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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM HYDRAULIC OIL SYSTEM TRIP OIL SYSTEM VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANES, IGV STARTING SYSTEM
GAS TURBINE COURSE
8. 9. 10. 10. 11. 12. 13. FUEL SYSTEM COOLING & SEALING AIR SYSTEM COOLING WATER SYSTEM ATOMIZING AIR SYSTEM FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM COMPRESSOR WATER WASHING GAS TURBINE MAINTENANCE
HP/IP LP LOAD MW
STEAM GENERATOR (BOILER)
GAS TURBINE (OPEN CYCLE)
COMBUSTION CHAMBER HIGH PRESSURE AIR
HIGH TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE GAS
• A DEVICE THAT CONVERTS HEAT INTO WORK IS KNOWN AS HEAT ENGINE
EXAMPLE : - Petrol Engine - Diesel Engine - Gas Turbine Engine - Steam Engine
HEAT ENGINE High Temperature Source Output Heat Engine W Heat Sink .
1 Exhaust 4 2 1 Volume (V) .Otto Cycle Pressure (P) 3 1 .2 Compression 2 .4 Expansion 4 .3 Combustion 3 .
1 Exhaust 4 1 Volume (V) .DIESEL CYCLE Pressure (P) 3 2 1 .4 Expansion 4 .2 Compression 2 .3 Combustion 3 .
BRAYTON CYCLE (Constant Pressure Cycle) Pressure (P) 2 3 1 .2 Compression 2 .3 Combustion 3 .1 Exhaust 1 4 Volume (V) .4 Expansion 4 .
In a simple gas turbine cycle.Fundamental of Gas Turbine FUEL 4 2 c 1 AIR b t 3 c = compressor b = burners t = turbine GENERATOR When the Brayton Cycle is worked out for a steady flow process. combustion & exhaust occur at constant pressure and compression & expansion occur continuously. we have a simple gas turbine cycle. .
General Description of GE 9001E • The Model Series 9001E gas turbine is a 3000 rpm. • The MS9001E is also available in a combinedcycle configuration for application utilizing a Heat Recovery Generator or similar device . single shaft with a 14 combustor. generator breaker and AC power source for turbine start-up. reverseflow combustion system. simple-cycle power package that basically requires only fuel & fuel connections.
.Gas Turbine Unit • The gas turbine unit consists of a 17-stage axial flow compressor and a 3-stage power turbine. • Each section. This design assures that rotor-critical speed are above the operating speed for optimum turbine bucket/turbine shell clearances. compressor rotor & turbine rotor is assembled separately and joined together through bolt construction. • The assembled rotor is a three bearing design utilizing pressure-feed elliptical & tilt-pad journal bearings.
Support system . Combustion system 4.Gas turbine Components • The MS9001E gas turbine assembly consists of six major section or groups : 1. Turbine 5. Exhaust 6. Compressor 3. Air inlet 2.
combustion chamber pressure causes spark plug retract from hot flame zone at operating speed. Fuel from off-base source divide into 14 equal flows lines .compressed air flow into annular space surrouding 14 combustion chambers .fuel is equally controlled into 14 nozzles .ignition by spark plugs .In moving buckets (kinetic energy turn to rotor rotation to generate electrical power) .flow through 3-stage turbine section (rows of fixed nozzles & rotating buckets) . Hot gas from combustion chamber expand into 14 separate transition piece .ambient air drawn in through inlet plenum compress in 17 stages axial compressor .flame propagate through crossfire tubes .Gas Path Description Starting system actuated .flows into liners through metering holes.In fixed nozzles (kinetic energy increased & pressure drop) .
. minimizing exhaust hood losses) Gases pass into exhaust plenum . Stage buckets .continue After 3rd.Gas Path Description .gases directed into exhaust hood & diffuser (a series of turning vanes to turn the gases from axial to radial direction.introduced to atmosphere through exhaust stack.
Fuel System 3.starting motor. . Atomizing Air System Major components . Cooling Water System 6. Hydraulic System 5. torque converter & accessory drive gear. Starting Mean 2.Accessory Compartment • Several system involved in turbine operation located in this section : 1. Lubrication & Seal Oil System 4.
