(2) Intentional incorporation of small air bubbles in concrete to improve such physical properties as freezethaw resistance.
Film defect in which the coated surface. as indicated by its name.
Dry bubble in coating film caused by entrapped air. [ASTM]
Any set of conditions used in an attempt to produce in a short time the results obtained under normal conditions of aging.. erosion. (2) Gradual changing of a coating’s chemical and/or physical properties over a period of in-service response time. producing a pattern of cracks similar to an alligator’s hide.
Inclusion of air bubbles in coating film or other solids such as concrete. the usual factors considered are heat. See also CRACKING. light. In accelerated aging tests. the cracks may not extend through the surface bitumen. scraping. water.. etc. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
A failure between two distinct coating layers or between the substrate and the first layer of coating. [CED] See BUBBLING.
The addition of foreign materials to a manufactured product. scraping and wear. having once reached a tack-free state. surface cracking of a paint film having the appearance similar to alligator hide. This can affect adhesion of any subsequent coat if not properly removed. alligator cracking is the vertical cracking of a coating with a pattern of closed cells or islands of unbroken coating. [CED]
(1) The process of causing small air bubbles to form in paint or wet paint film. [ASTM]. or as dry films of these materials for the purpose of subsequent tests [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]. or other frictional process. subsequently develops a sticky condition. (2) the cracking of the surface bitumen on a built-up roof. varnishes. under defined conditions of temperature. [CED]. etc. The effect is often caused during weather aging.
(1) A type of crazing or surface cracking of a definite pattern. in suitable containers. relative humidity.
Surface opalescence (blush) on epoxy films caused by reaction of amine co-reactant with carbon dioxide and water to form an amine carbamate. and oxygen.
The ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing.FAILURE TERMS
an excerpt from SSPC's Protective Coatings Glossary
The wearing away of a surface by action such as by rubbing. either separately or combined. [CED]
(1) Storage of paints. TENSILE (PULL-OFF) in main glossary. See ADHESION TEST.
to influences from the surface on which it is applied or to weathering or contamination from the atmosphere. removing color. which has failed to wrinkle or give the desired optical effect. [CED]. See FOULING.
Disfiguring of surfaces by growth of microorganisms.g.g. [CED]
Biological encrustation of surfaces in sea water by flora and fauna. This may be due to internal chemical or physical action in the paint itself. etc. See LIVERING.
Additive used to control sagging of a coating. [CED]
A chemical agent capable of killing organisms such as those responsible for microbiological degradation. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
Material added to surface coating compositions to prevent the formation of wrinkles in films during curing. varnishes.FAILURE TERMS ANTI-FOAMING AGENT
Additive used to control or prevent foam formation during the manufacture or application of coatings. asphalt) by the action of the coating solvent.
Any undesirable change in material properties brought about by the activities of microorganisms.
Area or patch.
. usually in a wrinkle finish film. These additives normally function by altering the rheological properties of the paint.
Additive used to prevent the livering of a coating.
Any material added to a coating to prevent or retard the processes of oxidation or polymerization that result in the formation of an insoluble skin on the surface of the coating in a container. barnacles. (2) Intentional lightening of the color of a material such as wood..
(1)Bleaching is a uniform loss of color of a paint or varnish. [AM]
Coating discoloration by the diffusion of coloring matter from a previously painted or unpainted surface (e. e.
Substance incorporated into a pigmented paint to retard settling and to maintain uniform consistency during storage or painting operations. vegetable oils.
and relative humidity. or excessive moisture in the substrate. Unlike bleeding. the solvent-caused movement of material is from the coating itself and not the substrate. or in the case of pipe after spinning. [CED]
Appearance of color on a newly painted surface by migration of a previously painted substrate beneath it.
(1) Formation of dome-shaped projections (blisters) in paints or varnish films resulting from local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from an underlying paint film (intercoat blistering) or the base substrate. This effect is most pronounced when paint is being applied into corners or boxed areas. (2) Rebound of abrasive particles during abrasive blasting.
A coating’s ability to resist the formation of blisters. OVERSPRAY.FAILURE TERMS BLEEDING
The diffusion of colored matter from a substrate (including a previously applied paint film) into a newly applied finish.
(1) The undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together under normal conditions or under specified conditions of temperature. [CED]
The ability of two coated surfaces to resist sticking together during normal handling and storage. See also DRY SPRAY. The standard test method for evaluating the degree of blistering of paints is described in ASTM D 714. moisture diffusion through the coating. The solvent carrier of the newly applied finish normally transfers the coloring matter. See also BLISTERING. or lacquer which occurs during storage. also bulging of the finish plaster coat as it separates and draws away from the base coat [ACI]. [MPDA]
(1) The rebound of atomized paint particles during spray application. (2) An increase in the viscosity or thixotropy of a paint. (2) The irregular raising of a thin layer at the surface of placed mortar or concrete during or soon after completion of the finishing operation.
The reduction of a coating gloss caused by materials exuding in or from an applied film. resulting in a discoloration of the finish. (2) Undesired adhesion between touching layers of material. Examples are bituminous surfaces.
A barrier coat or transition primer/tie coat that prevents incompatible paints from touching. Blistering may be caused by solvent entrapment. See also BARRIER COAT. (3) Formation of blisters in films of paint or varnish. pressure.
Thickening of an oil through thermal processing. organic pigments.
Usually circular-shaped discoloration in stained or painted siding. such as occurs under moderate pressure and sometimes pressure and heat. during storage or fabrication. contaminants. TIE COAT in main glossary.
. wood knots. The resultant return flow of atomized air carries some of the paint particles away from the surface. varnish.
An undesirable rounded elevation of the coating resulting from the local loss of adhesion.
Hole or holiday shaped like a cat’s eye. and is characterized by a distinct hue of different predominant wavelength than the hue of the paint itself. TOP DRYING in main glossary. very dramatic. The origin of the selective specular reflectance is generally considered to be reflectance from very small particle size pigments partially separated from the surrounding vehicle at or near the surface. and serious.
Degree of susceptibility to cracking or breaking by bending.
CATASTROPHIC COATING FAILURE
A coating failure that is sudden.
Metallic degradation resulting in substantial loss of metal. usually not exceeding 15 mm in diameter. cratering.
Hard setting of pigment from a liquid paint during storage. (2) Small ridges or valleys produced in a paint film by the combing action of the bristle of a brush. [CED]
(1) Marks produced in a coating by the bristles of a brush during application. It is perceived at the specular angle. resulting from entrapment of air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete during placement and compaction. by observing the image of a white light source.
Small regular or irregular cavities.FAILURE TERMS BRITTLE
Susceptible and being easily broken. for example. appearance term applied to metal-like reflectance which sometimes appears at the surface of nonmetallic colored materials.
Surface hardening without thorough drying of film. [AM] See CRATERING. fragile. descriptive.[CED] See SURFACE DRYING.
Mechanical lifting of a coating caused by hydrogen bubbles formed when cathodic protection
. brush marks may or may not remain in the dried coating. [CED]
Compound used to control the formation of bubbles in a coating. [AM]
A subjective. Depending on the leveling characteristics of the paint.
Resistance to deterioration of liquid paint in original container.
Air bubbles or solvent vapor bubbles found temporarily in the wet film of a coating or permanently in the dry film.
The formation of loose powder on the surface of a coating. usually caused by degradation of the organic binder by the sun’s ultraviolet light. (2) Development of shallow cracks at closely spaced but irregular intervals on the surface of plaster. when it no longer protects the substrate.
The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. [CED]. usually in small pieces. shallow cracks in a coating resulting from surface weathering.e. or concrete [ACI]. ASTM D 4214 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films. CRACKING RESISTANCE. resulting from impact by hard objects or from wear during service. ASTM D 913 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Resistance of Wear to Traffic Paint. provides
The lack of clarity or transparency in a paint or varnish film.
The ability of a coating or layers of coatings to resist total or partial removal..
The ability of a pigmented coating to resist chalking. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to effect violent localized agitation. this failure is usually characterized by sharp edges and definite demarcation of the base area. [ASM]
A process involving conjoint corrosion and cavitation. Cavitation caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. See also CHECKING.
The ability of a coating to resist checking. cement paste.
Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continuing exposure to cavitation.
Total or partial removal of a dried paint film in flakes by accidental damage or wear during service.
(1) The fine cracking that develops in paint films during prolonged curing and/or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying surface.
CHAMPAGNE FINISH (EFFERVESCENCE)
The slight surface roughening caused by small bubbles of escaping solvent vapor. See also CHALKING. i. in traffic paints. ASTM D 660 is a Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior Paints. ASTM D 3170 is the Standard Test Method for Chipping Resistance of Coatings. [CED]
Loss of a coating’s function or purpose.FAILURE TERMS
A mild form of crawling.
The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a metal and its environment that results in the loss of material and its properties. (2) To break up into simpler chemical components. as with cracking of petroleum. material.
The propensity of a substance to adhere to itself. The force holding a substance together.
The ability to resist formation of cracks that extend through at least one coat of paint.
The rapid drying of a coating (often a lacquer) during application to form fine strings instead of normal atomization.
Property of a material relating to its ability to maintain constant color during surface exposure. crazing. a driving. and mud cracking.
The formation of hairline cracks in lacquers exposed to low temperatures. cracking.
(1) The splitting of a dry paint film. checking. generally light and weathering.FAILURE TERMS
an attractive appearance. or process to become dirty or impure.
Condition causing a surface. Metals corrode because they exist in chemically unstable states. the material that causes a surface to be in this state. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] The ability of a single coating layer to resist internal partitioning or fracturing.
The ability of a film of paint or varnish to show little change in original color after being exposed to a specific environment. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface.
Crazing and cracking of a coating subjected to low temperatures or cold/ambient cycling. See
A failure or break within a given coat or material (the coating breaks within itself). The standard test method for evaluating degree of cracking is described in ASTM D 661. Color retention requirements usually are described in terms of color difference defined according to a standard test procedure. [CED]
COLD WALL EFFECT
In tank linings. Different types of cracking include hair-cracking or hairlines. also. permeating force assisting ionic passage through a coating to a metal in the direction from a hot liquid to a cold wall. especially to sunlight. crocodiling or alligatoring.
The process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment. The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose.
In these locations. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
Small. shallow depressions in a coating generally resulting from foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
The ability of a coating to resist color transfer when rubbed or abraded.
Corrosion that occurs within or adjacent to a crevice formed by contact with two pieces of the same metal or another metal or with a nonmetallic material.
Topcoat cracking caused by application of topcoat before the previously applied coat has sufficiently cured.
See CRAWLING. Staining of a white cloth by rubbing lightly over a colored surface.
A coating film defect in which a pattern of wrinkles resembling a crow’s foot is formed. if any.
Removal of color upon abrasion or rubbing. It occurs when the surface tension of the coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate. UNDERCUTTING. the intensity of attack is usually more severe than on surrounding areas of the same metal surface. See CRACKING. [WJP]
A network of intersecting checks or cracks appearing on a coated surface.FAILURE TERMS
CRACKING. See WRINKLING.
A surface or film imperfection (flaw).
Sags with a draped appearance. thickness.
The formation of small. See CRATERING. deficiency. CHECKING RESISTANCE. or incompleteness that deviates from a speci-
. rounded depressions in a coating film that do not expose the previous coat or the substrate.
The drawing back of a liquid film from a uniformly thick layer to form areas of little.
. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. The opposite of thixotropy.
Change in the color of a coating after application (usually an undesired darkening).
Selective loss of zinc metal from a brass alloy.
Stiffening and loss of fluidity of paint upon agitation.
The separation resulting from insufficient adhesion of a coating to an undercoating or other substrate.
Additives used to reduce or eliminate foam formed in a coating or coating constituent. ASTM D 3274 is the standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal or Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. similar to spalling. a horizontal splitting.
(1) The separation of a coat or coats of paint from the previous coat or from the substrate.
A gradual loss of coating materials and/or properties resulting from their service conditions and weathering.FAILURE TERMS
fication or industry-accepted condition.
See DIRT ACCUMULATION.
See HOLIDAY. (2) In the case of a concrete slab. or other foreign material on the exterior surfaces of coatings or other substrates.
The collection of air-borne dirt. or peeling except that the delamination affects large areas and can often be detected by tapping.
The ability of a coating to resist soiling. scaling. [ACI]
An additive that prevents pigments in suspension from coalescing to form flocs. the upper surface. and generally near. soot. See ANTI-FOAMING AGENT. cracking. found most frequently in bridge decks and caused by the corrosion of reinforcing steel or freezing and thawing. Failure of a coating to adhere to the previous coating. or separation of a slab in a plane roughly parallel to.
The migration of a substance to the surface. Efflorescence results from leaching of lime or calcium hydroxide out of a permeable concrete mass over time by water.
A joint action involving corrosion and erosion. It
Penetration of water through a coating film caused by excessive cathodic protection potentials.
To separate in flakes. (CED)
An apparatus for determining the resistance of coatings and other materials to fading.
A white crystalline or powdery deposit on the surface of concrete. or layers. A paint with a lot of drag is hard to work with a brush.
Loss of gloss or sheen.
(1) A rough. See also BOUNCE BACK. OVERSPRAY. ASTM D 662 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints. powdery. such as resin from wood. Often results in blistering of coatings.
A drop of wet coating that forms on or falls from the edge of the coated substrate. sand-like covering.FAILURE TERMS DRAG
Resistance of paint to being spread by a brush. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface. or plasticizer from films. [AM]
Degree to which paints and paint materials withstand the destructive effect of the conditions to which they are subjected.
A type of coating adhesion failure in which undercutting (penetration of corrosion beneath the coating) occurs at an unprotected or incompletely protected edge. followed by reaction with carbon dioxide and acidic pollutants.
The gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. scales. (2) Overspray or bounce back falling dry on unintended surfaces and producing an adherent.
The detachment of pieces of the paint film itself either from its substrate or from paint previously applied.
The ability of a coating to resist the actual detachment of film fragments either from the previously applied coating or the substrate. [ACI]
See FISH EYES. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking.
Formation of clusters of pigment particles in a fluid medium that may occur after dispersion. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
(1) A narrow linear projection on a formed concrete surface. Also known as scaling resistance.
Corrosion exhibiting a thread-like structure and directional growth under coatings on metal surfaces such as steel or aluminum. checking. See HOT SPOTS.
An investigation conducted to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. [ASTM D-16]
The occurrence on the surface of a coating film of patches glossier than the surrounding coating. and the particle clusters can be broken up by applying
. or blistering.FAILURE TERMS
accelerates the fading by subjecting coated panels to high-intensity ultraviolet wavelengths similar to those found in sunlight. if present.
See PAINT FAILURE. loss of coating function. checking or blistering and is the result of loss of adhesion usually due to stress-strain factors.
Coating film defects related to cratering in which small dimples or holidays resembling fish eyes form in the wet coating. and/or corrosion.
A cosmetic coating defect consisting of reduction in color intensity. ASTM D 722 is the standard test method for evaluating degree of flaking of exterior paints. COATING FAILURE.
The development of cracks in coating when subjected to repeated bending. Also referred to as scaling. (2) A type of blade in a concrete mixer drum. See CRATERING. Flaking is generally preceded by cracking. Produces a varigated paint surface.
The segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation. resulting from mortar flowing into spaces in the formwork. and is the result of loss of adhesion. The condition usually is reversible.
A rough. It results in more rapid settling although it is usually soft. attached to the hulls of ships and other structures in sea water that cause drag.
Marine organisms. or drawings that deface a wall or other surface.
The segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. Flocculation is often visible as a “Jack Frost” pattern in a flowout of a dispersion. semisolid network is formed.
Misting. (2) The first stage in the cure of an epoxy or polyurethane coating in which a soft. Compare to FLOATING. [ASM]
See FOAMING. microscopically.
The accelerated deterioration at the interface between contacting surfaces as the result of corrosion and slight oscillatory movement between two surfaces.
Ability of a coating material to maintain its gloss. slogans.
Markings. bumpy.FAILURE TERMS
relatively weak mechanical forces or by a change in the physical forces at the interface between the liquid and the solid dispersed particles. or sand-like texture in a dry coating film.
Accelerated corrosion resulting from two dissimilar metals in electrical contact. exposed to conductive medium.
The development of small air bubbles into liquid coatings during mixing.
A cosmetic coating defect occurring to low sheen finishes in which there are areas with less color or difference in sheen from surrounding areas. both flora and fauna. See also LIVERING.
(1) A defect in which an oil or alkyd paint or varnish thickens to jelly-like consistency in an unopened container. it appears as a lacework or reticulum of loosely clustered particles. [AM]
Any material in a paint or varnish or on a coating film that does not belong there. Latex coatings are especially susceptible to this phenomenon because of their surface active agents used to stabilize the dispersion. Surface-active agents are often useful in reducing the extent of flocculation and hence the yield value. shows loss of color strength and poor dispersion.
A pigment with a high refractive index that gives the most hiding power to a coating. high-voltage or AC electrostatic) to detect nicks.
Pinhole. Heat resistance depends on the binder type and other coating ingredients. [CED] See INCOMPLETE HIDING. scrapes or pinholes (holidays) that penetrate a coating film. and zinc oxide are materials with high refractive indices. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
Very fine cracks which do not penetrate the topcoat. Rutile titanium dioxide. discontinuity.
Instrument utilizing electric current (low-voltage.
Voids left in concrete due to failure of the mortar to effectively fill the spaces among course aggregate particles. [CED] See CRACKING.
The ability of a coating to resist deterioration when exposed continuously or periodically to high temperatures at or below a given level. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. they occur erratically and at random. [ACI]
Areas of higher gloss than surrounding areas often caused by being relatively resin-rich where coating was applied more thickly than other areas.
Deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures.
Ability of a coating to resist a sudden blow.
See IMPACT RESISTANCE.FAILURE TERMS GRINNING THROUGH
Showing through of the underlying surface layer due to inadequate opacity of a paint film which has been applied to it. needle-like or sliver-like protrusions (ranging from 3 to 6 mils [76 to 152 micrometers]) found on steel plates that have been blasted with steel shot or grit.
Thin. skip. followed by anatase titanium dioxide. ability to resist deformation from impact.
See CLOUDINESS. zinc sulfide.
Failure to completely obscure from vision any underlying coating or other substrate. peaks. The amount of laitance is influenced by the type and amount of admixtures.
. The incompatibility may be chemical (e..g.
