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Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. It positioned the Sun near the center of the Universe, motionless, with Earth and the other planets rotating around it in circular paths modified by epicycles and at uniform speeds. The Copernican model departed from the Ptolemaic system that prevailed in Western culture for centuries, placing Earth at the center of the Universe, and is often regarded as the launching point to modern astronomy and the Scientific Revolution. As a university-trained Catholic priest dedicated to astronomy, Copernicus was acquainted with the Sun-centered cosmos of Heliocentric model from Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium the ancient Greek Aristarchus. Although he coelestium circulated an outline of the heliocentric theory to colleagues decades earlier, the idea was largely forgotten until late in his life he was urged by a pupil to complete and publish a mathematically detailed account of his model. Copernicus's challenge was to present a practical alternative to the Ptolemaic model by more elegantly and accurately determining the length of a solar year while preserving the metaphysical implications of a mathematically ordered cosmos. Thus his heliocentric model retained several of the Ptolemaic elements causing the inaccuracies, such as the planets' circular orbits, epicycles, and uniform speeds, while at the same time re-introducing such innovations as: • • • • Earth is one of seven ordered planets in a solar system circling a stationary Sun Earth has three motions: daily rotation, annual revolution, and annual tilting of its axis Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by Earth's motion Distance from Earth to the Sun is small compared to the distance to the stars.
Earlier theories with the Earth in motion
Philolaus (4th century BCE) was also one of the first to hypothesize movement of the Earth, probably inspired by Pythagoras' theories about a spherical globe. Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BCE had developed some theories of Heraclides Ponticus (speaking of a revolution by Earth on its axis) to propose what was, so far as is known, the first serious model of a heliocentric solar system. His work about a heliocentric system has not survived, so one may only speculate about what led him to his conclusions. It is notable that, according to Plutarch, a contemporary of Aristarchus accused him of impiety for "putting the Earth in motion." Several Muslim astronomers, such as Ibn al-Haytham, Abu-Rayhan Biruni, Abu Said Sinjari, Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī, and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi also discussed the possibility of heliocentrism. Copernicus cited Aristarchus and Philolaus in an early manuscript of his book which survives, stating: "Philolaus believed in the mobility of the earth, and some even say that Aristarchus of Samos was of that opinion." For reasons unknown (although possibly out of reluctance to quote pre-Christian sources), he did not include this passage in the publication of his book. Inspiration came to Copernicus not from observation of the planets, but from reading two
Copernican heliocentrism authors. In Cicero he found an account of the theory of Hicetas. Plutarch provided an account of the Pythagoreans Heraclides Ponticus, Philolaus, and Ecphantes. These authors had proposed a moving Earth, which did not, however, revolve around a central sun. When Copernicus' book was published, it contained an unauthorized preface by the Lutheran theologian Andreas Osiander. This cleric stated that Copernicus wrote his heliocentric account of the Earth's movement as a mere mathematical hypothesis, not as an account that contained truth or even probability. Since Copernicus' hypothesis was believed to contradict the Old Testament account of the Sun's movement around the Earth (Joshua 10:12-13), this was apparently written to soften any religious backlash against the book. However, there is no evidence that Copernicus himself considered the heliocentric model as merely mathematically convenient, separate from reality.
Anticipations of Copernicus's models for planetary orbits
Mathematical techniques developed in the 13th-14th centuries by the Muslim astronomers, Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Ibn al-Shatir for geocentric models of planetary motions closely resemble some of those used later by Copernicus in his heliocentric models. This has led some scholars to argue that Copernicus must have had access to some yet to be identified work on the ideas of those earlier astronomers. However, no likely candidate for this conjectured work has yet come to light, and other scholars have argued that Copernicus could well have developed these ideas independently of the Islamic tradition. Copernicus also discusses the theories of Al-Battani and Averroes in his major work.
The Ptolemaic system
The prevailing astronomical model of the cosmos in Europe in the 1,400 years leading up to the 16th century was that created by the Roman citizen Claudius Ptolemy in his Almagest, dating from about 150 A.D. Throughout the Middle Ages it was spoken of as the authoritative text on astronomy, although its author remained a little understood figure frequently mistaken as one of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt. The Ptolemaic system drew on many previous theories that viewed Earth as a stationary center of the universe. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated relatively rapidly, while the planets dwelt in smaller spheres between—a separate one for each planet. To account for apparent anomalies in this view, such as the apparent retrograde motion of the Line art drawing of Ptolemaic system planets, a system of deferents and epicycles was used. The planet was said to revolve in a small circle (the epicycle) about a center, which itself revolved in a larger circle (the deferent) about a center on or near the Earth. A complementary theory to Ptolemy's employed homocentric spheres: the spheres within which the planets rotated, could themselves rotate somewhat. This theory predated Ptolemy (it was first devised by Eudoxus of Cnidus; by the time of Copernicus it was associated with Averroes). Also popular with astronomers were variations such as eccentrics—by which the rotational axis was offset and not completely at the center. Ptolemy's unique contribution to this theory was the equant—a point about which the center of a planet's epicycle moved with uniform angular velocity, but which was offset from the center of its deferent. This violated one of the fundamental principles of Aristotelian cosmology—namely, that the motions of the planets should be explained in terms of uniform circular motion, and was considered a serious defect by many medieval astronomers. In Copernicus's day, the most up-to-date version of the Ptolemaic system was that of Peurbach (1423–1461) and Regiomontanus (1436–1476).
Copernicus' major work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium - On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (first edition 1543 in Nuremberg, second edition 1566 in Basel), was published during the year of his death, though he had arrived at his theory several decades earlier. The book marks the beginning of the shift away from a geocentric (and anthropocentric) universe with the Earth at its center. Copernicus held that the Earth is another planet revolving around the fixed sun once a year, and turning on its axis once a day. But while Copernicus put the Sun at the center of the celestial spheres, he did not put it at the exact center of the universe, but near it. Copernicus' system used only uniform circular motions, correcting what was seen by many as the chief inelegance in Ptolemy's system. The Copernican model replaced Ptolemy's equant circles with more epicycles. This is the main reason that Copernicus' system had even more epicycles than Ptolemy's. The Copernican system can be summarized in several propositions, as Copernicus himself did in his early Commentariolus that he handed only to friends probably in the 1510s. The "little commentary" was never printed. Its existence was only known indirectly until a copy was discovered in Stockholm around 1880, and another in Vienna a few years later. The major features of Copernican theory are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Nicolai Copernicito Torinensis De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, Libri VI (title page of 2nd edition, Basel, 1566)
Heavenly motions are uniform, eternal, and circular or compounded of several circles (epicycles). The center of the universe is near the Sun. Around the Sun, in order, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars. The Earth has three motions: daily rotation, annual revolution, and annual tilting of its axis. Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by the Earth's motion. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is small compared to the distance to the stars.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
It opened with an originally anonymous preface by Andreas Osiander, a theologian friend of Copernicus, who urged that the theory, which was considered a tool that allows simpler and more accurate calculations, did not necessarily have implications outside the limited realm of astronomy. Copernicus' actual book began with a letter from his (by then deceased) friend Nikolaus von Schönberg, Cardinal Archbishop of Capua, urging Copernicus to publish his theory. Then, in a lengthy introduction, Copernicus dedicated the book to Pope Paul III, explaining his ostensible motive in writing the book as relating to the inability of earlier astronomers to agree on an adequate theory of the planets, and noting that if his system increased the accuracy of astronomical predictions it would allow the Church to develop a more accurate calendar. At that time, a reform of the Julian Calendar was considered necessary and was one of the major reasons for the Church's interest in astronomy. The work itself was then divided into six books: 1. General vision of the heliocentric theory, and a summarized exposition of his idea of the World.
Few of Copernicus' contemporaries were ready to concede that the Earth actually moved. though the book was relatively widely circulated (around 500 copies of the first and second editions have survived. It was another generation before a community of practicing astronomers appeared who Statue of Copernicus next to Cracow University's Collegium Novum accepted heliocentric cosmology. the Copernican model has a number of advantages. Further concrete exposition of the new system Including planetary latitude. Concrete exposition of the new system including planetary longitude. 5. The Prutenic tables came to be preferred by Prussian and German astronomers. However. Description of the Moon and its orbital motions. relying instead on arguments about what would be a more complete and elegant system. Copernicus's theory provided a strikingly simple explanation for the apparent retrograde motions of the planets—namely as parallactic displacements resulting from the Earth's motion around the Sun—an important consideration in Johannes Kepler's conviction that the theory was substantially correct. these tables translated Copernicus' mathematical methods back into a geocentric system. but their usage of Copernican ideas led to more serious consideration of a heliocentric model. 4. The degree of improved accuracy of these tables remains an open question. but objected to the idea of a moving Earth on the basis of . Mainly dedicated to the apparent motions of the Sun and to related phenomena. even forty-five years after the publication of De Revolutionibus. In addition. Tycho Brahe's arguments against Copernicus are illustrative of the physical. arguably the most accomplished astronomer of his time. for his contemporaries. although this meant abandoning the cherished Aristotelian idea that there is no empty space between the planetary spheres. the astronomer Tycho Brahe went so far as to construct a cosmology precisely equivalent to that of Copernicus. but with the Earth held fixed in the center of the celestial sphere instead of the Sun. Copernicus also gave a clear account of the cause of the seasons: that the Earth's axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit.Copernican heliocentrism 2. which is a large number by the scientific standards of the time). rejecting heliocentric cosmology on physical and theological grounds. 3. The Copernican model appeared to be contrary to common sense and to contradict the Bible. However. It accurately predicts the relative distances of the planets from the Sun. although Erasmus Reinhold used Copernicus' parameters to produce the Prutenic Tables. Copernicus was aware of this and could not present any observational "proof". Tycho. From a modern point of view. theological. Mainly theoretical. 6. and even astronomical grounds on which heliocentric cosmology was rejected. However. 4 Acceptance of Copernican heliocentrism From publication until about 1700. appreciated the elegance of the Copernican system. few astronomers were convinced by the Copernican system. presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in the subsequent books). the ideas presented by Copernicus were not markedly easier to use than the geocentric theory and did not produce more accurate predictions of planetary positions.
. and used geometry to calculate that in order to both have those apparent sizes and be as far away as heliocentrism required. Arthur Koestler puts Copernicus in a different light to what many authors seem to suggest. the phases of Venus (the first observational evidence for Copernicus' theory) and the rotation of the Sun about a fixed axis as indicated by the apparent annual variation in the motion of sunspots. and attributed it to the finite speed of light and the motion of Earth in its orbit around the Sun.Copernican heliocentrism physics. In his book The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. During the 17th century. the key attraction of Copernicus's ideas was that they reinstated the idea of uniform circular motion for the planets. orbits are explained by general relativity. • With a telescope. However. lazy body. His model did have a large influence on later scientists such as Galileo and Johannes Kepler. which can be formulated using any desired coordinate system. and religion. a motion as quick as that of the aethereal torches. • Kepler introduced the idea that the orbits of the planets were elliptical rather than circular. In 1838. given that he had no experimental evidence. Yet it ascribes to the Earth. and thus much larger than the sun). • Isaac Newton proposed universal gravity and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction to explain Kepler's elliptical planetary orbits. and you will see how many absurdities (not to mention others) accompany this assumption [of the motion of the earth] by inference. Regarding this Tycho wrote. who adopted. in the years following publication of de Revolutionibus. championed and (especially in Kepler's case) sought to improve it. an apparent annual motion of stars around small ellipses. but could easily explain the motion of heavenly bodies by postulating that they were made of a different sort substance called aether that moved naturally. Thomas Kuhn argued that Copernicus only transferred "some properties to the Sun's many astronomical functions previously attributed to the earth. . The Aristotelian physics of the time (modern Newtonian physics was still a century away) offered no physical explanation for the motion of a massive body like Earth. Giovanni Zupi saw the phases of Mercury in 1639. James Bradley discovered stellar aberration. and it is no longer necessary to consider the Sun the center of anything. So Tycho said that the Copernican system “. Thus many astronomers accepted some aspects of Copernicus's theory at the expense of others. portraying him as a coward who was reluctant to publish his work due to a crippling fear of ridicule.” He said his Tychonic system. Galileo discovered the four large moons of Jupiter (evidence that the solar system contained bodies that did not orbit Earth). that hulking. Tycho had measured the apparent sizes of stars (now known to be illusory – see stellar magnitude). expertly and completely circumvents all that is superfluous or discordant in the system of Ptolemy. and emphasized the difficulty Copernicus would have had in putting forward a new astronomical theory relying alone on simplicity in geometry. 5 Modern opinion Whether Copernicus' propositions were "revolutionary" or "conservative" was a topic of debate in the late twentieth century. unfit for motion. On no point does it offend the principle of mathematics. In the 20th century. In 1725." Other historians have since argued that Kuhn underestimated what was "revolutionary" about Copernicus' work. “offended neither the principles of physics nor Holy Scripture”. several further discoveries eventually led to the complete acceptance of heliocentrism: • Using the newly-invented telescope. and a triple motion at that. which incorporated Copernican features into a geocentric system. stars would have to be huge (the size of Earth's orbit or larger. Friedrich Bessel made the first successful measurements of annual parallax for the star 61 Cygni using a heliometer. astronomy. for leading astronomers such as Erasmus Reinhold. “Deduce these things geometrically if you like.. Tycho took issue with the vast distances to the stars that Copernicus had assumed in order to explain why the Earth's motion produced no visible changes in the appearance of the fixed stars (known as annual stellar parallax).” Likewise.
