John B M Muya

Topic outline • Duties of a sales representative • Sales person’s job • Different Sales Jobs • Examples of Sales jobs
- Retail Selling - Missionary Selling, - Direct Selling, - Selling Industrial Goods • Qualifications for success in selling • Choosing a career in sales.

Sales representatives are persons who plan, organize and execute activities that increase sales and profits in their Areas of operation;
 Providing solutions to customer problems

Identifying customer needs and problems Matching the product and services to the need or problem
 Providing service to customers.

Handling customer complaints. Returning, replacing damaged merchandise. Providing samples. Suggesting business opportunities. Recommending product promotion strategies. Helping demos at customer premises “PULL.” Training customer staff.
 Selling to current and new customers

Prospecting for new customers for growth. Retaining, maintaining & growing current customers.

 Helping customers to resell to their consumers Uplifting from wholesale and reselling. Developing promotional programs for customers. Supplying promotional or advertising materials. Setting up product displays.  Helping customers use products after purchase; Show customers how to derive full benefit from
product. Install computers/printers and demonstrate. Train on best care system/programs

5 . Helping customers identify their need (partnering). integrity and sincere interest in the customer. Exercising high ethical standards.Duties …… Building goodwill with customers Establishing friendship and trust with DMUs.

Customer reactions New products Complaints on products Service Policies Market opportunities 6 . Competitor activities.Duties ……  Gathering market information.

and executing activities that increase sales in a given area of operation Provides Service to Customers e. depending on whether sales involve goods or services.Salesperson’s Role The salesperson’s roles actually vary from company to company. planning. returning damaged merchandise.g. the firm’s market characteristics and the location of customers The salesperson function's include. organizing. handling complaints. providing samples. suggesting business opportunities and developing recommendations on how the customer can promote products purchased from the salesperson 7 .

Types of Sales Jobs Retail Representative Manufacturers Representative Wholesalers Representatives Retail Sales Representative Accounts Representative Sales Engineers Industrial Sales Representative Service Sales Representative 8 .

presentation. including prospecting. beauty and Cosmetic shops practice all stages of a selling. closes and after sales service. trial. The Salesperson sells directly to consumers from a store environment Gas stations. 9 .Sales Jobs… RETAIL SELLING ◊ Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to the final consumers for personal. non business use ◊ A retailer or retail store is any business enterprise whose sales volumes come primarily from retailing ◊ Any organization selling to final consumers-whether a manufacturer. e. wholesaler or retailer-is doing retailing.g.

Missionary Selling • Influences the decision maker rather than the final user the deal selling • Informs the salesperson to follow-up and close • Uses relationship building as a basis for effective 10 .

He is paid on commission basis. the wholesaling intermediary conducts personal selling in their outlets in terms of displays and providing expert advice to the retail seller. 11 . These entrepreneurs often act for more than one company or manufacturer. While not directly employed by the retailer.WHOLES SLING /RESELLING The Salesperson obtains products from manufacturers and sells to retailers. This is an independent intermediary between the manufacturer and a retail seller.

decision makers and actual users of the products. finance managers. secretaries and even the security guards • Technical knowledge and skills are critical in sustaining 12 the business . the purchasing managers/buyers.• This entails direct COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL SELLING The Salesperson transfers raw materials and equipment. engineers. • The critical personnel may include. relationships with the influencers. CEOs. which the buyer uses to produce his / her own goods or services.

which may eventually become unethical. often in consumers’ homes. Sometimes this leads to PYRAMIDS. manufacturers selling tire products to original equipment vehicle assemblers Airline reservations staff selling tickets to the passengers Technical support and employee/client relationships are critical in customer retention Products typically sold in this way include cosmetics. 13 . toys. Sales Reps recruit other reps that are paid on commission. jewelry. clothing. e.• Sells to the end user. household suppliers and health related items.g. tire DIRECT SELLING The Salesperson • purchases products from a manufacturer • or wholesaler and sells to consumers.

travel. SERVICE SELLING It becomes critically essential that the This is the selling of sales professional is very well intangibles such as trained and insurance. . real estate.Customers can neither see nor touch these products and services. confidence they need to make comfortable buying decisions. knowledgeable in order to give his home and business customers the assistance and security and cleaning. banking. Service sellers have to sell 14 themselves.

direct sales to homes and telemarketing selling.Sales Representative • Retail Sales Representative – Sells goods to consumers for personal use. 15 . – Including in-store.