Forward support 2.Turbine Base & Support • Turbine base .gas turbine is mounted to its base by vertical supports at three locations : 1. • Turbine supports . Two Aft supports (with cooling jacket) .Gib key is machined on lower half of turbine shell & fit into the guide block which is welded to the aft cross beam of turbine base (prevent lateral & rotational movement & permitting axial & radial movement for thermal expansion) .on either side of exhaust frame • Gib key & Guide Block .supports the gas turbine & is a structural steel fabrication of welded steel beam & plates.
Compressor discharge casing .Compressor Section • The Axial flow Compressor section consists of : 1. 17 stages of rotor & stator airfoil-shaped blades and exit guide vanes. Inlet casing 2. The stator (casing) for compressor composed of four major sections : 1. Compressor Rotor 2. Aft Compressor casing 4. Forward Compressor casing 3. Enclosing Casing Within the compressor casing are Inlet guide Vanes (IGV).
Crossfire tubes . Spark plug ignition system 3.comb. liners & transition piece 6. Ultraviolet flame detector 4. Combustion chamber .Combustion System • The combustion system is a reverse-flow type with 14 combustion chambers arranged around the periphery of the compressor discharge casing. Fuel nozzles 2. Combustion wrapper 5. • The major components consists of : 1.
.consists of two wheel shafts.consists of turbine shell and exhaust frame. 3 & exhaust diffuser are internally supported from these components. Stage turbine wheel with buckets & two turbine spacers.. bearing no. in the form of high temperature pressurized gas produced by the compressor & combustion sections.Turbine Section • The three-stage turbine section is the area where energy. 2nd. 2. & 3rd. is converted to mechanical energy. the 1st. diaphragm. Turbine rotor . shroud. Turbine stationary nozzles. • Major components in the turbine section are : 1. Turbine stator .
Bearings • The MS9000 gas turbine unit contain three main journal bearings used to support the gas turbine rotor & thrust bearing to maintain rotor to stator axial position & support thrust load developed on the rotor. . No.non thrust equalizing Elliptical elliptical Tilting pad. Class 1 1 1 2 3 Loaded Unloaded Journal Journal Journal Type Tilting pad -thrust equalizing Tilting pad .
Lubrication Oil System • The lubricating requirements for the gas turbine are furnished by a common forced-feed lubrication system. accessory gear. as hydraulic oil in torque converter and also as control. generator bearings. . high pressure hydraulic oil & generator seal oil. reducing gear. Lubricating fluid is circulated to the three main turbine bearings. trip oil.
oil heat exchangers 7. Pressure relief valve VR1 in main pump discharge header (6.490 liter) 2. 8. oil filters.Lub. Emergency lub. Oil System . This lub. oil pump 5. oil pump (shaft driven from accessory gear). oil pump 4.7 bars) 10. Bearing header pressure regulator VPR2-1 (1.continue • Such a system must supply cool. Lub. Auxiliary lub. oil reservoir in the accessory base (12. Auxiliary & emergency seal oil pump 6.9) 9. clean and pressurized oil to bearing. Main lub. Lub. 3. system includes the following : 1. Lub. Mist Eliminator .
Lub. . oil header. alarm when level is low ( 432 mm) Pressure & Temperature Protective Devices 63QT-2A & 2B = Pressure switch in lub.55 bar 63QT-1A & 1B = Temperature switch in lub. Trip turbine when < 0. oil feed piping to generator bearings. oil system .03 bar (15 psi) 2. Alarm when level is high (254 mm) 71 QL = Level detector switch.control components • Some important operating parameters monitored by Speedtronic Mark V control system : 1. Trip the turbine if temperature > 79. Oil Level Detection 71 QH = Level detector switch.4o C 63 QQ-1 = Differential pressure switch alarm when pressure across oil filters of 1.
positive displacement pump mounted on & driven by the accessory gear. rated 2725 lpm & 7 bar. Starts when speed drop below 14HS (90% rated speed) stop when turbine attains 95% rated speed. Oil Pump . Also when 63QA-1 sense a drop below 4.4 bar. Higher pressure for torque converter during slow roll & start-up.5 bar.Lubricating oil Pumps • Main Oil Pump .submerged centrifugal pump driven by AC motor (88QA-1). . rated 2460 lpm & 7.83 bar. Back-up for AOP when 63QT-2A & 2B below 0.submerged centrifugal pump driven by a DC motor (88QE-1). • Auxiliary Oil Pump .55 bar. • Emergency Lub. Rated at 1590 lpm & 1.
