6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. ROBERTSON SMITH. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI.. de GOEJE. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN. 1896 . VOLUME ? I. J.. f?K£. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W. THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W. LL.\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. ? /V DATE. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE..D. AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M. WEIGHT.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. AND C.(o2)05 v. F.l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J. . CLAY.

Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. whilst the had extended over 30 pages more.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. to continue the revision. are given corrections in square brackets. Moreover Prof. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine. W. Bevan. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself. revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author. influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. He began it with his usual ardour. Wright had noted here and there . Robertson Smith. Prof. have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. through Prof. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. Fleischer and other scholars. which he had marked with my initials. resolved to undertake this task. After earnest deliberation I consented. Miiller. to take all initials.

VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. M. Bevan. 1896. I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous. de GOEJE. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself. unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. who drew my attention to several omissions. without . J." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. February. Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. "A . published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890). § 353). Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252. has noted on the margin wants revision. on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. Leyden. initials.

'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. second 'l-Hitab edition. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. founded upon the above. vol. the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision. 1867).p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 1854). for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. 1831-33). and the Beirut edition of 1872). 1813). A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. with the 1866). both ancient and modern. second edition. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. 1831). Dieterici. In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. new work alteration. 1851. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe. with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. but to subject In fact.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . . the Mufassal (jJa4. . with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866). Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is. 2de eU. i. I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. (w>LLaJt J-oi. Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse. Volck..1CL). the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. 1859) . as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. which last. entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. Beirut. Beirut. ( Broch.

—have. but especially the former. however. may bear the greatest reIn . 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. seem I still think. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. Philippi. I have not found much to alter. * As of Oppert. apart from its bulk and rarity. nearly everything that detail. — preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions. Sayce. 1869). the Assyrian*. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. I believe. except in matters of I have read.Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. Assyrian. . for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however.und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. My the same as it formerly was. the south Semitic dialects. in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig. Spanish. in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. on the whole. regards Assyrian. grammar beginners. and therefore but ill-adapted. In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. Portuguese. semblance to this parent speech but. standpoint remains. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. tongues. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew). is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. and original Semitic language. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic. and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian.

pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office. Australia). . and thereby laid me. twenty-five and of the Punjab. look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . 1874. and I hope I may say other Orientalists.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. twenty. Home Department . extending over a period of more than twenty years. sixty copies. he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. (Fort William). the Govern. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. W. and the . the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. I trust. ten of Madras. Germany. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. under a fresh obligation. the Government of Bombay. fellow. Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. 1st July. and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely. Cambridge. whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. WRIGHT. ment of Bengal. Murray (of Adelaide. in which. amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. \ . from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. S.

They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof. which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition. l\ . Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar.The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F. de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements.

C. 1. I.. 19 24 26 27 IV.. Verb 29 A. PART FIRST..CONTENTS. B.. VI.. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 . II. III. 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D.. GENERAL VIEW. The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A. E. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. PAGE I. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Medda or Matta . The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND. THE VERB. V..

2. 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns. and Genders 52 B. 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form .*. Weak Verbs. Fourteenth... Form The Active Voice a.. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak.. Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B. 53 . of the First . Persons. Thirteenth... expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b. 3.Xll CONTENTS. C. expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns. Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 . 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A.. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth. and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers.. The 1.. 2. Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / . 1. THE WEAK VERB. THE STRONG VERB.

(y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I. expressive of Surprise or Wonder . Adjective. 106 The Deverbal Nouns. their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a. or Relative Adjectives .. Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II. THE NOUN.148 149 . (e) .. and Blame III. The Denominative Nouns. and A. 1.CONTENTS. Appendix A. . which express the Accusative . . Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J . The Forms B. 156 III.Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality . . THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. .100 II. .159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2. 147 . . 149 151 II.. I. (a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b. 97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes. . . The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus . . (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3.

3. 1. 279 A... The Pronominal Suffixes. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS.. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2.. 252 B.. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II. The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix. 3. 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D. which denote the Genitive . The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C. . THE PREPOSITIONS. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns . 253 260 262 2. PAGE 4.xiv CONTENTS. The Declension I. THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C. Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The .291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . of Nouns . . III. THE PARTICLES. 280 THE ADVERBS. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. THE NUMERALS. Article 1.

Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. 8i .

is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. terminate in a bold stroke. like left. though three of them are also used They vary in form.PAKT FIRST. when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. and. I. Hebrew and letters 1. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. aJl^J! o^aJt. and are all consonants. Arabic. Syriac. according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter. . as vowels (see § 3). along with their names and numerical values. a word. B NAME. for the most part. THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS.

on the other hand. as in this book. &* *!* sh. in which one letter stands above another. I Rem. it is Rem. %. and is V. 3. I. are very inconvenient to printers. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. The latter method a recent innovation. J A This combination ^. fy. especially when. i. in the earliest times. b.§ 1] I. end of a word these points are usually omitted. and form ligatures. ut. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. k has the point below. c. English and Arabic are intermingled. and inserted before a. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts. or even . The object of elif a. § 15). not only in Europe but in the East. J. thus s a f but 9 k below. *>). as is A . a. from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. <^. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. r+-. In some old Mss. § 3. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. 3. The Arabs sequence . hh. The Letters as Consonants. The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh. At the Rem. [These ligatures. But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. of which the following are examples.] * This is not confined. or. ir l * gh. generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. to African Mss.. £ £ ^. or in the more elegant Eastern founts. : ^ t single point k*. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon.

iUU^Jt iUM. ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) . [§ 1 Rem. plur.. in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). etc. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt. J. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. ^ has only one point above. especially those issued at Bairut. unpointed. i. J^j. cit. j.>)*. are divided the loose or free. i. and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . The letters are also divided into the following classes. Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 .4 a Part First. x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. JeJu). (. which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t).] . so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt. ^. and then ^ takes Rem. and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI.e. 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o. 5. To the former class belong ». prints. e. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). dL Those letters which are identical in form. j^. placing a point below. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. from 5. O. the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip). letters. such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. the use of the two points below is optional. and the like. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). the M 3 J 0* gingivals. ^ 3 sua ^ i h. below. or an angular mark above. letters. a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. j. c^U!»ug. the sibilants.e. — Orthography and Orthoepy. which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds. I ^ and c j to the latter £-. h pointed. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances. 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>. rem. k %.

the letters. less often with ^*. as well as Turks and Persians. or Arabia.. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. softer 5 bears the than our d. the liquids ^ J ^. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem. ^e weak 2. has the sound of the Heb.)t »J>jj3»Jt. which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l). the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m.. it is some of these letters. the Heb. s 3 J 0* J J f. like »-. > is the Italian dental. PI. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. the gutturals. stronger than d. soft letters. as in sing. is our g in get. The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s.] Greek 0. except by long intercourse with natives. 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. or the German Roche. <f. 9-. it In Egypt and some parts of U. however. or th in thing. ». x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play.)\). It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. will. The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. I C with hemza (t. but not rough Europeans. It is sounded . [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. the letters O > b. The Letters as Consonants. same relation to > that <1> does to O. rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI. see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds.or d-iJJt »J^aJI. homme or English hour. softer than our like the t. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH). O £> is is the Italian dental. t. I >^ c c *.§ 2] J ul ui I. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». 0. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire.has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch. The following hints however.

shin shut. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&. as in gargling. )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a. with. Hamdanled. j the English z. the Heb. AJaJI. which we have no example in English. the Heb. z. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss. mist. — Orthography it and Orthoepy. for bX^xA. in any of the Semitic languages.] . It is described as . the Heb. bears. is* is the surd s in sit. v°. are of Arabia. of modern Greeks. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa. 17 etc. without aspiration. J^.. as in run. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. [In Egypt an emphatic d. p.]. is a strongly articulated guttural k. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z. related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. it*. produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath. The y of the r. the Heb. strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. ft. V. is a guttural g.] y. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. JJ.6 Part First. is a strongly articulated palatal t. as a mere vowel-letter. J.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r. unpronounceable) guttural. the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/. or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©. is an aspirated 6#. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this). the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. s. and often in Mss. It is wrong to treat it. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. into or th in that. it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. — De G. strictly speaking. and the French r grasseye. To distinguish it from do to O and z.

m. e (as in pet). for kultu. and § 15) for a.g. (a) L feth (~$) . /. w (as in Zw/Q. e. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. e.Bsr or fetha (lm*&). t)*. (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin). * In point of fact. the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v. of a syllable . the German o in Mortel. £ du. In the is grammatical termination nounced like O. a.g. ji lau.. au. ya'ulu. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. 0. this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb. The Vowels and Diphthongs. see § •>) 1. halaka. o 1. m as w^».>». 1x5 1 ^Bftw. (Heb. ^ ^ for t and ai. When immediately . as 'ultu. ww. originally 3. * is our h. The Turks and Persians > II. 4] II. yakulu. 'anbar. la. I. j~& 'ambar. a. 4. iUw sembd'u. ^r* hum. j9tj=& i (as kerlmun.g. g. rem. not g&nb. e. : use of the three t (without hdmza. and tj. or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . e.1 —). obscure resembling the Welsh y. <v fo*Ai. shibau. which the old pausal - (ah). e (nearly the French (b) e muet). & J. . 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. w and #.gemb. in last the d is silent. or the (c) in bird) .§§ 3. i (a dull. *+* 'bmrun. (JX&. E. 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. and the modern . without any vowel coming between them. <d Ww. are exactly our k. as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels. ^-^ shmsun.g. o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**). A j followed by the letter w>. jf H -> H 7). The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels. n.

The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. ^3. into e. damma. — its De Rem. or on the line. are probably derived from 5. c. be given for the guidance of the learner*. form or figure. x x x . u. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. commonly used of the casee. jj*o sadrun. a. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified. and fetha. Rem. kesr a. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds. B mark t Ox plur. xx e. or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a. i.8 Part First. uttered. X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. a. though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure. Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. however. gards the signs L. 6. Compare the Hebrew MH^. A vowel 5 is called dib^a. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw.. e. S ywftU ajj^jaJI. w**J la'bun. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. a motion. is that the former denote the sounds a. one below for As rekesra. the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. or 0. . j*±. o.c © . xO p plur. In the oldest Mss. — . JULwt or J|y£w. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. one above for fetha.g. The terms ^^u and *3j.] . owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &. and one in the middle. [§ 5 A Rem. damm. *\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a. Lin for other positions. _. the latter the marks L. 1.— Orthography and Orthoepy. through for the various 1.]' are sometimes applied to L. for damma. ktmrun. kesr. u. will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. The following rules may. i. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). and ^£ or a.g. of the Kor'an. The distinction between the names feth. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. u. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides. is x ^sb * bakiya.

nor immediately precede.g. so as to resemble a small elif . respectively. e. SjU garatun. a. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun. e. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. at a later period. e.§ 6] _ II. garratun. J 15 kola. e. <C. after the the vowel-points. Rem. sound of to that of the French u or German jy». are indicated I. tunun.. j+&\ 'akbaru . olUI. Z words hat. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. 1J&. g. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. C~l£> katabta. The Vowels and Diphthongs.g. pronounced as e. It retains. 3»o i. ^=>j*« m^rkebun. to be carefully distinguished 2 . e.j**fi> 'o'mrun. 0^**> nearly torun. "letters of prolongation. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). cap. U^A.g. <JUI. Zjj* marratun.JUt from (^e resurrection. of the short vowels before the letters ^j.g. letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. Jj bdl. JikJ to/a. c>**^> axJ^JI. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. however. u. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. Ot^-JI. w*fc> ro bun. • # 9 x «.g. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim.g. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u. one of those letters. ^>j*jJI. IJJb. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). i. $j*». f *. K+£\. JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. e. ^ao. and o\ o. The long vowels a. C>£^l)t. suratun . O**-' seniinun. *aj bVa. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that.g. however. sUrtm. $$** sukun. «£l«~> sbnibkun. literae productionis. and also in general at the 6. by placing the marks C and ^. less clear sound. e. end of a word. oSS or £*$. s J . ^^1. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u. ^-£3 Bsrun. — . iUi. approaching to that of a in the English — . a weaker. More in exactly. J ( e. w.g. a was at and hence long vowels. the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case. ^Ac 'ilmun.

I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. aIU. The letter o. 6. jj^iu. and " § 5. Gesch. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra.. which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics. The sound of L. . I corresponds to fetha. Caniles. final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy. * [The omission of ^ p.10 Part £©**JI / First.t. 251. the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. j>?UM. d. and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . . and occasionally some other vocables. el-Haft. Carlo. / *y-U. value). / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. a^oJI c*».g. 6). JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3. ^ Wver Guadiaro. are sounded ri&#.g. and 3. / »j\ i^tj. / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. localities. el-'Asi. inclines. tl-imdla. # of Rem. This change is called aJU*jM. etc. J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t .] . is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. c. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. / . jJJ} . are I also frequently written defectively wJi. JO / j . whence sister of fetha. ^l^Jt. Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ. J w^aJt. J / / U^A. ^^^aJI. conversely. such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn. i. are written a». a. ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. dJ>l5.» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*. ^j-^tijt. Ztow Pedro. S^JOI C^»-t. for ^yUjt.jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu . than in others. lisin and. the final I was shortened or dropped. m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu.» j^. o^o saifun. — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. See Noldeke. &i&. preceded by damma.g. \ Si / j J/ I J . price. I • I J t 0/ . ^ stor damma. 0/1/ and ^jj^U. just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4. j J . 0/ e. / £e£m. The words ^*}U. in later times and in certain from a to e. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . ojJsu ^j>. o/* ^. Lebrilla. • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au. Z?e/a. Qordn's. bnu H-Yemani. D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t.b. oW*-j c£J^*j 7. 6a6. / / Rem.

can be abbreviated. § 10). in j If a pronominal suffix be . y. otiosum). § 19. in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23. the separating eiif Rem. letters A.g. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf. which it is protected by hemza. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. See the details below §§ 167. Rem.g. . b. after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. On the other hand many Mss. \j£ yaza).. ^J*-» yedai. rem. the elif that Jx e&/*. 6)f.-oj rama. Rem. f). etc. xx or a**). as in # * j I. become nearly 9 (Heb. d. After ^ at the end of a word. tjj-aJ. suprascript. even very ancient ones. (£lif e. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters.g. *-) sfTftft. A w*** sefun. Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun). like I. and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. 213 (as Li^-j he will live. must be considered. when old Mss. as in final. like J * itself . x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. is \^cj.~\ The diphthong ai. not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom. and 1. e. particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs.1 ** . with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai. l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e.§ 7] x II.1.e. .» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e. »XX . the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM.J3 fata. both when preceded by damma and by fetha. The Vowels and Diphthongs. a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U.*^. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. the world). tj>>*J- This I. £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\.] . It receives this name because. L*^j Behnesa. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya . and //»/ " x x is called.Jl Hid*. a). 169. but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj. is often written. * 0*0*. shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant. but and o (Heb. . rem.g.g.. before jj/J\ (see x § x 20. ^-)> e. a. as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g. .^. [But ^-.

JU a.1 .. \j+&. viz. and accus. further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*. way l affecting the sound of the ten win. j ju*. of the Kor'an. as bb. name JS jj*©^ [or. ^a^ 114. L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . t>^Jt for b>. c. O . The j of $. it a.12 Part Rem. l^jj. so also \y>j. 1 or iL un. companies a hemza. however. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n. which is always short : bdbdn.£ in three cases]. rem. tenwln genit. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. djXo or S^Lo. [§ 8 A d. genit. without in any to the proper 4 .] In old Mss. b.or S^a-.+£• and JJ-+& ) is. * i. all when the away (§ 315. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. X j+c 'Omar. L an. Rem. This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). as in 1-w. accus. for which we more usually find U*w. nor. Zamahsari. the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. it as in j^jdb. when acto . Sj£»j or 3>%j. falls jj-o*. for l\ J^.] . Rem. p. no I is written. but 4aJ^». of 31. To one word j * . However. g. often neglected in old manuscripts. rarely j \jj-+&. according to the older orthography. [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\. SyU. the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions. e. . Sjjwt. malun. when precedes a ^. 2jj j*c medlnetan. _ in. — Orthography and Orthoepy. z = — _ =_. and bpt . as S^a. . Amr (not x Amru). See t § 308. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. 8. j+£. SyCiLo. b) j>©. rihdn. l viz. . is added. Rem. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. First.— DeG. [Cf.

^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. - -. ^J=>. j>*o.g.g. as between feth &&& fetlia. b. (see § 4. x J strengthened (3juL&). In some old Mss. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. JL3. ^&i ~£= katabtum. ^jJb B. when they form a diphthong with fetha. rest. to separate the two. . Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. fore to the hum. e. rem. e. letter. has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*. b. c. 5 x \ 9. Rem. A. but marked with the sign -. j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa. are marked '. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. Ox Rem. is D 11. . JJ. c. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. whence the C of the 2 . In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. for ^s>. is written only once. J**i. used. movent rem. a). etc. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). A Gezma x or Sukun. O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '.§11] III. ^jXt. and serves. (amputation). ^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. are retained in writing. ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7. Gezma. ^j and 3. Jj bel. a). a. or. m A letter which letter. Gezma or Sukun. The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14). which is called .» letters of prolongation. instead of the common ±: or 1 .g. SIGNS. with which other name x \j£~i. rem. as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 . § x- 59/ j*±e*. ^£»L>. \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda. productionis they Rem. as the Arabs say. z. Other Orthographic Signs. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e. © x x e. b. d).g. Rem. but not marked with a gezma. Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables. a quiescent See § 4. or a*j^. when another syllable J follows. 13 III. coincides. later d. A consonant that fl to be doubled. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2.

takes place. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. -.£. therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru. D Rem. of ji Of CU5.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere. tesdid is * expressed by « or ^.g. not even excepted.e. admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). (from UubL^ lightened. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun. Rem.»). to. of the Kor'an. Ojji. is sometimes written. * [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. the vowel is not always written with the sedda . is not required . J&\ Si M-kulla. e. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. All consonants whatsoever. -. in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . Tesdid. elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule.] . in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila. the tesdid {strengthening)*. The African Arabs constantly write for -. -. below the line. . in combination with -.>jut>. i. instead of Jj3 and J>*3. — Orthography e. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " .«. stand for £.14 Part First. £ may . sing.. b. when accompanied by kesra. y* murrun.g.g. Rem. 2d pers. C <*£&>. as in African Mss. as may be seen from the above examples. a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. single). ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. cj-tU na"agun. In the oldest Mss. —De G. e. Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. Perf. ~ . as well as £. sing. . which. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. Rem. properly so called. no doubling. or the first letter of the name ojut>. <fec. of the fifth form Rem. c. 3d pers. It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi. a. In combination with . Perf. [§11 A JujJLSf.*.is an abbreviated ^i. jv» semmin. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. *$d> kullan. d. In African Mss. it and Orthoepy. The solitary exception to this rule. and receive tesdid. fern. ± alone may be = t . -. e. at least in old manuscripts.

It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. like ilcu^a. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. as in jto. for kiidbun mublnun. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends.) after the article Jl . to avoid harshness of sound. (b) b. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. the Rem. and &*£$. Tesdid or Sedda. letters. it is sometimes found after it 1. UkjodH. ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi.g. and after n with £ezm. <>?. ^. &. y> (murrun) language. 3. j^UI k-timru. . yi. j. ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu. the because the word j^3. whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). ^-^Jt Ss-semsu. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. j>.> [see § 277]. is bitter. e. is B. With the J. and the other lunar them.§ 14] III. . but ja\ (ammara). 13. sun. *£>. >. appointed some one commander . J». ^. sibilants. JIaj <jt after the nunation. which. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. is. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI. but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. 15 12. as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). as C^»tj letters j. used : — (a) With the letters O.g. and Jj.g. c J. This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. save in rare instances. 'ar-rahmanu . Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. solar because the word u~+J*. e. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant. 0> (dentals. or. letters. iesdFid. Other Orthographic Signs. Ja. 5. J-JJt el-leilu. j. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. ui. he. ^L 14. JJI. in African and Spanish manuscripts. happens to begin with one of them. j. a. The w of the . moon. jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^. JJ ^>o. though expressed in writing. e.>L©.

16 Part First..g. e. on the contrary.>«. v° b. ^ v >«.jt £ {if not). it naturally unites with the is written. a. ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . JL. and grammarians. c. [§15 A words v>«. which \j3. after e. like O. *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. for ^ O*. compression.jl £ (i/*. k*±. a. but a conthe spiritus lenis. rem. ^Jj\. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel. W* for U £>*> ^ itself. when it is sonant. a. with redundant U). *£>. — Orthography and Orthoepy.^t. jilf. is of the upper part of the windpipe. Ut £ for U. £>*> 0*> I*. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. however. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu . 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God. is distinguished by the viz. e. is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. d. such as >. for C-slsua. also sometimes called nebra (S^J. and rem. Rem. Rem. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9. He^mza or Nebra.. by a C weaker servile letter. as C~J for cJL5. (tf/iatf. in a si .g.31. b. j^\ . but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*. pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation. * D 15. £>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta. see § 4. )» s With the letter O . the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel . . \j}\ t Ua*. mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N). elevation)'.O-*a. juXSI. e -g. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant. . Rem. second b. If the verb ends in O in the above cases. Rem. with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. ^Sj. f°r O**** or v>» . rightly. (dentals).. jwl. a).jl. 6. always. are hardly ever written separately. . ILd. so that only one O is O.» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. but the . it i. lj.. u° or h. g. union of the two indicated by the tesdid C.. Elif. Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether.

* J gaa. c£X±.. I. Accusatives * w. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain. rem. pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. after elif productio?iis. l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &. for ^j^-wl^. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). jt. of the Kor'an. or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8. by a large yellow or green dot. Rem. accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L. like l^ and l^J? are often written. £^3. Ji* and the d. f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. e. tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem. In African (and certain other) Mss. § 4.. e. is written between the t and the vowel that . 16.§ 17] III. 4JL%*©. §§ 131 seq. l^. varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above. c). ^j\ or <jt for ^>t. 17 Rem. ^. (a) Always at the end of a word. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui.g. b. j5~t for j-w (see § 16).. as ^j^t\^J. Ju*>. .g. after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma. el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu). e. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points .g. Rem. hemza e. though [See below. J0^i\js>\ (but for J . when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). In the oldest Mss. C*£».Ufc. w*33j 17. Rem. j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota. C. Hemza it. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. or ltu»» for U*i». s uun\ i^o. in the fol- lowing cases.j>Jwl£.. ** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss.. Other Orthographic Signs.3. and in the middle of a word. is e.g..g. like. e-j ^^j for it chW. *U*.l. c.. . preceded by a shut syllable. for ^>>L. for Ol». ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word. Hemza or Nebra.] 3 . (jlt^iJI. a)'. tbj.

is. l*J* \\>j and in old Mss.18 Part First. and uu. Rem. called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c. from S^a-o. a following After a consonant with gezma. J-~j for JL*j . oUJ]. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o.g. and Orthoepy.kri c or &Lla». £. e. though improperly. Hemza between w&. ^ £ j 3 . for JU»t.. The name j^tj or ^i\y David. 6. hati'atun. as ^>ott or is ^\. but must always be pronounced Da'udu. O/ as for i — Orthography . and followed by a or s a.1^. Rem. 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. pronounced makrit'atun. placed itself.g. for **o*> from *^. j to. *Zo* j 9io. j c-> . as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. S$j-£* for SjjjXo. £lif with [This hemza. o. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of . PuUr* for 0^ . (b) Frequently in the middle of words.g. J^/f. e. at. or after a consonant with gezma.>*1t. and damma before the for ^Hjjj. however. rn'usun. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation. iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. ^j^ au. for ^t. as J£*t. ai. as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. is often written ^\y . Lw. ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel. or ^hj^j which words must always be . necessarily so. ua. we find such instances Z\}j. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&. u. a. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. more frequently. jit£ for ^otjj. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. — ^. 0^34 for oL5^. for^. ^^jj for ^Hji. 1 ^eU for ^oU). if the preceding consonant be an . Rem.. [§ 17 A contrary to rule. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh . A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>. and also e. after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^. which is connected with letter. as JLtj for JLjj.

or &L03. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM.g. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active. and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. of the usual sbs. listen. Other Orthographic Signs. With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA. at the commencement of A a word. j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. rem. he said. Imperative. X *>*> . S^-j&JI. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif.g. JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13. in modern African Mss.a. O x ^ x 5x § 4. i. d. J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < .o$ or 4JL0 .& downfall or extinction. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ . xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e. In the oldest Mss. + * regular verb. £ s 'OiO . |x X . or 2X& (see x bi rem. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. with a point to indicate the itself. which sometimes varies in position. a&I. 19 D.. e. Wasla. 19. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red). we rr J- L instead b. as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13. . and § 19. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e. the father of (b) the we~zir. f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. t J~~> .g. according to the preceding vowel. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. he said. I i. or rather. x See § 15. e.e. kill. "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt. was appointed governor . the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign . union. yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# .written over the . dU^l c-ol. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . a. a). and called J*&3. I 18.§ 19] III. In ancient MagribI Mss. a. When the vowels with hemza (t I). the stroke is used. Wasla.e. Slif. i. «i. rem. D. Rem. Rem. and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35). Hence even I.

that to say.>*-J. oatfAs. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. Rem. and § 18. and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic. jl^l5N)l. 9 a woman. in a contracted form. the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\. s-Jj^-- .© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). two (fern. Rem. 9t-*0 a name. 3 d. omitting the altogether.\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*.). b. as rem. is also elided after the asseverative particle J. orjj-ot. and * ^J\ * or ^j\. * . It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza. prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. in part merely prosthetic. because it is then no longer necessary. the anus. a * a daughter. the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^. e. xO xxO O^'l. b.>M. j^\ 30 (rarely^wt). so. : [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\. in part original. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. and occasionally m after the prepositions *. aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God). 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l. to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. c.^r^\^AJ\ JA>. a. but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms. especially after the article. but. and Orthoepy.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. a.^0-MvNjt J^. <ft jL^jf. two (masc). Cwl. rem. * 9 /) fe is neglected. a man. Rem. or. See § 15. JO* C is Rem. The hemza of j>^-»l. as ^t^iiNjI ^. /). J Oi Rem. as (lit.20 Part (d) First. — Orthography son. is in ^>*-jl after J). 9 J 9*0 §j*\.

To vowel. sing. is pronounced as written Q tjuJi. u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^. D. Other Orthographic Signs. 'n-nasi. the elect of God. The silent elif (§ 7. O in the eyes of the king. forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels.g. »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. in e the beginning.JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI . and au into cm as (c) . but begins the next syllable. Wasla.. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis.yju&t. (a) 20. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri. the connective elif the opposite elif.g. ^^t )^o*J my grace which.^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. at into ai. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ . 21 Rem.rfi. ^_ and e. in the other two an elif separationis. for ft and 'abu. see § 19. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. Hence gtj£^t ^3. first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis. for <UJt ^aJsucuo. A II . the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . instead of . J*Wi. which equally admissible. but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. B shortened e. J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. father of the wezir. A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel . This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. elif sejunctionis or separationis. f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t . as u«jJi . subject to change (a I weak elif letter). J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). fear the people. these different cases the following rules apply.20] III. rem. the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. AJJt j)BJn. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma. or a consonant with gezma. b and c. a diphthong. The suffixes of the 1st pers. according to the law stated in § 25. ^.« mustafdu 'lldhi. according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. being sJgJUl oUI. viz.

which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. such as sjs. £ take kesra. but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. since. yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra . or adopts the lightest of the three vowels.>£).>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu. and ^A their. . b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85.. is The final £ of rejected. Oi Ox But jt and to meet. The same it is is the case with Jco. as tjjiaST jj.6. kesra. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. x0£<0. the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns. JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s.^0^ you. Perf. [§ 20 xx A thong. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) . and particles. C fetha djj\. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c. Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers.>*. as . them. ^A or^A. plur. x v~k*. from.. jS. takes . and after they saw the star. viz. } Rem. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu. you (accus. j£* your. for IjjjkTt Ji. & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. which time forth.»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma. D Rem. The preposition . b. etc. masc. the pronoun yj*.0*> x name . ^j\. ^Sj. x J x <5 ^j . verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS. J*. from. plur.). rem. a. instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm . Rem. J — Orthography w and Orthoepy. masc. before the article. J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel. viz. j and^A they. A . as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu.\.22 Part xx x 0*> First. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . Jj. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. they threw the stones . because contracted for Ju*. so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha .

Wasla. so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. . as by the J J OtO j . and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. § 315.0* . as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. as a whole. the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. b. real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs. jy&J*o wise. if ^jj\ jU. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained. Z . la tadriba 'bnaka. in a genealogical series. forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. ' interposition of the noble. DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr. J^pJ to the man. but form part of the predicate. oUaaJI Rem. 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka. ^t j+s. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad. when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to.§21] - III. for aJUI^wb. For example. rem. of the son precedes. [Cf. the son struck Sa'd. for J*^). . e. aUI j^s." being Amr. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary . ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. the son of Halid. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. In the article Jl. Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. if that word happens Rem.c. omission of the In the word ^t. "the black. it is ls**J> Ridha. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather.g. but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname. b. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. that is to say. (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases. B when the name the genitive lira .] the second noun be not in apposition to the first. a. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. the an adjective. D. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. . son. to stand at the beginning of a line.ijj sjj£. t. the J s I retained. 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. thus: j^.

is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti. (t. [Cf. In the oldest and best Mss. *U. o e. i. is frequently omitted. extension). b. and that for alJJN). as S&JJ. y>^tf. shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases. for JUS. is it (fem. (£) by the affirmative particle J truly. 22. we find in old Mss. for 2JJJJ. ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna.>. according to some. a. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>. cited in § 358. Q Rem. after the conjunction J sj. for ^UjM.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\. I. As mentioned above 1U*.g. has fetha. rem.Z .) brokenl ^Jjd^5t. for iOn. I . e. lengthening.) is written instead of the former. ^*>. the form of the medda » x ji*). a. a. j-o3. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as .gaa. rem. E. is placed over the latter . — Orthography and Orthoepy. when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\.] Medda or Matta. Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij. for (d) In nouns. elif In this last case. and the article Jt. for Oj-Jull. for llo-*.e. rem. xxOjx^o^ ^. so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem.e. then a mere hemza etc.] . such forms as tbj. § 140. Rem.). as Jlli. of the Kor'an..*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^). is Rem. a... and the sign of prolongation. then the J of the article is omitted. for *l»..24 Part First.. to ask.a»Jt. (§ 17. 6.). c .. the two . is son—1 O^Xit. he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M . for^5Jo»Jtt. Ih. rem. (i. in Mss. in poetry. 5jL« or aJsh. elifs # when the second j s s o. *X*~> semdun. wj^aJI yJ — De G. ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'. » a>. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto..>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19. Its opposite is j*oA (i. [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>. verbs. verily. as aJUJ to the night.

rem. b. medda (see § 6. may God be <*JUI well pleased with. U for Uh*»»l.g. e. of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. in and the verbal termination j£. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. Cfor J^a-. has nothing in common with medda but is the form.. the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. o or t. instead of with Rem.e. when they are used as long poetry. the lengthened or long elif. for 4 . h). E. —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript. tut instead of L*t or tutt. In some old Mss. 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17. is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. b). Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha. i.g. . see § 174. [But we some- times find U.\ . Medda or Matta. Rem. or the vowel.jt or . informed us. Ut or to the end of etc. Ae narrated to us tfAew. ajx. Other Orthographic Signs. d. rem. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. as ly~J j jo£ . upon him/ for 6j±. or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. e.^**. when followed by an elif hemzatum. may GW /*e Aave mercy it. . the hemza being written final a) .^* or ^**. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem.g. In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\. He (God) exalted above all.j£*. When. (t) is at the beginning of a syllable. alwt for }tL*l.§ 23] III. a) c. l^a***. only is (§ 17.] 1 Rem. then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda. e. a. Medda prolongation. an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). W for LS jo*-. The mark -. w. GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to.J I. U^-l . So Jtj for jJUj. 25 this is is but rarely written. rem. along with the medda. ^2J\ j&. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. aJUt ^y^j. often written over abbreviations of words.

that the ancient it is as kul. 26. another manuscript . explanation. the first of which is destitute of a vowel. — Again it is. and is repeated more clearly on the them. to fypov 27. or ^!wa1.e. on passing into the Arabic language. D Rem.Generally speaking. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable. the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir. Foreign words. 0*0 0* y^M.26 Part First. dJbd over a <x\x). — Orthography and Orthoepy. and ~~*a over of Mss. as . A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum). which we call a shut or compound syllable. tin. the third implies that the marginal reading. Vlp). Before a double consonant a (see § 13. together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. end in two consonants. *-Jj*y\. to be placed first. the fix o < correct one 5*-o. is almost always short . to be placed last. may be either long or short. J . as J13 ka-la. and jajJLc. as sf or fir. which commence with a syllable of this sort. where the final short vowels are suppressed. C we 24. either separated or followed . the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text. syllable that terminates in a vowel. and denotes form or vocalization. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. and stands for < ~*J. IIXaTwv f J . rem. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct. may (i. is. find words with the letters *f~. it is correct. emendation. text. though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. we often W O * these indicates a variant. The first of U J margin. ^. 25. is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. and not that of the text. which are not by a vowel (except in pause). ' « . a copy. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant.). JU pause. ^)L^. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. Jy> (Heb. in the writer's opinion. -*~o stands for ^o. an. — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. etc. correction. first consonant . usually before the . A take an additional vowel. THE SYLLABLE.

*!_ or 2t_. . *fe\ 'a-fa-ld. the accent falls upon the antepenult. ku-beil. d-du. kd-nun. j_. 5 *' *" ** x* J . bd-ti. I. ^r* kd-ta-ba. (b) * Monosyllables in combination with . mu-mi-nfn. if it 31. Rem.a-du- l wun. 9 lj-4 biir-un. is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la.§ 31] V. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. it is 30. ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. J. l Oxx kd-ti-bun. m».e. ly-»|p fa-?-a- . U-^t 'ei-na-md. 9 uf ma-fdr.J . g^lsu ba-ti-un. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. ham-rd-'u. w>. 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. bu-nei. is the interrogative enclitic j> . mdk-ru .j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na. Jl-rfnd. J3I 'a-kdl-lu. nature or position « x . it is 29. in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. ya-kH-ldn-na. UJ ^-rad See 351. Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. i D ^^ the penult is short. kd-ti-bdt. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w.B *3j** mak-ru-un. But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl. _ ^J ^i li-ma. \S£> ka-dd. . When has four or more syllables. ne-bi . c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. as ^. ul-J . X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma. j js. *j_. y bi-hi. ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^. i>*>^ yun. £15 fa-kdt. i. rem. Vj wa-ldm. j. and vJ. hdm-ra. The Accent 27 THE ACCENT. as ya-kul. long by nature. as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun. The penult takes the accent when . bil-ldur. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. The last syllable of does not take the accent.33 wa-kul. The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position. Rem. j>V. ne-bi-yun. J. that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». bil-ldu-run. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun. l^ bi-md. U la-nd. 'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un. ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. (a) The pausal forms . ^.>*) li-mdn. V. or. J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. i).

[also Spitta. and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor. as the following table shows. des arab. Rem. — Orthography . [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum. B 32. and Wallin in the same journal. pp. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd.. Egypt and among the Bedawin. the Indian notation. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. 1874. have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt. tAvt. Grain. THE NUMBERS. as jut*a£. They are written from right to left. On deviations from these principles of accentuation. ten in number. vol. &v. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. They are the same that we Europeans make use of.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij.j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. p.. and Orthoepy. as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed.] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880).« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun. xii. calling them Arabian. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md. Vul- 59 sqq. VI.28 Part First.g. iv. the the alphabet. . letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. Their form.»>.: 123 4 67890 . vol. 1874. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them. 183-6. because we took them from the Arabs. pp. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society. however. Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. at other times peculiar signs. 670-3.

being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. The Forms of Verb. III. JU**t XV. JjiSl XIII. Jl3 to kiU. Perf. a. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. JjuJI. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. >& JiL ? l VI. 33. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). JJuilt XIV. I. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms. pers. that is The great majority to say. JiS I. Ji^t VIII. A. JiliA j£ Ju& II. but the learner XL XII. the Triliteral 1. (with juSt number. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV. Rem.. is X. but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive. contain three radical letters. VII. A General View. .PART SECOND. which first. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. THE VERB. J*tf V. IX. masc. sing. literal verbs are by no means rare. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. instead of he has killed. The 3d of the verb.

according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. ' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . a. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons. u*j^ be sick. j*£* become ugly. to think. to become noble. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. 38. that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition. v** J y^3 to go away. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. Kamil. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. The vowel signification.Part Second. As are those adopted in note them carefully. to be large. Rem. jJ*j to go right way. whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. w>o to beat.] — . jj&> to know upon. De G. j*y\ to become whitish. 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam. t^~U. to sit. ^j+e to be J* blind. and not a few of the write. and therefore govern the accusative. c. * [Or.j+& j**o to be small. . *£t or to E. (scire). the learner should 36. D Rem. for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before. or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . —Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. The distinction between them is. * to be safe and sound. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful. ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear. *-ji or JJ^ glad.» to be heavy. sorry. j^~* old. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO .g. b. 415. thinking. to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. to s^^ to become gray. Rem. is B 37.g.g. j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. e. sJj& high or noble*. ^v^a. w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill. p.

xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces. 40. as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie. UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&. or during a long time (temporally extensive). w>j~o to #£#£ violently .to ?raa#0 carry. or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). Gr. Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach. *IaJ to cut in pieces . though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. b. ^J to weep. Js3 to massacre . Forms of Triliteral Verb. A. 165 $eq. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ).~\ /S/ X Xx A 39. E. Jt*». a.§ 41] I. Rem. The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. General View. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. it is Rem. i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down. to believe him. the apparent difference being that original in the latter. 1. Jjy to separate. XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . JS3 to to Mil. Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often.5 to cw£. form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. .^jiz x w-A to wWto. 31 Rem. w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry. fo«£. as^Xft know. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification. JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive).g. w>o B j*& ala. The Verb. The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical. JU. ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. xx or <J\h to go round. Jjji to disperse . j~£> to break. first Verbs that are intransitive in the . w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. Ubt^ to weaken. b. but derived in the former. [See Comp. 9-j* to gladden. term. Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth. transitive or causative in the second # . p. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic.

x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5).] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical. Rem. [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative.to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»). derived. to the Heb. j&j*. he said to off). g.i. JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar. compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). It modifies the signification of the 42. in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry. j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^. jl*. to coZ/ec2 to to e. c. or the like. jQ+m. x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). to dwell in a place. ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U». j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w. J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x . ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja). 43. (^^J&t <*£M). as well as in signification. Gr. Uju*. (_>»U. 198 sea. . " to skin an animal. a mutual one. first p. and ex- or doing of.j). to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin. dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee). ^UT. o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him .). by the elif productionis. *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). isj-o .32 Part Second. JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt). ^fap and Aram. . ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar.g. Sometimes. (may GW prolong J^O thy life). perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object. ing ways. JUi corresponds in form. hfap. . a&3 he killed him. iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly. ^&0— [See Comp. (??i«2/ thy nose. fi like the fourth form. Rem. or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with. (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). d. — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. agju*.

Ji. a^pU he procured him means of doing so. <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan. „ . he threw him down. (something). the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. General View. axStj do. A^ol*. he went first is to law with him. dJuL* he ran a race with him.U» 5 .. conversed with him .Io he wrestled with . £>*~j*. gently . 1. tli to be hard. g. 33 alii he overcame him.he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . the relation B of which to an object object). . oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. Forms him of Triliteral Verb. . «o *i« he fell upon aAs. Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . X X J . X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. ^U. Aiwl». sulted with him. t mander of the Faithful. aljlS he corresponded with him. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. E. A. jlS>t he advised him. . do. w. treated be good or kind. \J&\+b to double. he treated he.^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him. . he vied with him in rank and glory . ojsMt he competed with him in doing so. is here. him kindly . (c) . aijli he strove to do so.§ 43] I. attacked him. The Verb. but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied. AiS*) he treated him it . >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. <uuw he outran him. E. o^Sh he strove to do so. »^jafe more or less distinctly implied. 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. sj**±. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit.to d-wla. from Julc the like or equal . g. ac. as in the former case. £f$ to be soft or gentle. to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly . oa. When the or fourth form denotes an act. ideas a. A aJU he tried to overcome him . and affects him or brings X him into that state. ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do. d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry.g. Rem.

34 Part Second. intransitive in the first form.s. from which they are derived. The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. J±}). J*^t he ate bread. a . ^oAfct to E. ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. the first. a. or or it. Geog. j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. many that of a transitive verb. The fourth form I. of denomi- Rem. he thought him. B Aghdni —De dUU. 197 c. he found him. Zamahsari. . Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun.] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt.<» . because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. rem. e£c.lj. UJ is ^. they have in some cases different to teach. t^&S he shewed him Rem. niggardly . Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS).v.. . v~y** to sit down. if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth. Thus J*. found him cowardly . eat. a = Heb. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>).. (Gl. 202 seq.aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty. cites xiii.^JU to escape. i.t to >*swJt make run.g. 6) see Corap. p. verb is . 6V. ^s- inform one of a thing .. b. to the Heb. When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41. and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . to \Jj** sit to run. 52. If the in 45. Jjbl .* ot oj*+*»\ J . b.g. sjof^\ \S^ c. like the second as t alsLjt he thought him. Jailw ojicb. G. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth. ( . to know. natives. he to be praiseworthy or commendable. The fourth form J' s Of. or found him to be. [§ 44 A double. sometimes declarative or estimative. significations. fold well. [Rem. of which it is the direct object. D Rem.g..— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. found the district abounding in fresh herbage. E. it becomes doubly transitive in the E. in others the same. Faih. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing. 44. C c/~^t bid one to down. to let go. tj>». Rem. to be. a).

*£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) . " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower. j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place.) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face. to >~». or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels.11).i to cto fault or error. Usui. Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). to to ebx Irak .oi to E.it>i a male or a female child." calve. ^3t advance. s i * to give " . ^£wl. to enter x x * .. serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face. Ae re^'reo?. well or *^J." "to seed. j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. Thus AetoJ ^ J VII. C-^Ui sAe son. the entering — of time (being. 0>£»>t. x . ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi. pj~i\ a * i to make haste.] . 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\). Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. ^ ^. 35 produce herbage (j^j). JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin.. ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA. *L>I." "to lamb"). ~ . jj>\ to retire ("reculer"). Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them. go to Aoi go to the left) . The Verb. run with *• outstretched neck. ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . < .* (J»iu). i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa. w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV. I. . . I 4(S o 9-~o\. in Hebrew. General View. Usui to 6e sto or B tardy. or becoming something. tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt). A. ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . obtaining or getting having something. j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory . abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ .g. or VIII. x x oi and 7*X£KTl. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. doing. o t (Jjtj*M). . people) or oe aVy (of a season). ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). of a certain kind*. wwt. ol .§45] to I.1 jJUl to act a proof ill. acquiring a quality. or suffering something therein).it commit a commit a blunder. go # to the right. j^\. upon a period * soi ssoi to . into a state or condition.l. . w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. ^° 1.^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&.^. -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. J^D^H. jJsuot to O . is I battle . ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3). w-^/'t a noble . . sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently.