.au/books?id=xNSPo_Xda_0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false). au/ books?id=B4br4XJFj0MC& pg=PA138). Copernicus. 53  Koestler (1989). ISBN 0-434-01315-3.au/ books?id=iEjk13-1xSYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false). pp. The Oxford history of Islam. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.23. Vol. com. Ann. pp. p. Oxford University Press.160–65).31–32  Gingerich (2004). 69-72  Gingerich (2004). André (2010). & Voelkel.212.  Gingerich. Journal for the History of Astronomy xxvi: 133–54.  Goddu (2010. Netherlands: Brill. Huff (2010. Bibcode 1995JHA. ISBN 0-8050-7133-4. The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions. "Tycho Brahe's critique of Copernicus and the Copernican system". Veselovsky (1973). ISBN 978-0-521-17052-9. com/ books?id=aJuwFLGWKF8C& pg=PA137#v=onepage& q& f=false). 1998 (http:/ / adsabs. . harvard.196  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. Amico. • Drake. 124 (http:/ / books. ISBN 978-0-521-82750-8. 579-80  Gingerich (2004). • di Bono. The Copernican Revolution—Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. • Kuhn. Mineola. Copernicus and the Aristotelian tradition (http://books. • Huff. 1970. R. • Linton. Kuhn 1985. (1985). "Copernicus.au/books?id=IGlhN0MI87oC).com. pp. Arthur (1989). pp. p.  McCluskey (1998). Drake. In a geostatic system the apparent annual variation in the motion of sunspots could only be explained as the result of an implausibly complicated precession of the Sun's axis of rotation (Linton. The Book Nobody Read.261–69. edu/ abs/ 1998JHA. New York: Dover Publications.90–92 (http:/ / books. (1999). com.. • Koestler. p. Leiden. 137–38) (http:/ / books. Peter Barker. Saliba (2009. google.248  Hanne Andersen. Michael J. Alan (2001). 1994. 2006. pp.194  Koestler (1989). and Xiang Chen.google. 200–202  Linton (2004. p. Bibliography • Crowe. and models for the motions of Mercury and the Moon. John L.. page 1  Gingerich (2004). Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution (http://books. • Gingerich. pp. Owen (2004). . ISBN 978-90-04-18107-6.com. p. 29.com. Galileo Studies. 165–167  Owen Gingerich.133D. google. ISBN 978-0-19-510799-9. p. Mississippi: Harvard University Press. 29. Intellectual Curiosity and the Scientific Revolution: A Global Perspective (http://books. edu/ entries/ copernicus/ )  Gingerich (2004). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 364. google. 1993. The Sleepwalkers.Copernican heliocentrism 6 Notes     Kuhn 1985 Especially the Tusi couple. . pp. di Bono (1995). 181. Hist. ISBN 978-0-14-019246-9. pp. google. Journal of the History of Ideas. pp. Mario (1995). (2001). pp 138-148  Kuhn 1985. J. • Goddu. p.. google. (2004). Astron.191–196)  Hirschfeld. London: William Heinemann. ISBN 0-486-41444-2. ISBN 0-88318-863-5  Blair. Inc.139  Koestler (1989). 27  Koestler (1989). pp. ISBN 978-0-674-17103-9. com.263–64) (http:/ / books. pp. From Eudoxus to Einstein—A History of Mathematical Astronomy. . in the Copernican system. 1990. Fracastoro and Ṭūsï's Device: Observations on the Use and Transmission of a Model". J. com. pp. p. The eye of heaven: Ptolemy.138 (http:/ / books.166. . . 1G#). O. Cambridge. 55  Fixed. pp. Parallax:The Race to Measure the Cosmos. 169 (http:/ / books. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2004. Kepler. Toby E (2010). au/ books?id=IGlhN0MI87oC& pg=PA90)). com/ books?id=aJuwFLGWKF8C& pg=PA124#v=onepage& q& f=false). • Esposito.26. google. Stillman (1970). New York: American Institute of Physics. Christopher M. Sharratt. New York: Henry Holt. stanford. au/ books?id=B4br4XJFj0MC& pg=PA169))... . pp. 289 Linton (2004. Arkana. Crowe (2001. Esposito 1999. Thomas S. ISBN 0-472-08283-3. 51. au/ books?id=xNSPo_Xda_0C& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q& f=false). google. google. that is. 476–86).
ISBN 978-81-317-0871-2. • Valls-Gabaud.Copernican heliocentrism • McCluskey. Michael (1994). Medieval Science and Philosophy. The Astronomer: A Novel of Suspense.128V. A. New York: Walker and Company. Retrieved 2007-08-17. "Copernicus and Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī".com/copernicus. Galileo: Decisive Innovator. K.org/stargaze/Sintro. C. Cambridge: CUP. I. • Veselovsky.phy6.N. James (2007). CE. "Deconstructing Copernicus" (http://jameshannam.. in Valls-Gabaud & Boskenberg (2009). pp. • Goldstone. Lawrence (2010). 260. (2009)..htm) from educational website From Stargazers to Starships (http://www. George (2009). D. Journal for the History of Astronomy iv: 128–30. • Saliba. S. Cultural foundations of mathematics: the nature of mathematical proof and the transmission of the calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. Boskenberg. Proceedings IAU Symposium No.. Pearson Education India.org/action/ displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8312919). The Role of Astronomy in Society and Culture. Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-8027-1986-4. External links • Elementary analysis of planetary orbits (http://www.htm) .org/stargaze/Ssolsys. 7 Further reading • Hannam. • Raju. "Islamic reception of Greek astronomy" (http://journals. (1998).htm). ISBN 0-521-56671-1. eds. C. Analyses the varieties of argument used by Copernicus in De revolutionibus. (2007). 149–65 • Sharratt.phy6. (1973).cambridge.4. Bibcode 1973JHA.....
Copernicus was a mathematician. Royal Prussia. just before his death in 1543. astronomer. artist. classics scholar. Kingdom of Poland 24 May 1543 (aged 70) Frombork (Frauenburg). jurist with a doctorate in law. It began the Copernican Revolution and contributed importantly to the rise of the ensuing Scientific Revolution. astronomy. The publication of Copernicus' epochal book. quadrilingual polyglot. rather than the Earth. is considered a major event in the history of science. Royal Prussia. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres). physician. One of the great polymaths of the Renaissance. Copernicus' heliocentric theory placed the Sun at the center of the solar system and described that system's mechanics in mathematical rather than Aristotelian terms. Toruń Old Town City Hall Born 19 February 1473 Toruń (Thorn). Catholic cleric. medicine. diplomat and economist. 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a comprehensive heliocentric model which placed the Sun. canon law. Prince-Bishopric of Warmia. at the center of the universe. translator. . Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik. Kingdom of Poland Mathematics. 1580. Italian: Nicolò Copernico. economics Died Fields Alma mater Kraków University Bologna University University of Padua University of Ferrara Known for Heliocentrism Copernicus' Law Signature Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus. governor.Nicolaus Copernicus 8 Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus Portrait.
Nicolaus' father was actively engaged in the politics of the day and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order. young Nicolaus’ maternal uncle. situated on the Vistula River. His brother Andreas (Andrew) became an Augustinian canon at Frombork (Frauenburg). gentry and clergy. Together with the house at no. Kraków (Cracow. whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life. the astronomer's mother. an alliance of Prussian cities. in the province of Royal Prussia. named after her mother. in her final years (she died after 1517). Nicolaus was the youngest of four children. 17 (right). Kopernika 15. the hometown of Nicolaus Copernicus. selling it mostly in Danzig (Gdańsk). In this war Hanseatic cities like Danzig and Toruń. His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant. In the Second Peace of Thorn (1466). Upon the father’s death. took the boy under his protection and saw to his education and career. In 1454 he mediated negotiations between Poland’s Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki and the Prussian cities for repayment of war loans. Father's family Toruń birthplace (ul. members of the family began moving to various other Silesian cities. Köppernick. . the day he was presented with an advance copy of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. came from the Kraków line. His sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children. Copernicus never married or had children. became a Benedictine nun and. 1367). Toward the close of 1542 he was seized with apoplexy and paralysis. The father. the Teutonic Order formally relinquished all claims to its western provinces. and to Toruń (1400). it forms the Muzeum Mikołaja Kopernika. He died sometime between 1483 and 1485. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger (1447–1512). The father married Barbara Watzenrode. who promised to respect the cities' traditional vast independence. in which the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation. chose to support the Polish king. left). and today Koperniki. who appears in records for the first time as a well-to-do merchant who dealt in copper. which as Royal Prussia remained a region of Poland for the next 300 years. prioress of a convent in Chełmno (Kulm). and he died at age 70 on 24 May 1543. likely the son of Jan. The village's name has been variously spelled Kopernik. to the Polish capital. His sister Barbara. fought the Teutonic Order over control of the region. The father’s family can be traced to a village in Silesia near Nysa (Neiße). Nicolaus was named after his father. Toruń. In the 14th century. He moved from Kraków to Toruń around 1458. Köppernig. between 1461 and 1464.Nicolaus Copernicus 9 Life Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Toruń (Thorn). was at that time embroiled in the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66). which the Teutonic Order had challenged. in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
they were related to wealthy families of Toruń. Ermland) against the preference of King Casimir IV. He died in 1462. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger. but she is believed to have died when Nicolaus was a small boy. and Sigismund I the Old. During the Thirteen Years' War that ensued the following year. and its Grand Master once referred to him as "the devil incarnate".Nicolaus Copernicus 10 Mother's family Nicolaus’ mother. Działyński. and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper. Not much is known about her life. and by personally fighting in battles at Łasin (Lessen) and Malbork (Marienburg). and to the prominent Czapski. was educated at the University of Kraków (now Jagiellonian University) and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna. becoming prominent members of the city’s patrician class. Watzenrode was then able to form close relations with three successive Polish monarchs: John I Albert. and his wealth. Watzenrode came to be considered the most powerful man in Warmia. He was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order. and he was active politically. Through the Watzenrodes' extensive family relationships by marriage. the astronomer's maternal uncle and patron. who would become Copernicus' patron. . and Christina. with political activity in Toruń and Danzig. in Polish. Lucas and Katherine had three children: Lucas Watzenrode the Younger. As a result. Barbara Watzenrode. "Pray to God") were a prominent Polish family who had been well known in Poland's history since 1271. The Modlibógs (literally. who had hoped to install his own son in that seat. In 1453 he was the delegate from Toruń at the Grudziądz (Graudenz) conference that planned to ally the cities of the Prussian Confederation with Casimir IV in their subsequent war against the Teutonic Knights. Alexander Jagiellon. the astronomer's mother. Konopacki and Kościelecki noble families. In 1489 Watzenrode was elected Bishop of Warmia (Ermeland. He was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights and an ally of Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon. Copernicus' maternal uncle. connections and influence allowed him to secure Copernicus’ education and career as a canon at Frombork Cathedral. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger Tiedeman von Allen. Lucas Watzenrode the Elder was well regarded in Toruń as a devout man and honest merchant. who in 1459 married the merchant and mayor of Toruń. He was a friend and key advisor to each ruler. was the daughter of Lucas Watzenrode the Elder and his wife Katherine (née Modlibóg). The Watzenrodes had come from the Schweidnitz (Świdnica) region of Silesia and had settled in Toruń after 1360. Danzig and Elbląg (Elbing). he actively supported the war effort with substantial monetary subsidies. Watzenrode quarreled with the king until Casimir IV’s death three years later. Barbara.
 but later in life he used a single "p". Copernicus signed his name "Nicolaus Copernik". which in his lifetime was the language of academia in Europe. according to its 1497 by-laws. Annales Clarissimae Nacionis Germanorum of the Natio Germanica Bononiae as Dominus Nicolaus Kopperlingk de Thorn – IX grosseti. The astronomer Latinized his name to Coppernicus. people were often called after the places where they lived. German-language letter from Copernicus to Duke Albert of Prussia. he signed into the German natio (Natio Germanorum)—a student organization which. "koperek" or "kopernik") that grows wild in Silesia. He signed a self-portrait. However. Like the Silesian village that inspired it. Martin Carrier mentions this as a reason to consider Copernicus’ native language to have been German. later as "Coppernicus". which carried certain privileges that made it a natural choice for German-speaking students. this in itself does not imply that Copernicus considered himself German. a copy of which is now at Jagiellonian University. On the title page of De revolutionibus. Latin was also the official language of the Roman Catholic Church and of Poland's royal court. the name of his father (and thus of the future astronomer) was recorded in Thorn as Niclas Koppernigk around 1480. The surname likely had something to do with the local Silesian copper-mining industry. generally with two "p"s (in 23 of 31 documents studied). regardless of their ethnicity or self-identification. . or possessive. The name first appeared as a place name in Silesia in the 13th century. while studying law at Bologna in 1496. case) "Nicolai Copernici". though some scholars assert that it may have been inspired by the dill plant (in Polish. since students from Prussia and Silesia were routinely placed in that category. Copernicus' surname has been spelled variously. There survive a few documents written by Copernicus in German. he registered in the Matricula Nobilissimi Germanorum Collegii resp. The vast majority of Copernicus’ surviving works are in Latin. numerous spelling variants of the name are documented for the astronomer and his relatives. was open to students of all kingdoms and states whose mother-tongue ("Muttersprache") was German. and Polish with equal fluency. Rheticus published the name as (in the genitive. As was to be the case with William Shakespeare a century later. The English-speaking world knows the astronomer principally by the Latinized name. according to French philosopher Alexandre Koyre. Other arguments are that Copernicus was born in a predominantly German-speaking town and that. At Bologna in 1496. Copernicus "was rather indifferent about orthography". where it was spelled variously in Latin documents. During his childhood.Nicolaus Copernicus 11 Languages Copernicus is postulated to have spoken Latin. giving medical advice for George von Kunheim (1541) Name In Copernicus' time. At Padua. He also spoke Greek and Italian. At Kraków he signed his name "Nicolaus Nicolai de Torunia". and thus all of Copernicus’ correspondence with the Church and with Polish leaders was in Latin. "N Copernic". "Nicolaus Copernicus". German.
