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Arabic Grammar vol.1

Arabic Grammar vol.1

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Sections

  • II. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS
  • III. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC SIGNS. A
  • A. Gezma or Sukun
  • B. Tesdid or Sedda. D
  • D. Wasla
  • E. Medda or Matta
  • IV. THE SYLLABLE
  • B VI. THE NUMBERS
  • II. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. A
  • III. The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder
  • (a) The Nomina Verbi
  • Changes in the Vocalisation
  • (17) Some other Nominal Fwms
  • 2. The Gender of Nouns
  • 3. The Numbers of Nouns
  • 4. The Declension of Nouns
  • I. The Declension of Undefined Nouns
  • II. The Declension of Defined Nouns
  • The Pronominal Suffixes, which denote the Genitive
  • 1. The Cardinal Numbers
  • 2. The Ordinal Numbers
  • D. The Interjections

AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M. 1896 . LL. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN. de GOEJE.. VOLUME ? I. f?K£.. THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W. 6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. J.D. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W. ROBERTSON SMITH..\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. ? /V DATE. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. WEIGHT.

l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J. AND C. F.(o2)05 v. CLAY. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. .

to continue the revision. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. to take all initials. revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. resolved to undertake this task. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. W. whilst the had extended over 30 pages more. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself. He began it with his usual ardour. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. After earnest deliberation I consented. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine. are given corrections in square brackets. Robertson Smith. Bevan.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. which he had marked with my initials. Prof. Miiller. Moreover Prof. have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. Wright had noted here and there . Fleischer and other scholars. through Prof. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press.

The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252. who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. has noted on the margin wants revision. but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. J.VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. M. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself. without . 1896. Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890). initials. Leyden. I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous. unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. February. § 353). on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. who drew my attention to several omissions. "A . Bevan." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. de GOEJE.

second 'l-Hitab edition. the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. . Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse. and the Beirut edition of 1872). entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe. 1851. the Mufassal (jJa4.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. vol. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is. Dieterici. new work alteration. (w>LLaJt J-oi. 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. Beirut. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. 1859) . with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. . founded upon the above. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866). 1813). with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision. and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. 1867). ( Broch. Volck. 1831-33).p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. with the 1866). both ancient and modern. 1854). Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. i. for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. but to subject In fact. f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . 'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. 1831). Beirut. second edition. 2de eU. which last..1CL).

* As of Oppert. the Assyrian*. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. the south Semitic dialects. In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. — preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic. of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. Portuguese. may bear the greatest reIn . regards Assyrian. standpoint remains. nearly everything that detail. grammar beginners. I have not found much to alter. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig. and original Semitic language. . seem I still think. except in matters of I have read. in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew). for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however. Sayce. Assyrian. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. 1869). My the same as it formerly was. and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian. in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. Philippi. I believe.Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. however. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. Spanish. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. and therefore but ill-adapted. tongues. semblance to this parent speech but.und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. on the whole. but especially the former. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. apart from its bulk and rarity. —have. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions.

amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. the Government of Bombay. Australia). and I hope I may say other Orientalists. S. in which. 1st July. Home Department . 1874. under a fresh obligation. . Murray (of Adelaide. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. the Govern. he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . \ . fellow. and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely. ten of Madras. the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. sixty copies. (Fort William). whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. Germany. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. Cambridge. twenty. I trust. pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office. WRIGHT.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. and the . Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. ment of Bengal. extending over a period of more than twenty years. twenty-five and of the Punjab. W. and thereby laid me.

which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition.The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F. They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof. de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements. Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar. l\ .

PART FIRST.CONTENTS.. 1. Verb 29 A. C. THE VERB.. III. E. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D... I. PAGE I.. B. V. Medda or Matta . GENERAL VIEW.. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 19 24 26 27 IV. The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND. The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A. VI. II. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 ..

Persons....Xll CONTENTS. of the First . 1.. Thirteenth. Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 .. expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b. 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C. 2. 3. 2. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns. Weak Verbs. and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers.*.. The 1. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. 53 . C.. THE STRONG VERB. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form . Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B. and Genders 52 B. expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns. THE WEAK VERB. Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / . 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3... Fourteenth. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth. Form The Active Voice a. 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A.

their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a. . Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II. 156 III. . THE NOUN. (e) . . 106 The Deverbal Nouns.. 1. and Blame III.159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2.CONTENTS. .. (a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b. I. (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. . which express the Accusative . 147 . The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3.. . The Denominative Nouns. Adjective. expressive of Surprise or Wonder . Appendix A. . . The Forms B. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J .Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality .100 II. 149 151 II.148 149 . and A. . (y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I. 97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes. or Relative Adjectives . The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus .

xiv CONTENTS. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. of Nouns . PAGE 4. The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C. III. The Pronominal Suffixes. which denote the Genitive . The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix. .291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2. 1. 3. . Article 1.. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS. 3. The Declension I. Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The .. THE PARTICLES. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns . THE PREPOSITIONS. 253 260 262 2. 280 THE ADVERBS. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II.. THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA. 252 B. THE NUMERALS.. 279 A. 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C..

8i .Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy.

as vowels (see § 3). Arabic. according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter. I. and. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. a word. for the most part. like left. B NAME. Syriac. along with their names and numerical values. Hebrew and letters 1. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. aJl^J! o^aJt. is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. and are all consonants.PAKT FIRST. terminate in a bold stroke. . when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order. though three of them are also used They vary in form. THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS.

in the earliest times.§ 1] I. But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. b. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. and is V. k has the point below. not only in Europe but in the East. or in the more elegant Eastern founts. in which one letter stands above another. a. &* *!* sh. to African Mss. as in this book. § 3. *>). or. J. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts. fy.. : ^ t single point k*. § 15). J A This combination ^. thus s a f but 9 k below. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. are very inconvenient to printers. r+-. The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz. <^. or even . 3. i. I. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. English and Arabic are intermingled. as is A . from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. The object of elif a. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. 3. and inserted before a. it is Rem. £ £ ^. especially when. on the other hand. %.] * This is not confined. hh. ir l * gh. At the Rem. In some old Mss. generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. c. ut. [These ligatures. I Rem. and form ligatures. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. The Letters as Consonants. #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh. The latter method a recent innovation. of which the following are examples. The Arabs sequence . end of a word these points are usually omitted.

I ^ and c j to the latter £-. below. (. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances. are divided the loose or free. e. iUU^Jt iUM. unpointed. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt.. and then ^ takes Rem. by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. The letters are also divided into the following classes. ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) . cit. ^ has only one point above. To the former class belong ». 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. [§ 1 Rem. or an angular mark above. ^ 3 sua ^ i h. i. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt. and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI. Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 . j. letters. rem. J^j. letters. ^. c^U!»ug.] . placing a point below. k %.e. O. etc. J. 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o. such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. i. j. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. JeJu). so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. the sibilants. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>. plur. dL Those letters which are identical in form. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip).4 a Part First. j^.>)*. — Orthography and Orthoepy. h pointed. 5. in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). especially those issued at Bairut. from 5. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. prints. and the like.e. the M 3 J 0* gingivals. the use of the two points below is optional. which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds.

has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch. as in sing. however. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI.or d-iJJt »J^aJI. is our g in get. as well as Turks and Persians. it is some of these letters. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem. see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it.)\). The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. except by long intercourse with natives. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH). stronger than d. ». the letters. has the sound of the Heb.§ 2] J ul ui I. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. same relation to > that <1> does to O. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire.)t »J>jj3»Jt. homme or English hour. utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. the letters O > b. the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m. like »-. I >^ c c *. but not rough Europeans. less often with ^*. the Heb. t. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». I C with hemza (t.. <f. O £> is is the Italian dental. It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. the gutturals. 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). s 3 J 0* J J f. it In Egypt and some parts of U. x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play. The Letters as Consonants. [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^. or th in thing. ^e weak 2. It is sounded . or Arabia. The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. > is the Italian dental.. The following hints however. 9-. 0. the liquids ^ J ^. soft letters. softer than our like the t. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. or the German Roche. softer 5 bears the than our d. will. PI. which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l).] Greek 0.

mist. is a guttural g. for bX^xA. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©. the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. of modern Greeks. v°. the Heb. j the English z. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this). it*.. [In Egypt an emphatic d. unpronounceable) guttural. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z. — De G. 17 etc. ft. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound. the Heb. and often in Mss. z. strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. in any of the Semitic languages. the Heb.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r. or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng.] y.]. J^. )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a.] . related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. shin shut.6 Part First. The y of the r. as in gargling. p. bears. as a mere vowel-letter. as in run. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. — Orthography it and Orthoepy. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. is a strongly articulated palatal t. s. V. the Heb. JJ. without aspiration. which we have no example in English. is* is the surd s in sit. is an aspirated 6#. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss. and the French r grasseye. into or th in that. strictly speaking. is a strongly articulated guttural k. with. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. AJaJI. To distinguish it from do to O and z. Hamdanled. J. it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/. are of Arabia. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&. It is described as . produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath. It is wrong to treat it.

e.g. shibau. in last the d is silent. 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. for kultu. £ du. The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels.g.g. ya'ulu. and § 15) for a. w and #. la.§§ 3. m as w^». originally 3.1 —). j9tj=& i (as kerlmun. halaka. The Vowels and Diphthongs. t)*.gemb. and the modern . o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**). 1x5 1 ^Bftw. which the old pausal - (ah). e (as in pet). e. The Turks and Persians > II. as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning.g.Bsr or fetha (lm*&). When immediately . j~& 'ambar. a. o 1. & J. m. ^r* hum. rem. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. In the is grammatical termination nounced like O. au. E. * In point of fact. or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . not g&nb. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. g. e. without any vowel coming between them. n. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels. as 'ultu. w (as in Zw/Q. * is our h. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. <d Ww. ww. obscure resembling the Welsh y. 'anbar. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. jf H -> H 7). of a syllable . . 0. (a) L feth (~$) .. or the (c) in bird) . e (nearly the French (b) e muet). (Heb. and tj. (JX&. /. 4. the German o in Mortel. ^ ^ for t and ai. a. see § •>) 1. iUw sembd'u. e. this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb. ^-^ shmsun. I. yakulu. (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin). the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v. : use of the three t (without hdmza. 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai.>». <v fo*Ai. ji lau. *+* 'bmrun. are exactly our k. A j followed by the letter w>. 4] II. i (a dull.

The following rules may. gards the signs L. damm.c © . Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. c. 6. are probably derived from 5. The terms ^^u and *3j. kesr. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. uttered. [§ 5 A Rem. is that the former denote the sounds a. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. — its De Rem.8 Part First. kesr a. i. A vowel 5 is called dib^a. is x ^sb * bakiya. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. one below for As rekesra. will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. a motion. u. however. O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &. one above for fetha. damma.]' are sometimes applied to L. through for the various 1. i. S ywftU ajj^jaJI.. _. a. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified.g. j*±. or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. o. and one in the middle. e. xO p plur. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. ^3. and ^£ or a. jj*o sadrun. *\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds. a.g. 1. into e. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw. of the Kor'an. w**J la'bun. or 0. The distinction between the names feth. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides.] . the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. the latter the marks L. . or on the line. and fetha. xx e. commonly used of the casee. In the oldest Mss. x x x . form or figure. — . for damma. be given for the guidance of the learner*. JULwt or J|y£w. Lin for other positions. u. Rem. X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels. u. B mark t Ox plur.— Orthography and Orthoepy. ktmrun. owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . Compare the Hebrew MH^. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure.

g. JikJ to/a. Zjj* marratun. SjU garatun. The long vowels a. pronounced as e. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with. e. a was at and hence long vowels. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. Ot^-JI.g. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that. K+£\. $j*».g. less clear sound. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). Jj bdl. — . are indicated I. <C. letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. j+&\ 'akbaru . g. ^Ac 'ilmun. and o\ o. ^=>j*« m^rkebun.. O**-' seniinun. Z words hat. c>**^> axJ^JI. and also in general at the 6. 1J&. J ( e. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. end of a word. The Vowels and Diphthongs. the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case. garratun. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim. e. iUi.g. e. J 15 kola. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. oSS or £*$. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. cap. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. f *. tunun. It retains. Rem. e. after the the vowel-points. w. i. ^ao. literae productionis. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u. ^>j*jJI. sound of to that of the French u or German jy». to be carefully distinguished 2 ." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u. s J . 3»o i. of the short vowels before the letters ^j.g. «£l«~> sbnibkun. at a later period. e. U^A. $$** sukun. JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. • # 9 x «. approaching to that of a in the English — . so as to resemble a small elif .JUt from (^e resurrection. a.j**fi> 'o'mrun. e. suratun . More in exactly. C>£^l)t. by placing the marks C and ^. olUI.g. or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). one of those letters.g.§ 6] _ II. <JUI. C~l£> katabta. nor immediately precede. ^^1. ^-£3 Bsrun. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. a weaker. 0^**> nearly torun. "letters of prolongation. however. sUrtm. e. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun. respectively. however.g. u. *aj bVa. w*fc> ro bun. IJJb.

Qordn's.. lisin and. in later times and in certain from a to e. is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. el-'Asi. d. # of Rem. / *y-U. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu. a^oJI c*». JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3. &i&. aIU. • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au.] . oW*-j c£J^*j 7.10 Part £©**JI / First. ^ stor damma. 6). inclines. 0/1/ and ^jj^U. ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. I corresponds to fetha. and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . and 3. / . the final I was shortened or dropped. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. . and " § 5. JO / j . ^^^aJI. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn. This change is called aJU*jM. Caniles.g. 6.» j^. J w^aJt. Carlo. dJ>l5. jj^iu. value).» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*.g. price. ^ Wver Guadiaro.jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu . S^JOI C^»-t. ^j-^tijt. are written a». See Noldeke. The letter o.g. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy. J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t . / / Rem. jJJ} . / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. el-Haft. Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ. Lebrilla. The words ^*}U. than in others.b. ojJsu ^j>. are sounded ri&#. 0/ e. \ Si / j J/ I J . J / / U^A. ^l^Jt. Z?e/a. are I also frequently written defectively wJi. a. i. / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. c. and occasionally some other vocables. I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t. . tl-imdla. the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. 6a6. — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. / £e£m. bnu H-Yemani. Gesch. etc.t. for ^yUjt. such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3. j>?UM. whence sister of fetha. conversely. o/* ^. j J . Ztow Pedro. * [The omission of ^ p. which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics. / »j\ i^tj. 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. preceded by damma. o^o saifun. The sound of L. just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4. final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity. 251. I • I J t 0/ . localities.

the separating eiif Rem. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. and 1. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters.J3 fata. etc. both when preceded by damma and by fetha. even very ancient ones. rem. See the details below §§ 167.] . * 0*0*.g. l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . It receives this name because. but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj. L*^j Behnesa.~\ The diphthong ai.*^. The Vowels and Diphthongs. the elif that Jx e&/*.» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e. lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\. e. x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. must be considered. shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom. Rem.1. . Rem. ^-)> e. After ^ at the end of a word. £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun). a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U. . after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. *-) sfTftft. ^J*-» yedai. in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. a). when old Mss.Jl Hid*. with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai.. »XX . 6)f.§ 7] x II. before jj/J\ (see x § x 20. \j£ yaza).. ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e. become nearly 9 (Heb.g. y. in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23. can be abbreviated. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. as in # * j I. as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g. is \^cj. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf. .-oj rama. which it is protected by hemza. d. f). like J * itself .g. 169. 213 (as Li^-j he will live. On the other hand many Mss. the world). particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs. and //»/ " x x is called.e. rem. as in final. A w*** sefun. like I.g. b.^. (£lif e. otiosum). xx or a**).1 ** . in j If a pronominal suffix be . § 19. not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1. tjj-aJ. letters A. [But ^-. § 10). . suprascript. but and o (Heb. the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM. and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. is often written. a. tj>>*J- This I. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya .g.

the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. c. the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions.+£• and JJ-+& ) is.12 Part Rem. j+£. falls jj-o*. when precedes a ^.1 . . when acto . way l affecting the sound of the ten win. accus. _ in.or S^a-. nor. viz. for which we more usually find U*w. without in any to the proper 4 . further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*. . and accus. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. as bb.£ in three cases]. no I is written. SyCiLo. and bpt . First. Zamahsari. SyU. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n. * i. z = — _ =_. j ju*. often neglected in old manuscripts. name JS jj*©^ [or. Rem. — Orthography and Orthoepy. rarely j \jj-+&. according to the older orthography.. is added. genit. JU a. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. rihdn. which is always short : bdbdn. O . malun. b) j>©. tenwln genit. of the Kor'an. t>^Jt for b>. L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . L an. g. X j+c 'Omar. companies a hemza.— DeG. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. \j+&. it as in j^jdb. e. as S^a. The j of $. 1 or iL un. ^a^ 114. l viz. for l\ J^. djXo or S^Lo. Rem. p. . [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\. so also \y>j. Amr (not x Amru). of 31. 2jj j*c medlnetan.] . 8. rem. b. Sj£»j or 3>%j. [§ 8 A d. [Cf. Sjjwt. See t § 308.] In old Mss. all when the away (§ 315. Rem. but 4aJ^». it a. This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). however. as in 1-w. l^jj. However. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. To one word j * .

(see § 4. . but not marked with a gezma. Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. to separate the two. . d). ^&i ~£= katabtum. productionis they Rem. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables. z. In some old Mss. is written only once. are retained in writing. J**i. as the Arabs say. 13 III.g. x J strengthened (3juL&). - -. ^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. coincides. letter. or. whence the C of the 2 . Rem. a). has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*. ^jJb B. but marked with the sign -.§11] III. SIGNS.g. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e.g. which is called . The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. Ox Rem. movent rem. are marked '. (amputation). JJ. when another syllable J follows.g. © x x e. etc. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa. is D 11. fore to the hum. ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7. JL3. when they form a diphthong with fetha. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. as between feth &&& fetlia. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). § x- 59/ j*±e*. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14). ^£»L>. Gezma. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. Jj bel. b. a quiescent See § 4. with which other name x \j£~i. j>*o. A Gezma x or Sukun. \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. ^J=>. and serves. c. ^jXt. for ^s>. m A letter which letter. instead of the common ±: or 1 . b. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2. O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '. as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 . Other Orthographic Signs. ^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. b. Rem. later d.» letters of prolongation. a). rem. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. a. ^j and 3. used. 5 x \ 9. rest. Gezma or Sukun. e. A consonant that fl to be doubled. A. c. e. or a*j^. rem.

*. In African Mss. J&\ Si M-kulla. In the oldest Mss. Tesdid.14 Part First. is sometimes written. jv» semmin. fern. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. the vowel is not always written with the sedda .«.e. — Orthography e. and receive tesdid. ± alone may be = t .g. C <*£&>. c. (from UubL^ lightened. as well as £. Rem. e. * [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. of the Kor'an. . tesdid is * expressed by « or ^. instead of Jj3 and J>*3.] . is not required . £ may . Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. which. single). sing. in combination with -. is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. properly so called. -. stand for £. Rem. or the first letter of the name ojut>.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere. takes place. b. D Rem. ~ . e. ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. Rem. a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. not even excepted.>jut>.g. of the fifth form Rem. [§11 A JujJLSf. as in African Mss. It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi. The solitary exception to this rule. The African Arabs constantly write for -. admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). -. elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " . of ji Of CU5. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. 3d pers. y* murrun.is an abbreviated ^i. Perf. only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. 2d pers. the tesdid {strengthening)*. <fec. therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru. Perf. *$d> kullan. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun. -. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. as may be seen from the above examples.»). in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . it and Orthoepy. In combination with . . -.£. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. d. Ojji. e. i. below the line. sing. at least in old manuscripts. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. no doubling. cj-tU na"agun. when accompanied by kesra.. to.g. —De G. in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila. All consonants whatsoever. a.

^-^Jt Ss-semsu. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. in African and Spanish manuscripts. moon. solar because the word u~+J*. for kiidbun mublnun. it is sometimes found after it 1. Tesdid or Sedda. and after n with £ezm. which. as in jto. 5. and the other lunar them. and Jj. (b) b. UkjodH. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. is. he.> [see § 277]. happens to begin with one of them. iesdFid. the because the word j^3. Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. Other Orthographic Signs. j. is B. or. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends. . like ilcu^a. sibilants. 15 12. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI.§ 14] III. JIaj <jt after the nunation. ^. *£>. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi. ui. ^L 14. <>?. . 0> (dentals. save in rare instances. sun. With the J. and &*£$. is bitter. 3. ^. appointed some one commander . j. y> (murrun) language. &. e. It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. but ja\ (ammara). whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). the Rem.>L©. e. jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. j>. J-JJt el-leilu. as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). yi.g.g. used : — (a) With the letters O. a. j. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. c J. 13. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^.g. j^UI k-timru. JJ ^>o. letters. letters. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. The w of the . e. This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu. >. as C^»tj letters j. to avoid harshness of sound. but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. 'ar-rahmanu . J».) after the article Jl . though expressed in writing. JJI. Ja.

Elif. \j}\ t Ua*. e.31.jt £ {if not). (dentals). it naturally unites with the is written. are hardly ever written separately. 6.>«. it i. He^mza or Nebra. union of the two indicated by the tesdid C.g. Rem.. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu .» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant. Rem. but a conthe spiritus lenis. c. by a C weaker servile letter. which \j3. [§15 A words v>«. — Orthography and Orthoepy.16 Part First. . jwl. for C-slsua. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N). with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. a. rem. a).. is of the upper part of the windpipe. a. and grammarians. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9. see § 4. rightly. ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. for ^ O*. pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation. a.O-*a. jilf.jl. £>*> 0*> I*. ILd. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . £>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta. W* for U £>*> ^ itself. f°r O**** or v>» . d. and rem. in a si . v° b. * D 15. ^Jj\. juXSI. Rem. Ut £ for U.. ^ v >«. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. JL. always. so that only one O is O. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel. is distinguished by the viz. is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. . g. ^Sj. u° or h.jl £ (i/*. Rem. . *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1.^t. Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether. elevation)'. with redundant U). (tf/iatf.. when it is sonant. after e. such as >. )» s With the letter O . lj. *£>. like O. e -g. j^\ . k*±.g. b. also sometimes called nebra (S^J. 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God.. however. mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. If the verb ends in O in the above cases. but the . the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel . e. second b. as C~J for cJL5. on the contrary. compression. but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*.

though [See below. of the Kor'an.§ 17] III. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L. Rem. preceded by a shut syllable.. ** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss. l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &. (jlt^iJI. for ^j^-wl^. b. varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above.] 3 . l^.g. a)'. §§ 131 seq. e. J0^i\js>\ (but for J . for ^>>L. e. when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). In the oldest Mss. el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu). tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem. *U*.g. ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word. Other Orthographic Signs.. § 4.Ufc. or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8. f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. C.. C*£». Hemza it. Accusatives * w. I. ^.g. .. and in the middle of a word.. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain. after elif productio?iis. jt.g. Hemza or Nebra. c). (a) Always at the end of a word. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui. hemza e.3. after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma. . by a large yellow or green dot. Rem. pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. Rem. is e. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. Ji* and the d.g. 16. c£X±. £^3. j5~t for j-w (see § 16). as ^j^t\^J. like. 4JL%*©.. w*33j 17. * J gaa. rem. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points . in the fol- lowing cases.. 17 Rem. ^j\ or <jt for ^>t. e. or ltu»» for U*i». j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota. e-j ^^j for it chW. is written between the t and the vowel that .l.j>Jwl£. tbj. In African (and certain other) Mss. s uun\ i^o. like l^ and l^J? are often written. for Ol». c. Ju*>.

. which is connected with letter. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. a following After a consonant with gezma. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>. Lw. however. O/ as for i — Orthography . — ^. and damma before the for ^Hjjj.kri c or &Lla». Rem. placed itself. jit£ for ^otjj. at. u. but must always be pronounced Da'udu. £lif with [This hemza. o. ^^jj for ^Hji. for JU»t.g. e. and also e.18 Part First. though improperly. and followed by a or s a. a.>*1t. *Zo* j 9io. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of .g.g. oUJ]. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh . j to. or after a consonant with gezma. (b) Frequently in the middle of words. ua. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&..1^. and Orthoepy. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. £. S$j-£* for SjjjXo. as JLtj for JLjj. 0^34 for oL5^. for ^t. as J£*t. The name j^tj or ^i\y David. we find such instances Z\}j. j c-> . l*J* \\>j and in old Mss. A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i. [§ 17 A contrary to rule. 6. PuUr* for 0^ . ai. 1 ^eU for ^oU). J^/f. is often written ^\y . after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^. e. necessarily so. ^ £ j 3 . for^. Hemza between w&. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o. Rem. power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel. iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. ^j^ au. hati'atun. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation. as ^>ott or is ^\. more frequently. pronounced makrit'atun. is. as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. rn'usun. ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. J-~j for JL*j . called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c. from S^a-o. Rem. as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. if the preceding consonant be an . and uu. or ^hj^j which words must always be . for **o*> from *^.

I i. rem. or 2X& (see x bi rem. <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif.a. I 18. e.g. £ s 'OiO . JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13. D. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e. Rem. Rem. a. or &L03. With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA. a&I. as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ . d. was appointed governor . we rr J- L instead b. kill. or rather. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. union.e. and called J*&3. f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. a). J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < . xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e. listen. «i.& downfall or extinction. dU^l c-ol. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red). of the usual sbs. In the oldest Mss.g. x See § 15. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . the stroke is used.§ 19] III. he said. a. S^-j&JI. t J~~> . which sometimes varies in position. j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. Wasla. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM. 19. the father of (b) the we~zir. . he said. yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut. rem.written over the . |x X . i. the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign . Imperative.o$ or 4JL0 . and § 19. Hence even I. j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# . at the commencement of A a word. In ancient MagribI Mss. Other Orthographic Signs. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active. + * regular verb. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. in modern African Mss. 19 D. When the vowels with hemza (t I). and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35). Wasla. X *>*> . and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. i. e.g. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. with a point to indicate the itself. according to the preceding vowel.e. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt.. Slif. O x ^ x 5x § 4.

in a contracted form. Rem. is also elided after the asseverative particle J. is in ^>*-jl after J). oatfAs. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic. 9 J 9*0 §j*\. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. Rem. jl^l5N)l. omitting the altogether. two (masc). in part merely prosthetic. See § 15. a.^0-MvNjt J^. J Oi Rem. It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza.). prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. as rem. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^. xO xxO O^'l.>M. orjj-ot. the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\.20 Part (d) First. Cwl. 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l. /). * . as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms. or. as (lit. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. a * a daughter.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs.\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*. and Orthoepy. 9t-*0 a name. aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God). 9 a woman. s-Jj^-- . so. to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. 3 d. Rem. <ft jL^jf. rem. b. e. and occasionally m after the prepositions *. and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it. JO* C is Rem.© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). and § 18. The hemza of j>^-»l. c. especially after the article. that to say. in part original. because it is then no longer necessary. as ^t^iiNjI ^. b. — Orthography son. j^\ 30 (rarely^wt).>*-J. two (fern. and * ^J\ * or ^j\. the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article. but. a. a man. * 9 /) fe is neglected. the anus.^r^\^AJ\ JA>. : [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\.

