OCM India Ltd.

Chaitanya Attuluri (9) Haqiqat Ali (12) Kushagra Jain (13)
(DFT, Sem-5)

Under the guidance of

Prof. T. Srivani

National Institute of Fashion Technology Hyderabad


Textile Internship
Mentor: - Prof. T. Srivani (DFT)

Submitted by:Chaitanya Attuluri (9) Haqiqat Ali (12) Kushagra Jain (13)
Program Batch Department Date : B.FTech : 2010-2014 : DFT-5 : 4th September, 2 2012

Table of Contents
S. No.
1 2 3

Textile Industry- Introduction Objective of Internship Company Profile     4 5 6 7 8 9 Brand Key Brand’s Style Quotient Product Portfolio and Sub- Brands Company Details

2 3 4-7

Organizational Structure Process Flow of Production Spinning Spinning Flow chart Various terminology Spinning processes           Blending Combing Autoballing Drawing Roving Ring Frame Autoconer Parallel winding Steaming TFO Twisting

8 9-11 13 14 15 16-24

10 11

Spinning efficiency and Stop Motions Weaving  Introduction  Flow chart  Design development  Warping  Drawing and denting  Rapier weaving Loom shed  Stop motions Dobby shedding Weaving mechanism

25 27-35



13 14

39 40


15 16

Production Calculation Problem in weaving section     Types of defects Classification of defects Conclusion inspection

41 42-45


Quality control Department Research and development Lab


18 19 20 21

Testing Equipments Inspection Lab Photogallary Learning Experience   Safety measurement Learning outcome

49-55 56 57 63-65





We would like to take this opportunity to extend our deepest regards to our faculty guide and mentor, Ms. T. Srivani, who guided and helped us throughout the progress. He provided us all the knowledge and information and support that were worth useful in our research work. We also appreciate his effort to countercheck and give us feedback time to time as well as whenever we needed. We extend our sincere thanks to our Department, DFT, for arranging the industry internship and providing us a great opportunity of industry exposure. We would also like to thank the Entire OCM Community and professionals for cooperating with us and providing the necessary details, facts and other required information. We thank him for giving us the material samples and allowing us to click the pictures as well. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the following people at OCM India Ltd. Amritsar. Mr. Mayank Dixit, GM, HR Department Mr. Pankaj Sharma, officer, HR Department Mr. H.M. Natraja, GM, weaving section Mr. Ravi S. Parihar, officer, weaving section Mr. MP singh, DGM, spinning section Mr. Kulbeer Singh, Tech. officer, QC section Mr. Gagandeep singh, Supervisor, QC section Mr. Akhshay kaushik, GM, designing Depatment

Lastly we are grateful to NIFT-Hyderabad also, for giving us an opportunity to provide us a window in our curriculum to do industry research and giving us the facilities required.






The textile industry is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles.

Textile is a general term applied to any manufacture from fibers, filaments, or yarns characterized by flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to thickness. Textile Industry is unique in the terms that it is an independent industry, from the basic requirement of raw materials to the final products, with huge value-addition at every stage of processing.

Textile Internship as a module in the course of Apparel Production emphasizes on the learning of the processes in the Textile Industry which involves the major processes of procuring raw material, spinning, weaving/knitting, dyeing, printing, finishing, testing and quality control measures. The internship revolves around observing the functioning and processing at a Textile Manufacturing Unit.

It also greatly focuses on the learning of the process parameters, working conditions, process flow and other important criteria in the manufacturing process. It is also important to observe the machinery details, safety measures, and productivity, testing and quality criteria. We were to understand the step-wise breakdown of all the process, how they are carried and what are the start and end-product at each of these steps.

The two weeks of internship focuses on enhancing the knowledge about the properties of different fibers, their physical and chemical nature and their behavior when subjected to varied conditions. The observations made on the treatment of different fibers based on their differing properties were also to be learnt and recorded alongside.




The objective of our textile internship at OCM India Ltd was to understand the concept of spun yarn production, grey fabric production, dyeing and their quality aspects both technical as well as for commercial purposes.

Our first step was to learn about the profile of the company and their basic dealings. We further dealt with the way the company handles the raw material and sends it through to subsequent stages of manufacturing. We were to learn about the various stages in the entire process of textile manufacturing, the importance of each of these stages, the machinery features, machine and material process parameters available in detail in the areas as mentioned below.

We summarize some of the major concepts that we were to observe and understand during our internship:

a) b) c)

Yarn manufacturing and Winding section Weaving section Testing and Quality control



Company Profile

OCM India Ltd. manufactures and retails apparel fabrics in India. It offers wool blended, polyester viscose, polyester, and woolen fabrics. The company provides suiting, shirting, trousers, and jacketing fabrics. In addition, it exports products to the United States, Europe, Japan, CIS countries, the Far East, the Middle East, and internationally. The company offers its products through retailers and distributors. OCM India Limited was formerly known as The East India Carpet Co. Ltd. and changed its name in January 1989.
  Established in 1922 Offers wool blended, polyester viscose, polyester, and woolen fabrics     Provides suiting, shirting,

The company was incorporated in 1922 and is headquartered in New Delhi, India. OCM India Limited operates as a former subsidiary of Digjam Ltd. Since its inception in 1924 as a manufacturer of hand-knotted carpets, OCM has come a long way to become one of the largest worsted suiting producers, the first one to implement a customized textile ERP solution.

