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• • • • • Neighborhood Adjacency Connectivity Paths Regions and boundaries

Neighbors of a Pixel

• Any pixel p(x, y) has two vertical and two horizontal neighbors, given by (x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y-1) • This set of pixels are called the 4-neighbors of P, and is denoted by N4(P). • Each of them are at a unit distance from P.

414 from P.. y+1).y) are given by. (x+1.Neighbors of a Pixel (Contd. • Each of them are at Euclidean distance of 1.) • The four diagonal neighbors of p(x. y+1). (x+1. y-1). . (x-1.y-1) • This set is denoted by ND(P). (x-1 .

ND and N8 may fall outside image when P lies on the border of image. • Some of the points in the N4. .Neighbors of a Pixel (Contd.) • The points ND(P) and N4(P) are together known as 8-neighbors of the point P.. denoted by N8(P).

) Neighbors of a pixel a. 8-neighbors of a pixel p are its vertical horizontal and 4 diagonal neighbors denoted by N8(p) p N4(p) p N8(p) .Neighbors of a Pixel (Contd. 4-neighbors of a pixel p are its vertical and horizontal neighbors denoted by N4(p) b..

diagonal neighbors •N8 .8-neighbors (N4 U ND) .Neighbors of a Pixel (Contd.) ND N4 ND N4 P N4 ND N4 ND •N4 .4-neighbors •ND ..

in a binary image two pixels are connected if they are 4-neighbors and have same value (0/1).Adjacency • Two pixels are connected if they are neighbors and their gray levels satisfy some specified criterion of similarity. • For example. .

• 4-adjacency: Two pixels p and q with values from V are 4adjacent if q is in the set N4(p). • m-adjacency: Two pixels p and q with values from V are madjacent if. • 8-adjacency: Two pixels p and q with values from V are 8adjacent if q is in the set N8(p).Adjacency (contd. – q is in N4(P).) • Let V be set of gray levels values used to define adjacency. . – q is in ND(p) and the set [ N 4 ( p ) I N 4 ( q ) ] is empty (has no pixels whose values are from V).

q is in ND(p) and the set N 4 ( p ) I N 4 (q ) is empty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 V = {1. m-connected. q is in N4(p) or ii. . q that have values from the set V are: a. 8-connected. if q is in the set N4(p) b. 4-connected. b. 2} 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 a. iff i. 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 c. then Two pixels p. Let V be the set of gray-level values used to define connectivity. if q is in the set N8(p) c.Connectivity : To determine whether the pixels are adjacent in some sense.

Adjacency/Connectivity 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 8-adjacent m-adjacent .

• Two image subsets S1 and S2 are adjacent if some pixel in S1 is adjacent to some pixel in S2 S1 S2 .Adjacency/Connectivity • Pixel p is adjacent to pixel q if they are connected.

and m-paths based on type of adjacency used. yn). yi-1) 1 ≤ i ≤ n • Here n is the length of the path. where (x0.Paths & Path lengths • A path from pixel p with coordinates (x. 8-. y0)=(x. y1). • We can define 4-. . (x2. y) and (xn. t) is a sequence of distinct pixels with coordinates: (x0. y0). y2) … (xn. yn)=(s. t). (xi. (x1. yi) is adjacent to (xi-1. y) to pixel q with coordinates (s.

• If S has only one connected component then S is called Connected Set.Connected Components • If p and q are pixels of an image subset S then p is connected to q in S if there is a path from p to q consisting entirely of pixels in S. • For every pixel p in S. the set of pixels in S that are connected to p is called a connected component of S. .

• The boundary of the region R is the set of pixels in the region that have one or more neighbors that are not in R.Regions and Boundaries • A subset R of pixels in an image is called a Region of the image if R is a connected set. • If R happens to be entire Image? .

q) = 0. D(p. v) respectively. t). z) ≤ D(p. q) = D(q. y). (s. (u. D(p. q) + D(q.Distance measures Given pixels p. D(p. iff p = q] b. q) ≥ 0 [D(p. p) c. the distance function D has following properties: a. q and z with coordinates (x. z) .

q) = |x-s| + |y-t| 2 2 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 c. q) = max(|x-s|. |y-t|) . Chess Board Distance: D8(p.The following are the different Distance measures: • Euclidean Distance : De(p. City Block Distance: D4(p. q) = [(x-s)2 + (y-t)2] b.

Relationship between pixels (Contd.Addition : p+q – Subtraction: – Multiplication: – Division: – AND: – OR : – Complement: p–q p*q p/q p AND q p OR q NOT(q) ..) Arithmetic/Logic Operations: .

Neighborhood based arithmetic/Logic : Value assigned to a pixel at position ‘e’ is a function of its neighbors and a set of window functions. w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 w9 p = (w1a + w2b + w3c + w4d + w5e + w6f + w7g + w8h + w9i) = ∑ wi f i .. : a … d g b e h : c f i .

Arithmetic/Logic Operations • Tasks done using neighborhood processing: – Smoothing / averaging – Noise removal / filtering – Edge detection – Contrast enhancement .

window size – Computation at boundaries • Do not compute at boundaries • Pad with zeros and extend image boundary • Pad assuming periodicity of image • Extrapolation of image .•Issues – Choice of wi‘s (N2 values) – Choice of N.

END of Neighborhood and Connectivity .

neighbour pixels

neighbour pixels

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