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20; 2012 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Examining the Relationships among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study
Department of Management, Erzincan University, Erzincan, Turkey
Correspondence: İlhami Yücel, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of Management, Erzincan University, Erzincan, Turkey. Tel: 90-4-462-252-092. E-mail: email@example.com Received: July 22, 2012 doi:10.5539/ijbm.v7n20p44 Abstract This study’s aim is to examine the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention of employees. A model of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention is developed and tested in one field study. In this study, using a 250 employees of a Turkish manufacturing company, were given questionnaires to complete during regular working hours; 188 completed questionnaires were returned.. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention are popular topics in the study of work related attitudes. The main objective of this article is to test the relationships among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. Structural equation modeling to test research hypotheses is used and the model that has high reliability and validity is developed. The results indicate that job satisfaction is one of the most antecedents of organizational commitment and turnover intention and suggest that high levels of job satisfaction results in higher commitment and lower turnover intention so job satisfaction positively influences on affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment while it is negatively impact on turnover intention. The results emphasize the need to consider the factors can be having effects on the relationship by highlighting to studies conducted on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. Keywords: job satisfaction, affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment, turnover intention 1. Introduction Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention are ones of the most examined popular subjects in the study of work related attitudes since the importance of organizational factors in affecting attitudes or behaviors of employees has attracted considerable attention on the organizational behavior area (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Meyer and Allen, 1984, 1990; O’Reilly and Chatman, 1986). In different studies, many researches and scholars examined the relationships among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention to see if there is any difference or not from the other studies, and to compare the differences if so. The majority of the studies suggested that job satisfaction has a significant and positive relationship with all dimensions of organizational commitment (Bagozzi, 1980; Reichers, 1985). Though the why and how question is still in question, organizational commitment and job satisfaction are jointed variables affecting negative outcomes such as turnover intention is clear (Shore and Martin, 1989). Negative organizational outcomes such like turnover, absenteeism and turnover intention have attracted considerable interest from both managers and researchers across a wide array of disciplines. Based upon the literature, a structural model was tested in this study and the effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on turnover intention was tested. This study aims to investigate the impact of job satisfaction on all three dimensions of organizational commitment, and turnover intention and also the relationships between all the three commitments dimensions and turnover intention. 2. Conceptual Framework and Model Increasingly, business and industrial concern are studying the job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. There is still much to learn about it, especially in terms of how it varies among different populations though job satisfaction has been thoroughly studied. To determine factors influencing job satisfaction
Accepted: August 30, 2012
Online Published: October 16, 2012
In a meta-analysis of the antecedents and correlates to employee turnover (Griffeth. 1990).. 2000). increasing organizational commitment and decreasing turnover intention of employees are important issue for managers and organizations. 1979). Besides job satisfaction. 600).. The study of job satisfaction attempts to explain this behavior and this is important from a humanitarian and utilitarian perspective (Spector. & Porter. Research indicates employees with a strong sense of 45 . and their willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization (Mowday. 2008). & Gellatly. 1979. migration or succession. p 1). 20. and the level of employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction may reflect the extent to which they experience good or bad treatment in an organization. given the right conditions unique to the employee. job satisfaction. For example. Meyer et al. contradiction. 2001: p. Job satisfaction may be tested as part of the construct of employee involvement. 1997).org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. As a psychological state commitment is then characterized as an employees’ relationship with the organizational and the decision the employee makes to continue membership in the organization (Meyer & Allen. 2005). It may also be indicative of the emotional and psychological wellbeing of the employees (Spector. When thought of this way. The concept “individual” refers to the employees within an organization and the notion of movement can be interpreted either as an accession or a separation of the company. Bishop. authors also used other labels for turnover. 1991). 1979). continuance commitment. 1974). commitment is beyond passive loyalty. Job satisfaction "is by far one of the most studied work attitudes by organizational behavior researchers" (Ghazzawi. 2005). Porter and Steers (1979) defined organizational commitment as a strong belief in the organization’s goals and values and a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization. and normative commitment. 2001: p. Allen. 1990). Hom. 1990. 1990). Smith and Stone. Committed employees are willing to go beyond the minimum requirements of their duties and are more likely to remain with the organization than uncommitted employees (Meyer & Allen. 1997). hence it is a psychological state that binds an individual to an organization (Meyer. Organizational commitment is regularly conceptualized as an affective attachment to an organization as a consequence of an individual sharing the organization’s values. and interchange of terms for engagement raise the question as to whether employee's engagement is a valid and reliable construct at all" (Ferguson. The most commonly accepted thoughts on commitment are that it is an indicator of employees who are strongly committed to an organization and are least likely to leave. some employees may stay or leave the organization (turnover). and involvement in the organization (Meyer & Allen. In 1987. Steers & Porter. 