2013/2/18

Security Level:

GSM Speech Quality: Influence Factors + Troubleshooting Methods and Tools + Deliverables

Prepared by: GUL Network I&V and Maintenance Department Reviewed by: Qi Haofeng

www.huawei.com

July 30, 2011

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Abstract:
This document mainly discusses the main factors that affect the speech quality of a GSM network, principles of improving the functions related to speech quality, and suggested values of some key parameters. In addition, this document lists the deliverables (see the attachments) that field engineers should submit when reporting speech quality problems or evaluating the speech quality, including drive test information, counter information, and guides to related tools (see the operation guide). This document aims to quickly locate and solve speech quality problems and to evaluate the speech quality and prevent speech quality problems based on the collected information about the existing network.

R&D Support
For speech quality problems, we can provide trainings and 7x24 hour technical support.

List of R&D support engineers

Name
Yang Zhengjie (Wireless
Network) Yang Chunjie Feng Lei (Core Network)

Employee ID
00127669

Phone
See the phone book.

00119951 00151560

See the phone book. See the phone book.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 3

Contents • Evaluation Standards and Principles of Speech Quality (MOS) • Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS • Subjective Speech Problem Handling • Voice-Related Key Parameters:     Quality Parameters Codec Parameters Handover Parameters AoIP Parameters .

which has a promising prospect in wireless network.0 to 4. and the original voice is not obtained. ranging from 1. the PESQ calculation result is mapped into the MOS value. carriers all over the world treat the speech quality as the key indicator for network acceptance. Currently. then mark the mean opinion score (MOS) (ITU-T 800) value (full score: five points). Among them. such as RXQUAL. VQI of Huawei. Parameter Evaluation This method indicates that the voice after transmission is not evaluated. the voice after transmission is evaluated through some parameters of wireless transmission network. and SQI of E///. In this algorithm.1). Objective Evaluation This method indicates that the score is obtained through comparing the degraded voice file after transmission with the original voice sample file by using a certain algorithm.5. Instead. Page 5 .Evaluation Standards and Principles of Speech Quality (MOS) Subjective Evaluation This method indicates that many people compare the original voice sample with the degraded file processed by the system by their own subjective perceptions. such as PAMS (ITU-T P 861) and PESQ (ITU-T P 862. and finally obtain the average value. PESQ algorithm is the widely-used scoring standard.

834) Among them. the value of P.862.1 (the score is obtained through the P.1 is widely regarded as the reference value in voice evaluation.1 mapping mode based on the raw score) • PESQ-LQ (the score is obtained through the Psytechnics mapping mode) • PESQ-Ie (The score is obtained through the mutilation factor of instrumental models defined by P.862. After the PESQ algorithm is processed. It is to compare the original voice sample on the transmitting end in the network (narrowband) with the distorted degraded voice file received on the receiving end. Page 6 .862.Evaluation Standards and Principles of Speech Quality (MOS) PESQ: Perceptual evaluation of speech quality This method is used for E2E network speech quality test. evaluate the difference between the two signals through complex signal processing. the following four metrics are obtained: • PESQ RAW SCORE (the raw score) • P. and finally obtain the speech quality value using the PESQ algorithm.

. LTD.Contents  Evaluation Standards and Principles of Speech Quality (MOS)  Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS   Subjective Speech Problem Handling Voice-Related Key Parameters:     Quality Parameters Codec Parameters Handover Parameters AoIP Parameters Huawei Confidential Page 7 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

damage the speech quality. algorithms. and handover (HO).. High/low High/low coding rate coding rate Full/half Full/half rate rate Algorithms Algorithms Frequent HOs. and algorithms. Parameters. PingPong HOs. and optimizing optimizing strategies strategies CoBCCH Resident CoBCCH Resident Strategy Strategy HO Optimization Packet HO Optimization Packet Frame Theft of Physical Frame Theft of Physical Messages Messages Too Small HO Hysteresis Too Small HO Hysteresis Inappropriate Inappropriate Neighboring Cell Neighboring Cell Too low PN Rule Too low PN Rule Discarded Packets Discarded Packets Compensation Compensation Long Call Drop Timer Long Call Drop Timer TOP Optimization TOP Optimization Anti-Interference solution Anti-Interference solution Intermodulation Intermodulation Interference Quick Interference Quick Troubleshooter Troubleshooter Threshold Self-Adaptive Threshold Self-Adaptive Rate adjust Threshold Rate adjust Threshold Air Interface Quality Air Interface Quality Traffic Traffic Traffic Busy Threshold Traffic Busy Threshold 3. The bit error and handover factors. The prerequisite is that the channel is normal. however.Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS Voice quality Voice quality Directly-related Directly-related factors factors IndirectlyIndirectlyrelated factors related factors Code Code Bit error (frame Bit error (frame erasure) erasure) Engineering Engineering network network optimization optimization Interference Interference HO HO The speech quality is mainly related to three factors: code. Frequent HOs. strategies that optimize the speech quality may affect the call drop rate and handover success rate. Huawei Confidential Page 8 . F2H HO Threshold F2H HO Threshold D V D V T A T A X D X D The channel is normal. To optimize the speech quality. PingPong HOs. Therefore. The coding factor benefits the speech quality. and unreasonable and unreasonable HOs HOs Call drop Call drop Speech Speech version version Parameters. bit error. The channel is normal. LTD.5-Generation Power Control Control HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.5-Generation Power 3. you need to select reasonable codes and reduce the effect of the bit error rate (BER) and handovers on the speech quality. The methods for improving the call drop rate and handover success rate usually damage the speech quality and the experience of subscribers.

LTD. 001 Make clear the actual situation of the problem (including average MOS or deterioration conditions of the percentage of high scores. or the proportion of low scores shall be lower than a certain value. and instruments). Yes End HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. and verification. troubleshooting is carried out based on factors affecting the MOS in the process. optimization & adjustment.. MOS fails to reach the standard. No matter which method is used. testing methods. verify whether the problem is solved through drive test. 008 After the preceding troubleshooting. 001 No After the optimization and adjustment. During the processing.Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS The MOS handling process is as follows: In existing networks. version upgrade) shall be performed. 004 Trouble-shoot the data configuration and transmission quality. when the MOS does not reach the standard. 003 Trouble-shoot the percentage of the number of handover times and that of MOS dotting. The other is that the proportion of high scores in the MOS shall be larger than the required value. Analyze the preceding factors and specify the reasons that lead to the MOS problems. two methods are available for the MOS acceptance standard: One is that the average MOS for the drive test of the entire network shall reach a value. 006 Trouble-shoot the air interface quality. perform the escalation processing. perform the troubleshooting from the easier to the more advanced following the dashed in red. 005 Trouble-shoot the TC recording and air interface frame data. if the MOS problems are still not solved. Huawei Confidential Page 9 . and comparison between the two drive test data (such as migration and 007 002 Trouble-shoot the occupation of voice version and encoding rate.

LTD.0.0. Huawei Confidential Page 10 . Contrast the test time frame (start from what time point and to what time point the test ends). Problem specifying     Specify the details about the MOS problem. for MOS problems incurred before and after migration. 2. and whether the up-link and downlink are appraised separately. it is found that there is no change.Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS 1. whether the MOS appraisal value is the overall average score or percentage of high scores. the MOS for the EFR in the MS-MS test can be 4. In normal conditions. including the current test value. and the gap between the two. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the sequence for the MOS baseline performance is: FAMR > EFR > HAMR > FR > HR. and check whether the proportion of half rate is increased. Therefore. or MS-PSTN. Speech version and coding proportion analysis There is a large difference for the MOS in different speech versions. Specify whether it is MS-MS. whereas that for the HR will be 3. contrast the occupation proportion of each speech version in the drive test. Contrast the test MOS values by using instruments or terminals. test route. and test period (to ensure the comparability of MOS tests. the tests shall be performed on the same day in different weeks). target value. Specify the standard of the MOS appraisal. For example..

