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32498516 Beginner Ansys Tutorial

32498516 Beginner Ansys Tutorial

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Sections

  • STEP 1: Start up
  • STEP 2: Preprocessor : Define Element Type
  • STEP 3: Material Properties
  • STEP 4: Modeling
  • STEP 5: Meshing
  • STEP 6: Apply Boundary Conditions and Loading
  • STEP 7: Solve
  • STEP 8: Post Processing

Shear and Bending Moment

Problem:
For the loaded beam shown below, develop the corresponding shear force and bending moment diagrams. The beam is in equilibrium. For this problem L= 10 in.

Shear and Bending Moment
Overview

Anticipated time to complete this tutorial: 45 minutes

Tutorial Overview
This tutorial is divided into six parts: 1) Tutorial Basics 2) Starting Ansys 3) Preprocessing 4) Solution 5) Post-Processing 6) Hand Calculations

Audience
This tutorial assumes minimal knowledge of ANSYS 8.0; therefore, it goes into moderate detail to explain each step. More advanced ANSYS 8.0 users should be able to complete this tutorial fairly quickly.

Prerequisites
1) ANSYS 8.0 in house “Structural Tutorial”

Objectives 1) Learn how to define keypoints, lines, and elements 2) Learn how to apply structural constraints and loads 3) Learn how to find shear and bending moment diagrams

Outcomes
1) Learn how to start Ansys 8.0 2) Gain familiarity with the graphical user interface (GUI) 3) Learn how to create and mesh a simple geometry 4) Learn how to apply boundary constraints and solve problems

2

Shear and Bending Moment
Tutorial Basics
In this tutorial: Instructions appear on the left. Visual aids corresponding to the text appear on the right. All commands on the toolbars are labeled. However, only operations applicable to the tutorial are explained. The instructions should be used as follows: Bold > Text in bold are buttons, options, or selections that the user needs to click on Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/DeleteFile would mean to follow the options as shown to the right to get you to the Element Types window Text in italics are hints and notes Click on the left mouse button Click on the middle mouse button Click on the right mouse button

Example:

Italics

MB1 MB2 MB3

Some Basic ANSYS functions are: To rotate the models use Ctrl and MB3. To zoom use Ctrl and MB2 and move the mouse up and down. To translate the models use Ctrl and MB1.

3

0 will be demonstrated.Shear and Bending Moment Starting Ansys For this tutorial the windows version of ANSYS 8. however.0 > ANSYS or the desktop icon (right) if present. Check with your local network manager to find out how to start ANSYS 8. Note: The path to start ANSYS 8.0. For Windows XP start ANSYS by either using: > Start > All Programs > ANSYS 8. this path will not be the same on all computers.0 may be different for each computer. The path below is one example of how to access ANSYS. 4 .

is the location where all the user interface takes place. and solver status. Graphical User Interface Output Window The Output Window documents all actions taken. two separate windows appear: the main ANSYS Advanced Utility window and the ANSYS Output window.Shear and Bending Moment Starting Ansys Once ANSYS 8.0 is loaded. 5 . The ANSYS Advanced Utility window. displays errors. also known as the Graphical User Interface (GUI).

6 . The tool bar located on the right hand side has all the visual orientation tools that are needed to manipulate your model. and results are displayed. as shown to the right. is the ANSYS Main Menu.Shear and Bending Moment Starting Ansys The main utility window can be broken up into three areas. boundary conditions. Note: It would be beneficial to take some time and explore these pull down menus and familiarize yourself with them. This menu is designed to use a top down approach and contains all the steps and options necessary to properly preprocess. solve. A short explanation of each will be given. Third is the Graphical Interface window where all geometry. First is the Utility Toolbar: From this toolbar you can use the command line approach to ANSYS and access multiple menus that you can’t get to from the main menu. Second. and postprocess a model.

> OK In order to know where all the output files from ANSYS will be placed. > File > Change Directory > then select the location that you want all of the ANSYS files to be saved. Following the same steps as you did to change the jobname and the directory. give the model a title. Enter the problem title for this tutorial. the ANSYS database (. With the jobname and directory set. in order to avoid using the default folder C:\Documents and Settings. 7 .0 open select > File > Change Jobname and enter a new job name in the blank field of the change jobname window. Be sure to change the working directory at the beginning of every problem. the working directory must be set.Shear and Bending Moment Starting Ansys With ANSYS 8.db) file can be given a title.

a preference needs to be set. The most important preprocessing functions are defining the element type. Click once on the “+” sign next to Preprocessor. 8 .Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing To begin the analysis. > Main Menu > Preferences Place a check mark next to the Structural box. Preferences allow you to apply filtering to the menu choices. will not need all the options available for a thermal. > OK Look at the ANSYS Main Menu. ANSYS will remove or gray out functions that are not needed. A structural analysis. for example. defining real constraints and material properties. or fluid dynamic analysis. > Main Menu > Preprocessor The Preprocessor options currently available are displayed in the expansion of the Main Menu tree as shown to the right. electromagnetic. and modeling and meshing the geometry.

Note: This procedure will be shown throughout the tutorial. click on the Help button. UY. solving. and analyzing your model. > Beam > 2D Elastic 3 > OK In the Element Types window Type 1 Beam3 should be visible signaling that the element type has been chosen. The degrees of freedom for this type of element are UX.Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing The ANSYS Main Menu is designed in such a way that you should start at the beginning and work towards the bottom of the menu in preparing. The extension of the menu is shown to the right. > Element Type Select Add/Edit/Delete and the Element Type window appears. which will suit the needs of this problem. > Add/Edit/Delete > Add In this window. Select add and the Library of Element Types window appears. select the types of elements to be defined and used for the problem. 9 . Select the “+” next to Element Type or click on Element Type. For this model 2D Elastic Beam elements will be used. For a pictorial description of what each element can be used for. and ROTZ.

Select add to create a new set. > OK Close the Element Types window. > Type 1 Beam3 > OK The Real Constant window for Beam3 will appear. 10 . From this window. > Add The Element Type for Real Constants window should appear. > Options.. select Beam 3 as the element type.Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing Before closing the Element Type window. > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete The Real Constants window should appear. > Close The properties for the Beam3 element need to be chosen. This tells ANSYS to include the moment and force information needed to create the diagrams. In the Beam3 Element Type Options window change the the Member force + moment output from Exclude output to Include output. and with Beam3 still highlighted select the Options button.. This is done by adding a Real Constant. From this window you can interactively customize the element type.

Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing Enter the values into the table as shown at the right. linearly. elastic. > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models The Define Material Models Behavior window should now be open. > Material > Exit 11 . > OK Close the Define Material Model Behavior window. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's Modulus) and 0.3 for PRXY (Poission’s Ratio). structural properties. Select the following from the Material Models Available window: > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic The window titled Linear Isotropic Properties for Material Number 1 now appears. > Close The material properties for the Beam3 element need to be defined. > OK Close the Real Constants window. We will use isotropic.

If you don’t it will replace the last keypoint you entered with the new coordinates you just entered. Y=0. select: > Preprocessing > Modeling > Delete > Keypoints Select the incorrect KP’s and select OK. Z=0 X=10. Note: Be sure to change the keypoint number every time you click apply to finish adding a keypoint. Y=0. Y=0. Z=0 X=6. Enter the KP numbers and coordinates that will correctly define the beam. Z=0 X=4. Here the KP’s will be given numbers and their respective (XYZ) coordinates. KP # 1: KP # 2: KP # 3: KP # 4: KP # 5: X=0. Y=0. Select Apply after each KP has been defined. Y=0. In case you make a mistake in creating the keypoints. 12 . Z=0 X=2.Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing The next step is to define the keypoints (KP’s) that will help you build the rest of your model: > Preprocessing > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS The Create Keypoints in Active CS window will now appear. Z=0 Select OK when complete. Your screen should look similar to the example below.

Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing At times it will be helpful to turn on the keypoint numbers. > PlotCtrls > Numbering > put a checkmark next to keypoint numbers > OK Other numbers (for lines. etc. areas. loads.) can be turned on in a similar manner. At times it will also be helpful to have a list of keypoints (or nodes. elements. lines.. To generate a list of keypoints: > List > Keypoint > Coordinates Only A list similar to the one to the right should appear. 13 .). etc.

You will create 4 lines. 14 . > OK If you make a mistake. The other lines will be created in a similar manner. Verify that each line only goes between the specified keypoints.Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing The next step is to create lines between the KP’s. When you are done creating the lines click ok in the Create Straight Lines window. For line 3: MB1 KP3 then MB1 KP 4. For line 1: MB1 KP1 then MB1 KP 2. > Preprocessing > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Lines The Create Straight Lines window should appear. For line 2: MB1 KP2 then MB1 KP 3. For line 4: MB1 KP4 then MB1 KP 5. Create line 1 between the first two keypoints. use the following steps to delete the lines: > Preprocessing > Modeling > Delete > Lines Only You should now have something similar to the image shown below.

