.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

in suitable containers.FAILURE TERMS an excerpt from SSPC's Protective Coatings Glossary A ABRASION The wearing away of a surface by action such as by rubbing. ALLIGATORING (1) A type of crazing or surface cracking of a definite pattern. the usual factors considered are heat. (2) Gradual changing of a coating’s chemical and/or physical properties over a period of in-service response time. [CED]. The effect is often caused during weather aging. AIR BUBBLE Dry bubble in coating film caused by entrapped air. [CED] See BUBBLING. either separately or combined. scraping. relative humidity. This can affect adhesion of any subsequent coat if not properly removed. In accelerated aging tests. as indicated by its name. AIR ENTRAPMENT Inclusion of air bubbles in coating film or other solids such as concrete. TENSILE (PULL-OFF) in main glossary. surface cracking of a paint film having the appearance similar to alligator hide. subsequently develops a sticky condition. AMINE BLUSH Surface opalescence (blush) on epoxy films caused by reaction of amine co-reactant with carbon dioxide and water to form an amine carbamate. etc. or other frictional process. erosion.. (2) Intentional incorporation of small air bubbles in concrete to improve such physical properties as freezethaw resistance. AFTER-TACK Film defect in which the coated surface. water. the cracks may not extend through the surface bitumen. See ADHESION TEST. scraping and wear. ABRASION RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing. light. See also CRACKING. ADULTERATION The addition of foreign materials to a manufactured product. 188 . [CED] AIR ENTRAINMENT (1) The process of causing small air bubbles to form in paint or wet paint film. (2) the cracking of the surface bitumen on a built-up roof. alligator cracking is the vertical cracking of a coating with a pattern of closed cells or islands of unbroken coating. [CED] AGING (1) Storage of paints.. [ASTM] ACCELERATED AGING Any set of conditions used in an attempt to produce in a short time the results obtained under normal conditions of aging. varnishes. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] ADHESION FAILURE A failure between two distinct coating layers or between the substrate and the first layer of coating. under defined conditions of temperature. producing a pattern of cracks similar to an alligator’s hide. or as dry films of these materials for the purpose of subsequent tests [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]. etc. and oxygen. having once reached a tack-free state. [ASTM].

varnishes. removing color. e. 189 . (2) Intentional lightening of the color of a material such as wood. barnacles. ANTI-LIVERING AGENT Additive used to prevent the livering of a coating. These additives normally function by altering the rheological properties of the paint. ANTI-SKINNING AGENT Any material added to a coating to prevent or retard the processes of oxidation or polymerization that result in the formation of an insoluble skin on the surface of the coating in a container. vegetable oils. which has failed to wrinkle or give the desired optical effect.. BLEACHING (1)Bleaching is a uniform loss of color of a paint or varnish. B BALD SPOT Area or patch. ANTI-SAG AGENT Additive used to control sagging of a coating. to influences from the surface on which it is applied or to weathering or contamination from the atmosphere. asphalt) by the action of the coating solvent. BIOLOGICAL DEFACEMENT Disfiguring of surfaces by growth of microorganisms. [CED]. See FOULING. [CED] BIOCIDE A chemical agent capable of killing organisms such as those responsible for microbiological degradation. usually in a wrinkle finish film. [CED] BIOFOULING Biological encrustation of surfaces in sea water by flora and fauna.FAILURE TERMS ANTI-FOAMING AGENT Additive used to control or prevent foam formation during the manufacture or application of coatings.g. [AM] BLEED Coating discoloration by the diffusion of coloring matter from a previously painted or unpainted surface (e. ANTI-SETTLING AGENT Substance incorporated into a pigmented paint to retard settling and to maintain uniform consistency during storage or painting operations. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] ANTI-WRINKLING AGENT Material added to surface coating compositions to prevent the formation of wrinkles in films during curing. etc. BIODETERIORATION Any undesirable change in material properties brought about by the activities of microorganisms. See LIVERING. This may be due to internal chemical or physical action in the paint itself.g.

the solvent-caused movement of material is from the coating itself and not the substrate. BLOCKING (1) The undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together under normal conditions or under specified conditions of temperature. BODYING Thickening of an oil through thermal processing. organic pigments. (2) The irregular raising of a thin layer at the surface of placed mortar or concrete during or soon after completion of the finishing operation. contaminants. OVERSPRAY. such as occurs under moderate pressure and sometimes pressure and heat. Examples are bituminous surfaces. 190 . also bulging of the finish plaster coat as it separates and draws away from the base coat [ACI]. Blistering may be caused by solvent entrapment. resulting in a discoloration of the finish. (2) An increase in the viscosity or thixotropy of a paint. during storage or fabrication. BLISTER An undesirable rounded elevation of the coating resulting from the local loss of adhesion. See also DRY SPRAY. [CED] BLEED-THROUGH Appearance of color on a newly painted surface by migration of a previously painted substrate beneath it. BLISTERING RESISTANCE A coating’s ability to resist the formation of blisters. BLEEDING KNOT Usually circular-shaped discoloration in stained or painted siding. BLOCK COAT A barrier coat or transition primer/tie coat that prevents incompatible paints from touching. See also BARRIER COAT. This effect is most pronounced when paint is being applied into corners or boxed areas. BLISTERING (1) Formation of dome-shaped projections (blisters) in paints or varnish films resulting from local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from an underlying paint film (intercoat blistering) or the base substrate. or excessive moisture in the substrate. The standard test method for evaluating the degree of blistering of paints is described in ASTM D 714. See also BLISTERING. Unlike bleeding. [CED] BLOCKING RESISTANCE The ability of two coated surfaces to resist sticking together during normal handling and storage. wood knots. The resultant return flow of atomized air carries some of the paint particles away from the surface.FAILURE TERMS BLEEDING The diffusion of colored matter from a substrate (including a previously applied paint film) into a newly applied finish. moisture diffusion through the coating. TIE COAT in main glossary. (2) Undesired adhesion between touching layers of material. or lacquer which occurs during storage. pressure. [MPDA] BOUNCE BACK (1) The rebound of atomized paint particles during spray application. or in the case of pipe after spinning. BLOOMING The reduction of a coating gloss caused by materials exuding in or from an applied film. (3) Formation of blisters in films of paint or varnish. and relative humidity. varnish. The solvent carrier of the newly applied finish normally transfers the coloring matter. (2) Rebound of abrasive particles during abrasive blasting.

The origin of the selective specular reflectance is generally considered to be reflectance from very small particle size pigments partially separated from the surrounding vehicle at or near the surface. CAT EYE(S) Hole or holiday shaped like a cat’s eye. CATASTROPHIC COATING FAILURE A coating failure that is sudden. [AM] BRONZING A subjective. C CAKING Hard setting of pigment from a liquid paint during storage. BRITTLENESS Degree of susceptibility to cracking or breaking by bending. brush marks may or may not remain in the dried coating. usually not exceeding 15 mm in diameter. CATASTROPHIC CORROSION Metallic degradation resulting in substantial loss of metal. very dramatic. and is characterized by a distinct hue of different predominant wavelength than the hue of the paint itself. [CED] BRUSH MARKS (1) Marks produced in a coating by the bristles of a brush during application. fragile. BUG HOLES Small regular or irregular cavities. cratering. Depending on the leveling characteristics of the paint. CATHODIC DISBONDING Mechanical lifting of a coating caused by hydrogen bubbles formed when cathodic protection 191 . for example. BUBBLING Air bubbles or solvent vapor bubbles found temporarily in the wet film of a coating or permanently in the dry film. [AM] See CRATERING. [CED] BUBBLE BUSTER Compound used to control the formation of bubbles in a coating. appearance term applied to metal-like reflectance which sometimes appears at the surface of nonmetallic colored materials. by observing the image of a white light source. It is perceived at the specular angle. CASE HARDENING Surface hardening without thorough drying of film.[CED] See SURFACE DRYING. resulting from entrapment of air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete during placement and compaction.FAILURE TERMS BRITTLE Susceptible and being easily broken. descriptive. CAN STABILITY Resistance to deterioration of liquid paint in original container. TOP DRYING in main glossary. and serious. (2) Small ridges or valleys produced in a paint film by the combing action of the bristle of a brush.

(2) Development of shallow cracks at closely spaced but irregular intervals on the surface of plaster. CAVITATION The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. i. CRACKING RESISTANCE. CHAMPAGNE FINISH (EFFERVESCENCE) The slight surface roughening caused by small bubbles of escaping solvent vapor. CHALKING RESISTANCE The ability of a pigmented coating to resist chalking. usually in small pieces. [ASM] CAVITATION EROSION Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continuing exposure to cavitation. ASTM D 4214 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films. this failure is usually characterized by sharp edges and definite demarcation of the base area. CHIPPING Total or partial removal of a dried paint film in flakes by accidental damage or wear during service. Cavitation caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. See also CHECKING. usually caused by degradation of the organic binder by the sun’s ultraviolet light. CHALKING The formation of loose powder on the surface of a coating. or concrete [ACI]. [CED] COATING FAILURE Loss of a coating’s function or purpose. ASTM D 660 is a Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints. when it no longer protects the substrate. shallow cracks in a coating resulting from surface weathering. CISSING A mild form of crawling..FAILURE TERMS is excessive. See also CHALKING. provides 192 .e. CHECKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist checking. ASTM D 3170 is the Standard Test Method for Chipping Resistance of Coatings. CHECKING (1) The fine cracking that develops in paint films during prolonged curing and/or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying surface. in traffic paints. [ASM] CAVITATION CORROSION A process involving conjoint corrosion and cavitation. ASTM D 913 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Resistance of Wear to Traffic Paint. CHIPPING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating or layers of coatings to resist total or partial removal. resulting from impact by hard objects or from wear during service. [CED]. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to effect violent localized agitation. cement paste. CHECK(S) Fine. CLOUDINESS The lack of clarity or transparency in a paint or varnish film.