Filippo Buonaccorsi. At Kraków Copernicus began collecting a large library on astronomy. also date his earliest scientific notes. acquiring the foundations for his subsequent mathematical achievements. geometry. Copernicus' four years at Kraków played an important role in the development of his critical faculties and initiated his analysis of the logical contradictions in the two most popular systems of astronomy—Aristotle's theory of homocentric spheres. which prepared pupils for entrance to the University of Kraków. Copernicus became familiar with Brożek's widely read commentary to Georg von Nicolaus Copernicus Monument Peuerbach's Theoricæ novæ planetarum and almost certainly in Kraków attended the lectures of Bernard of Biskupie and Wojciech Krypa of Szamotuły and probably other astronomical lectures by Jan of Głogów. cosmography. Haly Abenragel. Copernicus was a pupil of Albert Brudzewski. Metaphysics) and Averroes (which later would play an important role in shaping his theory). according to Armitage (some scholars differ). Kraków In the winter semester of 1491–92 Copernicus. Copernicus' Kraków studies gave him a thorough grounding in the mathematical-astronomical knowledge taught at the university (arithmetic. as "Nicolaus Nicolai de Thuronia". Copernicus began his studies in the Department of Arts (from the fall of 1491. Michael of Wrocław (Breslau). who by then (from 1491) was a professor of Aristotelian philosophy but taught astronomy privately outside the university.Nicolaus Copernicus 12 Education Copernicus' uncle Watzenrode maintained contacts with the leading intellectual figures in Poland and was a friend of the influential Italian-born humanist and Kraków courtier. Wojciech of Pniewy and Marcin Bylica of Olkusz. Copernicus left Kraków for the court of his uncle Watzenrode. presumably until the summer or fall of 1495) in the heyday of the Kraków astronomical-mathematical school. geometric optics. Without taking a degree. probably in the fall of 1495. Watzenrode's alma mater in Poland's capital. the Alfonsine Tables. For unclear reasons—probably . Later. it would later be carried off as war booty by the Swedes during the Deluge and is now at the Uppsala University Library. Watzenrode seems first to have sent young Copernicus to the St. the boy attended the Cathedral School at Włocławek. theoretical and computational astronomy). up the Vistula River from Thorn. Copernicus broadened the knowledge that he took from the university lecture halls with independent reading of books that he acquired during his Kraków years (Euclid. a good knowledge of the philosophical and natural-science writings of Aristotle (De coelo. and made him conversant with humanistic culture. probably. who in 1489 had been elevated to Prince-Bishop of Warmia and soon (after November 1495) sought to place his nephew in a Warmia canonry vacated by 26 August 1495 death of its previous tenant. now preserved partly at Uppsala University. and Ptolemy's mechanism of eccentrics and epicycles—the surmounting and discarding of which constituted the first step toward the creation of Copernicus' own doctrine of the structure of the universe. stimulated his interest in learning. John's School at Thorn where he himself had been a master. Johannes Regiomontanus' Tabulae directionum). Collegium Maius. According to a later but credible tradition (Jan Brożek). to this period. matriculated together with his brother Andrew at the University of Kraków (now Jagiellonian University).
which sufficed for assuming a chapter canonry. Copernicus the humanist sought confirmation for his growing doubts through close reading of Greek and Latin authors (Pythagoras. he would add a sinecure at the Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross in Wrocław. He met the famous astronomer Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara and became his disciple and assistant. formally succeeded to the Warmia canonry. Heraclides. Antonio Urceo. Leaving Warmia in mid-1496—possibly with the retinue of the chapter's chancellor. whose results reinforced his doubts as to the geocentric system. Jerzy Pranghe. During his three-year stay at Bologna. 1496). seemingly with a view to furthering their ecclesiastic careers and thereby also strengthening his own influence in the Warmia chapter. Bologna. between fall 1496 and spring 1501. following a second return to Italy in 1503) than to studying the humanities--probably attending lectures by Filippo Beroaldo. the brightest star in the Taurus constellation. Silesia. site of house of Domenico Maria Novara. Philolaus. . Copernicus seems to have devoted himself less keenly to studying canon law (he received his doctorate in law only after seven years. who appealed to Rome—Copernicus' installation was delayed. Cleomedes. by conducting on 9 March 1497 at Bologna a memorable observation of Aldebaran. Prussia and Pomerania as well as students of other nationalities. To this. 13 Via Galliera 65.Nicolaus Copernicus due to opposition from part of the chapter. by proxy. Giovanni Garzoni and Alessandro Achillini--and to studying astronomy. Plaque on portico commemorates Copernicus. Pliny the Elder. He verified its observations about certain peculiarities in Ptolemy's theory of the Moon's motion. Cicero. called Codro. It was only on 20 October 1497 that Copernicus. inclining Watzenrode to send both his nephews to study law in Italy. but in 1538 he relinquished the Breslau sinecure. Despite having received a papal indult on 29 November 1508 to receive further benefices. he may only have taken minor orders. Ecphantos. Copernicus was developing new ideas inspired by reading the "Epitome of the Almagest" (Epitome in Almagestum Ptolemei) by George von Peuerbach and Johannes Regiomontanus (Venice. which also included Polish youths from Silesia. by a document dated 10 January 1503 at Padua. Aristarchos of Samos. Plutarch. through his ecclesiastic career Copernicus not only did not acquire further prebends and higher stations (prelacies) at the chapter. who was going to Italy—in the fall (October?) of that year Copernicus arrived in Bologna and a few months later (after 6 January 1497) signed himself into the register of the Bologna University of Jurists' "German nation". Bohemia. which had been granted to him two years earlier. It is uncertain whether he was ordained a priest.
where stood the house of Domenico Maria Novara. Here. in late summer or in the fall he returned again to Italy. 1473 [—] 1973. doubtless to perform an apprenticeship at the Papal Curia. a lunar eclipse on the night of 5–6 "Here. in mid-1501 Copernicus arrived back in Warmia. which would form the embryo of his later medical library. Alessandro Benedetti—and read medical treatises that he acquired at this time. for example. Jan Mesue." Mathematum" (professor of astronomy) delivered. on 31 May 1503. Jan Ketham. According to a later Studium of Bologna. observing. his doctorate in canon law—he remained at Padua from fall 1501 to summer 1503.. where he arrived with his brother Andrew that spring. "to numerous. fragmentary historic information about ancient astronomical. famous as a seat of medical learning. NICOLAUS COPERNICUS. the Polish Academy of Sciences. Sculteti.. Copernicus did not limit himself to his official studies. Copernicus spent the jubilee year 1500 in Rome. unlike most other prominent Renaissance astronomers. cosmological and calendar systems. in fall 1503) that he left Italy for good to return to Warmia. On his return journey doubtless stopping briefly at Bologna. by Valescus de Taranta. Hugo Senensis. the University.Nicolaus Copernicus 14 Plato). Chrestonius' dictionary (1499). Girolamo Fracastoro. leading masters of the science". He familiarized himself with Greek language and culture with the aid of Theodorus Gaza's grammar (1495) and J. begun at Bologna. and—except for a brief visit to Ferrara in May–June 1503 to pass examinations for. and receive.B. There also seems to be evidence that it was during his Padua stay that there finally crystallized the idea of basing a new system of the world on the movement of the Earth. probably accompanied by his brother Andrew and by Canon B. too.. he continued his astronomical work begun at Bologna. rather than at the celestial observations with his teacher in 1497–1500. It was probably the Padua years that saw the beginning of his Hellenistic interests. he was granted the degree of doctor of canon law. and Michele Savonarola. As at Bologna. One of the subjects that Copernicus must have studied was astrology. . having passed the obligatory examinations. in spring 1503 he journeyed to Ferrara where. conducted brilliant also—probably privately. the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna. This time he studied at the University of Padua. he appears never to have practiced or expressed any interest in astrology. gathering. professor of the ancient November 1500. Gabriele Zerbi. public lectures devoted probably to a critique of the mathematical solutions of contemporary astronomy. the Polish mathematician and account by Rheticus. Copernicus studied medicine probably under the direction of leading Padua professors—Bartolomeo da Montagnana. Copernicus astronomer who would revolutionize concepts of the universe. Placed on the 5th centenary Roman Sapienza--as a "Professor of [Copernicus'] birth by the City. After on 28 July receiving from the chapter a two-year extension of leave in order to study medicine (since "he may in future be a useful medical advisor to our Reverend Superior [Bishop Lucas Watzenrode] and the gentlemen of the chapter"). to the writings of Bessarion. expanding his studies of antiquity. No doubt it was soon after (at latest. especially while at Padua. Valla and others. As the time approached for Copernicus to return home.. students and. J. Arnold de Villa Nova. however. since it was considered an important part of a medical education. However.
In background: Frombork Cathedral. The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia enjoyed substantial autonomy. from Greek to Latin. to sessions of the Prussian diet at Malbork (1506). Nicolai Copernici de hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se constitutis commentariolus—commonly referred to as the Commentariolus. where he began work on his heliocentric theory. which he dedicated to his uncle in gratitude for all the benefits he had received from him. Watzenrode's itinerary suggests that in spring 1509 Copernicus may have attended the Kraków sejm. Danzig. to a session of the Royal Prussian Council in the presence of Poland's King Alexander Jagiellon. army. write Dobrzycki and Hajdukiewicz. comprising love poems. Copernicus had translated the Greek verses into Latin prose. Elbląg (1507) and Sztum (Stuhm) (1512). monetary unit (the same as in the other parts of Royal Prussia) and treasury. Malbork Marienburg. follow one another in a regular rotation of subjects. he took part in nearly all his uncle's political. It was probably on the latter occasion. Graudenz. of a collection. They are of three kinds—"moral.Nicolaus Copernicus 15 Work Having completed all his studies in Italy. Cover shows shepherd life. by . Copernicus wrote an initial outline of his heliocentric theory known only from later transcripts. Copernicus' first poetic work was a Greek epigram. With this translation.. giving little pictures of Simocatta's Epistles. "pastoral"." Copernicus' translation of Theophylact offering advice on how people should live. or Conversations with God. by the title (perhaps given to it by a copyist). between hostility to the [Teutonic] Order and loyalty to the Polish Crown. where – apart from brief journeys to Kraków and to nearby Prussian cities (Thorn. to Toruń and Danzig. and he now published his version as Theophilacti scolastici Simocati epistolae morales. composed probably during a visit to Kraków. Copernicus declared himself on the side of the humanists in the struggle over the question whether Greek literature should be revived. 30-year-old Copernicus returned to Warmia. Elbing. that Copernicus submitted for printing at Jan Haller's press his translation. ecclesiastic and administrative-economic duties. They are arranged to coats-of-arms of (clockwise from top) Poland. Königsberg (Królewiec) – he would live out the remaining 40 years of his life. From the beginning of 1504. Copernicus was his uncle's secretary and physician from Matejko. Lithuania and Kraków. rurales et amatoriae interpretatione latina. "participated. Some time before 1514. in all the more important events in the complex diplomatic game that ambitious politician and statesman played in defense of the particular interests of Prussia and Warmia.. of 85 brief poems called Epistles. and "amorous". and he may have attended a Poznań (Posen) session (1510) and the coronation of Poland's King Sigismund I the Old in Kraków (1507). It was a succinct theoretical description Astronomer Copernicus. or letters. by the 7th-century Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta. 1503 to 1510 (or perhaps till that uncle's death on 29 March 1512) and resided in the Bishop's castle at Lidzbark (Heilsberg). supposed to have passed between various characters in a Greek story. Copernicus accompanied Watzenrode to sessions of the Royal Prussian diet held at Malbork and Elbląg and." In 1504–12 Copernicus made numerous journeys as part of his uncle's retinue—in 1504. for Johannes Dantiscus' epithalamium for Barbara Zapolya's 1512 wedding to King Zygmunt I the Old. In his official capacity. in Kraków. with its own diet (parliament).
In 1514 he purchased the northwestern tower within the walls of the Frombork stronghold. without mathematical apparatus. he. but it was already based on the same assumptions regarding Earth's triple motions. it seems. published in Prague in 1602. Soon after the death . armillary sphere. and differed in some important details of geometric construction from De revolutionibus. where he would reside to the end of his life. Copernicus conducted astronomical observations in 1513–16 presumably from his external curia. The Commentariolus would appear complete in print for the first time only in 1878. rebuilt recently Having settled permanently at Frombork. internally subject to strong separatist pressures (the selection of the prince-bishops of Warmia. currency reform). during which Copernicus' astronomical instruments were probably destroyed. politically complex situation of Warmia. where he lived and worked.Nicolaus Copernicus of the world's heliocentric mechanism. a town to the northwest at the Vistula Lagoon on the Baltic Sea coast. The Commentariolus. he participated in the election of Fabian of Lossainen as Prince-Bishop of Warmia. triquetrum. Tycho Brahe would include a fragment from the Commentariolus in his own treatise. together with part of the chapter. In foreground: statue of Warmia's two chief centers of political life. using primitive instruments modeled on ancient ones—the quadrant. with interruptions in 1516–19 and 1520–21. represented a program of strict cooperation with the Polish Crown and demonstrated in all his public activities (the defense of his country against the Order's plans of conquest. was not intended for printed distribution. including. It was only in early June 1512 that the chapter gave Copernicus an "external curia"—a house outside the defensive walls of the cathedral mount. threatened externally by the Teutonic Order's aggressions (attacks by Teutonic bands. in April 1512. which Copernicus consciously saw as merely a first sketch for his planned book. support for Poland's interests in the Warmia dominion's ecclesiastic administration) that he was consciously a citizen of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. He would maintain both these residences to the end of his life. In the Copernicus difficult. In 1510 or 1512 Copernicus moved to Frombork. based on a manuscript that he had received from the Bohemian physician and astronomer Tadeáš Hájek. There. proposals to unify its monetary system with the Polish Crown's. Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata. He made only a very few manuscript copies available to his closest acquaintances. despite the devastation of the chapter's buildings by a raid against Frauenburg carried out by the Teutonic Order in January 1520. which was also one of Frombork Cathedral mount and fortifications. Copernicus found himself at the Warmia chapter's economic and administrative center. from an unidentified "small tower" (turricula). 16 Copernicus' tower at Frombork. Albert's plans to annex Warmia). the Polish-Teutonic War of 1519–21. and in 1522–43. At Frombork Copernicus conducted over half of his more than 60 registered astronomical observations. several Kraków astronomers with whom he collaborated in 1515–30 in observing eclipses. a friend of Rheticus.
and especially a series of four observations of the Sun made in 1515. When Olsztyn was besieged by the Teutonic Knights during the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21). During 1516–21. including Olsztyn (Allenstein) and Pieniężno (|Mehlsack). declaring. Some of the observations that he made in this period may have had a connection with a proposed reform of the Julian calendar made in the first half of 1513 at the request of the Bishop of Fossombrone.Nicolaus Copernicus of uncle Bishop Watzenrode. Copernicus directed the defense of Olsztyn and Warmia by Royal Polish forces. he participated in the signing of the Second Treaty of Piotrków Trybunalski (7 December 1512). from intensive observational activity. in 1512–15. While there. 17 Olsztyn Castle Copernicus worked for years with the Royal Prussian diet. which mentions Copernicus among the learned men who had sent the Council proposals for the calendar's emendation. Their contacts in this matter in the period of the Fifth Lateran Council were later memorialized in a complimentary mention in Copernicus' dedicatory epistle in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium and in a treatise by Paul of Middelburg. He also represented the Polish side in the ensuing peace negotiations. . His administrative and economic dutes did not distract Copernicus. as magister pistoriae. with a view to populating those fiefs with industrious farmers and so bolstering the economy of Warmia. that "bad" (debased) coinage drives "good" (un-debased) coinage out of circulation—70 years before Thomas Gresham. Secundum compendium correctionis Calendarii (1516). he wrote a manuscript. He also formulated a version of quantity theory of money. Copernicus resided at Olsztyn (Allenstein) Castle as economic administrator of Warmia. Political developments in Prussia culminated in the 1525 establishment of the Duchy of Prussia as a Protestant state in vassalage to Poland. led to discovery of the variability of Earth's eccentricity and of the movement of the solar apogee in relation to the fixed stars. for administering the chapter's economic enterprises (he would hold this office again in 1530). He participated in discussions in the Ducal Prussian diet about coinage reform in the Prussian countries. Paul of Middelburg. on monetary reform. governing the appointment of the Bishop of Warmia. a question that concerned the diet was who had the right to mint coin. In it he formulated an early iteration of the theory. and advised King Sigismund. which in 1515–19 prompted his first revisions of certain assumptions of his system. Monetae cudendae ratio. now called Gresham's Law. That same year (before 8 November 1512) Copernicus assumed responsibility. In 1526 Copernicus wrote a study on the value of money. Locationes mansorum desertorum (Locations of Deserted Fiefs). despite opposition from part of the chapter. The results of his observations of Mars and Saturn in this period. and with Duke Albert of Prussia (against whom Copernicus had defended Warmia in the Polish-Teutonic War). for loyal cooperation with the Polish Crown. Copernicus' recommendations on monetary reform were widely read by leaders of both Prussia and Poland in their attempts to stabilize currency. having already since 1511 fulfilled the duties of chancellor and visitor of the chapter's estates.