36 Part Second. for (rad. . . literally. Forms 69. e. J~l&.'. deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ. and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf. reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '. instead of it will be observed. \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±. seo/. uJS). In English it E. The . that is to say. girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3. JJJL». like XXX £\j& are 118).Jl. w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. p. it is the pjUa-o of the second form. d. has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP . or the Parts of Speech.. ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) . 'jJojS. action denoted by the second form effect or result. ^4^1. in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the . to be [§ 46 A farthing. "°Z Rem. St break one's compact with a person. SftpK. JJtjJh for to pour out rest to . %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces. g. <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67. '£&. become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused. as its must often be rendered by the passive. prefix. 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth . or «3!/v°> 46. Heb. to terrify).. to wish.jij^\.» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated. *->j*o3 . h*ppn. This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) . 204 The Hebrew. to reduced to utter want. Aram. took away its 4*a*£. obscurity or toani of clearness. (P *^) . to be proud. it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action. GV. . j^\. become possible.Of.t . patient. for to give discoverable in Arabic. jm£\ garment) or clear. . to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . See Comjt?.. owe. o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-.g./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O. '*'. ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint. Phcen. ^g» (*&*J). „ . J B . to let rest. j~£3 to be broken in pieces. O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. D 47. £jJu to be dispersed.

to affect courage or manliness. *»•>> .j (§41. Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. £jj3. sip to or sup. rem. Jiia^J. without change of sense. jjjj * to take as an abode. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow. to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!). to look at to. [In some cases the difference between II. \f^. j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). j^j^ to amid blame.§47] I. at first sight. to have wholly disappeared. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent. a». The Verb. i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. and V. A. ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. Forms of Triliteral Verb. *xwU become as bold or . entirely disappears. ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative. ^>a*j. to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). to make to oneself or turn oneself into. to examine or study. to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids. **-~J to liear to speak. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. j**\3. or to affect.] we may substitute ±r»yu.g. Rem. c) Thus for ^^3. long or repeatedly. b. Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. to abstain from. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). £***£. 37 with Kais or Nizar. »J to pursue step by step (literally. tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. understand. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. fo become a Jew (^O^). ^ra? as a foora (ju»t). General View. to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain. 1. (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. so that to may be quite clear. cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab. as a prophet to (J^*J). J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of. e. dispersed. or atvta* sm or crime. 2*j-**3. Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. a. w ^a>J . but Q Rem. a earnestly.

^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned.g. to teach. to to learn. namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. we might say. [§ 48 A c. Q only of an impersonal. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). but did not learn. whether it be caused by another or by himself. D 49. whereas object of. or prove to be. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism. Rem.g. by prefixing the syllable It is the O. JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41. becomes e. I kept sixth . effective. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. he was learned (= taught). rem. likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). (received instruction).38 Part Second. whence we see its identity with the Heb. to (become learned)*. ILo-*^ to know. g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. j^s. We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£. JJU»J become. distinct. the action of another . Rem. g. Rem. he was taught Again. 0-++> to appear clear or certain . d). even more common. which transitive in the third form. explain. a. different j^jo to become learned. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram. 48. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him. but did not learn to be separate. 50. as J^l3 d3 j&b. which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. ^G o-o to make clear. b. clear. the reality or fact. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. . him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. but also of a personal passive. E. sometimes the indirect object (dative). The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative). pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form.

si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another . vol. Somewhat similarly. or exalted. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . aJjti he fought with him. whence in the passive. the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. . rem. or perfect.JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed.§50] I. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. D made itself (became or was) too great. Forms of'Trilateral Verb. inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . to ^j^W* to pretend to cry. § 1 f . ii. above all. General View. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred. A. JaUJ feign ignorance. him. j^Uj to to pretend to be blind. with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance. The Verb. b. *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. 1. A jjULj to pretend to squint. *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . oU»J pretend to be deceived. aJI C~«U3 .g. e. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . Rem. ^jloJ to feign sickness.]. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf.g. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. Rem. j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult. a. When used in speaking of God. jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly. e. subjects. for him . * * collective. gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together. 39 the thing. OjUj to pretend to be dead. and lUaaJt C~~*y3. or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them. above all . another. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. Further.

as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. first rem - 51. Geog." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so. §§18 and J. — De G. compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. 20 first vs. By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth.] . added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i. Slj^t colnerentes. a middle or reflexive signification. [§51 A (^ c. Hamasa p. and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. It must be remarked. before which § 26). [Hence bit. For the cases in which 19. and so strengthening. Rem. as it were. another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). /tOipriPl ( see § ^3.40 Pakt Second. and as to the orthography instead of § 19. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. this I becomes I. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. c. and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. d. supporting. the others) . and why. s. d. this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts. The seventh form has also originally. however.g. c. and comm.] C is Rem. J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111). to which sative). J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build. may be added but always the direct object itself. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). as pjUx* of the first. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj. D 52. ! see with rem. of one The idea of reciprocity e.v. Ji*»>. in walking*). rem.

g. 53. x x x Rem. and so ancient. to be to be broken. JUdtil to 6e bolted. to £xxo 60^. (§ 51.. A. 215 seg. ^£>fjt. from JjUj to 6e narrow. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. o£ to j»w£ to rights. The Verb. not to be found. [Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt. i. *a. JUul to be uttered or spoken. especially in more recent times. 54. G. The radical in consequence loses its vowel. m Rem. UJsul # to fo extinguished. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals. to fo |?w« to rights. out of the reflexive. x J x . UUJQI uncovered.'»t. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress. X XX O p. Sometimes. particularly in modern Arabic. g. Gr. to break into pieces .). to be ended. are incorrectly formed. ^mm*J to become broken. ^\Ji7b 63. jaJ\ a.— De Rem.g. B upon him e. from JiA£t x^xog e. General View. - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. 41 often to a passive. JUJt to open (of a flower). though in actual use. cut to off. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived. from *JLot JUJxil. c. to be made x manifest. Si to be docile or submissive. or an effect to be produced . 7fcDp3> see Comp. to fall.«sul. x x O \ appear . jUjI X 6e repeated. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. Forms of Triliteral Verb. j~£j\ to break (intrans.. jtjM to be non-existent or missing. from >U to return. 1.s* . the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. rem. from to 6e stupid or foolish . to x x end.§54] I. the last in a tradition. 6 . becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w. 6. At the same it time. from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down.] jilit corresponds to the Heb. to flee. E.). from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit. jJbJLit to be to split itself.

* Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another. that they may be translated by the same to relate . -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. Gr. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J. L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro. fought with one another. ^U*t to be full. and * tjtfudt. to seek for it * * * v . Rem. to be victorious .l * to collect firewood. ^oS . The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . to * * follow one's track. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another.— Etymology Rem. *. as Jjji to divide. 208.42 Part Second. p. implying for oneself. D 57.f> and ^. to to place (something) before one. to carry off by force. as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces. . J~+l to touch. yJa* * and w*kl».. e. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative. = ******* . dative. and sixth forms.] explanation of the actual form is O 55. l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God). for one's own advantage. or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical. . see Comp. to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing. word.»Jg»t * earn one s living . to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. Greek active and middle voices. b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another.. **o tjj^jfc. like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree. to measure corn. B J»ji to beat. ** . Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive. as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t. especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . ** * * j . to snatch away.. sJ^jt to be turned back. u°j* way. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification.1 they * * * were neighbours. which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO . * * * US and •*&£). w»j&\ do.. * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people . and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ]. so closely in their signifi- cation.g. . Jt£» and JU£»t meat. to part . J^t to to go asunder..

If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. t rem. £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . to be stern or £ * t gloomy. General View. the distinction between is. Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities. As the third radical. mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. The ninth form (jiit) . According to some grammarians. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. a [Others hold that XI. the night reached its middle point. 43 58. is Neither of these forms is very common.t to become commingled. to show that E. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked. the ninth and eleventh forms or . a. and hence the doubling of the third is radical. Forms of Triliteral first Verb. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . jo>t to be ash-coloured. u^tf^ an d u^W white. to >o run quickly. when doubled. the first radical.l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). Rem. confused. j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked .g. Rem. 2. and the eleventh the rarer of the two. (for ^£5*Xa-t. . is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable. They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. or languid . and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51. indicates . 1. jl£. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. draws the accent upon the penult. . is ^ or /( ^. being more rapidly pronounced. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. to squint. <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). loses its vowel. £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». A. o hasten. see § 167. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears).).§59] I. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. colours b. vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape). 59. The Verb.

J*£lwl to find heavy. for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . § 51. jU»jL>l to think good or excellent.j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) . the quality expressed by the *> 62. equip. rem. osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary. U»-t to bring to life. ready. 1299) p.] : " °' 60. A. to take entire possession . ^aJ^. prepare. ^©J~»t to give up. factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle. JU- to be . to grieve or distress. to preserve alive. good or beautiful. up. ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E. (for E. \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*».jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author. H. O of Cwl. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). The prosthetic is necessary. according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61. g.\ to oneself ready. * ° " ° (of it). Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * .44 Part Second. think it it light.g. or obeyed him. lawful. or a * * o it. or s accepted. oppressive or troublesome. in reference to himself or for his benefit. and the former editions of this work . js. . to think lightly of or one. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. in doing something. 50 seq.). but this view was marians. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. cA». ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. his prayer. . juCwl to get to yield be ready . The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses. Rem. a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire. . to ' * . to think one a bore. . on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. : [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX. D &mm*Z* it to think him.\ up {something) wholly. deliver over. *Jl*JL*\ despise. first form.

to deserve. j-oA. E.JL«I*1 permit. lit. g. D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy.g. it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission. it The tenth form is frequently denominative. A. &c. 45 so strictly factitive. Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb. was. j he should be fetched. General View. The Verb. seeking. ask for something to drink. in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. reflexive. E. of. or caliph (Zsul*. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing.for oneself : factitive 64. This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink. 1.§65] I. <\r* Z to require one's presence. . The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. to hold oneself upright . A ' 0* also the tenth. to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. permission. \Jy~i\ it . lit. to conduct oneself humbly .«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I. jk£> to pardon. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E. help. to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . successor. desire that & * . JU*£wt to be worthy lit. to make oneself G humble. Rem. 63. or demanding. j+**Z* x x * o . to take possession of .to be present. \ to become like (lit. \J}>\ . ^jiw to give one to to drink. lit. ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * . what meant by the first. rem. jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon. * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help . to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^).y^x^JiwI literally means is so . x Zwt be ashamed. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. s . ^oUiwt to stand upright. at least originally. is asking for. Hence to ^.g. 6). governor (J*»^).. GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) . L5 Al»> l. but estimative or declarative s 45. to pray for rain.

46 j Part Second. corresponding to the Aram. which has the same signification as ^iXw. ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) . wJJu> dash ground. JU**. j>Ut heavy (jJU. #o 60 arched. x x J^^o ^t . *iU*w) . to be long and thick (of the hair). If so. to become soft or tender (j-a». os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. J&L^A to be big (rad. Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples. which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t. IxXft). our geese are all stvans). iJlCJU. xx x Rem. so as to exhibit their formation. xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^. to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad. (=j«a±. xxx of . XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . not in use. to be green and rank (of a plant). ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£. and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. (rad.do. /l»\ b^jj*. or x humpbacked to (*->***.) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo. &}jj£\X X . must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation. with one or two more. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x . x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x .) .JU. to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back. 5x0 . s^JIS.—XIV. . JU~>. ^)^l». . to become moist (= J«a».t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked). J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. to fo obscure (rad. 66.) .\).) to be long or last long.oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt. [§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J. sufficient . may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*. vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. "&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth.1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*. do. to mount a camel .) . (rad. ax fo &&rc?) . xO and obd). »/*») to —XIII. —XII. curved.) to j** black (JSL do.) .t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x .) xx dx . xxdxO efo.

but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions.e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse . J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters. of. 227. x x JLU) .). Rem. 2. XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x . General View. as XII. xxx to to xxOx to be high) X .1X j jo v:o x o 7<. is A biliteral root. ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper. to be filled with rage (LfL do.J«Jl».a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad. (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. ^Jsu^. (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*. is prefixed or affixed to.g. j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t. 2. Pers. . E. XXX md^ ^ retire). jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake.1 to swollen or inflated. •^JL*. x E. (b) A fourth letter. expressing a sound or movement. ^ ^o^-oxfc. oj^.g. p.. 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms. be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) . JT& al-Istikak. ^. to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». Jx»A». bellow. 67. —XV. v~x£ x Ox do. ^^ X was sweet). The Verb. be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^».t. 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ .g. generally a liquid or sibilant. to Mttfo rws£& or rattle. . to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw. repeated. bb to G say baba (papa). or inserted in the middle E. All these forms are habitually intransitive.). rad. to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. jj-as) x x o x o x . —XV.''£ . xxOx ji-ji- to gargle. to xxOx to rwi^A. u .§ 67] x x Ox I. a triliteral verbal form. A. shout. 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair.B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . deceive to with soft words a ^J^. The Quadriliteral Verb. to retire) to . 9 x» x some of them foreign words.and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly).

») <• . to abase x x . to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70.#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^.) to ^ . jt^Xw) or tunic . * x x . and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification. ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another . to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. «nriaT/>os). JP^». JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals.g. number. xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along . f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates . or the Parts of Speech. X X E.g. jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier.48 Part Second. verb are three in 68. etc. humble. poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress.o fow&/. also to be active or nimble . J (^)UslL»). xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>». I E.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ.and J3>». fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch . . Ju/tIV. Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb. Heb. X JX+& to gather ripe dates. quickly. JJUtf II. pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ . Tlb/J?) </>iA. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . xx Ox to roll. The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I. £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) . Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. . J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U.g. They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas. xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**. saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. to Pitch. Pers. to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. 69. to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik . vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E. Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) . JJtUlt III. pfe>). or humility.

j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality. or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive). jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. the active and the passive . .g. ground. w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. with the exception of intran9th.» o vanish away . in disorder. The Quadriliteral Verb. to jk. in = fJ*& an . o § a^ C o^ * i o . whose act voice is either object. 72.§ 73] I. nearly =j-c^. both primitive and derivative.. state. 7%£ 73. to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd . or not . JuJ to be is bad. \j\+^^ Si. The Verb. of a bird). and expresses an extensively act. j*++*.t or j*oya*J\ order.»>t to to stretched out on one's side. A. Jjc*£t to dispersed . 7 . rem. or intensively high degree of E. and 15th forms (cf. sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th. very hard. 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. 49 71. i dark. 3. 2. stretched on to flow. 11th. All the verbal forms. wa#0 Aaste. which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). to become green. have two voices. The third form A E. wrong. . *J~o to be good. JU-^t Voices. pULwl to lie on ones back . Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A. w. the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). 13th.) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3. but inserted between the second and third radicals. is intransitive. j£~t£*\ very high or proud . ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#. The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). = Ju-3. § 66.A of The fourth form the quadriliterals.l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc. which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals. that the characteristic not prefixed. right. 12th. J*cu^». of triliteral. the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. . Si* o 9 *? ^aw back). as j*s&. General View.g.. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower). Ja».

J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent.» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. etc. by its very nature. and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick. (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. the agent). Verbs that express a state or condition.50 Part Second. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases . J JjyoLpJt. but something between the two. God. namely (a) when .)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a. the mould or form of J x the agent. JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . Ox . ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named. or. J x Ox J J x Ox These terms. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt. Rem. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!. or ^sJ X J^cUJt. equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. 74. or some higher being. is when the author is unknown. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act .. . of that. though this latter H x J named. j& to sleep). confined to the person of the subject. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent. when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more . XXX & x biO J the build x0. The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. are aptly called neuter verbs. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient. than to the doer of (agens. strictly speaking. and ^UJJ cj. J JjuUI. or feeerc &em# done. the passive J J subject.*> J J x Ox is. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt. the patient). or signify an act which is. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U. 75. more shortly. since they are neither really active nor really passive. also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing.e.

A. Pluperfect. one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. Imperative. or Future-perfect. present. The names Preterite and Future. whilst the other 4. The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. from A JwNjI. The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. in and of itself. A Imperfect has. must not be thought and eighth to be forms.§ 78] I. five 78. effective (see § 48). and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. and Energetic. The Verb. however. by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. Perfect. J The Voices. intransitive verbs. but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. b. the Indicative. namely. or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies. Jussive or Conditional. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect. ajjuiIoJI j*£. by our Present. no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it. or Future. It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past. one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . The Arabic verb has moods . Subjunctive. succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. <Scc. The Moods. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. Rem. in connection with the verbal forms. a. the one expressing a finished act. first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). Imperfect. strictly speaking. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. the other an unfinished act. General View. J' 3. 76. . and the future (J^fc^Jt). or A^Ut JUi^l. is These are. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). Syntax and use. seventh. 77. transitive verbs. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. Imperfect). On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc.

. -d Instead of the Infinitive. [Cf. 83. The Syntax treats of their significations and use. . and the other the patient (nomen patientis. The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). ^oJiXoJt.a>. H. the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. in any of the but are retained throughout.). namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. plur. Js » 0* 81. Persons. in the second (see § 128). 2d pers. the speaker individual person). strong. and 1st pers. adjectives. The Numbers. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma).. the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. Rem. fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect. ^JsU*-*)!.. the spoken to (second person). ^^IloJI). and the individual spoken of (third person).] 6. 80. *j*+3\. or jJ&«JI) . and the the fourth. wsSliJt (the absent). they have two verbal passive participle). or imperative. dual. active participle). and likewise three persons. ~ 82. . B. . is expressed by . The genders j are two. or j^tyi). § 192. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc. 79. cj). nor are rejected inflexions. (first and the Plural (£*aJt. There are three numbers. the Singular (>j&\. the former class . but also from the imperative. sing. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 1 b sD. [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form. In place of participles. the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis. *W»J1. and Genders.52 Part Second.

designated by the special term «»*a». and patientis. The Verb. suffixes. rad. 1. * The nomina with verbi. The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns. the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes. a is weak verb. . B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. than the latter. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. agentis. as verb.§ 89] I. or which belongs to the class med. § 317. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called . j+** x*J t see § 190. accusative see 89.o and^oJL* as synonyms. that C prefixed or suffixed. 86. (V"y).— Table I* a./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*]. a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect. and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns. or connected [J-cu*]. standing by itself. 88. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87. the con- nected shorter forms. The personal pronoun \jt+£. . annexed to the various moods and tenses. 9 s 84. On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes. The separate pronouns have longer. The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb. 53 is Rem. persons. 9 * J : 85. a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. The numbers. but some grammarians treat ^a». partly the accusative. gemin. B. and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb. The Strong Verb. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i.o 9 * ' J*s .JJ^t« Jji5. to D § 185 Rem. partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative.

or the Parts of Speech.54 Part Second. [§ 89 A B . —Etymology 1.

3 p. plur. . Suffixed Pronouns.. . tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. The Strong Verb. of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect. Singular. ol she. . C 2 p. Fern. !/.. . Rem. . 3 2 p. jj Masc. t- (of-> . a. <j. Gr. thou.. t ^ou - 2 p. Prefixed Pronouns. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. O 1-) Z Dual. U w& The forms within brackets are those . c.. is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. m • • (6) s» . p. d. . . . . lp. O . p.. The Verb. (o>> *>) .. b. O thou. and also in the wasl (§ 20. Fern. expressing the Nominative. defectively.§ 89] I. 2. . {J .] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem. Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. 95 seq. 55 Rem. O (<**k c£-) 1 p. expressing the Nominative.(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo. Plural. O she... [Though written defectively this terminal vowel. d. Singular. 2p-^ 1 p. 3 p. Common. . suffix of Rem. I> (o>.. 3 p. rem. . • O c4 tlwy. L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp.. used in poetry. Masc. !>) *%• d . . he. The the 1st pers. B.. . and § 23. c). .. Common .

. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.56 Part Second. [§ 90 Masc.

a as Jj«i to do. w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike.§ 91] I. J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding. %X+t t°" . For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp. or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . it this assimilation see Rem. 5 £^* to ascend. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return. jU* to to hinder. --J£ throw. jI o . c. ^JLcu *Jl> attain to. * ^ J * ^. it b. cp aVaw 0* . good. Some verbs have two 8 w. the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. Thus. iJmu . x x x # * '0' . \j+j * <> x x . jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit. . to sit Jux» . is omitted. jjlsu . j&j-i- C radical is Rem. for ±y*\ and Uut. J^aLi to . or t T . *Ja3 ask. . o. FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. p. C^.1 .. £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. . verbs admit of both forms s s t . 57 To indicate the assimilation. $ ** tjj * . cJJJ j**£ to bray. J Many 0* * . I'O* to create. The Verb. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox . Rem. as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. j*****.1 for^J^t. conform to is " the rule. A Ojuc. however. . j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * . as . " may .JL> . On ^j. of which the guttural letter. to perceive. m+~i or to stick upright into the ground. ^jjui. JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. *j>j-**i v~ke* down. to sneeze. The Strong Verb./fow. x J x Ox . Verbs. J * %+jj . to cut. When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. .. " to *-iJ to blow. Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. tut we d. x xx J J x *. . as j*J* know. and the geznia. are an exception to the rule. ye have § 14. 165 seq. a. or 2?mW away. C-Jaj) for taken. believed. ^. j *-^ . thou hast bound . ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. / have J d x £ served. Gr. . 7 J J x x x right. c.JUj . p-jb. reach.•Zfr* to write. %bJu . as ^Jes. J^5 * * s to kill. Not a few. ka. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. c^Aa*^. B. particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. 91. O** ' 5 to ' transpierce. take either x ^ • damma J J ..

Jiave . x . as ojlcj he outbid J . him in composing J J J Ox poetry. j. x x ^ J x x . Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. a ' t present. as j^s. rad. unless they be primse rad.»-o Ox . ^$. ^£jj to be clear. J o.a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing. oj.j J x x -j . the kesra of x t the Perf. 9J&0 . 'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan. med. x x or w. rad. X . X dx . C^mmij x ' i. to. j*mm j j . when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . j^j '.» *° drink. or tert. . ^j. £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick.. or the Parts of Speech. [§92 j A . See also §§ 142 and 146. . . Jx$ denoting superiority.». a. quit. rare are cases like jJx*. £~e*jj cut or hew. as Jpo to croak.^~* to be safe.to know. x kesra. lean upon. .» him in promising. J x x ojjlj . as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx . O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess. the Imperf. as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance). v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j.j .Iw to . A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. x £o tf/iiwA. xx x ' %j j^> *. comfortable. excelled him in c.jsu ^ and even three. lean upon. *~^>. Very . Rem. w > * J x . ^i«-> j Ox . Verbs of the form a). x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful.» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L. io. SJLiJI 6.. abound. forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to . 7 . takes When the second radical of the Perf. j^u to be affluent. to J x done with. . dye. -^.a>A.58 Part Second. oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows. x x J x x '. ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. a~ojji. x*x gush out. x '. * s * ' ~£j xx to marry. * * * q Rem.. x x x x x * B Rem. ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty.^~*i- Rem. to be present. u^j-^i '. J x x . i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure. j «» *-U 6m#. v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. '. J-cub . goodness. J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. J x to J ' give as »*• . '> . ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory./toy. has kesra.. b.j^j j <o incline to. ^^i *->* . as w^*>^. ' " '*' %+$ to . x x /^^» . . always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). or suppose.

the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. done by me). Jjl. killed. as o*LL to be beautiful. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is.. masc. and to some extent the gender. j. Comp. Rem. cL«). 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. from its fern. jj+j or t^. — De . sing. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense. masc. retained in the Imperf. The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf. a suffix is necessary. OU. the 2d pers.J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj. however. j**\. v^P to be high. . w*2o. The most common example to die (for A a verb med. O^j. because completed. a. get masc. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl." Rem. 1st p. sing. J ©Jx as 73B*. and accordingly we .—Similar cases 93. viz. a). jJL>. 94. the agent. J a in the Imperf. in the Imperf. *l%y. p^lC p. in regard to that the marks of the numbers. o^J . between the Perf. and persons. Thus. p. genders. ^ot. has Gr. fem. p'-m." Hi (i.. more generally the latter. 180*. Oji. masc.. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. When the second radical of the Perf.. x B. In the Imperf. sing. sing. are only suffixed to the Perf. In the Perf. l J Ox I. 59 of this kind of. C-***> / became I became bad. The Strong Verb. jJ<j to be dull or stupid.e. j-*t." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77. and Imperf. rem. The Verb. are it 'it very rare." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. * in * [Anbarl. verbs ft?p*. damma. b." = " I have = "I am killing. that .§ 94] or innocent is I. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. I • With the above forms compare the Heb. noble. C Rem. j£\. Perf. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise.

and Jussive. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission.60 Part Second. Dialectically.. b. which seems originally i. is closely akin to the noun. one must not say ^ojit. for j»^S\ etc. [Cf.«- it D resembles the noun.. the Subjunc- ) © © <. the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth. 60 are recognized as . because j * . In one case. which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. In the active voice of the first form. numbers. J x . and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. as in juxi for juau. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. to have been At ii. [§ 95 A Rem. as Indie.1. because the genders. ^fflZmj in Sura i. x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha . w tive w>^. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel. . the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too.- called cji^Jt. and the Jussive >j>%^H. etc. j). That is. vowel with the third radical.o. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. 4. correspond to the Nom. least the poets § 247. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is . j cjLa*H. falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus.. as the apocopated Imperfect. c. / ^ (^Xju).] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. . and its government in the Subjunct. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. in the verb. ^\ . and Accus.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. vol.] Rem. fetha of the Imperf. The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any . 96. and Subjunct. X Cy^. suppose. J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. The . a.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. 0l H. wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem. w-I&. nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju . is 95. distinguished by the third its radical having x damma. The forms of the Indicat. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^. But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm. jsyu. but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. preferred. Subj.

t>W>> from <jUl. ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. it takes. & C Rem. \j~S3. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have.. In the dual.jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear. 194. Com- 0>A ^y^k .becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem. plur. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination . a j * * in a shut syllable: . . sing. apparently because the sound of the syllable . because its forms would then . and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened. c. of ^U. nor to the fem. The Verb. i^-*^. according to § 26. the fetha of 6* <j. as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc. 98. fern. is retained.§ 98] I. oW^J . a. c). is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. despise not the poor. a short vowel before and not to the dual. fem. because vt i b. and pronounced in D in pause I—. plur. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— . a short . A gender.jit * j elided.B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>.(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. B. U£3. the of the termination. with Cm^> Hi X 97. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. 0~$3. the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a. are exceptions. Gomp.j_ or (J. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. . is The syllable ^— often written !_. since it begins with two consonants. in the Energetic. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o . 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo . In the 2d and 3d pers.or . Rem. rem. and in consequence the second fetha : of . coincide with those of the singular. with \y££=> . IV. influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but. Gr. O s b.j. The Strong Verb. p. 61 2d and 3d because pare pers. plur.

Abs. ^ J J t.>top (o for a. rem. Rem. 1842. in cases where that elision does not take place. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*. « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma. This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . cf. (§97). as j\Jx*. 23. is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt. the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash.\. and on the orthography § 19. * — DeG.] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. wRem. Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations. or the Parts of Speech. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head.>*A)t. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. listen ! j\j&. *&&. which used in the same way. b) in addressing a single person. When or kesra. is and 1. § 35. a. the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem. <- rem. E. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b.62 Part Second. 99. ii.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J. b. —Etymology kesra . —De G. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. d. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. see ^ 19.j±. D [Rem. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel. i. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. a. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1. g. damma. c. and the final short <m vowel dropped). this vowel 0^0 Jjtil. with the finite verb. IV. 6 .] . t^&ipt. Imper. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS. 1. come its and play meaning game called ar ara. vol. Lilt with a various reading .

are pronounced with damma. JJUil. 21. 101. damma. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). if the last radical . 9. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. 1. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. and fourth forms. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. and the second radical kesra. Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. and also ^Ju^j. In the Perf. in the rest with fetha. Pass. is 102. 104.] originally JJjisI 106. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. II. In the Imperf. as J^aj. rem. Active. and Ju£>. J^Jb and JJUaj. The Strong Verb. and the second radical Rem. The second radical of the Perf. 103. the prefixes take fetha.— Table III.— Table 100. i. where the treated like the o of b. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest.— De G. 3. Sij^i. Sibaweih. The Imperfects and eleventh forms. Pass. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb. Act. 105. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. third. [Rem. § 118. a pot I set is on tlie fire. from JJ3I. and Imperf. The Verb. not J^SIj. and Imperf.§ 106] I. The Perf. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed . Act. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. the first radical has damma. q This Rem. B. In the second. 63 2. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. See §§ 106 and 120. the prefixes of the Imperf. Act. B the Jussive being used instead.

D 110. jj**o\ (see § 120). 3. which is damma 108. J^j£>. Pass. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. C 109. seventh. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e. J3ut. and tenth forms. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. Jibl. of the sixth. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. * fifi consonants (compare § 54). or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. >. pronounced J with damma. J^St. fetha. only by the vowel of the instead of. *Z». not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. Compare 98 and rem. a. 107. The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem. jj^aj. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. u°> the sjo. Pass. the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. J * * jJuau for jjslaj. as £>jj**o\. e. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. there results in the Passive * j . The Imperfects Pass. )». and Imperf. b. O of ^ u*. In the Perf. vowel. E. ». being neutral in their signification. 111. of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass.. of the first Rem. the word remains uncontracted . jJ>t. the preceding radical loses . J3&. identical. J^&wl. prefixes.g. a.j. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act. Pass.g. If the last radical has no vowel.g. O. and unites with radical to form a double letter. in the Perf. When b. the first Since the idea of the Perf. have of course no passive (see § 73). frequently) loses its vowel. eighth. but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner. Pass. The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms. of the first fifth and sixth forms. Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. of the is forms) . or the Slif . j**a\ for jj**e\. jjW. Oij^ . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.g. J3>£>. not only characteristic * the first radical.64 Part Second.

iio«y. J J^p. See § 48. Act. . wn.) + . — v~<oJ\. Jb+aJg i. fern. J. B.*&>. If the first radical is^». but use the fifth or eighth. masc. Rem. into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 .5jj. rJ*k preformative of the O . j^i. j^lo. n^n. du. The *v\ton. J^tJ) . Verbs of which the first radical is t. . ^UJ. f^. 112. In modern Arabic such forms as J^.).. for for j~»&3. t Ci which O is and ! plur. j. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. j-cut.]. A . . "' &ytjj& ) Zl e. note u±jj\. Jn»^.§ 114] I. ^ji. 569. ss * and i fern. Rem. or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. for j±> j£. to take breath. is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers. 65 UC\. 3d pers. J**yl jJjJt. The Verb. j^x3 j£>£i. as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. j. i. ijijj. and compare such Hebrew forms as . in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms. ^. B in those persons of the Imperf. a. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. rem. 114. p. b. 113.g. j£\. iJu5. [and necessarily ijycjJJ.Ut. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic.j of the seventh it form often unites with w. Rem. in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. j. to sing. ComP Gr. The Strong Verb. are of common occurrence. sing. G. P . to lie concealed. Jf*H> jl^i. >. and du. jio\j\ (Kamil. example namely instead. ^L\. the characteristic . *jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&. by assimilation for ^**£j\. J^W3). for £i3 JjvS. J»*W^>.

and with an initial 3 into > or 3. A for JJa^J^I. ^ . . E. for j^Jjl. Rem.«a*-©t for 115. jJ^I. l»*©it ? from Jsuco. for ipjl. >»Ojt. Rem. for jUJI. aud ^jit. j. ^j\j. for j£&.^it.!. .g. the characteristic w». £*Jl»J.l. eighth form changed into >. from %+j jUt or jUt. Rem. bj*\ for bjZ*\. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form . from U> JXjt . initial The e. from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl. from ji>3j or ybjt. *0 . or >Z>. *S)j3>\. J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt. from c. ^jt. . as *»*~>t. £***>j. or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. for ^Ijkjl.. letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl». The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. for ^>\.. from j*. y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. from j^j jbjl. as well as D tfcSt Rem. Jjjit. 116. ijj* .it for instance. Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^.S .Jt. from cji.-a^ct. ji?t orjJul from jju. j *»*J. or j^>l. but Lane gives in Lexicon only *.g. etc. for from Jp . . . which unites with an initial > into 3. J**. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j . from j^jt or :>pt from j>p . is B Rem. from «. the characteristic O of the . or j. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. for *-»2wt. for **£M.g. *. <jjjt. for £3j\ . a. Jpt. E. for tj>^l. If the first radical be is y j. for j^iit.66 Part Second.^w. as q\j\. from jtj . C from ji. If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>. Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the . letter b. instead of the usual £+„*. depends upon usage j-i. . j+.

— Table IV. d. quadnhterals: . v>ii. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. 36. 2~^t. i>. x x. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? . ^Uw (see § 202. fifth. Imperf. rem. or &. eighth form 6. The O. which unites with b into j». with initial 1» into x x h l. //£ xxx . the characteristic initial A changed into h. ^i£t. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. J» ii.§118] 117. -*. ^jA-ol. h. o xSx * . in § 45. to believe. The D 69—72). jZ~»* (jZ~**) . or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o . x. occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19. ^JLL *$& . or jUxbt. As mentioned out. 4. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears. *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. C rem. JJJLl. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^». ^Uxot. The Qiiadriliteral Verb. ^6. ^aUo . x x x x x x x t. 49). xxxvi. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z. Rem.. a). Jte\. x x x . ^y-ol. b. *. 67 If the first radical be ^a. ^A k o . 3p»t. .i . j^-U . If the second radical be O the characteristic it. from j-o. O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i.] Koran (Sur. Rem. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf.Lo E. j£~j. Jfljt). or 91. four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second. Inf. Act.I ±*Jo\. Rem. ^Jbuot. The Verb. from 0*k> w>jJxot.*o. is I. and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6. // IS as j^ot. Part. ^L^. etc. [117*. for j*Jxot. act.lo. U^>. j Rem. x x x from %+. xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. from lJ*. B. just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). jifat. The Strong Verb.g. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . or JJSJiS. j^J»t.. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel.Si£t. y^ xxx XXX a. or £. u° ix. JJ&\. b. a. words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs. B J^t. omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb. seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118.

Perf. J*c . letter. damma in the Imperfect.». clLLrft. and no contraction takes place as Ojji. so as to form a double for J-U^j. *Jx~j. tie firmly. and then converted into c Ik*!. oJA. become wise or intelligent. JjA. C*j to sever or separate entirely .jjiL». we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. jtj viz. Rem. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. >jk+j. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. and third radicals have vowels. combines with the third. jro*)\.68 Part Second. —The J^A. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}).g. Jgj^. 119. Imperf. or t^lo^t 120. with the exception of . Transitive verbs of this class. Imperf.J B 5. make decisive or to to repair. also used. E. the second retains its vowel. tenth form of elt. [Also. for Jii£ for j*+Zt . **1a~j or **1~>. a. — Table V. J-ft-j for JX+j. act. Imperf. of the form JjtJ. for yj~~~t> smell. jJ* to make hard or firm. is aSI^A. for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . to obey. the and unites with the third. the solid verb. J^->. Pass. J^ . is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt. £fo doubled verb. for w«J. so as to form a double for jj9 to . The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech. Norn. JU> to split or cleave. (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. first. (6) If the third radical has a vowel. which is marked with . letter. but the former is irregular: Imperf. JfJJbt. The form viz. have six. j^ for >j^i. But if the third radical has no vowel. ^^ to become dear (to one). in verse.g. which also admit kesra absolute. but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. w^J. and then E. v** to touch. [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi. j* to flee. tesdid. Imperat. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel.

~oiJ. B. along with the s vowel. Africa ai becomes Ol i. times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks. to 69 water (camels) a second time. and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. Rem. it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. b. ^-^.1). Crr. Co***. s * I first radical Os s . CXolU. O^j. . S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse. C-. etc. but OS* s in s N. £foss. to smell badly. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel. modern Arabic. viz. s cJLb form 2. s for *Z>jj«JS. in one's dotage. »// . w*».*J. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. — C/ow/?. oj. 5. is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. C~Ui*. are. as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. One verb has only kesra. j^> 0* jjb to abhor. wvUlsu. This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5. the long vowel !_. however. o . ewe. «. * 1. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one .). s s . <£&». to fove (instead of the common IV. CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. Rem. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways. w*J to be vrise or intelligent. a). sj s *iU3 to be silly. or else s its . to Ibn al-Fakih s.§ 120] I. B la Us to 6e mrfo/. as. The Geminate Verb. s s £)}j. The second vowel iss s dropped. s for O^j. as redctit for Co3). d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. 227 Such forms as C« g >. a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o). p. [See De Goeje. to have its etc.^*} to be uyly. . Cw is S or Cw.>fc»t se?. A Imperf. jj£» to be bad. Imperf. Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse).). or cJLb for cJULk. c. woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl. (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc.v. The third radical is united with the second. m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye). : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. * o . jjsetc. rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). The Verb. detest. ol »l also occur.] / . Forms like Ojji. for C*«w .

or j^^t. tjj-*t. fifth. in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf. sing. —instead of ^jjit. Faik ii. j*c for jjl*I. the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first. the Arabs say ^Jj*. . either fetha or kesra . (§ 121). masc). undergo no contraction. w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* . j . and eleventh. ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third. etc. for Conj. ±£x£ or u*xkj. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. § jj*\. in those that have u. »j->*. as ^£jj*\. >ji. seventh.g. E. tjji —not ij!j*\. If the verb has a suffix.] * — . J^ or vi J*©-». sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. and combines with the third. ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. and jtjit. rules that apply to the Active of the first form. dual. c.] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. rem. and plur. D eighth. and to the third. 443.g. S| or^e^l The same >j. l/*t. the contracted to that of TamTm.70 Part Second.. for ^o-o-i. ^-^-j or s^-j. for or *ji. however.. j&i or^Aj. cf. the choice of the supplemental suffix . Slbaweih ii.jj*>. hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. fourth. Consequently jj±. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [But 120. sometimes do not follow § 120. C Rem. apply also to its Passive. this vowel may be (§ 27). y 6 s0>O ly-oft. j^j. and tenth forms. it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other. B 122. [§121 A In the Jussive. j3 for jjtt. Cf. I . Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. sixth. j^j. ij-i. the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary. But in the second. 121. The masc. because is already doubled. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc). has a vowel (sing. Iji. b. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels. not U^j. jj*j>. 566. V. undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. ninth. JA*j ul . i ' for ^aJsju. and therefore tjjil. Higaz.

a long vowel. Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£. . Forms like x>jj. J>SU>. These are called verba Jidmzata. 125. instead of rudda. B such as 9 * s uoclJ. * * J * Aa*A. radicals is . the uncontracted forms. <djl for aJUjt. Juss. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. in some parts of their inflexion. the weakest of the gutturals. tlamraa. jo ol j-p E. The weak letters are I. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ . Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject.). The Weak Verb. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. are not contracted. not unfrequently occur. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). These are more particularly called weak verbs. sixth. for J*. namely case oi In the third. to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less.U*»o. However. as I. j J«l»-). sing.. s-*jI~j>.g. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\. and ^. whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other). (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. sudda (with the French u). 5>-»-^. ^. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. as jj.3 . alone (§ 25. 128. Sudda. The Weak Verb. which is a. D 127.U. jew. * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. C. by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first. C. and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. The Verb. and eleventh forms. the 1st pers. -»^fc. 126. rildda. combining the second radical with the third. (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza.§128] Rem. * * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI. German ii or 124. on account of its weakness. consonant. rem.

72 Part Second. masc. 131. Imperf. is closely conformed. 1. In a root there may be two. as ^j\j. . These are divided into three according as the hemza second. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. and that indicated by the later points. for Ol^». sing. 1st pers. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). VIII. which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs. such as *. for good But from an historical point practical reasons. or third radical (verba primse. If the elif with hemza and gezma. Rem.). to be trebly weak. or IV. Act. sing. C Pass. [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs. or supporting letter. B is 130. mediae. — . to be doubly ^Sj. we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. into ^ with hemza 6 . Perf. after the damma and (J) . VII. to whose method of exposition this work. at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted. into ^ with hemza after the kesra. I. rem. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. or even three weak letters . or ^ by » alone without a kursl. the first.. it is damma. Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. (I). kesra. 132. 2d pers. Pass. (^). sing. and ^y*. and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. of jj\.. e£$t. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. weak. for to and Ui (see § 133). ^ 129. of view.— Tables VI. Perf. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. * ^ [This is a convenient formula. classes. The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse).

and is almost universal in Aramaic. The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. Verba Hemzata. rem. u. we the ancient language. that and when B J fc. ^JjJu for \jju. and hence the custom. to read. and ^_. as ^Ji for [Ji. at of a syllable. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. Rules for writing hemza as J. ^ §§ 133-4.] w. except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an. The modern Arab also pronounces i. C*Jji for Ol^3. so). 1. it was already lost or 10 . h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. however. ylta. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. was bdusa. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with. gi'ta. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17. b]. The Verb. of resolving the verba C tert. whilst ^ is to say. by writing ^yf. with a slight emphasis . Rem. This change has already begun in Hebrew. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation.§ 132] is I. become j and . n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. at the present day. show their origin from 73 I. ^^J. find traces of a softer pronunciation. having the character of a sacred tradition. *£%<*»». 6. The hemza retained. sani'-ta. j)t[+. w^». ^Uk. a. In modern Arabic. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). at the end of a syllable. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. y without touching the old consonants. that danu-a. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. preceded and followed by vowels. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area. jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets. soft breathing (as cJLi. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi.. because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. rad. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '.

c) also Sura xlix. Noldeke Gesch. . Imperat. VIII. beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. as ^*b. sing. sing. b.£ . but in modern Arabic J . J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. Imperat..0*3* 0* . a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94.J0. of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort. not j-Jt. O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem. $1 3d Act. Pass. [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . when preceded by ^ or sJ. 3d pers. said^LJ for >#J£>. rem. . IV. Imper. o * (§ 17. J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. g. Imperat. Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . Qordns.jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. b). ^l-oli. sing. not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. Perf. U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. 257. jjj\. Q . In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e. J w> yakulildan. comes into the wasl. Os 1 >. it is usually rejected to come). J^U JO %. c. of Jit ' '1 . 14. rem. J I ^t. . because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . p. . 8criptio defectiva (§ 6. for j*\j.jJt. of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. * 1 •» . C/ [And so even of old prolongation. as j-wb . O . In Imin pronunciation. as G j-^t^.J*M' . - q$\ . elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t. and. d. it-. /it/ J). of ^1. In other cases retained. not jH»^t. —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech. Perf. * *. rem. VIII. Imperf. . . of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t .0 ' . 0X3 (£§.74 Part Second. . 1st pers. Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. 250. Perf. peratives. Jijt. Rem. • Oti (from it is C^jt. elif hemzatum. pers. 6. in Mecca. written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . J^»b. 0* in its altered form . t I. sing. though it may be retained in writing. from ^j . as ba'da'tilqfin. 0+\ oU^J. not JLijt.jili. whence with 10 .] » . I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage. ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina. . not £. hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina. J passes into the elif of . (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. and the radical hemza .

to be mean. E. to be . y^i. IV. Oj oj Imperf. /^ E. X. of j>*$ to. A ceded by damma or kesra. Imperf. VIII. J^ for J*>b. and into ^. 75 In the same way. J)\ J^ hsB was asked. or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif. Rem. put on armour. of ^j. it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . for^tjJ. a syllable ending in a consonant. of made. to. damma Eg. j££ peace is made (between them).of j& Rem.o. of J$. *> for^Lj. Perf.g. III. Imperat. . l~. ofj»*$. . for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. II. for jjb. The Verb. At the beginning I. or j*\. yyi.0 . which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. Particip. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb.o. U^j l. sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass. Imperf. of JL» . Pass. JO* . 0. when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha. as \jJu from \j3. J of JL* j j^t. rem. jj&i. O i I . be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf. or with fetha and pre1 133. of^oU. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134. for % ^Uj. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). u*»>«-». . of j3l J&Jl.§ 135] I. to consult.g. 135. III. Pass. worthless. for ^11. is y>. Imperf. of . 1. for >lUl. j££\. to twang. pronounced with I. ^J^t . he acts stingily Is . I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged. .> instead of jj*i. of a word. Imperf. be reconciled for Imperat. y>\>. for ^U>. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. groan. l. a). II. b). £ usually left unchanged i . for JU. passes into 3 or ^. Perf. At . for^UI. when (see § 17. j\j\. of j>^ ^o-LUwt. of J •«« h. preceded by fetha. Pass. Pass. $y*tsuffixes. as j*l. III. VIII. jj\. agree with. the end of a word. Verba Hhmzata. if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one.0 and meanly. damma and I.. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. is I. an impression Infin. comes J or Finally.

j-«t. j) which make only J^j. and J J J^l J to eat. j*o. ^£jtj to eat to console. J x . in the Imperf. b) pers. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . to prefer. u*\yo. to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt.\. q for L^tt. for tjj^U3 Perf. we often jjll 136. b and on the Imperative of ^yl. for 3d plur..t (for ^il). Rem. X making X J**. b. to come. for Jiff. from U. rem. J ^O J t (§ 132. as ^^-tj or 'parallel to. a. and j^. reject radical in the Imperat. VI. prim. Act. .76 Part Second. as Ij^tjJ. b) . Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\. for to the characteristic to take for oneself. of jj\.tU or L»A3.. In a more modern stage of the language. JXs. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132.3. see also § 175. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b. rad. J . according to § 17. as . where.tj. X 138. "% Rem.t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. see § 132. i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with. IV. Nomina It commenced. • I . tfc £wo became intimate friends. 6W&<#. O of that form . b. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif.—Etymology to order. J3u. .-wt^j. or the Parts of Speech. xx£ to take. the first of . rem. and J^. and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . of course. and SUly*. and the etc. rem. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. rem. . b). The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form. to a. agentis and actionis. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\.. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. or J3f. . In old Mss. rem. rem. L». J^tj along with. find J-itl. For the rule as regards other verba . as Jjf. elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $. J X ^. hemz. they deliberated together. of or tjj-«U. Ufc. to give wages. 139. to put on an Hzar.