COHESION The propensity of a substance to adhere to itself. checking. crazing.FAILURE TERMS an attractive appearance. as with cracking of petroleum. material. COBWEBBING The rapid drying of a coating (often a lacquer) during application to form fine strings instead of normal atomization. or process to become dirty or impure. Metals corrode because they exist in chemically unstable states. CRACKING RESISTANCE The ability to resist formation of cracks that extend through at least one coat of paint. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] The ability of a single coating layer to resist internal partitioning or fracturing. COLD CHECKING The formation of hairline cracks in lacquers exposed to low temperatures. also. cracking. The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose. the material that causes a surface to be in this state. The standard test method for evaluating degree of cracking is described in ASTM D 661. crocodiling or alligatoring. COLOR RETENTION Property of a material relating to its ability to maintain constant color during surface exposure. Different types of cracking include hair-cracking or hairlines. Color retention requirements usually are described in terms of color difference defined according to a standard test procedure. CONTAMINATION Condition causing a surface. (2) To break up into simpler chemical components. [CED] COLD WALL EFFECT In tank linings. and mud cracking. COLORFASTNESS The ability of a film of paint or varnish to show little change in original color after being exposed to a specific environment. permeating force assisting ionic passage through a coating to a metal in the direction from a hot liquid to a cold wall. CORROSION The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a metal and its environment that results in the loss of material and its properties. CORROSION FATIGUE The process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment. COHESIVE FAILURE A failure or break within a given coat or material (the coating breaks within itself). a driving. The force holding a substance together. See 193 . especially to sunlight. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. generally light and weathering. COLD CRACKING Crazing and cracking of a coating subjected to low temperatures or cold/ambient cycling. CRACKING (1) The splitting of a dry paint film.

shallow depressions in a coating generally resulting from foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. See CRATERING. [WJP] CRAZING A network of intersecting checks or cracks appearing on a coated surface.FAILURE TERMS CRACKING. CRATERS Small. In these locations. CRAWLING The drawing back of a liquid film from a uniformly thick layer to form areas of little. deficiency. if any. UNDERCUTTING. CROCODILING See ALLIGATORING. See CRACKING. CHECKING RESISTANCE. or incompleteness that deviates from a speci- 194 . CURTAINS Sags with a draped appearance. rounded depressions in a coating film that do not expose the previous coat or the substrate. CREEPAGE See CRAWLING. CURTAINING See SAGGING. CRATERING The formation of small. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] CROCKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist color transfer when rubbed or abraded. D DEFECT A surface or film imperfection (flaw). the intensity of attack is usually more severe than on surrounding areas of the same metal surface. thickness. CREVICE CORROSION Corrosion that occurs within or adjacent to a crevice formed by contact with two pieces of the same metal or another metal or with a nonmetallic material. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] CRINKLING See WRINKLING. Staining of a white cloth by rubbing lightly over a colored surface. CROCKING Removal of color upon abrasion or rubbing. CROWS FOOTING A coating film defect in which a pattern of wrinkles resembling a crow’s foot is formed. CRACKLE Topcoat cracking caused by application of topcoat before the previously applied coat has sufficiently cured. See WRINKLING. It occurs when the surface tension of the coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate.

found most frequently in bridge decks and caused by the corrosion of reinforcing steel or freezing and thawing. (2) In the case of a concrete slab. Failure of a coating to adhere to the previous coating. DIRT ACCUMULATION The collection of air-borne dirt. and generally near. DELAMINATE See DELAMINATION. ASTM D 3274 is the standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal or Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. cracking. DISCOLORATION Change in the color of a coating after application (usually an undesired darkening). 195 . the upper surface. DIRT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist soiling. or other foreign material on the exterior surfaces of coatings or other substrates. DETERIORATION See DEGRADATION. DISBONDING The separation resulting from insufficient adhesion of a coating to an undercoating or other substrate. DEZINCIFICATION Selective loss of zinc metal from a brass alloy. soot. DELAMINATION (1) The separation of a coat or coats of paint from the previous coat or from the substrate. DEFOAMER(S) Additives used to reduce or eliminate foam formed in a coating or coating constituent.FAILURE TERMS fication or industry-accepted condition. DILATANCY Stiffening and loss of fluidity of paint upon agitation. a horizontal splitting. scaling. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. or peeling except that the delamination affects large areas and can often be detected by tapping. or separation of a slab in a plane roughly parallel to. DIRT PICK-UP See DIRT ACCUMULATION. [ACI] DETACHMENT See DISBONDING. DEGRADATION A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from their service conditions and weathering. DISCONTINUITIES See HOLIDAY. The opposite of thixotropy. similar to spalling. See ANTI-FOAMING AGENT. DEFLOCCULANT An additive that prevents pigments in suspension from coalescing to form flocs.

such as resin from wood. A paint with a lot of drag is hard to work with a brush. or plasticizer from films. Efflorescence results from leaching of lime or calcium hydroxide out of a permeable concrete mass over time by water. OVERSPRAY. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface. or layers. ASTM D 662 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints. DRIP A drop of wet coating that forms on or falls from the edge of the coated substrate. It 196 . (CED) F FADEOMETER An apparatus for determining the resistance of coatings and other materials to fading. EROSION-CORROSION A joint action involving corrosion and erosion. See also BOUNCE BACK. Often results in blistering of coatings. EFFLORESCENCE A white crystalline or powdery deposit on the surface of concrete. followed by reaction with carbon dioxide and acidic pollutants. EROSION The gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. DRY SPRAY (1) A rough. ELECTROENDOSMOSIS Penetration of water through a coating film caused by excessive cathodic protection potentials. DRIFT See OVERSPRAY. DULLING Loss of gloss or sheen. powdery. sand-like covering. (2) Overspray or bounce back falling dry on unintended surfaces and producing an adherent. [AM] DURABILITY Degree to which paints and paint materials withstand the destructive effect of the conditions to which they are subjected. scales. E EDGE FAILURE A type of coating adhesion failure in which undercutting (penetration of corrosion beneath the coating) occurs at an unprotected or incompletely protected edge.FAILURE TERMS DRAG Resistance of paint to being spread by a brush. EXFOLIATE To separate in flakes. EXUDATION The migration of a substance to the surface.

and/or corrosion. (2) A type of blade in a concrete mixer drum. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. Also known as scaling resistance. or blistering.FAILURE TERMS accelerates the fading by subjecting coated panels to high-intensity ultraviolet wavelengths similar to those found in sunlight. resulting from mortar flowing into spaces in the formwork. FAILURE See PAINT FAILURE. See HOT SPOTS. FADING A cosmetic coating defect consisting of reduction in color intensity. FISH EYES Coating film defects related to cratering in which small dimples or holidays resembling fish eyes form in the wet coating. FLAKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist the actual detachment of film fragments either from the previously applied coating or the substrate. checking or blistering and is the result of loss of adhesion usually due to stress-strain factors. FLOATING The segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation. if present. Produces a varigated paint surface. FLEX-CRACKING The development of cracks in coating when subjected to repeated bending. [ACI] FISH EYEING See FISH EYES. FAILURE ANALYSIS An investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. loss of coating function. checking. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] FIN (1) A narrow linear projection on a formed concrete surface. See CRATERING. [ASTM D-16] FLASHING The occurrence on the surface of a coating film of patches glossier than the surrounding coating. Also referred to as scaling. and is the result of loss of adhesion. ASTM D 722 is the standard test method for evaluating degree of flaking of exterior paints. The condition usually is reversible. FLAKING The detachment of pieces of the paint film itself either from its substrate or from paint previously applied. FLOCCULATION Formation of clusters of pigment particles in a fluid medium that may occur after dispersion. FILIFORM CORROSION Corrosion exhibiting a thread-like structure and directional growth under coatings on metal surfaces such as steel or aluminum. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. COATING FAILURE. FALLOUT (SPRAY) See OVERSPRAY. and the particle clusters can be broken up by applying 197 .

[ASM] FROTHING See FOAMING. FRETTING CORROSION The accelerated deterioration at the interface between contacting surfaces as the result of corrosion and slight oscillatory movement between two surfaces. Surface-active agents are often useful in reducing the extent of flocculation and hence the yield value. GLOSS RETENTION Ability of a coating material to maintain its gloss. semisolid network is formed. (2) The first stage in the cure of an epoxy or polyurethane coating in which a soft. shows loss of color strength and poor dispersion. Flocculation is often visible as a “Jack Frost” pattern in a flowout of a dispersion. FOGGING Misting. GRAININESS A rough. GHOSTING A cosmetic coating defect occurring to low sheen finishes in which there are areas with less color or difference in sheen from surrounding areas. Latex coatings are especially susceptible to this phenomenon because of their surface active agents used to stabilize the dispersion.FAILURE TERMS relatively weak mechanical forces or by a change in the physical forces at the interface between the liquid and the solid dispersed particles. FOAMING The development of small air bubbles into liquid coatings during mixing. or drawings that deface a wall or other surface. FOULING (BIOFOULING) Marine organisms. it appears as a lacework or reticulum of loosely clustered particles. 198 . FLOODING The segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. or sand-like texture in a dry coating film. both flora and fauna. See also LIVERING. G GALVANIC CORROSION Accelerated corrosion resulting from two dissimilar metals in electrical contact. GRAFFITI Markings. microscopically. slogans. exposed to conductive medium. bumpy. [AM] FOREIGN MATTER Any material in a paint or varnish or on a coating film that does not belong there. Compare to FLOATING. GELLING (1) A defect in which an oil or alkyd paint or varnish thickens to jelly-like consistency in an unopened container. attached to the hulls of ships and other structures in sea water that cause drag. It results in more rapid settling although it is usually soft.