Analyze whether ping-pong handover exists in the drive test data. BSC. check whether the ratio between the number of MOS dotting and that of handover times is changed. and the PBGTSTAT (s) parameter is set to 5s and the PBGTLAST (s) parameter is set to 4s. check whether alarm information is displayed on the NEs such as the BTS. If the PN for the PBGT (better cell) handover is added. for example. The larger this ratio is. KPIs include TCH call drop rate. trouble-shoot the radio frequency channels in the area where problems occur. and check whether KPIs in the traffic transmission are incorrect. the judgment time for handover is delayed. In addition. which affects the test result. Comparative analysis of data configuration and transmission   HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Usually. Handover times and proportion analysis   If the MOS problem occurs before or after migration (upgrade). 4. and TCH congestion rate. and whether cells or frequency band is added or reduced.. check whether the data configuration and transmission mode are changed. Huawei Confidential Page 11 . LTD. which affect the MOS test result. the number of handover times in each call is within 1 in existing networks). If the MOS problem occurs before or after migration (upgrade). and transmission in the test. modify the corresponding parameter configuration to reduce the effect of handover on the MOS. and the handover is reduced.Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS 3. If such case exists. or whether the handover times in counters are too much (usually. Check whether the network KPIs are abnormal. success rate of wireless handover. whether parameters including cell handover and power control are changed. the smaller the effect made by the handover on the overall MOS is. For new-built network.

perform analysis based on the drive test data. analyze based on the quality before and after migration (upgrade). Analysis on TC recording and Um interface frame capture Mainly check whether there is any problem on the TC and Probe terminals and the area where the problem occurs. UpOut DnIn vs. DnOut Original sample vs.. and make clear whether the poor quality is caused by cases such as interference. and missing cross and neighboring cells. poor coverage.Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS 5. If quality deterioration exists in some areas (including cases that call drop or handover failure occurs due to poor quality of Um interfaces). Recording (degraded) file Probe file 6. MS uplink voice data MS downlink voice data vs. Data Wave Mode Comparison Files Whether Difference Exists in Wave Mode Comparision MOS Compared with the Original Sample TC recording file UpIn vs. Um interface quality analysis For comparison before and after migration (upgrade). Huawei Confidential Page 12 . LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. and check whether quality deterioration exists in all areas or part of areas.

To report MOS problems or speech problems. you need to report all factors related to voice during the drive test. see the Guide to Locating and Isolating GSM Speech Problems. The quality of voice services is determined by many factors..Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS Voice services are key services in a GSM network. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. For details about the distributed troubleshooting. Huawei Confidential Page 13 .

The quality of the entire network. LTD. however. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. should be evaluated by counters.Feedback Information About Counter Data Related to Voice Problems Good speech quality first depends on good network quality. see the attachment "Checklist for Data Provided for Speech Quality Problems". For details. For more detailed feedback information. Huawei Confidential Page 14 .. see the following table.

Typical Case 1: In a site. Therefore.50 according to the drive test result of the entire network after the migration. the ratio of half rate channels reaches 75%. This is the main factor that affects the overall MOS. LTD. which exceeds the acceptance standard.52. the value of MOS fails to reach the standard. According to the statistics and analysis of the drive test information. the ratio of occupied half rate channels is reduced to 47% and the value of MOS reaches 3. Huawei Confidential Page 15 . however. The value.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. it is required that the average value of MS-MS MOS should be greater than 3. The details are as follows: Through parameter configuration and counter analysis. is only 3. After adjusting the values of this parameter and performing another drive test. it is discovered that the problem is caused by that the values of TCH Traffic Busy Threshold of many cells are set to be too small (30%).35 according to the drive test result.

the ratio of MOS values that are grater than 2. This improves the overall MOS. D.Typical Case 2: In a site. LTD.9. the MOS value in the drive test is improved obviously. Therefore. After optimizing the concentric handover parameters. A: According to the analysis.7 rises about 10% and reaches over 95%.86 to 2. According to the drive test result. the ratio of half rate channels in the test is reduced from 46% to about 35%. The ratio of MOS values that are greater than 2. no known speech problem exists in the BSS after the migration.7 of the entire network rises about 4%. adjusting the Assign Optimum Layer and the Pref. the MOS value fails to reach the standard. many handovers occur. Huawei Confidential Page 16 . C. the ratio between number of MOS values and number of handovers in the drive test rises from 1. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. B. Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC parameters and their thresholds. the ratio between traffic and number of successful handovers rises from 68.4 to 71.. Therefore. After taking a series of optimization measures.7 in the drive test of the entire network after the migration. The reason that the MOS value of the existing network fails to reach the standard is that the quality over the Um interface is low. the ratio of Um interfaces whose quality is at level 0 to level 4 rises 2%. After optimizing cells one by one and expanding the capacity of busy cells. and optimizing the number of handovers.7. only 90% MS-PSTN MOS values are greater than 2. it is required that more than 95% MS-PSTN MOS values should be greater than 2. In addition. and the ratio of half rate channels is high.76. After optimizing problem sites one by one and take optimization measures at a low carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR).

as shown in the figure. packet loss occurs on the downlink recording data before the data enters the A interface and the core network.  The DT data after processing on the PSTN shows that the MOS values are better than those of the original network.Typical Case 3: The MOS value of a migrated site is 0. the smaller MOS value is mainly caused by abnormal low MOS values.  According to the analysis. Huawei Confidential . It is concluded that the PSTN causes the low MOS value.. engineers find that the TC recording is normal on both areas. However.1 less than that of the original network. The upper figure: Downlink voice sample on the A interface The lower figure: Original voice sample on the PSTN HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Based on the problem location and isolation process and the analysis of the TC recording over the A interface on the BSC and on the core network. LTD.

the Huawei BSC decides that the TFO frame type from the Ericsson BSC is AMR_TFO_16k and enters the TFO establishment process normally.95 kbit/s) is used during the TFO negotiation. However. Therefore. As defined by the GSM protocols. the Huawei BSC keeps receiving TFO frames of AMR_TFO_8+8k from the Ericsson BSC.. Huawei needs to change the frame search mode to resolve the problem. LTD.   Problem Description: The TFO fails to be established when a Huawei HAMR channel interconnects with an Ericsson FAMR channel. Cause: On a Huawei BSC earlier than BSC6900 V900R011C00SPC756. resulting in failures to establish the TFO. the TFO-related protocol content has not been updated in the implementations and therefore the TFO cannot interconnect with the   TFO of BSCs from other vendors. Huawei Confidential . Upon receiving the speech version of the FAMR from the Ericsson BSC during a TFO negotiation. the TFO frame type must be AMR_TFO_8+8k.   HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Typical Case 4:  The TFO fails to be established sometimes when the TFO of a Huawei BSC interconnects with that of an Ericsson or NSN BSC. when the HAMR speech version (excluding 7.

.Contents  Evaluation Standards and Principles of Speech Quality (MOS)  Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS   Subjective Speech Problem Handling Voice-Related Key Parameters:     Quality Parameters Codec Parameters Handover Parameters AoIP Parameters Huawei Confidential Page 19 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. . LTD.

. noise. Huawei Confidential Page 20 . crosstalk. echo. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. For the analysis methods of loopback tests and the TC recording file analysis. see the attachment Operation Guide for Speech Tests. The following mainly introduces the handling methods of subjective speech problems such as one-way audio. The speech loopback function can define the NE where the problem occurs. while the TC recording function can determine whether the problem is from the TC and the specific changes. and voice make-and-break. LTD. the main application methods on the BSS side are speech loopback test and TC recording. for problems such as one-way audio and noise location.Subjective Speech Problem Handling Currently.