> OK Note: you could change the element edge length after completing the tutorial to a different value and rerun the solution to see how it affects the results. First. the number of divisions per element can be defined and also the element edge length. Models must be meshed before they can be solved. > Preprocessing > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Lines > All Lines The Element Sizes on All Selected Lines window should appear. From this window. it needs to be meshed.Shear and Bending Moment Preprocessing Now that the model has been created. the element size needs to be specified.1 into the Element edge length field. With the mesh parameters complete. The meshed line should appear similar to the one shown below. Models are meshed with elements. Enter 0. This completes the preprocessing phase. Select: > Preprocessing > Meshing > Mesh > Lines From the Mesh Lines window select Pick All. > Pick all Selecting Pick all will mesh all of the line segments that have been created. the lines representing the beam can now be meshed. 15 .

Before applying the loads and constraints to the beam. the current view probably shows just the elements and not the keypoints. no constraints need to be added. Other problems which ask you to find shear and bending moment diagrams may require the use of constraints. It will be easier to select the keypoints (the locations of the forces and moments) if the keypoint numbers are turned on as previously explained. You can see both the elements and the keypoints on the screen by selecting: > Plot > Multiplots To see just the keypoints. > Plot > Keypoints > Keypoints Use the plot menu to view your model in the way that will make it easier to complete each step in tutorial. However.Shear and Bending Moment Solution We will now move into the solution phase. 16 . we will select to start a new analysis: > Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis For Type of Analysis select Static and select OK. The forces and moments will now be added. The way this problem is setup.

your screen should look similar to the picture below. 17 .Shear and Bending Moment Solution The loads will now be applied to the beam. Moments are applied in the same way except that in the Apply F/M on KPs window MZ is chosen as the direction. > Solutions > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The Apply F/M on KPs window should now appear. Location KP1 KP2 KP2 KP3 KP4 KP5 Direction MZ FY MZ FY FY FY Value 400 -400 -400 200 -200 400 When you are done. In the Apply F/M on KPs window that now appears change the direction to of the force to FY and give it a value of 400. Select Apply after each one you create and close the window when you are done creating all of the them. > Apply Repeat these same steps to apply the rest of the forces and moments. Select KP1 (hint it might be hidden behind the symbol for the coordinate system) and select OK.

Shear and Bending Moment Solution The distributed loads will now be applied to the beam. Select all the elements between keypoints 2 and 3 (there should be 20 in all). Enter 100 in the Pressure at Node I value field which will apply the pressure over the beam from keypoints 2 to 3. From this window the direction of the pressure and its magnitude can be specified. > Apply The expanded Apply Pressure on Beams window should appear. 18 . > Solutions > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams The Apply PRES on Beams window should appear. > OK The first distributed load now appears on the model. A positive entry in this field is defined as a downward pressure.

but with the following changes: For the second distributed load select all of the elements between KP3 and KP4 (should be 20 of them).Shear and Bending Moment Solution Add the other two distributed load in a similar manner. > OK The model is now completed. > OK For the third distributed load select all of the elements between KP4 and KP5 (should be 40 of them). Set the value at node I to be -100 (this will make the load act upward). Set the value at node I to be 100. 19 . Use the same commands as shown.

Click the check box next to Display of Element to turn on the 3D image. 20 . You are now ready to solve the model. > OK Now when you rotate your model using CTRL + MB3 . You should see something similar to the image below.Shear and Bending Moment Solution If you wish to view a 3D picture of your model select > Plot Controls > Style > Size and Shape The Size and Shape window opens. the model should appear to be 3D.

If your model is still in the 3-D view use the view icons on the right of the screen to bring the model to a front view again. The analysis should begin and when complete a Note window should appear that states the analysis is done. just select Yes to proceed with the solution. To begin the analysis select OK. Close both the Note window and /STATUS Command window.Shear and Bending Moment Solution The next step in completing this tutorial is to solve the current load step that has been created. 21 . If a Verify window appears telling that the load data produced 1 warning. Select: Solution > Solve > Current LS The Solve Current Load Step window will appear.

. To define an element table. select the following: > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table The Element Table Data window now appears. For the Beam3 element. 22 . Simply do a search in help for the element that you are using. We will define the element table items by using the “By sequence num” option. and then scroll down in the text to find the table that lists the sequence numbers. The sequence numbers for the forces in the Y direction are 2 and 8.. > Add. Defining an element table is nothing more than a way of telling ANSYS which solution items you want to see. the sequence numbers for the I moment (at left end of beam) and the J moment (at right end of beam) are 6 and 12. Select Add. To find the shear and bending moment diagrams we define what is called an element table and then plot a contour plot..Shear and Bending Moment Post Processing There are several different ways to view the results of a solution. The sequence numbers can be found for any element in the help documentation.

Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
Give the first item a label name of I moment, select By sequence number, select SMISC, and type in the number 6 as shown to the right. > Apply Give the second item a label name of J moment, select By sequence number, select SMISC, and type in the number 12 > Apply Give the third item a label name of I force, select By sequence number, select SMISC, and type in the number 2 as shown to the right. > Apply Give the fourth item a label name of J force, select By sequence number, select SMISC, and type in the number 8 as shown to the right. > OK When you are done you should have four items in the Element Table Data window.

Close the Element Table Data window. > Close

23

Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
The shear force diagram will now be plotted. > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res The Plot Line-Element Results window now appears. Select IFORCE the table item at node I and JFORCE as the table item at node J. > OK The shear force diagram is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the diagram, the max and min shear force can easily be seen.

24

Shear and Bending Moment
Post Processing
The bending moment diagram will now be plotted. > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res The Plot Line-Element Results window now appears. Select IMOMENT as the table item at node I and JMOMENT as the table item at node J. > OK The bending moment diagram is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the diagram, the max and min bending moment can easily be seen.

25

Please note the notation used for the hand calculations (shown at the bottom of the diagrams) as it explains why the shear diagram given by ANSYS and the one shown in the hand calculations are opposites. The purpose of the tutorial was to show how to find shear and bending moment diagrams in ANSYS. 26 .Shear and Bending Moment Hand Calculations Generally. shear and bending moment diagrams can easily be constructed by hand for problems such as the one shown in this tutorial. so that the process could then be applied to more complex geometry and load conditions.

(a) (b) If the applied force P is 200 kN. 2P P P/2 D E P F G H L = 3000 mm A B δ = 10 mm L L C 45° 1 . Determine the maximum value of P in which the maximum member force does not exceed 600 kN. The roller at C is on a floor 45° from horizontal direction. determine the member forces and stresses.Structural Analysis/FEA 2D truss with inclined support and support settlement Problem: Analyze the 2D truss as shown below. The settlement at support B is 10 mm.ANSYS . All the members have cross-sectional area of 5000 mm2 and are made of steel with Young’s modulus 210000 MPa.

Check the output window for the units in SI system. Note that: If the keypoint number is not blank. Save your work File > Save as Jobname. Click Apply after each input. and click ADD Enter the cross-sectional area as 5000E-6 m2 Click OK. SI” in the command line.db Step 4: Modeling Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter the keypoint number and coordinates of each keypoint. Click Close. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete. Click OK when finish. Step 3: Material Properties Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic Enter the Elastic modulus as 210Ee9 (Pa). Step 2: Element Type and Real Constants Specify element type: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add Pick Link in the left field and 2D Spar 1 in the right field.Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up Start ANSYS Set Working Directory Specify Initial job name: 2DTruss Set Preferences: Structural Set the unit system to SI by typing in “/units. Click Close. Click OK. the program will automatically use the smallest available number (that has not yet been specified) Create Lines from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line 2 .

We cannot apply the support directly. Work Plane > Local Coordinate Systems > Create Local CS > By 3 Nodes Read the instruction at the bottom of ANSYS window. The direction of y-axis is perpendicular to the x-axis toward node 2. Since the roller at point C is 45° from global x axis. Step 5: Meshing Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up. To see node and element numbering. Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained. Click OK. It says Pick or enter 3 nodes: origin. Continue the same to construct lines. 5and 2. Enter the number of element divisions (NDIV) as 1. Set Value as 0 Click Apply Select point B. Select Pick All Then close the Mesh Tool window. respectively (See figure below). Mesh: Lines. Another window pops up. Click OK. In the third section Size Controls >Lines Click Set. Choose the nodes in that order by clicking node 3. Select Pick All. 3 . Click Mesh. In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section). We need to create a local coordinate system at point C in the orientation of the support. Note that node 5 defines the direction of the x-axis and node 2 defines the xy plane. X axis and XY plane. use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Now select point A.Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line. Constrain “UY” and set displacement value to -10e-3 m.