they occur erratically and at random. [ASTM] HOLIDAY DETECTOR Instrument utilizing electric current (low-voltage. needle-like or sliver-like protrusions (ranging from 3 to 6 mils [76 to 152 micrometers]) found on steel plates that have been blasted with steel shot or grit. and zinc oxide are materials with high refractive indices. HEAT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist deterioration when exposed continuously or periodically to high temperatures at or below a given level. zinc sulfide. discontinuity. followed by anatase titanium dioxide. [CED] See CRACKING. Rutile titanium dioxide. HOLIDAY Pinhole. scrapes or pinholes (holidays) that penetrate a coating film. skip. HAZING See CLOUDINESS. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] HAIRLINE CRACKS Very fine cracks which do not penetrate the topcoat. high-voltage or AC electrostatic) to detect nicks. I IMPACT RESISTANCE Ability of a coating to resist a sudden blow. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. ability to resist deformation from impact. IMPACT STRENGTH See IMPACT RESISTANCE. 199 . Heat resistance depends on the binder type and other coating ingredients.FAILURE TERMS GRINNING THROUGH Showing through of the underlying surface layer due to inadequate opacity of a paint film which has been applied to it. H HACKLE(S) Thin. HIDING PIGMENT A pigment with a high refractive index that gives the most hiding power to a coating. HONEYCOMB Voids left in concrete due to failure of the mortar to effectively fill the spaces among course aggregate particles. [ACI] HOT SPOTS Areas of higher gloss than surrounding areas often caused by being relatively resin-rich where coating was applied more thickly than other areas. HEAT AGING Deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures. [CED] See INCOMPLETE HIDING.

INTRACOAT DISBONDING See COHESIVE FAILURE. LIFTING Softening and raising or wrinkling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat. The incompatibility may be chemical (e. LAP MARKS Visually darker section edges where paints or stains have dried before adjacent areas have tied into them. LEVELING AGENT Chemical added to coating to increase the ability of the wet film to settle to a uniform thickness. INTRACOAT ADHESION Cohesion within a coat of paint. where a wet edge has not been maintained. [CED] INCOMPATIBILITY Inability of coating materials to perform satisfactorily when in direct contact with another coating or substrate. i. [CED] INTERCOAT CONTAMINATION Contamination between successive coats of paint or a coat of paint and the base substrate. inability to expand and contract with substrate). causing bleeding or saponification) or physical (e. weak. or craters which have been produced by the mechanical process of application. INCOMPLETE HIDING Failure to completely obscure from vision any underlying coating or other substrate. irreversible increase in consistency of a pigment-vehicle combination. INTERCOAT DISBONDING See INTERCOAT DELAMINATION. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] Lifting often occurs because the solvents in the new coat are too strong for the previous coat. the degree of working. L LAITANCE A thin. INDENTATION HARDNESS Resistance to penetration by an indenter. LIVERING The progressive. orange peel. brittle layer of cement and aggregate fines on a concrete surface. and the amount of water in the concrete. See COHESION. LEVELING The ability of a coating to flow out after application so as to obliterate any surface irregularities such as brush marks..FAILURE TERMS INCLUSION Presence of foreign material in the finished material. peaks. The ability of a paint film to hold itself together.g.. INTERCOAT DELAMINATION The separation (disbonding) of two adjacent coats of paint.. 200 . The amount of laitance is influenced by the type and amount of admixtures.g.e.

skips. voids. [AM] MOTTLING The presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a surface. MUD CRACKING A coating defect resembling the irregular cracking of drying mud that typically arises during the curing of a relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly. 201 .FAILURE TERMS Livering usually results from a chemical reaction of the vehicle with the solid dispersed material. MILDEWCIDE An additive used to enhance a coating’s ability to resist mildew growth. MILKINESS Whitish or translucent appearance in an unpigmented liquid coating or film which should normally be transparent. MILDEW RESISTANCE A coating’s ability to resist the growth of mildew (fungus growth) on its surface. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] M MIC See MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION. particularly fungi. [CED] MISSES Holidays. that grow on paint and other surfaces. shady places.g. causing discoloration and disfigurement. N NATURAL WEATHERING Gradual deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to an exterior environment. sulfatereducing bacteria found in some petroleum products and in sewage.. The irreversible character of the changes distinguishes livered material from thixotropic “build-up. ASTM D 3274 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal and Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. MILDEW DEFACEMENT Unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated surfaces caused by growth of microorganisms. as opposed to artificial (laboratory) accelerated weathering.” which is reversible. e. particularly fungi. particularly in damp. but it also may result from polymerization of the vehicle. MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC) Corrosion that is affected by the action of microorganisms in the environment. MILDEW Microorganisms.

PIGMENT OVERLOAD Use of more pigment in a coating than can be completely wetted by the resin. an improperly prepared surface. overspray may contaminate property beyond the surface being sprayed. OVERCURE Caused by an aftercure or being subjected to too high a temperature or too long a period at a proper temperature and resulting in a product with lowered performance. exceeding the 202 . (2) Spray particles that are not wet enough to fuse when they reach the surface being sprayed. [AM] OVERBAKING An exposure of the coating to a temperature moderately higher or for a longer period of time. P PAINT CHIPPING See CHIPPING. OIL SOFTENING The conversion of a satisfactory coating into an unacceptably soft and tacky one. PEELING Disbonding of particles of paint. It may be caused by dampness. than that recommended by the manufacturer of the coating for normal curing. or excessive moisture behind the surface. BOUNCE BACK. when in contact with household or industrial oils. or both. [CED] OVERSPRAY (1) Atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being spraye. or lacquer film from a surface due to loss of adhesion. On products such as appliances. varnish. [CED] so as to adversely affect coating performance. OIL CANNING Bowing of the edges of a steel plate due to thermal expansion and contraction or cyclic loading and unloading. OVERATOMIZED Dispersed too finely by use of excessive atomizing pressure. grease. As a result.FAILURE TERMS O OFF COLOR An unacceptable variation of color from that desired or specified. Oil canning can lead to cracking of the coating at the edges. PAINT FAILURE See COATING FAILURE. orange peel may be desirable. PERISHING See DETERIORATION. See also DRY SPRAY. ORANGE PEEL A coating application (usually spray) defect in which the coating surface has the irregular appearance of an orange skin because of insufficient leveling of the wet film.

FAILURE TERMS critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC). PITTING (1) Localized corrosion of a metal surface. usually expressed as a percentage of the volume of voids in a material to the total volume of the material including the voids [ACI]. such as in concrete. see CRATERING. PIT A small hole in the surface of a metal or other material that is deeper than its diameter. that takes the form of cavities [ASM]. [AM] 203 . POROSITY (1) The ratio. (2) In concrete. [AM] PINPOINT RUSTING Tiny. REDUCED SERVICE LIFE Lessened time during which the coating provides its intended function(s). such as popout. PROTECTIVE LIFE The length of time a coating system provides protection to a substrate. [CED] REBOUND In spraying of coatings. PINHOLE A holiday or discontinuity that extends entirely through a coating film. PONDING The accumulation of a liquid or paint in a shallow depression. [MPDA] POPPING Formation of blisters of solvent vapor in wet coating surfaces that break but do not level because of too great a viscosity. [ACI]. RETICULATION A surface defect of net-like appearance. POCKMARKING See PITTING. pitting is localized disintegration. which allow fluids to penetrate an otherwise impervious material. or foreign particles. See BOUNCE BACK. (3) Formation of depressions (pits) in the surface of a coating often caused by the escape of gas or solvent vapor. OVERSPRAY. (2) Small interconnected voids. approximately the size of a pin. moisture. Very dense pinpoint rusting can appear on painted steel surfaces where the coating does not completely cover the blast cleaning profile. confined to a point or small area. normally caused by solvent bubbling. the atomized particles that bounce back from the surface being painted. PINHOLING Formation of small holes through the entire thickness of coating. R RAIN SPOTTING Particular case of water spotting caused by rain. dispersed points of rust that can appear at pinholes and holidays in a coating.

See SALT SPRAY TEST in main glossary. plaster. overspray. SAPONIFICATION. [ACI] SAG See SAGGING. [AM] SAPONIFICATION Alkaline hydrolysis of fats to form soaps. or the like. frequently due to application of a coat that is too heavy and not brushed out well. due generally to excessive water in the mixture. and lower viscosity coatings are more likely to sag. RUST An iron oxide that forms naturally on ferrous metals as a result of exposure to normal weathering or industrial atmospheres. RUNNING See SAGGING. ROPY FINISH See BRUSH MARKS. SANDY FINISH A surface condition having the appearance of sandpaper.FAILURE TERMS RETRACTION See CRAWLING. SALT AND PEPPER RUSTING See PINPOINT RUSTING. Also known as “sags” or “curtains. 204 . This commonly occurs on the alkaline surfaces of concrete and galvanizing. See also RUNS. SAG RESISTANCE The ability of a wet paint film to resist the downward flow that results in an uneven film with thick edges and runs.” [MPDA] See SAGGING. SALT FOG RESISTANCE Resistance to deterioration during salt spray testing. thicker. (2) Subsidence of shotcrete. Thus. denser. This effect also can be the result of poor workmanship. ROPEY A quality of paint that does not flow out evenly and dries with slight ridges. also called sloughing. RUNS Irregularities of a surface due to uneven flow. COATING The akaline hydrolysis of coating binders (usually their drying oils) to disbond and degrade them. S SAGGING (1) The irregular downward flow of wet paint under the force of gravity to produce a thicker lower edge.

