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having once reached a tack-free state. either separately or combined.. TENSILE (PULL-OFF) in main glossary.. the usual factors considered are heat. [ASTM]. alligator cracking is the vertical cracking of a coating with a pattern of closed cells or islands of unbroken coating. scraping. In accelerated aging tests. [CED] AGING (1) Storage of paints. under defined conditions of temperature. (2) Intentional incorporation of small air bubbles in concrete to improve such physical properties as freezethaw resistance. light. [CED] AIR ENTRAINMENT (1) The process of causing small air bubbles to form in paint or wet paint film. [CED].FAILURE TERMS an excerpt from SSPC's Protective Coatings Glossary A ABRASION The wearing away of a surface by action such as by rubbing. AFTER-TACK Film defect in which the coated surface. AIR BUBBLE Dry bubble in coating film caused by entrapped air. etc. etc. [CED] See BUBBLING. in suitable containers. varnishes. producing a pattern of cracks similar to an alligator’s hide. ABRASION RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing. and oxygen. ADULTERATION The addition of foreign materials to a manufactured product. scraping and wear. subsequently develops a sticky condition. as indicated by its name. See also CRACKING. AMINE BLUSH Surface opalescence (blush) on epoxy films caused by reaction of amine co-reactant with carbon dioxide and water to form an amine carbamate. or other frictional process. relative humidity. water. (2) the cracking of the surface bitumen on a built-up roof. AIR ENTRAPMENT Inclusion of air bubbles in coating film or other solids such as concrete. 188 . See ADHESION TEST. [ASTM] ACCELERATED AGING Any set of conditions used in an attempt to produce in a short time the results obtained under normal conditions of aging. This can affect adhesion of any subsequent coat if not properly removed. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] ADHESION FAILURE A failure between two distinct coating layers or between the substrate and the first layer of coating. ALLIGATORING (1) A type of crazing or surface cracking of a definite pattern. erosion. The effect is often caused during weather aging. the cracks may not extend through the surface bitumen. (2) Gradual changing of a coating’s chemical and/or physical properties over a period of in-service response time. or as dry films of these materials for the purpose of subsequent tests [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]. surface cracking of a paint film having the appearance similar to alligator hide.

See FOULING. [CED] BIOFOULING Biological encrustation of surfaces in sea water by flora and fauna. This may be due to internal chemical or physical action in the paint itself. asphalt) by the action of the coating solvent. varnishes. ANTI-SETTLING AGENT Substance incorporated into a pigmented paint to retard settling and to maintain uniform consistency during storage or painting operations.FAILURE TERMS ANTI-FOAMING AGENT Additive used to control or prevent foam formation during the manufacture or application of coatings. BLEACHING (1)Bleaching is a uniform loss of color of a paint or varnish.. B BALD SPOT Area or patch. ANTI-SKINNING AGENT Any material added to a coating to prevent or retard the processes of oxidation or polymerization that result in the formation of an insoluble skin on the surface of the coating in a container. 189 . e. [AM] BLEED Coating discoloration by the diffusion of coloring matter from a previously painted or unpainted surface (e.g. These additives normally function by altering the rheological properties of the paint. barnacles. vegetable oils. ANTI-LIVERING AGENT Additive used to prevent the livering of a coating.g. usually in a wrinkle finish film. removing color. etc. to influences from the surface on which it is applied or to weathering or contamination from the atmosphere. See LIVERING. BIODETERIORATION Any undesirable change in material properties brought about by the activities of microorganisms. BIOLOGICAL DEFACEMENT Disfiguring of surfaces by growth of microorganisms. [CED]. ANTI-SAG AGENT Additive used to control sagging of a coating. [CED] BIOCIDE A chemical agent capable of killing organisms such as those responsible for microbiological degradation. which has failed to wrinkle or give the desired optical effect. (2) Intentional lightening of the color of a material such as wood. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] ANTI-WRINKLING AGENT Material added to surface coating compositions to prevent the formation of wrinkles in films during curing.

The solvent carrier of the newly applied finish normally transfers the coloring matter. contaminants. organic pigments. [CED] BLEED-THROUGH Appearance of color on a newly painted surface by migration of a previously painted substrate beneath it. (2) The irregular raising of a thin layer at the surface of placed mortar or concrete during or soon after completion of the finishing operation. TIE COAT in main glossary. This effect is most pronounced when paint is being applied into corners or boxed areas. or excessive moisture in the substrate. (2) An increase in the viscosity or thixotropy of a paint. BODYING Thickening of an oil through thermal processing. BLOCK COAT A barrier coat or transition primer/tie coat that prevents incompatible paints from touching. such as occurs under moderate pressure and sometimes pressure and heat. [CED] BLOCKING RESISTANCE The ability of two coated surfaces to resist sticking together during normal handling and storage. Examples are bituminous surfaces. varnish. BLOCKING (1) The undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together under normal conditions or under specified conditions of temperature. also bulging of the finish plaster coat as it separates and draws away from the base coat [ACI]. and relative humidity. [MPDA] BOUNCE BACK (1) The rebound of atomized paint particles during spray application. or lacquer which occurs during storage. the solvent-caused movement of material is from the coating itself and not the substrate. BLISTERING RESISTANCE A coating’s ability to resist the formation of blisters. Blistering may be caused by solvent entrapment. resulting in a discoloration of the finish. (2) Rebound of abrasive particles during abrasive blasting. See also DRY SPRAY. See also BARRIER COAT. BLOOMING The reduction of a coating gloss caused by materials exuding in or from an applied film. (3) Formation of blisters in films of paint or varnish. See also BLISTERING. during storage or fabrication. The resultant return flow of atomized air carries some of the paint particles away from the surface.FAILURE TERMS BLEEDING The diffusion of colored matter from a substrate (including a previously applied paint film) into a newly applied finish. BLISTERING (1) Formation of dome-shaped projections (blisters) in paints or varnish films resulting from local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from an underlying paint film (intercoat blistering) or the base substrate. pressure. 190 . wood knots. (2) Undesired adhesion between touching layers of material. moisture diffusion through the coating. Unlike bleeding. BLEEDING KNOT Usually circular-shaped discoloration in stained or painted siding. The standard test method for evaluating the degree of blistering of paints is described in ASTM D 714. OVERSPRAY. BLISTER An undesirable rounded elevation of the coating resulting from the local loss of adhesion. or in the case of pipe after spinning.

CATASTROPHIC COATING FAILURE A coating failure that is sudden. CATHODIC DISBONDING Mechanical lifting of a coating caused by hydrogen bubbles formed when cathodic protection 191 . very dramatic. for example. BRITTLENESS Degree of susceptibility to cracking or breaking by bending. The origin of the selective specular reflectance is generally considered to be reflectance from very small particle size pigments partially separated from the surrounding vehicle at or near the surface. usually not exceeding 15 mm in diameter. BUG HOLES Small regular or irregular cavities. [CED] BRUSH MARKS (1) Marks produced in a coating by the bristles of a brush during application. cratering. CATASTROPHIC CORROSION Metallic degradation resulting in substantial loss of metal. CASE HARDENING Surface hardening without thorough drying of film. TOP DRYING in main glossary. (2) Small ridges or valleys produced in a paint film by the combing action of the bristle of a brush. CAN STABILITY Resistance to deterioration of liquid paint in original container.[CED] See SURFACE DRYING. fragile. resulting from entrapment of air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete during placement and compaction. [AM] See CRATERING. Depending on the leveling characteristics of the paint. and serious. and is characterized by a distinct hue of different predominant wavelength than the hue of the paint itself.FAILURE TERMS BRITTLE Susceptible and being easily broken. by observing the image of a white light source. CAT EYE(S) Hole or holiday shaped like a cat’s eye. descriptive. It is perceived at the specular angle. BUBBLING Air bubbles or solvent vapor bubbles found temporarily in the wet film of a coating or permanently in the dry film. [CED] BUBBLE BUSTER Compound used to control the formation of bubbles in a coating. C CAKING Hard setting of pigment from a liquid paint during storage. brush marks may or may not remain in the dried coating. [AM] BRONZING A subjective. appearance term applied to metal-like reflectance which sometimes appears at the surface of nonmetallic colored materials.

See also CHECKING. resulting from impact by hard objects or from wear during service. CHAMPAGNE FINISH (EFFERVESCENCE) The slight surface roughening caused by small bubbles of escaping solvent vapor. CHECKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist checking. this failure is usually characterized by sharp edges and definite demarcation of the base area. Cavitation caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. ASTM D 660 is a Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints. CLOUDINESS The lack of clarity or transparency in a paint or varnish film. CHALKING The formation of loose powder on the surface of a coating. [CED] COATING FAILURE Loss of a coating’s function or purpose. CHECK(S) Fine. [CED]. See also CHALKING.FAILURE TERMS is excessive. [ASM] CAVITATION EROSION Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continuing exposure to cavitation. shallow cracks in a coating resulting from surface weathering. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to effect violent localized agitation. CHIPPING Total or partial removal of a dried paint film in flakes by accidental damage or wear during service. usually caused by degradation of the organic binder by the sun’s ultraviolet light.e. (2) Development of shallow cracks at closely spaced but irregular intervals on the surface of plaster. ASTM D 3170 is the Standard Test Method for Chipping Resistance of Coatings. in traffic paints. CRACKING RESISTANCE. ASTM D 4214 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films. i. CISSING A mild form of crawling. CHECKING (1) The fine cracking that develops in paint films during prolonged curing and/or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying surface. provides 192 . CAVITATION The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. usually in small pieces. or concrete [ACI]. when it no longer protects the substrate. [ASM] CAVITATION CORROSION A process involving conjoint corrosion and cavitation. CHALKING RESISTANCE The ability of a pigmented coating to resist chalking. cement paste. CHIPPING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating or layers of coatings to resist total or partial removal.. ASTM D 913 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Resistance of Wear to Traffic Paint.