Trousers and jacketing fabric. Implies customized textile ERP solution. 34064 Spindles and 140 high speed shuttle less Looms. 12000 kgs yarn and of 25000 Mtrs of fabric per day.   37-acre complex and employee base of 1020 people. 250-500 Cr. Turnover.

A completely vertically integrated plant, OCM has in-house production facilities to convert tops to finished fabrics through dyeing, spinning, weaving and finishing using state-of-the-art machinery. All the materials and processes pass through stringent checks at every stage and help in delivering outstanding quality.

At present the company?s capacity includes 34064 Spindles and 140 high speed shuttle less Looms thereby giving spinning capacity of 12000 kgs yarn and weaving capacity of 25000 Mtrs of fabric per day. The spinning preparatory is from NSC, France, Spindles frpm Zinser, Germany, Autoconers from Schlhafhorst, Germany, TFO?s from Leewha, Korea 9

and looms from Lindaeur Dornier, Germany, Sulzer, Switzerland and Picanol, Belgium. Apart from this, colour continuity is tested on colour matching system from Gretag Macbreath, UK and fabric gets final finish on KD from Biella Shrunk, Rotary Press of Mario Crosta,Italy, Continuous Decatising from Speretto Rimar, Italy, Superfinish from MTec, Germany and Shearing machine from Xetma Vollenweider, Switzerland. The ownership of OCM is split between the US-based, WL Ross & Co. LLC, a global private equity fund management company and HDFC Ltd. The company has a 37-acre complex, with contemporary processes for manufacturing world class fabrics.

The Company has its Corporate & Sales office in Delhi, while its manufacturing facilities are in Amritsar, Punjab. It has a strong employee base of 1020 people, who work relentlessly towards achieving customer satisfaction.

THE BRAND KEY Youth, today, is being celebrated and respected as they are redefining their space in the society at large. Young men in smaller towns are experiencing real change at home, work and other societal spheres. This is their era.

They are keen to mark their presence and create a place for themselves, in family and society, through their efforts and their energy. They cherish their newfound optimism and seize opportunities to make a real impact. They are action-oriented and are bubbling with the spirit of enterprise. They aspire to make a name for themselves through merit and enthusiastic efforts. However, they are also practical in their approach to life. There is no desire to break traditions or to rebel against authority. They don't wish to stand out for the wrong reasons, they don’t want to be seen as brash rebels or make fashion statements, just to assert their individuality. Individual freedom and self-expression are sought but, with a sensitivity towards family and community. Their friend circle means a lot to them and there’s a very close bonding and camaraderie amongst friends.



OCM makes one look and feel smart, handsome and superconfident; makes one believe that he can become some-one of worth; makes one to trust that he too can be an achiever, who can make his family proud and acquire stature. The change brought about by an OCM suit is sure to be recognized and celebrated by the people around.

The intent is to be the fashion leader as well as an educator for the new generation; to give them a set of colours, designs and styles that they call their own. OCM offers far more fashionable colours, designs and styles than the other brands do. OCM aims to set the trends of every season and to lead consumer education on styles, via a tailor program that provides catalogues and guidance on looks. OCM brings to the small-town consumers the latest designer and metropolitan fashion trends.


OCM brings nearly 1500 new design combinations, twice a year, to cater to the needs of one and all. Design and Technology combine to translate the fibers into finest fabrics. Suiting: The consumers can choose from a wide range of suiting. The collection includes specially crafted designs in pure wool, wool rich blend with polyester and blend with polyester viscose, amongst others. The range, with its wide array of colors, designs & soft hand-feel, suits every occasion and age.

Trousering: Our fine trousering range has a vast array of pure wool, wool rich blends with polyester and blends with polyester viscose to choose from. These fabrics pass through stringent test parameters so that the consumer gets nothing but the best. 11

Jacketing: Our range of jacketing has one of the widest variety and colors to choose from. Across the industry, OCM is acknowledged as the ‘Gold Standard’ when it comes to tweeds.

Shirting: To offer a complete fabric solution, OCM now has introduced cotton shirting fabrics through an exclusive relationship with Esquel Group of China.

OCM - Company Details
Corporate Office

C-9, Community Center, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi-110016 Ph: +91 11 43119100, Fax: +91 11 43119195

Registered Office & Factory

OCM Estate, GT Road, Chheharta, Amritsar-143105 Ph: +91 183 2820600, Fax: +91 183 2258714 info@ocm.in • www.ocm.in

OCM India Financial Details : No of Employees – 1001-2500 Turnover in Crs – 250-500 Crs Sector- Private Sector


Organization Structure



HR Depatmenet (GM)

DESIGN Depatment (GM)

Maketing Department (GM)

Spinning Department (GM)

Weaving Department (GM)

Q.C. Department (GM)

Processing depatment (GM)

HR managers

Designing team officials


DGM (spinning)

DGM (Weaving)

R&D team officials

Inspection section (Manager)

Dyeing and printing section

other depatmen ts e.g accounts, building and administa tion

Finishing section


Technical officers


Technical Officers



Process flow of production
Marketing Department
 Customer orders taken Specifications prepared

Designing department
  Swatches made Specifications prepared for Spinning, weaving and processing

Spinning Department
 Yarn manufacturing

Weaving Department

Production of fabric

Quality Control Department Processing department
  Coloring Steaming/conditioning    Fabric inspection Defects analysis and mending Packaging





Process flow of production

The design and marketing department coordinate with each other to carry out the market research and surveys to anticipate the demand and trend in the market. They also deal with the customers and orders being placed for production. As soon as the orders are being received the design department finalizes the designs of fabric to be manufactured. The corresponding specifications are made for the manufacturing of yarn and henceforth the fabric.