Perform loopback when the problem reoccurs. which needs special treatment). However. During the dialing test. when users occupy this port.  Enable the one-way audio detection function (confirm whether the current version supports it or not first). while the average busy hour of the 31 timeslots is less than 30s. and fond out abnormal occupation timeslots (Rules: The A interface has 31 timeslots in total. perform TC recording and single user tracking. but the one who is on the PSTN side cannot). and data configuration. analyze the oneway detection logs of the whole day.. one-way audio or no audio occurs). However. One-way audio One party of the two call parties cannot hear the voice from the peer end. Huawei Confidential Page 21 . check whether there are problems such as crossed pair on the A interface or incorrect connection of lines (In TDM transmission mode. and find out the suspicious resources for dialing test. When one-way audio occurs. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. and confirm the NE where the problem occurs.  Analyze the trunk performance measurement of the A interface. hardware connection of interfaces. Handling process:  Specify the area scope where the problem occurs and the specific situations. or the E1 line on the Abis interface is not configured with the RSL and OML links. Combined with specified CIC dialing test. or both the two parties cannot hear the voice on the peer end. or no alarm is generated even if crossed pair are made (as long as it is not suspended). LTD. see the attachment Operation Guide for Speech Tests. Perform the dialing test on the site where the problem occurs. which is presented as one-way audio or no audio. but the one who is on the PSTN side can hear the voice) or downlink one-way audio (the party holds the MS can hear voices. if the E1 line on the A interface is not configured with the SS7 signaling link.Subjective Speech Problem Handling 1. networks charged by second are excluded. mute also occurs. For detailed dialing test procedures. the E1 line on the corresponding port is incorrectly connected. and the number of timeslots whose average busy hour is less than 30s is at least 28. Confirm it is uplink one-way audio (the party who holds the MS cannot hear any voice.

For detailed dialing test procedures. voice processing software. it may affect the normal conversation. Perform loopback when the problem reoccurs. whether problems including packet loss. During the dialing test.Subjective Speech Problem Handling 2. Check transmission indexes in the traffic statistics. only noise can be heard and the normal speech cannot be heard completely. abnormal voices such as bubbles. Usually. Handling process: Specify the area scope where the problem occurs and the specific situations. Noise During the call. including bit errors caused by frequency interference. clicks. see the attachment Operation Guide for Speech Tests. When it is at its worst. see the noise handling process. and metallic sounds occur. and confirm the NE where the problem occurs. LTD. and equipment hardware. For the troubleshooting procedures. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. perform TC recording and single user tracking.  Check the alarm and transmission connection line of the site where the problem occurs to see whether there is any looseness or damage. and too-long delay exist. However. Speech make-and-break Speech make-and-break mainly presents like this: there is a sense of pause in the call. When the make-and-break is obvious.  Select the site where the problem occurs for dialing test. Huawei Confidential Page 22 . for example. jitter. noises are mainly caused by bit errors. 3. noises can be divided into two types: noise in normal conversation and handover noise. and listeners may miss half a word or several words.

Then. If the echo volume heard on the local end is obviously changed. it indicates that the echo is produced by the MS on the peer end. Handling process:    Check whether the handsfree function is enabled or the headset mode is used. whereas echoes caused by MS calling PSTN are called electrical echoes. adjust the volume of the MS on the peer end. Electrical echoes usually caused by configuration or engineering problems. hybrid coils on the fixed network side do not meet the relevant telecom standards. the call routing data configuration is incorrect. Echoes caused by MS calling MS are called acoustics echoes.Subjective Speech Problem Handling 4. Echo Echoes are mainly divided into two categories: acoustics echoes and electrical echoes. Usually. acoustics echoes are strongly relevant to MSs. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. check whether the echo is disappeared or lowered after the handsfree function is disabled or the volume is lowered. The solution to acoustics echoes: Enable the AEC function on the BSC side to help MSs to further eliminate echoes.. Huawei Confidential Page 23 . You can change another MS for re-test. For example. LTD. During the test. Acoustics echoes are usually caused by the noncompliance of isolation of terminals to the protocol requirements. and the produced echo volume exceeds the processing capability of the echo canceler.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 24 .Subjective Speech Problem Handling 5. Record information such as routing. check the data configuration and E1 connection of the problem points. In BSS data configuration. incorrect data configuration. or the speech of the called party cannot be heard. If it is found that all crosstalks occur in long distance or cross-network (a China Mobile subscriber calls a China Unicom subscriber) calls. and set the call re-establishment timer to 45s. LTD. core network crosstalk. not only the speech of the called party can be heard. equipment resources. trouble shoot the hardware connection or data configuration. and abnormal connection. When the MSC equipment is not Huawei equipment. If it is regularly appears. but also a third-party speech can be heard. Meanwhile. According to the customers' complaint information. and the core network engineers need to participate in the fault location.. The common reasons for crosstalk are Um interface crosstalk. Crosstalk In the call. a third-party speech is heard. Handling process:      Encrypt the Um interface: Enabling the Um interface encryption is the root solution to Um interface crosstalk. and transmission about each crosstalk and analyze them one by one. instead. the configured value of the T3109 timer must be larger than the value configured in RLT. basically it can be concluded that the crosstalk has something to do with the core network. draw the CDR from the MSC and find out the corresponding CIC to perform the designated dialing test to check whether the CIC timeslot appears regularly. enable the Call Re-establishment switch on the BSC side.

record whether noises periodically Detailed descriptions of the problem. The TC recording files are in the format of *. it is a CME configuration file and a MML configuration file in the format of *. or hybrid. GCSR. and CHR logs of the BSC HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 25 . It should be collected and submitted after the completion of the test. one-way audio log.Subjective Speech Problem Handling The table on the right side lists the information on handling subjective speech problems. 2 Tracing signaling of a single user and descriptions of the calling and called MSs Log data about the TEMS test For example. the information about the TEMS of the calling MS is as follows: The MSISDN is 13913140397 and the IMSI is 460512300000397. Record the test log data when the problem occurs. DEBUGg. Probe is a test tool of Huawei and is used to capture the information about the Um interface frames. including the scenario occur (namely whether the noise occurs once in which the problem occurs and the probability that the every x second (s) or every x minute (s)).dat file. LTD. all-IP. The transmission mode is all-TDM. and problem occurs whether noises persist during the calls.txt. you need to specify whether the new DTRUs or old DTRUs are used. alarm log. Feedback on Speech Quality Problems Output Description 1 For example. For the BTS3012. The information is in the format of *. Logs and alarm information Log files at the test segments 3 4 TC recording files and Um interface frame data captured by the Probe 5 Loopback test results about the problem 6 BSS version information and information about core network vendors. List of loopback test results of interfaces (see the following table)) For BSC6900V900R011C00SP720. configuration data and information about test sites 7 8 9 10 Information about the engineering parameter table within the test area Transmission mode on the entire network BTS log. For the BTS3900. The files and data need to be configured before the test. For details.cel that is supported by the Nastar and TEMS.. you need to specify the types of TRXs. and related alarm information about the problem site DSP.dat. No. For versions earlier than BSC6900V900R011C00SP720. it is a *. see the attachment Checklist for Data Provided for Speech Quality Problems (deliverables).

LTD. namely. This usually is caused by the failure in BTS decoding. and the proportion of uplink quality 5. but uplink quality make-and-break and noise occur in the indoor coverage areas of this BTS. B. the corresponding frames are all No-Data frames.2 After the adjustment of optimization measures for uplink low CIR. the speech problem on this site disappears after several times of verification. C.. it is concluded that the quality of the Um interface in the area where the problem occurs is poor. According to the test log analysis. For the speech frame structure at the break-and-make points. one or more No-Data frames appear before two continuous speech frames without the transition of SID frame. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the uplink noise is extremely serious and continuous. the calling party can hear its own speech with make-and-break. and 7 is 64%. RxQual 0~4 5~7 RxLev AVG Whole Indoor 90.82% 36.7 -89. A. which is the major cause for voice break-and-make. 6. it demonstrated that the voice make-andbreak problem exists between the Um interface and the BTS DSP. During the test at the problem site. Through the TRX loopback. The case is that everything is normal in the outdoor coverage area of this cell.95% -79.05% 9. Huawei Confidential Page 26 . Perform TC recording and make analysis at the problem site.Typical Case 1: A user complains that the speech quality is bad under a BTS at a site.18% 63. and find that the voice make-and-break exists before the voice enters into the TC.