140. 46. 141. \jj). a. rad. Compare . cJ~» [not cut*]. and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. J-~> C jtl>. second. IjjLi d. 6). secunda). Perf. an^ with B ^ i. to A v>*3t. Pass. D 2. or I^LLs. — Sometimes the JC . to JrwsJ or confide in. from ^jJ for \j\ji. for ^t. Rem. When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. o?o. for JI~j. an angel p]X a?)in the fern. Verba Hemzata. tertise rad. whence ^-U. ^. which has Jlw JL>. Gr. not ^C. p. From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. hemzatum is elided. p. J~> for JL»J (Imperat. for J^U. This for is particularly the case with the verb pers. plur. for O-oJut. Rem. more rarely in J^l. du ^U». according as the ^ ^ is the first. The Verb. and marry. still 77 give alms. t to trade (see § 148. I^LTi.). Jtffc and j**j. Jjbl. 2d m. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. or third radical (verba prim®. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. etc. in secondary radicals rem. or J-^. to be safe. sing.-kjA_»|.). 282.§ 141] I. b). elif J~*. Verba med. 6. —The tenth form of J^. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw. 6. ^j\. JL» Jl~i to ask. ^ et . see Comp. for e"lif J^jt. to receive wages . into b). rem. from {j\j to see. J-~> for JI~j. and in Syriac it the rule . for Kg.t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt. Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^. we may say JuTj Rem. an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149. its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. j_kj|. letter These likewise or fall three classes. etc. t^JL>. to take. from the rad. iUt to send.

Ji*J. is ^ (verba prima? 142.. —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. Imperat. i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid . jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise. The Imperat. 143. to be in charge also dialectically the ^. I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj . JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of. which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. inherit. 3 or (£). Imperf.for jaA (jue^l). Imper. to be melancholy. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf. retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid. J^ to stick . ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l». ja.Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su. j**$i or J*->>. x j»)$ to swell. full of hatred (of ground). J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly.^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat. g JxJxOxxx j § of. Rem. ^jj to be firm and hard J X . J^ aJLj. juu for j^-^i. jJ$ x x x to to bear children. comfortable. Imper.g. J-fcjj. or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. reject the 3 in these forms. j. of verbs |"£. J^->. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. jju. [§ 142 A A.. a. £0 fove. JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t). (of fat). t condition and handsome. Verbs of which the First Radical rad. Ox OOO E.^ 2o 6e angry with. Rem. and Aram. Imperf.g. j»-b for jJ^». ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to.— Table IX.78 Part Second. xx xx in these forms. ^° ^ e Jx diyj . JxOxxx jtyi '. Imperf. j^. cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful). £>jj . js. ^o**i> t° oe happy. jbjj i .JJu ^3 to be near. J y of the form Ja3. in § 92). xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. morning ! 6. to forget. j**~j. and Imperat. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf. £^3 to be in pain.. But those verbs primse rad. . ^. £*->.g. angry. Eight verbs primae rad.C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has . jJv.

and Imperat. rad. Rem.lj J x Ox and J*»*u. E. J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf.ai. B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*. y J s Jibuti. for ^*A>j. Ox for %a*yi. Ox xx £3 x jSj. xx xx gjl x x to restrain. cjj and j±j are not used in . x x x C » .§ 144] J I. £0 £>e afraid . dialects x In verbs primae rad. $>$ to be visited A J0_ .j. owes its existence is. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf. # ©jJ. is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. to moke a mistake. x x JxOx %». Rem. „ 144.j or J x r% jj. J**. to 6e tfi j)« . X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. most commonly occur. J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. the Perf.g. b. Jx Ox . j et {J. yoy*. of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. Others even use the forms Jjwj.j.ov-jj. *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. a. I J rain. ©ju. from j*b}. « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}. Usy. ^. geminatse . J for x Jj^j.yi .. the is In a few verbs. Xs* and . . J x x c>. t. Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair. are at once primse rad. s-**. notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. s>j x to let alone. and Imperat. %o»\i and J x x ».» ji. 79 by the mur. **. has fetha. j ^ • Ox #J. in the mud. Verba t pr. to let alone. /Off. £~«i. J £*• xx to give. » U». radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j). radicals are strong. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. £-«y. j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn. xx Ox ^Jbj y^i. 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon. x . The Verb. * . some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^.

See § 143. for Infin. producing O »j * * * * . . the j is ^ s or j productions. according to the preceding vowel. the preceding vowel. . ^Uo *0s See or § 92. ^*-j. . has ^^^ a. IV. ^tSjlll. %yi J %yi and . *J^]. and X. and X. Hence Jo^-jl. £t>Jl. D teJuj . for J***]. 148. Rem. . to despair. into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . O. for <£*3j. of verbs primse rad. fetha. e. —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis. ^Uj. vowelless j. ^ is revealed.. of j~»j and &Ju .g. for jL~>| and j Infin. jLmjUA. &*>>. IV. forj-wt a.. #0 receive a promise . j *^ to or become ripe. C*5t. <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e. Act. for ju*Z>I. JJjt. w^jt. Pass. Jl^jl for jjtjjt.0 L»+Z~>\. In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. J ' ' jt jibs gg. J J jl~>t J and OJ . and X. Act. ** grown up. for j~~*i. Imperat. t. Perf. or J s ' . easy. it. ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time). IV. (^jl»I). J ' rem. to play at hazard. * J^**'. 146.* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. 145. ^^-l. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . teristic In the eighth form. j-~>$i. for ws^jt.. (juujl). *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake. g. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for . *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. ' '. ctjuzll. 147. Perf. hill). ^J. to be gentle. IV. the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . Imperf. although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O. .. s^^-yi for w^>j. ^. Imperf. for Oj and as judt. or u-^-rf. ctjut. I. Imperat.. rem. j~»> to play at hazard. or y^^-o. Verbs primse rad. J J . j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. but pass after ^ and ^ damma.80 Part Second. according b . JO. ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . . In the Passive I. however. j~3\. c>^iwl. and kesra. IV. Rem. approve of Sometimes. XL. J*a*j . and ^U* ^sb. Jiio JiAj do. * to be sb< J J 6s .

JaaJI. IV. eighth. of this class in the cognate languages. ^*^j j-^ a. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. J^Ll for for JJ^y . he is afraid. j Jyu. J*£j. E. he is afraid. 150.g. he goes. is „ JUj.. in the Perf. 81 I. *l. Uul to insert . B or long possessed . pardon w. *r>^> j do. ^^i. „ granted. indicate the principal points of difference. Jyb. I. and rem. ^. Rem. *$3. Imperf. Rem. et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first. in the Imperf. j~~i. becomes „ „ Jy^t. The Verb. Verba pr. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . Imperf. see B. Verba mediae rad. For the inflection of verbs Comp. follow . do. seventh. do. — C 149. J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. I. to face . rad. inherited. or ^Jj. 11 . E. w^v-. j * „ j .§ 150] tion. I. is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. rem. the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. j. make one lean. Pass. j for J«15jt. Compare b. or If the first radical is without a vowel. >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave). 234 seq. for j-^ri. XIII. Act.g. Gr. and the third has one. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. to be hereditary. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. . Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147). djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . and tenth forms. *~3 to be wide or spacious . p. ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person. ^J^arJi. it is said. Compare § 139. and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. Pass. b. J^>> Imperf. ^JSj to rely be to upon. to and in the fourth form. c. to prop him up . ^"t to fear (God) . radicals . (§ 145). JJjLl et ^j. 3 or ^j (verba X.

I. Pass. he softens. d v>Jt. (CM^)j 2d f. J»$*-i. j»£\. (C^ll). I-. is Rem. xx to be. Act. 03 0*k. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j). Imperf. 3. fo stands upright.). Pass. the long vowels ^J— $—.0. . x (j-j**.82 Part Second. do. IV. sing. X do. Perf. x 3 J*£l~j. for . are changed into the corresponding short ones. OJ&X. » 2 I Ojit. . Jussive Pass. O Oi Jit. do.$. remain. (j*yy).AJ). 0.g. oj \yyi\. Act. Jussive Act. IV. 3 t i (J3. Act. 1^-iJI.03 . X. Imperat. IV. 3 Perf. its Imperf. he remained. Pass. i x o t. x a£ 3d p. [§ 151 A he remains. 03 3 ij*A*~i\. X. do. f. Jju. „ „ t^lJI. C^UXtaWl x ).j. 3. j 0*k. into *sL. 151. . ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. 2d x p. Plur. IV. x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt). S^-s^. J*. t^-j3t.. he was thought is gentle. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. IV. because (§ 25). Jussive Act. sometimes still farther abbreviated. x do. plur. x 03 o. Pass.. IV. plur. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!). X. Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). do. X. IV. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. Perf. But if the third radical loses vowel. Imperat. Imperf. JU^j. he softened. 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech. Act. > „ 3 O^jl. pardon asked. p. IV. l>o*3I Jx 3 . m. ji} £. I. Act. 03.*x.„ 3 . do. Perf. 3 oi Imperat. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»).a»*) I do. IV. soften. (J**t). especially by the poets. x xOg ^\i\.

g. then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. J>5I. E. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel. If three first succession. E. rad. 3 o 3*0 3*0 153. $ et ^£.§153] 152. The Verb. I. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it.g. Verba med. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l. 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules. Q . the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122).

\ (for j#*. (^tfui).g. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. -is for JL» _ siila. the damma elided substituted in its place. was ^. Act. s E. In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel. sOi i J^*. j-^l). If the first radical has fetha 155.l. three cases arise.). 154. (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha.g. s sis £# (for £*j. J>$). . Jjo»). to say. (for £)y*».\. is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. s s i. rem. ss s C-s^5 s for . Q b. I. and the third is without a vowel.1. namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^. Instead of J*3 (J>3). and ^J[$**>. but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. Pass.84 Part Second. and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra.. si (see § 140). il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula. giida. j^t s i i „ » a. (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. " O i s i Rem. (Jj^)j like. o~«ji. VIII. pronouncing or &. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I. s i E. a ^JOIj). Perf. j*X». J**. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. 2*J). B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. 2d pers. German Rem. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. and i changing those letters into j productionis . do. j^6. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive. Os s dj~» Oj-j~>. m. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. sing. if it s i damma. Pass. j-m^. if it was 3. forms The verb JL>. some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t. In forms like Ji^Xwt. hula. (J productions. Rem. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. suka.

2d 3JLik pers. 156. 93) . x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj). say CuXS. Pass. e. *. m. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf.§157] (b) I. as in a. cJJ» ° cJ^b. — De G.. sing. Act. ^ et ^J. kuta. B x c*a£> for a C^»*. to fo . Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. the 1st and 2d pers. m. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»). seventh. bii'tu. etc. x x x *£*. pyj. 2d pers. suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. do.g. Act. (§ 155. ^ J of the form J*5. (c^J). do. are J O J . ^£. I. bU'a. but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. and most verba . (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. Perf. J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J. Ci4 x xdx e. from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. a § present. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel.* for C-s^*. 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. mediae rad. I. and Perf. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. The Verb.g. sing. change the fetha of the x O x Kg. rad. In this case the same i elision takes place.. sing. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. . according to x x o E. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh .g. and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem. » m. ^j kesra. Rem. a) and C* **. 2d c> pers. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. to move away. J Osju. to . Oxx identical in form 155. Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. ^>* (^y*). D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. I. fern. „ a. forms. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. do.g. Perf. radical is is Verba med. c). and in those mediae rad. 157. grew m J J X J J}/ . Act. m. sing.* 6. C-o*-> for Cou. In verbs mediae rad. Perf. comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). the § 25. Most verba mediae j take damma. VIII. etc.] rad. fo/i#. for E.

to sleep. though w~o. for example. xx ^^. for. of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. which rem. See § 11. 3 et ^j. of the form }»3. ^>?j. ^. and b. from ifa night . A Jxx JxOx . to tc?M&. XX ^. *y~>\ . from J\j (J^tj). ^JU^. comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J). ^£*. IV. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate. co^ XX Heb. for C^Zc. Syr. Imperf. • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. x Of . j^^ IV. Imperf. O or Q. TVlD*. Hence we write J33. jj*>i. Jlft. Imperf. a. a. XX. for Uu.). But which are of the form J*». . s Some verba mediae rad. second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. 3 —Etymology in some. for CJj. See U>. are mentioned by the lexicographers. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. if it did. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly. obtain. are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf. to cease. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). >jV( •>>* to 60 6M. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. 160. 3. to . X JJ £j>j and £»>*3. j***. no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. and a few mediae . ((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y). JU. ' E.S. these In verba mediae rad. 159. and O3-0I (Heb.g. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. . ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. . rem. . jj* to be one-eyed. O^* f° r fr° W C guard . rad. c. rad./ktr.. the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3. takes fetha (§ 92) e. oU->. to get.g. ( J-»j-») . Imperf. fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). § 90. or the Parts of Speech. £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. •• Syr. xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. and T B also C~*->. OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. j~~j ijv~i). . »*x x £x G x . 158. the X X X X J X X Imperf. C*o. C-*o.86 Part Second. lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. j. are always written.

x x x W0c£. Rem. Imperf. IV. Imperf. juou JL* have a slender waist. Verba med. xx Ot J-j£j.. [chiefly denominatives]. Hebrew and . rem. 161. the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad. from m\j do. from ^*^S a bow . xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. E. u . . from the x X . x x j glanders). D xxOx she-camel (*$U). 242 seq. xx to j>^t to borrow. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. from the rad. Gr. IV. used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad. XX* xxxxxO rad. j et ^. from Jl». Imperf. to reward. to consider right. see §§ 240-1. Similarly. to have a long. which almost always adopt the strong. Jx x . in Rem. jU o>^ Mjo one another.. x x elixwt or cUwt. Imperf. to 6e a&Je to do. JU-I or 162. x 87 x x xx Ofc . x Imperf. xx inflection. The Verb. jlr*. with the exception of a few. the eighth form.>t. from the rad. slender JxOx x . to give an answer. c. to be cloudy. or intermarry. Many inflection.o to have a particular disease (ju-«. shortened from cl :^l. M . A few verba mediae rad. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp. ju. J>fct ju. ^ -»x et ^. to Rem. J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting. as jy**\ to be neighbours. ju*. On form from verba med. xxO of sU». E. j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . Some verba mediae weak rad.g. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**). w»Ut or <^^j\. rad. see § 118. b..jfe>\ or^^l.g. I. J>*j. oftey. the Jx X . 9-lj . *' ' A Oi . p.. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->. Ox ^. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx . On X. O^verba mediae rad. Jx Ox to squint.«a. from the w>L« . to " marry x x . *" *~3>)\ to pair. x <Jyau J^a. the first b.§ 163] Jx Ox x . to watch a rain-cloud. said of a camel. rad.. from verba med. rad. x x Imperf. J^a*->. but they generally prefer the weak.»t. w> U* » . 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. and flexible. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx .>t or w>j a». a. grant a prayer. ^ from^U do. C from the rad. Jf^wt to become like a . w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^. 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age.

—a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf. j of the form J*J . one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. might have been O^j^. or it is elided. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. for^j£ (b) (§ 167. place. — \j£> Verba tertise rad. 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ). s s E.88 Part Second. and Ojj-w. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. is [§ 164 A C. not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). 165. as ^oj to throw. sss* In the first and second and II. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels . a). forms tj£. when the preceding f . a). for ^j B with. a. a. ends with a consonant.— XVIII. namely Jjtf . Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*. as iJD±. % . Act. the 3d pers. (§ 167.— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . a. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. that retains its power as a consonant. namely. j of the form as to make a foray or raid. I!**). There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. or it resolves itself into a vowel. a). s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j. C-oj^. they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j. etc.g. sis as jj~> to be noble. s w-»j^j. the masc. (a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb). ft a). /?. and. (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. after I. u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). u —a. b—). sing. fern. on the other hand. ^ 3 of the form Jii . 166.. ^ of the form Jj*i sis .. (d) Verba tertise rad. (e) Verba tertise rad.to be ashamed. /?. O ss s Rem. classes. (c) Verba tertise rad. as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. : jet fj. where they . of the form Ja$ . 164. u—a ($—). Verba tertise rad. UjJ^. l£J^> for ^o>. jjx. In the dual.

a. sing. lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . E. ^-©jl for ***j\. j 167. ^*j>»» for C*j>». as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij.§ 167] I. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '. Rem.. The 2d pers. 89 fern.ty pass into ^— u and t -d. rad. that is to say. 'ugzu). might have but said b\j£ and UU. The Verb. c^j for C^ w. L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians.uw and ^. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P. they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>. Hence arise the following cases. !>*«. as Ijj^fc for tj. ^-. sing. fern. \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-. as t^-oj-j.g. = cJjii. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -). Verba tert. lT^J L5~^ . according to §§ 166. a. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. or after dropping a short vowel. as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3. as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and . as for t^JjJ. cally. and 168). one of two ways. (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable. yi— into j_. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a. the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. j. . rem. and 154. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—. 3 et ^. or elided. is (b) The i third radical u... owing to the influence of the /?.X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. as for Ojjx. ^— 7. (from ^^>j for^-oj. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. Imperat. O^j-j for Ojj-».. and and the two vowels are contracted . 12 . in the second syllable. .. rem. u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123.*j£ ^ . or a). in J At It the end of a syllable.

3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I . j_ X for j— lib ^_ . gazauta. j>j-~>. jo f. ii.90 Part Second. but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. /?. OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on. for (j?jU. not naturally. 5) for ay.g. ^^H f° r ^p. ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166.. for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . 3jU. J***. third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative. fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation. OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!. 4J}\ approach.$>*»». It has been already mentioned is (§ 166. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable.g. J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj. D. (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. and ^— rem. (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji). a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j. <u#cj. Jju. J**-». Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis. for . (jj-xt). x O xx gazawta . ^_ X for ^J— and ^_. J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj. etc. G. tenwln of x damma and for kesra. J J The a. 00 jJaj xOx .] . t>£ for jj£. j£\. but the tenwln E. fi for j>*j. a syllable. for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168. for ramayta. before the J^U is x (§ 80). These vowels are x > elided at the same time. but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for . E. it is vocalised in three different ways. ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. O as as . ^j*\j and ^\j jU . E. (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a. Oj^fc. it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0. ## for ^-). Vol. X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. and . jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical. (3. it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E. a) . ^-Stj) 5 J .g. (see § 236). ramaita. The Jussive § 230).g.

The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. J}^\. in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. to attack. In the nomina patientis. as far as the above rules permit. is occasionally found in verba tert. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . a). Jyta* (§ 80). though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. a). rad. The Verb. ^ijp. rhyme as for u^U). 171. compared with the correp. JLLj. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. Imperf. instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . g it/ admit of either form. In verba tertise rad.. and. Imperf. Rem. the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . Verba tert. e. each of of those . the preceding for ^j«j*c. Gr. ^>j^. a. in consequence. verb . sing. ^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. rad. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain. j et ±J. and not ^. rem. Such verbs as ^*oj. Perf. ^jZ-. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£. for l££jtj waws into j. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. rad. 3.g. from lw to irrigate.. masc. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+. C-*-©. C>*"^P fr° m 169. b. 170. / am mra from (&&e) the lion. maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently. ^J^l \JJ&[. 255 seq. For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. (§ ^. whether attacked or attacking. we get 5 inflection. as $jsu> for jji>«-«. from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i. I. 3. ^o\j. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129). . Rem. wliich have both which comprises several varieties.§171] (tj—) into i^. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59.tjt (Ji*J1. of verba tertiae 3.1 Rem. ^. The form ^>*-o ^jk*.

J D x The Imperf. hemzatae. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. 3 ^. —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. more OS. J^3 to tread upon. sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. of u~-*-^> to despair. rarely See § 146.92 Part Second. Rem. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. X»X X«< C 174. 144). J$ (j-rfU-!. 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad. j&. [also ^sb and u~jb] . [§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172. . Such words . as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. rem. follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. 3 i 6 x Rem. (for U*. hemzatae. as bj to smooth. it t^a*. according to the position of B 173. hemzatae. : — . hemza. and (/?) verba tertiae rad. as jt$ to frighten. hemzatae. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs.g.) to come. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. its Imperat. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. . X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. x Imperf. . to wish. varieties. ^bt.XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. tju. and 142. J is ^l-a-j.

93 of. J>\. The Verb.§ 176] I. a. A . Doubly Weak Verbs.

94 Part Second. for ^tjj. J or or A* a). a). the hemza . 3 3 .g. 0>l. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained. in which j or ^ is occurs twice. whatever. -^ (for gjl). . L5^ ' E. J 3 . Pass. those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . . In the Imperf.3 to be near. as ^$£ to roast.1 < st . there are two sorts radical. ^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. Of the second : class. 179. is c. when si it signifies to show. is or the Parts of Speech. The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad. 178. ^3 ^3. In the second E. Rem. (§ 175. radical. as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard.3 ^j 03 tjj.g. by transposition. Pass. sort. B 177. ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech. the hemza it is . i . 3 or ^. ^jjj. Active z^Jj*. just as in the voice. always elided : ^jj\. C ^j .3 it>3 elided. * J [§177 S3 (like is The . .g. In the fourth form. to be strong. jj. ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J . the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . b. e. Rem. ^^j) or. rem. —Etymology Perf.

in the Imperf. j^**. which letter hardly ever used j viz. 123. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. first class are of two sorts. The Verb. -i-. ^j^> (§ 179). 95 ^fc. and — The § 153. We pass over the second class. ... when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. Doubly Weak Verbs.).**£**>. also admits of being contracted into .-£. 178).. e -ge. — ^c. for La»l»>t.ou into forms . the first radical. (§§ 80 and 20'2. namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to . * t a*3 for 4****J. The former l£jW. ^jt to is betake oneself to. rem. LL> to ivrite the ^.». (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf..g.wt. Verbs of the is 181. (b) as j^^j. I. <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect. and l. as . and Imperf.§ 181] for I.. B Rem. £>t**!.a*J. rem. are inflected like j-^t and . and rem. ^a+j.). C as (^lj to promise. . to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. 180. . (c) in the A nomen actionis IT.. >. X.-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. as is it seems to consist of only one verb. .

[§ 182 .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.Paet Second.

article or O-**5 ) occur. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . as xx for j^ " for j^. to fo 6ad. 166. it is said. excellent as a companion is Zeid. may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. which x last is obviously the original form. x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w. and U ^oju or. and ^^j. though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. x x write Rem. S>**J. B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. Gr. fern. . and ^-£4. . wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. Appendix A.] Rem. as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*).for ^>~»»«. according Comp. b.» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9. U-Jb. and the p. v»^» for^cjib. the dual U*J. as j^JSj. s^&y X Hence ^*j. Arabic verb of the form Jas or . J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. Verbs of Praise & Blame. as: a dependent lit. Instead oij^su we may say ^3. U ^^Jj or ^U. and^^so. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$. its x x x If the second radical be guttural. ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j. x J —a contraction which x © . In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. juj ^^a-LsJI j^. is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS. These forms are to be explained as follows. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^.» and x JLy£. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a. 97 II. instead of being elided. vowel. The Verb. jt^ for jl^w x . J*2J to [or rather.§183] I. which has been thus attained.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju. U«ju. to be good. by contraction. They are used as exclamations. I^ju. If followed by l«. [The following noun must be denned by the genitive. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. and the plur. jjj for jjj. and are generally indeclinable.^^*3. Zeid is an excellent companion. may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii). juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. ^>~». The Verbs of Praise and Blame.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

Compare in Heb. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. is Rem. Me therefore. is 190. (a) The Noun. nomen. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. he gave (b) me. Q Rem. J s 0* designated vo-^t. fear Me. a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. a 2 seq. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. The nomen substantivum. When . Rem. a. sing. instead of AAlkct. as abl ^ylkc-t. or Substantive. if appended to the verb. see Oomp. of i^_. See rem. 189. to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct. b. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. Very frequently. but not always (see § 187). A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. it to instead of 4-JUast. in this case ^. ^-»^l. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. Thus. Jerem. placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. for the sake of emphasis. a. more 1 especially is. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. the verb worship. Rem. the pronoun is.104 Part Second. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb. a. b. Gr. qualificabile. 22. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. help. THE NOUN. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. he gave it to him. instead § 317. sO* Jt. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. from d-JlLct he gave him to me . VOX?! *HWr*&. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). In certain cases this form alone is used. . II.

b. »J 105 . is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. that which is apparent or It is also manifested. or cJtdf. 3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI. D * elliptical expressions. . w. because. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. * as opposed to &La)l. the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. or Adjective. aa-oJI. a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. called 3u\jm\. >o or Relative Pronoun.-0. that out. 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). 84 —89 and 185 — 189. descriptive epithet.gv as the above translation shows. j^S SjU^t. for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j.. after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353).§ 190] II. by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. (c) The nomen numerate. A quality. 3 Jit * ^^1. avTaiVVfiia. — ui regard to form. or Demonstrative Pronoun.- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum. they are identical in almost every respect. J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum.. or Numeral Adjective. 14 . or Personal Pronoun. are Rem. The Noun. The names of the pronoun. and a. word by which something the concealed or kept in. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately. \Juo^\. in Rem.)l. the substantive to which the pronoun refers. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* . is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M. the noun of indication. * the noun of number. of by. is.

primitive and . the root of ^ji. A. b. .\Zjlo .£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide).jUJI « human being). conversely.. |Lo water. y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). derived from nouns. Rem. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools. . [§ 191 A 1. of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U. water. a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns. as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion).. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. ^l^JI human . not itself nomen actionis or infinitive. u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . nor derived from act. its root. 191. ^ji. ^ 9 0* . 9 a key (from *J3 to open). derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. . derived from verbs. as . a. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative). The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. stantives as J*y man.. and a comparison of the meaning word. as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). and are either » deverbal.. in respect of their origin. nouns were formed. is «U a denominative verb. and which does not give birth to a nom.. into two derivative.^wt. ^-> how ?). follows.^5*^ qualitative. to be skilled in horsemanship. is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth. is not derived from oU. At a later period. Nouns are divisible. and their different Forms. The s . and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ . but a denominative Rem. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc.106 Part Second. ^j* may . The horse. that is. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. or denominative. formed from *U nor 9" from it. full of water. primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye. or verb. one that a nom. act. that is. a horse. classes.

a as^oJLft knowledge. as ^J***. riding. 2lJju. daughter of./***> of. or xO rawie. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind.^t. . ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO . the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. tfAe £ion. as ^^ft knowledge. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J. act.l^ and ^t^JJt. as i«L»l for the cat. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . ^J^jJui a quince. opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t. • a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object. 02 / A. or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. compounded with JO i ^jI. 5 J x The Noun. fox) . . Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A . but^aj^JLo. juw. J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. as ^-»». 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S.§ 191] II. names of horses. x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment. « man. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos.^a. as jj-o*. dx . J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. a noun that is A derived from a nom. x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass. names of women. understood. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more. in its strictest sense. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. jU».^U. sJ^*. an ^>*£^o~>t. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. an ^Ji^^wl.o-L j^£>. ( ^ji a horse .e - a name of. 4«~ot. or verbal root. or^at. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. smi as ^L». the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^. roottra that is augmented by additional letters. mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot. x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1. father o/. or (6)^*1 ^y*o. 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. w>jj/5. or . as 0x00 man. as ^LxJt ^jt. names of men. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel.jjl.

or an honourable epithet. &15U (bestowing). latter class is of six kinds. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. improvised. Bebba (imitation of a sound). as ^3 1. (excellence). tfAe weasel. the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. impromptu. gift)'. transferred from some other use. xDx . amir pounded. x 3 consisting of a single word. JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7. x J x ^jtjSJj^c. i the sun of virtues. 3 . ZjZ£- . j**). (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^.a*J^o.^0*-. Job's father. jb^SXZs j»\. J>*b ws-U. as w>^»t ^jt. as io (see above. c) (8) X. as j^w. ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort. Ox BaJal-bek. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. predicative. OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . x 0*» x joica/. [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). ^ijs- ^t. as 2J*j Duck or Bottle. as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. as C iUju. £&e female hycena. * . as t^itu jus. or wilcu*. ^--jiM _$j-«t. 6. The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. . x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. jX^j. The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. w*jj$ &\. aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose. ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. aj^^. x x arm).. as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God). B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>.O J genitive. the "patient" camel. a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. or proposition. . 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . existing only as a proper name. The 9*x as j^> (a bull). ft 2ro30 x U -p. a surname. (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). ^e tortoise. 6). Siba-weih . or (b) %^^»^o. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o. viz. ^^ JOxJ wA*5. « x J Ma'di-karib. 0*3 It. (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally. d simple. which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J). c.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. ^b*. 3 x extemporised.

action once. pyi\ ilo-^t. w^ » .^1 ^^1. and nomina patientis. (d) Nomen relativum. £3^1 £l©-/t. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. *Uyt ^S. (b) Nomina Nomina speciei. the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. nouns denoting the strument. A. nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. The Noun. the referred noun. J^UJt ll+*\. is c>J&\ ^wt. .\\ ll^wt. J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). llo-wt JjjtfcoJt. *W*l. particular class of derivative ad- . but have substantives. the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. 194. but have the nomina agentis et patientis . place C in- Nomina instrument i. namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis. The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. Sj^. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. nouns of. also called nomina (d) vasis. the noun that denotes the individual. 109 192. (a) Nomina vicis. Nomen vasts. A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O . nouns of kind or manner.»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. \Jj&. (participles).§ 194] II. namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis. >. om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time. come to be used also as B 193. are by their nature adjectives.. a jectives. the reference or relation). (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes . Nomina bo agentis.

9 of them. 9// 9// 9/' Ja3.mj. 9/ J ? J 2 J w^. t^j~». . jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. j^>3. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. are very numerous. j*o. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive. 9 J 9/ j ? 5. ^o-lafr.. £j 6. JaaJI *U^I. J*». . 196. /0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis. a. ^J*p. oc 195. JUi. J*». CO/ 1. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/. the lessening). 9// JaaLw. the lessened noun. which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. 9. O***. 8. as 0*4*> Jaw. as i*A».. 9«« / 2. >a-c. as <U*^s *j^> fat. >j. The Deverbal Nouns. Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. as w>jm£. list The following a nearly complete within brackets. M*-* j> 7. J*3. j-w.Q\ ^~/\. without any reference to object. ^i. as *Jl£. 9// J"k>> voj-^. o e>M3 (a) „ . %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. J>5. 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . The Nomina Verbi. SlXw. the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). as ^**A. v5j^> wJJU*. 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj. D 4. wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-. passion. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. or time. ^U. as w>*^> ^a^. ^j. J**. the diminutive. (/) Nomen deminutivum. J£>.110 Part Second. ibuo. The nomina verbi.Ju. <". / 3. Z. Rem. • .. -*j^. B which express the action. as»£>. where it originates). the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*». The nomina verbi. are abstract substantives. / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s. *yj. 3j£. The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. J / /O/ (lit. subject.*. as w~U». j£w.

26. 31. iitjjL. as < V »a-. O^***. £Ui. Ill ILJ. JU». ^-U*. io-«ac. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . as ^jA». ^l^j. as Ujl*. [19. Sjlij. as Ait^i. JUi.] O^iii. 9 as oy.§196] 10. —Nomina Verbi. ^»>i. as *jU£». liUL^. SUU.. as ^J-o*-. 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. Nouns Subst. iip.] Sul. A. [30. ^^Uj. aJUs. as O^*^. 11. [24. as cA*«»g. %>^=>y . [24* 25. i3Ui. 29.. 16. ^3>iif. 12. as ^IK Jl>w. iUi. cA&. as as iW-] ^>^. 0^i © •J J[Jl. 4^.] ^**. 3)U~>. j) . 4JL0. SjUi. o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ . o^o^. iCLj. .J [13*. 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J.] ilJUi. 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21. ^5**^^^Ui.^f&] illi. JUi.Lai. as eg^y B 17. al^Ui. «''» as i*Aafc». ^lU (or J&). as Oj^^xj. as iol. JU*. ^J^. 53UaJ. JU3. £J£ (also written <uU). The Noun. as £jl*i. as ^-^o. aX*5. SjLs. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. 22. lS**3 - L5£**. Kr&z.. as ilAt^>. J 27. [13. rial.<& Adj. 14. 28. as TClj. II. [15.jtjl.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. ^i**. as *£*>] o^. 4>^-»-. 5JU3.] [19* [20.. as ajUj. v 9*1 l*3. SjuLi. as [18. *1^> *^> 3&. JU-.

jyd. rem. J»***. SjJtLc. d->j*o. J-oa-c.] 37. as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. to snatch. as oj^a^o. a^-*.. — 44.' 9 * 0* . J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*. 34.Jjfc3 * J** * is * . J*^-> B 38. J>*i.J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i. J***** asj*£«.112 Part Second.] All these nouns cannot. • 3>5j. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand. aJLai. £J>*i. must be learned D from the Lexicon. J*£*. : Jli. Ij^ii. 33.» / i^x S s 39. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44. 34. 2. jrf understanding. JmA '. as Jj**. triliteral verb. J**s. 198. 1. as *J££. v**i»i<jtj Je*3. 0. very 197. are 28. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. Ji*. I 32. * ** ibUi. as ib^e. see further §§ 208. . i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t. as Ag^ci*. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo. a-wo^-cJ. (a) ** * . as 3 ji»a*. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*. 42. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. «»/ JJ£ to kill. as i^jJI. which are most frequently used. GO* as J^-Jl*.. G * 40.0* tS$y°. 43. insight.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. 221. 33. ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s . What these are.o £^~«. Sj^j^o. 39 c. Slo^o. £T / d . Urn** .. / • • d «.. The 9 0* five forms. Sy^. cAs [41.— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech. 3ijAo. J**j. j*a. 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-.] [Rem. few of more than two or three. diksuLc. . J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj. as ^SU^. ' «• . GO* 00s u .> t a> -e. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. 5 Syii. ?-s*-j«c. however. A*a»^e. and the remarks to 222—225..

* * . xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam. u°j*° to be sick. 27.sitting . vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash. 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. as 9 x . xx ^ys> 15 to w. ^A*^ x x x . change of place. *-ji joy . to 9 palpitate. *-L3 ^Xj to weep. to be x j x of sound judgment.§198] (b) xxx IT. ^J^Jt9. to xxx lash the tail. run away with . The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight. AJtjjh. to to flee. refusal. xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. jtiu. as juiS and ^J^. BjyL±.. 9 The Noun. x xx to to run. ^ *-jjL. as J*~j 9 to travel. *-U-»^->\ to refuse. to brandish. J***. y^x3 and J J ^yU. f-\r>e . as ^Jslc to sneeze. to be rough.jb^. Sx x x to be generous. 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». Ci s jjliUi. - wju wjbu and ^~x. to bray. J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. jJu. J**3. £)\jlx±. Si* * xx xxx }j£. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form . «J xxx 9xJ to bark. J 9 Us. cry out 9xx for help. Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . J^-* to fo smooth. ' . 9 9 x . . }\jJli . go out. r> JU* as ji.. x *-*»£ 9 x '. palpitate. ^° gallop (of a camel). 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . ^xj l\SJ . firmness or soundness of judgment . Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. u°j* sickness. A. # xJ 37. 9 x 37. jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*. or 9 x . to ft* ^'c£ and t large. rider (of a horse). Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£. to be agitated. his 9 9 * . . . U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*.— Nomina Verbi. 9 x J j\i to flee from. 9 x xx > ^Ja*. * . Rem. 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . 9xJ Jo roar. usually take the form 26. * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. 21. w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . { j*L±. p-U«o xx . ^JUi and xxx . shun with horror. xx to croa&. *bt.> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. 7»5j±> going out. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness. xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. as j\h x x to fly. J^-tf J>yj to bray. B aJ^^w smoothness. pcfc to * become refractory. to sit. i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound. ^o 9xjxxx . 9 X . j\y* xxx . Nouns Subslti Adj. x run quickly.

gUj xxx x x . or the Parts of Speech. tions. j£j*-. to fo plain. SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . for accordingly. If a verb has only one form. but j^»». 200. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels.. each of to its meanings.^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after . <bto xxx deputy ship . to be afraid. but »*i^w. Ox X i»ti.j. *UUs. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns. has ^.s*J to trade. and to 60 moved by love. has £*Jj. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. ^ZS** to write. . one Perfect. 4j*^5. has OXX ' j^j*. act as deputy. j-v*-. office. u^P or Aitjw. to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. [§ 199 A howl. the caliphate . J^i.Jj to be in charge or command o .to Ox x sew. the office of secretary . The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself.g. x xx Thus. . to find. to part. that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. E. Sj^. to be exalted or noble. has jj*. U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel).. or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x . B 199. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight. ly». jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. or jjj^-. to succeed. sense x x . .114 Part Second. 3jU*j 2mofe. open or public. *liu . xx traffic. loud. but Jji. governorship. or jl-^. but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. w>U to take one's place. %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat. and xx x have several abstract nouns. X X X U>j£>. 3 J in. xxx ju*. grief or anger. be chief of. fl x . Jjji . and wi^w be exalted. but in the sense of Ox xx . tfAe 29. as t^il*. trade or handicraft. 201. <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. to ^ OX XX .) or caliph. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w. one of which peculiar to. divide. Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy. have a hud Ox© usually has voice. to judge.. „ or tmir. j-ij** to £*j. Ox£jU£» . noble or eminent. 3)lyj>x x <*J>2». Ai^Li. 5 x it signifies curb {a horse).

JStc. . iGX>. from j~» £o glad.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. triliteral II. The Noun. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. see the Gloss. existence. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. x JUjJU. oi jUfe. of the strong 202. gladness. Geogr. ?^h^. x/0 fl£J. iSCJ^. SwiJ. to Bibl. £3ja3. first. to exist (see §200)*. a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . 9 J'^a^>. 2^. C JtaXJ. il^io. The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows. x S^-cuS. employed in the active and Lane. JUA5. as Jl^cu.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification. O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. JuU. D. JUA3. 9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2. as jjjj-w Joy. 9 x as JU^j. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. X as 1>\S£>.] signification .§202] its II. 1. as ^>^. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3. S>~J. a^Xj. 25}s!*3. X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. J£«*. G. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. as lUu-I*k. 5^a5. »LJ. ibuu. as ££1^3. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem. A. . «^'>^>.] [6.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . aXxaj. a^v>. $50^5 from j^j to be found. x V&£>. Jt ji. i*> . J**&. S^J. Nouns Subst. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. u^Uy.

] 5-0 IX. 0-00 X. but is chiefly by far the most common. VII. . J**a3. j3U?. [2. [or frequency. 7$}£&?. Jajuu tert. •£«. as JUS. JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. autli. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. JUllt. used in verba rad. as jjy-3 from tp) I. JUil.] B VI. Jilil [2. 1. 1. as j&. 3 et ^ (in which . as JU-*->.] VIII. JU*. yjjuu. whereas JUaj. is In II. in. latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare.]. a. as OjUj. Rem. J%*lt. to Heb. V.. to excess energy or intensity. the form JJUi is the original infinitive. the infinitives. JUiXwt. [2. Jaw. J!jU5t. J&.116 Part Second. OjUl] [3. jSL. JUtf .] IV. XL XIII. [4. XIV. JUA3I. [§ 202 . 1. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. as >*£. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ. Jtjait. >«£. [3. hemz. Jt***. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin. /^P). as v£*-*> cfe. alxsu tert.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. J^U5. only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. ?5uJt. J&. substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. strictly speaking. 2. JcUf. XII. ii&fo c xv. JbLait. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i. akin to /SJ&fi. is and rad. infin. ( absol. and are represented in the . but of an obsolete are.

fUU. as p. The most pass. The nouns formed from the iLUi. x WShft. Rem. is as jli*^> oUloit. 117 /^JUH. J^Jj*.] 203. the original form is JUaj. etc. as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*. I. 9 xOx JUj-. as>l*j£». or Jjti. of all is aJUULo fern. —In VIII.— Nomina Verbi. jj*a* ^o-A] I. III. as Jig. JjtAj. <U. Oj^e*. II. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*. as *-tj«o. JUu^. 6. C 1. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft.§203] II. JU$. 0x0 JUX3.^). 3p*s^. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju.. — In ([in form identical with the] V.] . D. J&Jl. Zlsy>. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive. Jbt^i is the original infinitive. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. Nouns Subst. as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL». A Wan. G. and Lii to VI. common form particip. Perf. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj. The Noun. JLiutf . and Imperf. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant.] J-***?. UjLoJL etc. /J » x ___ III. JUJU. D [The irregular form IV. those B Arabs alone use JUJ. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. Nominalbildung. {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. Hv^in.. x « &AAj~i..& Adj.*— In III. • < • In XUal is the common form.). J'iUJ. [3. who shorten the Jji5. rem.j*. A. * [Barth.UJ). into <Jmu.. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III. § 180 disapproves of this theory. ]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ. 00 J^JLxit. 0x0 2.t.j3.

drop it also in the verbal noun.g. 205. abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. o Sjcfr from js-2.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. x xxx j . that reject the ^ in the Imperf. Imperfect julj. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. of which the first and second .118 Part Second. Imperat. Hence %x« for jjco. [§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). Those nouns. The B Rem. mj 204. to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. Rem. Those verba primse rad. mutual thrusting and stabbing . like JjJj. >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). and Imperat. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206. undergo no contraction x x as jju>. b. ^*jUJ or w>L*J. yJAfr. j. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. x x a. as 3»lo»« or olo-«. (§§ 142 and 144). radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. E. and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not.