1997). "The confusion.www. exits. intention to quit. Romzek. such as quits. as it is a combination of organizational commitment. Because employees in organizations will either like or dislike their jobs. 10): Turnover intention is defined as the mediating factor between attitudes affecting intent to quit and actually quitting an organization (Glissmeyer. Continuance commitment is so named because the employee feels the need to stay due to the potential loss of things such as benefits if they choose to leave and their lack of alternative employment and they are aware of the costs associated with leaving the organization (Allen & Meyer. and organizational support were shown to be predictors of employee turnover. identification with. The utilitarian perspective presupposes that the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees can lead to behaviors that affect the functioning of the organization (Spector. & Fass. Meyer and Allen developed a commitment model with three measures of commitment that conform to previous researcher’s conceptualization of commitment. Normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to remain with the organization. increased productivity within the organization is a reflection of one of many positive outcomes of satisfied employees while absenteeism and sabotage are well established negative outcomes for disatisfied employees. Affective commitment refers to an employee's emotional attachment to. 1997). Previous examinations of commitment reveal that it deals with the individual’s identification and involvement with an organization (Porter et al. absenteeism and performance (Mowday. Mowday. & Gaertner. A crude measurement of turnover would be (Morrell et. 2012 allows leaders with necessary and meaningful information to make right decisions to increase employee job satisfaction (Cranny. Employees have been taught through socialization that the organization expects their loyalty (Meyer & Allen. Turnover is defined as the “individual movement across the membership boundary of an organization” (Price. Steers. it involves an active relationship wherein individuals are willing to give of themselves to contribute to the organization’s well being (Mowday et al. Meyer et al. No. 1990).. The components were labeled affective commitment.ccsenet. al. it is intuitive to suggest that. 1300). The humanitarian perspective suggests that people deserve to be treated fairly and appropriately. 1993. 2008. Commitment to organization is linked to very important work-related factors: employee turnover. their desire to remain in the organization. 1997). 7.. attrition. 1991. intentions to stay (Ferguson. Job satisfaction is "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" (Locke. p. In turnover literature. mobility. 1992).
Fry.316)’ study. 1993). 1983. Parry. van der Heijden. organizational commitment and turnover intention. 1992). that increasing job satisfaction subsequently decreases rates of turnover intentions. organizational commitment. 2008). Satisfied workers perform their jobs better (Judge. & Gaertner. hospital employees. work attendance and organizational citizenship.. organizational commitment. p. Levels of commitment by nurses are associated with leaving the nursing profession altogether. voluntary turnover. They may not display the same enthusiasm or involvement as employees with affective commitment. Hellman’s findings support those of Price and Mueller. Lautenschlage. & Varca 1989). Hellman (1997) showed that the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to leave was significant and consistently negative. 2006. Hellriegel & Slocum. Job satisfaction has important consequences for both organizations and their employees. Bono.S. Thorensen. however they may have an important impact on the way in which the work is accomplished (Meyer & Allen. Horn. 1992) and turnover intentions (Rusbult & Farrell. Work-related social support also has been demonstrated to influence nurses’ turnover intentions. 2001). job satisfaction is defined as “the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the 46 . For a long time. Coomer & Barriball. 2010). 2007). and turnover intention. 1997. Organizational Commitment Affective Commitment Continuance Commitment Job Satisfaction Normative Commitment Turnover Intention Figure 1. lack of autonomy. Similarly. Affective professional commitment and organizational commitment have also been found to be significantly related to intention to change professions for newly graduated nurses (Parry.www.S. Sousa-Poza & Sousa-Poza. 2003. and labor turnover (Griffeth.69).. Hellman. No. Currall et al. 2007). Sloan.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. Job satisfaction also was shown to be associated with employee health and psychological well-being. 2008). the results of another study by Davis (2006) also showed general job satisfaction to be strongly and negatively related to turnover intentions (r = -. many scholars have made considerable research dedicated to developing useful models of job satisfaction. hospital employees than for Taiwanese hospital employees. as opposed to changing employers. Newstrom. 2012 normative commitment positively correlate to work behaviors such as job performance. and intent to quit among the most commonly proposed antecedents (Tett and Meyer. In a meta-analysis. 7. The basic objective of this article is to posit the relationships among job satisfaction. (2005) found pay satisfaction to be positively related to performance and negatively related to employee turnover intentions. Research results have shown job dissatisfaction to be associated with negative behavioral outcomes such as absenteeism. 1997). 2000. Ding and Lin (2006) investigated the differences in job satisfaction and turnover intention between Taiwanese and U.ccsenet. & Patton. In Locke (1969. Job satisfaction has been shown to be the main predictor of turnover intention (Larrabee. work schedule difficulties. workplace accidents. (1981) and Cavanagh and Coffin (1992). Studies show that job satisfaction is related to satisfaction with life in general (Lance. 2004. They found that the negative direct effect of job satisfaction on turnover intentions and the indirect effect through organizational commitment are stronger for U. Figure 1 depicts the conceptual framework of relationships among job satisfaction. 20. organizational commitment and turnover intention The relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment can be seen from Figure 1. Job satisfaction has been shown to be closely related to intentions to leave an organization (Chen & Spector. are less likely to engage in counterproductive behaviors (Chen & Spector. & Hasselhorn. et al. and dissatisfaction with pay (Estryn-Behar. Turnover intention among nurses has been shown to be influenced by work-related factors such as time pressure and quality of care. Relationship among job satisfaction.