extenders or other solid matter in a paint in a container. SEEDING Formation of small.FAILURE TERMS SCALING Paint failure that causes a coating to fall off in flakes or chips. voids. SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT The failure of solvent to completely evaporate from a paint film due to inadequate drying 205 . [CED] SEPARATION Division into components or layers by natural causes. Scaling is the last stage of cracking. uncoated areas. SKINNING Formation of a thick film (skin) on the surface of a liquid paint during storage. [AM] SOILING See DIRT ACCUMULATION. [PDCA] SEDIMENTATION Action or process of depositing matter (sediment) that settles to the bottom of a liquid. more likely to occur to a previously opened or partially filled container. SHRINKAGE The roughening of the surface of a coating resulting in loss of gloss or wrinkle. [AM] SETTLING The sinking of pigments. varnish. or lacquer. misses. [CED] SEEDS See SEEDINESS. SEEDY Descriptive of a paint finish that is not smooth owing to undispersed pigment particles or insoluble gel particles in the paint. SKIPS Holidays. Moisture entering cracks in the paint film destroys its adhesive property and results in the flaking or scaling of the paint. undesirable particles or granules in a paint. [AM] SISSING See CISSING. SHADOWING A coating of paint showing through a subsequent coating. with a consequent accumulation on the bottom of the can. SKIN A solid or semisolid membrane that sometimes forms on paint or varnish in the can. SEEDINESS The occurrence of particles in a coating formed from action of reactive pigments and acidic components of the binder during storage that result in a roughened surface on the cured film. SILKING A surface defect characterized by parallel hairlike striations in coated films.

especially ones distinguished by color. See SOLVENT RUB TEST in main glossary. The result often is that the under portion is slow in drying and that solvent is trapped within the coating or the coating remains soft for an extended period of time. STABLE Resistant to change. SPOTTING Development of small areas on a painted surface which differ in color or gloss from the major portion of the work. STREAKING Long. SOLVENT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist solvent attack. solution or disfigurement. [CED] SOLVENT SHOCK The situation wherein some of the protective vehicle is washed off the fine pigment particles. SOLVENT IMBALANCE A proportion of solvent types in a coating that causes inadequate solvency or improper evaporation rates. [CED] SPRAY MOTTLE See ORANGE PEEL.FAILURE TERMS conditions and/or recoating too soon. allowing them to pull together into clusters or flocs or when flocs of resin form due to dilution with a solvent or diluent of insufficient strength. [MPDA]. SPATTER COATING An incomplete or not continuously wet coating caused by a faulty spray painting application. STAIN (1) A solution or suspension of coloring material formulated to provide a color to a surface. Spalling of a concrete surface also may result from corrosion of rebar or other embedded steel. [CED] SPALLING The chipping or fragmenting of a surface or surface coating caused. resistant to chemical reaction with oxygen. narrow. (2) An undesirable surface coloration. for example. especially wood. SPECKLING See MOTTLING. irregular lines or bands or layer-edges. by differential thermal expansion or contraction. visible on a surface. STAIN RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to avoid change in appearance after a material capable of staining has been applied and removed. without completely hiding it or forming a continuous film. It may cause blisters or pinholes. In the case of corrosion. See TOP DRYING in main glos- 206 . SOLVENT POP See SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT. sometimes called “solvent pop. POPPING.” to form. [CED] SURFACE DRYING Drying of the surface of a liquid coating film before the body of the coating film.

UNEVEN LOSS OF GLOSS Uneven loss of gloss is a cosmetic coating surface defect in which there is a variation in reduction of sheen such as may occur where there is partial shading. [WJP] THROUGH DRYING Uniform drying throughout the film as opposed to bottom-drying or top-drying. V VACATION See HOLIDAY. coatings are tack-free after application.FAILURE TERMS sary. In some cases. with a resultant loss of performance properties. U UNDERCURE Failure of a coating to reach its optimum degree of cure. T TACK The stickiness of a surface such as a paint or varnish film during the drying period. See SERVICE LIFE in main glossary. 207 . TUBERCULATION Formation of localized corrosion products scattered over the surface in the form of knob-like mounds. TELEGRAPHING General term used to describe surface defects such as crawling that give rise to unique patterns. Oil paints and spar varnishes may retain tack for several weeks after they are considered dry. SWEATING The exudation of oil from a coating after it appears to have cured. USEFUL LIFE The length of time a coating adequately performs its function. [PDCA] TACK-FREE Absence of tack or stickiness in an applied coating after suitable drying time. tack may not develop until a little later. UNDERCUTTING The gradual penetration and spread of corrosion beneath a coating from a break or pinhole in the film or from unprotected edges. UNDERFILM CORROSION Corrosion that occurs between a coating and the metal substrate without a break in the coating layer. Also referred to as creepage.

including color. chemical composition. such as heat. hydroxide. It is apparent after drying. WRINKLING A defect that creates small furrows or ridges in a coating film. Wrinkling usually occurs with thick films of oil-based paint. or sheen in the shape of spots and streaks. texture. rain. and heating elements are used to simulate the natural conditions of sun. gloss. and sunlight. thermal cycling. water. Y YELLOWING The formation of a yellow color or cast on a white or light-colored coating. and heat. [CED] WEATHERING CHAMBER An apparatus in which specimen materials can be subjected to artificial and accelerated weathering tests that simulate natural weathering by the use of controlled cycles of ultraviolet radiation. W WATER SPOTTING See WATER STAINING. characterized by changes in color. carbonate) of zinc formed on galvanized and other zinc coated surfaces. light. cold. or other sources of ultraviolet light. WEATHERING CONDENSATION TEST A test that exposes coated specimens to a cycle consisting of fluorescent ultraviolet light and condensing humidity to accelerate the effects of sunlight and moisture. WHITE RUST White oxidation products (oxide. 208 . resulting from the accumulation of water on or the contact of water with the painted surface. fluorescent bulbs.FAILURE TERMS VOID See HOLIDAY. water spray. strength. WEBBING See WRINKLING. or other properties. and temperature changes. WEATHER RESISTANCE The capability of a coating to resist the combination of exposures created by weather. [CED] WEATHERING The behavior of paint films when exposed to natural weather or accelerated weathering equipment. Electric arcs. WATER STAINING Any nonuniform change in appearance. rain.

Epoxy coatings are often considered the cure-all for most industrial applications. Environmental pressures on paint manufacturers to eliminate potentially hazardous pigments and reduce the amount of volatile organic greenhouse-causing solvents in paint coatings has accelerated the development of new types of paint coatings. The following catalogue of paint defects has been assembled with associated descriptions of causes and remedies to assist in identifying problems and dealing with them to ensure a quality coating. INTRODUCTION Recognising the type of paint failure encountered in the field is an important mechanism in ensuring quality coatings and coating application. unless they are specially formulated will rarely give the same durability as water-based acrylic paints. for painting galvanized coatings. Water based. and again. but only its appearance. resulting in the common phenomenon of flaking or peeling paint.22 - . All paints eventually fail by weathering and the life expectancy of a paint system will be well defined by the manufacturer or within performance standards such as AS/NZS 2312 . with detailed descriptions of a wide range of generic paint types. Those that fail prematurely will have done so because of an identifiable problem associated with their application.Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel from Atmospheric Corrosion. while expensive.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 defects in paint coatings by CM Staff based on information supplied by Wattyl Paints systems. Again. which have excellent UV stability over time. and frequently. oil based paints. The paint reacts with the zinc in the galvanized coating and loses its adhesion. There is always a reason for every coating failure. or two-pack uretahne or acrylic systems. A great deal of research has gone into paint technology development by the major Australian and international paint companies as they compete with each other and with other coatings and materials to produce better performing products. Causes of paint coating failure are frequently associated with either: • • • • incorrect specification faulty material incorrect application incorrect curing/post handling procedures. Identification of causes of problems can be fed back into the specification and application process to avoid repetition of failure events. paint failures can be traced to the incorrect selection of paint for the particular application. It is therefore important for specifiers to clearly identify the environment in which the coating has to operate and ensure that paint systems selected are capable of delivering the life cycle performance expected. AS/NZS 2312 provides one of the most valuable reference works for paint coatings and paint . Hybrid organic/inorganic binder systems have also been developed that. Industrial or marine applications are critical applications where the performance requirements of the paint system must be clearly understood. In some cases. coating defects do not always affect the coating’s performance. but may perform poorly in highly acidic exposures or where movement or vibration may result in cracking of the relatively infexible paint film. their suggested uses and characteristics. Water based acrylic paints have very good compatibility with galvanized coatings and rarely have adhesion problems on properly prepared surfaces. Many paints have poor UV resistance. low solvent or solventless coatings have replaced many of the standard industrial coatings of yesteryear. offer advances in durability over traditional technologies.One of the most common examples of incorrect paint selection is the use of alkyd (oil based) paints.

