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AadI XaMkracaaya- kRt
Aatma Bodha by Aadi Shankaracharya
.. Atma Bodha ..
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namaH shrIsha NkarAnandagurupAdAmbujanmane . savilAsamahAmohagrAhagrAsaikakarmaNe .. – pa nchadashI ‘I bow at the lotus feet of the Guru, Shankara, whose function is to eliminate the alligator of delusion (moha) with all its branches.’ Atma Bodha, meaning self knowledge, was composed by Adi Shankara sometime in the 8th century. To quote Sri Radhakrishnan ‘The Advaitism of Shankara is a system of great speculative daring and logical subtlety . Its austere intellectualism, its remorseless logic, which marches on indiﬀerent to the hopes and beliefs of man, its relative freedom from theological obsessions, make it a great example of a purely philosophical scheme . It is impossible to read Shankara’s writings, packed as they are with serious and subtle thinking, without being conscious that one is in contact with a mind of a very ﬁne penetration and profound spirituality . With his acute feeling of the immeasurable world, his stirring gaze into the abysmal mysteries of the spirit, his unswerving resolve to say neither more nor less than what could be proved, Shankara stands out as a heroic ﬁgure of the ﬁrst rank in the somewhat motley crowd of the religious thinkers of medieval India .... Shankara taught us to love Truth, respect reason and realize the purpose of life . Twelve centuries have passed, and yet his inﬂuence is visible.’ His inﬂuence on Indian philosophy is so enormous that most of the later philosophies that evolved in India had either to agree with him or disagree with him, quoting him nevertheless. Shankara, in his indisputable style, allows a place for Karma and Bhakti while emphasising the prime necessity of j nAna for the realization of the Self . For example, while commenting on Bhagvadgita 18.45, he takes Bhakti to be identical to j nAna by quoting 7.16-18 of the gItA where Krishna says that a j nAni is one of His Bhaktas. In Vivekachudamani, he goes on to say that Bhakti is one of the most conducive causes for liberation . Similarly, in the third verse of
atma bodha, he says that karma is not opposed to ignorance, though it can not destroy ignorance . Undoubtedly a great religious reformer and philosopher, Shankara embraces within his fold all pantheism while maintaining the principle of non-duality. Though Shankara is famous for his commentaries (bhAShya-s) on the three major texts considered as ‘launching pad’ for liberation (prasthAnatrayI, the triple cannon), namely bhagvad gItA, brahmasUtra-s, and upaniShad-s, he has composed a large number of stotra-s (hymns in praise of various gods) and also brief expositions in prose and verse (prakaraNa-s ). Atma Bodha falls into the last category . A rare but an excellent commentary of this work in Sanskrit has been provided by Swami kRiShNAnandAshramI and has been translated in to english by Vidyaratna Menon . Other noteworthy translations of the text are by Swami Chinmayananda, Swami Nikhilananda, TMP Mahadevan, and Parthasarathy, to name a few. The text of Atmabodha avoids the technicalities found in the vedas, but conveys the message of jnana yoga (the path of knowledge) to the layman . In a short compendium of sixty eight stanzas, the knowledge of the Self is described in an unique and simple style . Shankara starts with the requirements of the aspirant, and goes on to explain the nature of world -Samsara, the embodiments of the soul, the inﬂuence of mAyA and the superimposition of Atman . He describes the meditation technique based on aphorism ‘I am Brahman,’ the supreme being, ‘Aham Brahmasmi’, and elucidates the fruits of Self-realization and the state of the jivanmukta (liberated soul). Since the realization of the Self can not be had from books or scriptures, Shankara insists on the necessity of instruction by a Self-realized Guru (teacher). The intense desire to liberate and the eﬀort required by the sAdhaka (aspirant) is emphasized . If there is no eﬀort, there can not be a result . As Sri Radhakrishnan says ‘People in our society have resolved to renounce nothing, but wish to enjoy the fruit of renunciation.’ The vedanta kesari puts it ‘The goal we desire (should be) to reach the ideal society of the prophets, a society of just, peaceful, morally and intellectuially progressive community of non attached and responsible individuals, the means we adopt therefore must be worthy of the ends . Then only the real age of millennium will dawn wherein one feels that the whole world is one’s family of kith and kin, a place for nothing but love and fellow feeling, in short a vasudhaivakuTumbakam.h (universe as a family).’ Commenting on the ﬁrst verse of Atma Bodha, the sanskrit commentator, Swami kRiShNAnandAshramI, remarks that Sri Shankaracharya composed the three great bhashyas (of the upaniShads, gItA, and brahma sUtra) for the guidance of people qualiﬁed by birth, environment, circumstances, and mental, moral and spiritual development . Out of great
Shankara composed Atmabodha for explaining the knowledge of the Self. a . Shankara. adhyAsa (15-19).nsAra (6-12). one of the greatest persons to grace this planet. the six fold qualities. who are calm. make us aware of His grace.nkAra (26-30). self-realization (40-46). AtmabodhaH . The treatise of the knowledge of self. non-attachment (i. titIkShA (indiﬀerent endurance) f .compassion for the rest of the masses.e . is meant for those whose sins have been destroyed by religious austerities. without jumping from one object to another) d . ´Ñ Ó ¸ . various sharIra-s (embodiments) (13-19). samAdhAna (mind constantly on the Self) e . 1. The rest of the sixty seven verses may be roughly classiﬁed in to the following subjects. means for emancipation (2-5). Atmabodha. May the great AchArya. sAma (restraint of internal senses) b . mumukShu-s desirous of mokSha). doctrine of neti-neti (31-36). desire for emancipation (mumukShu-s) and 4. uparati (control of senses.. sAdhanA (37-39). discrimination between real and unreal (viveka) 2. dAma (restraint of external senses) c . shraddhA (faith). and ﬁnally the nature of Brahman (54-68). ØÔÓ ¸ ÔÔÒ ¦Ø Ò Ú ØÖ Ñ º Ñ Ñ ¡ ÑÔ ÝÓ ÝÑ ´Ñ Ó Ó Ú ÝØ ½ £ £ Ó Ó ¦Ý× £ ÝÓ Ò × ¦ÑÓß × ÒÑ º Ô ¹Ý Ú Ú · Ò ÚÒ ÑÓ Ó Ò ×Ý Ø ¾ ÚÖÓ ØÝ Ñ Ò Ú Ú ÒÚØÝØ º £ Ú Ú Ò ¦´ÝÚ Ø ¹Ø ÑÖ×ûÚØ ¿ £ £ Ô ÖÉ Ú·Ò £ × Ø £ ÚÐ¸ º var Ú É ¹ÚÝ £ í ´Ñ Ñ Ô Ý Ñ ÒÚ Ø £ £ · Ò Ð Õ Ú · Ò Ý × â ÒÑÐÑ º ¿ . vision of a j nAnI and characteristics of a jivanmukta (47-53). aha..e indiﬀerent to the results of one’s action) 3. The qualiﬁed are those who have the four fold requisities. sa. devoid of attachment and are persons desirous of liberation (i.