For a time. At first Copernicus maintained friendly relations with the new Prince-Bishop. who had fallen seriously ill. Copernicus went willingly.". "Nicolaus Copernicus Tornaeus Borussus Mathemat. The Chapter readily gave Copernicus permission to go. Copernicus the physician had treated his uncle. The Pope was so pleased that he gave Widmanstetter a valuable gift. 1597 Some of Copernicus' close friends turned Protestant. as it wished to remain on good terms with the Duke. Duke Albert summoned Copernicus to Königsberg to attend the Duke's counselor. but his candidacy Thorvaldsen's Copernicus Monument in was actually pro forma. Bishop of Chełmno (Kulm). since Dantiscus had earlier been named coadjutor Warsaw bishop to Ferber. his old friend Tiedemann Giese. Copernicus continued making astronomical observations and calculations. Copernicus participated in the election of his successor. including the physician to Duke Albert and. But that autumn. George von Kunheim. The first attacks on him came from Protestants. In the play. in 1539. he continued to receive reports on von Kunheim's condition. a Dutch refugee settled in Elbląg. assisting him medically in spring 1538 and accompanying him that summer on an inspection tour of Chapter holdings. by letter. wrote a comedy in Latin. because he died a couple of weeks later. Wapowski's letter mentions Copernicus' theory about the motions of the earth. In his younger days. Following the death of Prince-Bishop of Warmia Mauritius Ferber (1 July 1537). Wilhelm Gnapheus. Johannes Dantiscus (20 September 1537). Anna Schilling. he had met von Kunheim during negotiations over reform of the coinage. brother and other chapter members. the Polish Royal Physician. their friendship was strained by suspicions over Copernicus' housekeeper. In 1535 Bernard Wapowski wrote a letter to a gentleman in Vienna. and staged it at the Latin school that he had established there. Copernicus with medicinal plant In the spring of 1541. In about a month the patient recovered.Nicolaus Copernicus 18 In 1533. And Copernicus had come to feel that Albert himself was not such a bad person. . and to send him medical advice by letter. Throughout this period of his life. secretary to Pope Clement VII. he sometimes sought consultations from other physicians. Johann Widmanstetter. This is the only mention of a Copernicus almanac in the historical records. Nothing came of Wapowski's request. explained Copernicus' heliocentric system to the Pope and two cardinals. The "almanac" was likely Copernicus' tables of planetary positions. In treating such important patients. and for whom the Prussian doctors seemed unable to do anything. the two had many intellectual interests in common. but only as his other responsibilities permitted and never in a professional capacity. but Copernicus never showed a tendency in that direction. and Copernicus returned to Frombork. urging him to publish an enclosed almanac. whom Dantiscus removed from Frombork in 1539. which he claimed had been written by Copernicus. In later years he was called upon to attend the elderly bishops who in turn occupied the see of Warmia—Mauritius Ferber and Johannes Dantiscus — and. Morosophus (The Foolish Sage). Copernicus was one of four candidates for the post. written in at the initiative of Tiedemann Giese. despite his Lutheran faith.
 Elsewhere Protestants were the first to react to news of Copernicus' theory. not wishing—as he confessed—to risk the scorn "to which he would expose himself on account of the novelty and incomprehensibility of his theses. On 1 November 1536. . most learned sir. Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered a series of lectures in Rome outlining Copernicus' theory. a forty-page manuscript describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis. and rumors about his theory had reached educated people all over Europe. By then Copernicus' work was nearing its definitive form. In it you maintain that the earth moves. and was rumored to have written a large work that was moldering in a chest. Despite urgings from many quarters. Scholars disagree on whether Copernicus' concern was limited to possible astronomical and philosophical objections. and at the earliest possible moment to send me your writings on the sphere of the universe together with the tables and whatever else you have that is relevant to this subject .. and thus the central.. It contained seven basic assumptions (detailed below). Astronomers and astrologers quickly adopted it in place of its predecessors. a set of astronomical tables based on Copernicus' work.. About 1532 Copernicus had basically completed his work on the manuscript of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. Polish] astronomer who moves the earth and stops the sun. aloof man who dabbled in astrology. perhaps from fear of criticism—a fear delicately expressed in the subsequent dedication of his masterpiece to Pope Paul III. Nevertheless. considered himself inspired by God. the Prussian Tables. wise rulers should have curbed such light-mindedness.e. or whether he was also concerned about religious objections. At that time I began to have a very high regard for you. Melanchthon wrote: Some people believe that it is excellent and correct to work out a thing as absurd as did that Sarmatian [i.Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus was caricatured as a haughty. For I had learned that you had not merely mastered the discoveries of the ancient astronomers uncommonly well but had also formulated a new cosmology. Archbishop of Capua. under the sponsorship of Copernicus' former military adversary.. Therefore with the utmost earnestness I entreat you. Cardinal Nikolaus von Schönberg. of which everybody constantly spoke. cold.. place in the universe. he resisted openly publishing his views. Indeed. but despite urging by his closest friends." In 1533. 19 Heliocentrism Some time before 1514 Copernicus made available to friends his "Commentariolus" ("Little Commentary"). wrote to Copernicus from Rome: Mid-16th-century  portrait Some years ago word reached me concerning your proficiency. unless I inconvenience you. to communicate this discovery of yours to scholars. the Protestant Duke Albert. in 1551. eight years after Copernicus' death. astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published. Pope Clement VII and several Catholic cardinals heard the lectures and were interested in the theory. Copernicus delayed publication of his book.. that the sun occupies the lowest.. Thereafter he continued gathering data for a more detailed work.
Gąssowski said he was "almost 100 percent sure it is Copernicus". The expert also determined that the skull belonged to a man who had died around age 70—Copernicus' age at the time of his death. head of an archaeology and anthropology institute in Pułtusk. and having seen the favorable first general De revolutionibus. Efforts to locate the remains in 1802. He is reputed to have awoken from a stroke-induced coma. 1543. bishop of Chełmno (Kulm).Nicolaus Copernicus 20 The book Copernicus was still working on De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (even if not certain that he wanted to publish it) when in 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus. Andreas Osiander. As long as a hypothesis allows reliable computation. The find came after a year of searching. He explained that astronomers may find different causes for observed motions. Germany. it does not have to match what a philosopher might seek as the truth. after scanning beneath the cathedral floor. resembled the features—including a broken nose and a scar above the left eye—on a Copernicus self-portrait. on 3 November 2008. staying with him for two years and writing a book. Rheticus became Copernicus' pupil. A 1580 epitaph had been destroyed. Under strong pressure from Rheticus. close friend. While Rheticus initially supervised the printing. Philipp Melanchthon. and he handed over the task of supervising the rest of the printing to a Lutheran theologian. a team led by Jerzy Gąssowski. Copernicus was reportedly buried in Frombork Cathedral. Legend has it that the first printed copy of De revolutionibus was placed in his hands on the very day that he died. looked at his book. Click reception of his work. to be delivered to Rheticus for printing by the German printer Johannes Petreius at Nuremberg (Nürnberg). Narratio prima (First Account). . a Wittenberg mathematician. arrived in Frombork. Death Copernicus died in Frombork on 24 May 1543. Copernicus finally agreed to give De revolutionibus to his on image to read book. where archaeologists for over two centuries searched in vain for his remains. allowing him to take farewell of his life's work. Osiander added an unauthorised and unsigned preface. Tiedemann Giese. and choose whatever is easier to grasp. 1939 and 2004 had come to nought. In 1542 Rheticus published a treatise on trigonometry by Copernicus (later included in the second book of De revolutionibus). a close theological ally of Martin Luther. Frombork Central Forensic Laboratory used the skull to reconstruct a face that closely Cathedral. outlining the essence of Copernicus' theory. 1909. In August 2005. discovered what they believed to be Copernicus' remains. and then died peacefully. however. and the discovery was announced only after further research. defending the work against those who might be offended by the novel hypotheses. he had to leave Nuremberg before it was completed. had arranged for Rheticus to visit several astronomers and study with them. Forensic expert Capt. Dariusz Zajdel of the Polish Police 1735 epitaph.
the Sun itself. among other things. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated rapidly. On 22 May 2010 Copernicus was given a second funeral in a Mass led by Józef Kowalczyk. The tombstone bears a representation of Copernicus' model of the solar system—a golden sun encircled by six of the planets. Casket with Copernicus' remains. Frombork Cathedral Copernicus' 2010 grave. 230 BCE) identified the "central fire" with the Sun. The DNA from the bones found in the grave matched hair samples taken from a book owned by Copernicus which was kept at the library of the University of Uppsala in Sweden. and the Moon were embedded in their own. Aristarchus of Samos (310 BCE – c. the Sun. around which he had the Earth orbiting. James' Cathedral Basilica. 480–385 BCE) described an astronomical system in which a Central Fire (different from the Sun) occupied the centre of the universe. Allenstein. the Earth was the stationary center of the universe. including epicycles. and stars all revolved around it. deferents and equants. March 2010 Copernican system Predecessors Philolaus (c. was the lower jaw. while each of the planets. the former papal nuncio to Poland and newly named Primate of Poland. Copernicus' remains were reburied in the same spot in Frombork Cathedral where part of his skull and other bones had been found. smaller spheres. missing. Heraclides Ponticus (387–312 BCE) proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis. in that order outward from the centre. and not all the remains of the skeleton were found. Frombork Cathedral . both of whom retained a geocentric model. and a counter-Earth. circular orbits centered on the Earth. the Earth. Ptolemy's system employed devices. A black granite tombstone now identifies him as the founder of the heliocentric theory and also a church canon. to account for observations that the paths of these bodies differed from simple. Some technical details of Copernicus's system closely resembled those developed earlier by the Islamic astronomers Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī and Ibn al-Shāṭir. approximately daily. St. Moon. planets.Nicolaus Copernicus 21 The grave was in poor condition. The prevailing theory in Europe during Copernicus' lifetime was the one that Ptolemy published in his Almagest circa 150 CE.
The center of the earth is not the center of the universe. The earth has. General vision of the heliocentric theory. in the year of his death. 3. therefore. The motion of the earth alone. Description of the Moon and its orbital motions 5. 7. called "books": 1. while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged. Mainly dedicated to the apparent motions of the Sun and to related phenomena 4. but from the earth's motion. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point.Nicolaus Copernicus 22 Copernicus Copernicus' major theory was published in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres). presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in the subsequent books) 3." De revolutionibus itself was divided into six parts. There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres. but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion. with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet. The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament (outermost celestial sphere containing the stars) is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament. 1543. What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere. It listed the "assumptions" upon which the theory was based as follows: "1. though he had formulated the theory several decades earlier. 6. suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens. and a summarized exposition of his idea of the World 2. 5. 2. Copernicus' "Commentariolus" summarized his heliocentric theory. then. Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament. Exposition of the motions in longitude of the non-terrestrial planets 6. more than one motion. and therefore Copernicus' vision of the universe in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium the sun is the center of the universe. Exposition of the motions in latitude of the non-terrestrial planets . Mainly theoretical. 4. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's.
the Catholic Church's chief censor). Despite the near universal acceptance today of the basic heliocentric idea (though not the epicycles or the circular orbits). While still invoking Christian Scripture and Tradition..Nicolaus Copernicus 23 Successors Georg Joachim Rheticus could have been Copernicus' successor. Dominican Bartolomeo Spina. in his popular book The Sleepwalkers. But with Spina's death in 1546. was the heliocentric view generally accepted. and the other planets revolve about the sun") also directly competed with Copernicus'. followed by Johannes Kepler." Tycho Brahe's system ("that the earth is stationary. Tolosani had written a treatise on reforming the calendar (in which astronomy would play a large role). and Johannes Kepler. It was only a half century later with the work of Kepler and Galileo that any substantial evidence defending Copernicanism appeared.[which] helped to explain why everything would not fall off the earth if it were in motion." It was not until "after Isaac Newton formulated the universal law of gravitation and the laws of mechanics [in his 1687 Principia]. asserted that Copernicus' book had not been widely read on its first publication. At the Council of Trent neither Copernicus' theory nor calendar reform (which would later use tables deduced from Copernicus' calculations) were discussed. Tolosani strove to show Copernicanism was absurd because it was unproven and unfounded on three main points.. Valentin Otto." Controversy Only mild controversy (and no fierce sermons) was the immediate result of the publication of Copernicus' book. who examined every surviving copy of the first two editions and found copious marginal notes by their owners throughout many of them. along with Achilles Gasser. The intellectual climate of the time "remained dominated by Aristotelian philosophy and the corresponding Ptolemaic astronomy. Michael Maestlin. First Copernicus had assumed the motion of the Earth but offered no physical theory whereby one would deduce this motion. His denouncement of Copernicanism appeared in an appendix to his work entitled On the Truth of Sacred Scripture. who "expressed a desire to stamp out the Copernican doctrine". Arthur Koestler. Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei in Italy. Christoph Rothmann (who may have later recanted). (No one realized that the . Erasmus Reinhold could have been his successor. Copernicus. and Tiedemann Giese. The first of the great successors was Tycho Brahe (though he did not think the earth orbitted the sun). Simon Stevin in the Low Countries. Copernicus' theory was originally slow to catch on. the largest group – Georg Joachim Rheticus. which unified terrestrial and celestial mechanics. astronomer He had obtained a copy of De Revolutionibus in 1544." Additional possibilities are Englishman William Gilbert. "Thomas Digges and Thomas Hariot in England. but did not rise to the occasion. Georg Vogelin. At that time there was no reason to accept the Copernican theory.e. Emulating the rationalistic style of Thomas Aquinas. the sun revolves about the earth. his cause fell to his friend. except for its mathematical simplicity [by avoiding using the equant in determining planetary positions]. starting "from the time when Galileo formulated the principle of inertia. and had attended the Fifth Lateran Council to discuss the matter. and in Germany. The first notable to move against Copernicanism was the Magister of the Holy Palace (i. the well known theologian-astronomer. This claim was trenchantly criticised by Edward Rosen. Mark in Florence. who had worked as Tycho's assistant in Prague. Diego de Zuniga in Spain. Scholars hold that sixty years after the publication of The Revolutions there were only around 15 astronomers espousing Copernicanism in all of Europe. Tolosani sought to refute Copernicanism on philosophical arguments. the Dominican Giovanni Maria Tolosani of the Convent of St. and has been decisively disproved by Owen Gingerich.. but died prematurely. Gingerich published his conclusions in 2004 in The Book Nobody Read.