Enable the local loopback of the A interface on the B side.Typical Case 2: A leader of a customer of a office complains that one-way audio exists in a certain probability during the call. indicating that the problem does not exist on the MSC side or on routing nodes after the A interface. However. namely the BSC. and asks Huawei to solve the problem as soon as possible.  After the calling party A (external network) has a conversation with the called party B (under the problem site). it is concluded that the BTS sends abnormal frames. LTD. indicating that the problem exists between the Abis interface and the A interface. Huawei Confidential . B.. the call works properly when the uplink voice data enters into the TC. which is uplink one-way audio. and perform speech loopback when the problem reoccurs. when the uplink voice data goes out of the TC. A cannot hear B. no voice data is available. and find that when the one-way audio occurs. leading to one-way audio. Upon analysis.  Enable the BTS speech loopback. Analyze the TC recording file. which leads to the TC scheduling memory error. B can hear his/her own voice. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Enable the remote loopback of the A interface on the B side. This problem is solved after the code optimization. B cannot hear his/her own voice. Perform the dialing test at the problem site. indicating that the problem exists on routing nodes before the A interface on the B side. A can hear his/her own voice. A.

and find that the E1 lines of the A interface on the three ports are incorrectly connected. Check the transmission. In addition. Location process: Because the Abis interface of this office adopts the HDLC transmission.Typical Case 2: A user of an overseas office complains that one-way audio and no audio problems occur with a high reoccurrence probability. Perform CIC dialing test for specified A interface. the one-way audio occurs. the average occupied duration of the three ports under the three BSCs is less than 30s. Upon the analysis on the trunk performance measurement of the A interface. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. After the transmission is adjusted. The distribution of occupied duration has obvious time intervals. the one-way audio detection cannot be enabled. there are more than 28 timeslots that the average occupied duration is less than 30s for each port.. which is far below the average occupied duration of all BSCs. the one-way audio does not reoccur. and does not support the one-way audio detection function. Huawei Confidential Page 28 . LTD.

LTD. This may be relevant to the strategy of charging by second in Africa. a large number of trunk occupied durations of the A interface on the port are less than 30s. In normal cases. Upon the analysis on the A interface occupation measurement for 10 BSCs in Nigeria. Huawei Confidential Page 29 . the case that checking the A interface connection based on the situation that the A interface trunk occupies the super short call may be altered according to the actual situation.. in Africa. Therefore. In abnormal cases. the average call duration is less than 29s (Thailand). 2.Typical Case 2 (continued) Office Thailand Chengdu Shantou Shijiazhuang Thailand Chengdu Average Call Duration Average Shortest Call Number of Call Duration in BSCs Duration Normal Cases 167 68 80 68 87 62 36 44 32 30 3 49 11 16 63 Shantou Shijiazhuang Hangzhou Shortest Call Duration in Normal Cases Hangzhou 1. there is no super short call caused by crossed pair). the average call duration of all evaluation offices is more than 60s (Upon the analysis on 136 BSCs. 3. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.69s. with the shortest one is 12.

some users ask to cancel the network service. causing the metallic sounds (which is complained by users) acoustically. Huawei Confidential Page 30 . as a result.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the noise appear. The core network confirmed that in some cases. In the 120 ms. However. This. can be determined that the noise is caused during the processing of core network. and when enters into the BSC downlink (the called side uses the EFR speech version). and need to re-process it 120 ms later. after the voice passes through the core network.Typical Case 3: An AoIP office reports that metallic sounds occur in the existing network. After the core network engineers optimize the scheduling algorithm of the internal DSP. the DSP cannot complete the call processing with 20 ms. LTD. provide cause analysis. consequently. and immediately solve the problem. re-test the problem message on site. the DSP will send the previous data again and again. Analyze the TC recording and Probe file. there is no noise in the uplink UM interface voice on the calling side and in the uplink voice before entering into the core network on the BSC side.

LTD.Contents  Evaluation Standards and Principles of Speech Quality (MOS)  Statistics and Analysis of Factors Affecting the MOS   Subjective Speech Problem Handling Voice-Related Key Parameters:     Quality Parameters Coding Parameters Handover Parameters AoIP Parameters Huawei Confidential Page 31 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. ..

.Voice-Related Key Parameters:  Quality Parameters     Parameters related to improving the speech quality at a low CIR Parameters related to user experience Parameters related to power control Other quality-related parameters Speech versions Parameters related to VQE Parameters related to channel allocation Handover-related parameters Mapping versions related to AoIP AoIP-related parameters  Coding Parameters     Handover Parameters   AoIP Parameters   HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 32 .

Huawei Confidential Page 33 . see the Reference List of Core Parameters Related to Speech Quality in the attachments. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Voice-Related Key Parameters – Summary of Quality Parameters For details about the mapping versions that support voice-related features..

Suggested Parameter Settings:  STIRC Allowed: Yes when serious interference exists.Quality Parameters: Parameters Related to Improving the Speech Quality at a Low C/I  Description of the Enhanced Interference Cancellation Combining (EICC) Function: Among signals received by dual antennas. In this way.. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the interference is related to both the space (between antennas) and the time. it suppresses interference more effectively and improves the voice quality. The EICC function considers both the relationship between interference and space and the relationship between interference and time. Huawei Confidential Page 34 .

Suggested Parameter Settings: HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. this function keeps the voice unchanged. If the signals received by the local end are voice of the speaker.. Description of the Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC) Function This function cancels the acoustic echo generated during the call. If the signals received by the local end are echo from the remote end. It determines whether the signals input by the local and remote ends are echo to the local end. ALC.Quality Parameters: User Experience-Related Parameters VQE: mainly includes four sub-features. such as AEC. LTD. and ANC. Huawei Confidential Page 35 . this function attenuates the echo and replaces the echo with comfortable noise. ANR.

the hearer thinks that the volume is proper and has a good experience to the voice. it makes the voice acceptable to the hearer.Quality Parameters: User Experience-Related Parameters Description of the Adaptive Level Control (ALC) Function: This function controls the level automatically. Huawei Confidential Page 36 . LTD. Suggested Parameter Settings: HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Therefore. Specifically. Suggested Parameter Settings: Description of the Adaptive Noise Reduction (ANR) Function: This function is mainly used to reduce the background noise in the voice without damaging the voice. it adjusts the output voice signals to the target level and ensures that the level of the signals is stable and the signals can be understood.. In this way. It evaluates the voice level of the input signals and controls the gain of the input signals.

the hearer at the local end can hear the voice of the speaker at the remote end clearly. This improves the signal-tonoise ratio between the voice at the remote end and the background noise at the local end.. It evaluates the level of the background noise at the local end and the voice level at the remote end. Therefore. Suggested Parameter Settings: HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. When the background nose at the local end is great. LTD.Quality Parameters: User Experience-Related Parameters Description of the Automatic Noise Compensation (ANC) Function: This function compensates the noise automatically. Huawei Confidential Page 37 . this function turns up the volume of the voice input by the remote end.

.5-generation power control algorithm is advanced in the industry. It is required to enable both III power control algorithm switch and III power control optimization algorithm switch. The 3rd-generation power control algorithm. 3. Huawei Confidential Page 38 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. This algorithm implements power control based on the quality.   Suggested Parameter Settings:  Currently. however.Quality Parameters: Parameters Related to Power Control  Parameters Related to Power Control:  III Power Control Algorithm Switch  III Power Control Optimization Algorithm Switch Basic Principle:  Power control: When the uplink and downlink signals are strong. reduce the uplink and downlink transmitting power to reduce the interference of the entire network. .5-generation power control algorithm is widely promoted globally.  Remarks: The principle of 3. is not recommended. LTD.

avoiding continuous impact of continuous bad quality on the speech MOS values. LTD. see the parameter baselines. If the TRAU frame fails to pass the CRC check. SACCH Multi-Frames: This counter defines the time of radio link connection failure for uplink links.  TC CRC Check: According to GSM specifications. For other KPI handling. Therefore. The criterion is that whether the SACCH measurement report can be correctly decoded. The criterion is that whether the SACCH measurement report can be correctly decoded.Quality Parameters: Other Related Parameters  Description of the Counter Function: Radio Link Timeout: This counter defines the time of radio link connection failure for downlink links. This avoids the noise caused by parameter transmission errors and improves the speech quality. the BSC regards it as an invalid frame and smoothens it.. the BSC performs CRC check for each uplink data (TRAU frame) from the BTS. Suggested Parameter Settings: Note: The suggested parameter values are to end the call in the case that the UM interface quality is bad. Huawei Confidential Page 39 . you are advised to use them only when you handle speech problems. Suggested Parameter Settings:  TC CRC Allowed: ON HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. These suggested values may affect the call drop rate.