COLOR RETENTION Property of a material relating to its ability to maintain constant color during surface exposure. and mud cracking. the material that causes a surface to be in this state. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] The ability of a single coating layer to resist internal partitioning or fracturing. crazing. See 193 . Different types of cracking include hair-cracking or hairlines. CORROSION FATIGUE The process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment. cracking. COLD CHECKING The formation of hairline cracks in lacquers exposed to low temperatures. (2) To break up into simpler chemical components. COHESIVE FAILURE A failure or break within a given coat or material (the coating breaks within itself). material. The force holding a substance together. CORROSION The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a metal and its environment that results in the loss of material and its properties. especially to sunlight.FAILURE TERMS an attractive appearance. The standard test method for evaluating degree of cracking is described in ASTM D 661. as with cracking of petroleum. COLD CRACKING Crazing and cracking of a coating subjected to low temperatures or cold/ambient cycling. also. COLORFASTNESS The ability of a film of paint or varnish to show little change in original color after being exposed to a specific environment. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. permeating force assisting ionic passage through a coating to a metal in the direction from a hot liquid to a cold wall. a driving. COBWEBBING The rapid drying of a coating (often a lacquer) during application to form fine strings instead of normal atomization. [CED] COLD WALL EFFECT In tank linings. CRACKING RESISTANCE The ability to resist formation of cracks that extend through at least one coat of paint. COHESION The propensity of a substance to adhere to itself. or process to become dirty or impure. generally light and weathering. Color retention requirements usually are described in terms of color difference defined according to a standard test procedure. The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose. CONTAMINATION Condition causing a surface. CRACKING (1) The splitting of a dry paint film. checking. crocodiling or alligatoring. Metals corrode because they exist in chemically unstable states.

or incompleteness that deviates from a speci- 194 . CRACKLE Topcoat cracking caused by application of topcoat before the previously applied coat has sufficiently cured. CRAWLING The drawing back of a liquid film from a uniformly thick layer to form areas of little. shallow depressions in a coating generally resulting from foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. CROWS FOOTING A coating film defect in which a pattern of wrinkles resembling a crow’s foot is formed. Staining of a white cloth by rubbing lightly over a colored surface. UNDERCUTTING. deficiency. It occurs when the surface tension of the coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate. CURTAINING See SAGGING. CREVICE CORROSION Corrosion that occurs within or adjacent to a crevice formed by contact with two pieces of the same metal or another metal or with a nonmetallic material. CROCODILING See ALLIGATORING. In these locations. CURTAINS Sags with a draped appearance.FAILURE TERMS CRACKING. D DEFECT A surface or film imperfection (flaw). [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] CRINKLING See WRINKLING. CRATERS Small. thickness. CHECKING RESISTANCE. CROCKING Removal of color upon abrasion or rubbing. [WJP] CRAZING A network of intersecting checks or cracks appearing on a coated surface. rounded depressions in a coating film that do not expose the previous coat or the substrate. if any. See CRACKING. CRATERING The formation of small. See WRINKLING. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] CROCKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist color transfer when rubbed or abraded. See CRATERING. the intensity of attack is usually more severe than on surrounding areas of the same metal surface. CREEPAGE See CRAWLING.

scaling. DEFLOCCULANT An additive that prevents pigments in suspension from coalescing to form flocs. soot. DEGRADATION A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from their service conditions and weathering. DISCOLORATION Change in the color of a coating after application (usually an undesired darkening). Failure of a coating to adhere to the previous coating. cracking. DETERIORATION See DEGRADATION. DISCONTINUITIES See HOLIDAY. or other foreign material on the exterior surfaces of coatings or other substrates. ASTM D 3274 is the standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal or Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. (2) In the case of a concrete slab. DEZINCIFICATION Selective loss of zinc metal from a brass alloy. or peeling except that the delamination affects large areas and can often be detected by tapping. and generally near. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. similar to spalling. The opposite of thixotropy. DIRT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist soiling. DIRT PICK-UP See DIRT ACCUMULATION. DELAMINATION (1) The separation of a coat or coats of paint from the previous coat or from the substrate. DEFOAMER(S) Additives used to reduce or eliminate foam formed in a coating or coating constituent. DILATANCY Stiffening and loss of fluidity of paint upon agitation. or separation of a slab in a plane roughly parallel to. [ACI] DETACHMENT See DISBONDING. a horizontal splitting.FAILURE TERMS fication or industry-accepted condition. found most frequently in bridge decks and caused by the corrosion of reinforcing steel or freezing and thawing. DIRT ACCUMULATION The collection of air-borne dirt. the upper surface. 195 . DISBONDING The separation resulting from insufficient adhesion of a coating to an undercoating or other substrate. DELAMINATE See DELAMINATION. See ANTI-FOAMING AGENT.

It 196 . followed by reaction with carbon dioxide and acidic pollutants. EROSION The gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface. EXUDATION The migration of a substance to the surface. scales. See also BOUNCE BACK. powdery. such as resin from wood.FAILURE TERMS DRAG Resistance of paint to being spread by a brush. ASTM D 662 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints. or layers. (CED) F FADEOMETER An apparatus for determining the resistance of coatings and other materials to fading. sand-like covering. EROSION-CORROSION A joint action involving corrosion and erosion. Efflorescence results from leaching of lime or calcium hydroxide out of a permeable concrete mass over time by water. [AM] DURABILITY Degree to which paints and paint materials withstand the destructive effect of the conditions to which they are subjected. DRY SPRAY (1) A rough. EFFLORESCENCE A white crystalline or powdery deposit on the surface of concrete. (2) Overspray or bounce back falling dry on unintended surfaces and producing an adherent. A paint with a lot of drag is hard to work with a brush. ELECTROENDOSMOSIS Penetration of water through a coating film caused by excessive cathodic protection potentials. DRIFT See OVERSPRAY. DULLING Loss of gloss or sheen. Often results in blistering of coatings. E EDGE FAILURE A type of coating adhesion failure in which undercutting (penetration of corrosion beneath the coating) occurs at an unprotected or incompletely protected edge. DRIP A drop of wet coating that forms on or falls from the edge of the coated substrate. EXFOLIATE To separate in flakes. OVERSPRAY. or plasticizer from films.

FAILURE TERMS accelerates the fading by subjecting coated panels to high-intensity ultraviolet wavelengths similar to those found in sunlight. FAILURE ANALYSIS An investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. checking or blistering and is the result of loss of adhesion usually due to stress-strain factors. See HOT SPOTS. FLAKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist the actual detachment of film fragments either from the previously applied coating or the substrate. See CRATERING. FADING A cosmetic coating defect consisting of reduction in color intensity. and/or corrosion. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] FIN (1) A narrow linear projection on a formed concrete surface. FLOCCULATION Formation of clusters of pigment particles in a fluid medium that may occur after dispersion. [ACI] FISH EYEING See FISH EYES. FISH EYES Coating film defects related to cratering in which small dimples or holidays resembling fish eyes form in the wet coating. The condition usually is reversible. checking. loss of coating function. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. FILIFORM CORROSION Corrosion exhibiting a thread-like structure and directional growth under coatings on metal surfaces such as steel or aluminum. COATING FAILURE. FALLOUT (SPRAY) See OVERSPRAY. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. [ASTM D-16] FLASHING The occurrence on the surface of a coating film of patches glossier than the surrounding coating. ASTM D 722 is the standard test method for evaluating degree of flaking of exterior paints. resulting from mortar flowing into spaces in the formwork. Also known as scaling resistance. and the particle clusters can be broken up by applying 197 . FAILURE See PAINT FAILURE. Produces a varigated paint surface. Also referred to as scaling. FLOATING The segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation. or blistering. FLAKING The detachment of pieces of the paint film itself either from its substrate or from paint previously applied. (2) A type of blade in a concrete mixer drum. and is the result of loss of adhesion. if present. FLEX-CRACKING The development of cracks in coating when subjected to repeated bending.

GLOSS RETENTION Ability of a coating material to maintain its gloss. it appears as a lacework or reticulum of loosely clustered particles. Surface-active agents are often useful in reducing the extent of flocculation and hence the yield value. attached to the hulls of ships and other structures in sea water that cause drag. slogans. microscopically. FOAMING The development of small air bubbles into liquid coatings during mixing. [ASM] FROTHING See FOAMING. semisolid network is formed. GELLING (1) A defect in which an oil or alkyd paint or varnish thickens to jelly-like consistency in an unopened container. It results in more rapid settling although it is usually soft. FLOODING The segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. or drawings that deface a wall or other surface. GHOSTING A cosmetic coating defect occurring to low sheen finishes in which there are areas with less color or difference in sheen from surrounding areas. [AM] FOREIGN MATTER Any material in a paint or varnish or on a coating film that does not belong there. GRAFFITI Markings. exposed to conductive medium. both flora and fauna. shows loss of color strength and poor dispersion. or sand-like texture in a dry coating film. FOULING (BIOFOULING) Marine organisms. GRAININESS A rough. Latex coatings are especially susceptible to this phenomenon because of their surface active agents used to stabilize the dispersion.FAILURE TERMS relatively weak mechanical forces or by a change in the physical forces at the interface between the liquid and the solid dispersed particles. (2) The first stage in the cure of an epoxy or polyurethane coating in which a soft. G GALVANIC CORROSION Accelerated corrosion resulting from two dissimilar metals in electrical contact. bumpy. FOGGING Misting. Flocculation is often visible as a “Jack Frost” pattern in a flowout of a dispersion. Compare to FLOATING. FRETTING CORROSION The accelerated deterioration at the interface between contacting surfaces as the result of corrosion and slight oscillatory movement between two surfaces. 198 . See also LIVERING.