They differ in: The products they sell.Rep…. Wholesalers Representative Sells for: RESALE Firms engaged in wholesaling are called WHOLESALE MIDDLEMEN. The markets to which they sell Methods of operation 16 .

milk. bread. or Directly to consumers 17 . They range from: Delivery clerks for beer. services for market offering.t. They may sell to: Wholesalers Retailers.c Specialized sellers of highly technical products.Rep… Manufacturer’s Representatives Sell for organizations that produce the products. fuel e.

transitioned into marketing and sales. None of them were born with a “salesman” sticker on their foreheads.Salesmanship “You don’t have to be born a salesman!” Many started their careers in a technical role. and over a period of time. 18 .

Knowledge about the products. 19 . Knowledge about the selling techniques. Knowledge about the customers.Qualities of a salesperson • • • • • • • • Personal qualities Personality Mental qualities Social qualities Character qualities.

Personality • Personality can be improved by developing the qualities in the positive traits. loyalty. good health. gloominess. cowardice etc. in order to improve personality traits such as kindness. courage. confidence. • The sales person might have some negative qualities such as fear. One may not have all essential qualities of a sales person but he has to developed. honesty. A hard 20 . and cheerfulness. These qualities should be neglected from the sales person as habits once formed are always difficult to change.

The salesman should be alert. Alertness is a part in which the sales person should inspire confidence of the customers. Without good health the sales person would not have the endurance to sell the products or achieve his targets.Personality Physical traits  This includes health. Mental Traits  Mental traits include accuracy. alertness. observation. and appearance. posture. imagination. and selfconfidence etc. speech. breadth. initiative. ready to find out ways and means of serving the customers. 21 .

It includes honesty and reliability. the most important quality of a salesperson to meet the public and speak about the product he wants to sell them. industry and persistence. • Character traits There are some important attributes in a person’s character.Personality… • Social traits Social traits includes. No one can expect to be successful unless he follows some modal characteristics. 22 . ability to meet the public. enthusiasm.

industry performance. • A good College degree or diploma may be essential is selling Love of one’s job Willingness or propensity for hard work A strong work ethic Ruthlessness about time keeping Optimistic outlook Strong self confidence and well groomed The do it now mentality Knowledgeable about his/her company/products. Physically and mentally alert • • • • • • • • • 23 .Qualifications ……. competitors products and strategies.

-handling objections. Practice alone no longer enough. Has a wealth of objective facts. Learning of conceptual. Selling takes practice like golf or tennis. human & technical skills necessary.Skills Selling is both an art and a science.Many skills cannot be learnt from textbooks. -closing a sale. A book helps but it is not enough e. SCIENCE . -buyer’s non-verbal communication. 24 .A growing body of knowledge. ART .g.

presentation ◘ Order-gotten must perceive the significant elements in a situation (assess). ◘ Allows the seller to think strategically. ◘ Allows the seller to understand the product. ◘ Involves thinking and planning abilities. 25 . ◘ Involves knowing the relationship between the beginning of a sales presentation and asking for the order. buyer and buyer organization.Skills Conceptual Skills The cognitive ability to see the selling process as a whole and the relationship among its paths. ◘ Involves matching products or services to needs.

Human Skills This is the ability to work with and through other people. ◘ How the buyer relates to their customers. pushy. ◘ Those without are abrupt. ◘ How the sellers like and are liked by others. arrogant. un-empathetic & unresponsive. Technical Skills This is the understanding of and proficiency in 26 the performance .Skills ……. critical.

Matching Exercise Skill Conceptual Human Technical Planning Organization Time utilization Persuasive Decisiveness Presentation Good communication Listening Questioning Self-motivation Personal development Learning ability Flexibility 27 .

. Skill Conceptual Human Technical Team co-operation Resilience Stress tolerance Integrity Honesty Initiative Innovativeness Problem solving Risk taking Leadership Good judgment Tenacity Sensitivity 28 .Matching ……….

plan. Prioritizing one’s activities planning needed resources and attending to necessary preparation. activity. determining priorities to get things done speedily. Sales ability/persuasiveness: Utilizing appropriate interpersonal styles and methods of communications to gain agreement or acceptance of a product. 29 . or idea from customers. Time utilization: Using time effectively and correctly.Some Useful Terminologies Planning and Organization: Establishing a course of Action for self and/or others to accomplish a specific goal.