In case of production of yarn, the required amount and quality of raw material is either purchased or taken from the buyer itself. Customers who place the demand for customized fancy yarn or fabric provide the raw material in the form of fiber laps. The specifications in the context of yarn characteristics and other manufacturing aspects are sent to the spinning depart where the required material is produced within the given deadline.

After the production of yarn, it is sent to the processing department to enrich it with different type of finishes and colors, if required. This processed yarn is then sent to Research and Development lab for the testing and cross checking it according to the required specifications of colors, functional properties, aesthetic properties and defectiveness. The defective material is then sent back to the processing department for the mending of defects at yarn level.

This yarn is the steamed at around 87ºC for nearly 45 min. steaming can be done before or after imparting color to the yarn. It can also be done at the stage of parallel winding or after giving the twists to the parallel wound yarn i.e. after converting it into 2 ply or 3 ply threads. The purpose of steaming is to make dead the fiber twist and impart the strength to it.

To produce the fabric, the manufactured yarn is warped directly (by direct warping or sectional warping) so that drafting can be done the heald shafts. The drafted heald shafts are then transferred to the loom. The loom in turn weaves the thread according to the design of main fabric and selvedge inculcating different mechanism of loom running techniques. The produced fabric is then inspected manually for the defects. The defected 15

pieces are sent for mending whereas the pass fabric bundles are sent to inspection section where they are inspected again for further problems and defects. The inspected fabric is then written on it the specification like the percentage of different fibers. The packaging of fabric is done in the inspection section which is then sent to godown or warehouse to be dispatched for selling.

Fig. transportation of Raw material




Spinning Fibers cannot be used to make clothes in their raw form. For this purpose, they must be converted into yarns. The process used for yarn formation is spinning. Spinning by hand was a slow and laborious process. Thus, many implements and methods were invented for making it faster and 1. Fiber Lap: - Raw Material for spinning Department simple. Eventually, the techniques were refined and industrial spinning started manufacturing yarn in various ways. The methods selected depend upon the factors such as the manufacturer's preference of equipment, the economic implications, the fibers to be used and the desired properties of yarn to be produced. Ring method is the oldest and the most used technique. Open- end spinning is another important method. The basic manufacturing process of spinning includes carding, combing, drafting, twisting and winding. As the fibers pass through these processes, they are successively formed into lap, sliver, roving and finally yarn. At OCM Amritsar the Raw material for spinning was received in the form of fiber laps which are subjected to further processes of carding combing roving and spinning. Hence there was no blow room in that industry. The raw material is either provided by the customer only for the manufacturing of required quality of yarn and hence fabric or it is imported by the industry itself as per the requirement for production. In both the cases directly the fiber laps are received. These laps of different kind of fibers are then mixed systematically to produce the blends in the right ratio.


SPINNING- flow chart


Post combing / Autoballing


Roving / FM 7

Ring Frame / Zincer H21

Autoconer 238

Parallel winding

Spinning / TFO Twisting (TWO FOR ONE)

19 Steaming / Conditioning

Important Parameters of Yarn & Fiber:
      Length Strength Single Yarn Strength Yarn count TPI Twist Multiplier

     Wool ( 14 microns – 28.5 microns) Polyester ( 1.5 D – 2.5 D) Trilobel polyester ( triangular shape) Plain polyester / terylene ( circular shape) Viscose, nylon and Flux ( 1.5 D – 2.5 D)

     Moisture testing (percentage of moisture content) Oil testing (percentage of oil content) Noil testing (for vegetable trash and short fibers) USTER testing (for evenness and % of hairiness and knots) Count testing


Various Department




1. BLENDING  Mechanism            Narrowing the passage Tension Decrease ginning. Carded sliver of different fibers is the raw material. They are inspected for moisture, oil and weight of sliver One blending machine is handled by two workers Total three machines installed Blending (mixing of two diff. types of fibers) Material from first machine is passed to second machine for more thorough mixing and in turn to the third machine for the same purpose It's two coiler mixer which gives 2 output slivers for 10 input slivers. Machine Model : GC – 14   Speed 200 – 250 meters/min Production: 1200kg/shift/machine in weight/length called

Fig. GC-14 blending machine

Fig. blended fiber lap Fig. Specifications of blending

2. COMBING  OBJECTIVE  To remove short fibers , neps, pin points etc from the material  For uniform blending of fiber  To remove dirt, dust and foreign matter  To get good quality yarns.  Combing of doubled material is done in PB-31 machine  It’s a French type of comb that utilizes three pulley mechanism  For 24 input slivers it gives only one sliver as output.  It increases the length, levels the material mass and weakens the sliver.  Input : 30gm/m, output: 22gm/m  In three pulley mechanism machine runs on three specified speeds only  175 mpm  190 mpm  210 mpm  Six machines in this section were being handled by one worker  Total 22 machines were installed  The production rate is 150kg/shift/machine

Fig. Combing mechanism

Fig. comber (Top Combing)

Fig. The Waste


3. POST COMBING / AUTOBALLING  Combing weakens the fiber blends hence Ginning (doubling) is repeated.  After ginning, autoballing is done.  It strengthens the fabric by thoroughly ginning the slivers.  This machine automatically wraps the material and one completion of one roll it automatically gets rid of the roll and continues the cycle  It runs at 200-250 mpm  Productivity: 1200kg/shift/machine  The task of post combing and autoballing is carried out in the same machine at two different passages  One machine is handles by one worker  Total three machines were installed  Additionally it works as an auto leveller also, which means giving it a constant weight to length ratio


