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# I

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[256] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
1. sin47 sin61 sin11 sin25 +
sin47 sin25 sin61 sin11 = +
2sin11.cos36 2sin25.cos36 +
| | 2cos36 sin11 sin25 +
4cos36.sin18.cos7 =
5 1 5 1
sin18 and cos36
4 4
+
= =
5 1 5 1
4 cos7
4 4
| || |
+

| |
| |
\ .\ .
cos7 sin83 OR =
2.
2 2
1 1
sin cos sin2
2 2 2
b
a x c x x
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
2sin 1 2cos 1 sin2
2 2 2
a c b
x x x
( (
= + +

cos2 sin2
2 2
c a b
x x
| |
+
` |
\ . )
2 2
( )
max
4 4
c a b
= +
3.
cos 2cos 1
1 2 cos

(Apply componendo-dividendo)
cos 1 1 cos
cos 1 3cos 3

+ +
=

2 2
2 2
2cos 2cos
2 2
2sin 3.2sin
2 2

=

2
2
tan
1
2
3
tan
2

=
4.
4
2
32
2sin 2
32.sin
5
15
2 2
2 .sin sin
15 5

| |
+
|
\ .
=
1(2) 2 = .
5. From given relations
cos sin cos sin a b a b + = +
(cos cos ) (sin sin ) a b =
2sin sin
2 2
a
+ | | | |
| |
\ . \ .
| |
|
|
\ .

2sin
2
b
+ | |
=
|
\ .
cos
2

| |
+ | |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
tan .
2
b
a
+ | |
=
|
\ .
6. tan tan and tan tan p q + = =
tan( )
(1 )
p
q
+ =

Now { }
2 2
cos ( ) tan ( ) tan( ) q p + + + + +
2 2
2 2
2
1
(1 ) (1 )
1
(1 )
p p
q
q p q
q

+
`

)
+

g
7. Let cos p =
1 2sin
1 1 cos
2
tan
1 1 cos
1 2cos
2

+
+
= =
+ +
+
1
sin
sin sin
2 2 4 2
tan
1
cos cos cos
2 4 2 2

+
+
= =
+ +
2
tan tan
8 4 8

+ | |
= + =
|
\ .
2 (8 ) cos8 (cos2 ) = =
8. sin36.cos18.cos18.sin36
2 2
cos 18.sin 36 =
2 2
1 sin 18 1 cos 36
( (

2 2
5 1 5 1
1 1
4 4

| | | |
+
=
| | ` `
| |
\ . \ .
) )
Chapter No -31 ( Trigonometric Ratios and I dentities )
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[257] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
10 2 5 10 2 5 5
16 16 16
| || |
+
= =
| |
| |
\ .\ .
9.
3
2
3tan tan
tan(3 )
1 3tan
A A
A
A

( )
3
2
"SquareandArrange"
3tan20 tan 20
tan 3(20) 3
1 3tan 20

= =

10.
2 2
3
1 cos 1 cos
10 10
| || |

| |
\ .\ .
2
3
sin .sin (sin18.cos36)
10 10
(
= =
(

1
16
=
.
11. cos cos and sin sin A n B A m B = =
2 2 2 2
1 cos sin n B m B = +
2 2 2 2
sin { } 1 B m n n = =
2
2
2 2
1
sin
n
B
m n
| |

=
|
|

\ .
.
12.
2 2 2
( ) 2 f a b = + + (Product of Sq. roots)
Now arrange the product
2 2 2 2 2
f a b a b = + + +
2 2
max
2( ) f a b = +
13. Let
2
3
tan (1 3tan )
3tan tan
x x
y
x x

