A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. only recently modified data. 1. Applications must provide significant interactivity. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. including: becoming increasingly smaller. information security.An example of this is a mobile workforce. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. Users don't require access to truly live data. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). mobile Apple-related products and applications. bar code scanners. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. With the advent of mobile databases. processes. 1. Although viruses are a key concern. such as printers. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Database security is more critical networks have become more open.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. . In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database.

If your application meets any of those requirements. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. of Lake Worth. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc.. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. Fla.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. or wireless routers. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. mobile units. installations in fixed locations. . and base stations. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. portable phones. Calif. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. portable Redwood Shores. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations.) Base stations are two-way radios. mobile-database field.

 Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.mechanism. Neutrino. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. .server-based relational database management management system designed for small. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. retrieves.system (RDMS). organizes and administration environments. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. EPOC.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. manages data on a handheld device.DB2e stores. Windows CE smart phones. zero.

7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. It includes support for Win32. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio.1 scalability. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. focusing only on application specific problems. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. Windows CE. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. and EPOC database clients. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. PalmOS. programming APIs. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. and Web server applications. and so on). Delphi. C++. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. and delivers the performance. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. Table encryption for version 8.1. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. mobile. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments.

and wired and wireless systems (PCS.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.2.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. and GSM) . Cellular system.  Some node can process information.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.

Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. AC: Access Chanel. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . etc. could be equipped. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). MSC: Mobile Switching Center. From 1974 to 1978.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. and in any form. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. MS: Mobile Station. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. HLR: Home Location Register. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. since every person. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). VLR: Visitor Location Register. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago.2. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). every organization. BS: Base Station. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place..

IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. and has been operating in USA since 1996. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. For a user.25 MHz. In AMPS. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. In the call setup procedure. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. except that no large scale trial was conducted. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. Thus. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. In a GSM base station.95 Kbps. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. American Digital supported. IS-136.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. that is. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. Cordless Telephone.reuse scheme. there are about 50 channels per cell. the successor to IS-54. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . With TDMA. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. Cellular (ADC). the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. and has been available since 1989.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies.

Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. . The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. and outdoor environment. or 150 hours of standby time. In FDD mode.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). similar to cellular systems. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. The band 1906. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power.global acceptance of DECT. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN.1-1918. offices. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. DECT also supports seamless handoff. a private standardization organization in Japan. and the band 1895-1906. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.1 MHz band. PHS uses TDMA. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications.

signaling. maintenance. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. . Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. Other functions of BS are call processing. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. and diagnostics. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. or medium.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface.

or any other mobile device. which consists of a display. These are transmitted upon power on. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). and (c) user interface. This can be a laptop. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). a palmtop. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. (b) antenna. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. Ideally. The user interface exists only at MU. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. The greater the number of hexagons. Within their geographical region. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. a keypad for entering information. and cell origination. cell initiated sampling. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN).Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. Wireless component . the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Thus. However. Each of this cell has a Base Station. or a cell phone.

Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. High density Smaller cells. Low density Small cells. MSC PSTN .

Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Needs some standard. When an MU is switched on.  Limited battery life. Administrative constraints      Billing. Any other policy constraints.  Integration of a new service provider into the network.  Power-down registration.  Power-up registration. User profile and database sharing. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Needs some standard. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. or residential).Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility.  Deregistration. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. private. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. For example. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. it registers.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Opposite to power-down registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. Subscription agreement.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. Call transfer charges. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. it sends a registration message.  Mobile station constraints. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. .

etc. 2. Forced registration: A network may. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. under certain circumstances. medical.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. force all MUs to register. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery .

the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. This can be achieved through data access history. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. City area. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Thus. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. etc. . For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.

LDD must be processed under the location constraints. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Needs location binding or location mapping function. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. account number. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Thus. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. etc. Thus.) must take into consideration LDD. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Thus. partition. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Example: Person name. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. However. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. The database distribution (replication.

A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. Ojk {read.2. Two types of processing modes are allowed. …. write}. l2. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. e2. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. . where F = {e1. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU.SC M and Nj {AbortL. L = {l1. ln} is a set of locations. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. …. …. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. FLM>. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. and FLM = {flm1. en} is a set of execution fragments. The management of the transaction moves with MU. L. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. flm2. CommitL}.

which can be forced to wait by other transaction. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. e2. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. Serialization of concurrent execution. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. e5) MU1 T1(e1. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions.