such as vinyls and chlorinated rubbers. After cure. sand and apply another coat. Sand or blast remove. avoid intense sunlight. FADING .hills. ORANGE PEEL .also called dry spray. spider web-like particles Use slower evaporating solvent or apply when cooler. Insufficient paint spray atomization.also called pitting. Dry. Repaint and avoid possible sources of moisture. or air pressure too low for proper atomization. Solvent entrapment. apply additional coat. solvent evaporated too fast. sand and apply another coat. moisture in film.rough. Pinholing or too high a steel surface profile for coating thickness. or settled pigment. Excess flow of paint CAUSE Spray gun too close to work. Temperature change during curing. Application over oil. Air pockets trapped in wet film during spraying.colour changes or irregularities WRINKLING . Particles reaching surface not wet enough to level because of too rapid solvent evaporation.tiny. or paint particles falling outside spray pattern. UNEVEN GLOSS . CRATERING . silicon. uniform identations in film FISH EYES . If uncured. moisture or salt-contaminated surfaces. deep holes exposing substrate PINPOINT RUSTING . Sand or blast to smooth finish and apply additional coats. Use holiday detector for early detection of pinholes. PINHOLING . Surface skinning over uncured paint because of too much thickness and/ or too warm weather.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 DESCRIPTION SAGS . respray with retarder added to thinner. Non uniform film thickness. Before cure. coarse atomization. Before cure. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. Solvent evaporating too rapidly.flat finish with milky appearance Moisture condensation in high humidity with fast evaporating or unbalanced thinner in spray application. After cure. oil. brush out and apply additional coat. Ultraviolet light degradation. Scrape off wrinkles and apply thinner coat. remove by dry brushing followed by solvent wiping. Most common with fast evaporating lacquers.separation or pulling apart of wet film to expose underlying finish or substrate BLUSHING . flat. After cured. or paint applied over soft or wet undercoat.thin.23 - . shiny spots Allow to dry and apply another finish coat under acceptable conditions for moisture and humidity. or incompatible coating. or cathodic disbonding. Paint too viscous. crinkled surface BLISTERING . sand and apply another coat.non uniform sheen. apply additional coats after mechanical or blast cleaning. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. sand and apply another coat. gun too close to surface. especially with oil-based paints. pebbly surface COBWEBBING . If cured. REMEDY Before cure. stringy paint.rusting at pinholes or holidays . too much thinner. proper levels of cathodic protection. or moisture behind paint film. too much paint.also called runs or curtains. Sand or blast remove. dirt. or surface too hard or glossy to hold paint. valleys in paint resembling skin of orange OVERSPRAY . Small. After cure. gun too far from surface. adequate cleaning of surface contamination. brush apply a fresh coat plus topcoat.small to large broken or unbroken bubbles Blowers in enclosed areas to accelerate solvent release.

mottled surface IRREGULAR SURFACE DETERIORATION . REMEDY July 2000 Sand or mechanically remove checked coat and apply another coat. poorbonded undercoat. If limited. spot repair and use more abrasion or impact-resistant coatings. etc. or mechanically remove paint and re-coat. salt. vents. undermining and lifting paint.also called pigment float. A relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly (especially common with inorganic zincs). etc.mechanical damage FOULING DAMAGE . Provide fendering protection.24 - . coal tar). spray. crevices. clean painted vent holes. penetrating soft coatings (eg. dirt dried in paint film DELAMINATION . Paint shrinkage. corners.peeling of paint by underlying moisture Stress from cured. Remove coating and abrasively blast steel before reapplying lesser thickness. in topcoat that expose undercoat CRACKING . scrape. spot-remove loose paint and apply flexible paint (e. Physical damage by abrasion (also impact).penetration or peeling by action of marine fouling organisms MUD CRACKING . usually short. Difficult to coat surfaces. Round edges. Barnacles. excessive thickness (especially zincrich paints). UNDERCUTTING .deterioration at edges. etc. Use wedges between adjacent lap boards. or mechanically remove total paint and apply new coat. use antifouling paints for fouling control. Remove by scraping or sanding and re-coat under dry conditions. .peeling. or configurations that permit collection of moisture. No means by which interior moisture can be vented to exterior. weathered (contracted) paint exceeds adhesion to substrate. Critical pigment level exceeded (sometimes by tinting white paint rather than tint base). mechanically or chemically remove paint to substrate before re-coating. avoid configurations that permit collection of contaminants. clean and roughen smooth surface. or applied at too high a temperature. Moisture on substrate distorts wet film.narrow breaks. irregular cracks as with dried mud Early detection of defects with holiday detector and correction. Same as above PEELING OF MULTIPLE COATS peeling of heavy paint build-up from substrate PEELING OF THICK. Sand.heavy wrinkling MOISTURE DAMAGE . or applied/cured at too high a temperature. use inhibitive pigments in primer. Remove and replace damaged paint with one tougher or more adherent. and dirt. latex). Stress from weathering (contraction of total system) exceeds adhesion to substrate. fillet weld seams and crevices. blast. Apply properly prepared finish coat. ABRASION DAMAGE . and re-coat. if extensive.blistering and/ or peeling of paint where exposed steel is rusting DIRT UNDER PAINT . weight of fouling peeling poorly bonded paint. Corrosion products formed where steel is exposed.deep. too thick a coat. limited flexibility. Contaminated surface.g.peeling from undercoat or substrate PIGMENT OVERLOAD . Sand or mechanically remove all loose paint. provide drainage.deep cracks in paint that expose substrate CAUSE Limited paint flexibility. Sand. blast. channels. Separation/lifting of paint from chalky substrate or smooth.peeling of thick paint from substrate PAINT APPLIED TO DAMP SURFACE . or work area.CORROSION MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTION CHECKING . for migration. sanding/mechanical cleaning may be acceptable on older substrates. INFLEXIBLE PAINT . sandblast.

Organic solvent in wet paint or fresh asphalt dissolves bituminous material and causes it to migrate through paint.10. Clean and repaint as described in NAVFAC MO-110. or brick picks up soluble salts and deposits them on the surface from the interior (can be on interior or exterior well of building). Improper storage of paint (e.73 Remove loose chalk and apply chalkresistant finish coat.2. especially on damp. especially fast drying paints. allow asphalt pavements to cure 21 days before applying paint.3. avoid opening and resealing of large containers.5 and 10.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 DESCRIPTION EFFLORENSCENCE DAMAGE paint disbonding and peeling by loose. Vines so close to structure that tendrils penetrate paint for support.brown staining of paint in asphalt or coat tar coating Use latex paint over bituminous materials.3. and substrates where chalk is frequently removed. sand and re-coat damaged areas.4. 4. Store indoors in cool environment. Degradation of coating resin by sunlight leaving loose residue.black fungal growth CHALKING EROSION . REMEDY Treat as in NCEL Tech Data Sheet 77-10 or NAVFAC MO-110. Relocate vines away from structure. SKINNING/DETERIORATION OF STORED PAINT .gradual thinning of finish coat to expose undercoat BLEEDING .25 - .2.g.5 for concrete/masonry before painting. shaded paint. powdery material CAUSE Moisture through concrete. Microorganisms grow. especially bad with thin coats. seal more humid side of wells. in sun and rain). epoxies. masonry. VINE PENETRATION OF PAINT vine tendrils penetrate paint MILDEW GROWTH .2. defacing and degrading it.

Remedy: Wet abrasive blast back to remove surface contamination and old paint. Remedy: Remove flaking paint by scraping or wire brushing. acid resistant recoatable mastic type coating Description: Efflourescence bleeding through pinholes in paint film in marine exposure. Cause: Pinholes in paint film caused by solvent entrapment or single coat application. Cause: Low pH condensation (pH1) and flexing and vibration of crane rails in service cause brittle paint film to crack and promote underfilm corrosion. Description: Flaking two-pack epoxy paint on crane rails in galvanizing plant pre-treatment building. Remedy: Ensure piant is currectly applied and cured. Highb pressure water wash surface. .26 - .CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 Description: Flaking paint over galvanized surface. Cause: Incorrect surface preparation. Incorrect primer/topcoat. Apply flexible. Apply appropriate water based or epoxy priming systems. Use multi-coat system to eliminate pinholes.

27 - . . Description: Early failure of maintenance topcoat system along beam edges. mechanically remove any blistered areas and feather back to sound paint.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 Description: Underfilm corrosion in defined regions of coating. Remedy: Completely remove old paint prior to re-coating or use more flexibible re-coating system compatible with old paint. Remedy: Ensure surface cleanliness prior to application.This large tank has areas of clearly defined paint system performance. Cause: Adhesion of old paint insufficient to accommodate surface tension effects of new two-pack system epoxy topcoat. Centre zone is in good condition. Description: Blistering of paint on handrail. On existing item. Cause: Area on far left has severe local underfilm corrosion indicating initial poor surface preparation/priming. Re-apply primer and topcoat. Right hand zone shows general overall deterioration consistent with normal weathering but ealy failure indicative of low initial dry film thickness for the system. Cause: Areas of contamination on surface interfering with primer adhesion. Remedy: Apply as for centre zone.

1 Some of the definitions of general terms commonly associated with coating deterioration/degradation are: Catastrophic Coating Failure. while protecting the other metal from corrosion.2-3 It is important that these design factors be recognized and corrected at the planning stage rather than later when their adverse effects have become apparent. . The relative surface areas of the touching metals may also greatly affect the corrosion of the more active metal (the Commonly Used Failure Terms Many different terms commonly used to describe coating failures mean different things to different people. governmental restrictions on coating VOCs and toxic constituents (e. Unfortunately. when it no longer protects the substrate. A surface or film imperfection (flaw). SSPC’s Protective Coatings Glossary defines failure terms and these definitions are used for all failure terms in this chapter. The period of time during which a coating provides its intended function(s). A coating failure that is sudden. Although each of the major design factors leading to early coating deterioration will be discussed separately. it is necessary to determine the causes of the failure and what actions must be taken to correct this condition and prevent its recurrence. or coating curing. the substrate.. or combinations of these basic causes. loss of function. the more active metal will corrode preferentially. See degradation above.e. A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from service conditions and weathering. improper or inadequate surface preparation has been the most commonly reported cause of coating failure. Effects of Structural Design on Metal and Coating Deterioration It has been shown that structural design may be an important factor in metal and coating deterioration. Failure Analysis. When this occurs. they often occur in conjunction with other factors that further aggravate the deterioration. The greater the difference in electrochemical activity between the metals. Service Life of Coating. Historically. if present. Failure of Coating. Systematic investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects.Chapter 12 Coating Failures Richard W. and/or corrosion. coating application. provides an attractive appearance. very dramatic. pigments. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. Drisko Introduction All coatings have limited service lives. and serious. i. Deterioration. and biocides) have restricted coating formulations and made them more difficult to apply successfully. This will vary with different exposures and services. The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose(s). there are occasions when coatings fail much sooner than they should. surface preparation. Defect.g. the coating itself. the greater will be the rate of dissimilar metal corrosion. Loss of a coating’s function or purpose. Premature Failure. Failure that occurs significantly before a coating’s life expectancy. There are numerous causes of coating failure. Contact of Dissimilar Metals Resulting in Galvanic Corrosion When two dissimilar metals are in physical contact with each other in an electrolyte (electrically conductive medium).. solvents. Degradation. more recently. deficiency. or incompleteness that deviates from a specification or industry-accepted condition. This chapter will address the common causes of coating defects on industrial structures and the associated preventative or corrective actions. These may be related to structural design.