.Voice-Related Key Parameters:  Quality Parameters     Parameters related to improving the speech quality at a low CIR Parameters related to user experience Parameters related to power control Other quality-related parameters  Codec Parameters    Speech versions Parameters related to VQE Parameters related to channel allocation Handover-related parameters Mapping versions related to AoIP AoIP-related parameters Huawei Confidential Page 40  Handover Parameters   AoIP Parameters   HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

Specifies the class-1 one-way audio detection period. Specifies the class-2 one-way audio detection period.. Improves properly the proportion of full rate occupation. Specifies whether to enable the delay function to be implemented between the BTS where the calling MS is located and the BTS where the called MS is located. Improves properly the proportion of full rate occupation. Specifies the threshold for reporting the speech channel alarm. Commend Value AMR ON OFF OFF OFF OFF YES YES YES 10 Parameter Description Adjusts the speech coding mode on the uplink and downlink according to changes in Um interface quality. you can infer that one-way audio occurs. Huawei Confidential Page 41 . improving the speech quality. Reduces the impact of TC coding and encoding on the speech quality. Specifies whether to enable the class-1 one-way audio detection function. one-way audio may occur. If the FER within the period specified by this parameter exceeds the value of Exceptional Frame Threshold(%). Specifies the period for sending the TRAU test frame after the class-2 one-way audio detection function is enabled. Improves properly the proportion of full rate occupation. Reduces the impact of speech transcoding on the speech quality. Compensates the packets that are lost during the transmission. Specifies whether to enable the one-way audio and no audio detection function to improve the accuracy of oneway report. improving the speech quality. Specifies whether to enable the RATSCCH procedure during a call setup. In the RATSCCH procedure. If the number of one-way audio that occurs in an hour on the BSC exceeds this threshold. improving the speech quality. improving the speech quality.Voice-Related Key Parameters – Summary of Codec Parameters Codec Parameters Speech versions Parameter Name FAMR/EFR/HAMR/FR/HR TFO Switch RTPSWITCH TFOOptSwitch RATSCCHENABLED EPLC Switch AMR Uplink Adaptive threshold allowed Voice Quality report switch TrFO Switch Speech Channel Alarm Threshold Enhancement of speech quality Speech Channel Resume Alarm Threshold TCMUTEDETECTFLAG MUTECHECKCLASS1PERIOD 6 ON 5 Specifies the threshold for reporting the speech channel resume alarm. One TRAU test frame is sent in each period until the response from the peer end is received or the timer expires. Allocates the channel with good quality. the speech channel alarm is reported. If the number of one-way audio that occurs in an hour on the BSC is smaller than this threshold. LTD. improving the speech quality. Uses the voice quality index (VQI) to monitor the speech quality on the network in real time. establish the TFO after optimization. EXCEPFRAMETHRES 25 MUTECHECKCLASS2SWITCH ON DETECTFRAMEPERIOD MUTECHECKPEIROD CHALLOCSTRATEGY Channel allocation TCHBUSYTHRES TCHTRICBUSYOVERLAYTHR TCHTRIBUSYUNDERLAYTHR 2 4 CAPABILITY 60 70 60 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. When the speech versions on the two sides are inconsistent. Specifies the threshold for the proportion of the number of bad frames to the total number of TRAU frames. the speech channel resume alarm is reported. the rate set of AMR calls can be dynamically adjusted during a call to improve speech quality. Reduce the impact of inaccurate estimation of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) or the changes in channel conditions following the time on the Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR). improving the speech quality. thereby improving the speech quality. If the FER exceeds this threshold within the value of Period of Mute Detect Class1(s).

LTD. The following table lists the MOS values at different encoding rates and at different C/Is. Huawei Confidential Page 42 . different speech versions have different speech quality MOS values. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. and the MOS in FR is greater than that in HR. the MOS in FAMR is greater than that in EFR. Overall.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions Due to coding differences. the MOS in EFR is greater than that in HAMR. the MOS in EFR is greater than that in FR..

LTD. see the table on the right. For the recommended settings of AMR parameters. Note: A bad quality cell indicates a cell where over 5% of the uplink and downlink receiving qualities are at levels 5.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 6. Huawei Confidential Page 43 . and 7 according to the counters or a cell where over 5% interference bands are interference band 4 and interference band 5 according to the interference band statistics.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions The key idea of speech version 3 (AMR) is achieving the best balance between the speech quality and system capacity by continuously adjusting the uplink and downlink voice coding schemes according to the quality changes of the uplink and downlink signals on the GSM Um interface.

If the receiving quality of the cell is bad. in the same scenario. If the FR and HR speech versions are used on site. it is recommended to enable the half rate HAMR (half rate version 3). usually it is regarded that the proportion of uplink and downlink receiving quality at levels 0-5 exceeds 98%. the FAMR function does not need to be enabled. the gain of FAMR on the MOS exists all the time. or the receiving quality is bad at some cells (the proportion of receiving quality at levels 5-7 exceeds 5%). LTD. the MOS gain is mainly reflected in low CIR scenario. If half rate occupation exists in busy hours in the traffic statistics. usually it is regarded that the proportion of uplink and downlink receiving quality at levels 5-7 exceeds 5%. If the on-site speech versions include the EFR and HR versions. When the UM interface quality is good. the proportion of interference band at levels 4-5 exceeds 5%.    HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the MOS gain of the EFR is not obvious after the FAMR is enabled.. Scenario 2: Compared with the EFR. the AMR function can be enabled to obtain better speech quality and MOS values. the gain of HAMR speech version reflected in the MOS exists all the time and is obvious. the gain is not obvious. or it is found that the quality is bad in the drive test areas. Compared with common FR. (2) Judge according to the receiving quality: If the Um interface quality is good. see the following items for reference to determine whether it needs to enable the AMR function to obtain better speech quality: (1) Judge according to the half rate traffic.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions Description of AMR gain reflected in MOS and enabling scenarios  Scenario 1: Compared with the HR speech version. In this scenario. it is recommended to enable the FAMR function. Huawei Confidential Page 44 . The MOS gain in this scenario is reflected in the case that the AMR improves the speech quality through changing the encoding mode of the AMR rate in low CIR.

the speech performance of the HR AMR equals that of the FR AMR. In other words. In this case. and reduce the cost through methods such as tight multiplexing and half rate AMR. Therefore. increase the system capacity. shadow areas. because the robustness of the AMR speech frame and that of the SACCH frame. Therefore. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. However. In this way. achieving tighter multiplexing of frequency and improving utilization of frequency spectrum resources. Huawei Confidential Page 45 . the actual covering power is decided by that of the SACCH channel. the value of the RLT and the number of SACCH frames shall be set to a larger value for the AMR channel. When the AMR penetration is 100% through simulation. To improve the network capacity and coverage. the AMR can make a call in areas where non-AMR codes cannot make a call in the past. and floor and indoor areas). the AMR can effectively improve the frequency spectrum utilization. LTD.. the AMR can tolerate larger identical and adjacent channel interference. Therefore. and has large gain for breadth coverage (spacious areas) and depth coverage (fade areas. the AMR code can support lower CIR compared with non-AMR codes in the same frame error ratio (FER). the AMR code has better coverage performance. you are advised to enable the AMR function. the robustness of the SACCG channel is increased. the system capacity can increase 140% compared with the EFR speech version. the occupied wireless interface bandwidth of it is only the half of that of the FR AMR. improving the AMR network coverage performance and reducing the call drop rate.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions Description of gain to capacity and coverage produced by the AMR and enabling scenarios Capacity: Because both the uplink and downlink of the AMR have good immunity from interference. In addition. in actual applications. However. Coverage: The AMR code has good immunity from interference.