4. DRAWING  Drawing machine has four passages o P1 – mixing o P2 – auto levelling o P3 – bi-coiling o P4 – tri-coiling  It runs at the speed of 200-250 mpm  Total three machines were installed  Two workers are assigned to handle one machine  Production rate: 1000kg/shift/machine


5. ROVING  The machine model used is FM7 NSC  It runs at the speed of 160 mpm  40 spindles machine  Total five machines were installed  Production rate is 800kg/shift/machine  Mechanism : rubbing-drafting system


6. RING FRAME / ZINCER  It is a 556 spindled machine.  It runs at the speed of 8000 rpm.  Three machines are handled by one worker.  Input bobbin = 278  Output bobbin = 556  Drafting angle = 45º  Weft thread- autoconor single yarn  Warp thread- TFO, 2 ply twister


7. Autoconer Machine  Air suction mechanism for catching the thread.  Total 258 cones can be made on one machine at a time  It converts the small package into big standard package.  Removes various faults like thin place thick place splicing.  Speed is 600-800 rpm.


8. Parallel winding  120 spindles machine  1 spindle = 1 kg  Input: 240  Output: 120  Speed = 305 mpm


9. Steaming/ conditioning 4 boilers 500 kg each Steaming can be done at two stages 1. After the autoconer winding 2. After applying the TFO twist The normal temperature to be aaplied is 87ºc Application time is 45 min It is used to set the twist and release the stress of the yarn/thread.

10.TFO Twister  Two For One Twister  High speed spindle  Run at 6000-8000 rpm  144 spindle machine  Total 144 machines


Spinning- other facts
Spinning efficiency

PARAMETERS Waste % Defective % Efficiency % Production(meters) Averagecount

TARGET 5 0.5 80 9000 45 nm

ACTUAL 4.97 0.29 84.5 4048 40.3

UP TO DATE 5.18 0.11 80.2 35.3

Stop Motions for Spinning
    Red – machine stop Green- Mechanical Fault White- doff indicator (indicated a few min prior to the finish) Yellow – synchronize with controlled stop motions





Weaving is the process of interlacing two sets of yarns called warp and weft, at right angles to each other. Warp yarns run in vertical direction & the weft yarns run in horizontal direction.


WEAVING: Flowchart








Designing is a part of marketing. In O.C.M., the people who are in marketing deal with the customer and gives the designing department about what is to be made and what is the demand of the customer. Marketing sector gives the designing department information regarding the sale..

PROCESS :       

Marketing receives the requirement and then sends samples collected from the customers to the designers The fabric then comes for analysis to the designing department that is the designer analyze what the fabric is and how it can be made The designers reply back to the marketing department with analysed report and the production cost The marketing people offer on process to the customer Then if agreed converted into bulk order 12” x 8” handloom samples are made for the customers If checks/stripes design is there paper printout is taken out with the desired color


WARPING The single yarn packages made in winding and spinning are directed for warping. The warp is a lengthwise thread attached to a loom before weaving begins. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called warp-end. The aim of warping is winding on one package to a certain number of warp-ends of a particular length. During warping, ends from many winding packages are wound on a common package to prepare a warp beam. Comb Warp beam dents with

Warp yarn passage on warping machine

Requirements for warping:      The tension of all wound ends must be uniform and possibly constant during all the time of withdrawal from supply packages. Warping should not impair the physical and mechanical properties of the yarn. The tension should be moderate, to allow the yarn to completely retain the elastic properties and strength. The surface of the warping package must be cylindrical. A predetermined length of the warping should be observed.


The production rate of warping should be observed and it should be as high as possible.

Direct Warping

High speed warping also called Beam warping/Direct warping. In high speed warping the yarn is wound parallel on the warping beam. All the yarns are wound at once and simple flanged beam is used. It is a very high speed process and is used for making fabric of single colour.

The direct beaming machine satisfies the highest demands regarding the performance, precision and quality. Exact cylindrical winding, high-precision uncrossed thread laying, precision length, desired winding density assured.


Process :      

Ends are manually held by worker from each cone, taking 4-5 ends in 1 hand at a time & they are passed through dents in the comb of the warping m/c. This process requires deft use of fingers, hence girls are preferably employed. Warp beam is spun by the drum, which also decides the speed of the m/c Rotary V – shaped creel arrangement . 44 rows of 8 cones each make the creel. Sensors & LED display for detection of yarn breaks, which is then retied & wound. With every yarn break, there is stoppage of beam automatically.

SECTIONAL WARPING The main object of the warping is to produce the warp sheet according to the warp pattern and formation of warp beam. Sectional warping is done when one needs to produce some design i.e. beam contain some different colors of yarn then sectional warping is used. In sectional warping, the warp threads are wound on the warping drum sectionally. After winding on drum it is then taken on weavers beam. The yarns which are coming from DOUBLE YARN ROOM are going for winding for preparing required amount of package. Then they are then creeled according to the warp pattern. OBJECTIVE     With the help of the creel, to accumulate required no. of ends on drum, section by section, according to the design. To facilitate to insert lease in the warp sheet with the help of the leasing reed so as to keep all the warp ends intact in their sequential position. To collect all the warped ends from drum and to facilitate to wind them in a beam. To apply requisite amount of wax coating on the warp ends during beaming to reduce hairiness of the yarn and thus producing a weaver’s beam. 37

DRAWING-IN & DENTING-IN Drawing-in is the process of drawing the warp yarns through the heald shafts according to the weave plan. Denting-in is the process of drawing the warp yarns through reed wires, as per the reed count. Both processes are done in the loom gaiting operation (preparation for production) Drawing In In weaving, it is necessary to space the warp threads properly in order to get the required compactness of the cloth. This is affected by passing the warp yarn through the dents of the reed of appropriate count so that the cloth woven from the warp may contain the required number of threads Manual Drawing In The process is carried out on an upright frame. The beam is brought on a trolley and placed at the bottom of the frame. The operative opens knots on the warp section and then the yarn is passed through 2 lease rods and then through drop wires, heald frames and reed. The heald shafts and reed are held on separate brackets.