A scheme. estimates timeout. multiversion. . Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. Transaction commit. A scheme which uses very few messages.. Serialization of concurrent execution.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. during processing no communication is required.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. Database update consistency. especially wireless messages is required. which uses minimum number of messages. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. and send rest of MT to the coordinator.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. At the end of timeout. Thus. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. especially wireless. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). etc. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. New schemes based on timeout. each node commit their fragment independently.  MU extract its fragment.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. is desirable. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. may work. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement.

g. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead.  Log carrier. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. at the right location. Thus. .  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. and in a right format. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e.g. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. which are essential for recovery. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.g. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases... Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities..

It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. .6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. so they are not discussed. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff.Customer trust A time consuming activity. (a) location managementthat is. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. every time the answer is different but correct. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query.5 Query Processing 2. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously.that is. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. web. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. However. An integration of mobility. GPS can do this.

recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. . Motivated by these issues. 151. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. further adds to the cost.9. which is initiated by the mobile unit. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. remote cells may be included in these areas. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. (b) doze mode. or (c) power down mode. and (c) paging. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. In some situations. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. In location update. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. The presence of frequent cell crossing. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. (b) location lookup. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path.or picocell clusters.

Fig. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. There are initiated. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. Cell overlap region. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . then the call is dropped. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also .  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. registration area.

Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. and so on.taking too long to process a handoff. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection.used in PCS.5 inter-BS handoff. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds.1 1 illustrates the scenario. responsible for detecting a handoff.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. or base station controller (BSC).10 illustrates the scenario. In is used. play any role in handoff detection. around 0. Some initiates a handoff. 0. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. Figure 3. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. then it 3.12 illustrates the scenario. In this registration area. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. In this approach. initiated. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. [ 101. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. [lo].1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Figure situation for more than one handoff. Figure 3. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. and in details can be found in Ref.13 In this scheme. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC.

. 3.Fig. 3. Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.

05 inter-MSC handoff. conversation (occurrence of silence). The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. 2. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. and 0. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. to MU that the handoff process has started. 3. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. Fig. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. .handoff. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff.

since it is between two request message. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. On the command of the network.4. 3. then two cases arise: different BSCs. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. 6. . Fig. In the former channel. and the new BS. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. the BS must complete some security check.

If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels.2. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. In reality. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. that is. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information).6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. information about airline schedule. data broadcast. provided terminal and personal . wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. This is an ideal scenario. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). it is not general enough for many different types of applications. and so on. weather. push and pull. stock quotes. it is becoming an information management system as well. Thus.. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. PDAs. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. can be downloaded from the broadcast. discussed in preceding chapters. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. other new devices. The mobile database systems. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. Initially. surrogates. for incorporating transactional facility. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. data staging. For example. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. etc. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel.

the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. There are two basic modes of data dissemination.7 hours and to preserve battery power. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. The available power source is likely to last for 2. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. that is.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. these activities must be disabled whenever possible.5 W.96 Whour). Therefore. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets.2 V (0. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel.

play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. For example. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. some as spam but some quite useful. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. foliage. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. and so on. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. It also. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. landscape. For example. renting a movie or music CD. but actually it is not so. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. etc. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. if necessary. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. buying an airline ticket. transmission could reach tens of watts.4 W with the transmitter powered on. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. In day-today activities. . broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. For example. renting a movie with a particular title. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. season. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. This facility is called selective tuning. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. rain. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. and so on. if necessary. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. A number of factors like the terrain. the height and kind of trees. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. download the required data. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. a Wavelan card consumes 1..

data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. or short video clips. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. and so on. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. mutual funds costs. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. etc. cable television broadcast. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. real state costs and inflation status. news. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. etc. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. The server. tune the appropriate channel. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. For example. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. caching can be used to reduce data miss. and so on. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. are pushbased. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. the pull approach is resource-intensive. traffic information on another channel. radio. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. depending upon their data requirements. large graphics. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. In fact. since then. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval.. For example. after receiving the request. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. Clients. Push Application In the push process. it can push weather information on one channel. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels.

Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. It guarantees identical message delivery. which is highly desirable. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. places information. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . and In a wireless platform. especially from a or services. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. reduce or access is zero. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. Data are dropped in the channel. A immediate attention. business. bandwidth viewpoint. the burden of acquiring data. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. For example. however. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. dining information appears in the broadcast. or commercial) to identify. especially for providing transactional facility. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. This facility the ideal scheme. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. then they will appear on consequently.g. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. even though push applications are not really push.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. to all employees. It has. This setup significantly reduces the search time. the waiting time for information faster and. Advantages one at a time. client. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. at the same time. traffic information. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. However. focus. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. data in the broadcast. if interested only i n dining information. that is. there is a difference in them..

will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. for example. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. bandwidth problems.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. Many vendorsAir Media. Alpha Microsystems.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. Marimba. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. Pointcast. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. Berkeley Systems. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. during a song broadcast. as well as individually. . develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. randomly. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. however. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system.  Push applications are complex. to name a few. allow it to scale.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. multicast solutions. For example. Although users get the information. IntraExpress. while it is useful event. has a number of interruption.

For example. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. model. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. and Microsoft Corp. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. defining push updates.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . Both users and in the push technology. and Netscape development tools. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. No conjunction with their latest browsers. . highly needed. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. a server. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. The proprietary client is required. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. This becomes more expensive with number of users. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. are the two leading supplied.

traffic. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. C and D in that order.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. a set of different types of information such as weather. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). airline schedule. Latency Figure 9. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. . B. In a similar manner. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. Fig. 9. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. and so on. stock quotes. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . can be transmitted on different speed channels. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. news flashes. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users.

In some client population. This increase in size affects access time. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. therefore. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. that is. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. The access time depends on broadcast size. If. and so on. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. . then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . therefore. on the other hand.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . In the push approach. An efficient broadcast scheme. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes.T5). is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage.T4) + (Ts .4 illustrates access and tuning time. Client information requirement is highly random. Unfortunately.Ts)+ (Ts . Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. The task. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. tunes selectively (selective tuning). The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.2'0). must balance this trade-off. Figure 9. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast.TL)+ (TI.Time: Similar to conventional disk access.

to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. dictionary. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. etc. stock. which makes it very hard. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. with the help of popularity computation. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. broadcast indexing. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. client samples. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. if not impossible. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. Figure 9. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. traffic. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. access delay. In (b).Thus. encyclopedia. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. for example. However. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. These components are discussed in detail below. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. (b) reaching active . D2. and broadcast them. entertainment. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. and so on. It may provide yellow pages services. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. and geographical domain becomes very complex. the relationship among data popularity. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure.

it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set.1 1. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). and so on. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. Thus. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. PT. static and dynamic approaches can be used. and T . the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. as is the database to support their requests. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. Based on the information stored in the log file. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). and the surrogate where data is to be staged. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. (c) studying the market trends. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. . In reality the client population is very large. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. and (d) channel tunability. (c) user movement. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower).clients to look at their data access history. a PF queue with these operations. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. The server also records the corresponding time. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network.

Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5.27 shows the data staging architecture. Thus. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. Thus. .27 Data staging in DAYS. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. So. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) .1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Tbound. for the user to access a data. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. Figure 9. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. It consists of a surrogate. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. on an average. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. Thus. Figure 9. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . we calculate a time bound. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. So. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.Fig. For this. Since the public data is staged in the machine. number of pages by the base station. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. but it is fixed for this calculation). Based on the amount of storage available. 9.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data.

hard. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. roles. their tasks.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. especially in connection with position searching tools.e. In this section. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment.3. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). knowledge and skills. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. 1998]. This meta-information is models. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. and bandwidths. size) them. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. con dentiality. time and device. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. which people and objects in the environment stay. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. anywhere and anytime possible. The or demand new ones. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). costs and duration of connections. In Lubinski. persons  location (and changing location in 3. integrity and accountability. and restrictions detailed. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. other restricting or dismissing security measures. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. applicable on special whereabouts. This is threats. where and when the data are used based on user aims. i. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. respectively. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. preferences. connectivity.available mobile resources. Context information comprehends further .

and integrity rules.E. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on.g. Moreover. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. Database systems manage object types. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. threats or desired security characteristics. addresses of messages.whereas metadata are communication security. Transfer creatable. respectively. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. 3. 1998]). necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. Our approach additionally used for their protection. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. management. databases. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. a protection items gets the following table. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected.. Metadata include 1999].

A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. too. But the separation. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. However. users. . audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. vertical and horizontal. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. Additionally. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement.

such as web. . fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. workflow systems. attend lectures. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. It approach but assure a minimal security.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. open bank account. and so on. make flight reservation. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. However. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. etc. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms.. E-commerce. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines.

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Pro.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst. (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.) .

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