The progressive.g. i.. inability to expand and contract with substrate).. the degree of working.
Resistance to penetration by an indenter.
Visually darker section edges where paints or stains have dried before adjacent areas have tied into them.FAILURE TERMS INCLUSION
Presence of foreign material in the finished material. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary] Lifting often occurs because the solvents in the new coat are too strong for the previous coat.
Softening and raising or wrinkling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat.
The ability of a coating to flow out after application so as to obliterate any surface irregularities such as brush marks.
See COHESIVE FAILURE. See COHESION.
Chemical added to coating to increase the ability of the wet film to settle to a uniform thickness. where a wet edge has not been maintained.
See INTERCOAT DELAMINATION. The ability of a paint film to hold itself together. or craters which have been produced by the mechanical process of application. [CED]
Contamination between successive coats of paint or a coat of paint and the base substrate. [CED]
Inability of coating materials to perform satisfactorily when in direct contact with another coating or substrate. and the amount of water in the concrete. orange peel.
The separation (disbonding) of two adjacent coats of paint.
A thin. irreversible increase in consistency of a pigment-vehicle combination. weak. brittle layer of cement and aggregate fines on a concrete surface. causing bleeding or saponification) or physical (e.
Cohesion within a coat of paint.
that grow on paint and other surfaces.
Gradual deterioration of a coating as a result of exposure to an exterior environment.
An additive used to enhance a coating’s ability to resist mildew growth. e. voids.
A coating’s ability to resist the growth of mildew (fungus growth) on its surface. shady places.
Whitish or translucent appearance in an unpigmented liquid coating or film which should normally be transparent.
Microorganisms. but it also may result from polymerization of the vehicle.
MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)
Corrosion that is affected by the action of microorganisms in the environment. [AM]
The presence of differently colored spots or blotches on a surface.
Unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated surfaces caused by growth of microorganisms. [Painting/Coatings Dictionary]
See MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION.g. as opposed to artificial (laboratory) accelerated weathering.
A coating defect resembling the irregular cracking of drying mud that typically arises during the curing of a relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly. particularly fungi.” which is reversible.FAILURE TERMS
Livering usually results from a chemical reaction of the vehicle with the solid dispersed material. ASTM D 3274 is the Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Microbial (Fungal and Algal) Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation. particularly in damp.. The irreversible character of the changes distinguishes livered material from thixotropic “build-up.
. skips. [CED]
Holidays. causing discoloration and disfigurement. particularly fungi. sulfatereducing bacteria found in some petroleum products and in sewage.
Disbonding of particles of paint. It may be caused by dampness.
A coating application (usually spray) defect in which the coating surface has the irregular appearance of an orange skin because of insufficient leveling of the wet film. (2) Spray particles that are not wet enough to fuse when they reach the surface being sprayed.
See COATING FAILURE. Oil canning can lead to cracking of the coating at the edges. [AM]
An exposure of the coating to a temperature moderately higher or for a longer period of time. BOUNCE BACK.
See CHIPPING. On products such as appliances. or both. varnish.
Use of more pigment in a coating than can be completely wetted by the resin. [CED]
(1) Atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being spraye.FAILURE TERMS
An unacceptable variation of color from that desired or specified. As a result. or lacquer film from a surface due to loss of adhesion. an improperly prepared surface. exceeding the
Caused by an aftercure or being subjected to too high a temperature or too long a period at a proper temperature and resulting in a product with lowered performance. orange peel may be desirable.
Dispersed too finely by use of excessive atomizing pressure. [CED] so as to adversely affect coating performance.
The conversion of a satisfactory coating into an unacceptably soft and tacky one. when in contact with household or industrial oils. See also DRY SPRAY.
Bowing of the edges of a steel plate due to thermal expansion and contraction or cyclic loading and unloading.
See DETERIORATION. or excessive moisture behind the surface. than that recommended by the manufacturer of the coating for normal curing. overspray may contaminate property beyond the surface being sprayed.
(1) Localized corrosion of a metal surface. (3) Formation of depressions (pits) in the surface of a coating often caused by the escape of gas or solvent vapor. OVERSPRAY.
A holiday or discontinuity that extends entirely through a coating film.
The accumulation of a liquid or paint in a shallow depression. moisture.
Particular case of water spotting caused by rain. normally caused by solvent bubbling.
REDUCED SERVICE LIFE
Lessened time during which the coating provides its intended function(s).
The length of time a coating system provides protection to a substrate. approximately the size of a pin. See BOUNCE BACK. [AM]
. such as in concrete.FAILURE TERMS
critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC).
A small hole in the surface of a metal or other material that is deeper than its diameter. which allow fluids to penetrate an otherwise impervious material. pitting is localized disintegration. [ACI]. that takes the form of cavities [ASM]. [AM]
Formation of small holes through the entire thickness of coating. [MPDA]
Formation of blisters of solvent vapor in wet coating surfaces that break but do not level because of too great a viscosity. see CRATERING.
(1) The ratio. Very dense pinpoint rusting can appear on painted steel surfaces where the coating does not completely cover the blast cleaning profile. or foreign particles. confined to a point or small area. [CED]
In spraying of coatings. dispersed points of rust that can appear at pinholes and holidays in a coating. such as popout.
See PITTING. (2) In concrete.
A surface defect of net-like appearance. usually expressed as a percentage of the volume of voids in a material to the total volume of the material including the voids [ACI]. (2) Small interconnected voids. the atomized particles that bounce back from the surface being painted.
Alkaline hydrolysis of fats to form soaps. See SALT SPRAY TEST in main glossary. Also known as “sags” or “curtains. overspray. [ACI]
See SAGGING. (2) Subsidence of shotcrete. This effect also can be the result of poor workmanship. denser. Thus. due generally to excessive water in the mixture. See also RUNS.
SALT AND PEPPER RUSTING
See PINPOINT RUSTING.
An iron oxide that forms naturally on ferrous metals as a result of exposure to normal weathering or industrial atmospheres. and lower viscosity coatings are more likely to sag.
SALT FOG RESISTANCE
Resistance to deterioration during salt spray testing.
(1) The irregular downward flow of wet paint under the force of gravity to produce a thicker lower edge. thicker. also called sloughing.
A quality of paint that does not flow out evenly and dries with slight ridges. plaster. This commonly occurs on the alkaline surfaces of concrete and galvanizing.
The ability of a wet paint film to resist the downward flow that results in an uneven film with thick edges and runs.
See SAGGING. frequently due to application of a coat that is too heavy and not brushed out well.FAILURE TERMS RETRACTION
See CRAWLING. COATING
The akaline hydrolysis of coating binders (usually their drying oils) to disbond and degrade them.” [MPDA] See SAGGING. or the like.
A surface condition having the appearance of sandpaper.
See BRUSH MARKS.
Irregularities of a surface due to uneven flow.
A surface defect characterized by parallel hairlike striations in coated films. Moisture entering cracks in the paint film destroys its adhesive property and results in the flaking or scaling of the paint. undesirable particles or granules in a paint.FAILURE TERMS SCALING
Paint failure that causes a coating to fall off in flakes or chips. [AM]
The sinking of pigments.
Descriptive of a paint finish that is not smooth owing to undispersed pigment particles or insoluble gel particles in the paint.
Formation of a thick film (skin) on the surface of a liquid paint during storage.
Holidays. with a consequent accumulation on the bottom of the can.
Formation of small. or lacquer. [AM]
See CISSING. extenders or other solid matter in a paint in a container.
The occurrence of particles in a coating formed from action of reactive pigments and acidic components of the binder during storage that result in a roughened surface on the cured film. uncoated areas. varnish.
A coating of paint showing through a subsequent coating. voids. [CED]
See SEEDINESS. more likely to occur to a previously opened or partially filled container. [PDCA]
Action or process of depositing matter (sediment) that settles to the bottom of a liquid.
A solid or semisolid membrane that sometimes forms on paint or varnish in the can. [CED]
Division into components or layers by natural causes. [AM]
See DIRT ACCUMULATION.
The failure of solvent to completely evaporate from a paint film due to inadequate drying
The roughening of the surface of a coating resulting in loss of gloss or wrinkle. Scaling is the last stage of cracking.
See SOLVENT ENTRAPMENT.
The ability of a coating to avoid change in appearance after a material capable of staining has been applied and removed. especially ones distinguished by color. irregular lines or bands or layer-edges. allowing them to pull together into clusters or flocs or when flocs of resin form due to dilution with a solvent or diluent of insufficient strength. [MPDA]. In the case of corrosion.
Development of small areas on a painted surface which differ in color or gloss from the major portion of the work. [CED]
Drying of the surface of a liquid coating film before the body of the coating film. [CED]
The chipping or fragmenting of a surface or surface coating caused. visible on a surface. solution or disfigurement. resistant to chemical reaction with oxygen. [CED]
See ORANGE PEEL. by differential thermal expansion or contraction. without completely hiding it or forming a continuous film. See TOP DRYING in main glos-
A proportion of solvent types in a coating that causes inadequate solvency or improper evaporation rates. narrow.
Resistant to change. especially wood. [CED]
The situation wherein some of the protective vehicle is washed off the fine pigment particles. Spalling of a concrete surface also may result from corrosion of rebar or other embedded steel.” to form. See SOLVENT RUB TEST in main glossary.
The ability of a coating to resist solvent attack.
conditions and/or recoating too soon. The result often is that the under portion is slow in drying and that solvent is trapped within the coating or the coating remains soft for an extended period of time. sometimes called “solvent pop. (2) An undesirable surface coloration.
An incomplete or not continuously wet coating caused by a faulty spray painting application. POPPING.
See MOTTLING. for example.
(1) A solution or suspension of coloring material formulated to provide a color to a surface. It may cause blisters or pinholes.
Uniform drying throughout the film as opposed to bottom-drying or top-drying.
The stickiness of a surface such as a paint or varnish film during the drying period.
General term used to describe surface defects such as crawling that give rise to unique patterns.
The exudation of oil from a coating after it appears to have cured. coatings are tack-free after application.FAILURE TERMS
Failure of a coating to reach its optimum degree of cure.
Corrosion that occurs between a coating and the metal substrate without a break in the coating layer. In some cases. [PDCA]
Absence of tack or stickiness in an applied coating after suitable drying time.
The gradual penetration and spread of corrosion beneath a coating from a break or pinhole in the film or from unprotected edges. See SERVICE LIFE in main glossary. Oil paints and spar varnishes may retain tack for several weeks after they are considered dry.
Formation of localized corrosion products scattered over the surface in the form of knob-like mounds.
The length of time a coating adequately performs its function.
. with a resultant loss of performance properties. Also referred to as creepage.
See HOLIDAY. tack may not develop until a little later.
UNEVEN LOSS OF GLOSS
Uneven loss of gloss is a cosmetic coating surface defect in which there is a variation in reduction of sheen such as may occur where there is partial shading.
White oxidation products (oxide. hydroxide. and temperature changes.
See WATER STAINING.
The formation of a yellow color or cast on a white or light-colored coating. carbonate) of zinc formed on galvanized and other zinc coated surfaces. or other properties. water spray. chemical composition. rain. characterized by changes in color.
See WRINKLING. light. water.
A defect that creates small furrows or ridges in a coating film. and sunlight. Electric arcs.FAILURE TERMS VOID
See HOLIDAY. and heating elements are used to simulate the natural conditions of sun. Wrinkling usually occurs with thick films of oil-based paint. It is apparent after drying. such as heat. or sheen in the shape of spots and streaks. fluorescent bulbs.
WEATHERING CONDENSATION TEST
A test that exposes coated specimens to a cycle consisting of fluorescent ultraviolet light and condensing humidity to accelerate the effects of sunlight and moisture.
The capability of a coating to resist the combination of exposures created by weather. [CED]
The behavior of paint films when exposed to natural weather or accelerated weathering equipment.
. gloss. rain. [CED]
An apparatus in which specimen materials can be subjected to artificial and accelerated weathering tests that simulate natural weathering by the use of controlled cycles of ultraviolet radiation. thermal cycling. or other sources of ultraviolet light. and heat. cold. strength.
Any nonuniform change in appearance. including color. resulting from the accumulation of water on or the contact of water with the painted surface. texture.
and frequently. Identification of causes of problems can be fed back into the specification and application process to avoid repetition of failure events.
Recognising the type of paint failure encountered in the field is an important mechanism in ensuring quality coatings and coating application. while expensive. Environmental pressures on paint manufacturers to eliminate potentially hazardous pigments and reduce the amount of volatile organic greenhouse-causing solvents in paint coatings has accelerated the development of new types of paint coatings. Industrial or marine applications are critical applications where the performance requirements of the paint system must be clearly understood. but may perform poorly in highly acidic exposures or where movement or vibration may result in cracking of the relatively infexible paint film. and again.22 -
. paint failures can be traced to the incorrect selection of paint for the particular application.
All paints eventually fail by weathering and the life expectancy of a paint system will be well defined by the manufacturer or within performance standards such as AS/NZS 2312 . Water based acrylic paints have very good compatibility with galvanized coatings and rarely have adhesion problems on properly prepared surfaces. low solvent or solventless coatings have replaced many of the standard industrial coatings of yesteryear. It is therefore important for specifiers to clearly identify the environment in which the coating has to operate and ensure that paint systems selected are capable of delivering the life cycle performance expected. Those that fail prematurely will have done so because of an identifiable problem associated with their application. Epoxy coatings are often considered the cure-all for most industrial applications. which have excellent UV stability over time. offer advances in durability over traditional technologies. but only its appearance. In some cases. their suggested uses and characteristics. Again.One of the most common examples of incorrect paint selection is the use of alkyd (oil based) paints. or two-pack uretahne or acrylic systems. with detailed descriptions of a wide range of generic paint types. unless they are specially formulated will rarely give the same durability as water-based acrylic paints. Many paints have poor UV resistance. Causes of paint coating failure are frequently associated with either: • • • • incorrect specification faulty material incorrect application incorrect curing/post handling procedures. oil based paints. A great deal of research has gone into paint technology development by the major Australian and international paint companies as they compete with each other and with other coatings and materials to produce better performing products. AS/NZS 2312 provides one of the most valuable reference works for paint coatings and paint
. Water based. resulting in the common phenomenon of flaking or peeling paint.Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel from Atmospheric Corrosion. The paint reacts with the zinc in the galvanized coating and loses its adhesion. Hybrid organic/inorganic binder systems have also been developed that.CORROSION MANAGEMENT
defects in paint coatings
by CM Staff based on information supplied by Wattyl Paints
systems. coating defects do not always affect the coating’s performance. for painting galvanized coatings. The following catalogue of paint defects has been assembled with associated descriptions of causes and remedies to assist in identifying problems and dealing with them to ensure a quality coating. There is always a reason for every coating failure.
or paint applied over soft or wet undercoat. shiny spots
Allow to dry and apply another finish coat under acceptable conditions for moisture and humidity. Scrape off wrinkles and apply thinner coat. solvent evaporated too fast. Paint too viscous. Small. avoid intense sunlight.
FADING . valleys in paint resembling skin of orange
OVERSPRAY . Sand or blast to smooth finish and apply additional coats. too much thinner. Non uniform film thickness.also called pitting. proper levels of cathodic protection. brush out and apply additional coat. or air pressure too low for proper atomization. coarse atomization. or paint particles falling outside spray pattern.tiny.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000
DESCRIPTION SAGS . silicon.thin. sand and apply another coat. or surface too hard or glossy to hold paint.separation or pulling apart of wet film to expose underlying finish or substrate BLUSHING . respray with retarder added to thinner.rusting at pinholes or holidays
. Ultraviolet light degradation. Before cure. especially with oil-based paints. adequate cleaning of surface contamination. After cure. Sand or blast remove. sand and apply another coat.
ORANGE PEEL . Dry. pebbly surface
COBWEBBING .also called dry spray. Pinholing or too high a steel surface profile for coating thickness. dirt. or settled pigment. oil.rough. Most common with fast evaporating lacquers. Surface skinning over uncured paint because of too much thickness and/ or too warm weather. gun too close to surface. Air pockets trapped in wet film during spraying. Particles reaching surface not wet enough to level because of too rapid solvent evaporation. apply additional coat. spider web-like particles
Use slower evaporating solvent or apply when cooler. Application over oil. Solvent evaporating too rapidly. brush apply a fresh coat plus topcoat. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. or incompatible coating. remove by dry brushing followed by solvent wiping.colour changes or irregularities WRINKLING .also called runs or curtains. gun too far from surface. brush out excess paint and modify spray conditions. or moisture behind paint film. Use holiday detector for early detection of pinholes.23 -
. moisture or salt-contaminated surfaces. sand and apply another coat. After cured. stringy paint. Repaint and avoid possible sources of moisture. If uncured. sand and apply another coat.
UNEVEN GLOSS .
Sand or blast remove. deep holes exposing substrate PINPOINT RUSTING . Before cure. REMEDY Before cure. After cure. or cathodic disbonding. such as vinyls and chlorinated rubbers. moisture in film. uniform identations in film FISH EYES . too much paint.
CRATERING . Insufficient paint spray atomization.hills.non uniform sheen. After cure. Solvent entrapment. flat.small to large broken or unbroken bubbles
Blowers in enclosed areas to accelerate solvent release. Excess flow of paint CAUSE Spray gun too close to work. If cured. Temperature change during curing.flat finish with milky appearance
Moisture condensation in high humidity with fast evaporating or unbalanced thinner in spray application. apply additional coats after mechanical or blast cleaning. crinkled surface
spot-remove loose paint and apply flexible paint (e.heavy wrinkling MOISTURE DAMAGE .g. No means by which interior moisture can be vented to exterior. too thick a coat.
. or mechanically remove total paint and apply new coat. coal tar). A relatively inflexible coating applied too thickly (especially common with inorganic zincs). Stress from weathering (contraction of total system) exceeds adhesion to substrate. penetrating soft coatings (eg. poorbonded undercoat. clean painted vent holes. Paint shrinkage. avoid configurations that permit collection of contaminants. INFLEXIBLE PAINT . irregular cracks as with dried mud
Early detection of defects with holiday detector and correction.peeling of paint by underlying moisture
Stress from cured. Corrosion products formed where steel is exposed. clean and roughen smooth surface. channels. Sand. REMEDY
Sand or mechanically remove checked coat and apply another coat. If limited. scrape. ABRASION DAMAGE . etc. fillet weld seams and crevices. salt.
UNDERCUTTING . Sand or mechanically remove all loose paint.peeling of thick paint from substrate PAINT APPLIED TO DAMP SURFACE . Critical pigment level exceeded (sometimes by tinting white paint rather than tint base). Remove and replace damaged paint with one tougher or more adherent. Difficult to coat surfaces. mechanically or chemically remove paint to substrate before re-coating. or work area. etc. Use wedges between adjacent lap boards. weight of fouling peeling poorly bonded paint.CORROSION MANAGEMENT
DESCRIPTION CHECKING . or configurations that permit collection of moisture. vents. Apply properly prepared finish coat. or applied at too high a temperature.mechanical damage FOULING DAMAGE . usually short. mottled surface IRREGULAR SURFACE DETERIORATION . etc. latex). Separation/lifting of paint from chalky substrate or smooth. use antifouling paints for fouling control. or mechanically remove paint and re-coat. crevices. limited flexibility.
Remove by scraping or sanding and re-coat under dry conditions. sanding/mechanical cleaning may be acceptable on older substrates. blast. undermining and lifting paint.deep. for migration. Same as above
PEELING OF MULTIPLE COATS peeling of heavy paint build-up from substrate
PEELING OF THICK. Remove coating and abrasively blast steel before reapplying lesser thickness. use inhibitive pigments in primer.narrow breaks. or applied/cured at too high a temperature. sandblast. blast. Physical damage by abrasion (also impact). Contaminated surface. excessive thickness (especially zincrich paints).also called pigment float. Moisture on substrate distorts wet film.
Round edges. and re-coat. if extensive.24 -
.deterioration at edges. weathered (contracted) paint exceeds adhesion to substrate.deep cracks in paint that expose substrate CAUSE Limited paint flexibility.penetration or peeling by action of marine fouling organisms MUD CRACKING . spot repair and use more abrasion or impact-resistant coatings.blistering and/ or peeling of paint where exposed steel is rusting DIRT UNDER PAINT . Barnacles. spray. Sand. dirt dried in paint film DELAMINATION .peeling. provide drainage. corners. Provide fendering protection. and dirt. in topcoat that expose undercoat CRACKING .peeling from undercoat or substrate PIGMENT OVERLOAD .
Organic solvent in wet paint or fresh asphalt dissolves bituminous material and causes it to migrate through paint.73 Remove loose chalk and apply chalkresistant finish coat. shaded paint. Store indoors in cool environment. seal more humid side of wells.black fungal growth CHALKING EROSION . in sun and rain).
VINE PENETRATION OF PAINT vine tendrils penetrate paint MILDEW GROWTH . epoxies.3. defacing and degrading it. avoid opening and resealing of large containers. especially fast drying paints.2.25 -
. sand and re-coat damaged areas.
SKINNING/DETERIORATION OF STORED PAINT
.brown staining of paint in asphalt or coat tar coating
Use latex paint over bituminous materials. allow asphalt pavements to cure 21 days before applying paint.5 and 10. 4. especially on damp. Relocate vines away from structure. or brick picks up soluble salts and deposits them on the surface from the interior (can be on interior or exterior well of building).2. powdery material CAUSE Moisture through concrete. Microorganisms grow. Vines so close to structure that tendrils penetrate paint for support. especially bad with thin coats. Improper storage of paint (e.3. masonry. Degradation of coating resin by sunlight leaving loose residue.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000
DESCRIPTION EFFLORENSCENCE DAMAGE paint disbonding and peeling by loose. Clean and repaint as described in NAVFAC MO-110.2.gradual thinning of finish coat to expose undercoat
BLEEDING .10.4.5 for concrete/masonry before painting. and substrates where chalk is frequently removed. REMEDY Treat as in NCEL Tech Data Sheet 77-10 or NAVFAC MO-110.g.
Description: Flaking two-pack epoxy paint on crane rails in galvanizing plant pre-treatment building. Remedy: Wet abrasive blast back to remove surface contamination and old paint.
. Cause: Incorrect surface preparation. Remedy: Remove flaking paint by scraping or wire brushing. Apply appropriate water based or epoxy priming systems. Highb pressure water wash surface. Apply flexible. Remedy: Ensure piant is currectly applied and cured.26 -
Description: Flaking paint over galvanized surface. Use multi-coat system to eliminate pinholes. Cause: Low pH condensation (pH1) and flexing and vibration of crane rails in service cause brittle paint film to crack and promote underfilm corrosion. Cause: Pinholes in paint film caused by solvent entrapment or single coat application. acid resistant recoatable mastic type coating
Description: Efflourescence bleeding through pinholes in paint film in marine exposure. Incorrect primer/topcoat.
On existing item.This large tank has areas of clearly defined paint system performance. Cause: Area on far left has severe local underfilm corrosion indicating initial poor surface preparation/priming. Cause: Adhesion of old paint insufficient to accommodate surface tension effects of new two-pack system epoxy topcoat. Re-apply primer and topcoat.
Description: Early failure of maintenance topcoat system along beam edges. Right hand zone shows general overall deterioration consistent with normal weathering but ealy failure indicative of low initial dry film thickness for the system.
Description: Blistering of paint on handrail.
. Remedy: Apply as for centre zone. Remedy: Completely remove old paint prior to re-coating or use more flexibible re-coating system compatible with old paint. Cause: Areas of contamination on surface interfering with primer adhesion. mechanically remove any blistered areas and feather back to sound paint.CORROSION MANAGEMENT July 2000
Description: Underfilm corrosion in defined regions of coating. Remedy: Ensure surface cleanliness prior to application. Centre zone is in good condition.27 -
Failure Analysis. SSPC’s Protective Coatings Glossary defines failure terms and these definitions are used for all failure terms in this chapter.
. The time of failure is considered to occur when some action is needed to restore its properties to the level necessary to again provide its intended purpose(s). Historically. Contact of Dissimilar Metals Resulting in Galvanic Corrosion When two dissimilar metals are in physical contact with each other in an electrolyte (electrically conductive medium). they often occur in conjunction with other factors that further aggravate the deterioration. Although each of the major design factors leading to early coating deterioration will be discussed separately. when it no longer protects the substrate. There are numerous causes of coating failure.g. A surface or film imperfection (flaw). provides an attractive appearance. The greater the difference in electrochemical activity between the metals. Loss of a coating’s function or
purpose. or coating curing. When this occurs. or serves some other function such as providing a non-slip surface. improper or inadequate surface preparation has been the most commonly reported cause of coating failure.. it is necessary to determine the causes of the failure and what actions must be taken to correct this condition and prevent its recurrence.
Failure of Coating. surface preparation. or combinations of these basic causes.
Service Life of Coating.
All coatings have limited service lives. and/or corrosion.
or incompleteness that deviates from a specification or industry-accepted condition. This will vary with different exposures and services. These may be related to structural design. Failure that occurs significantly
before a coating’s life expectancy.Chapter 12 Coating Failures
Richard W.e. Unfortunately. The relative surface areas of the touching metals may also greatly affect the corrosion of the more active metal (the
Commonly Used Failure Terms
Many different terms commonly used to describe coating failures mean different things to different people. the greater will be the rate of dissimilar metal corrosion. there are occasions when coatings fail much sooner than they should. if present. the substrate. and biocides) have restricted coating formulations and made them more difficult to apply successfully.
Premature Failure. A gradual loss of coating materials and/or
properties resulting from service conditions and weathering. and serious. pigments.2-3 It is important that these design factors be recognized and corrected at the planning stage rather than later when their adverse effects have become apparent.
Defect.. loss of function. while protecting the other metal from corrosion. more recently.
Effects of Structural Design on Metal and Coating Deterioration
It has been shown that structural design may be an important factor in metal and coating deterioration. A coating failure that is sudden. the coating itself. This chapter will address the common causes of coating defects on industrial structures and the associated preventative or corrective actions. very dramatic. The period of time during
which a coating provides its intended function(s).
Deterioration.1 Some of the definitions of general terms commonly associated with coating deterioration/degradation are: Catastrophic Coating Failure. solvents. i. deficiency. See degradation above. coating application. the more active metal will corrode preferentially. Systematic investigation conducted
to determine the causes and responsibilities of coating defects. governmental restrictions on coating VOCs and toxic constituents (e.
care should be taken to ensure that all cathode areas are especially well covered.4 It should be noted that. A small anode area and a much larger cathode (protected) area may result in extremely rapid corrosion of the smaller anode area. new edge-retentive coatings (usually amine-cured. the
. Most coatings are unsuitable for use in the joint itself. in general. Cold rolling produces a denser. and automobile bodies than for applications where structural strength is required. High-Strength Alloy Steels In some environments. In order to produce a coating film of more equal thickness (and thus equal barrier protection) on all surfaces. Thus. Coatings do not bond as well to these surfaces.
Effects of Substrate Properties on Coating Performance
It has been shown that the chemical and physical natures of a surface to be coated may have a very profound effect on the performance of the coating system. in painting. or skip-welded together. because they do
not provide the proper coefficient of friction to maintain the joint in a static state. Thus. edges are usually striped (brushed with an additional coat of primer) before or after applying a full coat to the substrate. Galvanic corrosion may also be minimized by using metals of similar composition. Hot-Rolled Steel Most structural steel is made by the hot-rolling process. Limited Access to Work Limited access to surfaces to be cleaned and coated often results in poor quality work and consequently early coating deterioration. This process results in a loosely bonded layer of iron oxide called mill scale. solvent-free epoxies) have been developed to address this problem. Welds should be ground smooth and weld spatter removed before coating in order to obtain good coating adhesion in these areas. Sharp Edges When sharp edges are coated. Thus. or its subsequent loss with time will result in coating deterioration. smoother surface than hot-rolling. Undercutting of a coating film by corrosion at breaks or pinholes in the barrier film may result in rapid loss of coating and its protection. Such designs should be oriented downward so that the water drains. high-strength alloy steels may require a coating system to supplement its natural corrosion resistance. Faying Surfaces Faying surfaces are contacting surfaces where joints in steel structures are formed by riveting or by the use of high-strength bolts. riveted. Drill weep holes into existing water traps to permit collected water to drain. back-to-back angle designs should be avoided because they have crevices between them. appliances.anode in the reaction). continuous welding is the preferred method of joining metal components. Inside crevice areas. Thus. Water Traps Water traps are design features. Also. structures should be designed for access both for the original work and for subsequent maintenance painting. that collect the rain that accelerates deterioration of coatings and corrosion of metals. However. the paint tends to draw back from the edge to leave a much thinner coat of paint there than on flat areas. such as upward facing angle iron. Crevices Crevices are likely to occur in structural components that are bolted. Abrasive blasting can also be used to produce a profile to improve coating adhesion. This results in a corrosion cell with accelerated corrosion occurring within the crevice area. there is invariably a lower concentration of oxygen as compared to the air outside the crevice. Mill scale must be removed before the steel is coated. In these cases. Relatively recently. or using a non-conductive insulator between them. inorganic zinc-rich silicate coatings have adequate coefficient of friction to perform well in this service. Coatings on metal structures are susceptible to underfilm corrosion. textured surfaces provide more bonding sites and thus have greater coating adhesion than smooth areas of similar composition. Cold-Rolled Steel Cold-rolled steel is used more for manufacturing office furniture. chemical treatments such as phosphating are often used to promote coating adhesion.
New galvanized surfaces are sometimes given a thin coat of oil or chromate conversion coating to protect them from corrosion called wet storage stain or white rust during exterior storage. In the past. Filiform corrosion.g. This alkalinity will saponify (hydrolyze) alkyds and other coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils.5 Wood The properties of woods vary greatly with the types of tree from which they came.cleaning requirements are similar to those of conventional steels. and the chromate conversion coating can be removed chemically or by prolonged weathering. These are described extensively in SSPC’s The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating of Concrete.
Figure 1. For other coatings that do not. Coated aluminum is particularly susceptible to a form of corrosion called filiform. chromate inhibitive pigments were widely used to control filiform corrosion. chromate-free inhibitive pigments are now used. Corrosion undercutting of coating at scratch. they will normally have less corrosion and undercutting of coating at film holidays. alkalinity and porosity) that make its coatings especially susceptible to certain defects. The brown color of the latter two woods comes from water-soluble dyes that may bleed through latex coatings to cause staining. Soft woods such as redwood and fir are penetrated by coatings to permit good bonding much more easily than are hard (dense) woods such as ash and oak.g. always have alkaline surfaces created by the natural corrosion of zinc. Because of their inherent corrosion resistance.
following treatments may be used: • Chemical treatment such as phosphating • Wash priming (good with alkyds) • Blasting with a soft abrasive (e.. while redwood and cedar have uniform grain and brown color.
Concrete Concrete has unique properties (e. an advanced stage of intergranular corrosion characterized by a delamination of metal along grain boundaries. plastic) to produce a suitable profile Aluminum is susceptible to exfoliation. or garnet) may be necessary to produce the desired surface profile. silicon carbide.. aluminum oxide. Pine and fir have variable grain structures.. The oil is best removed by solvent cleaning (i. but harder abrasives (e. These treatments must be removed prior to coating to permit good coating adhesion.
Zinc-Coated Surfaces Zinc-coatings.g. Rolled metal products such as aluminum alloy plate are especially susceptible to exfoliation due to their longitudinal grain structure. both galvanizing and zinc-rich.e. Aluminum Epoxies normally bond quite well to aluminum.. SSPC-SP 1). one the
Figure 2. unless sealed 555
. It is characterized by threadlike directional growths proceeding away from damaged areas.
of course. Chalking of finish coatings can best be controlled by proper selection of pigments and binders and by use of additives such as ultraviolet light absorbers. Many people prefer to use semi-transparent stains that do not seal the surfaces of wood. and complete curing. it may have deteriorated to the extent that it can no longer be successfully utilized.
Defects/Failures Associated with the Coating Itself
Some coating defects and failures are directly related to the coating itself. leveling. Chalking. If a stored coating has exceeded its shelf life. as described in Federal Test Method Standard 141. For this reason. Opaque pigments. epoxies and phenolics) chalk much faster than others.. may seep to the wood surface after painting to cause staining and paint deterioration. If the viscosity does not appear to be at the proper level. latex coatings that permit the passage of water vapor (sometimes called breathing) may minimize this problem. coatings that chalk freely are more susceptible to erosion than are coatings that are more chalk-resistant. Erosion is the gradual loss of coating by wear or weathering. some of the more important limitations are addressed.
Figure 3. They can usually be detected in the field before use by testing for condition in container. but those containing aromatic chemical groups (e. All organic coating binders chalk to some extent.before painting. Accelerated erosion may significantly reduce coating thickness and even expose undercoats. are quite chalk-resistant. Leafing aluminum pigments formulated to float to coating surfaces protect underlying binders especially well. Such coatings should be checked for condition in container before use. Erosion may be minimized by selecting a
. water that enters into the wood interior may try to escape through impermeable coatings to cause blistering and/or delamination. another crystalline form of titanium dioxide. Rigid coatings on wood may crack when they are unable to expand and contract with dimensional changes. a test patch of coating can be applied to the intended substrate to check for such properties as ease of application. Chalking is the formation of loose powder on
the surface of coatings.
Limitations of Coating Formulations All coating formulations have some limitations that restrict their uses to appropriate environments and services. These include: • Errors by the manufacturer in production of the coating • Coatings that have exceeded their shelf life • Inherent limitations of properly formulated coating • Incompatibility of a coating with its substrate or undercoat Coatings with Errors in Manufacture or that Have Exceeded Their Shelf Life Errors in coating manufacture do not occur very often. Thus. it can be checked in the field using a viscosity cup. Also. Woods are very sensitive to moisture so that they swell during periods of high humidity and shrink during periods of low humidity. It is typically caused by deterioration of the organic coating binder by ultraviolet light (usually from the sun) to leave a loose residue of pigment and oxidized binder. while other pigments such as rutile. In this section.
Chalking. However. hiding.
Erosion.g. reduce chalking of underlying organic binders by shielding them from sunlight. such as lower grades of pine. Resinous materials in some trees. Erosion may also be caused by wind-blown sand or rain. An oil-based or water-borne stainblocking primer can be used for this purpose. Some pigments such as the anatase form of titanium dioxide chalk very freely. This can be minimized by using weathered wood and sealing it before use. Coatings hide wood grain and greatly reduce water permeability.
Figure 5. Moisture blushing can best
.chalk-resistant coating with good leveling properties. coating formulations should have stable pigments and binders.. particularly fungi. as well as discoloration and fading.
Moisture Blushing. This adverse cosmetic effect can also be minimized by using formulations with stable pigments or binders. Mildew defacement is an unsightly appearance on coated or uncoated structures caused by the growth of micro-organisms. drying oil and water-borne latex coatings) by using EPA-approved mildewcides. Discoloration is the change in coating
color after application (usually an undesirable darkening).
Figure 4. Mildew defacement may be controlled in architectural coatings (i.
usually by sunlight. Uneven loss of gloss. This is more of a cosmetic effect than one that adversely affects coating film properties. Mildew defacement.
Fading. normally caused by exposure to sunlight or chemical atmospheres. Fading is the reduction of color intensity. This cosmetic defect most commonly occurs with fast evaporating coatings such as vinyl lacquers. Erosion of topcoat on deck of a ship. Moisture blushing may also occur by the reaction of moisture in the air with polyurethanes and other moisture sensitive coatings on humid days. All coatings lose gloss in sunlight to some extent. To minimize discoloration.e. Loss of gloss is still another defect that
is caused by sunlight and can best be minimized by selecting ultraviolet-resistant coating components. This cosmetic defect. Moisture blushing is the formation
of a milky opalescence that may occur in humid environments where solvent evaporation reduces the temperature of an uncured coating to the dew point so that moisture condensation occurs on it. Thus.
Loss of Gloss.
Mildew Defacement. is especially distracting when it occurs on the side of a structure that is partially shaded so that there is an uneven loss of gloss or color. smooth. Also. lead pigments are blackened by the attack of hydrogen sulfide gas. but some do much more than others. chalk-free coating surfaces in dry locations exposed to sun light are less susceptible to mildew than other coated surfaces.
Contraction of the surface skin causes the wrinkling. Wrinkling can also be minimized by avoiding thicker film than recommended by the manufacturer.
Amine Blushing. but the use of lead driers (some of the best through-driers) is now greatly restricted.
Figure 8. curing by air oxidation occurs much more rapidly at the coating surface than below it. Orange peel is similar to brush marks in
that it is caused by insufficient leveling of the wet film.
Orange Peel. this defect occurs with spray rather than brush application of coatings.
Wrinkling. Wrinkling is a defect that results in the
formation of small furrows or ridges in coating films. In these cases.be prevented by avoiding the application of moisturesensitive coatings on humid days. However.
greater film thickness. This most commonly occurs to linings in storage tanks where they come into contact with stored chemical liquids.
Figure 9. Chemical attack on
coatings will occur when the coating system is not resistant to the environment. It occurs most commonly with thick films of alkyds and other drying oil-curing coatings. Brush marks may occur in brushapplied coatings with insufficient leveling for the wet film to flow together to form a film of uniform thickness. Moisture blushing. Through-dry metal driers will help accelerate complete film curing.
Chemical Attack on Coatings. This film may cause adhesion problems for topcoats if not removed as recommended by the epoxy manufacturer. and a surface skin is formed that prevents further curing of the underlying binder. Chemical attack may also occur in atmospheric service where harsh chemical fumes or vapors come into contact
Brush Marks. Orange peel.
Figure 7. Localized areas of lesser film thickness almost always exhibit deterioration before areas of
. Brush marks. Amine blushing is the formation of a
milky opalescence on the wet-film surfaces of aminecured epoxies by the reaction of the amine with carbon dioxide and water in the air to form an amine carbamate.
with the coating.
High-Temperature Attack on Coatings. and/or polymerization. When stresses exceed the cohesive strength of the coatings.
Figure 11. Floating is the segregation of individual pigments in a coating system during curing related to differential movement in the surface tension currents caused by solvent evaporation to produce a varigated paint surface. It is commonly caused by pigment overload (using more pigment than can be completely wetted by the limited amount of resin present).
Osmotic Blistering by Soluble Pigments. Flooding is the segregation of pigments in a coating system caused by different rates of settling in the wet film to form a uniform appearance different from that expected. crazing. they crack to relieve the stress. Mottling. Different types of cracking. Flooding and floating are two
cosmetic formulation defects that are sometimes confused with each other.
having significant water solubility. Wrinkling. the more rigid it is and thus the greater its tendency to crack. Hightemperature attack is likely to occur to organic coatings even during intermittent high-temperature service.
Cracking. Cracking. Osmotic
blistering may occur to coatings with primer pigments
Figure 12. Stresses increase with further polymerization and weathering. other than common cracking.
Figure 10. Cracking is a general term for the splitting of
a coating film to relieve stresses. include hairline cracking. Thus. Mottling is the presence of differently colored
spots or blotches on a painted surface.
Flooding and Floating. Most of these stresses originate by shrinking during curing. Osmotic blistering may also occur if soluble salt contaminants are not completely removed from substrates during surface preparation. checking. by solvent evaporation. This is especially likely to occur during water immersion service. heat-resistant inorganic coatings are usually used at temperatures above 450°F (230°C). The greater the coating thickness. 559
Mottling. These pigments can be detected during a laboratory failure analysis of the water (sometimes colored) in filled blisters.
Five types of
Coating Incompatibilities Incompatibilities may occur between individual coats in a total coating system or between an existing system and a topcoat to be applied over it. Alligatoring with bleeding. as indicated by its name. but cracking does not always occur in such a regular pattern. The resulting stresses cause the topcoat to crack to expose the undercoat but not the substrate. heating and cooling. Wetting and drying.
Intercoat Cracking. Alligatoring is a type of crazing or surface
cracking with a definite pattern.
Checking. and exposure to sunlight all contribute to checking. This defect often happens with inorganic zincrich coatings. other intercoat cracking. It typically occurs when a rigid coating is applied too thickly. Mud cracking is a cracking pattern that
resembles the irregular cracking of drying mud. Mud cracking of inorganic zinc-rich coating.
Alligatoring. Cracking usually occurs all the way through the coating to expose the substrate. which are very rigid. Mud Cracking. and mud cracking. Checking. It is wise to obtain all coatings for a total system that are known to be compatible with each other and that are produced by the same manufacturer. Cracking from intercoat stresses may occur when a relatively rigid topcoat is applied over a more flexible undercoat.
Figure 14. The effect often occurs when a relatively rigid coating is applied over a more flexible undercoat. These stresses are similar to those previously described for alligatoring. Figure 13. Checking is the fine surface cracking that
develops in coating films during prolonged curing and/ or weathering that does not penetrate to the underlying substrate.
Coatings to be used in conjunction with cathodic protection to control the corrosion of steel must be resistant to these problems. or disbond. Alkalinity is always produced on cathodically protected surfaces. Cracking from intercoat stresses
was described earlier in the discussion of different
. There is often insufficient solvent in the topcoat to penetrate the existing coating to achieve good intercoat adhesion. Limited adhesion and subsequent
peeling may occur to a water-dispersed (latex) coating applied over a smooth oil-based enamel. If coatings on these surfaces are not alkali-resistant.
Blistering of Coatings by Hydrogen Gas Evolution. swell. As with concrete. Bleeding of alkyd coating on asphalt pavement. they are subject to saponification. Bleeding often occurs when a topcoat with a
strong solvent is applied to a coal-tar or asphalt coating. In any case.incompatibility between coatings are described here.. Incompatibilities with Cathodic Protection There are three basic mechanisms by which coatings may be deteriorated by cathodic protection systems. This seldom occurs if steel-to-soil or 561
Intercoat Cracking. Topcoat
solvent attack on undercoat binder may cause the latter to soften.g. in excess of –1.
forms of cracking.
Saponification of Coatings. Saponification may occur
to an alkyd or other drying oil applied over a zinc-rich primer.
Blistering of coatings by hydrogen gas evolution may occur on cathodically protected surfaces where the voltages are excessively high (e.
Figure 16. This defect is somewhat similar to the previously described bleeding from an asphalt pavement and migration of water-soluble dyes from wood through latex coatings. the surface alkalinity on the zinc-rich primer causes this chemical degradation. Figure 17.1 volts).
Limited Adhesion. An example of this is a chlorinated rubber or an epoxy coating with a strong solvent being applied over a vinyl dispersion (latex) coating. The solvent dissolves some of the colored material in the existing coating and allows it to migrate through the topcoat to impart a brown surface discoloration. the intercoat adhesion is significantly diminished.
Topcoat Solvent Attack on Undercoat Binder.
Bleeding. Saponification of alkyd coating.
steel-to-water potentials are regularly monitored. and/or blistering. Inadequate Surface Cleanliness Inadequately cleaned surfaces are very difficult to wet with coatings. Crawling is caused by substrate contamination with oil or some other low surface energy contaminant.
Coating Defects/Failures from Inadequate Surface Preparation
Inadequate surface preparation is generally recognized as being the chief source of coating defects and failures. Intimate contact between coating and substrate is necessary for good adhesion.
Crawling (Fisheyes). Incomplete removal of soluble salts during
. Flash rusting of properly cleaned steel before coating is another source of these defects. It occurs when the surface tension of a coating is greater than the surface tension of the substrate.
Disbonding. Crawling. Peeling.
Figure 19. Electroendosmosis is a mechanism of coating deterioration in which excessive cathodic potentials causes electrolyte to penetrate rapidly through a coating film. Crawling (fish eyes). The coating manufacturer also provides the recommended ranges of ambient conditions suitable for successful application of each company product. These deficiencies cannot be corrected after coating application. because the remaining contaminants reduce the number of bonding sites. dirt. mill scale. Incomplete removal of contaminants from an existing coating before topcoating may result in intercoat disbonding. These recommendations should be carefully followed. if any. These recommendations may be as important as any other manufacturer recommendation. and Blistering. sometimes called fish
uniformly thick layer to form areas of little. Each commercially available primer has a surface preparation recommended by its manufacturer. It normally results in coating blistering and peeling. peeling. Disbonding. thickness.
Electroendosmosis. is the drawing back of a liquid film from a
Osmotic Blistering by Incomplete Removal of Soluble Salts. and/or blistering may result from incomplete removal of rust. or other loosely held contaminants from the substrate surface or from the presence of moisture. Surface preparation inadequacies are either caused by inadequate removal of contaminants or by improper profile height. One of the best ways of minimizing adverse effects of surface preparation is by careful inspection of the cleaned surfaces and immediate correction of any deficiencies found. Osmotic blistering caused by inadequate removal of soluble salts.
Therefore. Mixing Coatings Although coatings are prepared ready to apply. in turn.7 Coatings should not be overmixed to avoid entrapping air into them. pot life. inadequate film thickness. the best way to avoid coating failures resulting from improper coating application is by (1) carefully following the coating manufacturer’s recommendations for application and (2) carefully inspecting the work to permit early
. This. all paints should be thoroughly mixed before application to ensure that the material being applied is the homogeneous blend originally manufactured. Thus. It is much easier to prevent coating problems associated with improper spray application than to correct them after application. Improper Surface Profile Each primer has a profile height recommended by its manufacturer for best performance.
Figure 20. Plural-component spray application systems combine Components A and B together automatically in a specific ratio. However. poor coating adhesion.