skip. HONEYCOMB Voids left in concrete due to failure of the mortar to effectively fill the spaces among course aggregate particles. HAZING See CLOUDINESS. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. HOLIDAY Pinhole. ability to resist deformation from impact. they occur erratically and at random. Heat resistance depends on the binder type and other coating ingredients. HIDING PIGMENT A pigment with a high refractive index that gives the most hiding power to a coating. zinc sulfide. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] HAIRLINE CRACKS Very fine cracks which do not penetrate the topcoat. Rutile titanium dioxide. and zinc oxide are materials with high refractive indices. [CED] See INCOMPLETE HIDING. IMPACT STRENGTH See IMPACT RESISTANCE. high-voltage or AC electrostatic) to detect nicks. needle-like or sliver-like protrusions (ranging from 3 to 6 mils [76 to 152 micrometers]) found on steel plates that have been blasted with steel shot or grit. I IMPACT RESISTANCE Ability of a coating to resist a sudden blow. [ASTM] HOLIDAY DETECTOR Instrument utilizing electric current (low-voltage. scrapes or pinholes (holidays) that penetrate a coating film. HEAT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist deterioration when exposed continuously or periodically to high temperatures at or below a given level. HEAT AGING Deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures. discontinuity. 199 . [ACI] HOT SPOTS Areas of higher gloss than surrounding areas often caused by being relatively resin-rich where coating was applied more thickly than other areas.FAILURE TERMS GRINNING THROUGH Showing through of the underlying surface layer due to inadequate opacity of a paint film which has been applied to it. H HACKLE(S) Thin. [CED] See CRACKING. followed by anatase titanium dioxide.

INDENTATION HARDNESS Resistance to penetration by an indenter. weak.e. L LAITANCE A thin.. 200 . brittle layer of cement and aggregate fines on a concrete surface.g. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] Lifting often occurs because the solvents in the new coat are too strong for the previous coat. where a wet edge has not been maintained. INTRACOAT ADHESION Cohesion within a coat of paint. i.FAILURE TERMS INCLUSION Presence of foreign material in the finished material... See COHESION.g. INTERCOAT DISBONDING See INTERCOAT DELAMINATION. peaks. LIFTING Softening and raising or wrinkling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat. [CED] INTERCOAT CONTAMINATION Contamination between successive coats of paint or a coat of paint and the base substrate. or craters which have been produced by the mechanical process of application. LEVELING AGENT Chemical added to coating to increase the ability of the wet film to settle to a uniform thickness. [CED] INCOMPATIBILITY Inability of coating materials to perform satisfactorily when in direct contact with another coating or substrate. orange peel. The incompatibility may be chemical (e. LEVELING The ability of a coating to flow out after application so as to obliterate any surface irregularities such as brush marks. The amount of laitance is influenced by the type and amount of admixtures. and the amount of water in the concrete. LAP MARKS Visually darker section edges where paints or stains have dried before adjacent areas have tied into them. The ability of a paint film to hold itself together. INTRACOAT DISBONDING See COHESIVE FAILURE. irreversible increase in consistency of a pigment-vehicle combination. INCOMPLETE HIDING Failure to completely obscure from vision any underlying coating or other substrate. INTERCOAT DELAMINATION The separation (disbonding) of two adjacent coats of paint. LIVERING The progressive. inability to expand and contract with substrate). causing bleeding or saponification) or physical (e. the degree of working.

e. particularly fungi.FAILURE TERMS Livering usually results from a chemical reaction of the vehicle with the solid dispersed material. ASTM D 3274 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal and Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. [CED] MISSES Holidays. The irreversible character of the changes distinguishes livered material from thixotropic “build-up. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] M MIC See MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION. as opposed to artificial (laboratory) accelerated weathering. voids. particularly in damp. skips. that grow on paint and other surfaces. [AM] MOTTLING The presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a surface. MUD CRACKING A coating defect resembling the irregular cracking of drying mud that typically arises during the curing of a relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly.” which is reversible.g. MILDEW DEFACEMENT Unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated surfaces caused by growth of microorganisms. N NATURAL WEATHERING Gradual deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to an exterior environment. MILDEWCIDE An additive used to enhance a coating’s ability to resist mildew growth. MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC) Corrosion that is affected by the action of microorganisms in the environment. shady places. sulfatereducing bacteria found in some petroleum products and in sewage. MILDEW RESISTANCE A coating’s ability to resist the growth of mildew (fungus growth) on its surface. MILDEW Microorganisms. 201 . MILKINESS Whitish or translucent appearance in an unpigmented liquid coating or film which should normally be transparent.. causing discoloration and disfigurement. particularly fungi. but it also may result from polymerization of the vehicle.

PEELING Disbonding of particles of paint. (2) Spray particles that are not wet enough to fuse when they reach the surface being sprayed. or excessive moisture behind the surface. Oil canning can lead to cracking of the coating at the edges. As a result. OIL CANNING Bowing of the edges of a steel plate due to thermal expansion and contraction or cyclic loading and unloading. ORANGE PEEL A coating application (usually spray) defect in which the coating surface has the irregular appearance of an orange skin because of insufficient leveling of the wet film. [CED] so as to adversely affect coating performance. PERISHING See DETERIORATION. when in contact with household or industrial oils. OIL SOFTENING The conversion of a satisfactory coating into an unacceptably soft and tacky one. BOUNCE BACK. an improperly prepared surface. orange peel may be desirable. or lacquer film from a surface due to loss of adhesion. It may be caused by dampness. PIGMENT OVERLOAD Use of more pigment in a coating than can be completely wetted by the resin. OVERCURE Caused by an aftercure or being subjected to too high a temperature or too long a period at a proper temperature and resulting in a product with lowered performance. overspray may contaminate property beyond the surface being sprayed. grease. exceeding the 202 . [CED] OVERSPRAY (1) Atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being spraye. On products such as appliances.FAILURE TERMS O OFF COLOR An unacceptable variation of color from that desired or specified. varnish. OVERATOMIZED Dispersed too finely by use of excessive atomizing pressure. P PAINT CHIPPING See CHIPPING. or both. PAINT FAILURE See COATING FAILURE. See also DRY SPRAY. than that recommended by the manufacturer of the coating for normal curing. [AM] OVERBAKING An exposure of the coating to a temperature moderately higher or for a longer period of time.

such as popout. PROTECTIVE LIFE The length of time a coating system provides protection to a substrate. PINHOLING Formation of small holes through the entire thickness of coating. see CRATERING. PITTING (1) Localized corrosion of a metal surface. PONDING The accumulation of a liquid or paint in a shallow depression. [MPDA] POPPING Formation of blisters of solvent vapor in wet coating surfaces that break but do not level because of too great a viscosity. (2) Small interconnected voids. (3) Formation of depressions (pits) in the surface of a coating often caused by the escape of gas or solvent vapor. [AM] 203 . such as in concrete. OVERSPRAY. [AM] PINPOINT RUSTING Tiny. approximately the size of a pin. dispersed points of rust that can appear at pinholes and holidays in a coating. the atomized particles that bounce back from the surface being painted. that takes the form of cavities [ASM]. PIT A small hole in the surface of a metal or other material that is deeper than its diameter. Very dense pinpoint rusting can appear on painted steel surfaces where the coating does not completely cover the blast cleaning profile. REDUCED SERVICE LIFE Lessened time during which the coating provides its intended function(s). pitting is localized disintegration. POROSITY (1) The ratio. usually expressed as a percentage of the volume of voids in a material to the total volume of the material including the voids [ACI]. [CED] REBOUND In spraying of coatings. PINHOLE A holiday or discontinuity that extends entirely through a coating film. or foreign particles. moisture. See BOUNCE BACK. normally caused by solvent bubbling. (2) In concrete.FAILURE TERMS critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC). POCKMARKING See PITTING. R RAIN SPOTTING Particular case of water spotting caused by rain. confined to a point or small area. which allow fluids to penetrate an otherwise impervious material. [ACI]. RETICULATION A surface defect of net-like appearance.

also called sloughing. SAPONIFICATION. RUNS Irregularities of a surface due to uneven flow. ROPEY A quality of paint that does not flow out evenly and dries with slight ridges. S SAGGING (1) The irregular downward flow of wet paint under the force of gravity to produce a thicker lower edge.FAILURE TERMS RETRACTION See CRAWLING. RUST An iron oxide that forms naturally on ferrous metals as a result of exposure to normal weathering or industrial atmospheres. overspray. SALT AND PEPPER RUSTING See PINPOINT RUSTING. frequently due to application of a coat that is too heavy and not brushed out well. See also RUNS. Thus. This effect also can be the result of poor workmanship. (2) Subsidence of shotcrete. See SALT SPRAY TEST in main glossary. SALT FOG RESISTANCE Resistance to deterioration during salt spray testing. SANDY FINISH A surface condition having the appearance of sandpaper. [AM] SAPONIFICATION Alkaline hydrolysis of fats to form soaps.” [MPDA] See SAGGING. due generally to excessive water in the mixture. SAG RESISTANCE The ability of a wet paint film to resist the downward flow that results in an uneven film with thick edges and runs. denser. RUNNING See SAGGING. [ACI] SAG See SAGGING. thicker. or the like. COATING The akaline hydrolysis of coating binders (usually their drying oils) to disbond and degrade them. This commonly occurs on the alkaline surfaces of concrete and galvanizing. ROPY FINISH See BRUSH MARKS. and lower viscosity coatings are more likely to sag. 204 . Also known as “sags” or “curtains. plaster.