The operation of drawing in is carried out in the following manner. One operative is called the ‘reacher’ and the other is called the ‘drawer’ who sits in front of the frame. At the start, the reacher takes a bunch of warp threads in his hand, straightens them up and selects the yarn one by one from one extreme end of the loom beam in the proper sequence. By this time, the drawer inserts the hook through the corresponding heald eyes. At the extreme end of one heald as soon as the hook reaches the other side, i.e. on the side of the reacher the latter will insert the appropriate end in the eye of the hook which will be immediately drawn on the other side by the drawer.

For manual drawing-in, the speed is around 5000 ends per shift. Special incentives are given to those who cross a particular limit when it comes to extra number of threads drawn in.


RAPIER WEAVING In Rapier looms, the weft insertion element resembles a rapier or a thin bladed straight sword; hence the name Rapier Weaving. There are many varieties of Rapier systems such as single, double, flexible, rigid, telescopic and two phased. A Rapier in its simplest form consists of a single rigid bar, solid or telescopic and a damp device called gripper head screwed at its feed end. Here the control over the weft is positive during the whole pick insertion cycle. The rapier may be also be of the rigid rod type or flexible, made of metal or plastic tapes. Flexible tapes invariably need guide meters inside the shed that emerge during the pick insertion and sink back into the sley before beat-up. The Rigid rapiers that include telescopic type remain suspended from the fulcrum and may get help from right upper warp sheet.

FEATURES OF RAPIER WEAVING MACHINE   Electronically controlled weft tensioned reduces the yarn tension especially during insertion. Automatic package switching device prevents the machine from being stopped in the even weft break between the package and weft feed. The weavers can repair the fault while the machine is running and reactivate the unit that has been stopped.    Electronically controlled warp let-off and cloth take up units ensure a high degree of fabric regularity and prevents all kinds of start and stop marks. Grippers are redesigned to ensure better clamping of the yarn and prevent rubbing against the warp yarns. Electronic monitoring control systems have simplified the communication with the machine and facilitated its easy handling by anyone concerned with the operation of the machine.


Advantages of Rapier looms:
       Need of smaller shed than one required by a shuttle to pick weft across cloth Reduced strain upon warp threads Run at 4-5 times the speed of conventional looms Reduces physical & mental strain on the weaver as they are easier to work & manipulate No risk of shuttle flying out or trapping of shuttle in a smaller shed Power consumption is about 1/3rd than that in conventional loom of same width Weaves upto 2-4 times as much as fabric per unit time

Disadvantages of Rapier looms :
• High breakages of warp & weft due to very high speed • Limited type of fabrics can be woven


LOOM SHED Divided into 4 units having total 120 looms. Shed – A   22 machines (looms),dorneir cimmco Machine specs :         Type dornier Manufacturer : cimmco ltd Non-electronic / non automatic

Reed space or max allowed width of fabric : 190cm Avg rpm range : 200-260 Max heald shafts : 20 Colour selector max : 8 Dobby : 2232 staubli(mechanical dobby )

Shed – B             42 machines (looms), dorneir htv Machine specs : Type HTVS s/8 Manufacturer : dorneir germany Fully automatic and electronic Reed space or max allowed width of fabric : 190cm Average prod rate of a loom : 12 m per hr Avg rpm range : 380-420 Max heald shafts : 20 Colour selector max : 8 Dobby : 2667 staubli(electronic and automatic dobby ) Automatic Pick finding mechanism


Shed – C           16 machines (looms),sulzar 8 machines (looms).cimmco dornier Machine specs (sulzar): Type sulzar Non-electronic / non automatic Reed space or max allowed width of fabric : 190cm Avg rpm range : 200-250 Max heald shafts : 20 Colour selector max : 8 Dobby : 2400 staubli(mechanical dobby )

Shed – D          32 machines (looms),picanol Machine specs : Type :picanol gtx Reed space or max allowed width of fabric : 220cm Electronic / automatic Avg rpm range : 320-400 Max heald shafts : 20 Colour selector max : 8 Dobby : 2660 staubli(electronic dobby )


Stop motions
       blue light – warp breakage yellow light – weft breakage yellow-red light – emergency switch yellow light continuous blink – end of weaving length red light – fault in machine red light continuous blink – fault in the machine projectile manual stop

General facts related to weaving section :     1 labour for handling 6 machines 1 mechanical supervisor for each shed Jacquard is used for monogram on each side (in the form of continuous running strip along the selvedge) Monogram strip can be weaved through the dobby too.but jacquard is used for small English alphabets and finer finishes .