high-strength alloy steels may require a coating system to supplement its natural corrosion resistance. the 554 . Abrasive blasting can also be used to produce a profile to improve coating adhesion.4 It should be noted that. Coatings on metal structures are susceptible to underfilm corrosion. Crevices Crevices are likely to occur in structural components that are bolted. in general. In these cases. or using a non-conductive insulator between them. A small anode area and a much larger cathode (protected) area may result in extremely rapid corrosion of the smaller anode area. Inside crevice areas. care should be taken to ensure that all cathode areas are especially well covered. because they do not provide the proper coefficient of friction to maintain the joint in a static state. that collect the rain that accelerates deterioration of coatings and corrosion of metals. structures should be designed for access both for the original work and for subsequent maintenance painting. Cold-Rolled Steel Cold-rolled steel is used more for manufacturing office furniture. Water Traps Water traps are design features. appliances.anode in the reaction). Sharp Edges When sharp edges are coated. Drill weep holes into existing water traps to permit collected water to drain. Coatings do not bond as well to these surfaces. solvent-free epoxies) have been developed to address this problem. or skip-welded together. Thus. Thus. This process results in a loosely bonded layer of iron oxide called mill scale. smoother surface than hot-rolling. Thus. chemical treatments such as phosphating are often used to promote coating adhesion. Faying Surfaces Faying surfaces are contacting surfaces where joints in steel structures are formed by riveting or by the use of high-strength bolts. Most coatings are unsuitable for use in the joint itself. in painting. such as upward facing angle iron. This results in a corrosion cell with accelerated corrosion occurring within the crevice area. Undercutting of a coating film by corrosion at breaks or pinholes in the barrier film may result in rapid loss of coating and its protection. Limited Access to Work Limited access to surfaces to be cleaned and coated often results in poor quality work and consequently early coating deterioration. there is invariably a lower concentration of oxygen as compared to the air outside the crevice. and automobile bodies than for applications where structural strength is required. Also. or its subsequent loss with time will result in coating deterioration. Such designs should be oriented downward so that the water drains. textured surfaces provide more bonding sites and thus have greater coating adhesion than smooth areas of similar composition. inorganic zinc-rich silicate coatings have adequate coefficient of friction to perform well in this service. Relatively recently. However. Cold rolling produces a denser. High-Strength Alloy Steels In some environments. Welds should be ground smooth and weld spatter removed before coating in order to obtain good coating adhesion in these areas. Effects of Substrate Properties on Coating Performance It has been shown that the chemical and physical natures of a surface to be coated may have a very profound effect on the performance of the coating system. continuous welding is the preferred method of joining metal components. Galvanic corrosion may also be minimized by using metals of similar composition. new edge-retentive coatings (usually amine-cured. the paint tends to draw back from the edge to leave a much thinner coat of paint there than on flat areas. Thus. In order to produce a coating film of more equal thickness (and thus equal barrier protection) on all surfaces. back-to-back angle designs should be avoided because they have crevices between them. Hot-Rolled Steel Most structural steel is made by the hot-rolling process. riveted. edges are usually striped (brushed with an additional coat of primer) before or after applying a full coat to the substrate. Mill scale must be removed before the steel is coated.

. silicon carbide. aluminum oxide. unless sealed 555 . one the Figure 2.5 Wood The properties of woods vary greatly with the types of tree from which they came. Corrosion undercutting of coating at scratch. Because of their inherent corrosion resistance. alkalinity and porosity) that make its coatings especially susceptible to certain defects. and the chromate conversion coating can be removed chemically or by prolonged weathering.cleaning requirements are similar to those of conventional steels. Zinc-Coated Surfaces Zinc-coatings. In the past. These treatments must be removed prior to coating to permit good coating adhesion. Soft woods such as redwood and fir are penetrated by coatings to permit good bonding much more easily than are hard (dense) woods such as ash and oak. It is characterized by threadlike directional growths proceeding away from damaged areas. For other coatings that do not. while redwood and cedar have uniform grain and brown color.. The oil is best removed by solvent cleaning (i. an advanced stage of intergranular corrosion characterized by a delamination of metal along grain boundaries. following treatments may be used: • Chemical treatment such as phosphating • Wash priming (good with alkyds) • Blasting with a soft abrasive (e. Concrete Concrete has unique properties (e. SSPC-SP 1).e.g. Rolled metal products such as aluminum alloy plate are especially susceptible to exfoliation due to their longitudinal grain structure. Figure 1. but harder abrasives (e. or garnet) may be necessary to produce the desired surface profile. always have alkaline surfaces created by the natural corrosion of zinc. The brown color of the latter two woods comes from water-soluble dyes that may bleed through latex coatings to cause staining. This alkalinity will saponify (hydrolyze) alkyds and other coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils.g. These are described extensively in SSPC’s The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating of Concrete. Aluminum Epoxies normally bond quite well to aluminum.. New galvanized surfaces are sometimes given a thin coat of oil or chromate conversion coating to protect them from corrosion called wet storage stain or white rust during exterior storage.. Filiform corrosion. chromate inhibitive pigments were widely used to control filiform corrosion. Coated aluminum is particularly susceptible to a form of corrosion called filiform. Pine and fir have variable grain structures. they will normally have less corrosion and undercutting of coating at film holidays. both galvanizing and zinc-rich. chromate-free inhibitive pigments are now used.g. plastic) to produce a suitable profile Aluminum is susceptible to exfoliation.

as described in Federal Test Method Standard 141. Woods are very sensitive to moisture so that they swell during periods of high humidity and shrink during periods of low humidity. Figure 3. some of the more important limitations are addressed. For this reason.. Erosion may also be caused by wind-blown sand or rain. Erosion is the gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. If a stored coating has exceeded its shelf life. coatings that chalk freely are more susceptible to erosion than are coatings that are more chalk-resistant. epoxies and phenolics) chalk much faster than others. a test patch of coating can be applied to the intended substrate to check for such properties as ease of application. and complete curing. Rigid coatings on wood may crack when they are unable to expand and contract with dimensional changes. it may have deteriorated to the extent that it can no longer be successfully utilized. of course. but those containing aromatic chemical groups (e. Chalking is the formation of loose powder on the surface of coatings. However. Coatings hide wood grain and greatly reduce water permeability. another crystalline form of titanium dioxide. latex coatings that permit the passage of water vapor (sometimes called breathing) may minimize this problem. Limitations of Coating Formulations All coating formulations have some limitations that restrict their uses to appropriate environments and services. leveling. It is typically caused by deterioration of the organic coating binder by ultraviolet light (usually from the sun) to leave a loose residue of pigment and oxidized binder. it can be checked in the field using a viscosity cup. They can usually be detected in the field before use by testing for condition in container. Thus. Resinous materials in some trees. Defects/Failures Associated with the Coating Itself Some coating defects and failures are directly related to the coating itself. Also. Erosion may be minimized by selecting a 556 . Erosion. Such coatings should be checked for condition in container before use. Leafing aluminum pigments formulated to float to coating surfaces protect underlying binders especially well. Chalking of finish coatings can best be controlled by proper selection of pigments and binders and by use of additives such as ultraviolet light absorbers. In this section. reduce chalking of underlying organic binders by shielding them from sunlight. Some pigments such as the anatase form of titanium dioxide chalk very freely.before painting. Opaque pigments. Accelerated erosion may significantly reduce coating thickness and even expose undercoats. Chalking. If the viscosity does not appear to be at the proper level. water that enters into the wood interior may try to escape through impermeable coatings to cause blistering and/or delamination. may seep to the wood surface after painting to cause staining and paint deterioration. Many people prefer to use semi-transparent stains that do not seal the surfaces of wood. This can be minimized by using weathered wood and sealing it before use. such as lower grades of pine. An oil-based or water-borne stainblocking primer can be used for this purpose.g. are quite chalk-resistant. while other pigments such as rutile. hiding. All organic coating binders chalk to some extent. Chalking. These include: • Errors by the manufacturer in production of the coating • Coatings that have exceeded their shelf life • Inherent limitations of properly formulated coating • Incompatibility of a coating with its substrate or undercoat Coatings with Errors in Manufacture or that Have Exceeded Their Shelf Life Errors in coating manufacture do not occur very often.

