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under defined conditions of temperature. AMINE BLUSH Surface opalescence (blush) on epoxy films caused by reaction of amine co-reactant with carbon dioxide and water to form an amine carbamate. either separately or combined. ALLIGATORING (1) A type of crazing or surface cracking of a definite pattern. having once reached a tack-free state. water. (2) Intentional incorporation of small air bubbles in concrete to improve such physical properties as freezethaw resistance.. light. AFTER-TACK Film defect in which the coated surface. or other frictional process. (2) Gradual changing of a coating’s chemical and/or physical properties over a period of in-service response time. The effect is often caused during weather aging. subsequently develops a sticky condition. scraping and wear. the cracks may not extend through the surface bitumen. relative humidity. scraping. or as dry films of these materials for the purpose of subsequent tests [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]. [CED]. surface cracking of a paint film having the appearance similar to alligator hide. See ADHESION TEST. and oxygen. [CED] AIR ENTRAINMENT (1) The process of causing small air bubbles to form in paint or wet paint film. etc. This can affect adhesion of any subsequent coat if not properly removed. alligator cracking is the vertical cracking of a coating with a pattern of closed cells or islands of unbroken coating. [CED] See BUBBLING.. the usual factors considered are heat. ADULTERATION The addition of foreign materials to a manufactured product. 188 . ABRASION RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing. [ASTM] ACCELERATED AGING Any set of conditions used in an attempt to produce in a short time the results obtained under normal conditions of aging. [ASTM]. (2) the cracking of the surface bitumen on a built-up roof. In accelerated aging tests. TENSILE (PULL-OFF) in main glossary. erosion.FAILURE TERMS an excerpt from SSPC's Protective Coatings Glossary A ABRASION The wearing away of a surface by action such as by rubbing. AIR BUBBLE Dry bubble in coating film caused by entrapped air. producing a pattern of cracks similar to an alligator’s hide. as indicated by its name. varnishes. in suitable containers. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] ADHESION FAILURE A failure between two distinct coating layers or between the substrate and the first layer of coating. [CED] AGING (1) Storage of paints. AIR ENTRAPMENT Inclusion of air bubbles in coating film or other solids such as concrete. etc. See also CRACKING.

ANTI-SKINNING AGENT Any material added to a coating to prevent or retard the processes of oxidation or polymerization that result in the formation of an insoluble skin on the surface of the coating in a container. ANTI-SAG AGENT Additive used to control sagging of a coating. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] ANTI-WRINKLING AGENT Material added to surface coating compositions to prevent the formation of wrinkles in films during curing. [CED]. BIOLOGICAL DEFACEMENT Disfiguring of surfaces by growth of microorganisms. usually in a wrinkle finish film. ANTI-LIVERING AGENT Additive used to prevent the livering of a coating. to influences from the surface on which it is applied or to weathering or contamination from the atmosphere. These additives normally function by altering the rheological properties of the paint. [AM] BLEED Coating discoloration by the diffusion of coloring matter from a previously painted or unpainted surface (e. B BALD SPOT Area or patch.g.g. (2) Intentional lightening of the color of a material such as wood. BLEACHING (1)Bleaching is a uniform loss of color of a paint or varnish. ANTI-SETTLING AGENT Substance incorporated into a pigmented paint to retard settling and to maintain uniform consistency during storage or painting operations. See LIVERING. BIODETERIORATION Any undesirable change in material properties brought about by the activities of microorganisms. removing color. which has failed to wrinkle or give the desired optical effect. e. See FOULING. vegetable oils. barnacles. varnishes. etc. asphalt) by the action of the coating solvent. [CED] BIOFOULING Biological encrustation of surfaces in sea water by flora and fauna. This may be due to internal chemical or physical action in the paint itself..FAILURE TERMS ANTI-FOAMING AGENT Additive used to control or prevent foam formation during the manufacture or application of coatings. [CED] BIOCIDE A chemical agent capable of killing organisms such as those responsible for microbiological degradation. 189 .

BLISTERING (1) Formation of dome-shaped projections (blisters) in paints or varnish films resulting from local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from an underlying paint film (intercoat blistering) or the base substrate. pressure. See also BARRIER COAT. moisture diffusion through the coating. the solvent-caused movement of material is from the coating itself and not the substrate. BLOOMING The reduction of a coating gloss caused by materials exuding in or from an applied film. BLISTER An undesirable rounded elevation of the coating resulting from the local loss of adhesion. also bulging of the finish plaster coat as it separates and draws away from the base coat [ACI]. Examples are bituminous surfaces. (2) An increase in the viscosity or thixotropy of a paint. and relative humidity. [CED] BLOCKING RESISTANCE The ability of two coated surfaces to resist sticking together during normal handling and storage. The standard test method for evaluating the degree of blistering of paints is described in ASTM D 714. [MPDA] BOUNCE BACK (1) The rebound of atomized paint particles during spray application. or lacquer which occurs during storage. wood knots. (2) Undesired adhesion between touching layers of material. 190 . BLEEDING KNOT Usually circular-shaped discoloration in stained or painted siding. organic pigments. resulting in a discoloration of the finish. BLOCKING (1) The undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together under normal conditions or under specified conditions of temperature. The resultant return flow of atomized air carries some of the paint particles away from the surface. (3) Formation of blisters in films of paint or varnish. or excessive moisture in the substrate. BLISTERING RESISTANCE A coating’s ability to resist the formation of blisters. Blistering may be caused by solvent entrapment. This effect is most pronounced when paint is being applied into corners or boxed areas. TIE COAT in main glossary. The solvent carrier of the newly applied finish normally transfers the coloring matter.FAILURE TERMS BLEEDING The diffusion of colored matter from a substrate (including a previously applied paint film) into a newly applied finish. [CED] BLEED-THROUGH Appearance of color on a newly painted surface by migration of a previously painted substrate beneath it. OVERSPRAY. (2) The irregular raising of a thin layer at the surface of placed mortar or concrete during or soon after completion of the finishing operation. See also DRY SPRAY. during storage or fabrication. Unlike bleeding. or in the case of pipe after spinning. varnish. See also BLISTERING. such as occurs under moderate pressure and sometimes pressure and heat. contaminants. BLOCK COAT A barrier coat or transition primer/tie coat that prevents incompatible paints from touching. BODYING Thickening of an oil through thermal processing. (2) Rebound of abrasive particles during abrasive blasting.

CATASTROPHIC CORROSION Metallic degradation resulting in substantial loss of metal. cratering. appearance term applied to metal-like reflectance which sometimes appears at the surface of nonmetallic colored materials. fragile. brush marks may or may not remain in the dried coating. (2) Small ridges or valleys produced in a paint film by the combing action of the bristle of a brush. descriptive. and serious. for example. CATASTROPHIC COATING FAILURE A coating failure that is sudden. [AM] BRONZING A subjective. [CED] BUBBLE BUSTER Compound used to control the formation of bubbles in a coating. CATHODIC DISBONDING Mechanical lifting of a coating caused by hydrogen bubbles formed when cathodic protection 191 . and is characterized by a distinct hue of different predominant wavelength than the hue of the paint itself. It is perceived at the specular angle. BRITTLENESS Degree of susceptibility to cracking or breaking by bending. The origin of the selective specular reflectance is generally considered to be reflectance from very small particle size pigments partially separated from the surrounding vehicle at or near the surface. resulting from entrapment of air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete during placement and compaction. CASE HARDENING Surface hardening without thorough drying of film. BUG HOLES Small regular or irregular cavities. [AM] See CRATERING. usually not exceeding 15 mm in diameter.[CED] See SURFACE DRYING. BUBBLING Air bubbles or solvent vapor bubbles found temporarily in the wet film of a coating or permanently in the dry film. [CED] BRUSH MARKS (1) Marks produced in a coating by the bristles of a brush during application. CAN STABILITY Resistance to deterioration of liquid paint in original container. very dramatic. Depending on the leveling characteristics of the paint. by observing the image of a white light source. C CAKING Hard setting of pigment from a liquid paint during storage.FAILURE TERMS BRITTLE Susceptible and being easily broken. CAT EYE(S) Hole or holiday shaped like a cat’s eye. TOP DRYING in main glossary.

when it no longer protects the substrate. See also CHECKING. ASTM D 4214 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films. provides 192 . CHIPPING Total or partial removal of a dried paint film in flakes by accidental damage or wear during service. [ASM] CAVITATION CORROSION A process involving conjoint corrosion and cavitation.FAILURE TERMS is excessive.. CHALKING RESISTANCE The ability of a pigmented coating to resist chalking. this failure is usually characterized by sharp edges and definite demarcation of the base area. CHECKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist checking. usually in small pieces. ASTM D 913 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Resistance of Wear to Traffic Paint. usually caused by degradation of the organic binder by the sun’s ultraviolet light. [ASM] CAVITATION EROSION Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continuing exposure to cavitation. CISSING A mild form of crawling. ASTM D 660 is a Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints. CHECKING (1) The fine cracking that develops in paint films during prolonged curing and/or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying surface. CRACKING RESISTANCE. CLOUDINESS The lack of clarity or transparency in a paint or varnish film. CHECK(S) Fine. Cavitation caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. CHAMPAGNE FINISH (EFFERVESCENCE) The slight surface roughening caused by small bubbles of escaping solvent vapor.e. ASTM D 3170 is the Standard Test Method for Chipping Resistance of Coatings. i. resulting from impact by hard objects or from wear during service. or concrete [ACI]. cement paste. CAVITATION The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. CHIPPING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating or layers of coatings to resist total or partial removal. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to effect violent localized agitation. CHALKING The formation of loose powder on the surface of a coating. in traffic paints. shallow cracks in a coating resulting from surface weathering. See also CHALKING. [CED] COATING FAILURE Loss of a coating’s function or purpose. [CED]. (2) Development of shallow cracks at closely spaced but irregular intervals on the surface of plaster.