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2009 .dk).com. and the sanskrit commentary by Swami Krishnanandashrami .uky.Ã Ò¦ Ñ Ý Ø ì £ £´ÝÚ ÖÝØ £ Ã Ò¦ Ô¹Ý Ø¹Ý Ò¦ ÐÚ Ø ¸ º ì ¹Ø ÖØÅÝÒ Ú¦´Ý Ò ¦ ÒÓ ÃÐ ¸ £ Ø ØÑ ÃÐ Ú¹Ø ²ÝÚ Ö¹Ø ¦ÚØ¸ º var ²ÝÚ Ö æ ¦ÚØ¸ Ø¹Ñ ´×Ú Ø ì £ × Ô ÖÚ ÃÐ Ö £ Ò Ú¹Ì¡ÐÑ ¹ÚÑ Ñ Ñ²ÝÝÑ º Ô Ú ÀÝ Ø ì £´ÝÚ ÖÝØ £ ¼ Ý × ¹ÝØ £ ¹ÝÝ Ò ¹ÝØ º ß £ ÝÒ ×Ú Ñ £ ØØ ì £´ÝÚ ÖÝØ £ ½ ¹ÚÝÑ¦Ø ²Ý Ý ×Ý ÃÐ Øº ì £ Ú Ø Ø Ý× Ô ÚØ Ø ¾ âÐ ì ì Ó ¦Ý Ò º ì ¦Ý Ø ¦ÑÄÝ ÝÌ ÑÞÑÖ £ ¿ £ £ ì Ó ¦Ý Ø £ Ø º Ú ¢ ÝØ ¡ ÝØ Ý Ø Ú· Ò É Ø ì × É Ò¦ ÑâÝÑ ×Ú × É ´Ñ Ò · Ò ÒÖ Ø º £ · Ò Ò£Ø ¹Ú¦Ø Ò Ñ¦ ÚØ £ Ú Þ Ø· Ò ÒÔ ÖØ ÔØ¸ º Ú¸ ×ÚÑÐ ¦Ñ Ø¸ ¹Ú Ú ÓØØ ¹ÚÝÑ £ Ó ØÓ í ´Ñ Ó Ò ¹ØÑÓ Ô Ø º ×Ú²Ý Ô ×Ú Ö Ø ×ÝØ ÃÐÑ £ £ Ð ÒÔ Ý ×Ú £ Ø ´Ý× Ã ÒÖ ÒÑ º Ý¸ ¹Ú ´ÑØ Ì £ Ø Ú Ò © Ý¸ × ×Ú Ú´×Ú ØÓ ÑØÓ £ Ø Ú ¢ Ø Ö Ý ÚÖ Ø ´Ñ Ó ¸ ×Ñ Ø¸ References in introduction include notes from the translations by Swami Nikhilananda.ernet. and Sunder Hattangadi firstname.lastname@example.org. David Lyttle dhlyttle@hotmail. Vidyaratna Menon.com Last updated November 7.in Additional proofreading by Avinash Sathaye email@example.com Please send corrections to sanskrit@cheerful. TMP Mahadevan. Transliteration is by Kim Poulsen (poulsen@dk-online.Isc. Comments by Giridhar giridhar@chemeng.
. Knowledge does verily destroy ignorance as light destroys deep darkness. etc. 3. . Constant practice of knowledge purifies the Self (‘Jivatman’). as long as it continues but appears to be unreal when one is awake (i. Like bubbles in the water. aversions.e. 8. the worlds rise. is not realized. stained by ignorance and then disappears itself – as the powder of the ‘Kataka-nut’ settles down after it has cleansed the muddy water. exist and dissolve in the Supreme Self.. Space becomes one on the destruction of these limiting adjuncts: So also the Omnipresent Truth appears to be diverse on account of Its association with the various Upadhis and becomes one on the destruction of these Upadhis. the substratum. who are free from cravings and are desirous of liberation. It appears to be real. so without Knowledge no emancipation can be had. The Jagat appears to be true (Satyam) so long as Brahman. Action cannot destroy ignorance. The Soul appears to be finite because of ignorance. for it is not in conflict with or opposed to ignorance. whose nature is ExistenceIntelligence. 10. When ignorance is destroyed the Self which does not admit of any multiplicity truly reveals itself by itself: like the Sun when the clouds pass away. the basis of all this creation. I am composing the Atma-Bodha. 2. 5. for those who have purified themselves by austerities and are peaceful in heart and calm. 4. 6. Mumbai 1. The world. 7. which is the material cause and the prop of everything. Just as the fire is the direct cause for cooking. Compared with all other forms of discipline Knowledge of the Self is the one direct means for liberation. The All-pervading Akasa appears to be diverse on account of its association with various conditionings (Upadhis) which are different from each other. just as the different ornaments are all made out of the same gold. when true wisdom dawns). 9. It is like the illusion of silver in the mother-of pearl. All the manifested world of things and beings are projected by imagination upon the substratum which is the Eternal All-pervading Vishnu.Atma Bodha by Adi Sankaracharya's Translated by Swami Chinmayananda Published by Chinmaya Mission. is like a dream. this treatise of the Knowledge of the Self. which is full of attachments.
which is indescribable and beginningless is the Causal Body. . etc. pleasure. distinct from the body. etc. Determined for each individual by his own past actions and made up of the Five elements – that have gone through the process of “five-fold self-division and mutual combination” (Pancheekarana) – are born the gross-body. the ten organs and the Manas and the Buddhi. Avidya. 17. One should understand that the Atman is always like the King.. They are not perceived in deep sleep when the mind ceases to exist. colour and position are super-imposed upon the Atman.. the Absolute-Existence-Knowledge (Sat-Chit). In its identification with the five-sheaths the Immaculate Atman appears to have borrowed their qualities upon itself. are superimposed on water. The moon appears to be running when the clouds move in the sky. 12. 23. He is manifest only in the inner equipment. Attachment. 15. colour. 19.) . 16. mind and intellect engage themselves in their respective activities. are perceived to exist so long as Buddhi or mind functions. of enjoyment and of other limitations (which really belong to the mind) are delusively understood as the nature of the Self (Atman). Know for certain that the Atman is other than these three conditioning bodies (Upadhis). and is the witness of their functions. 14. mind and intellect. Depending upon the energy of vitality of Consciousness (Atma Chaitanya) the body. 18. just as men work depending upon the light of the Sun. 13. the medium through which pleasure and pain are experienced. bran. Likewise to the non-discriminating person the Atman appears to be active when It is observed through the functions of the sense-organs. Through discriminative self-analysis and logical thinking one should separate the Pure self within from the sheaths as one separates the rice from the husk. the intellect (Buddhi): just as the reflection in a clean mirror. as in the case of a crystal which appears to gather unto itself colour of its vicinity (blue cloth. senses. the tent-of-experiences. Because of Its association with different conditionings (Upadhis) such ideas as caste. desire. senses. The tremblings that belong to the waters are attributed through ignorance to the reflected moon dancing on it: likewise agency of action. all of which constitute the matter (Prakriti). 20.. pain. all the varied functions of the body and the senses. etc. Fools. as flavour. 21..11. just as they attribute blue colour and the like to the sky. formed from the rudimentary elements (Tanmatras) before their “five-fold division and mutual combination with one another” (Pancheekarana) and this is the subtle body. because they lack in their powers of discrimination superimpose on the Atman. 22. that are covering it. Therefore they belong to the mind alone and not to the Atman. etc. the instruments-ofexperience (of the individual). The Atman does not shine in everything although He is All-pervading. The five Pranas.
the oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme Soul. 27. 31. has to be realised.24. senility. So too. so also one considering oneself as the ego (Jiva) is overcome by fear. Just as luminosity is the nature of the Sun. Purity.”. for “HE is without breath and without mind. 38. These material-objects by themselves cannot illumine themselves because they are inert. It is not this’. One. 36. is the Commandment of the great scripture. the Upanishads. coolness of water and heat of fire. up to the “Causal Body” – Ignorance – which are objects perceived. 30. 37. wrinkling. so too the nature of the Atman is Eternity. 32.. without any dirt (Niranjana). I am verily that Supreme Brahman alone which is Eternal. Eternal (Nitya) without any desire and thought (Nirvikalpa). I have nothing to do with the sense objects such as sound and taste. without any change (Nirvikara). meditate with unswerving attention on the Atman which is One without-a-second. freeing the mind from desires and controlling the senses. for I am without the sense-organs. unattached. malice and fear. By the indiscriminate blending of the two – the Existence-Knowledge-aspect of the Self and the thought-wave of the intellect – there arises the notion of “I know”. But the individuality in us delusorily thinks he is himself the seer and the knower. Atman which is Knowledge itself needs no other knowledge to know it. Just as the person who regards a rope as a snake is overcome by fear. ever-liberated (Nitya Mukta) ever-pure (Nirmala). 29. just as medicine or Rasayana destroys disease. at all times I am pure. I am other than the mind and hence. etc. 25. so also the Atman illumines the mind and the sense organs. . The body. A lighted-lamp does not need another lamp to illumine its light. 28. etc. Consciousness and Bliss. The ego-centric individuality in us regains fearlessness by realising that It is not a Jiva but is Itself the Supreme Soul. I am free from sorrow. Atman never does anything and the intellect of its own accord has no capacity to experience ‘I know’. as indicated by the great Mahavakyas. attachment. I am without attributes and actions. Pure. without form (Nirakara). I am other than the body and so I am free from changes such as birth. 26. are as perishable as bubbles. etc. Reality. Changeless and the same in all. Like the space I fill all things within and without. Pure and Free. 35. Realize through discrimination that I am the ‘Pure Brahman’ ever completely separate from all these. The impression “I am Brahman” thus created by constant practice destroys ignorance and the agitation caused by it. 33. 34. death. etc. stainless and motionless. Just as a lamp illumines a jar or a pot. Sitting in a solitary place. indivisible and non-dual and of the nature of Changeless-Knowledge-Infinite. By a process of negation of the conditionings (Upadhis) through the help of the scriptural statement ‘It is not this.
The Lord of the early dawn (Aruna) himself has already looted away the thick darkness. so too. 44. On the destruction of ignorance Atman is realised. 51. the “Knowledge” and the “Object of Knowledge” in the Supreme Self. Yet. the Yogi who is united with peace dwells in the glory of his own realised Self – as an Atmaram. shines inwardly like a lamp placed inside a jar. Though he lives in the conditionings (Upadhis). As pots and jars are verily made of clay and cannot be said to be anything but clay. The Yogi of perfect realisation and enlightenment sees through his “eye of wisdom” (Gyana Chakshush) the entire universe in his own Self and regards everything else as his own Self and nothing else. Atman is an ever-present Reality. the fire of knowledge is born from it. the lower and the higher aspects of the Self are well churned together. He who has realised the Supreme. 48. It does not admit of such distinctions within Itself. 42. 43. The self-abiding Jivan Mukta. Nothing whatever exists other than the Atman: the tangible universe is verily Atman. The ignorance characterised by the notions ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ is destroyed by the knowledge produced by the realisation of the true nature of the Self. because of ignorance it is not realised. 45. relinquishing all his attachments to the illusory external happiness and satisfied with the bliss derived from the Atman. 50. he. (Thereafter) he dwells as an embodiment of the Infinite Consciousness and Bliss. endowed with Self-knowledge.39. just as a post appears to be a ghost. After crossing the ocean of delusion and killing the monsters of likes and dislikes. There are no distinctions such as “Knower”. 40. It alone shines by Itself. discards all his identification with the objects of names and forms. On account of Its being of the nature of endless Bliss. When this. 41. 49. when soon the sun rises. The Divine Consciousness of the Self rises when the right knowledge has already killed the darkness in the bosom. 46. . The ego-centric-individuality is destroyed when the real nature of the ‘Jiva’ is realised as the Self. the contemplative one. Brahman appears to be a ‘Jiva’ because of ignorance. gives up the traits of his previously explained equipments (Upadhis) and because of his nature of Sat-chit-ananda. He becomes the Self. 52. just as right information removes the wrong notion about the directions. which in its mighty conflagration shall burn down all the fuel of ignorance in us. he verily becomes Brahman like (the worm that grows to be) a wasp. 47. remains ever unconcerned with anything or he may move about like the wind. perfectly unattached. It is like the missing ornament of one’s neck. to the enlightened soul and that is perceived is the Self. The wise one should intelligently merge the entire world-of-objects in the Atman alone and constantly think of the Self ever as contaminated by anything as the sky. A liberated one.
like water into water. the contemplative one is totally absorbed in ‘Vishnu’. Realise that to be Brahman which is neither subtle nor gross: neither short nor long: without birth or change: without form. pervades and sustains all and shines and makes everything to shine. which having become one is not born again in this world and which. the attainment of which leaves nothing more to be attained. orbs like the Sun and the Moon are illuminated. one sees the Universe as the non-dual Brahman. Pervading the entire universe outwardly and inwardly the Supreme Brahman shines of Itself like the fire that permeates a red-hot iron-ball and glows by itself. Indivisible. . shines of itself like gold. or heard. All objects are pervaded by Brahman. which is Non-dual. 65. Realise that to be Brahman.53. 58. as the blind do not see the resplendent Sun. Eternal and One and which fills all the quarters – above and below and all that exists between. when knowing leaves nothing else to be known. 59. Attaining the knowledge of the Reality. 56. qualities. Realise that to be Brahman which is Non-dual. yet It is perceived by the eye-of-wisdom alone: but one whose vision is obscured by ignorance he does not see It. 66. Infinite. but which is not illumined by their light. which is Existence-Knowledge-Bliss-Absolute. Though Atman is Pure Consciousness and ever present everywhere. destroys the darkness of the ignorance. If any object other than Brahman appears to exist. the blessedness of which leaves no other blessing to be desired and the knowledge of which leaves nothing more to be known. All actions are possible because of Brahman: therefore Brahman permeates everything as butter permeates milk. Deities like Brahma and others taste only a particle. the Sun of Knowledge that rises in the sky of the heart. realised after the negation of all tangible objects. leaves nothing more to be seen. is Brahman and nothing else. being heated in the fire of knowledge kindled by hearing and so on. realise that to be Brahman. space into space and light into light. 54. when seen. That by the light of which the luminous. colour and name. 60. it is unreal like the mirage. of the unlimited Bliss of Brahman and enjoy in proportion their share of that particle. 63. 61. Realise That to be Brahman. There exists nothing that is not Brahman. Brahman is other than this. The ‘Jiva’ free from impurities. One and Blissful and which is indicated in Vedanta as the Immutable Substratum. The Atman. 62. All that is perceived. the All-pervading Spirit. the universe. Existence-Knowledge-BlissAbsolute. 57. On the destruction of the Upadhis. 55. Realise that to be Brahman which. 64. 67.
worships his own Atman which is present everywhere. Thus concludes Atma-Bodha. space and direction. which is the destroyer of heat and cold. . He who renouncing all activities. who is free of all the limitations of time. becomes All-knowing and All-pervading and attains thereafter Immortality. which is Bliss-Eternal and stainless.68.
DEEKSHITULU CH. SUNDARA RAMIAH 1 & .ATMA BODHA (A Treatise on the knowledge of Atma) by SRI ADI SANKARACHARYA Text in Roman Script with English translation and Commentary by A.S.
developing relations with them both physically and mentally. According to Bhagavatgeeta and Upanishads it is due to this Birth . influencing or getting influenced by every one around us. This book Atma Bodha or knowledge of Self (Atma) is an outcome of deep thinking about why we are born and living.Death Cycle.FOREWORD Sruti Smruti Puraanaanaam Aalayam Karunaalayam Namaami Bhagavatpaadam Sankaram Loka Sankaram. worrying for them and either losing them or leaving them temporarily due to life cycle and permanently by death. 2 .