Also. This cosmetic defect most commonly occurs with fast evaporating coatings such as vinyl lacquers. drying oil and water-borne latex coatings) by using EPA-approved mildewcides. Loss of gloss is still another defect that is caused by sunlight and can best be minimized by selecting ultraviolet-resistant coating components. Erosion of topcoat on deck of a ship.. Fading. Figure 4. Moisture blushing may also occur by the reaction of moisture in the air with polyurethanes and other moisture sensitive coatings on humid days. Mildew defacement is an unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated structures caused by the growth of micro-organisms. as well as discoloration and fading. Uneven loss of gloss. Fading is the reduction of color intensity. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. Moisture Blushing.chalk-resistant coating with good leveling properties. Figure 5. Thus. Mildew defacement may be controlled in architectural coatings (i. Discoloration is the change in coating color after application (usually an undesirable darkening). is especially distracting when it occurs on the side of a structure that is partially shaded so that there is an uneven loss of gloss or color. This is more of a cosmetic effect than one that adversely affects coating film properties. Discoloration. particularly fungi. Moisture blushing can best 557 . Loss of Gloss. coating formulations should have stable pigments and binders. lead pigments are blackened by the attack of hydrogen sulfide gas. Mildew Defacement. usually by sunlight. To minimize discoloration. Mildew defacement. All coatings lose gloss in sunlight to some extent. smooth.e. chalk-free coating surfaces in dry locations exposed to sun light are less susceptible to mildew than other coated surfaces. Moisture blushing is the formation of a milky opalescence that may occur in humid environments where solvent evaporation reduces the temperature of an uncured coating to the dew point so that moisture condensation occurs on it. Figure 6. but some do much more than others. This adverse cosmetic effect can also be minimized by using formulations with stable pigments or binders. This cosmetic defect.

Contraction of the surface skin causes the wrinkling. Figure 8. This film may cause adhesion problems for topcoats if not removed as recommended by the epoxy manufacturer. Amine Blushing. but the use of lead driers (some of the best through-driers) is now greatly restricted. Brush marks. Orange peel. Wrinkling is a defect that results in the formation of small furrows or ridges in coating films. Localized areas of lesser film thickness almost always exhibit deterioration before areas of 558 . and a surface skin is formed that prevents further curing of the underlying binder. Figure 9. Moisture blushing. Orange peel is similar to brush marks in that it is caused by insufficient leveling of the wet film. Chemical Attack on Coatings. greater film thickness. Wrinkling. Brush marks may occur in brushapplied coatings with insufficient leveling for the wet film to flow together to form a film of uniform thickness. This most commonly occurs to linings in storage tanks where they come into contact with stored chemical liquids. Through-dry metal driers will help accelerate complete film curing. curing by air oxidation occurs much more rapidly at the coating surface than below it.be prevented by avoiding the application of moisturesensitive coatings on humid days. However. this defect occurs with spray rather than brush application of coatings. In these cases. It occurs most commonly with thick films of alkyds and other drying oil-curing coatings. Amine blushing is the formation of a milky opalescence on the wet-film surfaces of aminecured epoxies by the reaction of the amine with carbon dioxide and water in the air to form an amine carbamate. Figure 7. Chemical attack on coatings will occur when the coating system is not resistant to the environment. Chemical attack may also occur in atmospheric service where harsh chemical fumes or vapors come into contact Brush Marks. Orange Peel. Wrinkling can also be minimized by avoiding thicker film than recommended by the manufacturer.

include hairline cracking. checking. Stresses increase with further polymerization and weathering. Different types of cracking. Osmotic Blistering by Soluble Pigments. 559 Mottling. These pigments can be detected during a laboratory failure analysis of the water (sometimes colored) in filled blisters. Most of these stresses originate by shrinking during curing. having significant water solubility. other than common cracking. Flooding and Floating. crazing. When stresses exceed the cohesive strength of the coatings. and/or polymerization. the more rigid it is and thus the greater its tendency to crack. they crack to relieve the stress. Flooding and floating are two cosmetic formulation defects that are sometimes confused with each other. Cracking. Figure 11. Cracking. Cracking is a general term for the splitting of a coating film to relieve stresses. It is commonly caused by pigment overload (using more pigment than can be completely wetted by the limited amount of resin present).with the coating. Osmotic blistering may also occur if soluble salt contaminants are not completely removed from substrates during surface preparation. Wrinkling. Floating is the segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in the surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation to produce a varigated paint surface. Hightemperature attack is likely to occur to organic coatings even during intermittent high-temperature service. Osmotic blistering may occur to coatings with primer pigments . Mottling. heat-resistant inorganic coatings are usually used at temperatures above 450°F (230°C). The greater the coating thickness. Figure 10. High-Temperature Attack on Coatings. Mottling is the presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a painted surface. Flooding is the segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. Thus. Figure 12. by solvent evaporation. This is especially likely to occur during water immersion service.

heating and cooling. which are very rigid. Cracking usually occurs all the way through the coating to expose the substrate. Cracking from intercoat stresses may occur when a relatively rigid topcoat is applied over a more flexible undercoat. It is wise to obtain all coatings for a total system that are known to be compatible with each other and that are produced by the same manufacturer. Five types of 560 . Mud Cracking. Alligatoring with bleeding. Wetting and drying. The resulting stresses cause the topcoat to crack to expose the undercoat but not the substrate. These stresses are similar to those previously described for alligatoring.alligatoring. and mud cracking. Intercoat Cracking. but cracking does not always occur in such a regular pattern. This defect often happens with inorganic zincrich coatings. Figure 14. and exposure to sunlight all contribute to checking. It typically occurs when a rigid coating is applied too thickly. Figure 15. Coating Incompatibilities Incompatibilities may occur between individual coats in a total coating system or between an existing system and a topcoat to be applied over it. Alligatoring. Mud cracking is a cracking pattern that resembles the irregular cracking of drying mud. Figure 13. Alligatoring is a type of crazing or surface cracking with a definite pattern. other intercoat cracking. Checking. The effect often occurs when a relatively rigid coating is applied over a more flexible undercoat. as indicated by its name. Checking is the fine surface cracking that develops in coating films during prolonged curing and/ or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying substrate. Checking. Mud cracking of inorganic zinc-rich coating.

This defect is somewhat similar to the previously described bleeding from an asphalt pavement and migration of water-soluble dyes from wood through latex coatings. If coatings on these surfaces are not alkali-resistant. Bleeding. in excess of –1. Limited Adhesion. Coatings to be used in conjunction with cathodic protection to control the corrosion of steel must be resistant to these problems. Bleeding of alkyd coating on asphalt pavement.1 volts).g. Saponification may occur to an alkyd or other drying oil applied over a zinc-rich primer.. Blistering of Coatings by Hydrogen Gas Evolution. forms of cracking. Topcoat Solvent Attack on Undercoat Binder. Alkalinity is always produced on cathodically protected surfaces. they are subject to saponification. In any case. Incompatibilities with Cathodic Protection There are three basic mechanisms by which coatings may be deteriorated by cathodic protection systems. Figure 16. the surface alkalinity on the zinc-rich primer causes this chemical degradation. or disbond. This seldom occurs if steel-to-soil or 561 Intercoat Cracking. Cracking from intercoat stresses was described earlier in the discussion of different . Blistering of coatings by hydrogen gas evolution may occur on cathodically protected surfaces where the voltages are excessively high (e.incompatibility between coatings are described here. An example of this is a chlorinated rubber or an epoxy coating with a strong solvent being applied over a vinyl dispersion (latex) coating. Saponification of Coatings. the intercoat adhesion is significantly diminished. swell. Topcoat solvent attack on undercoat binder may cause the latter to soften. Saponification of alkyd coating. Limited adhesion and subsequent peeling may occur to a water-dispersed (latex) coating applied over a smooth oil-based enamel. There is often insufficient solvent in the topcoat to penetrate the existing coating to achieve good intercoat adhesion. Bleeding often occurs when a topcoat with a strong solvent is applied to a coal-tar or asphalt coating. The solvent dissolves some of the colored material in the existing coating and allows it to migrate through the topcoat to impart a brown surface discoloration. Figure 17. Saponification (hydrolysis). As with concrete.

Disbonding. and Blistering. These recommendations should be carefully followed. One of the best ways of minimizing adverse effects of surface preparation is by careful inspection of the cleaned surfaces and immediate correction of any deficiencies found. It normally results in coating blistering and peeling. Coating Defects/Failures from Inadequate Surface Preparation Inadequate surface preparation is generally recognized as being the chief source of coating defects and failures. Peeling. Crawling. sometimes called fish eyes. The coating manufacturer also provides the recommended ranges of ambient conditions suitable for successful application of each company product. and/or blistering. Figure 18. Electroendosmosis is a mechanism of coating deterioration in which excessive cathodic potentials causes electrolyte to penetrate rapidly through a coating film.steel-to-water potentials are regularly monitored. peeling. It occurs when the surface tension of a coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate. Incomplete removal of soluble salts during 562 . thickness. uniformly thick layer to form areas of little. because the remaining contaminants reduce the number of bonding sites. These deficiencies cannot be corrected after coating application. These recommendations may be as important as any other manufacturer recommendation. Intimate contact between coating and substrate is necessary for good adhesion. Electroendosmosis. is the drawing back of a liquid film from a Osmotic Blistering by Incomplete Removal of Soluble Salts. or other loosely held contaminants from the substrate surface or from the presence of moisture. peeling. Each commercially available primer has a surface preparation recommended by its manufacturer. if any. and/or blistering may result from incomplete removal of rust. Crawling (fish eyes). mill scale. Inadequate Surface Cleanliness Inadequately cleaned surfaces are very difficult to wet with coatings. Crawling is caused by substrate contamination with oil or some other low surface energy contaminant. Surface preparation inadequacies are either caused by inadequate removal of contaminants or by improper profile height. Osmotic blistering caused by inadequate removal of soluble salts. Disbonding. Crawling (Fisheyes). Flash rusting of properly cleaned steel before coating is another source of these defects. Incomplete removal of contaminants from an existing coating before topcoating may result in intercoat disbonding. dirt. Figure 19.