Listening/questioning: Being attentive to others in order to understand precisely what they are saying and to ask appropriate questions to check for understanding and gather additional information. ethical and organizational standards. 30 .Useful Terminologies Presentation: The ability to conduct a sales presentation without any ambiguity well organized and readily understood manner leading to a logical close. Self-motivation: To enthusiastically maintain a high well directed work level gaining personal satisfaction from your own efforts. Integrity: Maintaining social.

Flexibility: Modifying behavior to reach a goal. Resilience: Handling disappointment.Useful Terminologies Impact: Creating a favorable and professional impression that commands attention and respect. rejection and work pressure while maintaining effectiveness. 31 . Learning ability: Assimilating and applying new job related information in a timely manner.

etc  Pleasant.  Presentable. Organizer. Empathetic. Decisive.  Self-motivated with Initiative and Innovative. Clean. Informed. Reliable.  A risk taker and Problem solver. Consistent. Considerate.  A person of Integrity. Planner. Smart.  Sensitive.  Honest. Knowledgeable.  Fast leaner. Well-mannered. Patient. Remember. Adaptive and Flexible.Characteristics of a good salesperson You must be. Confident.  Good-time utilizer. Persistent. “People buy people.  Good Communication.  Helpful. Listener and Questioner.” 32 . Resilient and Stress tolerant.  Persuasive.

Empathy & Ego Drive A good salesperson is a composite of a large amount of empathy and ego drive. EMPATHY ed EGO eD LOW Ed ED DRIVE HIGH LOW HIGH 33 .

Personal Development Chart 34 .

Likes & dislikes of each channel member customers. 35 . Resellers or middlemen stock thousands of products from hundreds of sales people from multitude of companies. Vital information needed on them include. Product line and assortments of each stock/list. i. ii.Sales Jobs & Channels of Distribution It is essential to understand the channels used by your company to move its products to the final consumer.

sell their products through the wholesalers who then resell to the retailers before the goods reach the final consumers • The salesperson involved in this type 36 .. • Distribution refers to the channel structure used to transfer products from an organization to its customers • It’s important to have the product available to customers in a convenient and accessible location when they want it • Consumer goods manufactures.Channels . by and large.

Channels…. • The salesperson must respond expeditiously to queries/complaints from the channel members to ensure robust service provision • The industrial goods manufacturers may sell directly to the final consumer or use distributors to reach the end users • The industrial salesperson is expected to have technical training/skills to provide solutions to the channel members as well as the final users 37 • Service sales team do provide solutions .

38 .Channels……. What alternative actions are open in the case of conflicts? o Manufacturers may sell direct to retailer if wholesalers do not co-operate. Why should they stock your 3 Sizes? c. Challenges & co-operation Wholesalers may refuse to by until retailers demand the product. Do they need to drop an existing one for yours? d. a. Supermarkets may already have listed a lot of products similar to yours and wonder why they should list. NB  These solutions are costly to both parties in terms of loss of sales or input costs. o Wholesalers may start OWN brands if a manufacturer fails to co-operate. b.

Why Choose A Sales Career Five major reasons:  The wide variety of sales jobs available.  Determining owns day  No supervision by a boss  Planning calls  Planning time use  No roll call 39 .  The freedom of being on your own:  Freedom with responsibility.

From trainee to full fledged sales persons..Career Cont.  Key A/C Salesperson  Regional Sales Manager  National Sales Manager  District Sales Manager  Divisional Sales Manager 40 .  The challenge of selling  Changing people’s lifestyles  Relationship with the DMU  Making a positive contribution to your company  Convincing buyers  Volume and value of sales  The opportunities for advancement.

 Training opportunities  Entertainment and other allowances  Numerous fringe benefits ( school fees)  Overseas Leave for some  Travel& health Insurance covers  Opportunities to meet exciting people  Sales training opportunities 41 .  Good salary  Flashy car.Rewards in a Sales Career  The many rewards for a sales career.  Psychological income.

42 .

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