A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. only recently modified data. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. 1. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. including: becoming increasingly smaller. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. information security. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Although viruses are a key concern.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. mobile Apple-related products and applications. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Users don't require access to truly live data. 1.An example of this is a mobile workforce. such as printers. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. . Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. With the advent of mobile databases. processes.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. 1. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. bar code scanners. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Applications must provide significant interactivity. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections.

the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. portable phones. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. . Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. and base stations. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. If your application meets any of those requirements. mobile-database field. installations in fixed locations. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. portable Redwood Shores..’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. mobile units.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. Fla. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. or wireless routers. Calif.) Base stations are two-way radios. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. of Lake Worth.

server-based relational database management management system designed for small. Neutrino.mechanism. Windows CE smart phones. . retrieves. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. manages data on a handheld device. EPOC. zero.DB2e stores. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.system (RDMS).SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. organizes and administration environments. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS.

PalmOS. and Web server applications. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . Table encryption for version 8. mobile. Delphi. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. and so on). versatile Java database for truly portable embedded.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server.1. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. and delivers the performance. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). C++. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. Windows CE. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection.1 scalability. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. It includes support for Win32. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. focusing only on application specific problems. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. programming APIs. and EPOC database clients. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism.

 Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. and wired and wireless systems (PCS.  Some node can communicate through voice channel.  Some node can process information.2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2. and GSM) . Cellular system.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.

2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. MS: Mobile Station. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. HLR: Home Location Register. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). From 1974 to 1978. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. and in any form. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA).2. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). could be equipped. BS: Base Station. AC: Access Chanel. since every person. every organization. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. etc. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system.. VLR: Visitor Location Register. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab.

whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). For a user. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. there are about 50 channels per cell. Cordless Telephone. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. In the call setup procedure. that is. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. IS-136. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. In AMPS. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. and has been available since 1989. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. except that no large scale trial was conducted. the successor to IS-54. In a GSM base station. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA).8 Kbps with an increased System rate. Thus. American Digital supported.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. Cellular (ADC).reuse scheme. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. With TDMA.95 Kbps.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS).25 MHz. and has been operating in USA since 1996.

offices.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.global acceptance of DECT. or 150 hours of standby time. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. DECT also supports seamless handoff.1 MHz band. In FDD mode. and outdoor environment. PHS uses TDMA. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). a private standardization organization in Japan. similar to cellular systems. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. The band 1906. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. . and the band 1895-1906. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels.1-1918.

picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. signaling. . Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. Other functions of BS are call processing. and diagnostics. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. maintenance.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. or medium. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface.

Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). This can be a laptop. Thus. The user interface exists only at MU. which consists of a display. (b) antenna. These are transmitted upon power on. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). cell initiated sampling. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). a keypad for entering information. Wireless component . Ideally. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. Each of this cell has a Base Station. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. or any other mobile device. However. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. and (c) user interface. and cell origination. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. or a cell phone. a palmtop. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). Within their geographical region. The greater the number of hexagons.

The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. High density Smaller cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. Low density Small cells. MSC PSTN .

 Power-down registration. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Needs some standard.  Deregistration. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.  Integration of a new service provider into the network.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility.  Mobile station constraints. Subscription agreement. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. or residential).  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability.  Power-up registration. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Call transfer charges. it sends a registration message. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. Administrative constraints      Billing. User profile and database sharing. Needs some standard. When an MU is switched on. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. . European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. private.  Limited battery life. For example.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. it registers. Opposite to power-down registration. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Any other policy constraints.

MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. Forced registration: A network may. 2. force all MUs to register. under certain circumstances. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . etc.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. medical.

City area.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. Thus. .  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. etc.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. This can be achieved through data access history. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.

Thus. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Needs location binding or location mapping function. etc. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. account number. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Example: Person name. partition. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. The database distribution (replication. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. However. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. etc.) must take into consideration LDD. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Thus. Thus.

L = {l1.2. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. L.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. …. and FLM = {flm1. flm2. CommitL}. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. . one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. …. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. where F = {e1. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. en} is a set of execution fragments. ln} is a set of locations. Ojk {read. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. write}. Two types of processing modes are allowed. l2. The management of the transaction moves with MU. e2. FLM>.SC M and Nj {AbortL. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. ….