N/A AMR function is enabled. The value is identical to that of the DLFSREXQUALHIGHTHRED. Considering from the overall performance.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions Parameter Mapping The value is identical to that of the SAMULFRM. the ratio of uplink receiving quality at level 6 and level 7 deteriorates. do not use the parameter mapping on the right side.. The value is identical to that of the ULQUALIMIT. and call control  are different. However. The value is identical to that of the DLHSREXQUALLOWTHRED. power control. which may also lead to the deterioration of the quality statistics after the AMR is enabled. The value is identical to that of the RLT. The value is identical to that of the SAMULFRM. The value is identical to that of the DLQUALIMIT. The causes are as follows:  Different algorithms specified in the protocol lead to the different results of the AMR and non-AMRs. Impact of the AMR function on KPIs: (1) In the existing network of non-AMR speech version. after the Call Parameter AFRSAMULFRM AFRDSBLCNT AHRSAMULFRM AHRDSBLCNT HO Parameter RXLEVOFF DLQUALIMITAMRFR ULQUALIMITAMRFR DLQUALIMITAMRHR ULQUALIMITAMRHR INTRACELLFHHOEN PC Parameter DLAFSREXQUALHIGHTHRED DLAFSREXQUALLOWTHRED DLAHSREXQUALHIGHTHRED DLAHSREXQUALLOWTHRED ULFSREXQUALHIGHTHRED ULFSREXQUALLOWTHRED ULHSREXQUALHIGHTHRED ULHSREXQUALLOWTHRED Channel Parameter AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD The value is lower than that of the TCHBUSYTHRES. The value is identical to that of the RLT. Huawei Confidential Page 46 . This can be avoided through configuring the AMR parameters and non-AMR parameters to be consistent with each other in the algorithm. The value is identical to that of the ULQUALIMIT. 0 The value is identical to that of the DLQUALIMIT. unless otherwise to solve the problem of the deterioration of uplink receiving quality at levels 6 and 7 after the AMR is enabled. The value is identical to that of the ULFSREXQUALLOWTHRED. LTD. The value is identical to that of the DLHSREXQUALHIGHTHRED. The suggested values of AMR parameters and non-AMR parameters in algorithms such as the handover. this may lose some gain brought about the AMR feature. The value is identical to that of the ULHSREXQUALHIGHTHRED. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The value is identical to that of the ULHSREXQUALLOWTHRED. The value is identical to that of the DLFSREXQUALLOWTHRED. The value is identical to that of the ULFSREXQUALHIGHTHRED.

ITEMINDEX=57. which is only the change in statistics. which reduces about 0. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the algorithm is different. Currently.0.5%. Other vendors (including Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Networks) also have the problem that the proportion of uplink receiving quality at level 6 and 7 deteriorates after the AMR is enabled..Codec Parameters: Speech Versions  Because when the statistics of BER of AMR and that of non-BMR are collected. LTD. CELLID=0. The figure on the right side lists the comparison data of receiving quality of Ericsson in existing networks before and after the AMR is enabled. Note: After the AMR is enabled. which will lead to the case that the proportion of uplink receiving quality at level 6 and 7 for AMR is larger than that for non-AMRs. the proportion of uplink receiving quality at level 6 and 7 deteriorates. The specific parameters are as follows: Cell software parameter command: SET GCELLBTSSOFT: IDTYPE=BYID. the calculation accuracy of receiving quality for products is improved by adjusting the corresponding software parameters through version optimization in BSS9. Huawei Confidential Page 47 . It can be seen that the proportion of uplink receiving quality at level 6 and 7 deteriorates. and does not affect the actual user perception and UM interface quality. ITEMVALUE=219.

LTD. In this way. (3) When the Abis interface is in HDLC transmission mode. the same problem occurs because the TEMS collects the RXQUAL_SUB values based on the SID_UpDATA and SACCH frames when the AMR is enabled. On Dingli devices.0. the transmission resources occupied by the HAMR after the AMR function increase. the half rate traffic is reduced after the AMR is enabled. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the bandwidth exceeds that of the common HR version). Huawei Confidential Page 48 . When the DTX is enabled.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions (2) Due to the difference of statistics formula for the threshold to define that the AMR and non-AMR traffic is busy. This problem is caused by a defect in the TEMS and no solution is available. the TEMS measures the values of RXQUAL_FULL and RXQUAL_SUB simultaneously. the HQI results deteriorate when the AMR is enabled. As a result. (4) The drive test HQI decreases due to statistical differences of the TEMS when the AMR function is enabled. The problem can be solved by modifying LOADSTATYPE (cell load calculation type) in GBSS9. the problem can be avoided only through lowering the AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD parameter in GBSS8. However.9 kbit/s. when the centralized rate is larger than or equal to 5. transmission resource congestion may occur. In case that there are much half rate traffic. the TEMS collects the RXQUAL_SUB values only based on SACCH frames in the AMR traffic. the TEMS collects the RXQUAL_SUB values based on eight voice frames and four SACCH frames. The specific adjustment is as follows: SET GCELLCHMGAD: LOADSTATYPE=NODYNPDCH.. Manual collection of the HQI only involves the RXQUAL_SUB values.1. However. due to the allocation of half rate channel bandwidth algorithm in HDLC mode (The HAMR channel bandwidth is allocated according to the highest rate of HAMR rates in HDLC mechanism. For the non-AMR traffic.

In this case. (6) The call drop rate increases a little.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. With the AMR function enabled.Codec Parameters: Speech Versions (5) The MOS values have not achieved any gains during the DT when the AMR function is enabled. the AMR function cannot be fully achieved. This problem mainly occurs along the main streets or roads where the proportion of the half rate channels is low. Huawei Confidential Page 49 . In these scenarios. Perform a drive test along a route that consists of main roads and side roads. call duration can be prolonged within an area where the signal quality is poor. see the 04 GSM BSS AMR Performance Technical Disclosure. With the AMR function.  Note: For detailed description.  The major cause lies in the selection of the test points. the voice quality almost reaches the maximum and therefore the AMR function cannot implement the signal gains.  The AMR function helps improve the capability of voice frames to resist interference. The determination of call drops is based on the fact whether the SACCH frames can be correctly demodulated. modify the values of radio link counter AFRDSBLCNT/AHRDSBLCNT and AFRSAMULFRM/AHRSAMULFRM for AMR calls to ensure that their values are the same as those for non-AMR calls. there will be a high probability that call drops occur. b. the call duration can be prolonged within an area where the signal quality is poor because users seldom terminate calls. Ensure that the proportion of half rate channel is not less than 15% during the drive test. LTD. The gains of the MOS values can be achieved during the drive test only when the following requirements are met:    a. however. As a result. To resolve the problem. the capabilities of SACCH frames have not been improved with the AMR function. However.

Incorrect version mapping leads to a decrease in TFO gains.. this function reduces one voice coding/decoding session. LTD. the proportion of half rate channels increases and the proportion of the MOS values greater than 3. Suggested Parameter Settings:     TFO Switch: Enable Measure Link Delay Switch: Disable Support TFO Codec Optimize: No Is RATSCCH Function Enabled: Disable Note: •The GBSS 8. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 50 . •When the TFO function is enabled on the BSC6900 V900R011C00SPC750 or earlier versions.0 use different TFO mechanisms.1 and GBSS 9. ensure that the onsite BSC version is BSC6900 V900R011C00SPC756 or a later version. •When the TFO of a Huawei BSC interconnects with that of a BSC from another vendor.0 may decrease.Codec Parameters: Parameters Related to VQE  Description of the Tandem Free Operation (TFO) Function: During an MS-MS call. This reduces the effect of voice coding on the speech quality and improves the speech quality. You are advised to use a BSC and BTSs of correct mapping versions when the TFO function is enabled.