[PDCA] SEDIMENTATION Action or process of depositing matter (sediment) that settles to the bottom of a liquid. misses. undesirable particles or granules in a paint. SKIN A solid or semisolid membrane that sometimes forms on paint or varnish in the can. [CED] SEEDS See SEEDINESS. or lacquer. SKINNING Formation of a thick film (skin) on the surface of a liquid paint during storage. Moisture entering cracks in the paint film destroys its adhesive property and results in the flaking or scaling of the paint. [AM] SISSING See CISSING.FAILURE TERMS SCALING Paint failure that causes a coating to fall off in flakes or chips. extenders or other solid matter in a paint in a container. varnish. SEEDINESS The occurrence of particles in a coating formed from action of reactive pigments and acidic components of the binder during storage that result in a roughened surface on the cured film. SILKING A surface defect characterized by parallel hairlike striations in coated films. more likely to occur to a previously opened or partially filled container. [CED] SEPARATION Division into components or layers by natural causes. with a consequent accumulation on the bottom of the can. SKIPS Holidays. SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT The failure of solvent to completely evaporate from a paint film due to inadequate drying 205 . SHADOWING A coating of paint showing through a subsequent coating. Scaling is the last stage of cracking. SEEDING Formation of small. [AM] SOILING See DIRT ACCUMULATION. [AM] SETTLING The sinking of pigments. uncoated areas. SEEDY Descriptive of a paint finish that is not smooth owing to undispersed pigment particles or insoluble gel particles in the paint. voids. SHRINKAGE The roughening of the surface of a coating resulting in loss of gloss or wrinkle.

In the case of corrosion. without completely hiding it or forming a continuous film. (2) An undesirable surface coloration. especially ones distinguished by color. especially wood. SPATTER COATING An incomplete or not continuously wet coating caused by a faulty spray painting application. See SOLVENT RUB TEST in main glossary. irregular lines or bands or layer-edges. for example. STAIN (1) A solution or suspension of coloring material formulated to provide a color to a surface. [MPDA]. solution or disfigurement. [CED] SURFACE DRYING Drying of the surface of a liquid coating film before the body of the coating film. SPECKLING See MOTTLING. Spalling of a concrete surface also may result from corrosion of rebar or other embedded steel. SPOTTING Development of small areas on a painted surface which differ in color or gloss from the major portion of the work. sometimes called “solvent pop. SOLVENT POP See SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT. [CED] SOLVENT SHOCK The situation wherein some of the protective vehicle is washed off the fine pigment particles. STABLE Resistant to change. The result often is that the under portion is slow in drying and that solvent is trapped within the coating or the coating remains soft for an extended period of time. visible on a surface.FAILURE TERMS conditions and/or recoating too soon.” to form. narrow. STAIN RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to avoid change in appearance after a material capable of staining has been applied and removed. SOLVENT IMBALANCE A proportion of solvent types in a coating that causes inadequate solvency or improper evaporation rates. by differential thermal expansion or contraction. It may cause blisters or pinholes. [CED] SPALLING The chipping or fragmenting of a surface or surface coating caused. [CED] SPRAY MOTTLE See ORANGE PEEL. allowing them to pull together into clusters or flocs or when flocs of resin form due to dilution with a solvent or diluent of insufficient strength. SOLVENT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist solvent attack. See TOP DRYING in main glos- 206 . POPPING. STREAKING Long. resistant to chemical reaction with oxygen.

UNDERCUTTING The gradual penetration and spread of corrosion beneath a coating from a break or pinhole in the film or from unprotected edges. U UNDERCURE Failure of a coating to reach its optimum degree of cure. In some cases. UNEVEN LOSS OF GLOSS Uneven loss of gloss is a cosmetic coating surface defect in which there is a variation in reduction of sheen such as may occur where there is partial shading. 207 . UNDERFILM CORROSION Corrosion that occurs between a coating and the metal substrate without a break in the coating layer. Also referred to as creepage. [PDCA] TACK-FREE Absence of tack or stickiness in an applied coating after suitable drying time.FAILURE TERMS sary. SWEATING The exudation of oil from a coating after it appears to have cured. tack may not develop until a little later. USEFUL LIFE The length of time a coating adequately performs its function. [WJP] THROUGH DRYING Uniform drying throughout the film as opposed to bottom-drying or top-drying. TUBERCULATION Formation of localized corrosion products scattered over the surface in the form of knob-like mounds. V VACATION See HOLIDAY. Oil paints and spar varnishes may retain tack for several weeks after they are considered dry. TELEGRAPHING General term used to describe surface defects such as crawling that give rise to unique patterns. coatings are tack-free after application. with a resultant loss of performance properties. T TACK The stickiness of a surface such as a paint or varnish film during the drying period. See SERVICE LIFE in main glossary.

and heat. cold. WEATHERING CONDENSATION TEST A test that exposes coated specimens to a cycle consisting of fluorescent ultraviolet light and condensing humidity to accelerate the effects of sunlight and moisture. W WATER SPOTTING See WATER STAINING. rain. It is apparent after drying. such as heat. or sheen in the shape of spots and streaks. WEBBING See WRINKLING. resulting from the accumulation of water on or the contact of water with the painted surface. WATER STAINING Any nonuniform change in appearance. 208 . Y YELLOWING The formation of a yellow color or cast on a white or light-colored coating. hydroxide. and heating elements are used to simulate the natural conditions of sun. and temperature changes. gloss. characterized by changes in color. water spray. or other properties. carbonate) of zinc formed on galvanized and other zinc coated surfaces. light. texture. or other sources of ultraviolet light. Wrinkling usually occurs with thick films of oil-based paint. and sunlight. WEATHER RESISTANCE The capability of a coating to resist the combination of exposures created by weather. [CED] WEATHERING CHAMBER An apparatus in which specimen materials can be subjected to artificial and accelerated weathering tests that simulate natural weathering by the use of controlled cycles of ultraviolet radiation. [CED] WEATHERING The behavior of paint films when exposed to natural weather or accelerated weathering equipment. rain. water. fluorescent bulbs.FAILURE TERMS VOID See HOLIDAY. including color. strength. chemical composition. WRINKLING A defect that creates small furrows or ridges in a coating film. WHITE RUST White oxidation products (oxide. Electric arcs. thermal cycling.

All paints eventually fail by weathering and the life expectancy of a paint system will be well defined by the manufacturer or within performance standards such as AS/NZS 2312 . coating defects do not always affect the coating’s performance. Industrial or marine applications are critical applications where the performance requirements of the paint system must be clearly understood.One of the most common examples of incorrect paint selection is the use of alkyd (oil based) paints. low solvent or solventless coatings have replaced many of the standard industrial coatings of yesteryear. Those that fail prematurely will have done so because of an identifiable problem associated with their application. The following catalogue of paint defects has been assembled with associated descriptions of causes and remedies to assist in identifying problems and dealing with them to ensure a quality coating. for painting galvanized coatings. their suggested uses and characteristics. In some cases. or two-pack uretahne or acrylic systems. with detailed descriptions of a wide range of generic paint types. unless they are specially formulated will rarely give the same durability as water-based acrylic paints. which have excellent UV stability over time. and again. oil based paints. paint failures can be traced to the incorrect selection of paint for the particular application. while expensive. The paint reacts with the zinc in the galvanized coating and loses its adhesion. but only its appearance. AS/NZS 2312 provides one of the most valuable reference works for paint coatings and paint . resulting in the common phenomenon of flaking or peeling paint. Causes of paint coating failure are frequently associated with either: • • • • incorrect specification faulty material incorrect application incorrect curing/post handling procedures. offer advances in durability over traditional technologies. and frequently. A great deal of research has gone into paint technology development by the major Australian and international paint companies as they compete with each other and with other coatings and materials to produce better performing products. Environmental pressures on paint manufacturers to eliminate potentially hazardous pigments and reduce the amount of volatile organic greenhouse-causing solvents in paint coatings has accelerated the development of new types of paint coatings. Identification of causes of problems can be fed back into the specification and application process to avoid repetition of failure events. Hybrid organic/inorganic binder systems have also been developed that. There is always a reason for every coating failure. but may perform poorly in highly acidic exposures or where movement or vibration may result in cracking of the relatively infexible paint film.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 defects in paint coatings by CM Staff based on information supplied by Wattyl Paints systems. Water based. Again. It is therefore important for specifiers to clearly identify the environment in which the coating has to operate and ensure that paint systems selected are capable of delivering the life cycle performance expected.22 - . INTRODUCTION Recognising the type of paint failure encountered in the field is an important mechanism in ensuring quality coatings and coating application. Water based acrylic paints have very good compatibility with galvanized coatings and rarely have adhesion problems on properly prepared surfaces.Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel from Atmospheric Corrosion. Many paints have poor UV resistance. Epoxy coatings are often considered the cure-all for most industrial applications.

CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 DESCRIPTION SAGS .colour changes or irregularities WRINKLING . Sand or blast to smooth finish and apply additional coats. too much paint. silicon. or settled pigment. CRATERING . Most common with fast evaporating lacquers. deep holes exposing substrate PINPOINT RUSTING . ORANGE PEEL . or paint particles falling outside spray pattern.thin. or paint applied over soft or wet undercoat. especially with oil-based paints. or cathodic disbonding. Non uniform film thickness. If cured. dirt. Repaint and avoid possible sources of moisture. flat. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. Use holiday detector for early detection of pinholes. Temperature change during curing. uniform identations in film FISH EYES . valleys in paint resembling skin of orange OVERSPRAY . After cure. Dry. Particles reaching surface not wet enough to level because of too rapid solvent evaporation. Excess flow of paint CAUSE Spray gun too close to work. Pinholing or too high a steel surface profile for coating thickness. or moisture behind paint film.flat finish with milky appearance Moisture condensation in high humidity with fast evaporating or unbalanced thinner in spray application. Scrape off wrinkles and apply thinner coat. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. coarse atomization. Solvent evaporating too rapidly. adequate cleaning of surface contamination. or incompatible coating. or surface too hard or glossy to hold paint. After cure. too much thinner. moisture in film. brush out and apply additional coat. apply additional coats after mechanical or blast cleaning. shiny spots Allow to dry and apply another finish coat under acceptable conditions for moisture and humidity. Small.also called pitting. gun too close to surface. sand and apply another coat.small to large broken or unbroken bubbles Blowers in enclosed areas to accelerate solvent release.rusting at pinholes or holidays . sand and apply another coat. spider web-like particles Use slower evaporating solvent or apply when cooler.also called runs or curtains. moisture or salt-contaminated surfaces.rough. pebbly surface COBWEBBING .also called dry spray. Application over oil. REMEDY Before cure. Ultraviolet light degradation. apply additional coat. PINHOLING . Sand or blast remove. or air pressure too low for proper atomization.23 - . FADING . Before cure. Paint too viscous.hills. solvent evaporated too fast. sand and apply another coat. gun too far from surface. After cure.non uniform sheen. stringy paint. such as vinyls and chlorinated rubbers. After cured.separation or pulling apart of wet film to expose underlying finish or substrate BLUSHING . sand and apply another coat. Insufficient paint spray atomization. crinkled surface BLISTERING . oil. remove by dry brushing followed by solvent wiping. If uncured. avoid intense sunlight. Solvent entrapment. Sand or blast remove. Before cure. brush apply a fresh coat plus topcoat. Air pockets trapped in wet film during spraying.tiny. Surface skinning over uncured paint because of too much thickness and/ or too warm weather. respray with retarder added to thinner. proper levels of cathodic protection. UNEVEN GLOSS .

sandblast. spray. in topcoat that expose undercoat CRACKING . coal tar). corners. undermining and lifting paint. Moisture on substrate distorts wet film. Remove and replace damaged paint with one tougher or more adherent. or work area. etc. Contaminated surface. Sand. use antifouling paints for fouling control. spot repair and use more abrasion or impact-resistant coatings. or configurations that permit collection of moisture.24 - . Sand or mechanically remove all loose paint. UNDERCUTTING . fillet weld seams and crevices. If limited. or applied/cured at too high a temperature. Sand. if extensive. scrape. avoid configurations that permit collection of contaminants. excessive thickness (especially zincrich paints). Same as above PEELING OF MULTIPLE COATS peeling of heavy paint build-up from substrate PEELING OF THICK. penetrating soft coatings (eg. channels. Round edges. or applied at too high a temperature. Paint shrinkage. Barnacles. mechanically or chemically remove paint to substrate before re-coating. mottled surface IRREGULAR SURFACE DETERIORATION . limited flexibility. A relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly (especially common with inorganic zincs). Use wedges between adjacent lap boards. dirt dried in paint film DELAMINATION . vents. Separation/lifting of paint from chalky substrate or smooth.heavy wrinkling MOISTURE DAMAGE . or mechanically remove total paint and apply new coat. spot-remove loose paint and apply flexible paint (e. blast. Provide fendering protection. poorbonded undercoat. too thick a coat.narrow breaks. ABRASION DAMAGE . Physical damage by abrasion (also impact). blast. weathered (contracted) paint exceeds adhesion to substrate.also called pigment float. etc.peeling.mechanical damage FOULING DAMAGE . Remove coating and abrasively blast steel before reapplying lesser thickness. INFLEXIBLE PAINT . and dirt.deep.peeling of thick paint from substrate PAINT APPLIED TO DAMP SURFACE . No means by which interior moisture can be vented to exterior. latex). Corrosion products formed where steel is exposed. irregular cracks as with dried mud Early detection of defects with holiday detector and correction. provide drainage.CORROSION MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTION CHECKING . Difficult to coat surfaces. usually short. clean painted vent holes. Apply properly prepared finish coat. and re-coat. for migration.g.peeling from undercoat or substrate PIGMENT OVERLOAD .deterioration at edges. Critical pigment level exceeded (sometimes by tinting white paint rather than tint base). salt. sanding/mechanical cleaning may be acceptable on older substrates. Remove by scraping or sanding and re-coat under dry conditions. use inhibitive pigments in primer.blistering and/ or peeling of paint where exposed steel is rusting DIRT UNDER PAINT .penetration or peeling by action of marine fouling organisms MUD CRACKING . Stress from weathering (contraction of total system) exceeds adhesion to substrate.deep cracks in paint that expose substrate CAUSE Limited paint flexibility.peeling of paint by underlying moisture Stress from cured. crevices. . REMEDY July 2000 Sand or mechanically remove checked coat and apply another coat. etc. weight of fouling peeling poorly bonded paint. clean and roughen smooth surface. or mechanically remove paint and re-coat.

g. especially on damp.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 DESCRIPTION EFFLORENSCENCE DAMAGE paint disbonding and peeling by loose. Degradation of coating resin by sunlight leaving loose residue.2.2. Microorganisms grow. allow asphalt pavements to cure 21 days before applying paint. VINE PENETRATION OF PAINT vine tendrils penetrate paint MILDEW GROWTH . in sun and rain).5 and 10.2. especially bad with thin coats. REMEDY Treat as in NCEL Tech Data Sheet 77-10 or NAVFAC MO-110. powdery material CAUSE Moisture through concrete. especially fast drying paints. Relocate vines away from structure.3. Improper storage of paint (e.black fungal growth CHALKING EROSION . sand and re-coat damaged areas.gradual thinning of finish coat to expose undercoat BLEEDING . Vines so close to structure that tendrils penetrate paint for support. epoxies. Clean and repaint as described in NAVFAC MO-110. Organic solvent in wet paint or fresh asphalt dissolves bituminous material and causes it to migrate through paint. 4. Store indoors in cool environment.25 - . seal more humid side of wells.3. masonry.4. defacing and degrading it.10. or brick picks up soluble salts and deposits them on the surface from the interior (can be on interior or exterior well of building).5 for concrete/masonry before painting. SKINNING/DETERIORATION OF STORED PAINT . and substrates where chalk is frequently removed. shaded paint.brown staining of paint in asphalt or coat tar coating Use latex paint over bituminous materials. avoid opening and resealing of large containers.73 Remove loose chalk and apply chalkresistant finish coat.

CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 Description: Flaking paint over galvanized surface. acid resistant recoatable mastic type coating Description: Efflourescence bleeding through pinholes in paint film in marine exposure. Cause: Low pH condensation (pH1) and flexing and vibration of crane rails in service cause brittle paint film to crack and promote underfilm corrosion. . Cause: Incorrect surface preparation.26 - . Remedy: Ensure piant is currectly applied and cured. Use multi-coat system to eliminate pinholes. Description: Flaking two-pack epoxy paint on crane rails in galvanizing plant pre-treatment building. Apply appropriate water based or epoxy priming systems. Highb pressure water wash surface. Incorrect primer/topcoat. Remedy: Remove flaking paint by scraping or wire brushing. Remedy: Wet abrasive blast back to remove surface contamination and old paint. Cause: Pinholes in paint film caused by solvent entrapment or single coat application. Apply flexible.

. Re-apply primer and topcoat. Centre zone is in good condition.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 Description: Underfilm corrosion in defined regions of coating. mechanically remove any blistered areas and feather back to sound paint.27 - .This large tank has areas of clearly defined paint system performance. Cause: Areas of contamination on surface interfering with primer adhesion. Right hand zone shows general overall deterioration consistent with normal weathering but ealy failure indicative of low initial dry film thickness for the system. Cause: Area on far left has severe local underfilm corrosion indicating initial poor surface preparation/priming. Remedy: Completely remove old paint prior to re-coating or use more flexibible re-coating system compatible with old paint. Description: Blistering of paint on handrail. Description: Early failure of maintenance topcoat system along beam edges. Cause: Adhesion of old paint insufficient to accommodate surface tension effects of new two-pack system epoxy topcoat. Remedy: Apply as for centre zone. Remedy: Ensure surface cleanliness prior to application. On existing item.

. SSPC’s Protective Coatings Glossary defines failure terms and these definitions are used for all failure terms in this chapter. There are numerous causes of coating failure. Systematic investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. When this occurs. improper or inadequate surface preparation has been the most commonly reported cause of coating failure.Chapter 12 Coating Failures Richard W. more recently.1 Some of the definitions of general terms commonly associated with coating deterioration/degradation are: Catastrophic Coating Failure. provides an attractive appearance. solvents. pigments. Premature Failure.2-3 It is important that these design factors be recognized and corrected at the planning stage rather than later when their adverse effects have become apparent. A surface or film imperfection (flaw). deficiency. The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose(s). the more active metal will corrode preferentially. loss of function. Failure of Coating. Historically. Unfortunately. governmental restrictions on coating VOCs and toxic constituents (e. Drisko Introduction All coatings have limited service lives. and serious. when it no longer protects the substrate. coating application. . very dramatic. there are occasions when coatings fail much sooner than they should. Defect. it is necessary to determine the causes of the failure and what actions must be taken to correct this condition and prevent its recurrence. Although each of the major design factors leading to early coating deterioration will be discussed separately. Service Life of Coating. These may be related to structural design. the greater will be the rate of dissimilar metal corrosion. or coating curing. or incompleteness that deviates from a specification or industry-accepted condition. This will vary with different exposures and services. the substrate. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. Contact of Dissimilar Metals Resulting in Galvanic Corrosion When two dissimilar metals are in physical contact with each other in an electrolyte (electrically conductive medium).e. surface preparation. if present. i. or combinations of these basic causes. the coating itself. they often occur in conjunction with other factors that further aggravate the deterioration. The relative surface areas of the touching metals may also greatly affect the corrosion of the more active metal (the Commonly Used Failure Terms Many different terms commonly used to describe coating failures mean different things to different people. Failure Analysis. Degradation. and biocides) have restricted coating formulations and made them more difficult to apply successfully. A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from service conditions and weathering. Loss of a coating’s function or purpose. while protecting the other metal from corrosion. Failure that occurs significantly before a coating’s life expectancy. The greater the difference in electrochemical activity between the metals. The period of time during which a coating provides its intended function(s). Deterioration. This chapter will address the common causes of coating defects on industrial structures and the associated preventative or corrective actions.g. and/or corrosion.. See degradation above. A coating failure that is sudden. Effects of Structural Design on Metal and Coating Deterioration It has been shown that structural design may be an important factor in metal and coating deterioration.