Select List > Other > Local Coord Sys. 11 (which is the local CS we just created). The Reference number starts at 11 by default. CS number 0 to 6 are global CS. there will be a pop up window asking for Reference number of new CS and its type. You can see that the Active CS is now CS no. 4 . Choose Cartesian CS. Click OK. Check the origin and orientation of CS 11.2 3 1 After you clicked the 3 nodes.

Now we have to rotate the orientation of node 3 from global CS to the local CS Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Move/Modify > Rotate Node CS > To Active CS Pick node 3. Apply Loading: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Now select Node 4 and 6 In the menu that appears. Enter -200e3 for Force/ moment value. constrain “UX” at node 3. you can apply other forces. select FY for Direction of force. Click Apply. Check the orientation of the triangle at node 3 (Plot > MultiPlots). You can check your applied loads by from the graphic window or List > Load > Forces > On All Nodes Step 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK Step 8: Post Processing Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK 5 . Similarly. Click OK Next.

List the Deflections and Reaction Forces Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution Click DOF Solution and in the sub-list select Displacement vector sum Click OK 6 .Animate the Deformation PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape List Member Forces & Stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add > Select By Sequence number in the left list box. Type “1” after the comma in the box at the bottom of the window. Click Apply For member stresses. and SMISC in the right list box. choose By Sequence num> LS. 1 Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table > Select SMIS1 and LS1 Click OK Now you can see the element forces and the stresses .

4 7 . the maximum member force (consider both from compression and tension) for P equal to 200 kN is 1146.7 kN 1146.Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution Select All Items or All Structural Forces Click OK (b) From (a). Since this is an elastic problem.4 kN. you can find the maximum P that the member forces do not exceed 600 kN simply by Pmax = 200 × 600 = 104.

ANSYS .5 m 1.3 m 1m 1.3). ν = 0.3 m 1m 2m 1m 1. 1.5 m) in the middle of the plate as shown in the figure below.5 m 1m Tutorial 7 1/5 .5 m 3m 0.Structural Analysis/FEA 3-D Structure with Shell elements Problem: Analyze a rectangular plate (6 m × 4 m × 20 mm) with 8 mm thick stiffeners subject to 30 kN/m2 pressure on an area (1 m × 2. The plates are made of steel (E = 2 × 105 MPa.5 m z y x 0.

Enter the z-offset “DZ” as -0. 0. 8 and 9 a distance of 0. 0. 3.3) 9 – (2. 0. 3. 0. 1.3) 2 – (1. 0.5. 3.3) Join the point with straight lines Create areas using the generated lines Tutorial 7 2/5 . 1.STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS.5.3) 8 – (1.02 and 0. 0. 1.75. 3. 0.3) 4 – (0. 0. SI STEP 2: Preprocessor Select the element type to be Shell Elastic 4-node (SHELL63) Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.3 Now 3 extra keypoints shall be used to identify the area upon which the load is applied: 18 – (0.3) 3 – (2. 0.3 in the negative z-direction as follows: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Keypoints – then select the keypoints to be copied.5. 1.3) 5 – (1.3) 19 – (0. 0.3) Copy points 1-6. 0. 0. 0. Click “OK”. 0.5.3) 7 – (0. 1. 0.5.75.008) Create the material model Create the keypoints at 1 – (0.3) 6 – (2.3) 20 – (0.

and for those on plane Y = 3. Now set UZ to zero for all the lower lines of the outer stiffeners.C. then repeat the command and select the areas of the stiffeners and assign the other real constant set.Assign the meshing attributes such that the stiffeners will have the smaller thickness. Apply the pressure load to the middle area as -30000 Apply symmetry boundary conditions. then click “Mesh” and select all the areas. STEP 5: Solution STEP 6: Postprocessor Check the deformed shape and Von Mises stress distribution. Set Symmetry B. Batch File Tutorial 7 3/5 . Set the element size of the all the areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – Click “Set” in front of areas. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Picked Areas – select the areas of the plate and assign the appropriate real constant set.05 Mesh all the areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – make sure that both “Quad” and “Free” are selected. “Pick All” and set the element length to 0. for all the lines on plane X = 0.

dx.1.Pa) ! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio !Create keypoints (top of the shell) ! K. itype.12.. 9. 18.27. np1.26. 17 ! Assigns values to user-named parameter ! SET.PRXY. np2.13 AL. l9. BL.23. 14 L. 3D Shell Analysis /UNITS. 2 *SET. T K. 10 L. 8. BL. B. 1. npt. c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus . 12. B/2. 11. 11. 0. 6. 14. T ! Create a line between two keypoints L.29 AL. 5 L. 14. 1. W-WL.24 AL. 5. 12 L. 6. 9.5 /PREP7 ET. 3. 32 AL. 7. 20 L. dy. 10.4 AL. l8. 9. 9 L. 16 L. 6. 15 L. 6 L. B.19.32. 19 L. T K. 14.SHELL63 R.24. B/2. 14 L.21. T K. 1. ninc...18. 5. 17 L. WL. B. 11 L. T K. 3 *SET.9. 13 L. 20. T K. 5. 1 L. 9. 1.25 *SET.27 AL.0. 13. 7. W/2.008 ! Specify material properties MP. 2. T. 0. r1.14. 18.6.28.-T KGEN. 8 L.1. 4. 18. 0. 1. T KGEN. l4. 11.1. 8. T K. 6. value ! Enter Preprocessing Module ! Specify element type (ET. 2.28 AL. r2) ! MP. lab. 20 ! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL. l2. 0. z ! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints ! KGEN. 0. 13. 11 L. T K. 12 L.EX.3 *SET. 8. 15. 31..2 E11 MP. 14 L. 0. 4. y. 0. 4 L. SI *SET. l7.3 K. 5. 2. 15 L. 0. 3 L. W. 4.1.20. 18 L. ename) ! Specify real constant (R. T K. 7..22. 2. itime. l6. 2.15. l5. 4. W. T K. x. 5.31 AL.27. W. W. dz ! Keypoints for area under loading L. 19. par.27 AL. 12. 3DShell /TITLE. 2. T K. 14. 11.10. l10) AL. 0. 8. W/2. nset. 8. 7 L. 16 L.1. 5 L. 19.30 Tutorial 7 4/5 . 3.02 R. BL. B.-T K. mat. 1. 2 L. 11. W/2. 4. W. 1.0. l1. 3. 2./FILNAME. 20. 0. l3. 15 L. B/2. W-WL. 6 L.8 L.

PRES. .SYMM. 0 NSEL.B D.LOC. area. vmin. ALL. UZ. 3 AMESH.X..S.S.28 AESIZE.3 AL.S. ALL.X. 2 PLESOL. ALL ASEL.-30000 ! Boundary Conditions NSEL.05 REAL.SYMM.W D. ALL. kund) ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL.Y. lab. S. vmax. UZ.Z. 1 ASEL. vinc ! Mesh areas (AMESH. AREA.16.LOC. value.0 DSYM.25.5. ALL SFA. kund) Tutorial 7 5/5 . lab. EQV.13. S.Y NSEL.17. 0. lkey. na2.X NSEL.. INVE AMESH. ALL REAL.Z.R.0 NSEL. type.LOC.AL. node.2 ASEL. A. value) ! Select nodes with location Z = 0 ! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at X = B and Z = 0) ! Defines DOF constraints ! Transfer the solid model surface loads to the FE model ! Enter the solution processor ! Solve the current load step ! Enters the database results postprocessor ! Plot deformed shape (PLDISP.LOC. ninc) ! type INVE = invert the current set ! SFA.2.25 ! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas ! Select real constant set for mesh attribute ! Select element type ! Select material type ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set) ! ASEL. 2 ASEL.1 TYPE. item. 1 MAT. value2 ! Select nodes with location X= 0 ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction ! Select nodes with location Y = 3 ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction ! Select nodes with location Z = 0 ! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at Y= W and Z = 0) ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D. comp.S.Y.24. 3. 11.W DSYM.1.R. comp. 2. ALL SFTRAN /SOLU SOLVE SAVE /POST1 PLDISP. 12. 2 AL. na1. 0 NSEL.0 NSEL. item.LOC.LOC. AREA.1.