BIRTH FORMATION OF ORGANS DEATH ''I'' FEELING DISEASE PARAMATMA EGO / DEPRESSION WORRY KARMA (WORK OR JOBS) COMPETITION For everyone this Birth Cycle is continuing. Disease results in Death which is followed by another birth.. This is followed by the ''I'' feeling i. I am suffering etc.. The cycle continues thus. Birth is the result of formation of organs of the Body and Mind. This ego results in Karma which results in competition which results in worry. The worry results in disease. This ''I'' feeling results in either ego and depression.e. ''How long should we dwell in these cycles? Is there no end. 3 . I am successfull. I am doing. This is what worried the thinkers and philosophers.
suffered or enjoyed as a result of their works and died. An attempt made to explain the inner meaning also. Atma Bodha (Knowledge of Self) is one of the works of Adi Sankaracharya. Atma Bodha by Swami Chinmayananda. This is for thinkers who are really interested to acquire wisdom and attain liberation for the soul (Atma) from the birth cycle. Self knowledge of Sri Sankaracharya by Swami Nikilananda of Sri Ramakrishna Mission.The great Jnanis worked hard to find out how to put an end to these cycles of birth and death though the ignorant kept on asking why should we bother when no one guarantees a rebirth or a birth known to us or a birth in which we do not remember any thing about this birth. Such ignorant lived for physical pleasures. 2. The speciality of this Atma Bodha is that though each Sloka has one direct meaning the concept and inner meaning of each Sloka is really more thoughtful and enlightens the reader. 1. 4 . In this work he expounds clearly with the help of homely analogies the nature of the consciousness (Self) and the means of self realisation. This Atma Bodha is not for them. Is the following books on Atma Bodha were consulted in the preparation of this translation.
those who have a peaceful mind. those who could overcome their cravings. Tapobhih Ksheenapaapaanaam Santanaam Veetaraginaam Mumukshoonaam Apekshyoyam Atmabodho Vidheeyate This Atma Bodha is designed for the benefit of those who got rid of sins by doing penance. and those who are desirous of moksha or liberation.ATMA BODHA (Treatise of the knowledge of Atma) 1. 5 .
2. As fire is thus the direct cause of cooking.. vegetables. practice of austerities and rituals.e. is the sole direct means to attain moksha or liberation. Bodho anya-Sadhanebhyo Hi Sakshan-Moksha Eka Sadhanam Pakasya Vahnivat Jnanam Vina Moksho Na Sidhyati Though other articles such as rice. water and pots are necessary. Knowledge of the Atma and not any other form of discipline i. to cook a meal at is fire that actually cooks the meal. The purpose of austerities is purification of heart and creation of a mental condition to aid one's spiritual growth and render it fit for pursuing the path of knowledge (jnana marga) 6 .
Therefore action is in harmony with ignorance and cannot therefore directly destroy it. Avirodhitayaa Karma Navidyaam Vinivartayet Vidya-Avidyaam Nihantyeva Tejashtimira-sanghavat.3. all else is ignorance (Ajnana or Avidya). Here ignorance does not mean illiteracy or absence of book knowledge. 7 . Knowledge or Jnana alone destroys ignorance as dense darkness is destroyed by light. According to Vedanta the knowledge of the nonduality of Brahma and Atma is the only true knowledge. By means of action one fulfill his desires. Karma or Action cannot destroy ignorance as it is not opposed to it. Such jnana alone removes the ignorance as dense darkness is destroyed by light.
4. When this Ajnana is destroyed. Paricchinna iva ajnanat Tannase Sati Kevalah Swayam Prakasate hi Aatma Meghapaaye Amsumaaniva Due to Ajnana or ignorance. As the true nature of sun is hidden by a cloud. so the true nature of the eternal and self-luminous Atma is hidden by ignorance. 8 . Such ignorance is destroyed by means of contemplation and realisation of the truth contained in the vedic mahavakyas like Aham Brahmasmi ( I am Brahma) and Prajnanam Brahma (Brahma is pure consciousness). one imposes limits to Atma. On account of this ignorance the all pervading Atma seems to be a physical a finite being. Atma can be visualised just as sun appears emerging when dark clouds are dispersed.
Ajnana Kalusham Jeevam Jnanaabhyasat Vinirmalam Krutwa Jnanam Swayam Nasyet Jalam Katakarenuvat. Long and uninterrupted meditation on Brahma firmly stamps a man's consciousness with the knowledge of his true divine nature and such self knowledge makes a man realise that he is not the doer or an experiencer but the all 9 .5. The embodied soul. and then itself disappears as the powder of Kataka nut (cleaning nut) precipitates itself after precipitating impurities suspended in muddy water. rendered dirty by ignorance is purified by knowledge through long and uninterrupted meditation on Brahma. Jivatma. happiness and unhappiness which are superimposed upon the self due to ignorance. The jivatma is rendered dirty by illusory ideas of birth and death.
or aversions. knowledge itself disappears like the powder of kataka nut which disappears after cleansing muddy water. Similarly one's dual experiments in this world appear illusory when one attains self-knowledge through contemplation of such vedic statements as Tatwamasi (Thou art that) and Aham Brahmasmi (I am Brahma) 10 . Samsarah Swapnatulyo hi Ragadweshadi Samkulah Swakaale Satyavatbhati Prabodhe sati Asadbhavet. when one is awake. but appears unreal. Knowledge and Bliss Absolute (Satchit Anand). It appears to be really happening as long as the dream continues. love or hate pain or pleasure and other dual experiences. Existance. The world. 6.pervading Brahma. which is filled with attachments. is like a dream. After having thus sublimated the mind.
Whereas Brahma is indivisible. Similarly till we know the indivisible and Supreme Self which is called Brahma. Because of the effect of this Maya or ignorance. unique and permanent. Taavat satyam Jagadbhati Suktikaa Rajatam Yatha Yavanna Jnayate Brahma Sarvadhistaanam-Advayam. Once we know Brahma the ignorance is dispelled. But it is only a silvery shining. Actually every thing we see. When we look into an oyster shell. this world reflects itself as different beings and things. it appears like silver.7. his creation appears to be different beings which is nothing but illusion. The world that appeared to be real ceases to delude us. 11 . all this creation appears to be real and permanent. hear and feel is creation of Brahma.
8 Upadane Akhilaadhare Jaganti Paramesware Sarga sthiti Layaanyanti Budbudaaneeva Vaarini As bubble are developed in water. The bubble is this world which appears to have emanated from Brahma. But it has limited time of existence. developed and destroyed by the Brahma and exists because of the very Brahma. The interesting thing is that Brahma is in the form of Pure Satchidananda and is like pure water. this world which is very very temporary remains for some time and is destroyed and absorbed in Brahma only. 12 . the whole world is created. As water bubble blows off to become absorbed in water.
he fixes its rate or value as gold only but not as that particular ornament. Similarly all the manifested world of things with different names are basically forms of the all pervading Vishnu.9 Satchidaatmani Anusyoote Nitye-Vishnow Prakalpitaah Vyaktayo Vividhassarvaa Haatake Katakaadivat. whose nature is Existence Intelligence (Satchit Atma). When we take any gold ornament to a jeweller. Similarly the man with Adhyatma outlook sees everything in this creation as Brahma but not as beings with dissimilar names. All gold ornaments have different names but are basically of gold only. 13 .
there is no room and no house. 14 . or by constructing walls. Just as the all pervading Akasa appears to be diverse an account of its association with various conditionings (upadhis) which are different from each other. bed room. kitchen and bath room. the omnipresent truth appears to be diverse on account of its association with the various "Upadhis". Then what is in a house is also sky though we are distinguishing the house as drawing room.10 Yathakaso Hrushikeso Nanopadhi gatho Vibhuh Tadbhedat Bhinnavat Bhati Tannase Kevalo Bhavet. Whatever is above earth is sky. The walls are man made and due to worldly reasoning keeping us in a belief that they are all different rooms though they are actually sky. Once the walls are removed. The omnipresent truth becomes one after the various upadhis are destroyed.