The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose. a driving. [CED] COLD WALL EFFECT In tank linings. the material that causes a surface to be in this state. (2) To break up into simpler chemical components. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. generally light and weathering. as with cracking of petroleum. Metals corrode because they exist in chemically unstable states. The standard test method for evaluating degree of cracking is described in ASTM D 661. CONTAMINATION Condition causing a surface. COHESION The propensity of a substance to adhere to itself.FAILURE TERMS an attractive appearance. especially to sunlight. Color retention requirements usually are described in terms of color difference defined according to a standard test procedure. See 193 . COHESIVE FAILURE A failure or break within a given coat or material (the coating breaks within itself). COLD CHECKING The formation of hairline cracks in lacquers exposed to low temperatures. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] The ability of a single coating layer to resist internal partitioning or fracturing. crazing. and mud cracking. CORROSION FATIGUE The process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment. CRACKING RESISTANCE The ability to resist formation of cracks that extend through at least one coat of paint. CRACKING (1) The splitting of a dry paint film. permeating force assisting ionic passage through a coating to a metal in the direction from a hot liquid to a cold wall. COLOR RETENTION Property of a material relating to its ability to maintain constant color during surface exposure. The force holding a substance together. material. or process to become dirty or impure. COLORFASTNESS The ability of a film of paint or varnish to show little change in original color after being exposed to a specific environment. also. CORROSION The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a metal and its environment that results in the loss of material and its properties. Different types of cracking include hair-cracking or hairlines. crocodiling or alligatoring. checking. COLD CRACKING Crazing and cracking of a coating subjected to low temperatures or cold/ambient cycling. COBWEBBING The rapid drying of a coating (often a lacquer) during application to form fine strings instead of normal atomization. cracking.

the intensity of attack is usually more severe than on surrounding areas of the same metal surface. CURTAINS Sags with a draped appearance. CRATERING The formation of small. Staining of a white cloth by rubbing lightly over a colored surface. See CRACKING. CHECKING RESISTANCE. thickness. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] CROCKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist color transfer when rubbed or abraded. See CRATERING.FAILURE TERMS CRACKING. CRACKLE Topcoat cracking caused by application of topcoat before the previously applied coat has sufficiently cured. [WJP] CRAZING A network of intersecting checks or cracks appearing on a coated surface. CRATERS Small. In these locations. UNDERCUTTING. CROCKING Removal of color upon abrasion or rubbing. D DEFECT A surface or film imperfection (flaw). CREEPAGE See CRAWLING. deficiency. CREVICE CORROSION Corrosion that occurs within or adjacent to a crevice formed by contact with two pieces of the same metal or another metal or with a nonmetallic material. CURTAINING See SAGGING. CROWS FOOTING A coating film defect in which a pattern of wrinkles resembling a crow’s foot is formed. See WRINKLING. or incompleteness that deviates from a speci- 194 . CRAWLING The drawing back of a liquid film from a uniformly thick layer to form areas of little. shallow depressions in a coating generally resulting from foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] CRINKLING See WRINKLING. CROCODILING See ALLIGATORING. rounded depressions in a coating film that do not expose the previous coat or the substrate. if any. It occurs when the surface tension of the coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate.

scaling. DEGRADATION A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from their service conditions and weathering. DETERIORATION See DEGRADATION. DEZINCIFICATION Selective loss of zinc metal from a brass alloy. DELAMINATE See DELAMINATION. the upper surface. ASTM D 3274 is the standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal or Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. and generally near. DEFOAMER(S) Additives used to reduce or eliminate foam formed in a coating or coating constituent. soot. or separation of a slab in a plane roughly parallel to. similar to spalling. or other foreign material on the exterior surfaces of coatings or other substrates. DISCOLORATION Change in the color of a coating after application (usually an undesired darkening). [ACI] DETACHMENT See DISBONDING.FAILURE TERMS fication or industry-accepted condition. a horizontal splitting. DIRT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist soiling. DEFLOCCULANT An additive that prevents pigments in suspension from coalescing to form flocs. The opposite of thixotropy. DISCONTINUITIES See HOLIDAY. See ANTI-FOAMING AGENT. DISBONDING The separation resulting from insufficient adhesion of a coating to an undercoating or other substrate. (2) In the case of a concrete slab. Failure of a coating to adhere to the previous coating. DIRT ACCUMULATION The collection of air-borne dirt. or peeling except that the delamination affects large areas and can often be detected by tapping. DELAMINATION (1) The separation of a coat or coats of paint from the previous coat or from the substrate. found most frequently in bridge decks and caused by the corrosion of reinforcing steel or freezing and thawing. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. 195 . DIRT PICK-UP See DIRT ACCUMULATION. cracking. DILATANCY Stiffening and loss of fluidity of paint upon agitation.

See also BOUNCE BACK. E EDGE FAILURE A type of coating adhesion failure in which undercutting (penetration of corrosion beneath the coating) occurs at an unprotected or incompletely protected edge. DRIP A drop of wet coating that forms on or falls from the edge of the coated substrate. (CED) F FADEOMETER An apparatus for determining the resistance of coatings and other materials to fading. or layers. EROSION-CORROSION A joint action involving corrosion and erosion. EROSION The gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. powdery.FAILURE TERMS DRAG Resistance of paint to being spread by a brush. ASTM D 662 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints. (2) Overspray or bounce back falling dry on unintended surfaces and producing an adherent. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface. Often results in blistering of coatings. Efflorescence results from leaching of lime or calcium hydroxide out of a permeable concrete mass over time by water. A paint with a lot of drag is hard to work with a brush. DULLING Loss of gloss or sheen. DRY SPRAY (1) A rough. or plasticizer from films. such as resin from wood. ELECTROENDOSMOSIS Penetration of water through a coating film caused by excessive cathodic protection potentials. [AM] DURABILITY Degree to which paints and paint materials withstand the destructive effect of the conditions to which they are subjected. EXUDATION The migration of a substance to the surface. EFFLORESCENCE A white crystalline or powdery deposit on the surface of concrete. sand-like covering. followed by reaction with carbon dioxide and acidic pollutants. DRIFT See OVERSPRAY. scales. OVERSPRAY. It 196 . EXFOLIATE To separate in flakes.

[Painting/Coatings Dictionary] FIN (1) A narrow linear projection on a formed concrete surface. or blistering. if present. and is the result of loss of adhesion. See CRATERING. COATING FAILURE. Produces a varigated paint surface. [ACI] FISH EYEING See FISH EYES. FLAKING The detachment of pieces of the paint film itself either from its substrate or from paint previously applied. FAILURE ANALYSIS An investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. FAILURE See PAINT FAILURE. loss of coating function. FLEX-CRACKING The development of cracks in coating when subjected to repeated bending. FADING A cosmetic coating defect consisting of reduction in color intensity. checking or blistering and is the result of loss of adhesion usually due to stress-strain factors. checking. and/or corrosion. resulting from mortar flowing into spaces in the formwork. FLAKING RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist the actual detachment of film fragments either from the previously applied coating or the substrate. FISH EYES Coating film defects related to cratering in which small dimples or holidays resembling fish eyes form in the wet coating. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. FLOATING The segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation. and the particle clusters can be broken up by applying 197 . Also referred to as scaling. The condition usually is reversible. See HOT SPOTS. FALLOUT (SPRAY) See OVERSPRAY.FAILURE TERMS accelerates the fading by subjecting coated panels to high-intensity ultraviolet wavelengths similar to those found in sunlight. [ASTM D-16] FLASHING The occurrence on the surface of a coating film of patches glossier than the surrounding coating. ASTM D 722 is the standard test method for evaluating degree of flaking of exterior paints. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. (2) A type of blade in a concrete mixer drum. FLOCCULATION Formation of clusters of pigment particles in a fluid medium that may occur after dispersion. Also known as scaling resistance. FILIFORM CORROSION Corrosion exhibiting a thread-like structure and directional growth under coatings on metal surfaces such as steel or aluminum.

GHOSTING A cosmetic coating defect occurring to low sheen finishes in which there are areas with less color or difference in sheen from surrounding areas. See also LIVERING. G GALVANIC CORROSION Accelerated corrosion resulting from two dissimilar metals in electrical contact. exposed to conductive medium. Surface-active agents are often useful in reducing the extent of flocculation and hence the yield value. (2) The first stage in the cure of an epoxy or polyurethane coating in which a soft. Latex coatings are especially susceptible to this phenomenon because of their surface active agents used to stabilize the dispersion. Compare to FLOATING. attached to the hulls of ships and other structures in sea water that cause drag. microscopically. both flora and fauna. GLOSS RETENTION Ability of a coating material to maintain its gloss. Flocculation is often visible as a “Jack Frost” pattern in a flowout of a dispersion. It results in more rapid settling although it is usually soft. FLOODING The segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. bumpy. slogans. FOAMING The development of small air bubbles into liquid coatings during mixing. GRAININESS A rough.FAILURE TERMS relatively weak mechanical forces or by a change in the physical forces at the interface between the liquid and the solid dispersed particles. [AM] FOREIGN MATTER Any material in a paint or varnish or on a coating film that does not belong there. 198 . shows loss of color strength and poor dispersion. or drawings that deface a wall or other surface. or sand-like texture in a dry coating film. [ASM] FROTHING See FOAMING. GRAFFITI Markings. FRETTING CORROSION The accelerated deterioration at the interface between contacting surfaces as the result of corrosion and slight oscillatory movement between two surfaces. GELLING (1) A defect in which an oil or alkyd paint or varnish thickens to jelly-like consistency in an unopened container. it appears as a lacework or reticulum of loosely clustered particles. FOULING (BIOFOULING) Marine organisms. FOGGING Misting. semisolid network is formed.

