A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

1. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. information security. Although viruses are a key concern.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. processes.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". 1. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. such as printers. only recently modified data. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. Applications must provide significant interactivity. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. bar code scanners. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. including: becoming increasingly smaller. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. Users don't require access to truly live data. . Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft.An example of this is a mobile workforce. 1. With the advent of mobile databases. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. mobile Apple-related products and applications. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse.

Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. If your application meets any of those requirements. and base stations.) Base stations are two-way radios. or wireless routers. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. mobile-database field. . portable phones. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. Calif. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. Fla. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. mobile units. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. portable Redwood Shores. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. of Lake Worth. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost..’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. installations in fixed locations. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.

organizes and administration environments. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.DB2e stores. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.mechanism. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. Windows CE smart phones. . Neutrino. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed.system (RDMS). The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. zero. manages data on a handheld device.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. EPOC. retrieves.

and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. PalmOS. programming APIs. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and so on). allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. Delphi. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. and Web server applications. It includes support for Win32. Table encryption for version 8. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. C++. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. focusing only on application specific problems. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems.1. and EPOC database clients. mobile. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. Windows CE. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. and delivers the performance.1 scalability. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore .

1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.  Some node can process information. and GSM) .2. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. Cellular system.

Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). HLR: Home Location Register. MS: Mobile Station. since every person. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab.. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. VLR: Visitor Location Register. every organization. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. and in any form. etc. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . EIR: Equipment Identify Register. AC: Access Chanel.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. could be equipped. BS: Base Station. From 1974 to 1978. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA).2. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place.

In the call setup procedure. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. IS-136. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. that is. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. Thus. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). For a user. there are about 50 channels per cell. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. In AMPS. and has been operating in USA since 1996. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. Cordless Telephone. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. except that no large scale trial was conducted. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. American Digital supported.reuse scheme. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. and has been available since 1989. Cellular (ADC). In a GSM base station. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS.95 Kbps.25 MHz. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. the successor to IS-54. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. With TDMA.

There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. offices. or 150 hours of standby time.1-1918. and outdoor environment.global acceptance of DECT. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. . using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes.1 MHz band. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. PHS uses TDMA. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). In FDD mode. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). DECT also supports seamless handoff. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. similar to cellular systems. and the band 1895-1906. The band 1906. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. a private standardization organization in Japan.

Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. or medium. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. Other functions of BS are call processing. and diagnostics. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. maintenance. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. . signaling.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.

There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. The greater the number of hexagons. However. and cell origination. Wireless component . and (c) user interface. The user interface exists only at MU. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). Within their geographical region. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN).Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). or a cell phone. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. which consists of a display. Each of this cell has a Base Station. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. or any other mobile device. cell initiated sampling. a palmtop. Ideally. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). cell coverage is a dynamic activity. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). These are transmitted upon power on. This can be a laptop. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). Thus. a keypad for entering information. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. (b) antenna. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells.

High density Smaller cells. Low density Small cells. MSC PSTN .Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells.

 Mobile station constraints. Needs some standard. User profile and database sharing. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. private. Any other policy constraints. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Call transfer charges. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Power-down registration. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. it sends a registration message. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. For example. Subscription agreement.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. . When an MU is switched on.  Deregistration. Administrative constraints      Billing. Opposite to power-down registration. it registers. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Limited battery life. Needs some standard. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.  Power-up registration. or residential). A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility.

2.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . Forced registration: A network may. medical. force all MUs to register. etc. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. under certain circumstances.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof.

The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. This can be achieved through data access history. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. . City area. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. etc. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Thus. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax.

partition. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. account number. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Thus. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. The database distribution (replication. etc. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. However. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Thus.) must take into consideration LDD. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. etc.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Thus. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Example: Person name. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Needs location binding or location mapping function.

CommitL}. flm2. ln} is a set of locations. FLM>. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. …. l2. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. L.2. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU.SC M and Nj {AbortL. L = {l1. e2. The management of the transaction moves with MU. Two types of processing modes are allowed. write}. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. . en} is a set of execution fragments. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. …. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. where F = {e1. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. Ojk {read. …. and FLM = {flm1. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.

Serialization of concurrent execution. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . e2. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. e5) MU1 T1(e1.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict.

 Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. A scheme which uses very few messages. is desirable. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). New schemes based on timeout. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.  MU extract its fragment. Database update consistency. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. A scheme. especially wireless.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Thus. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. estimates timeout. may work. during processing no communication is required. each node commit their fragment independently.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. which uses minimum number of messages. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. multiversion. At the end of timeout.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. especially wireless messages is required. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. Transaction commit..  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. Serialization of concurrent execution. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. .Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. etc.

MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.g..g. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities.. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. at the right location. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases.  Log carrier. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. . Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. and in a right format. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. Important gain: Making information available at the right time.. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. which are essential for recovery. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints.g. Thus.

so they are not discussed. GPS can do this. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query.Customer trust A time consuming activity. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. web. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. . identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff.5 Query Processing 2. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. An integration of mobility.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained.that is. However. every time the answer is different but correct. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. (a) location managementthat is. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖.

but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. Motivated by these issues. The presence of frequent cell crossing. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. In location update.or picocell clusters. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. 151. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. remote cells may be included in these areas. In some situations. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. .9. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. (b) doze mode. (b) location lookup. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. which is initiated by the mobile unit. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. or (c) power down mode. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. and (c) paging. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. further adds to the cost. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed.

Cell overlap region. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. registration area. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. then the call is dropped.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. There are initiated. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. Fig.

around 0. [lo]. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO.12 illustrates the scenario. then it 3.10 illustrates the scenario. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. play any role in handoff detection. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff.13 In this scheme. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. In this registration area. Figure 3. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. In is used. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. responsible for detecting a handoff. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. and so on. In this approach. Figure situation for more than one handoff. 0. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. or base station controller (BSC). an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs.used in PCS. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. [ 101. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example.5 inter-BS handoff. Figure 3. initiated.1 1 illustrates the scenario.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. Some initiates a handoff. and in details can be found in Ref. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value.taking too long to process a handoff.

3. .10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.Fig. Fig. 3.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.

MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. to MU that the handoff process has started. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. .05 inter-MSC handoff. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. conversation (occurrence of silence). There are two ways to achieve link transfer. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. 2.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs.handoff. 3. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. and 0. Fig. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below.

then two cases arise: different BSCs. 6. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. . A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. On the command of the network. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication.4. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. 3. and the new BS. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. since it is between two request message. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. Fig. In the former channel. the BS must complete some security check.

. For example. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. weather. that is. data staging. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. stock quotes. provided terminal and personal . wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. In reality. etc.2. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. discussed in preceding chapters. The mobile database systems. other new devices. push and pull.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. information about airline schedule. Thus. and so on. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. for incorporating transactional facility. This is an ideal scenario. can be downloaded from the broadcast. surrogates. it is becoming an information management system as well. PDAs. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. data broadcast. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). Initially. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing.

The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I .96 Whour). Therefore. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. that is. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .7 hours and to preserve battery power.5 W. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The available power source is likely to last for 2. and the power dissipation for display is around 2.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000.2 V (0. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. these activities must be disabled whenever possible.

Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. renting a movie or music CD. and so on. For example. For example. foliage. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. etc. buying an airline ticket. For example. season. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. It also. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. rain. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and.4 W with the transmitter powered on. and so on. the height and kind of trees.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. if necessary. some as spam but some quite useful.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. A number of factors like the terrain. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. if necessary. This facility is called selective tuning. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. a Wavelan card consumes 1. landscape. download the required data. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. . The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. renting a movie with a particular title. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. transmission could reach tens of watts.. but actually it is not so. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. In day-today activities. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1.

Push Application In the push process. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. mutual funds costs. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. after receiving the request. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . large graphics. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. it can push weather information on one channel. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. and so on. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. real state costs and inflation status. depending upon their data requirements. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. Clients. In fact. etc. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. and so on. cable television broadcast. traffic information on another channel.. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. The server. For example. caching can be used to reduce data miss. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. etc. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. radio. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. For example. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. or short video clips. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. news. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. since then. tune the appropriate channel. the pull approach is resource-intensive. are pushbased.

the burden of acquiring data. bandwidth viewpoint. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. which is highly desirable. places information. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. focus. dining information appears in the broadcast. to all employees. This facility the ideal scheme. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data.. client. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server.g. there is a difference in them.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. even though push applications are not really push. Data are dropped in the channel. However. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. reduce or access is zero. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. then they will appear on consequently. Advantages one at a time. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. especially for providing transactional facility. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. that is. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . however. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. at the same time. It guarantees identical message delivery. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). especially from a or services. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. For example. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. traffic information. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. A immediate attention. This setup significantly reduces the search time. data in the broadcast. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. business. and In a wireless platform. It has. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. the waiting time for information faster and. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. if interested only i n dining information. or commercial) to identify.

Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. Many vendorsAir Media. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. during a song broadcast. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. . Berkeley Systems. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. to name a few. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. Marimba. for example.  Push applications are complex. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. randomly.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Alpha Microsystems. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. IntraExpress. bandwidth problems. Pointcast. For example. however. has a number of interruption. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. as well as individually.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. Although users get the information.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. allow it to scale.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. while it is useful event.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. multicast solutions. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users.

defining push updates. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF).  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. The proprietary client is required. are the two leading supplied. highly needed. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. No conjunction with their latest browsers. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. . except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. For example. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. Both users and in the push technology. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. and Microsoft Corp. a server. A proprietary client is Communications Corp.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. model. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. and Netscape development tools. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. This becomes more expensive with number of users. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible.