Water Traps Water traps are design features. Crevices Crevices are likely to occur in structural components that are bolted. chemical treatments such as phosphating are often used to promote coating adhesion. A small anode area and a much larger cathode (protected) area may result in extremely rapid corrosion of the smaller anode area. textured surfaces provide more bonding sites and thus have greater coating adhesion than smooth areas of similar composition. Abrasive blasting can also be used to produce a profile to improve coating adhesion. because they do not provide the proper coefficient of friction to maintain the joint in a static state. Sharp Edges When sharp edges are coated. Galvanic corrosion may also be minimized by using metals of similar composition. This results in a corrosion cell with accelerated corrosion occurring within the crevice area. Undercutting of a coating film by corrosion at breaks or pinholes in the barrier film may result in rapid loss of coating and its protection. the paint tends to draw back from the edge to leave a much thinner coat of paint there than on flat areas. Hot-Rolled Steel Most structural steel is made by the hot-rolling process. there is invariably a lower concentration of oxygen as compared to the air outside the crevice. Welds should be ground smooth and weld spatter removed before coating in order to obtain good coating adhesion in these areas. in general. Drill weep holes into existing water traps to permit collected water to drain. However. Mill scale must be removed before the steel is coated. Most coatings are unsuitable for use in the joint itself. Coatings on metal structures are susceptible to underfilm corrosion. and automobile bodies than for applications where structural strength is required. edges are usually striped (brushed with an additional coat of primer) before or after applying a full coat to the substrate. such as upward facing angle iron. structures should be designed for access both for the original work and for subsequent maintenance painting. Relatively recently. Also. Thus. smoother surface than hot-rolling. or skip-welded together. In order to produce a coating film of more equal thickness (and thus equal barrier protection) on all surfaces. riveted. High-Strength Alloy Steels In some environments. continuous welding is the preferred method of joining metal components. Coatings do not bond as well to these surfaces. Effects of Substrate Properties on Coating Performance It has been shown that the chemical and physical natures of a surface to be coated may have a very profound effect on the performance of the coating system. Cold rolling produces a denser. in painting. inorganic zinc-rich silicate coatings have adequate coefficient of friction to perform well in this service. Such designs should be oriented downward so that the water drains. Faying Surfaces Faying surfaces are contacting surfaces where joints in steel structures are formed by riveting or by the use of high-strength bolts. In these cases. care should be taken to ensure that all cathode areas are especially well covered. or using a non-conductive insulator between them. This process results in a loosely bonded layer of iron oxide called mill scale. new edge-retentive coatings (usually amine-cured. back-to-back angle designs should be avoided because they have crevices between them. Cold-Rolled Steel Cold-rolled steel is used more for manufacturing office furniture. or its subsequent loss with time will result in coating deterioration.4 It should be noted that. Limited Access to Work Limited access to surfaces to be cleaned and coated often results in poor quality work and consequently early coating deterioration. Inside crevice areas. Thus. high-strength alloy steels may require a coating system to supplement its natural corrosion resistance. the 554 . that collect the rain that accelerates deterioration of coatings and corrosion of metals. Thus. Thus. solvent-free epoxies) have been developed to address this problem. appliances.anode in the reaction).

It is characterized by threadlike directional growths proceeding away from damaged areas.g. The oil is best removed by solvent cleaning (i. plastic) to produce a suitable profile Aluminum is susceptible to exfoliation.. Pine and fir have variable grain structures. following treatments may be used: • Chemical treatment such as phosphating • Wash priming (good with alkyds) • Blasting with a soft abrasive (e. For other coatings that do not. This alkalinity will saponify (hydrolyze) alkyds and other coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils. Figure 1. they will normally have less corrosion and undercutting of coating at film holidays. Zinc-Coated Surfaces Zinc-coatings. unless sealed 555 . while redwood and cedar have uniform grain and brown color. Aluminum Epoxies normally bond quite well to aluminum. In the past. Corrosion undercutting of coating at scratch.g.5 Wood The properties of woods vary greatly with the types of tree from which they came. These treatments must be removed prior to coating to permit good coating adhesion. chromate inhibitive pigments were widely used to control filiform corrosion. but harder abrasives (e. Because of their inherent corrosion resistance. always have alkaline surfaces created by the natural corrosion of zinc. The brown color of the latter two woods comes from water-soluble dyes that may bleed through latex coatings to cause staining. one the Figure 2. Rolled metal products such as aluminum alloy plate are especially susceptible to exfoliation due to their longitudinal grain structure. silicon carbide. These are described extensively in SSPC’s The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating of Concrete. Filiform corrosion. both galvanizing and zinc-rich.. chromate-free inhibitive pigments are now used.e.. Concrete Concrete has unique properties (e. and the chromate conversion coating can be removed chemically or by prolonged weathering.. Soft woods such as redwood and fir are penetrated by coatings to permit good bonding much more easily than are hard (dense) woods such as ash and oak.cleaning requirements are similar to those of conventional steels. alkalinity and porosity) that make its coatings especially susceptible to certain defects. or garnet) may be necessary to produce the desired surface profile.g. New galvanized surfaces are sometimes given a thin coat of oil or chromate conversion coating to protect them from corrosion called wet storage stain or white rust during exterior storage. SSPC-SP 1). Coated aluminum is particularly susceptible to a form of corrosion called filiform. aluminum oxide. an advanced stage of intergranular corrosion characterized by a delamination of metal along grain boundaries.

but those containing aromatic chemical groups (e. These include: • Errors by the manufacturer in production of the coating • Coatings that have exceeded their shelf life • Inherent limitations of properly formulated coating • Incompatibility of a coating with its substrate or undercoat Coatings with Errors in Manufacture or that Have Exceeded Their Shelf Life Errors in coating manufacture do not occur very often. They can usually be detected in the field before use by testing for condition in container. For this reason. If the viscosity does not appear to be at the proper level. reduce chalking of underlying organic binders by shielding them from sunlight. It is typically caused by deterioration of the organic coating binder by ultraviolet light (usually from the sun) to leave a loose residue of pigment and oxidized binder.. All organic coating binders chalk to some extent. Figure 3. Limitations of Coating Formulations All coating formulations have some limitations that restrict their uses to appropriate environments and services. Erosion. Chalking of finish coatings can best be controlled by proper selection of pigments and binders and by use of additives such as ultraviolet light absorbers. Woods are very sensitive to moisture so that they swell during periods of high humidity and shrink during periods of low humidity. Chalking. Also. may seep to the wood surface after painting to cause staining and paint deterioration. Some pigments such as the anatase form of titanium dioxide chalk very freely. Opaque pigments. In this section. another crystalline form of titanium dioxide. latex coatings that permit the passage of water vapor (sometimes called breathing) may minimize this problem. it can be checked in the field using a viscosity cup. and complete curing. Many people prefer to use semi-transparent stains that do not seal the surfaces of wood. Erosion may also be caused by wind-blown sand or rain.before painting. it may have deteriorated to the extent that it can no longer be successfully utilized. hiding. Chalking. are quite chalk-resistant. Accelerated erosion may significantly reduce coating thickness and even expose undercoats. leveling. as described in Federal Test Method Standard 141. However. Erosion is the gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. a test patch of coating can be applied to the intended substrate to check for such properties as ease of application. Thus. An oil-based or water-borne stainblocking primer can be used for this purpose. If a stored coating has exceeded its shelf life. while other pigments such as rutile. Resinous materials in some trees. epoxies and phenolics) chalk much faster than others. This can be minimized by using weathered wood and sealing it before use. Chalking is the formation of loose powder on the surface of coatings. water that enters into the wood interior may try to escape through impermeable coatings to cause blistering and/or delamination. some of the more important limitations are addressed. Erosion may be minimized by selecting a 556 . Defects/Failures Associated with the Coating Itself Some coating defects and failures are directly related to the coating itself. Leafing aluminum pigments formulated to float to coating surfaces protect underlying binders especially well. Such coatings should be checked for condition in container before use. such as lower grades of pine. coatings that chalk freely are more susceptible to erosion than are coatings that are more chalk-resistant. of course.g. Coatings hide wood grain and greatly reduce water permeability. Rigid coatings on wood may crack when they are unable to expand and contract with dimensional changes.