HIDING PIGMENT A pigment with a high refractive index that gives the most hiding power to a coating. high-voltage or AC electrostatic) to detect nicks. [ASTM] HOLIDAY DETECTOR Instrument utilizing electric current (low-voltage. and zinc oxide are materials with high refractive indices. Rutile titanium dioxide. scrapes or pinholes (holidays) that penetrate a coating film.FAILURE TERMS GRINNING THROUGH Showing through of the underlying surface layer due to inadequate opacity of a paint film which has been applied to it. Heat resistance depends on the binder type and other coating ingredients. HEAT AGING Deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures. HONEYCOMB Voids left in concrete due to failure of the mortar to effectively fill the spaces among course aggregate particles. zinc sulfide. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] HAIRLINE CRACKS Very fine cracks which do not penetrate the topcoat. ability to resist deformation from impact. [CED] See CRACKING. HEAT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist deterioration when exposed continuously or periodically to high temperatures at or below a given level. [CED] See INCOMPLETE HIDING. HAZING See CLOUDINESS. 199 . I IMPACT RESISTANCE Ability of a coating to resist a sudden blow. followed by anatase titanium dioxide. H HACKLE(S) Thin. IMPACT STRENGTH See IMPACT RESISTANCE. HOLIDAY Pinhole. needle-like or sliver-like protrusions (ranging from 3 to 6 mils [76 to 152 micrometers]) found on steel plates that have been blasted with steel shot or grit. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. they occur erratically and at random. skip. [ACI] HOT SPOTS Areas of higher gloss than surrounding areas often caused by being relatively resin-rich where coating was applied more thickly than other areas. discontinuity.

where a wet edge has not been maintained. peaks.g. or craters which have been produced by the mechanical process of application. LAP MARKS Visually darker section edges where paints or stains have dried before adjacent areas have tied into them.. causing bleeding or saponification) or physical (e.e. The amount of laitance is influenced by the type and amount of admixtures. weak. The ability of a paint film to hold itself together. INTERCOAT DELAMINATION The separation (disbonding) of two adjacent coats of paint.. INTRACOAT DISBONDING See COHESIVE FAILURE. See COHESION. [CED] INTERCOAT CONTAMINATION Contamination between successive coats of paint or a coat of paint and the base substrate. INTRACOAT ADHESION Cohesion within a coat of paint. LIVERING The progressive. and the amount of water in the concrete. LEVELING AGENT Chemical added to coating to increase the ability of the wet film to settle to a uniform thickness. LEVELING The ability of a coating to flow out after application so as to obliterate any surface irregularities such as brush marks. inability to expand and contract with substrate).. INTERCOAT DISBONDING See INTERCOAT DELAMINATION. i. INCOMPLETE HIDING Failure to completely obscure from vision any underlying coating or other substrate. brittle layer of cement and aggregate fines on a concrete surface. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] Lifting often occurs because the solvents in the new coat are too strong for the previous coat. INDENTATION HARDNESS Resistance to penetration by an indenter. irreversible increase in consistency of a pigment-vehicle combination. L LAITANCE A thin.g. [CED] INCOMPATIBILITY Inability of coating materials to perform satisfactorily when in direct contact with another coating or substrate.FAILURE TERMS INCLUSION Presence of foreign material in the finished material. The incompatibility may be chemical (e. orange peel. 200 . the degree of working. LIFTING Softening and raising or wrinkling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat.

The irreversible character of the changes distinguishes livered material from thixotropic “build-up. causing discoloration and disfigurement.. ASTM D 3274 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal and Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. [CED] MISSES Holidays. particularly fungi. but it also may result from polymerization of the vehicle.g. e. MILDEW RESISTANCE A coating’s ability to resist the growth of mildew (fungus growth) on its surface. as opposed to artificial (laboratory) accelerated weathering. voids. shady places. MILKINESS Whitish or translucent appearance in an unpigmented liquid coating or film which should normally be transparent. particularly fungi. sulfatereducing bacteria found in some petroleum products and in sewage. that grow on paint and other surfaces. 201 .” which is reversible. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] M MIC See MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION.FAILURE TERMS Livering usually results from a chemical reaction of the vehicle with the solid dispersed material. N NATURAL WEATHERING Gradual deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to an exterior environment. MILDEWCIDE An additive used to enhance a coating’s ability to resist mildew growth. MUD CRACKING A coating defect resembling the irregular cracking of drying mud that typically arises during the curing of a relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly. particularly in damp. [AM] MOTTLING The presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a surface. MILDEW Microorganisms. skips. MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC) Corrosion that is affected by the action of microorganisms in the environment. MILDEW DEFACEMENT Unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated surfaces caused by growth of microorganisms.

On products such as appliances. PEELING Disbonding of particles of paint. [CED] so as to adversely affect coating performance. when in contact with household or industrial oils. P PAINT CHIPPING See CHIPPING. or excessive moisture behind the surface. Oil canning can lead to cracking of the coating at the edges. than that recommended by the manufacturer of the coating for normal curing. [CED] OVERSPRAY (1) Atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being spraye. OVERATOMIZED Dispersed too finely by use of excessive atomizing pressure. [AM] OVERBAKING An exposure of the coating to a temperature moderately higher or for a longer period of time. OVERCURE Caused by an aftercure or being subjected to too high a temperature or too long a period at a proper temperature and resulting in a product with lowered performance. (2) Spray particles that are not wet enough to fuse when they reach the surface being sprayed. See also DRY SPRAY. grease. PERISHING See DETERIORATION. It may be caused by dampness. PAINT FAILURE See COATING FAILURE. or lacquer film from a surface due to loss of adhesion. orange peel may be desirable. OIL CANNING Bowing of the edges of a steel plate due to thermal expansion and contraction or cyclic loading and unloading. PIGMENT OVERLOAD Use of more pigment in a coating than can be completely wetted by the resin. overspray may contaminate property beyond the surface being sprayed. As a result. OIL SOFTENING The conversion of a satisfactory coating into an unacceptably soft and tacky one. BOUNCE BACK. exceeding the 202 . or both. ORANGE PEEL A coating application (usually spray) defect in which the coating surface has the irregular appearance of an orange skin because of insufficient leveling of the wet film. an improperly prepared surface.FAILURE TERMS O OFF COLOR An unacceptable variation of color from that desired or specified. varnish.

normally caused by solvent bubbling. such as in concrete. (2) In concrete. PITTING (1) Localized corrosion of a metal surface. usually expressed as a percentage of the volume of voids in a material to the total volume of the material including the voids [ACI]. see CRATERING. confined to a point or small area. POROSITY (1) The ratio. POCKMARKING See PITTING. [ACI]. PROTECTIVE LIFE The length of time a coating system provides protection to a substrate. or foreign particles. PINHOLE A holiday or discontinuity that extends entirely through a coating film. OVERSPRAY. that takes the form of cavities [ASM]. such as popout. moisture.FAILURE TERMS critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC). PIT A small hole in the surface of a metal or other material that is deeper than its diameter. (3) Formation of depressions (pits) in the surface of a coating often caused by the escape of gas or solvent vapor. See BOUNCE BACK. (2) Small interconnected voids. [CED] REBOUND In spraying of coatings. PINHOLING Formation of small holes through the entire thickness of coating. REDUCED SERVICE LIFE Lessened time during which the coating provides its intended function(s). PONDING The accumulation of a liquid or paint in a shallow depression. [MPDA] POPPING Formation of blisters of solvent vapor in wet coating surfaces that break but do not level because of too great a viscosity. which allow fluids to penetrate an otherwise impervious material. [AM] 203 . [AM] PINPOINT RUSTING Tiny. RETICULATION A surface defect of net-like appearance. Very dense pinpoint rusting can appear on painted steel surfaces where the coating does not completely cover the blast cleaning profile. approximately the size of a pin. R RAIN SPOTTING Particular case of water spotting caused by rain. pitting is localized disintegration. dispersed points of rust that can appear at pinholes and holidays in a coating. the atomized particles that bounce back from the surface being painted.

and lower viscosity coatings are more likely to sag. thicker. See SALT SPRAY TEST in main glossary. SALT FOG RESISTANCE Resistance to deterioration during salt spray testing. due generally to excessive water in the mixture. SAPONIFICATION. Also known as “sags” or “curtains.” [MPDA] See SAGGING. 204 . RUST An iron oxide that forms naturally on ferrous metals as a result of exposure to normal weathering or industrial atmospheres. also called sloughing. S SAGGING (1) The irregular downward flow of wet paint under the force of gravity to produce a thicker lower edge. This commonly occurs on the alkaline surfaces of concrete and galvanizing.FAILURE TERMS RETRACTION See CRAWLING. or the like. plaster. RUNS Irregularities of a surface due to uneven flow. (2) Subsidence of shotcrete. [ACI] SAG See SAGGING. ROPEY A quality of paint that does not flow out evenly and dries with slight ridges. This effect also can be the result of poor workmanship. Thus. [AM] SAPONIFICATION Alkaline hydrolysis of fats to form soaps. SALT AND PEPPER RUSTING See PINPOINT RUSTING. ROPY FINISH See BRUSH MARKS. COATING The akaline hydrolysis of coating binders (usually their drying oils) to disbond and degrade them. overspray. frequently due to application of a coat that is too heavy and not brushed out well. SANDY FINISH A surface condition having the appearance of sandpaper. See also RUNS. denser. RUNNING See SAGGING. SAG RESISTANCE The ability of a wet paint film to resist the downward flow that results in an uneven film with thick edges and runs.