Tolosani held that Copernicus had just fallen into philosophical error because he hadn't been versed in physics and logic . rather than observing phenomena and deducing from that the idea of what caused it. For by a foolish effort he [Copernicus] tried to revive the weak Pythagorean opinion [that the element of fire was at the Ptolemy and Copernicus. (though he still held that Copernicus' attempt to describe physical reality had been faulty). long ago deservedly destroyed." He declared that he had written against Copernicus "for the purpose of preserving the truth to the common advantage of the Holy Church. We have written this little work for the purpose of avoiding this scandal. Its thesis that astronomy as a whole would never be able to make truth claims was rejected by Tolosani. which were later picked up by Thomas Aquinas)." (This was basically a denial of the possibility of mathematical physics. In this Tolosani was linking Copernicus' mathematical equations with the practices of the Pythagoreans (whom Aristotle had made arguments against. Tolosani recognized that the Ad Lectorem preface to Copernicus' book wasn't actually by him. For it is stupid to contradict an opinion accepted by everyone over a very long time for the strongest reasons. Tolosani held that Copernicanism could only be viewed as a wild unproven theory. It was argued that mathematical numbers were a mere product of the intellect without any physical reality. the foolishness of this book's author is rebuked. since it is expressly contrary 1686. But he does not do this in the least. Because it had not meet the criteria for scientific truth set out by Thomas Aquinas. at King Jan Sobieski's to human reason and also opposes holy writ. (As Copernicus still maintained the idea of perfectly spherical orbits he relied on epicycles). awaiting its use by some new prosecutor" (it is believed that Dominican Tommaso Caccini read it before delivering a sermon against Galileo in December 1613)." Despite the efforts Tolosani put into his work it remained unpublished and it "was likely shelved in the library of the Dominican order at San Marco in Florence." He wrote that Copernicus "is very deficient in the sciences of physics and logic. it appears that he is unskilled with regard to [the interpretation of] holy scripture. In this way Copernicus seemed to be undermining the whole system of the philosophy of science at the time.Nicolaus Copernicus investigation into Copernicanism would result in a rethinking of the entire field of physics.anyone without such knowledge would make a poor astronomer and be unable to distinguish truth from falsehood.) Second Tolosani charged that Copernicus' thought processes was backwards. Wilanów Palace: an arise disagreements between Catholic expositors of holy scripture and those who early Copernicus depiction might wish to adhere obstinately to this false opinion.) Some astronomical hypotheses at the time (such as epicycles and eccentrics) were seen as mere mathematical devices to adjust calculations of where the heavenly bodies would appear. there could easily library. he found it ridiculous that Ad Lectorem had been included in the book (unaware that Copernicus hadn't authorized its inclusion). rather than an explanation of the cause of those motions. center of the Universe]. Copernicus had used Mathematics and Astronomy to postulate about Physics and Cosmology. This "saving the phenomena" was seen as proof that Astronomy and Math could not be taken as a serious means to determine physical causes.. not without danger of infidelity to himself and the readers of his book. . unless the impugner uses more powerful and insoluble demonstrations and completely dissolves the opposed reasons. ca. since he contradicts several of its principles. Tolosani invoked it in his final critique of Copernicus. Tolosani wrote "By means of these words [of the Ad Lectorem]. 24 . Holding this view. rather than beginning with the accepted principles of Physics and Cosmology to determine things about Astronomy and Math.. He held that Copernicus had come up with his idea and then sought phenomena that would support it.his arguments have no force and can very easily be taken apart. saying his biggest error was that he started with "inferior" fields of science to make pronouncements about "superior" fields. From this situation. and as such "numbers could not provide physical causes in the investigation of nature. Moreover." Tolosani declared "Nicolaus Copernicus neither read nor understood the arguments of Aristotle the philosopher and Ptolemy the astronomer.
After receiving the first pages of Narratio Prima from Rheticus himself. did not its Divine Maker fix and establish it. How entwined the pre-Copernican theory was in theological circles can be seen in a sample of the works of John Calvin. returns annually to the same point. like that Polish astronomer who makes the earth move and the sun stand still. and claims that after quoting Psalm 93:1 he went on to say "Who will venture to place the authority of Copernicus above the Holy Spirit". we experience no concussion – no disturbance in the harmony of their motion. The sun. even the efforts of Tolosani had gone unheeded. Luther's collaborator Philipp Melanchthon also took issue with Copernicanism. In John Aurifaber's account of the conversation Luther calls Copernicus "that fool" rather than "that fellow". and the authority of the Bible".' and yet he is speaking about the whole heaven. And that is because the sky turns around upon the pole that is there. this version is viewed by historians as less reliably sourced. wise governments ought to repress impudence of mind." It had appeared to Rheticus that Melanchton would understand the theory and would be open to it. This is manifestly seen." These remarks were made four years before the publication of On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and a year before Rheticus' Narratio Prima. Whoever wants to be clever must agree with nothing others esteem. How could the earth hang suspended in the air were it not upheld by God's hand? By what means could it maintain itself unmoved. by its own revolution draws with it all the fixed stars". Even in these thing that are thrown into disorder I believe the Holy Scriptures. Rheticus' hopes were dashed when six years after the publication of De Revolutionibus Melanchthon published his Initia Doctrinae Physicae presenting three grounds to reject Copernicanism. for Psalms 93:1 "The heavens revolve daily. This is what that fellow does who wishes to turn the whole of astronomy upside down. maintain their respective positions. This is averted by Joshua's prayers causing the sun and the moon to stand still. just as in the wheels of a chariot there is an axle that runs through the middle of them. these were "the evidence of the senses. The sharpest point of conflict between Copernicus' theory and the Bible concerned the story of the Battle of Gibeon in the Book of Joshua where the Hebrew forces were winning but whose opponents were likely to escape once night fell. like a little globe. have been discredited and shown to originate with Frederic William Farrar's Bampton Lecture in 1885. and that the earth. Proposed reasons have included the personality of Galileo Galilei and the availability of evidence such as telescope observations. There is no evidence that Calvin was aware of Copernicus. and the wheels turn around the axle by reason of the holes that are in the middle of them. immense as is their fabric and inconceivable the rapidity of their revolutions. while eating with Martin Luther the topic of Copernicus arouse during dinner on 4 June 1539 (as professor George Joachim Rheticus of the local University had been granted leave to visit him). The planets." Calvin's commentaries on the Psalms also show a reliance on the pre-Copernican theory." Commenting on Psalms 19:4 Calvin says "the firmament. and. though varying its course every diurnal revolution. is placed in the centre. writing "certain people believe it is a marvelous achievement to extol so crazy a thing." Commenting on Job 26:7 Calvin wrote "It is true that Job specifically says 'the north. the thousand-year consensus of men of science. those who are well acquainted with the course of the firmament see that the sky so turns. Luther is said to have remarked "So it goes now. He must do something of his own.Nicolaus Copernicus It has been much debated why it was not until six decades after the publication of De revolutionibus that the Catholic Church took any official action against it. Really. for Joshua commanded the sun to stand still and not the earth. in all their wanderings. even so is it in the skies. that is to say. For. Martin Luther would question Copernicus' theory on these grounds. This was because Melanchton had taught Ptolemaic astronomy and had even recommended his friend Rheticus to an appointment to the Deanship of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences at the University of Wittenberg after he had returned from studying with Copernicus. 1541 condemning the theory and calling for it to be repressed by governmental force. According to Anthony Lauterbach. Blasting the new theory 25 . Unlike Calvin many theologians did become aware of Copernicus' theory which became increasingly controversial. while the heavens above are in constant rapid motion. Melanchthon wrote to Mithobius (physician and mathematician Burkard Mithob of Feldkirch) on October 16. In his Commentary on Genesis he said that "We indeed are not ignorant that the circuit of the heavens is finite.
you will find all agreeing in the literal interpretation that the sun is in heaven and turns around the earth with great speed.not only the Holy Fathers. since if it is not a matter of faith 'as regards the topic. it is probable that he was commissioned by the Inquisition to write an expert opinion on the controversy".. and Joshua. let us cherish the truth and let us not permit ourselves to be alienated from it by the tricks of those who deem it an intellectual honor to introduce confusion into the arts. in which he reports that Aristarchus of Samos propounded the paradox that the sun stands still and the earth revolves around the sun. There is still extant Archimedes' book on The sand-reckoner. fixing the sun as in the centre of the world' was 'built on fallible phenomena. An interpretation which is contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers is condemned by the Council of Trent. although the Council speaks about matters of faith and morals. Catholic Cardinal Robert Bellarmine condemned Copernican theory. and also because all the [Church] Fathers unanimously take this passage to mean that the sun which was truly moving stopped at Joshua's request. They maintain that neither the eighth sphere nor the sun moves. Even though subtle experts institute many investigations for the sake of exercising their ingenuity. the Roman Catholic Church's Congregation of the Index issued a decree suspending De revolutionibus until it could be "corrected". a Catholic priest. Ecclesiastes. and advanced by many arbitrary presumptions against evident testimonies of Scripture. Another Protestant theologican who took issue with Copernicus was John Owen who declared that "the late hypothesis. saying "Replies which assert that Scripture speaks according to our mode of understanding are not satisfactory: both because in explaining the Sacred Writings the rule is always to preserve the literal sense." Ingoli also cited Genesis 1:14 where YHWH places "lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night. whereas they attribute motion to the other celestial spheres." Like previous commentators Ingoli pointed to the passages about the Battle of Gibeon and dismissed arguments that they should be taken metaphorically. The 26 . as well as to say that Christ was not born of a virgin. In his 12 April 1615 letter to a Catholic defender of Copernicus.Nicolaus Copernicus Melanchthon wrote "Out of love for novelty or in order to make a show of their cleverness. and again in a book in 1612. in the decree on the edition and use of the Sacred Books. and that the earth is very far from heaven and sits motionless at the center of the world.Nor can one answer that this is not a matter of faith. Melanchthon even questioned Copernicus' character claiming his motivation was "either from love of novelty or from desire to appear clever". Paolo Antonio Foscarini. in a work published in 1609–1610. Furthermore. nevertheless public proclamation of absurd opinions is indecent and sets a harmful example. writing ".' In Roman Catholic circles. on the grounds that the supposedly Pythagorean doctrine that the Earth moves and the Sun does not was "false and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture"." In March 1616.. as it is in this case." Melanchthon went on to cite Bible passages and then declare "Encouraged by this divine evidence. the Psalms. Ingoli wrote a January 1616 essay condemning Copernicanism as "philosophically untenable and theologically heretical. Two of Ingoli's theological issues with Copernicus' theory were "common Catholic beliefs not directly traceable to Scripture: the doctrine that hell is located at the center of Earth and is most distant from heaven. and also place the earth among the heavenly bodies. in connection with the Galileo affair. German Jesuit Nicolaus Serarius was one of the first to write against Copernicus' theory as heretical." Perhaps the strongest opponent to Copernican theory was Francesco Ingoli. (after the Congregation of the Index's decree against Copernicanism on 5 March 1616 Ingoli was officially appointed its consultant).' it is a matter of faith 'as regards the speaker': and so it would be heretical to say that Abraham did not have two children and Jacob twelve. these more personal attacks were largely removed by the second edition in 1550. some people have argued that the earth moves." Though "it is not certain. citing the Joshua passage. Session IV." In the first edition of Initia Doctrinae Physicae. and the explicit assertion that Earth is motionless in a hymn sung on Tuesdays as part of the Liturgy of the Hours of the Divine Office prayers regularly recited by priests. nevertheless it cannot be denied that the Holy Fathers would be displeased with an interpretation of Sacred Scriptures which is contrary to their common agreement. because both are said by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of prophets and apostles. when it is possible. Nor were these jokes invented recently. but also the modern commentaries on Genesis...
was "largely indifferent" to nationality. he was neither. Cardinal Robert Bellarmine gave Galileo prior notice that the decree was about to be issued. 27 Nationality There has been discussion of Copernicus' nationality and of whether. but retained the specific prohibitions of the original uncensored versions of De revolutionibus and Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. or that attempted to reconcile these assertions with Scripture." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy describes Copernicus as a "child of a German family [who] was a subject of the Polish crown". Historian Michael Burleigh describes the nationality debate as a "totally insignificant battle" between German and Polish scholars during the interwar period. The Columbia Encyclopedia and The Oxford World Encyclopedia identify Copernicus as a "Polish astronomer". there is good reason to regard him both as a German and as a Pole: and yet. Davies concludes: "Taking everything into consideration. while others note that his father was a Germanized Pole. Similarly historian Norman Davies writes that Copernicus. Miłosz and Davies both write that Copernicus had a German-language cultural background. (At the time. Those prohibitions were finally dropped from the 1835 Index.. Polish astronomer Konrad Rudnicki calls the discussion a "fierce scholarly quarrel in. times of nationalism" and describes Copernicus as an inhabitant of a German-speaking territory that belonged to Poland.. were issued four years later. while his working language was Latin in accordance with the usage of the time. Additionally. regarded him as Polish and referred to him as a "Sarmatic fool".Nicolaus Copernicus same decree also prohibited any work that defended the mobility of the Earth or the immobility of the Sun. 1807. in fact. which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture". On the orders of Pope Paul V. At the instance of Roger Boscovich. "there is ample evidence that he knew the Polish language". in 1620. . it is meaningful to ascribe to him a nationality in the modern sense.) Bust by Schadow. and was placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. being a local patriot who considered himself "Prussian". Rudnicki adds that Martin Luther. as was common in his era. and warned him that he could not "hold or defend" the Copernican doctrine. who identified with their home territories rather than with a nation. the debate is an "absurd" projection of a modern understanding of nationality onto Renaissance people. which omitted or altered nine sentences. Encyclopædia Britannica. In 1633 Galileo Galilei was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus. Encyclopedia Americana. The corrections to De revolutionibus. in the sense that modern nationalists understand it. Walhalla temple According to Czesław Miłosz. the Catholic Church's 1758 Index of Prohibited Books omitted the general prohibition of works defending heliocentrism. according to Davies. an opponent of Copernicus' theories. "Sarmatian" was a term for a nobleman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. himself being of mixed Polish-German extraction.
