You are on page 1of 7

spdf Notation for 1st Row Transition Elements

Presenter G. Delapenha 5th lesson

First Row Transition Metals:

are Elements between Scandium and Zinc

A first row transition metal is "an element which can form cations with an incomplete d-sub-shell.

d-block elements are elements in which the last electron to be added to the atom is in a d-orbital.

s block 4s orbitals filling

d block 3d orbitals filling

p block 4p orbitals filling

Remember! The 4s orbital has a lower energy than the 3d orbitals and so fills first.
Increasing Energy








Unusual Arrangement of Cr and Cu Explanation: It would appear that a half-filled 3d subshell (Cr) or a full 3d sub-shell (Cu) is a bit more stable than a full 4s level.

Atomic No. 21

Element scandium

Electronic Configuration

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc

Sc Ti V Cr
Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn

1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1

1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2

Sc and Zn are NOT Transition elements!

Scandium cannot form an ion with an incomplete 3d sub-shell and is therefore not a true transition element. Zinc (at the right-hand end of the d-block) always has a completely full 3d level (3d10) and so doesn't count as a transition element.

True 1st row transition elements have a partially filled dorbital when they form ions.