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Viscosity and Boundary Layers
How to investigate viscous effects
Outline of the Boundary Layers
• Introduction • Effects by Viscosity – Drag – Pressure Distribution – Flow Separation • Basic Boundary Layer Theory – Basic Theory and Definitions – Laminar Boundary layers – Transition – Turbulent boundary Layers • Summary of Results
4 . – A thin layer of fluid with lower velocity than the outer flow develops.航空宇航学院 Introduction • What’s Boundary layers ? – A thin layer Appearing on the surface of bodies in viscous flow because the fluid seems to "stick" to the surface.
– Take an arbitrary number (say 99%) to define what we mean by "nearly“. – The velocity in the boundary layer slowly increases until it reaches the outer flow velocity.Description of Boundary Layer 航空宇航学院 • Description of Boundary Layer – No slip condition: the flow at the surface has no relative motion. 5 . δ . – The boundary layer thickness. is defined as the distance required for the flow to nearly reach Ue. Ue.
航空宇航学院 Boundary layer on airfoil. and then continues to develop along the surface of the body. 6 . – Generally starting out as a laminar flow. the boundary layer thickens. undergoes transition to turbulent flow. possibly separating from the surface under certain conditions. • Boundary layer along surface of airfoil.
– The thickness of the laminar boundary layer increases with distance from the start of the boundary layer and decreases with Reynolds number.laminar flow 航空宇航学院 • Laminar flow – Fluid moves in smooth layers or lamina. – There is relatively little mixing and consequently the velocity gradients are small and shear stresses are low. 7 .
8 . – The wall shear stress is higher because the velocity gradient near the wall is greater.Turbulent boundary layer 航空宇航学院 • Turbulent boundary layer – Flow is characterized by unsteady mixing due to eddies at many scales. The result is higher shear stress at the wall. a "fuller" velocity profile.and a greater boundary layer thickness. – The lower velocity fluid is also transported outward with the result that the distance to the edge of the layer is larger.
航空宇航学院 Effects by viscosity • Drag • Pressure Distribution • Flow Separation 9 .
Cf. where Swetted is the area "wetted" by the air and Sref is the reference area used to define the drag coefficient.Viscous Drag 航空宇航学院 • Viscous Drag – Skin Friction Skin friction drag caused by shear stresses at the surface contribute a majority of the drag of most airplanes We define the skin friction coefficient. by The shear stress is then related to the viscosity by: Cf is related to the drag coefficient by CD (skin friction) = Cf*Swetted/Sref. 10 .
11 . We usually write: CD = k * Cf * Swetted / Sref where k is a "form factor" that depends on the shape of the body. the local velocities on the surface may be higher than the freestream velocity and the skin friction is increased. and the character of the boundary layer. The skin friction coefficient varies with Reynolds number. Mach number.航空宇航学院 This expression applies to a flat plate. When the body has thickness.
12 .航空宇航学院 The plot below shows how Reynolds number and the location of the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow. affects the skin friction coefficient.
航空宇航学院 From the basic boundary layer theory combined with experimental fits. the following results are obtained: For laminar boundary layers on flat plates: For fully-turbulent flat plate boundary layers: 13 .
航空宇航学院 Pressure Drag – Pressure Drag The presence of the boundary layer creates a pressure or form drag on bodies In an adverse pressure gradient. 14 . but pressure drag increases. This increase in pressure drag compensates for some of the reduction in skin friction. the skin friction drag is reduced.
leading to changes in the pressure distribution and to the overall lift and drag.Effect of Boundary Layers on Pressures 航空宇航学院 • Effect of Boundary Layers on Pressures – The presence of the boundary layer changes the effective shape of the body. 15 .
