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INDIA IN SPACE : A BAG FULL OF SUCCESS
The space activities in the country were initiated with the setting up of Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962. In the same year, the work on Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, (TERLS) near Thiruvananthapuram was also started. The Indian space programme was institutionalized in November 1969 with the formation of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The Government of India constituted the Space Commission and established the Department of Space (DOS) in June 1972 and brought ISRO under DOS in September 1972. Department of Space (DOS) has the primary responsibility of promoting development of space science, technology and applications towards achieving self reliance and assisting in all round development of the nation. Both the DOS and ISRO Headquarters are located at Bangalore. The development activities are carried out at the Centres and Units spread over the country. FIRST FEW STEPS TOWARDS SPACE India launched its first experimental satellite, Aryabhatta, in 1975 this was followed by a series of experimental satellites like Bhaskara , Rohini, stretched Rohini satellite series, SROSS. The first Indian experimental satellite, APPLE, was launched. Indian space programme reached the new stage with the launch of the series of INSAT (Indian National 6
Satellite) in1983, we have entered the fourth generation of these satellites. The first generations of INSAT satellites were imported from United States. DEVELOPMENT OF INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY India has indigenously developed the subsequent generation of INSAT satellites. The INSAT satellite system was jointly owned by the departments of Telecommunications, Space, All India Radio, Doordarshan, Indian Meteorology department. The super cyclone of Orissa has highlighted the limitation of Indian space programme. This led to the development of exclusive satellites. The first ever exclusive satellite for weather monitoring called METSAT was launched. This was named Kalpana after the Indian born American astronaut Kalpana Chawla who died in Colombia crash.India had launched an exclusive satellite for education called EDUSAT. This has revolutionized the fields of education and health too. The tele education and tele medicine projects got further boost with the successful launching of this exclusive satellite. India launched the series of remote sensing satellites in 1988. The latest in this series was RESOURCE SAT. Apart from satellites and satellite launch vehicles, India developed an impressive space infrastructure. For instance, the Vikram Sarabai Space Centre-VSSC at trivendrum, National Remote Sensing Agency in Hyderabad, Space Application Centre-SAC, in Ahmedabad., Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station - TERLS at Thumba in Kerala. Physical Research laboratories - PRL in Ahmedabad , and a host of satellite tracking ground stations in India and
The Vanjuvanka watershed in Anantapur district in Andhra Pradesh is also part of IMSD. The information revolution and telecommuni-cation revolution were also the result of the INSAT satellites.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. These remote sensing satellites can estimate the possible crop yield one month before harvest. developmental education.STEP. The myriad hour multi channel television boom would not have been possible without the INSAT satellite system. This experiment paved the way for the development of television in India. TV broadcasting. INDIA IN ELITE LEAGUE & MARKETING PROCESS Apart from satellites. Biennial forest surveys are conducted using the data provided by remote sensing satellites.SITE in 1975-76. Even before India had its first experimental satellite. As a part of this experiment. India is conducting National Natural Resources Management Systems. The very small aperture terminals VSATs were set up to support the national information and communication network. WWW. Remote Sensing programme for application of satellite imagery for various developmental purposes. OBJECTIVES & SPECIALITIES INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMMES OF Research and development in space sciences and technologies as well as application programme for national development. Indigenous capability for design and development of spacecraft and associated technologies for communications. etc. Indian National Satellite (INSAT) programme for telecommunications. assessing the extent of smoke generated by thermal power stations. India conducted the Satellite Instructional Television Experimen t. Symphony was taken on lease for this purpose. Monitoring of command areas using these satellites would ensure supply of irrigation water to the tail end farmers.UPSCPORTAL. India successfully conducted Satellite Telecommuni-cation Experimental Project . IRS spacecraft and space science missions. with the service provided by these satellites. Design and development of launch vehicles with indigenous technology for access to space and orbiting INSAT. Several universities. research institutions are also actively associated with the development of space programme in India. television programmes were beamed to 2500 villages using satellite. The speciality of Indian space programme is that it is dedicated to the socio economic development of our country. We are also conducting Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development-IMSD. tele education.com/civilservices/current-affairs Abroad. Our remote sensing satellites can provide reasonably accurate data about the extent of crops sown helping us to undertake agricultural plans. India went on to develop the Augmented Satellite Launch vehicle7 The Space Commission formulates the policies and oversees the implementation of the Indian space programme to promote the development and application of space science and technology for the socio-economic benefit of the country. estimating the crop yield and crop acreage. tele medicine projects are carried out with the help of INSAT satellites. Starting with a simple Satellite Launch Vehicle-SLV. the OCEAN SAT can measure the oxygen quantity in the algae underneath the oceans thereby giving an accurate estimate of marine resources. These satellites are the most advanced and sophisticated satellites making us leaders in the area of remote sensing.NNRMS using remote sensing data provided by these satellites. providing location specific development information. In 1977-79. flood zone mapping. resources survey and space sciences.COM . They include the Exploration of natural resources. The Franco German satellite. monitoring of command areas. etc. desert land identification and reclamation. estimating the forest cover. drought assessment. The INSAT satellites provided benefits ranging from television broadcasting to weather prediction. meteorology. REMOTE SENSING SATELITES The Remote Sensing satellites provide a range of benefits. The American satellite ATS-6 was leased out for this purpose. For instance. Telecommunication. India developed capabilities in launch vehicle technology too.