or lacquer. Scaling is the last stage of cracking. SHRINKAGE The roughening of the surface of a coating resulting in loss of gloss or wrinkle. uncoated areas. [CED] SEPARATION Division into components or layers by natural causes. [PDCA] SEDIMENTATION Action or process of depositing matter (sediment) that settles to the bottom of a liquid. Moisture entering cracks in the paint film destroys its adhesive property and results in the flaking or scaling of the paint. [AM] SETTLING The sinking of pigments. SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT The failure of solvent to completely evaporate from a paint film due to inadequate drying 205 . SKIN A solid or semisolid membrane that sometimes forms on paint or varnish in the can. SEEDY Descriptive of a paint finish that is not smooth owing to undispersed pigment particles or insoluble gel particles in the paint. SILKING A surface defect characterized by parallel hairlike striations in coated films. extenders or other solid matter in a paint in a container. more likely to occur to a previously opened or partially filled container. varnish. SHADOWING A coating of paint showing through a subsequent coating. undesirable particles or granules in a paint. voids. SEEDINESS The occurrence of particles in a coating formed from action of reactive pigments and acidic components of the binder during storage that result in a roughened surface on the cured film. [CED] SEEDS See SEEDINESS. SEEDING Formation of small. [AM] SOILING See DIRT ACCUMULATION.FAILURE TERMS SCALING Paint failure that causes a coating to fall off in flakes or chips. with a consequent accumulation on the bottom of the can. misses. SKIPS Holidays. [AM] SISSING See CISSING. SKINNING Formation of a thick film (skin) on the surface of a liquid paint during storage.

irregular lines or bands or layer-edges. resistant to chemical reaction with oxygen. See SOLVENT RUB TEST in main glossary. SPECKLING See MOTTLING. STREAKING Long. sometimes called “solvent pop. STABLE Resistant to change. especially wood. for example. It may cause blisters or pinholes. SOLVENT RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to resist solvent attack. [CED] SURFACE DRYING Drying of the surface of a liquid coating film before the body of the coating film.FAILURE TERMS conditions and/or recoating too soon. SPOTTING Development of small areas on a painted surface which differ in color or gloss from the major portion of the work. allowing them to pull together into clusters or flocs or when flocs of resin form due to dilution with a solvent or diluent of insufficient strength. Spalling of a concrete surface also may result from corrosion of rebar or other embedded steel. (2) An undesirable surface coloration. [CED] SPALLING The chipping or fragmenting of a surface or surface coating caused. especially ones distinguished by color. visible on a surface. In the case of corrosion. STAIN (1) A solution or suspension of coloring material formulated to provide a color to a surface. solution or disfigurement.” to form. STAIN RESISTANCE The ability of a coating to avoid change in appearance after a material capable of staining has been applied and removed. SOLVENT IMBALANCE A proportion of solvent types in a coating that causes inadequate solvency or improper evaporation rates. SOLVENT POP See SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT. [MPDA]. [CED] SPRAY MOTTLE See ORANGE PEEL. narrow. POPPING. The result often is that the under portion is slow in drying and that solvent is trapped within the coating or the coating remains soft for an extended period of time. by differential thermal expansion or contraction. See TOP DRYING in main glos- 206 . [CED] SOLVENT SHOCK The situation wherein some of the protective vehicle is washed off the fine pigment particles. without completely hiding it or forming a continuous film. SPATTER COATING An incomplete or not continuously wet coating caused by a faulty spray painting application.

Also referred to as creepage. SWEATING The exudation of oil from a coating after it appears to have cured. 207 . UNEVEN LOSS OF GLOSS Uneven loss of gloss is a cosmetic coating surface defect in which there is a variation in reduction of sheen such as may occur where there is partial shading. UNDERFILM CORROSION Corrosion that occurs between a coating and the metal substrate without a break in the coating layer. U UNDERCURE Failure of a coating to reach its optimum degree of cure. [PDCA] TACK-FREE Absence of tack or stickiness in an applied coating after suitable drying time. UNDERCUTTING The gradual penetration and spread of corrosion beneath a coating from a break or pinhole in the film or from unprotected edges. TUBERCULATION Formation of localized corrosion products scattered over the surface in the form of knob-like mounds. T TACK The stickiness of a surface such as a paint or varnish film during the drying period. [WJP] THROUGH DRYING Uniform drying throughout the film as opposed to bottom-drying or top-drying. Oil paints and spar varnishes may retain tack for several weeks after they are considered dry. with a resultant loss of performance properties. TELEGRAPHING General term used to describe surface defects such as crawling that give rise to unique patterns. coatings are tack-free after application. tack may not develop until a little later. V VACATION See HOLIDAY.FAILURE TERMS sary. See SERVICE LIFE in main glossary. USEFUL LIFE The length of time a coating adequately performs its function. In some cases.

FAILURE TERMS VOID See HOLIDAY. rain. or other sources of ultraviolet light. or sheen in the shape of spots and streaks. fluorescent bulbs. texture. resulting from the accumulation of water on or the contact of water with the painted surface. gloss. It is apparent after drying. Y YELLOWING The formation of a yellow color or cast on a white or light-colored coating. WRINKLING A defect that creates small furrows or ridges in a coating film. and heat. thermal cycling. WEATHER RESISTANCE The capability of a coating to resist the combination of exposures created by weather. strength. WEBBING See WRINKLING. water. characterized by changes in color. WHITE RUST White oxidation products (oxide. and temperature changes. or other properties. Wrinkling usually occurs with thick films of oil-based paint. cold. 208 . [CED] WEATHERING CHAMBER An apparatus in which specimen materials can be subjected to artificial and accelerated weathering tests that simulate natural weathering by the use of controlled cycles of ultraviolet radiation. chemical composition. hydroxide. light. [CED] WEATHERING The behavior of paint films when exposed to natural weather or accelerated weathering equipment. and sunlight. such as heat. carbonate) of zinc formed on galvanized and other zinc coated surfaces. W WATER SPOTTING See WATER STAINING. Electric arcs. water spray. WATER STAINING Any nonuniform change in appearance. rain. and heating elements are used to simulate the natural conditions of sun. WEATHERING CONDENSATION TEST A test that exposes coated specimens to a cycle consisting of fluorescent ultraviolet light and condensing humidity to accelerate the effects of sunlight and moisture. including color.

It is therefore important for specifiers to clearly identify the environment in which the coating has to operate and ensure that paint systems selected are capable of delivering the life cycle performance expected. while expensive. A great deal of research has gone into paint technology development by the major Australian and international paint companies as they compete with each other and with other coatings and materials to produce better performing products. offer advances in durability over traditional technologies.One of the most common examples of incorrect paint selection is the use of alkyd (oil based) paints. Environmental pressures on paint manufacturers to eliminate potentially hazardous pigments and reduce the amount of volatile organic greenhouse-causing solvents in paint coatings has accelerated the development of new types of paint coatings. resulting in the common phenomenon of flaking or peeling paint.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 defects in paint coatings by CM Staff based on information supplied by Wattyl Paints systems. Many paints have poor UV resistance. Water based acrylic paints have very good compatibility with galvanized coatings and rarely have adhesion problems on properly prepared surfaces. which have excellent UV stability over time. The following catalogue of paint defects has been assembled with associated descriptions of causes and remedies to assist in identifying problems and dealing with them to ensure a quality coating. In some cases. their suggested uses and characteristics. paint failures can be traced to the incorrect selection of paint for the particular application. but only its appearance. for painting galvanized coatings. There is always a reason for every coating failure. INTRODUCTION Recognising the type of paint failure encountered in the field is an important mechanism in ensuring quality coatings and coating application. Those that fail prematurely will have done so because of an identifiable problem associated with their application. Water based. and again. with detailed descriptions of a wide range of generic paint types. but may perform poorly in highly acidic exposures or where movement or vibration may result in cracking of the relatively infexible paint film. All paints eventually fail by weathering and the life expectancy of a paint system will be well defined by the manufacturer or within performance standards such as AS/NZS 2312 . unless they are specially formulated will rarely give the same durability as water-based acrylic paints. and frequently. Hybrid organic/inorganic binder systems have also been developed that. or two-pack uretahne or acrylic systems.Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel from Atmospheric Corrosion. Epoxy coatings are often considered the cure-all for most industrial applications. oil based paints. coating defects do not always affect the coating’s performance. Again. The paint reacts with the zinc in the galvanized coating and loses its adhesion. Identification of causes of problems can be fed back into the specification and application process to avoid repetition of failure events.22 - . Industrial or marine applications are critical applications where the performance requirements of the paint system must be clearly understood. AS/NZS 2312 provides one of the most valuable reference works for paint coatings and paint . low solvent or solventless coatings have replaced many of the standard industrial coatings of yesteryear. Causes of paint coating failure are frequently associated with either: • • • • incorrect specification faulty material incorrect application incorrect curing/post handling procedures.