Seal Oil Pump • The seal oil to the generator bearings is normally supplied by the main lub. • The seal oil pump is driven by two motors : AC motor . The seal oil control unit will regulate the seal oil pressure to maintain it a nominal 0.88QS-1 DC motor .88ES-1 .32 bar above hydrogen gas pressure. system through a separate line directly to the seal oil control unit of the generator. This line is plumbed into the system upstream of VPR2-1.
oil Hydraulic/heater Air Fuel/flow/fire diesel/divider Clutch/Compressor/Co2 Trip/turbine Purge Water/warm Stop/speed/start Gas .GE Gas Turbine Device Code .1st. letter Q H A F D C T P W S G Lub.
oil Release/ratio/rachet Start Turbine/trip/tank Valve/Vane .2nd letter A B C D E F G H L M N P Q Alarm/accessory/air/atomization booster/bleed R Cooling/control S Divider/differential T Emergency V Fuel Gas Heater/high Low level/liquid Middle/medium/minimum Normal Pressure/Pump Lub.GE Gas Turbine Device Code .
Valve Level detecting system 77 88 90 96 Speed senser Electric motor Modulating valve Pressure transmitter .Code designation by figures 12 20 23 26 33 39 43 45 49 63 65 71 Overspeed mechanism Solenoid valve Heating device Temperature switch Limit switch Vibration detector Manual switch Fire detector Overload protection Pressure switch Servo.
in addition to the variable turbine inlet guide vanes and the hydraulic control & trip devices of the gas turbine. . • Major system components includes the main hydraulic pump.Hydraulic Supply System • Hydraulic supply system provides fluid power required for operating the control components of the gas turbine fuel system. The fluid furnished the means for opening or resetting the fuel stop valves. an accumulator assembly and the hydraulic supply manifold assemblies. an auxiliary supply pump. the system filters.
Trip Oil System • The hydraulic trip oil system is the primary interface between the turbine protection system circuits of the Speedtronic Mark V Control System and the the components on the turbine which open the IGVs and allow fuel flow to turbine. • The trip oil system ensures that fuel flow is halted & the IGVs close at a unit trip. • The trip oil system contains devices which are eletrically operated by Speedtronic control signals as well as completely mechanical devices that operate directly on trip oil system independent of the turbine control panel. .
and thus stresses in the compressor during part-speed operation. maintains a minimum pressure drop across fuel nozzles while operating at 100% speed & also maintains high exhaust temperatures at low generator load level. • This modulation maintains proper flows & pressure. • The IGVs modulate during the start-up and acceleration of the gas turbine to rated speed. . in turn controlling the airflow through the entire machine. loading & unloading of the generator and deceleration of the gas turbine during shutdown.Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) • IGVs are used to control the airflow through the compressor.
a gas turbine cannot produce torque at zero speed.Starting System • Like other internal combustion engines. crank it to firing speed and assist the fired turbine to self-sustaining speed. • This arrangement provides the cranking torque for turbine start-up. • The starting mean system is used to start the gas turbine rolling. . • This is accomplished by an induction motor starting device operating through a torque converter coupled to the accessory gear. this continues to rotate the turbine rotor at slow speed for cool down purposes. For shutdown.
the control system will automatically transfer to liquid fuel operation. • While operating on gas fuel. that transfer must be initiated by operator. • Mechanical fuel handling & electrical control components are incorporated in the design of capable of burning either two fuel individually or both fuels simultaneously.Dual Fuel System • This gas turbine has duel fuel capability. . It supplied with both a natural gas & a liquid fuel (distillate) system. • There is no automatic transfer from liquid to gas. if the gas fuel pressure should drop below a pre-set value.
Gas pressure gauges & vent valves 6. Gas stop/speed ratio (VSR) & control (VGC) valve 4. Fuel metering system . loading requirements of gas turbine operation. Y-type strainer 3. Pneumatic block valve VA27-1 2. Valve control servo-valves 8. Gas fuel hydraulic trip relay VH5 7. chambers. Major components are : 1. Valve control LVDTs 9. Gas manifolds to Comb.Gas Fuel • The gas fuel system is designed to deliver gas fuel to the turbine combustion chambers at the proper pressures & flow rates to meet all of the starting. accelerating. Fuel gas low pressure alarm switch 63FG 5. 10.