– This leads to changes in the lift. and moment compared with the inviscid solution. – Outside the boundary layer. drag.航空宇航学院 – The effective shape can be used to approximate the effect of the boundary layer using inviscid analysis methods combined with the boundary layer equations. the flow behaves much like an inviscid (and usually irrotational) fluid. – This change in pressure distribution leads to a non-zero pressure drag in addition to the skin friction drag – The sum of the skin friction and pressure drag is often termed “profile drag”. 16 .
with thicker boundary layers developing toward the aft part of the airfoil at higher angles of attack (because of the more severe adverse pressure gradients). 17 .航空宇航学院 – As the angle of attack changes. the boundary layer shape changes. it is clear that viscous effects cause an effective decambering of the airfoil shape. – If we look at the mean line of the effective shapes. – The effective shape of the airfoil thus changes with angle of attack.
航空宇航学院 – This leads to changes in the lift curve slope (up to a 10% reduction in Cl at Reynolds numbers in the millions) and an aerodynamic center that is usually farther forward than is predicted by inviscid theory. 18 . Separation causes large changes in effective airfoil shape here Viscous result Angle of attack – The effect is of increasing importance as Reynolds number is reduced.
generally a bit farther upstream. – Why ? It’s caused by the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. 19 . no longer are valid. Thus. where streamlines meet and then leave the surface. coupling an inviscid analysis with a simple boundary layer calculation does not work. – Effects When this occurs. One must resort to experiment or Navier-Stokes solutions.Separation 航空宇航学院 • Separation – What is Separation When the flow near the surface reverses its direction and flows upstream. there must be a place. the assumptions that the u component of velocity is larger than the v component and that certain derivatives in the x direction may be ignored.
20 .航空宇航学院 • Effects of the separation – The changes in the flow pattern. and associated forces and moments are large. Drag usually increases substantially Airfoil lift usually drops The effect is generally Reynolds number dependent.
Just as when one coasts uphill. starts rolling backward after a while. the velocity profile is "fuller" with the high external velocities extending down closer to the surface. 21 .航空宇航学院 • Detail explanation about separation – The presence of an adverse pressure gradient (increasing pressure) causes a deceleration of the fluid. the fluid that starts up the (pressure) hill with little speed. In that case. – This picture explains why flow does not separate as readily at higher Reynolds numbers.
the laminar boundary layer leaves the surface and usually undergoes transition to turbulent flow away from the surface. but if it happens quickly enough.航空宇航学院 – Turbulent boundary layers also have greater velocity near the surface and are therefore better able to handle adverse pressure gradients. – The laminar boundary layer is more likely to separate When this occurs. This process takes place over a certain distance that is inversely related to the Reynolds number. 22 . the flow may reattach as a turbulent boundary layer and continue along the surface.
23 .航空宇航学院 • The laminar separation on low Reynolds number airfoils – The separation phenomenon has significant effects on airfoil pressure distributions at low Reynolds numbers.
航空宇航学院 • Comments on computing for separation • To compute when separation will occur. we can solve the N-S equations or apply one of several separation criteria to solutions of the boundary layer equations. • Laminar Separation Criteria • Turbulent Separation Criteria 24 .
location where u/ue reaches 99%. δ * • This is a measure of the outward displacement of the streamlines from the solid surface as a result of the reduced u. This quantity is defined as : ⎡ ρu δ = ∫ ⎢1− ⎣ ρu * 0 ∞ e e ⎤ ⎥dy ⎦ 25 .velocity becomes 99% of the edge velocity. – Displacement thickness.航空宇航学院 Basic boundary layer theory • Boundary Layer Thickness – Boundary layer thickness. that is the u.velocity within the boundary layer. δ • This is defined as the y.
ρu ⎡ u⎤ θ=∫ 1− ⎥ dy ρe u e ⎢ ue ⎦ ⎣ 0 ∞ – Shape factor. θ – This is a measure of the momentum loss within the boundary layer as a result of the reduced velocities within the boundary layer.航空宇航学院 – Momentum Thickness. H is defined as the ratio of δ * to θ H = δ /θ * 26 .
航空宇航学院 Boundary Layer Analyses • Thwaites Method for Computing Laminar Boundary Layers • Michel’s Transition Criterion • Head’s method for Turbulent Flow • Squire-Young Formula for Drag Prediction 27 .
