A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

With the advent of mobile databases. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. 1. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. including: becoming increasingly smaller. Users don't require access to truly live data. such as printers. Although viruses are a key concern. bar code scanners. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. information security. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. 1. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). mobile Apple-related products and applications.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. . Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware.An example of this is a mobile workforce. only recently modified data. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. processes. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. 1. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. Applications must provide significant interactivity.

of Lake Worth. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. or wireless routers. mobile units. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. If your application meets any of those requirements. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. Fla. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. . Calif.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. mobile-database field. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. installations in fixed locations. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. and base stations.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones.) Base stations are two-way radios.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. portable phones. portable Redwood Shores. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power.. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.

organizes and administration environments. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. Neutrino.server-based relational database management management system designed for small.system (RDMS). manages data on a handheld device. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. EPOC. Windows CE smart phones.DB2e stores. zero.mechanism. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. . retrieves. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.

thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. focusing only on application specific problems. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. and Web server applications. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. mobile. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. It includes support for Win32. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. PalmOS. Table encryption for version 8. programming APIs. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. Windows CE. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. C++. and EPOC database clients. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. and delivers the performance. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. and so on). allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments.1 scalability. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server.1. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. Delphi. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops.

 Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. Cellular system.  Some node can process information. and GSM) . and wired and wireless systems (PCS.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.

Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. AC: Access Chanel. MS: Mobile Station. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). every organization. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. and in any form.2. could be equipped. VLR: Visitor Location Register. HLR: Home Location Register. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). since every person. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency .. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. From 1974 to 1978. etc. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. BS: Base Station. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). MSC: Mobile Switching Center.

EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. In AMPS. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. In the call setup procedure. Thus. American Digital supported. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . In a GSM base station. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). IS-136. that is.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. Cordless Telephone. and has been operating in USA since 1996.25 MHz. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. except that no large scale trial was conducted. For a user. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. and has been available since 1989. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. Cellular (ADC). Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS).reuse scheme. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. With TDMA. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency.95 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. there are about 50 channels per cell. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. the successor to IS-54.

There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.1-1918. similar to cellular systems.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. DECT also supports seamless handoff. and the band 1895-1906. or 150 hours of standby time. . offices. a private standardization organization in Japan. The band 1906. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. PHS uses TDMA.1 MHz band. In FDD mode.global acceptance of DECT. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. and outdoor environment. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. each with 300 KHz bandwidth.

. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. maintenance. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. Other functions of BS are call processing. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. or medium. and diagnostics. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. signaling.

larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. However. or a cell phone. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. which consists of a display. a keypad for entering information. This can be a laptop. (b) antenna. Within their geographical region. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. Each of this cell has a Base Station.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). The user interface exists only at MU. Thus. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). or any other mobile device. These are transmitted upon power on. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. and (c) user interface. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. a palmtop. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. cell initiated sampling. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). and cell origination. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). Ideally. The greater the number of hexagons. Wireless component .

The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. MSC PSTN . High density Smaller cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. Low density Small cells.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells.

 Limited battery life. Opposite to power-down registration.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. Needs some standard. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. Needs some standard. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. it registers. or residential). User profile and database sharing. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. it sends a registration message. Call transfer charges.  Power-down registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Subscription agreement. Administrative constraints      Billing. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Mobile station constraints. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Deregistration. For example.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. . Any other policy constraints.  Power-up registration. When an MU is switched on. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. private.

MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . medical. under certain circumstances.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. Forced registration: A network may.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. force all MUs to register. 2. etc.

Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. City area. This can be achieved through data access history. Thus.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. etc. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. . the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data.

Thus. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Needs location binding or location mapping function. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Thus. Thus. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. The database distribution (replication. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. account number. However. partition. etc. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data.) must take into consideration LDD. Example: Person name.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . etc. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.

BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. e2. Ojk {read. Two types of processing modes are allowed. ln} is a set of locations. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. write}. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. …. flm2. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. and FLM = {flm1. . L. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. L = {l1. …. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. l2. FLM>. …. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. where F = {e1.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j.SC M and Nj {AbortL. The management of the transaction moves with MU. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. en} is a set of execution fragments. CommitL}.2.

e5) MU1 T1(e1. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. Serialization of concurrent execution. e2. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently.

 MU extract its fragment. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.. is desirable. Thus. etc. Database update consistency.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. Serialization of concurrent execution. A scheme. each node commit their fragment independently.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. especially wireless.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. At the end of timeout. multiversion. Transaction commit. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. may work. during processing no communication is required. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). which uses minimum number of messages. New schemes based on timeout. .  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. A scheme which uses very few messages. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. estimates timeout. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. especially wireless messages is required.

Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints.. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead.g.  Log carrier. . which are essential for recovery. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. at the right location. and in a right format. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities.. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. Thus. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors.g.. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.g.

Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff.Customer trust A time consuming activity. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. However. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. (a) location managementthat is. so they are not discussed. web. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels.that is. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. . every time the answer is different but correct. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained.5 Query Processing 2. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. An integration of mobility. GPS can do this. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently.

or picocell clusters. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it.9. . A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. In some situations. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. which is initiated by the mobile unit. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. Motivated by these issues. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. remote cells may be included in these areas. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. The presence of frequent cell crossing. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. In location update. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. 151. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. (b) doze mode. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. and (c) paging. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. further adds to the cost. or (c) power down mode. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. (b) location lookup. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay.

A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. then the call is dropped.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . registration area. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. Fig. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. Cell overlap region. There are initiated. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval.

[lo]. play any role in handoff detection. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. then it 3. or base station controller (BSC). In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. 0. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. and in details can be found in Ref.5 inter-BS handoff. and so on. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. responsible for detecting a handoff. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed.taking too long to process a handoff.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. In this approach. Some initiates a handoff. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. Figure situation for more than one handoff.13 In this scheme. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem.12 illustrates the scenario. [ 101. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. initiated. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. around 0. Figure 3.used in PCS. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. In is used. Figure 3. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation.10 illustrates the scenario. In this registration area.1 1 illustrates the scenario. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff.

3. .10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. 3.Fig. Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.

and 0. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. 2.05 inter-MSC handoff. . to MU that the handoff process has started. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. Fig. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. 3. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy.handoff.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. conversation (occurrence of silence). It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time.

. 3. On the command of the network. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. Fig. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. 6. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. the BS must complete some security check. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. since it is between two request message. then two cases arise: different BSCs. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication.4. and the new BS. In the former channel. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff.

can be downloaded from the broadcast. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources.. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. The mobile database systems. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). data broadcast. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. weather. In reality. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. PDAs. other new devices. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. discussed in preceding chapters. and so on. Initially. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. information about airline schedule. for incorporating transactional facility. it is becoming an information management system as well. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. Thus. data staging. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. This is an ideal scenario. stock quotes.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. that is. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. provided terminal and personal . surrogates. push and pull. For example. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. etc.2.

that is.96 Whour). The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. The available power source is likely to last for 2.5 W. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel.7 hours and to preserve battery power. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .2 V (0. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. Therefore. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. There are two basic modes of data dissemination.

renting a movie with a particular title. the height and kind of trees. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. foliage. but actually it is not so. For example. and so on. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. a Wavelan card consumes 1. if necessary. season. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. landscape.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks.4 W with the transmitter powered on. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. . With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. etc. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. and so on. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. rain. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. transmission could reach tens of watts. This facility is called selective tuning. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. if necessary. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. download the required data. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel.. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. In day-today activities. For example. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. It also. renting a movie or music CD. For example. buying an airline ticket. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. some as spam but some quite useful. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. A number of factors like the terrain. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access.

and so on. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. For example. it can push weather information on one channel. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. caching can be used to reduce data miss. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. or short video clips. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. tune the appropriate channel. depending upon their data requirements. For example. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. the pull approach is resource-intensive. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. traffic information on another channel. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. cable television broadcast. etc.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. mutual funds costs.. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. In fact. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. etc. since then. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. after receiving the request. news. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. and so on. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. real state costs and inflation status. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. The server. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. Push Application In the push process. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. Clients. large graphics. radio. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. are pushbased.

broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. at the same time. especially from a or services. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. focus. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. traffic information. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. data in the broadcast. It has. then they will appear on consequently. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. places information. client. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. For example. and In a wireless platform. bandwidth viewpoint. especially for providing transactional facility. or commercial) to identify. even though push applications are not really push. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. It guarantees identical message delivery. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server.g. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. This facility the ideal scheme. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. if interested only i n dining information. dining information appears in the broadcast. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. the waiting time for information faster and. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. that is. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. Data are dropped in the channel. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. to all employees. which is highly desirable. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. the burden of acquiring data. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. there is a difference in them. This setup significantly reduces the search time. Advantages one at a time. However.. business. reduce or access is zero. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. however. A immediate attention.

bandwidth problems. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. during a song broadcast.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. multicast solutions. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. randomly. . Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. as well as individually. has a number of interruption. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. while it is useful event. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. Many vendorsAir Media. for example. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Berkeley Systems. Marimba. Pointcast.  Push applications are complex. however. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. to name a few. IntraExpress. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. For example. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. allow it to scale. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Alpha Microsystems. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Although users get the information.

 Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. a server. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . . such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. model. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. and Netscape development tools. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. and Microsoft Corp. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. The proprietary client is required. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). are the two leading supplied. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. No conjunction with their latest browsers.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. highly needed. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. Both users and in the push technology. For example. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. This becomes more expensive with number of users. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. defining push updates. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users.

stock quotes. news flashes. C and D in that order. In a similar manner. Latency Figure 9. can be transmitted on different speed channels. a set of different types of information such as weather. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . . BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. traffic.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. and so on. B. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. airline schedule. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. Fig. 9. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy.3 A simple broadcast disk setup.

an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. Figure 9. The task. Client information requirement is highly random.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . Unfortunately. on the other hand. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. In some client population.T5). the client slips into doze mode intermittently. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. . The access time depends on broadcast size. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. This increase in size affects access time. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning.T4) + (Ts . must balance this trade-off. therefore.TL)+ (TI.Ts)+ (Ts . An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. An efficient broadcast scheme. In the push approach.4 illustrates access and tuning time. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. If. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). that is. therefore. and so on. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received.2'0). is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. tunes selectively (selective tuning). If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.

and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same.Thus. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. broadcast indexing. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. the relationship among data popularity. stock. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. which makes it very hard. client samples. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. etc. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. if not impossible. and geographical domain becomes very complex. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. In (b). (b) reaching active . This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. It may provide yellow pages services. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. entertainment. D2. for example. and broadcast them. dictionary. Figure 9. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. However. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. with the help of popularity computation. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. and so on. traffic. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. These components are discussed in detail below. access delay. encyclopedia.

One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. The server also records the corresponding time. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase.clients to look at their data access history. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. Thus. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. and so on. static and dynamic approaches can be used.1 1. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. and T . . PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. In reality the client population is very large. (c) studying the market trends. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. as is the database to support their requests. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. (c) user movement. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. Based on the information stored in the log file. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. a PF queue with these operations. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. PT. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. and (d) channel tunability.

The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. Thus. For this. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.27 Data staging in DAYS. So. So. on an average. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. It consists of a surrogate. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Thus.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency.Fig. Thus. . Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). Figure 9. but it is fixed for this calculation).27 shows the data staging architecture. Based on the amount of storage available. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. for the user to access a data. Tbound. number of pages by the base station.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. we calculate a time bound. 9. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Figure 9. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. Since the public data is staged in the machine. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data.

New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. This is threats. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. Context information comprehends further .e.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. roles. integrity and accountability. their tasks. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. This meta-information is models. size) them. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. anywhere and anytime possible. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. and restrictions detailed. hard. applicable on special whereabouts. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. time and device.available mobile resources. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. In this section. knowledge and skills. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. In Lubinski. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). persons  location (and changing location in 3. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data).3. other restricting or dismissing security measures. costs and duration of connections. where and when the data are used based on user aims. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. respectively. The or demand new ones. preferences. i. 1998]. and bandwidths. connectivity.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. con dentiality. especially in connection with position searching tools. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. which people and objects in the environment stay. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users.

The body of the table illustrates the special problems. addresses of messages. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies.whereas metadata are communication security.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . Transfer creatable. Metadata include 1999]. Our approach additionally used for their protection. threats or desired security characteristics. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. a protection items gets the following table. 3. databases.g. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. management. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. 1998]). for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments.. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. Database systems manage object types.E. respectively. Moreover.and integrity rules. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath.

. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. Additionally. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. But the separation. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. too. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. users. vertical and horizontal. However. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control.

The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. However. open bank account. . It approach but assure a minimal security. workflow systems. E-commerce. such as web.. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. make flight reservation. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. and so on. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. attend lectures. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. etc.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4.

Franklin. 6. 1994. M. October 1993. Proc. San Jose. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Loeb. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Helal. M.. and Zdonik. May. Dunham. K. H. Michael Franklin... 4. E. A. and Korth. 5-8. 1998. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. 1998. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. 9. Alonso. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. 2. ACM SIGMOD Conf. McGraw-Hill. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. Prentice Hall. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. Turban. 2000. 10. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. Forman. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. No. H. REFERENCES 1. May 1993.E. J. Pitoura and G. and Bhargava.5. on management of Data. and Michael Tan. 1995. 3.L. 1997. S. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. 5. 11. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. 1995. 7.Shaul Dar. Int. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. Alonso. B.E.. Chrysanthis. 3rd.. R. 2000. Dhawan. T.. Artech House. April 1994.. Barbara. at. B. Pitoura. on Information and Knowledge Management.... Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Divesh Srivastava. 13. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. Acharya. 14. 1996. S. Samaras. Mumbai. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. Pitoura. C.. Proc. Sep.. D.. 8. 4. Washington. 1997. IEEE Computers. P. H. May. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems.. and Balakrishnan. E. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. George and Zahorjan. S. . el. Johnsson. Mobile Computing. conf. Minneapolis. Proc. 27. and Imielinski. Prague. India. Bjorn T. and Bhargava. R..Vijay Kumar. DC. 12. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. Vol. Proc. 1994. No.

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