Germany. Smith. Notes  Linton (2004. ( (http:/ / books. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress.Nicolaus Copernicus 28 Copernicium On 14 July 2009. p." said Hofmann. 1943. from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. google.  "Nicolaus Copernicus" (http:/ / plato. "After we had named elements after our city and our state. Springer.. Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli. stanford. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz." On the 537th anniversary of his birthday the official naming was released to the public.  Iłowiecki. edu/ entries/ copernicus/ #1). p. com/ books?id=ZHDWSYV6pKoC& pg=PA36& lpg=PA36& dq=silesia+ copernicus& source=bl& ots=ZZDjIBncVQ& sig=BcJwqCjxc7rn2YLgDnC-OIQljQo& hl=en& ei=a0gES-jNBM6onQenuqF4& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CBwQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=silesia copernicus& f=false))  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz.  Czesław Miłosz. A Greek mathematician and astronomer. google. Polski słownik biograficzny. Kraków's Jagiellonian University has a 17th-century copy of Copernicus' 16th-century self-portrait. Ossolineum. pl/ memory/ sub_kopernik/ index. p. 760. 1943. com/ books?id=LQflKvEtYL8C& pg=PA15& dq=Copernicus+ father+ copper)  Eugeniusz Rybka for Polska Akademia Nauk (the Polish Academy of Sciences). google. 16. Polski słownik biograficzny. pp. 367. com/ books?id=11MVdBYUX5oC& pg=PA38& dq=Watzenrode+ Teutonic& lr=)  Dobrzycki and Hajdukiewicz. 1969." Alexandre Koyre. com/ books?id=BjJFAAAAIAAJ& q=Copernicus+ father+ copper+ Gdansk& dq=Copernicus+ father+ copper+ Gdansk& pgis=1)  Josh Sakolsky. archiwa. "Kopernik. britannica." Stephen Mizwa. au/ books?id=aJuwFLGWKF8C& pg=PA39). 1983. Veneration Copernicus is honored. 38. com. google. Maciej (1981). p. 36.  A self-portrait helped confirm the identity of his cranium when it was discovered at Frombork Cathedral in 2008. 1973. Nicolaus Copernicus. published by Wieland in Nuremberg in 1731. had already done so as early as the third century BCE. google. The History of Polish Literature. 23. Poland. (http:/ / books. "Copernicus' Biography". Ossolineum. Mikołaj". "Kopernik. au/ books?id=aJuwFLGWKF8C& pg=PA119)). 4. XIV. 39 (http:/ / books. has been variously spelled. Dzieje nauki polskiej. Cornell University Press. Kessinger Publishing. google. 16. not unlike that of the astronomer's family. 1973. p. Copernicus was not. Nevertheless. ( (http:/ / books. (http:/ / books. 1973. We were looking world-wide. google. 4. 135–48) (http:/ / www. p. together with Johannes Kepler. p. (http:/ / books. 1969.  [Great Books of the Western World. spells it Kopernik. 1953. the first to propose some form of heliocentric system. (http:/ / www. 2005. 2005. 1973 (http:/ / books. Regesta Copernicana (calendar of Copernicus' papers). XIV. p. of chemical element 112 (temporarily named ununbium) proposed to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry that its permanent name be "copernicium" (symbol Cn). 78. the discoverers. com/ EBchecked/ topic-art/ 533435/ 1279/ Copernicus-17th-century-copy-of-a-16th-century-self-portrait) "Copernicus". "We didn't want to select someone who was a German. php?va_lang=en& fileid=004) . with a feast day on 23 May. Book 16]  "The name of the village.. p. ISBN 0-486-27095-5. . p. archive. in the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA). p. 1969. 119 (http:/ / books. Encyclopædia Britannica. Polski słownik biograficzny. Copernicus and Modern Astronomy. accessed 2009-05-22. com/ books?id=3gkLAAAAMAAJ& q=Copernicus+ Olesnicki+ loan& dq=Copernicus+ Olesnicki+ loan& pgis=1)  "The mother of Barbara and Lucas was a Modlibog. vol.  The Head Office of State Archives. The Scientific World of Copernicus. The Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review. there is little evidence that he ever developed his ideas beyond a very basic outline (Dreyer. google. com. XIV. vol. 1543–1943. A large German atlas of Silesia. Rosen Publishing Group. p. pp. Mikołaj". we wanted to make a statement with a name that was known to everyone. vol. google.  Barbara Bieńkowska. 3. ( (http:/ / books. google. (http:/ / books. 15th ed. The Review of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Nicolaus Copernicus' Relationship with Cracow. ISBN 83-223-1876-6. (http:/ / www. org/ stream/ historyofplaneta00dreyuoft#page/ 134/ mode/ 2up). com/ books?id=0QC8ZSklbxYC& pg=PT11& dq=Copernicus+ father+ Torun#PPT11. com/ books?id=l0YRAZz2yU0C& pg=PA78& dq=modlibog+ + + copernicus& lr=& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=modlibog + copernicus& f=false))  "Adrian Krzyzanowski and John Sniadecki: Copernicus and His Native Land". 1844. gov. Aristarchus of Samos. however. 1543–1943. p. Elder & Co. 40. University of California Press.M1)  Marian Biskup. 8. vol. Retrieved 2007-04-22. com/ books?id=ldwRAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA367& lpg=PA367& dq=copernicus+ modlibog& source=bl& ots=heDom9dv_y& sig=koaEdou1Jss4uaP4-HugEGBV3cs& hl=en& ei=WwoHS4PSGNHbnAeOlK25Cw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CBYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=modlibog& f=false))  Stephen Mizwa: Nicolaus Copernicus. 38.
Cornell University Press. p. 13.  He used Latin and German. ISBN 0-486-27095-5. The Solar Mystery: An Inquiry Into the Temporal and the Eternal Background of the Rise of Modern Civilization. 62. Polish and Latin with equal fluency as well as Italian. Furthmore. University of Washington Press. com/ books?id=9r0RfQtpU6AC& pg=PA22& dq=lucas+ was+ in+ more+ friendly& lr=& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=lucas was in more friendly& f=false))  "[Watzenrode] was also firm. H. Professor Stefan Melkowski of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń likewise asserts that Copernicus spoke both German and Polish. google. 2001. Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli. W." Barbara Somerville: Nicolaus Copernicus: Father of Modern Astronomy. [Watzenrode] was the trusted friend and advisor of three kings in succession: John Albert." Patrick Moore: The Great Astronomical Revolution: 1534–1687 and the Space Age Epilogue. Bishop Watzenrode died suddenly after attending King Sigismund's wedding feast in Kraków. ISBN 1-59160-193-2. shtml). ( (http:/ / books. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). German and Latin. ISBN 978-3-406-47577-1. 10. p. Central Europe: Enemies. 1996. the Teutonic Knights. Dover Publications. however." Martin Carrier: Nikolaus Kopernikus. pp. Cornell University Press. at Bologna. p. ( (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=e_m13Hk3AFEC& pg=PA23& dq=natio+ germanorum& lr=& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=natio germanorum& f=false)) 29 . or "nation". Compass Point Books. 2004 (originally 1957). com/ books?id=guAUPMLcHyoC& pg=PA62& dq=watzenrode+ john+ albert+ sigismund& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=watzenrode john albert sigismund& f=false)). C. referred to the community of feudal lords both in Germany and elsewhere. 23. Students who were natives of Prussia and Silesia were automatically described as belonging to the Natio Germanorum. google. "WATZENRODE. Oxford University Press. 29." Lonnie Johnson. ISBN 1-898563-18-7. and the Teutonic Knights. New York.])  "Deutsch war für Kopernikus Muttersprache und Alltagssprache. com/ books?id=guAUPMLcHyoC& pg=PA62& dq=watzenrode+ john+ albert+ sigismund& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=watzenrode john albert sigismund& f=false))  "He spoke German. 2001. the Grand Master of the order once described him as 'the devil incarnate'. Herzberg: Bautz. Lucas" (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-898563-18-7. Freemand and Company. 2003. p. pp. and Sigismund (Zygmunt) I (from 1506). 1973. 38. . p. vol. Latin and Greek." Patrick Moore: The Great Astronomical Revolution: 1534–1687 and the Space Age Epilogue. google. ( (http:/ / books. Copernicus presumably would also have learned some Italian. p. 26).  "He was a linguist with a command of Polish. 2005. ( (http:/ / books. uni. 2002. 75–77). ( (http:/ / books. not to 'the people' in the nineteenth-century democratic or nationalistic sense of the word. 1994. google. ( online (http:/ / books. google. ( (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-7565-0812-6." Alexandre Koyre: Astronomical Revolution. it does not imply that Copernicus considered himself to be a German. p. p. Alexander (not to be confused with the poisoning pope). p. com/ books?id=C_a1kTvuZ1MC& pg=PA127#v=onepage& f=false)). ISBN 0-19-510071-9." Daniel Stone: The Polish-Lithuanian State. [Watzenrode] was the trusted friend and advisor of three kings in succession: John Albert. Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli. 52. Friends. bautz.H. Alexander (not to be confused with the poisoning pope). ISBN 0-295-98093-1.Nicolaus Copernicus  Jeremi Wasiutyński. p. did not like him at all. google. col. pp. Rumors abounded that the bishop had been poisoned by agents of his long-time foe. 127 (http:/ / books. torun. com/ books?id=ODh9P4P3ElkC& pg=PA10& dq=copernicus+ somervill+ spoke+ latin#v=onepage& q=& f=false)). google. and the Teutonic Knights. p. pl/ 2003/ 05/ historia) "O historii i o współczesności" ("About History and Contemporaneity"). 389–393. com/ books?id=l0YRAZz2yU0C& pg=PA21& dq=natio+ germanorum#v=onepage& q=natio germanorum& f=false))  "It is important to recognize.  "Lucas was on more friendly terms with his successors. that the medievel Latin concept of natio. 192.  Wojciech Iwanczak (1998). 1994. Xulon Press. p. and Sigismund." Alexandre Koyre. 62 ( (http:/ / books. ( (http:/ / glos. consequently. ( (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=LFgB_l4SdHAC& pg=PA101& dq=The+ Polish+ Lithuanian+ State+ 1386+ copernicus+ spoke#v=onepage& q=& f=false))  "He spoke Polish. com/ books?q=Lasin+ Watzenrode& btnG=Search+ Books)  "In 1512. 22. ISBN 0-486-43907-0. May 2003. com/ books?id=CW6tqdhVMJoC& pg=PA38& dq=watzenrode+ died+ suddenly& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=watzenrode died suddenly& f=false))  "The Watzelrodes—or Watzenrodes—in spite of their rather Germanic name seemed to have been good Poles (enemies of the Teutonic Order). In Bautz. Neighbors. 62. and he possessed also a knowledge of Greek rare at that period in northeastern Europe and probably had some acquaintance with Italian and Hebrew. Solum Forlag. and Sigismund. knew enough Greek to translate the 7th-century Byzantine poet Theophylact Simocatta's verses into Latin prose (Armitage. 52. Beck'sche Reihe. 1386–1795. and later Alexander (Aleksander) (from 1501 to 1506). Traugott (in German). who remained a constant menace. Beck. ISBN 0-486-27095-5. The 'nationes' of a medieval university had nothing in common with nations in the modern sense of the word. google. 101. google. The World of Copernicus. and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper. ISBN 0-7167-3711-6. During his several years' studies in Italy. 1973. Albion Publishing. 38. ( (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=bYxhZt6BZCoC& pg=PA65& vq=Deutsch+ war+ fÃ¼r+ Kopernikus+ Muttersprache& source=gbs_search_r& cad=1_1))])  Rosen (1995. google. wenn auch der schriftliche Umgang fast ausschließlich auf Lateinisch erfolgte. this was the 'privileged' nation. ISBN 3-406-47577-9." Alan Hirshfeld: Parallax: The race to Measure the Cosmos. the Grand Master of the order once described him as 'the devil incarnate'. did not like him at all. 2001." Pierre Gassendi & Olivier Thill: The Life of Copernicus (1473–1543): The Man Who Did Not Change the World. 21. God's Playground. google. II. ISBN 3-88309-072-7. Copernicus had very good reason for inscribing himself on its register." Angus Armitage: Copernicus and Modern Astronomy. Astronomical Revolution. com/ books?id=l0YRAZz2yU0C& pg=PA78& dq=germanic+ names+ good+ poles& lr=& as_brr=3#v=onepage& q=& f=false))  "[Watzenrode] was also firm. de/ bbkl/ w/ watzenrode. Albion Publishing. (http:/ / books. who remained a constant menace. and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper. google. Johann Albert (Jan Olbracht) (from 1492 to 1501).  "Although great importance has frequently been ascribed to this fact. and "there is ample evidence that he knew the Polish language" (Norman Davies.