Similarly if man-made reasoning can be ignored. Pure water is same every where and has no colour.. Similarly because of faulty reasoning we feel Pure Atma as different body 15 . taste and smell. we feel colour or taste or smell. just as flavour. Here just thinking is not enough but one must be able to feel and believe this concept whole heartedly. then we can see Parmatma in every being. 11 Naanopaadhi Vasaadeva Jaati Varnaasra maadayah Atmanya aropitah thoye Rasa Varnadi Bhedavat Ideas such as caste. colour and position are imposed upon the Atman on account of its association with different upadhis. are imposed upon water. Only when subjected to human reasoning.What is left there is sky. colour etc.
the human body is made. Even great scholars are influenced by the Maya of Paramatma so much that Atma is over shadowed by Anatma and we distinguish human being as man or woman of a particular race and particular religion. Water and Air. This 16 . the Pure Atma in every being can be visualised. different races and of different origins. 12 Pancheekruta Mahaabhoota Sambhavam Karma Sanchitam Sareeram Sukha-Dukhanaam Bhogaayatanam Uchyate. This is called Sthoola Sareera (gross body) the medium through which the Atma experiences and pleasure and pain.beings. If one can look beyond this faulty reasoning. Fire. Sky. Due to a particular formulation of five elements of Nature (Pancha Bhootas) which are Earth.
is given by Paramatma on the basis of Karma done by it in its previous births. The process of such formulation of the five elements is called Panchikarana where one half of each of the five elements mixes with one of the other four. The Sky is actually anything empty. Modern Science calls it acidic reactions which are vital for digestion. Modern science concepts are worked in a different way but basically it is the nature's five elements that make human body. A cell is made of organic matter which is called by our ancient Jnanis as earth. 17 . There is a lot of empty space in our body which is Sky. Science says it is made up of cells. There is fire in in our body though we cannot see it. Science agrees that Air and Water are there in the body.
13 Panchapraana Mano Buddhi Dasendriya Samanvitam Apancheekruta Bhootottham Sookshmaangam Bhogasaadhanam. Jnanis consider that the main part of the formation of the human body has to do with sanchita karma i. Apana.So the conclusion that human body is made up of just organic matter is only half the story. Legs and organs of excretion) The Sookshma Sareera. ten Organs. Tongue. Ears. five Pranas. subtle body is a combination of seventeen ingredients.e. Udana and Samana. the instruments with which we experience pain pleasure. Ten Organs are : five organs of perception . the vast store of past actions the fruits of which have not been reaped. Mind and Intellect.. 18 . The five Pranas are Prana.Eyes. Vyna. Hands. Nose and Skin and five organs of activity Speech (Mouth).
This process of rebirths stops only if in any birth this Sookshma Sareera gets out of Maya and understands the Atma in its body and gives up all worldly attachments and starts leading a life that befits Paramatma. Sookshma Sareera leaves the gross body at the time of death and gets rebirth.The Sthoola Sareera gross body. Naturally the results follow and the Sookshma Sareera gets the rewards called good births and punishments called mean births. according to Adwaita Doctrine. diseased and dies. It monifests itself in Sookshma Sareera and gets involved in the ties of human relations and gets elations and sorrows. Till it is attained this worldly pleasures and sorrows will be hunting it in every birth. It also does various Karmas both good and bad. 19 . Then it will join Paramatma which is called Moksha. Atma is nothing but a form of Paramatma. It is not Atma that gets rebirth. is the one that gets old.
Known for certain that Atma is none of these. It is itself detached from all the bodies. Sookshma (subtle body) and Karana (causal body). illumines the acitivites of the gross and subtle bodies.. So every living body has three farms of sareera viz. ignorance. has no beginning and also quite difficult to difine. Atma or self luminous consciousness. It is the witness to their three bodies and never to be identified with them. Sthoola (gross body). Avidya. The gross body and subtle body are products of Avidya and therefore Avidya is called the causal body. Because of ignorance we think and attribute all the qualities of the three Sareeras to Atma.14 Anaadyavidya Anirvaachyaa Kaaranopaadhi ruchyate Upaadhi Tritayaadanyam Atmaanam Avadhaarayet. This is also called Karana Sareera (Causal Body). 20 .
Pranamaya. Manomaya. Manomaya Kosa is responsible for our twin feelings like happiness and sorrow. the pure Atma appears to have borrowwed their qualities upon itself. When covered by a blue cloth. a pure colourless crystal looks like a blue crystal. The details of all these Kosas are well discribed in the second chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad. Pranamaya Kosa is the one that has Five Pranas that breathes life into this physical body. Annamaya Kosa is the physical body. Similarly because of the union with the Five Kosas.15 Panchakosaadi Yogena Tat Tanmaya Iva Sthitah Suddhaatma Neelavastraadi Yogena Sphatiko Yathaa. Vijnana Maya and Ananda Maya. The Five Kosas (sheaths) are : Annamaya. It 21 .
bran etc. 16 Vapus Tushadibhih Kosaih Yuktam Yuktya Avaghaatatah Atmanam Antaram Suddham Vivichyaat Tandulam Yatha. The Anandamaya Kosa which belongs to our Karana Sareera and controls our emotions is not real Ananda. 22 . It is therefore established that none of the three sareeras is Atma. These three constitute the Sookshma Sareera. This detachment is followed by knowledge of the self. we can separate Pure Atma within from the encircling of Five Kosas through careful discrimination. Just as rice is obtained by pounding paddy and separating the husk.. When one clearly realises the soul to be distinct from the Kosas. he becomes detached from them.controls our mind Vijnanamaya Kosa controls our intellect. Real and Saswata Ananda belongs to Atma.
23 . mind and intellect and is the witness of their functions. 18 Dehendriya Mano Buddhi Prakrutibhyo Vilakshanam Tadvrutti Sakshinam Vidya Atmaanam Raajavat Sada As a king observes the entertainment in his court hall without being a participant. It will manifest only in the purest form of Buddhi. But it will not shine in every thing. Atma can shine only in the purest form of Buddhi or intellect which is an integral part of Sookshma Sareera.17 Sada Sarvagato Apyatmaa Na Sarvatra Avabhaasate Buddhaaveva Avabhaaseta Swaccheshu Pratibimbavat Atma pervades every where. As a perfect image is reflected in a perfect mirror. Atma is distinct from the body. senses.
24 .organs. Manas and Buddhi do their own work in Atma Chaitanya or consciousness. As men do their own work in the light of sun. An ignorant person thinks that the moon is moving whereas it is the clouds that are really moving. 20 Atma Chaitanyam aasritya Dehendriya Manodhiyah Swakriyardheshu Vartante Suryaalokam Yatha Janaah. Similarly to the nondiscriminating people. organs. the body.19 Vyapruteshu Indriyeshu Atmaa Vyaapaareeva Avivekinaam Drusyate Abhreshu Dhavatsu Dhavanniva Yathaa Sasee. the Atma appears to be active when it is observed through the functions of the sense .
Manas or Buddhi. achievements or failures. Pure Atma is blemishless and it has both Sat and Chit. It has no birth. Atma is not to be held responsible. As one believes the sky is blue.When the sun shines we do so many acts both good and bad in sunlight though the sun is in no way responsible other than giving light. It is not therefore possible to characterise it. Similarly for the actions of body organs. 21 Dehendriya Gunaan Karmaani Amale Satchidatmani Adhyasyanti avivekena Gagane Neelataadivat. death. age. all the deeds and characteristics of body and organs are attributed to blemishless Atma due to lack of power of discrimination. 25 .