' nsr. j. as Jy>.xx d for w>Ufc. in Hebrew. Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145. 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©). as w>j>>.—Nomina J ' Verbi. as^oLS for^ftly>. ^om nb\ . be preceded by kesra. rf. l\j*~* like. if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra. Imperf. (or § by assimilation 223. >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M. >Uut and **X X *ti. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med.ijjfc. *«*. j-w. fr° m YW. 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^. ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. Jj>»». 207.Jj. this radical is ^. etc. Initial ^. from olo . 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3. « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3. where it remains . 5JLo for aJl^o. .). Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. . it is If the letter j. -Jfc*). . Compare > . of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157). 3i. A.-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s . pronounced with fetha. Nouns Subst. Rem. x > 11. as . 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti.9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. 5 If the noun from a verb mediae .1.' rOfc? (*^).] ••!• 5 x ^M). ^o). and the [See D 209. frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*. l j from verba med. x x J & Adj. and kesra precede as . x The Noun. x x x . x j£. * * ma T •• (&*). . x Rem. changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. . the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3.T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^).j and Sj^. ^ . prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. .§ 209] e -gfl II. ^ -B (&).jl*x&. J^j**. bt* . or ^j be of the form x 208..). . from ^©13. rem. 9 c.» See § 145. )L±* (rad. from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form. rad. if it be without a vowel. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem. from the tenth of .^f. A . b.l. rem.' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J.

OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui.. all combine DDte. from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£). E. SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and. aJ^JUi as the original form. ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ.120 Part Second. so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^. shortened JL**s. ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i. Oli^ I5U. i 5J^Ui. S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . were. [§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti. and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. 0&&aff and llcu. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£). a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. ^-^j-j*. ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad. j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o. (->>>). in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . x hj*J from *> *13 (^1).5. aJ^JLx.— Etymology . and then altered. ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. ^ et ^ x the nominal form . £0 6e chief or ruler. and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x . tjjjyfa+i 2. on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables.*• (jj~>). Ox J J Rem.4. j|>». In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided. x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. and >U*^t. 211. S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©).from ^U-. confusion. first ^ et ^5. into <la. rad. mixture.^w. x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *. they say.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui. or the Parts of Speech. rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>.g. Dtfll) . jMj) fromjy'J). 77^*3 to prove that pi3. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical .^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«. jtj— 1I3J from jjL*.^u. and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2). is and then x ) . aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i). from is 210. pb. . J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ .*>.Jtlilwt .

^ et ^. j>»^. *}£a. 5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$. %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . at the same time.. into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a. Sj£>j (§ 7. the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj. ^cj. its fetha.^eUM in the Kor'an. to show (§ 176. and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. and becomes quiescent. for * * for for (*V).] 5 " •• forms J*s. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj . GO* (j£>i. tertise rad. The Noun. 5 La. y^..» U*>. tertise rad. through the influence of the third radical. a. j C as changed.§215] II. often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. [if B * J J*5. SlXw for 3j£i. . the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z.. J. 212. ^1..'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o).. ^. after the elision of for S>L«. ^jj. a. sj^ 2 . ^c^ y for (J^jt. 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S . tjj L5J*. 73 (for^»U5t. is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. the . etc. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see. second radical. tertiae rad. Nouns Substdk Adj. the (etymologically more x Rem. ^^J*. the j productionis changed. I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. into combines with it into J$.. 213. an * 2> * t 5 * J**. c). the ^5. ft and 214. * * 9** * 0*0* Rem. combines But. e. In the same way as SLa. S^a. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\.g. these forms come from verba tertiae rad. throws back the ten win upon the Eg. ^. In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained. rem. and Jj«i. 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class. We often find.. the j productionis of the second . * * $ of the form al*5. for 00* 00* ^^a. A. whilst. 16 . rem. 121 Rem. as w. if is with the radical j into j as 3J3. •* Jjj for j>\>. for S^a. L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6. Sur. xxi. £). 3bj*o for 2-o^o. as L5a*. 215. e?).i\ 5 A occur. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y. 3l£>j for S^»j. as jjs-. \ however. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. 6.

). the influence of the third radical D (always ^$. find ^3.Uju~>t. (ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217. and following forms. J# for jfi (J&). ^ et ^ is changed into hemza . « . 219. [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). b. ^o. the third radical of verba as £U±. sometimes takes place. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth. and JUi. 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167. we is. the third radical converted into J?. For this . rem. t x X f\^*j\.. as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. as ^1 for ^y\. ^5. is In the same form from verba tertise rad. gU^t. XX has the . Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). as gUact. tertise y> rad. 218.122 Part Second. as ^>A for ^jA. Uxp. as 2J<~3. seventh. further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. from ^yb. g^a»Jt. tertise rad. kesra. fe. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms. In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. 216. when it ^x form Jt*3. rad. 3. P). e. and xx in that of the third. ^jt. ^ 3 x from ^>3. —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. ^. If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***. J£. ££j. et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot. JU3. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. {\yt^>\ x . That an act has taken place once i}j+).

Otj-o-».*0* 3ja3. ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. be appended to it.e^. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. shuddering. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. ^j. mode. and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. 0**0 du>\j£=>\. 4*y>. drinking. inhaling or B rolling. 220. Rem. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot. *b>o. _ a. do not 0/0/. aj>w. striking. of course. ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. giving rest. . or nouns that express the doing of an action once. turning over. once. seeing. sitting down. as du.. * 3J3\Ju. AJLJt. feUU. * * *j*. iolSt.ja. and so with *+*£>. Rem.g. turning round. ij^. . or . * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo. *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t. «< E. 0**0 A^tj^o. a**1*. A. o o?.> ***> f r o b.§220] II. ** J*J»>1*. vexing. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl.. he had pity or compassion upon * * * . J**aj in the second. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. honouring. These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt. once. * * * pi. * * a»^. . o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind. 9**0 Zj[s£)\. a **>o neglecting. Nouns Subst. him once. a^-jJ. rolling over. c. ^\. m * * * * * *$.g-». £)\3j*a£. S*a*S. is —Nomina first Vicis. £ £ ^-oJ. 6 a^ao. ^. meeting. has always the form aX*j. * o t being uncovered.lj one. 3j. derived from weak verbs.j3. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping. fleeing. 3u^j. 0*10** <Lc*.* being rolled. rejoicing. coming. \j*.<& Adj. Rem. D as rti*.oJ.0/0/ 0/0/ . 5$ j&. *&** SlSaj. Nouns of this sort. (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind. The Noun. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * . Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way . A-U-5. nomina vicis. * * V*i 0*0* **«. V 0**0 dJ1j. manner. snuffing. be formed * * * Rem. 3 jc». 0*0* «/» r.

Z+s. verbi and nom.g.g. speciei . oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221. verbi has the form dJUi. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). dying. 5*0 C nom. or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. sitting. ac^cJI &~»». but kesra.. he writes a^j. riding. D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. b. a miserable way. /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). ^j^i . as 4£j«a. 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». way of putting on a turban. e. eating. The nom. from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). be used in a passive sense. if form of the verb. 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma. imperf. we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting. by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb. speciei may. the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * . If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes. as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself. from v>^ t° drink. a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. Rem. like the 0*0 5 * nom. * E. w^-u*o . SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». J-^ the time or place far watering . [§ 220 E.124 Part Second. killing. 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. sleeping. (from fast vicis. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. a.g. or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis). a place for drinking. S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. a good hand. or yashmak .

10. from j»-j^ 9 to 0. the west. the crown of the head. ' . or to A place where. the east. Q 9 0. habitation. L £)S mA 6. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco. 9 . 4. 0. ^~C> . take. the vessels in which the act or state con- tained. or w^w. . £j-*a* the time when.- where anything falls.o-» u-^Xa*. room. Twelve of these nouns. —Nomina Loci. a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in. imperf. slaughterhouse or shambles. of prostration in prayer. Rem. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. b. where the sun rises. £j><ai . the elbow. where the sun sets. imperf.§221] II. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. A. where a plant grows. from Jyj is imperf. 125 J . (camels). from juaS aim make for. a from ^Sb J 1 to write. & Adj. The Noun. Oj^ of division. #0 out. a. 0. as it were. 0.> to go ftflM imperf. w**£* a place where writing taught. J^J slain. to aimed at or made for. v~^*~i at. school. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. fcut 9 mo . il+~*\. f*j±-i. imperf. £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. several persons 5 sit. or-* p 7. party. a mosque. whereon one rests. assembly. imperf. . and J^. 9. kesra. notwithstanding. viz.6 . J~a3u. J^. in particular. Nouns Subst. 1.* £fa place where. J**&* the place JO. 5. B and Rem. from v~^ ' to sit. . where tlie hair divides in different directions. of ascent or rising. ingress. to drink. where one dwells. one imperf.

Nouns and place. rem. MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book. be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ». from >)$ . jjLo. fixed time or place. the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into . rata of time (U^>> rad. formed from verba primse ^ et {J. 0' et loci from the ..s ^>N?a>. a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin. 5.and _. 144). ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp. ^L».g. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0). 11.. 7. (dij?b). which. [§ 222 the A 11. The vowel of the cjoL. a copy of the Kor'an.o. * —Etymology nostril. cjd». (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142. J-**. languages.o and closet.a>.&».o . J. jt?2oce hiding or concealment. cases the c.o. wJj-^U. 9. a small room or 0.». meeting or assembling. ij^o watering-place. imperf. w>^>-«. retain the first radical. Q Rem. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2. and even jj)-* also »o.•g.<».«. also makes B « a> o or . and 12. 12.o.126 Part Second.. fetha.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci.. 2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. it'* J^sw-c. >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment. takes fetha in the second syllable.. go down (to draw water).«*->«o jjtcu*. . are of nomina temporis or Rem. ji* i«*. a pfoce o/* collecting. as m&fc. ^Jla^o.0^^0. where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these. ^^mje. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders. as a < general rule. imperf. o?.. license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect. The verb * «. which has /Ma in the imperf. . nos. or the Parts of Speech. . and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable. and the same the rest. promise. E.. J 0303 jtL jri> U.03 See § 228. %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^.

E. J***o or Jl©*o. a . from is put down. \ J^U 224. 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x . and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj). imperf. and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra.» to x dive. . D w^t. imperf. J-Xo or JtC*. strictly speaking. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med. a place. for they always take fttha in the second syllable. sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire. from j-~> Ox . s from 9 ^oU x . from ^JU. J-JU or JliU. dreaded. x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place. & Adj. "("'' r.g. imperf. X S C x x Rem. from J^-j x . The Noun. according to § 221. x x r. imperf. Subst.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx . as w>U. <ix § 208. . j-~u 3 x * Here the . C J J 2 x . £0 fear. — Nomina Loci. or ^iUto. to place. s (t or t ^). J^.). x x . from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf.**** jjueu* should. ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. imperf. this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical. .^. but the grammarians give B Rem. Those formed from verba mediae rad. A. J-»->*et 223. but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc. ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. syllable. as *«^>o. imperf.3-0 a place that . have the same form as the nomina loci et temp. by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation . imperf. imperf.*--wo « or cL*. x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o. ^xxxx S. wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. #0 jpfay a£ hazard. from J^j to be afraid. place. ^^uak^o or ^^law. j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand.§224] II. J-Jb J <»x (Ja). some examples with fetha in the second syllable. ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. imperf. JU. . Nouns where anything %*eu .. See Those formed from verba tertise rad.

to \^y^ ^>t» t. imperf. frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . O^i9 x x Rem. the edge. x Nouns «xx . imperf. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213). sits in the sunshine.g. UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape. ^j-> stops. imperf. from ^j #0 bend. i^j^ (^3^*) * O . • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be. tJ^'—J. Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j . a desert. imperf. Ox . SbjJi* place for drinking. aJj-U a halting-place. E. 4£j-£*o the C. where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop. iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. imperf. x . W <5 x x Rem. imperf. ban- queting-room. from xx x . L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u. imperf.. as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. w^r# tifo x Ox are watered .128 Part Second. xO x (l£3~c ) the place do..jJ» to think. 225. [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. tejjL* watering-place. . SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . x . If derived from a strong verb. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. o/* occupation. >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. from ^j. as i^k*** hunger. « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. xx The . : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. imperf. of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle. imperf. as S/*&© cemetery. #o or wsort xx a place. from £Ox . ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. the second rad. «: B l£^* to fold. suppose. ^^4*. . *t> * pasture or graze.*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form. business . from . In regard to their contraction. Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. a station. jai^) place of refuge.. etc. .

or x x 0* w^w. ^5 — Op ©t.a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs. ft-j*~* the place through which. 3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) . Nouns Subst. . triliteral or from the are identical in form E. rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) . The Noun. from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time. JujJL* X X From ii// very rare. take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E.g. O x as mesrdk = £j***. The same form is also used as a . ^4 x QxOJ 2 . OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!». A^JJa^. 17 ./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . &c*Lo . f& x . place. rad. [or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action].jA. 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e.«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . in preference to Sju»a»-o. Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. y^»~o *t#w of the foWA. 3 et and 0x0 ^. ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« . to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco.\ gathered together in a crowd). g ^a ^ . from jJj to foar. A. from jccj to 'promise. <So Adj. x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227. of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral. with the nomina patientis or passive participles. as Ji^A* or . o x o B Rem.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. —Nomina Loci. £~Xo. 3 X X Rem. 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«. 226. x x Og or evening (»<«). \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) . S^Aa^o. the The nouns verb.g. A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x .§227] II. g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . J ^^ a place C ^j— **. me'rdb = w^Jt*. **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox. ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. Sjjio. -f. derived (see § 228).g. ft? 60 collected) .

. [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered . jyU. .0 0x0 0x0 or snare. a jwwr 0/ scissors. to file . Sl5^» (for £*$>*). >3j*. a branding-iron or cautery. Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on. and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced. a needle . . the 228.aj juj 5x J '. e. a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan. ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. xxx a t a ^0. a strainer . D packing-needle . a comb. aL**«.Jt. hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4. Ox x and aJUa*. X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. u°\r**. a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*. ' * 3^0. *-«**. a 6We?/0 or halter. When derived 6+ from verba med. J^aa and . xO XX r. B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument. A a». lancet. mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J . a key.>uu Oxx (for . t from . J. . a******. rad. — 6*s*»<i*J . aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****. w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ .>mJU). —Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ.» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI .g. from >jj. in s*1*> . nomina instrumenti. xO #0 cut . x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . X XXX X . God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. 3>2U.0 to xxOjo. j et xx x ^.130 Part Second.- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. 6x0 they remain uncontracted. . JUa*. E. OxO 5x6 • * * > 0. St^x*. are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t. a cupping-glass. a staircase or ladder . They have the forms Jaa*.0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX».»£xJ0x»x . » 3 x J. Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom. XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet. making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. j-oj.oJL. . x x and <Uy»«.a. .

Q.. from 9 * ^Jgr to write. as well as _. a judge. nomina patientis. iTTftb. a. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — .g.g. a master. 9 s The verbal adjectives.j. Nouns Subst & Adj. Rem. derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. 6. Jmo^o. oi 229.. When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive . to be found. These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic. The Noun. * from w*l£> . is raato . The form JjJU also used. *o*> * . 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U. Dnpk&.o. a sword. a madman. i. from^x»\ judge . < * * to be possessed. a to serve. A. in the syllable. w-Jfcj a. *->y&* written. and the nomen patientis. namely. 5 J from *x». and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. JijJ^c 5 J J 9. Wl». > Jyduo.». E. ^Aft to know.e.§230] II. judging. nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\. from^oj^ jbjj^e to served.J*s (as to fear. ^Jl^ 9 J writing. a sieve . Rem. as in other languages. 9 ' J*l3. these real participles. from &*. letter. ^Tfc. 230. a servant. • >5+y* found. the nomen agentis. and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles. verbal in C adjectives.0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis. * * Rem. A . O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be . > %* =j. ^>5l^ being. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose . mm*** = hA ^ . Adj. to be mad. existing. (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. D ' ' ' j**{±> serving. substantives. a censer. to " ^jj^~c mad. e. j^\+. adjectives derived from verbs. B mats.a». {J^c to touch). a scribe or secretary. from^oj^. 131 9 J J Rem. Jj juo = J> jco. Wo?e on.— Verbal 4/0J 9J J . + J from exist . have two principal forms. .

oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw. Sj 00 y J J J / x . 5 #x x B rejoicing. rem.g.) Jjju^. Conversely. 6. But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. ^j\£z. 5/ J ft The Ox fern.> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227. T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence.. ^>j»o = 3j. Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal. GO JOj UU^ . a hax Ox bitual state of being. they have only the participial . endurance.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^. generous. instead of x form I^jjm^. The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 . an oath . j£s\». —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. sense. a promise penury. C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen .. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. expressing a continuous action. Imrdiness. proft J x ft J mising. 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined. ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being. j^>^. =j-*»£. is 3 . j^xm .. < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' . O J ft x 00 x understanding. ^jU*. / came to /wm riding hard. J ft E. .] X bountiful. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *. ^Jjla.g.). distress . as te^Xa—*. jl^*. l\jyt£*. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem. e. cheery.or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. ^ opposed to jy»ju* . ft p^j* = *ij.g. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. >tj^. the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231. as in the phrase W>15^$.. . § ^^)J^>.**. being glad. labour. x J 3x ft swearing. and tfAe telling of the truth. Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? . ft Ox x J jco. ^X J ft tJ. 4^iU^ aIo-^. g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do. =j*£>. ->Jftx£ E. but also serve as adjectives or substantives. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . and J>*o narrow. however is 232. Rem. x ft c. jul&» .). 5. being got or acquired . j£\sX Ox . = Lct-btj. or as an adjective. the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. sturdiness. La^j a^>'. J a x x * intelligence . or a x permanent quality Ox (see above)... O x [Comp. perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$. knowledge. 6e£?i<7 cowardly. opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>. one's utmost . o^Jo^-o = back. # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis. Sx x x SJJ easity (do. as ili^la^o. Ox . X a XX scholar. rem.132 Part Second. %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic.

Of these the following are the principal. a water winch sinks into the ground. 5. = \jj~aa Jj^ J*». 14. Jcli is the Aram. Besides these. 12. A I met him face him in resist face (lit. Adj.j. a o for a). 16. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. = UjU^. confined or . Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. I slew cold blood bound. viz. = J^U.j. ^Jb. JU5 JU3 J**i 2. & Adj. a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . 11. made like. Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. (lit. 1. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. that he could not or escape). 4J3U. J^i. or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. 232. J jcc . J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb. express. 3. 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. rem. o^** Jjl5t 8. 7 .— Verbal to lip). 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. ^oAo. J** 9. a just woman. j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. 13. so \j~o aZX3. Rem. the emir. Sl^t. just men. . =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) . =jj\e. Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. c). adjectives which are ticiples. eye to eye). 231. Jj*. they are * B of God. held. JU.§ 232] II. 7. The Noun. Jjjtft jj£ £U. and partly. the Heb. UUt aLa). A. a jwstf maw. Nouns Subst. 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. lip = ly$liLo . 4.

from j£w x. J x J x from J**. from j**£ to forsake. JJ^-.j . —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. Jo*g. 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. # 6 and 7. from . § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. [§ 232 A thing. sw<?0£. 8. X XX abandon. from ^ju. x J . yA« from vJ^-j easy. difficult. ^ xj x vJ^* tender. « ft fargg.134 Part Second. from # * { ** t J*aj. —which x . J^c. x J x from 5 J JJj. 0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3. intelligent. 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing. having a swollen stomach. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed. from J^-w . from cfoW#. from from j-wt »-ji. from JJu* . m* teto. 5 x x x . from ^A. jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5. 0*x x x . m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» . * from ^ov^. x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. JJ*a- >wt. 5 Jj^. ^j from » t^Jj. harsh. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> . xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. J*** treacherous. from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. y> J J bitter. timid. 5 |a. from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. w>*xc sweet. . from . /<#. laA£. a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2. from xxx ^o-***-. X x 0^3 x j Jiij. ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. sorry. i^h^. x J x . *. JAJ». partly. from x . X x J x awake. v»v^. from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^. jx jj£. 9-ji. rugged. from o^e- xx liberal. jtwr^. x ^ x . is their signification (see § 38). X J . #M. (for ^>o-. oJ X X remaining in one place. x degree of intensity. 10.. ^Ja». x L5^) X . crushing. J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. j-**. ma//.J. polluted. from f 5x3 . clever. £*•** fr° om from 3U. from ^^a-j « . 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave. from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. ^>*^ rough. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». acute.*. fidious.) perishing.breaking. J J from yXc jA*.»-3 m pain. ^m. betray. B self-conceited and insolent. c^rse. ./w^. S . abundant. .. xx 5xJ O^** «^^. from o J^ ' -> * . hardy.^ov* strong. P^-^ Jmw. j-«4>. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent. Examples 6' : 1 . S x xjx j*xS. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*. J***-* J****. *». j-**> x J x inexperienced. Oxx . jl£ rough.» jJJ unclean. J* . cautious. from **J. j*U from proud. xx J^& . —and. iaij XX G . 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. young. from j*o . from ^^x*. x x from (^:>j x oi». liberal. ' J fromj^. jJJ. x . clever. from t>~». and jJau . 5x Ja. bruising. x x «5 wary. from Jx*a- . g^'c£. untaught. J^b to 60 tender. Jxjo. 3 and xxxx©£ox . 4.

x . stupid.232] J II. £ JxOx 0^>**> from *. . J-J^. j^ct one-eyed. handsome.t squinting. from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. *iwt unseemly. from 0^*^ repentant. J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. . from J 13 . from ^3* . from Jju© Jj>3 to «i. stupid. . from « h-i». niggardly. ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. slender. from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous. from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**. [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x . . from ^**S. . from Jja. ^j*^ ?m^A. thirsty. Jn>*- . W2£A a n xxJxOx . t/o. /•/> "* XXXX . . Jjjlo veracious.continent. from ^o*^ m' . from ^oXw ogriT?. from x J x .. from x . . J^»t . * I x x £ paltry. from (j^ oW>»» ashamed. from ^w . ^iil having a long chin djii) . ^->i-». Ox Jty» /^r. clumsy. w-o&fe.jl~».— Verbal Adj. .^ot ^«/. from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry. Nouns Subst. x J The Noun. straight nose. x J x stingy.> ^ talkative [or to speak]. burn. J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing. from J«*. from JaJU compassionate.s&/£ (of water). 12. xx jj. to /ymgr. ^//. foul. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0. from cU. xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0. ignorant. from £i£ .. impotent. fifomjjJ x erf]. x J x x x from to Jfj». . thrusting or kicking violently. w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3. LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows. J«o*j xJ x . open. » maft^.» . from JiJ from JU» . from j-~». s/c&. .w Jx9x ^jUJac. <J!>». jl^-t ?W. A. J^Sj ma//..» . . i^il 6/ac&. Jj^. satisfied with food. merciful. X X . from Ja«j . from jJS^ x-> x . from w>ju». from uU . . xJxOx to//. XX0X . 16.. xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#. r. ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14. Olji A sweet (of water). from J^». *>' . from JUa*. j . from ^ji. *^aj^ W06/0.>». XX j-a»-. from Jo. t from J^. I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. «£^£ <jUlw •77.t foolish.. 15. . «*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. from <>~». from Jib [jtj^5 O . from C^i x x . »«J^kc j$~*a*. from j>j£a & Adj. bright. Jj*-' unskilful. oWj* waW. from px a^ fow^. O^-*^.. hungry. coarse.. Vmoc XX . foolish. ugly. humpbacked.to 11. J*aj tev#. from affection or t mov^c? % j»%. numerous. C JJ 3^*. from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. dnwA. from ^ J^t xxx . ^\ yellow. j^^oJi 0^^> . drunk. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white. J|>». from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X . daring. cheerful in countenance. « «»*.. Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak. J x . glorious. " <7ras£.

often indicate. as j-aw. Rem. J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x .g. —^L^t. = x . secure. either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses.] .SU barren. J j*ij^ '. ". Rem. f-lj**' 6 x wounded . j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans. J**$.»-jja»a .136 Part Second... 9 or the Parts of Speech. OOOO s }m. milked*. it meaning message. a) . C a victim. ^>ct *a/e. got the signification of bearer of a message. from ^^1 . intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. Ox o?. and Jjti. w>^l». is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls. c. and hence they are forms. as shown by some of the above examples. and so also in substantives. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^. transitive verbs. Latin nuntius.^L». tJt*&j. from O^ifr . shown by the above examples. ~D. X ft X XX .» ft s . j->«->.. ^tfuola. acid. as w>>&) ridden upon. according to the native scholars.— Etymology Rem. sound. but more especially the latter. x or ^>*l. . j*j£=>. j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx . or Jjti (see § 230. especially jit**-). as j^j. jux»>. j x Jx sometimes from Jjii. trpmjJLa j. X «o/e. ^Jjji xJ x x . sowr. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class . rem. though the distinction J .» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. = ^j^\ 5.*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject. x from ^apr* or X Rem. e. a prisoner. it is originally a Hence. f*+£> slaughtered. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas.. j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. the forms . [§ 232 x A and a. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i. As is . J-jA». G. has usually J ft x . if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\. or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. =^U.

and 5. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. 2. the J noun of intensiveness. |loj. some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti. ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker. J 0t3j ^L%»a-. it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. J***. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. . less j J 4. ^-jU fearing. 191 Rem. Other intensive H 3.g. j»\j£z very noble. Compare etc. cli^ pushing. J^JLo gwrcy astray. e. f1^6. drunken. xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. • 1. « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar. T • WJW. |Uj a builder or JU^. D Ax 6. = w>jJ^ lying. as £H)"| = w> j^. s^+jjJZt. 18 . J*i. ijx adjectives. w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing. . x 233. T9*. j^=> very forye. as TBDK. Jj*i. The Noun.j • .. a 2 x gardener. 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si. J>*b. addicted to wine. The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist. w. = J>^t P wot^ . addicted wine. J*s. s y^Ua*. a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller. Rem. JU3. T T ' r. JU~» importunate. . gULw a water-carrier. as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>. wry handsome. J5L> asking. thrusting.U» « coo&. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. repelling. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl . ^^ knowing. l\& weeping much.— Verbal Adj.i)b weeping. A. i3 Jjii. since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit.& baker. J^as. in Hebrew and Aram. S3D. . cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings). • as ^H?| (6 for a). violently. fi J 113*3. jla»J . jflt^j j*£~». learned. 137 Hem. a porter. WX wry learned.> l\j$ 1. ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. & Adj. a. Nouns Subst. E. cli. 5 x »x3 x jU». J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton.§233] II. 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. k5/ - J x wJjj-w . common than JUi. as well as from 5x others. «t. derived an adjective Jl*s. x 0xx O x x example. 0*<i2x 6 ft x . = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking. KOfi. JjiS. architect. J^ 5 x x . . T 7 TDK. a carpenter. a tailor. in the former. i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. 2. a beggar. as * J*. as ^^=^3. #* x C x v&^U. etc. # < .

Jxj-b* very liberal. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj. 0x0 talkative. poor (JSD&. slothful.138 Part Second. 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. 6 turning. cunning. u^tj^ fond of opposition. J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious.g. to ^SL^ — Jbuu. flkn* very X Ak. too. D. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£.. J . 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal. and A^jUl*. J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). Jt^iL©. w>UJ3. 5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting.. imn</ perfumes. . 6x0 thrusting with the spear. Jijji timid. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children.>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful. JUi-o." E. w>UAj. pitable. do. 4.g.t. G. B^Xsu very learned. a wrestler . X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^. is Similar. *»>j-o one often or violently. given play or sport. deceitful. 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. docile.c.>LU stinking. j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. XX 6x0 JJ>**. x timid. all-glorious. ^oUJJ. except J>jj-©) . w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious. 6 «3 mean. very talkative. 3. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. Jj*. 6x0 6 jtuU?.] . T> . and actionis.^1-U. J knowing. eating much or giving to eat. ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly. ^aJxo. j*a*i wl g boastful. x male children. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre.j*»j~>lft. w^a^o. x uJ e. and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually).v. ' X D ji. 228). &UA3. a —On yia.. but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. spy. § (nomina instrumenti. strictly speaking. or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%. swallowing big morsels. J^UJj fickle. ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. ^ » ^ffiV>\*. w>La*-o. tractable. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand.k'go. brave warrior. mechanically. eloquent. ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel). daring. greedy. o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . are. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U. >#&*. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much. w^UJLj. . . ^jjJi . which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly. w^$. substantives Jjii^. 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci.Ro. . 6x0 jJ^o. 6x06x0 ^l*^. mendacious. 5.

c. from Jj^li. AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?.§233] II. from o ij-oii. begging. Nouns Subst.— Verbal Adj.>laJU very unjust. ioliU lowing big morsels. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^. A. a^Ua. breaking in pieces. ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$. as 5. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai. <ul~J a great genealogist. <UAb j cb calling or summoning. as 44-Ja. faithless . ^U^li. an emissary or missionary. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. very contrarious . or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. dJbuU. dijjls x x timid. <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. Aft. crafty. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj. > 0/* comprehension. <L5lrk treacherous. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. S3 J axXjo always on the watch. which // /il here used. AtlSj ill-natured. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep. For example. no&£e. 4JUiJ loquacious. "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. Heb.Lo aw dJUi. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller. 2'* . sillily. excellent. to strengthen the aJlfrli. .3G Aaib clever. from J>«i. <Ltb Sj.o prone to laughter. $' > or prostrating often. of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_. aJj**. ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5.mcA. dj^A. SjjJl£» lying. &>**. 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . as . £xa». The Noun. idea jlj to signify intensiveness. . from ^j-jai. 0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° .ti Adj. from Jj**. iLJLt. of intensiveness. crushing ' bits. as dijji very or cautious. bold in attacking. 9" 5^3 1*. <Ujti. dJyi loquacious. from JUaj. 2x AiJL^JJ. <L*£ finding fault . as io*^ very learned. Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often. from JUi. as <l$jj^. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia». ^i3^j) b crafty. 4L05J abusive. *' '* Ziy* asking often. as very timid . H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. *3j>*> timid. jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*. a </rea£ collector. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * . greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs. xx as /JW the grammarians say. as . from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. 139 Rem. . fl Ox 5 x slanderous. disgusted with.

16 seq. the noun of preeminence.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. but with a in the first syllable (jjd).». are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. f ft Kg.] it is differently explained. J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. or else be in the construct state. very mwA addicted to play or greedy. J-j^a. or the Parts of Speech. 1. Kitab U-istikak. d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above. ITs^ = Aram. In the Lisan.. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. sw<?0£. as pHTl.\ more or mos£ glorious. •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. as f*W . 1. J^. glorious. Rem. aJUaj. 7t3p = J**)- 234. S. according to 'Ibn Dureid. much —Etymology to sportf. as . these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp. Jytf. 142). the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»). and J**5. 53.140 Part Second. ugliest .>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly. spec. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense. as <uUA5 morsels. or with three letter of prolongation. &. t . WO (coming nearest to J*jj3). [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) . and are therefore J>»st.great. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. 98. . for the purer vowel example. ^js-. *])$$ ( =j-t&~>. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence. however (xii. R. * j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. WlTl. from JUaj. 6. as derived from anything bitter. Rem. the colocynth. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest. jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. as *fjaa = jui. iTTO. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul.

— Verbal Adj. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj . j*£. The Noun. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235. according to strict rule.t it more beautiful. none in Aramaic. J { ^**o\ .>**». perennial. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then. rem. original signification. b). i i- i especially from IV. —As stronger as to hardness). ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK . however. be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb.i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. (for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent.§ 235] II. II. ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. from cro*e£. after that. \. false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer). JJVX lasting. (lit. better. where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). 141 Rem.) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb. qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. we ought to prefix to the corre& . form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying./zerce. nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184. Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering. your hearts became hard. Of this Hebrew. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can. * * j/ tc tj~»».g. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). E. <Sc Adj. A. \j^c eye. Nouns Subst b. ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier. < s o s J si- like stones. or even harder ii. of j^o to be clean or pure . 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage. ' J si j£> worse. and the like. perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces. or giving better a answer than he .

from i^a-cul to be just. b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. from^-Lw. of $±. J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. bZ or flabby .142 Part Second. ^s. IV. n C 6i /. from ^^Jit * x jwor. x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better.^*$±. : or more docile. from ^©j^l. excellent . IV. Jib to fo xx IV.to live grtiw s^acfe. of ^J* . from JU»-I. # IV. of >l». of ^aj to remain. x£ or IV. . noble. more. middle. of JJ» . J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. II. x IV. * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than. of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. to 5 . J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw. of ^j J ^oj^l . from «-*»-). of . be firm. . ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. of wJbi relaxes. from ^Ut IV. II. of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . IV. ^>»»'. respect. IV. from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV.— Etymology clearer or purer. IV. IV. ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\. VIII. * from £l»»t. x x p x J >>». . from ^J^l IV.j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to. JU. from . J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. from j * or the Parts of Speech. j^6 JJit giving more shade than. 'bZ away . . . D showing greater honour O to. -. of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. from^UH. . last x x p x x x ftp . bZ to ' x bZ xOg . ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?. . x . of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. of t*-**. IV. or ' Z <*JUJ. of j*^-** to be safe. of ^©13 *ot t to .t causing to be better. 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better. IV.\ ' causing me greater alarm about. from JU*t. jsbZ . x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. to clarify or clear. IV. £ bestowing more liberally. of x © P m . Maw. from ^^t ^^. or loosens. . s-*«At. than. IV. fow^. of to help. . from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert.*"„' IV. to 60 good. from ' wi^. quickly.>U3t. r^acA the j .bz wAa to fear . sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better. xx j x bZ to fear . VII. of C*o . J ^*^t giving more freely. stand xx „ x*£ upright . x II. of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. from C-*Sl. to 60 crafty. of >13 to &a<#.

J^jl more readily found . The Noun. literal verb. j *oi pied . ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) .).ot j * l. o ^^t ^t. j>^\ more deserving of blame .§236] II. JjL£>I more occu. O : (^^ * Of- or VIII.— Verbal Adj. o i . J \*$j£>\ better A . of VIII. j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j . The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb. j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused. B 236. &ztee? or hateful . Nouns Subst. A. are and from the quadri- the following.i j-wt # known . CJU . ^>o %y*\ blacker than . s . waor^ occupied with pass. s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. j . .^ Adj. oi 1 wor^ i . *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than . j more glad of or pleased by. more praiseworthy or commendable .

rem.^.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. (manafek) tremble.P". j&\ JJ-cn. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t. p G s- s G e- * D Rem.CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . sceptic. a. as S**rt = S^pHD. " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q. and Aram. ma. (see § 13.. . b. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. b. in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L.144 Part Second. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^. Final hemza.^) 5. ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. in ' Heb. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed .g. jj^wt. the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed. >^U becomes >U 238. [§ 237 A quadriliteral. I JjC for JtU G (§ 133). *3J** 17 > &> rem. rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad. rad.jtU # » <J (§ 133). ^0. a 's. fjfcgOTD* to . CTO C0. j * be- 237. 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt.£j for^. o o j . "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. 6.(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ.) .^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH. preceded by and w. geminatse. I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed. >>t>o for j. j3yc for jfc (§ 131). as j~>y* for . J«>a* etc. heretic (J3U»o) . Rem. admits of assimilaSee § tion. 239. G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135). In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata.

for <}"'<>' a51a . £~-«. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^. Rem. in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU. for 9 »xx Ox . place in verba mediae rad. rad. from »J>3^&**. which retain their middle radical unchanged. G. after letter . cowardly. rad. J X Rem. for oiMJs is ijib clayey. forjjlfc. Js^o^y. as ». [A poet even allows himself Zeid. *.^LJI (^5^^. according to »- out of I). usually changed into Jx J . »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£. the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . 5. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). & Adj. instead of JjlS. Jj>*>>v©j>>. for J^y. in consequence. throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c.j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160. The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. &j.] 19 . 26 infra.— Verbal Adj. 9 * . k. with the ^) damma is changed into kesra. first 241. stupid . JuU?. 145 240. and. for ^51U*. The same thing takes this difference. as^jU. the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133.§241] II The Noun. Nouns Subst. for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. clb obedient. D. bristling with weapons . for <J>j^a»-o. % a. Rem. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw. x A ^ with hemza (arising. In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c. the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided. water-hearted. j\& feeble. from 9>x+a. ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). as JbLS (for JH-3). Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU. j->l~». as cby. to say UjU UpL. j. Naw&dir. as instead of e>~». wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ . t ^x x . Abu w.

^j. D 244. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. exceeding (±*jy). ^£j~t generous.g. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight. an enemy. C and ^^3 243. O^jJ-o. 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. right. From verba med. tall. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. for O^**. ** b^+a***. In 3 et . E. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI.g. 6&ae?. noble. g. 6 »"" J ^->U«. for 33^. ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. ^LZo. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. for *•**«. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. e. 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically. etc. [ J^ dependent for sustenance. rad. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o.). 2/ captive. The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . £)£iJ*c. 6 «-/ J e. § 170). become by transposition Jju*. contemptible (^jj^b). and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. 245. 01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. of III. as / ££**•«. JI^^Co. vo^s-o. 6 / 242. Ixo^o. ^ et ^£. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. ^w ^. JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. Rem. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . of verba med.146 Part Second. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*. j+j. Rem. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare. p. which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile. / ultima? rad. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. for oW. managing. in that of having charge of.

rem. and b. fc+ji a portion of cheese.§246] if is II. (>o. B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E.^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. & Adj. 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha. /'a^. a.t). the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of. SlLolj an onion.0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. j^jt b. to created things or natural objects. i. from j^j efotes . Comp. . the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. from jJb cattle. from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ . /?.— Norn. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. § 167. A+jL a ) portion of meat. 173. and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. the genus or whole. They are formed.0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^. from v»W». the or tenwin. The Noun. A. The use of the nom. a pigeon {male or female). from ^Jki *L*3 a straw. designate one individual out of a genus. * . G.* (jkwt). S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake. 1. 2ub$ a bit of gold. head of cattle {bull or cow). Gloss. Sj+j a fruit. 323. ^j&t Compare j^&t. unit. Add. D.pigeons. a.! (jJUU). ii. j^jXa-t for ^X*. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. 4ul*». J s for ^kig. Noam Sabst. g. b). or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts. Unit. !£+* a Mubarrad etc. the Individual. Rem. is almost entirely restricted. Fragm. 331. from Sxx G* * { duck . with the O< *< article.] . v&U&J t. ^^jlc for J . If the form be one that admits of complete declension. According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. a. from ^>*j straw*. 4). This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari. 417. a nugget. or nouns of individuality. The Denominative Nouns. vicis (§ 219). <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. 0/ a date. for adjectives of the form J*»t. 129. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. as the above examples show. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice.

used in this sense. black beetles (Jju*.o jjyt children are a cause . a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. chamaileons x x J (^bj^). c. cucumbers (ILLS).148 Part Second. fern. Ox OP J ^jowo. O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). Sometimes the . SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers. or nouns of abundance. as dX^^c <U . Oxx x «" abundantly. (a place) abounding in foxes. boats. 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick. as JJuu^ x x x . with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. 6. a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221).g. 2uJut a ship or boat.»». ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks . E. consequently. are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis. a. 4-U^-«.a. Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. *JtJ*c. —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech. a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. SLa^o or 3t^&**. SUA*. The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling. scorpions 6. (w^ift). iJj3^ . and are. Rem. rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem. Rem. Ox > . A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare.. 5U£*. Ajjijto.. scorpions. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). i B 247. Similar forms in Heb. >. designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed.o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***). The SjJLxJt iU-^t. Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning . jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»). 7^^).. SjurU. *. From quadriliterals this formation . aJbuwo. /iares. is rare.). (a pfoce) ^joj\ . I They have the form x £ SlxLo. r» 4a*Jsu*. Oft ax*. from ^iw X shipping. Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t). Also from XII. [§ 247 e. 3JU1».g.

or w~jX». >©U~JJ •itto a j . #/^ a/r. Adjectives. i. have the same form as the Oxft 228). q/* ^ooc? health. evil or ill-feeling . t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly. ' trade. . » + + from . The Noun. 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM . the Vessel which 248. etc. from Sjj! a needle. 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». &.e. from d-U a brick.J. .6.. J 0* J J 9 .a». dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. disease. £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . ' from ^ajS the earth. j*£o a needle-case. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%. el- v5^» aerial. .*. . joy or happiness. • *>.mtfl .«. " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. from w-A». ft rem. The nomina (§ vasis.iT>). — Rel.* * <. O**-* ct milk-pail. or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived. from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&.k. (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives. rt.>. The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t. * * from ^-^w descended sun.& Adj.). 249. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance .§ 249] II. family.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything. A. the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o).* j**. ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228.. from JjlJJ saliva. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth. Adjectives. (relationes). Nouns Sabst.g.*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. ^3^1 jJJ 3.). it sect. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o. sfy.». A & came ^J-a*.g. as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar. or a brick-mould. ft .• a)>*-o a urinal.-o a milk-pail. <i E. 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc.. from ^Aj otf. like. belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin. from Rem. »U>)I 0^0 il^t. aSj^o a spittoon. e. $ . £.