the strongest negative relationship is with continuance commitment. 1982). (b) Continuance commitment refers to an employee’s awareness costs of leaving the organization. it involves an active relationship wherein individuals are willing to give of themselves to contribute to the organization’s well-being (Mowday et al. Job dissatisfaction is the unpleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as frustrating or blocking the attainment of one’s job values or as entailing disvalues. continuance commitment. Mowday. a person with a low level of holds negative feelings (Robbins and Judge. These authors defined affective commitment. Job satisfaction means having a positive feeling about a job.. are emotional attachment. As a psychological state commitment is then characterized as an employees’ relationship with the organizational and the decision the employee makes to continue membership in the organization (Meyer & Allen. 2013).www. 1991). Meyer et. O’Reilly and Chatman (1986) examined the underlying dimensions of commitment to the organization as a antecedents of extra-role performance and developed organizational commitment scale. Previous examinations of commitment reveal that it deals with the individual’s identification and involvement with an organization. Such an attachment may be considered as emotional response demonstrating a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization (Testa. However. It has been shown that organizational commitment is a strong predictor of a variety of organizational outcomes. No. Coleman. As stated by Robbins and Judge (2013).ccsenet. continuance. According to Meyer and Allen (1991). they usually mean job satisfaction. continuance. 1991). commitment is beyond passive loyalty. when people speak about employee attitude. hence it is a psychological state that binds an individual to an organization. and Cooper (1997) examined the relationship between affective. However. 47 . continuance commitment. their desire to remain in the organization. and their willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization (Mowday et al. and normative commitment as follows. The scale focused on three bases of psychological attachment to organizations. and normative commitment and job satisfaction.g. tuition payments or skills training) received from the organization or socialization experiences that emphasize the appropriateness of remaining loyal to one's employer. When thought of this way. Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are a function of the perceived relationship between what one wants from one’s job and what one perceives it as offering or entailing”. Employees whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance commitment remain because they feel that have to so.. Their results showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between job satisfaction and both affective and normative commitment.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. and are involved in the organization. Job satisfaction is a highly important issue for organizational behavior researcher because a person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feeling about his or her job. 20. 1991). 1990. In addition. Organizational commitment is regularly conceptualized as an affective attachment to an organization as a consequence of an individual sharing the organization’s values. The most commonly accepted thoughts on commitment are that it is an indicator of employees who are strongly committed to an organization and are least likely to leave. Porter and Steers (1982) defined organizational commitment as a strong belief in the organization’s goals and values and a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization. 2012 achievement of one’s job values. the relationship between job satisfaction and continuance was negatively. and normative commitment. It develops as the result of a moral obligation to repay the organization for benefits (e. The study’ sample had 232 employees as total participants included for the study. (a) Affective commitment refers to the extent to which employees identify with. Meyer and Allen (1991) conceptualized organizational commitment in the three different approaches as affective. Meyer and Allen (1991) stated that the three approaches have common point that commitment is a psychological state that (a) qualifies relationships between employee and their organization. and (b) has implications for the decision to stay or leave in the organization.. Committed employees are willing to go beyond the minimum requirements of their duties and are more likely to remain with the organization than uncommitted employees (Meyer & Allen. and normative commitment. 2002). Irving. these three dimensions of organizational commitment are distinguishable components of commitment.. Employees with a high level of normative commitment feel that they ought to remain with the organization (Meyer and Allen. 1982). 2001). including in-role and extra role performance and intended and actual turnover (Mathieu and Zajac. 7. Employees having strong affective commitment stay with the organization because they want to. which is resulting from its characteristics. Figure 1 shows the first part of model is related with the impact of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. al. (c) Normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to remain in an organization. turnover intentions have negative relationship with affective commitment.