Figure 5. but some do much more than others. coating formulations should have stable pigments and binders. To minimize discoloration.chalk-resistant coating with good leveling properties. Loss of Gloss. Moisture Blushing. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. This is more of a cosmetic effect than one that adversely affects coating film properties. Thus. This adverse cosmetic effect can also be minimized by using formulations with stable pigments or binders. Uneven loss of gloss. Figure 4. Moisture blushing can best 557 . All coatings lose gloss in sunlight to some extent. Loss of gloss is still another defect that is caused by sunlight and can best be minimized by selecting ultraviolet-resistant coating components. Mildew defacement is an unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated structures caused by the growth of micro-organisms. Moisture blushing is the formation of a milky opalescence that may occur in humid environments where solvent evaporation reduces the temperature of an uncured coating to the dew point so that moisture condensation occurs on it. Fading. drying oil and water-borne latex coatings) by using EPA-approved mildewcides. Figure 6. Discoloration. Discoloration is the change in coating color after application (usually an undesirable darkening). Mildew defacement. Mildew Defacement. Mildew defacement may be controlled in architectural coatings (i. lead pigments are blackened by the attack of hydrogen sulfide gas. Moisture blushing may also occur by the reaction of moisture in the air with polyurethanes and other moisture sensitive coatings on humid days. as well as discoloration and fading. Fading is the reduction of color intensity. Also..e. usually by sunlight. smooth. chalk-free coating surfaces in dry locations exposed to sun light are less susceptible to mildew than other coated surfaces. particularly fungi. Erosion of topcoat on deck of a ship. This cosmetic defect most commonly occurs with fast evaporating coatings such as vinyl lacquers. This cosmetic defect. is especially distracting when it occurs on the side of a structure that is partially shaded so that there is an uneven loss of gloss or color.

and a surface skin is formed that prevents further curing of the underlying binder. Orange Peel. Wrinkling can also be minimized by avoiding thicker film than recommended by the manufacturer. Figure 7. Through-dry metal driers will help accelerate complete film curing. Localized areas of lesser film thickness almost always exhibit deterioration before areas of 558 .be prevented by avoiding the application of moisturesensitive coatings on humid days. Chemical Attack on Coatings. Brush marks. Chemical attack may also occur in atmospheric service where harsh chemical fumes or vapors come into contact Brush Marks. but the use of lead driers (some of the best through-driers) is now greatly restricted. Contraction of the surface skin causes the wrinkling. Figure 9. This most commonly occurs to linings in storage tanks where they come into contact with stored chemical liquids. This film may cause adhesion problems for topcoats if not removed as recommended by the epoxy manufacturer. In these cases. Moisture blushing. Orange peel is similar to brush marks in that it is caused by insufficient leveling of the wet film. curing by air oxidation occurs much more rapidly at the coating surface than below it. Wrinkling. Brush marks may occur in brushapplied coatings with insufficient leveling for the wet film to flow together to form a film of uniform thickness. Amine Blushing. It occurs most commonly with thick films of alkyds and other drying oil-curing coatings. Wrinkling is a defect that results in the formation of small furrows or ridges in coating films. Orange peel. Figure 8. Chemical attack on coatings will occur when the coating system is not resistant to the environment. However. greater film thickness. Amine blushing is the formation of a milky opalescence on the wet-film surfaces of aminecured epoxies by the reaction of the amine with carbon dioxide and water in the air to form an amine carbamate. this defect occurs with spray rather than brush application of coatings.

include hairline cracking. Thus. checking. Wrinkling. Cracking. It is commonly caused by pigment overload (using more pigment than can be completely wetted by the limited amount of resin present). Osmotic blistering may also occur if soluble salt contaminants are not completely removed from substrates during surface preparation. The greater the coating thickness. crazing. heat-resistant inorganic coatings are usually used at temperatures above 450°F (230°C). and/or polymerization. other than common cracking. Mottling is the presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a painted surface. Figure 12. High-Temperature Attack on Coatings. Cracking. Figure 11. Flooding is the segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. Different types of cracking. the more rigid it is and thus the greater its tendency to crack. Osmotic Blistering by Soluble Pigments. Mottling. they crack to relieve the stress. Flooding and floating are two cosmetic formulation defects that are sometimes confused with each other. Figure 10. Osmotic blistering may occur to coatings with primer pigments . Most of these stresses originate by shrinking during curing. These pigments can be detected during a laboratory failure analysis of the water (sometimes colored) in filled blisters. Flooding and Floating.with the coating. Stresses increase with further polymerization and weathering. Floating is the segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in the surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation to produce a varigated paint surface. Hightemperature attack is likely to occur to organic coatings even during intermittent high-temperature service. having significant water solubility. When stresses exceed the cohesive strength of the coatings. by solvent evaporation. 559 Mottling. Cracking is a general term for the splitting of a coating film to relieve stresses. This is especially likely to occur during water immersion service.

other intercoat cracking. Cracking usually occurs all the way through the coating to expose the substrate. but cracking does not always occur in such a regular pattern. Intercoat Cracking. These stresses are similar to those previously described for alligatoring. The resulting stresses cause the topcoat to crack to expose the undercoat but not the substrate. Cracking from intercoat stresses may occur when a relatively rigid topcoat is applied over a more flexible undercoat. Figure 15. and mud cracking. and exposure to sunlight all contribute to checking. Alligatoring with bleeding. Mud cracking of inorganic zinc-rich coating. It typically occurs when a rigid coating is applied too thickly.alligatoring. It is wise to obtain all coatings for a total system that are known to be compatible with each other and that are produced by the same manufacturer. Figure 13. The effect often occurs when a relatively rigid coating is applied over a more flexible undercoat. Wetting and drying. Checking is the fine surface cracking that develops in coating films during prolonged curing and/ or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying substrate. heating and cooling. Mud Cracking. Five types of 560 . Coating Incompatibilities Incompatibilities may occur between individual coats in a total coating system or between an existing system and a topcoat to be applied over it. Alligatoring is a type of crazing or surface cracking with a definite pattern. Mud cracking is a cracking pattern that resembles the irregular cracking of drying mud. This defect often happens with inorganic zincrich coatings. Alligatoring. which are very rigid. Figure 14. as indicated by its name. Checking. Checking.

swell. Figure 16. In any case. Coatings to be used in conjunction with cathodic protection to control the corrosion of steel must be resistant to these problems. Blistering of Coatings by Hydrogen Gas Evolution. Limited Adhesion.1 volts). The solvent dissolves some of the colored material in the existing coating and allows it to migrate through the topcoat to impart a brown surface discoloration. Limited adhesion and subsequent peeling may occur to a water-dispersed (latex) coating applied over a smooth oil-based enamel.g. Saponification of Coatings. An example of this is a chlorinated rubber or an epoxy coating with a strong solvent being applied over a vinyl dispersion (latex) coating. As with concrete. There is often insufficient solvent in the topcoat to penetrate the existing coating to achieve good intercoat adhesion. Bleeding of alkyd coating on asphalt pavement. forms of cracking. Topcoat Solvent Attack on Undercoat Binder. Figure 17. or disbond. they are subject to saponification. Saponification may occur to an alkyd or other drying oil applied over a zinc-rich primer. in excess of –1. Saponification (hydrolysis).incompatibility between coatings are described here. If coatings on these surfaces are not alkali-resistant. Alkalinity is always produced on cathodically protected surfaces. Blistering of coatings by hydrogen gas evolution may occur on cathodically protected surfaces where the voltages are excessively high (e. Bleeding. Bleeding often occurs when a topcoat with a strong solvent is applied to a coal-tar or asphalt coating. the intercoat adhesion is significantly diminished. Incompatibilities with Cathodic Protection There are three basic mechanisms by which coatings may be deteriorated by cathodic protection systems. Cracking from intercoat stresses was described earlier in the discussion of different . Saponification of alkyd coating.. This defect is somewhat similar to the previously described bleeding from an asphalt pavement and migration of water-soluble dyes from wood through latex coatings. This seldom occurs if steel-to-soil or 561 Intercoat Cracking. the surface alkalinity on the zinc-rich primer causes this chemical degradation. Topcoat solvent attack on undercoat binder may cause the latter to soften.

Crawling (fish eyes). Intimate contact between coating and substrate is necessary for good adhesion. Crawling (Fisheyes). Flash rusting of properly cleaned steel before coating is another source of these defects. It normally results in coating blistering and peeling. and/or blistering may result from incomplete removal of rust. peeling. dirt. mill scale.steel-to-water potentials are regularly monitored. thickness. is the drawing back of a liquid film from a Osmotic Blistering by Incomplete Removal of Soluble Salts. peeling. One of the best ways of minimizing adverse effects of surface preparation is by careful inspection of the cleaned surfaces and immediate correction of any deficiencies found. Electroendosmosis is a mechanism of coating deterioration in which excessive cathodic potentials causes electrolyte to penetrate rapidly through a coating film. if any. Incomplete removal of contaminants from an existing coating before topcoating may result in intercoat disbonding. Disbonding. Figure 19. Coating Defects/Failures from Inadequate Surface Preparation Inadequate surface preparation is generally recognized as being the chief source of coating defects and failures. It occurs when the surface tension of a coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate. uniformly thick layer to form areas of little. or other loosely held contaminants from the substrate surface or from the presence of moisture. sometimes called fish eyes. The coating manufacturer also provides the recommended ranges of ambient conditions suitable for successful application of each company product. Figure 18. because the remaining contaminants reduce the number of bonding sites. Osmotic blistering caused by inadequate removal of soluble salts. Crawling is caused by substrate contamination with oil or some other low surface energy contaminant. Surface preparation inadequacies are either caused by inadequate removal of contaminants or by improper profile height. These recommendations may be as important as any other manufacturer recommendation. Incomplete removal of soluble salts during 562 . Crawling. and/or blistering. and Blistering. These recommendations should be carefully followed. These deficiencies cannot be corrected after coating application. Electroendosmosis. Inadequate Surface Cleanliness Inadequately cleaned surfaces are very difficult to wet with coatings. Each commercially available primer has a surface preparation recommended by its manufacturer. Peeling. Disbonding.