Hence gtj£^t ^3. in e the beginning. J*Wi.g. but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. fear the people.« mustafdu 'lldhi. which equally admissible.20] III. J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. instead of . D. the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. To vowel. O in the eyes of the king. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ . is pronounced as written Q tjuJi. these different cases the following rules apply. 'n-nasi. the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel. f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t . forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels. according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. see § 19. »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel . at into ai. and au into cm as (c) . The silent elif (§ 7. rem. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis.g. a diphthong. or a consonant with gezma. being sJgJUl oUI. subject to change (a I weak elif letter). The suffixes of the 1st pers. for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma. for ft and 'abu. according to the law stated in § 25. but begins the next syllable. 21 Rem. J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. ^_ and e. AJJt j)BJn.JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI .yju&t. ^. in the other two an elif separationis. as u«jJi .. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). (a) 20.rfi. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . Wasla. Other Orthographic Signs. This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. father of the wezir. B shortened e. b and c. sing. elif sejunctionis or separationis. A II . for <UJt ^aJsucuo.^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. viz. the elect of God. ^^t )^o*J my grace which. first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis. the connective elif the opposite elif. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri.

22 Part xx x 0*> First.^0^ you. Jj. etc. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. C fetha djj\. Perf. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. masc. ^Sj. D Rem. ^j\. Oi Ox But jt and to meet.0*> x name . In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85. yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra . as tjjiaST jj.>£). } Rem. or adopts the lightest of the three vowels. before the article. £ take kesra.). you (accus.>*. b. the pronoun yj*. they threw the stones . and particles.. and after they saw the star. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm . J*. J — Orthography w and Orthoepy. . plur. A . The preposition . j£* your.\. takes . viz. and ^A their. ^A or^A. because contracted for Ju*. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c. viz. Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. plur. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu. jS. & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel.6. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. [§ 20 xx A thong. kesra. j and^A they. as . JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s. x J x <5 ^j . rem. verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS.. them. so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha . instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^. from. Rem. as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu. is The final £ of rejected. from. for IjjjkTt Ji. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. since. such as sjs. x v~k*. as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns.»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma. b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. a. which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) . which time forth. but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. masc. The same it is is the case with Jco.>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu. x0£<0.

D. and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. rem. Z . so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad. for J*^). Wasla. . thus: j^. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr. ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. jy&J*o wise. of the son precedes. t. when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to. omission of the In the word ^t. but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname. § 315. J^pJ to the man. to stand at the beginning of a line. real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. the son struck Sa'd. that is to say. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. For example. as a whole. for aJUI^wb. aUI j^s.0* . DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss. "the black. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained. ' interposition of the noble. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. . the son of Halid." being Amr. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«.] the second noun be not in apposition to the first. e. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. if ^jj\ jU. but form part of the predicate.§21] - III. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather. forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. if that word happens Rem. B when the name the genitive lira . 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh. as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW.ijj sjj£. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. [Cf. as by the J J OtO j . son.g. the J s I retained. b. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j. la tadriba 'bnaka. the an adjective. a. it is ls**J> Ridha. in a genealogical series. oUaaJI Rem. 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka. b. ^t j+s. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary . . (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases.c. In the article Jl. Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab.

wj^aJI yJ — De G. *U. for ^UjM.Z .g. § 140. for^5Jo»Jtt.>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19. rem. e. and that for alJJN). i. 6.a»Jt. for JUS. Q Rem. In the oldest and best Mss. of the Kor'an. as aJUJ to the night. ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'. y>^tf. Ih. *X*~> semdun.gaa. » a>. the form of the medda » x ji*). when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\. rem. ^*>. we find in old Mss. I . As mentioned above 1U*. is placed over the latter . for Oj-Jull. elif In this last case. in poetry. a.. xxOjx^o^ ^. Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij. for iOn.. and the article Jt. (£) by the affirmative particle J truly. is it (fem. Rem. ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna. as S&JJ. (§ 17. such forms as tbj.24 Part First. verily. rem. lengthening.>. is Rem.] .) is written instead of the former. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as . after the conjunction J sj. then the J of the article is omitted. a.. for 2JJJJ. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>.] Medda or Matta. I. (t. o e. the two . for llo-*.. a. rem. b. according to some. and the sign of prolongation. so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem.e. (i. Its opposite is j*oA (i. [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t. elifs # when the second j s s o. has fetha.. 22. E. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained. for *l».). [Cf. 5jL« or aJsh.. a. for (d) In nouns.*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^). c . is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti. he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M . — Orthography and Orthoepy.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>.. is son—1 O^Xit. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto. is frequently omitted. extension).e. j-o3.). then a mere hemza etc. as Jlli. in Mss. verbs. cited in § 358. to ask.

Medda or Matta. Other Orthographic Signs.§ 23] III. So Jtj for jJUj. a. In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza. .. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. instead of with Rem.^**. w. —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript.\ .g. [But we some- times find U.jt or . medda (see § 6. upon him/ for 6j±. b). d. the lengthened or long elif. aJUt ^y^j. alwt for }tL*l.] 1 Rem. GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to. W for LS jo*-. only is (§ 17. e. i. Medda prolongation. the hemza being written final a) . an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). often written over abbreviations of words. Ut or to the end of etc. has nothing in common with medda but is the form. then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda. may God be <*JUI well pleased with. is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. see § 174. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem. He (God) exalted above all. In some old Mss. . may GW /*e Aave mercy it.g. for 4 . The mark -. When. l^a***. tut instead of L*t or tutt. informed us. o or t. rem. ajx. U^-l . h). Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha. (t) is at the beginning of a syllable. when followed by an elif hemzatum. or the vowel. U for Uh*»»l. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. Cfor J^a-.J I. e. of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. along with the medda. as ly~J j jo£ . e. rem.j£*. E. or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. a) c. $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. in and the verbal termination j£. the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. rem.^* or ^**. when they are used as long poetry. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. Rem. 25 this is is but rarely written.e. Ae narrated to us tfAew. ^2J\ j&.g. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\. b. 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17.

an. end in two consonants. which we call a shut or compound syllable. -*~o stands for ^o. as . to be placed last. as sf or fir. emendation. the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text. explanation.).Generally speaking. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum). syllable that terminates in a vowel. Vlp). and not that of the text. to be placed first. to fypov 27. and jajJLc. we often W O * these indicates a variant. A take an additional vowel. — Orthography and Orthoepy. as J13 ka-la. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant. together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. Before a double consonant a (see § 13. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|. correction. D Rem. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable. ' « . is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. text. dJbd over a <x\x). — Again it is. the first of which is destitute of a vowel. is almost always short . tin. Foreign words. may (i. may be either long or short. *-Jj*y\. rem. J . THE SYLLABLE. and ~~*a over of Mss. usually before the . a copy. and is repeated more clearly on the them. The first of U J margin. that the ancient it is as kul. the third implies that the marginal reading. another manuscript . first consonant . B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct. and denotes form or vocalization.26 Part First. etc. find words with the letters *f~. Jy> (Heb. ^)L^. it is correct. — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. 0*0 0* y^M. 25. C we 24.e. though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. where the final short vowels are suppressed. JU pause. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. on passing into the Arabic language. ^. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. in the writer's opinion. which commence with a syllable of this sort. either separated or followed . 26. which are not by a vowel (except in pause). or ^!wa1. the fix o < correct one 5*-o. IIXaTwv f J . is. and stands for < ~*J. the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir.

(b) * Monosyllables in combination with . _ ^J ^i li-ma. ham-rd-'u. Rem. ^. j. The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position. U la-nd. it is 29. 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. ^r* kd-ta-ba. Rem. . and vJ. The last syllable of does not take the accent. j js. V. i D ^^ the penult is short. y bi-hi. ne-bi . m». (a) The pausal forms . 'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un. ku-beil. bil-ldu-run. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. J. But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl. mu-mi-nfn. U-^t 'ei-na-md. as ya-kul. bu-nei. mdk-ru . \S£> ka-dd. bd-ti.§ 31] V. Vj wa-ldm. i>*>^ yun. 9 uf ma-fdr. is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la.e. and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. *fe\ 'a-fa-ld. 5 *' *" ** x* J . *j_. i).33 wa-kul. j>V.B *3j** mak-ru-un. the accent falls upon the antepenult. as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun. X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma.j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na. g^lsu ba-ti-un. rem. J3I 'a-kdl-lu. is the interrogative enclitic j> . i. nature or position « x . kd-ti-bdt. if it 31. it is 30. Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. When has four or more syllables. The penult takes the accent when . UJ ^-rad See 351. XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. long by nature. 9 lj-4 biir-un. l^ bi-md.>*) li-mdn. ya-kH-ldn-na. ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. J. Jl-rfnd. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun. ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. £15 fa-kdt. The Accent 27 THE ACCENT. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. bil-ldur. ne-bi-yun. or. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. ul-J . hdm-ra. J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28. w>. '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. ly-»|p fa-?-a- . that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». j_.J . I. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w. as ^. d-du. kd-nun.a-du- l wun. l Oxx kd-ti-bun. . in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. *!_ or 2t_.

] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880). THE NUMBERS. [also Spitta. because we took them from the Arabs.. [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed. — Orthography . p. Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. . Their form.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor. ten in number. the the alphabet. however. as the following table shows. pp. On deviations from these principles of accentuation. and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**. VI. vol. Vul- 59 sqq. Rem. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. des arab. They are written from right to left. letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. 1874. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd. have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians. and Orthoepy.g. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. xii. 670-3. Grain. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. and Wallin in the same journal. They are the same that we Europeans make use of. 1874. as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij. iv. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt.»>. 183-6. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society. pp. \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md.: 123 4 67890 .j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. calling them Arabian.28 Part First. the Indian notation.. at other times peculiar signs. tAvt. B 32. Egypt and among the Bedawin. vol. &v.« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them. as jut*a£.

but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive.. JjuJI. >& JiL ? l VI. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. that is The great majority to say. masc. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Jl3 to kiU. JJuilt XIV. Ji^t VIII. pers. The 3d of the verb. instead of he has killed. which first. is X. JjiSl XIII. literal verbs are by no means rare. 33. being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. Rem. VII. The Forms of Verb. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. J*tf V. JU**t XV. but the learner XL XII. I. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV. contain three radical letters. JiS I. a. A. THE VERB. Perf. III. the Triliteral 1. A General View. because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. sing. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). JiliA j£ Ju& II. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. (with juSt number. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms.PART SECOND. IX. .

jJ*j to go right way. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO . to be large.] — . * [Or. ^j+e to be J* blind. 38. . or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. to think. The distinction between them is. according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. *-ji or JJ^ glad. e. for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before. sJj& high or noble*. and not a few of the write. * to be safe and sound. Rem. *£t or to E. c. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. p. ^v^a. to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam. v** J y^3 to go away. ' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . j*£* become ugly. 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. a. As are those adopted in note them carefully. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so.g. De G. is B 37. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful.» to be heavy. Kamil. j*y\ to become whitish.j+& j**o to be small.g. to sit. sorry. Rem. —Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. jj&> to know upon. j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. b. (scire). [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear. the learner should 36. whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. w>o to beat. to s^^ to become gray.Part Second. 415. u*j^ be sick. t^~U. to become noble. j^~* old.g. The vowel signification. and therefore govern the accusative. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons. thinking. D Rem.

The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical. A. The Verb. 165 $eq. transitive or causative in the second # . Forms of Triliteral Verb. 40. 9-j* to gladden. The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. but derived in the former. or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). . Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic.5 to cw£. term. first Verbs that are intransitive in the . w>j~o to #£#£ violently . j~£> to break. Jt*». XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). Jjji to disperse . it is Rem. The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . JU. b. w>o B j*& ala. ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. the apparent difference being that original in the latter. General View. 1.to ?raa#0 carry. *IaJ to cut in pieces . i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. JS3 to to Mil.^jiz x w-A to wWto. to believe him. E. fo«£. or during a long time (temporally extensive). xx or <J\h to go round. 31 Rem.~\ /S/ X Xx A 39. Js3 to massacre . UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&. ^J to weep. p. Gr. though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces. Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth. as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie.g. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification. form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach. [See Comp. a.§ 41] I. or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive). Rem. b. Jjy to separate. as^Xft know. Ubt^ to weaken. JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry.

j). o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him . compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). . derived. — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. agju*. j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^. (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). first p. c. ^fap and Aram. or the like. to the Heb.i. 198 sea. Gr. be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U».to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»). . *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). hfap. . 43. dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee). perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object. a&3 he killed him. ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja).] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical. ing ways. x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). a mutual one. Rem. JUi corresponds in form. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry. as well as in signification. Rem. (_>»U. JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar. (^^J&t <*£M). ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar. in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. isj-o . ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. Uju*. it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). Sometimes. ^UT. jQ+m. to dwell in a place. iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5). j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w. ^&0— [See Comp. jl*. d. It modifies the signification of the 42. J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x .). g.g. and ex- or doing of. T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly. by the elif productionis. fi like the fourth form. (??i«2/ thy nose. JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt). " to skin an animal. he said to off). to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin. or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with. j&j*. to coZ/ec2 to to e. (may GW prolong J^O thy life). [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative.32 Part Second.

X X J . <uuw he outran him. A^ol*.Io he wrestled with .U» 5 . Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . \J&\+b to double. he went first is to law with him. g. of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. from Julc the like or equal . tli to be hard. oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. The Verb.g. (something). 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. £>*~j*. is here. treated be good or kind.^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him. but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. as in the former case.. dJuL* he ran a race with him. 1. Ji. Rem. «o *i« he fell upon aAs. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. ac.§ 43] I. ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. and affects him or brings X him into that state. sj**±. £f$ to be soft or gentle. d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry. „ . ideas a. . he vied with him in rank and glory . AiS*) he treated him it . he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit. he threw him down. jlS>t he advised him. gently . conversed with him . Forms him of Triliteral Verb. General View.he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . aijli he strove to do so. X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. aljlS he corresponded with him. »^jafe more or less distinctly implied. to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly . the relation B of which to an object object). do. Aiwl». ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do. . w. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. A aJU he tried to overcome him . t mander of the Faithful. oa. 33 alii he overcame him. . he treated he. ^U. (c) . E. g. ojsMt he competed with him in doing so. A. him kindly . attacked him. axStj do. >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. E. a^pU he procured him means of doing so. <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan. When the or fourth form denotes an act.to d-wla. o^Sh he strove to do so. . the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). sulted with him.

6V. Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). a . a. b. if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth. the first. he found him.lj. he thought him. p. natives.. because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state.^JU to escape. and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . 197 c. e£c. .g. ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. Zamahsari. to the Heb.— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. a). UJ is ^. from which they are derived. sometimes declarative or estimative. many that of a transitive verb. fold well. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing.<» . ( . J±}). verb is . The fourth form J' s Of. like the second as t alsLjt he thought him.s. they have in some cases different to teach.34 Part Second. of which it is the direct object. a = Heb. it becomes doubly transitive in the E.v. 44. sjof^\ \S^ c. found him cowardly . Geog. he to be praiseworthy or commendable.g. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun. [Rem. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth. When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41. ^oAfct to E.g.. ^s- inform one of a thing . Faih.t to >*swJt make run. The fourth form I. 6) see Corap. rem. intransitive in the first form.] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt. t^&S he shewed him Rem. v~y** to sit down. Jailw ojicb. eat. found the district abounding in fresh herbage. tj>». B Aghdni —De dUU. . J*^t he ate bread. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. E.aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty. 52. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>). of denomi- Rem. cites xiii. Jjbl . C c/~^t bid one to down. D Rem. If the in 45. significations. Thus J*.. i. G. (Gl.. to be. 202 seq. j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. to know. niggardly . [§ 44 A double. to let go. to \Jj** sit to run. in others the same.* ot oj*+*»\ J . The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. or found him to be. b. or or it. Rem.

*L>I. acquiring a quality. 0>£»>t." "to seed. J^D^H.. is I battle . -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. C-^Ui sAe son. ol .] . JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels. w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV. j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. run with *• outstretched neck. 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\). ^ ^. The Verb. (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin. *£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) . 35 produce herbage (j^j).11). into a state or condition. go to Aoi go to the left) . w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. go # to the right. serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face." calve.it>i a male or a female child.l. .§45] to I. Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them. ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . the entering — of time (being. sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently. j^\. Usui to 6e sto or B tardy. A. ~ . upon a period * soi ssoi to ." "to lamb"). x . obtaining or getting having something..it commit a commit a blunder. Thus AetoJ ^ J VII. doing. o t (Jjtj*M).i to cto fault or error. Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. jj>\ to retire ("reculer"). wwt. tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt). people) or oe aVy (of a season).^. i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa. I.^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&. w-^/'t a noble . in Hebrew. . ^3t advance. or becoming something. . Usui. or suffering something therein). to enter x x * . j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory . x x oi and 7*X£KTl. to to ebx Irak . Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ . s i * to give " .) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face. I 4(S o 9-~o\. jJsuot to O . . ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi.oi to E. of a certain kind*. ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . . ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3).1 jJUl to act a proof ill. Ae re^'reo?. ^° 1. pj~i\ a * i to make haste. ^£wl. to >~». ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). General View. ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA. " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower.* (J»iu). < . or VIII.g. j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place. well or *^J.

instead of it will be observed. „ . Heb.Of. to let rest. D 47. action denoted by the second form effect or result. it is the pjUa-o of the second form. JJtjJh for to pour out rest to . ^g» (*&*J). to terrify). . O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. j~£3 to be broken in pieces. 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. J~l&. or «3!/v°> 46. seo/. g. w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. become possible.» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O. as its must often be rendered by the passive. prefix. <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67. }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth . that is to say. patient. JJJL». Aram. j^\. literally.'. ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint. for to give discoverable in Arabic. jm£\ garment) or clear. *->j*o3 . it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action. '£&. or the Parts of Speech. and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf. to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . took away its 4*a*£. uJS). to reduced to utter want. become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused. d. owe. 'jJojS. GV. to be proud. h*ppn. like XXX £\j& are 118). \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±. . ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) . SftpK. o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-. ^4^1. obscurity or toani of clearness.. .36 Part Second. '*'. has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP . Forms 69.Jl. J B . The . (P *^) . e. to wish. to be [§ 46 A farthing. deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ. "°Z Rem. £jJu to be dispersed.t . Phcen. girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3. 204 The Hebrew.jij^\. .. p. for (rad. in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the .. St break one's compact with a person. In English it E. See Comjt?. as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) .g. This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces. reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '.

Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. £***£. »J to pursue step by step (literally. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). long or repeatedly. entirely disappears. a earnestly. Jiia^J. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. or to affect. i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. c) Thus for ^^3. Rem. but Q Rem. ^ra? as a foora (ju»t). A. General View. £jj3. Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. *»•>> . rem. a. e. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of. to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. understand. tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. ^>a*j. a».g. (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. 1. The Verb. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent. sip to or sup. or atvta* sm or crime. **-~J to liear to speak. ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. to have wholly disappeared. 37 with Kais or Nizar. at first sight. w ^a>J . dispersed. 2*j-**3. [In some cases the difference between II. J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. without change of sense. j**\3. to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids. to examine or study. to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!). Forms of Triliteral Verb. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). jjjj * to take as an abode. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully.§47] I. \f^. to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain. j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). and V. fo become a Jew (^O^). JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative.j (§41.] we may substitute ±r»yu. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow. to make to oneself or turn oneself into. cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. *xwU become as bold or . as a prophet to (J^*J). b. to affect courage or manliness. ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire. to look at to. so that to may be quite clear. j^j^ to amid blame. to abstain from.

which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41. . likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). but also of a personal passive. rem. ILo-*^ to know.g. as J^l3 d3 j&b. effective. distinct. him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. D 49. clear. or prove to be. a. he was learned (= taught). whence we see its identity with the Heb. Rem. pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form. 48. form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. g. to to learn. to teach.g. JJU»J become. 0-++> to appear clear or certain . to (become learned)*. becomes e. but did not learn to be separate. we might say. which transitive in the third form. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. b. ^G o-o to make clear. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram. different j^jo to become learned. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. the reality or fact. Rem. 50. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. ^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned. he was taught Again. or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him.38 Part Second. Q only of an impersonal. Rem. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism. whereas object of. d). even more common. whether it be caused by another or by himself. namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. I kept sixth . but did not learn. [§ 48 A c. by prefixing the syllable It is the O. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). sometimes the indirect object (dative). JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. E. the action of another . j^s. (received instruction). The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative). explain.

subjects. a. 1. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred.§50] I. Somewhat similarly. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. whence in the passive. si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another . and lUaaJt C~~*y3. OjUj to pretend to be dead. rem.g. gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. Further. aJI C~«U3 . w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them. b. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. for him . Forms of'Trilateral Verb. above all. aJjti he fought with him. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . General View. or perfect. . Rem. or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). Rem. * * collective. ii. j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult. § 1 f . him. another. to ^j^W* to pretend to cry. above all .JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed. e. the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. When used in speaking of God. oU»J pretend to be deceived.g. ^jloJ to feign sickness. A jjULj to pretend to squint.]. inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . j^Uj to to pretend to be blind. 39 the thing. *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. e. or exalted. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance. JaUJ feign ignorance. D made itself (became or was) too great. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf. A. The Verb. w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly. vol. *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together.

By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3. and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. Ji*»>. to which sative). c. as it were.] C is Rem. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. of one The idea of reciprocity e. D 52. J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111). as pjUx* of the first.40 Pakt Second. s. ! see with rem. a middle or reflexive signification. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). [Hence bit. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i. and so strengthening. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj. however. supporting. compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. 20 first vs. [§51 A (^ c.g. Rem. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. rem. For the cases in which 19. and comm. in walking*). It must be remarked. t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. §§18 and J. and why. The seventh form has also originally. may be added but always the direct object itself. this I becomes I. Hamasa p. d. the others) . — De G. added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem. and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. Slj^t colnerentes. before which § 26)." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. c. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). d. first rem - 51. this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts.v. as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification. Geog. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build. ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so.] . and as to the orthography instead of § 19.

from *JLot JUJxil. JUul to be uttered or spoken. to x x end. [Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt. especially in more recent times.. from to 6e stupid or foolish . not to be found. are incorrectly formed. UUJQI uncovered. G. 6 . to fall. to be made x manifest. *a. jUjI X 6e repeated. 7fcDp3> see Comp. 41 often to a passive. ^mm*J to become broken. ^£>fjt. to £xxo 60^. JUdtil to 6e bolted. General View. out of the reflexive. from >U to return. 54. to be to be broken. the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. jaJ\ a. Gr. UJsul # to fo extinguished. - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. x x x Rem. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. to flee. A. to break into pieces . Sometimes. from JjUj to 6e narrow.g. x J x . and so ancient..§54] I. 53. The Verb. o£ to j»w£ to rights. becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w. B upon him e. x x O \ appear .s* . to fo |?w« to rights. from JiA£t x^xog e. cut to off. i. m Rem. ^\Ji7b 63. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals. At the same it time. or an effect to be produced . jJbJLit to be to split itself. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. E. X XX O p. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress.g. 1. j~£j\ to break (intrans.] jilit corresponds to the Heb. the last in a tradition. c.«sul.'»t. (§ 51.).). pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived.— De Rem. 6. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down. rem. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. Forms of Triliteral Verb. jtjM to be non-existent or missing. Si to be docile or submissive. to be ended. g. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. 215 seg. from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. particularly in modern Arabic. JUJt to open (of a flower). The radical in consequence loses its vowel. though in actual use.

b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another. to * * follow one's track.. p. The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. to measure corn. . to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing. Jt£» and JU£»t meat..] explanation of the actual form is O 55. to to place (something) before one. to snatch away. -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. ** . sJ^jt to be turned back. as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces. to carry off by force. word. e. especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . fought with one another. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative. see Comp. ^U*t to be full. for one's own advantage. Gr.. Rem. 208. and * tjtfudt. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . w»j&\ do. **o tjj^jfc. B J»ji to beat. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification. to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). to part .f> and ^. dative. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another. as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. D 57. J^t to to go asunder. so closely in their signifi- cation. like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree. yJa* * and w*kl». .1 they * * * were neighbours. to be victorious . J~+l to touch. to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t. Greek active and middle voices. ** * * j . and sixth forms. that they may be translated by the same to relate . or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical. implying for oneself. . *. u°j* way. = ******* . L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro.g..l * to collect firewood. which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO . Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive. to seek for it * * * v . and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ].— Etymology Rem. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J. as Jjji to divide.»Jg»t * earn one s living . * Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another..42 Part Second. l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God). * * * US and •*&£). ^oS . * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people .

indicates . Forms of Triliteral first Verb. to show that E.). If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. 43 58. or languid . to >o run quickly.§59] I. t rem. (for ^£5*Xa-t. The ninth form (jiit) . jl£. the distinction between is. a. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked . £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. 2. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . General View. colours b. the ninth and eleventh forms or . a [Others hold that XI.l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. is Neither of these forms is very common.t to become commingled. mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. . They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. the night reached its middle point. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. As the third radical. loses its vowel. vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape). and the eleventh the rarer of the two. to squint. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). being more rapidly pronounced. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked. A. The Verb.g. draws the accent upon the penult. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51. 59. a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». confused. is ^ or /( ^. Rem. u^tf^ an d u^W white. £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. and hence the doubling of the third is radical. the first radical. jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. Rem. 1. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears). . o hasten. to be stern or £ * t gloomy. see § 167. jo>t to be ash-coloured. According to some grammarians. when doubled. is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable.

: [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). lawful. in reference to himself or for his benefit. or a * * o it. a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire. . D &mm*Z* it to think him. JU- to be . to take entire possession . (for E. \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*». The prosthetic is necessary. osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . O of Cwl. first form.] : " °' 60. ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E. ^aJ^. § 51.j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) . * ° " ° (of it). on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. or s accepted. The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author. equip. *Jl*JL*\ despise.jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . prepare. ready. juCwl to get to yield be ready . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. think it it light.). cA». * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary.44 Part Second. the quality expressed by the *> 62. ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. up. but this view was marians. to ' * . deliver over. 1299) p. to think one a bore. to grieve or distress. H. factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle. to think lightly of or one. oppressive or troublesome. and the former editions of this work . Rem. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. . or obeyed him. J*£lwl to find heavy. g. to preserve alive. .g.\ to oneself ready. U»-t to bring to life. his prayer. Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * . in doing something. A. according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61. jU»jL>l to think good or excellent. js. . good or beautiful. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses. rem. 50 seq.\ up {something) wholly. ^©J~»t to give up.