2
2
2
1 3tan 3 1
tan
3 3 tan
x y
y x
y x

= =

3 1 1
0 , 3
3 3
y
y R
y
(
> e
(

14.
2 3 2 2
(cos ) (sin ) sin (2 ) 1 k
3
+ + =
2 2 2 2
1 3cos sin 4 sin cos 1 k + =
3
4 3 0
4
k k = =
15.
2 2
1
2cos 10 2cos10.cos50 2cos 50
2
(
+

| |
1
cos20 1 cos60 cos40 cos100 1
2
= + + +
1 1
2 cos20 cos40 cos80
2 2
(
= +
(

1 3
cos20 cos20
2 2
| (
= +

(
\
3
4
=
16.
2 2 2
2cos cos cos sin cos cos A B C A C B +
( )
2 2 2
2cos cos cos cos sin cos A B C C A B
( )
2
2cos cos cos cos( ).cos( ) cos A B C A C A C B +
( ) A C B + =
2
2cos cos cos cos .cos( ) cos A B C B A C B
2cos cos cos cos A B C B
( ) cos( ) cos( ) A C A C + +
2cos cos cos 2cos cos cos A B C A B C
= 0
17.
tan50 tan40
tan(50 40)
1 tan50.tan40

=
+
( ) tan50.tan40. tan50.cot50 1 = =
tan(50) tan40
tan(10)
2

=
2tan10 tan40 tan50 + =
cot40
18.
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin 5 sin 10 sin 15 ...sin 80 sin 85 sin 90 + + + + +
( )
2
sin( ) sin (90 ) 1 x x + =
( )
2 2
sin 45 (sin 90) 8(1) + +

1 19
1 8
2 2
+ + =
19.
2 2 2
( ) sin sin sin
3 3
f

| | | |
= + + +
| |
\ . \ .
2 2 2
1 3
sin 2 sin cos
4 4

( | | | |
= + +
| | (
\ . \ .
( )
2 2 2
1
sin sin 3cos
2
+ +
( )
2 2 2
1
2sin sin 3 3sin
2
+ +
3
2
=
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[258] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
3
( )
2
f R = e
20. 2cot cot cos B A C = +
2cos sin( )
sin sin sin
B A C
B A C
+
=
2cos sin
sin sin sin
B B
B A C
=
( ) A B C + + =
2
2cos sin sin sin B A C B =
21. For non-zero vectors and , a b

1
.
a b
a b
>

( )( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
2
1 1 2 2 3 3
1
a a a b b b
ab a b a b
+ + + +
>
+ +
2 2
sin 1 and cos 1 > >
2 2
sin 1 and cos 1 = =
Now ,
4 8
sin cos 2 + =
22. Squaring and then adding the given two relations
2 2 2 2
2(cos sin ) cos sin A A B B + = + +

6 6 4 4
cos sin 2 cos sin B B B B
(
+ +

( )
2 3
2 1 1 sin2 2(cos2 )
4
B B = + +
( )
2 3
sin2 2(cos2 )
4
B B =
2
3(1 cos 2 ) 8cos2 B B =
2
3cos 2 8cos2 3 0 B B + =
(cos2 3)(3cos2 1) 0 B B + =
1
cos2 ; cos2 3
3
B B = =
(Not possible)
Now
2 2
8
sin (2 ) 1 cos 2
9
B B = =
2
8
sin (2 )
9
B =
23.
2
2
1 1
Let ( ) , then , 3
3 1
f
x x
f x R
x x
+ (
= e
(
+ +
1
2
2
2
1 1
tan tan 3
3 1
x x
x x

| |
+
= s s |
|
+ +
\ .
Now ,
7 4
, ,
6 3 6 3

( (
e
( (

6
canbe
5

24.
{ } ( )
sin cos 4sin 3cos
9 (81) (27) 9 (3) (3)
x x x x
+ = +
Using
. . . . AM GM >
( )
( )
4sin 3cos 4sin 3cos
9 (3) (3) 18. (3)
x x x x +
+ >
5
18 2 2
min value cosec
3 3
3
| |
= = =
|
\ .
25. sin sin 2sin cos
2 2

+ | | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
2sin cos
4 2 2

| | | | | |
+ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Now
2 2
sin sin cos
2 2 2

| |
+ = s
|
\ .
maximum value 2 if
4

= = =
26.
sin cos2 1
tan (1 sec2 ) .
cos cos2

+ | |
+ =
|
\ .
2
2
sin 2cos sin2
cos cos2 cos

| |
= |
|
\ .
tan (1 sec2 ) tan2 + =
Similarly tan2 (1 sec4 ) tan4 + =
( )
( ) tan 2
n
n
f =
2
tan 1
16 4
f
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
3
tan 2 1
64 8
f
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
2
tan 2 3
48 12
f
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
5
tan 1
128 4
f
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
27.
1 1
sin .cos sin (rational)
12 12 2 6 4
| |
= =
|
\ .
3cos sin
9 9
3cos sec 2
2
9 9
sin
9
ec

| |

|
=
|
|
|
\ .
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[259] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
4cos
4cos50 9 6
4
2
sin40
sin
9

| |
+
|

\ .
= =

(rational)
5 1 5 1 1
(sin18 )(cos36 )
4 4 4
| || |
+
= =
| |
| |
\ .\ .
(rational)
( ) { }
1
sin12 .sin48 .sin54 sin54 cos36 cos60
2
=
{ }
1
2sin54 .cos36 sin54
4

{ }
1 1
1 sin18 cos36
4 8
= + = (rational)
5 1 5 1
sin18 and cos36
4 4
+
= =
28.
2 2
1
cos ( ) sin ( )
2
x y =
( )
1
cos cos( )
2
y x x y + =
1
3
x y =
( )
1
cos cos ( )
3 2
x y

| |
+ =
|
\ .
( ) cos ( ) 1 ( ) 2 ; x y x y m m I + = + = e
Now
1
3
x y = and 2 ; x y m m I + = e
1 1
, ;
6 6
x m y m m I = + = e
{ }
1 1
, , ; .
6 6
x y m m m I

= + e
`
)
{ , } x y can be given by
7 5 5 7
, , , ,
6 6 6 6

` `
) )
13 11
, , ....
6 6

`
)
etc.
29.
6
3
0
sin .sin(3 ) cos
m
m
m
x x a x
=
=

L.H.S.
3 3
sin (3sin 4sin ) x x x
2 2 2 3
3(1 cos ) 4(1 cos ) x x
4 2
3 1 cos 2cos x x
(
+

6 4 2
4 1 cos 3cos 3cos x x x
(
+

6 4 2
L.H.S. 4cos 9cos 6cos 1 x x x +
0 1 2 3 4
1, 0, 6, 0, 9, a a a a a = = = = =
5 6
0, 4 a a = =
1 3 5 0 2 4 6
0, 0 a a a a a a a = = = + + + =
6
2 6 0
1
2 0 and 1
r
r
a a a a
=
+ = =

30. ( )
2
(1 tan ) 1 tan 1 tan 2
4 1 tan

| | | | | |
+ + = + =
| | |
+
\ . \ . \ .
Using the above formulation :
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 1 tan(1 ) 1 cot(46 ) 1 tan(1 ) 1 tan(44 ) 2 + + = + + =
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 tan(2 ) 1 cot(47 ) 1 tan(2 ) 1 tan(43 ) 2 + + = + + =
Similarly
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 tan(10 ) 1 cot(55 ) 1 tan(10 ) 1 tan(35 ) 2 + + = + + =

Required product
10
10 10
10
2 1024
r
r
C
=
= = =

31.
2
cos cos 4sin
2
A
B C
| |
+ =
|
\ .
2
2cos cos 4sin
2 2 2
B C B C A + | | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
2
2sin cos 4sin
2 2 2
A B C A | | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
( ) A B C + + =
cos 2sin
2 2
B C A | |
=
|
\ .
Multiply both sides by 2cos
2
A
2cos cos 4sin cos
2 2 2 2
A B C A A | |
=
|
\ .
sin sin 2sin C B A + =
2
sin sin sin
a b c
c b a
A B C
| |
+ = = =
|
\ .