!define number of division for the depth.s.s.loc.8 esize.8.0.075/2.y.6.8..all fini !solid45: 8-node 3D element !modulus of elasticity !poisson ratio !keypoints !create lines from 2 keypoints.x nsel.1 f. uy.8.1.uy.2.5.45 mp.0.0 nsel.025.s.4.2 l.y.1 l.3.2.0 l.y.1.2.66e9 mp.0.r.5.0.4.all.0.x.0.0.0.r.0 k.8 l.0 nsel.3 k.025/2.z.1.0 d.1 l.increment.x.025. !create areas using 4 keypoints.8 a. !esize command must be issued prior to vext command !extruding the areas parallel to global z-axis to create volumes !vext.0 dsym.5.0.loc.2 nsel.1.0.0 nsel.5 a.y.3 nsel.6.all.1.7. we revisit problem #3 of homework 5a.2 l.1.x. Input commands for this problem are show below.ex.0 k.3. uz !select nodes on the other end of the beam !constrain ux !constrain uy !select node on the top of the beam !apply load !reselect all nodes .-5400/2 nsel.r.2.2.3.2.6.symm.0 nsel. !third number represent the number of divisions along the line.30 vext.0. /prep7 et. This problem will now be solved using a 8-node 3D element (solid45) rather than the beam (beam3) element.025/2.ux.025/2.5.4.0.7.loc.3.first area.2 l.0.0.1.0.0.3 vmesh.loc.prxy.1.all.1.0.1.5..0 k.fy. Keypoints must be in either !clockwise or counter clockwise order.1.0 k.loc.last area.0.1.5.0 k.5.all.loc.r.0.1.z.0.075/2.3.7.0 k.0.2 a.8 l.loc..Example: ANSYS and 3D element (solid45) In this example.0 k.z.s.3.loc.0.1.4.2.0.0.0 d.0 d.6. Students are encouraged to consult the ANSYS online help on solid45 element for its features and limitations.z !mesh all volumes !select a new set of nodes from x = 0 to x = 0 !apply symmetry !select a new set of nodes from z = 0 to z = 0 !select nodes from the previous set from y = 0 to y = 0 !constain ux.1 l.025.8.all.2 l.all nsel.7.

s.sigbot fini !create path between node 1 and 7 !store sz under sigbot for this path !create path between node 381 and 397 !store sz under sigtop for this path !plot sigtop !plot sigbot .z plpath.sigtop.sigbot.7 pdef.z lpath.1.s.381.397 pdef.sigtop plpath./solu solve fini /post1 lpath.

In this tutorial. I = 394 in4 (enter as IZZ in ANSYS). 3. Height = 12. but. _____________________________________________________________________________ Notes: Moment of Inertia. Define real constants. List the deflections. 4. Also. Create lines between keypoints. Change Jobname. E=30E6 psi (enter as EX in ANSYS). Define material properties. Modulus of Elasticity. Plot deformed shape.7 in2. 13. 10. List reaction forces. The steps that will be followed are: Preprocessing: 1. Solve. <=0. (5 total) 6. Postprocessing: 11. hopefully all steps needed will be apparent from the instructions.19 in. Apply constraints and loads to the model. 5. 13. Step-by-step instructions are provided beginning on the following page. Specify element division length. 12. 2. Exit the ANSYS program. you will model and analyze the beam below in ANSYS. 8.ANSYS TUTORIAL Analysis of a Beam with a Distributed Load In this tutorial. Create keypoints. the commands can be entered directly at the command line instead of using the menu picks. .29 (enter as NUXY in ANSYS). A=14. Mesh the lines Solution: 9. Note: The instructions below do not provide every single mouse click. Cross-sectional area. (4 total) 7. as noted in other tutorials. Define element type.

shear deformation effects will be neglected. To create keypoints: Preprocessor -> -Modeling. by selecting “HELP” on a related dialogue box. #4 at the second pin joint. click on “OK”. you will create keypoints.Create -> Keypoints -> In Active CS . ANSYS automatically creates nodes and elements. so nothing was input for “SHEARZ”. #2 at the first pin joint from the left. 4. then “2D elastic”. the crosssection shape was not provided. then mesh the lines. the commands are not provided. and click on “OK”. then “OK”. click on “OK”. highlight “Beam”. cross-sectional area and height: Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add Click “OK” for “Type 1 BEAM3” After filling in the values.Isotropic “OK” for material set number 1. Change jobname: File -> Change Jobname Enter “beam2”. (or choose some other Jobname) In this tutorial. 2. and #5 at the right end. 5. If something is not clear. because it is element type 3 in the ANSYS element library. In this case. please ask. They can be determined. In the meshing process. then lines. Preprocessing: 1. then “Close”. then “Close”. however.”. Note that in this case. Define element types: Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete Click on “Add. #3 at the end of the distributed load. 3. Create 5 keypoints: #1 at the left end. Note that in ANSYS this element is sometimes referred to as “BEAM3”.however. Define the real constants for the BEAM3. which are moment of inertia. Define Material Properties: Preprocessor -> Material Properties -> -Constant.. then enter the values for EX and NUXY.

using the locations based on the sketch of the beam. Pick keypoint 1. after entering the keypoint 5 location. Turn on keypoint numbering: Utility Menu -> PlotCtrls -> Numbering. all keypoints will be in the x-y plane. Just repeat the keypoint creation command for the incorrectly placed node. with z=0). 7. enter “4” for SIZE. Enter the location as (x. one between keypoints 3 and 4. Mesh the lines: . and one between keypoints 4 and 5. Create lines between keypoints: Preprocessor -> Create -> Lines -> Straight Line A picking menu appears. Check “keypoint numbering”. you can just click on “CANCEL” in the picking box. and a line is created between the two keypoints. The lines are already created. 6. Note that we will enter the locations in inches. As a check to ensure all keypoints were entered correctly. Click on “Apply”. list the keypoints: Utility Menu ->List -> Keypoints If any errors were made in defining the keypoints. so this will close the box. 8. Of course. but this will force the display of keypoint numbers on subsequent plots. After the last line is created. Continue defining keypoints 2-5. specify a number of element divisions per line so that all elements in the model are 4 inches long (this length is arbitrary): Preprocessor ->-Meshing. then keypoint 2. (Note: For this problem. click on “OK” instead of “Apply”. with keypoint 1 located at the origin of the global x-y-z Cartesian coordinate system.0). then click “OK”. you can redefine a keypoint by repeating the procedure of step 5. then “OK”. Instead of using the default mesh for each line.Size Ctrls -> -Lines.0. Continue creating lines in this way.z)=(0. one between keypoints 2 and 3.Enter 1 for keypoint number (ANSYS would automatically number keypoints if you leave this blank). But.y. The keypoint numbers may already be showing.All Lines In the box that appears. you don’t need to redefine all keypoints simply to move one.

go back and replot the lines: Plot -> Lines. choose “FY” for “Lab”.Apply -> -Structural. click “OK”.Force/Moment -> On Keypoints. then click “OK” in the picking menu that has appeared. There will be a dot for each node.Preprocessor ->-Meshing. unselect it by clicking on it. We do not want to constrain the rotation. the nodes and elements are created. These elements have 3 dof per node: 2 translations (UX and UY) and one rotation. and enter -8000 for the force value. go to the top utility menu. Solution: 9. Click on “OK”. To apply the force. make sure to unselect the “ALL DOF” label! If the “ALL DOF” label is highlighted. Click “OK”. Postprocessing: 11. You don’t need to enter anything else. To apply the distributed load. Click on the line between keypoints 1 and 2. Enter “150” for VALI. Apply constraints and loads: Solution -> -Loads. If the “ALL DOF” label is highlighted. and choose Plot -> Nodes. After confirming that only “UX” and “UY” are highlighted. Plot the deformed shape: . Solve the problem: Solution -> -Solve.Current LS Click “OK” in the “Solve Current Load Step” Box. then “OK” in the picking menu. then “OK”. Pick keypoint 5. To see a node plot.Displacement -> On Keypoints Click on keypoints 2 and 4. and the line between keypoints 2 and 3. Choose UX and UY.Apply -> -Structural.Pressure -> On Beams DO NOT CHOOSE “On Lines” – this does not work for beam elements! A picking menu appears. choose: Solution -> -Loads. 10. and use the default value of zero. choose: Solution -> -Loads. A box appears.Apply -> -Structural. Now.Mesh -> Lines -> Pick All At this point.

then “OK”. List the x and y direction deflections for each node: General Postproc -> List Results -> Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution -> ALL DOFs If desired. Exit ANSYS. 12. and click on “OK”.General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Deformed Shape You will probably want to choose “Def + undeformed”. This is overviewed in the first beam tutorial. List reaction forces: General Postproc -> List Results -> Reaction Solution Use the default “All items”. 13. 14. Toolbar: Quit ->Save Everything -> OK . but first tables of these stresses must be defined via the ETABLE command. one could plot and list the element stress components.