career stage. As it is known. and job satisfaction (Ghiselli. to gain the data face to face questionnaire was applied. it is expected that turnover intention of employee is influenced directly by job satisfaction. Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction is related to normative commitment of employee. the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention was investigated. Silverman. 1999). in this study. a panel of two management scholars is asked to review the survey and provide feedback. As a result.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. In cases where the back-translation was not equivalent to the original version. Dalessio. the questionnaire was modified. and Bai (2001). sex. need for achievement. (b) job satisfaction and job tension. Turnover intention has been studied by many researchers. 2001). and Bai. As stated by Hom and Griffeth (1995). (c) autonomy and responsibility and role clarity. and job tenure (Bateman and Strasser.www. 1991). Sekaran and Boguie (2010: 210) stated that “whether it is a structured interview where the questions are posed to the respondent in a predetermined order. 2012 including (a) agreement associated with a certain benefit (b) identification associated with a need to be a member of the organization. Hypothesis 6: Continuance commitment is related to turnover intention of employee. Based on their feedback. and (d) age . tenure. 3. Hypothesis 5: Affective commitment is related to turnover intention of employee. which confirmed the reliability of our measures. job content. From employer standpoint. Figure 1 shows a relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention and the relationship was also studied in this study. and extra-role behaviors and performance . These strongest variables are age. the following research hypotheses are formulated: Hypothesis 1: Job satisfaction is related to affective commitment of employee. which reinforce its unique aspects. The original questionnaire was in English and was translated from English into Turkish by a bilingual speaker. and Schuck (1986: 261) stressed the importance of turnover intention as follows: “In future research. Mobley and colleagues suggested that turnover intention moderated the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover. available job alternatives. the relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism is weaker than between job satisfaction and turnover intention. turnover intention has been incorporated in most turnover models developed in the past years (Lambert. the process of translation was repeated (Brislin. The Turkish questionnaire was then given to another bilingual speaker to back-translate into English. there is little the employer can do expect assume the expense of hiring and training another employee”. 2001). Hogan and Barton. the following research hypotheses were formulated. Based on these.1 Sample and Data Collection This section addresses this study’s methodology and data collection. it is important to pretest the 48 . 1984). 1984. and then pretested on 20 participants in an executive MBA class. Based on the literature. and (c) internalization perceived as employee’s values identification with the organization’s values (Williams and Anderson. Hypothesis 4: Job satisfaction is negatively related to turnover intention of employee. Studies on organizational commitment have found different relationships with (a) job search behaviors. Thus. pre-testing of questionnaire is required before gathering data. Hypothesis 2: Job satisfaction is related to continuance commitment of employee. Lopa. However. once an employee has quit. Researchers examining the relationships between turnover intention and the other some factors affecting it have related a number of variables to turnover intention. 7. Accordingly. Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1975: 369) stressed that “the best predictor of an individual’s behavior will be measure of his intention to perform that behavior”. To develop the survey. If the precursors to intention to quit are better understood. education. it is seen that organizational commitment is a predictor attracting researchers interested in behaviors of individuals in organizations (Chang. Mathieu and Zajac. Lopa. intention to quit may be a more important variable than the actual act of turnover. Hypothesis 7: Normative commitment is related to turnover intention of employee. education. In this study. more attention should be given to the direct and indirect influences of variables on intention to quit as opposed to the actual act of turnover.ccsenet. 20. the employer could possibly institute changes to affect this intention. and most researchers now accept the antecedent that intention to stay or leave in an organization for employees is the final cognitive step in the process of voluntary turnover (Steel and Ovalle. and all dimensions of organizational commitment could be expected to negatively associate with it. 1980). gender. According to Ghiselli. 1990). However. Methods 3. No. the most important construct in attempting to understand turnover is job satisfaction. In this study. turnover intention. or a questionnaire that is used in a survey. turnover intention was chosen because it is relevant for organizations and job satisfaction.