p. NY: Simon & Schuster. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 136591/ Nicolaus-Copernicus). Polski słownik biograficzny. 1973. 98. p. p. "Kopernik. Retrieved 2009-11-21. pp.  Angus Armitage. Regesta Copernicana (Calendar of Copernicus' Papers). google. Polski słownik biograficzny. Letter to Nicolaus Copernicus. p. p. pp. Polski słownik biograficzny. XIV. 37. Mikołaj". p. google. 51. 78. p. 143. pp.  Carlo Malagola.  "Copernicus. 1957. Koyré (1973.  Melkowski.85. 1992. Be it as it may. Della vita e delle opere di Antonio Urceo detto Codro: studi e ricerche. p. 23 ff (http:/ / books. Mikołaj". vol. Polski słownik biograficzny. 37 (http:/ / books. Mikołaj". c. 30 . The Sleepwalkers (http:/ / books. The World of Copernicus. pp. Texte und Übersetzungen (http:/ / books.  Copernicus.  Oliver Volckart. "Kopernik.  Biskup (1973). . 5. p. Polski słownik biograficzny. pp. 1943. p.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. Minor Works (Edward Rosen. p. (http:/ / de.  Gingerich (2004. Copernicus' Secret.x). 79. Nicolaus Copernicus. org/ wiki/ Nicolaus_Coppernicus_aus_Thorn_Ã¼ber_die_Kreisbewegungen_der_WeltkÃ¶rper/ Vorwort#Orthographie). Ueber die Orthographie des Namens Coppernicus. 11. google. 1543–1943. 1520–1550". britannica.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. com.  Marian Biskup. 66. pl/ 2003/ 05/ historia/ ) (in Polish).  "Kopernik.  Gingerich (2004). 1988. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 5–6. Kessinger Publishing. 187–89. . The History of Polish Literature. p. pp.  Czesław Miłosz.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. Retrieved 2007-04-22. wikisource. "O historii i o współczesności (On History and the Present Day)" (http:/ / glos.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. 93). 1973. 1879. com/ books?id=SzQGAAAAQAAJ& dq=author:"Carlo+ Malagola"+ Kopperlingk& q=Kopperlingk& pgis=1#search).  Repcheck. Rabin (2005).. The World of Copernicus.  Sedlar (1994). 1996. Ossolineum. p. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. uni. Nicolaus. translated by Edward Rosen (http:/ / webexhibits. google. 2004. 94). 97–98. Polski słownik biograficzny. com/ books?id=3gkLAAAAMAAJ& dq=Kopperlingk& q=Kopperlingk& pgis=1#search). Kopr and Koprnik in Polish—also similarly in other Slavonic languages—means simply dill such as is used in dill pickling. p. pp. dated 1 May 1514.  Photograph of a portrait of Copernicus by an unknown painter. "Kopernik.  Repcheck (2007). p. The Life of Copernicus (1473–1543) (http:/ / books. 176–215.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. Katalog skradzionych i zaginionych dóbr kultury (Catalog of Stolen and Missing Cultural Property). org/ calendars/ year-text-Copernicus. "Kopernik. Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. pp. au/ books?id=GxyA-lhWL-AC& pg=PA99)) gives the length of the manuscript as 40 pages. pp. of a 16th-century historian. "Kopernik. html). 38. New York. Jan Świeczyński. 1969.: Briefe.  Nicolaus Copernicus et al. however. pp.  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. Nicholas. ca/ books?id=9r0RfQtpU6AC& pg=PA38& dq=natio+ copernicus& sig=wZg0maLYGyn-N2P7-bO7_q6s0Jc#v=onepage& q=Nationis Germanorum& f=false). 82 (http:/ / books.  Goddu (2010: 245–6)  Schönberg. google. Jack (2007). 430–49.  Armitage. 2009. pp. torun. p. it is interesting to note . google.  Angus Armitage. Matthew of Miechów. Thoren (1990. 75–77. google. google. includes Copernicus among a list of Renaissance astronomers who "either practiced astrology themselves or countenanced its practice". 7–8.. Warsaw. p. ISBN 3-05-003009-7.  A reference to the "Commentariolus" is contained in a library catalogue.  Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe: Urkunden. 129. ISBN 978-0-7432-8951-1. Akten und Nachrichten: Texte und Übersetzungen. 184. p. "Kopernik. Oliver Thill. com/ books?id=3gkLAAAAMAAJ& q=Koppernigk& pgis=1#search). The World of Copernicus. ca/ books?id=aEZrYxkjLkIC& pg=PA39& dq="natio+ germanorum"& sig=Dsr0AwrAI75N3ndXb5wHXWJaL4Q#PPA39. 55. p. ca/ books?id=skMBAAAAMAAJ& q="natio+ germanorum"& dq="natio+ germanorum"& pgis=1). Polski słownik biograficzny. Ośrodek Informacyjno-Koordynacyjny Ochrony Obiektów Muzealnych (Center of Information and Coordination for the Safeguarding of Museum Objects). com/ books?id=aEZrYxkjLkIC& pg=PA23& vq=Koppernigk& source=gbs_search_r& cad=0_1). The World of Copernicus. Documenta Copernicana I. 201). page 32 (http:/ / books. 38. p.M1). Nicolaus" (http:/ / www.. Stefan (May 2003).  Pierre Gassendi. Mikołaj". Mikołaj". 2002. 1878. "Early Beginnings of the Quantity Theory of Money and Their Context in Polish and Prussian Monetary Policies.99 (http:/ / books.  Angus Armitage. 39. Gingerich.  Angus Armitage. so it must have begun circulating before that date (Koyré. 4–5. The original was looted—possibly destroyed—by the Germans in World War II. 6.32). 187–88. Mikołaj". pp. The Economic History Review. New Series 50 (August 1997) 3. although the present writer is more inclined towards the occupational interpretation." Stephen Mizwa.Nicolaus Copernicus  Arthur Koestler. translator).  Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz. com/ books?id=ZHDWSYV6pKoC& pg=PA37& dq=dill+ + + copernicus& lr=& as_brr=0#v=onepage& q=dill + copernicus& f=false).  Rabin (2005). Mikołaj". Rosen (2004. p. 1968. p. "Kopernik. Robbins (1964.  Maximilian Curtze. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. 186. google. Kuhn (1957. 562–65 (http:/ / books.  Kuhn. Koperek. 123).
in which Osiander advises Copernicus to adopt a proposal by which he says "you will be able to appease the Peripatetics and theologians whose opposition you fear".  Danielson (2006). No. O. originally published in 1967 in Saggi su Galileo Galilei . Nature. 40–52) (http:/ / www.. pp. London. M. This notice of the decree would not have prevented Galileo from discussing heliocentrism solely as a mathematical hypothesis. 190  Rivka Feldhay (1995). Finocchiaro (2010). org/ stream/ historyofplaneta00dreyuoft#page/ 134/ mode/ 2up)). p. (Koyré. archive. doi:10. 1862.  Rosen (1995. 90)  Dreyer (1953. pp. 3 November 2005. 153). PNAS 106 (30): 12279–12282.  In fact. Hambledon Continuum. Harvard College Press.135–48 (http:/ / www. Adam (21 November 2008). html)  Dreyer (1953). T. CA: University of California Press.  Easton. p. pp. com/ books?id=B4br4XJFj0MC& pg=PA124#v=onepage& q& f=false).0907491106. section 16 (Works.. Retrieved 2012-07-26. Edinburgh. wcupa. org/ stream/ historyofplaneta00dreyuoft#page/ 319/ mode/ 1up). Galileo and the Church.  Koestler (1959. 1989. Los Angeles. co. re-issued. Original. archive. edu/ mgagne/ ess362/ resources/ finocchiaro. p.187–192).. On-line copies of Finocchiaro's translations of the relevant documents. com/ aponline/ 2010/ 05/ 22/ world/ AP-EU-Poland-Copernicus-Reburied. but a stronger formal injunction (http:/ / web. 1960). pp. org/ web/ 20070930013053/ http:/ / astro.  Gingerich. 35. edu/ mgagne/ ess362/ resources/ finocchiaro. Rosen is particularly scathing about this and other statements in The Sleepwalkers which he criticises as inaccurate. Branicki. pp. " 16th-century skeleton identified as astronomer Copernicus (http:/ / www. . google. pp. PMID 19622737.Nicolaus Copernicus  Koyré (1973. 5 March 1616.191)  Rosen (1995. 123–35) (http:/ / www. wcupa. . PMID 19584252. American Journal of Physics. Copernicus and his successors. Exercitation XXXVI. com/ books?id=ceSnipu4MykC& pg=PA58)). pp.151–59)  Robert S. 431–441 Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press  Edward Rosen (2003). (2009). Vol.301–8) (http:/ / www. uk/ science/ 2008/ nov/ 21/ astronomy-archaeology)" The Guardian.319) (http:/ / www. 310). doi:10. Use. Springer Science & Business Media.10612215G. usatoday. 27. USA Today. et al. "The Copernicus grave mystery". pp. Owen (21 November 2008). 22 May 2010) (http:/ / www..1073/pnas. Finocchiaro (1989. html#specinj) (Finocchiaro. The Copernican Question: Prognostication. Volume 66.147-148) not to teach it "in any way whatever. com/ books?id=B4br4XJFj0MC& pg=PA137#v=onepage& q& f=false)). in the Pythagorean cosmological system the Sun was not motionless. html#inqminutes) and Cardinal Bellarmine's certificate of 26 May 1616 (http:/ / web. com/ tech/ science/ discoveries/ 2005-11-03-copernicus-grave_x. Issue 3.148. Koestler (1963) also denies it. Heath (1913). Inquisition Minutes of 25 February 1616 (http:/ / web.  Exercitations concerning the Name. translated from the Latin by Finocchiaro (1989. Journal of the History of Ideas. pp.  Calvin's Attitude Toward Copernicus by Edward Rosen. Allen. DeMarco (2004) (http:/ / www. guardian.  Dreyer (1953). Retrieved 2010-01-18. M. org/ stream/ historyofplaneta00dreyuoft#page/ 122/ mode/ 2up). pp. Retrieved 2010-01-18. XIX. wcupa. have been made available by Gagné (2005). org/ web/ 20070930013053/ http:/ / astro. Westman (2011). pp. Gajewska.0901848106. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 7740908. (2009). An on-line copy (http:/ / web. archive.  Astronomer Copernicus Reburied as Hero (New York Times. org/ web/ 20070930013053/ http:/ / astro. edu/ mgagne/ ess362/ resources/ finocchiaro. Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs. edu/ mgagne/ ess362/ resources/ finocchiaro. boston. pp.. "Polish tests 'confirm Copernicus'" (http:/ / news. org/ stream/ historyofplaneta00dreyuoft#page/ 40/ mode/ 2up). html#indexdecree) of Finocchiaro's translation has been made available by Gagné (2005).118–19).  "Copernicus' grave found in Polish church" (http:/ / www.148–149).  Maurice A. htm). M. Skepticism. 1850–1855. Kobe. pp.  Rosen (2004). archive. p.  Fantoli (2005. co.  Dreyer (1953. W.184) take the view that Copernicus was indeed concerned about possible objections from theologians. PMC 2718392. org/ web/ 20070930013053/ http:/ / astro. Indirect evidence that Copernicus was concerned about objections from theologians comes from a letter written to him by Andreas Osiander in 1541. and Continuance of a Day of Sacred Rest. 124 (http:/ / books. – Sep. archive.10612279B. "Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus"..1073/pnas.. either orally or in writing". archive. 1973. 137–38 (http:/ / books. 21. Bernard Cohen (1985). html#certificate). Linton (2004. Cambridge University Press. p. Bibcode 2009PNAS. wcupa. bbc. 64. com/ news/ education/ higher/ articles/ 2004/ 04/ 13/ book_quest_took_him_around_the_globe)  Copernicus and Martin Luther: An Encounter Between Science and Religion by Donald H. archive. PNAS 106 (30): 12215–12216. allegedly issued to 31 . stm). pp.. google. and Celestial Order. Kupiec. nytimes. pp.  Bogdanowicz.. Bibcode 2009PNAS. BBC News. 58–59 (http:/ / books. W. pp. PMC 2718376.  I. Exercitation II = An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews.  Gingerich (2004). while Lindberg and Numbers (1986) argue against it.  Bowcott.158)  Rosen (1995. March 1998.  Decree of the General Congregation of the Index. 90) and Rosen (1995. Linton (2004. 20). p. archive. 24). archive. org/ stream/ aristarchusofsam00heatuoft#page/ 301/ mode/ 2up)  Particularly his use of the Tusi couple and his models for the motions of Mercury and the Moon (Linton 2004. 3 (Jul. google.