A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. Serialization of concurrent execution. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. e2. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. e5) MU1 T1(e1.

especially wireless messages is required. estimates timeout. is desirable. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. especially wireless. Serialization of concurrent execution.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. New schemes based on timeout. A scheme. Thus. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. may work. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. which uses minimum number of messages. etc. .Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead.. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. An efficient commit protocol is necessary.  MU extract its fragment. A scheme which uses very few messages. Transaction commit.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. At the end of timeout.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. during processing no communication is required. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. each node commit their fragment independently. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). Database update consistency.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. multiversion.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set.

g.. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities.g. Thus.g. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. which are essential for recovery. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources.  Log carrier. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. at the right location. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. and in a right format. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e. .

Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable.5 Query Processing 2.Customer trust A time consuming activity. every time the answer is different but correct. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels.that is. web. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. so they are not discussed. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. However. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. An integration of mobility.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. GPS can do this. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. . (a) location managementthat is. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained.

or picocell clusters. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. remote cells may be included in these areas. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. . The presence of frequent cell crossing. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. In some situations. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. In location update. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. (b) location lookup. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. further adds to the cost. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. which is initiated by the mobile unit. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. The first tier provides a quick location lookup.9. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. 151. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. Motivated by these issues. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. or (c) power down mode. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. and (c) paging. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. (b) doze mode.

There are initiated.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. Fig.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. registration area. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. Cell overlap region. then the call is dropped. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2.

and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link.5 inter-BS handoff. initiated. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. responsible for detecting a handoff. and in details can be found in Ref.10 illustrates the scenario. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. then it 3. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. and so on. play any role in handoff detection. 0. around 0. Figure 3. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. [lo]. Some initiates a handoff. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary.1 1 illustrates the scenario. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. In this approach. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. Figure 3. In is used. [ 101.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. In this registration area.used in PCS.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. or base station controller (BSC). the system is This scheme is implemented in second.12 illustrates the scenario.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation.taking too long to process a handoff. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref.13 In this scheme. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. Figure situation for more than one handoff. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds.

3.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. . Fig.Fig.

handoff. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. conversation (occurrence of silence). 3. and 0. . Fig. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence.05 inter-MSC handoff. to MU that the handoff process has started. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. 2. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff.

the BS must complete some security check. since it is between two request message. On the command of the network. then two cases arise: different BSCs. and the new BS. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. Fig. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. In the former channel.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. 6. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. 3. .4. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS.

it is becoming an information management system as well.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. PDAs. data staging. data broadcast. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing.2. provided terminal and personal . stock quotes. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands.. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. discussed in preceding chapters. other new devices. The mobile database systems. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. Initially. For example. Thus. for incorporating transactional facility. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. In reality. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. and so on. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. surrogates. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. can be downloaded from the broadcast. etc. that is. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. This is an ideal scenario. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). information about airline schedule. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. weather. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. push and pull.

7 hours and to preserve battery power. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel.96 Whour). The available power source is likely to last for 2. that is. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . Therefore.5 W. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. these activities must be disabled whenever possible.2 V (0. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers.

but actually it is not so. A number of factors like the terrain. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. landscape. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. a Wavelan card consumes 1. For example. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. renting a movie with a particular title. This facility is called selective tuning. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. foliage. For example. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. season. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. buying an airline ticket. It also. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. renting a movie or music CD. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. the height and kind of trees. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. . Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. etc.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. In day-today activities. and so on. some as spam but some quite useful. transmission could reach tens of watts. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. download the required data. For example. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process.. if necessary. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. if necessary. and so on. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination.4 W with the transmitter powered on. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. rain.

mutual funds costs. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. it can push weather information on one channel. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. etc. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. caching can be used to reduce data miss. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. For example. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. traffic information on another channel. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. Clients. and so on. after receiving the request. since then. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. large graphics. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. news. For example. tune the appropriate channel. Push Application In the push process.. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. the pull approach is resource-intensive. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. and so on. etc. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. cable television broadcast. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. depending upon their data requirements. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. In fact. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. radio. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. real state costs and inflation status. The server. or short video clips. are pushbased. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. nor is the server broadcast client-specific.

several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. Data are dropped in the channel. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. at the same time. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. client. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. then they will appear on consequently. reduce or access is zero. This setup significantly reduces the search time. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. which is highly desirable. dining information appears in the broadcast. This facility the ideal scheme. data in the broadcast. especially for providing transactional facility. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. however. even though push applications are not really push. bandwidth viewpoint. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. traffic information. there is a difference in them. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. places information. and In a wireless platform. if interested only i n dining information. to all employees. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . business. It has. the waiting time for information faster and. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. It guarantees identical message delivery. that is. especially from a or services. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. For example. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. Advantages one at a time. A immediate attention. focus. However.g. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information.. or commercial) to identify. the burden of acquiring data. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers.