^oUiwt to stand upright. ask for something to drink. lit. rem. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E. General View. j-oA. to take possession of . 45 so strictly factitive. D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy. . to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing.. L5 Al»> l. E. 63. Rem. help. to make oneself G humble. what meant by the first. j+**Z* x x * o . This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink. JU*£wt to be worthy lit. it The tenth form is frequently denominative.g. \ to become like (lit. g. is asking for. jk£> to pardon. at least originally. GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) . to deserve. to hold oneself upright . The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. j he should be fetched. &c. to conduct oneself humbly . A ' 0* also the tenth. ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble. * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help . A.g. The Verb. jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon.«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * . to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^).JL«I*1 permit. permission.for oneself : factitive 64. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. lit.§65] I. ^jiw to give one to to drink. reflexive. to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission. desire that & * . to pray for rain. \J}>\ . x Zwt be ashamed. seeking. \Jy~i\ it . lit. Hence to ^. in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. 6). it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. successor. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . or caliph (Zsul*. E. but estimative or declarative s 45. t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. 1. s . Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb.y^x^JiwI literally means is so . to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. of.to be present. governor (J*»^). <\r* Z to require one's presence. or demanding. was.

"&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth. xxx of .t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked). and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. xx x Rem. with one or two more.46 j Part Second. xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^.) . our geese are all stvans). If so. J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. (rad. curved.) to j** black (JSL do. J&L^A to be big (rad. ^)^l».—XIV.do. XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . IxXft).1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*. (=j«a±. JU~>. [§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J. wJJu> dash ground. not in use. os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. corresponding to the Aram.JU. s^JIS. . to be green and rank (of a plant).) . ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) . Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples. &}jj£\X X . (rad.) xx dx . *iU*w) .) . ax fo &&rc?) . xxdxO efo. . to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad.) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£. sufficient . to become soft or tender (j-a».t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x . JU**. #o 60 arched. to be long and thick (of the hair). so as to exhibit their formation. —XII. j>Ut heavy (jJU. to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back. iJlCJU. or x humpbacked to (*->***.) to be long or last long. to become moist (= J«a». to mount a camel . /l»\ b^jj*. may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*.\). vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. which has the same signification as ^iXw. do. must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation.) . to fo obscure (rad.oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt. 66. 5x0 . »/*») to —XIII. ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o. x x J^^o ^t . xO and obd). which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x . x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x .

to xxOx to rwi^A. 227. Pers. Rem. bb to G say baba (papa). J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters. 2. a triliteral verbal form. p.B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . jj-as) x x o x o x . ^Jsu^. j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *. xxOx ji-ji- to gargle. A. to be filled with rage (LfL do.). is prefixed or affixed to.1X j jo v:o x o 7<. bellow. ^.e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse .a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad. (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. oj^. ^ ^o^-oxfc. XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x . (b) A fourth letter.''£ .. The Quadriliteral Verb. All these forms are habitually intransitive. aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. x x JLU) . 67.§ 67] x x Ox I. E. •^JL*.1 to swollen or inflated. 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair. Jx»A». to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw.g. x E. of. generally a liquid or sibilant. repeated. JT& al-Istikak.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t. shout. 9 x» x some of them foreign words. or inserted in the middle E. as XII. jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake. —XV. ^^ X was sweet).J«Jl». is A biliteral root. to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». v~x£ x Ox do. xxx to to xxOx to be high) X .g. . to Mttfo rws£& or rattle. ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper.and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly). XXX md^ ^ retire). expressing a sound or movement. 2. General View. —XV. to retire) to . be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^».).g. The Verb. 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ . be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) . but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions. deceive to with soft words a ^J^. to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*. u .t. . 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms. rad.

to Pitch. Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) .g. f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates . Heb. The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I. JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. Pers.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ. poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress. or humility. £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) . jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier. vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E. pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ . J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U. also to be active or nimble . . Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb. fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch . xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along .g.) to ^ . «nriaT/>os). J (^)UslL»). * x x . xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>».g. X X E. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . quickly. and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification. JJUtf II. to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. number. to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik . saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. Ju/tIV. The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals. JP^».o fow&/. . Tlb/J?) </>iA.48 Part Second. xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**. signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70.#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^. jt^Xw) or tunic . ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another .») <• . They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas. verb are three in 68. to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. to abase x x . humble. to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. xx Ox to roll. I E. pfe>).and J3>». etc. JJtUlt III. or the Parts of Speech. X JX+& to gather ripe dates. 69.

which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd . w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. or not . 49 71. 11th. J*cu^». Si* o 9 *? ^aw back). pULwl to lie on ones back .§ 73] I. the active and the passive . General View. whose act voice is either object. is intransitive. JU-^t Voices. Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A. to become green. . jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. rem. nearly =j-c^. and 15th forms (cf. ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#. . The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). 3. 13th. *J~o to be good. j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality. but inserted between the second and third radicals. sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th. wrong. or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive). Jjc*£t to dispersed . the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. The third form A E. as j*s&. j£~t£*\ very high or proud . = Ju-3..A of The fourth form the quadriliterals. of triliteral. of a bird). wa#0 Aaste.t or j*oya*J\ order. All the verbal forms. \j\+^^ Si. JuJ to be is bad. in = fJ*& an .. i dark. ground. to jk. very hard. which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals. 12th. . the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). state.g. 7 . have two voices. The Quadriliteral Verb.» o vanish away . right. Ja». § 66. The Verb. 7%£ 73. in disorder. stretched on to flow.) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3. or intensively high degree of E. o § a^ C o^ * i o .g. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower). j*++*. that the characteristic not prefixed.l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc. 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. with the exception of intran9th. 2. w. both primitive and derivative.»>t to to stretched out on one's side. and expresses an extensively act. 72. A.

J JjyoLpJt. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. J JjuUI. God. confined to the person of the subject. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. 74.. the agent). or signify an act which is. j& to sleep). XXX & x biO J the build x0. though this latter H x J named. 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. are aptly called neuter verbs. are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. is when the author is unknown. etc.)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a. or some higher being. J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt. 75.*> J J x Ox is./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent. by its very nature. more shortly. ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named. and ^UJJ cj. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!. namely (a) when . (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U. the patient). or. but something between the two. the passive J J subject. also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing.50 Part Second. strictly speaking. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Verbs that express a state or condition. Rem.e. or feeerc &em# done. . The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. J x Ox J J x Ox These terms. or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act . JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick. since they are neither really active nor really passive. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. the mould or form of J x the agent. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient.» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. Ox . than to the doer of (agens. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases . J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt. or ^sJ X J^cUJt. of that. when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more .

The Verb. Imperfect. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect. namely. It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past. the one expressing a finished act. effective (see § 48). 76. Rem. Jussive or Conditional. A. seventh. The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. Imperfect). Pluperfect. one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. strictly speaking. the other an unfinished act. the Indicative. or Future. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. Perfect. must not be thought and eighth to be forms. a. by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. <Scc. 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. b. in and of itself. from A JwNjI. ajjuiIoJI j*£. in connection with the verbal forms. present. but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. or Future-perfect. and the future (J^fc^Jt). and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. The Moods. The Arabic verb has moods . J The Voices. and Energetic. however. or A^Ut JUi^l. 77. . intransitive verbs. Syntax and use. Subjunctive. whilst the other 4. is These are. A Imperfect has. The names Preterite and Future. no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). General View. transitive verbs. by our Present.§ 78] I. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). J' 3. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. five 78. Imperative. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies.

or j^tyi). 2d pers. the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. in any of the but are retained throughout. (first and the Plural (£*aJt. The Numbers.52 Part Second. Persons. Js » 0* 81.. the spoken to (second person). nor are rejected inflexions. In place of participles. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc. the Singular (>j&\. ^^IloJI). H. and likewise three persons. adjectives. . and the individual spoken of (third person). the speaker individual person). dual. 83. sing.). § 192. 1 b sD. . [Cf. they have two verbal passive participle). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. plur. *W»J1. Rem. the former class . namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. strong. or jJ&«JI) . [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form. or imperative. 79. the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis. is expressed by . There are three numbers. *j*+3\. ^JsU*-*)!. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. 80. and the the fourth.] 6.a>. . -d Instead of the Infinitive. the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). The genders j are two. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. The Syntax treats of their significations and use. cj). The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). active participle). B. but also from the imperative. . and Genders. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma). wsSliJt (the absent). and 1st pers. in the second (see § 128). ^oJiXoJt.. and the other the patient (nomen patientis. fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect. ~ 82.

partly the accusative. 86. annexed to the various moods and tenses. a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. . a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect. and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*]. The separate pronouns have longer. On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called . The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns.o 9 * ' J*s . agentis. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i. and patientis. . standing by itself. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87. The personal pronoun \jt+£. 53 is Rem. The Strong Verb. to D § 185 Rem. or connected [J-cu*]. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. B. the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes. 1.§ 89] I. or which belongs to the class med. B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. but some grammarians treat ^a».— Table I* a. that C prefixed or suffixed. rad. a is weak verb. The Verb. 88. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. than the latter. * The nomina with verbi. partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative.JJ^t« Jji5. (V"y). gemin. j+** x*J t see § 190. The numbers. and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns. § 317. designated by the special term «»*a». 9 s 84. The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb. persons. suffixes.o and^oJL* as synonyms. 9 * J : 85. accusative see 89. as verb. the con- nected shorter forms.

—Etymology 1. [§ 89 A B . or the Parts of Speech.54 Part Second.

. . b. t ^ou - 2 p. The the 1st pers. Gr. Prefixed Pronouns. is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. . Common. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. c). L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp. I> (o>. t- (of-> ... 3 p. Singular. B. Singular. !/. .. . rem.. . of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect. .. Rem.(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo. O (<**k c£-) 1 p. Common . Masc. c. 2p-^ 1 p. and also in the wasl (§ 20. . 3 2 p. [Though written defectively this terminal vowel.] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem. <j. d. used in poetry. 55 Rem. tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. • O c4 tlwy.. and § 23. expressing the Nominative. O she. . he.. 2. . p. The Verb. . 3 p. Fern. 95 seq. 3 p. jj Masc.. Plural. plur. expressing the Nominative. defectively. O 1-) Z Dual. O thou. .. O . Fern. ol she. . Suffixed Pronouns.§ 89] I. m • • (6) s» . suffix of Rem. . The Strong Verb. p. !>) *%• d .. thou. (o>> *>) . C 2 p. lp... Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. a. d. {J . . U w& The forms within brackets are those .

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.56 Part Second. [§ 90 Masc. .

a as Jj«i to do. JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. however. . verbs admit of both forms s s t . * ^ J * ^. is omitted.. . FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. take either x ^ • damma J J . p-jb. are an exception to the rule. the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. / have J d x £ served. j*****. x J x Ox .JL> . cp aVaw 0* . Not a few. \j+j * <> x x . jU* to to hinder. . J^5 * * s to kill. cJJJ j**£ to bray. good. Rem. . as j*J* know.§ 91] I. x x x # * '0' . . . ^jjui. to cut.JUj . as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox . 5 £^* to ascend. tut we d. it this assimilation see Rem. 57 To indicate the assimilation. believed. thou hast bound . $ ** tjj * . Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. jjlsu .. as ^Jes. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return.•Zfr* to write. Verbs.1 . The Strong Verb. J^aLi to . p. conform to is " the rule. of which the guttural letter.. %bJu . On ^j. %X+t t°" . iJmu . j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * . I'O* to create. J Many 0* * . to sneeze. to perceive. j&j-i- C radical is Rem. 91. ye have § 14. or t T . to sit Jux» . Some verbs have two 8 w. *Ja3 ask. w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike. O** ' 5 to ' transpierce. reach. as . When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. *j>j-**i v~ke* down. particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. it b. C-Jaj) for taken. or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . c^Aa*^. Gr. a. ^. for ±y*\ and Uut. J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding./fow. j *-^ . J * %+jj . " may . and the geznia. ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. ^JLcu *Jl> attain to. jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit. 165 seq. B. Thus. 7 J J x x x right. " to *-iJ to blow. m+~i or to stick upright into the ground. . For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp. The Verb. c. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. c. ka. A Ojuc. --J£ throw. or 2?mW away. jI o . x xx J J x *. o.1 for^J^t. C^.

lean upon. 9J&0 . x . j*mm j j . ^$. as j^s. to J x done with. 'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan. unless they be primse rad. to. x*x gush out. b. ^£jj to be clear. dye. x x x x x * B Rem. . x x or w. goodness.j^j j <o incline to.^~* to be safe. as ojlcj he outbid J . rad. ' " '*' %+$ to . a. or the Parts of Speech. or suppose. a ' t present. as Jpo to croak.. A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. med. * * * q Rem. abound. x x J x x '. as w^*>^. forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to . .j J x x -j . X dx . w > * J x . J o. i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure.Iw to . him in composing J J J Ox poetry. SJLiJI 6. as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance). J x x . v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j.58 Part Second. Verbs of the form a). xx x ' %j j^> *.. to be present. Rem. Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. x kesra. J-cub . ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. '. comfortable.» him in promising. O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess. .to know. . rad. oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows. v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. rare are cases like jJx*. * s * ' ~£j xx to marry.jsu ^ and even three. j^u to be affluent. ^^i *->* .» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L. See also §§ 142 and 146. x x /^^» . x £o tf/iiwA.a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing. J x to J ' give as »*• . j «» *-U 6m#. ^j. ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory. j^j '. Very . £~e*jj cut or hew. Jx$ denoting superiority. u^j-^i '. . J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. x x ^ J x x . £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick. J x x ojjlj . x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful. when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . [§92 j A . j. X . excelled him in c.a>A. takes When the second radical of the Perf. Jiave .^~*i- Rem. . -^.» *° drink. C^mmij x ' i. the kesra of x t the Perf. '> ./toy. always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx .»-o Ox .»..j . quit. lean upon. the Imperf. or tert. x '. a~ojji. ^i«-> j Ox . *~^>. oj. 7 . ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty.. io. has kesra.

. l J Ox I. get masc. J ©Jx as 73B*. x B. *l%y. OU. that . The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf. Rem. * in * [Anbarl. I • With the above forms compare the Heb. jJL>. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense. j-*t.. and Imperf. Comp. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. as o*LL to be beautiful. has Gr. b. genders. p^lC p. C-***> / became I became bad. In the Imperf. j£\. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl. are it 'it very rare." = " I have = "I am killing. cL«).e. the 2d pers... sing.J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj. however. w*2o. o^J . 94. between the Perf. jj+j or t^. masc.. because completed. 1st p. a). damma. j**\. ^ot. masc. v^P to be high. the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground. and to some extent the gender. viz. C Rem. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. in regard to that the marks of the numbers. sing. J a in the Imperf. sing. p. more generally the latter. and persons. a. from its fern.§ 94] or innocent is I. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. in the Imperf. The most common example to die (for A a verb med. are only suffixed to the Perf. j. p'-m. 180*. Jjl. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing. a suffix is necessary. jJ<j to be dull or stupid. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is.—Similar cases 93. The Verb. sing. In the Perf. Thus." Rem. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers. — De . the agent. 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. noble. killed. O^j. verbs ft?p*. Oji." Hi (i. The Strong Verb. When the second radical of the Perf. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. rem. 59 of this kind of. done by me). and accordingly we . Perf. fem. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. masc. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise. retained in the Imperf.

to have been At ii. Subj. as the apocopated Imperfect. 0l H. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju .] Rem. [§ 95 A Rem. X Cy^.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too. and Subjunct. vowel with the third radical. as in juxi for juau. w-I&. the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth.. the Subjunc- ) © © <.o. as Indie. b. and its government in the Subjunct. suppose. because j * . falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^. one must not say ^ojit. distinguished by the third its radical having x damma. In the active voice of the first form. for j»^S\ etc. and Accus. / ^ (^Xju). a. In one case. 60 are recognized as .«- it D resembles the noun. w tive w>^. but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm. ^fflZmj in Sura i.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.- called cji^Jt. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel. is closely akin to the noun. . and the Jussive >j>%^H. and Jussive. wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem. etc. The forms of the Indicat... j cjLa*H. which seems originally i. vol. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission. because the genders. 96. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is . . The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any . c. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^. Dialectically. jsyu. which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. The . is 95. ^\ . 4. numbers.1. J x . least the poets § 247. in the verb. x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha .60 Part Second. j).] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. [Cf. correspond to the Nom. preferred. fetha of the Imperf. That is.

A gender. since it begins with two consonants. is The syllable ^— often written !_. The Strong Verb. plur. Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but. 98. oW^J . is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. fern. nor to the fem. 61 2d and 3d because pare pers.j_ or (J. U£3. the fetha of 6* <j. plur. c.or . 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo . coincide with those of the singular. and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened. a. Gomp. plur. fem. \j~S3. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. a j * * in a shut syllable: . 0~$3. a short . Com- 0>A ^y^k . The Verb. according to § 26. p. Rem. in the Energetic. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— . are exceptions. the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a. O s b.B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>. it takes. 194. B. i^-*^. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination . The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have.. with \y££=> . c). Gr. . rem.jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. In the dual. ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. & C Rem. of ^U. apparently because the sound of the syllable . because vt i b. is retained.§ 98] I. t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc. with Cm^> Hi X 97. a short vowel before and not to the dual. and pronounced in D in pause I—. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o .(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. and in consequence the second fetha : of . .jit * j elided. influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. because its forms would then .becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem.j. t>W>> from <jUl. In the 2d and 3d pers. IV. despise not the poor. the of the termination. sing.

Imper. 1. listen ! j\j&. damma. ii. —Etymology kesra . —De G. is and 1. come its and play meaning game called ar ara. Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations. and the final short <m vowel dropped). the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem.] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. which used in the same way. 23. rem. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. Abs.>*A)t.62 Part Second. see ^ 19. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). * — DeG. wRem. t^&ipt. b) in addressing a single person. Rem. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b. *&&. cf. or the Parts of Speech. This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash. <- rem.\. b. E. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. in cases where that elision does not take place. ^ J J t. When or kesra. The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. § 35. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*. and on the orthography § 19.>top (o for a. as j\Jx*. IV. a. 99. is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. 6 . (§97). vol. i. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel. this vowel 0^0 Jjtil.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J. 1842.] . c. with the finite verb.j±. D [Rem. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1. g. a. d. « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. Lilt with a various reading .

as J^aj. from JJ3I. and the second radical Rem.— Table 100. Act. The Verb. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. Act. 1. Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. if the last radical . 103. in the rest with fetha. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. and the second radical kesra. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. q This Rem. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. 21. II. In the Imperf. The second radical of the Perf. J^Jb and JJUaj. Active.] originally JJjisI 106. B the Jussive being used instead. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb. 3. i. The Perf. 9. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. Sij^i. [Rem. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. and Ju£>. third. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). rem. and fourth forms. The Imperfects and eleventh forms. 104. See §§ 106 and 120. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. Pass. Sibaweih. § 118. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. and also ^Ju^j.— De G. B. 101. In the second. 63 2. not J^SIj. damma. is 102. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed . TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest. In the Perf. Act. and Imperf. The Strong Verb. 105. where the treated like the o of b. the first radical has damma. the prefixes of the Imperf. is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms.— Table III. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. and Imperf. the prefixes take fetha. Pass. are pronounced with damma.§ 106] I. a pot I set is on tlie fire. JJUil.

but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner. frequently) loses its vowel. J^&wl. C 109.g. have of course no passive (see § 73). J3>£>.64 Part Second. u°> the sjo. the first Since the idea of the Perf. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. E. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. e. The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms. Compare 98 and rem. of the sixth. only by the vowel of the instead of.g. Jibl. jjW. vowel. 111. a. or the Slif . Oij^ . Pass. fetha. eighth. Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. O.. or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. jJ>t. * fifi consonants (compare § 54). and unites with radical to form a double letter. 107. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. not only characteristic * the first radical. In the Perf. the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act. )». J^St. J3&. there results in the Passive * j . of the is forms) . of the first Rem. >. seventh. D 110. *Z». The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem.g. in the Perf. Pass. of the first fifth and sixth forms. O of ^ u*. jj^aj. When b. 3. J3ut. of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass. If the last radical has no vowel. a. and Imperf. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e. not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. J^j£>.j. j**a\ for jj**e\. ». being neutral in their signification. the preceding radical loses . the word remains uncontracted . Pass. identical. and tenth forms. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. pronounced J with damma. b. as £>jj**o\. which is damma 108. The Imperfects Pass. Pass. J * * jJuau for jjslaj. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. jj**o\ (see § 120). prefixes.g.

B in those persons of the Imperf. G. 112. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. jio\j\ (Kamil. p. The *v\ton. is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers. rem. j^x3 j£>£i. J**yl jJjJt. in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. Jb+aJg i. Rem. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. ^. J. iio«y. j.) + . . Verbs of which the first radical is t. ComP Gr. Jn»^. B. the characteristic . ^UJ. *jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&. P . Act. J^W3). example namely instead.*&>. The Strong Verb. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic. as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. and compare such Hebrew forms as . j^i. for £i3 JjvS. sing. merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. 65 UC\. A . If the first radical is^». a. to lie concealed. or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. rJ*k preformative of the O . fern. i. "' &ytjj& ) Zl e. j. 114.§ 114] I. are of common occurrence. — v~<oJ\. J^tJ) . ijijj. masc. du. for for j~»&3. Jf*H> jl^i. j£\. 3d pers.g. and du. [and necessarily ijycjJJ. j. j^lo. ss * and i fern. j-cut. but use the fifth or eighth. iJu5.j of the seventh it form often unites with w. 569.]. See § 48. f^. 113. to take breath.). for j±> j£. Rem. wn. to sing. into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 . t Ci which O is and ! plur. ^ji. In modern Arabic such forms as J^. by assimilation for ^**£j\. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. .Ut. The Verb. Rem. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. . >. ^L\.5jj. in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms.. J»*W^>. note u±jj\. J J^p. b. n^n.

£*Jl»J. £***>j. the characteristic w». from c. <jjjt. *. depends upon usage j-i. ^jt. instead of the usual £+„*. ijj* . for j^Jjl. Rem. from cji. . for ^Ijkjl. letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl». j+.-a^ct. or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. initial The e. *0 . . 116.«a*-©t for 115. . for £3j\ . Rem. ji?t orjJul from jju. letter b. or >Z>.g. E. for j^iit.. The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. for **£M. *S)j3>\. for *-»2wt. for jUJI. Jjjit.!. aud ^jit. the characteristic O of the . from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl. for tj>^l. j *»*J. for ipjl. from jtj . etc. for j£&. If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>.^it. J**. ^ . Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the . y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form .. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. If the first radical be is y j. as well as D tfcSt Rem. is B Rem. l»*©it ? from Jsuco. bj*\ for bjZ*\. a. or j^>l. >»Ojt. A for JJa^J^I.g. from j^jt or :>pt from j>p . from j*. eighth form changed into >. . . which unites with an initial > into 3.Jt. ^j\j. . j.it for instance. J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt.66 Part Second.l. letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^. for from Jp . as q\j\.S . E.g. but Lane gives in Lexicon only *. from %+j jUt or jUt. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j .^w. from U> JXjt . Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. from «. C from ji. or j. for ^>\. Jpt. as *»*~>t. and with an initial 3 into > or 3. jJ^I. from ji>3j or ybjt. from j^j jbjl. Rem.

Act. C rem. b. the characteristic initial A changed into h. or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o .I ±*Jo\. quadnhterals: . Imperf.Si£t. *. is I. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . i>. JJJLl. B J^t. xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. to believe. Jte\. j Rem. rem. Inf. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z. U^>. . words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. ^y-ol. The O. for j*Jxot.*o. omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb. Jfljt). jZ~»* (jZ~**) . fifth. just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). from lJ*. Part. B.] Koran (Sur. eighth form 6. 3p»t. // IS as j^ot. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel. u° ix. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^». If the second radical be O the characteristic it. ^i£t. or £. j^J»t. The D 69—72). x x x from %+. j£~j. or 91.lo. The Qiiadriliteral Verb. x x x x x x x t. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears. a). which unites with b into j». act. x. ^Uxot. *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. x x x .§118] 117. The Strong Verb. and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6. ^L^. JJ&\. ^Jbuot.. v>ii. 36. or jUxbt. h. with initial 1» into x x h l.— Table IV. Rem. -*. seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118. xxxvi. ^A k o . four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second. o xSx * .. Rem. etc. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? . or JJSJiS. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. J» ii. j^-U . x x. ^JLL *$& . The Verb. Rem.Lo E. d. ^aUo . ^jA-ol. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf. b. O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i. ^Uw (see § 202. 49). [117*. //£ xxx . or &.g. ^6. jifat. a. occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19.i . from 0*k> w>jJxot. from j-o. 67 If the first radical be ^a. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. in § 45. 2~^t. As mentioned out. 4. y^ xxx XXX a. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs.

for w«J. and then converted into c Ik*!. —The J^A. Rem. Transitive verbs of this class. jtj viz. but the former is irregular: Imperf. first. JU> to split or cleave. with the exception of . the second retains its vowel. But if the third radical has no vowel. [Also. tenth form of elt.». ^^ to become dear (to one). C*j to sever or separate entirely . Pass. [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi. so as to form a double for jj9 to . jJ* to make hard or firm. and third radicals have vowels. and no contraction takes place as Ojji. Jgj^. >jk+j. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. jro*)\. which also admit kesra absolute. Imperf. become wise or intelligent. but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. so as to form a double for J-U^j. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}). E. or t^lo^t 120. *Jx~j. tesdid.jjiL». The form viz. j* to flee. which is marked with . make decisive or to to repair. The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech. J-ft-j for JX+j.J B 5. letter. the and unites with the third. Imperat. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. of the form JjtJ. letter.g. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel.68 Part Second. for yj~~~t> smell. JjA. — Table V. in verse. combines with the third. is aSI^A. a. to obey. Norn. (6) If the third radical has a vowel. **1a~j or **1~>. have six.g. clLLrft. J^ . oJA. JfJJbt. Imperf. we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. damma in the Imperfect. £fo doubled verb. Perf. act. also used. for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . v** to touch. Imperf. tie firmly. J^->. the solid verb. for Jii£ for j*+Zt . J*c . 119. and then E. is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt. j^ for >j^i. w^J.