• Ref: Thawites. 28 . 1960: ue d 2 θ due (θ ) = A − B ν dx ν dx 2 Thwaites recommends A = 0. B. Oxford. Incompressible Aerodynamics.45 and B = 6 as the best empirical fit..航空宇航学院 Thwaites’ method • This is an empirical method based on the observation that most laminar boundary layers obey the following relationship. Clarendon Press.
45ν 5 ue dx + ⎢θ ( x = 0) ⎥= 6 6 ∫0 ue ( x ) ⎦ ue ⎣ x= x 5 ue dx ∫ x x =0 • For blunt bodies such as airfoils. the term in the square bracket always vanishes. 29 . Thus. the stagnation point. when ue is known. at least numerically. • The integral may be evaluated.航空宇航学院 Thwaites’ method • The above equation may be analytically integrated yielding 0. For sharp nosed geometries such as a flat plate. the edge velocity ue is zero at x=0.45ν 2 θ = 6 ue 6 ⎡ 2 ue ( x = 0) ⎤ 0. the momentum thickness θ is zero at the leading edge.
θ 2 du e λ= ν dx 30 .0147 H = 2.24 λ 2 For − 0.航空宇航学院 Thwaites’ method • After θ is found. For 0 ≤ λ ≤ 0. 472 + 0.1 H = 2. the following relations are used to compute the shape factor H.107 + λ where. 61 − 3. 75λ + 5.1 ≤ λ ≤ 0 0.
62 (λ + 0. we can also find skin friction coefficient from the following empirical curve fits: µue 0.航空宇航学院 Thwaites’ method After θ is found.09) τw = θ τw Cf = 1 ρue2 2 31 .
32 . dth2ue6 = K*dx/18*(5*f1+8*f2+5*f3). % test for laminar separation if lambda < -0.54)). coeff = sqrt(3/5).Thwaites’ method: MATLAB Code from PABLO %--------Laminar boundary layer 航空宇航学院 lsep = 0. itrans = i. retmax = 1. end./ue(i). itrans = i. cf(i) = cf(i). % test for end of surface if i> n endofsurf = 1. break. K = 0. while lsep ==0 & trans ==0 & endofsurf ==0 lambda = theta(i). end. f3 = ppval(spues. H(i) = fH(lambda). L = fL(lambda).46+22400*rex^(-0. f2 = f2^5.09 lsep = 1.^6). break. cf(i) = 2*L.xm-coeff*dx/2). f1 = ppval(spues. itrans = n.xm+coeff*dx/2).174*(rex^0.075/(Re*dueds(1))). i = i+1.xm).^6 + dth2ue6).45/Re. endofsurf=0. ret = Re*theta(i)*ue(i).^2*dueds(i)*Re. if i>1. xm = (s(i)+s(i-1))/2. if ret>retmax trans = 1./ue(i). trans=0.^2*ue(i-1). theta(i) = sqrt((theta(i-1). theta(1) = sqrt(0./(Re*theta(i)). f1 = f1^5. i = 1. end. % test for transition rex = Re*s(i)*ue(i). f3 = f3^5. end. f2 = ppval(spues. end. dx = (s(i)-s(i-1)).
3.24*lambda.088 + 0.0731.75*lambda + 5. end. if lambda < 0 if lambda==-0./(lambda+0.139.14 lambda=-0. H = 2. elseif lambda >= 0 H = 2.^2. end.61 .航空宇航学院 Relationship between λ and H function H = fH(lambda).14). 33 .
402*lambda +(0.22 + 1. end.1.018*lambda). L = fL(lambda). 34 . elseif lambda >= 0 L = 0./(lambda+0. We invoke (or call this function) at each i-location as follows: H(i) = fH(lambda). if lambda < 0 if lambda==-0.107). cf(i) = 2*L.106./(Re*theta(i)).8*lambda.22 + 1.航空宇航学院 Skin Friction function L = fL(lambda). end. L = 0.^2.107 lambda=-0.57*lambda .