It is much easier to prevent coating problems associated with improper spray application than to correct them after application. and recoat times. Pinpoint rusting may also occur when erosion significantly reduces coating film thickness. Two-component coatings such as thermosetting epoxies and polyurethanes are normally supplied in kits composed of Component A and Component B. Use of paint shakers is not recommended. and checking or cracking of the paint film. in turn. settling of the heavier pigment portion may occur during storage.surface preparation may result in osmotic blistering of coatings subsequently applied. recommended profile heights vary directly with the primer film thickness. inadequate film thickness. However. In general. Thus. Improper mixing can lead to uneven color in cured paint. detection of defects and their immediate correction. catastrophic failure may occur. This.6 The adverse effects of soluble salts are much greater on coatings in immersion service than in atmospheric service. Pinpoint rusting may occur on coated steel structures where abrasive blast cleaning has produced so high a profile that it is not adequately protected by a relatively thin primer. Improper Surface Profile Each primer has a profile height recommended by its manufacturer for best performance.7 Coatings should not be overmixed to avoid entrapping air into them. Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Coating Application As with surface preparation. pot life. a mechanical mixer should be used at a speed set so that a small rather than a large vortex or depression on the paint surface is created in the center of the can. Thus. Any significant deviation from this recommendation may result in reduced coating system performance. The components of each kit must be properly proportioned for mixing together to achieve proper curing and optimum coating performance. the proportions should be checked before beginning coating application to be sure that the proportions are those specified by the manufacturer. use of complete kits rather than partially filled kits are recommended. If this is not done. all paints should be thoroughly mixed before application to ensure that the material being applied is the homogeneous blend originally manufactured. These salts are usually not readily visible and so must be removed and analyzed using special techniques. Allowing stirred paint to set for several minutes before application may permit the release of entrapped air. it is common practice not to use the triggering technique commonly used with other spray equipment because the ratio of components may vary significant at the start and stop of each trigger stroke. Pinpoint rusting. Excessive Profile Height. primers with greater film thickness usually have higher recommended surface profiles. Therefore. Insufficient profile height of cleaned surfaces may provide insufficient bonding areas for adequate coating adhesion. When applying two-component thermosetting coatings. the best way to avoid coating failures resulting from improper coating application is by (1) carefully following the coating manufacturer’s recommendations for application and (2) carefully inspecting the work to permit early 563 . careful attention must be paid to the manufacturer’s recommendations for induction. Each component should be mixed separately and then mixed together in the order specified by the coating manufacturer. Thus. Figure 20. Plural-component spray application systems combine Components A and B together automatically in a specific ratio. When spraying with plural-component equipment. poor coating adhesion. Skilled applicators are required for the successful use Insufficient Profile Height. usually results in early coating loss by disbonding and peeling. Mixing Coatings Although coatings are prepared ready to apply.

a thinner than desired coating may contribute to pinpoint rusting on steel surfaces. Use of a wet film thickness gauge. wrinkling occurs more often with thicker than thinner coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils. as described in ASTM D 4414. and in the thickness range specified by the manufacturer. Sagging. or curtains. flaking. Thus. As described earlier. 564 . If coating thicknesses vary significantly outside the specified range. Inorganic zinc-rich coatings are especially susceptible to clumping. and standard triggering can results in defects and early coating failure. If a coating is applied too thickly. Effects of Improper Spray Techniques The most uniform coating application and the best looking finishes are achieved by spray application. Non-Uniform Coating Thickness. low temperatures or other conditions may necessitate thinning to reduce the viscosity for effective application. Otherwise. Figure 21. Effects of Improper Coating Thickness It is important that coatings be applied uniformly. or other foreign matter to avoid clogging spray equipment. its barrier protection will be lessened. constant rate of gun travel. it should be of the type and in the amount recommended by the coating manufacturer. As discussed earlier. Excess coating thickness may be gradually built up by application of additional coats to an existing coating system during periodic maintenance painting. proper spray pattern. Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages. Thinner should be added to the coating slowly and with thorough mixing to avoid overthinning one portion of the paint and the possibility of curdling the coating or flocculation of the pigment. Thinning Coatings are manufactured for application as received without thinning. and thus its service life will be reduced. runs. Disbondment may take the form of chipping.of plural-component application equipment. Excess Coating Thickness. Deviation from the recommended gun-tosubstrate distance. disbondment will occur. thicker films have more rigidity than thinner films and thus are less able to expand and contract with substrate dimensional changes. Coatings with variable film thicknesses tend to be resin-rich in localized areas of greater thickness. peeling. lumps. the first signs of deterioration invariably occur in areas of low film thickness. Insufficient Coating Thickness. low thickness areas limit the performance of the total coated area. mud cracking. If a coating is applied with less than the specified minimum thickness. and/ or disbondment of relatively rigid coatings. Straining Coatings should be strained after mixing to eliminate any skins. As described earlier. When necessary to use a thinner. holiday-free. its weight may cause the wet coating to flow downward to form sags. Excessive coating thickness may lead to the acceleration of common cracking. This often results in unsightly glossy areas sometimes called hot spots. maximum coating performance will not be achieved. However. or delamination. Such defects should be detected and corrected as soon as observed. will help ensure that the desired dry film thickness is achieved. When the total stress built up in the coating system exceeds the adhesion at its weakest point (usually primer to substrate). Excess thickness may also result in other types of incomplete or improper curing.

It occurs most often with lacquers and other coatings that contain fast evaporating solvents. Overspray consists of atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being sprayed and fall on unintended surfaces. Topcoating Outside of Recommended Recoat Window Manufacturers of two-component thermosetting coatings specify a window of time during which Pinholing. Pinholing is sometimes caused by holding the spray gun too close to the surface with excessive atomization pressure or a combination of a low atomization pressure and excessive material pressure. Pinholing. Holidays in coatings are best discovered using holiday detectors. interior air and solvent vapors rise to the concrete surface to form small bubbles in the topcoat. skip. and the resulting vapors rise to the surface of the uncured topcoat to form pinholes. Figure 22. Dry spray is a rough. Unless detected and corrected. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface so that the coating cannot flow to form a uniform continuous film. Dry Spray.Figure 23. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. powdery. A holiday is a pinhole. Coating Holidays. This condition most commonly occurs with fast drying coatings. Pinholing is the formation of small holes that extend through the entire thickness of a coating. in which. if any. the topcoating of inorganic zinc-rich coatings on warm days. Dry spray should not be confused with overspray. as described in the chapter of this book on coating inspection. This phenomenon is somewhat similar to outgassing of wet coatings on concrete. Solvent imbalance is an important source of pinholing. protective value. discontinuity. holidays constitute a source of early electrolyte penetration and coating deterioration. Cratering is a special form of pinholing caused by foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. Dry spray film have little. A special case of pinholing often occurs during 565 . during periods of rising temperature. Holding the spray gun too far from the substrate may also contribute to dry spray. Topcoat solvent that enters the naturally porous film of the inorganic zinc-rich coating evaporates in the warm environment. Dry spray.

1998. service. 1994. California.8 Moisture-blushing of coating surfaces during periods of high humidity was discussed earlier in this chapter.. and served as the Navy’s center of expertise on coatings for shore structures. Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Curing Most coatings require special conditions for proper curing. Fundamentals of Chemistry and Composition. 8. Factors of Uncoated and Coated Substrates that Affect Coating Performance. Richard W. In order to avoid or minimize deterioration. Munger. Field Methods for Retrieval and Analysis of Soluble Salts on Substrates. About the Author Dr. He is a professional engineer in the state of California. They must cure within a specific relative humidity range to achieve complete and proper curing. Curing wet coatings at temperatures significantly above or below the recommended range may result in improper or incomplete curing. Richard W. evaluation. 2001. MS. Skinner. where he conducted research. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Munger. and testing. and a NACE International certificated corrosion specialist. Applicator Training Bulletin: Mixing and Thinning. Drisko. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. Design Factors. he was employed for over 40 years at the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. the topcoat will have limited adhesion to the undercoat. Drisko Dr. Drisko. osmotic blistering may be caused by the entrapped solvent. Moisture-curing polyurethanes and alkyl silicate inorganic zinc-rich coatings cure to a solid film by reaction of their binders with moisture from the air. Richard W. 4. 7. Drisko has been the senior technical advisor to SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings since January 1995. The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating Concrete. July 1989. References 1. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. Drisko. These include ranges of temperature and relative humidity.. Prior to this. Otherwise. 1992.eds. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part II. Protective Coatings... Jim. and PhD degrees from Stanford. Drisko. Clive H. Richard W. pp 65-68. May 1990. an SSPC certified protective coatings specialist (PCS). Richard W. Coatings applied in confined spaces such as storage tanks may require both heating and ventilating to remove coating solvents and permit complete curing or curing to the extent required for topcoating. 2. the curing of both coats may be adversely affected. Jenkins. SSPC: Pittsburgh. as recommended by its manufacturer • Thorough inspection of all phases of the work to ensure that all specification requirements are met • Rapid corrective actions to address any deviations from recommendations or early signs of coating defects. as recommended by the coating manufacturer • Appropriate application of the coating system. Drisko. pp 36-41. Charles G. Corrosion and Coatings. ed. If topcoated too soon. Protective Coatings Glossary. and coating system. 2000. James F. Dr. the following actions should be taken: • Proper selection of a high-performance coating system appropriate for the particular environment and service • Preparation of a job specification that includes all requirements necessary to achieve long-term coating performance • Appropriate surface preparation for the environment. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. pp 62-66. 566 . SSPC-TU 4. SSPC: Pittsburgh. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part I. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. If topcoated too late. 5. Richard W. Hare. Randy Nixon and Richard W. Drisko received his BS. Summary There are many causes of coating deterioration. 3. 6. Port Hueneme.their coatings can be successfully topcoated. Charles G.

569 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful