Metal Casting

Lecture 5

MEL120: Manufacturing Practices

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Steps in Casting
Pattern and Mould Melting and Pouring Solidification and Cooling Removal, Cleaning, Finishing and Inspection

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Casting Process Flow

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Pattern and Mould
A pattern is a replica of the final product and is used for preparing mould cavity made of wood or metal Mould cavity
which contains molten metal is essentially a negative of the final product

Mould material
should posses refractory characteristics and with stand the pouring temperature

When the mold is used for single casting, it made of sand and known as expendable mold When the mold is used repeatedly for number of castings and is made of metal or graphite are called permanent mould For making holes or hollow cavities inside a casting, cores made of sand are used.
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Melting and Pouring
Several types of furnaces are available for melting metals Furnace selection depends on
the type of metal, the maximum temperature required and the rate and the mode of molten metal delivery.

Before pouring, provisions are made for the escape of dissolved gases. The gating system should be designed to minimize the turbulent flow and erosion of mould cavity. The other important factors are the pouring temperature and the pouring rate.
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Solidification & Cooling
The properties of the casting significantly depends on the solidification time cooing rate. rate Shrinkage of casting, during cooling of solidified metal should not be restrained by the mould material, otherwise internal stresses may develop and form cracks in casting. Proper care should be taken at the design stage of casting so that shrinkage can occur without casting defects.

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Removal, Cleaning, Finishing and Inspection
After the casting is removed from the mould
it is thoroughly cleaned and the excess material usually along the parting line and the place where the molten metal was poured, is removed using a potable grinder.

White light inspection, pressure test, magnetic particle inspection, radiographic test, ultrasonic inspection etc. are used
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Pattern & Mould
Open and Closed Mould

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Sand Casting
Expendable Mould Permanent Pattern

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Chaplets: To avoid Core Shifting

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Pattern Geometry

a) Solid Pattern

b) Split Pattern

c) Match-Plate Pattern

b) Cope and Drag Pattern

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Patterns
Choice of pattern depends on:
Configuration of casting Number of casting required

Pattern Types
Single-piece pattern Split pattern Follow board pattern Cope and drag pattern Match plate pattern Loose-piece pattern Sweep pattern Skeleton pattern
a) Split pattern, b) Follow-board, c) Match Plate, d) Loose-piece, e) Sweep, f) Skeleton pattern
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Pattern Allowances
Pattern always made larger than final job Excess dimensions – Pattern Allowance
Shrinkage allowance Contraction of casting
Liquid – Pouring Temp to Freezing Temp Change of phase – Liquid to Solid Solid casting – Freezing Temp to Room temp

Draft allowance To withdraw pattern from mould Machining allowance For final shape
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Mould Material
Major part of Moulding material in sand casting are
1. 2. 3.

70-85% silica sand (SiO2) 10-12% bonding material e.g., clay etc. 3-6% water Refractoriness – ability to remain solid at high temp Cohesiveness – bonding Permeability – gas flow through mould Collapsibility – ability to permit metal to shrink after solidification Permeability Green strength Dry strength
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Requirements of molding sand are:
(a) (b) (c) (d)

The performance of mould depends on following factors:
(a) (b) (c)

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Desirable properties of a Sand based Molding material
Inexpensive in bulk qty Retain properties through transportation and storage Uniformly fills a flask or container Compacted or set by simple methods Sufficient elasticity to remain undamaged during pattern withdrawal Withstand high temperatures and maintain its dimensions until metal solidifies Sufficient permeable to allow the escape of gases

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Desirable properties of a Sand based Molding material
Sufficiently dense to prevent metal penetration Sufficiently cohesive to prevent washout of mold material into the pour stream Chemically inert to metal being cast Good collapsibility to permit easy removal and separation of casting Can be recycled

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Effect of moisture, grain size and shape on mould quality

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Melting and Pouring
The quality of casting depends on the method of melting. Molten metal is prevented from oxidation by covering the molten metal with fluxes Ladles which pour the molten metal from beneath the surface are used The two main consideration during pouring are the temperature and pouring rate Fluidity of molten metal is more at higher temperature but it results into more amount of dissolved gases and high temperature also damage the mould walls and results into poor surface quality of the casting Fluidity: Capability of molten metal to fill mold cavities Characteristics of molten metal Casting parameters
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Fluidity
Characteristics of molten metal
Viscosity Surface tension Inclusions Solidification pattern of the alloy

Casting Parameters
Mold design Mold material and surface characteristics Degree of superheat Rate of pouring Heat transfer
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Gating system
1.
• • •

Minimize turbulent flow to reduce
absorption of gases, oxidation of metal and erosion of mould surfaces

2.