5. are. Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse). or cJLb for cJULk. times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks. the long vowel !_. S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse. Rem. b. wvUlsu. a). C~Ui*. viz. jj£» to be bad. B. a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5. modern Arabic. p. it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. Imperf. d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. for C*«w .). C-. : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. w*». however. s * I first radical Os s . w*J to be vrise or intelligent. Rem. CXolU. ewe. [See De Goeje. to 69 water (camels) a second time. m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye).§ 120] I. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways. to have its etc. The second vowel iss s dropped. ^-^. Forms like Ojji. * o . rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). to Ibn al-Fakih s. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel.] / . »// . s s . etc. A Imperf. as redctit for Co3). Co***. sj s *iU3 to be silly. CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. Cw is S or Cw. (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc.1).v. — C/ow/?.~oiJ. jjsetc. <£&». £foss. The Verb. woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl. . Africa ai becomes Ol i. oj. The third radical is united with the second. or else s its . . to fove (instead of the common IV. One verb has only kesra. in one's dotage. s cJLb form 2. j^> 0* jjb to abhor. B la Us to 6e mrfo/. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. c. but OS* s in s N. as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. O^j.*J. o . Crr. to smell badly.). s s £)}j. as. is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. detest. 227 Such forms as C« g >.^*} to be uyly. «. s for O^j. JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o).>fc»t se?. The Geminate Verb. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one . s for *Z>jj«JS. along with the s vowel. * 1. ol »l also occur.

g. masc). [§121 A In the Jussive. rem. fourth. (§ 121). rules that apply to the Active of the first form. ±£x£ or u*xkj. The masc. I . and to the third. j^j. 566. tjji —not ij!j*\. and eleventh. it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other. for ^o-o-i. Faik ii. because is already doubled. sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. Cf. and jtjit. has a vowel (sing. the Arabs say ^Jj*. »j->*. b. j*c for jjl*I. etc. Higaz. j . the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first. l/*t. fifth. for or *ji. and combines with the third. cf. Iji. ninth. seventh. and plur. J^ or vi J*©-». jj*j>. Slbaweih ii. j3 for jjtt. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. tjj-*t.g. or j^^t. apply also to its Passive. . the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary.. c. y 6 s0>O ly-oft. Consequently jj±.jj*>. not U^j. either fetha or kesra . hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. sometimes do not follow § 120. this vowel may be (§ 27). But in the second. E.70 Part Second. >ji. for Conj.] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf. —instead of ^jjit. and tenth forms. ^-^-j or s^-j.] * — . ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. in those that have u. V. ij-i. the choice of the supplemental suffix . however. as ^£jj*\. 121. If the verb has a suffix. § jj*\. JA*j ul . D eighth. dual. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. i ' for ^aJsju. 443. j^j. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels. sixth. undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. undergo no contraction. sing. C Rem. the contracted to that of TamTm. and therefore tjjil. j&i or^Aj. w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* . ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third.. S| or^e^l The same >j. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc). [But 120. B 122.

. 126. (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs.g. These are called verba Jidmzata. are not contracted. consonant. instead of rudda. the weakest of the gutturals. 5>-»-^. The Verb. * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. Sudda. s-*jI~j>. Juss. tlamraa. sixth. rildda. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject. <djl for aJUjt. which is a. whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other). * * J * Aa*A. D 127. Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£. (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza. a long vowel. sing. The Weak Verb. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\.U. as I. German ii or 124. 125. However.§128] Rem. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. the 1st pers. and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. not unfrequently occur. sudda (with the French u). combining the second radical with the third. on account of its weakness. the uncontracted forms.3 . J>SU>. Forms like x>jj. alone (§ 25. These are more particularly called weak verbs. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. for J*. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. * * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI. rem. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). C.U*»o. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*. to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less. 128. and eleventh forms. jew. B such as 9 * s uoclJ. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ . -»^fc. ^. radicals is . by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first.).. jo ol j-p E. C. as jj. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. j J«l»-). The Weak Verb. in some parts of their inflexion. The weak letters are I. and ^. namely case oi In the third.

into ^ with hemza 6 . . or IV. a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. weak. for Ol^». VII. for good But from an historical point practical reasons.. we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted. sing. into ^ with hemza after the kesra. I. mediae. or third radical (verba primse. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. the first. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). sing. or ^ by » alone without a kursl. such as *. 1. (I). The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. Perf. The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs. of jj\. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse). to be doubly ^Sj. and that indicated by the later points. * ^ [This is a convenient formula. and ^y*. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc.). classes. and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. is closely conformed. of view. kesra. B is 130. Pass. 131. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. e£$t. rem. Rem. it is damma. Perf.. Act. These are divided into three according as the hemza second. when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. 1st pers. as ^j\j. If the elif with hemza and gezma. — . 132. VIII. or supporting letter. 2d pers. Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. for to and Ui (see § 133). Imperf. C Pass. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. ^ 129. In a root there may be two. after the damma and (J) . to be trebly weak. to whose method of exposition this work. masc. or even three weak letters .72 Part Second. (^). which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs.— Tables VI. sing.

that and when B J fc. The modern Arab also pronounces i. however. 6. j)t[+. The hemza retained. The Verb. having the character of a sacred tradition. to read. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. 1. in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. at of a syllable. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with. w^». show their origin from 73 I. n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. gi'ta. by writing ^yf. rad. soft breathing (as cJLi. Verba Hemzata.] w. Rules for writing hemza as J. become j and . This change has already begun in Hebrew. ^ §§ 133-4. that danu-a. and is almost universal in Aramaic. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets.§ 132] is I. y without touching the old consonants. and ^_. In modern Arabic. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area. and hence the custom. it was already lost or 10 . whilst ^ is to say. ^Uk. a. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. sani'-ta. preceded and followed by vowels. we the ancient language. at the end of a syllable. C*Jji for Ol^3. ylta. find traces of a softer pronunciation. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. rem. so). except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). *£%<*»». b]. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi. of resolving the verba C tert. The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. ^JjJu for \jju. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. Rem. with a slight emphasis . was bdusa. at the present day. u. ^^J.. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an. as ^Ji for [Ji. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '. because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17.

. Qordns. Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . t I. a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94. c) also Sura xlix. (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. J I ^t. because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . . 1st pers. from ^j . elif hemzatum. Noldeke Gesch. 8criptio defectiva (§ 6. . as ^*b. In other cases retained. in Mecca. peratives. of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. Imperat. sing. said^LJ for >#J£>. beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. 6.jili. of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t . ^l-oli. 14. Jijt. 3d pers. 0X3 (£§. Imperf. I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage. b. 257. In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e. —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech.£ . /it/ J).jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. 0+\ oU^J.J0. * 1 •» . c.] » . C/ [And so even of old prolongation. d. whence with 10 . of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. IV. of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort. J^»b. and. J passes into the elif of . it-. sing. O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem. Perf. not j-Jt. * *. jjj\. comes into the wasl. not jH»^t. . VIII. though it may be retained in writing. it is usually rejected to come). • Oti (from it is C^jt. U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. Rem. pers. [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . p. $1 3d Act. as ba'da'tilqfin. Q . b). Imperat. of ^1. of Jit ' '1 . Imperat. but in modern Arabic J . g. J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. sing. as G j-^t^. o * (§ 17. - q$\ . elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t.0*3* 0* . Imper.jJt. rem. for j*\j. rem. J^U JO %. In Imin pronunciation. when preceded by ^ or sJ. . 0* in its altered form . as j-wb . not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina. and the radical hemza . not £. O . Perf. .74 Part Second. 250. VIII.0 ' . Pass.J*M' . Os 1 >. ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. . .. not JLijt. written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . Perf. hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina. J w> yakulildan. rem. sing.

of j>^ ^o-LUwt. O i I . yyi. as \jJu from \j3. of . At the beginning I. . of made. 0. of j3l J&Jl. is I. or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif. damma Eg. to consult. of a word. a syllable ending in a consonant. rem.0 and meanly. Pass. damma and I. jj\. 1. X. Pass. and into ^. Pass. to.g. J^ for J*>b.> instead of jj*i. he acts stingily Is . as j*l. ^J^t . III. be reconciled for Imperat. The Verb. Perf. J)\ J^ hsB was asked. for^UI. when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha. £ usually left unchanged i . agree with. be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf. groan. for >lUl. j££\. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134. l. . of JL» . *> for^Lj. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. A ceded by damma or kesra.0 . of J •«« h. J of JL* j j^t. Imperf. Imperf. 75 In the same way. for^tjJ. Perf. is y>. j££ peace is made (between them). when (see § 17. U^j l. III. to be . or j*\.g. y>\>. which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. u*»>«-». E. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. 135.of j& Rem. of ^j. an impression Infin. Rem.o.§ 135] I. VIII. worthless. . . At . II. II. Imperat. a). to twang. for ^11. ofj»*$. Imperf. for jjb. l~. if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one. y^i. I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged. comes J or Finally. for ^U>. III. Pass.o.. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb. for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. of^oU. VIII. to be mean. jj&i. put on armour. pronounced with I. the end of a word. b). sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). for % ^Uj. preceded by fetha. Particip. Oj oj Imperf. j\j\. IV. it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . $y*tsuffixes. passes into 3 or ^. Verba Hhmzata. or with fetha and pre1 133. Imperf. of j>*$ to. for JU. of J$. /^ E. JO* .

and SUly*. as Ij^tjJ. from U. hemz. b and on the Imperative of ^yl. Rem. For the rule as regards other verba . we often jjll 136. J3u. a. q for L^tt. b) . • I . VI. b. j) which make only J^j. X 138. to give wages. b) pers.—Etymology to order. In old Mss. find J-itl. or J3f. or the Parts of Speech. in the Imperf. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\. j*o. to put on an Hzar. "% Rem. for to the characteristic to take for oneself.-wt^j. to come. J . as Jjf. rem. . see § 132. u*\yo. ^£jtj to eat to console.. j-«t.. of or tjj-«U. the first of . to a. IV.3. J x . and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . as .. Act. tfc £wo became intimate friends. J X ^.tj. 139. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. 6W&<#.\. rem. as ^^-tj or 'parallel to. xx£ to take. elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. for 3d plur. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. b. J^tj along with. rem. Ufc. JXs. prim.76 Part Second. rem. of jj\. according to § 17. J ^O J t (§ 132. X making X J**.tU or L»A3. for Jiff. they deliberated together. b). rad. reject radical in the Imperat. . and J J J^l J to eat. and the etc. agentis and actionis. rem. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif. . and j^. Nomina It commenced. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . and J^. L». of course. In a more modern stage of the language.t (for ^il). see also § 175. rem. where. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132. for tjj^U3 Perf. i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with. to prefer. Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\.t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt. O of that form . . The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form.

second. iUt to send. 140. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. \jj). rad. see Comp. in secondary radicals rem. Verba med. J-~> C jtl>. t to trade (see § 148. Gr. or I^LLs. to JrwsJ or confide in. elif J~*. plur. t^JL>. From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. or third radical (verba prim®. for JI~j. more rarely in J^l. The Verb. into b). and in Syriac it the rule . Verba Hemzata. still 77 give alms. p. When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. Jtffc and j**j. for ^t. J-~> for JI~j. sing. 2d m. letter These likewise or fall three classes. J~> for JL»J (Imperat. b). or J-^. Compare . Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. p. for O-oJut. 46. Rem. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^. —The tenth form of J^. D 2. we may say JuTj Rem.-kjA_»|. for Kg. tertise rad. from ^jJ for \j\ji. from {j\j to see. I^LTi. according as the ^ ^ is the first. from the rad. etc. Pass. Perf. for J^U. an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149. Jjbl. rem. IjjLi d. 6. secunda). du ^U».). o?o. ^. j_kj|. and marry. hemzatum is elided. Rem. 6). and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. not ^C. to A v>*3t. to receive wages . whence ^-U. cJ~» [not cut*]. to take.t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt. ^j\. ^ et . 282. — Sometimes the JC . a.§ 141] I. for e"lif J^jt. an^ with B ^ i. an angel p]X a?)in the fern. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. to be safe. etc. which has Jlw JL>. JL» Jl~i to ask. 141.). its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. 6. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw. This for is particularly the case with the verb pers.

The Imperat. angry. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. Eight verbs primae rad. ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to. jJv.g. J^ aJLj. j**$i or J*->>..78 Part Second. X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of. of verbs |"£.— Table IX. J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly. JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t). js. Verbs of which the First Radical rad. Rem.^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat.g. comfortable. a. jbjj i . 143.^ 2o 6e angry with. or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. Imper. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. to be in charge also dialectically the ^. ^o**i> t° oe happy. £^3 to be in pain. j^. x j»)$ to swell. j. g JxJxOxxx j § of. —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. 3 or (£). Ox OOO E. xx xx in these forms. ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l».g. Imperf. £*->. Imperat.C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has . to forget. [§ 142 A A. But those verbs primse rad. inherit. juu for j^-^i. to be melancholy. . j**~j. in § 92). £0 fove. jJ$ x x x to to bear children. JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. Imperf. morning ! 6. J^->.JJu ^3 to be near. J-fcjj. JxOxxx jtyi '. ^. Imper. J^ to stick . is ^ (verba prima? 142. jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise.. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf. ^jj to be firm and hard J X . xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. jju. which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf. i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid . ^° ^ e Jx diyj . t condition and handsome. £>jj . retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid.. Imperf. ja. reject the 3 in these forms. full of hatred (of ground). Rem. J y of the form Ja3. j»-b for jJ^». and Imperat. Ji*J.Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su. (of fat).for jaA (jue^l). cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful). and Aram. I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj .

lj J x Ox and J*»*u. owes its existence is. cjj and j±j are not used in . has fetha. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. %o»\i and J x x ». Ox for %a*yi. ©ju. **. x x x C » . Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair. . xx Ox ^Jbj y^i. yoy*. J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon.j. the Perf. x x JxOx %». Verba t pr.. some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^. to moke a mistake.g. J**. x . X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. to 6e tfi j)« . » U». and Imperat. E. j et {J. « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}. s>j x to let alone. $>$ to be visited A J0_ .j. xx xx gjl x x to restrain. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. „ 144. Jx Ox . *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. rad. most commonly occur. # ©jJ. to let alone.j or J x r% jj. radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j). 79 by the mur. y J s Jibuti. Usy. b. Xs* and . /Off. Others even use the forms Jjwj.ov-jj. £0 £>e afraid .§ 144] J I. j ^ • Ox #J. dialects x In verbs primae rad. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf. from j*b}. £~«i. Rem. is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. s-**.ai. and Imperat. J for x Jj^j. B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*. £-«y. for ^*A>j. The Verb. the is In a few verbs. j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn. Rem.yi .» ji. J x x c>. J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. * . Ox xx £3 x jSj. radicals are strong. notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. J £*• xx to give. geminatse . a. y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. are at once primse rad. t. of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. I J rain. ^. in the mud.

145. I. IV. of j~»j and &Ju . —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. hill). D teJuj . ctjut. easy. %yi J %yi and .. Pass. forj-wt a. XL. ^J. and kesra. &*>>. c>^iwl. .. producing O »j * * * * . w^jt. . Act.0 L»+Z~>\. Imperat. JJjt. . <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. to be gentle. .. 146. for Oj and as judt. has ^^^ a. the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . Rem.g. j~3\. ^ is revealed. jLmjUA. ^^-l.80 Part Second. J ' ' jt jibs gg. JO. for Infin. of verbs primse rad. for ju*Z>I. to despair. Hence Jo^-jl. ' '. but pass after ^ and ^ damma. See § 143. and X. and X. IV. ^Uo *0s See or § 92. ^Uj. ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . ctjuzll. J J jl~>t J and OJ . vowelless j. e. it. and X. ** grown up. j-~>$i. j *^ to or become ripe. or y^^-o. j~»> to play at hazard. approve of Sometimes. rem. Verbs primse rad. for J***]. In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e. [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. O. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for . to play at hazard. Jl^jl for jjtjjt. fetha. g. Perf. Imperf. ^. according to the preceding vowel. the j is ^ s or j productions. In the Passive I. (^jl»I).* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . IV. Perf. for ws^jt. IV. into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . according b .. (juujl). *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake. the preceding vowel. teristic In the eighth form. ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time). 147. Imperat. j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. 148. C*5t. J*a*j . the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis. Jiio JiAj do. for jL~>| and j Infin. * to be sb< J J 6s . ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . * J^**'. *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. . IV.. however. Rem. t. J J . Act. Imperf. *J^]. J ' rem. £t>Jl. and ^U* ^sb. s^^-yi for w^>j. for j~~*i. or J s ' . ^tSjlll. or u-^-rf. for <£*3j. . ^*-j. #0 receive a promise . although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O.

in the Perf. indicate the principal points of difference. b. becomes „ „ Jy^t. seventh. he is afraid. the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first. to be hereditary. j Jyu. J^Ll for for JJ^y . or If the first radical is without a vowel. Compare b. and tenth forms. 11 . From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. radicals . and rem.. . is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. JJjLl et ^j. to prop him up . >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave). rem. and the third has one. is „ JUj. and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. Act. ^J^arJi. 234 seq. do. E. ^^i. I. eighth. Imperf. 3 or ^j (verba X. (§ 145). The Verb. JaaJI. For the inflection of verbs Comp. Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). ^JSj to rely be to upon. of this class in the cognate languages. for j-^ri. ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person. *r>^> j do. j. Rem. follow . Uul to insert . E.§ 150] tion. *$3. Pass. B or long possessed . make one lean. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147). Rem. or ^Jj. do. J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. „ granted. inherited. p. Compare § 139. I. to and in the fourth form. XIII. Jyb. — C 149. he goes. Verba mediae rad. he is afraid. j * „ j . *~3 to be wide or spacious . rad. ^*^j j-^ a. to face . ^. Pass. pardon w. J*£j. c. ^"t to fear (God) .g. Gr. j~~i. J^>> Imperf. IV. Imperf.g. w^v-. Verba pr. in the Imperf. *l. I. it is said. j for J«15jt. 150. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. 81 I. see B.

into *sL. [§ 151 A he remains. x a£ 3d p. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»). pardon asked. Act. Jussive Act. i x o t. But if the third radical loses vowel. C^UXtaWl x ). he was thought is gentle. for . 3. Act. Imperf. ji} £. is Rem. remain.82 Part Second. x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt). especially by the poets. j»£\. „ „ t^lJI. IV. 3 oi Imperat. he softens. IV. S^-s^.„ 3 . sing. Plur. ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. do. IV. x xOg ^\i\. (J**t). do. Jussive Pass. fo stands upright. X. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j). the long vowels ^J— $—. X do. JU^j. Perf. 3 t i (J3. Pass. soften. do. 1^-iJI. X. t^-j3t. Perf.0. IV. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!).. Imperat. » 2 I Ojit. 03. I.g. do. 2d x p. plur. Act. I-. x 3 J*£l~j. Imperat. 3 Perf. j 0*k. 03 3 ij*A*~i\. 0. he softened. O Oi Jit. IV. Pass. p. 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech.*x. x 03 o. f. Imperf. 151. Act. I. OJ&X. IV. x do. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. (j*yy). x (j-j**.$.). IV. J»$*-i. d v>Jt..AJ). do. Perf.a»*) I do. Jju. l>o*3I Jx 3 . xx to be.03 . IV. (C^ll). (CM^)j 2d f. are changed into the corresponding short ones. 3.j. IV. Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). X. Act. . Pass. because (§ 25). its Imperf. sometimes still farther abbreviated. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. X. he remained. > „ 3 O^jl. Pass. Jussive Act. . oj \yyi\. plur. J*. m. . 03 0*k.

Verba med. I. the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122). J>5I. E. 3 o 3*0 3*0 153. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel. Q .g.§153] 152. If three first succession.g. $ et ^£. The Verb. 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l. E. then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. rad.

Q b. si (see § 140). J**. s E.\. In forms like Ji^Xwt.l. j^t s i i „ » a. Rem.84 Part Second. j^6. Pass. is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. j-^l). (J productions. hula. Os s dj~» Oj-j~>. il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula.). . suka. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. I. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. Jjo»).g. B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. VIII. to say. was ^. -is for JL» _ siila. but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. s sis £# (for £*j. if it was 3. and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra.. and i changing those letters into j productionis . a ^JOIj). J>$). (^tfui). Act. s s i. j-m^. three cases arise. (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I. forms The verb JL>. ss s C-s^5 s for . 2*J). Instead of J*3 (J>3). 154. (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. Perf. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. Pass.g. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. German Rem. rem. j*X». namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^. and ^J[$**>. and the third is without a vowel. 2d pers. " O i s i Rem.\ (for j#*. s i E. sOi i J^*. m. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive. pronouncing or &. giida. If the first radical has fetha 155. do. (Jj^)j like. In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel. the damma elided substituted in its place.1. if it s i damma. o~«ji. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. sing. (for £)y*». some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t.

do. e. do. D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh . kuta. Rem. ^ J of the form J*5. bU'a. J Osju. m. pyj.] rad. Pass. I. The Verb. seventh. In this case the same i elision takes place. etc. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. I. to fo . bii'tu. 93) . ^j kesra.* 6. fo/i#. [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»). to . say CuXS. mediae rad. according to x x o E. for E. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. as in a. » m. Act. (§ 155. ^>* (^y*). ^£. a) and C* **. and Perf. and most verba . sing. 2d pers. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel. sing.g. etc. (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. ^ et ^J. x x x *£*. rad.. m. Perf. Most verba mediae j take damma. *. Perf. C-o*-> for Cou. the 1st and 2d pers. grew m J J X J J}/ . — De G. Ci4 x xdx e. Act. suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. Oxx identical in form 155. comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. fern.* for C-s^*. c). but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. the § 25. radical is is Verba med. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. Act. In verbs mediae rad. 2d c> pers.§157] (b) I. I. change the fetha of the x O x Kg. and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel. VIII. m. cJJ» ° cJ^b. from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. 2d 3JLik pers. as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem. . B x c*a£> for a C^»*. to move away. 157. x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj). 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. do. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). sing.g. forms.. and in those mediae rad. J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J. are J O J . Perf. Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). a § present. „ a. sing.g. (c^J). 156.g.

fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). . >jV( •>>* to 60 6M. 3 —Etymology in some. XX. ( J-»j-») . and T B also C~*->. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate. *y~>\ . See U>. • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med.S. j^^ IV. lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. are mentioned by the lexicographers. second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . are always written. of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. A Jxx JxOx . OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. for example. these In verba mediae rad. obtain. oU->. 3. Imperf. or the Parts of Speech. takes fetha (§ 92) e. 3 et ^j. § 90. . and b. jj* to be one-eyed. for. a. . and O3-0I (Heb. . a. rad. for C^Zc.86 Part Second. c. C-*o. IV. rad. though w~o. for CJj. ^JU^. to tc?M&. Imperf. C*o. JU. Imperf. jj*>i. Imperf./ktr. from ifa night . 159. are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf. j***. Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. . the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). j. to get. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. to . which rem.g. Hence we write J33.g. to sleep. ^. ' E. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly. comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J). £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. if it did. x Of . s Some verba mediae rad. j~~j ijv~i). the X X X X J X X Imperf. Syr. ^£*. xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. ^>?j. •• Syr. X JJ £j>j and £»>*3. xx ^^. and a few mediae . TVlD*. But which are of the form J*». no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. of the form }»3. co^ XX Heb. O or Q. from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. See § 11. rem. from J\j (J^tj). O^* f° r fr° W C guard ..). Jlft. 160. ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. to cease. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. »*x x £x G x . ((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y). XX ^. 158. for Uu.

rem. b. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx . *' ' A Oi . On form from verba med. u . M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx . w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^. I. Imperf. from the w>L« . x 87 x x xx Ofc .g. from the rad. JU-I or 162.. from m\j do. to watch a rain-cloud. w»Ut or <^^j\. J>*j. 242 seq. ^ from^U do. *" *~3>)\ to pair. to reward. Gr. C from the rad. A few verba mediae rad. Imperf. Rem. E. Some verba mediae weak rad. the eighth form. to have a long. xx inflection. J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting.>t. J^a*->. shortened from cl :^l. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. with the exception of a few. XX* xxxxxO rad. said of a camel. slender JxOx x ... E. j et ^. Many inflection. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**). j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . J>fct ju. c. which almost always adopt the strong. x Imperf. jU o>^ Mjo one another. and flexible. to " marry x x . 161. from the x X . Similarly. rad. from Jl». grant a prayer. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. . a. x x elixwt or cUwt. oftey. Verba med. IV. the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad. xxO of sU». 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age.>t or w>j a». The Verb. xx to j>^t to borrow. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. see § 118. jlr*. to be cloudy. see §§ 240-1.§ 163] Jx Ox x . rad.«a.g. Imperf.. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->. the first b. as jy**\ to be neighbours. xx Ot J-j£j. x x Imperf. ju. Jf^wt to become like a . p. from verba med.»t.o to have a particular disease (ju-«. but they generally prefer the weak. x <Jyau J^a.jfe>\ or^^l. IV. [chiefly denominatives]. the Jx X . from the rad. rad. ju*. 9-lj . ^ -»x et ^. M . Jx x . Jx Ox to squint. or intermarry. in Rem.. Imperf. O^verba mediae rad. xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. to consider right. w> U* » . Hebrew and . to give an answer. juou JL* have a slender waist. from ^*^S a bow . x x x W0c£. to 6e a&Je to do. used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp. On X. x x j glanders). D xxOx she-camel (*$U). to Rem. Ox ^.

as iJD±. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels .to be ashamed. —a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. j of the form as to make a foray or raid. not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. /?. namely Jjtf . 166. (e) Verba tertise rad. ft a). 164. I!**). The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. fern. etc. for ^j B with. s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j.88 Part Second... one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. a). a). a. the masc. d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*. where they . b—). when the preceding f . s w-»j^j. for^j£ (b) (§ 167. sing. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. sis as jj~> to be noble. classes.g. u—a ($—). place. u —a. forms tj£. l£J^> for ^o>. is [§ 164 A C. (c) Verba tertise rad. or it resolves itself into a vowel. : jet fj. j of the form J*J . 165. u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). a). UjJ^. Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. Verba tertise rad. or it is elided. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. ^ of the form Jj*i sis . — \j£> Verba tertise rad.— XVIII. (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. sss* In the first and second and II. (a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb). namely. and Ojj-w. (§ 167. a. of the form Ja$ . % .— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . O ss s Rem. /?. and. C-oj^. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf. ^ 3 of the form Jii . (d) Verba tertise rad. s s E. 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ). There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. after I. the 3d pers. Act. that retains its power as a consonant. a. jjx. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. on the other hand. as ^oj to throw. might have been O^j^. In the dual. ends with a consonant. they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j.

and 168). as Ijj^fc for tj. L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. Hence arise the following cases.. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P. fern. is (b) The i third radical u. O^j-j for Ojj-». . as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij. 'ugzu). as for Ojjx. j 167. as t^-oj-j. in J At It the end of a syllable. they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>. The Verb. might have but said b\j£ and UU. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. ^— 7. 3 et ^. . a. according to §§ 166.uw and ^. lT^J L5~^ .. or after dropping a short vowel. 12 . c^j for C^ w. in the second syllable. j. 89 fern. and 154. or elided.g. ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. rem. owing to the influence of the /?. or a).. one of two ways. (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable. as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and . Rem. and and the two vowels are contracted . rad. (from ^^>j for^-oj. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. sing.§ 167] I.*j£ ^ . u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians.. a. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -). as for t^JjJ. rem. E. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '. Imperat. ^-.. yi— into j_. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. ^*j>»» for C*j>».ty pass into ^— u and t -d. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a. lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3. that is to say. Verba tert. \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-. !>*«. The 2d pers. ^-©jl for ***j\.X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. = cJjii. cally. sing.

for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168.g. a syllable. ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. Oj^fc. and ^— rem. for . for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . but the tenwln E. tenwln of x damma and for kesra. 00 jJaj xOx . Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis. (3. D.$>*»». j_ X for j— lib ^_ . gazauta.] . ^^H f° r ^p. E. 3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I . J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj. 4J}\ approach.90 Part Second. E. 3jU. 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166. J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj. (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji). but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for .. and . jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical. ramaita. (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a. /?. not naturally. 5) for ay. X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable. j>j-~>.g. ^_ X for ^J— and ^_. it is vocalised in three different ways. <u#cj. for (j?jU.g. ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. j£\. Vol. for ramayta. third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative.g. a) . ## for ^-). J J The a. OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on. fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation. O as as . before the J^U is x (§ 80). fi for j>*j. t>£ for jj£. These vowels are x > elided at the same time. OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!. jo f. but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. J***. Jju. ii. sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0. etc. G. It has been already mentioned is (§ 166. x O xx gazawta . it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E. ^-Stj) 5 J . J**-». The Jussive § 230). (jj-xt). a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j. ^j*\j and ^\j jU . [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. (see § 236).