It is like the deeds of a character in a play or drama which do not affect the person donning the role. 26 . That is why Adisankara argues that Pure Atma is the light within but not Jeevatma which is forced to take births till it attains purity and becomes Pure Atma or Brahma.Body and organs do both good and bad deeds. Similarly due to ignorance. The reflection of moon in water that is not still gives an impression that the moon is moving because of ignorance. The deeds done by body and organs are like illusions as far as Pure Atma is concerned. 22 Ajnaanat maanasopadheh Kartrutwaadeeni cha Atmani Kalpyante Ambugate Chandre Chalanadi Yatha Ambhasah. feelings and responsibilities are attributed to Atma though they belong to Sookshma Sareera. the deeds. Their result will go to Sookshma Sareera but not to Pure Atma.
pain and such other feelings are perceived to exist so long as mind or intellect functions. every time we mean his body but not his pure Atma. 24 Prakaaso Arkasya Toyasya Saityam Agneryathoshnataa Swabhaavah Satchidananda Nitya Nirmalata Atmanah. desire. Therefore they belong to the mind alone and not to Atma. They are not perceived in deep sleep (sushupti) when the mind ceases to exist. happiness. 23 Raageechaa Sukha Duhkhaadi Buddhow Satyaam Pravartate Sushuptow Naasti Tannaase Tasmaad Buddhestu Naatmanah. 27 . Attachment.When we say some person has done a good or bad deed or his thinking is evil or noble or he is enjoying or suffering.
When we get Atma Jnana there is only Jnana but no learner and nothing to learn. Chith (Absolute Knowledge) Ananda (Absolute Bliss). there arises the notion of 'I know'. Atma's nature is Sath and Chith which is absolute without Time and Space.Brightness is sun's nature. Permanence and Purity. Pure Atma does not have any of the 28 . The mind's behaviour is always limited to Time and Space. heat fire's nature. 25 Atmanah Satchidamsascha Buddheh vruttiriti Dwayam Samyojya cha Avivekena Jaanaameeti Pravartate. Due to the indiscriminate blending of (1) the existence knowledge aspect of Atma and (2) the thought wave of the Budhi or Intellect. Similarly the nature of Atma is Sath (Absolute Existence). coolness is water's nature.
weaknesses of Manas. 29 . It is eternal.Mind and Intellect and thinks out of delusion that himself is the see and the knower. It is knowledge itself and is not affected by the mental thoughts and physical actions. 26 Atmano Vikriyaa naasti Buddherbodhohna Jaatwiti Jeevah Sarvam Alam Jnatwa Jnataa Drusteti Muhyati. It is the mind's weakness like Ego that causes ignorance and makes one think ''I know''. Atma never does anything. But the individuality (Jeeva) in us in its ignorance of its true nature falsely identifies itself with the Body . That is why it is does not think ''I know''. Buddhi or Intellect has no capacity to experience "I know".
27 Rajju Sarpavad Aatmaanam Jeevam Jnatvaa Bhayam Vaheth Naaham Jeevah Paraatmeti Jnateschet Nirbhayo Bhaveth. the Jiva due to thinking that he is a human being but not Paramatma itself is overcome by fear. Just as a lamp illumines a pot or a jar. Just as one regards a mere rope as a snake and is overcome by fear because of illusion and fears to touch it. 28 Atma Avabhasayatyeko Buddhyadeen Indriyaanyapi Deepo Ghataadi vat Swaatmaa Jadai Stair Na Avabhasyate. But when he learns with definite Jnana that he is Brahma himself he will be above all such reactions and never fears of anything. the Atma illumines the mind and the sense 30 .
29 Swabodhe Naanya Bodhecchaa Bodha Rupataya Atmanah Na Deepasya Anya Deepecchaa Yadhaa Swatma Prakaasane. Atma which is knowledge itself does not require other knowledge to know it. the Pure consciousness. The Atma in us is the one illuminating factor.organs also. What else can illuminate it? The only requirement is removal of ignorance. Atma as explained earlier is itself the illuminating one. 31 . just as a lighted lamp does not need another lamp to illumine its light. These material objects like pot cannot illumine themselves because they are inert and have no chaitanya. Then automatically the illumination of Atma comes out. which alone illumines the mind (Buddhi) and sense organs.
3) Sama Veda : ''Tathwamasi'' meaning 'That one is you'. 2) Yajurveda : ''Aham Brahmasmi'' meaning I am Brahma. The oneness of the individual soul (Jeevatma) and the Supreme Soul (Paramatma) as indicated by the Vedic aphorisms (Mahavakyas) has to be realised by a process of negation of the conditionings (upadhis) through the help of spiritual statemtns. 4) Adharwa Veda : ''Ayamatma Brahma'' meaning This Atma itself is Brahma. (Neti Neti) The Vedic apporisms (Maha Vakyas) are : 1) Rigveda : 'Prajnanam Brahma' meaning consciousness itself is Brahma. "It is not this". 32 .30 Nishidhya Nikhilopaadheen Neti Neteeti Vakyatah Vidyadaikyam Mahaavaakyaih Jeevatma Paramaatmanoh. "It is not this".
the subtle (sookshma) and the causal (karana) are time bound like bubbles in water. he will not identify himself with any 33 . Once any one realises through discrimination that he is nothing but Pure Brahma. 31 Aavidyakam Sareeraadi Drusyam Budbudavat Ksharam Etat Vilakshanam Vidyaat Aham Brahmeti Niramalam The forms of all three Sareeras viz' the gross (sthoola). we can find out Jivatma is nothing but Paramatma. Atma is none of these and is Pure Brahma itself. Likewise by discriminating and eliminating one by one.If one understands the Maha Vakyas in all the vedas he can start realising that Atma is not Manas.
of the Sareeras and is immune to all dualities and feelings. I have nothing to do with the sense objects such as sound and taste. 34 . 32 Deha Anyatvat Na me Janma Jara Kaarsya Layaadayah Sabdaadi Vishayaih Sango Nireendriya tayaa Na Cha. birth. only Atma is the concern.'' We are talking about Pure Atma. for I am without the sense organs. old age. For a Brahma Jnani. All the organs and body that constitute the three forms of Sareera are of no relevance to him. ''I am not the body that has time bound existence. The following meditation (slokas 32 to 36) is suggested in order to strengthen the knowledge of the soul's oneness with Brahma. weakness and death.
The atma does not have any features of the mind (manas). he is able to get Eternal Bliss. 33 Amanastwaat Na me Dukha Raaga Dwesha Bhayaadayah Apraano Hi Amanaassubhra Ityaadi Sruti saasanaat ''I am not Manas and hence I am not having sorrow. 35 . So for him there are no births.He will not get attached to any of them. First it is confirmed that. By getting detachment from them. The commandment of the upanishads is that Atma is without breath and without mind and is pure. malice and fear''. 'I' is not body or organs. the process of discrimination is taking place by confirming one by one that 'I' is not this and this. attachment. As explained earlier. no attachments and no interest in the pleasures and pains caused by sense organs.
It is free from any attachment because it has nothing to do with mind. without form. It has no actions because it has nothing to do with the body or organs. without any vasanas. 36 . 34 Nirguno Nishkriyo Nityo Nirvikalpo Niranjanah Nirvikaaro Niraakaaro Nitya Muktosmi Nirmalah. Atma is without attributes and actions. ever liberated and ever pure. It is Eternal because it has no limits time and space. Here Atma's nature is described. When we are indeep sleep. But Atma exists ever in deep sleep. without any change.Manas only experiences happiness and sorrow. Hence Atma is not Manas (mind). It is eternal. without any desire or thought. we are not experiencing any of the features of Manas.
I am Pure. unattached. I am changeless and the same in all. eternal and free and which is indivisible.35 Aham Aakaasavath Sarvam Bahir Antargato Achyutah Sadaa Sarva Samassuddho Nissango Nirmalo Achalah ''Like the space (Akasa). stainless and motionless. It is knowledge itself and is infinite.'' These slokas 32-36 there is a discussion of Brahma as defined in 37 . I fill all things within and without.'' 36 Nitya Suddha Vimuktaikam Akhanda Anandam Advayam Satyam Jnanam Anamtam Yatparam Brahma Aham eva tat ''I alone an the supreme Brahma which is pure. nondual and changeless in all the periods of time.