2 Measures 3. Results Findings of the research. 2012 instrument to ensure that the questions are understood by the respondents and that are no problems with the wording or measurement. the number of the employees who responded to the questionnaire is 188. The total three items were presented to the respondents as a series of statements to which they were asked to indicate the extent to which they agree/disagree along a five-point Likert response scale (1 = strongly disagree. Fern.2. These five items were “I fell fairly well satisfied with my present job.2 Reliability-Validity Analysis of the Scales In this study. To assess the reliability of a summated scale where several items are summed to form a total score. and normative commitment). While Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the scales in use in the research. and 7.” “Each day of work seems like it will never end” (reverse scored). Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient of the job satisfaction scale is . 1990.859. confirmatory factor analysis was used in the validity analysis thereof. that the average age thereof was 35.The response rate was %75. socio-demographic features of the participants. 5 = strongly agree).3 Turnover Intention The questionnaire included three items measuring respondents’ intention to quit their job.1 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction was measured with five items taken from Brayfield-Rothe (1951) model of overall job satisfaction. for continuance commitment scale is . and Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient of the affective commitment scale is .893.2. Pretesting involves the use of a small number of respondents to test the appropriateness of the questions and their comprehension”. and ratings were obtained on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). 4.ccsenet.450. Having examined the working periods thereof. The participants.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. “I find real enjoyment in my work. reliability-validity analysis of the scales used was put forth via correlation analysis. Sample items from each scale are: I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization” (affective commitment) and “If I leave the current organization.6 or less indicates unsatisfactory internal reliability (Malhotra.” and “I consider my job rather unpleasant’ (reverse scored).2 Organizational Commitment A 12-item measure of organizational commitment (Allen.2% thereof from master/doctorate degrees.” “Most days I am enthusiastic about my work.2 % thereof graduated from high-schools. The items were adopted from Lance (1988) and Khatri. 1993) was used.779. 36. This scale is designed to measure two dimensions of organizational commitment (affective commitment and continuance commitment). Taking the educational levels of the participants into consideration. average working period within the same company was found to be 8 year. internal consistency reliability of the scales was assessed. first of all. were given questionnaires to complete during regular working hours. % 32 of the total number of 188 employees was comprised of women. Results of the validity analysis of the scales and all Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient are given below in Tables 1. 4. t-test.711.2. and Budhwar (2001). 3. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is the most widely recommended measure of the reliability of a measurement scale with multipoint items. No.www. 250 employees of a Turkish manufacturing company. An indication of the stability and consistency with which the instrument measures the concept and helps to assess the “goodness” of measure is reliability of measure. 20. and a value of 0. In this study. This coefficient varies from 0 to 1. however. rather than with specific facets. and turnover intention scales were assessed. organizational commitment (affective commitment. & Meyer. 4. and average monthly wage thereof was TL 1. and Structural Equation Modeling that is used to test research hypotheses.2% thereof from faculties. 7.2. Participants responded to all items on a 5-point likert scale (1= “strongly disagree” to 5=“strongly agree”). A global measure was selected since it is concerned with the broader domain of an individuals’ satisfaction with his or her overall job. A popular approach to determine internal consistency reliability is the Coefficient alpha or Cronbach’s alpha. it was found out that 21. 3.1 Socio-Demographic Features of the Employees Taking the distributions regarding the socio-demographical features of the participating employees into consideration.9% thereof from colleges. continuance commitment. The higher the 49 . 3. I might not find such good employment opportunities” (continuance commitment). and for normative commitment scale is . the reliability and validity of the job satisfaction. 28. and 68 % thereof was comprised of men. 2010). internal consistency reliability is used.
893 0.687 0. and Smith.852 0. I intent to make a genuine effort to find another job over the next few months. Construct validity testifies to how well the results obtained from the use of the measure fit the theories around which the test is designed ((Sekaran and Bougie. affective commitment. I do not feel it would be right to leave my organization now. 1993) I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization.741 0. 20.792 0.859 0. Factor Load Cronbach’s Alpha 0. the better the measuring instrument (Sekaran and Bougie.857 0. One of the few negative consequences of leaving this organization would be the scarcity of available alternatives.735 0. I feel fairly satisfied with my present job Most days I am enthusiastic about my work I find real enjoyment in my work Affective Commitment (Allen and Meyer. The results of reliability and validity analyses Job satisfaction (Brayfield and Rothe. 2012 coefficients.846 As it can be seen from Table 1. After determining reliability. 1951) I consider my job rather unpleasant. Meyer. continuance commitment. Turnover Intention (Lance. Meyer.801 0. staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire. Too much of my life would be disrupted if I decided I wanted to leave my organization nom. Each day of work seems like it will never end. I would feel guilty if I left my organization now.779 0. even if I wanted to. 1990.ccsenet. normative commitment. Meyer. 1990. Continuance Commitment (Allen and Meyer. each scale has satisfactory reliability with Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.783 0.858 0. Normative Commitment (Allen and Meyer. and normative). Allen. The results of job satisfaction. 2010). Allen. I feel "emotionally attached" to this organization.879 0. 2001) I intend to leave the organization.794 0. Table 1 provides the results of validity analysis results. Allen. I really feel as if this organization's problems are my own. and Smith.711 0.846 0. 50 .887 0. Table 1. It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now. 1993) Right now.920 0. Khatri. 7.658 0. and turnover intention scales reliability analysis were presented Table 1. Additionally the factor loads indicated the validity of scales is both above the acceptable lower limits. Fern.636 0. 1990. and Budhwar.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol.873 0.60. I feel like "part of the family" at my organization. I often think about quitting.823 0. and Smith. 2010). exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine construct validity of job satisfaction. I would not leave my organization right now because I have a sense of obligation to the people in it. 1993) Even it were to my advantage. No.www. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is designed for the situation where links between the observed and latent variables are unknown or uncertain (Bryne.721 0. 2010). I owe a great deal to my organization. and turnover intention scales. organizational commitment (affective.747 0. continuance. 1988.