• Examples: – Eppler’s method – Michel’s method • Wind turbine designers and laminar airfoil designers tend to use Eppler’s method • Aircraft designers tend to use Michel’s method.航空宇航学院 Transition prediction • A number of methods are available for predicting transition. 35 .
itrans = i.174 Re x [ 0.54)). if ret>retmax trans = 1. ret = Re*theta(i)*ue(i).174*(rex^0.46 + 22400 Re x − 0.54 ] % test for transition rex = Re*s(i)*ue(i).航空宇航学院 Michel’s Method for Transition Prediction Re x = ν ueθ Reθ = ν ue x Transition occurs when Reθ ≥ 1. retmax = 1. end. 36 .46+22400*rex^(-0.
• The most popular of these is Head’s method. and integral boundary layer methods exist.航空宇航学院 Turbulent Flow • A number of CFD methods. 37 . • This method is used in a number of computer codes. including PABLO.
( ) ( ) .0306 H1 − 3 U dx 38 These two ODEs are solved by marching from transition location to trailing edge.航空宇航学院 Head’s Method Von Karman Momentum Integral Equation: cf dU dθ θ + 2+H = dx dx U 2 ( ) A new shape parameter H1: δ −δ * H1 ≡ θ Evolution of H1 along the boundary layer: −0.6169 1 d UθH1 = 0.
Empirical Closure Relations
If H ≤ 1.6 H1 = 3.3 + 0.8234(H − 1.1) else H1 = 3.3 + 1.5501(H − 0.6778)
C f = 0.246 10
Turbulent separation occurs when H1 = 3.3
Coding Closure Relations in Head’s Method
function y=H1ofH(H); if H <1.1 y = 16; else if H <= 1.6 y = 3.3 + 0.8234*(H-1.1).^(-1.287); else y = 3.3 + 1.5501*(H-0.6778).^(-3.064); end; end; function cf = cfturb(rtheta,H); cf = 0.246*(10.^(-0.678*H))*rtheta.^(-0.268);
function H=HofH1(H1); if H1 <= 3.32 H = 3; elseif H1 < 5.3 H = 0.6778 + 1.1536*(H13.3).^(-0.326); else H = 1.1 + 0.86*(H1-3.3).^(0.777); end
Drag Prediction Squire-Young Formula
Cd = Cd ,upper + Cd ,lower Cd ,upper = 2
θTrailingEdge ⎛ U E ,TrailingEdge ⎞
c ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ V∞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
H TrailingEdge ,upper + 5 2
航空宇航学院 Some useful expressions for flat-plate boundary layers • Laminar flows • Turbulent flows 42 .
航空宇航学院 3-D Boundary Layers on Wings • Spanwise pressure gradients 43 .
44 . The streamwise growth of the boundary layer tends to cause early stall near the tips. piling up tired. slow air near the tips and contributing to premature tip stall.航空宇航学院 • Spanwise pressure gradient effects on the boundary layer The gradients cause the boundary layer to flow outward.
Wings with sweep angles in excess of 30 to 40° require some sort of boundary layer control (e.g.航空宇航学院 The spanwise flow on the wing also tends to create streamwise vorticity in the boundary layer This cross-flow instability is very damaging to laminar boundary layers and quickly causes transition to turbulent flow. 45 . suction) to maintain laminar flow.
航空宇航学院 Coupled inviscid / viscous iterative methods 46 .
航空宇航学院 Effect of boundary-layer displacement on the pressure distribution and lift of a modern airfoil 47 .
lift. transition position. • It can be used to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in subsonic. pitch moment. drag. 48 . and incipient separation on the airfoils. viscous flows.航空宇航学院 Introduction to “Airfoil” • It is an airfoil analysis program that is an adaptation of the original program "mcarfa" . • The computed aerodynamic characteristics include pressure distributions.
航空宇航学院 Method • The program combines the potential-flow solution with boundary-layer theory in an iterative manner. • Providing significant improvements in prediction accuracy. • The interrelationship between the potential-flow solution and the boundary-layer effects is included . 49 .