http" (http:/ / www. newadvent. iupac. pp. p. George V. 2005. google. com/ eb/ article-9105759). The Scientific World of Copernicus: On the Occasion of the 500th Anniversary of His Birth. New York. Jerzy.120–43). 133. Retrieved 2010-01-21.  "Calendar of the Church Year according to the Episcopal Church" (http:/ / satucket.340–59). would certainly have done so (Fantoli.  McMullin (2005. 2005. • DeMarco.archive. Czesław (1983). "Element 112 is Named Copernicium" (http:/ / www. In McMullin (2005. 2 vols. 2007.).306–10 (http:/ / books. • Dreyer.com/news/ education/higher/articles/2004/04/13/book_quest_took_him_around_the_globe/). The World of Copernicus. Southern Cross Review: note 2. com.  Fox. Encyclopedia Americana. whether it was ever issued. There has been much controversy over whether the copy of this injunction in the Vatican archives is authentic. 307). 170. org/ web/ 20070930013053/ http:/ / astro. Satucket. htm). wcupa.popsci. pp. pp. Annibale (2005). ISBN 0-521-35120-0. ISBN 0-19-925340-4.  "Copernicus. Nicolaus". Coyne (2005. 287–91) (http:/ / web.  From the Inquisition's sentence of 22 June 1633 (de Santillana. NY: Mentor Books. 1986.  Catholic Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. 32 References • Armitage. S. 137). . 37. popsci. Konrad (November–December 2006). Retrieved 2012-08-17. and Leszek Hajdukiewicz.J. Marc (2005). 347). com/ lectionary/ Calendar. • Danielson. . The history of Polish literature (2 ed. pp. p. . if so. 1473–1973. 1969. XIV. University of California Press.wcupa. Peter (13 April 2004).  Manfred Weissenbacher. 2010-06-12. • Davies. pp. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. pp. (1989). org/details/historyofplaneta00dreyuoft).  Renner. com/ topic/ Nicholas_Copernicus. Encyclopædia Britannica. Polish Academy of Sciences. org/ 50/ rudnicki1. • Coyne. Columbia University Press. pp. Wrocław.  Rudnicki. The Disputed Injunction and its Role in Galileo's Trial. 60. "Texts from The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History edited and translated by Maurice A. pp. God's Playground: A History of Poland. A study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich. • Barbara Bieńkowska (1973). aspx). 18 July 2009. Oxford University Press. vol. A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (http://www. Norman (2005). 6). • Gagné. The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History. The Columbia Encyclopedia. pp. 1982.. In McMullin (2005. Polski słownik biograficzny (Polish Biographical Dictionary). au/ books?id=RABIZBnf_y4C& pg=PA306).  "Copernicus. Terrence (20 February 2010). Norman. II. 346–47). whether it was legally valid (Fantoli. vol. p. Retrieved 2012-08-17. • Finocchiaro.edu/mgagne/ess362/ . Michael (1988). 1998. p.119–20. 2008. ISBN 0-231-04327-9.  "Nicholas Copernicus" (http:/ / www. The Oxford World Encyclopedia. html#sentence)  Heilbron (2005. Retrieved 2008-01-14. God's playground. "The Genuine Copernican Cosmological Principle" (http:/ / southerncrossreview. Father Michelangelo Segizzi.com. The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth. //www. 280. edu/ mgagne/ ess362/ resources/ finocchiaro.boston. Maurice A. Finocchiaro" (http://web. Angus (1951). Finocchiaro 1989. Mikołaj". "Kopernik. org/ web/ nt/ 2010-02-20_112_Copernicium).  Miłosz. Boston Globe. Praeger. Berkeley. Nicolaus" (http:/ / www. • Dobrzycki.. ISBN 90-277-0353-1. 755–56. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 7. CA: University of California Press. A History of Poland in Two Volumes. com/ scitech/ article/ 2009-07/ element-112-named-copernicum). . sixth edition. p.archive. Encyclopedia. htm). pp.  "Copernicus. Nicolaus". 20.  Davies. htm).Nicolaus Copernicus him by the Commissary of the Holy Office. The First Copernican: Georg Joachim Rheticus and the Rise of the Copernican Revolution. Oxford University Press.com/. 1976. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. org/ cathen/ 04352b. Coyne (2005. Germany turns eastwards. CUP Archive. and if so. .  Burleigh. "Book quest took him around the globe" (http://www. Stuart (2009-07-14). encyclopedia.117–49). New York. John Louis Emil (1953) . NY: Dover Publications. "14 July 2009 – Element 112 shall be named "copernicium". Dennis Richard (2006). Retrieved 2010-02-20. ISBN 0-520-04477-0. Springer. (2005).org/web/20070930013053/http://astro.com. New York. New York: Walker & Company. p. ISBN 0-8027-1530-3. archive. britannica. 2009. 3–16. ISBN 0-520-06662-6. • Fantoli. Sources of Power: How Energy Forges Human History.
New York. Cambridge University Press. Arthur (1963) . • Miłosz. Copernicus' Secret: How the Scientific Revolution Began.Nicolaus Copernicus resources/finocchiaro. ISBN 0-521-57600-8. (Extracts from Finocchiaro (1989)) Gingerich. . The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli. Retrieved 2008-05-26. ISBN 0-486-43605-5. Church History (Cambridge University Press) 55 (3): 338–354. second edition. ISBN 0-7432-8951-X. ISBN 3-412-83573-0. From Eudoxus to Einstein—A History of Mathematical Astronomy. ISBN 1-85285-071-X. "Copernicus" (http://plato.stanford. Tetrabiblos.html). IN: University of Notre Dame Press.org/details/aristarchusofsam00heatuoft). West Chester University course ESS 362/562 in History of Astronomy. Jack (2007). Edward N. revised ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2005 Edition). The Church and Galileo. pp.html) on 2007-09-30. Jeffrey Burton (1997) . Retrieved 2008-01-15. Manetho Ptolemy Tetrabiblos. Ptolemy (1964) . ISBN 0-8014-0504-1. Goddu. Ithaca. Nicolaus Copernicus zum 500. JSTOR 3166822. "Beyond War and Peace: A Reappraisal of the Encounter between Christianity and Science". (2005). (1973). Leiden. Hans et al. MA: Harvard University Press. 1969. London: William Heinemann. John L. University of California Press. • Kuhn. (1991). New York. (1986). Heath.com. Numbers.google.. Netherlands: Brill. Thomas (1957). London: William Heinemann. 33 • • • • • • • Koestler. Original edition published by Hutchinson (1959.Robbins PhD. The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. NY: Grosset & Dunlap. Edward (translator) (2004) . Sir Thomas (1913). The Book Nobody Read. translated by W. Ernan. The Rise of Scientific Europe. • Linton. ISBN 978-0-521-82750-8. The Narratio Prima of Rheticus (Second Edition. (2004). ISBN 978-90-04-18107-6. • Ptolemy. Owen (2004). ISBN 0-434-01315-3. David C. Cambridge. Archived from the original (http://astro.. • Russell.G.au/ books?id=iEjk13-1xSYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false). England. London) • Koeppen. Notre Dame. Three Copernican Treatises:The Commentariolus of Copernicus. David C. Loeb Classical Library edition. together with Aristarchus's Treatise on the sizes and distances of the sun and moon : a new Greek text with translation and notes (http://www. Zalta (ed. ISBN 0-520-04477-0. (2005). • Rosen. Alexandre (1973). Hoskin. Edward (1995).279–322). ISBN 0-340-55861-X. ISBN 0-268-03483-4. André (2010). London: Hambledon Press. In McMullin (2005.). New York. NY: Cornell University Press. Heilbron.2307/3166822. The Letter against Werner.Robbins PhD. ISBN 0-275-95904-X.edu/archives/sum2005/entries/copernicus/).wcupa. Inventing the Flat Earth—Columbus and Modern Historians. Berkeley. The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. Hodder Arnold H&S.E. Ronald L. Cambridge. ed.archive.). London: William Heinemann. NY: Praeger. • Rosen. Copernicus and his Successors. The History of Polish Literature. Sheila (2005). the ancient Copernicus .E. NY: Dover Publications. Loeb Classical Library edition. translated by F. New York: Simon & Schuster. Christopher M. 1500–1800. Russell. • Repcheck. London: Oxford University Press. • McMullin. Michael A. • Manetho. Claudius (1964) . ISBN 0-448-00159-4. OCLC 535467. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Waddell and F. • Rabin. Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo. Colin A. a history of Greek astronomy to Aristarchus. Copernicus and the Aristotelian tradition (http://books. • Lindberg. Böhlau Verlag. • Koyré..edu/mgagne/ess362/resources/finocchiaro. Aristarchus of Samos. doi:10. Geburtstag. Czesław. Goodman.
External links Primary Sources • Works by Nicolaus Copernicus (http://www. Chicago.google.pl/Ang10. The Lord of Uraniborg (http://books.com/books?id=sFF1nknsxRwC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Biographia+Copernicana"& source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA23. John J.art.google.php?strona=6) • Nicolaus Copernicus Thorunensis (http://copernicus.st-andrews. Leopold (1884) (in German). in German and Latin. University of Oklahoma Libraries (http://hos. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. 2004. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19) • Online Galleries.html) – Full digital facsimile.html?seite=364) ".uk/ Biographies/Copernicus.tiff format. In Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB).pl/Ang01. University of Washington Press.visittorun.de/0001/ bsb00016319/images/index.pl/en/project/) • Nicolaus Copernicus Museum in Frombork (http://www. "Nicolaus Copernicus" (http://www-history.mcs. • Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe (Nicolaus Copernicus Complete Edition. 1974–2004).com/?id=GxyA-lhWL-AC).google. Giorgio (1976—Midway reprint) . Biographia Copernicana.pl/en/) by the Copernican Academic Portal (http:// copernicus.google. 348–355.torun. Nicolaus".ac. Robertson.msnbc. • Copernicus in Torun (http://www. In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). ISBN 0-226-73481-1. General • O'Connor. autograph manuscript (http://www. A large collection of writings by and about Copernicus.html).pl/index.google.jpg and .frombork.html).gbv. Edmund F. Jagiellonian University • (Polish) Polish translations of letters written by Copernicus in Latin or German (http://domwarminski.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.uk/~history/PictDisplay/Copernicus. Jean W. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.pl/bjmanus/revol/titlpg_e. • Thoren.) 34 Further reading • Prowe. • Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe: Biographies and Portraits of Copernicus from 16th to 18th century.ac.Nicolaus Copernicus • de Santillana.edu.ou. pp. 3.M1) • Schmauch. Nicolaus Coppernicus (http://books.frombork. 9 volumes.com/ ?id=RABIZBnf_y4C&printsec=frontcover). (1994). ISBN 0-521-35158-8.org/author/Nicolaus+Copernicus) at Project Gutenberg • De Revolutionibus.com/ ?id=ANdbpi1WAIQC&pg=PA282&lpg=PA282&dq=royal-prussia). Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages 1000–1500 (http://books. • Bruhns. Nicolaus (http://daten. 461–469.htm) . Akademie Verlag. Nicolaus Copernicus (http://www. Portrait (http://www-groups. The Crime of Galileo (http://books. 4.st-andrews.edu/ galleries//16thCentury/Copernicus/) High resolution images of works by and/or portraits of Nicolaus Copernicus in .torun. " Copernicus. (A biography of Danish astronomer and alchemist Tycho Brahe.pdf) (http://books. Berlin: Weidmannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung. • Sedlar. Ill: University of Chicago Press. pp. University of St Andrews.digitale-sammlungen.gutenberg. Hans (1957) (in German).com/id/9913250/). Christian (1876) (in German).uj.msn.pl/index. (1990). various editors.com/?id=to0DAAAAYAAJ). Berlin.dcs. ISBN 3-05-003848-9 (http://www. "Copernicus..htm) • Portraits of Copernicus: Copernicus's face reconstructed (http://www.art. History of Science Collections.bj.de/dms/goettingen/378203525. Victor E. ISBN 0-295-97290-4.
co.stm) – BBC article including image of Copernicus using facial reconstruction based on located skull • Copernicus and Astrology (http://www. html) • The text of the De Revolutionibus (http://webexhibits.columbia.ac.phys.html) Prizes • Nicolaus Copernicus Prize.mhhe.cgi?page=gr& GRid=10340) • 'Body of Copernicus' identified (http://news.com/physsci/astronomy/fix/student/ images/04f04.com/physsci/astronomy/fix/student/images/04f08.stanford. 2006.htm) Legacy • (Italian) Copernicus in Bologna (http://www.edu/planets/cop.edu/~jbourj/money2.hps.utk.htm) • Pastore Giovanni.1.giovannipastore.bede.jpg) • Retrograde Motion (http://www.mhhe.htm) About De Revolutionibus • The Copernican Universe from the De Revolutionibus (http://galileo.de/en/funded_projects/prizewinners/copernicus_award/index.org/display_pages/features/feature_1746110.dfg.edu/astr161/lect/retrograpde/parallax.html) • A java applet about Retrograde Motion (http://www.it/ISTRUZIONI.gif) • Copernicus's model for Mars (http://www.flex.Nicolaus Copernicus • Copernicus and Astrology (http://www.edu/~gas1/project/ visions/case1/sci.html) – in Italian • Chasing Copernicus: The Book Nobody Read (http://www.astro.htm) – A detailed critique of the rhetoric of De Revolutionibus • Article which discusses Copernicus's debt to the Arabic tradition (http://www.php/en/2008031765/ Prizes-by-PAU/Page-2. htm) • Parallax and the Earth's orbit (http://csep10.com/physsci/astronomy/fix/student/images/04f07.uk/copernicus.1&exp=false& lang=lat&CISOPTR=0&limit=cop&view=full) – Full digital facsimile. awarded since 1995 German-Polish cooperation • (English) (German) (Polish) German-Polish "Copernicus Prize" awarded to German and Polish scientists ( DFG website (http://www.frombork.pl/Ang10.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4405958. html) – Was One of the Greatest Scientific Works Really Ignored? All Things Considered.uk/copernicus.pl/index.html) – Cambridge University: Copernicus had – of course – teachers with astrological activities and his tables were later used by astrologers.org/calendars/year-text-Copernicus.mhhe.jpg) • Copernicus's explanation for retrograde motion (http://www.edu/sci/theories/copernican_system.phys.html). • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry (http://plato.art. giovannipastore.lib. privately published (http://www. Lehigh University • The front page of the De Revolutionibus (http://www. jpg) • Copernican Model (http://csep10.php?num=F.com/physsci/astronomy/fix/student/images/02f27.edu/astr161/lect/retrograde/copernican.html)) ( FNP website 35 .findagrave.html) • Portraits of Nicolaus Copernicus (http://www. Rome. NPR • Copernicus and his Revolutions (http://www.edu/Public/education/bios/derevolutionibus.lehigh.npr.edu/entries/copernicus/) • Find-A-Grave profile for Nicolaus Copernicus (http://www. 1543 first edition (http://digital.com/~jai/astrology/retrograde. (http://www-personal.co.rice.org.mhhe.bbc.jpg) • Geometry of Maximum Elongation (http://www. html) • De Revolutionibus.it/dip/Museum/italiano/sto1_08.cam.it/CALCOLATORE DI ANTIKYTHERA.bo.utk.krakow.umich.com/cgi-bin/fg.skyscript.hao.html) • Nicolaus Copernicus on the 1000 Polish Zloty banknote.uk/starry/coperastrol. founded by the City of Kraków (http://pau.html) • The Antikythera Calculator (Italian and English versions) (http://www. Antikythera e i Regoli calcolatori.ucar.
Nicolaus Copernicus (http://www.bkherne.buero-kopernikus.org.eu/index.fnp. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=304&Itemid=272) 36 .org/en/home/31/0/0) • (German) (Polish) German-Polish school project on Copernicus (http://www.pl/programmes/overview_of_programmes/the_copernicus_award)) • (English) (German) (Polish) Büro Kopernikus – An initiative of German Federal Cultural Foundation (http:// www.
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