^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. ^jZ-. verb . rad. of verba tertiae 3. Imperf. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. and. 255 seq. in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. I. Such verbs as ^*oj. Verba tert. The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. (§ ^. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain.§171] (tj—) into i^. . Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129). each of of those . Gr. ^. ^ijp. for l££jtj waws into j. or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land. C-*-©. JLLj. compared with the correp. is occasionally found in verba tert. The form ^>*-o ^jk*. / am mra from (&&e) the lion.tjt (Ji*J1. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£. rem. rad. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. a). sing. For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. b. Imperf. C>*"^P fr° m 169.. wliich have both which comprises several varieties. maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently. In verba tertise rad. masc.. 3. as far as the above rules permit. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. ^o\j. j et ±J. in consequence. the preceding for ^j«j*c. from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i. to attack. though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. rad. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . from lw to irrigate. e. ^>j^. In the nomina patientis. instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+.1 Rem. the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . Perf. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. rhyme as for u^U). a. 171. J}^\. The Verb. 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. and not ^. whether attacked or attacking. Rem. ^J^l \JJ&[. as $jsu> for jji>«-«. Rem.g. 170. 3. a). we get 5 inflection. g it/ admit of either form. Jyta* (§ 80).

according to the position of B 173. as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. rarely See § 146. sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return. and 142. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. rem. j&. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. (for U*. X»X X«< C 174. x Imperf. of u~-*-^> to despair. varieties. J^3 to tread upon. hemzatae. as jt$ to frighten. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. . J$ (j-rfU-!. Rem. J is ^l-a-j. 144).XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. hemzatae. : — . as bj to smooth. to wish. [§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172. follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. it t^a*. hemza.92 Part Second. its Imperat. . Such words .g. J D x The Imperf. hemzatae. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs. tju. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. and (/?) verba tertiae rad. [also ^sb and u~jb] . ^bt. 3 i 6 x Rem. hemzatae. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. more OS. 3 ^. .) to come. 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad.

J>\. The Verb. Doubly Weak Verbs. a.§ 176] I. 93 of. A .

^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. Rem. In the fourth form.1 < st . 178. In the second E. J 3 . Pass. C ^j .g. e. those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. L5^ ' E. in which j or ^ is occurs twice. rem.3 it>3 elided. jj. Of the second : class. always elided : ^jj\. the hemza . ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech. whatever. -^ (for gjl). just as in the voice. 3 3 . Pass. 0>l. there are two sorts radical. for ^tjj. . is or the Parts of Speech. i . The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad.3 to be near. —Etymology Perf. sort.94 Part Second. ^jjj. b. 3 or ^. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained.3 ^j 03 tjj. radical. Active z^Jj*. is c. as ^$£ to roast. . when si it signifies to show. . (§ 175. as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard. J or or A* a). the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . ^3 ^3.g. In the Imperf. * J [§177 S3 (like is The . 179.g. ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J . a). Rem. B 177. to be strong. ^^j) or. by transposition. the hemza it is .

first class are of two sorts. the first radical.. >. Doubly Weak Verbs. — ^c. when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. £>t**!. I. X. in the Imperf.-£. (b) as j^^j. We pass over the second class. -i-. j^**. Verbs of the is 181. 180.ou into forms . to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. C as (^lj to promise. 178). namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to . which letter hardly ever used j viz.**£**>. and Imperf.). as . . * t a*3 for 4****J. LL> to ivrite the ^. . The Verb. are inflected like j-^t and . and rem. (§§ 80 and 20'2. e -ge. B Rem..». rem. ^j^> (§ 179). <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect.g..-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. 123. also admits of being contracted into . The former l£jW. ^a+j.wt. rem.§ 181] for I.. . 95 ^fc..). as is it seems to consist of only one verb. ^jt to is betake oneself to. . (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf.a*J. for La»l»>t. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. and — The § 153. (c) in the A nomen actionis IT.. and l.

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.Paet Second. [§ 182 .

[The following noun must be denned by the genitive. S>**J. as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. s^&y X Hence ^*j. by contraction. J*2J to [or rather. They are used as exclamations. jjj for jjj. and ^^j. U«ju. ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j. x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w. and ^-£4. 166.for ^>~»»«. excellent as a companion is Zeid. b. juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. according Comp. . and U ^oju or. Verbs of Praise & Blame.] Rem.§183] I. J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. it is said.^^*3. 97 II. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . and are generally indeclinable. Gr. as: a dependent lit. juj ^^a-LsJI j^. may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. to be good. instead of being elided. though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. and^^so. x x write Rem. is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. article or O-**5 ) occur.» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9. to fo 6ad. Appendix A. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$. as xx for j^ " for j^. and the plur. These forms are to be explained as follows. the dual U*J. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. which x last is obviously the original form. as j^JSj. fern. If followed by l«. I^ju.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju. U ^^Jj or ^U. The Verb. Instead oij^su we may say ^3. Zeid is an excellent companion. and the p. . Arabic verb of the form Jas or . In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. vowel. may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii).» and x JLy£. U-Jb. v»^» for^cjib. its x x x If the second radical be guttural. jt^ for jl^w x . ^>~». wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. x J —a contraction which x © . which has been thus attained.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

help. instead § 317. a. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. Rem. VOX?! *HWr*&. if appended to the verb. When . qualificabile. b. J s 0* designated vo-^t. see Oomp. Thus. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. from d-JlLct he gave him to me . a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. it to instead of 4-JUast. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. Q Rem. he gave (b) me. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. fear Me. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb.104 Part Second. more 1 especially is. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Very frequently. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. 189. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. II. the verb worship. 22. ^-»^l. (a) The Noun. Compare in Heb. Jerem. Rem. In certain cases this form alone is used. nomen. a. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. Me therefore. a 2 seq. of i^_. . in this case ^. THE NOUN. b. for the sake of emphasis. sing. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). See rem. sO* Jt. is Rem. but not always (see § 187). instead of AAlkct. or Substantive. the pronoun is. he gave it to him. as abl ^ylkc-t. is 190. to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct. The nomen substantivum. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. a. Gr.

gv as the above translation shows. are Rem. that out. . w. or Numeral Adjective. a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. the substantive to which the pronoun refers. \Juo^\. the noun of indication. called 3u\jm\. in Rem. avTaiVVfiia. because. or Adjective. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* .. aa-oJI. word by which something the concealed or kept in. for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j. is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. and a. is. j^S SjU^t. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately. The names of the pronoun. 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). A quality. they are identical in almost every respect. is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M. is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. 14 . after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353).- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum.-0. * as opposed to &La)l. that which is apparent or It is also manifested. J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum. 84 —89 and 185 — 189. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. or Personal Pronoun. The Noun. (c) The nomen numerate.)l. 3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\. or Demonstrative Pronoun. or cJtdf. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI. »J 105 . by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. 3 Jit * ^^1.. the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. b. of by. — ui regard to form. D * elliptical expressions. * the noun of number.§ 190] II. >o or Relative Pronoun. descriptive epithet.

in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools. the root of ^ji. one that a nom. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. derived from nouns.£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide).^5*^ qualitative. but a denominative Rem. 9 a key (from *J3 to open). and their different Forms. . The s . from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative). b.. nor derived from act.. that is. act. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. Nouns are divisible. ^ji. and which does not give birth to a nom. that is. as . water. nouns were formed. . conversely. not itself nomen actionis or infinitive. or denominative. ^-> how ?). ^l^JI human .. derived from verbs. is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth. y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). is «U a denominative verb. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns. stantives as J*y man. a horse. is not derived from oU.. formed from *U nor 9" from it. A. and a comparison of the meaning word. u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . . as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). At a later period. ^ 9 0* . as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion). primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye. Rem. 191. |Lo water. of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U.. [§ 191 A 1. in respect of their origin. derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc. follows.106 Part Second. a.jUJI « human being). its root.\Zjlo . full of water. and are either » deverbal. ^j* may .^wt. primitive and . or verb. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ . The horse. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. classes. to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. into two derivative. to be skilled in horsemanship.

^t. ( ^ji a horse . 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J. JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel. ./***> of. • a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object. tfAe £ion. ^J^jJui a quince. or^at. names of women. but^aj^JLo. as i«L»l for the cat. a as^oJLft knowledge. as jj-o*. w>jj/5. as ^LxJt ^jt. x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass.o-L j^£>. 2lJju.l^ and ^t^JJt. an ^>*£^o~>t. J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. act. an ^Ji^^wl. a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. compounded with JO i ^jI. 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. names of horses. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . as ^^ft knowledge. mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot. as ^J***. the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^. dx . or .e - a name of. riding. in its strictest sense. a noun that is A derived from a nom. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more.§ 191] II. 02 / A. « man. or (6)^*1 ^y*o. 5 J x The Noun. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. understood. juw.jjl. or verbal root. jU».^U. 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S. or xO rawie. .^a. sJ^*. daughter of. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1. ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO . x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind. fox) . as ^-»». as 0x00 man. roottra that is augmented by additional letters. smi as ^L». J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. father o/. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos. names of men. or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A . 4«~ot.

j**). ^--jiM _$j-«t. the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. « x J Ma'di-karib.O J genitive. x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. (excellence). as j^w. J>*b ws-U. 0*3 It. improvised. ^b*. The 9*x as j^> (a bull). (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). as 2J*j Duck or Bottle. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. x x arm). ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort.a*J^o. x 3 consisting of a single word. The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals. c. d simple. latter class is of six kinds. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. Bebba (imitation of a sound). ^^ JOxJ wA*5. x 0*» x joica/. (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^. OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . 3 . . as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). xDx .. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound. viz. a surname. as C iUju. . [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. ft 2ro30 x U -p. Job's father. as ^3 1. predicative. aj^^. as io (see above. (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally. —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o. which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J). existing only as a proper name. or (b) %^^»^o. ZjZ£- . ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt. tfAe weasel. the "patient" camel. Ox BaJal-bek. transferred from some other use. c) (8) X. impromptu. JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7. B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>. &15U (bestowing). as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. i the sun of virtues. as t^itu jus. or proposition. 6). gift)'. x J x ^jtjSJj^c. amir pounded. ^ijs- ^t. as w>^»t ^jt. or an honourable epithet.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. jb^SXZs j»\. Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose. Siba-weih . jX^j.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. £&e female hycena. as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God). 6. or wilcu*. ^e tortoise. The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. w*jj$ &\.^0*-. 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . * . 3 x extemporised.

place C in- Nomina instrument i. Nomen vasts.^1 ^^1. 194. pyi\ ilo-^t. but have the nomina agentis et patientis . nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. The Noun. \Jj&. nouns denoting the strument. (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes . J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time. Nomina bo agentis. but have substantives. (participles). (d) Nomen relativum. £3^1 £l©-/t. action once. The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis.§ 194] II. A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O . J^UJt ll+*\. the reference or relation). also called nomina (d) vasis. are by their nature adjectives. particular class of derivative ad- .\\ ll^wt. (a) Nomina vicis. a jectives. (b) Nomina Nomina speciei.. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. and nomina patientis. . the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. the referred noun. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. w^ » . A. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 109 192. come to be used also as B 193. >. Sj^.»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. llo-wt JjjtfcoJt. *Uyt ^S. nouns of kind or manner. namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis. nouns of. *W*l. the noun that denotes the individual. is c>J&\ ^wt.

9/ J ? J 2 J w^. as ^**A. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/. -*j^. *yj. 9 J 9/ j ? 5.*. 9// J"k>> voj-^.. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^U. 9// 9// 9/' Ja3. JaaJI *U^I. ^i. B which express the action. as 0*4*> Jaw. CO/ 1. J£>. jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. The Nomina Verbi. as w>*^> ^a^. t^j~». • . 9«« / 2. . JUi. are very numerous. ^j. a. <". 196. j*o. the diminutive. list The following a nearly complete within brackets. The nomina verbi. 3j£. where it originates). >j. o e>M3 (a) „ . 9. (/) Nomen deminutivum. are abstract substantives. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive.. oc 195. ^J*p. SlXw. The Deverbal Nouns. The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. Z. without any reference to object. D 4. J / /O/ (lit. as w>jm£. or time. as <U*^s *j^> fat. v5j^> wJJU*. j-w.mj. 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . J*3. O***. j£w. the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). as»£>. which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. . wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-. 8. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. J*». The nomina verbi. the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*». £j 6. /0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis. J**. J>5. 9// JaaLw. / 3. the lessening). the lessened noun. subject.Q\ ^~/\. as w~U».Ju. ^o-lafr.110 Part Second. Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. >a-c. j^>3. 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj.. passion. ibuo. 9 of them. %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. as *Jl£. / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s. M*-* j> 7. as i*A». Rem. J*».

as ^-^o. 5JU3. %>^=>y . [19.J [13*. cA&. as ^jA».§196] 10. as as iW-] ^>^. as Ujl*.] ilJUi. ^3>iif.] [19* [20. as *£*>] o^. 3)U~>. «''» as i*Aafc». SjuLi. ^^Uj. as ajUj. ^lU (or J&). 31.] ^**. —Nomina Verbi. ^»>i. aX*5. aJUs. iUi. 16. o^o^. [13. iip.. as TClj. as ^IK Jl>w. ^i**. as [18. oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21. as Oj^^xj.jtjl.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. Sjlij. as ilAt^>. as ^J-o*-. SjUi. . JU». 4^. iitjjL. 26. io-«ac.. al^Ui. as eg^y B 17.. SjLs. iCLj. ^-U*. *1^> *^> 3&. i3Ui. j) . O^***. as < V »a-. Ill ILJ. ^J^. 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J. JUi. 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. JU-. Nouns Subst. as *jU£».. ^l^j. J 27. JU3. [15. as £jl*i. ^5**^^^Ui. The Noun. 4>^-»-. SUU. 4JL0. 22.^f&] illi. 53UaJ.Lai. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. 9 as oy. rial. as iol.] O^iii. £J£ (also written <uU). JU*. 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. [24. 12. II. o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ . 29. Kr&z.] Sul. as O^*^.<& Adj. 14. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . £Ui. JUi. as cA*«»g. v 9*1 l*3. 11. liUL^. [24* 25. A. lS**3 - L5£**. as Ait^i. 28. [30. 0^i © •J J[Jl.

] [Rem. «»/ JJ£ to kill. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand. 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-. are 28.J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i. 39 c. as ib^e. £T / d . 1. Urn** .] All these nouns cannot. 0. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo. J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*. ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s . GO* as J^-Jl*. Ij^ii. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. J**j. J-oa-c. as Jj**. rem..— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech.. however. as *J££. What these are. 5 Syii. jyd. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35. SjJtLc. 42. cAs [41. must be learned D from the Lexicon. GO* 00s u . 221.0* tS$y°. J***** asj*£«. J*£*. a^-*..Jjfc3 * J** * is * . 34. JmA '. d->j*o. triliteral verb. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44. as Ag^ci*.] 37. £J>*i.' 9 * 0* . diksuLc. 34. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*. . Sy^. 33. a-wo^-cJ. as oj^a^o.112 Part Second.. Sj^j^o.. I 32. The 9 0* five forms. Ji*. J*^-> B 38. (a) ** * . as i^jJI. J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj.o £^~«. — 44. 33. insight. very 197. A*a»^e. J**s. . • 3>5j. * ** ibUi. aJLai. 2. 3ijAo. few of more than two or three. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. / • • d «. Slo^o. ?-s*-j«c. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. 198.> t a> -e. J»***. ' «• . j*a. G * 40. see further §§ 208.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. J>*i. 43. which are most frequently used. : Jli. as 3 ji»a*.» / i^x S s 39. to snatch. and the remarks to 222—225. as ^SU^. v**i»i<jtj Je*3. i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t. jrf understanding.

w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . as j\h x x to fly. A. as J*~j 9 to travel. * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. xx ^ys> 15 to w. as juiS and ^J^. J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. to brandish. * . to bray. to sit. . ^JUi and xxx . AJtjjh. ^o 9xjxxx .. to 9 palpitate. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight. . xx to croa&. p-U«o xx . i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound. ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). x run quickly. or 9 x . run away with . x *-*»£ 9 x '. jtiu. ^A*^ x x x . go out. to be x j x of sound judgment. *-U-»^->\ to refuse. * * . r> JU* as ji. firmness or soundness of judgment . J***. xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. f-\r>e . 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». £)\jlx±. . 9 X . to to flee. { j*L±. *bt. *-L3 ^Xj to weep. BjyL±.jb^. «J xxx 9xJ to bark. cry out 9xx for help. ^ *-jjL. his 9 9 * . xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. as ^Jslc to sneeze. 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. Si* * xx xxx }j£. Ci s jjliUi. *-ji joy .§198] (b) xxx IT. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form . J^-* to fo smooth. Sx x x to be generous. 9 x J j\i to flee from. ^J^Jt9. to xxx lash the tail. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness. - wju wjbu and ^~x.> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. B aJ^^w smoothness. jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. shun with horror. change of place. 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . 9 x xx > ^Ja*. to be rough. usually take the form 26. Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. J^-tf J>yj to bray. s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. # xJ 37. u°j* sickness. 21. Rem. rider (of a horse). j\y* xxx .. jJu. Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£. to ft* ^'c£ and t large. ' . palpitate. 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . 9 9 x . 9 The Noun. J**3. x xx to to run. ^xj l\SJ . 7»5j±> going out. pcfc to * become refractory.sitting . Nouns Subslti Adj. as 9 x . xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam. u°j*° to be sick. J 9 Us. y^x3 and J J ^yU. ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*. Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash. refusal.— Nomina Verbi. to be agitated. 27. U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*. 9 x 37. 9xJ Jo roar. }\jJli . ^° gallop (of a camel).

and xx x have several abstract nouns. 5 x it signifies curb {a horse). it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w. . governorship. to fo plain. 200. j£j*-. but j^»». The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself. *liu . the office of secretary . gUj xxx x x . to judge. has OXX ' j^j*.s*J to trade. to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. „ or tmir. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight. as t^il*. %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat.to Ox x sew. act as deputy. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels. have a hud Ox© usually has voice. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. E. and wi^w be exalted. to find. B 199.j. Ox£jU£» . divide. but Jji. but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. to be afraid. for accordingly. trade or handicraft. 201. to succeed. be chief of.Jj to be in charge or command o . Ox X i»ti.. x xx Thus. xx traffic. [§ 199 A howl. j-v*-. each of to its meanings. tions. loud. <bto xxx deputy ship . Jjji . or the Parts of Speech. fl x .114 Part Second. to be exalted or noble. one of which peculiar to. but »*i^w. SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x . xxx ju*. has £*Jj. one Perfect. w>U to take one's place.. 3)lyj>x x <*J>2».) or caliph. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. Sj^. <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. noble or eminent. ^ZS** to write. X X X U>j£>.. U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel). Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy. If a verb has only one form. has jj*. but in the sense of Ox xx . j-ij** to £*j. or jl-^.^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after . has ^. or jjj^-. . J^i. sense x x . open or public. grief or anger. 4j*^5. the caliphate . *UUs. u^P or Aitjw. ly». Ai^Li. 3 J in. 3jU*j 2mofe. . that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. tfAe 29. jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. to ^ OX XX . office. to part.g. and to 60 moved by love.

9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created. J**&. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. triliteral II. D. u^Uy.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. x/0 fl£J. 25}s!*3.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . JUA3. ibuu. . A. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. Nouns Subst. see the Gloss. O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. first. oi jUfe. S>~J. iSCJ^. to exist (see §200)*. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. G. x V&£>. XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. . X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. 1. a^v>. X as 1>\S£>. JStc. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. gladness. i*> . SwiJ. 9 J'^a^>. 2^. $50^5 from j^j to be found. 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. aXxaj. as jjjj-w Joy. existence. »LJ. The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows.] signification . 5^a5. as ££1^3. as Jl^cu. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3. £3ja3. S^J.§202] its II. Geogr. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem. x JUjJU. iGX>. x S^-cuS. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. JUA5. JuU. il^io. a^Xj. from j~» £o glad.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. employed in the active and Lane. of the strong 202. Jt ji. a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . as ^>^. J£«*. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification.] [6. The Noun. «^'>^>. 9 x as JU^j. ?^h^. to Bibl. as lUu-I*k. C JtaXJ.

hemz. J^U5. strictly speaking. the form JJUi is the original infinitive. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i. JU*. 1. Jtjait. [or frequency. is In II. [2. jSL. a. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. to excess energy or intensity. alxsu tert.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I. only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. J&. substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. yjjuu. JUtf . XIV. ?5uJt. JUil. is and rad. ii&fo c xv. JUiXwt. 2. V. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ. j3U?. 1. Rem. autli. [§ 202 . J%*lt. JbLait. J**a3. JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. JcUf. 3 et ^ (in which . /^P). as OjUj. VII. as j&. [4. used in verba rad. akin to /SJ&fi. 7$}£&?. as JU-*->. whereas JUaj. JUA3I. •£«. infin. and are represented in the . in. to Heb. >«£. XL XIII. OjUl] [3. ( absol. Jilil [2. as jjy-3 from tp) I. but of an obsolete are. JUllt. latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare.] VIII. as JUS. Jaw. XII. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin.] B VI. [3. as >*£. [2. but is chiefly by far the most common. J!jU5t. the infinitives. Jajuu tert.. . 1. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb.] 5-0 IX. J&.].116 Part Second..] IV. 0-00 X. Jt***. as v£*-*> cfe.

The nouns formed from the iLUi. as>l*j£». as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*. <U. {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem. G. x WShft.. UjLoJL etc. as p. D [The irregular form IV. Jbt^i is the original infinitive. 9 xOx JUj-. the original form is JUaj. JU$. as Jig.).. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft. fUU. Hv^in. /J » x ___ III. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*. etc. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. Perf. of all is aJUULo fern. common form particip. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. 6. into <Jmu. JUu^. as *-tj«o.§203] II. is as jli*^> oUloit.j3.j*. JLiutf . as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL». jj*a* ^o-A] I. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. and Lii to VI. 00 J^JLxit. A. The most pass.t. ]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive. those B Arabs alone use JUJ.] J-***?. 117 /^JUH. J^Jj*. A Wan. II. Nominalbildung. Nouns Subst. x « &AAj~i.& Adj.^). or Jjti. Zlsy>. JUJU.] 203. 0x0 JUX3. JjtAj.] . —In VIII. who shorten the Jji5. * [Barth.UJ). C 1. I.*— In III. rem. 3p*s^.. Oj^e*. 0x0 2. D. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III. III. • < • In XUal is the common form. § 180 disapproves of this theory. Rem. J'iUJ. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant.. [3. — In ([in form identical with the] V. and Imperf. J&Jl.— Nomina Verbi. The Noun.

b. x x a.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. x xxx j . >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). ^*jUJ or w>L*J. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206. The B Rem. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. as 3»lo»« or olo-«. E. [§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). Imperat.g. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. undergo no contraction x x as jju>. radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha. o Sjcfr from js-2. yJAfr. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. Hence %x« for jjco. 205.118 Part Second. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. (§§ 142 and 144). drop it also in the verbal noun. j. that reject the ^ in the Imperf. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. like JjJj. mj 204. and Imperat. Rem. Those verba primse rad. mutual thrusting and stabbing . of which the first and second . Those nouns. to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. Imperfect julj. and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not.

3i. Rem. 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3. j-w. if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra.ijjfc. x The Noun.l. 5 If the noun from a verb mediae . l\j*~* like. . as w>j>>. fr° m YW.). and the [See D 209.' rOfc? (*^). ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. etc. ' nsr. >Uut and **X X *ti.). )L±* (rad. the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3. 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©). if it be without a vowel. >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M. x > 11. .j and Sj^. l j from verba med. *«*. rem.^f. as Jy>. 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti. 9 c. Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form. A . -Jfc*). as^oLS for^ftly>. J^j**. from ^©13. or ^j be of the form x 208. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. . where it remains . prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. x j£.T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^). 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145..-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s . Jj>»». changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. 5JLo for aJl^o.' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J.] ••!• 5 x ^M). as . rem.jl*x&. bt* . for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem. rf. frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*. b. x x J & Adj. in Hebrew. ^ . Compare > . 207. Initial ^.§ 209] e -gfl II.1. . be preceded by kesra. from the tenth of .» See § 145. x Rem. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med.—Nomina J ' Verbi. ^ -B (&).Jj. pronounced with fetha. ^o). * * ma T •• (&*). from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. . Imperf. j. . Nouns Subst. of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157). « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3.9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. and kesra precede as . (or § by assimilation 223. . Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. A. 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^. from olo . it is If the letter j. x x x . rad. this radical is ^. ^om nb\ .xx d for w>Ufc.