YOUTHSAT. 2010). shares to train the third world space personnel. India’s INSAT. India is also becoming part of Russia s GLOSNOS project. 2008). ♦ PSLV-C9 successfully launches CARTOSAT♦ PSLV-C10 successfully launches TECSAR satellite under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation (January 21. 2010). India has also indigenously developed the VIKAS engine used in the PSLV. The success of Chandrayaan-1 revealed to the world.2 and a picosatellite-STUDSAT from Sriharikota (July 12. two nanosatellites-NLS-6. ACHIEVEMENTS OF 2011 ♦ PSLV-C16 successfully launches Three Satellites–RESOURCESAT-2. India has also indigenously developed the cryogenic engine used in the GSLV. India has also entered into an agreement with the European space agency AERIAN space for the marketing of its Launch Vehicle Technology. 51 Indian Satellite Missions. ♦ PSLV-C15 successfully launches Five Satellites – CARTOSAT-2B. GSAT-4satellite could not be placed in orbit as flight testing of the Indigenous Cryogenic Stage in GSLV-D3 Mission was not successful. India has now embarked upon the ambitious programme of lunar mission. the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-PSLV. 2008 ♦ PSLV-C11 successfully launches CHANDRAYAAN-1 from Sriharikota (October 22. 2008). Four CUBESAT Satellites and Two RUBIN-9 from Sriharikota (Sept. 2009). 2009). The PSLV is used for the launching of remote sensing satellites in earth’s polar orbit. India is not only self sufficient in space programme. IMS-1 and 8 foreign nano satellites from Sriharikota (April 28.Namely they are as follows:8 WWW. and 27 Launches from Sriharikota have been conducted. 2010). Indian Space Programme developed many products which are now used in industry. ♦ GSLV-D3 launched from Sriharikota (Apr 15. A special agency called ANTRIX Corporation was set up for this purpose within the Department of Space. ISRO SO FAR IN BRIEF So far.com/civilservices/current-affairs ASLV. ♦ PSLV-C12 successfully launches RISAT-2 and ANUSAT from Sriharikota (April 20.UPSCPORTAL. India’s first ever Lunar Mission. X-SAT from Sriharikota (April 20. but infact attained international recognition.Against this impressive background. 2A. 2011). This helped us to enter into highly competitive global space products market. ALSAT-2A. India’s capability in one of the highly sophisticated areas of science and technology.2008).2 E transponders were leased to INTELSAT. India conducted a programme called sharing of experience in space. International Telecommunication Satellite. 23. 2009 ♦ PSLV-C14 successfully launches Seven Satellites – OCEANSAT-2.COM . GSAT-5Pcould not be placed into orbit as the GSLV-F06 mission was not successful. the Geo Synchronous Satellite Launch VehicleGSLV . We have also reached an agreement with the American Remote Sensing Company SIO SAT for marketing its remote sensing data. 2010 ♦ GSLV-F06 launched from Shriharikota (Dec 25. The space programme has several spin off benefits which include production of low weight material used in creation of artificial limbs.1 & 6.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. The Geo Synchronous satellite launch vehicle is used in the launching of communication satellites in earth’s Geo Synchronous orbit. The PSLV was also used in the Chandrayan.
2003). successfully launched RESOURCESAT1(IRS-P6) satellite from Sriharikota (October 17. successfully launched KALPANA-1 satellite from Sriharikota(September 12. Sriharikota (September 20. 2003).successfully launched three satellites — Technology Experiment Satellite (TES)of ISRO. 2004 ♦ The first operational flight of GSLV (GSLVF01) successfully launched EDUSAT from SDSC SHAR. ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-3A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. PSLVfrom SDSC SHAR with INSAT-4C on board. 2007). Satellite could not be placed in orbit.UPSCPORTAL. ♦ Successful recovery of SRE-1 after manoeuvring it to reenter the earth’s atmosphere and descend over the Bay of Bengal about 140 km east of Sriharikota (January 22. (March 12. 2007).COM .com/civilservices/current-affairs 2007 2003 ♦ Successful launch of GSLV (GSLV-F04) with INSAT-4CR on board from SDSC SHAR (September 2. 2004) 1999 ♦ Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. 2007). PSLVC8. launched by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-4B by Ariane-5 from Kourou French Guyana. 2002). 2000). 2007).2000 C6. Successful launch of INSAT-3E by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. (January 24. ♦ The first developmental launch of GSLV-D1 with GSAT-1 on board from Sriharikota (April 18. PSLVC4. C3. IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT). successfully launched CARTOSAT-1 and HAMSAT satellites from Sriharikota(May 5. successfully launched Italian astronomical satellite. 2006). (July 10. 2001). ♦ INSAT-3B. the first satellite in the third generation INSAT-3 series. 2001 2006 ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. ♦ The Second developmental launch of GSLVD2 with GSAT-2on board from Sriharikota (May 8. (April 10. PSLVC5. 2002). PSLVC7 successfully launches four satellites – India’s CARTOSAT-2 and Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) and Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1 (January 10. launched byPolar Satellite 9 WWW. 2001). ♦ Second operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F02) 2005 ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-4A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. (December 22. 2005). (September 28. 2005). (March 22. PSLV.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. AGILE from Sriharikota (April 23. 2003). 2007). ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. BIRD of Germany and PROBA of Belgium–into their intended orbits (October 22. ♦ Successful launch of INSAT-3C by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. 2002 ♦ ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. 2003).