In this path diagram. to test the multi-dimensionality of job satisfaction. SEM has some important advantage. No. It is a statistical analyze technique presenting confirmatory (i. while accounting measurement error in the estimation (Terblanche and Boshoff. and this model has two major characteristics including (a) the estimation of multiple interrelated dependence relationship and (b) the ability to represent unobserved concepts in these relations. hypothesis-testing) approach to the analysis of a structural theory bearing on some phenomenon. and typically. and direct paths. and indirect. organizational commitment. and normative commitment). this theory offers “causal” processes (Byrne. 20. organizational commitment. 2010). 2008). statistically controlling for all the others (Iacobucci and Churchill.www. As it is known. indicator variables were illustrated in rectangles while latent variables were shown in ovals. A structural equations model (SEM) is like a multiple regression in that several variables are used to predict another variable. Figure 2. 2010). a confirmatory factor analysis by using structural equation modeling was conducted. 7.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol.. The first advantage is that researcher can test at once all the interrelationships. organizational commitment (affective.e.ccsenet. and turnover intention. Model of the relationships among job satisfaction. continual. 2012 After that. The relationships among job satisfaction. SEM allows researchers to compare empirical data with a theoretical model. and turnover intention can be seen from Figure 2. and turnover intention 51 .
Therefore. The variables that were used in the model were presented Table 2. to test research hypotheses Structural Equation Modeling was used. Eighteen of them were the observed variables while 27 of them were the unobserved variables. Dividing Chi-Square into degrees of freedom value is χ2 index which has to be between 2 and 3 for good fit of model. Thus. The summary of variables in the model Number of Variables In Your Model: Number of Observed Variables Number of Unobserved Variables Number of Exogenous Variables Number of Endogenous Variables 45 18 27 23 22 The number of total variables in the model was 45. the details of overall model fit criteria between the model and the data (goodness of fit criteria) were presented.www. This value has a statistical significance (p=0. Comparative Fit Index (CFI). GFI.0 indicates the best fit 52 .000 1. Discrepancy / df (2/df) was found 2.ccsenet.138.01 Index 2 2 Measurement Model 273. In this research. and Incremental Fit Index (IFI) are all considered as fit indexes.138 0. Table 2. however. Relative Fit Index (RFI). Chi-Square/df represents the fitness between the model and data.821 0. 7.000). Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) is another index to assess the fitness between the data and model. Given the known sensitivity of this statistic to sample size. it is necessary to look at other goodness of-fit indices in order to evaluate the fitness between the model and the data.000 1.” The range of values for this pair of approximate fit indexes is generally 0–1. 2012 As mentioned before.078 107 115 Ideal Model 0. Normed Fit Index (NFI). Table 3.000 1.05 Index Hoelter .802 0.000 0 CMIN DF P CMINDF 1. These fit indexes take a value between the range of “0” and “1. use of the χ2 index provides little guidance in determining the extent to which the model does not fit.696 128 0. 20.866 0. Fit measures Fit Measures Discrepancy ( ) Degrees of freedom P Discrepancy / df ( /df) Goodness of Fit Index Adjusted GFI Normed Fit Index Relative Fit Index Incremental Fit Index Tucker-Lewis Index Comparative Fit Index RMSEA Hoelter .org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol.000 GFI AGFI NFI RFI IFI TLI CFI RMSEA HFIVE HONE In Table 3. No. In evaluating the goodness-of-fit between the model and the data the first measure is the likelihood ratio chi-square statistics.835 0. The model included 23 exogenous variables and 22 endogenous variables in sum. Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI). it is more reasonable and appropriate to base decisions on other indices of fit (Byrne. 2010).903 0. The details of overall model fit criteria between the model and the data (goodness of fit criteria) were depicted Table 3.905 0.000 2.884 0.0 where 1.