brush apply a fresh coat plus topcoat. REMEDY Before cure. Ultraviolet light degradation. oil. moisture in film. PINHOLING . such as vinyls and chlorinated rubbers. After cured. gun too far from surface. Most common with fast evaporating lacquers. coarse atomization. proper levels of cathodic protection. Before cure. pebbly surface COBWEBBING . Repaint and avoid possible sources of moisture. sand and apply another coat. Scrape off wrinkles and apply thinner coat. uniform identations in film FISH EYES .also called runs or curtains.colour changes or irregularities WRINKLING .flat finish with milky appearance Moisture condensation in high humidity with fast evaporating or unbalanced thinner in spray application.tiny. Sand or blast to smooth finish and apply additional coats.thin. CRATERING . Temperature change during curing. too much thinner. too much paint.hills. or paint particles falling outside spray pattern. spider web-like particles Use slower evaporating solvent or apply when cooler. or cathodic disbonding. especially with oil-based paints. valleys in paint resembling skin of orange OVERSPRAY . Solvent entrapment. Use holiday detector for early detection of pinholes. If uncured. shiny spots Allow to dry and apply another finish coat under acceptable conditions for moisture and humidity. or incompatible coating.separation or pulling apart of wet film to expose underlying finish or substrate BLUSHING .small to large broken or unbroken bubbles Blowers in enclosed areas to accelerate solvent release. Surface skinning over uncured paint because of too much thickness and/ or too warm weather. Insufficient paint spray atomization. UNEVEN GLOSS .rusting at pinholes or holidays . or moisture behind paint film. or paint applied over soft or wet undercoat. crinkled surface BLISTERING . sand and apply another coat. After cure. apply additional coats after mechanical or blast cleaning. ORANGE PEEL .also called dry spray. Excess flow of paint CAUSE Spray gun too close to work. respray with retarder added to thinner. Air pockets trapped in wet film during spraying. solvent evaporated too fast. flat. silicon. After cure. Paint too viscous. Sand or blast remove. Before cure. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. or air pressure too low for proper atomization. Small. avoid intense sunlight. sand and apply another coat. If cured. Dry. Particles reaching surface not wet enough to level because of too rapid solvent evaporation. moisture or salt-contaminated surfaces. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. Pinholing or too high a steel surface profile for coating thickness. dirt. Non uniform film thickness.rough. or settled pigment. or surface too hard or glossy to hold paint. sand and apply another coat. adequate cleaning of surface contamination. Application over oil.23 - . brush out and apply additional coat. Sand or blast remove. deep holes exposing substrate PINPOINT RUSTING . FADING . remove by dry brushing followed by solvent wiping. gun too close to surface. stringy paint.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 DESCRIPTION SAGS . Solvent evaporating too rapidly. After cure.also called pitting. apply additional coat.non uniform sheen.

mechanical damage FOULING DAMAGE . clean painted vent holes. ABRASION DAMAGE . crevices. usually short. vents. Physical damage by abrasion (also impact). too thick a coat.penetration or peeling by action of marine fouling organisms MUD CRACKING .blistering and/ or peeling of paint where exposed steel is rusting DIRT UNDER PAINT . mechanically or chemically remove paint to substrate before re-coating. blast. Remove by scraping or sanding and re-coat under dry conditions. spot-remove loose paint and apply flexible paint (e.g. Paint shrinkage. irregular cracks as with dried mud Early detection of defects with holiday detector and correction. avoid configurations that permit collection of contaminants.peeling.narrow breaks. Remove coating and abrasively blast steel before reapplying lesser thickness.24 - . for migration.CORROSION MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTION CHECKING . Difficult to coat surfaces. If limited.peeling of thick paint from substrate PAINT APPLIED TO DAMP SURFACE . spot repair and use more abrasion or impact-resistant coatings. if extensive. Remove and replace damaged paint with one tougher or more adherent. Contaminated surface.deep. undermining and lifting paint. Sand.deterioration at edges. Separation/lifting of paint from chalky substrate or smooth.peeling from undercoat or substrate PIGMENT OVERLOAD . fillet weld seams and crevices. Use wedges between adjacent lap boards. INFLEXIBLE PAINT . spray. salt. poorbonded undercoat. Sand. coal tar). use inhibitive pigments in primer. and dirt. blast.peeling of paint by underlying moisture Stress from cured. Corrosion products formed where steel is exposed. or applied/cured at too high a temperature. Round edges. sandblast. clean and roughen smooth surface. dirt dried in paint film DELAMINATION . UNDERCUTTING . in topcoat that expose undercoat CRACKING . Sand or mechanically remove all loose paint. excessive thickness (especially zincrich paints). corners. channels. Provide fendering protection. Barnacles. latex). or mechanically remove total paint and apply new coat. weathered (contracted) paint exceeds adhesion to substrate. penetrating soft coatings (eg. sanding/mechanical cleaning may be acceptable on older substrates. and re-coat. etc. A relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly (especially common with inorganic zincs). Moisture on substrate distorts wet film.heavy wrinkling MOISTURE DAMAGE . provide drainage. use antifouling paints for fouling control.deep cracks in paint that expose substrate CAUSE Limited paint flexibility. Critical pigment level exceeded (sometimes by tinting white paint rather than tint base). etc. or configurations that permit collection of moisture. weight of fouling peeling poorly bonded paint. REMEDY July 2000 Sand or mechanically remove checked coat and apply another coat. or mechanically remove paint and re-coat. No means by which interior moisture can be vented to exterior. Apply properly prepared finish coat. or work area. Same as above PEELING OF MULTIPLE COATS peeling of heavy paint build-up from substrate PEELING OF THICK. etc. . mottled surface IRREGULAR SURFACE DETERIORATION . scrape. limited flexibility. or applied at too high a temperature.also called pigment float. Stress from weathering (contraction of total system) exceeds adhesion to substrate.

CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 DESCRIPTION EFFLORENSCENCE DAMAGE paint disbonding and peeling by loose.3.gradual thinning of finish coat to expose undercoat BLEEDING . epoxies.3. powdery material CAUSE Moisture through concrete. VINE PENETRATION OF PAINT vine tendrils penetrate paint MILDEW GROWTH . Store indoors in cool environment.10. Organic solvent in wet paint or fresh asphalt dissolves bituminous material and causes it to migrate through paint.g. Relocate vines away from structure. and substrates where chalk is frequently removed. especially bad with thin coats.2.black fungal growth CHALKING EROSION .73 Remove loose chalk and apply chalkresistant finish coat. Improper storage of paint (e.brown staining of paint in asphalt or coat tar coating Use latex paint over bituminous materials.25 - .5 for concrete/masonry before painting.4. in sun and rain). avoid opening and resealing of large containers.2. 4. Microorganisms grow. SKINNING/DETERIORATION OF STORED PAINT .5 and 10. defacing and degrading it. or brick picks up soluble salts and deposits them on the surface from the interior (can be on interior or exterior well of building). Clean and repaint as described in NAVFAC MO-110. allow asphalt pavements to cure 21 days before applying paint. especially fast drying paints. Vines so close to structure that tendrils penetrate paint for support. Degradation of coating resin by sunlight leaving loose residue. especially on damp.2. shaded paint. masonry. sand and re-coat damaged areas. REMEDY Treat as in NCEL Tech Data Sheet 77-10 or NAVFAC MO-110. seal more humid side of wells.

Cause: Incorrect surface preparation. Highb pressure water wash surface. Apply flexible. Incorrect primer/topcoat. Remedy: Ensure piant is currectly applied and cured. Cause: Pinholes in paint film caused by solvent entrapment or single coat application. Remedy: Remove flaking paint by scraping or wire brushing. Description: Flaking two-pack epoxy paint on crane rails in galvanizing plant pre-treatment building.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 Description: Flaking paint over galvanized surface. Remedy: Wet abrasive blast back to remove surface contamination and old paint.26 - . . Use multi-coat system to eliminate pinholes. Cause: Low pH condensation (pH1) and flexing and vibration of crane rails in service cause brittle paint film to crack and promote underfilm corrosion. Apply appropriate water based or epoxy priming systems. acid resistant recoatable mastic type coating Description: Efflourescence bleeding through pinholes in paint film in marine exposure.

CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000 Description: Underfilm corrosion in defined regions of coating. On existing item. Description: Early failure of maintenance topcoat system along beam edges. Cause: Area on far left has severe local underfilm corrosion indicating initial poor surface preparation/priming. Description: Blistering of paint on handrail. . Cause: Adhesion of old paint insufficient to accommodate surface tension effects of new two-pack system epoxy topcoat. mechanically remove any blistered areas and feather back to sound paint. Remedy: Apply as for centre zone. Remedy: Ensure surface cleanliness prior to application.This large tank has areas of clearly defined paint system performance. Cause: Areas of contamination on surface interfering with primer adhesion.27 - . Re-apply primer and topcoat. Right hand zone shows general overall deterioration consistent with normal weathering but ealy failure indicative of low initial dry film thickness for the system. Centre zone is in good condition. Remedy: Completely remove old paint prior to re-coating or use more flexibible re-coating system compatible with old paint.

There are numerous causes of coating failure. coating application. The relative surface areas of the touching metals may also greatly affect the corrosion of the more active metal (the Commonly Used Failure Terms Many different terms commonly used to describe coating failures mean different things to different people.1 Some of the definitions of general terms commonly associated with coating deterioration/degradation are: Catastrophic Coating Failure. Deterioration. . Contact of Dissimilar Metals Resulting in Galvanic Corrosion When two dissimilar metals are in physical contact with each other in an electrolyte (electrically conductive medium). The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose(s). Failure Analysis. i. very dramatic. SSPC’s Protective Coatings Glossary defines failure terms and these definitions are used for all failure terms in this chapter. they often occur in conjunction with other factors that further aggravate the deterioration. A surface or film imperfection (flaw). and/or corrosion. if present. Effects of Structural Design on Metal and Coating Deterioration It has been shown that structural design may be an important factor in metal and coating deterioration. Loss of a coating’s function or purpose. Service Life of Coating. while protecting the other metal from corrosion. it is necessary to determine the causes of the failure and what actions must be taken to correct this condition and prevent its recurrence. Historically. and serious. the greater will be the rate of dissimilar metal corrosion. when it no longer protects the substrate. or combinations of these basic causes. and biocides) have restricted coating formulations and made them more difficult to apply successfully. or incompleteness that deviates from a specification or industry-accepted condition. Although each of the major design factors leading to early coating deterioration will be discussed separately. deficiency. When this occurs. improper or inadequate surface preparation has been the most commonly reported cause of coating failure. surface preparation. Unfortunately.. These may be related to structural design. solvents.Chapter 12 Coating Failures Richard W. Failure of Coating. or coating curing. Premature Failure. provides an attractive appearance.2-3 It is important that these design factors be recognized and corrected at the planning stage rather than later when their adverse effects have become apparent. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. The period of time during which a coating provides its intended function(s). Degradation. pigments. The greater the difference in electrochemical activity between the metals. This chapter will address the common causes of coating defects on industrial structures and the associated preventative or corrective actions. Drisko Introduction All coatings have limited service lives. Failure that occurs significantly before a coating’s life expectancy. governmental restrictions on coating VOCs and toxic constituents (e. the coating itself. See degradation above. the substrate.. This will vary with different exposures and services.g.e. A coating failure that is sudden. Defect. Systematic investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. more recently. loss of function. A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from service conditions and weathering. there are occasions when coatings fail much sooner than they should. the more active metal will corrode preferentially.