3. 4.

Regulate the entry of molten metal into the mould cavity Ensure complete filling of mould cavity, and Promote a temperature gradient within the casting so that all sections irrespective of size and shape could solidify properly
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Gating system
A: pouring basin B: Weir C: Sprue D: Sprue well E: Runner F: Ingates G: Runner break up H: Blind J: Riser

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Cooling and Solidification

Pure metal
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Mechanism of Solidification
Pure metals solidifies at a constant temp. equal to its freezing point, which same as its melting point. The change form liquid to solid does not occur all at once. The process of solidification starts with nucleation, the formation of stable solid particles within the liquid metal. Nuclei of solid phase, generally a few hundred atom in size, start appearing at a temperature below the freezing temperature. The temp. around this goes down and is called supercooling or undercooling. In pure metals supercooling is around 20% of the freezing temp. A nuclei, more than a certain critical size grows, and causes solidification.
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Mechanism of Solidification
By adding, certain foreign materials (nucleating agents) the undercooling temp. is reduced which causes enhanced nucleation. In case of pure metals fine equi-axed grains are formed near the wall of the mold and columnar grain growth takes place upto the centre of the ingot. In typical alloy, the columnar grains do not extend upto alloy the center of casting but are interrupted by an inner zone of equiaxed graines. By adding typical nucleating agents like sodium, magnesium or bismuth the inner zone of equiaxed grained can be extended in whole casting.

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Crystal structure in Castings

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Dendrite formation

• In alloys, such as Fe-C, freezing and solidification occurs over a wide range of temp. There is no fine line of demarcation exists between the solid and liquid metal. • Here, ‘start of freezing’ implies that grain formation while progressing towards the center does not solidify the metal completely but leaves behind the islands of liquid metals in between grains which freeze later and there is multidirectional tree like growth. growth
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Riser
Risers are added reservoirs designed to feed liquid metal to the solidifying casting as a means for compensating for solidification shrinkage. shrinkage Riser must solidify after casting. casting Riser should be located so that directional solidification occurs from the extremities of mold cavity back toward the riser. Thickest part of casting – last to freeze, Riser freeze should feed directly to these regions.
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Why Risers?
The shrinkage occurs in three stages,
1.

2. 3.

When temperature of liquid metal drops from Pouring to Freezing temperature When the metal changes from liquid to solid state, and When the temperature of solid phase drops from freezing to room temperature

The shrinkage for stage 3 is compensated by providing shrinkage allowance on pattern, while the shrinkage during stages 1 and 2 are compensated by providing risers.
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Riser – Location & Types
• Top riser has the advantage of additional pressure head and smaller feeding distance over the side riser.

• Blind risers are generally bigger in size because of additional area of heat conduction.
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Cleaning and Finishing
1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Casting is taken out of the mould by Shaking and the Moulding sand is recycled often with suitable additions. The remaining sand, some of which may be embedded in the casting, is removed by means of Shot blasting. blasting The excess material in the form of sprue, runners, gates etc., along with the flashes formed due to flow of molten metal into the gaps is broken manually in case of brittle casting or removed by sawing and grinding in case of ductile grinding. The entire casting is then cleaned by either shot blasting or chemical pickling. pickling Sometimes castings are heat treated to achieve better mechanical properties.Manufacturing Practices MEL120: 30

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Casting Defects
Defects may occur due to one or more of the following reasons:
Fault in design of casting pattern Fault in design on mold and core Fault in design of gating system and riser Improper choice of molding sand Improper metal composition Inadequate melting temperature and rate of pouring
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Classification of Casting Defects
Surface Defects
Blow, Scar, Blister, Drop, Scab, Penetration, Buckle

Internal Defects
Blow holes, Porosity, Pin holes, Inclusions, Dross

Visible Defects
Wash, Rat tail, Swell, Mis run, Cold shut, Hot tear, Shrinkage/Shift
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Surface Defects
Blow is relatively large cavity produced by gases which displace molten metal from convex surface. Scar is shallow blow generally occurring on a flat surface.