Structural Analysis/FEA Dynamic Analysis Problem: Determine the mode shapes and frequencies of a cantilever conical pole as shown in the figure below. Poisson’s ratio = 0. 0. The pole is 3 m long.29 and density = 470 kg/m³.5 m Ø 15 cm Defect 3m (no material) 1.6 m 0. 30 cm diameter at the bottom and 15 cm diameter at the top.1 GPa. The pole is made of wood with Young’s modulus = 13. Also. Ø 15 cm Ø 15 cm 0. reanalyze the cone for the case that there is a cylindrical-shape defect (φ 15 cm.ANSYS .9 m Ø 30 cm Ø 30 cm Tutorial 8 1/5 .5 m height) inside the pole as shown.

05.1 GPa Poisson’s ratio = 0.15 m and the top radius is 0. select the cylinder and click OK. Z1 is the z-coordinate of the base and Z2 is that of the top. Click “OK” Tutorial 8 2/5 . Meshing Assign an element length of 0. For the second model. The bottom radius is 0.29 Density = 470 kg/m³ Modeling For the first model. Subtract the cylinder from the cone as follows: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Volumes Select the cone first then click OK.STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS. Then create another cylinder for the defect. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volume > Cone > By dimensions Enter the dimension of the pole without the cavity. Create the main cone as explained in the previous step. After that. SI STEP 2: Preprocessor Select the element type to be “Structural Solid Brick 8-node 45 (Solid 45). The starting and ending angles define the sector of the base circle that will be generated to a cone. Material Model Modulus of elasticity = 13.075 m.05 for all the areas as follows: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool Click “Set” in front of areas and enter 0.

then click “Close” Plot the deformed shape to observe the mode shape. STEP 3: Solution STEP 4: Postprocessor The results for this type of analysis must be read first before it can be displayed. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > New Analysis Select “Modal” and click “OK” Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > Analysis Options Set the number of modes to extract = 20 and click “OK” In the next dialogue box. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Repeat the same analysis and post-processing for the two models and observe the change in the natural frequencies and the mode shapes (use Results Viewer to view animation). Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Pick the base area.”. To select the frequency Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick Select the required frequency and click “Read”. Click OK. Tutorial 8 3/5 . don’t change the frequency range.Make sure that the “Tet” and “Free” options are selected then click OK and select the volume to automatically mesh it. Boundary Conditions Fix the base of the cone by set the All DOF of the base area to 0. Just click OK to accept the defaults. Analysis Type Set the analysis type to modal. Select “All DOF. Select the frequency for which the results shall be read and displayed.

30 573. mode 2 in x direction) Mode 3& 4 (2nd harmonic) Mode 5&6 (3rd harmonic) Mode 8 (elongation) Tutorial 8 4/5 .38 972.56 141.57 625.15 343.71 976.88 1003.41 622.For Model 1 SET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 TIME/FREQ 34.1 1378.007 34.8 1385.3 LOAD STEP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SUBSTEP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 CUMULATIVE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mode 1 & 2 (1st harmonic – mode 1 in y direction.1 1825.94 342.4 1381.084 141.8 1832.6 2163.2 1576.63 482.

73 959.75 964.37 623.4 LOAD STEP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SUBSTEP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 CUMULATIVE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mode 20 Tutorial 8 5/5 .781 36.For Model 2 SET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 TIME/FREQ 36.1 1840.88 349.06 496.63 351.9 2157.5 1845.8 1407.90 945.28 135.846 135.21 595.36 1176.0 1402.08 621.6 1518.

(a) Find limit pressure for the plate if it is simply supported all around the outer edges (no stiffeners). (b) Reanalyze for the limit load the plate if there are stiffeners (30 cm width x 8 mm thick) around the outer edges of the plate and the plate is supported at the corner as shown in the figure below. Assume elastic plastic material and yield stress σy = 207 MPa.3 m 2m *note: Apply pressure 100000 and see when the structure collapse (or the analysis stops) Notice buckling of the stiffeners in case (b) Tutorial 9 1/6 .ANSYS . ν = 0.The plates and stiffeners are made of steel (E = 2 × 105 MPa.along x = 0 z y x 3m 0.along y = 3 Sym.5 m) in the middle of the plate.3).Structural Analysis/FEA Nonlinear Analysis Problem: Consider a rectangular plate 6 m × 4 m × 20 mm subject to pressure on an area (1 m × 2. Sym.

008) Create the material model Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Linear > Elastic> Isotropic Enter EX = 2e11 Pa and PRXY = 0. Tutorial 9 2/6 .STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS.02 and 0. SI STEP 2: Preprocessor Select the element type to be Shell 8-node 93 (SHELL93) Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.3 Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Inelastic> Rate Independent> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity > Mises Plasticity > Bilinear Enter yield stress = 207 e6 Pa and Tangent modulus = 0 Click “Graph” to check your material model.

Set Symmetry B. Apply boundary conditions. Don’t forget to assign meshing attribute corresponding to the thickness of the plates for case (b). and for those on plane Y = 3. set UZ = 0 for outer edge of the plate (plane X = 2 and plane Y = 0). for all the lines on plane X = 0. set UZ = 0 for the corner node Apply pressure 100000 Pa on area 1 STEP 5: Solution Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Solution Controls For (a).C. For (b).1 and mesh all the areas. Analysis Options –Small Displacement Analysis Time Control – Time at the end of load step = 1 – Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen Tutorial 9 3/6 .Create plate model (as explained in Tutorial 7) Set the element size of the all the areas to be 0. in “Basic” tab. For (a).

– Number of substeps = 20. Min no. N= 1 Click OK Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Tutorial 9 4/6 . of substeps = 30. Min no. of substeps = 10 Write Items to Results File – All solution items Frequency – Write every Nth substep. Max no. N= 1 Click OK For (b). Analysis Options –Large Displacement Analysis Time Control – Time at the end of load step = 1 – Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen – Number of substeps = 20. of substeps = 10 Write Items to Results File – All solution items Frequency – Write every Nth substep. in “Basic” tab.

1. l2. 0. W. W. 2 *SET. 5. 1. 1 L.SHELL93 R.5 *SET.BISO. 10 L. You can also use Results Viewer to view results and animation of the substeps. l3. 7. NonlinearPlate /TITLE. 2. 8.1 TBDATA. r1. 8.10. 6 Tutorial 9 5/6 . 2. mat.25 *SET. 1. c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus) MP. l8.2 E11 ! MP. T K. 2.02 R. ename) ! Specify real constant (R. BL. 0.3 *SET.008 ! Assigns values to user-named parameter ! SET. 3. nset. BL. SI *SET. 3 L. Yield stress= 30000 psi. value ! Enter Preprocessing Module ! Specify element type (ET. 5 L. -100000 /PREP7 ET. 7 ! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL. T K. 4. l1. 6. 10.EX.0. 9. 8.1. 8 AL. 2 L. 1.207E6. 9. T !Create keypoints (top of the shell) ! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints ! Keypoints for area under loading ! Create a line between two keypoints L. 2 L. 1. Second slope = 0 K. W-WL. 4 L. 10 L. Nonlinear Analysis for Plate with Stiffeners /UNITS. 0. l5. 0. 0. 6 L. B. par. 9 L. 1. T KGEN.1. T.STEP 6: Postprocessor Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick > Pick the substep of interest and check Von Mises stress/ strain distribution. 8 L. itype. 4. r2) ! Specify material properties MP..3 ! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio ! Activate a data table for nonlinear material properties (Bikinematic hardening) TB. B. 8. 0. T K..1.-T K.PRXY. l4. W-WL.T K. 2. 1. W. 7 L. 3. W. 3 *SET. 3. P. 5. WL. 3.1. l10) AL.0. 7. BL. B. 6.. l9. Batch File for (b) /FILNAME. 4. l7.0 ! Data table. lab. 3. 0. l6. 2. T K. 0.

PRES.X. na2. 0. kund) Tutorial 9 6/6 .10 OUTRES.1. value.LOC. na1.S. 0 NSEL. ALL.0 DSYM.LOC. UZ. LOC. B NSEL. 1 TYPE. 12. ALL SOLVE SAVE /POST1 SET.AL. ALL. lab. 10. 9. ALL ASEL. 2. ON NSUBST.LOC. 2 ASEL. comp.S. ALL. AREA. 1.X.R.S.R. ALL SFTRAN /SOLU SOLCONTROL.SYMM.1 REAL. ALL SFA.LOC. 1 ASEL. LAST PLESOL.P ! Boundary Conditions NSEL.2 AMESH.Y NSEL. 11 AL. value2 ! Select nodes with location X= 0 ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction ! Select nodes with location Y = 3 ! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction ! Select nodes with location X = B ! Reselect nodes with location Y = 0 and Z = 0 ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D.W DSYM. item.Y. 1 MAT.30 .Y. 0 D. ALL REAL. 20. 2 ! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas ! Select element type ! Select material type ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set) ! Mesh areas (AMESH.X NSEL. area. 12 AESIZE. lkey.ON AUTOTS. value) ! Transfer the solid model surface loads to the FE model ! Enter the solution processor ! Use optimized nonlinear solution defaults ! Automatic time stepping ! Large Deformation Analysis ! Number of substeps to be used for this load step ! Solve the current load step ! Enters the database results postprocessor ! Read the last data set ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL.1. S. 0 NSEL. ninc) ! type INVE = invert the current set ! SFA. 13. S. INVE AMESH.. node.. EQV. Z.ON NLGEOM. lab.SYMM.