chemical treatments such as phosphating are often used to promote coating adhesion. or using a non-conductive insulator between them. in painting. Abrasive blasting can also be used to produce a profile to improve coating adhesion. there is invariably a lower concentration of oxygen as compared to the air outside the crevice. new edge-retentive coatings (usually amine-cured. solvent-free epoxies) have been developed to address this problem. Effects of Substrate Properties on Coating Performance It has been shown that the chemical and physical natures of a surface to be coated may have a very profound effect on the performance of the coating system. Most coatings are unsuitable for use in the joint itself. Coatings on metal structures are susceptible to underfilm corrosion. Inside crevice areas.4 It should be noted that.anode in the reaction). Such designs should be oriented downward so that the water drains. in general. inorganic zinc-rich silicate coatings have adequate coefficient of friction to perform well in this service. Hot-Rolled Steel Most structural steel is made by the hot-rolling process. Cold rolling produces a denser. structures should be designed for access both for the original work and for subsequent maintenance painting. In order to produce a coating film of more equal thickness (and thus equal barrier protection) on all surfaces. This results in a corrosion cell with accelerated corrosion occurring within the crevice area. high-strength alloy steels may require a coating system to supplement its natural corrosion resistance. Crevices Crevices are likely to occur in structural components that are bolted. In these cases. Mill scale must be removed before the steel is coated. smoother surface than hot-rolling. Drill weep holes into existing water traps to permit collected water to drain. riveted. care should be taken to ensure that all cathode areas are especially well covered. Galvanic corrosion may also be minimized by using metals of similar composition. Thus. and automobile bodies than for applications where structural strength is required. A small anode area and a much larger cathode (protected) area may result in extremely rapid corrosion of the smaller anode area. that collect the rain that accelerates deterioration of coatings and corrosion of metals. or skip-welded together. back-to-back angle designs should be avoided because they have crevices between them. Coatings do not bond as well to these surfaces. However. edges are usually striped (brushed with an additional coat of primer) before or after applying a full coat to the substrate. Relatively recently. Limited Access to Work Limited access to surfaces to be cleaned and coated often results in poor quality work and consequently early coating deterioration. continuous welding is the preferred method of joining metal components. Sharp Edges When sharp edges are coated. Thus. the paint tends to draw back from the edge to leave a much thinner coat of paint there than on flat areas. Welds should be ground smooth and weld spatter removed before coating in order to obtain good coating adhesion in these areas. because they do not provide the proper coefficient of friction to maintain the joint in a static state. Cold-Rolled Steel Cold-rolled steel is used more for manufacturing office furniture. Also. Water Traps Water traps are design features. the 554 . This process results in a loosely bonded layer of iron oxide called mill scale. Thus. Faying Surfaces Faying surfaces are contacting surfaces where joints in steel structures are formed by riveting or by the use of high-strength bolts. such as upward facing angle iron. textured surfaces provide more bonding sites and thus have greater coating adhesion than smooth areas of similar composition. Undercutting of a coating film by corrosion at breaks or pinholes in the barrier film may result in rapid loss of coating and its protection. appliances. or its subsequent loss with time will result in coating deterioration. Thus. High-Strength Alloy Steels In some environments.

The oil is best removed by solvent cleaning (i. Soft woods such as redwood and fir are penetrated by coatings to permit good bonding much more easily than are hard (dense) woods such as ash and oak. or garnet) may be necessary to produce the desired surface profile. while redwood and cedar have uniform grain and brown color. The brown color of the latter two woods comes from water-soluble dyes that may bleed through latex coatings to cause staining. Because of their inherent corrosion resistance. plastic) to produce a suitable profile Aluminum is susceptible to exfoliation. and the chromate conversion coating can be removed chemically or by prolonged weathering. they will normally have less corrosion and undercutting of coating at film holidays.g. It is characterized by threadlike directional growths proceeding away from damaged areas. Pine and fir have variable grain structures. Rolled metal products such as aluminum alloy plate are especially susceptible to exfoliation due to their longitudinal grain structure.g.. Figure 1. This alkalinity will saponify (hydrolyze) alkyds and other coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils.e. but harder abrasives (e. unless sealed 555 . alkalinity and porosity) that make its coatings especially susceptible to certain defects. New galvanized surfaces are sometimes given a thin coat of oil or chromate conversion coating to protect them from corrosion called wet storage stain or white rust during exterior storage.. Corrosion undercutting of coating at scratch.. These are described extensively in SSPC’s The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating of Concrete. aluminum oxide. an advanced stage of intergranular corrosion characterized by a delamination of metal along grain boundaries. following treatments may be used: • Chemical treatment such as phosphating • Wash priming (good with alkyds) • Blasting with a soft abrasive (e. one the Figure 2. always have alkaline surfaces created by the natural corrosion of zinc. In the past. Filiform corrosion. Zinc-Coated Surfaces Zinc-coatings. For other coatings that do not.g.cleaning requirements are similar to those of conventional steels. Aluminum Epoxies normally bond quite well to aluminum. chromate inhibitive pigments were widely used to control filiform corrosion. chromate-free inhibitive pigments are now used. SSPC-SP 1). Coated aluminum is particularly susceptible to a form of corrosion called filiform. both galvanizing and zinc-rich.5 Wood The properties of woods vary greatly with the types of tree from which they came. silicon carbide.. These treatments must be removed prior to coating to permit good coating adhesion. Concrete Concrete has unique properties (e.

Chalking of finish coatings can best be controlled by proper selection of pigments and binders and by use of additives such as ultraviolet light absorbers. They can usually be detected in the field before use by testing for condition in container. In this section. For this reason. it can be checked in the field using a viscosity cup. However. Erosion is the gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. may seep to the wood surface after painting to cause staining and paint deterioration. latex coatings that permit the passage of water vapor (sometimes called breathing) may minimize this problem. reduce chalking of underlying organic binders by shielding them from sunlight. Defects/Failures Associated with the Coating Itself Some coating defects and failures are directly related to the coating itself. Chalking is the formation of loose powder on the surface of coatings. It is typically caused by deterioration of the organic coating binder by ultraviolet light (usually from the sun) to leave a loose residue of pigment and oxidized binder.. Chalking. but those containing aromatic chemical groups (e. Accelerated erosion may significantly reduce coating thickness and even expose undercoats. Thus. some of the more important limitations are addressed. These include: • Errors by the manufacturer in production of the coating • Coatings that have exceeded their shelf life • Inherent limitations of properly formulated coating • Incompatibility of a coating with its substrate or undercoat Coatings with Errors in Manufacture or that Have Exceeded Their Shelf Life Errors in coating manufacture do not occur very often. hiding. of course. epoxies and phenolics) chalk much faster than others. Chalking. coatings that chalk freely are more susceptible to erosion than are coatings that are more chalk-resistant. Some pigments such as the anatase form of titanium dioxide chalk very freely. another crystalline form of titanium dioxide. such as lower grades of pine.g. Opaque pigments. Erosion may be minimized by selecting a 556 . Resinous materials in some trees. it may have deteriorated to the extent that it can no longer be successfully utilized. water that enters into the wood interior may try to escape through impermeable coatings to cause blistering and/or delamination. leveling. Such coatings should be checked for condition in container before use. as described in Federal Test Method Standard 141. Erosion. Leafing aluminum pigments formulated to float to coating surfaces protect underlying binders especially well. a test patch of coating can be applied to the intended substrate to check for such properties as ease of application. All organic coating binders chalk to some extent. If a stored coating has exceeded its shelf life. are quite chalk-resistant. Rigid coatings on wood may crack when they are unable to expand and contract with dimensional changes. An oil-based or water-borne stainblocking primer can be used for this purpose. This can be minimized by using weathered wood and sealing it before use.before painting. Figure 3. If the viscosity does not appear to be at the proper level. Also. and complete curing. Erosion may also be caused by wind-blown sand or rain. Many people prefer to use semi-transparent stains that do not seal the surfaces of wood. while other pigments such as rutile. Limitations of Coating Formulations All coating formulations have some limitations that restrict their uses to appropriate environments and services. Coatings hide wood grain and greatly reduce water permeability. Woods are very sensitive to moisture so that they swell during periods of high humidity and shrink during periods of low humidity.