G. science.150 Part Second. [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. PvJ. \_ •' % f. tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . Rem. according to some. express " b. wjuj^JjId eastern. This termination common in Heb. J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . H*— and JV— ). . ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?). ^jwt. I is ^7X1^ L Israelite.j\±.b* . .|"l. in general use The .: (harrasl) a ploughman. from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*. according (^y). the language of the schools. also from the other kinds of nouns. c. viz.tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian..t. to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to. scientific. . but in more modern Arabic. gwc? . (kJjfi). ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw). Aram. ^1 from <j\ truly. B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. and especially in particles (see § 191). or 0^<? o/". *_.] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. perceptible by one of the senses . & a from j«aa Egypt . the law . whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations.(medrawl) terrestrial. as ch<5. ^*£> cj£ intellectual. ^3 * strange. *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. ij>*»* from j*±. ft^^: i . usual £HPl) and **Urh£:. from^Xfr knowledge. as : 9° 'ay. ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). in such words as . a corroborative or D. and even from Rem.. f as Egyptian. jj^"*». legitimate.«**»• relating . ^^ o/*. as iEthiopic. compassionate. 3/0*5/5/* ^c*. «S '4* tives Rem. YlC. ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective. In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives. 1*]^$ Hebrew. —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. a. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives. (m. L5^^° belonging to.*!^. ." ^ [However. has the *T>ffi last of these forms.

letter. the nouns ending in ^— fern. ZSU Mekka.-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians. [and j^^-w from 4-w D. aiyjt el-Kufa. and 2UUJI £/^ common people. A. have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w .*£j). 252. 251. j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. G. ^^ . j^ycw*. and to the vocalisation. ^U»». 151 250. L5*U. D. ^J&. 3u—.JxL« Malatya.]. A. [fa J LM direction party of All. (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. G. be a weak radical. ^5-w. besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. ^gste vulgar. (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. (&) S^-* But the name of two months. ^-^^- refined. however. j ^). In the case of nouns which. 1.a promise. tjs.Basra. J s £ ^^>'. as ^£)W»- « bustard. and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr. J ^ . to the final radicals ^ and ^. . the higher classes.] . of this form. like ojs-. foil.ti Adj. ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa. as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and . In forming the nomina relativa. if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from .— Rel. a.). have lost their first Q Rem. 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants.§252] It The Noun. 3>£» a window. &j weight. Jj & * * . Adjectives. j^jXJ* . <J>oj ulul . the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants. Nouns Subst. are rejected . to which the Muslim turns in praying. Sj-oJI s * el. I. the vulgar . [^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or . ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. J sul £ . only a single instance has been mentioned in the T.] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. measure.

(a) [§ 253 A ^. from substantives like bullrush. ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 . Baradd. the two cases are to be distinguished.. the into 5 ^ may either be <** .g. ^sj+*. belonging 3 * MekM. rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. x * j ^i^t & /3. ^>iU Rem. ij>>©j*-. which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word. 3 a 0* seat. 2*0** big. ^5***-. it may . o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. £by> to assimilate 3 . - or ^iU 1. «// Os* . *L-. world. the bean. ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1). or the Parts of Speech. stout camel.**. as . viz. pregnant. & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite. or a bug or tick. ^L^ or ^j-U*.* - In 3 b.Sb. —Etymology . a ^j£* . s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0. The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . name of a river.- (2ljj**)\) Spain . as 3 *L». * J to \J$U. But if it to »J .3 2.5) as ^j£sj+&. and ^£>j->. of relative adjectives fall 253. the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. a vulgarism. the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. /sj . (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i. O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. admissible. 3 . e. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " . 3 o . \^>j*>. ^5***. (^>»j'. or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath. j. ^lbj. 0/ and ^j* 254. If the second letter is is without a vowel. elif if it is e. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable). one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI). 3 Similarly. ^Sb or ^y. (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^. 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. j^^b ^Sb. \j-lj* 3 relationship. and 2 *oi ' 6.. Gufi (^J&c. or *0J j changed . The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . D 3 •»* as ^4%*-.152 Pakt Second.

are rejected ' ' * <v . . instead of \^£y3 or . Ji'' i . c. of aJU a hundred. ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. . *&*» of the o ^ . It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . ) . '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j . In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. use ^j^j^. 3 o . J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ.j^a*-JI. j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias. 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w. in their formations 3 ' e. ending in ^-j— sometimes . as — Rel. ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*.& Adj. O'O'O' . however. u'' bjb.3 Kinnesrin. 3 QjJ-^ twenty. <fc. J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t. B Rem. from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. l^jJ^Jj. o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais.g. t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. 0?. > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem. C)3*H) Zeidun.jU^aJt 3 ' ' . are very irregular Some proper names. for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie. the Muslims. i-xpcti. JO' 3 0' . ' jjO' j^xj. ^V^. in the latter it j >. Foreign names of towns. A . We may. plur. The Noun. 5^ i_ . 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl .jl_. as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln. ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it. to two. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' . O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic. 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . 6. (^jj-». ^^^Jaudl.>. ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'. L^J Ji >-^ ***><. Nouns Subst. / j j«/ Fcftriin.Jtf!. J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc. £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' . ^J^UX**. Rem. as .. 3' ^j-^3. A. ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj . j 3 '' . instead of 3 ' . « '0 name of Zeid. from *' '->? . Nisibis. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ. Oli^ 'Arafat. ^jit. a. j Rem.§254] II. the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. ^j^a. 20 .l. from f A 0'* ^jjX*.»>. but ^j~U3. Adjectives. D ^jLx^. j '3 ^^j-^ / * .jjj^~. 153 nation .

" x « X&X J 255. and j „o. ^a*a». and ^U*! likewise s Comp. 2 5 ul <LjI*j. xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x . 7 and Slbaweih 66. the words jJUj. as in ^tw 1.1^). ^yot from £*>ii&. The forms ^^V>. **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). 3 Sju jc». § 319. L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the . t^JWj J**£. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. ^^^-v*-. ^*ej*.. . cb> and ~-L£ (=^^. # unchanged. and XX <* ^-^. geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^). i' 0xJ . or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. . 5 tool. ^>o-Jt el-Yemen.*3t©. art. they < remain unchanged. Faik of the i. from ^ul^J. «*Jtu. A^lyj. ^>i*« and . Otherwise 5 remains <" > . which occur. if they come from verba mediae rad. also Mufassal 90. ii. O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech. Comp. G.-jl^Jt). reality. Tiliama . (a man). D. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). A**U>. fern. ^y^. . fern. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ . X rejected. O^J 5 ul (with the art. SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes).*luJt). 1 fern. from S^ii». ^3-^. X XX -t> are also used. 3 (a town). But. instead of ^^lyJ. ^5-^5 (men). 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute. j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria.^(^i\). x x xOxdxJ . as 5 SxOx .] . ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p.] art. D. 3 vel ^£. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. Ox . § island. l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. ^5*^. ^5*^.a piece of iron. The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . 3 or ^ as ^J^. *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . G.154 Part Second. ***y»*. [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 . e. 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes). S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -. as <ULa*. is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc. the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina.. when is not derived from verba mediae rad. ^<^U».

-o-Jlw. uSyej*. Uu*3 ^j&fc. The Noun. Many. ^A**> *. however. verba Lastly. belonging . ^Ju (tribes). <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . form ^jJ^ from both j**c and .~J. ^jjj**. »x J an ass. 257. from the assimilated form . ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^. of jl*»-.' ^JUk.Mesopotamian) . § 242) its from radicals j et ^. W«s&. of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown. Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**.-auJa . Ji*>jS. —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin. ^3*^. 155 rules. ^^is ^Llc. ^ju~» . g makes ^£yo. a female enemy. ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?. 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). jJ^a^a.**J». a. «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256. ^^o-U. or in other words follow the shorter form J-J . as ju~> a lord or master. jtnX^. ^j-j^ft. But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^. however. A. . JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina). ^j*j-*. and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . is rejected. < There are. it Rem. A Ufr»l» nature. The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected. Nouns Svbsb. . the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). . — ^t^^j a prophet.& Adj. of j^wt.' . g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn. and the second 9 5 J + vt . exceptions to these { E. *$js-. Adjectives.. j^o-*-. wlx 9 s Rem. But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. — Rel. . reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra. <&JJ*6 a city. Jj M. derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. from i*J~>.§257] II. mediae 6. Words of the form J*j (for J**s. so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis. 3 (a place) *J .g. £)>»». [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin.

-lx£«*^. S X J and ^ako. as ^j£ a youth. as . are modern and corrupt.156 Part Second. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . SxOOxx SUl». ^^-oc . a. ^(I . and also. b. X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop. j«yJ-« play. \J$$*-j to* a staff. [§ 258 II. But if the noun has four letters. which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. /?). e£>**. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. rem. or 258.^ for ^tu^uo. Jju. <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge. Rem. . The Uif maksura is (t ^. x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind. P affect the rule of formation. j before adding the termination . the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . ^j. which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. noun contains five or ^ -» more 1. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. 3 x x Hama Sxx . {Jy* J a district in Palestine. Jxx Slo^. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. ^^Jl^.g. as ^aJa^o chosen. that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167. b). or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem. (H^Pl).X£»o. a musical instrument. Sld^e a ladder. x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. either be changed B into ^. w x x ox x or d-J l». ^3J^5. ^J^3 « mo^. . ^£Jux*.0} letters. changed into . *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful. always rejected. jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). as the third radical of a triliteral noun. ^ .» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). \jys*£i. E. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. the (^ ^^ju is ^y**. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. but must be borne ^ becomes fetha.> IL does not writing-case. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. ^^AJxcuo. —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^. a § 7. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.3. ^jj-^ . 2 6. ^J^j-c vintner. if it be changed into 3. is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**).

^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). J^Stf. ^y^U. ^ '. (a town in Persia). is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d. ti*~> the heaven.§260] II. dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother..g. On the contrary. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored..e. a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place).^ £fa 6/a^ beetle. whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^. "-•» . it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. if ^yb/*-. the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I. Nouns Subst. ~. ^jbj^-. But ** in the termination 1 1— . w>' (for y>\.* Zachariah. 2. . a garment. du. ^jy\ (for ^i. *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » . may . jjgjW* * . ^S^jJ^-'. a). i^y^Sb. etc. E. axJ.. — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural. ±$y++> .1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother. a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon. as l\jjs> a virgin. £bj£>j " ^jUu . £3. as tyy**. ^tp. 260.i. J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW. -» j^jUU.^». ^ji-A. it appears as ^. 157 259.. C Rem.1.— Rel. The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper .. in the * ^jl^w.. A always changed into j. The Noun. the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father. names. Adjectives. *byJ a tribe). or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. ^^b. ^jUUi . ^b. those which have lost D weak radical. ^ or not. »-t. 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . »" > . i. 3 - . A. —as w>t. ^yb^. a). * . rem. is § 252. 2b/». whether it was originally . . ?^3b £& focm. *tjjj*is ^3-U.. <l~£» a robe. IjJ). 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza . Ol*^') £. their third Primitive defective substantives. j . 5-*' (places). either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb. reappearance be not necessary. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. i^jbj^j. & Adj. memduda.

^$y^> a grammarian . ^Ao 8. ' ^3a£. 3 du. or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad. ^y** 2 £*t (rad.! and ^£y^. (rad. a 3 So ^j^U. a a gazelle. 9x0 .158 Part Second. from ajji. — x 4&2>. (from . ^3-0.>. J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . 00 « ^yL* j^. has the three forms 3- v». ^U ox 3 3 and ^U». >w) a 00 year. xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*. {£*2>j. and ^ is converted into living. {$5)* 5 ' °£ . j^^o. *3~>. as {J* (for l$£>) a fold. x vw(w. Rem. ^^3 #* . ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox .. ^3^. ^^iw. ^>w 3 . Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©. ^3^. .) ^ 3-o . xx . fetha. CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti.. ^J Me . Cukl. 3 has t^jU. xx . as 1^3/*.or ^ay*. ^£>0. ^j£ ct. (rad. 6. 4j>* a village. Ox as 3**J x grammar. £3 (rad. 3 . bribe. t^U) a hundred.^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»). as ^jjo. as {£$j£. combining with tho third radical into ^. o £ 00 sister.S 3 3 lip. a —Etymology ^$*) O x* . ^ (for \£Jo. °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3.4 . D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3. >i)) J dialect. x J oW) x go a «w. § A .* ^m. ^£^j Soj 3^ But . ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. a SO r-xOJ . . . ^yj\ OJ . some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm. x . y£}£ .— SU Rem. 0x0^ j £<wo an image. a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU. 2 x . O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . [§ 261 A a*j (rad. l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£. ^ot) a female slaw. 3 -£ C-Uj.). this ^ resolved into its original consonants. handle. <0) ox podex. L5^» or du. U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow. L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. x 261. >*~>) a name. makes ^£^. 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. the second radical takes i^^**. or the Parts of Speech. the final second radical takes fetha. and 2u£ a possession. 5 * . a daughter.jj| (for v) ^J. ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* .

From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL. A. as S^ULw misery. a x o^-ait. i .§262] - II. the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x . Rem. So also in & * t 3 J*j. of D more than three consonants. — In words of the form A <UUi. makes desert. reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. oo* ^ju. j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. a desert. — Rel. is j Ox Ox . J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*. rest at night.. though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . —"Words . Adjectives. (the ancient . as J5oJt (a tribe). See §§ 255-6. and. *j\j a banner. a. Nouns Subst. though very incorrectly. 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. etc. the kesra may be retained. 3 x x Rem. from tertise rad. (JV>I). {£3+* <H>^ a town).*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). .dk Adj. and ^jj£j are admissible. ^jj\ or ^^J. « s . . etc. Nouns ^ .. 262. as J-»l camels. x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. {Jj3&. ^jlii . make m ^jI. ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. t/j «/«/j aJlaii. J^ai. Changes in the Vocalisation. et ^£. . but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza. C III. «x x . 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. the is Rem. ^jx But in Jjti. ^£j+j £-» . x 5 ftfo 2> x x . twist or turn. changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). \^^ is **» # snake. ^Uic. ^^U jufb /twr. irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. ^J^**-. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle. ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . etc. verba 6. 159 . j j-o-JI (tribes). ^SULw. as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . The Noun. ^51. or j^jt. final ^ retained. s x x . as well as . of the forms J-ati. ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered.

omitted. 2 —A. x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. . 264. a man's name. xx x and . j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday.^p). as zjj>j^j\. damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. (see the preceding ^>i£ Rem. as ^*-j&.jt\ mother. \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm. 2c second in the genitive. such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a. If the first word the status constructus. the warrior). ox jg it is ox . is [§263 changed A 263. Archibald Bell-the-cat.from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. governing the arise.. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech. or in . two secondary cases arise. VJyiS. termination 3 - ^— appended to the first . a grammar can take no account. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§). the following points must be attended to.»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\. 3 rejected. . Of rare and arbitrary changes. •**£. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio. ' ^M*^.* lOUwt w. or CUj . ^>ol . and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas. — then is in the second word 3 ct. ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four.160 Part Second. dj-aJI. —B. B J*± time. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words. \^£j^> from ««' . 3 ^\ 3 son. daughter.

then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. ^J^ . allow a J J Q J x x double formation. J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' . A. from j^o. attached to the vt ^— wl is first word. as ^^^. L5^*5. /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj. ij5& jUoJt ^oUau.>tj. B x0/« *" . Nouns Subst. iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker. j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ.— Rel.§264] II. from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. j — the But first word is rejected. The Noun. (from the assimilated form 3^w). with the s . l£*'> Guadix in Spain. is i«/ \£tS}[ '. and A 'I the second takes is ^— . 3 o . 2> * " 0' . In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o. ^tki aXlt j^c. j0/<» . 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein.«J>o from w. ^$j*~> *^£jt J . some . and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI. from 3 JyUJI jJ3.-Jl^C^o. xxOx ^jO** x x . hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing. . # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. 0>^' ji ( a 21 .<£>t^. from both parts of the word 3 e. Oi x x S x J Rem. ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^. \JIS±J CH**M ^jK. belong such words as . too.g. ^^j^U^U. nisba from the whole this license compound word.^tf.. . <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B. J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. To this stage of the language. nickname of a man). Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X . \ .& Adj. u^IU|tf>. x. ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw. (CameVs-nose. - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. Adjectives. ^^^ 3 • « . from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj . . ^-^iJt »*t.x from oJa&t jb. x x as ^JJ^j-^^j. and the second XX . b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ. For example from \y* C-wO. as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted. is £ omitted s ..

bs j / ot»/ ij. 3 .ain .ojcirw from O^o^-a*. manuletter. properly the plur. from dU*a». j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet. - D e. really proper s o£ names.162 Part Second. fib " . ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 .. plur. the of a poet.. 3 s s « efo^). [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. In many cases falling under B. jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. also a learner or student. 2. o . from jt^^i plur. as are either . even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. or approximate to them in sense.o a written a a book. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. A relative adjective is never formed. —Etymology <^£)U^j c. it. . from the plural. 265. ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants. plur. or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o . o^!/* . or the Parts of Speech. ^j. a and /?. 3 - and U-Hazrag. 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. four letters of the alphabet Rem.. 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats. ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras. script. ^hj^I. ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s . the desert. LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe). the singular. Hadramaut .g. at el-Medina). Z jo E.)] . 5. jU»Jt (plur. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o.jj-a^Jt. ^^JIjl^ °S . > b . s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i. [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * . i-ijjuo). Ctesiphon.g. (a .-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji. the (§ 32). footn. iJ?jiU*. abecedaire).g. bib. ^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. Ojlfr* (a tribe). from Ju»yl 'abuged. however. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' . ^%^> name 3 . ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ .. in classical Arabic. Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt.o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus. 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa. the tribe of Kilab. e. (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur. of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. are excepted * t 3 *bi . ~ ' s Such plurals. 6.

. Olio God 3 > (pi. plur. Persian colonists in Yemen. of JxoJ) rugs. this latter form x alone admissible.UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc. ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. . j-ateJtjrffc. as ^jV- In the case of ^£. JsuI^a. /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur. A.Aj|. the opinions of grammarians o< differ. ^j. of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. on the contrary. ^jUjt.Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur. j*om* (plur.'^t # the confederate tribes. D. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. Oxx X ^. Nouns Subst. J^-Lu X sieves. a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. E. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^. adjectives «• * oi.) mats. are I I belonging women. of j**au*. 3«" not. ^ — Similar . 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J .-butj^. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade. # £ ^l/^l. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature . ^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to. etc. forms in Syriac. studies. orae w/io makes or seZfo them . j->jty> x (plur. a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles. 3 x OUL x x x (plur. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. [o^a. (plur. of Jji»*U) sieves. as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. attributes. of ikuj^.) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c. a woman.g. The Noun. Adjectives. o & Adj. — Rel. of early date. 5 x 163 | j* io. if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St. . as ^^* that. & surgeon. the second ^ being changed into j .] In more modern Arabic. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition . from • V plur. &Lo) qualities. ^%e*\. {£&£* ^ in. of |2. x x mats. In the case of $. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles. if be a strong letter.§ 266] * Oi II. at pleasure.^t*.) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s. ^-5t/»» of (pi. of wounds. J^UJl (plur.J^. a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches. the simple doubling is permitted. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. 3 x X . of 9 x 266. G.

mendacious. j^S^SU or . or . 267. as the grammarians say. ^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x .» J straight-haired.Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . .164 Part Second. Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-. both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter.— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w). t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU. to strengthen the relation. instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU. Ox q[*SXo vile. ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. ^i^koj. there [§ 267 A ^3-^. 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C . ox xx ^U*. jJLo—^w 2^0 e. appearance.). 245.*.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 . have seen above (§§ 231. ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood. is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza. . ^yly^li a fruiterer. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J . perhaps. e. JK. <jla^aJI corpulent. We .(. but . letter be a quiescent 2 Slif. 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded. large head of hair (**»). under the influence 5 * . 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c. . Fleischer. aspect. as *j not. n. I e • ^U^*. ju£»U) Z*~»d\. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring. robust.» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J). G ' .g. oo 2 large in the body (J*-*. #cAr. ^^ or ^^.jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given.). from jisu*.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking. reckless. <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a.-y^U.] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed. D. which may be changed * 3 . G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. sordid.JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^). i^W^i ^ -» corpulent.jUao J-l or ^j\2suo. s^/s foarcs.having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck). 2 x x of the Aramaic) . [. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja. ^^SU 0^0 . haired. 232) that the termination ^L. G.g. strong. 1). vociferous .

particularity] substantivity. I s+ . 5©5fi. ears. 0* D adjectivity. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) . as distinguished from the concrete thing itself. etc. Rem.j manhood. . J v> ty. A-JbU substance. 9 vt 4-*o~»t. Nouns Subst. i**'oi. ^jlju-*.] the divine nature. 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic . *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite.g. A. and ^«. 2l*J>1^*$\ D. quiddity totality .. .—Abstr. 268. 8 . is arms. a substantive. S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood. S (flSH). corresponds * a i o* thum. the mind or temperament. aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective . 165 outward.. or Z~&yA±. ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness. It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit. to the soul.wljj having So.§268] 3 - II. & Adj. (U wlwt ?) . j\ * E. ^'^ wr. J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS . * Oi from j*-~»\. schaft. . \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower . upper. i^te'. interior. 2 * 4J3*. corporeal. ^JU-jj spiritual (. ^j^JLSU. 9 aJLoj. G.-fcUw. <Lu^Jt Lordship. B 5 *J large head . ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose. and oL^j. private. - The Noun. 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality. xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t. Nouns. public. . £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . A 3 form and applicable ex.. keit.j is ^JUi as a ^.». i (til nO?). ^j^jy relating to light. ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing. dom.» external. and to English ones in head. and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality. . the school of . [^uoj-oi.

The diminutive. In forming a diminutive. ' x 1 x <fo<7. jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM.j a man. as J*?. 9.xxOxi best. dirham. 'J. oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). the noun 9 quinqueliteral. S ^^t. j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. pride. etc.. 9 .>. t . is jia» *. j***. j^o-c is . of the masculine gender. as Oj. See however § 283. but 5 J J »/J . in Arabic. xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a . and j Sal-o. is Rem. On the contrary.Q-mS\). haughtiness. (|Z.. J****. [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. humanity (\l. the very . when formed from a xj c * . a. 6. In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed .:xo. a severe it is trial]. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth.a*n) divinity.> . Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J . [§ 269 A the Hanefites. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp .! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree.166 Part Second. takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- . as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune. The diminutive used. * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\. . the Christian religion. S Ox J .>* J©. fall Rem.. < « &'#. [These nouns are. omnipotence.wi. JJj jlo a special friend).] B 269. 9 x . When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. 5 -2 8. a. x J . 9 J Rem. When . j&d)* 5 ^a». 5x0 *-Ui-c a.»w (a man's name). scorpion. ...-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^). the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow. the servile letters are generally taken into account.» a mosque. j*Ju*aC ^ hey. .lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt. not merely in its literal sense. J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . not usual to back upon the root-consonants. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ. Jk.001_£\). du^y^S Judaism. J***. 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom. Jxjjl (for j^ujt). ^ J . »/J . triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). .. JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue.o.

. ^ may perhaps consider as such. from Jt>£). xx OOxJ «£~wJt».. when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . A. <Uua5. a kind of small bird. the .§ 270] II. siH3> a little below. ?^*£. strong. syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. rem. as O x J ^J-j-o^. /i«fe.1. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. e. : cerastes. In Hebrew we (j*juo). as well as jj£jJl . obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative. . like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa. and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. an(* w--wJ. is sounded A^/|/e or gfife.— Diminutives. a sort of snake («Ju*>). as J*a5 a after. . 4 if' example. If so. which x Ox J are. biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem.. Ox > ^w. : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig. d. of which the fourth five. the *_). a little nearer than. Nouns Subst. ^. nffSff T . juju a little J>j>J a etc. a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. from^U). . and (3) little above. (2) from certain prepositions. however. f). and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX. from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184. like J/'**. where. P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four. c. a con B temptuous diminutive. The first & Adj. the J diminutive of <U5. (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. The Noun.. or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . an d HS^D. for c^u. On the other hand.J-ai5 is 167 Rem. ^Z^^> a bay horse. little before. 270. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem. a 2/o^A ' C*J^. is When the noun contains Jive letters. as C**«j. Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). a basket. Yjfl .

J ^3ujS.3 . . m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^). wXwic. a sort of thorn.3 . ^juXfr) of ty ill. o o . and therefore is 0.3 .3 0. £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0. 0.^ .168 Part Second.. Jjj-ol . j~**~o (for j^U). formed out of the preceding consonants.0. however. 6.0. . which is 0.j^. B Rem. a sort of cap. 0.« trying to render perfect. . 3 0^. Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider..j* a 0. as aS%£. 3 9 0.3 (for 0. 3 short and big-bellied. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake. 3 00. 3 3 . Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. to Rem. 0.36. ^Lauil. consonants do not .63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. .3 either juJLc or juX& 0. J) c.3 6. 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade.. Rem. tick. indicates the participial form.jJut is not a fat. and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a. Jb» & . are of equal value. J ^^ . j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O.». . a nightingale. rejected.3 d. 6.3^ 6. Jfej*. [§270 0.3 >j->j*. and in § 269). . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 3 . . Out .03 . sarily b. 0. But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters. five Rem.r-. .. we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please. Thus 6 . rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem. is not rejected. or jZj^a***. 0.3 0. more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained. is Q In A+KLm+t for example. le snake. The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed.1 saffron. tive. lazy. : of h .3 . In place of the rejected consonants. the diminutive of ^julc. exceed the form Jju*5 O'„. and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman. *-j**-> . The termination ^1— when appended . 6. 3 6e. 2 6. J^. 3 6. little. £. as <\ . b. these are . but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . r. If there be off.j£a rolling oneself.0 .3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants. nouns of four 9 . t tr r J 0.3 JjuJcS. <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. make either j^on*. in front. . old woman. or more letters. ma. 6. ^^xJU .

J^o-X«. . J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). . A. . may be omitted. .. besides their JUil. (for ^)o . . w. . the third letter be a . ^$j£~>) drunken. The Noun. . ". as SjJj children. . 3 if.0. a o*> £>. jJUj.3 . 3 . five letters. ) j ^»L . a. 3 . and the second JUil . be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. (fern. 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard. el. the relative termination is ^_ . Rem. . . The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and . jj^L-* . C J^O^J >j\j+.Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#. perfect. 5 . the third of which »/J /}'j . iU^Xm . 5 o L»L. .». & Adj. . . . i. 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. jj!/^ . . and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0. either ^Jj-***- or the Oot. 3.t- 5 W^£ verses. 3 Oi 9.. Muslims. 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t .0 . a+X~~c (a man's . Nouns Subst. c camels.§ 271] II. {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj . ^A***2. 3 . of the class called j j j aJlSJt r. are /«/ all disregarded.Basra. JU^I. (a man's name).ot Rem. . . ^_ is rejected. ^i**. in the quinit. —Diminutives.S~*4 .3 . But . and the 271. *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. 22 .-. ^jJL**. 3 weak servile.o . or j**». S . 3 ^. . 3 . mighty. 0. and these terminations added « . . JjJusi.3 castle.0. B preceding consonants. <U*»»-« /»/j ~.3-. The diminutives must be formed out 3 .pregnant. 3.». -kUJt words. J jlo-L 3 ) . .0. and Ol_ . the ending ^1— . in adjectives of which the feminine . .3 consists of . SjuJj diminutives regularly. e- oLj^t .3 . strong. A (/J like. viz. ZxXS a S^Xb *. to them. queliteral noun. Olgt. OS- oWA-~o Muslim women. ^+X~j (a woman's naine). 3 .03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims.g.3 4*A£ boys. " of the E. \^+*. .0 3 V 3 . 3 3 < .5 jj£j->*J a riddle. .ol.jUA-$~»* . supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal.0.0 .0. . name).0 oJlai.« r. Pj*+ O 307) form . 3 . w>la*->. .$ 3 . 4**A£ J**'' as 0. <bUJI. 4*A. pL- . The fern. or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. 0. is when the noun 0. Other (see § plurals. w>la*~ot companions. slaves..

jjW** youths. wJ^»t « x dogs. J ^j&jac. £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. 272. the second remaining unchanged 273. ^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o). .. Otj-jjj. ^^**.» children. slaves. provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis .t ** * x . JJJ* (a woman's name). and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 . ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. ^. x E. <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. S_ diminutive./foc& jh a house. groate. «* from the plural (for 10|1). of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names. 03/J such exist. g. <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269. x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j .g. adding . as x 3 * x J x . ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274. B from yj. %LJ>\ ribs. . w>jijjux*.170 Part Second. G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. radical. 5 o-» j o x (see § 274).jlo^ a Ox g wo//". ^jsuyZt. O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. S^tel Joys. x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G . form their diminutives from the first word. i**^ . *»L-£l J and 3JUJI. x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^. e. which has not however a feminine termination. jjj houses. O . x I Aj««j». from the plural (see § 278). 246). 0>***> from ^ZJ.\ bags. consisting of two words (see § 264). x x ^ a K *l»> .jt— in triliteral nouns. O a . The termination x . OxO xp . sultan. If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun. 9*0*3 St j x x J . <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim. $j>++£\ . jjUauL> power. ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a . C*^ an eV e or fountain.» . Proper names. 3 f> —Etymology 3 . ^^JLJ3. ll . from j^lw. x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?). . r ' «/ »( 6 . two courses may be J x J adopted. I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars. 4*JL£l . or the Parts of Speech. rem.^-0*^3^. l\jj& xO x J poets. <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah . from lij? -» J*te. jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e.g. (see § 307). or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows. as <Ltjx*. Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) .^3.

* from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. O a herd of she-camels. £ x d *• . which <i masc. If the noun contains more than three consonants. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth. c. Tfie Noun. but S^aj cm o«r or cow. 9 0*39 . <Sc Adj. D. pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs. w*>j£- . .g. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. Juj3 * j . rem. u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. makes s^j^88/J . The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill.).. 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J..»»1> 2j*o time.—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . geminatae are resolved. J3 a J-^>. ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees. in order to avoid ambiguity. j*aj. The diminutives of the fem. J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride. 9*0*3 U m. *t* 3 . G.g. j^. and fem. j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales.$>. is b. A. is whilst j*\j3. **+&. 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. 3* 9 0*3 . tasse). j*a>. a. 276. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . Sju jc«. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#. b. t w~«j 3 s»-J.3. cattle. 90*390* sj^. Rem. u°y* 9 a young she-camel. but *^w S^a^w jX» . 90* J *->j&-. j**J a sea.**^*. 5— is O 171 But diminutive. has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j. cardinal numbers. i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich.. But see § 319. which in is masc. . value. «5^9^J e>j*su.. seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. M/J ones people or 2W6e. the front. 00* w-^ * J r. war. makes Zj*t 275. 3 /(^ «* * 3 . u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi. S_ B not added to the diminutive. Rem. is usually masculine. «. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy.— Diminutives. a bow. same reason. 9 0*3 .§ 276] if II. though also of both genders. a tree.. e.. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. 9 For example. rem. 3 f rad. and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG. E. do not take 3_ for the yive (fem. the rear or back. ^/tfuXS. and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). J* 9 frij* A^3.g. u~^ a cup (Fr. a wedding feast. *3 .] 7 f" l\j2. E. w>G (v>^ a door.. j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" . If the second radical be a weak letter. as 9 0*3 . Nouns Subst. Rem. O^ij-iy^- .

If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . rem.> x J be formed C-sJ^J. x J . but the regular forms are preferable. 4jb aw animal.] 278.^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. 277. b. ^J^cu^!. ^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ .g.). £>*£> an eye or fountain. Ox ^_. as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. from the radical ^^.g. a. commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). youth. it Words • of the form J^li.\jj x J a poet. <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. O 5x J ^. Ox cHj^ a horseman. may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£. from <blw a young woman. the latter for 6. [§ 277 and thing. and <5ju. A>*1 &/ac£. e. Conversely. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. instead of f^w. 3. weak. From C-*u a fcm*e.. juc. elif. ^S^> . . £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 . and Ml >y*~i\ are also used. (***». £~i$Z>. Words 5 x of the <Lj^w. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth.— Etymology Rem. fri^. an egg. i^>. Rem. x J x Rem. . D Jb***' a ^^. Ju~>t. ^5^-j a ?m7/. Rem. ?r^ w»ry. an ^ **^>-£. If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown. as js. o x vulgarly 2u^t. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). ^lu OWxJ . this JLolj. o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation.into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p . In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. a.172 Part Second.jt. initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive. a-suj x . /"Lb a fold (i£j£). «l not vJ-^uj^. djj^ 9 s J a handle. x a slave. [Oomp. a festival. In other cases § change is optional. ajU? a Rem. The forms J^jj^. in which the e. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-. and treated 5 x r a 9 . £$»-). as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j.c> « farm. it § 13. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich. £*>>o. or the Parts of Speech. J *£j£-. x x these letters § must be separated. -i^w an old man. * x i^*b a calamity. (J?>k x J a snake. a o 5 x j . makes following the plural ^Lt'. certain bitter tree. OwxJ ybtfd. ***i&. though derived Ju*fc.

05 x Sjufih. 4-0U 3-w a JWW.g. it in the diminutive. —recover . as 3 j^c & promise. x J . which the - 173 two 279. J still. they termination 3_ or not. have the E. as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John). duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£. forms its diminutive accordingly.l). of . radical The infinitives fern. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. The Noun. of which the radical <su^i. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. . ( . . if the . 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. 281. — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use. a). for .^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted. v-tj^. x x I Rem. but irregularly. a £-t . A. —whether 3 . & Adj. iwte. the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . affluence. . 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven.> ju~>l. 280. lost their third radical. mouth. etc. Rem. and a. 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). like 5x1 and others x . j* x£ § 278. j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. *U water. spots. Nouns which have fern. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a . Nouns Subst. Awj.1 j>* blood. Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ . x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl. last * A '•* 3 5 weak. itj^A. ^i. # . iy-j^w £*w & »p. rejects one of them x . 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name). ^^. £U*c a ^/£. ^js. i**-!. A5JA. the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs .-*»-t. § 278). letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. L5 r ^£. Sj^j J 3ji». (accus. 6. Rem. Sjljl a sma// water-skin. a*«o~> . {y>\). rem. <**a* (for *«x#).1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. others ^j**\ ^j*-\. x resume ^ x J . is dji or d$i. ajju j^. such as Jucj from j^j. r. £ * I ^^pA. pa#.§ 281] II. A^al ' brother (>±. of verba primse j. & s J . some at 0^1 say ^^. . —Diminutives. ^JJ^) 0i x J f .\ (accus. A lost first or second radical is not restored.

284. feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. b).g. the softened or curtailed diminutive. r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*. exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240.t. D. <uiA (see C § 281).174 Part Second. . ^t. elif. (for j->». ^. and ^La. j^J^a-o]. (for ^-Ul) people. 242) dead. « name. [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — .] B 282. take a prosthetic E. this consists 9 of three consonants. or the Parts of Speech. 0*J J*j& 9 . as ^-^j^. the root. as u^i$* from ^13 a judge. It— reject these terminations s * i . This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ.l sister. . diminutives would have been J^\. &-i^. %i$) from ctj a pastor. and recover . nouns in . . j^t^A.'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0. ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). ^-jy jIa (for jjIa. 3 . E. daughter.i j) ^ M^ U . j-*£.0 J ' ^— . this termination away . C* i Jam < (see § 269. >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo. Those nouns which. r. 283. b) feeble. 9 0* J 9 o * J .-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9. and distinguished <u^». and *. C-w*j* . having lost their third radical. and ^ Rem. consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i . ^hU j-}>* .g.g. Uutdu. falls (a) If a masc.^*-^ reject the . ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus. ^f O^t a son. G. are like those of fern. J C^A thing.**0 ' and take S_ . noun ends in S_. a The diminutives formed of Cs». " " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«. e.t. if of four. rem.) good. after elif. With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed. . <u£. *"***»- *!/©»•. their original letter. djj-** (a name). rem. (b) Fern. s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. the diminutive 9** 0*J . w-->j^-. in the first two by the termination.

. 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . ^Ua garment.->»>. .— Diminutives. *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#. a fever. '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. from 0s J jU> and ->. a gulp. iakS. : J^.§ 286] II. aj^> a draught (of water). J x 175 Ox J . 8 a firebrand. as Ox Oj S/o* brown. OxJ tjl^O smoke. j~*>*. 3u<LJlz. x x |Ut. Very <i & Adj. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl».a milk-pail. ^jL-^Jl . X a-a»J a portion. a rag. if B a collection 5 of poems. a public •'u office or bureau. a piece of land. J**->3j * A . O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet. b) ^jtj* (see § 305. tj ltLJL g. II. a morsel. OxJ JU-/ a . . ~ 5 a *" c nightfall. of <>>1). <i. dJU a night. as r. account-book. The Noun. and j L. acj**-. SlLJl*. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small . Zjsuo yellowness.. Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J . O Rem. j»\£*j a cold. x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or . O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. a pelisse. *$j* a sect. jUjj n dinar. of J-wol ^e evening).Q. irregular diminutives are d^j . »-x 1^3. as if or * p-L*-** brocade. fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. Ox certain garments.jUic. -**& .. as^»l*». x * i" A J . aJ-wJ (compare the plur. as SJJi. w**^». from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases. rem.M. a piece. Nouns Subst. . a mouthful. »xx ilfcj. vi anything. — The form (6) a wooden pin. a« cl «. and tjt^Jj a register.jUJI a human being.*.^t g . »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. 0x0 l^Js a fragment. A. O-i^ij}. A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset.j a man. *$>£. ^x Ox a vessel. redness. iL^I. piece of 285. 23j) a light blue. ika. as " . such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. an allotment. a live coal. as 3-cu5 a quantity. a*a).M. jljt. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286. 2*b.

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

s OjJla.). juf» the liver.). used in producing fire (gen. fern. natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. clouds. masc). .). I) .). masc). fern. w**l3 a 0* well. 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. a phantom. <Sj~> journeying by night. JU< - state. a road. the rump [gen. Ij3~> a wall (gen. *• (gen.* « B shop. fern.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path.). a shop. .] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding.ambergris. [prop. J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part. corn.] a tooth. ySis> OJ a spider (gen. 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. fern. IU-w the sky or heaven.l a Aar# ' (gen. J US the the nape of the neck. fern. j**~t peace.).). £. fern. a road (via strata).] ^h^S a bow » (gen. fumed] jjS a pot.]. > JUs the neck. etc. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. fern.L». a sovereign.- C o of wood.—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a o o m kettle (gen.b nature.]. tion [gen. a knife 0-a^> s (gen.jUaiw authority. fern. 0>jJ» a road. a marriage. J O^. - J~~£ /toney. street or lane.]. i^ji a horse [gen. <» tj»o J a way.182 Part Second. ?-*-o peace. weapons. masc). [JUa. 90 j ^o^w a ladder. a booth. rain. condition (gen. soul [when signi£-3j spirit. p\*o a measure for the forenoon. t3>w « market. hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power. masc). fern. [j^c.] * V cL. fern. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^.

an intestine (gen. i-jjLo mi #> . aj^jJxa . ^— . 9 J ' . masc). j£&>. %\+~t a. which must be learned by practice. s the shoulder. 9 x Rem. are later times ^i. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . fern. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast. the upper arm. of Adj. but the . 9 ^ 3_. Rem. [^j£s. as S^l^w from ^l-o-w. *+Jk* 9 • x . become masculine. jui» the liver. by the radical ^ letter. 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc). A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue. The Noun.- great. [Rem. are mas- culine. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_. ^ grandfather. the maw. cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. a^3) a yotmg woman. .§ 294] II.. The most usual termination. (gen. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. from the masculine. j) 9 x • . Nouns Subst. a water-carrier.— Fern. the right direction. before 3. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. C From most adjectives 293. fo'to or shin-bone. affecting the ^— 294. Jjj the bone (either ceiling. 9^J0^3" struck. [*zXLc dominion. b). a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac.] [j^jdfc ffl^l. the mouth. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender. A. x w>jj~cu© j^.). radius or ulna) of the fore-arm. - 2^i <jl©ju repentant. Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word . a. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. in ship. « y 9 " ' For example. masc). ajUL» from *Uuw. as jU fire. CO . since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods.] and jJj a well. The above list.] Rem. or CC (§ 290. ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man. B b. fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen. JJ M# (gen. u^m 9 . and that contained in § 291. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. and s-^ja. & Adj.

0*0* Rem. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . 30* . (a) * * . . § 301. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a. *0 * (-0* . io* . iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. . . has ^j^t. because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . " iJy^S that of j±. as SAJLj. *03 Rem. 133—137.pregnant. o io* lowing genitive.184 Part Second. ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. 87. Rem. ^Jiji* . 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. . when they have the superlative signification. gCA 3 *0i form J^t.\ (forjjktl) other. § 299. &UL*w O^j* naked. (b) O^A±- timid. are preferable c. comp. te\j£. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. fearing. not in signification. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. B 295. *>» [§ 295 A forms p. is ^jk** *0* . The numeral jt»»t. a. . £)^+^> * ^^as-. of the n yj . rem. as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. feminine. in which case the feminine "0 largest. see Comp. ^J*%c. Gr. angry. e. The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first. * b.] 10—15. c. i*JL». The latter word can be used indefinitely. do\jj£. with hemza. ^UUa*. . . another. This view is . at. without any corresponding masculines. O***** sated. as . 7 supra). in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. •&\ not superlatives. one. ijj/^t. and below b. Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * . rem. * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . . {£j£~> thirsty. and the modern d_.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. cities.-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat). " ° J 3* . 1.-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. * O is * . 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . Kamil. i jsuc^S the smallest.

when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular. Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^.^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. a. amazed. A. 185 296. [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx . & Adj. patient . as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress). J x £ as yua\ yellow.» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U.] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. " J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed. *bjjdt */» / (rain). G. Rem. \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient . i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached.^ a lying man. £ r<0 s . fern. and also if it has the Ox J x . Ojdx Ox J x . or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. .§297] II The Noun.. . 24 . 8 O Exceptions are rare < . an enemy. J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman. Jj**. i\^~*** beautiful. Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . nor one for milking. A JajI. Rem. antelope]. nor one 'x J to x carry loads. The following forms are of both genders. ° -» " . or / thought her.-3 [and again. db^£>j and 5->>^». which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x . Nouns Subst. . ^£j-t^ an d 297. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*. as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**. of Adj.— Fern. Stw a sAorw sAeep. as }j& x hostile. x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was. . J x ..j a patient and grateful man. D. i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. w>J*^ £ J Jj*. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5. OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. • " (a) sitive). *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman .. ibj^.. OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad. C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . where Ox J x x . rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race.

_ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives . as ^yJL^c poor.] .C>».g. .j^ w^j-5 well. 4jli*^ [. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*. jlkfc* ajjU*. mercy (c) is C>xru>a». <jUju» isU a <* «. = 5^^=>. docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel. x JJ/ (b) J**s.. 0x0 II ^ .<« x x x W a new wrapper. J-^5 oUi a murdered woman.J1 . aa^ac t/ojj* Rem.** *oW>> 2x perfume. ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. or j-Ja. ZjuslZ oLag temperate. J*o*^» x . 3 ju^».< Sl^ot is allowed. a x ~ x J x . —Etymology fern. = iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and. rem. <1 D. 228). it If J~*s has the meaning of . but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered.o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . 233. (§ 6). x x Exceptions in either case are i rare.o an l^-Jfe O acclivity. b. 0x0 « and J**a*. chaste. Ox Rem. G. fa^C.and p a declivity. fern. or the Parts of Speech. J UJLd. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ». but (t ^. blameworthy habit. Ox x self-willed woman. Hence the difficult nouns >yt.J mountain-road « of ascent.g. **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume. .186 Pakt Second.j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl. x 5 x t jlj <aa. For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^. on the other hand. <Ua>JU . x 2ri^A. . '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. j^J^o. tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. Zj~a-> + + . G. a praiseworthy way of acting. ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper. £/te Exceptions are rare Ox . and under the G . when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***. x . [§ 297 A [Rem. or intransitive). which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ . a wounded woman. Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*. $$^=> a D. <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor.