[§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti.— Etymology . and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ. ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i. Oli^ I5U.g.from ^U-. from is 210. all combine DDte. mixture.Jtlilwt . 77^*3 to prove that pi3. £0 6e chief or ruler.^u. j|>». ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad. jtj— 1I3J from jjL*. x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. Dtfll) . i 5J^Ui. aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i).5. the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical . jMj) fromjy'J). and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x . or the Parts of Speech.4. 211. S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and. S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©). into <la. aJ^JUi as the original form. shortened JL**s. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *. were. x hj*J from *> *13 (^1). and >U*^t. j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o. ^ et ^ x the nominal form . E. a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. ^-^j-j*. and then altered.. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£). In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided. Ox J J Rem. first ^ et ^5. J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ . rad. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£). on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables. OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui. 0&&aff and llcu.^w. tjjjyfa+i 2. . from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. confusion.120 Part Second.*• (jj~>). pb.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui.^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«.*>. aJ^JLx. rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>. so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^. in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . they say. is and then x ) . and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2). (->>>).

for * * for for (*V).§215] II. * * $ of the form al*5. 215. Sj£>j (§ 7. the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj. combines But. 5 La.i\ 5 A occur. £). In the same way as SLa. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167. etc.'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o). 3l£>j for S^»j. \ however.» U*>. A. Sur.. sj^ 2 . *}£a. the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter. tjj L5J*. 121 Rem. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. tertiae rad.. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$. GO* (j£>i.^eUM in the Kor'an. In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained. * * 9** * 0*0* Rem. ^cj. We often find. %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . tertise rad. 73 (for^»U5t. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see. and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. ^1. ^ et ^.. ^. often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S . S^a. rem. for S^a. these forms come from verba tertiae rad. tertise rad. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\. the ^5. j>»^. ft and 214. Nouns Substdk Adj. c). 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class. to show (§ 176. rem. as jjs-. a. . L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6. a.. xxi. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y. is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. 16 . I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. as w. 3bj*o for 2-o^o. second radical. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj . whilst. 213. and becomes quiescent. ^jj. j C as changed. the j productionis changed. throws back the ten win upon the Eg.. for 00* 00* ^^a.g.. y^. the . if is with the radical j into j as 3J3. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z. as L5a*. the (etymologically more x Rem. ^c^ y for (J^jt. into combines with it into J$. 212. The Noun. the j productionis of the second . into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a. 6. an * 2> * t 5 * J**.] 5 " •• forms J*s. and Jj«i. e?).. e. ^. SlXw for 3j£i. •* Jjj for j>\>. 5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^. its fetha. at the same time. ^^J*. through the influence of the third radical. [if B * J J*5. J. after the elision of for S>L«.

gU^t. the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . b.. and xx in that of the third. 219. as ^>A for ^jA. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms. is In the same form from verba tertise rad. seventh. ^ et ^ is changed into hemza . as gUact. tertise y> rad. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth. (ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). J£. sometimes takes place. the influence of the third radical D (always ^$. the third radical of verba as £U±. the third radical converted into J?. et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. e. t x X f\^*j\. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. 216. rem. as 2J<~3. 3. 218. rad. XX has the . « . when it ^x form Jt*3. and JUi. as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. ^ 3 x from ^>3. JU3. J# for jfi (J&).Uju~>t. ^jt. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217. fe. and following forms. —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. ^o.). ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot. tertise rad. In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). g^a»Jt. find ^3. further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***.122 Part Second. P). ^. J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. ^5. {\yt^>\ x . from ^yb. as ^1 for ^y\. Uxp. ££j. 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167. For this . That an act has taken place once i}j+). we is. kesra.

a^-jJ. These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt. ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. £ £ ^-oJ. 3u^j. Rem. 5$ j&. be appended to it. * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo.j3. ^\. or . If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot. 3 jc». _ a. c. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * . meeting. o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener. «< E. once. *&** SlSaj. seeing. 0*10** <Lc*. A-U-5. aj>w. rejoicing. m * * * * * *$. 220. fleeing. snuffing. turning round. * o t being uncovered. sitting down. coming. * * a»^. AJLJt. rolling over. Rem. once. J**aj in the second.e^.* being rolled. S*a*S.. .ja. 4*y>. 0**0 du>\j£=>\. be formed * * * Rem. (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind. manner. is —Nomina first Vicis. 3j. *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t. * * V*i 0*0* **«. 6 a^ao. Otj-o-».lj one. V 0**0 dJ1j. Rem. or nouns that express the doing of an action once.oJ. iolSt. do not 0/0/. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. £)\3j*a£. vexing. ^j. . and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. derived from weak verbs. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj. a**1*. * * *j*.0/0/ 0/0/ . striking. giving rest. . Nouns Subst. turning over. 9**0 Zj[s£)\. 0**0 A^tj^o. 0*0* «/» r. him once. he had pity or compassion upon * * * . ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind. honouring. * 3J3\Ju. a **>o neglecting.§220] II. has always the form aX*j. feUU.> ***> f r o b. A.<& Adj. inhaling or B rolling. ** J*J»>1*. drinking. nomina vicis. *b>o.*0* 3ja3. and so with *+*£>. Nouns of this sort. D as rti*.g. * * * pi. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping. o o?. mode. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. of course. ij^. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl. The Noun. Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way . \j*. ^.g-». as du.. shuddering.

ac^cJI &~»».g. way of putting on a turban. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as 4£j«a. a. or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis). imperf. * E. J-^ the time or place far watering . The nom. If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. a place for drinking. oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221.124 Part Second. eating.g. A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting. a good hand. ^j^i . sleeping. (from fast vicis. riding. like the 0*0 5 * nom. 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * . the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. [§ 220 E. 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». killing. a miserable way. as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself. verbi has the form dJUi.. if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma. speciei may. SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb. he writes a^j. a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. be used in a passive sense. from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). sitting. dying. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). from v>^ t° drink. e. by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. verbi and nom. /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. speciei . 5*0 C nom. Z+s. Rem. D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. if form of the verb. w^-u*o .g. but kesra. or yashmak . b.

in particular. the east. to drink. J~a3u.- where anything falls. and J^. 9 . fcut 9 mo . take.> to go ftflM imperf. of ascent or rising. Nouns Subst. il+~*\. ^~C> . the elbow. 4. a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in. assembly. a from ^Sb J 1 to write. J**&* the place JO. slaughterhouse or shambles. or w^w. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. imperf. viz. w**£* a place where writing taught. Rem. 5. . 0. v~^*~i at. 0. J^. 0. habitation. 1. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco. 10. £j-*a* the time when. a. £j><ai . kesra. . #0 out. or to A place where. Oj^ of division. ingress. party. school.o-» u-^Xa*. one imperf. of prostration in prayer. the crown of the head. where the sun sets. as it were. where a plant grows. or-* p 7.* £fa place where. room. from juaS aim make for. from v~^ ' to sit. Q 9 0. from Jyj is imperf. imperf. —Nomina Loci. Twelve of these nouns. from j»-j^ 9 to 0.6 . The Noun. B and Rem. J^J slain. 9. A. imperf. where tlie hair divides in different directions.§221] II. the west. where one dwells. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. (camels). the vessels in which the act or state con- tained. ' . a mosque. several persons 5 sit. . & Adj. b. 125 J . where the sun rises. to aimed at or made for. whereon one rests. imperf. f*j±-i. L £)S mA 6. notwithstanding.

o and closet. from >)$ . 5. ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. ij^o watering-place..».03 See § 228. MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book. be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ». The verb * «. imperf. retain the first radical.and _. license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect. jt?2oce hiding or concealment. a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin... and 12. 11.o . as a < general rule. rata of time (U^>> rad. E.126 Part Second.o. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci. it'* J^sw-c. ji* i«*.0^^0. and the same the rest.a>. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2. .. promise. J 0303 jtL jri> U. o?. 0' et loci from the .s ^>N?a>. where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these. as m&fc. %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^. are of nomina temporis or Rem. * —Etymology nostril.o. . J. >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment.•g. wJj-^U. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders. 9. Q Rem. a pfoce o/* collecting. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0). takes fetha in the second syllable. and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable. fetha. jjLo.. w>^>-«. or the Parts of Speech. rem. also makes B « a> o or . formed from verba primse ^ et {J.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose. ^L». nos.o. which.«. a small room or 0. . The vowel of the cjoL. cases the c.&». ^Jla^o. ^^mje. go down (to draw water).. J-**. and even jj)-* also »o. 12. languages. which has /Ma in the imperf. the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into . 7. Nouns and place. a copy of the Kor'an.<». 144). [§ 222 the A 11. (dij?b). (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp. meeting or assembling..g.«*->«o jjtcu*. cjd». imperf. 2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. fixed time or place. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew.

. ^^uak^o or ^^law. JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj). See Those formed from verba tertise rad. £0 fear. JU. ^xxxx S.3-0 a place that . — Nomina Loci. x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place.*--wo « or cL*. Nouns where anything %*eu . 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x . dreaded. a place. have the same form as the nomina loci et temp. place. s (t or t ^). strictly speaking. imperf. after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra. from J^j to be afraid. x x . syllable. j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand. some examples with fetha in the second syllable. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf. from J^-j x . imperf. u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx . from j-~> Ox .**** jjueu* should. and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear. J-»->*et 223. J-JU or JliU.g. Those formed from verba mediae rad. D w^t. J-Jb J <»x (Ja).. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. <ix § 208. ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say.^. s from 9 ^oU x . from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. J-Xo or JtC*. . xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o. Subst. as *«^>o. imperf. by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation .§224] II. according to § 221. J***o or Jl©*o. imperf.). imperf. imperf. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). E. & Adj. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med. . X S C x x Rem. imperf. a .» to x dive. J^. x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing. . ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc. but the grammarians give B Rem. or ^iUto. The Noun. this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical. but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . "("'' r. A. imperf. \ J^U 224. #0 jpfay a£ hazard. from is put down. and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . imperf. x x r. ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. C J J 2 x . as w>U. sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire. wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. j-~u 3 x * Here the . from ^JU. for they always take fttha in the second syllable. to place.

o/* occupation. as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape.. . xO x (l£3~c ) the place do. imperf. E. ban- queting-room. SbjJi* place for drinking. : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be. imperf. *t> * pasture or graze. a station. imperf. aJj-U a halting-place. ^j-> stops. «: B l£^* to fold. In regard to their contraction. 225. imperf. from ^j #0 bend. >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold. x . the second rad. 4£j-£*o the C. Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j . business . imperf. xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213). from . i^j^ (^3^*) * O . imperf. L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u. ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. O^i9 x x Rem. from xx x .jJ» to think. w^r# tifo x Ox are watered . the edge. of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle. W <5 x x Rem. #o or wsort xx a place.g. SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. If derived from a strong verb. tJ^'—J. frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . Ox . [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect.128 Part Second. suppose. where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop. jai^) place of refuge. from £Ox . from ^j. imperf. x . as i^k*** hunger. . xx The . as S/*&© cemetery. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. . etc. imperf.. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. x Nouns «xx . tejjL* watering-place. iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. a desert. ^^4*.. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. to \^y^ ^>t» t. imperf. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. sits in the sunshine.*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form.

w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. g ^a ^ . from jccj to 'promise. or x x 0* w^w.\ gathered together in a crowd).g. OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!». 226. 17 . J ^^ a place C ^j— **. 3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) .g. <So Adj. from jJj to foar. 3 X X Rem. The same form is also used as a . place. derived (see § 228). with the nomina patientis or passive participles. rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) .juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. £~Xo. x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227. Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x . O x as mesrdk = £j***. JujJL* X X From ii// very rare. f& x . A^JJa^. of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral. The Noun. \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) . &c*Lo . [or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action]./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« . Nouns Subst. **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox. to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco. in preference to Sju»a»-o. ^4 x QxOJ 2 . A. . ft? 60 collected) . ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise. 3 et and 0x0 ^. g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . o x o B Rem. ft-j*~* the place through which. Sjjio. x x Og or evening (»<«). take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E.jA. the The nouns verb. y^»~o *t#w of the foWA. 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e. rad. as Ji^A* or . triliteral or from the are identical in form E.g.a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs.«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . -f. ^5 — Op ©t. S^Aa^o.§227] II. —Nomina Loci. me'rdb = w^Jt*. 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«. from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time.

hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4.0 0x0 0x0 or snare. .>uu Oxx (for . XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet. J^aa and . mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J .g. x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . » 3 x J.0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX». . from >jj. >3j*. j et xx x ^. X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. jyU. a strainer .»£xJ0x»x . xO XX r. e. a branding-iron or cautery. a jwwr 0/ scissors.Jt. t from .0 to xxOjo. wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ. . making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. xxx a t a ^0. . j-oj. 3>2U. a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****. a comb. God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. rad. nomina instrumenti. a staircase or ladder .- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced.>mJU). a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan. a 6We?/0 or halter. B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument. 6x0 they remain uncontracted. —Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered .130 Part Second. *-«**. x x and <Uy»«.oJL. a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*. a cupping-glass. aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. xO #0 cut . X XXX X . . to file . a******. ' * 3^0. lancet. are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t. Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on. the 228. ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom. OxO 5x6 • * * > 0.a. E. A a». u°\r**. Sl5^» (for £*$>*). They have the forms Jaa*. w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ . a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. JUa*.» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI . Ox x and aJUa*. — 6*s*»<i*J . St^x*. J. aL**«. a needle . . a key. When derived 6+ from verba med. .aj juj 5x J '. in s*1*> . D packing-needle .

J*s (as to fear. and the nomen patientis. A. these real participles. to " ^jj^~c mad.— Verbal 4/0J 9J J . These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic.e.g.Q. Rem. ^>5l^ being. namely. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose . the nomen agentis. > Jyduo. When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive . ^Jl^ 9 J writing. w-Jfcj a. substantives. a sieve .a». *o*> * . ^Tfc. mm*** = hA ^ . a censer. 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U. oi 229. Nouns Subst & Adj. 5 J from *x». a judge. j^\+. < * * to be possessed. (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. iTTftb. Rem.».0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle. letter. e. from^x»\ judge . Jj juo = J> jco. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis. from^oj^ jbjj^e to served. Wo?e on. {J^c to touch). adjectives derived from verbs. and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. • >5+y* found. in the syllable. * from w*l£> . existing. i. + J from exist . derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be . > %* =j. Wl». from 9 * ^Jgr to write. E. a servant.. a master. The form JjJU also used. 9 s The verbal adjectives. is raato . A .§230] II. 6. Adj. . The Noun. nomina patientis. a madman. from^oj^. a sword.. 9 ' J*l3. Jmo^o. * * Rem. D ' ' ' j**{±> serving. *->y&* written. a scribe or secretary.o. B mats. from &*. a. to be found. JijJ^c 5 J J 9. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — .j. judging. ^Aft to know. have two principal forms. 131 9 J J Rem. verbal in C adjectives. 230. indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. to be mad. as well as _. a to serve. as in other languages.g. Dnpk&. nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\. and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles.

sense. and J>*o narrow. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. § ^^)J^>. ^X J ft tJ. ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. X a XX scholar. Conversely. and tfAe telling of the truth. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do. jl^*. expressing a continuous action.132 Part Second. But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. GO JOj UU^ . proft J x ft J mising. =j-*»£.> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227. X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem. Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *. but also serve as adjectives or substantives. a hax Ox bitual state of being.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^. ^Jjla. 4^iU^ aIo-^. x ft c. La^j a^>'. instead of x form I^jjm^.oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw. >tj^. Ox . O J ft x 00 x understanding. or a x permanent quality Ox (see above). being got or acquired . ft p^j* = *ij. as ili^la^o. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . l\jyt£*. / came to /wm riding hard. j^>^. rem. = Lct-btj. as in the phrase W>15^$. sturdiness. generous. J a x x * intelligence .. The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 . knowledge. being glad. 5/ J ft The Ox fern. they have only the participial . perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$.. j£s\»..**. j^xm .or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. however is 232.. rem.g.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis. Rem. =j*£>. a promise penury. cheery. ->Jftx£ E. Sx x x SJJ easity (do. < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' .. . Imrdiness. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>. endurance. Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal. 5 #x x B rejoicing. ft Ox x J jco.] X bountiful.g. one's utmost . e. ^jU*. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.). ^j\£z. 6. jul&» . Sj 00 y J J J / x . 5. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being.. o^Jo^-o = back. # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa. an oath .). J ft E. is 3 . x J 3x ft swearing. labour. O x [Comp. the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. j£\sX Ox . T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence. %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic. Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? .) Jjju^. or as an adjective. as te^Xa—*.g. 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined. ^>j»o = 3j. . C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen . ^ opposed to jy»ju* . the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231. 6e£?i<7 cowardly. distress .

(lit.— Verbal to lip). or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) . Of these the following are the principal. JU. lip = ly$liLo . adjectives which are ticiples. J** 9. 16. that he could not or escape). Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. 5. A I met him face him in resist face (lit. eye to eye). 14. 7 . a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . & Adj. Nouns Subst. J^i. 4. the emir. so \j~o aZX3. 12. Rem. ^Jb. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. 7. 11. Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. 231. Jjjtft jj£ £U. and partly. the Heb. there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb. 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. express. UUt aLa). Sl^t. . Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. Adj.j. made like. =jj\e. Jj*. confined or . Jcli is the Aram. a o for a). c). 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. Besides these. 3. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. 1. ^oAo. = \jj~aa Jj^ J*». 232.j. J jcc . 13. o^** Jjl5t 8. = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. a water winch sinks into the ground. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. A. JU5 JU3 J**i 2. rem. J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. they are * B of God. I slew cold blood bound. The Noun. held. just men. 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. a just woman. viz. = UjU^. 4J3U. a jwstf maw.§ 232] II. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. = J^U.

jtwr^. 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave. from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. Jxjo. X x J x awake. from **J. JJ*a- >wt. 5 Jj^. x J x . from ^^a-j « . # 6 and 7. from j**£ to forsake. from j£w x. ^ xj x vJ^* tender. from o J^ ' -> * . .. . x x from (^:>j x oi». x ^ x . from ^A. y> J J bitter. xx J^& . J* . J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. ^>*^ rough. X J . from J^-w . laA£. having a swollen stomach. from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. x x «5 wary. timid. —and. 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing. iaij XX G . /<#. 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. harsh. 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. J x J x from J**. g^'c£. J J from yXc jA*. xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. J^c. bruising. ma//. J*** treacherous. J***-* J****. j-«4>. from . x degree of intensity. * from ^ov^. 0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3. and jJau .^ov* strong. 5 |a. crushing. S . xx 5xJ O^** «^^. § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed.*. sw<?0£. 10. m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» . P^-^ Jmw. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». x J . 4. from ^ju. from t>~». ^m. jJJ. c^rse. « ft fargg. partly.134 Part Second. —which x . j*U from proud. ^j from » t^Jj. m* teto. yA« from vJ^-j easy. *. jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5.» jJJ unclean. #M. abundant. from JJu* . ' J fromj^. 8. Oxx . [§ 232 A thing. 5 x x x . 5x Ja. X XX abandon. i^h^. from j*o . from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. S x xjx j*xS. from from j-wt »-ji. from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^. rugged. ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. jl£ rough. intelligent./w^. j-**> x J x inexperienced. 9-ji. —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. w>*xc sweet.J. liberal.breaking. j-**. x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. X x 0^3 x j Jiij. from Jx*a- . cautious. fidious. from x . from .. *». £*•** fr° om from 3U. polluted. JAJ».j . acute. x L5^) X . ^Ja». 0*x x x . a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2. (for ^>o-. JJ^-. 3 and xxxx©£ox . Examples 6' : 1 . B self-conceited and insolent. betray. sorry. J^b to 60 tender. from xxx ^o-***-. untaught. oJ X X remaining in one place. from f 5x3 . v»v^. hardy. is their signification (see § 38). from o^e- xx liberal. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*. clever.) perishing. x J x from 5 J JJj. clever. from ^^x*. . jx jj£. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent. from cfoW#. young. Jo*g. x . difficult.»-3 m pain. from # * { ** t J*aj. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> .

. . *^aj^ W06/0. *iwt unseemly. »«J^kc j$~*a*. from ^o*^ m' .232] J II. t/o.continent. J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. £ JxOx 0^>**> from *.^ot ^«/. . LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows. x J x x x from to Jfj».s&/£ (of water). * I x x £ paltry. hungry. s/c&. oWj* waW. cheerful in countenance. from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry.. merciful. from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous. from w>ju». from px a^ fow^. from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X .. t from J^. humpbacked. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white. foul. ^//. . from J«*. Jj^. impotent. J^»t . from ^ji. from x .w Jx9x ^jUJac. from ^w . j^^oJi 0^^> . from affection or t mov^c? % j»%. coarse.— Verbal Adj. Jjjlo veracious. ugly. thirsty. ^\ yellow.. xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#. Ox Jty» /^r. 16. from uU . straight nose. O^-*^. from ^ J^t xxx . from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. J*aj tev#.» . from JiJ from JU» . « «»*. from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. from <>~». xJxOx to//. ignorant. glorious. Nouns Subst. J x . ^->i-». W2£A a n xxJxOx . to /ymgr. from j>j£a & Adj. i^il 6/ac&. dnwA. . 12. " <7ras£. daring. Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak. from cU. from ^3* .. j^ct one-eyed. [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x . x J x stingy. I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. Vmoc XX . X X . . from £i£ . *>' . from (j^ oW>»» ashamed. from Ja«j . foolish. thrusting or kicking violently. w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3. . numerous. from Jib [jtj^5 O . . from x J x . XX0X .to 11. ^j*^ ?m^A. r.. stupid. J«o*j xJ x . J^Sj ma//. <J!>». . ^iil having a long chin djii) .. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0. 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0. from C^i x x . Olji A sweet (of water). x J The Noun.> ^ talkative [or to speak]. XX j-a»-. bright. open. xx jj. niggardly. . from Jo. . from J 13 . from J^». C JJ 3^*. from JaJU compassionate. from ^oXw ogriT?. J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing. fifomjjJ x erf]. jl^-t ?W. Jj*-' unskilful. A. from Jja. J-J^. from jJS^ x-> x . from « h-i». ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14.» . from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**. ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. Jn>*- . j . . «£^£ <jUlw •77. from ^**S. slender. J|>». burn. x .t squinting. xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . from j-~». from JUa*.>». .. » maft^. stupid. w-o&fe.t foolish. satisfied with food. from 0^*^ repentant. 15. from Jju© Jj>3 to «i.jl~». clumsy. /•/> "* XXXX . «*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. handsome. . drunk.

as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls. OOOO s }m. as j^j. jux»>. j->«->. Rem. intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. as shown by some of the above examples. J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x . ~D. acid. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i. = x .136 Part Second. f*+£> slaughtered. Latin nuntius. or Jjti (see § 230.] . and so also in substantives. as w>>&) ridden upon. transitive verbs. =^U. x or ^>*l. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^. Ox o?. ".. especially jit**-). according to the native scholars. X ft X XX . ^>ct *a/e. rem. j x Jx sometimes from Jjii. Rem.^L». or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. 9 or the Parts of Speech. secure. J**$. from ^^1 . —^L^t.»-jja»a . often indicate. c. w>^l». the forms . is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class .g.. X «o/e. but more especially the latter. from O^ifr .SU barren. tJt*&j. it meaning message. e.» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. a) . either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses. though the distinction J . milked*. [§ 232 x A and a.. sowr. and hence they are forms. j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\.— Etymology Rem. sound. . As is . got the signification of bearer of a message. has usually J ft x . shown by the above examples. it is originally a Hence. = ^j^\ 5.*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject.. j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas. as j-aw. G. ^Jjji xJ x x . f-lj**' 6 x wounded . J j*ij^ '. ^tfuola. a prisoner. and Jjti. Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans. J-jA».» ft s . trpmjJLa j. j*j£=>. C a victim. x from ^apr* or X Rem. j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx .

addicted wine. 5 x »x3 x jU». 2. 0*<i2x 6 ft x .— Verbal Adj. in the former. T 7 TDK. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. in Hebrew and Aram. D Ax 6. 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si. a porter. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. violently. Rem. ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker. learned. j»\j£z very noble. l\& weeping much.> l\j$ 1. as * J*. J5L> asking. addicted to wine. s^+jjJZt. drunken. common than JUi.& baker. # < . ^^ knowing. J*i. 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. KOfi. 191 Rem. jla»J . k5/ - J x wJjj-w . E. • 1. JjiS. as £H)"| = w> j^. xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. J 0t3j ^L%»a-. as well as from 5x others. . «t. repelling. cli^ pushing. as ^^=^3. The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist. architect. = J>^t P wot^ . WX wry learned. |loj. JU3. i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti. derived an adjective Jl*s.§233] II. a. . .U» « coo&. Jj*i. x 233. T T ' r. x 0xx O x x example. = w>jJ^ lying. since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit. . a carpenter. « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar. ^-jU fearing. The Noun. as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>. & Adj. a tailor. cli. S3D. T • WJW. a beggar. and 5. it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. |Uj a builder or JU^. T9*. cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings). less j J 4. 2. a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller. J^as. f1^6. ijx adjectives. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. etc. 18 . w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl . #* x C x v&^U. s y^Ua*. JU~» importunate. J***. as TBDK. the J noun of intensiveness. J>*b. a 2 x gardener. J*s.g. J^ 5 x x . ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. fi J 113*3. thrusting. gULw a water-carrier.. J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton. . 137 Hem. A. Nouns Subst. wry handsome. j^=> very forye. w. = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking.j • . Compare etc. e. • as ^H?| (6 for a).i)b weeping. Other intensive H 3. i3 Jjii. J^JLo gwrcy astray. jflt^j j*£~».

very talkative. or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%. 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal. given play or sport. J knowing. mendacious. Jijji timid. 6x0 thrusting with the spear. 6 turning.v. which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely. J . Jj*. 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. except J>jj-©) . j*a*i wl g boastful. *»>j-o one often or violently. cunning. and A^jUl*. brave warrior. J^UJj fickle. 6 «3 mean. ^ » ^ffiV>\*.Ro. w^$. all-glorious. tractable." E.] . J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious. 6x06x0 ^l*^. deceitful. § (nomina instrumenti. substantives Jjii^. ^jjJi . &UA3. ' X D ji. a wrestler . . ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. eloquent. w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious. ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel). ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly. poor (JSD&. but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. ^oUJJ. daring. w>UJ3. Jt^iL©. 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci.>LU stinking. a —On yia.^1-U. B^Xsu very learned.j*»j~>lft. w^UJLj. 5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting..g. slothful. D. 3. is Similar. w^a^o. 4..>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful. 6x0 jJ^o. J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). XX 6x0 JJ>**. spy. and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually). T> . G. 228). greedy. to ^SL^ — Jbuu. . flkn* very X Ak. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children. and actionis. j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. x timid. eating much or giving to eat. X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^.c. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£. Jxj-b* very liberal. mechanically. pitable. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand.k'go. are. x male children. 0x0 talkative. ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . x uJ e. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj. w>UAj. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. u^tj^ fond of opposition. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U. too. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre. do. JUi-o. 5. imn</ perfumes. w>La*-o.. .t.138 Part Second. 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. >#&*. docile. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much. 6x0 6 jtuU?. ^aJxo. . strictly speaking. swallowing big morsels. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly.g.

iLJLt. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° . ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$. ^i3^j) b crafty. H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. breaking in pieces. AtlSj ill-natured. from o ij-oii. *' '* Ziy* asking often. no&£e. . an emissary or missionary. crushing ' bits. AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . 9" 5^3 1*. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller.— Verbal Adj.3G Aaib clever. > 0/* comprehension.o prone to laughter. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. *3j>*> timid. 2'* . from Jj^li. . £xa». as . 2x AiJL^JJ. $' > or prostrating often. from J>«i. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. crafty. of intensiveness.mcA. begging. The Noun. dijjls x x timid. dj^A. disgusted with. as 5. from ^j-jai. <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. &>**. <UAb j cb calling or summoning. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep. bold in attacking. as io*^ very learned. as <l$jj^. 139 Rem. from JUaj. or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. which // /il here used. sillily. from JUi. excellent. aJj**.ti Adj. fl Ox 5 x slanderous. faithless . a </rea£ collector. . 0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo. <L*£ finding fault . jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*. as 44-Ja. as dijji very or cautious. Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often. <Ujti. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai. 4L05J abusive.>laJU very unjust. a^Ua. c. For example. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia». from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. Heb. <Ltb Sj.Lo aw dJUi. <ul~J a great genealogist. to strengthen the aJlfrli. greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs. ioliU lowing big morsels. as very timid . A. Nouns Subst. SjjJl£» lying. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . idea jlj to signify intensiveness. "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj. dJbuU. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * . S3 J axXjo always on the watch. ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?. ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5. <L5lrk treacherous. 4JUiJ loquacious. ^U^li. from Jj**. as . very contrarious . of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_. as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^. Aft. xx as /JW the grammarians say. dJyi loquacious.§233] II.