Mildew defacement is an unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated structures caused by the growth of micro-organisms. To minimize discoloration. lead pigments are blackened by the attack of hydrogen sulfide gas. coating formulations should have stable pigments and binders. chalk-free coating surfaces in dry locations exposed to sun light are less susceptible to mildew than other coated surfaces. This is more of a cosmetic effect than one that adversely affects coating film properties. particularly fungi.e. Mildew Defacement. usually by sunlight. Discoloration is the change in coating color after application (usually an undesirable darkening). Loss of gloss is still another defect that is caused by sunlight and can best be minimized by selecting ultraviolet-resistant coating components. This cosmetic defect. Figure 5. Mildew defacement. Moisture blushing may also occur by the reaction of moisture in the air with polyurethanes and other moisture sensitive coatings on humid days. Moisture blushing can best 557 .chalk-resistant coating with good leveling properties. Moisture Blushing. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. smooth. This adverse cosmetic effect can also be minimized by using formulations with stable pigments or binders. Mildew defacement may be controlled in architectural coatings (i. Fading. Uneven loss of gloss. Figure 6. Loss of Gloss. but some do much more than others. Moisture blushing is the formation of a milky opalescence that may occur in humid environments where solvent evaporation reduces the temperature of an uncured coating to the dew point so that moisture condensation occurs on it. This cosmetic defect most commonly occurs with fast evaporating coatings such as vinyl lacquers. Discoloration.. Thus. Erosion of topcoat on deck of a ship. as well as discoloration and fading. is especially distracting when it occurs on the side of a structure that is partially shaded so that there is an uneven loss of gloss or color. All coatings lose gloss in sunlight to some extent. drying oil and water-borne latex coatings) by using EPA-approved mildewcides. Also. Fading is the reduction of color intensity. Figure 4.

Orange Peel. Wrinkling. Through-dry metal driers will help accelerate complete film curing. Figure 8. this defect occurs with spray rather than brush application of coatings. Chemical Attack on Coatings. Figure 9. Chemical attack may also occur in atmospheric service where harsh chemical fumes or vapors come into contact Brush Marks. Orange peel. This most commonly occurs to linings in storage tanks where they come into contact with stored chemical liquids. greater film thickness. In these cases. Brush marks. Localized areas of lesser film thickness almost always exhibit deterioration before areas of 558 . Wrinkling is a defect that results in the formation of small furrows or ridges in coating films. Chemical attack on coatings will occur when the coating system is not resistant to the environment. Amine blushing is the formation of a milky opalescence on the wet-film surfaces of aminecured epoxies by the reaction of the amine with carbon dioxide and water in the air to form an amine carbamate. Brush marks may occur in brushapplied coatings with insufficient leveling for the wet film to flow together to form a film of uniform thickness. but the use of lead driers (some of the best through-driers) is now greatly restricted. Wrinkling can also be minimized by avoiding thicker film than recommended by the manufacturer. Amine Blushing. Orange peel is similar to brush marks in that it is caused by insufficient leveling of the wet film. curing by air oxidation occurs much more rapidly at the coating surface than below it. It occurs most commonly with thick films of alkyds and other drying oil-curing coatings. However.be prevented by avoiding the application of moisturesensitive coatings on humid days. Contraction of the surface skin causes the wrinkling. Figure 7. Moisture blushing. and a surface skin is formed that prevents further curing of the underlying binder. This film may cause adhesion problems for topcoats if not removed as recommended by the epoxy manufacturer.

559 Mottling. heat-resistant inorganic coatings are usually used at temperatures above 450°F (230°C). Most of these stresses originate by shrinking during curing. by solvent evaporation. It is commonly caused by pigment overload (using more pigment than can be completely wetted by the limited amount of resin present). Cracking. Mottling is the presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a painted surface. and/or polymerization. This is especially likely to occur during water immersion service. Mottling. the more rigid it is and thus the greater its tendency to crack. having significant water solubility. Thus. Flooding and Floating. These pigments can be detected during a laboratory failure analysis of the water (sometimes colored) in filled blisters. Different types of cracking. The greater the coating thickness. Osmotic Blistering by Soluble Pigments. Cracking is a general term for the splitting of a coating film to relieve stresses. Flooding and floating are two cosmetic formulation defects that are sometimes confused with each other. include hairline cracking. they crack to relieve the stress. When stresses exceed the cohesive strength of the coatings. Stresses increase with further polymerization and weathering. checking. Figure 12. Flooding is the segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. High-Temperature Attack on Coatings. Floating is the segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in the surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation to produce a varigated paint surface. Hightemperature attack is likely to occur to organic coatings even during intermittent high-temperature service. other than common cracking. Figure 10. Osmotic blistering may also occur if soluble salt contaminants are not completely removed from substrates during surface preparation. Wrinkling. crazing. Cracking. Osmotic blistering may occur to coatings with primer pigments .with the coating. Figure 11.

Coating Incompatibilities Incompatibilities may occur between individual coats in a total coating system or between an existing system and a topcoat to be applied over it. Checking. Checking is the fine surface cracking that develops in coating films during prolonged curing and/ or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying substrate. as indicated by its name.alligatoring. heating and cooling. The resulting stresses cause the topcoat to crack to expose the undercoat but not the substrate. which are very rigid. other intercoat cracking. Alligatoring with bleeding. Alligatoring. Figure 13. and mud cracking. Five types of 560 . It typically occurs when a rigid coating is applied too thickly. and exposure to sunlight all contribute to checking. but cracking does not always occur in such a regular pattern. This defect often happens with inorganic zincrich coatings. Checking. Cracking usually occurs all the way through the coating to expose the substrate. Figure 14. Wetting and drying. Intercoat Cracking. These stresses are similar to those previously described for alligatoring. Figure 15. Alligatoring is a type of crazing or surface cracking with a definite pattern. Mud Cracking. Mud cracking of inorganic zinc-rich coating. Mud cracking is a cracking pattern that resembles the irregular cracking of drying mud. Cracking from intercoat stresses may occur when a relatively rigid topcoat is applied over a more flexible undercoat. It is wise to obtain all coatings for a total system that are known to be compatible with each other and that are produced by the same manufacturer. The effect often occurs when a relatively rigid coating is applied over a more flexible undercoat.

incompatibility between coatings are described here. Figure 17. The solvent dissolves some of the colored material in the existing coating and allows it to migrate through the topcoat to impart a brown surface discoloration. Blistering of coatings by hydrogen gas evolution may occur on cathodically protected surfaces where the voltages are excessively high (e. There is often insufficient solvent in the topcoat to penetrate the existing coating to achieve good intercoat adhesion. Blistering of Coatings by Hydrogen Gas Evolution. Bleeding often occurs when a topcoat with a strong solvent is applied to a coal-tar or asphalt coating. If coatings on these surfaces are not alkali-resistant. Bleeding. swell. An example of this is a chlorinated rubber or an epoxy coating with a strong solvent being applied over a vinyl dispersion (latex) coating. the surface alkalinity on the zinc-rich primer causes this chemical degradation. Saponification (hydrolysis). Coatings to be used in conjunction with cathodic protection to control the corrosion of steel must be resistant to these problems. Saponification of alkyd coating. Saponification may occur to an alkyd or other drying oil applied over a zinc-rich primer. This defect is somewhat similar to the previously described bleeding from an asphalt pavement and migration of water-soluble dyes from wood through latex coatings. Topcoat Solvent Attack on Undercoat Binder.1 volts). Saponification of Coatings. Bleeding of alkyd coating on asphalt pavement.. Limited Adhesion. Incompatibilities with Cathodic Protection There are three basic mechanisms by which coatings may be deteriorated by cathodic protection systems. or disbond. This seldom occurs if steel-to-soil or 561 Intercoat Cracking. they are subject to saponification. Figure 16.g. In any case. forms of cracking. Cracking from intercoat stresses was described earlier in the discussion of different . in excess of –1. the intercoat adhesion is significantly diminished. As with concrete. Limited adhesion and subsequent peeling may occur to a water-dispersed (latex) coating applied over a smooth oil-based enamel. Alkalinity is always produced on cathodically protected surfaces. Topcoat solvent attack on undercoat binder may cause the latter to soften.

is the drawing back of a liquid film from a Osmotic Blistering by Incomplete Removal of Soluble Salts. It normally results in coating blistering and peeling. peeling. dirt. One of the best ways of minimizing adverse effects of surface preparation is by careful inspection of the cleaned surfaces and immediate correction of any deficiencies found. and/or blistering may result from incomplete removal of rust. These recommendations may be as important as any other manufacturer recommendation. sometimes called fish eyes. mill scale. These deficiencies cannot be corrected after coating application. uniformly thick layer to form areas of little.steel-to-water potentials are regularly monitored. It occurs when the surface tension of a coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate. if any. Electroendosmosis is a mechanism of coating deterioration in which excessive cathodic potentials causes electrolyte to penetrate rapidly through a coating film. and/or blistering. Crawling (Fisheyes). and Blistering. Intimate contact between coating and substrate is necessary for good adhesion. because the remaining contaminants reduce the number of bonding sites. Incomplete removal of contaminants from an existing coating before topcoating may result in intercoat disbonding. Peeling. thickness. Figure 18. Crawling (fish eyes). Figure 19. Crawling. Incomplete removal of soluble salts during 562 . Disbonding. Osmotic blistering caused by inadequate removal of soluble salts. The coating manufacturer also provides the recommended ranges of ambient conditions suitable for successful application of each company product. Surface preparation inadequacies are either caused by inadequate removal of contaminants or by improper profile height. peeling. Flash rusting of properly cleaned steel before coating is another source of these defects. Each commercially available primer has a surface preparation recommended by its manufacturer. Coating Defects/Failures from Inadequate Surface Preparation Inadequate surface preparation is generally recognized as being the chief source of coating defects and failures. Crawling is caused by substrate contamination with oil or some other low surface energy contaminant. or other loosely held contaminants from the substrate surface or from the presence of moisture. Inadequate Surface Cleanliness Inadequately cleaned surfaces are very difficult to wet with coatings. Disbonding. Electroendosmosis. These recommendations should be carefully followed.