Thus. 38 . Let us now find out how to do this.Upanishads like Taittiriya. So for a better understanding the reader is advised to go through the Upanishad. the impression (Vasana) created by constant practice of 'Aham Brahmasmi destroys ignorance and the agitation (vikshepa) caused by Avidya. The practice of Aham Brahmasmi has to be intensified by long reflection to destroy ignorance. just as medicine destroys disease. 37 Evam Nirantara Abhyastaa Brahmaiva asmeeti Vaasanaa Harati Avidya Vikshepaan Rogaaniva rasaayanam.
meditate with unswerving attention on the Atma which is infinite and one without a second.38 Vivikta Desa Aaseeno Viraago Vijitendriyah Bhaavayet Ekam Aatmaanam Tam Anantam Ananyadheeh. The wise man should merge this visible world with Atma alone in an intelligent way and constantly think of the Atma as the stainless or pure sky. 39 Atmanyeva Akhilam Drusyam Pravilaapya Dhiyaa Sudheeh Bhavayet Ekam Aatmaanam Nirmala Akaasavat Sadaa. One should sit in a solitary place with a mind free from desires and controlling the sense organs. 39 .
Merging the visible world with Atma is by visualising the Atma in everything in the world that has Chetana and is seen by the eyes. Such an Aatma Jnani will not only experience Chidananda but becomes Ananda personified. 40 . One who has realised by constant practice of meditation the Supreme Paramatma discards all things with names and forms. 40 Roopa Varnaadikam Sarvam Vihaaya Paramaarthavit Paripoorna Chidananda Svaroopena Avatishtate.Here the intellgence needed is the power of discrimination. He then remains as an embodiment of the infinite consciousness and bliss.
there are no such distinctions within itself.41 Jnaatru Jnaana Jneya Bhedah Pare na Atmani Vidyate Chidananda Eka Roopatwaat Deepyate Swayameva hi. the sacrificial fire was kindled by rubbing of two pieces of wood one placed upon another (Arani). In ancient days. At alone shines. As the nature of Paramatma is endless Bliss and self luminous. 42 Evam Aatma Aranau Dhyaana Mathane Satatam Krute Uditaava Gatir Jvaalaa Sarva Ajnaana Indhanam Dahet. There are no distinctions. such as 'knower' 'knowledge' and the 'object of knowledge' in the Supreme self (Paramatma). 41 .
drives away darkness of the night and heralds sunrise. Atma rises within of its own accord like sunrise 44 Atmaatu Satatam Praapto Api Apraptavat Avidyayaa Tannase Praaptavat Bhaati Swa Kanthaabharanam Yatthaa 42 . Aham Brahmasmi. the fire of knowledge (Jnana) is born and it shall burn down all the ignorance (Ajnana) in us. Aruna. (I am the supreme self) in the Arani of Atma with mind as the lower piece and 'om' as upper piece.By churning in the form of constant contemplation on the maha mantra. 43 Arune neva Bodhena Poorva Santamase Hrute Tata Aavirbhavet Aatmaa Swayameva Amsumaaniva. Similarly while the darkness of Ajnana is destroyed by knowledge. The Lord of early dawn.
ignorance (Ajnana) is removed through constant and sincere sadhana. He has thus lamented over a thing which is not lost. just as the ornament of one's neck. he feels very happy as if he found a new ornament. 43 . When he later finds it. 45 Sthaanau Purushavat Bhraantyaa Krutaa Brahmani Jeevataa Jeevasya Taathvike Roope Tasmin Drushte Nivartate. When ignorance is destroyed. Atman is realised as an object newly gained.Atma is an ever present reality (Sat).. Yet it is not realised due to ignorance (Ajnana). We only recognise it when the cause for its veiling viz. The Atma is ever with us. A person searches for the gold ornament already in his neck due to his forgetfullness.
North. 44 . The sense of "I" and the concept of "mine" both become meaningless and delusory when the Atma is realised as one universal reality. Similarly Brahman who is Paramatma appears to be Jivatma because of delusion. West. the real nature of Jiva is realised as the Atma. When such delusion is destroyed. South is known when sunrises and dispels darkness. Just as the identity of directions East. 46 Tathva Swaroopa Anubhavaa Utpannam Jnaanam Anjasaa Aham Mameti cha Ajnaanam Baadhate Digbhramadivat. a tree appears to be a man. the knowledge produced by the realisation of the true nature of Atma destroys the ignorance (Ajnana) which gave rise to the wrong notions of possession .Due to delusion.the "I" and "mine" in every one.
There is no separate existence 45 . They come out of mud and finally go back to the same mud.47 Samyak Vijnanavaan Yogee Swatmanyeva Akhilam Jagat Ekam Cha Sarvam Atmaana Eeekshyate Jnana Chakshushaa The yogi of perfect realisation sees through his eye of wisdom (Jnana Chakshu) the entire universe (Jagat) as the manifestation of his own Atma and regards everything else as his own Atma and nothing else. Pots. 48 Atma eva idam Jagat sarvam Atmano Anyat na Vidyate Mrudo Yadvat Ghataadeeni Swatmaanam Sarvam Eekshyate The entire universe is verily Atma. Nothing other than Atma exists. Jars and other potteries are made of clay (mud).
subtle and casual bodies (upadhis) On account of his nature of Sat Chit Ananda. one who has realised the Atma by long years of meditation upon the divine nature of the Atma and has become completely free from ignorance (Avidya). This is rightly understood by the man of wisdom (Jnani). So too Atma is the reality (Sat) which has given shape to the world (Jagat) of different names and forms. even while he lives in his body. A Jivanmukta i. gives up the traits of the gross.for the mud pots or jars apart from the mud. like the worm which grows up in the mud nest for a long time and transforms into a wasp after contemplation over the form and nature of the wasp. 46 . 49 Jeevan Muktastu Tat Vidvaan Poorvopaadhi Gunaan Tyajet Satchidananda Roopatvaat Bhavet Bhramara Keetavat.e. he verily becomes Brahma.
47 . the incarnation of Paramatma who crossed the real ocean and killed demon Ravana. 51 Baahya Anitya Sukhaasaktim Hitva Atma Sukha Nirvruttah Ghatastha Deepavat Svasthah Swarntareva Prakaasate.50 Teertva Mohaarnavam Hatvaa Raaga Dveshadi Rakshasaan Yogee Saanti Samayuktah Atmaa Ramo Viraajate The Yogi who crosses the ocean of Moha (delusion) and kills the demons called likes and dislikes will be peaceful and dwells in the glory of his own real self as an Atma Rama. Here the phrase Atma Rama is used suggesting that Atma is godly like Rama.
Though he lives in the upadhis. 48 . shines inwardly like a lamp placed in a pot. he remains untainted like the sky (Vyomavat) and he moves abouts like the wind. perfectly unattached. 52 Upadhisthopi Tatdharmaih Alipto Vyomavanmunih Sarvavit Moodhavat Tishteth Asakto Vaayuvat Chareth. As the Jeevanmukta detaches from all sense organs. he turns the mind inward it will be still without any dielusions. The state of Jeevan Mukhta is further described in this sloka. Then his mind experiences this inward light of the Supreme Brahma.The Jeevan Mukta who relinquishes all his attachments to the illusory (Anitya) and external (Bahya) happiness and is satisfied with the bliss derived from Atma.
just as water is absorbed into water. space into space and light into light. 54 Yallabhat Na Aparo Labho Yat Sukhat Na Aparam Sukham Yat Jnanaat Na Aparam Jnaanam Tath Brahmeti Avadharayet. a person who constantly contemplates on the divine.53 Upadhi Vilayaat Vishnau Nirvisesham Visermunih Jale Jalam Viyat Vyomni Tejas Tejasi Va Yatha. is totally absorbed in Vishnu. the attainment of which leaves nothing more 49 . Realise that to be Brahma. When the upadhis are destroyed. the all pervading spirit.
the blessedness (sukham) which is far more superior to any other blessedness. 50 . (3) the greatest bliss of the self after enjoying which none will strive for a greater bliss. The supreme experience of realization of Brahma is explained in this sloka as (1) the greatest gain. The highest goal is to know Brahma and become Brahma only. (2) the greatest knowledge (jnana) after gaining which none will like to add any more to it. All Upanishads like Bruhadaranyaka and Mundaka confirm this.to be attained. and the Jnana which is superior to any other knowledge.
after attaining which there will not be any more birth and after knowing which there is nothing else to be known. nothing else is required because everything else is dismal compared to the Brahma. For the Yogi who attained the highest goals of Adhyatma and became a Brahma Jnani. that is to be understood as Brahma. (Chap 2-72) 51 . Bhagavat Gita calls this highest goal as the Supreme Abode and Yogis reach there never to return.55 Yat Drustvaa na Aparam Drusyam Yat bhootvaa na Punarbhavah Yat Jnaatvaa na Aparam Jneyam Tat Brahmeti Avadhaarayet. After seeing which there is nothing else to be seen.
The one that pervades in all places even above and below is Brahma. It is one without a second. This description of Brahma is in Mundaka Upanishad which also says that it is immortal and is there before and exists behind and in all sides. That one is to be understood as Brahma. 52 . eternal and filled with Satchidananda. It is infinite. It exists as only one.56 Tiryak Oordhvam Adhah Poornam Satchidanandam Advayam Anantam Nityam Ekam Yat Tat Brahmeti Avadhaarayet.
This Brahma is nondual. blissful and always exists as only one. The Upanishads indicate that this Brahma is reached by a process of negation of what it is not and of assertion of what it is. are only a particle of the unlimited bliss of Para Brahma and accordingly enjoy their proportionate share of that particle. Varuna and others worshipped by us.57 Atat Vyaavrutti Roopena Vedaantaih Lakshyate Advayam Akhandanandam Ekam Yat Tat Brahmeti Avadhaarayety. 58 Akhandananda Roopasya Tasya Ananda Lavaasritaah Brahmaadyaah Taaratamyena Bhavanti Anandino Akhilaah. 53 . indivisible. All the deities like Indra.
According to vedanta all meritorious and righteous men after death enjoy a particle of the Bliss of Paramatma." 54 . Who told. After the fraction of Bliss of Paramatma is exhausted. "I will be born again and again to destroy Adharma and to establish Dharma. But it is only a very small fraction of the total Atmananda the Parabrahma is capable of giving. they are again born as great men and help to establish Dharma. In the Paramatma's incarnation as Lord Krishna.Every living being who worships deities enjoy the bliss of Paramatma according to his capacity . We can imagine this easily.
Only by intense meditation. Here the example of Butter and Milk is given because butter is in milk but not directly visible. 55 . To get butter one has to churn milk. it is possible to realise Brahma. Not able to see does not mean it does not exist. Brahma permeates everything as butter permeates milk.59 Tad Yuktam Akhilam Vastu Vyavahaara satadanvitah Tasmaat Sarvagatam Brahma Ksheere Sarpiriva Akhile. The whole creation is pervaded by Brahma. Similarly Brahma is spread in the whole universe but not visible. This is a perfect example given in vedanta to explain Paramatma's existence. It is because of Brahma only all actions are taking place in this universe.
Some of these qualities are explained in Bruhadaranyaka Upanishad where one gets more detailed discussion about Brahmatatwa which is imperceptible to the mind and hence cannot be described. 61 Yadbhaasaa Bhaasate Arkadi Bhasyairyattu Na Bhasyate Yena Sarvamidam Bhati Tat Brahmeti Avadhaarayeti. no form. no changes.60 Ananu Asthoolam Ahraswam Adeergham Ajam Avyayam Aroopa Guna Varnaakhyam Tat Brahmeti Avadharayet Brahma is neither subtle nor gross. no quality. 56 . neither short nor long. no colour and even no particular name. It has no birth.
It is once again confirmed in this sloka that but for the illuminating power of Brahma nothing can shine in this universe. shines of itself like the five that permeates a red hot iron-ball and glow as fire itself. 62 Swayam Antar Bahir Vyapya Bhasayan Akhilam Jagat Brahma Prakaasate Vahni Pratapta Ayasa Pindavat. The Supreme Brahma while pervading the entire universe outwardly and inwardly.All heavenly bodies are illuminated by Brahma and are shining. But Brahma is not illuminated by their light. 57 .
An iron ball when in contact with fire for a sufficiently long time comes to glow as fire itself. If any object in universe other than Brahma appears to exist. 64 Drusyate Srooyate Yadyat Brahmano Anyan Na Tat Bhavet Tathvajnaanaat Cha Tadbrahma Satchidanandam Advayam 58 . Brahma is entirely different from universe. 63 Jagat Vilakshanam Brahma Brahmano Anyata Kinchana Brahma Anyat Bhatichet Mithya Yadha Maru Mareechikaa. it is unreal like the mirage which appears to be giving water in a desert. but there exists nothing in the universe that is not Brahma.
All that is perceived or heard through the sense organs is Brahma only. The Brahma that is non dual and which is in the form of Satchidananda is known only after attaining the knowledge of the Reality. Whatever exists either in this limited body, mind and intellect or in the outer created world, they are all manifestations of the Brahma and nothing else. When this truth is realised and experienced, one can see the entire universe in which the Brahma revels as satchit Ananda absolute because it is one and only one Ekam Eva Advitiyam Brahma. 65 Sarvagam Satchidaatmaanam Jnana Chakshur Nireekshate Ajnaana Chakshur Na Eekshet Bhaswantam Bhanum Andhavat
We can visualise Atma that has universal existence with the help of Jnana netra (eye of knowledge) only, just as the blind cannot see the resplendent sun. 66 Sravanaadibhi Uddepta Jnaanaagni Paritapitah Jeeva Sarvamalat Muktah Swarnavat Dyotate Swayam The Jeeva is purified by heating in the fire of knowledge kindled by hearing, reasoning and deep contemplation on what has been heard and reasoned out. Then the Jeeva shines of itself like pure gold obtained after melting and purifying the gold ore. Just as one heats gold ore in a cruicible to purify it, one has to use the fire of Jnana to purify the mind.
Jnana can be achieved according to Hindu philosophy by Sravana (hearing) Manana (reasoning of truth) and Nidhi Dhyasana (deep contemplation). Then the mind will be free from impure thoughts, and the feeling of Jeeva gets automatically extinguished. Then only the selfilluminating Atma exists. 67 Hrudaakaasodito hi Atmaa Bodha Bhaanus Tamopahrut Sarva Vyaapee Sarva Dhaaree Bhaati Bhaasayate Akhilam The Atma, Sun of Knowledge, which rises in the sky of the heart, destroys the darkness of ignorance, pervades everything and sustains all. It shines and makes everything in the universe to shine.
Here Sun is brought into comparison because it is the ultimate source of light visible to the naked eye.Heart here means the arena of the mind from where noble and humane thoughts flow. 62 . 68 Dikdesa Kaa laadi Anapekshya Sarvagam Seetadi Hrunnitya Sukham Niramjanam Yassvaatma Teerdham Bhajate Vinishkriyam Sa Sarvavit Sarva Gato Amruto Bhavet.
space and direction. Om Tat Sat 63 . Thus ends Atma Bodha May God Bless all the beings of universe.The Jnani who (1) is free from all the limitations of time. which destroys heat and cold and which is bliss eternal and stainless becomes all knowing and all pervading and attains immortality. (2) worships the holy place of his own Atma which is present everywhere.
This book is dedicated to Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Varu 64 .
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