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Improved Heat Transfer Coefficient Data for Gas Turbine Cooling C

Improved Heat Transfer Coefficient Data for Gas Turbine Cooling C

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Published by: bahramymohsen on Feb 20, 2013
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For a semi-infinite solid, the governing heat equation reduces to a second order,

homogeneous differential equation.


With boundary and initial conditions





To solve this partial differential equation, a similarity solution can be used [21].

By selection of the similarity variable

and substituting into Equation 3.1, the

PDE collapses into an ordinary differential equation with similarly transformed boundary

and initial conditions.







The solution to Equation 3.4 varies depending on what is chosen as the second

boundary condition on x. Of relevance to this research is surface convection.


The solution to the Equation 3.4 further varies depending on the form takes. For

example, if is constant (step change) the closed-form solution for the surface

temperature becomes [21]


However, a step-step change was not the best representative of the conditions the

wind tunnel heater was able to generate. The free stream temperature profile in the tunnel

was characterized by a steep rise followed by a shallow rise to equilibrium. This profile

can more accurately be modeled as a piecewise ramp function with number of ramps n.


To solve the heat equation in which the surface convection boundary condition

contains this form of , it is convenient to first solve the problem with a single ramp,

then take advantage of the linearity of the PDE and apply superposition techniques. The


use of Duhamel‟s Theorem of superposition simplifies both the ramp and series of ramps

solutions in an elegant fashion.

For convenience, let


Duhamel‟s Theorem gives the temperature response of a system with a time-varying

boundary condition in which a fundamental solution to the problem is known [22]. The

fundamental solution is defined as the response of the system with a zero initial condition

to a single, constant non-homogeneous term with magnitude unity. This can be stated as


where is the fundamental solution, B is the time-varying boundary condition, and is

a dummy variable.

The first step to applying Duhamel‟s Theorem is finding the fundamental

solution. For this problem, the fundamental solution solves


With boundary and initial conditions



This is recognized as the problem posed by Equations 3.1-3.7 with and .

With this recognition, the solution to the fundamental problem is already known as



The time-varying term B(t) is the ramp function that defines


When these are substituted into Duhamel‟s Theorem, the resulting integral


is easily solvable with analytical mathematical software such as Mathematica and yields

the single-ramp surface response solution.


The multi-ramp solution can be achieved by breaking the integral in Duhamel‟s

Theorem into a series of integrals for each ramp [23].


In Equation 3.18, the terms indicate the beginning of each ramp, with , ,

and the terms representing each ramp function‟s slope, respectively. Each ith


of the summation is relevant only for times after . For example, even though four ramps

might ultimately be used, for times less than , the surface temperature response still

only includes the first element of the summation, being equal to the single ramp solution.

See Appendix A for a detailed solution.

After three elements of the summation have been calculated, a pattern emerges.




This is the surface convection model used with the inverse method. With a step

change free stream function, the unknown parameters were and h, a two parameter

problem. With this series of ramps free stream function, the number of parameters are

increased according to the number of ramps that represent , and the parameters

become , , and h. So, for example, a 3 ramp input temperature would have 6

parameters. To simplify the problem, the parameters were chosen before the inverse

method was applied based on thermocouple data of the shape of the free stream

temperature profile. This would reduce the example 3 ramp problem to 4 parameters (h,

, , ).

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