DOBBY SHEDDING A Dobby Loom is a type of floor loom that controls the whole warp threads using a device called a dobby. Dobby is short for "draw boy" which refers to the weaver's helpers who used to control the warp thread by pulling on draw threads. COMPUTER CONTROLLED DOBBY MECHANISM  A computer controlled dobby loom (Computer-Dobby) takes this one step further by replacing the mechanical dobby chain with computer controlled shaft selection. In addition to being able to handle sequences that are virtually unlimited, the construction of the shaft sequences is done on the computer screen rather than by building a mechanical dobby chain.  This allows the weaver to load and switch weaves drafts in seconds without even getting up from the loom. In addition, the design process performed on the computer provides the weaver with a more intuitive way to design fabric; seeing the pattern on a computer screen is easier than trying to visualize it by looking at the dobby chain. Dobby looms expand weaver’s capabilities and remove some of the tedious work involved in designing and producing fabric. Many newer cloth design techniques such as network drafting can only reach their full potential on a dobby loom.



There are three motions of weaving: These are primary, secondary and auxiliary motion. 1. Primary motions : Every loom requires three primary motions to produce a woven fabric. These motions are Shedding, Picking and beating. a. Shedding : Shedding is the name given to the motion, which moves heald frame up and down in order to separate the warp sheet into two layers and form the shed in which weft yarn is passed. b. Picking : Picking is the second primary motion in which weft yarn is passed through the shed. This is known as picking. c. Beating-up : Beating up is where the reed, mounted in a reciprocating sley, pushes the weft into the fell of the cloth to form fabric. This requires considerable force, hence the term beating-up. The crankshaft of the loom is responsible for the beat-up action which must take place after each weft insertion and so it will make one revolution per pick inserted. 2. Secondary motions : There are two secondary motions in weaving namely let-off and take-up. a. Let-Off : The let-off motions ensure that the warp ends are controlled at the optimum tension for the fabric that that is being woven. b. Take-up : The cloth take-up motions withdraw cloth from the fell and then collect it at the front of the loom. 3. Auxiliary motions : Auxiliary motions are warp stop motion, warp protector, weft stop motions and weft replenishment. a. Warp stop motion : Warp stop motions halt the loom when a drop wire falls as a result of end breakage. b. Warp protector motion : Warp protector motions stop the loom before beat-up in the event of projectile falling to complete its traverse from one side of the loom to the other side. c. Weft stop motion : Weft stop motion halts the loom in the event of a break in the weft yarn. d. Weft replenishment : Weft replenishment ensures a continuous supply of weft yarn to the loom whenever a supply package becomes exhausted. 45

PRODUCTION CALCULATIONS  Loom efficiency = Actual production Calculated production X 100


Actual running time

X 100

Actual running time + Stopped time

Production per shift = RPM X 60 X 8 X efficiency (In meters) PPI X 39.37

Production per shift = RPM X 60 X 8 X efficiency (In yards) PPI X 36


Problems in Weaving Section:

Loom Defects: 1) Reed Marks : Caused in the fabrics due to damaged reed,bent reed wires, wrong denting 2) Loom stopping : Causes are broken warp, broken or exhausted weft Fabric Defects: Warp Defects :    Warp breakages / Broken ends : Occurs when Warp yarn tension exceeds the yarn strength Wrong Ends : When more than one end breaks at the same time, there is a chance that they may be drawn through the wrong healds. Selvedge defects : Corded selvedges,small or big loops, rough, curly or wavy selvedges, slack & tight selvedges, curling selvedges.

Weft Defects :        Weft breakages & Mispicks : Causes can be tender yarns, harsh picking, defective weft winding Thin & Thick Places : Thin places are caused by irregular let-off and/or take-up motions. Thick places are made of weft being unduly crowded due to take-up motion missing & failing to turn the cloth roller. Tight Picks : Caused due to cops/weft packages wound too tightly.May cause the cloth to curl. Cracks : Open streak or irregular stripe, parallel to the weft,extends part or fully across the fabric. Slugs : Caused when the weft yarn is of irregular diameter and/or contains slubs.It is an abruptly thickened place in the yarn Set Mark : Horizontal Mark across the cloth in which there are abnormal no. of picks per inch


Classification of major and minor defects:-

Types of defects Stains Missing ends Cracks Thick places

Minor 1-3 cm 1-2 picks Up to 2 picks for lighter variety

Major At more than one place More than 3 cm More than 2 picks More than 3 picks

Broken picks

Less than half the width of the fabric

More than half the width of the fabric 1-5 cm More than 2 slubs in weft of size less than 1 cm More than 1 place Occurring more frequently

Floats/Stitches Slubs

Less than 1 cm 2 slubs in weft of size less than 1 cm

Filament rupture Double pick/Lashing - in

Occurring less frequently


Conclusion: The first point to be noted is that the quality of the fabric at the loom is determined by the entire sequence of operations from weaving preparatory to weaving. The approach should therefore be to consider each process in relation to the manner in which it affects the subsequent process and not in isolation. In this context it should be remembered that though the preparatory department and the loom shed both contribute substantially to the fabric quality and loom productivity, the conversion cost at the loom shed is greater than that of preparatory, and so maximum emphasis should be given to the quality of preparation at the preparatory rather than its productivity. There should be a systematic and periodic checking of the loom mechanism and accessories in order to ensure that their contributions to fabric defects are minimum. Effective quality round should be made by the jobbers and the supervisors at least twice per shift. This will eliminate continuing type of fabric faults to a greater extent. If a defect is noticed it should be rectified immediately. Training of workers and making them quality or value loss consciousness is a preventive method of avoiding weaving defects.


