyanya atas petunjuk dokter. penggunaan obat menyangkut jenis. .Ooopsss … banyak banget. C dan D hanya ditulis sebagian kecil saja karena saking banyaknya item dan jenisnya. Tawaran obat (dengan jargon apapun) disertai klaim-klaim aduhai (seolah paling aman dan paling ampuh) tanpa diketahui dengan jelas kandungan yang ada di dalamnya. patut diwaspadai. mana namanya rumit pula. PESAN-PESAN: Bagi khalayak. *padahal alasan sebenarnya karena itemnya ga banyak* …sedangkan obat kategori B. maaf Obat-obat kategori A (yang paling aman pada kehamilan) dan obat kategori X (kontra indikasi pada kehamilan) sengaja ditulis lengkap agar dapat diketahui oleh khalayak.

dosis dan lamanya pengobatan berlandaskan pengetahuan yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. Obat hanya akan bermanfaat jika digunakan dengan tepat sesuai indikasi. . Semoga bermanfaat. peringatan hati-hati pada kondisi tertentu dan kontra-indikasi.… apalagi jika tidak mencantumkan efek samping.

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