A scar covered with a thin layer of metal is called blister. blister These are due to improper permeability or venting. Sometimes excessive gas forming constituents in moulding sand. Drop is an irregularly-shaped projection on the cope surface caused by dropping of sand.
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Surface Defects
A scab when an up heaved sand gets separated from the mould surface and the molten metal flows between the displaced sand and the mold. Penetration occurs when the molten metal flows between the sand particles in the mould. These defects are due to inadequate strength of the mold and high temperature of the molten metal adds on it. Buckle is a v-shaped depression on the surface of a flat casting caused by expansion of a thin layer of sand at the mould face.

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Internal Defects
The internal defects found in the castings are mainly due to trapped gases and dirty metal. Gases get trapped due to hard ramming or improper venting. These defects also occur when excessive moisture or excessive gas forming materials are used for mould making.
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Internal Defects
Blow holes are large spherical shaped gas bubbles Porosity indicates a large number of uniformly distributed tiny holes.

Pin holes are tiny blow holes appearing just below the casting surface. Inclusions are the non-metallic particles in the metal matrix, Lighter impurities appearing the casting surface are dross. dross.
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Visible Defects
Insufficient mould strength, insufficient metal, low pouring temperature, and bad design of casting are some of the common causes. Wash is a low projection near the gate caused by erosion of sand by the flowing metal.

Rat tail is a long, shallow, angular depression caused by expansion of the sand.

Swell is the deformation of vertical mould surface due to hydrostatic pressure caused by moisture in the sand.
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Visible Defects
Misrun and cold shut are caused by insufficient superheat provided to the liquid metal.

Hot tear is the crack in the casting caused by high residual stresses.

Shrinkage is essentially solidification contraction and occurs due to improper use of Riser.

Shift is due to misalignment of two parts of the mould or incorrect core location.
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Shell Molding

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Shell Molding
1.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

A match plate or cope-drag metal pattern is heated and placed over a box containing sand mixed with thermosetting resin. Box is inverted so that sand and resin fall onto the hot pattern, causing a layer of the mixture to partially cure on the surface to form a hard shell. Box is repositioned so that loose, uncured particles drop away. Sand shell is heated in oven for several minutes for complete curing. Shell mold is stripped from the pattern Two halves of the shell mold are assembled, supported by sand or metal shot in a box, and pouring is accomplished. The finished casting with sprue is removed.
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Shell Molding
Advantages & Limitations

Shell thickness typically 9 mm is used Surface of shell mold cavity is smoother than sand mold. Easy flow of molten metal, good surface quality Finish is of the order of 2.5 micrometer. Good dimensional accuracy Can be mechanized for mass production and is very economical Gears, valve bodies, bushings, and cam shafts are typical products Expensive metal pattern as compared to sand casting Difficult to justify for small quantities manufacturing Possible on small to medium size parts Suitable for steel castings less than 10 kg.
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Investment Casting

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Investment Casting
Advantages & Limitations
Parts of greater complexity and intricacy can be cast Close dimensional control ±0.075mm Good surface finish The lost wax can be reused Additional machining is not required in normal course Al, Cu, Ni, Carbon and alloy steels, tool steels etc. are the common materials Preferred for casting weight less than 5 kg, maximum dimension less than 300 mm, Thickness is usually restricted to 15mm

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Die Casting
Graphite+oil

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Die Casting Machine

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Die Casting
In Die casting the molten metal is forced to flow into a permanent metallic mold under moderate to high pressures, and held under pressure during solidification This high pressure forces the metal into intricate details, produces smooth surface and excellent dimensional accuracy High pressure causes turbulence and air entrapment. In order to minimize this larger in-gates are used and in the beginning, pressure is kept low and is increased gradually
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Hot Chamber Casting

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Cold Chamber Casting

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Centrifugal Casting

A permanent mold made of metal or ceramic is rotated at high speed (300 to 3000 rpm). The molten metal is then poured into the mold cavity and due to centrifugal action the molten metal conform to the cavity provided in the mould. Castings are known for their higher densities in the outer most regions. The process gives good surface finish Applications: pipes, bushings, gears, flywheels etc.
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Comparison of Casting Processes

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Comparison of Casting Processes

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