Suggested Parameter Settings:  EPLC Switch: Off  Description of the AMR Adaptive Threshold Function: This function reduces the effect of incorrect estimation of the C/I or changes of the channel conditions with time on the AMR performance. the AMR performance will not be affected by incorrect estimation of the C/I or by changes of the channel conditions with time. This function ensures that the sound effect after the decoding is similar to that before the decoding by hiding and reducing the effect of packet loss on the speech quality when decoding the received voice packets.Codec Parameters: Parameters Related to Enhancement of Speech Quality  Description of the Enhance Packet Loss Concealment (EPLC) Function: If packet loss occurs during the transmission of voice packets in the network. LTD. You do not need to estimate the value of this parameter. the speech quality may drop sharply. Suggested Parameter Settings:  AMR Uplink Adaptive Threshold Allowed: Yes AMR Downlink Adaptive Threshold Allowed: No  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. The value of this parameter at various rates are adjusted automatically according to the fluctuation of the C/I. Huawei Confidential Page 51 . In this way.

. LTD. and narrows the scope of problem devices. Then. preliminarily determines the problem devices. This function provides additional information for locating problems. Huawei Confidential Page 52 . you can configure the Detect Class2 Switch parameter to confirm the mutes detected by Mute Detect Class1 Switch to improve the correctness of the mute report. you can set the Mute Detect Class1 Switch parameter to flexibly adjust the detection conditions and to increase the chance of detecting mute.Codec Parameters: Parameters Related to VQE  Description of the Mute Detection Function: In the TDM scenario. Suggested Parameter Settings: HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The value of VQI can correctly reflect the end-to-end quality of voice calls. Therefore.. Huawei Confidential Page 53 . the network operator can monitor the speech quality of the network in real time without knowing the experience of end users. The value of VQI is calculated after the Um interface link parameters are measured. As the TC does not exist in physical links for transmitting voice signals when the TrFO function is enabled. LTD. Suggested Parameter Settings: This function is defined in 3GPP R4 and needs the support of core network equipment.Codec Parameters: Parameters Related to VQE  Description of the Voice Quality Index (VQI) Function This algorithm evaluates the speech quality through parameters that calculate the radio transmission quality over the Um interface. this function reduces the damages to the speech quality by the TC and improves the speech quality. Suggested Parameter Settings:   Report Speech Quality: Report Report Downlink VQI Allowed: Disable  Description of the Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO) Function: This function prevents the TC from processing voice signals when a voice or multimedia call is established in the A over IP scenario.

Codec Parameters: Parameters Related to Channel Allocation

Parameters Related to Channel Allocation:
  

Channel Allocate Strategy Traffic Busy Threshold Tch Traffic Busy Overlay/Underlay Threshold

Basic Principles:
 

The channel allocation strategy helps to allocate high-quality channels and to improve the speech quality. A full-rate channel is better than a half-rate channel in improving the speech quality. Therefore, increasing the ratio of full-rate channels helps to improve the overall MOS. Note: When allocating channels, be sure to consider whether congestion exists in the cell. If no congestion exists, you can set the traffic busy threshold to a larger value.

Suggested Parameter Settings:
   

Channel Allocate Strategy: Quality preferred Traffic Busy Threshold: 60 Tch Traffic Busy Overlay Threshold: 70 Tch Traffic Busy Underlay Threshold: 60

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Voice-Related Key Parameters:

Quality Parameters
   

Parameters related to improving the speech quality at a low CIR Parameters related to user experience Parameters related to power control Other quality-related parameters

Codec Parameters
  

Speech versions Parameters related to VQE Parameters related to channel allocation
Handover-related parameters Mapping versions related to AoIP AoIP-related parameters
Huawei Confidential Page 55

Handover Parameters

AoIP Parameters
 

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Voice-Related Key Parameters – Summary of Handover Parameters
Handover Parameters Parameter Name Commend Value Parameter Description

HOCTRLSWITCH
PBGTSTAT(s) PBGTLAST(s) ULDATAFWDTMR INTRACELLFHHOEN Handover parameters INHOH2FTH INFHHOSTAT(s) INFHHOLAST(s) OPTILAYER HOALGOPERMLAY ACCESSOPTILAY

HOALGORITHM1 Indicates the handover algorithm.
5 4 180 YES 16 5 4 SysOpt SysOpt USubcell Sets the triggering time of handover to a proper value to reduce the impact of handover on the speech quality. Sets the triggering time of handover to a proper value to reduce the impact of handover on the speech quality. Delays the release time of the old channel, reducing the number of frames that are lost during the handover. Triggers the AMR TCHF/TCHH handover. Enables the half rate to be handed over the full rate, improving the user perception. Sets the triggering time of handover to a proper value to reduce the impact of handover on the speech quality. Sets the triggering time of handover to a proper value to reduce the impact of handover on the speech quality. Sets the concentric cell-related parameters to proper values to reduce the number of handovers. Sets the concentric cell-related parameters to proper values to reduce the number of handovers. Sets the concentric cell-related parameters to proper values to reduce the number of handovers.

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Handover Parameters: Handover-Related Parameters  Handover-Related Parameters:    HO Algorithm Selection Switch PN Rule of PBGT Timer for UL Data Forward  Basic Principle  When other KPIs are not affected. it is recommended to increase the PN of PBGT handover and to delay triggering a handover. If you handle other KPIs. reducing the impact of handover on voice MOS values. Uplink data smooth timer: This timer delays releasing old channels and reduce the number of lost frames during the handover. PBGTLAST (s): 4 Note: The suggested parameter values are to reduce the PBGT handover times.  Timer for UL Data Forward (ms): 180 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Suggested Parameter Settings:   HO Algorithm Selection Switch: HO I Algorithm PBGTSTAT (s): 5. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 57 . These suggested values will impact on the success rate of handovers.. you are advised to use them only when you handle speech problems. see the parameter baselines. This improves the speech quality.

Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC parameters properly. you can switch half rate to full rate to improve the experience of subscribers. you need to set the Assign Optimum Layer and Pref. you can switch full rate to half rate to increase the traffic capacity. When the C/I value is small. it is allowed to perform AMR full/half rate handover according to the C/I value of the current call.Handover Parameters: Handover-Related Parameters  Description of the Intracell F-H HO Function: For AMR calls. When the C/I value is great. Suggested Parameter Settings:  Intracell F-H HO Allowed: Yes  TCH F-H Threshold: 16  Intracell F-H HO Stat. .. Time (s): 5  Intracell F-H HO Last Time (s): 4 Description of the CoBCCH Access Strategy Function: To reduce unnecessary handovers between the UL and OL in a concentric cell and to avoid the damage to voice caused by unnecessary handovers. Suggested Parameter Settings:  Assign Optimum Layer: System optimization  Subcell in HO of Intra-BSC : System optimization  Incoming-to-BSC HO Optimum Layer: Underlaid subcell Huawei Confidential Page 58  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 59 ..Voice-Related Key Parameters  Quality Parameters     Parameters related to improving the speech quality at a low CIR Parameters related to user experience Parameters related to power control Other quality-related parameters Speech versions Parameters related to VQE Parameters related to channel allocation Handover-related parameters  Codec Parameters     Handover Parameters   AoIP Parameters   Mapping versions related to AoIP AoIP-related parameters HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

0 2 and later versions 2 and later versions BTS3900 BTS3000 V100R003C00SPC V200R009C00SPC00 350 and later 2 and later versions versions NE versions on the core network MSC (Huawei) UMG (Huawei) IPCLK Server (Huawei) CPCI V100R008C03SPH209 (for areas outside China). LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 60 . 0 BTS3000 BTS3000 BTS3900 BSC6900 BTS3000 BTS3000 V300R009C00SPC V300R009C00SPC V100R002C00SPC V900R011C00SPH73 V100R009C00SPC08 V200R009C00SPC00 030 and later 030 and later 250 and later 2 and later versions 9 and later versions 2 and later versions versions versions versions BSC6900 BTS3000 GBSS12 V900R012C01SPH51 Not recommended.Mapping Versions Related to AoIP NE Versions on the Wireless Network BTS BSC BTS3900 China BTS3012 Areas Outside China BTS3900 BTS3012 SingleRAN MBTS GBSS9.. or ATCA V200R008C03SPH209 and later versions V200R008C03SPH117 and later versions IPCLK1000 V100R002C01SPC200 and later versions HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Not recommended. CPCI V100R007C05SPH209 (for China). V100R012C00SPC04 .

To query the parameter. and 4. (6) Set the timer T25 (INTRABSCCODECHOCMDTIMER) to 5000 ms by running the SET GCELLTMR command.75 kbit/s).40 kbit/s. . Huawei Confidential Page 61  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. set this parameter the same as the value before the upgrade.75 kbit/s) and AMR half-rate (HR) codec set 1 (7. set the speech version selection policy during intra-BSC handover to MSC Strategy by running the following command: SET AITFOTHPARA: CNNODEIDX=XX.. In the case of upgrade. (4) Ensure that bits 14 and 15 in reserved parameter 3 are set to 00 in GBSS9. (3) Ensure that bit 13 in reserved parameter 3 is set to 0 in versions earlier than BSC6900 V900R011C00SPH728 and set to 1 in BSC6900 V900R011C00SPH728 and later versions.0.AoIP-Related Parameters on the Wireless Network   Setting of the wireless network (1) All MSCs and BSCs are configured with AMR full-rate (FR) codec set 1 (12. LTD. 5.90 kbit/s.0. 5. 7. however.90 kbit/s. The values are as follows:    00: MSC strategy 01: BSC strategy 10: Speech version in originating cell preferred 11: MSC strategy  (5) In GBSS12.20 kbit/s. run the following command: LST OTHSOFTPARA: LstFormat=VERTICAL. and 4.40 kbit/s. SpeechVerStrategyInAss=MSC_STRATEGY. Bits 14 and 15 indicate the strategy by which the BSC selects the speech version during intra-BSC handover in the A over IP mode. (2) All cells are configured with the same speech version and rate set.

1: Disables TrFO compatible with AMR FR/HR. 5. In the MSC. BIT=9.AoIP-Related Parameters on the Core Network Setting of the Huawei core network (for reference) (1) The A over IP interface in BSC6900V900R011 is specified in a standard 3GPP protocol. CMR2RC=OPEN.90 kbit/s. configure HR AMR and FR AMR codec set as S1. 7. For detailed parameter configurations.90 kbit/s. see the Version Policies and Configuration Requirements for IP-Based GSM V1. and 4. Huawei Confidential Page 62 . LTD. (3) Set bit 8 in soft parameter P13 to 0 to enable the TrFO compatible with AMR FR/HR.20 kbit/s. (4) Run the following command to set bit 9 in soft parameter P13 to 0: MOD SFP: ID=P13. (2) On the core network.75 kbit/s. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The network-supported HR AMR list includes 12. BITVAL=0. 5. 0: Enables TrFO compatible with AMR FR/HR. Bit 8 in soft parameter P13 controls the TrFO compatible with AMR FR/HR (UMG).40 kbit/s. configure BSC Bearer Type as IPSTD (IP Type of standard).75 kbit/s. (5) Run the following command to set related parameters: SET UPPARA: RC2CMR=OPEN. Bit 8 in soft parameter P13 controls the optimization for TrFO compatible with AMR FR/HR (UMG).. MODTYPE=BIT. and the networksupported FR AMR list includes 7. and 4.40 kbit/s.26 in the attachments on page 72. This is the default.

LTD.    HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The suggested troubleshooting procedure is as follows:  (1) Check that the version mapping of BSC. BTS. troubleshoot the problem in the aspect of the MOS and subjective user experience.Troubleshooting Procedure for Speech Problems in A over IP  The procedure for troubleshooting speech problems in A over IP transmission mode is the same as that for other transmission modes except for the speech version and parameters for the A over IP. and NEs on the core network meets the version requirements.. (2) Check that the AoIP-related parameters are correctly configured. Huawei Confidential Page 63 . (3) Check that the IP transmission quality meets the QoS. (4) Based on the preceding check.

Typical Case 1:  After the A over IP reconstruction is complete at a site.26. Otherwise. no audio occurs for a short or a long period of time. the SET UPPARA command must be executed to set RC2CMR and CMR2RC to OPEN in the core network. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 64 .. No audio may occur sometimes because the Um interface quality is not satisfactory. Cause: The AoIP-related parameters in the wireless network and the core network are not correctly configured according to the requirements in the Version Policies and Configuration Requirements for IP-Based GSM V1. (2) If the Huawei core network supports the TrFO during AMR handover between FR and HR. Otherwise. no audio may occur for a short period of time. users of MSs on the half rate channel cannot hear any audio during calls. bit 13 in reserved parameter 3 must be set to 1 by default in the wireless network and bits 8 and 9 in soft parameter P13 must both be set to 0. ensure the following settings: (1) If the Huawei core network does not support the TrFO during AMR handover between FR and HR.       HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. To use the TrFo function during AMR handover between FR and HR in the A over IP mode. bit 13 in reserved parameter 3 must be set to 0 in the wireless network. In both scenarios.

5.40 .40 kbit/s.20 kbit/s) cannot enable the BSC to select adaptable codec rates based on the Um interface quality. the call drop rate deteriorates.75 kbit/s) are used as defined by the relevant GSM protocol. When a BSC in A over IP mode is configured with a non-standard AMR codec set.95 . When the AMR single codec set is configured. 5.90 kbit/s. the AMR full-rate (FR) codec set 1 (12. the MSC detects the nonstandard AMR codec set and sends the AMR single codec set to BTSs under the BSC. As to user experience.20 kbit/s. Compared with the AMR multiple codec set (including 12.40 kbit/s. 7. 5.90} and the HACS: {7. Therefore. 5.75 kbit/s) to BTSs. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.90}.40 kbit/s. 7. When a BSC in A over IP mode is configured with the standard AMR codec set 1.. when the AMR multiple codec set is configured.Typical Case 2:  After the A over IP reconstruction is complete and the AMR codec set is modified at a site. and 4. The AMR codec set before the IP reconstruction consists of the ACS: {12.75 kbit/s). users can maintain calls and call drop rate may increase if the Um interface quality is poor. the voice quality will be the worst and users may have to hang up.90 kbit/s. The BSC assigns and sends AMR codec set configuration to BTSs in the following ways before and after the changes in the AMR codec set. 5.20 kbit/s. 10.2 .75 kbit/s) and AMR half-rate (HR) codec set 1 (7. Huawei Confidential Page 65 .90 kbit/s. 6. and 4. the MSC compares the capabilities of the BSC and MSs and then sends the standard AMR codec set 1 (including 12.2 . LTD. and 4. and 4. 5.70 .20 kbit/s.90 kbit/s.40 kbit/s. the      AMR single codec set (including only 12. the call drop rate is different for two different AMR codec sets. 7. 7. After the A over IP reconstruction.

the MSC fails the frame format check and dumps the frames directly. However.Typical Case 3:  When a Huawei BSS in A over IP mode interconnects with the MSC from other vendors. In the A over IP mode. When a Huawei BSC interconnects with an MSC from another vendor and the HR voice frames processed by the Huawei BSC are sent to the MSC. LTD. the problem occurs. Solution: Upgrade to the BSC6900 V900R011SPH726 Occurrence scenario: A BSC6900 V900R011SPH726 in A over IP mode interconnects with the MSC from NSN or ZTE and the HR speech version calls are initiated. the Huawei BSC encodes HR voice frames into packets of 14 bytes. The TOC byte indicates a voice frame. Huawei Confidential Page 66 . or null frame. such as NSN or ZTE.   HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Therefore. Onsite BSC version: BSC6900 V900R011SPH722 Cause:    A Huawei BSC processes HR voice frames in a different way from some BSCs supplied by other vendors. no audio can be heard sometimes by both parties when the speech version of any party is half rate. non-voice frame.. some BSCs supplied by other vendors have used the latest codec mechanism in related GSM protocols by adding a TOC byte to the front of the 14 bytes of HR voice frames.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 67 .Attachments HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

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