Patton and Thibodeau: Anthony’s Textbook of Anatomy & Physiology, 19th Edition

Chapter 17: Blood Answers to Quick Check Questions 1. Plasma. 2. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 3. Gender, age, body composition, and method of measurement. 4. Plasma, 55%; packed cell volume (hematocrit), 45%. 5. Hemoglobin. Men: 5,500,000/mm3. Women: 4,800,000/mm3. 6. Erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in the red bone marrow from nucleated cells known as hematopoietic stem cells. In red blood cells, differentiation begins with the appearance of proerythroblasts. Mitotic divisions then produce basophilic erythroblasts. The next maturation division produces polychromatic erythroblasts, which produce hemoglobin. These cells subsequently lose their nuclei and become reticulocytes. Once released in the circulating blood, reticulocytes become mature erythrocytes in about 24 to 36 hours. 7. The rate of RBC production soon speeds up if blood oxygen levels reaching the tissues decrease. Oxygen deficiency increases RBC numbers by increasing the secretion of a glycoprotein hormone called erythropoietin. If oxygen levels decrease, the kidneys release increasing amounts of erythropoietin, which in turns stimulates bone marrow to accelerate its production of RBCs. With increasing numbers of RBCs, oxygen delivery to tissue increases and less erythropoietin is produced and is available to stimulate RBC production in the red bone marrow. 8. As RBCs age and fragment, the macrophages in the liver and spleen ingest and destroy the old cells. The process results in the breakdown of hemoglobin with the release of amino acids, iron, and the pigment bilirubin. Iron is returned to the bone marrow, bilirubin is transported to the liver, and amino acids are released from the globin and used by the body for energy or for synthesis of new proteins. 9. Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes. 10. Neutrophils: 65-75. Eosinophils: 2-5. Basophils: 0.5-1. Lymphocytes: 20-25. Monocytes: 3-8. 11. Type A: A antigen, anti-B antibody. Type B: B antigen, anti-A antibody. Type AB: A and B antigens, no antibodies. Type O: no antigens, anti-A and anti-B antibodies. 12. Extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway.

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