• Fuel pump bypass VC3 regulates the amount of fuel input to the turbine combustion chamber by varying amount of bypassed fuel. If valve closes. • The position of the bypass valve is a linear function of the Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) generated by the Speedtronic Mark V Control. .Liquid Fuel • The liquid fuel system pumps and distributes fuel supplied from offbase fuel forwarding system to the fourteen fuel nozzles of the combustion system. • The fuel system filters the fuel & divides the fuel flow into 14 equal parts for distribution to the combustion chamber at the required pressure & flow rates. less fuel is circulated around the pump and more fuel goes to the combustors & vice versa.
5. In-line low pressure fuel filter FF1-1 Fuel oil stop valve VS1 Liquid fuel pump PF1 Fuel pump discharge relief valve VR4 Fuel bypass Valve VC3 Flow divider FD1 Selector valve assembly Fuel line check valves Fuel Nozzle assemblies False Start drain valves VA17-1. 9. 2. 7. 8. 3. 4. -2 & -5 . 6.Major Components for Fuel System 1. 10.
Control Devices associated to Fuel System 1. 7. 2. 3. 6. 5. Fuel differential pressure switch 63LF-1 Liquid fuel servo valve 65FP Fuel pump clutch solenoid 20CF Permissive limit switches 33FL-1 & -2 Hydraulic trip relay VH4 LVDTs 96FP-1 & -2 Magnetic pickups 77FD-1. 4.-2 & -2 .
Cooling & Sealing Air system • The cooling & sealing air system provides the necessary air flow from the compressor to the other parts of the gas turbine rotor & stator to prevent excessive temperature buildup in these parts during normal operation and sealing of the turbine bearings. • Cooling & sealing function provided by the system are : 1. Compressor pulsation protection . Providing an operating air supply for air operated valves 5. Sealing of turbine bearings 2. Cooling the internal turbine parts subjected to high temperature 3. Atmospheric air from external centrifugal blowers is also used cool the turbine exhaust frame. Cooling of the turbine outer shell & exhaust frame 4.
Starting atomizing air compressor 3. Atomization is necessary to ensure complete and proper combustion. Main atomizing air compressor (driven by accessory gear) 2.Atomizing Air System • The atomizing air system provides high pressure air to atomize the liquid fuel as it enters the combustors. Major components : 1.2 or greater. Atomizing air heat exchanger . The ration of atomizing air to compresor discharge pressure approx. 1.
turbine aft support legs. . • The hot water of the cooling water system is then cooled by off-base industrial type water cooling module. oil heat exchanger in accessory base. atomizing air heat exchanger& heat exchanger of generator’s air cooling system. oil system. • On-based components includes lub.Cooling Water System • The cooling water system is a closed system designed to accommodate the heat-dissipation requirements of the turbine & generator lub. the water cooled flame detector and turbine support legs. the atomizing air precooler.
a quantity of carbon dioxide equal or > than 34% of the compartment volume is discharge into the compartment in one minute and recognizing the reflash potential of combustibles exposed to high temperature metal.Fire Protection System • The carbon dioxide fire protection system extinguished fires by reducing the oxygen content of the air in the compartment from an atmospheric normal of 21% to less than 15%. it provides an extended discharge to maintain an extinguishing concentration for a prolong period to minimize likelihood of reflash condition. • To reduce the oxygen content. . an insufficient concentration to support combustion.
base Equipment 2. Off-base Equipment • Two type of water wash procedures : 1. • Major components for Compressor Water Wash System : 1. Off-line Compressor Wash 2. This contaminants can be removed by washing with water-detergent solution followed by a water rinse. The deposits of atmospheric contaminants on the compressor parts occur with the ingestion of air.Compressor Water Wash System • Gas turbine can experience a loss of performance during operation as result of deposits of contaminants on internal components. On. On-line compressor Wash .
Hot Gas Path Inspection 3. 1. Dis-assembly Inspection Dis-assembly Inspection can be classified into : 1.Gas Turbine Maintenance • Classification Gas Turbine Maintenance . Running Inspection 3. Major Inspection . Standby Inspection 2. Combustion Inspection 2.
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