♦ Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRSP3. 1995). ARABSAT-1C. 1997 indigenously-built second-generation INSAT series. 1993 ♦ First developmental launch of PSLV with IRS1E on board (September 20. ♦ Second developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P2. 1995). ♦ Third developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-Con board (May 20. fourth satellite in the INSAT series.COM . Satellite placed in orbit. 1997). Satellite placed in orbit. launched (December 7. WWW. 1993). the first satellite of the ARABSAT (January 1998). 1987 1994 ♦ First developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on board (March 24. Satellite could not be placed in orbit. Satellite could not be placed in orbit. ♦ Fourth developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-C2. was acquired in November 1997 to partly augment the INSAT system).UPSCPORTAL. 1990). 1994). ♦ First operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D 1990 1996 1988 ♦ INSAT-1D launched (June 12. 1988). Satellite placed in polar sunsynchronous orbit. Becomes inoperable on October 4. 1983). 1996). Satellite could not be placed in orbit ♦ INSAT-2B. on board (March 21. Abandoned in November 1989. Second developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-2 on board (July 13. 1997). 1995 ♦ Launch of third operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. 1992). (An in-orbit satellite. IRS-1C(December 28. 1984 ♦ Indo-Soviet manned space mission (April 1984). launched (June 4. 1987). 1992). launched (July 10. 1999). launched (August 30. 1988). (April 3. IRS-1B. Satellite placed in orbit. ♦ INSAT-1C launched (July 21. INSAT-2C. the last satellite in the multipurpose INSAT-2 series. INSAT-2E. since renamed INSAT-2DT.com/civilservices/current-affairs Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German DLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikota (May 26. 1991 ♦ Second operational Remote Sensing satellite. IRS-1A(March 17. the third satellite in the INSAT-2 series. on board (September 29. the second satellite in the INSAT-2 series. 1993). ♦ Launch of first operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. 1999). launched (July 23. 1991). 10 1983 ♦ INSAT-1B.1988). on board (May 4. 1998 ♦ INSAT system capacity augmented with the 1992 readiness of INSAT-2DTacquired from ♦ INSAT-2A. launched by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana. ♦ INSAT-2D. Satellite successfully placed in Polar Sunsynchronous Orbit. 1994). launched (August 29. 1997. on board (October 15.
1982). Source : Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ♦ Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) conducted. 1979). Project (STEP) carried out. 1972 ♦ INSAT-1A launched (April 10. 1963 1977 ♦ First sounding rocket launched from TERLS (November 21. WWW. ♦ Space Commission and Department of Space set up (June 1. 1968). 1975 ♦ ISRO First Indian Satellite. RS-D1 placed in orbit (May 31.COM 11 . launched (June 7. 1981). 1981). an experimental geo-stationary communication satellite successfully launched (June 19. 1981)First developmental launch of SLV3. 1963). 1982. 1980). ISRO brought under DOS.Becomes Government Organisation (April 1. 1972). ♦ Satellite Telecommunication Experiments 1962 1975–1976 ♦ Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) formed by the Department of Atomic Energy and work on establishing Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) started. ♦ Second Experimental launch of SLV-3. 1975). 1969). 1975). ♦ Bhaskara-I. 1979). Rohini 1967 1979 Technology Payloadon board (August 10. Satellite could not be placed in orbit. 1968 1980 ♦ TERLS dedicated to the United Nations (February 2. 1983). 1972–1976 1982 ♦ Air-borne remote sensing experiments. satellite successfully placed in orbit. launched (April 19. RSD2 placed in orbit (April 17. Deactivated on September 6.com/civilservices/current-affairs Second developmental launch of SLV-3. Aryabhata.UPSCPORTAL. ♦ Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) formed under Department of Atomic Energy (August 15.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal. 1981 ♦ Bhaskara-II launched (November 20. an experimental satellite for earth observations. ♦ Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set up at Ahmedabad. ♦ First Experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini 1965 ♦ Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) established in Thumba. 1969 APPLE. (July 18.
UPSCPORTAL.com/civilservices/current-affairs 12 WWW.UPSCPORTAL Current Affairs : http://upscportal.COM .
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