-A sAe will is to-morrow . dsuo). oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn. jJbl). 96* *r^> *. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i . . 00^*' A and yj am M Vol. £/&e J JkJlk divorced. or about to begin (£ol».— The Numbers. a) e. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam . 15. G. Nouns Subst. J B ^U. having swelling breasts. at any rate..j&3 and some others as jU. *->*>*>-. applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate . the singular.] ^. ^aui*. jy>. and plural Nouns have. JLac etc. by their signification. § 136.tlib. A. (see § 81). ' j-ojto. s S. CUa-ojl U. J**** D.. ^J-a**. J) 3. three numbers. j-wl». as ^J-ol*. 0s . The Numbers of Nouns. But they designate the said action or state as beginning. rem. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling. to females only. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. bust naked. of course.jX^i £Lcl». p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. 187 infinitives (§ 230. The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting. R. s * 9s. 298.] menstruating. w-. 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. The Noun. pregnant.0 ** her time or term. like verbs. last 9 1. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day . n. js*-c [^jLa». an action or state as natural and permanent. as iU. lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it. I ji£ iiUUs . actually in progress. dual. ..§299] [(d) II. they form a feminine in 3_. O^j or . 299. jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^. ^Zo bearing twins. her. JJ»U without ornaments. / 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her. O x 0*0' «r.ti Adj. as C ^oaJI i-tful».witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck.g. Rem. . w^olk. chaste. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 . Adjectives which are.

b. oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. jl. \j\5sid. of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi. \j\}\jjua. Forms like ^jtzl/*. becomes 3 x . B OW occur. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj). J . for . the hemza is may retained or changed into 3. ^j\i\j*~a. but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. though the former preferable. ft. x © x nine X (§ X 296). [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in . § 167. as ^J3 a youth. as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom. x x however. sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground. CT ^L^». <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow. oW^ a 15*:. which was originally a 3.-XS. ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- .« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^. I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l). . however. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco . But <Ut a J and testicle. would be Rem. not restored in the dual.. used. 3 is changed into buttock. rem. 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . >**>ja butt for shooting.>0. § 294. x the termination either be as *T_. a. a). the j x o£ . jjljt^^o *" x i\j^». <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^.) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc). which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff. usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. SI . {\J>— a). it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual . x are. x x x . the singular of which. as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ).»>. Rem. —In and even ^jbl^a^o. —Etymology a nation. J) c. l£>** legal opinion. O (see rt^ ^rni. r*' x w*s b x x x X . If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert.. admit the forms oWUl . when sprung from a radical $ or ^. jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. Rem.red. %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some. the j is restored the dual .*. a. ^ fi. said by some to be admissible. for 16 3 3^). as Lac a for $*a£.a bustard. two buttocks. . a.188 Part Second. t. The hemza . «L»£> a dress (for jdJb).

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

c. 5) we find o>*^ 120. Jjbt . The Noun. App. £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. sanus masc. We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions .. rem. etc. £^t> A***. Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. D. Nouns Substti Adj. A. £-*»»t. have the plur. b. san.§302] II. 13. fern. To the words enumerated under highest heavens. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification.— Plur. from last < 1. San. B f ' lLauL£». p. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. etc. of J**g a man). though by their to fern. ones family. \JyJ&. see § 340. J) Rem. «. jjt the goose. adjectives exemplified by j**o\. and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . J***J (dimin.0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. G. sanus masc. OJJ^&y*' 9 * . * * in the 9 commentary on the Diw. of jus Abd). For the see 2. their diminutives. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur. etc. they might seem belong rather to the class of plur.*?. of j^ti) an inferior poet.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. have also the s plur. however. sing. Adjectives. rem. only to substantives denoting rational beings. * J m O^U^s . Rem. vs. * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin. » of Hudeil. fern. § 304. masc. s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO . (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. < . j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin. Masc. c)*. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. § 296. when joined Rem. [The corroboratives of J^» viz.] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. which denote rational beings. a. ±jbj\ the earth. 195 AaJ-b). II. but more especially from adjectives when used substantively.

si)3J^ *jj an d. used by children at play.j-|juj £bt w>t. a stony. as Zj&. especially those of Od x . form ol. volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. ^j^k* obliq. Thus w>j£jjui«©. In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264). h). a sphere. when they are the names. 325. 03J^ . a secondary formation ^>*iw.g. J ^t. — It may be b. rem. £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung. D but in the case of compounds with to say . and called j*4j)\ l O^t. e. jx which are called j 0. and the like.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. which have no singular. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. <J}L*. men x Construct compounds. a privy. x etc. ^t J any one of etc. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. d. very J irregularly. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. JL». ^JA x O J > JP a . Rem. (§ 323). > *^* a stick ?/ear. x x x \jjj hu\j $£. s i Further. j>~L*>. makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. 4 ^. e. c). 6). see § 340. rem. Some x fern. $>\.U ^J^. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. « xx wholly indeclinable. like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. from 20 up to 90 x J x '. stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. as also the numerals denoting the tens. have a plur. ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel. juj j-ojJt H-^t. o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. Great Bear. sanus masc. x 3 x in x . Rem. [cas. § viz. vulva. is rem. which the third radical (j.196 Part Second.. x . it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. £)£j 3j£» a ball. [like &+Lc ii. rem. d) nouns in S_l . %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl. has been elided. not of persons. . also § 108]. thing. i 'z-Zubeir . but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191. (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299. which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable. Comp. arises a. possessors. J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word.

5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m.. wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or . » The names 3 . (a OL-UJ juA Hind. f. x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. Proper names of women. o*> . x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_.z2a. 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. If a jo <& Adj. as xx . and such names of 3 ^x 5. of the letters. duj. The Noun. ObjL*. w**. x 3s. rem. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus. 00 9 x ( xx .0*3 3 . G. The pluralis sanus fern. 197 is put in the plural.Lp. (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— . Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man.§303] II. is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx .9 a village. as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * . admit also of a pluralis fractus. oL©*}Lfc. x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D. 196). 6^/ a gazelle. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot. as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition. . may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % . a (<#) 9 £ bustard. of the second oW^LLot.] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j. Fern. . verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal. be put also in the plural. OUiJa. •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. x J ^Ufc.lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. Oljlj-o 301. sanus fern. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi. as j*j 5 . San. 9 ^+»-x pregnant. [Rem. Jas. b) . O^t^w. Nouns Subst. Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). which are usually feminine « . Rem. of the months x . The feminine nomina (§ 5 . OUUa^o.—Plur.. 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx . e) . The names # # (§ 292. xx and fourth forms. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress. b).*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 . 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. plur. when r ' Rem. o . Feminine adjectives. (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 . OUJLli (§ 301. The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense.. 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. A. as uL^-cu. the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . J xOx t 9 xxtfx . According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' . rem. x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. o£ J *0£ . (a) etc.

existing) literary . Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301. Ob^. -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses. termination 9 * . jtJlwt. and * some nouns. .«gv . 9*0' stout camel. 9 s * s . C/^ t» . . * C inanimate or inorganic thing. 6) from f" . j*wlo annunciations.^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. a tent. or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property.) . Ul aw ^4##. 9 oU L^a. a * compositions. § a literary composition. Olojt (see J * * .^. oUtj*». which have not a fern. w-j^Uj wonders. difficulties. (jlj^U* a jet deau. 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ .> . c-aJI^j J (compare . Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is . works (from ui . J J . Otjl©~> (though this 9 . £>WJ*aa . J ***** * a 9 . even ff» when they denote persons i . (i) Verbal adjectives. Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ . ji U^ . ou». entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) . rem. or the Parts of Speech. uLoLeJ. J ' x . ol***.t § word is . however.. b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. irj a OUU^U^o o * . a chronicle.U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations. d s * ^l q» an '. classified) . "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. d * a warm 9 ' bath. oU-jt a /afoe rumour. an animal. ' s j S . ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. (lit.tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities. Many fern. jLL~ijl+. O^Jbt or C^aI. ^aj\ the earth or ground. substantives. which are used in the plural as substantives. which some. j created) . o '* *£: . 9 c-s —Etymology an era. 301. Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher. D rem. as * 9 . § U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). 9 < Olw^. iUt j*£ a caravan of . OtS^l^-w . s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha. fractus O . B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin. loaded * 9 s < * camels. which have no plur. Jbtj-* awning. ObU^. a 9 %<• j book. a fountain..« living thing. prognostics. Obj. Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. Ot^Iwt. marvels. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b. masc.c arranged. .6t or marriage.198 Part Second.- 136) f~ijti a date. OUtj^U> a .

3 (for . Fr actus. t J 9 jya ' J . b) . 9. . 234 and § 295. Jy^t »te greatest. ^a\ 6 ' J . <L*J a foard.3. Nouns Subst. 5/JJ 1.6.3 rare . . . and Adj. § Similarly b).^»-). j^\. § 213) 9 *J . *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand.— Plur.^ 5x as <Haj a present. of Jy^t). volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin. w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. 9 * .. § 213) . 9. fractus of substantives triliteral roots. 199 uJ ^ J bound books. jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern. (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. 9. another (fern. j±\.39. Fract. j). Jj* village. except those specified in § 302. 0*}L**r*. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune. 4*1 J a nation. Hj <>£ i^j a knee. 304. a trinket. .] district (Gr. SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad. rem. without tenwin. J 9 ' J . Bldsse). w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. adjectives. ^jlx)\. . . are twenty-nine in number. as Ja». k. 9 x J . The following is a list of these forms. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. J 9 * J ilas ^ j. 3. a dynasty. and examples.3 L J*5. i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. A (i) All diminutives. of j^t. <j?Ji Su^j a turn. w-£>j white spot.0 j^aJ) .. Plur. x^P a )> a dome. of J*$l as a superlative . as 9. with the principal corresponding singulars.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest. see D 295. a . . ^ali JSJ 9. and The more common forms J ' of the plur. LUJt M<? highest. s J The Noun. i*3 [a leather tent. on a horse's forehead. or &&&&? (Germ.§304] * u> II. UU»J 0' . which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical. ^j^t . fern. as J-*»- a hillock. Rem. AjjX». w*J> s J 5 . ^^. (§ j^^U*. 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. ^^IsuUt . OLJS. all£> « kidney. 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. 4Jl*5. (J^t o^er.

Fract. & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309. has certainly both £$~t and £yi. J^fcli. c. 9 3 j 5 .l and i[x2j (fem. 3>-»l 6/ac&. jy*> jljl heat. j J . derived from verba med. jJua lU^ fawe. They may. JUi. [Rem. ii. rad. JUi. ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick. 302. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '. as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 . «*-j^ etc. 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. a#). and superlative 9 6 3 . j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j . I 9 J J j$\. *- of J*it. R S. had young. [§ 304 A Plur. [Accordingly a efawrt has J^. cAsrft tfliwfe. 9 * Isufc. . [Also in some other cases. farrow. i\*Z£>. s WSfWJ. not derived . e.200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. JUi. w>jla. A*-^^ ^-^J. JUi. J***.J in. J3J 9 3 . however. III. J-*it. D. j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red.] 93 J>»-]. G. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . C a middle-aged married woman. ^-O^.. w>**-*-' humpbacked. 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad. b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years.g. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. . § *£*. j**. woman). J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j . rad. O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet. rem. * s * as £jjio yellow. vol.. make *»*<»». . 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i. Jtf. &$£ .. retiring 9 * 9 3 . iU-oJ. and 3. of *«*».). 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*. [Comp. ot Sing. ^o ^ . (§ 296) . not comparative 3 . ^©-ot <&«/.] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. etc. derived from verba med. JUi.] 4. without tenwin [§ all together. 9 3 II.l. i\x+*. a. 1. 8]. 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. 1. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2. ptjuj fern. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. 9 .jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. § 137 and rem. 5.

%~o. *• cloth. & Adj. jj~* 9' ' £ . }j. J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' . 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. 2. as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' . O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna. [A rare case is s^ot from . jealous. iUi. a 9 ' messenger. 'Oi jjUft a rein. 93' who warns. \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick. rare 9b' as w. '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar. J*3. 91 3 . Fractus. J*w>. w. j et ^j . A. . T III. 9 ' . j^J .La*»&. 933 . tertiae rad. J*3. 9 j j . jjJ j±~e patient.>£». f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. and not derived from verba 9 3 3 . j^o 933 9 . a stallion. s^jo.§ 304] II. Rem. 9 ' 91 » 9 . as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . it £y&. 9 ' 3 Saturday. fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. rough. ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a. The Noun. 93393' JU^i j^s . 3' . uUL* 9 J I . ju*c . ' thicket. 3 3 . 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs.$. not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat.4a. w *>*»» . J***. for or 9 sacrifice. 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion. J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> . 93 w~o£ 3 . 3 3 . 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. * .—Plur. tj£* jtji -t) a tick. j j J>w. bier. a message. J^i ^0^/0. the heavens. ^Xi v>jj an idol. J>*s. a dromedary.] tertiae rad. 9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' . 9 3 3 . Jas.jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood. t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . " a large bowl or tree. a thin. ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. j et ^ [ . 201 Plur.JL>! female. Fract. a 9 throne. geminatse or verba tertiae rad. as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut.'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. 9 JjtS continued. qj*> J 2 . Nouns Subst. &**£.jUa». white piece of sphere. ^ j yet. » 3 . 9 3 3 . 933 > a 7-00/*. 9 3 ' 3. J>**. j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. or ra/. J*$.I Ojj 9 . J**i. Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*. Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy. 9J * A Sing. .

. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). as A*Ja. Ox x J J changed into x J fetha. J Forms rare. . C il*9. Ox %~6 r. ^o*3 a flock of sheep. [j-4^. as a rule. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. rare r. »tew. xJ JuJJ pleasant. a maxim. 1. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. J J III. 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. O 0J-. * S^J aw example . l£) or i«&}]. Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . milk. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. i. OxOxx . ^o-j»* . JjJ. Fract. jj~* ju **». unless O * J . manner of 2 Ox . Gs . as j**& a merchant. j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. jwt. \£). R. S. a building. j&*-'. Jul.j*3 4*15 a fathom. [§ 304 A Plur.] J is j*£ x (for j+%). Jjii * J J a sea. v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5.] u .g. ^ « foc£ o/* tar. J For. X X Sing. ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. oox 1. just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). % J » Jifcti. J** continued. as j-ij~>. dL»£ft. or pattern. x JJ. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain.202 Part Second. w>b3 ^e common fly. Some- times the darama of words med. ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. rad. or :>j^- IV. 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. rare Ox dx a to£. ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. V. ^^\ (for t^t) . Jjtf. * [Again. 957. are is J '. jUfe. O O J Rem. f . wo. 5. £«J living. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae. e. OxOx fo*^ « farm.13 a time. s* . OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. ^*xa. It may be J J a poetical license for Jju. < oooej . so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. . ^~*Jk Ox . 1. from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o). J—j.5 a £M0tf. gemin. character. JUi. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*. aX*5. . JAj]. *JaS .Jj . xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J).

V. The Noun.aA a late born camel's colt. 0x0 4^ jU a a note. JJ* # a shadow. /JJ milch-camel. v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. p{~6 * .§304] II. colt. 203 Plur. * as ^J*** a hill. *'£' duij the neck. cbj fern. s^aefe. «. geminatse or tertise rad. w*tfi a wind. <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. Nouns Subst. district. a woman. Fractus. cloth. 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . J^U» . as v*~> x A*8* . ^o. B Ox a foW. a dress. £U£ (rare). # 9 . camel's xOJ 7. ° £ 9*** JL». O - 9 . not derived from verba medise rad. Ox Ox . iUi.—Plur. *. an arrow. cUj . rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. *W-£. <>* cm occasion. cU § * OJx . J. 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying.ai . handsome. J^». D w>Jls «m^. oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 . 5*5. *0l L5J*J. **~> a beast of prey. Fract. 90/ 5. jtj-» . o^~*-J x 9 J x . & Adj. 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f.. J Us 9 * continued.*-£ a hywna. *1>L». J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. 9 * . 9 * * * . iw>. fern. w»^c> ° { 6. J**. <z sp^arr. £-j£ . as ^^1 female. «x . 9 * * JIoa. ^Ut a hermaphrodite. * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . pt«i 9*0 \ . w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard.a 9 * he-camel. ^Uj . 9**9*** 3. wolf. A Sing.. Stj-«t. A. <LUi. lM» 9-\jj • • . &J a o£^o Rem. J Ox v*o - difficult. t -* j?L»J. ^J» a ~-jj gazelle. JU-j . Ox iojj ^ garden. aX*s Ox # dish. • <• 4. J*i. 0»x oxj iUi. 9 * . a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. has a plural of this form. x # Ox w>U*© . *-UJ 9 * . 9*90 . . not superlatives X . 9 * .

.) good. few words and Hafagi's comm. jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem. s s - Sing. used . old. From words ^su pure. UU^fr l " IV s .*-«-* . 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J .c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw. fern. ^*£j£*. J«^Lj. An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. 9. Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». jL^. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping. 9 a courser . 6. %. s s £-Usuj from fern.- ># adjectives 9 s . Thorb. j^Ls . 9 s . 9 x tertise rad. oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3. j-h^) (rarely vt base. standing. Fract. sick. w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem. JUai. j*\>£*.204 Part Second. [wi^g. verbal adjectives. o 9 s feeble. Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . ~s yaJo a merchant. ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>. as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. ^*ij£>> noble. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Dorrat. is C Rem. JUs 9 continued. j^J JjbU drinking. i\ -* s k s . 9 . $/ / »/ &*$***. not having a passive 9 s 9 s . ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. V. . jU£» . s 9 s . [§ 304 A Plur. 97 seq. 9 9 s . The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. as j+*£* large. J. 9 s a. ed. 9 s 9 s signification 9 s . iLai. j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. thirsty. 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . 9 s 9 s . as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. J 8. js\% 9 s ju». 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry. verbal adjectives. 11. . tfAe channel of a torrent . 9 s 9 . w>U^o 9 s 9 .(for #00<^. 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant.

u-^i soul.. ^»^j^ a J^.j or Jl*-. A Sing. From words med.—Plur.^*!). others g vi.J calf. jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army. 9 0^ 9 J J . J*5. 9 . Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . w>J*^ ju& . 5 3 141 #~J seq. Fractus. *y~>\ w>ju a scar.\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd.3 Jui. that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^. 0- C-wO a house. 9 .3 or ^^3. rad. f»5+wi c). *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. A. gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss. a 9 Mtn. 5 -£ Ja3. # military force. 3 J^j (for of the vowels. >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle. 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp.ji a troop. ^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical. fLcj from c. or f-y**. 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem.> usually makes ^~. 5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow.) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 . V. # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder.§ 304] II. 5 - lion. an ^> Dv ^£ . g. Rem. 3 J 9 0' . a chief. 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 . J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr . D. r^^yi Jy^ a year. 50 { a. & Adj. 5 0- Rem. 90' 9 i/fo JJ . 9 . 205 Plur. 5 J J . assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket. 0- syllable is In words med. tor. 1. ^J> (comp. JA 90^ Jjji. 9 J jys^j J . a doc§ 269. 9-2. 9 3 3 . u*>*»- *>*»• the neck. ^M. Jl^j from Jjj mean. «j. Nouns Subst.. ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man. b. -- 5 JJ . rad. ju*. J) as if from y~$. q 903 33 . own 5 . 50 - 50 90J . Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . J 933 (for 90' . as 5JJ 3 5J 5 . gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year. 3 . The Noun. j>U. G. Fract.] Some J bid. to Tabari). a ewe lamb.3 JU* continued. and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e. l£^>) § 215). Jas # as j^*j a sea.

. u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a .0. a M#. 1. VI. Ox ^b.206 Part Second. 9 x rad. 3 ojj 5 -» standing.>>*=> 9 J J . Ox Ox £UJ. Fract. aa». -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant. 9 * * B Rem.* this J 9 x x rare. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. rare 9 J J . a %? or summit. . wiytw 5t^> Q •4.JU> («JLo) a W6. .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night. ^53 or ^j3. «i)b ^y^» . as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. tooth. J>c$ o JJ . *->>** . 0x0 J *4j±. as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&. a j9wrs# of money. J3** continued. wicked. ^yL> or ^iu. aw inkhorn. t^JU. . ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . rad. J^Z and J*£ . Sing. #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. 3 of the form J-a-i . . vel verbal adjectives. OU S j proud.] X J3. not mediae rad. a casket. 9 d J . J J' '? . -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «. £fc fcwr. J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua».o or ^j. OJx time. or med. J^j a xx j mountain-goat. [§ 304 A Plur. ^. gemin. Ox J^U. 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself. j*y and jtg^o fasting. j-©~> j*>v sleeping. OJJ [Rem. > ^^-At (for ^3-ac).. ^JUU a #m<7. iUi. a period of Jj>*». witness. plural is From words med. D vii. JjU> pregnant. jcclS. j>yo and j^e . # O3S3 J J . 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 . verbal adjectives. V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . O^x OJJCxOx . 3-0). sitting. not derived from verba tertise rad. 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#.

*5lb obedient. in which into B case the j must be changed ^ . IX. Fract. js\y o . 9 Si A Sing. cUo j-*L^ aw C .§304] II. The Noun. 0>£. x 9 5 J .] (with rare exceptions) as^»^». aw offender. jwows. - . ^u» conjuror. [jlo avoiding. VIII.— Plur. denoting rational beings. ignorant.ajudge. SjjJ (for . as AaJU mourning. u^u*- fi iUU. of the preceding a.& Adj. djztie (for **>&) . JUli» perfect. 5^^ [^tfula. 1. cLi «Jlo aw artisan. . * [ J^ defeated. d J 9 . SjiJa . v'>> -i"3 > sleeping. (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£.js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower. j^^ a «^ unbeliever. *• j 9 et fl ^ J . R. 9 * 65 J . 3 i D *£** . . x as J^U a workman. ^ et ^. ^^a. Jj«i continued.] . of Jli. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad. ^ et ^ 9 . dutiful. J *-*-»- ^U 9 #». verbal adjectives. . JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier. <jU. i J VII. 5p*w ^ b .» a deputy. of 9-y>. jU a soldier. is by usage pi. icb j5U s^'wa. x Jxli. &**). menstruating. fugitives. %\}b- . ^ . A. verbal adjectives. [Rem. is Rem. etc. unbeliever. fd j .Fractus. aiiJ. 9 5 j .>lju©]*. St x 5 j fU».S.] JU5. as Ujk for U^*. gem. § 213). fern. jU JiJLb repudiated. . 9 x J. Ox 9 3 J . [or med.xLj. 207 Plur. from oi5U» fearing . in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. Nouns Subst. -» absent. **+*£ 2. and not derived from verba tertise rad. ^U^ JaU. Anomalous is having no weapon. 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b.. of ji. properly pi.

treacherous. 6 xx J x . Ox Ox .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. &oo*. fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 . 1. $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . 3U». oW* a sinner. SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter.] X. as x J . rehearser. Sj^** or Sjl*. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». 9 ^ x J et ^ . jU x « a soldier. a nickname given to the Muslims. not derived from verba Gxx J . casket. 9 x Sing. x X x 3 . . du^*.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. \j*" *ibl». * x .] [Rem. Oxx tjy> or Sjaj . Fract. (for «*«*. Rem.>L».. x J or traditionary.208 Part Second. Oxx x ££*». J^U from verba med. [§ 304 A Plur. yo 13 ^ judge. yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place. 4*»^j -**w aw o/d . an ox. J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x .w Oxx generous.] D XL £&. « i-4*«. Ox x 9 x x .) cLj a manager.o feeble. as *r> Sx . JaJ.* jj a husband or ^2/0. rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* . 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf. as jjU*. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ . a weaver. i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt. Stjj (for x J ajj^) . acting wrongly. tertiae rad. [2. olxw.» . ZJuca ^. J OOJi^S Q s a . Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a . R S. <L*jJ. l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S. Ja3. iUi continued. An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. ^ &J«o ^^j a shield. with the same restriction. and derived from verba Ox x J rad. Oxx branch. foar. aw earring. J*9. verbal adjectives. 9 x xx IX. j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural. as j^j x . tertiae ^ denoting rational beings. 0' 9 2. O x CO J^ti.

9 x x 9x x 5 . /a#. 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 . iUfc. ' S Cj.Ja~» a /me of writing. dijt ^6*^U a youth. flaccid. 27 . a eunuch. 5^». B °*i . X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. not derived from verba mediae rad. . The Noun. as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . A. 9x0 9 . J-J** ^'c&. few J ground. ^^Jil . j et ^. 6x0 aJU*.] XIII. &L».. aJUsj 9. J*i cl3 . Nouns Subst. 9x0 JU$ . 1. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y. w. R.ork. o . S^J «^w aw . x g „ . 90 9 x x f [j. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace. brother. . . Fract. 9 cM ow& elephant. # . SjJj . (for j>«») a neighbour. *>*-©) X a boy.—Plur. u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin. Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. AjjXi. a brave. aw p ape. J*i as jjj a bull. coarse. &kk3. J . 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. *^~b a J t «J Of . Oji Jai. jJa~>\]. a**o X . A Sing. . as jJj a cMc?.. £s>> . as a^U 4. x J JU*. ^U. as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea. has a plural of this form. «xx . XL iUi continued. old man.. 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard. J*** x fo'a. 209 Plur. 90 x . • waw.§ 304] II. <7rea£. . Fractus. Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i.»£>. £n#e. Rem. S. hj£ - JJ>j ag#. jawt u~*J W* sow/. 9xx 3. jA a tom-cat. s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket. X OxO rt.>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope. & Adj. <UaJa. **^ XII. Jiil. Slj««t X a woman. S^-J. ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*.^aa* a gelding. 5x0 2.

oibi JfjJl. Rem. for example. a fountain. x C Rem. * [If fern. ^ et x x J ^. G. j ^^c an eye. Exceptions are. TV D • dialectically. JOi xxx .t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . iUs. rare o x£ . jj}\. cji! . as J+*. Ja3. .t oi &*) o » oi time. ^3j\ . Feminine quadriliterals. Ja3. . ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '. o*-^ a sword. 1. for example. j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey. j-*j. ^>o. x x rare . <3>*t.] . 1). w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. 6' cloth. 84J J**. 5 seq. w>$jI or J w^t - . ^^ 60 C a bow. • m 3^*t). not ending in *—. *JL© a rib. . as x a leopard. jly3 c^ay. and OJOii JJjJt. xj eagle. . whence. 2. j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. JjUc « female kid. •• ' Rem. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . JU^t and. w*^ a raven. Jj«it continued. ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant.jLJ •* the tongue*. by transposition. for if masc. J oi XIII. ^b a house. as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. . and. at a § di .^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. . Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . o j J*». %^~Jt. &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. [§ 304 A Plur. JUfct . o£ J^t 5// 3. ^tt) i5U a . « jrf Gtot Jijjt. a well. 4. a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. the x x neck. Fract. JpjI. aw oath. oi~ gjoI o o .t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\.210 Part Second. hill. et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\. she-camel. has j>jI and. it has <U»»JI (XV. xx JOi £ x . according to "El- Mubarrad 50. not derived from verba mediae rad. <} . O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . ^ left J hand. D. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. by o J oi transposition. by transposition. a staff. • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. as p\j$ the arm. J*w. j^Jt . o£ '} ^ occur. Sing.

one would D 9x 3. verbal adjectives. 9x0? . * 9x0? . *->\yi\ • £rac#. .— Plur. *. makes *Lwl.U~ol jj\* tepid. 2. J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? . a mistake. especially . J x aft 9x0? arm. jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes. 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing. Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms. w^J*- Ox x x 0? . Ox . as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time. J«*i a Mz'aA. |U^t . J*». w. 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o . JU5I . Fract.j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free. 2) . 9 x~> . by transposition. v' o ? . rarely J*» (see no. <jt$t fjto . JU^t foc&. ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword.a judgment. 0U3I . 0/ camels. 1. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit.^l (for >o~>) a warn^.» festival. and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. from verba mediae rad. a notion. jJblb 9 x j3wr<?. w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) . 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. jlcul jJblw t a witness. ^^L© a companion. J*». . . w>lJt m>. . JLwl j*y> a day. ^. 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 . fo^y. £ . Fr'actus. jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door. jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t .«£.^£». . 211 Plur. (f° r 3^0 a father. jl*JI xO? . 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5. opinion. J***. j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w. 9 x . not buying a passive signification. $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. yj+*\ . 9 « Jlo*> a foad.xxO? tooth. Nouns Subst. 9 XIV. 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . t %l>\ . ^lj tdftv. 9 x 9x0? J^ti. 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep.\ . son. jZ> a well.^©A3 a fancy.f old she-camel. dutiful. 9 £ an f. jbt f V>t . & Adj. . x . Rem. The Noun. 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . js\x*. jbt 9 x 9 . Ju^ « 9 . (for 9 w~J) a canine . $>-t/il x a thousand. A. 9 . 5 0?" J»bl Ji. A Sing.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. rare 9 x as j-ob a helper. jUsl. Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard. a friend.§304] II. X 4. and primse rad. j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. 9 '-» .3 9 a x>« aw ^ar. jly^l .

Ha3\.t ^obtb * . a strait. . ' o£ Rem. a wing. vowel). B xv. .s>j\ v***1* a branch. 5^». 9* bi . C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. t 9 xx 4s*u*fc. O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie. as Jjj& mighty. sJ)j£\ XIV. &Jf. and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ . ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart. 9 * &* ** tongue*. <L2£r> XX . O x J Us. 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS .212 Part Second. . o^-*i <*wi| *y. from verba X mediae rad. %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble. an oath. of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . »t rare . see the footnote to XIII. A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . stuttering. x U*3 a certain measure. aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest. 1. d. especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ . Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. ^JLfr temperate. 3ui^\. Sju*fcl o£ x rod. 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ .^ a fo# niggardly. Quadriliterals. A«-ot . ^-:. x .^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. 2. y^^* o X c^ar. * £ . 3 et 93 t Ox Of. JU*t continued. [If masc. jU»* can ass. x x right hand. 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * .» 9. a o ""*? colt. Ox »--£*£. *a*-wt X . . § 242). &>J^I O^ ** . xo£ '.a>. 9 . OxOxO£"3x j c»*). 4~aSI X Ox o£ . X derived 2. Fract. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech./bo^.] . . 05 £ *L». (for stingy. JUi. 9 s f}Hil £ . Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?. glorious. [§ 304 A Plur. ^jLaJ. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. chaste. XX 6 . 9* OS. 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ .t X 0? . *•** a pillar. S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy. 9 £) Ox X d£ . Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x .) ' • 2 p <0I g a god. D geminatae or ultimse rad. S t 3JLfr t J .

passes into damma. mothers 9 ' t>i " side). iJbet continued. ' J^. in proper names. 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . crucible. Ci^b a motive J * * . Ja». S «* B I >i . 9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a . £ . jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). bird.vm/wz. Oi . 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . Oj 9 ' *i . [L». v^J-*or cawsg. JU. Ajjjj . a cover or &d. Sj^l 9 J jj a button. 9* i hjj\ * s . a £wc£- «x hare. ji|>»» v^W. J^U» a 2.>t^ a watercourse.g. rare 9* Oi . substantives . .— Plur. cP^-i. in vulgar pro- nunciation. 3. »£ . Nouns Subst. as ^5U» a a signet-ring. jt?o£. u*j\£. jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. *dyi\ Jju a s^. 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! . Jii. xvi. £Jl>» . 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture. £JU» a s^/. Fractus. djj^j\. 9 is* 9 . 9 0* . The Noun. a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile. as <>J» 9 . Z+teS 9' oi » . vi^l^ 5 . 9 0* 9 Sing. ^JIS a mould. A. l^^s^S. XV. <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. 213 Plur. 9 . J**.G.] . 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. Rem. J^U . Fract. female slaves. >u an assembly. J^1>» . 9.« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. 1. J*3. letter is bound). 9 * 4. ^>\y*- . j\js*. di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck. j*ty*. J**.§304] II. & Adj. as JJjt^J* Touareg. 65 i AJLaut Oi . *iJo\ jj^i. it In the old language there are some instances of e.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. dew. ..

J XX * s .) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. P Ox . i^li. . earners hump.. rare.. J*l>* continued. region. jJbljJ.53. Jxx <£l)tyb . jJbtjw. rem. a proximate cause. 5»xx verbal adjectives. Ox by their signification only J x •» rem. )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). 3. XVI. X X J XX . verbal adjectives. a girl.U? a female companion. (for ij^tj*. [§ 304 A Plur. Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. a Rem. Juotj^. >^^\^o «( . O X ^ Ox witticism. a X X X . ^U. J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. J^ti. ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. substantives Ox x JxxOxx . *-\y (for ^^y).sU J a rarity. A-JM3 custody. 5 x wp^r classes. of J Sing.. J &>\yo 5j. see no. sociable. ^-Jljt 4*».) J i* ^oSl*. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. pregnant. x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding. as X 4y£bU yfowtf. verbal adjectives J . X Ox 4.^^. a joke. x x . as J-«L». X? . Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt. x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce. vulgar. j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. ^Ijxi. menstruating. as x tr*j^ xx . J^U. X ^oSU*. etc. J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. XXIII. C 5. .) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x . «x x JJtjl (for JJI. a 7 . . J x x 5 9 x a wave. Ox divorced. ajjU. 5 S a horseman. profit. xx . s * . *f\y> i x x .214 Part Second. x Ox aJLcU. s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example. J applicable x to J men. B *to A«*a*. . Fract. applicable to females (§ 297. a district. J . ^x x . and fern.

9 x x a cowrtf. D x x .l». £a*»~o a written or plank. whether they have the fern.. *' i* * a treatise. D. j->\j*o < x x . j->!>»X X . aw J »X t*" island. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. as 4uU*w a c/owa*. ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*. *5l©-o. The Noun. « X X victim. but nevertheless fern. j-j^o a pronoun. J^l*». Fern. &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. a &£ter. l&uotf. x ^^Oi. J *»x x . >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* . J wages. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees. Nouns Subst. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . x juLej] «x 4«. . J ^ x x . JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent . 5 " &a/. quadriliterals.— Plur. o/a woman. J! x x x xx J xx .or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. G.§304] II. H*£ X . a _ thing. 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. £))*?. [J*J. x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . termination 5."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " . Fract. y£XVII. 85 x x ^x x J affair or business. *)!** or <ULx^. »»x x (for ^Jt^*-).] . <So Adj. law. A. *UsU.> X X a joroo/*. ^ti^. a wawtf or weed. <JI^».. f-5bi ttrcwa*. x x s/a£>. 6. gen. ^J^^ X ««X X . J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. as iDu. igt>^). [Also applied to the male. ^xx . lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. a letter. *~5ULo x W0W0. * f Rem. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 . of B (a long vowel). w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. ' x x . J^Lit . 215 Plur. JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket. SfjJ**. 600/. A Sing. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. from 5^«] jJJ the night. a »XX »xxx J x J X . 5x x # *. x >"' . x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. i . a J *»x x . Ft actus. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . J*fcty continued.

J J*». *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. [§ 304 A Plur. Ox x J 5 . 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. xj O^*^ « ^%. 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5. 603/.jUJ j3~> 9 . J .a buck-hare.x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . Ol***ixJ 3. d 5 meteor. Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard. JU$. 5 v!** a raven. as > Oj*-. Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. 6 a I oxj O fl . 0'***^ * . o*^**^/j xx Ox . a worm. O >0 root. o!>** 5 J«*». lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. Fract. J*i and J*5. 1.' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest. w>b a *. as juft ' a s/aw. s/aw0. 5/J bird./Sre. O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . a black beetle. a fish.jtju* O . ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird. J 9*9* . oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle.» 4. and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe. Sx»^*x . * ^)U*-J . x* yu a nightingale. 9 rare . jtH a yoke. uW^ ^0 x £ i brother. a branch. OW« oW ^ - «x 6. Ox . 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. 9 Ox j door. oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*. O x . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.216 Part Second. v**M « branch. Sx as J-^. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x . 9 * 0^°3 9 ."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. from radicals mediae 3 x J . a waW. '0 5 % * * B 2. Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . o****9 Oj M t Sing. 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown.» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > . v«*^ « ^^^ . Ox neighbour. \)j3 a lizard. growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. % ^j^j. Ol*^ rare . XVIII.

xO J . C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . [v*** grain. o^. an irregular plural ^jtj**J. the short side of a *%» . as 5x0 <jU*£» . Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat.* >i wjl^w a firebrand. x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. Sx£ 5x x£ Rem.. 6 . ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. not nightingale. 9 xJ 9 £j . and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. O^fa maidservant. a to»i6. rare XX 9 . ^L-a*. the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . '•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx . J-j-©^. 9x0 diminutives. A. 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. j%<^. a strait. as Ja5l»ii mW. 28 . &%+•* B 9. 5 x 9 . 50x Jjt*. J>»J. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l).. as x Jl5j a lane.jU£* . { g § 8. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. [7. 0>**> rar e . \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel. more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . # a bustard. JUi. has ^lj-«t . a meteor. 9 ->x Sing. J x 9x0 a /<wra&. 9x 10. 90 50x . o/" d^afe. xix. 9 . Fractus. Nouns Subst & Adj. 9 x x 3.^ *» a wood-pigeon. 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. oW* J . The Noun. x x etc. 3 ' XVIII. 9 x J .§ 304] II. X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf. J^li. J-*-**. 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. Fract. rare 9 as »J>jj^. 9x0x9 Ox roof. 217 Plur. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew. j Uai w. 3-i5 d^oj. dates.] 9 feather. Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**. wing-feather. rare J . 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. A continued.—Plur. O^j9x0j 9xx 2. 5 . a woman. 1. 9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-.. &\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J . rare xJ . 0^> 6raw. jtfrj a slave.

verbal adjectives. cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 . J n L&** a channel for irrigation. from 9 * j 3 j^\.jLs> JxdS 6. J-J*. geminate or r" «» tertise rad.3 . as Rem. . J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. . ^^^9 * a sand-hill. and 9 ^j\jy»*. j~*\ a or chief. < Sing. 9 i f /* commander . which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad. O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. ^L*>J. as w^b oW*> a n<for. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J . or recluse. B 5. 9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. For example. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. jtgtoS 9 ' fern. ^*o a fo# or child. rational beings. V^ . et ^. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. 1. used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. 9 . ctj « shepherd. used conjointly or interchangeable. l\js* ilwjj . 4. a friend. ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. Fract. j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. a youth. The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show. unweaned foals of 9 - camels. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. .. oW^j1* s s . 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . even in cases where we should hardly expect it.] J-j«i. . J^ti. O !/**• tffcui. oW^j 5 a companion. v~&j a chief . O^ . I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. 3 . l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. jLc. £)*$*** oW«*. oU-^ 9 < .218 Part Second. are. from jt^-». poor. instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. o^** 9 continued. XIX. w^Jbtj a Christian . [§ 304 A Plur. * J Ol)^ c***^ white. ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. applicable to signification. Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. verbal adjectives. J-oLj stingy.

^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am. usually makes \J&%±. «£ . i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. — JUg> o». liberal. j-J. a successor. iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. *UJI ~' ot . eloquent. 9 x x x iS'^f.» Rem. masc. easy. r£iU . Oi . plain. 9 x *s * j . il©Ac JJbU. et ^J . a caliph. A. A Sing. - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . i oW-*^ cowardly. x .1) . Nouns Subst.j^o 3 x cfear. . « /r^wc?. Fract. 1. 9 ' xx J . quit of. j . HjJX. *L»I #xx jujlw strong. ^y*-* 5 x liberal. i\^SJ>.j-Jb (for r" Oi . 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal.. I^aX*. (from . iUX»- f. . J*^. for £\ejj.-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. lUybt . l\}>j]. right. o£ . U . 2. l\~J. Jjli good. i^Lu (for iUall. adjectives of the same kind as XX.a. easy. « prophet. Fractus. w««*». iSCu. ^^).§304] II The Noun. a deputy. iL». as J^J^d a friend. (j^ 2\^j*>.. *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad. in the last. J^U. Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light. ^?/<xm. . It^xw JSU r*" «*&. *U*a.d Adj. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£. lu&wl ~ ~.xx lUol X . adjectives. i%^ j^li a jtKxtf. with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S .x B x x .j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth. ila^^w 9 . ignorant. * . X i<^ ^^x stuttering. 3 x stammering. ws^J* a physician. as * as ^U . . llSjusl .l. 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. 219 Plur. in the former senses. and XXI. some masc. iZj>\ 4-*^-. i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ . . exempt from. above . XX.— Plur. 9 X learned. x x J . eloquent. 9 *IjlwI . ^x 0£ . a friend. .. l\*y*. v*^* a relative. a physician. lLa».> sj+i clear. 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving. i*k*j continued. but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad. C J-oi5. ^^ X ^^ X *W- . a philosopher or sage.> noble.

as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . wounded. ^y0j*° J5{e> poor. 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing.j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . pain. ^£j*~£a ' . age. '0 * .220 Part Second. ^Us . Jbu* . *f« a fool. bone behind the ear. scabby. . \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake. {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken. [§ 304 A Plur. Ob*** drunken.J . 9 . Sij-* drowned. ^y*t*3 . denoting injuries. or J^»-t. i^**. rough ground. J / ^l+z. AjjAas. ^a>. l\su9 a oL3. of ' body or mind 9 ' . ^5j£ &\& perishing. u&ij** sick. \J=>y>. j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 9 . Ot .. ^~& . and jjWj-k a polecat. . vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner. a virgin. ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. ^5^*5 . S'^Ui. C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. verbal adjectives. as D 2. ^^3 * s *~>ja. oW*** {J!j£~*. l£>^ a ctok.rw. 9 s »f silly.JLo^. jis^a . 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words. itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. b s 9 . ^jl*. < viz. 1. %c*. as lljJ^ desert. as ^J%~£a lazy. i£>£ a judicial opinion. or *->j**\. ^Ia. ^>y* . * * JU*-. u4j*f 2. Rem. xxiii. (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis . »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . mangy. Q angry. 9 * + + . juS. XXII. stung by a 9 scorpion. an * [ old hag. Fracf. j^j 3. . J*»»^ a partridge. )\j&- . J^> s . J**^ 9 y defects. as J^3 y slain. .. etc. ^j^ '. jUy goblin. ^jA * . £*}Ia9 . . &*j paralytic. 0^***> verbal adjectives . ^iL»*-* w^w.

f* 9' it . and genit. feminine adjectives. The Noun. i JU . XX Rem.JUi are D interchangeable. ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr. ^yUl ^jX**. JU* Sing. (ace. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ.jl^-fc.§304] II.pregnant. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. JUi stands in the nom. x ^**. however. x&x xxx a judicial x xO . *»x x xxx a a as virgin. JJtp *£jG- a bucket.a hermaphro^^." ^JUj (both with the art.— Plur. JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x . 1. J&. »xx . t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx . . jj^L^b * xxx .^5^*. A continued. J x x fem - v^**j and J**». ^«i. . is ' x x x x x xOx always night. u±\j\ (ace. ^W*. (ace. opinion. 2. JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. 4. r. the earth. dite. 221 Plur. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x . 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken. 'A*** x . . ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert. ^UiJI). x l^Ui as i\jjs> . verbal adjectives J .Ud. ^Jj^h x»J 3. perplexed. 9x0 . ij>*3 .row^A ground. Fract. ^** sweetmeat. xxx . . ^>3 x . ^»o\j\). $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner. The accus. Nouns Subslti Adj. 5. xx XXIII. ^Jl x fc .. and 4. XXX ^jU&.. K/ 4/ . * hackles of a cock. ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear. *. ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. 1. 9 £ xf . A. . jj^ULo xOx 2. t l£>^ a complaint. i£jl£* x x xxx . J . In nos. ^W*. jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. 0/J(/ . J xO x XXX hungry. ^U^. x x x . desert. ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V». JUt XXIV. <jL-o£ angry. B xx . Rem. Fractus. ^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a .. x tey. as o!/*-* xxx drunken. the forms JUi XXX and . JJt/s. ^Ut) and u6j\. not superlatives as ^Jul female. . "it"' ^^3 # . for iJlxs and x x Ox .JUAJI. 0x ft as ajjJ**. makes with the xx art.

jtx+l an orphan. blfcuo io^ bliftA. disposition. Fract. . (for 4~Ja£. «/ x . as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. [^b>*. et 9 . 0t 00% . j^Us 9 continued. iL*s. Instead of ^Ui 00 . *». *Ja». Sing.). 9 . btj^. ^gjbt * 9 . / x xx C *j!**a # present. ^j*\^> 0% 3 . 000 . bt jca... * bl£c *]. ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. XXIV. j*t^> a boon-companion. 90 ^JW*. \J>S}+: * Rem. bt jJk a-mU . ^bl . btu 4*fc) subjects. bljJb instead of . W x m* x nature. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.J5Us XVII. *5 t*J ^ et ^ . fern. "[§ 304 A Plwr. covered with shame. bUj . j^Lfc. SJ$*z the upper part. a). verbal adjectives as ix*».) a sm. in nos. aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding. i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. a)Ui. something over and the above.]. Ja3. for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] . from verba tertise rad. —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form . for {J\ juk (§Ui).sad. 90 * ^ ^£ . jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. Ja*. bU»w . Rem. 5 and 6./afe. we find. We write 000 etc.tJ^ B o>». . as x ^ x x x (Jul . rem. x ^ ^ . J as {Jj^L. L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7. ^W-j 000 jJ^. SjUl a ta#. etc. [Luc evening. iJjC*-.having 9 J .cautious^ wary. j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried. 5J/ 9 6. 9 * 8. 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. (JJ.222 Part Second.-jtjJb. to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179. 9 t 9v)t .^ en j)«m. ^AZ-t 9 I . a swollen belly. x b^b . x x x . ^Uis.