&. but with a in the first syllable (jjd). ^js-. as . sw<?0£. glorious. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp.. as <uUA5 morsels. and J**5. and are therefore J>»st. Rem.>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. ugliest .140 Part Second. S. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. In the Lisan.] it is differently explained. 16 seq. as derived from anything bitter. very mwA addicted to play or greedy. 7t3p = J**)- 234.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. J-j^a. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense. from JUaj. 53. 1. are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. ITs^ = Aram. WlTl. [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) . the noun of preeminence. according to 'Ibn Dureid. for the purer vowel example. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence.\ more or mos£ glorious. spec. . jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic. joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»).». *])$$ ( =j-t&~>. Kitab U-istikak. WO (coming nearest to J*jj3). the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. 6. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul. 142). J^. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article. •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. aJUaj. much —Etymology to sportf. as *fjaa = jui. Rem. R. or with three letter of prolongation. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest. as pHTl. or the Parts of Speech. as f*W . the colocynth. 1. f ft Kg. J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. t . Jytf. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly.great. or else be in the construct state. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. however (xii. * j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. iTTO. others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above. 98.

/zerce. where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact. E. \. J { ^**o\ . JJVX lasting. and the like. ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK . after that. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. Nouns Subst b. The Noun. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235. j*£. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb. false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer). \j^c eye. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder. A. better. or giving better a answer than he . ' J si j£> worse. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can.— Verbal Adj. be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb. i i- i especially from IV. 141 Rem. however.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage.§ 235] II. (for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. we ought to prefix to the corre& . nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184. form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying. according to strict rule. qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. (lit.>**».i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces.t it more beautiful. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent. b). your hearts became hard. rem. original signification. 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj . <Sc Adj. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then.) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier.g. perennial. II. < s o s J si- like stones. —As stronger as to hardness). or even harder ii. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). none in Aramaic. from cro*e£. of j^o to be clean or pure . Of this Hebrew. * * j/ tc tj~»». s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify.

j^6 JJit giving more shade than. IV. from ^Ut IV. VIII. from ^^t ^^. sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better. D showing greater honour O to. . n C 6i /. x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better. jsbZ . than. of >l». IV. from . to 60 crafty. . x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. to 5 . b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. IV.142 Part Second. x IV. from ^J^l IV. x£ or IV. to 60 good. of JJ» . IV. J ^*^t giving more freely. stand xx „ x*£ upright . J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. from «-*»-). ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. of ^J* . Maw. of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. -. of j*^-** to be safe. * from £l»»t. from i^a-cul to be just. . of to help. of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. VII. ^>»»'. II. J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. from C-*Sl. IV. 'bZ away . : or more docile.t causing to be better. of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. II. Jib to fo xx IV. ^s. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. from JU»-I. last x x p x x x ftp . 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than.bz wAa to fear . IV. of ^j J ^oj^l . from ^©j^l. fow^. s-*«At. of t*-**. from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV. from ^^Jit * x jwor. of ^©13 *ot t to . from^-Lw. from j * or the Parts of Speech. * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. or loosens. .>U3t. of x © P m . JU.^*$±. . from ' wi^.— Etymology clearer or purer. of >13 to &a<#. r^acA the j . excellent . J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw. from^UH. £ bestowing more liberally.*"„' IV. . IV. of ^aj to remain. IV. of $±. ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\.j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to. xx j x bZ to fear . x x p x J >>».to live grtiw s^acfe. bZ or flabby . from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert. of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . quickly. or ' Z <*JUJ. . to clarify or clear. noble. . of wJbi relaxes.\ ' causing me greater alarm about. ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?. . more. x II. be firm. x . middle. from JU*t. IV. IV. respect. of . bZ to ' x bZ xOg . of C*o . # IV.

— Verbal Adj. j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j . B 236. waor^ occupied with pass. The Noun. o i . o ^^t ^t. ^>o %y*\ blacker than . J^jl more readily found . are and from the quadri- the following. ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) . J \*$j£>\ better A .^ Adj. *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than . .i j-wt # known . j . j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused.§236] II. j *oi pied . CJU . j>^\ more deserving of blame . s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. j more glad of or pleased by. oi 1 wor^ i . Nouns Subst.). more praiseworthy or commendable . The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb. A.ot j * l. s . O : (^^ * Of- or VIII. of VIII. JjL£>I more occu. literal verb. &ztee? or hateful .

I JjC for JtU G (§ 133). j * be- 237.CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . p G s- s G e- * D Rem. . 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt. "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e. rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad. Final hemza. >>t>o for j. b. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^. Rem. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed.) . sceptic. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed . a. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata. >^U becomes >U 238. geminatse. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. CTO C0. J«>a* etc.£j for^. j&\ JJ-cn.(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ. 6.144 Part Second. admits of assimilaSee § tion. jj^wt. in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L.^) 5. (see § 13. as j~>y* for . ^0. in ' Heb. 239. G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135). " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. o o j . j3yc for jfc (§ 131)..— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. (manafek) tremble.jtU # » <J (§ 133). I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem. ma. and Aram.g. a 's. rem. the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed.P". b. [§ 237 A quadriliteral. preceded by and w.^. ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. rad. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t. *3J** 17 > &> rem.^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH. heretic (J3U»o) . fjfcgOTD* to . as S**rt = S^pHD.

place in verba mediae rad.j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). for J^y. first 241. with the ^) damma is changed into kesra. j->l~». the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^.§241] II The Noun. Rem. 145 240. Nouns Subst. stupid . for 9 »xx Ox . Js^o^y. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). water-hearted. according to »- out of I). £~-«. Jj>*>>v©j>>. and. rad. D. from »J>3^&**. in consequence. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). t ^x x . »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ . clb obedient. the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133. [A poet even allows himself Zeid. & Adj. in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU. The same thing takes this difference. *. for <J>j^a»-o. J X Rem. rad. G. as instead of e>~». as cby.] 19 . for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. j\& feeble. to say UjU UpL. which retain their middle radical unchanged. x A ^ with hemza (arising. instead of JjlS. as ». j. for ^51U*. the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . after letter . Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU. as^jU. * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw.^LJI (^5^^. Naw&dir. k. wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . for oiMJs is ijib clayey. j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£. &j. JuU?. Rem. usually changed into Jx J . as JbLS (for JH-3). % a. x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. bristling with weapons . 26 infra. 9 * . In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c. ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). for <}"'<>' a51a .— Verbal Adj. cowardly. from 9>x+a. 5. Abu w. forjjlfc. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160. throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c.

tall. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare. for 33^. 6 »"" J ^->U«. noble. D 244.g. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti. Rem. Rem. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . 01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. ** b^+a***. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*. for *•**«. g. O^jJ-o. Ixo^o. 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. of III. managing. j+j. etc. 6&ae?. ^LZo. / ultima? rad. ^j. 2/ captive. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile. / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. exceeding (±*jy). ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. [ J^ dependent for sustenance. JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. £)£iJ*c. ^w ^. ^ et ^£. an enemy. e. right. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. become by transposition Jju*. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o. p. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy. ^£j~t generous. C and ^^3 243. vo^s-o. The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***.146 Part Second. § 170). From verba med. E. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. as / ££**•«. JI^^Co. 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically.g. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . for oW. 245. and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . of verba med. contemptible (^jj^b). in that of having charge of. which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. 6 «-/ J e. for O^**. In 3 et . 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. rad.). 6 / 242.

A+jL a ) portion of meat.* (jkwt). 0/ a date.— Norn.t). & Adj. a. a. designate one individual out of a genus. Comp. § 167. g. (>o. or nouns of individuality. Fragm. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice. for adjectives of the form J*»t. and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. The Noun. 323. and b. ^j&t Compare j^&t. unit. S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake. D. a. the genus or whole. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. ii. j^jXa-t for ^X*. vicis (§ 219). to created things or natural objects. SlLolj an onion. a nugget. Noam Sabst. i. ^^jlc for J . 417. This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari. . the Individual. 331. the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of. Unit. 173. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. from Sxx G* * { duck . from ^Jki *L*3 a straw. is almost entirely restricted. from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ .§246] if is II. with the O< *< article. b). the or tenwin. as the above examples show. G. or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts. j^jt b.pigeons. Rem. A.0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^. Sj+j a fruit. Add. /'a^. The Denominative Nouns. !£+* a Mubarrad etc. from v»W». rem. They are formed. 4ul*». 1. a pigeon {male or female).^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. from jJb cattle. the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. 2ub$ a bit of gold. from ^>*j straw*. * . J s for ^kig. 129. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E. The use of the nom. <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. from j^j efotes . 4). fc+ji a portion of cheese.] . B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha. /?.0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. head of cattle {bull or cow). v&U&J t. Gloss.! (jJUU). According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. If the form be one that admits of complete declension.

o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***).148 Part Second. Oxx x «" abundantly. (a pfoce) ^joj\ . 2uJut a ship or boat.o jjyt children are a cause . a. iJj3^ . SUA*. and are. or nouns of abundance. 7^^). 5U£*. scorpions 6. rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem. chamaileons x x J (^bj^). Sometimes the . From quadriliterals this formation . SjurU. jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»). Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities. boats. Also from XII. O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). 3JU1». are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis. /iares. 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). Ajjijto.a. scorpions. from ^iw X shipping. as JJuu^ x x x . with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. Ox > . E. (a place) abounding in foxes. The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling. —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech.. A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare. a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. aJbuwo. (w^ift).g. Rem.. Similar forms in Heb. a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. Rem. c. Ox OP J ^jowo. black beetles (Jju*. r» 4a*Jsu*. i B 247.. Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. 6.g.»». Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning . a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t). a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221). The SjJLxJt iU-^t. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). consequently. 4-U^-«. SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers. cucumbers (ILLS).). used in this sense. designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed. Oft ax*. [§ 247 e. >. as dX^^c <U . is rare. ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks . *JtJ*c. SLa^o or 3t^&**. I They have the form x £ SlxLo. *. fern.

g.». . . £. ft rem. belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin.. j*£o a needle-case. sfy. the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o). " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth.k.-o a milk-pail.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything.§ 249] II. #/^ a/r. from Rem. The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t. el- v5^» aerial.>. from ^Aj otf. • *>. disease.. J 0* J J 9 . A. O**-* ct milk-pail. evil or ill-feeling . from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&. Nouns Sabst. »U>)I 0^0 il^t. q/* ^ooc? health. i.*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. . ^3^1 jJJ 3. joy or happiness. . to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o.& Adj. or w~jX». family.iT>). or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%. Adjectives.* * <. ft . <i E. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance . e. A & came ^J-a*. 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». &. (relationes). £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc.e. * * from ^-^w descended sun. 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM .• a)>*-o a urinal. from w-A». $ . ' trade. ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228. the Vessel which 248. — Rel.a».*.). (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives. as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar. aSj^o a spittoon.* j**. 249.«. it sect. rt. etc. The nomina (§ vasis. or a brick-mould.J. t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly.mtfl .6. » + + from . from JjlJJ saliva. Adjectives. from Sjj! a needle. >©U~JJ •itto a j . ' from ^ajS the earth.g. have the same form as the Oxft 228).. like. The Noun. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. from d-U a brick.).

in general use The .] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). \_ •' % f. G. and especially in particles (see § 191).. I is ^7X1^ L Israelite.j\±. f as Egyptian. as : 9° 'ay. c.: (harrasl) a ploughman. & a from j«aa Egypt .*!^.t. ft^^: i . whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations. PvJ. as iEthiopic. scientific. (m. from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*.«**»• relating . a. from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. jj^"*». [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. legitimate.150 Part Second. from^Xfr knowledge. (kJjfi). —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . as ch<5. according (^y). ^*£> cj£ intellectual. ^jwt. a corroborative or D. H*— and JV— ). ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw).|"l.b* . B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . wjuj^JjId eastern. according to some. The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective. ^^ o/*. ij>*»* from j*±.(medrawl) terrestrial. Aram. to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to. ^3 * strange. in such words as . express " b.. also from the other kinds of nouns. YlC. has the *T>ffi last of these forms. ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?). tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . Rem. ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). viz. L5^^° belonging to. science. compassionate. the law . . *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. 1*]^$ Hebrew. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives. and even from Rem. or 0^<? o/". «S '4* tives Rem. perceptible by one of the senses . 3/0*5/5/* ^c*. usual £HPl) and **Urh£:. This termination common in Heb. *_. . . the language of the schools. gwc? . In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives." ^ [However. . ^1 from <j\ truly.tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian. but in more modern Arabic.

[^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or . (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants. besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. In forming the nomina relativa. A. are rejected . tjs. 252. be a weak radical. A. J sul £ . 151 250. Jj & * * . however. foil. G.JxL« Malatya.Basra.ti Adj. ZSU Mekka. . 251. as ^£)W»- « bustard. the vulgar . 1. (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. measure.*£j). &j weight. L5*U. I. [fa J LM direction party of All. G. j ^). and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr. ^-^^- refined. of this form. D. ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. only a single instance has been mentioned in the T. <J>oj ulul . j^jXJ* .]. Sj-oJI s * el. ^^ . if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from . 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. to which the Muslim turns in praying. ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa. ^5-w. have lost their first Q Rem. (&) S^-* But the name of two months. have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w . ^gste vulgar. like ojs-.a promise.-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians. Nouns Subst. [and j^^-w from 4-w D. 3u—. j^ycw*. the higher classes. ^J&. and 2UUJI £/^ common people.] . a. 3>£» a window. ^U»». and to the vocalisation. In the case of nouns which.). J s £ ^^>'.— Rel.] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and . J ^ . letter. the nouns ending in ^— fern.§252] It The Noun. Adjectives. j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. aiyjt el-Kufa. to the final radicals ^ and ^.

which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word. of relative adjectives fall 253. belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. (a) [§ 253 A ^. ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 . ^lbj. ij>>©j*-. and 2 *oi ' 6.3 2. and ^£>j->. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " . £by> to assimilate 3 . 3 a 0* seat. o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. as . the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0..**. 3 o . If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. \j-lj* 3 relationship. /sj .5) as ^j£sj+&. a ^j£* . j^^b ^Sb. a vulgarism. The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . * J to \J$U. D 3 •»* as ^4%*-. e. ^5***. or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath.152 Pakt Second. 3 . one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI). & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite. 2*0** big. «// Os* . as 3 *L». pregnant. (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^. or *0J j changed . The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . 0/ and ^j* 254. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable). Gufi (^J&c. it may . - or ^iU 1. Baradd. the two cases are to be distinguished. ^Sb or ^y. the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. admissible. —Etymology . 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. or the Parts of Speech..g. If the second letter is is without a vowel. ^>iU Rem. ^L^ or ^j-U*. the bean. from substantives like bullrush. world. stout camel. the into 5 ^ may either be <** . ^sj+*.* - In 3 b. x * j ^i^t & /3. \^>j*>. rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). ^5***-. or a bug or tick.Sb. belonging 3 * MekM. (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. viz. 3 Similarly.- (2ljj**)\) Spain . But if it to »J . name of a river. *L-. ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1). elif if it is e. but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i. j. (^>»j'.

20 . ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'.jU^aJt 3 ' ' .l. 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ. 3' ^j-^3. Nisibis.. . Foreign names of towns. JO' 3 0' . Rem. ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' . are very irregular Some proper names. the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j . from *' '->? . 5^ i_ . u'' bjb. 3 o . J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ. ^j^a. J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc. ending in ^-j— sometimes . 3 QjJ-^ twenty.3 Kinnesrin. instead of 3 ' . B Rem. 6. *&*» of the o ^ . It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . i-xpcti. j 3 '' . « '0 name of Zeid. ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. L^J Ji >-^ ***><. / j j«/ Fcftriin. to two. l^jJ^Jj. ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«. but ^j~U3. 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . c. 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl . for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie.»>. > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' . o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais. in the latter it j >.g. j Rem. j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. use ^j^j^. 0?. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*. ) .>. from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. The Noun. Ji'' i . A . J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t. £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). the Muslims. D ^jLx^. ^^^Jaudl. Adjectives. A. O'O'O' . Oli^ 'Arafat. ^J^UX**. t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. <fc. In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. C)3*H) Zeidun. of aJU a hundred. are rejected ' ' * <v . Nouns Subst.§254] II. however. instead of \^£y3 or . (^jj-». We may. ^V^.jl_. ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it. in their formations 3 ' e. as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln. a.Jtf!. from f A 0'* ^jjX*. ' jjO' j^xj. 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . as — Rel. as . ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj .& Adj. ^jit. O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias.jjj^~. . j '3 ^^j-^ / * .j^a*-JI. plur. O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic. 153 nation .

. 3 or ^ as ^J^. they < remain unchanged. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. ^5*^. **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria. X rejected. which occur.*luJt). ^>i*« and . 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes). G. [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 . is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc. O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech.-jl^Jt). and j „o. D. x x xOxdxJ . from ^ul^J. . gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x .*3t©. *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . 3 vel ^£. . # unchanged. fern. and ^U*! likewise s Comp. " x « X&X J 255. when is not derived from verba mediae rad. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes). reality. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . the words jJUj. ^y^. ^<^U». 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute. if they come from verba mediae rad.] art. 3 (a town). The forms ^^V>. ^>o-Jt el-Yemen. as 5 SxOx . Faik of the i. i' 0xJ . S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -. ii. «*Jtu. § island. O^J 5 ul (with the art. A^lyj.^(^i\). ^*ej*. instead of ^^lyJ. t^JWj J**£. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ . from S^ii». X XX -t> are also used.154 Part Second.] . G. fern. cb> and ~-L£ (=^^. 3 Sju jc». The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**.. But. l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina. Tiliama . geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^). as <ULa*. § 319. ^^^-v*-. or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. 2 5 ul <LjI*j. ^a*a». ^yot from £*>ii&. 1 fern. the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . Comp. ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p. . art. 7 and Slbaweih 66. as in ^tw 1. also Mufassal 90. e. Otherwise 5 remains <" > . and XX <* ^-^. ***y»*. ^3-^.a piece of iron. ^5*^. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. (a man). D.1^). 5 tool. Ox . L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the . ^5-^5 (men). A**U>.

or in other words follow the shorter form J-J .-auJa . it Rem. Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**. <&JJ*6 a city. belonging . from i*J~>.**J». ^Ju (tribes).' ^JUk. § 242) its from radicals j et ^. uSyej*. 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). g makes ^£yo. Words of the form J*j (for J**s.-o-Jlw. ^3*^. the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). — Rel. 257. Ji*>jS. wlx 9 s Rem. »x J an ass. form ^jJ^ from both j**c and . —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin. . ^j-j^ft.& Adj. jJ^a^a. Adjectives. jtnX^. [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin. *$js-. < There are.' . — ^t^^j a prophet. But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^. from the assimilated form . ^jjj**. Uu*3 ^j&fc. g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn. ^j*j-*. . verba Lastly. ^^o-U. and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . however. A. . ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?. 155 rules. exceptions to these { E.g.Mesopotamian) . of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown. a female enemy. W«s&. 3 (a place) *J . j^o-*-.. is rejected.~J. . mediae 6. <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . of j^wt. But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. Nouns Svbsb. ^^is ^Llc. and the second 9 5 J + vt . £)>»». Many.§257] II. JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina). derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. The Noun. reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra. ^ju~» . The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected. so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis. ^A**> *. Jj M. however. a. «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256. as ju~> a lord or master. ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^. A Ufr»l» nature. of jl*»-.

2 6. j«yJ-« play. rem. the (^ ^^ju is ^y**.156 Part Second. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. The Uif maksura is (t ^. the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . (H^Pl). e£>**. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. ^jj-^ . E. which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. Jxx Slo^. ^J^j-c vintner. either be changed B into ^. a musical instrument. \jys*£i. ^J^3 « mo^. {Jy* J a district in Palestine. S X J and ^ako. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. /?). as ^j£ a youth.3. Rem. ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . 3 x x Hama Sxx . x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. are modern and corrupt.g. ^^Jl^. if it be changed into 3. and also. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. Sld^e a ladder. ^^-oc . <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. or 258. is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**). ^j. ^^AJxcuo. X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167. as ^aJa^o chosen. P affect the rule of formation. ^ . . ^3J^5. but must be borne ^ becomes fetha. *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful.-lx£«*^. as the third radical of a triliteral noun. 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge. But if the noun has four letters.X£»o. always rejected. a § 7. ^(I . x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind. b). \J$$*-j to* a staff. SxOOxx SUl». Jju.^ for ^tu^uo. changed into . b.» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). ^£Jux*.> IL does not writing-case. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.0} letters. or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem. a. [§ 258 II. w x x ox x or d-J l». j before adding the termination . —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^. as . which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). noun contains five or ^ -» more 1. .

. memduda. ^jUUi . rem. ?^3b £& focm. On the contrary. ^^b.. & Adj. But ** in the termination 1 1— . * .g. etc. ^ '. a). 157 259. Adjectives. Ol*^') £.. as tyy**. 2b/». ±$y++> . A. J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW. ^jy\ (for ^i. £bj£>j " ^jUu . a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon. *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » .1. »" > . J^Stf. 260. ^tp. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I. jjgjW* * . ^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). . if ^yb/*-.^ £fa 6/a^ beetle. those which have lost D weak radical. it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. Nouns Subst. it appears as ^.. C Rem. ^jbj^-. — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural.1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother. either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb. their third Primitive defective substantives. The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper . ^b.. ~. du. whether it was originally . 2.i. whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored. The Noun.§260] II. is § 252.. as l\jjs> a virgin. <l~£» a robe. -» j^jUU. a garment. IjJ). 5-*' (places). . is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23. names. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d.* Zachariah. ^ji-A.— Rel. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father. ^yb^. or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. 3 - . (a town in Persia). ti*~> the heaven. ^y^U. w>' (for y>\. £3.^». i^y^Sb. j .. axJ. "-•» . in the * ^jl^w. may . a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place). »-t. a). *byJ a tribe). *tjjj*is ^3-U. 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . —as w>t. i. E. i^jbj^j. dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother. ^S^jJ^-'. the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective. A always changed into j. reappearance be not necessary. ^ or not.e. 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza .

^£^j Soj 3^ But .jj| (for v) ^J. bribe. as ^jjo. 3 . (rad. t^U) a hundred. or the Parts of Speech. ^j£ ct. ^ot) a female slaw. . O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . ^^3 #* . as {£$j£. makes ^£^. ^J Me . 3 du.^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»). 3 has t^jU. 3 -£ C-Uj. {$5)* 5 ' °£ . and 2u£ a possession. The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox . a SO r-xOJ . L5^» or du. Rem. ^3-0. 2 x . l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£. the final second radical takes fetha. (rad. has the three forms 3- v». ^Ao 8. a 3 So ^j^U. a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU. — x 4&2>. ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. xx . x . ^$y^> a grammarian . D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3. x J oW) x go a «w. combining with tho third radical into ^. y£}£ . ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* .158 Part Second. >*~>) a name.>. ' ^3a£. (from . x 261. or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad. L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. o £ 00 sister. 6. j^^o. ^ (for \£Jo. the second radical takes i^^**. U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow.! and ^£y^. and ^ is converted into living. x vw(w. as 1^3/*. fetha. Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©. 9x0 . as {J* (for l$£>) a fold. § A . handle. 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. a daughter. this ^ resolved into its original consonants.— SU Rem. ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3. a —Etymology ^$*) O x* . 5 * . [§ 261 A a*j (rad. ^y** 2 £*t (rad. 4j>* a village. Ox as 3**J x grammar..) ^ 3-o . 00 « ^yL* j^. >i)) J dialect. CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti.or ^ay*. ^U ox 3 3 and ^U».* ^m. 0x0^ j £<wo an image. £3 (rad. <0) ox podex.. ^3^. ^3^. some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm. ^^iw.). .4 .S 3 3 lip. Cukl. xx . ^yj\ OJ . *3~>. >w) a 00 year. . {£*2>j. ^£>0. from ajji. a a gazelle. J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . ^>w 3 . xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*.