192 0.000 .723 .097 1.Affective Commitment <--.Normative Commitment <--. 20. NFI (0. Hoelter’s critical sample size that focuses directly on the adequacy of the sample size.108 1.000 1.000 0.Continuance Commitment <--. and turnover intention can be seen form Table 4.159 .156 7.Turnover Intention .283 . No. In addition to GFI.08 are deemed acceptable. Thus.770 .178 6.000 1. which is close to one.01 represents the required minimum sample size to test the hypothesis at 99% confidence interval level and 0.05 to 0.445 6.011 .060 .Turnover Intention <--.000 0.Turnover Intention <--. Hoelter .000 0.000 0.000 1.391 -.762 0. Values ranging from 0.943 .01 (115) indexes.Job Satisfaction <--.086 .930) represented that there was fitness between the data and the model.171 6.Normative Commitment <--.119 -2.000 0.000 .000 . 1998) RMSEA is 0. Error Continuance Commitment <--. 7. 2011). rather than on model fit (Byrne.078 and it represented a good fit value.154 . TLI (0.873 11.Job Satisfaction <--. and gives the significant minimum sample size depending on the sample size and variable number at the analysis.093 9.082 13.000 0. Unstandardized regression coefficients Estimate Std.928 1.value 3.905).517 13.821). Unstandardized regression coefficients of job satisfaction.208 1.540 -.724 7.534 53 .124 .083 .835).000 0. it can be concluded that there is a perfect fit between the data and the model.05 (107) and Hoelter .000 0.Affective Commitment <--.866.Affective Commitment <--. (Hair et al.Continuance Commitment <--.009 1.146 .Affective Commitment <--.747 1.142 .Job Satisfaction Affective Commitment Normative Commitment Turnover Intention Turnover Intention Turnover Intention Turnover Intention JS1 JS2 JS3 AC4 AC3 AC2 AC1 CC4 CC3 CC2 CC1 NN1 NN2 NN3 NN4 TI3 TI2 TI1 <--.623 -.009 12.213 .503 0. In this study.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol.077 -.05 significance level and Hoelter .000 0.www..000 0.084 . continuance commitment.Job Satisfaction <--.101 1.Job Satisfaction <--.000 .000 0.493 -.802).000 0.173 t.Job Satisfaction <--.052 1.982 . 2010). 2012 (Kline. IFI (0.000 1.202 7.338 0.514 .Normative Commitment <--. RFI (0.ccsenet. the value of GFI is 0.116 .Job Satisfaction <--.652 .Continuance Commitment <--.Continuance Commitment <--.082 11.Affective Commitment <--. normative commitment.473 8. Table 4. sample size (188) is larger than required minimum sample sizes which is obtained as a result of Hoelter . 0.Normative Commitment <--.324 4.314 1. AGFI (0.030 1.000 .104 .081 .000 .Continuance Commitment <--.208 . Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) is also used to evalute the fitness between the model and data. As it can be seen form Table 3. affective commitment.307 .081 .622 P.533 .078 .Normative Commitment <--.01 significance level.884) and CFI (0.05 represents the required minimum sample size to test the hypothesis at 95% confidence interval level and 0.380 8.
569 . continuance commitment.083 . the standardized regression coefficients had values ranging . 1998). However. continuance commitment. On the other hand.532 and . continual commitment. continuance commitment. Organization should try to increase job satisfaction of employees. there is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention.595 -.815 . From Table 4. job satisfaction has a negative influence on the affective commitment. No.364 -. 7. Table 5. As it can be seen from Table 5.799 . Standardized regression coefficients Estimate Continuance Commitment Affective Commitment Normative Commitment Turnover Intention Turnover Intention Turnover Intention Turnover Intention JS1 JS2 JS3 AC4 AC3 AC2 AC1 CC4 CC3 CC2 CC1 NN1 NN2 NN3 NN4 TI3 TI2 TI1 <--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--<--Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Affective Commitment Continuance Commitment Normative Commitment Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Affective Commitment Affective Commitment Affective Commitment Affective Commitment Continuance Commitment Continuance Commitment Continuance Commitment Continuance Commitment Normative Commitment Normative Commitment Normative Commitment Normative Commitment Turnover Intention Turnover Intention Turnover Intention .077 -.634 54 . It means that the variables used to explain job satisfaction. normative commitment.532 . affective commitment. and turnover intention had impact on these dimensions in differing degrees.952.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol.698 .765 .. there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.840 .594 .ccsenet. and normative commitment. The standardized regression coefficients were presented in Table 5. job satisfaction has an influence on the affective commitment.807 .063 .952 . and normative commitment. The standardized regression coefficients allow the researcher to compare directly the relative effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable (Hair et al.841 . As it can be understood from Table 4. 1996).www.681 .677 . In other words.843 . job satisfaction has a positive effect on affective commitment.799 .866 .320 . 20.719 .01.648 . and normative commitment at the significance level of α=0. 2012 The statistical significance of each estimated parameter is assessed by its t-value (Sharma.