Ziyi* . as ^U. 9' J . JLoJ(rare). 9 . a 9x J thread. 3J^a*J [h^. an intestine. Ox .^tj-tfu a Christian. . Fract. B ^ et 9. Jjis fttfo).^c> 9x J . the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 . from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad.1 (&**. JtftU 3 x . &UU. aiyU(rare). a s/a«0.» an uncle (by 9 . 4> * * * aj^I*. stout stick.„ mill. A continued.yLo otU fodder. as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water. etc. tertise rad. Ox *J used for washing anything.JUi (|Tjj). t ** . J»*J. j-jif 1^*5 a . > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3. as juft ^" . ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem. a large water-skin. as Jjo a husband. 223 Plur. 1. ii>U].] C XXV. Nouns Subst.ti Adj. . thought to stand for ^J^l^i. .JUs is thought to stand for JjUs . \S\jJf. Ox 2. as 9. S.an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side). Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from . w~J^» .— Plur. CtSJ. AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. . ' [Rem.§304]- II. x c) . ^•y. bt^j. as ^l^j b. 240. {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^. etc. The Noun. ***». ju*fc 2 - . * . 3u^\j is a corner. A. j£j * „- cattle. Fractus. J\*. 90 * . Jjti . JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass. ^ and ^ . bi>»a. * XXIV.). rem. y*£- a wild ass. for Here too . clothes. Jjtf.. Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. 9* *3 . X - Ox . * * XXVI. Rem. * 2J^*» (comp. a ^U* Sing. § J J %&* 9 . J**3 a 9' J J stallion. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier.L 9 * a pilgrim. bljj for Here . 0> tjljj . yi£» a (fogr.

helper. 2. J^ti. . The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. as ^U*J. The forms J-j*i. XXIX. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. keeper. J^li .. SftxSx w>£> . °" «xx Jjii. j*oj driver. which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl). (rare).224 Part Second. J*\~* a traveller. SftxSx . j&. Jii(rare). Q . J^J ^Jlb seeking. XXVIII. a - servant. XXVIII.U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. Rem.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. Oftx . bull. j*j>a. Ox J*3 . m'° ' as a£X».».« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer. x x OxOx *. (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc. aJUa. * * * an attendant. Ox x .» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion.' ". jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr . Ox j. ^^U. J*5 as ^^j x a t" * . a %' " . Fract. aAai * x . j. as j*}* etc. v^J a. circle. Ox x . as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels). 1. u»j*- v^W. ^w x > . and ft x J xft£ XXIX. [§ 304 A Plur. wJJa xx . Sing.. 2. aXxi. ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). j*aJ a merchant.«aJI x S x x *lo-*t). && Sftx (rare). «^U a *i # follower. and the generic rft ( u . 6 ft x . 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a . 5 ft w^-L^ a companion.l£»$ j^-».lo # companion. a guardian. mM£. 3. x a caw^Z.xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). as w*». a %p . . ^Juii and Jjii are . ftx fracta.. are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur. j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. JiX». # 3j& a pulley. watching. wnU. Sftx 6 . fix S x . a n'w^.# sfowe. XXV. a)U*i x J^c*.. G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . 1. jjj]. <i b ' «x x 5 x x . XXVII.

The Noun.« a sword. ^jLa^o (besides a. jLct. Fractus. 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use. o . S^j. a O x x a Ox doctor. il^^sw. XX Ox OlUi. °° " T" * t ' l man.g. <U> ^>>>-o. x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e.xx JJu a x . necessary to notice . g. no^ x te»3yfiU . x w^-lo a companion. . jus. 6. . w>la» -o. ilj^at*. x J ^^ x Jfcx . j^U.o». •> 2L/3-JU. Ox x x . jj*£. Ox j*~> a sea. OOx J J )\£\. From the preceding i obvious that one sing. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w. . of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x . ^^ ^ _. jl^». see rem. 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. a poet. it <& Adj. (as j^l* x pi. A. O x .«). Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived. sing. a). 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© . SjUj. wim^. juftl. a he-ass. X 9^9' E. ^xxJ lUxw. feminine by signification. A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " .) from an obsolete J*** 0**w). see rem. £tjj-oc*. SjuA* chief. lU$3l* .—Plur. 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx. 29 .) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb).& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. but from others. o x sfow. OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. Rem. HA*. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e.o.Jl*i.. v x x a>^3. w>U>.>j. a).JL ^ D (besides jut. <U£^o oW man. s^ow^.o l. %—^. ^J&*. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. /»jP ^ar^e. OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U».o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. « and are : £&»»>. ju*£. Sjufel. ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . which 0* x J pi. <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x . c. O and I^^juLo. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr . O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£. J»x Rem. « x .xx a s&we. (as JJUU perishing. Sjujco. llo^-bt*. . g. j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass.§304] II. present. Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. masculine by form. Ox x The forms XXVI. and J^U. Nouns Subst. J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat.» for instance. ib^oto. OOx ^>Ut a she-ass. ul jLc.

(3) peculiar nature or essence. if the has several meanings. to take another instance. J^tjc». 305. in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 . 3ju£. fract.. CHJ/J 9 * . along with the corresponding singulars. Quadriliterals (5 not included). (2) a fountain. t [§ Oi . I. J*UU). 3^*1 J^^ . in the following table. its plur. ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. fract. 4 ** + j^. Fract. are exhibited. —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc. s jl^. (jL^l. *^*&y» a ta&& 2. it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it. sing.» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . or ^Lftl 9 9 . x ' jj^jJfcl*. bridge. *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . obUj X jJt^*. j j has jdbtyw. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . (4) the interior. (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather . as a letter). as f-t-o}. JJ 9 ISC. or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj. which consist of four or more consonants. in the latter almost always : Owl. &>cms£. ^sS^s a streamlet. * 0>tu. xx . (J*lil. eye-witness.226 Part Second. *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house. or ^0 . >U^. £#£> signifies (1) an eye. 9*0 a fox. in the second. 9 x or used in preference to the rest. in the third. Or. 6x * if prefixing !. (2) 9 J J a valley. the consonants of which are all radical j . worshipping. £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example. (2) 9 a verse of poetry .-. in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. X j*U3. ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. (3) a tribe. 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth. is O^o or OLot. v>-^t. JJUi X 1. Again. 9 * * . + • 3* serving. a column or (in a book). formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . fract. 9 in the former sense the B plur. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. O^W- The forms of the plur. (4) a distinguished man. v>^ * . X X Sing. star. x jdbl£. Plur. in the second. ** . ^J^J^. j For example. fract. c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. as wJju j *' . w*J^ a fish. O. 9 J Oi its plur. of substantives and adjectives. a finger. iifcut. Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . >y^>.gems. In such cases. 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness. .

Fractus. *^JlaL* .>). in the e. J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar. or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li. 9 < ul x halting -place. ^. 227 Plur.g. £Jj-U a x x . of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad. and X X usually j^U*. I. A.« a cwr/ (from «. In the plur. e. In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. especially with the superlative meaning. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert. jjU-« x or dwells.»>.) 2uj**3 trial.& Adj. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a. J^lit e. i<i«^ meaning.»). w>3-d) a misfortune. J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. § —but 240). ^jXJI .§305] II. § 304. J Jxx into (. [and. w^lcc*. Rem. *Ag»i means of J i. in that case. ex- w^U^ .X^.L^«. ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J . and usually ^^Ltfuo. >jtjt no. j-»Uu«.o a claw or J talon. <sLo*}Lo a reproof. J*U5. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t.— Plur. as J Jj^. b.> ». 0/ a finger. C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» . AcwL. XXIIL. make. aw open XX x »-U-o. O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x . compare perience. j»yk* . [f^j-o suckling. a plur. £m<7. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick. viper. The Noun. for instance. J i* x x remains unchanged. a minaret. . ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. a station.g.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town. J jU*o . the productionis into hemza (5).g. Fract. t* « . ^. J^OI] J ^jt Adam. Jxft* see § 309. . x x clil (for x* ^lit. of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). often taking the form JjtJI. 6. y]. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving. cont. fract. ^. J »»xx form XVII.1 xf .ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. a r. ^— is not converted after the as happens. Ua». XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>). Jjlii (Jwrf. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx . as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase.c. Nouns Subst. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I . ^. XX Rem. *~b\j*c]. Jclli) . . of ^tu. rad... x x 9 x ?»-. the 9x . rem. as^jtu.

w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. . Fract.JUi-j and Ols*j. (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included). . auspicious.>*£-> X X fe/tf. ^Ia>. flowers.j-Jslw X . ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah. a litera productions x o j x x j. [§ 305 A Plur. J statue. £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. JJlii (J*tft. ^>U»w a X J wolf. w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x . JWu)4oat j Sing. *Ujj . O*^lo a . xx . i^fbtfL* X xx . Jj. rem. O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp. Jjtil (J-^Ut.jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble. ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx . 0x0 JU«j # chronicle. ^£jly* an<^ jV 0.^o$j\ a mottled snake. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds. II.] . j**u5. jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx . x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt . as O^*** a sultan.. ». x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>». o3 »J ^». ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. ^jltf J (for x x . .« a #03/. ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. inauspicious. Ox x Op a garland or crown. S x xx . & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky.228 Part Second. J x x . [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*. (jU3 s&?r£ drawers. J § j o oj devil. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303. . jjI£»*n)I.bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA. of (I. ^Ut |S [4*».> a Bactrian camel.t a tent-rope. J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky. JP J **3Ui W X . £>*a*\j~t X . Je^tji).j-**Uo x . £ . grandees.*. desert.) x .t & . six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr.o jooor. x£ . /. an ^ ostrich's nest. xg . XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*. D 2 o c o ra<7^. nobles. ^jt/j) C x . B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed. J**uJ. J*»»!.£ . C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ . J*ftlii. o ^) x . xx . J x£ . J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture. as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being.t . j JU65. I. l l.

J J^tji. ^j\yi> a of poems. Compare rem. JJUs sing. used. from^oUl*. a public xx x£ ( an account-book.. and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico. C plur. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast. curds. x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . x x having a young one with clever. J Ox x «. chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio. b\j«3 a carat. « J xx . J JJU* . of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet. is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . II. j x x j*~*\y}. . J^jlw. j+^l^c. ^Jilia. * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. xx JxxJ off. a bath. . u-^wol^ a. Sing. k.» JjUxo 9 ' . jy^^J hemorrhoids. cont. has J^Jl^aW and. t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . J vestibule or apartment.—Plur. J x£ . o o£ - jo. 229 Plur. plur. J x Conversely. Fract. Oy'» a furnace. J^lii. form either rare or does not (pi. from a form \Jy£\) JjLai. i>£$t>>. J^JUaW. x g Ox « Ox register. Rem. B as^^Jt^a.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov). f fi r. from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges. ot^ 7?"W>' brocade. 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. 6. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. J**£?. signet-rings. A J^V') i x£ . JJU3 ( j-^lit. J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . of V jtaftt a dust-storm. The plur. a collection Ox J office or bureau. xx OxO Ox x Ox J .0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning. a x x 3 x buffalo. J-J. The Noun. in modern Arabic. a spring.> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. & Adj. xx make j-Jlo. Nouns Subst. license.l. has ?»-^W. a sacred claim. J § § i** j jJbU^ .ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 . a dungeon. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284. apum).) J . Rem. ^I^ai. =^i[±. Fractus. her.§305] II. jtL>3 « dinar. j**U3. xxj g g x hojSj. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo. (v?^*) quinsy.

« money-changer. (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen. I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda. Ko/xrjs). a teaclwr. a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords.—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. Sing. 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>». J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic. III. S Sxxx « Moor. — especially many E. a pupil. angel.A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c . xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X . JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx . Syr. xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's). of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — . consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor. 1. ajjUu* a . Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers. TraTpiKio?). 03-*^-* Pharaoh. x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes. SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X . Chosroes) the king of . D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop. StJj T» J (Heb. Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. jj—»•». Fract. . [§ 305 A Plw.g.« . Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . a great letters. J xx . S^-oL*J XX . SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. —and S . oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J . a-jJLy-*. XX « X 2. Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters. .« S stocking or &?£& < . T&Sfi. (Pers. C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin. Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f . w^Sa). x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar. of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . S x . relative adjectives.Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter. J i>j. J . which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. liHis. jLjU and IjjCf. iUwl) a master.230 Part Second. as iUwt (Pers.

g. and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. £>yfii* x . Kg. XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. plur. 6. 0X XX JU>Uo. J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. ljA*a*. and XIX. 231 Plur. O-Jlii.» the x x (for ^^l^w). Sjyi\. The Noun. Nouns Subst. i Jjjtji x . jilt and XV. 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. the plur. ca^o. of nouns which contain JxOx E. «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. 0X . ^jlii. This form is also found. or secondary plural). Ox a 9 xx x spider. J>-Jt. besides . 2j6 a x£ . ca&e. generally the last. ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. & Adj. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . Fractus. has. J*frUt . * ajJUi continued. fowwf.-w^llS). Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. b). x£ t^jbl) XV..^ AiaJ Ptolemy.—Plur. literals 5 «S Rem. * X i Ox xx . she- 5 Ox J 0x camel. 9/ III. Fract. rem. . iJUif make Jclil. * £ r* * t 5^ x x . oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale. 4J& « <%. j»ola»^ «x J Ox. are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. J^JU< J v> a quince. Zazy xx .« tyrant^ a giant. a like. XX five or Rem. <LJlku oo/acotikos). 3i»wl£»l. A. 264. 4-^>l 2ri6e. a. OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. D JliS. letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract. 4*-*!^/. and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. J5U3.>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. fract. an equal.§ 305] II. J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . £)&* a £Xol. rejected. c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. and XVIII. Persia. ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. though rarely. and the J letters of prolongation). Jlii. one of the radicals xx . of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt. In particular. 0JO* J XX . J_«-l£L»). j£~*\ '. forms XIII.1). or 2 ' " » . The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb. . I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j. C x 2 x . and XIV. x as jU». jut (for t^ju. x£ . xx A Sing. more J In forming the plur. x XX woman. . XIII. of the plur. a XX jfatf. 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar. Lr>ft. more rarely V.

XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI. dUUt. O^U*. X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc. joay.232 Part Second. O3-0. J »»x x £$*a*. J "1 £ x x 4. jUjt. *LJt. ^UiM. . fix xxOxxx jb « house.xxx . w*».». XVIII.> OJOxJOx jj>. '. Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house.Ou». Oxx a she-camel. Jjiij-XVII. • ea#-£e. J>jJ». J . \^yo a Sufi. # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter. family. J Ot^ji Cxfc .'-. "x OlSLJ. VI. a he-camel. OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*.*.ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV.. j a vessel. XIX. Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink. and a few other forms. &£>>). Oxx . foe>£.1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc. AjJtjjj^l. O'NjUfc.. J|y> « saying. Ox JUjfc. a party or sec£. Ob^wl ~s . J^j a man. she-camels having x £ Oxx J V.>^Ut. 9+9 . ^Ua. og Oxx jJa.j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j . especially those that indicate the — relations of sect. pi. J^a. OUUjI (with the dimin. a * J3l*». and JUjI. » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% . j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech. .. JU-. OtjJ^k. t 6 J x £ J Jl^il. ^su oox camels. il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites . . Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number. x OU^J. oZ *Uj a building. J>ai. ^Ut *Z .. Otjulj^. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. ..»x O*^^- Again. Cxt^^»».. JUi. t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . j**\)\ x? .. ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as . j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk. J^Jj^t. j-o^. Olf"6 0<. Ox < JjtJ. Rem. t an iron -y»jL»J. Oxx j^xx III. smoke. JjUj.xxx Ox .. j^i. J^lSt jJite a nail. a he-camel. x £ XV.lo a female companion. houses. £ijje . rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass. j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives..>l «x q . a speech. ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees). jutj^. families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ. j»\xj\. jj-c*. ^tjit. <L>j£\. is °» J ^ OU. x (for .\. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower. anything woven or plaited. A x J Ox also be derived from V. j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). or when their number is indefinite.t^o. or clientship.a» . §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine. JuJU*-t x £ j . [^u». as ^k**. 4-Jatt. great d.

i. whence #*« fWX.Olk)|). yottfA (juvenilis). 4JL». ^UJ. a oxi x 4jj-ojJt. atyl (from a x »»x £ sing. Nouns Subst. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . a mole. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. dl^ot (from a sing. SjUsu spectators. X*.jl^~J (from the rad. the former a number of individuals viewed .Ui (from . w^w. l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. J^J). or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. they are all of the feminine gender. S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. ' anus. IZ.. The plural of some nouns is anomalous. ^^Jt.— Plur. 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi).1 & Adj. a spring. See § 233 268. 30 . rarely J x x . strictly speaking. < fil « P - «P« o . B e. of Marwan. in use. the partisans 5. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. x O x 6£ . X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed. OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. (men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking.*). aJULw travellers. oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general. XgOtf l#-*)). Rem. only by a constructio ad sensum. o Oly-ot (Syr. collectively. dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat. for x . several individuals 6 . Hence. who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». oUw . |Z. J0 X For are D example. 306. dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . singulars with a collective signification. dU«.e. the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus. aJlxJ. together. [ajI^ j^w- cferers]. O^J» human being (Heb. 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^». dUw. as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. water. The consequently. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians.306] j II. Fr actus.jjl. . and can be used as masc. *U>. who SJ slaves. mules . Cwl tfAe «£/» .. A.-xOxOOx* a woman. 5 #}« n^X). $)}$ Aram. h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. horses. The Noun. persons who own or &eep camels. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. C the rad. asses. (k)|. As regards their meaning. 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x . of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir. <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb. a jii.. XX ' %>. w. too. * .

*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural). it is necessarily employed without any 4.*aJl § l\+~i\ a. or . The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c. I. XIII.234 Part Second. * viz..). a established in.. for one of the forms alone be used. (1) Undefined and adjectives are. _ (Gen. The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII. to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches. and XV. and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246). see § 8. only to such nouns as have also other plurals. or ^y**c. plurals of paucity.. fracti 307. . jSL*s> an army . XIV. if C of course. [yjjl camels.). Juil. plurals of abundance.. or the Parts of Speech. A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns. Jill. the nominal character or nature. . people or tribe. 1 (Nom.)*. This observation applies. These are called *. —Etymology u . a). rem. 1 D (Norn. named lj5£* £>*»». The Declension of Undefined Nouns.-L^-* whilst . and whilst the rest are fy***. Ij&.. and \1 or 1 (Ace. as Jo*J bees. fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). Rem. o j declined with tenwln. the latter concrete collectives.£ o^uU j*s. are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10). Hi declined without tenwln. • • J or possessed is of. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz.. or simply o »» ^jSioZc. limitation as to number. on 246 and 292. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju.) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. substantives 308. Ixfcj. as^o^i. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . noun may be declinable. The former may be styled abstract. Diptotes are (Gen. A declinable J^. 2jJ\. which are indeclinable. The Declension of Nouns. those which have only two terminations — Ace. Triptotes are those . either triptotes or diptotes. 2/ie JS& sheep]. in the singular number. A noun may be w^**.

in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive. possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U.. for ^£j\^. at the on. 235 * * common (3) to both genders.. or 5 x ^ j^Jt. x and the pluralis fractus. in 3*0*0* between the definite. viz. case . the : nunation of compensation. tfAe of annexation . * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . * * of an indeclinable noun. 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice).— Beclen. jjt— (Nom. 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ. stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat. as J^-j. This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition. —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable. as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 . Ace. as CA+JL**. is a designated w*cudl. *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word.§308] II. ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. plural of 4Jjl»>. also called .) and <>j_ (Gen. tJie a * the vowel a voice). (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent. *3 where J&*». J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). Nouns 8ubst. as in the in jlj*. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih.\. The Noun.)*. 4ifA«JI.\ duy^j. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes. cjSLti\. J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U. j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U. ..<& Adj. A. as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. . in the singular v>jj-3. as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. found in the plural feminine. . (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence. jlaJI). t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite. of Nouns. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings).

) and . viz.)*.236 Part Second. Triptote or First Declension. Ace.. for the feminine. [§ 308 A gender. (Nom. a). exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309. B . Ol— Ot- (Gen.. — substantives and adjectives.j->_ (Gen. — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. Substantives.) and or the Parts of Speech. Ace. — Etymology Oi— (Nom.). for the masculine.

of Nouns. The Noun.§308] II. 237 Triptote or First Declension. A. A .— Declen. Substantives.& Adj. Nouns Subst.

[§ 308 B .—Etymology or the Parts of Speech.238 Part Second.

^i. Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti. Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. (of jJte poor) Fern. Aja* Rem. Lane and Fleischer. The Noun. Kl. b.. Adjectives. G. and II. as J '' A*i C^tj. Jstji (XVI. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. C J J J Nom. Gr.§ 309] II. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda . and JJU* etc. J ^i Op. a man. D. & Adj.. Schr. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. a. For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. 180. . p. (I. .). fract. There are two words in Arabic. flexional a. ^oi. j-bU5 bridges. iSjii . Loijt [According to i. that is to say. in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive . and ^o*Ut. JJU* of nouns which have causes. Ac. ^jJa*^^ sultans. A Masc. . as quoted by Zamahsari. Comp. Ace.. which are Sing. also used (see § 19. J3U* (XVII. The following nouns are diptote. of Nouns. Faik C 524. for t^«ot and^ul. as £*&\y. the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. « son. j) viz. 239 Diptote or Second Declension. Nouns Subst.] Rem. Gen. jj-«t. A. d). w*5U^ wonders.—Declen. (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N. 139 seqq.. the forms etc. G. more than three radical letters) . 309. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb. viz. jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t.. Plur.). L*-5.

^^-j*?b.). .240 Part Second. is . Ju«U. \SjZ~* drunken 295. C Compare and Rem. as j\js. /?.1. its fern. iUil..g. (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. *-©**.] b. J s bi e. a widow.11). maksura radical . of j^. (compare § 299. and of fract. f. rem. W plnr. £-aj. of *U***. Hii (XX.) .g. — Etymology c. Compare elif y and c.virgins. Rem. is ^ar<?. are as J*ojt poor.> white (§ 296). of this form are usually t regarded as triptote. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb. is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical.1. btjUfc presents (compare . adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . &*i\ (XXL) . plur. ^^S. e). and 234—5). c. j*>*-\ red. and 'I c.t a green woodpecker. J*». ^Xati (XXII. of etc. by elif as a virgin. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232. B £^. viz. rem. 16. other. j^. J ' i men. (XXIV. but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. s without a husband. iUZj. Excepting those in which the § 213). ). J*ojl « humming .1.. is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295. si j - w£ . as [§ 309 A (. as \£^> memory. and 296) . ii > at . rem. b. needy. iU-cu. dX*j\ poor. £*a». £^>. without O x a wife. &&L viz. and ^Us fract. (a) Common nouns and memduda a. . «// together. a).). the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. w-Jjt (l e. fern. ^Ct j prisoners. triptote . /? (*1— ) c.' first . XIV. l\sC£=>. 2. wise men. viz. Various common nouns and adjectives . /?). —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J . JU3 (XXIII. &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_. needy. [(e) iUwt. of Jjt. its and of fern. Ji'j pl ur fract. ij>*>'. or the Parts of Speech. another .) and b. ••11 T« admissible {. wonderful . and § 301. J*it. as v**i^ more f. /?. of J r*s - x Op which the fern. (3 wounded /?). Jj^-t. Jj^t a hawk.

***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^. 5 x The word ^l».-a»-cJI) . a) SxOxSxxOx f. mean. x ^^£ ignorant. e. stantives. 9 x x ^jS^La thin. ^0 6y New.g. tofi (mo? slender . ^^o. 6. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion. such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi.^o o O x x ' dry.^o. jjt^cu Christian. Mtm % three. & Adj. [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . • o j Q%*i . as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. dun). 241 J -it Rem. eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (. The Noun. 0^**> J x or x O^** J . (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern. JjjS stony j * o p mottled). fljUdL* Ao£ 3 . ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. O*^**. have also % x J the form x J ^^*s. Some J x x > of these. A. Rem. slender. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken.—Diptotes. « x xx S x . okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. iLojl. stolid. rem. A which would be very b. gravelly water-course. or jjUa^w . Q x jU*w stupid. black). . one. of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop. ^Jflui a wide. —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. Rem.jl». as iUj and w. Nouns Subst. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x . retain the diptote inflection blackish. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3.§300] II. when used as sub. ^jtoju a boon companion. ^U^-o stupid. Rem. are all triptote. a. however. . a) . ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun. as being formed by adding 3_ 295. j * oS e.angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to . is x x f- x x '' 295. rem. —Adjectives a. a * withered.^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . is &%x3 295. vile. Adjectives of the form J*£l. are rare. Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. ^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. 31 . 9 3u*$j&.g.jl». ^*^i Jx so x J and so.^o ^Ij^S. o x ^la^o x o and <jl». their fern. »£OU and wJJlo.

is declined without tenwm. 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al. those that were originally ijlyj*. j-**-\ red) . *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al. in the sense of each. l^ij^j Zachariah. 5 J Joseph. 4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. as A#] Many proper names . whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. we must employ the word nunation. after it in the genitive . ^^ Sulma. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. viz. a). because J^». jjib David.g. a. as .>U Adiyd. as O J *. excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis. For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al. /?) and . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . as ^*At/jt Abraham. J&\ tremor. when it is an indefinite noun. with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I. . c. requires an indefinite and so in other cases. is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. every. e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b. j^yJ LUla. declined without tenwm (e. which is an adjective. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. [with the exception of of the forms Solomon.£> Noah. as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- . maksura (compare a. <bjJ Lot. (a) Foreign names of men. JUi (§ 333). l ^U*** Hittan. o!/** Imran ('Amram). letters. (y) Proper names in jjt_.g. (used) as an adjective. Jka*~>t Isaac. as (§ ju^t.242 Part Second. y and p and b. oW*-* Sufydn. memduda (compare John.jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman.

or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) . B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name). jZZ> Satar. / j-a* Egypt. J^j planet Saturn. . w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . Ols^c. * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna ..—Diptotes. e. and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). the second of which has gezma. their tenwln. >oUj Tumddir. ace. ££c M"ekka. * w>o J/ if Dor ib. Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. however. A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or. Oli^c gen. A 3 d * f and J*$. *-. 3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. have .j*j Zufar. proper names. though 3 consisting of only three letters. jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. '(c) Common nouns letters. These latter.§ 309] II. j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. icj Ztogw (a woman). Fem. D (6) common Proper names. j£Z*£ Yeskur. w^JU a scorpion. w-A*j Taglib. which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the . owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* . Yurdmil. Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names . cfc Adj. proper names in * Oec. ace. — But name fem.] 3_.g. x x x* £a*-U» Talha. S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men).\jj the sun. as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar. as^oUai Katdm. 3 * * jyo Tyre. Oli^c and even Oli^. . ^y~j Yubnd. which do not end in foreign origin. A. letters. Ot keep ** * . Nouns Subst. proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters. ace. oUpl . Gu&m. are trisyllabic. Gur. *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). The Noun. j$*. 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM. as Ol^pt gen. of the feminine gender.^£**. e. juJj Yizid. [Fem. J*U>j Bakas". j»\j^ Haddm. joa or jUA Hind.g.

[§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us. jb\j\ a year of famine. be declined separately. x acc. etc... say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*. J»^-*t.] . gen. J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. the second being in the genitive. nom. as a.C J~J b sceleste ! f.) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j).. for we may acc. xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . 5). as ou^^w. ^ juu. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. w>U». . Compare Beladorl 60. u^l5j.» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313. G. as^&lii. in terms of abuse. jl»s». O^-o*-. forms. *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. c.Jt Sur..death. ^aCOvilis! Rem.^IJ^. The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J .—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421.g. e. Oj^o». are » almost invariably indeclinable.244 Part Second. ftffl*. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*. however. gen. J-^-ctj*. Each word may. ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city). the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. j*\j«o war. ' . Rem. *jjj. 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all. last and Baidawi D. xx x nom. Words of the form JUS. Rem. and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x . of which the jUa- the female hycena. word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. " x x *£Ubo. cxi. J^». and Besides being used as proper names.« £y* (Fdik i. x O^-a*. jLo*. Ofrxo^rw. foil. ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii. D xx gen. J Li b o .) or w^» . ou^Lii. last letter is r. and ace. aj^j-©*. viXJju. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*. Hadar (a star in the Centaur). 10. *£*!*» improbe f...). l**-J*o (§ 264).. ! f. JUi. and are wholly indeclinable . J JO O^-oj-o*.^Us the female hyama. (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». w^ 1. some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1.

Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai.o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c. 6* *> J x S Rem. J x Ajjjut* from A^blS). period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i. Hence we say <jU»». which in is Jxx Jjjuco. >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. termination £)\—. and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb. Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln . J 5 it is triptote. . word . is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**. The Noun. D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination . d.yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning. ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective. J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu. (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*. viz. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI.L~o mosques. w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in . (a) . i <o x . as £©i»li. are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met. as ^jUJk. Nouns Subst & Adj. ' * * .jll». The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln.g. o j$} * . or transformed. is e.1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. when used indefinitely are employed in . a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil. from j-olc.jt_. the case naturally Proper names.g. J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name. for there x x x . J + w-^JBI.—Diptotes. -*4jLa4 lamps. 245 Rem. A. There however. *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i . are usually reckoned by the viz. x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is. Hassan. derive it if we derive this name from the . so jlo^. e. w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . . radical u**. jt».. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural].§ 309] II. grammarians to be nine in number . UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form. .

ace. . in the ace. 310. L>JJt* Cjte . for ^y*t. ace. though feminine in form. 312. ^5*-j> and L»-j . ^J for ^^J (^^3). Jjtst. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl. the first declension instead . -q. 0— (according to E. Tab. as j^. L**. o* B the termination jjt_. C E. . « ^ j«Xai. Jjuo for ^>*^. for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj. 311. retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. which ^ is ^ . + JaaJI Oj j. ^ (verbal adj. but § 166. first declension. ace. ^-« for ^^^o. acc. as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. follow in the nom. Nouns ending in — . acc. for j_ (§ 167. asjH^. which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . . . and § 218). ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI. for ^— . in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ . which follow the J ' .g. y b. ace. jl£ for jjl£. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a). ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. L^tj . toft for 3-ac. U^«o j*3 .. yet is the name of a man). 6. a.1. for and l^-os . Z+iuo^S + . >*o£. (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI.g. Ww . ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309. /«/ fern. not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). ^^ ^or for ^5^.. »~w (verbal ^a-w. in + J*a)\ J c. to end in All plurals of the second declension. or j- (§§ 213 and . in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. /?). as u*j^} a. so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). 1*^*3 . Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c. and those in .) and Tab. 245).) for ^5^^. and gen. Petrus. [§310 in form but not in meaning. XVIII. ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb.246 as Part Second.) for 1jJa> acc. which ought regularly ^j— . f$ c. ace. Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . D >»!.

. unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. ace. vol. l\j^~o. —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining). b. if. . and gen. it loses the tenwin. become defined : 1. cases arise. nom. 313. A. c. ^U* .§ 314] II. j i&l^ *" . The Declension of Defined Nouns. plur. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309.g. of Def. The Noun. for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o). the chaste {woman). ^y**o. § I 78) . Gen. ACC. j\*>~a. therefore. . ^jU^o. 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. a^U. by prefixing the by adding article J 2. ) t JU-pt the men. II. The of the acc. man. they remain true to the second declension. nom. - (for They moreover in retain.. and substitute 311. w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined).] 314.o properly the beautiful) never have the article. n^ . the following D If it belongs to the first declension. Ox Undefined nouns I . they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^. acc. 4 plur.. [Rem. 247 ^-). § 309. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. and have ^-. i^j^l the city.. J rem. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*). and gen. . j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. j E. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. and conbut in the ace. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. the & Adj. . or (b) a pronominal suffix. 3 ii. and gen. plur. disappears along with the tenwin. v.—Decl. jt^». d). (a) by adding a noun in the genitive. nom. Nouns. Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article. Subst. of the second.

oCubl a. and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed. Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . b. x J G x 0>o everyday. as acc. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem. (b) minations of the first. w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. Gen. the following changes are produced. Acc. The plur. part of the the men of the Gen.j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314). Gen. ^yt from ^& I. it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension. oUJiyjt the darknesses.jU*o.248 Part Second. sanus fern. Norn. sanus masc. 312). Acc. Acc. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun.). ^yU^Jt from . assumes the Norn. 3 B Norn. 315. ^j+jjJsAS.» wonders of creation. Acc. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur.*! JU.* cM-^t ->*. and jbecomes triptote. it loses the tenwin. \J^. c%JLLoJt the creatures. JUg city..> Norn. gen. x Gen.j x x i . Rem. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311. D the book of God. M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth.. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< . the black (m.f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men. l5-h>^I from 0^5. j^^^t the nobles. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. oU^JI the believing (women).

5 P & Adj. ^5. in-law. The words w>t 5 a father. S\. HE) constr. after rejecting the tenwin. instead of ly«ot. gen. where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus. first Rem. ^t. in all the three dial. The Noun. the owner or possessor of a thing. the preceding vowel. as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>. D. Ace. and Gen. 6 J 15 whilst ^. Ace. etc. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt. M. for w>t. bt. as * The same Gr. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. G. Subst. x ~-t a ^» brother. Nouns. in the ace. Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin. b. 321. * X )l UUjU . either X : XX Nom. £fa mouth (Aram. xlix. for etc. of w>t. etc. or: ^3. rem. has in the - B «x . a father- A . ft!)3). ^oi. does not do J xg wrong . a. Noldeke in Zeitsehr.-i. as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. . J>. var. 142 seq. p. J9^. f*. which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. J.ja a thing.* The word £. C f. a. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . j^\ lit. X vol. ^^o*-. for yl.— Decl. § 39. ^1. \ dialectically. k. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp. a]. J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father. ^a~.. see Comp.a>. La.] Comp. ^yf. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive.. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . lengthen itit s * j x at Norn. J X makes Gen. yiA. *£). and the second Ubl the m t genit. o x 249 Rem. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. cases [bl being. Ci. i of Def.§315] II.I. U. ±j\. ii. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. less frequently . after £>!.\.. etc. with suffix ^Jpfi.

] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. On the elision of the in Rem.>£ etc. Muhammad. when a genitive follows. rem. \j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen. Ace. takes a kesra instead of a gezma. * J tit* St to J Acc. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. b. for those who are \^3*$ h** c). to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. rem. ^o^iL^I drawing Gen. .q. wjU^t *O>0 an example. the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20. see § 21.< >««. from two 'Abu Bekrs. C-. the son of O^t.ijj. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. or warning. the sons their swords. the final dUL^Jt ^ . c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1. C Rem. poems. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire.jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 . If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. h). I saw the king's sons. lxvi. or the Parts of Speech. the form djj\. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. the t son of Halid. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual. ^ Muhammad. —Etymology jAJto.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. ^>\ ^^jU. j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302. the Kor'an (Sur. of the king came . [§ 315 A j^m ^ c. ^>~$ . 12) and often in old Mss. *£U*Jt yij eU. (viz. the son of Gafar. ms belong the two holy temples of God. a daughter. [The latter was formerly preferred.250 Part Second. Instead of OU^. jJU. we may use.-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence.

the final j takes ^— j i and if damma. & Adj. before a following gen. If the noun ends form in 3. * ^ . of *jtf . d*L»J. Of the words mentioned in § 315. ^JH+su. Ajusa Ais book. sanus of 4-i».. * and plur. from £Jty.. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. this letter passes before the suffixes into J. the dual ' 9 . &yJ sons. as acc. fractus. my gardens. rem. sanus fern. sing. his women. (c) plur. j_. plur. (a) Triptotes and the plur. 9 t 9 t Rem. * j * * If the plur. as ioju a favour or benefit. this letter is • changed into (or rather. and § 317). my of book. remains unchanged.. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza.—Decl.) . added to the nominal term. sanus masc. Subst. though incorrectly. c). see 316. from *->*$&. of Def Nouns. The Noun. ly3UJJ» darkness. the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book. as icjU£» fract. from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s. and plur. with it o^LJ. A these terminations become. 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. gen. when it has damma (Nom. the B following changes take place. the final vowels of the sing. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> . from OU. plur. suffix when it has kesra (Gen. »-! and . ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers. A. and into £$. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. ^U^. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc). rem.§316] II. as |L»J it women. a. fract. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra. ajLj. rem. as aOt ^akAo a. a. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft . plur. to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p.). the genit. ^_ # (see Q § 185. are elided . sanus fern. OUAI? darkness. instead of the gezma 20. lose the tenwln. begins with an elif conjunct. wjt. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. nom. j_ and jl. § 7. . i)UL£> thy two books. i)yJ thy sons..

A-ot • " ace. for ^gt^A. ' £)y>\. A o . are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative . d) being simply elided. o ray Muslims. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. suffixes which denote the Genitive.g. the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—. &»J\. ^Ui. x ^_. from &***$£. i * Jbt. for 6xJ . The Pronominal Suffixes.. t3 gen. xOxxJ ray taw slaves. from or . i)^Ii or >^JUa. X ace.«>. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. nom. «$jt ii i i gen. for L5*«olS (. x i ^.-£^L~o J y J . £ IjUa£.^uo) or ^jAJsua* .£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA. ray ^0 my slaves. x x J of^L**. which a. — ^x my mouth. is ^-. j^t^A for my Zove. sing. Further. becomes ^. note *.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi. * js- [§ 31. ic^*-. and suffix of not . in the long vowels t_. dbt . a«i.*)li. l*±>\. of j_. but X X J more usually. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom. with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p. o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes.c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo. X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit. p. j si . Jy. when the word ends in ^_ or ^_.-JL _: — B see § 315. nom. APPENDIX. a.(§ 185). •^ X .. 4«i.. in all the three cases. _. rem. and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_. —^JA makes J . x . ^UUafcaJaa. oy X . for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). the kesra X ^_ (see § 185. rem.-iA X j but . dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge. ^bUw*. The pronominal genitive. oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases. Rem. i "g . XX x 5 x x J plur. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^.>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). GZ E. sing. D from ^>A.L».. j ray xxxxj sins.l>» .-jt. for xxxj ^ U^. xxj from <jU^. plur. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ .252 Part Second. of ^U^ .^Uoli). X ^-OA X or . from ^^JLyO (^^q. *£U$. <jui |x**x j j .7 i . attached to nouns to denote the 317. from fract. and likewise forms ^. for «*t .

rem.>A«). ^Jb. the What in o.] The Numerals. The Cardinal Numbers. particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol. ^£_. from QjkitfOt*.] Rem. c. into kesra after — . The Numerals. ^j\&.J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — . is used dialectically w>l. of them both. little son has both ^Xj and ^. sanus of j^aJxcl*.9 his murderers. attached ! is in as w>j b. his two female slaves. d. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc.§ 318] II.g. c). peojrte [Com p. the form ^I^A. f-\. E. rem. 1. rem. Just as the verbal rem. of the change of damma l^A. suffix . <t*Z>jl». t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316. [which is the or^^U^). or ^_. has been said in ii § 185. — [^> a 185. arise. i^Ui.— Cardinal. 13 § 38.] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b. U^jU^. ^5. . j**-. ' ' S * If is [Rem. 253 ( Ly a ftJft. du)o\. like — From words instead of § ^>A. applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. into ^j b. : 318. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. plur. no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. The Noun. yj^A^auc. ^Jb. US. Rem. — On ^>A. B. ii. <u\S£s of his book.

but the the Heb. or sUJ j-&s. plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th. = J?£^. T • stand for BHBf. or E. The daghesh in the Heb. the masc. form. when the objects numbered are fern. 2£Xj. fern. The cause of this phenomenon. and the ordinal adj. The Jewish Aram. aj*}U. as it were the dual of jjj . derived from the single. t . is istin apparently identical with cognate languages.. a sixth. and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». the fraction ^ju. D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . — Qft^W. and. £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. n^l) _ . numbered are of the masc. . when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. men. or the Parts of Speech. according to the § Arab ^juj. D 319. sedestu and sessw. for one in the sing. ten men (lit. ft %f i < for dJloJ. masc. gender and conversely. and v v J I exchanging with ^. — Etymology >L?$3. ten women. (for rnnN). ^ rwe. c). o* a. rem. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . ##. [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. S-mLoj (§ 6. as in tfiPft. The Assyrian therefore. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). for sedsu). HB^. }Hfi. snow. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. a decade. Rem. a. CH^K) indicates . the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb. Rem. c>j£* JU->. &}$ (H becoming as in gjf. ^jl*. . . for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14. form. b. which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. a). — C*w stands. a. =pnt)j T or> as others think.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy . form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic. fern. rem. JU-j Zj***. sixth. .g. Rem. .254 Part Second. lexicographers. sole. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. only one or two forms deserve notice here.» jw.