3. determine the maximum stress in the plate. Given Young’s modulus 200 GPa and Poisson’s ratio 0. 50 kN/m 60 mm 20 mm 50 kN/m 40 mm 20 mm 60 mm Tutorial 5 1/9 . if the hole in the middle of the plate is replaced by a 40 mm diameter circular hole (with no slot).ANSYS . find the maximum stress in the plate.Structural Analysis/FEA Plane Stress Analysis Problem: A 120mm square plate with a slot hole in the center as shown below is subjected to distributed tensile force of 50 kN/m on each side of the plate. Also.

3) STEP 4: Modeling Create all keypoints and lines... (MP.STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS... 2 . 0..> Solid > Quad 4 node 42 (PLANE 42).) Tutorial 5 2/9 . Keyopt 3 = Plane stress ( /PREP7 ET. SI STEP 2: Preprocessor : Define Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add In the pop-up window click Add. EX. 0.. 1.02. 1. 0 etc.0) STEP 3: Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic EX = 200e9 and PRXY = 0. Click Apply.. 2.06. 1. 0 K. PLANE42. PRXY. 1.3.1. In the pop-up window click Options. 200e9 MP. L.etc. (Ex: K. 0.

For arc line from node 5 to 6. Then. Preprocessor> Modeling > Create > Arcs > By End KP’s & Rad. 5.02. In the pop up window. Click OK (LARC. Pick node 5 and 6 then click OK. click the center of the arcline (node 7) and click OK. 6. 0. enter the radius of the arcline. 7.02) Tutorial 5 3/9 . RAD = 0.

6. (AL. 3. 1. 5) Tutorial 5 4/9 . click OK. 4.Create areas by lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitraly > By lines Pick all the lines. 2.

Tutorial 5 5/9 .

002 (AESIZE. Pick the area then click OK. 0.002) Make sure that in the Mesh section. Shape: Quad and Free meshing are picked. (AMESH) Tutorial 5 6/9 . Click Mesh.Mesh area Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Areas > Set Enter 0.

Apply pressure on line 2 and symmetry on line 1 and 4. Tutorial 5 7/9 .

1. PRES. SYMM DL.(SFL. 4. SYMM) STEP 5: Solution (/SOLU SOLVE) STEP 6: Postprocessor /POST1 Tutorial 5 8/9 . 1. 2. -50000 DL. 1.

Tutorial 5 9/9 .

Check factor of safety against yielding.ANSYS Structural Analysis/FEA: Tutorial Simple 3-D truss Problem: Analyze the tetra-pod and check if the members buckle elastically. σy = 250 MPa.72 mm thick. All members are round pipes 76. Assume that all joints are hinged.2 mmφ and 5. The tetrapod has a 5mx5m base and is 5m high. A vertical force of 600 kN is applied at the top. 600 kN 5m 5m 5m .

double-click on Structural. and Isotropic.Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up Start ANSYS -. Linear.72) 2  ×10−6 = 1266. Click OK to select this element Specify Element Real Constants Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete. SI Press Enter Step 2: Set element type and constants Specify element type: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add Pick Link in the left field and 3D finit stn 180 in the right field.22 − π (76. Select Structural.Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.28.File > Change Jobname Set Preferences -.Main Menu > Preferences /units. Close the menus.File > Change Directory and enter the required path Specify Initial job name -. H-method Type the following command in the input window to set the ANSYS environment SI units. 1 1  Area =  π × 76. Elastic.5 ×10−6 m 2 4 4  Step 3: Specify Material Properties Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models In the frame labelled Material Models Available of the Define Material Model Behaviour dialogue box. Enter the Elastic modulus as 200e9 (Pa) and Poisson ratio as 0.0 > ANSYS Set Working Directory -. .2 − 2 × 5. and click “ADD” Enter the area of the link member.

Enter 5 for Keypoint number.db Step 4: Specify Geometry Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter 1 for Keypoint number. Click apply.5 for X . Enter 4 for Keypoint number.5 for Y and 5 for Z. 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Enter 3 for Keypoint number Enter 5 for X . Click Ok. Enter 2. Enter 2 for Keypoint number Enter 5 for X .Save your work File > Save as Tetrapod.0 for Y and 0 for Z. . Click apply. 5 for Y and 0 for Z. 2. Click apply.0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply. Enter 0 for X . Enter 0 for X .

You can change the directions of the coordinates by clicking the options on the right side of the window. click OK. Continue the same to construct lines. You must still make into a finite element mesh.) Click OK .Create Lines from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line. Note that simply creating the geometry does not make it into a finite element model. we only have one set. Step 5: Meshing This step makes the lines created above into finite elements. (In this problem. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > All Lines Choose the corresponding material. After constructing all the lines. real constant set and element type number.

Set Mesh Size Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Lines > All Lines Enter number of element divisions as 1 Click OK Mesh Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool Select Mesh Lines from the drop-down menu Click Mesh Mesh Lines menu will pop up Click “Pick All” .

. select FZ for Direction of force.4 Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained. Set Value as 0 Click Ok Apply Loading: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Force/Moment > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 5 In the Graphics window.3. click OK.2. In the menu that appears. click on Keypoint 5.To see the elements created by meshing follow the menu path below: Plot > Elements Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering To see the nodes created by meshing follow the menu path below: Plot > Nodes Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Node Numbers Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 1. then in the pick menu.

. The negative sign for the force indicates that it is in the negative z-direction. You'll see a vector indicating the applied force in the Graphics window.Enter -300000 for Force/ moment value. Click OK.

Congratulations! You just obtained your first ANSYS solution.Step 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done". Close the yellow window. Step 8: Post Processing Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK Animate the Deformation PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape List Member Forces & Stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add > .

A new window will pop up. Select By Sequence number in the left list box. and SMISC in the right list box. . “SMISC. Click Apply Do the same as above You can go to help>ANSYS element reference>Element library>LINK180 to see the element output definitions. Type “1” after the comma. ” appears in the text box below the right list box. Hence.

72 145 Mpa Pcr = π 2 EI min ( KL) 2 KL = 0.6815 ×10−7 m 4 = 204093 > 183712 N -. Plot Stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table > Select LS1 Click OK Plot Forces Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table > Select SMIS1 Click OK Factor of safety : F.6815 ×10−7 3. = 250 Mpa =1.5 × 6.S.164 ) ×10−9 = 9.To list the member forces and stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table > Select SMIS1 and LS1 Click OK Now you can see the element forces and the stresses.5 L = 0.12 = 3.062 .24 − 61.“No buckling” Pcr = π 2 × 200 ×109 × 9.06 (L is the length of the bar) I= π 64 (76.

.C and result plots. do the following: Plot Ctrls > Symbols > Click the radio button corresponding to the “All Boundary Conditions” in the second line Click OK Now you will be able to see the loading and the boundary conditions Capturing Image of the Graphics Window Plot Ctrls > Capture Image > You will see a new window with the image.List the Deflections Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution Click 'DOF Solution' and in the sub-list select 'Displacement vector sum’ Click OK List Reaction Forces Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution Select All Items or All Structural Forces Click OK To display the geometry and the boundary condition after the solution in case if you are not able to see the loading and the boundary conditions in the model. save it. This can be used to capture the images of the Finite Element Model with the loading and B.

. choose ROUND SOLID BAR at Cross-section K6 VII. Simplified ANSYS model ANSYS 10 or 11 ED (Education version or Academic version) will be used for modelling the structure. the reinforced concrete is restricted to model in the range of element given. Therefore. Element types Preprocessor -> Element type -> Add/Edit/Delete -> Add Choose Concrete 65 (SOLID65) Figure 6 Similarly to choose: BEAM -> PLASTIC 23 (BEAM23) In the OPTION of BEAM23. A disadvantage of this software is the limitation of nodes (10000 nodes) and the amount of elements (1000 elements). In addition.012 VII. Figure 5 VII.1.Practical Application of Finite Element VII. The results may be acceptable in this situation. SOLID65 element only supports 3 rebars however there are 4 rebars in this problems.Similarly to choose BEAM23 as SET 2: OUTER DIAMETER OD: 0. Material properties TU T NGUYEN @00221721 1 .3.Choosing SOLID65 as SET 1 and no input data at here because the rebar will be modelled as BEAM23.2. Real Constants Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete -> Add .