398 Coomber.doi. (1999). T. Journal of Marketing. 44(2). The detailed results of the analyses reveal the fact that job satisfaction is positively impact on affective commitment. http://dx. training. Negative affectivity as the underlying cause of correlations between stressors and strains. organizational commitment. E. next studies may examine the moderators and mediators can have some effects on relationships among job satisfaction. Especially.1037/h0055617 Byrne. affective commitment. Academy of Management Journal.3. The objective of this study was to determine the among job satisfaction. some other various antecedents can be included into this reliable and valid research model that examines the employees’ turnover intention. D. Y. 2012 5.org/10. N. 17. Within this context of managing organizational behavior. B. & Rothe.. E.1992. 76(3).doi. P. Structural Equation Modeling with EQS: Basic Concepts. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Antecedents of Organizational Commitment. B.1365-2648. Journal of Applied Psychology. and normative commitment. continuance commitment. First of all. The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective. & Spector. http://dx.doi.www. P. For further research. S. (2007). It can be seen that the model.org/10.org/10. (1980).x Chang. and turnover intention. the reliability and validity of the scale was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha and exploratory factor analysis. 35(5). http://dx. Performance and Satisfaction in an Industrial Sales Forces: An Examination of Their Antecedents and Simultaneity.). K.org/10.1177/001872679905201002 Chen. 77.doi. J. Additionally. F. (1991). A. and turnover intentions.ijnurstu.org/10. 307-311. Journal of Applied Psychology. (2010).doi.02. As in most studies. The effectiveness of selection. which was drawn from a single organization located in a specific geographic location and was also one-source bias. and supervisory programs should be gauged in part by their effect on employees’ satisfaction with their work.. Human Relations. the results of the present study have a number or practical implications.doi. UK: Routhledge Taylor & Francis Group. No. 1369-1376. 297-314. & Strasser. organizational commitment. 15(4).1111/j. Journal of Occupational Psychology. In addition. & Barriball. the study claims that who give decisions for organizations should consider some aspects that have been identified to be related and have affected job satisfaction.. Findings of this study would help managers and policy makers of companies as well as practitioners to formulate strategies and program to overcome turnover problem among employees as well as to ensure organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization. (1990). An Index of Job Satisfaction. the job satisfaction’s of employees is important issue. it is identified the potential relationships of job satisfaction. (1951). Managers should try to increase of job satisfaction of employees.ccsenet. Cavanagh. http://dx.org/10. P. our findings suggest that organizations be aware of organizational commitment and turnover intentions among employees who vary in job satisfaction levels. L. and turnover intentions.x Bagozzi.. Applications and Programming (2nd Ed. For further research can be included different organizations and sectors. In other words.76. 65-67. H. (1992). In the current study.org/10. which is developed to examine the relationships job satisfaction. R.2006. Staff turnover among hospital nurses.tb00506. 1-18.1990. Conclusion and Implications Job satisfaction is thought to influence their work outcomes such as organizational commitment and turnover intentions. & Meyer. Consequently. (1984). this research has limitations that need to be considered. organizational commitment. http://dx. 63(1).1037/0021-9010. Journal of Advanced Nursing. http://dx. Impact of job satisfaction components on intent to leave and turnover for hospital-based nurses: A review of the research literature.004 55 .doi. H.2044-8325. 52(10).1016/j. 20.2307/255959 Brayfield. it was found in this study that job satisfaction is one of the most important antecedents of organizational commitment and turnover intention of employees. Another important result of this analysis is that there is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention.org/10.. and turnover intention is valid and reliable. and turnover intentions. References Allen. http://dx.. http://dx. Limitation stems from our sample.doi. normative commitment.2307/1249978 Bateman. continuance commitment.tb01861. organizational commitment (affective commitment. 95-112. continuance commitment. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 1257-1278. P. & Coffin. S. and normative commitment. Career Commitment as a Complex Moderator of Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention. J.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 398-407.1111/j. 7.
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