The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. [Comp.§ 321] II. and has 321. rarely construed with the Rem. The Numerals. either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan. An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. is are really masc. or they precede them. — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj.. few J years.0 s*0 . they of course lose the tenwin 314. 6. Rem. which follow the gender of their substantives. § 99. in the construct state. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives. three men (lit.] 320. LjUj (according to § 311). etc. either as a singular masc. ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R.jl*j has.jj\. yj*+~i %*cJ . If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article.. a triad of j) men). or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj. with the . The Noun. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say. o. 255 cardinal numbers... as JU-j aj^U. in the sense of broken plur. b.. c. a triad) . a. *.. etc. or Jx^lj^t j^jOI. ^ a part or <- portion)'. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very . Rem. They either follow the objects d.0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace.5*$3 numbered. J s The 'o. as JU^. aajjI. or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-.yOj ^UJ (see § 320). B. the implied j>\A). is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj]. nom. —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc. Rem. ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men. vol. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325). for example. — consequently a£Xj. a).'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months. . (viz. of men. j^-t^J j»^*M. and gen. See jj also § 322. and are put in apposition with them. of three men (lit. in the genit. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. fern.— Cardinal. S^J **su some women. in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural.-i in a . rem. ace. rem. ii. ten days. .

b) .256 Part Second. 0^0 Rem.. plur. fractus (see § 319. and then of course drop their (§ 315. rem. as JJa-ia. d. %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered. of the objects final j^j numbered. LUj two colocynths. which are in the genitive of the . [§ 322 genit. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. or simply ^jUUsO^. b). sing. instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o.

20. .

&w " U5U.. Rem. 800. but juaj and are 325. The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU. scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i.. is O^**6 Ox x Olio. P a5U « . ntf£> Aram. i^w ijl^JLj. The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. excess.] i x | J O plur. The O xJOx * D. as £)3J-*»*3 also used. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit. the forms ^Jjyc. Rem.e. " Assyr. but was inadvertently placed J) before. as £5loiij. " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U. —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech.? t": me'e*. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. 400. 700. J* ' ' a5U 900. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth.«© (with the Ox article. of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an.0't. 0x6 surplus). a5Lo.3UJ. a5U genit. B #U 1HS #U ajjt J . to 900 are :— 600.. X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3. mS) Ox 9«>* . .1U. etc. b. Ox Rem. .] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry]. 300. The numerals from 100 100. sing.258 Part Second. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**. 500." x Rem. instead of after. c. twenty and odd . Heb.0 2u*. or x ^U. (see § 321). it in the 4w £jU. O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year). the j (5). and hence in poetry ^)UU.. and more recently . G. &U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word. Ox w*Xj.JU-M) are rare. a. and . ^O C T _ asu .

The Numerals.— Cardinal. . The Noun. are : 259 326. B. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000.§ 327] II.

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 328 2. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C . Masc.260 Part Second. :- 328. The Ordinal Numbers.

these latter precede. and even These numerals are not declined. . in the construct state and with . ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. £rtj***3 >{*». of course. x x —Jtf. 9x x (gen. etc. Rem. ace. both its parts take the article as . If joined to the ordinals of the units. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. 329. admit the inflection of the unit. aj^I». ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. j-&t etc. ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. defined .yU)t in the ace. 03j**c. The Noun. ^^X c. A jJIj. the art. iJlj. j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. (formed directly from C-w. S^c. for ^^l*.]. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. as Ojj*^ x twentieth. ^jJju\ the twentieth. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . compound of this sort be defined. as %LsX OX wJUM. b. 330. when they are unif defined by the article. The Numerals. /jl5. and genit.eleventh. X X (ace. construct state so with the rest and with the art. they remain unchanged. x x Ox The L3U. 261 Rem. twenty-first x x xJOx fern. x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some. S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom. when Ml defined. ^^ X iJ&\.. O^J-^J ^3^*).3 *^**- If a . and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. <jtf makes.33UM. etc. B. ijlif. x x .330] II. And j ijl5. 2 *U~/) are occasionally used. however. Rem.— Ordinal. : — B Masc.

second.. A* came third time.S wJJ. G. the also permitted to use the simple . liltf IW* *W»). etc. ^ came a third time. vicis (§ 219). or ibtf 3j-o *U. 333.. thrice. ijptiiJf) twenty-first. i. twenties. he rose up once or twice. \Jj. . and similar words. or aio sJ^T *W. tfe i*0 *U. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ . the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. Com p. again . Ot^o wJJ. 3. are D expressed either by adding the accus. isij. adverbs. E. OU3. twice. By the noun S^». b>o.. i*0 jj-^iJf *U. he fought once or twice. f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. or as 5^o once. etc.jJS*& 2/*e . by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma. etc. third time. [Rem. O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS. CHj*** twenty times. the fourth of the twenties. life twice. once. ^3^.e. thou hast given us death twice./£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. The remaining Glasses of Numerals.262 Part Second. in the accus. are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij. —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S. or j\j*o stJJ.] B 331. (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus. U)U eU. D. etc... or (i.). by means of one of the words S^. The numeral adverbs a j^stf.e. vol. in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it.g. if this By the accusative of the nomen . S^£d 0*h* twice. cardinal numbers. should be wanting. § 108. thrice. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb . O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. or. The distributive adjectives are expressed . %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl. (i.e.

The Noun. a tetrastich. C/^Lm.O^j'. ^ju». lj*U. The Numerals.. but the formation is admitted [by some] up [.g.— Distributive. dualized. 6 E. etc. . double. derived from the cardinal numbers J J e. ^wUfc quinqueliteral. >uj-«. Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification. a third. patientis of the second form. pi. the 'people . ^tjwl. take the form . £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . expressing the number . words of the forms Jj*3. three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral.} a mom. five spans in lieight . jILjlc. or er*>ju». \J~£\ >»>^' *W». 263 either singly or repeated. x «£ Ox* 0. square. A^>* fourfold.). [The form JUiU I . two of the forms J x x . ^^Vj triliteral. of parts of biliteral . Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. Single or ^^a^ fivefold. pleaseth you of women. . J*s. jj. together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. B. j£s.» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth. fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three . j^yo 2Uj. ^ju*. triangular. ^j£* twofold. £**++ threefold. 336. IV. the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU. x J x or j~*x. *U-j. and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. £Jj. ^1*$ . B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj. and J**$. • • . as ^Uj ^ i • . J x x . patient. ' > $ four spans or cubits in height. jji* (nom. J Us x 0. according . and ^. According to Zamahsari. 335. *£Jb. from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. 334. {walking) by twos and threes . £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi.Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj. #w eighth.» Ox up to a fof»tf. pi. ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. 0**^ /«/ etc. Numeral is adjectives. or A came two by two . which a whole 5 * r made up. nor. pi. or j»^Ai\ sU. uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina .g. simple is triple. etc. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ. pentagonal .§ 336] II. The fractions.

*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. because they are both. . * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr.fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. The demonstrative pronouns.) . same sense in Assyrian. etc. pronouns. xlix. in the third. The form Ja9 occurs e. either with or < x Oirf x without the article . G. uLo J «i . 3jlw*^t l\+~*\. D. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc. titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth. the former being the demonstrative pronouns. or £JjJt> every fourth. 210 seqqJ] . The period. _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech. according to our D terminology. fifth.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ. every third (day.. uou). x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e.. month. article). or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. in one chapter." Heb. o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. M.g. 338. or w**JI L5fr*. year. C as w%X3t j*^*. UU. at the end of which an event usually recurs. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa). — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. B Rem. in the accus.» j (vulg. ^ fortw C. The Demonstrative Pronouns and . or w*U)t. G. »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. S x Ujj. £$ J . 1. 337. less frequently ouaj. the latter the relative. "rubu. the Article. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. are either simple or compound.g..264 Part Second. and Aram. as £0x0* etc.

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

JI or jJUt. Rem.<fW or Jjj0l+. Norn. CHsfi&f Gen. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. cJt . $* . It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). when used adjectively. ^JJt. [Cu$$f Nom. ut* Sing. Comp. generally J of the article all and the demonstrative. because of their frequent occurrence. «. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f . ^-^JUt. Ace. and ^jjjli\. Gen.]) ^^Jl . The other forms. signifies who. U&1). for numbers and genders. j«JI. j^JJt (J}\ . . wlx Fern. used \jjj>)\ in D and ace. a. and sJJtJM. [According to as-Sabban. § 340. which are not retain the double in such constant use.] . U. . number. Ace. p. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. is —The modern. masc. 2. The Noun. 6. j^t. 271 he who. at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom. that the same meaning as v>«. *J . chJJI (^Jjf . ^tifif (gfjAf. according to the Arab the nom. ^t J^^l.G.. vulgar form. ^£&S (O^ 1 ". instead of ^JJJt. and case. . it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. with which : gender. 0j&) . are written defectively. C. . as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift. that. f$S\ or . which. whoever. plur. ^JJt. Plur. C Rem. grammarians.§ 347] II. JJI . ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . of course. J*\ (cJI . A whatever. ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). Du. D. it which. o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). viz.. rem. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . This £)3^ must. ^J>i\ in the gen. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos.

Rem. St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt. former. D. x fi * St "St * '. Oj*W St* OUJUt. c. di. and ic2 f ^^^Jt. employ £ (Heb. . sjj—. f^H T _ (= ds J3t). 'Aganl 18.i*a of which ace. J^&\ pi. has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus. * JR. ^. Gr. ^JJt was originally. 5 are vulgar and incorrect. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. _ coram. the nom. some of the Arabs. e.. See Gomp. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. fi B fern. a its demon- strative pron.272 Part Second. x i.. and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur. UJJt. G. !)J*?>n. 117. The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a».'^ / suffices me. which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&).U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form. Rem. ej which I J am meditating). H= . y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1. Aram. —The * forms ^j^^Ut. I) / lined (or cased).] or . Rem. is -ffith. and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£). ^ 25. H. Instead of ^JJI. <j\iMS. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven. as its derivation shows. Si d.*. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable. for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' . gen. za).—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du.

273 . Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. C.§ 349] II. The Noun. 2.

and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual. in poetry the elif may be retained. marians.g. (b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. e. x ^5. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather. The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose. of^^a." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari. G. Rem. whosoever. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l). ^» ^*»-)- In such cases. "is usually shortened. vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. (§ 351. s^ who. It has been already stated 346. D.274 Part Second. Ji ^). Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. i. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. ^ JJ*. Hid ma. 364. etc..). enuntiative (jC±. Fleischer. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. x Jj. ^o j-U. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j. according to the Arab gram. Of ^1 and &*. (better ^o ^)l. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. Kl.) that the conjunctive is pronouns.] . Faik. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. 125]. a^c. U->t £to which. . for^o^ or lo^ (lit. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. are also interrogative. Gr. ii. Ji^t. ^U. U. (though. exclamatory.. part of the ace. it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^. which a indeed their original signification. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. is >ftU». etc. Comp. £ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. with the exception of ^JJt. in the latter case. ^. the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. 0-*i'> \+jS . and with those with which it is not. 0^> U^'. <l«U». This ? also the origin ?). ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. HJIS^ HIED D Aram. rem. 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech. whatsoever.*$J) but never conjunctive. Schr. Heb.

number. Sing. of gender. and case.§ 353] II. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. Nom. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. x J 2. to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». C. to (the is and x so. 275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x .«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness. Fern. or 7" have seen some one.l x . interrogative pronoun v>o. and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc. . who? has the it distinctions . only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. The Noun.

it . it m£ Sing. ace. the pausal forms being : — o in § 352.£ o£ . xjt. e. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun .. ^\^>. which of us? are formed the relative adjective . or] a suffix. « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. 120—122.— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech.it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1.*£ ^1. gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen. See CWijo. a I ? [The feminine form 86. p. is of rare 17) occurrence. masc. 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur.276 Part Second. w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . or £&£>. OiJc ^t - or ^j\. 134c). 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. \J\£> and 351 and Vol. d. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut. masc. With 'J Se- 8 g . ll* Lo^-jt. Oi£ fern. he or I? in Rem. or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women. and the compound t^j2>. it 1. When standing alone. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . Hudeil. Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . ^$\ or ^t. nom. .] In the fern. /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt). gen.ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t. G. - St Dual masc. n. for U^->l. nom. • £ the suffixes ^1 . Rem. pp. ace. b.6. the more general . ? w>U^ ^cf. art. pronoun. oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs. what or c. £r. the latter being the B more common. § 34. and ZA which female? (Dlw. rem.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt . when prefixed to a fern. may be masc. j^Sl second case. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t. s&e. Rem. nom. . w ivii- D.£ . a. ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii. {j*£> d). ^1.->t " M you. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases. 2). nom. 201.i£ in the genitive .* . 'place? (see Lane.

p. and Vol.. . e. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). . J* and JjU (ibid. rem. . reject this theory. as or x ^ U something which I have. as J 13 ^y» one who says./) and § 84. § 127. ". rem. Diss. 125)*. rem. o * ( UJL^ wherever. e) U (see an example 361 near the end.] U x t as the original. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived. U ii. - J s complement (aa-o).§ 353*] II. 9x The U x Gr. The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. Uy* whatever . whence the . or § is a qualificative clause.. The Noun. something. but usually a preposition with following genitive. whens a • tt a t x ever. considering i. Comp. 2. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. ii. rem.>£) it hinders rem. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. § 114. with the same effect to ^>j (Vol. as the r\ nouns. [Prym.2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U . C. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp. (Vol. ^l£» and . ii. a. 3. e) .g. § 36. or in if reference to time . 360 seq. added to certain adverbial signification. § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx . pronoun ii. 100 and 706 seq. ii.. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here. infinitive. de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. This complement very rarely an adjective or participle. . § 88. 172. 136 a. and is in that case called U >o (Vol. The Indefinite Pronouns. have passed with the sense of somebody. § 7) . p. »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol. e). 277 [3. it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever. § 6). 5 Latin termination cunque. ii. Vol. rem. Kl. (Vol. ^t. The Indefinite Pronouns. A and Ox 353*. if appended to ^>l. it is added to C*J. Schr. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun. rem. 1.

" J x ^^.>*. so and x JJ«» so. £>s> j x and w> without . rem. — qa X a and »*x its fem. b. called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-. rem. pi. 0/3. affecting their regimen. 3. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. i • In speaking of animals. CsA. Adverbs. like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. b. o. see the Syntax. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " . The Prepositions. rem. Heb. rj b). H ^Jt/*-. 3. stand for names of persons. vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed. and Inter- D jections.] c/M *> fern. because the . the particles which govern the genitive. ^ particles of annexation or connection. In like manner (Vol. THE PARTICLES. attractives. i. /). JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3. or xx ^ N.e.. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. pi. M. — On the use of these words in the vocative. and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». a) and in other cases § 90. xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. iU. are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191./ t and so. and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U . ii. rem.. § 70. W X O«0 J J J 355. it is also put after w>j (Vol. 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI).» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. as ^/^ii\ thing. § 84. Otj. 4). . III. (§ 3ujb. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. tJjLH*.). their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . * ii. rtxxOx particles of attraction. ii. a5^i (§ 309. tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression. (Vol. . jfi M0 the . The prepositions are . 8. Conjunctions. or jt^aJt (from the sing. [or Sl^t. rem.it]) viz.278 Part Second. Prepositions. xxg There are . [§ 354 A prepositions . « fem. C*a»«£l./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». A.

§ 62. by. The damma tjJb. (a) They — B ^* in. Aram. near. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb. following noun. at.e. Except the the 1st pers. It seems to be the remnant some word. on account of (Heb. A: * . as aDI^ a. is changed § after ^ c. or the onlyj^yj or^. rem. A. ii. Rem. J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. 3. 7. JEth. and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308. c. i. b. him. in swearing. i. as <J to suffix of sition . -33th. footnote). and 317. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt. [^b. G. its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions. for. and inseparable. without. § 235) to be also remnants of words. by God ! 3d pers. d. OW- Comp. those which are always united in writing with the 356. as J to (sign of Ice).^S3 to you. § 56. ^) to us. Vol. Aram. compound Comp. The Particles. O*^ rem. is a ii. The kesra of the prep. by God !* (c) the Dative). The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels. i **" (d) ^ by.e. ba). the abbreviation Vol. is (i). D. See § 185.§ 356] III. those which are written as separate words. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358). in swearing. U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka. Q Rem. 0^5 ?) and ii. its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel. as (= b. which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. ft: of w> with the negative ^).. The Prepositions.] . rem. rem. through (Heb. ^b.^yj.] <uitf (b) O by. into kesra. with. b. as du. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. sing.

determined by the following genitive. as. after. [§ 357 " i). about. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—). Aram. among. O^X (lM*)> Syr. ^Ol) . for. rem. see 347. *>. CM-*. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. or the Parts of Speech. (c) ^* over. (/) 0^> or lS^ (W). *7B. away from. ^^al till. •T'jD. or Jco. (d) (e) sjefrom. Jp. since (compounded of i>* v. ij? in. into.280 Part Second. Aram. c. dialectically *-«. on account of. j j Ju*. (b) up to. ^1). upon. 357. Karer . above. 12). -*?«). or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. 358. The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. instar). Itf. /row a § certain time. iEth. to.. *>«. notwith- standing (Heb. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So. Those of the all biliteral or triliteral. 3). which js commonly reckoned a preposition. D#. *>> ^. <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. dialectic variety is ^^. e Ezra and comp. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. "79. and they tions . against. which becomes in the wasl **. °^ account of (Heb. like (Heb. O** (&*). which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. first class. with (penes. "KflYl:). but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. apud). Aram. as far as (Heb. It is a formally undeveloped noun. (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb. have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus. sing. is really not so. and ji. d. as g^o. iEth.— Etymology Rem. ^JJ.

among 5 (J*3) . * b /» into J^*. on this side of dimin. d). according to § 185.]. *b etc. after ^> below... tj-j jJ. D orw .. o. with the suffixes of the 1st pers. and ^jJ. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . Fr. . ). dimin. c. and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. . jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l). *UJ> or dU»J.] 359. assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. 36 w. to. J A. about. in possession of (apud. for . *Lu. and *x*. the modern and vulgar form. The damma of the suffixes of the pers. "It. The ^) of ^fc. . b. U-«. L©. ^jjj with ^5 B ^y.§ 359] III. p. chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry. ^JS. rem. ^jic. and ^jjJ. J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). * . sing. beneath (fiTTl !). passes after the diphthong into kesra. under. O-ij* jUc (also jUft. When 6>o followed by the article. original a. J. a. ^_ (orig. and § 317. note.>o^ or ^ ^. 24. rem. for JUJt ±y> . s ^^. Rem. C^ J > . OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U. and ^jJ § into J^JJ. ^— . opposite J>». In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20.j*o being contracted b . rarely J^ or a^. or JU J-«. the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. [Comp. •* instead of. for . i*5 ^. b). rarely jus) with. The suffix of the 1st pers. rem. . . ^c. [li. into Jft £ as JUX*. J J The Prepositions. dimin. beneath. c\+Xz for and Jl ^s. JJj^3 . penes.round.o. JJy afow?. JU. before (of place) . ^y c. ^Js. ^Jt. <uXft. Rem. dimin. (see § 14. Rem. ^s. Jt . J The Particles. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. *!**». combines with into ^t. Caj *UJJ. See 317. is doubled in connection etc.. against.<U.j-o between. which is under. UJt L5^.. behind. .

may be (a) w>t^^O) oath. . partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative. God will suffice t/iee against them.] [Rem. partly inseparable. £ The t. D*7p) . as C-Jttt. [§ 360 A dimin. converted into ^£ with hemza. / wi7£ certainly do ». of.j-o interval. § 21. h). an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra. When t is followed by another elif with hemza. the construct 06 * such as . of B particles of various origin. affirmative. There are three sorts of adverbs. accusatives of nouns . among. v #0 la that corresponds to. also written C-Jtt. *£ii5t. jl*£ . Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». ^lyAlw^t |"l) .j£. as ^-JUt. J>». &*|D. These are 0* all. t \2*Q£&. an t is inserted between the two hemzas. The first class consists . in the JO * end (Heb. Aram. The Adverbs. ^JJI for ^JJt tjt. is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t. The form occurs IJJb. but some do not do it is this. 360. etc. [comp.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity.circumference. end).>»tjJ> before (of place. jJU aOt^ by God. the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. C dialectically. dj3 behind. as cr»> tj^t. inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative. This (c) J. (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». beyond. or is the complement (it) . ix^j in the middle. after. . as before said. certainly. for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362. B. ^J/*-. the particle of amplification]. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.282 Part Second. the third class of nouns 361. surely. d]. as aDt ^JUlSL*.

(he has) X » X X ft . J^. which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1. J The Adverbs. xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp.j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God. as juj U. But in reply to an interrogation. or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/. (/ will).o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing. j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy . standing for ^jl (aLa3I . away.t xx ft ^s. behold. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. following. . as iail». ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes. J .. as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-. better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. he saw 'Amr. 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian. I will certainly show you 2*s honour . . (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. . Vol. 0-^^*. [in xx x order to £ J # . . Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la. ii. verily ye would have followed Satan.j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy. affirmative la. certainly. (he did not) . or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la..1 yes. as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. w-Jbju <*i>w . confirming a previous statement. as x£ thee. o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i.jt). OOxxOx while. B. ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies.'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not). The Particles. (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to.j-° AiAa^Jt ~ . lyJx.§ 362] III. 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\]. to use J**. if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out .] 362.

5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. truly. [(f) i. See § 367. (w) oj JH Hiin Syr. U^. Kl. B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place. A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$.] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. «). called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity. as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out. 0<#0 (Heb. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not. I (Heb. U*U *. surely.] certainly.lb j>i juj lo. t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us. Schr. literally /o/ *«e/ #w. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c.. or 4*5U*a)I is 13].^.] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then. and refers to the same time . only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp.. x i x lo. XX [oi ^ &*«%. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb. . called by the grammarians 3l».] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. Dtf . D In later times corroborative. ^tftt - XX and l^». N/H)surely.. H). Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft.U*Jt 13 1. of &.. § 158 and Fleischer. then at least. It is joined to the accus. ii.. £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361. utrum . interrogative. J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech. usually without government. of a following noun or . wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case.. and Zeid was at w<? the door .. writy.. . U*. t3t.^a.or ^**~. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected. followed only by a nominal proposition. b.] XX are^et.] ^ an? j>\ j*\. Vol. in that case. as the preceding statement lo.. if it be so. _.-»]).284 Part Second. x x jo* prosperity has come round.

is 285 pronominal suffix. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1.§ 362] III. ^t yes. as aOIj is ^t yes. wherever. pi. only (dumtaxat).] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb. |$t in if) {$&. 73). 8). J^> way not it is so. used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . but (Heb. O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. rather.jl introduces the subject. It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. [and in the 1st pers. on the contrary. as j~£i dttl ^jt. and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. always followed by an oath. [When followed by a single word a conjunction. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. frequently used by commentators. Compounded of \j\ and U. but in the 1st pers. ^<^y> JX. whenever a conjunction. — . verily God great. 7ltf Phcen. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur. — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. by God ! aDI I. I^jI]. The Adverbs. yea. 0311). [verily]. (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. however. the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place). <£M ^1.jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact).] (u) j^jXj yes. it**). sing. restrictive. The Particles. B. that is. The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (. ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. inceptive or inchoative la 36#. it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. it is 72. explicative.] C (p) (q) i^t.

certain symptoms or circumstances . S. i. ^Aj yes. o** between. is OU jJte ta. iai. and a negative. may be used 2 . an interroga- jsi djt c j^. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. / was hoping that he would come. he is C really come. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. iai. R. jS. jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». with the Perfect. perhaps. really (jam).. there (Heb. 1. or iai te I have never seen him see . o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. J&L). see Fleischer. and with the Future.l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. (y) Jaii 0#/y. or in opposition to. (he did). whilst (connected with the prep. o x as iai <xZAj U. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*]. Delectus. that something expected has been realised. as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. tive sentence iai <&\j iai. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up. (w) JJi [or a^f]. 286 Part Second. # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. now. D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr.] vulgar use .. Rarer forms are and in pause iai.^=> 1©JL. 32. [but also frequency. * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. 434 seq. y^s. already.—Etymology .A. 4. iai. Ljo [and U~^] while. Kl. iai Ja did you ever him?]f. It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event.^. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever . awe? enough). {Thou art) . . in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity. ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». [or in j . or in affirming a negative proposition. that something has happened in agreement as with. Yes. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * . for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. 98.j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. among). . see Noldeke. or the Parts of Speech.oi. Schr. in pause j-j*. «$. da. and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o . and well. merely (lit.. as \^i\3 j£j. solely.

(II) ^JU when? Heb. a conjunction. not. negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. *$. likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju. not. d) and all. by no means. not It thus . (he has forms are^xi.§ 362] III. j^u and yes. U^J. The Adverbs. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne).' Zeid stood not). used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed. § 367. to. ii.] U. not. joined to the Jussive. are used as well as ^^^i. rem. VlD. it is [When . [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at . [It is also used as a conjunction. (gg) O not J>J.>£) is followed by a single word. j>\*±.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. d). . o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative. combines the Aram. j (and). <jt *^ (i.e. of % and & (Vol. (he has) . negative of the Perfect.] . b). § 169). (/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive. yet. ^yA U# f I yet. q. (mm) j^o it is agreeable). by no means. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me . [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344. B. joined to the Subjunctive. X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb. iuj^> (§ 343. X7 is and ^X. but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers. C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). rem. The Particles. as joj jb\»\ has i . and more rarely ^*3. but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect. rem. up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up.

never little [Uut ^W^ wow. and ^)UyA. within. ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs. .288 Part Second. 364. of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. w^o.] .>* above*. Csa»J . J>i. demonstrative. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. j->£. can in general be used as adverbs. of two or more W-jU- outside. ^ri/. joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). §§ I)La. c-sa*J. whence are derived L^a. J La. for^. and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). as u*^ else. only . without. demonstrative. Imperf Indie. ^-jX3 ?&£&. ilJt decidedly. Js> . but always preceded by a negative. Ja. whence are derived LaIa or LyA. . placed . La). extremely. of it are the following . y>« whence. ' * [w~»•> enough. referring to future time. in j*£ j a or j**. %£**»• where. *il±. beneath.>*. ^r^ wwcA. nothing only this . 41. *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech. ever. *^J £^ night. : A few of the most common examples Ij^l. j*j mostly in negative phrases. * [On the various forms p. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative. afterwards. \jt^ much. cM v>*> before. a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it. La (also La and . (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^.j*&. in which case J they take the termination u. prepositions 359). La. usually with a negative decidedly] . u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. E. The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic. by day. jju .g. B 363. there (compare Heb. also v is **»>a»-*].b inside. ju^]. D after an adjective \*-f**r- together.^^J. J-i. UaIa or LyA. t jta. Jy 0-*> above. \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. with a negative. and are indeclinable. S.

It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit. b) lit. Kl. Schr. it is seems to be compounded Kl. sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C . [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j).. verily. i.] decided (comp. footnote. D. xO X whilst.) w. xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i. 37 . day.&ry a/o^.] t {j*j*?. Fleischer. rem. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except. (c) but more usually] sometimes . yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour . [comp.^ . tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. § 84. lit. ii. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — . lit. xa m f& end. used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes. (lit. 5 j the c]. with the omission of the negative. ^ 449 (also jbjx». . p-<7°: etc. B. xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . Schr. * 'n). . above especially. U^»j. G. as J^j A^ afott*?. A \js> tomorrow. uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. 13 ^). y\) . Vol. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. »J>w. «* together. lit. j>yA\ today (JEth. ^*j)t wow..j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j.. U-J-* and. 381. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. a£ the time of—). B (d) (e) woj. perhaps.w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often. Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^). The Particles. X Ut U-j~>. particularly . 289 U^j one yom). prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see . seq. at present . but.. 13 *^ j**. and therefore also construed with .§ 364] III. quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb. JUft) : . truly. ^a jufc.]t it. during. The Adverbs. § 361. * £ (/) all. once..] O**..

The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ). . x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>».yJUJ). as b.. G. Heb. Heb. straitness. x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. particle of classification gradation). or more exactly or v~?p ^b^. x and 6 (iEth. since yesterday. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive. D. etc. Aram. 366. indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are . acx xOx 365. O-*. In u~*\. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy. !)). ' genitive. which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative. — Dialectically. as &» . they " " * " and become indeclinable. viz. utinam. ending in fetha. J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations.] Rem. ^fc. Quoad connective particles. JjO governs the ^j\.) are. seem to X Ox / and C*J. be. x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^. etc. fl): JO x w. would that ^J* or J^x).. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . fc^ftX.»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. not nouns in the accusative. but merely a light vowel. D like the prepositions and adverbs. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t. ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. The Conjunctions. perhaps. ^J. which sometimes unites single words. Ci Ox Rem. . vcuj t^u». and take pronominal suffixes.. X yesterday. a.. The word has several rarer forms.3x3x3^3 ^&. or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles. but verbs. They are construed with the accusative. etc. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. either separable or inseparable.. are [§ 365 A sundry parties.- . JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-). however. ^JUU).290 Part Second.

used J^f^ to indicate the done . *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis. [Compound U $t whenever. in order that. sing. The Particles. to give an imperative sense. 10. 1. that God may forgive c). Hamdsa 74. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. 852. such as that of cause and effect.g. e. In conditional sentences. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. for. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. of past time. When preceded by ^ or 3 o. like the German so. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle . is A showing either that the latter in time.] . and very often in later prose. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. the kesr is usually dropped. thus ^jl means nonne 6$. %36s ^j \y^c^^. D. and consequently. may be rendered and and is thereupon. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me. thee.] * 1. or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. purpose for which. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. of the Jussive. The Conjunctions. Tabarl i. This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356.§ 367] III. G. and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition. signifying that. separable conjunctions are : — since. so that. (a) }] The most common when. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed. 291 closely behind one another. but more usually connects two clauses. [Sometimes in old poetry. C. 9. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. [Rem. link. or the reason why. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when.

conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f .. d). Aram. Ttf in Ju l**. as UJ^i. as regards . hence called duLoj)\ if indeed.. 8c.] (df) Ul. * i ^jtj. lit (§ Both of these conjunctions. see non). . in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^». Compare Heb. ne. tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). That is Paradise . * O i : O^ as & *$\ were. <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her.: now. so that. b) . -33th. < jtf . even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative. as for. of . (f) * q\ [and Ut.jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f. compounded with .. in when. o . j£*& on that day. £>*$ that. . it Heb. o' is that. quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14. oq^H. Used twice or oftener. in order that. followed by o.jt 9 . [§ 367 A (b) dition. sometimes written jjtj or 3 . DN-— ^'. as well as the obsolete noun » 362.g. Bibl.) * to if.. when? [Compound Utjt whenever. usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition. lo-. >*o*J : 'ema. Compounds g. of jt in alternative questions. as for the ship. that (quod). A dialectic C variety <>s. as syn. £>* H. because.292 Part Second. it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix.1 JEth. comp. J (§ o% a verily Aram. the genitive of s which occurs. compounded of ol an d .lv — also occurs. time.t e. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361.— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. if> an(i if. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an). in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. dialectically . as if. in order that (ut).] B [(c) j*\ or.. (exceptive particle).. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. JHK.jt ne). *$> ( a ) if not.. and *TX . c). for example. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea. are connected with $t. Further: that not (ut non. and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr. unless. at that time. o>».

Syr.. (§ c-s^i).{ o|. m. 0*S.§ 367] III. c*«j (C««J. O^* as ** were. but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval.. with a preceding negative. tfW. of UJ). IX.. Heb. only.. until. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that. U3t. %+£* in order that not.. thereupon. j<£.g. ^t. A Aram. 293 saving. ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special. Utj .] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that. the pronoun of the story it s>t . * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D. — Compounds Heb.. or or fact).] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362. The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a.] w t . j-tr^. ?\A= (alia) but.. Ut . . but*. £^m. rarely Ujt [or M]. see Vol. (k) ^5^ * *o till. a t^?^. ^th. C. It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. ^UJt : See § e.. 362. b. The Conjunctions. compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U . [On its sense of even. and . next . as if. or . identical with the preii. w). I# ' § 52. ». (i) ^j. 6). v^jj at 366. position. to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara. K?~DK. until that. connecting words and clauses.. e. so that. . y . . . or O' ^^ (quod).0.. because.. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel. c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. with the Subjunctive. rem. $1 . Ut. except. § 358. but in the 1st pers. sive). e. The Particles. Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\.—&\..

since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after. tI u* como/ w .294 Part Second. 6nw# Aere (Heb. sounds or in use are : Some . *^***- C^Ly**. or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere. 0' * —Compounds: ^£. [olylfc far ^. Ua. The Interjections. is (quoniam). or accus. with y\ unless. D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. ! «J «-iO. (tjl. U (ic^jjJt U. especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. Jv*»» or Jv*»». hypothetical particle. lyjt C without the article.* ^j\. . (D. G. &\. tones.Ujt (•Ujl) jl. 1^1. I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. if (Heb.~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition. *}U. [as. . and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . . HX/H. or TiarX ^Uy^. 0I3I (otjl). from it!]. . <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ .it' rr?n].j|). as long as. o *&. up ! come ! [Heb. Aram. with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362. or b. Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt). i . ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot.jj£> \*3*> if not. iEth.* . 368. tj. (p) Perfect. o\j. wlien (postquam). OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram. 0/ .] with the Perfect. I0 / b before nouns in the nomin.] ji. as OkoJt !i^*** w ww .-*. at. Ut^. l^j. oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U. [3J3 even though]. and U* W* make haste.— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech.1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl). [UJ also syn.] D. wAewever. or hip at. or j>jH\ keep to. ma denoting duration). ^1. sense of pj-*\ make haste. oi . ojt. with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al. . t. !p). jt.P ! wp) <oj. (o) < * D. Utj. * it ' ZZ * — . //) w^ew. at. bl (La). UtJ. o\. followed by jic. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses . jl (dU).

" juA or juA. go on proceed ! say on . too may be mentioned *^U . as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. *~} 4-J. wit. b i\ is often written defectively Wl . o/* a. ?u>t or «»~Jb. O^*. . f-J. . 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. *fij capital! f-\. g U (the bleat of an antelope). ^js- . form often used even with feminine nouns. ^-a -*jb. in pause dt_ tj J) takes. b. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. in calling a dog. The Interjections. ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . as tjuj 1^. etc. mules. the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] . (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem. also be used. driving horses. s\*> making camels B . falling stone). *->. ^»J . ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : . v>*-> . cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). instead of the usual terminations. etc. in driving sheep or goats. ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). . but the masc. wit. ^a. ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*. 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. " * uil A f * £ mi ol .g. Jjlb (a blow). in driving a dog away. The Particles. the t^.. camels. ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©. l->jk . Instead of 1— grief! ^_. Rem. ' ° " kneel. noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^. wit. (a) calls to domestic animals e. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. . — Here in in '.§ 368] III.1). D. *-j. in calling camels to water. wit. f-\ ot.g. wit. as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. JjU (the croak of a raven). il ml uti dl 3* 131. or otjuj tlie tj. (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. JU» frog). s^ (the stroke of a sword). ^Us cries . Sit. w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking).

b. jujJ 9-Z3. >&&£3. § 35. £)$\*'.296 Part Second. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . plur. and is said to form a dual and plur. dual UJUb. ^U. Rem. JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. Rem. sing. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. *U. ii. t^JLA. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. [Many and are interjections have. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. d). Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. du. dUk. admitting its construction and inflection. rem. hirjats. ^jkj. J * J ' j-JUb. that they are either originally Imperatives. g. — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. a certain is. Jjj aJ Jj^JI. as l^U pi. take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f. ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. or JLa. person. $U dual U5U. book. and. a) ^j. pi. as OU give here (§ 45. pers. ^©jU. The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. b). called therefore by origin or use. tjl^St x m. masc. Jt£»t ^). U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj). etc. Vol. usually written thus in one word. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc . x f.. hiri. rem. say. f. hirjith). Gb. d. aJ J*)j. : <uU& take. fern. fern. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj.. in some cases. * J * e. 8. for example.g. x m.

PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w. 38 .

m. m. Plur. c4^ ^JU3 2. /JO/ Sing. Indie. J31S IJblS . ul3 Sing. Sub}. IjJUS f. 3. f. cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m. cJjtf f. c. J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* . JlS JJ B 2. c. OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE. CJJ> / Dual. 3. f.joi 1. m. f. m. 3. m. f. $3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. c. JJO/ I. o^ S JO// 5 i.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect.

PASSIVE. J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. Perf. m. m. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1.. o f. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. Impf.> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2. CUfe^) . x J Energ. J . c. a ) Jussive. Sing. 3. t^JUS x f. Pat.* 9 f. D m. s . Subj. Indie. 'fcs xxOx f. and the N. m.. m. 3. m.. 3. TABLE Perfect. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. i x x I. ^>Uii Ox J x Norn. Act. Imperf. cJj.299 OF THE STRONG VERB. Verbi. J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. Sing. and Imper. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual. x j II. II. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur. m. 3. ^c^US f. Imperfect. m. J XX Smg. c. m. c. u~^- ^ x (2. xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2. JlS x . UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f.

IV. Active Perf. in. DERIVED FORMS VI. III. Jl3 .300 TABLE ir.

A IX.301 OF THE STRONG VERB. . VII.

a. c. 2. ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing. ^. f. Simple. n. m. J OJ Imperative. m.» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . Wo*** i j. C. En. © j* 5 jx Sing. Co*** • * * f. iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. m. Energ. Indie. m. Imperfect. F<?r^. 3. I. ft Ml J X 2. m. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2. f.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. 1 x iV. ft Ml ->X C Plur. m. jU 0*3 Sing. 3. Perfect.»x 1.302 TABLE V. Jussive. n. S 1 s x ft . X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1. Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. c. c. f. o j o* Energ. 2. O****' O^^* . [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. Siihj. FIRST FORM OF THE Active. En. i j. s> s> I. 2. Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . m. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. lb*** D iV. 3. . m. ft *M f.

S// or >i j jj3». Imperf. a j Perf Sing. Jussive. tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1. a x . Jussive. Juo. >>Xo-«. 3. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1.>£>. m. i j 3. m. #n. O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. c. c..303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. J^». or J* . GEMINATJE.^jjuo * f. or and Imperat. Jj. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2. . Perfect. Iojl* V J » X f. Indie Sing. f. J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. Imperfect. m. 1) Other forms of the Perf. O^juo ' f.Efo. 2 II. Passive.J x x 2.m.. ((2. I. Imperat. x j m. 5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a . >i. or J*** JA*!. m. Imperf. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2. Jussive. 3. \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4. 4" J x Sing. J o 2 xj 2. C. 3.m. Act.j Hi S/J o 2. (/ tc <i // / cM^j. o f. f. m. Subj.

GEMINATJE. VII. Pass. Pat. VI. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx. Act. VIII.b. Ag. e. . JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf.304 A TABLE Y. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD. Pass. >. S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x. III.x D The remaining forms present no Perf. Act. Verbi. IV. jjuo x at J >•** V. Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. irregularity .»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf.g. or j »U >U . Imperf. ij£ . x. £ xx o Active Perf. II. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat.

or B A N. j~ot y^t jJI A j. Active Perf. .Ag. II. V. »* - •>. Imperf.305 TABLE VI.. IV. III. jJU *| *. HEMZAT^l. s VI. VERBUM PRIMJE RAD..*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At .51 ^0 Al . i. "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>.

^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. J>?&k N. jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. J^-i . Passive Perf. V. ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf. j&U li spte* N. Pat. J5L. VI. Ag. II. IV.306 TABLE VII. c o x Imperf. 1 III. x j . x£ VIII. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. Ag. x w x . Pat. Verbi. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. N. Passive Perf. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. * >* J>%* VII.- x£ ©C Active Perf. JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. Verbi. HEMZATiE. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf. x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf.

in. HEMZAT^l. 3 .307 TABLE VIII. Active Perf. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD.

jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N.308 TABLE IX. JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/. v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » . js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf. Passive Perf. Verbi. wA^ *-**. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . w^>« j~>5* .»»<Mii>w ^ D N.$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf. Active Perf. 5 « x B N. Verbi. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf. i. Pat. ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat. 3 ET ^. oi IV. xx o* t xOx Active Perf.. Pat. {fa JO O x JG x J x N. j^j js>^j *» •^jy. VIII. w*».0 Ox J N. VERBA PRIM^ RAD. Ag. jay js> Imperat. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf.

Perfect. VERBUM MEDICI RAD.309 TABLE X. > Active Voice of the First Form. .

Perfect. 3. UjL/ U3j~> 2. m. c. m f. Active Voice of the First Form. jL» f. 3. tjL> f. C Plur. Sing. c. 3. m. Dual. ^. m. IjjC D . B 2.310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. x ft ft 1.

&6 U3 © x x ©xj . Dual. C. Subj.. o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1. Indie. m. c. m. cis CJLd m. Sing. m. U& x x Ml J. Energ. Pat. c. Jussive.m.311 TABLE XII. JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom. %3 UL3 f. Energ. 3. ^3 /j .» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f. ^Uu J13I jud . m. I^Ls f. /J J X J Plur. 9 x SJyU 9 x x . ^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2. JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f. j>&«.** ^la om .>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f. Sing. 3. Perfect.i » . 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. Imperfect.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x . n. VERBA MEDLffi! RAD. i. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f. cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2. 3. 2./j 1.

J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. N. Verbi. VII. IV.312 TABLE XIII. VI. VIII. Kg.J>£~>l . J^j*3 Passive Perf. s. Verbi. JUU II. Active Perf. J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. 3V3—»l jtj>. J N. 3 ET & x. J^J J12U v. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. Verbi. Pat. The Derived Forms. >jm^ jf>~i N. Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / . JUL* J^» JU-u III. ->* N. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. 3. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. Active Perf./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. N. jb>wt XI. cJLSt B Imperf. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf. m. s. %yJS Imperf. m. Perf.

y MEDICI RAD. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form.313 TABLE XIV. Perfect. . VERBUM TERTLE RAD.

^. VERBUM TERTIxE RAD. MEDI2E RAD.314 A TABLE XV. Perfect. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. .

U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. c. I. KESRAT^l. t> /(/ Sing. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. u^tj 0x0 . m. F«r6*. m. Indie. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. m. c. f. m. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. m. xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. n. Ox x xOx 1. L5*^ iV. 3. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. En. f. O^s-f. En. Active Voice of the First Form. . x x Jussive. f. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . f. m. 3.315 TABLE XVI. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . x f. Sub}. C. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. Imperfect. 3.

3 ET ^.316 TABLE XVII. VERBA TERTI^l RAD. Passive Voice of the First Form. Pe .

317 TABLE XVIII. Ag. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. The Derived Forms. m. 3 ET ^. VIII. m. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. IV. Pass. Verbi. ii. Act. 5xx xxx Active Perf. Pat. Pass. III. c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. . f. ^AA4 9x . Imperf. VI. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N. Act. L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat. X. x o£ V. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. f. Act.

F. AND C. CLAY. . AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.Camforfoge : PRINTED BY J.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

PJ .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful