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correspondingly means an expansion of cohesive issues that should be answered. These issues in particular include the abilities of the elderly physically as to doing household chores without the assistance of others. It also includes the abilities of elderly emotionally as to how they cope with the problems they encounter. In terms of the elderly’s social interaction, how do they communicate with other elderly’s and to their family? For the same instance, an elderly person is a part of the community and their needs should be given appropriate care and extensive understanding. The issues that the elderly are facing are interrelated and affects how every individual perceives an elderly. Most of the countries around the globe are experiencing a demographic transition towards aging population. As for our country, the Philippines’ population as of the year 2012 in terms of people ages15-64 years is 61.1% (for the male 31,103,967 and for the female 31,097,203) and for the elderly ages 65 years and above is on 4.3% (for male 1,876,805 and for female is 2,471,644)(Philippines Demographic Profile 2012 CIA World Factbook, July 19, 2012). In such case that is also prevalent to the Municipality of Catarman, Northern Samar were in the aging population is approximately more than 600 elderly in the whole population among the 23 town proper barangay.
Older adults collectively experience a wide array of perceptions coming from younger society. Perceptions about older adults vary from one to another. Family caregivers of adults also often faced with problems as to the living options. Decision making for older adults may be viewed by some as declining, thus ignoring their autonomy to decide for themselves. It is stated in RA 9994 or the Expanded Citizen’s Act of 2010 as one of the law’s objectives is to give full support to the improvement of the total well-being of the elderly and their full participation in society, considering that senior citizens are integral part of Philippine society. This only shows our responsibility and the obligation not to neglect the importance of the presence of elderly in our society. In the same way, to be guided with the present perception of the people towards the elderly particularly the family members with regards to the elderly because it will affect the kind of care rendered to them. Thus, the researchers, as future nurses equipped with the knowledge about the care of the elderly, are inquisitive on how the family caregivers a present perceived the elderly.
Length of Service as caregiver 2. it will seek to answer the following questions: 1. Relationship with elderly E. Educational attainment D. Age B. What is the demographic profile of the family caregiver of the elderly in terms of: A. What are the perceptions of family caregivers in terms of the biologic and psychosocial aspects of the elderly? 3. Sex C. Specific Problems Specifically.Statement of the Problem General Problem This study will seek to find out the Perceptions of Family caregivers about the biologic and psychosocial aspects of the Elderly in Municipality of Catarman. What is the significant relationship of the demographic profile of the family caregivers to their perception about the elderly in terms of their biologic and psychosocial aspects? Objectives of the Study 3 . Northern Samar.
Determine the perceptions of the family caregivers about the elderly in terms of their biologic and psychosocial aspects. the following group of individuals and institution will be benefited by this study. Family Caregivers. 3. 2. Basically. Significance of the Study The findings of this study will make the family caregivers aware about the new trends in rendering appropriate care to the elderly persons. this study aims to: 1. educational attainment. Determine the demographic profile of the family caregivers of the elderly in terms of age. Specifically. Northern Samar. This study will help the elderly to know about the perceptions of family caregivers towards them.This study aims at finding out the perception of Family Caregivers about the elderly in the Municipality of Catarman. Elderly. sex. This study will help the family to understand the importance of caring elderly client. 4 . Determine the relationship of the demographic profile of the family caregivers to their perception of about the elderly. relationship with elderly and length of service as caregiver.
Airport Village. Scope and Limitation This study will focus on the Perception of selected family caregivers about the elderly. Colleges of Nursing. The result of this study will make them aware of the ideas to the perception of the family caregivers towards the elderly. Molave. Ipil-ipil. Lapu-lapu. Calachuchi. Baybay. 5 . The result of the study will help the colleges to recognize as to what proper learning or proper teaching to expound the perception of future nurses about elderly. Mabini. Santol. Jose Abad Santos. Casoy. Mabolo. Jose P. It will cover the twenty-three (23) town proper barangay out of the 46 mainland Barangays of Catarman which are as follows: Acacia. Cabayhan. The result of this study will help the researcher identify and evaluate which among of the factors mentioned affect most the perception of family caregivers to the elderly. Sampaguita. Cag-abaca. Researchers. Bangkerohan. Narra.Nursing Students. Caligang. Dalakit. Rizal. Talisay and Yakal. Cawayan.
Jose Abad Santos. The respondent will be choosen from the above the (23) urban barangays. as a study of perceptions the reliability of the finding depends on the veracity of the subjects response and the level of willingness of the respondents to participate in the study. Dalakit. Santol. Mabini. Cawayan. Cag-abaca. Hence. Jose P. Talisay and Yakal.Considering the financial and time constraints in conducting of this study. Toughly and Jeff Theories of aging served as bases for this study. Cabayhan. Lapu-lapu. Sampaguita. Molave. There is no significant relationship between the demographic profiles of the family caregivers to their perception about the elderly. Rizal. Baybay. Ipil-ipil. Theoretical Framework of the Study This study makes use of a core theory and several theories related to it which will serve as strong bases to make this study realistic. Calachuchi. The researchers also consider the easy accessibility of the respondents in conducting the study. namely: Acacia. Casoy. Narra. Airport Village. Cal-igang. It was suggested that some cognitive functions in old age decline people regardless of 6 . Bangkerohan. located in the town proper. Hypotheses 1. Mabolo.
Some of the skills that decline with age are verbal fluency logical analysis. Social Age is measured by age graded behaviors that conform to an expected status and role within a particular culture or society. biological age. learning capacity. Biological age is the predicted by the person’s physical condition and how well vital organ systems are functioning. It was anchored on Phillips’ Family Caregiving Dynamics model. communication skills. The cognitive skills that remain stable are attention span. (Toughy and Jett 2010) According to Toughy and Jett older adults who have higher cognitive function are the ones that have the highest social interaction. with attention to many factors. The concept of the model include both interactional context factors. Chronological age is the number of years a person has lived. such as the caregiver’s role expectations and expectations of the care recipient.age can continue to learn. This model provides framework for understanding poor caregiving. Older people continue to learn from their experiences and understand new situations (Toughy and Jett 2010). and judgment. It also includes the perceptions that the caregiver and care recipient have about the situation such as the caregiver burden. and situational context factors. psychological age. comprehension and discourse and visual perception. selective attention object naming and complex vision spatial skills.It also tackles the four types of aging which includes chronological age. including the 7 . such as the care recipient’s abilities. and social age these ages may not be the same on a person. emotions. Psychological age is expressed through a person’s ability and control of memory. skills. language skills.
relationship with elderly and related trainings attended have a relationship to the perceptions of the public health nurses and family caregivers about the elderly. These changes could greatly affect the public’s perception most especially to the perceptions of the family caregivers. & Torres de Ardon. Brewer. religious affiliation. the biologic and psychosocial aspects of a person has to be considered significant. and socio economic status. 2001) Conceptual Framework of the Study We know for a fact that as the age of a person increases. This study will conceptualize on the assumption that factors such as age. (Phillips. sex. educational attainment. 8 .prior relationship history of the caregiver and the care recipient.
Paradigm of the Study Independent Variables Prp Profile of a respondent family caregiver in terms of: Age Sex Educational attainment Religious affiliation Relationship with elderly Length of service Dependent Variables Family Caregivers Perception in terms of: a. psychosocial aspect 9 . biologic aspect b.
Family Caregiver. of a certain person about the elderly as measured by the Self-Assessment on beliefs about the Elderly Questionnaire. It is conceptually defined rather old especially being past middle age. Perception. 10 . In this study. In this study. elderly people. It is conceptually defined as a person who provides direct care (as for children. it refers to the Family caregivers of the elderly. This includes the beliefs. Furthermore. views. The diagram shows the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. it refers to the insight of both Public Health Nurses and Family caregivers towards the elderly.Figure1. it refers to the characteristics of later life of a person. it is any insight or intuitive judgment that implies discernment with truth or fact. or the chronically ill). It is conceptually defined as Awareness of the elements of the environment through physical sensation or physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience. In this study. Definition of Terms Elderly.
it is also subject to the constructions by which each society makes sense of old age. chronological time has little or no importance in the meaning of old age. in contrast to the chronological milestones which mark life stages in the developed world. In many parts of the developing world. The age of 60 or 65. largely beyond human control. Thus." (Gorman. emotional. in some cases it is the loss of roles accompanying physical decline which is significant in defining old age. roughly equivalent to retirement ages in most developed countries is said to be the beginning of old age. In the developed world. These services are frequently required to be 11 . chronological time plays a paramount role. 2002) Unlike child care. physical and financial possibilities. Other socially constructed meanings of age are more significant such as the roles assigned to older people. elder care requires a set of services to respond to a wide range of often unpredictable medical. However.Chapter II Review of Literature Related literature The ageing process is of course a biological reality which has its own dynamic. old age in many developing countries is seen to begin at the point when active contribution is no longer possible. which typically involves finding services primarily for healthy children who live with the employee.
In many cases. knowledge and skills that the majority of nurses did not learn in school. they have very little information and little confidence in their ability to get comprehensive information on public and private benefits. food shopping. most people are not proactive when it comes to elder care and critically important discussions about “what to do if” rarely take place in advance. and or which less than one percent have has specialized training or certification. they tend to be unpredictable and involve many unknowns. 12 . assisting with housework or providing emotional support. Elder care takes many forms. However. financial assistance. Adult children usually want to respect the autonomy and decision-making capability of their older adult relatives. including providing meals. When elder-care needs occur. 2006. pg. Caring for older adults requires specific expertise.delivered some distance from the employee. Employees with elder-care responsibility are often called upon to assist in making costly financial decisions around issues of long-term care. (Rose and Burut. and risks of needing extensive care overtime. transportation to medical appointments. service and financial options. These needs often cause anxiety about things such as the ability to find and pay for immediate care or ways to take preventative measures like withholding car keys away from an elderly parent.62) The American Journal of Nursing (AJN) recognizes that nurses today will care more adults over 65 than any other patient population.
During the last decade and primarily because of the aging population and the dual-focus workforce. the time one adult spends caring for another adult has emerged as a workplace issue. then there is no better time for these individuals to get off that couch and start moving. which leads to sadness. The study overwork in America: when the way we work becomes too much (families and work institute 2004) found that employees with elder-care responsibilities tend to be more overworked than employers without these responsibilities. the paramount feeling when a patient cannot no longer do the things for themselves that they used to do is uselessness. especially for an employed caregiver. laziness and self-loathing. but on the other. Related Studies 13 . On the one hand. Caring for elderly patients can be a double-edged sword. If that is the case. But since that few programs were implemented locally. concerning the necessities that our government should have. This study also tackles about the insights and perspective of each caregiver family member to an elderly person that belongs to their family. it is a demonstration of concern for the person involved. and actually decline in health. This only shows that elderly persons are much dependent with the tender loving care that their health care providers are rendering thru them. Patients may eat more and start to gain weight. Finding and coordinating elder-care services is no easy task.
In every culture life circumstances change for an aging individual and there are typical experiences in the areas of social situations and relationships (e. The processing of all these changes and experiences are not only carried out cognitively but also communicatively: they shape the linguistic. healthcare settings) of elderly people can be characterized by regular. widowhood. 2008 )“Elderly people talking: The production of Elderly Identity in Interaction” examined how the identities of elderly people are socially constructed and marked in interaction by means of linguistic practices and how this can be influenced by the conversational setting. moving to a retirement home). specific communicative repertoires and more or less normative rules that govern the interaction. family. The communicative milieu (e.The study of Christina Englert. MA. The aim of this research is to give a general idea of the range of communicative activities of elderly by means of a communication profile. relevant linguistic practices and communicative activities that are characteristic and constitutive for a certain number of typical communicative situations and genres where elderly participate. The aim is to describe. stable social relationships with a shared history. loss of driver’s license. health condition. shopping places. Previous Conversation Analytic studies of the discourse of elderly tend to focus on interactions taking place in care-giving institutions or home-help 14 . more or less standardized.. retirement. University of Groningen (Sept. Center for Language & Cognition.g. communicative behaviour of elderly people. from an interactional perspective.g. neighbourhood.
) The purpose of the study is to find out how nurses perceive elderly loneliness.contexts between the elderly and their care-givers during care activities (cf. 2010. This study demonstrated that the role was feasible and achieved positive resident outcomes despite the factors that impeded its introduction. 2006. Lee. given the national legislation governing all aspects of an aged care facility. February 2009. The study about Nurses’ Perceptions and Support of Elderly Loneliness in Nursing Homes (Edith Mutafungwa Degree Programme in Nursing Thesis. The thesis topic originated from the project “Experiences of Loneliness”. care facility. which was innovated by Espoo City. Heinemann. The data was collected from Taavinkoti (nursing 15 . This single Victorian Facility 2002 study was the first to describe the clinical & social benefits or otherwise of ACNP interventions in an Australian context. the Role of an Aged Care Nurse Practitioner (ACNP) is well recognised internationally however. this study identified interventions an ACNP could undertake & therefore the role they could play in an Australian residential aged care facility. 2005) According to the study conducted by Caroline G. in Australia the implementation of this advanced role is still in its infancy with few gerontological nursing experts registered as nurse practitioners (NP). In summary. Engbersen. Backhaus. This study aimed to establish clinical or other outcomes that a Gerontological Nurse Practitioner (ACNP’s) could achieve for older persons in an Australian residential aged. 2009. A qualitative research method was used in the study. Lindström.
Under educational attainment. Agus. The study showed the supporting methods offered by nurses were nursing assistance. physical support and social participation. Relationship to the elderly for family member would be the majority of the respondents were daughters. the family members mostly attained a college degree but still quite a number reached the primary & secondary levels of education. In addition. majority of the Community Health Nurse attained the BSN degree. Consent and information letters were sent to nurses prior to their participation in the study. the findings of the study with regards to the profile data specifically age as one of the variables is that most of the respondents both from the CHN & family members belonged to the aged bracket of 32-37 & which 35-39 years old respectively.home) based in Espoo from November to December 2008.(2)physical ability changes with age therefore older persons need protection from risk. sons of the elderly. (3) Interest in sex activity is appropriate among the elderly. The descriptions of elderly which were not 16 . The length of services for CHN respondents would be 47%of CHN stayed in service for less than 5 years. MAN about the perception of public health Nurses & family caregivers of the elderly in Catarman Northern Samar. is under the early adult stage. According to the study of Maria Linda S. psychological support. Perception of the elderly which were positively identified are :(1)older people do not end up in hospital with illness. nurses described that the absence of family members in an elder’s life plays a significant role in an individual’s loneliness.
1(one) was very positively perceived.decided are: (1) daily bath is more important than grooming.(2)interest in sex activity is inappropriate among the elderly. The older people can learn new ideas. result showed that family members cannot decide whether to disagree or agree with 3 issues & have 5 negative perceptions. The negatively perceived beliefs were :( 1) urinary incontinence is a normal part being old. The 8 undecided issues were: (1) older 17 .(4). In terms of psycho-social aspects among the 13 (thirteen) descriptions provided. 4(four) were undecided. The three (3) undecided issues were :(1)older people are biologically alike. Positive perceptions identified were: (1) older people want to be with other elderly. The CHN’s had a very positive perception of the belief that the elderly are either useless or powerless. 7(seven) were positive. (5) Intelligence does not decrease with age. (3) All the senses do not change in old age. (2) Older people feel lonely & socially isolated. (3) it is kind to protect older people from being upset or stressed. (1) will-powered elderly are different to handle.(2)physical wholeness is not important when one is older. Perceptions which were undecided on by the CHNs are. (6) Old people are psychologically different from others. (4) Older people are biologically alike. Psycho-social Aspects perceptions on this aspect revealed & undecided issues & 5 negatively perceived issues. (7) older people are objective in reporting signs &symptoms or health history data. Family members with regards to biologic aspects. The negative perception described by CHN’s was: older people tend to be forgetful & confused. (2) Older people maintain their wisdom & judgment. & 1(one) was negatively perceived. (2) Urinary incontinence is a normal part of being old.
Chapter III Methodology Locale of the Study Catarman is a first class municipality in the province of Northern Samar. mi). (3) Older people feel lonely & socially isolated. (2) will-powered elderly are different to handle.833 in 12. 437 household making it the most populous municipality in Eastern Visayas. (4) Older people are not objective in reporting signs & symptoms or health history data. It has an area of 464. Negative perceptions identified are: (1) old people are psychologically alike. to the west by Bobon. (3) Intelligence decreases with age. On the Pacific coast are flat lowlands with the 18 . it has a population of 84. The municipality is skirt-shaped. According to the 2010 census. (2) Older people cannot learn new ideas. and socio-cultural and government center of the province. and to the north by the San Bernardino Strait. Manila. (3) Older people do not want to be with other elderly. political. to the south by Lope de Vega.32 sq. (4) Older people prefer to live in the past. (5) Older people tend to be forgetful & confused. It is the capital and largest town by land area and population in Northern Samar.people have decreased wisdom & judgment. It lies on the northern part of Samar Islandand southeast of the Philippine capital.23km2 (179. It is also the commercial. educational. It is bounded to the east by Mondragon. financial.
Molave. Sampaguita. Rizal.interior characterized by outlying low hills. Mabini. Airport Village. Puyao in Barangay Liberty is the highest peak in the area. Ipil-ipil. Correlational design is used in this study to determine the relationship of the demographic profile of the respondents which are the public health nurses and family caregivers to their perception about the elderly. Santol. Jose P. these are Acacia. Mt. Dalakit. Jose Abad Santos. Cal-igang. Cabayhan. Talisay. Cawayan. Catarman representatively standing for the business region of Northern Samar is in the process of renewing its image as a poor and underdeveloped area in the 1980s. Cag-abaca. Narra. The town also currently has five public health nurses. Bangkerohan. Calachuchi. Baybay. Mabolo. Research design This study will utilize the descriptive correlational survey method of investigation to determine the perception of the public health nurses and family caregivers about the elderly. Lapu-lapu. At present. 19 . Casoy.. Yakal. Due to its direct topographic contact to Luzon the area serves now as a tradingcenter in Northern Samar with increasing volume of trade and commerce annually. Catarman town proper have 23 urban mainland barangays.
Research Respondents The identified respondents of this study are categorize into two (2): the first group composes the selected family caregivers of the elderly and the second group are the five Public Health Nurses of the Municipality of Catarman. It refers to the characteristics which determine whether both of the family caregivers are male or female. It refers to the family caregivers’ number of years in service with the elderly. It refers to the highest level of education attained by family caregivers. Gender. Educational attainment. This refers to the number of years that the family caregivers has lived from birth up to present. Research Variables and their Measures The variables that will be use in this study are quantified in the following manner: Age. Northern Samar. Length of service. 20 .
It consists of nine biological perceptions and twelve psychosocial perceptions about the elderly.1996). A if they Agree. D if they Disagree and SD if they Strongly Disagree. Research Instrument The researcher will make use of a standardized tool adopted and modified from a study entitled “Community Health Nurses and Family Members’ Perceptions of the Elderly in the Province of Northern Samar. Proposed Health Teaching Plan” (Agus. It will be completed by placing a check mark on the appropriate columnSA if they Strongly Agree. Part II of this instrument will measure the family caregivers’ perception about the biological and psychosocial aspect of the elderly.Relationship with the elderly. U if they are Undecided. Modifications made were inclusion of relationship of the family caregiver to the elderly as one of the variables. 21 . It refers to the blood relation of the selected family caregiver with the elderly. Part I of the questionnaire will determine the demographic profiles of the family caregivers.
the researchers will pick from a bowl with name of the families with elderly per barangay and the names that will be taken will be the target families. letters of request to conduct the study will be sent out to the Municipal Health Officer of the Rural Health Unit of the selected Municipality which is Catarman. Northern Samar. After getting the sample size in every barangay.Sampling Technique This study will utilize the Slovin’s formula to determine the sample size and proportionate sampling. Date Gathering Procedure Prior to the study. Collection of data from the family caregivers will be done through structured interview schedule. The researchers will personally distribute the questionnaires to the Public Health Nurses and retrieve them immediately on the very day they will be administered. This technique is use based on the belief that researchers’ knowledge about the population can be used to hand-pick sample members to which in this study are the Public Health Nurses and family caregivers. Scoring and Interpretation of Data 22 .
The following scoring and interpretation will be employed in this study. please specify 23 . Demographic Profile of family caregivers will utilize frequency count and percentages: a) Age The age of family caregivers will be categorized based from the psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson’s which are as follows: Young Adulthood (18-25 years old) Middle Adulthood (25-60 years old) b) Gender The gender of family caregivers will be categorized as male or female. c) Educational Attainment The educational attainment of the family caregivers will be categorized as: Elementary High School College level College Graduate Others. A.
Self-Assessment on Perceptions of the Elderly 24 .) Relationship with Elderly The relationship with the elderly of the family caregivers will be categorized as: Daughter/Son Grandchild Niece/Nephew Son/daughter in Law Husband/wife Relative B.) Length of Service The length of service of family caregivers will be categorized as: 31-35 years 26-30 years 21-25 years 16-20 years 11-15 years 6-10 years 1-5 years f.e.
00 – 1. It will be interpreted through item per item analysis.The researchers will base the scoring and interpretation of the study from the adopted and modified questionnaire.40 – 4.60 – 3.00 Quantitative Interpretation Very Positive INTERPRETATION Qualitative Interpretation The respondents perceive the elderly as holistically functional individual of the society.20 – 5.59 Negative 1. The respondents perceives elderly as functional individual yet has their own limitation The respondents cannot decide on the abilities of the elderly as functional human being The respondents perceives the elderly as individual with decreased functional ability 3. The responses of both the Public Health Nurses and family caregivers will be scored as follows: Range 4.79 Very Negative The respondents perceives the elderly who has absence of functional ability 25 .19 Positive 2.39 Undecided 1.80 – 2.
8.17 interpretation will be “very positive” to a strongly disagree response. For the negatively stated items which include item numbers: 22.214.171.124 interpretation will be “very positive” to a strongly agree response. 1.14. Statistical Treatment of Data The study was analyzed statistically based on the presented data gathered during our survey on every Public Health Nurse in the province of Northern Samar.3. “positive to an agree response.16.6.Interpretation of the result will be done by assigning descriptive interpretation for every response. “negative” to a disagree response and “very negative” to a strongly disagree response.13. For the positively stated items which include 9.4. Frequency and personal distribution Percent (%) = Where: P = Percent (%) f = frequency/response N = total # of case 100 constant factor 26 . These are the statistical tool used in or study.15.10. “undecided” to an undecided response. “undecided” to an undecided response. “negative” to an agree response and “very negative” to a strongly agree response. “positive” to disagree response.5.2.7.
2. The mean was used in analysing the status of implementation of the data gathered in the survey to measure the overall reaction of several variables The formula is: Where: X = mean ∑fx = summation of frequency N = total number of respondents Slovin’s formula: Where: N = total household population size of the province α = tolerance error of 0. proportional allocation was used using the formula: Where: n = total size of the province 27 .05 To ensure the presentation of such municipality. Mean a.
N = total household size of the province 28 .