Marimba. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. for example. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. multicast solutions. however. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. allow it to scale.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. has a number of interruption. IntraExpress. during a song broadcast.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. Many vendorsAir Media. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Pointcast. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. Berkeley Systems. For example.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users.  Push applications are complex. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. Although users get the information. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. as well as individually. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. bandwidth problems. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. while it is useful event. . randomly. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. to name a few. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. Alpha Microsystems. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer.

PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. The proprietary client is required. and Microsoft Corp. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. are the two leading supplied. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. and Netscape development tools. Both users and in the push technology.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. a server. . This becomes more expensive with number of users. defining push updates. No conjunction with their latest browsers. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. highly needed.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. model. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. For example. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail.

3 A simple broadcast disk setup. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . and so on. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. C and D in that order.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. B.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. a set of different types of information such as weather. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. airline schedule. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. can be transmitted on different speed channels. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. . 9. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. news flashes. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. stock quotes. traffic. Latency Figure 9. Fig. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. In a similar manner.

This increase in size affects access time. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. tunes selectively (selective tuning). The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 .2'0). If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. the client slips into doze mode intermittently.T5). an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user.Ts)+ (Ts . If. must balance this trade-off. therefore. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. on the other hand. The access time depends on broadcast size. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . An efficient broadcast scheme.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. In some client population. therefore. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. Unfortunately. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. The task. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. Client information requirement is highly random. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes.T4) + (Ts . and so on. . Figure 9. In the push approach.4 illustrates access and tuning time.TL)+ (TI. that is.

A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. for example. encyclopedia. entertainment. with the help of popularity computation. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. These components are discussed in detail below. (b) reaching active .Thus. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. D2. Figure 9. which makes it very hard. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. if not impossible. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. traffic. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. and so on. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. and geographical domain becomes very complex. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. stock. access delay. However. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. broadcast indexing. In (b). data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. and broadcast them. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. dictionary. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. etc. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. the relationship among data popularity. It may provide yellow pages services. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. client samples.

(c) studying the market trends. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. a PF queue with these operations. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. (c) user movement. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8].1 1. and so on. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. The server also records the corresponding time. PT. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. and T . as is the database to support their requests. static and dynamic approaches can be used. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time.clients to look at their data access history. . and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. Based on the information stored in the log file. In reality the client population is very large. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. Thus. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. and (d) channel tunability. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast.

The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Since the public data is staged in the machine. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. Thus. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Based on the amount of storage available. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. . we calculate a time bound. For this. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. Thus. Tbound. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. on an average. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. number of pages by the base station. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. So. Thus. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. So. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data.27 shows the data staging architecture. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. It consists of a surrogate. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. Figure 9. Figure 9. for the user to access a data. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. but it is fixed for this calculation). There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l.27 Data staging in DAYS. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). 9. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.Fig.

connectivity. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. In Lubinski.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software.available mobile resources. persons  location (and changing location in 3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. size) them. anywhere and anytime possible. This meta-information is models. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. costs and duration of connections. integrity and accountability. respectively. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. especially in connection with position searching tools. which people and objects in the environment stay. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. This is threats. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. and bandwidths.and software (mobile site and network characteristics.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). con dentiality. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. In this section. their tasks. knowledge and skills. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. Context information comprehends further . and restrictions detailed. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. 1998]. The or demand new ones. preferences.3. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. hard.e. where and when the data are used based on user aims. time and device. other restricting or dismissing security measures. applicable on special whereabouts. roles. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. i.

1998]). Our approach additionally used for their protection.E. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. a protection items gets the following table. respectively. Metadata include 1999]. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. addresses of messages. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. databases. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. Transfer creatable.g. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.whereas metadata are communication security. Database systems manage object types. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. management. Moreover. 3.. threats or desired security characteristics.and integrity rules.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments.

meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. Additionally. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. vertical and horizontal. .  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. users. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. However. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. too. But the separation. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area.

This is what the wireless technology driving us to. workflow systems. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. and so on. . Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. open bank account. make flight reservation. etc. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. E-commerce. It approach but assure a minimal security. However. such as web.. attend lectures. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4.

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