Excessive Profile Height. Allowing stirred paint to set for several minutes before application may permit the release of entrapped air. Pinpoint rusting may also occur when erosion significantly reduces coating film thickness.7 Coatings should not be overmixed to avoid entrapping air into them. use of complete kits rather than partially filled kits are recommended. Insufficient profile height of cleaned surfaces may provide insufficient bonding areas for adequate coating adhesion. Skilled applicators are required for the successful use Insufficient Profile Height. Plural-component spray application systems combine Components A and B together automatically in a specific ratio. inadequate film thickness. primers with greater film thickness usually have higher recommended surface profiles. Therefore. In general. Pinpoint rusting may occur on coated steel structures where abrasive blast cleaning has produced so high a profile that it is not adequately protected by a relatively thin primer.surface preparation may result in osmotic blistering of coatings subsequently applied. Mixing Coatings Although coatings are prepared ready to apply. settling of the heavier pigment portion may occur during storage. It is much easier to prevent coating problems associated with improper spray application than to correct them after application. Improper mixing can lead to uneven color in cured paint. a mechanical mixer should be used at a speed set so that a small rather than a large vortex or depression on the paint surface is created in the center of the can. If this is not done. Improper Surface Profile Each primer has a profile height recommended by its manufacturer for best performance.6 The adverse effects of soluble salts are much greater on coatings in immersion service than in atmospheric service. This. However. the proportions should be checked before beginning coating application to be sure that the proportions are those specified by the manufacturer. usually results in early coating loss by disbonding and peeling. in turn. Thus. it is common practice not to use the triggering technique commonly used with other spray equipment because the ratio of components may vary significant at the start and stop of each trigger stroke. Thus. Pinpoint rusting. Figure 20. the best way to avoid coating failures resulting from improper coating application is by (1) carefully following the coating manufacturer’s recommendations for application and (2) carefully inspecting the work to permit early 563 . Thus. Use of paint shakers is not recommended. Any significant deviation from this recommendation may result in reduced coating system performance. pot life. all paints should be thoroughly mixed before application to ensure that the material being applied is the homogeneous blend originally manufactured. When applying two-component thermosetting coatings. These salts are usually not readily visible and so must be removed and analyzed using special techniques. Two-component coatings such as thermosetting epoxies and polyurethanes are normally supplied in kits composed of Component A and Component B. detection of defects and their immediate correction. and checking or cracking of the paint film. and recoat times. poor coating adhesion. catastrophic failure may occur. Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Coating Application As with surface preparation. Each component should be mixed separately and then mixed together in the order specified by the coating manufacturer. recommended profile heights vary directly with the primer film thickness. The components of each kit must be properly proportioned for mixing together to achieve proper curing and optimum coating performance. When spraying with plural-component equipment. careful attention must be paid to the manufacturer’s recommendations for induction.

or delamination.of plural-component application equipment. a thinner than desired coating may contribute to pinpoint rusting on steel surfaces. Inorganic zinc-rich coatings are especially susceptible to clumping. If a coating is applied too thickly. disbondment will occur. Use of a wet film thickness gauge. wrinkling occurs more often with thicker than thinner coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils. lumps. or other foreign matter to avoid clogging spray equipment. Disbondment may take the form of chipping. If coating thicknesses vary significantly outside the specified range. and standard triggering can results in defects and early coating failure. Otherwise. will help ensure that the desired dry film thickness is achieved. mud cracking. When the total stress built up in the coating system exceeds the adhesion at its weakest point (usually primer to substrate). As discussed earlier. Excess thickness may also result in other types of incomplete or improper curing. low thickness areas limit the performance of the total coated area. Figure 21. 564 . or curtains. its barrier protection will be lessened. Thinner should be added to the coating slowly and with thorough mixing to avoid overthinning one portion of the paint and the possibility of curdling the coating or flocculation of the pigment. peeling. low temperatures or other conditions may necessitate thinning to reduce the viscosity for effective application. the first signs of deterioration invariably occur in areas of low film thickness. Excessive coating thickness may lead to the acceleration of common cracking. If a coating is applied with less than the specified minimum thickness. and thus its service life will be reduced. Effects of Improper Coating Thickness It is important that coatings be applied uniformly. Sagging. Straining Coatings should be strained after mixing to eliminate any skins. Deviation from the recommended gun-tosubstrate distance. maximum coating performance will not be achieved. Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages. When necessary to use a thinner. As described earlier. Non-Uniform Coating Thickness. Insufficient Coating Thickness. This often results in unsightly glossy areas sometimes called hot spots. proper spray pattern. However. Excess coating thickness may be gradually built up by application of additional coats to an existing coating system during periodic maintenance painting. and in the thickness range specified by the manufacturer. runs. Coatings with variable film thicknesses tend to be resin-rich in localized areas of greater thickness. Thinning Coatings are manufactured for application as received without thinning. it should be of the type and in the amount recommended by the coating manufacturer. Excess Coating Thickness. Such defects should be detected and corrected as soon as observed. Thus. constant rate of gun travel. its weight may cause the wet coating to flow downward to form sags. holiday-free. as described in ASTM D 4414. Effects of Improper Spray Techniques The most uniform coating application and the best looking finishes are achieved by spray application. thicker films have more rigidity than thinner films and thus are less able to expand and contract with substrate dimensional changes. flaking. and/ or disbondment of relatively rigid coatings. As described earlier.

It occurs most often with lacquers and other coatings that contain fast evaporating solvents. Coating Holidays. Figure 22. Pinholing is the formation of small holes that extend through the entire thickness of a coating. in which. Dry spray should not be confused with overspray. Overspray consists of atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being sprayed and fall on unintended surfaces. Pinholing is sometimes caused by holding the spray gun too close to the surface with excessive atomization pressure or a combination of a low atomization pressure and excessive material pressure. powdery. This condition most commonly occurs with fast drying coatings. Topcoating Outside of Recommended Recoat Window Manufacturers of two-component thermosetting coatings specify a window of time during which Pinholing. skip. A holiday is a pinhole. as described in the chapter of this book on coating inspection. Holding the spray gun too far from the substrate may also contribute to dry spray. interior air and solvent vapors rise to the concrete surface to form small bubbles in the topcoat. Dry spray is a rough.Figure 23. Dry Spray. Cratering is a special form of pinholing caused by foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. holidays constitute a source of early electrolyte penetration and coating deterioration. Solvent imbalance is an important source of pinholing. Dry spray. if any. A special case of pinholing often occurs during 565 . Dry spray film have little. protective value. Topcoat solvent that enters the naturally porous film of the inorganic zinc-rich coating evaporates in the warm environment. This phenomenon is somewhat similar to outgassing of wet coatings on concrete. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. during periods of rising temperature. Unless detected and corrected. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface so that the coating cannot flow to form a uniform continuous film. Pinholing. Holidays in coatings are best discovered using holiday detectors. the topcoating of inorganic zinc-rich coatings on warm days. and the resulting vapors rise to the surface of the uncured topcoat to form pinholes. discontinuity.

evaluation. Moisture-curing polyurethanes and alkyl silicate inorganic zinc-rich coatings cure to a solid film by reaction of their binders with moisture from the air. In order to avoid or minimize deterioration. 4. Hare. he was employed for over 40 years at the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. 5. 2001. If topcoated too soon. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. He is a professional engineer in the state of California. 566 . and coating system. Corrosion and Coatings. Design Factors. pp 36-41. Drisko.. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. an SSPC certified protective coatings specialist (PCS). Summary There are many causes of coating deterioration. 7. 1998. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. and PhD degrees from Stanford...8 Moisture-blushing of coating surfaces during periods of high humidity was discussed earlier in this chapter. 3. 1992. as recommended by its manufacturer • Thorough inspection of all phases of the work to ensure that all specification requirements are met • Rapid corrective actions to address any deviations from recommendations or early signs of coating defects. Field Methods for Retrieval and Analysis of Soluble Salts on Substrates. Curing wet coatings at temperatures significantly above or below the recommended range may result in improper or incomplete curing. Charles G. Fundamentals of Chemistry and Composition. SSPC: Pittsburgh. where he conducted research. 6. Port Hueneme. 2. SSPC: Pittsburgh. pp 62-66. Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Curing Most coatings require special conditions for proper curing. Randy Nixon and Richard W. Richard W. The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating Concrete. Dr. Skinner. as recommended by the coating manufacturer • Appropriate application of the coating system. These include ranges of temperature and relative humidity. Richard W. James F. Protective Coatings. If topcoated too late. Drisko.their coatings can be successfully topcoated. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Otherwise. Drisko. MS. SSPC: Pittsburgh. ed. the curing of both coats may be adversely affected. Munger. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part II. 1994. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. Richard W. Protective Coatings Glossary. the topcoat will have limited adhesion to the undercoat. July 1989. Drisko has been the senior technical advisor to SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings since January 1995. Charles G.eds. Drisko. Richard W. Drisko Dr. Factors of Uncoated and Coated Substrates that Affect Coating Performance. the following actions should be taken: • Proper selection of a high-performance coating system appropriate for the particular environment and service • Preparation of a job specification that includes all requirements necessary to achieve long-term coating performance • Appropriate surface preparation for the environment. pp 65-68. Richard W. Prior to this. and testing. osmotic blistering may be caused by the entrapped solvent. May 1990.. and served as the Navy’s center of expertise on coatings for shore structures. Clive H. They must cure within a specific relative humidity range to achieve complete and proper curing. Applicator Training Bulletin: Mixing and Thinning. Drisko received his BS. Jim. Munger. 2000. 8. Richard W. service. SSPC-TU 4. California. and a NACE International certificated corrosion specialist. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part I. Drisko. References 1. About the Author Dr. Jenkins. Coatings applied in confined spaces such as storage tanks may require both heating and ventilating to remove coating solvents and permit complete curing or curing to the extent required for topcoating.

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