It is much easier to prevent coating problems associated with improper spray application than to correct them after application. recommended profile heights vary directly with the primer film thickness. Improper mixing can lead to uneven color in cured paint. Each component should be mixed separately and then mixed together in the order specified by the coating manufacturer. Thus. These salts are usually not readily visible and so must be removed and analyzed using special techniques. a mechanical mixer should be used at a speed set so that a small rather than a large vortex or depression on the paint surface is created in the center of the can. in turn. However. pot life. If this is not done. Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Coating Application As with surface preparation.6 The adverse effects of soluble salts are much greater on coatings in immersion service than in atmospheric service. primers with greater film thickness usually have higher recommended surface profiles. Thus. Use of paint shakers is not recommended. Pinpoint rusting may occur on coated steel structures where abrasive blast cleaning has produced so high a profile that it is not adequately protected by a relatively thin primer. When applying two-component thermosetting coatings. Any significant deviation from this recommendation may result in reduced coating system performance. use of complete kits rather than partially filled kits are recommended. catastrophic failure may occur. Pinpoint rusting. detection of defects and their immediate correction. all paints should be thoroughly mixed before application to ensure that the material being applied is the homogeneous blend originally manufactured. When spraying with plural-component equipment. In general. Thus. the proportions should be checked before beginning coating application to be sure that the proportions are those specified by the manufacturer. settling of the heavier pigment portion may occur during storage. The components of each kit must be properly proportioned for mixing together to achieve proper curing and optimum coating performance.7 Coatings should not be overmixed to avoid entrapping air into them. careful attention must be paid to the manufacturer’s recommendations for induction. Allowing stirred paint to set for several minutes before application may permit the release of entrapped air. and checking or cracking of the paint film. inadequate film thickness. Improper Surface Profile Each primer has a profile height recommended by its manufacturer for best performance. Plural-component spray application systems combine Components A and B together automatically in a specific ratio. Figure 20. Skilled applicators are required for the successful use Insufficient Profile Height. the best way to avoid coating failures resulting from improper coating application is by (1) carefully following the coating manufacturer’s recommendations for application and (2) carefully inspecting the work to permit early 563 . and recoat times. it is common practice not to use the triggering technique commonly used with other spray equipment because the ratio of components may vary significant at the start and stop of each trigger stroke. Therefore. Excessive Profile Height. Mixing Coatings Although coatings are prepared ready to apply. Two-component coatings such as thermosetting epoxies and polyurethanes are normally supplied in kits composed of Component A and Component B. poor coating adhesion.surface preparation may result in osmotic blistering of coatings subsequently applied. This. Insufficient profile height of cleaned surfaces may provide insufficient bonding areas for adequate coating adhesion. Pinpoint rusting may also occur when erosion significantly reduces coating film thickness. usually results in early coating loss by disbonding and peeling.

Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages. Deviation from the recommended gun-tosubstrate distance. When necessary to use a thinner. its barrier protection will be lessened. and/ or disbondment of relatively rigid coatings. Non-Uniform Coating Thickness. as described in ASTM D 4414.of plural-component application equipment. 564 . peeling. Thinning Coatings are manufactured for application as received without thinning. or delamination. wrinkling occurs more often with thicker than thinner coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils. and in the thickness range specified by the manufacturer. Effects of Improper Coating Thickness It is important that coatings be applied uniformly. Excess Coating Thickness. If a coating is applied with less than the specified minimum thickness. As discussed earlier. the first signs of deterioration invariably occur in areas of low film thickness. Excessive coating thickness may lead to the acceleration of common cracking. If coating thicknesses vary significantly outside the specified range. thicker films have more rigidity than thinner films and thus are less able to expand and contract with substrate dimensional changes. Such defects should be detected and corrected as soon as observed. Inorganic zinc-rich coatings are especially susceptible to clumping. When the total stress built up in the coating system exceeds the adhesion at its weakest point (usually primer to substrate). Figure 21. Insufficient Coating Thickness. This often results in unsightly glossy areas sometimes called hot spots. proper spray pattern. Excess coating thickness may be gradually built up by application of additional coats to an existing coating system during periodic maintenance painting. will help ensure that the desired dry film thickness is achieved. a thinner than desired coating may contribute to pinpoint rusting on steel surfaces. mud cracking. runs. As described earlier. However. Sagging. low temperatures or other conditions may necessitate thinning to reduce the viscosity for effective application. Excess thickness may also result in other types of incomplete or improper curing. holiday-free. Straining Coatings should be strained after mixing to eliminate any skins. its weight may cause the wet coating to flow downward to form sags. or curtains. or other foreign matter to avoid clogging spray equipment. Effects of Improper Spray Techniques The most uniform coating application and the best looking finishes are achieved by spray application. Thus. it should be of the type and in the amount recommended by the coating manufacturer. and thus its service life will be reduced. Thinner should be added to the coating slowly and with thorough mixing to avoid overthinning one portion of the paint and the possibility of curdling the coating or flocculation of the pigment. lumps. and standard triggering can results in defects and early coating failure. low thickness areas limit the performance of the total coated area. disbondment will occur. Coatings with variable film thicknesses tend to be resin-rich in localized areas of greater thickness. Use of a wet film thickness gauge. flaking. Disbondment may take the form of chipping. constant rate of gun travel. maximum coating performance will not be achieved. If a coating is applied too thickly. Otherwise. As described earlier.

Topcoating Outside of Recommended Recoat Window Manufacturers of two-component thermosetting coatings specify a window of time during which Pinholing. This phenomenon is somewhat similar to outgassing of wet coatings on concrete. Pinholing. It occurs most often with lacquers and other coatings that contain fast evaporating solvents. Figure 22. Cratering is a special form of pinholing caused by foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. This condition most commonly occurs with fast drying coatings. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface so that the coating cannot flow to form a uniform continuous film. interior air and solvent vapors rise to the concrete surface to form small bubbles in the topcoat. Overspray consists of atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being sprayed and fall on unintended surfaces. Solvent imbalance is an important source of pinholing. A holiday is a pinhole.Figure 23. holidays constitute a source of early electrolyte penetration and coating deterioration. A special case of pinholing often occurs during 565 . Dry spray. if any. Unless detected and corrected. Dry spray film have little. Dry Spray. as described in the chapter of this book on coating inspection. the topcoating of inorganic zinc-rich coatings on warm days. Topcoat solvent that enters the naturally porous film of the inorganic zinc-rich coating evaporates in the warm environment. Dry spray should not be confused with overspray. Dry spray is a rough. and the resulting vapors rise to the surface of the uncured topcoat to form pinholes. Holding the spray gun too far from the substrate may also contribute to dry spray. protective value. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. Holidays in coatings are best discovered using holiday detectors. during periods of rising temperature. powdery. in which. Pinholing is sometimes caused by holding the spray gun too close to the surface with excessive atomization pressure or a combination of a low atomization pressure and excessive material pressure. skip. discontinuity. Pinholing is the formation of small holes that extend through the entire thickness of a coating. Coating Holidays.

Richard W. the topcoat will have limited adhesion to the undercoat. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. Applicator Training Bulletin: Mixing and Thinning. 8. Fundamentals of Chemistry and Composition. He is a professional engineer in the state of California. 3. pp 62-66. Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Curing Most coatings require special conditions for proper curing. 5. The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating Concrete. 6. Randy Nixon and Richard W.. as recommended by its manufacturer • Thorough inspection of all phases of the work to ensure that all specification requirements are met • Rapid corrective actions to address any deviations from recommendations or early signs of coating defects. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part I. and coating system. service. They must cure within a specific relative humidity range to achieve complete and proper curing. Summary There are many causes of coating deterioration. 1998. Prior to this. In order to avoid or minimize deterioration. Richard W. pp 36-41. 1994. Charles G. If topcoated too soon.8 Moisture-blushing of coating surfaces during periods of high humidity was discussed earlier in this chapter. James F. 566 . the following actions should be taken: • Proper selection of a high-performance coating system appropriate for the particular environment and service • Preparation of a job specification that includes all requirements necessary to achieve long-term coating performance • Appropriate surface preparation for the environment. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. If topcoated too late. SSPC: Pittsburgh. References 1. Factors of Uncoated and Coated Substrates that Affect Coating Performance. Drisko received his BS. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Charles G. July 1989. Dr. an SSPC certified protective coatings specialist (PCS).their coatings can be successfully topcoated. California. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. Drisko has been the senior technical advisor to SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings since January 1995. Protective Coatings.eds. Jenkins. 2000. Corrosion and Coatings. Curing wet coatings at temperatures significantly above or below the recommended range may result in improper or incomplete curing. SSPC: Pittsburgh. and PhD degrees from Stanford. May 1990. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. 2. Design Factors. and testing. Otherwise. he was employed for over 40 years at the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Protective Coatings Glossary. and a NACE International certificated corrosion specialist. Drisko. Drisko.. Moisture-curing polyurethanes and alkyl silicate inorganic zinc-rich coatings cure to a solid film by reaction of their binders with moisture from the air. where he conducted research. Richard W. Munger. Hare. Drisko. Drisko. Port Hueneme. osmotic blistering may be caused by the entrapped solvent. and served as the Navy’s center of expertise on coatings for shore structures. 2001. Richard W. Drisko. 4. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Skinner. Coatings applied in confined spaces such as storage tanks may require both heating and ventilating to remove coating solvents and permit complete curing or curing to the extent required for topcoating.. ed. 1992. 7. Field Methods for Retrieval and Analysis of Soluble Salts on Substrates. the curing of both coats may be adversely affected. Clive H. SSPC-TU 4. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part II. MS. as recommended by the coating manufacturer • Appropriate application of the coating system. Drisko Dr. pp 65-68. Richard W. Jim. Richard W. These include ranges of temperature and relative humidity. Munger.. About the Author Dr. evaluation.

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