a is A.M. of b and c
Now AC + AB = k , where k > BC
Locus of vertex point A is an ellipse
Statement (1) and (2) are true and the explanation is
also correct.
32.
4 4
sin cos 1
3 7 10

+ =
4 2 2
7sin 3(1 sin ) 1
21 10
+
=
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[260] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
( )
4 4 2
70sin 30 1 sin 2sin 21 + + =
4 2
100sin 60sin 9 0 + =
2 2
(10sin 3) 0 =
2
3
sin
10
= and
2
7
cos
10
=
2
tan
3
=
7
Now ,
8 8
4 4
sin cos 3 7
27 343 10 10

+ = +
8 8
sin cos 1
27 343 1000

+ =
Statements (i) and (ii) are true.
33.
2 1
1
2 1
1 tan
2
cos
1 tan
2
a a
b c b c

| |

|
\ .
= =
+ + | |
+
|
\ .
Apply components-dividends
2 1
2
2tan
2
a b c
a b c
+ +
=
| |

|
\ .
2 1
tan
2
b c a
a b c
+ | |
=
|
+ +
\ .
Similarly
2 2 3 2
tan & tan
2 2
a c b a b c
a b c a b c
+ + | | | |
= =
| |
+ + + + \ . \ .
Now
3
2
1
tan 1
2
p
p
a b c
a b c

=
| | + +
= =
|
+ +
\ .

( )
2 2
2 1
tan 2
2 2 3
b b
b a c
b b
| |
= = = +
|
+
\ .

2 2 1 2
2
tan tan
2 2 3
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
Statements (i) and (ii) are true and the explanation is
also correct.
34. For triangle , ABC A B C + + = .
cos2 cos2 cos2 A B C + + =
{ }
2
2cos( )cos( ) 2cos 1 A B A B C + +

cos2 cos2 cos2 1 4cos cos cos A B C A B C + + =

2 2 2
3 2(sin sin sin ) 1 4cos cos cos A B C A B C + + =
2 2 2
sin sin sin 2 2cos cos cos A B C A B C + + = +
(statement (ii) is false )
If
2 2 2
sin sin sin 2 A B C + + =
then
cos cos cos 0 A B C =
one of the angle of triangle ABC is 90
Statement (i) is true.
35. If A B C + + = , then

tan tan tan tan tan tan A B C A B C + + =
2
tan tan tan ( 2) 2 A B C x = +
tan tan tan 0 A B C >
In the inequality , tan , tan and tan A B Cmust be
positive , hence triangle is acute angled.
Other possibility that two of them is ve remaining
+ve doesn't make a triangle because two angle can't be
more than 90 in a triangle.
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[261] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
1.
3 3
cos sin
cos( 3 ) sin( 3 )

= =

.... (1)

3 3
cos cos( 3 ) andsin sin( 3 ) = =
Now
4
cos cos cos( 3 ) , = .... (i)

4
sin sin sin( 3 ) = .... (ii)
from (i) and (ii)
( )
4 4
cos sin cos 3 cos2 = + = (

cos2 cos( 2 ) =
cos2 (cos .cos2 sin sin2 ) = +
(1 cos )cos2 sin sin2 =
1 cos
tan2
sin

| |
=
|
\ .
2.
3 3
cos cos( 3 ) andsin sin( 3 ) = =
Now
3 3
(sin )cos (cos )sin + =
( ) sin cos( 3 ) cos .sin( 3 ) +
( ) ( )
sin cos sin 3 = +
sin cos sin( 2 ) =
sin2 2 (sin cos2 sin2 cos ) =
(1 2 cos )sin2 2 sin cos2 + =
2 sin
tan2
1 2 cos

| |
=
|
+
\ .
3. From solution of question no. (1) and (2)
1 cos 2 sin
tan2
sin 1 2 cos