If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. In a similar manner. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. airline schedule. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. B.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. 9. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. a set of different types of information such as weather. traffic. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). news flashes. Latency Figure 9.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. can be transmitted on different speed channels. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . C and D in that order. . Fig. and so on. stock quotes.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach.

Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. must balance this trade-off. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . the client slips into doze mode intermittently. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. therefore.Ts)+ (Ts . Unfortunately. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. Figure 9.TL)+ (TI. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. Client information requirement is highly random. In some client population. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. on the other hand. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel.T5). If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. and so on.4 illustrates access and tuning time. therefore. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. tunes selectively (selective tuning). . an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. An efficient broadcast scheme. The access time depends on broadcast size. The task. In the push approach. If. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes.2'0). This increase in size affects access time. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements.T4) + (Ts . is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. that is.

The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. with the help of popularity computation. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. if not impossible. client samples. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. Figure 9. stock. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. (b) reaching active . and geographical domain becomes very complex. In (b). Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3.Thus. dictionary. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. etc. It may provide yellow pages services. broadcast indexing. These components are discussed in detail below. the relationship among data popularity. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. D2. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. which makes it very hard. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. and so on. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. However. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. access delay. traffic. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. entertainment. for example. and broadcast them. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. encyclopedia. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means.

Based on the information stored in the log file. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. and so on. (c) studying the market trends. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. . Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). In reality the client population is very large. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. and T . A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. static and dynamic approaches can be used. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. Thus. (c) user movement. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. a PF queue with these operations. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. and (d) channel tunability. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn.clients to look at their data access history. PT. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. The server also records the corresponding time. as is the database to support their requests. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set.1 1. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment.

The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). Based on the amount of storage available. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Thus. . Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) .28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.27 shows the data staging architecture. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. on an average. number of pages by the base station. For this. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. It consists of a surrogate. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. Figure 9. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes.27 Data staging in DAYS. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. Tbound. we calculate a time bound. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. Figure 9. Thus. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Since the public data is staged in the machine. 9. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. for the user to access a data. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access.Fig. but it is fixed for this calculation). So.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Thus. So. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced.

roles. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. anywhere and anytime possible. This meta-information is models. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. preferences. knowledge and skills. especially in connection with position searching tools.available mobile resources. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. The or demand new ones. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. size) them. In this section. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. In Lubinski. persons  location (and changing location in 3. 1998]. Context information comprehends further . This is threats. hard. and bandwidths. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. con dentiality. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. applicable on special whereabouts. connectivity. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. time and device. other restricting or dismissing security measures. their tasks. integrity and accountability.3.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. and restrictions detailed. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. where and when the data are used based on user aims. costs and duration of connections.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. which people and objects in the environment stay.e. i. respectively. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing.

Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. Our approach additionally used for their protection. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. addresses of messages. a protection items gets the following table. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Metadata include 1999]. The body of the table illustrates the special problems.. threats or desired security characteristics. management. Database systems manage object types. 1998]). Moreover.and integrity rules. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments.g.E. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. respectively. Transfer creatable. 3. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. databases.whereas metadata are communication security.

Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. . a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. Additionally. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. too. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. vertical and horizontal. users. But the separation. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. However.

Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. make flight reservation. However. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform.. workflow systems. E-commerce. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. It approach but assure a minimal security. such as web. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. attend lectures. etc. open bank account.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. . and so on. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.

. Minneapolis. Washington. el.5. 7. S. October 1993. Mobile Computing. Alonso. E... ACM SIGMOD Conf. 3.. R. Alonso. Loeb. and Bhargava. K. H. 14. DC.. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. Proc. Proc. H. Samaras.. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. May.. May. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. Mumbai. Int. Dunham.. 1997.. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. Proc.. 8. Kluwer Academic Publishers.. 1998. C. 11. Pitoura. Pitoura. 1994. McGraw-Hill. Proc. 2000. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Acharya. on Information and Knowledge Management.. A. REFERENCES 1. Prentice Hall. Artech House.E. Franklin. No. Pitoura and G. India. 1995. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖.L. 9. and Imielinski. S. 10. George and Zahorjan. 4. 1996. and Zdonik. No. 5-8. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. 4. Johnsson. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. 1994. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. conf. 2000. at. Helal. B. Forman.E. 5. 2. 13. The Challenges of Mobile Computing.. M. ACM SIGMOD Conf. T. and Korth. and Michael Tan. Prague. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. B.Shaul Dar. Michael Franklin. M. 1998. Divesh Srivastava. Chrysanthis. P. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. 12. . Bjorn T. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. H. 6. April 1994. Sep.. 27. 3rd. and Bhargava.. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. Proc. 1995. on management of Data. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. IEEE Computers. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. E. Barbara. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. 1997. D. Turban. Vol. San Jose.Vijay Kumar. May 1993. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. and Balakrishnan. Dhawan. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. J. S. R.

) . (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst. Pro.

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