Practical Application of Finite Element There are 2 material properties needing to be input. One is concrete, one is rebar. Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models

Figure 7 + Concrete (Material Model Number 1): Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic: o o EX (Young’s modulus): 3E10 PRXY (Poisson’s ratio): 0.2

Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity -> Mises Plasticity -> Multilinear

In this situation, the ratio between stress and strain must be equal to Young’s module at the first data, and then this ratio is decreased to the last data when the compressive strength increases. As the figure below shown, the cross-area is safe-area, where the reinforced concrete does not crack or crush.

Figure 8 A: Safe area, B: Starting cracking, C: Totally collapsed Strain 0.0005 0.0010 TU T NGUYEN @00221721 Stress 1.5E7 2.1E7 2

Practical Application of Finite Element 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 2.4E7 2.7E7 3.0E7 2.4E7

Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Non-linear Metal Plasticity -> Concrete o o o o Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack (ShrCf-Op): 0.5 Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack (ShrCf-Cl): 0.9 Uniaxial tensile cracking stress (UnTensSf): 3E6 Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) (UnComSt): 3E7

+ Rebar (Material Properties 2): Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic: o o EX (Young’s modulus): 2E11 PRXY (Poisson’s ratio): 0.3

Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity -> Mises Plasticity -> Bilinear o o Yield Stress: 460 N/mm2 Tang mod: 0

Figure 9 VII.4. Modelling The beam given is symmetrical geography and concentrated load, therefore, one half of the beam will be taken for simplification of computer model. L = 5.5/2 = 2.75mm D = 0.4m B = 0.25m There are 4 rebars, the cover is 0.05m

Therefore, the model will have 780 nodes (6 nodes in Z direction, 5 nodes in Y direction, 26 nodes in X direction and have 4x5x25 = 500 elements < 1000 elements. Modelling structural form with first-six-nodes in Z direction, after that using COPY function to finish the model. Preprocessor -> Modelling -> Create -> Nodes -> In Active CS Node TU T NGUYEN @00221721 X Y Z 3

Practical Application of Finite Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25

- These nodes need to copy to become the structural model. Co-ordinate Axis X Axis Y Axis Z + Generating node in Y direction Modelling -> Create -> Copy -> Nodes -> Copy - ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 5 - DX (X-offset in active CS): 0 - DY (X-offset in active CS): 0.1 - DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0 + Generating node in X direction - ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 26 - DX (X-offset in active CS): 0.11 - DY (X-offset in active CS): 0 - DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0 VII.5. Creating element SOLID65 will be created with all nodes. The node list should be opened to simply create each element. Element Attributes of SOLID65: Element type of number : SOLID65 Material Number: 1 Real Constant set number: 1 Distance from NODE I to NODE J 0.11 0.1 0.05

Creating SOLID65 element, Command-line should be input E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8 because of a simple creation in three-dimension (3D). Similar way to the other SOLID65 element.

Element Concrete block 1 Concrete block 2

Input Command-line E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8 E,2,32,33,3,8,38,39,9

TU T NGUYEN @00221721

4

33.10.11 E.10 E.3.35.34.11.36.9.Practical Application of Finite Element Concrete block 3 Concrete block 4 Concrete block 5 E.4.40. and NODE NUMBER INCREMENT: 30 1 ELEMENTS FEB 12 2010 11:21:44 Reinforcement Figure 10 – Rebar created in concrete TU T NGUYEN @00221721 5 . the rebar 1 should be copy to the end of the beam: ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 25.12 Element Attributes of BEAM23: Element type of number : BEAM23 Material Number: 2 Real Constant set number: 2 Element Rebar 1 Rebar 2 Rebar 3 Rebar 4 Node I 8 9 10 11 Node J 38 39 40 41 Comment on creating To simply create element in 3D.5.42.39.35.34.5. at command-line: e.6.4.38 for Rebar 1. Similarly to creating node.8.40.41.41.

5. of substeps: 1000000 Min no. UY and UZ is applied for nodes 1. 6. Applying boundary condition Solution Type o o Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis -> Choose Structural Solution -> Sol’n Controls Frequency: Write every substep (Investigation cracks start to take shape in the reinforced concrete) Number of substeps: 20 Max no. TU T NGUYEN @00221721 6 .4.3.6.Practical Application of Finite Element ELEMENTS FEB 12 2010 12:12:54 Y Z X Reinforcement Figure 11 – Structural Model finished VII.2. of substeps: 20 Define loads: o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural -> Displacement -> On Node UX is applied for nodes from 751 to 780 at the end of the structural model.

VII.General PostProc -> Plot Results -> Concrete Plot -> Crack/Crush o Plot symbols are located at: Integration pts o Plot crack faces for: any cracks Time history: TU T NGUYEN @00221721 7 .General PostProc -> Read Results -> By Pick. Results To view the region of crack and crush: .Practical Application of Finite Element TS FEB 12 2010 16:51:33 Y Z X Support of the beam Figure 12 o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Pressure -> On Elements (External load applieds for investigating cracks and crush of concrete at L/3 = 1.7.8666) The 500000N applies at sixteenth element on top of the reinforced concrete. .

9 FEB 12 2010 15:56:05 Y Z X Figure 14 – No Crack and Crush However. crack and crush start occurring in concrete block at the last step: TU T NGUYEN @00221721 8 .9 of time-line: CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =18 TIME=.Practical Application of Finite Element Figure 13 – Time history Investigation of a cracked line is at 0.

Practical Application of Finite Element 1 CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =999999 TIME=1 FEB 12 2010 16:06:37 Y Z X Figure 15 – Crack and crush with Element Centroids 1 CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =999999 TIME=1 FEB 12 2010 16:11:52 Figure 16 – View at the region of crack TU T NGUYEN @00221721 9 .

002737 FEB 12 2010 15:09:47 Region of crack and crush Y Z X Figure 17 – Analysis of plastic criteria TU T NGUYEN @00221721 10 .Practical Application of Finite Element 1 CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =999999 TIME=1 FEB 12 2010 22:18:49 Y Z X Figure 17 – Crack and Crush with Integration pts Reinforced concrete has more cracked line when the analysis of plastic criteria with 170kN 1 CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =11 TIME=.

3 m 0. The bottom and internal portion surfaces are maintained at 300 °C.ANSYS .26 page 507 .4 m 300 °C 0.Logan.2 m 300 °C 0. 2000) T∞ = 40 °C h = 50 W/(m ⋅ °C) 2 300 °C 0.K) Tutorial 4 1/8 . The top surface is subjected to heat transfer by convection.2 m 0. (Question 13.3 m (Thermal conductivity of stainless steel = 16 W/m. The left and right sides are insulated. determine the temperature distribution.Structural Analysis/FEA Thermal Analysis Problem: For the two-dimensional stainless-steel shown below.

STEP 1: Start up Set Preferences: Thermal analysis STEP 2: Define Element Type Choose element type: Thermal Solid Quad 4-node 55 (PLANE55). STEP 3: Material Properties Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic Set the thermal conductivity (KXX) as 16 W/(m K) Tutorial 4 2/8 . No Real Constant is required for this option for PLANE55.

4.-0. 0. 0 Create Lines from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line Tutorial 4 3/8 .4. 0 Keypoint 6 – Localed at 0.4. 0 Keypoint 3 – Localed at 0. 0.1.-0. 0 Keypoint 5 – Localed at 0.2. 0 Keypoint 2 – Localed at 0.1.STEP 4: Modeling Due to symmetry. 0 Keypoint 4 – Localed at 0. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Keypoint 1 – Localed at 0.-0.2. we can create only half of the structure.-0.4.

Create Areas Using Lines Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas> Arbitrary >By Lines Select all lines and click OK Tutorial 4 4/8 .

STEP 5: Meshing Assign element length of 0. Click OK. Click on the area and click OK.05. In the pop-up window enter Element edge length = 0. click Set next to Areas.05 for the area Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool In Size Controls. Tutorial 4 5/8 .

choose Mesh: Areas.In the Mesh Tool window. Shape: Tri. Free Click Mesh and select the area to automatically mesh it. STEP 6: Apply Boundary Conditions and Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the appropriate lines and input the temperature Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the appropriate lines and input the convective heat transfer coefficient and bulk temperature Tutorial 4 6/8 .

Tutorial 4 7/8 .

A list of the nodal temperatures will be displayed. Tutorial 4 8/8 .STEP 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window STEP 8: Post Processing Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature Click OK A contour plot will be displayed for the distribution of the temperatures within the element calculated based on the shape function of every element and the calculated nodal temperatures. In the list click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature Click OK.