航空宇航学院 Modifications to "mcarfa" • Simplification of the input data procedure • Ability to generate NACA airfoil geometry data • Compacting output file • Displaying airfoil shape and pressure distributions in a graphic manner 50 .
selected by use Note: if 2 is selected. 51 .input airfoil data file Select 1 or 2 1 <--.航空宇航学院 Running Procedure (1) • Issue the command "airfoil" • Select the option and input parameters through the interface – Airfoil Definition Option: 1 -.Generate NACA airfoil 2 -. The input file format is given in section 3. an input file. should be set up before the program is invoked. which defines the geometry of an airfoil.
defined by user 52 .NACA Standard 5 Digit Airfoil 1 <--.selected by user Enter NACA 4-Digit Airfoil Name: Input Format: NACA XXXX NACA 4412 <--.NACA 4-Digit Airfoi 2 -.航空宇航学院 Running Procedure (2) NACA Airfoil Selection: 1 -.
out <--.input parameter Mach number = ? ( 0.0 <--.0 <--.航空宇航学院 Running Procedure (3) Enter name of output file ===> demo.defined by user Enter Parameters: Reference chord length = ? (ft) 1.05 < M < Mcr) 0.input parameter angle of attack = ? (in deg) 4.1 <--.8 <--.input parameter 53 .input parameter Reynolds number = ? (in mllions) 0.
out" using Text Editor to get the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil defined by user.航空宇航学院 Running Procedure (4) • Obtain the computed results – Open output file "demo. – Issue the M-file "airfoil.m" under Matlab environment to display the airfoil shape and pressure distributions on the airfoil 54 .
800 million Angle of Attack = 4.航空宇航学院 ---.Output of Airfoil Program ----TITLE -. Chord = 1.100 Reynolds Number = 0.0101 CM(C/4) = -0.8584 CD = 0.000 55 .000 feet CL = 0.31117 Lower x/c = 0.0925 Transition Point: Upper x/c = 0.95974 Separation (Percent of Surface): Upper = 2.NACA 4412 Mach number = 0.272 Lower = 0.000 Ref.
07489 -1.19384 0.17790 0.06907 -1.17141 0.14189 ……… …….03365 -1.10247 0.07107 0.03776 0.00980 -0.08822 -1.20144 0.00183 0.04900 -1.84013 0.09018 0.航空宇航学院 ---.01413 0.02453 0.01780 -0.22130 0.13289 0.04147 -1.20142 0. ……… 56 .Pressure Distribution on Upper Surface ---x/c Zu Cp 0.21070 0.02571 -1.17700 0.00668 0.16577 0..28680 0.06281 -1.07992 -1.15723 0.17068 0.11100 0.08437 -1.15481 0.05615 -1.05337 0.
航空宇航学院 Airfoil Shape and Pressure Distributions 57 .
58 . • Mach number must be greater than 0.航空宇航学院 Limitations • Only NACA 4-digit Airfoil and NACA Standard 5 Digit Airfoil ordinates can be generated automatically.05 and less than criteria Mach number.
Inc. 59 . MIT and Harold Youngren. • It was developed by Mark Drela.航空宇航学院 Introduction to XFOIL • XFOIL is a software which goal was to combine the speed and accuracy of high-order panel methods with the new fully-coupled viscous/inviscid interaction methods. Aerocraft. • It consists of a collection of menu-driven routines which perform various useful functions .
– Writing and reading of airfoil geometry and polar save files – Plotting of geometry.航空宇航学院 Introduction to XFOIL • Functions – Viscous (or inviscid) analysis of an existing airfoil – Airfoil design and redesign by interactive specification of a surface speed distribution via screen cursor or mouse. – Airfoil redesign by interactive specification of new geometric parameters – Blending of airfoils – Drag polar calculation with fixed or varying Reynolds and/or Mach numbers. and polar. 60 . pressure distributions.
– Lift coefficient – Lift coefficient slope – Drag coefficient – Pressure distribution 61 .航空宇航学院 Homework • Compare the results from using panel method program PABLO for inviscid flows and viscous flows and using Airfoil panel method coupled with boundary-layer theory in an iterative manner.