= =
+
( ) ( )
2 2
1 cos 1 2 cos 2 sin + =
2 2 2 2
1 cos 2 cos 2 sin + =
2
1 cos 2 + =
2
2 cos 1 0 =
4.
19 2
tan tan
24 3 8
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
2 3 2 1
tan
3 8 1 ( 3)( 2 1)
+ | |
+ =
|
\ .
tan 2 1
8
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

19 2 3 1 ( 2 1) 3
tan
24 1 6 3 (1 6) 3
| |
= =
|
+ + \ .
( )
( 3 1) 2
19 (1 6 3)
tan
24 (1 6) 3 (1 6) 3

+
+ + | |
=
|
+ + + \ .
( )
2
( 3 1) ( 6 2)( 3 1) 12
7 2 6 3
+ + +
=
+
( )
4 2 3 2 2 2 3
2 2
4 2 6 2 6
+ +
| |
+
= =
|
|
+ +
\ .
(2 2)(2 6) 4 2 6 2 2 12
(4 6) 2
+ +
= =

19 4 2 6 2 2 2 3
tan
24 2
+ | |
=
|
\ .

2 2 3 6 +
2 and 3 a b = =
Now ,
2 4 8 14
cos .cos .cos cos
15 15 15 15

=

2 4 8
cos .cos cos cos
15 15 15 15

4
4
16
sin
sin
1 15
15
16
16sin 2 .sin
15 15
a
a

| |
|
\ .
= = =
| |
|
\ .
5.
3 5 7
1 cos 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos
8 8 8 8
| || | | || |
+ + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2
3 3
1 cos 1 cos sin .sin
8 8 8 8
| || |
= =
| |
\ .\ .
2
2 2
1 1
sin .cos sin
8 8 4 4 8
| |
= =
|
\ .
1 1
8 (2 ) b a
=
+
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[262] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
6.
{ } tan6 tan42 tan66 tan78
sin6 sin42 sin66 sin78
cos6 cos42 cos66 cos78

=

(2sin66 sin6 )(2sin78 sin42 )
(2cos66 cos6 )(2cos78 cos42 )

=

(cos60 cos72 )(cos36 cos120 )
(cos60 cos72 )(cos36 cos120 )

=
+ +
(cos60 sin18 )(cos36 sin30 )
(cos60 sin18 )(cos36 sin30 )
+
=
+
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 5 1 5 1 1
3 5 3 5
2 4 4 2
1
1 5 1 5 1 1 5 1 5 1
2 4 4 2
| || |
+
+
| |
| |
+
\ .\ .
= = =
| || |
+
+
| |
| |
\ .\ .
2
1 b
a
+ | |

|
\ .
7.
4 4 2 2
2
4
sin cos 1 2sin cos 1 1
(sin2 )
4 4 4 8
x x x x
T x
+
= = =
6 6 2 2
2
6
sin cos 1 3sin cos 1 1
(sin2 )
4 4 6 8
x x x x
T x
+
= = =
( )
1
1
4 6
1 1 1 1
6
2 2 4 6
T T

| |
= =
|
\ .
8. sin
14
| |
|
\ .
satisfy the equation , hence
3 2
8 sin 4 sin 4sin 0
14 14 14

| | | | | |
+ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
3
8 sin 4 sin 2 1 cos 0
14 14 7

| | | | | |
+ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
2
4sin 2sin 1 2 2cos 0
14 14 7

| |
+ + =
|
\ .
4cos cos 2cos 2 0
2 14 7 7

| |
+ + + =
|
\ .
8
4cos cos 2cos 2 0
14 7 7

+ + =
4
2 2cos cos cos 2 0
7 7 7

| |
+ + =
|
\ .
5 3
2 2cos cos cos 2 0
7 7 7

| |
+ + + =
|
\ .
3 5
2 cos cos cos 2 0
7 7 7

+ + + =
`
)

Apply , cos( ) cos( ) .... cos( ( 1) )
2 ( 1)
sin .cos
2 2
sin
2
a a d a n d
nd a n d
d
+ + + + +

+ | |

|
`
\ .
=

)
3 3
sin .cos
7 7
2 2 0
sin
7

| |
|
\ .
+ =
`

)
( )
6
sin
7
2 0 sin( ) sin
sin
7

+ = =
1 2 0 1 + = =
Now
1
0
2 2
( (
= =
( (

9.
7
1
(2 1)
sin
14
r
r
=
| |
`
|
\ . )
[
3 5 7 9 13
sin .sin .sin .sin .sin .sin
14 14 14 14 14 14

=
7 9 5 13
sin 1; sin sin andsin sin
14 14 14 14 14
| |
= = =
|
\ .

2
3 5
sin .sin .sin
14 14 14
| |

|
\ .
2
3 2
cos .cos .cos
7 7 7
| |

|
\ .
2
2 4
cos .cos .cos
7 7 7
| |

|
\ .
2
6
3
8
sin
1 7
2
2.sin
7

| |
|

\ .
=
`
| |

|

\ . )
Now
6 2
1 1 12
12 9
2 4 2
n
n
| | | | | |
= = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
10. For sides of triangle ,
2 2
3 8 0, 2 0 + + > + >
and 2 3 0 + > .... (i)
Now , sum of any two sides >third side .... (ii)
2
2 2
2 2
2 5 8 2 3
11
5 11 2 5
3
4 3 3 8 5
R

+ + > + e

## + + > + > >

`

+ + > + + >
)
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[263] Mathematics for I I T-J EE (Hints/Solutions)
+ve difference of any two sides <third side .... (iii)
2 2
2 2
8 2 3 5
11
3 3 8 5
3
5 2 5

+ < + >

## < + + > >

`

+ + < + >
)
From (i) , (ii) and (iii) ,
5 >
min
( ) 6 =
11.
2 2 2 2
(sin sin ) (cos cos ) b + + + = +
2 2
1 1 2(sin sin cos cos ) a b + + + = +
2 2
1
cos( ) ( 2)
2
a b = + ...(i)
Now ,
sin sin
cos cos
a
b

+
=
+
2sin cos
2 2
2cos cos
2 2
a
b

+ | | | |
| |
\ . \ .
=
+ | | | |
| |
\ . \ .
tan
2
a
b
+ | |
=
|
\ .
2 2
2
2tan
2 2
sin( )
1 tan
2
ab
a b

+ | |
|
\ .
+ = =
+ | | +
+
|
\ .
...(ii)
2
2 2
2 2
2
1 tan
2
cos( )
1 tan
2
b a
b a

+ | |

|

\ .
+ = =
+ | | +
+
|
\ .
...(iii)
cos( ) cos( ) 2cos cos + + =
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
2cos .cos ( 2)
2
b a
a b
b a

= + +
+
2 2 2 2
2 2
( ) 4
cos .cos
4( )
a b b
a b

+
=
+
...(iv)
Now
sin( )
tan tan
cos .cos

+
+ =
Using results (ii) and (iv)
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 4( )
tan tan
( ) 4
ab a b
a b a b b

| |
+ | |
+ =
|
|
|
+ + \ .
\ .
2 2 2 2
8
tan tan
( ) 4
ab
a b b
+ =
+
12. (a)
( )
2
sin
( ) 2 1 3 ,
2 2
x
f x x
(
= + e
(

3 ( ) 4 f x s s
(b)
6 4 2
( ) sin 3sin 3sin 2 , 0
2
f x x x x x
(
= + + + e
(

2 3
( ) (sin 1) 1 f x x = + +
2 ( ) 9 f x s s
(c) ( )
2
3
( ) tan 2 1 ,
2 2
f x x x
| |
= + + e
|
\ .
( ) 1 f x >
(d)
( )
2
sec
( ) 3 2 1 ,
2
x
f x x

| (
= + e

(
\
sec
34 1
( ) 5 0 3
9 3
x
f x
| |
s < < s
|
\ .