49.7 kN/m2 and the cover dead load is equal to the live load.L. Assume live load on the cover of the tank is 0.49 3m 50 m 0. respectively. Soil density is 1842 kg/m3. = L. The active and passive pressure coefficients are 0. Neglect the upward pressure from the soil below the tank. 0.27 Kp = 0.L.3 m Tutorial 6 1/6 .15 m D. Stiffness of the soil below the tank is 25000 kN/m.27 and 0.ANSYS . = 700 N/m 2 2m γ = 1842 kg/m3 Ka = 0. The tank is made of concrete 30 cm thick (σy = 35 MPa).Structural Analysis/FEA Water Tank (Axisymmetric model) Problem: Analyze a cylindrical water tank with inside diameter 50 meter as shown in the figure below.

Click Apply. Click Apply. Tutorial 6 2/6 . Keyopt 6 = Negative pressure only. Keyopt 3 = Axisymmetric Preprocessor > Element Type > Add In the pop-up window click Add...STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS... SI STEP 2: Preprocessor : Define Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add In the pop-up window click Add...> Solid > Quad 8 node 82 (PLANE 82).> Surface Effect > 2D structurl 153 (SURF153).. In the pop-up window click Options... In the pop-up window click Options..

25.3. K. To include material self weight in the calculation – enter the material density Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Density DENS = 2400 kg/m3 STEP 4: Modeling Create keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter the location of each keypoint K.. 3 K. 5. 0 K.85 Tutorial 6 3/6 .3. Element type for Real Constants – Select Type 2 (SURF153) In the next pop-up window. 4.3 K. EFS = 25E6 N/m Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic EX = 30E9 Pa and PRXY = 0. 0 25. 1. 0. 2. 0. 3.. 25.STEP 3: Real Constants and Material Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add. 0. 25.2. 0. 4. 6.3 K.

15.15. Max box Click OK To see the selected nodes Plot > Nodes Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Default Attribs Change TYPE to Type 2 (SURF153) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Surf/ Contact > Surf to Surf. Now the contact elements are created. 4. Reselect all the nodes by Tutorial 6 4/6 . 5 K.15.. Enter Element edge length = 0. Y coordinates Enter 0 in the Min. 5 Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPS Select keypoints (1-2-5-9-8-7-6-4-3-1) to create an area. 25. Mesh: Areas – click Mesh Apply contact surface to the bottom of the tank From the menu bar Select > Entities. By location. Mesh area Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Lines > Set Click Pick All.K. In the pop-up window select Nodes. 25. Click OK and Pick All in the pop-up window.85 Create area K. 7.. 25.3. click OK. 8. 9.

the loads are from water pressure. Maximum active earth pressure at the bottom = Ka*γsoil*soil depth = 0.81*3 Apply triangular pressure to line 2 (be careful of the direction of the line) Case 2: The tank is full.L..3) Apply triangular pressure to line 7. – There will be an active earth pressure acting outside the tank. > Nodes.5*700+1.15. Water weight (/m) = 1000*(5-0.Select > Entities. Total load = (1.Apply uniform water weight to line 8 Tutorial 6 5/6 .25D. +1.27*1842*9. Case 1: The tank is empty.L.3) . In this case. water weight and passive earth pressure.5L..)*Area / perimeter = (1.25*700)*25/2 Distributed load on line 6 = Total load/0. OK. Pick All To see the full structure of your axisymmetric model PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2D-Axisymmetric > Full Expansion Apply load Calculate design load from the tank cover. By Num/Pick. Maximum water pressure at the bottom = γwater*water depth = 1000*(5-0.

Check the maximum compressive stress with the allowable stress σ a = ϕ cσ y = 0.49*1842*9.6 × 35 × 10 6 = 21× 10 6 Pa Tutorial 6 6/6 .Maximum passive earth pressure at the bottom = Kp*γsoil*soil depth = 0. STEP 5: Solution STEP 6: Postprocessor Determine the maximum displacements.81*3 Apply triangular pressure to line 2.

9. where.29 mm 356 mm 254 mm Figure 2: Beam cross-section Tutorial 3 1/14 .30 and the allowable stress (Fy) 350 MPa.0 m C 2.1 m D Figure 1: Continuous Beam 14.Structural Analysis/FEA Problem: For a steel continuous beam with distributed loads as shown below. The beam is made of steel with Young’s modulus of 200 GPa. 200 kN/m 50 kN 50 kN/m 150 kN/m A 3. Poisson ratio 0.2D Continuous Beam with Distributed Load ANSYS . calculate the load factor if the moment capacity of the cross section is limited to Mmax = φ zFy.0 m E 7. (not the same as elastic section modulus). The beam has a box cross-section (HSS 356x250x16) (Figure 2) with plastic section modulus (z) 1910×103 mm3.0 m B 7. φ = 0.

Step 3: Specify Sections Main Menu > Preprocessor > section > beam > common sections. Choose sub-type of the beam to be a box cross-section and select Offset to: Centroid. y-axis is in the horizontal direction and z-axis is in the vertical direction. z y Now look at the values of Iyy and Izz. Step 2: Specify Element types and Material Properties Use BEAM3 element. In this figure. Tutorial 3 2/14 . We can define the cross section from this window. Click Preview to see the data summary. This defines the reference axis of the beam.Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up Set preferences and unit.

we define Real Constants by entering Iyy in the Area moment of inertia box and the Total beam height is 0. In general. B. Tutorial 3 3/14 .z y y The orientation of the beam ( or z ) is defined by the value of Area moment of z y y inertia you enter for Real Constants (Enter the value of Iyy for and Izz for z ). C and D) and connect them to create lines.356. Note that the axis for the cross-section is not necessarily the same as the Global Axis. Step 4: Specify Geometry Create keypoints (at point A. Thus. Note that Keypoint 2 and 3 are needed to define the boundary conditions. we want the beam to have larger dimension in the global Y-axis. Another point E at 3 m from Keypoint 1 is also needed to define a concentrated load.

Tutorial 3 4/14 . Enter NDIV = 2 and RATIO = 3/7.To create point E. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Operate > Booleans > Divide > Lines w/ Options. Pick the line to be divided by clicking on L1. Click OK. Click Ok.

Select Pick All. Tutorial 3 5/14 . In the third section Size Controls >Lines. Click OK. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up. you can either define the element edge length or number of element divisions.1.Step 5: Meshing Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs Click OK. Enter the element edge length to be 0. click Set. Another window pops up. Here.

the size of element will influence the accuracy of the solution. Mesh: Lines. for this beam problem. In the example.In general. BC and CD) to obtain the exact solution. In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section). we use more numbers of element in order to obtain a smooth bending moment diagram. use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes Tutorial 3 6/14 . Click Mesh. only 3 elements are needed (AB. However. Select Pick All To see node and element numbering. Smaller size of elements (or more numbers of elements) gives more accurate results but requires more time to obtain the solutions.

Set UX. UY as 0. constrain UY of Keypoint 2 and 3. Apply Loading: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Force/Moment > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 5. Select FY and enter -50000 as the Force value. UY. Next. select UX. Tutorial 3 7/14 .Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 1. Click Apply.

Apply distributed load Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Beams Now select all elements between point A and B by click on Box and drag a box to cover all the elements. Click OK. the positive value indicates the direction of pressure acting inward the beam surface. enter VALI = 200e3 kN/m Note that. For uniform distributed load. Tutorial 3 8/14 .

Tutorial 3 9/14 .

distributed loads on beam BC and CD can be added. Step 8: Post Processing Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot> Nodal Solution Select DOF solution> UY In Items to be plotted. Step 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window.Similarly. select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK Tutorial 3 10/14 .

3.Table 3.2 (Element Output Definitions) for description of each option. 2. In the next window select By Sequence number.Create Element Table Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > Define Table Click Add. (MMOMZ = Member moment at node i1) Click Apply.6 (SBYB = Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam1) Click OK Click Close 1 See BEAM3 . in the right window select SMISC and enter SMISC. Tutorial 3 11/14 . 6 at the bottom text box.5 (SBYT = Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam1) Then add LS. Then add SMISC. 12 (MMOMZ = Member moment at node j1) Then add LS.

Plotting Bending Moment Diagram Main Menu > General Post Proc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Element Res Tutorial 3 12/14 .

Similarly. Tutorial 3 13/14 . you can plot the stresses at the top (or bottom) fibers of the beam by selecting LS2 (or LS3) from the list List Stress Values Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > List Element Table > Select LS2 and LS3 Click OK You will be able to see the bending stress values of each element in +Y and –Y direction and the maximum stresses.

Calculate Load Factor Mmax = 0.614 Tutorial 3 14/14 . the maximum moment is 979907 N ⋅ m Load factor = 601650/979907 = 0.9 × (350 × 10 6 Pa ) × (1910 × 10 3 × 10 −9 m 3 ) = 601650 N ⋅ m In this problem.

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