Excessive Profile Height.6 The adverse effects of soluble salts are much greater on coatings in immersion service than in atmospheric service. settling of the heavier pigment portion may occur during storage. usually results in early coating loss by disbonding and peeling. Allowing stirred paint to set for several minutes before application may permit the release of entrapped air. If this is not done.surface preparation may result in osmotic blistering of coatings subsequently applied. In general. Use of paint shakers is not recommended. Pinpoint rusting. Any significant deviation from this recommendation may result in reduced coating system performance. Two-component coatings such as thermosetting epoxies and polyurethanes are normally supplied in kits composed of Component A and Component B. use of complete kits rather than partially filled kits are recommended. When applying two-component thermosetting coatings. the proportions should be checked before beginning coating application to be sure that the proportions are those specified by the manufacturer. Thus. and recoat times. Improper mixing can lead to uneven color in cured paint. recommended profile heights vary directly with the primer film thickness. When spraying with plural-component equipment. Insufficient profile height of
cleaned surfaces may provide insufficient bonding areas for adequate coating adhesion. Skilled applicators are required for the successful use
Insufficient Profile Height. primers with greater film thickness usually have higher recommended surface profiles. and checking or cracking of the paint film. a mechanical mixer should be used at a speed set so that a small rather than a large vortex or depression on the paint surface is created in the center of the can. it is common practice not to use the triggering technique commonly used with other spray equipment because the ratio of components may vary significant at the start and stop of each trigger stroke.
Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Coating Application
As with surface preparation. Thus. catastrophic failure may occur. careful attention must be paid to the manufacturer’s recommendations for induction. Pinpoint rusting may also occur when erosion significantly reduces coating film thickness. These salts are usually not readily visible and so must be removed and analyzed using special techniques.
detection of defects and their immediate correction. Pinpoint rusting may occur
on coated steel structures where abrasive blast cleaning has produced so high a profile that it is not adequately protected by a relatively thin primer. Each component should be mixed separately and then mixed together in the order specified by the coating manufacturer. The components of each kit must be properly proportioned for mixing together to achieve proper curing and optimum coating performance.
Thinning Coatings are manufactured for application as received without thinning. or curtains. If a coating is applied with less than the specified minimum thickness. When the total stress built up in the coating system exceeds the adhesion at its weakest point (usually primer to substrate). holiday-free. When necessary to use a thinner. Excess thickness may also result in other types of incomplete or improper curing. a thinner than desired coating may contribute to pinpoint rusting on steel surfaces.
. Thus. Deviation from the recommended gun-tosubstrate distance. proper spray pattern. Excess coating thickness may be gradually built up by application of additional coats to an existing coating system during periodic maintenance painting. and/ or disbondment of relatively rigid coatings. Excessive coating thickness may lead to the acceleration of common cracking. As described earlier. low temperatures or other conditions may necessitate thinning to reduce the viscosity for effective application. and thus its service life will be reduced. Use of a wet film thickness gauge. Disbondment may take the form of chipping.
Figure 21. will help ensure that the desired dry film
thickness is achieved. disbondment will occur. wrinkling occurs more often with thicker than thinner coatings that cure by oxidation of drying oils. This often results in unsightly glossy areas sometimes called hot spots. flaking. as described in ASTM D 4414. Otherwise. its weight may cause the wet coating to flow downward to form sags. the first signs of deterioration invariably occur in areas of low film thickness. and standard triggering can results in defects and early coating failure.
Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages.
Straining Coatings should be strained after mixing to eliminate any skins. mud cracking. However. maximum coating performance will not be achieved.of plural-component application equipment. lumps. its barrier protection will be lessened. Effects of Improper Coating Thickness It is important that coatings be applied uniformly. Such defects should be detected and corrected as soon as observed. it should be of the type and in the amount recommended by the coating manufacturer. As discussed earlier. and in the thickness range specified by the manufacturer. constant rate of gun travel. or other foreign matter to avoid clogging spray equipment.
Non-Uniform Coating Thickness. If coating thicknesses
vary significantly outside the specified range. Excess Coating Thickness. Inorganic zinc-rich coatings are especially susceptible to clumping. Thinner should be added to the coating slowly and with thorough mixing to avoid overthinning one portion of the paint and the possibility of curdling the coating or flocculation of the pigment. If a coating is applied too
thickly. As described earlier.
Insufficient Coating Thickness. or delamination. thicker films have more rigidity than thinner films and thus are less able to expand and contract with substrate dimensional changes. Coatings with variable film thicknesses tend to be resin-rich in localized areas of greater thickness. Effects of Improper Spray Techniques The most uniform coating application and the best looking finishes are achieved by spray application. low thickness areas limit the performance of the total coated area. runs. peeling. Sagging.
Figure 23. Topcoat solvent that enters the naturally porous film of the inorganic zinc-rich coating evaporates in the warm environment. if any. Dry spray. interior air and solvent vapors rise to the concrete surface to form small bubbles in the topcoat. skip. protective value.
Coating Holidays. A special case of pinholing often occurs during
. Holidays in coatings are best discovered using holiday detectors. This phenomenon is somewhat similar to outgassing of wet coatings on concrete. Figure 22. It occurs most often with lacquers and other coatings that contain fast evaporating solvents. Solvent imbalance is an important source of pinholing. powdery. and the resulting vapors rise to the surface of the uncured topcoat to form pinholes. Pinholing is the formation of small holes that
extend through the entire thickness of a coating.
the topcoating of inorganic zinc-rich coatings on warm days. This condition most commonly occurs with fast drying coatings. during periods of rising temperature. Cratering is a special form of pinholing caused by foreign matter in or deposited on the wet film. in which. Dry spray is a rough. Unless detected and corrected. A holiday is a pinhole. Overspray consists of atomized paint particles that deflect from or miss the surface being sprayed and fall on unintended surfaces. Pinholing. Dry spray should not be confused with overspray. as described in the chapter of this book on coating inspection. Dry spray film have little. or void in a coating film that exposes the substrate. Topcoating Outside of Recommended Recoat Window Manufacturers of two-component thermosetting coatings specify a window of time during which
Dry Spray. holidays constitute a source of early electrolyte penetration and coating deterioration. Pinholing is sometimes caused by holding the spray gun too close to the surface with excessive atomization pressure or a combination of a low atomization pressure and excessive material pressure. noncoherent film produced when an atomized coating partially dries before reaching the intended surface so that the coating cannot flow to form a uniform continuous film. discontinuity. Holding the spray gun too far from the substrate may also contribute to dry spray.
SSPC: Pittsburgh. The Fundamentals of Cleaning and Coating Concrete. 2000. an SSPC certified protective coatings specialist (PCS). Hare. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part I. 1998. They must cure within a specific relative humidity range to achieve complete and proper curing. Applicator Training Bulletin: Mixing and Thinning. and coating system.
. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. July 1989.8 Moisture-blushing of coating surfaces during periods of high humidity was discussed earlier in this chapter. Randy Nixon and Richard W. pp 65-68. Munger. MS. James F. California. Munger. He is a professional engineer in the state of California. osmotic blistering may be caused by the entrapped solvent. Charles G. ed.their coatings can be successfully topcoated. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Richard W. SSPC-TU 4. In order to avoid or minimize deterioration.
About the Author
Dr. the topcoat will have limited adhesion to the undercoat. he was employed for over 40 years at the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Richard W. Moisture-curing polyurethanes and alkyl silicate inorganic zinc-rich coatings cure to a solid film by reaction of their binders with moisture from the air. Drisko. Protective Coatings.. Drisko. pp 36-41. 8. Field Methods for Retrieval and Analysis of Soluble Salts on Substrates. 2001.
1. Richard W. Protective Coatings Glossary. If topcoated too late. Coatings applied in confined spaces such as storage tanks may require both heating and ventilating to remove coating solvents and permit complete curing or curing to the extent required for topcoating. 1994. Charles G.eds. pp 62-66. Drisko has been the senior technical advisor to SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings since January 1995. Port Hueneme. Richard W. Factors of Uncoated and Coated Substrates that Affect Coating Performance. 6.. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. SSPC: Pittsburgh. Fundamentals of Chemistry and Composition. Jim. the following actions should be taken: • Proper selection of a high-performance coating system appropriate for the particular environment and service • Preparation of a job specification that includes all requirements necessary to achieve long-term coating performance • Appropriate surface preparation for the environment. Dr. Jenkins. SSPC: Pittsburgh. 1992. and served as the Navy’s center of expertise on coatings for shore structures.. where he conducted research. These include ranges of temperature and relative humidity. 5. Drisko Dr. Curing wet coatings at temperatures significantly above or below the recommended range may result in improper or incomplete curing. If topcoated too soon. May 1990.. 7. as recommended by the coating manufacturer • Appropriate application of the coating system. evaluation. and a NACE International certificated corrosion specialist. Richard W. Drisko received his BS. 4.
Coating Defects/Failures from Improper Curing
Most coatings require special conditions for proper curing. 2. A Review of Common Failures of Paint Coatings: Part II. Drisko. Design Factors. Richard W. as recommended by its manufacturer • Thorough inspection of all phases of the work to ensure that all specification requirements are met • Rapid corrective actions to address any deviations from recommendations or early signs of coating defects.
There are many causes of coating deterioration. the curing of both coats may be adversely affected. Technology Publishing Company: Pittsburgh. Otherwise. and testing. Clive H. Skinner. service. Drisko. 3. Corrosion and Coatings. Prior to this. and PhD degrees from Stanford. Drisko.