INSPECTION Purpose of this department is to check for defects on the woven fabric roll. The inspection id done in accordance with the 4 point system. This was carried out on machines where the roll was monitored warp wise against an illuminated background screen such that the lamina of the fabric was visible & the operator could stop & mark a defect where he found a defect in the fabric.




AT OCM, there was a separate department dedicated to testing of the fabric. The department was basically divided into two labs:  

Research and development lab Inspection section

Research and development lab
This department is used for testing fibers, yarns and fabrics. This department actually consists of machines that carries out various tests at different stages, viz, fibre stage, yarn stage and the fabric stage.

1. FIBER TESTING Parameters of fiber testing are,    Length Strength Single Yarn Strength    Yarn count TPI Twist Multiplier

Machines used for fiber testing were as follows:  ph meter  microscope  spectrophotometer  fiber testing methods and euipments

2. YARN TESTING The important characteristics of yarn being tested are,
     

yarn twist linear density yarn strength yarn elongation yarn evenness yarn hairiness etc.


Machines used in yarn testing were as follows:
 microscope  yarn board matching or appearance tester  digital twist tester  ph meter  dyeing machine  oven  yarn count machine

3. FABRIC TESTING Machines used in fabric testing are as follows:
 tear strength tester-paramount  spray tester- to check water repellancy  martindale abrasion cum piling tester  crockmeter for rubbing test  automatic washing for shrinkage  pilling test equipment  random tumble pilling test  dyeing machine  laundrometer for color fastness  colorfastness to sunlight


TEARING STRENGTH TESTER To determine tearing strength of knitted and woven fabrics.

     

Capacity up to 6.400Kgs. With adjustable cutting knife. Having three variable capacity 1.600kg, 3.200kg & 6.400kg for different type of fabrics. Latest design with modern sophisticated look. Complete with accessories including three calibration weights. Supplied with inspection & calibration certificates.

SPRAY TESTER (WATER REPELLENCY TESTER) Used to measure the resistance of fabrics to wetting by water.

Latest economic design. Specimen holder is fixed at 45° to meet the American standard. Special funnel, which adheres to the standard. Complete with all accessories including 500ml beaker, template & marking pen for cutting specimen. Supplied with calibration & inspection certificates.


MARTINDALE ABRAISION CUM PILLING TESTER To determine pilling resistance & abrasion resistance of any type of fabrics. With three variable load 3Kpa, 9kpa, 12kpa to test in different standards. Ergonomically designed digital control panel with display for four individual stations. All control & components strictly adheres to C E Mark specifications for safety. Emergency stop switch to stop testing, in urgent, without hindering setting.


To determine the Colour fastness of Textile to Dry or Wet Rubbing as per ISO/European Standards.

Ergonomic latest design with modern appearance with precision-engineered components. Electronic, re-settable LCD Counter. Easy to use, Polycarbonate Specimen Clamps. Dual Metal Sample Holder for specimen Testing and Garment Testing. Complete with all accessories including pre-cut (50 x 50 mm) 400 crocking clothes, 16mm Finger and finger clips, blotting papers etc. 4


To access the colour matching of Yarns & dyed or printed fabrics or any material anyway coloured.

Latest Design & economical colour matching Cabinets for American buyers. The control panel is ergonomically designed for operator comforts. This consists of six standard light sources, D 65,CWF,Inc A,UVB,U 30,and TL 84. Interior paint, matching with Munsell N/7, which strictly adheres to the American standards. Easy Foldable type metal sheet body eases transportation & Installation. Supplied with calibration & Inspection Certificates.

DIGITAL TWIST TESTER Used to determine the twist per inch/cm.

Specially designed for single yarn, double yarn & open-end yarns. Smooth precision-engineered mechanism. 1 & 50gms weight supplied to give proper tension during testing. Digital control panel with LCD display. Complete with all accessories Supplied with calibration & inspection certificates.



Used to evaluate the Ph value of any solution. Portable in size.

Digital with microprocessor control. With digital display of Ph up to one decimal. Complete with all accessories-Ph-7 & 4 capsules, beakers, and electrode stand. Etc. Supplied with calibration & inspection certificates.


To access the yarn irregularities (like thick place, thin place, slubs etc.) Two different types of boards supplied for winding the yarn. Specially designed Separate unit for holding yarn bobbin. Yarn wrapped on the board 20,22,26,32,38 & 48 ends per inch. can be

Six traverse speed options for fine to coarser count of yarn. Supplied with all accessories. Supplied with certificates. calibration & inspection



Used for fibre analysis or fibre identification. With maximum resolution of 1000X. Any type of measurement like length, area, count of any fine textile fibre can be done. This is the best option for Textile fibre analysis. Enlarged view due to projection on 360? graduated screen. Supplied with complete accessories including stage micrometer for calibration. Supplied with calibration & inspection certificates. DYEMASTER

To do sample dyeing with infrared heating. 200ml twelve beakers supplied to dye 12 samples together & temperature up to 140 degree C with infrared lights.

Eco-friendly equipment, which does not give any residue & Latest microprocessor based control panel for temperature & time. Inside dye assembly pot moves at variable speed in both directions. Stainless steel body & beakers gives rust-less long life & Smooth, precisionengineered components for exceptional performance. Special cooling blower for instant cooling of the bath. Supplied with all accessories along with tong for removing beakers. Supplied with calibration & inspection certificates.



The washometer is used for determining color fastness of textile materials to washings. This is attained by mechanical agitating a specimen of textile in contact with pieces of specified adjacent fabrics in a soap-soda solution, before being rinsed and dried. The change in color of the specimen and staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with standard gray scales


Digital Pilling Tester consists of two wooden cubical Boxes with inside surfaces lined with special standard cork sheet and outside surfaces beautifully laminated. These boxes are rotated about their central axis at a specified speed with the help of a geared motor. A Pre-set Digital Counter stops the motor automatically after the desired number of revolutions



The oven controller has Special T/P action to avoid overshooting of temperature. It has Stainless Steel Inside Chamber, Outer is Mild Steel neatly powder coated. Complete with Hot air blower and Digital

Temperature Indicator cum Controller. A separate control panel housing all indicators is provided on the right side of the main body allowing easy maintenance and accessibility aesthetically designed for long life and comfortable usage. Controlling Indicator Maximum Temperature Range Power requirement Inside Dimensions 105-1070C Digital Temperature Controller cum

220V-240V single phase 1 KW 455mm x 455mm x 455mm


INSPECTION LAB It consists of two sections 1. Inspection section 2. Storage section

Inspection section  The inspection of grey fabric is done in this section.  This the second stage of inspection as fabrics are initially inspected visually just after the weaving process.  Fabrics sent for mending are also inspected again.  The machine used for inspection is perch machine.  For export quality, 4 point system is used.  No of porch machines- 10  Inspection table- 5 m length  This inspection table is used for mending of defects as well as cutting of the extra length.  The required length according to the order placed is also cut here.  Export fabric is generally bundled in 120 m.  Packing o Civil fabric- Pad folding o Export quality- rolls


FiG. magnifier to count PPI And EPI

Fig. weight measurement

Fig. inspected fabric Fig. Patrol to remove stain

Figure 2 color fastness test


Common defects found n inspection section.  Picking  Slubby yarn  Nappy  Contaimination  Float  Damage   Stamp mark  Tightened  Stain  Patches  Selvedge defect


Storage section  The storage section incorporates the facility for the storage of raw material (sliver), yarn for weft and warp as well as the manufactured fabric.  The 3 different type of storage have different type of storage techniques.  The slivers and yarns are stored in the shelves with their coding written on the shelves.

The manufactured fabric is generally transported or shipped to its destination customer or else it is temporarily stored in the small warehouse.




Introduction- Safety Measures
The textile industry consists of a number of units engaged in spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing, finishing and a number of other processes that are required to convert fibre into a finished fabric or garment. There are several safety and health issues associated with the textile industry. This article aims at studying each of these issues in relation to the US and Indian textile industries in detail, along with the possible solutions for these problems.

The major safety and health issues in the textile industry can be stated as under: 1) 2) 3) 4) Exposure to cotton dust Exposure to chemicals Exposure to noise Ergonomic issues

The following suggestions can be made to improve the safety and health conditions in textile units:          The seats of the workers and the tables should be well aligned in height so that there is no musculoskeletal strain. There should be proper lighting at the place of work so that eye strain can be avoided. Machinery should be well maintained in order to reduce the level of noise. If necessary, certain parts of machines can be replaced. In case the noise level cannot be controlled, workers should be provided with earplugs so that exposure to noise can be reduced. Workers can be rotated within jobs so that they are not faced with continuous noise exposure for a long period of time. There should be proper ventilation at the place of work. In order to reduce the exposure to dust, workers should be provided with masks. Trained medical personnel and first aid facilities as well as safety equipments such as fire extinguishers and fire alarms should be available at the place of work. In units where there is heavy exposure to dangerous chemicals, workers should be provided with safety gloves. 5

 

Proper dust control equipment should be set up and maintained to reduce the workers exposure to cotton dust. Medical examinations should be conducted by the employers for the workers from time to time. If significant occupational health problems are observed, appropriate measures should be taken by the management.

 

In OCM industries safety is the major concern in every part of the work .The industry also implemented the safety precautions in every department. Providing safety equipment for the workers in different sections for their health safety.

In the industry there is a fire preventing alarm and fire preventing water facility is also provided.

For every machine a board is attached which guides how to work on the machine, to protect themselves from the hazards.

Management also giving awareness to the workers through the fire preventing boards, and writing boards.

Every department is provided with a first aid box



Our objective of this internship was to understand and observe the basics of spun yarn production, gray fabric production, dyed and finished fabric production and their quality particulars, both technical as well as commercial. As students of Department of Fashion Technology, who specialize in the field of apparel manufacturing, it was truly a new and enriching experience to go and understand the various processes carried out in a textile industry. We slogged in for hours and hours every day and finally what we come back with is incomparable. The knowledge of textiles has broadened our understanding of various subjects taught to us in our college. During our stay at industry we had the splendid opportunity to schedule our lives according to the hectic routine of the industry. The professional outlook and approach of the people around us helped us inculcate these qualities in ourselves too. Interacting with the high level managers was an experience in itself. It gave us the better understanding of the managerial skills and how to maintain professional as well as personal relations with subordinates and superiors. They taught us how to be professional and yet be friendly while working with the employees and the operators. Working and obtaining information from operators was a tough task, with communication barriers and ego issues it was a pretty difficult task. By the guidance of our HOD’s we were able to create a congenial environment for working with them. At the end we would like to say that this project has greatly improved our managerial skills. It has exponentially improved our abilities to communicate with people, our documenting and presentation skills and it has also enhanced our imaginative and observational power. We learnt how to explore new dimensions and formulate them according to our needs.








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