J^ai. ^Uic. ^£j+j £-» . j j-o-JI (tribes). 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. *j\j a banner. Adjectives.. 262. and ^jj£j are admissible. make m ^jI. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . Rem. ^SULw. ^jx But in Jjti. ^jlii . — In words of the form A <UUi. . of D more than three consonants. A. the is Rem. 159 . and. ^51. Nouns Subst. oo* ^ju. .*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . C III. x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. ^J^**-. or j^jt.. In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered. but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle. 3 x x Rem. as J-»l camels. though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . of the forms J-ati. though very incorrectly.§262] - II. i . as well as . 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. etc. makes desert. s x x . (the ancient . {£3+* <H>^ a town). t/j «/«/j aJlaii. rest at night. verba 6. —"Words . See §§ 255-6. — Rel. «x x . {Jj3&. a desert. The Noun. Nouns ^ . changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. a. ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. twist or turn. So also in & * t 3 J*j. J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*. irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. a x o^-ait. i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). is j Ox Ox . From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL. et ^£. j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. Changes in the Vocalisation. ^jj\ or ^^J. as S^ULw misery. \^^ is **» # snake. the kesra may be retained. 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. from tertise rad. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). etc. ^^U jufb /twr. x 5 ftfo 2> x x . the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x .dk Adj. « s . final ^ retained. reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. etc. (JV>I). ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. . as J5oJt (a tribe).

dj-aJI. 264. xx x and . B J*± time. a man's name. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. or CUj . Of rare and arbitrary changes. daughter. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words. two secondary cases arise.* lOUwt w.^p). or in . . termination 3 - ^— appended to the first . two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. the warrior). damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio. If the first word the status constructus. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©. 2c second in the genitive. the following points must be attended to. and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. •**£. as ^*-j&. as zjj>j^j\. omitted. x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday. ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four. 3 ^\ 3 son. ox jg it is ox . governing the arise. . Archibald Bell-the-cat. — then is in the second word 3 ct. (see the preceding ^>i£ Rem.from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm. ' ^M*^. ^>ol . 2 —A. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§).»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech.160 Part Second. —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas. status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. a grammar can take no account.jt\ mother. \^£j^> from ««' . \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. VJyiS. is [§263 changed A 263. such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a. —B. 3 rejected..

from 3 JyUJI jJ3. too. from j^o. For example from \y* C-wO. ^^j^U^U.& Adj. from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj . ^J^ . Adjectives. 0>^' ji ( a 21 .g. 3 o . ^$j*~> *^£jt J . as ^^^. (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker. J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X .§264] II. J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. ^tki aXlt j^c. (CameVs-nose. and the second XX .— Rel.. is i«/ \£tS}[ '. Nouns Subst.. some . # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. nisba from the whole this license compound word. belong such words as . l£*'> Guadix in Spain.<£>t^. . In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o. 2> * " 0' .-Jl^C^o. j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ. ^-^iJt »*t. Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . nickname of a man). j — the But first word is rejected. The Noun.^tf. 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein. is £ omitted s . and A 'I the second takes is ^— . and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI. ^^^ 3 • « . B x0/« *" . Oi x x S x J Rem. (from the assimilated form 3^w). \JIS±J CH**M ^jK. /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj. attached to the vt ^— wl is first word. To this stage of the language. from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. A. \ . j0/<» . ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^. from both parts of the word 3 e. L5^*5.«J>o from w. . with the s . then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B.x from oJa&t jb. xxOx ^jO** x x . ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw. allow a J J Q J x x double formation. b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ. x x as ^JJ^j-^^j.>tj. u^IU|tf>. as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted. x. J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' . iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. ij5& jUoJt ^oUau. hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing.

265.)] . at el-Medina). bib. - D e. Hadramaut . ~ ' s Such plurals. j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet.g. 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. 6. it. 2. ^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. In many cases falling under B. even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. the desert.. properly the plur. s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i.. (a . 3 s s « efo^). plur. o . 3 - and U-Hazrag. from jt^^i plur.g. or approximate to them in sense. are excepted * t 3 *bi . manuletter. jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. from dU*a». the singular. of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. a and /?..-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji. the (§ 32). strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants. plur. really proper s o£ names.ojcirw from O^o^-a*. ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 . or the Parts of Speech.. abecedaire). Ctesiphon. 3 . script. also a learner or student. ^^JIjl^ °S . or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o . LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe). fib " . Z jo E. 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa. ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. . iJ?jiU*. jU»Jt (plur. ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s . footn. Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt. in classical Arabic. from the plural. Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o.jj-a^Jt. bs j / ot»/ ij. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . ^j. —Etymology <^£)U^j c. Ojlfr* (a tribe). the tribe of Kilab. e.o a written a a book. ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ . as are either . ^%^> name 3 .162 Part Second. four letters of the alphabet Rem. however. [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * . ^hj^I. > b . i-ijjuo). o^!/* .ain .g. ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' . (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur. 5. A relative adjective is never formed. the of a poet.o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus. from Ju»yl 'abuged. 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats.

at pleasure. of wounds. plur.J^.] In more modern Arabic. 3 x X . (plur.Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur.§ 266] * Oi II.) mats. ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. adjectives «• * oi. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St.Aj|. of early date. of |2. A. of JxoJ) rugs. JsuI^a. orae w/io makes or seZfo them . Persian colonists in Yemen.g. the opinions of grammarians o< differ. of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. attributes. # £ ^l/^l. a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. &Lo) qualities. as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . G. E. of 9 x 266. ^j. ^-5t/»» of (pi. as ^jV- In the case of ^£. the simple doubling is permitted.'^t # the confederate tribes.^t*. of Jji»*U) sieves. In the case of $. a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles. ^ — Similar . Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. Olio God 3 > (pi. . Nouns Subst. j*om* (plur. are I I belonging women. 5 x 163 | j* io. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^. ^%e*\. etc. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles. {£&£* ^ in. 3«" not. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. x x mats. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition . a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade. Adjectives. . if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. The Noun. j-ateJtjrffc. 3 x OUL x x x (plur. on the contrary. & surgeon. forms in Syriac.) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s. the second ^ being changed into j . Oxx X ^. of ikuj^. D. from • V plur. — Rel. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature . of j**au*. as ^^* that. 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J . J^UJl (plur. this latter form x alone admissible. studies. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. [o^a. a woman. ^jUjt. /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur.-butj^. ^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to.) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c. if be a strong letter. j->jty> x (plur.UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc. o & Adj. . J^-Lu X sieves.

#cAr. 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w). haired. is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza. G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. . t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU. <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a. as *j not. 2 x x of the Aramaic) . which may be changed * 3 .). robust. sordid. ox xx ^U*. G ' . strong. under the influence 5 * . Ox q[*SXo vile. letter be a quiescent 2 Slif.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 . 232) that the termination ^L.-y^U. D.] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed.g. 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C . [.g. or . n.jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given. both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter.). ^^SU 0^0 .having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck). 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. but . ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja. ^i^koj. ^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x . from jisu*. <jla^aJI corpulent. G. instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU.(. . I e • ^U^*. e. appearance. large head of hair (**»). there [§ 267 A ^3-^.» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J). ^yly^li a fruiterer. to strengthen the relation.— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech. ^^ or ^^. We . 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c. 245.» J straight-haired. s^/s foarcs.Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . j^S^SU or . 267. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring. 1). ju£»U) Z*~»d\. JK. reckless. jJLo—^w 2^0 e. ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking.jUao J-l or ^j\2suo.164 Part Second.JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^). mendacious. as the grammarians say. have seen above (§§ 231. Fleischer.*. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J . aspect. oo 2 large in the body (J*-*. i^W^i ^ -» corpulent. vociferous . . perhaps. Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-.

xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) . corporeal. - The Noun. J v> ty. ^'^ wr. as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing.j manhood. the school of . ears. S (flSH).». ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality. 2 * 4J3*.j is ^JUi as a ^. corresponds * a i o* thum. 165 outward. aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective . Rem. 5©5fi. G. or Z~&yA±. i (til nO?). 9 vt 4-*o~»t. <Lu^Jt Lordship. . 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality. is arms. 9 aJLoj. and ^«. interior. upper. 2l*J>1^*$\ D. . S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood.wljj having So. * Oi from j*-~»\. ^j^jy relating to light. (U wlwt ?) . *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness.§268] 3 - II. a substantive.-fcUw. It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit. I s+ . keit. as distinguished from the concrete thing itself. . ^jlju-*. the mind or temperament. private. 0* D adjectivity. A-JbU substance.. and oL^j. ^JU-jj spiritual (. \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower .g. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite. public.—Abstr. £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\.. Nouns. ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose. 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic . [^uoj-oi. i**'oi. particularity] substantivity. quiddity totality . j\ * E. and to English ones in head. dom. schaft. Nouns Subst. A 3 form and applicable ex.» external. 8 . J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS . ^j^JLSU. A.] the divine nature. to the soul. i^te'. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t. . & Adj. . B 5 *J large head . 268. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . etc..

[These nouns are.:xo. 5x0 *-Ui-c a. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ. pride.. when formed from a xj c * . etc. takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- . omnipotence. scorpion. a. ^ J . humanity (\l. »/J . a.xxOxi best. When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. as J*?. j*Ju*aC ^ hey. On the contrary. the very . When . not merely in its literal sense. t . In forming a diminutive. is Rem. and j Sal-o. j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive. the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow. oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. .001_£\). du^y^S Judaism.] B 269. the Christian religion. S Ox J . 'J. but 5 J J »/J .>* J©.»w (a man's name). J***. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp .j a man.-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^).166 Part Second. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth. The diminutive used.» a mosque.lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt. 5 -2 8.>. .o. 9 . the noun 9 quinqueliteral.Q-mS\). is jia» *. S ^^t.a*n) divinity.wi. jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM. JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue. triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). j^o-c is .. < « &'#. the servile letters are generally taken into account.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 269 A the Hanefites. 6. j&d)* 5 ^a». 9 J Rem. J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . dirham. J****. Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. fall Rem... as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune.. ' x 1 x <fo<7. 9. of the masculine gender. a severe it is trial]. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J . Jk. In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed . JJj jlo a special friend). j***. haughtiness. * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\.> . 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom.! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree. 9 x . not usual to back upon the root-consonants. .. xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a . . (|Z. as Oj. in Arabic. x J . The diminutive. Jxjjl (for j^ujt). See however § 283.

they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. Nouns Subst. from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184. and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem. an d HS^D. nffSff T . : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig.1. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. where. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four. the *_). from Jt>£). the . and (3) little above. f).. . A. which x Ox J are. . (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. In Hebrew we (j*juo). the J diminutive of <U5.— Diminutives. ^ may perhaps consider as such. a basket. xx OOxJ «£~wJt».§ 270] II. e. a sort of snake («Ju*>). ^Z^^> a bay horse. . and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. Yjfl .. If so. like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa. a 2/o^A ' C*J^. siH3> a little below. Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). On the other hand. however. of which the fourth five. c. or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . Ox > ^w. d. a kind of small bird. (2) from certain prepositions. as J*a5 a after. is When the noun contains Jive letters. is sounded A^/|/e or gfife. ^. rem. for c^u. The first & Adj. P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N.. strong. biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem. as well as jj£jJl . ?^*£. juju a little J>j>J a etc. 4 if' example.. a little nearer than. a con B temptuous diminutive. The Noun. : cerastes. when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . as C**«j. as O x J ^J-j-o^. an(* w--wJ. /i«fe. like J/'**. from^U). a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. <Uua5. 270.J-ai5 is 167 Rem. obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative. little before. J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX.

t tr r J 0. m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^)..3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants.3 . r. old woman. Out ... little. . tick. Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained. rejected. and therefore is 0. nouns of four 9 . J^. Jfej*. 2 6. 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade. If there be off. 3 6e. 0. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.^ .3 6. Jjj-ol . make either j^on*. 3 6. 6. the diminutive of ^julc. <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman. 0. 0. j~**~o (for j^U). lazy. . 0. J ^3ujS. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake. J ^^ . indicates the participial form. 6. and in § 269).». . and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a. . 3 3 . five Rem.63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. a sort of thorn. rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem. tive. [§270 0. . exceed the form Jju*5 O'„. but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O. however. But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters. 3 short and big-bellied. as aS%£. a nightingale. Rem. J) c.3 . Thus 6 . Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider. as <\ . *-j**-> . ^juXfr) of ty ill. b. which is 0. consonants do not .3 0. . The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed. B Rem.3^ 6. a sort of cap. wXwic. o o . 3 9 0. . £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0.0 . 3 . 0. ^Lauil.03 .3 (for 0. In place of the rejected consonants. to Rem.36.3 . or jZj^a***.j* a 0. formed out of the preceding consonants. . ^^xJU . are of equal value.0.« trying to render perfect. is Q In A+KLm+t for example. is not rejected. The termination ^1— when appended . . these are . 3 00..r-. 3 0^.jJut is not a fat. in front. sarily b. ma. 6.3 d. £.3 >j->j*.1 saffron.168 Part Second. Jb» & .0. : of h .3 either juJLc or juX& 0. le snake.3 .3 0.j£a rolling oneself. or more letters. 6.j^.3 JjuJcS. we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please.

or j**». . \^+*. . queliteral noun. either ^Jj-***- or the Oot. supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal.0 oJlai. 5 . the third letter be a . JU^I.0. the ending ^1— . A. ) j ^»L .S~*4 .». Muslims. are /«/ all disregarded. c camels. 3 . el.0 .0. ^_ is rejected. . . name).3-. and these terminations added « . besides their JUil. and the 271.3 . . The diminutives must be formed out 3 .-. —Diminutives.3 4*A£ boys. jj^L-* .§ 271] II. -kUJt words. jj!/^ . w>la*->. and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0. 3 ^. . .o . in the quinit. Nouns Subst. . of the class called j j j aJlSJt r. 3 weak servile. . . S . ..« r. The Noun.3 consists of . .5 jj£j->*J a riddle. 0. be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. may be omitted. B preceding consonants. & Adj. w>la*~ot companions. 3 . and Ol_ . a. i. (fern. ^A***2. the relative termination is ^_ . to them. strong. J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). the third of which »/J /}'j .$ 3 . ^jJL**. . 4**A£ J**'' as 0. ^i**. A (/J like. 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard. ZxXS a S^Xb *. or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. in adjectives of which the feminine . is when the noun 0. Olgt.0 . perfect. SjuJj diminutives regularly. . (a man's name). mighty. . {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj . five letters. 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t .Basra.0. as SjJj children.t- 5 W^£ verses.. ^$j£~>) drunken. But . "..jUA-$~»* . . . ^+X~j (a woman's naine). 3. 3 . e- oLj^t . . . . jJUj. 3 Oi 9.0 3 V 3 . 3 if. viz. and the second JUil . w. 5 o L»L. <U*»»-« /»/j ~.3 .3 .0. iU^Xm . . *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. The fern. 3 .g. JjJusi.pregnant. The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and . Rem. J^o-X«.03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims.ol. Other (see § plurals. " of the E. 0.». . (for ^)o . . a+X~~c (a man's . 4*A. . Pj*+ O 307) form . 22 .Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#. pL- . . 3 . J jlo-L 3 ) . 3 . <bUJI. C J^O^J >j\j+. 3 3 < .0. OS- oWA-~o Muslim women.ot Rem. a o*> £>.3 castle. 3. 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. slaves.

«* from the plural (for 10|1). ^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars./foc& jh a house. 5 o-» j o x (see § 274). J ^j&jac.g.» children. Otj-jjj. rem. form their diminutives from the first word. l\jj& xO x J poets. B from yj. x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?).g. <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim. G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. 0>***> from ^ZJ.jlo^ a Ox g wo//". 9*0*3 St j x x J . Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) . 03/J such exist. ^^JLJ3. sultan. from the plural (see § 278).^-0*^3^. x E. jjUauL> power. <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269.170 Part Second.. from lij? -» J*te. x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^. (see § 307). *»L-£l J and 3JUJI. jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. The termination x .\ bags. ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. ^. and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 . JJJ* (a woman's name). ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274. adding . O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a . <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah . %LJ>\ ribs. g. e. C*^ an eV e or fountain. x I Aj««j». the second remaining unchanged 273. which has not however a feminine termination. 3 f> —Etymology 3 . O a . S^tel Joys. ^jsuyZt. OxO xp . x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G . 272. wJ^»t « x dogs. w>jijjux*. £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o). slaves. radical. provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis . groate. x x ^ a K *l»> . r ' «/ »( 6 . . or the Parts of Speech.» . jjj houses. S_ diminutive. as x 3 * x J x . ll . 4*JL£l . from j^lw. If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j . i**^ . £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e. Proper names. . O . or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows.jt— in triliteral nouns. jjW** youths. as <Ltjx*. ^^**. 246).t ** * x . of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names. $j>++£\ . two courses may be J x J adopted. consisting of two words (see § 264). x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r.^3. .

the front. Juj3 * j . Tfie Noun. rem. Rem.3. u°y* 9 a young she-camel.. c. though also of both genders. which <i masc. j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales.. seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju. j*aj. G. same reason. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy. a bow. * from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. cardinal numbers. 9*0*3 U m. but *^w S^a^w jX» . But see § 319. «5^9^J e>j*su. makes s^j^88/J . t w~«j 3 s»-J. *t* 3 . 9 0*39 .g. 5— is O 171 But diminutive. J* 9 frij* A^3. If the second radical be a weak letter. 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. Rem. If the noun contains more than three consonants.. i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich. ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees.. 3 f rad. The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill. a wedding feast. pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs.— Diminutives. but S^aj cm o«r or cow.. Sju jc«. M/J ones people or 2W6e. do not take 3_ for the yive (fem. E. has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j.). J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride.$>. . u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. ^/tfuXS. 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J.. and fem. u~^ a cup (Fr. a tree. makes Zj*t 275. J3 a J-^>. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#. O^ij-iy^- . cattle. 90*390* sj^. j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" . w*>j£- . as 9 0*3 . w>G (v>^ a door.**^*. 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi.§ 276] if II. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). 00* w-^ * J r. u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). **+&. E. geminatae are resolved.»»1> 2j*o time. the rear or back.] 7 f" l\j2. . *3 . j*a>. A. 9 0*3 . b. is b. j**J a sea.. which in is masc. S_ B not added to the diminutive. £ x d *• . 276. «. in order to avoid ambiguity. rem.g. The diminutives of the fem. e. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. Rem. a. Nouns Subst.g. is usually masculine. 3 /(^ «* * 3 . 9 For example. tasse). O a herd of she-camels. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. j^. value. and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. 3* 9 0*3 . is whilst j*\j3. <Sc Adj.—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . war. D. 90* J *->j&-.

^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ . a o 5 x j . i^>. Words 5 x of the <Lj^w. £$»-).^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. O 5x J ^. commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£. ?r^ w»ry. the latter for 6. a. * x i^*b a calamity. and <5ju. though derived Ju*fc. but the regular forms are preferable.\jj x J a poet. Ju~>t. £>*£> an eye or fountain. In other cases § change is optional. Conversely. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . certain bitter tree. and Ml >y*~i\ are also used. ^S^> . initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive. Rem. as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j. in which the e. .172 Part Second. an egg. <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. makes following the plural ^Lt'. b. weak. as js. x a slave.g.into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p .c> « farm. x J x Rem. OwxJ ybtfd. juc. this JLolj. 4jb aw animal. J *£j£-. o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation.] 278. a. x x these letters § must be separated. ^lu OWxJ .). Rem. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich. £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 . [Oomp. youth. from the radical ^^.jt. ajU? a Rem. or the Parts of Speech. an ^ **^>-£. From C-*u a fcm*e. «l not vJ-^uj^. a festival.— Etymology Rem. In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth. it § 13. a-suj x . (***». as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. -i^w an old man. A>*1 &/ac£. 277. e. rem. and treated 5 x r a 9 . (J?>k x J a snake. If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. Ox ^_. ^5^-j a ?m7/. £~i$Z>. elif. ^J^cu^!. £*>>o. The forms J^jj^. [§ 277 and thing. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown. . o x vulgarly 2u^t. D Jb***' a ^^. /"Lb a fold (i£j£). Ox cHj^ a horseman. ***i&. fri^. instead of f^w.g. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). djj^ 9 s J a handle.> x J be formed C-sJ^J. x J .. from <blw a young woman. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. it Words • of the form J^li. 3. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-.

the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs . £ * I ^^pA. if the .l). Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ . mouth. Rem. x resume ^ x J . . —Diminutives. j* x£ § 278. ajju j^. for . Sjljl a sma// water-skin. *U water. and a. A^al ' brother (>±. they termination 3_ or not. a £-t . which the - 173 two 279.\ (accus. the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . . # .^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted. 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. rem. etc. Rem. of . 05 x Sjufih. Nouns which have fern. forms its diminutive accordingly. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven. 280. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. Sj^j J 3ji». iy-j^w £*w & »p. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a . — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use.-*»-t. A lost first or second radical is not restored. ^JJ^) 0i x J f . & Adj. x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl.g. —recover . last * A '•* 3 5 weak. v-tj^. 4-0U 3-w a JWW. iwte. § 278). £U*c a ^/£. L5 r ^£. Nouns Subst. ( . rejects one of them x .> ju~>l. 281. 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. The Noun. which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). affluence.1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John). 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name). radical The infinitives fern. some at 0^1 say ^^. . it in the diminutive. . x x I Rem. is dji or d$i.§ 281] II. ^^. a*«o~> . such as Jucj from j^j. j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. A. as 3 j^c & promise. ^js. A5JA. spots. Awj. 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. of verba primse j. a). others ^j**\ ^j*-\. of which the radical <su^i. duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£. have the E.1 j>* blood. J still. {y>\). x J . i**-!. —whether 3 . like 5x1 and others x . but irregularly. 6. ^i. pa#. (accus. <**a* (for *«x#). itj^A. & s J . lost their third radical. r.

« name.g. s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. or the Parts of Speech. j-*£. diminutives would have been J^\. ^f O^t a son. b) feeble. elif. E. ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). *"***»- *!/©»•. 9 0* J 9 o * J . j^t^A.174 Part Second. j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*. rem. ^. are like those of fern. 283. J C^A thing. having lost their third radical. nouns in . D. w-->j^-. in the first two by the termination. a The diminutives formed of Cs». as ^-^j^. as u^i$* from ^13 a judge.t. rem. &-i^.t. and ^La. this termination away . if of four. Those nouns which. daughter. e. their original letter. ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus.-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9.g. and recover . exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240.l sister. the root. Uutdu. r. . feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. It— reject these terminations s * i . %i$) from ctj a pastor.] B 282. after elif. 0*J J*j& 9 . falls (a) If a masc. ^-jy jIa (for jjIa. <u£. 3 . ^hU j-}>* . <uiA (see C § 281). . (b) Fern. G. the softened or curtailed diminutive. " " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«.i j) ^ M^ U .'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0. djj-** (a name). >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo. With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed.) good. r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . take a prosthetic E. (for ^-Ul) people. j^J^a-o].0 J ' ^— . (for j->». This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ. C* i Jam < (see § 269. . consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i . and ^ Rem. 242) dead.**0 ' and take S_ . b). and distinguished <u^». . and *.^*-^ reject the . C-w*j* . ^t. [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — . this consists 9 of three consonants. 284. the diminutive 9** 0*J . noun ends in S_.g.

of J-wol ^e evening). w**^». SlLJl*. if B a collection 5 of poems. a piece. Nouns Subst. OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet. of <>>1). . x x |Ut. Very <i & Adj. Ox certain garments.. a mouthful. Zjsuo yellowness.->»>. and j L. — The form (6) a wooden pin. an allotment. a gulp. ika. *$j* a sect. J**->3j * A .Q.^t g . »xx ilfcj. A. ^x Ox a vessel. »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. a pelisse. account-book. as SJJi.jUic. OxJ tjl^O smoke. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small . dJU a night. j~*>*. as r. from 0s J jU> and ->. redness. such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. ^jL-^Jl . a public •'u office or bureau. &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. 0x0 l^Js a fragment. a piece of land. *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#.§ 286] II. 2*b. jljt. aj^> a draught (of water). from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. as 3-cu5 a quantity. 8 a firebrand. a« cl «. Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases. as^»l*». . aJ-wJ (compare the plur. as Ox Oj S/o* brown. a morsel. a fever. and tjt^Jj a register.M.M. a rag. OxJ JU-/ a . fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. irregular diminutives are d^j . acj**-. The Noun. jUjj n dinar. x * i" A J . 23j) a light blue. »-x 1^3. tj ltLJL g. j»\£*j a cold. O-i^ij}. O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. b) ^jtj* (see § 305. J x 175 Ox J . II. : J^.. X a-a»J a portion. O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. a live coal. O Rem. 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl». as if or * p-L*-** brocade. a*a).j a man.*. iakS. x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or .jUJI a human being. rem. vi anything. as " . piece of 285. . Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J . A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset. '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. . ~ 5 a *" c nightfall. 3u<LJlz. -**& . iL^I. *$>£.a milk-pail. <i. ^Ua garment. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286.— Diminutives.

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

.] ^h^S a bow » (gen. fern. a booth. I) .).]. IU-w the sky or heaven.].). JU< - state. fern.ambergris. a phantom. a shop. 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. street or lane.). masc). > JUs the neck. masc). condition (gen. J O^. the rump [gen.jUaiw authority. <» tj»o J a way. fern.] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding. fern.l a Aar# ' (gen.- C o of wood.] * V cL. fern. hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power. i^ji a horse [gen. a knife 0-a^> s (gen. Ij3~> a wall (gen.182 Part Second. ?-*-o peace.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^. [JUa.). p\*o a measure for the forenoon. fern. juf» the liver.). t3>w « market. £. J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part. weapons. w**l3 a 0* well. fumed] jjS a pot. masc). [j^c. fern. a marriage. - J~~£ /toney. [prop. clouds. s OjJla. a road. tion [gen. soul [when signi£-3j spirit. corn.* « B shop. ySis> OJ a spider (gen. 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. <Sj~> journeying by night. fern. 90 j ^o^w a ladder.] a tooth. rain. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. etc. j**~t peace. J US the the nape of the neck.—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a sovereign.]. fern. . masc). used in producing fire (gen. a o o m kettle (gen.b nature.). natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. a road (via strata).L». fern.). *• (gen. 0>jJ» a road.

become masculine. 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc). masc). [^j£s. as jU fire. [*zXLc dominion. and that contained in § 291. of Adj.] [j^jdfc ffl^l. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. fern. ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man. ^— . b). the maw. aj^jJxa . Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word .. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. ajUL» from *Uuw. from the masculine. ^ grandfather. The Noun. masc). j) 9 x • . CO . the right direction. Nouns Subst. « y 9 " ' For example. & Adj. an intestine (gen. radius or ulna) of the fore-arm. Jjj the bone (either ceiling. B b. are later times ^i.] Rem. *+Jk* 9 • x . [Rem. 9^J0^3" struck. and s-^ja. are mas- culine.] and jJj a well. 9 x Rem. 9 ^ 3_. . - 2^i <jl©ju repentant. %\+~t a. the upper arm. as S^l^w from ^l-o-w. fo'to or shin-bone. which must be learned by practice. cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. The most usual termination. a^3) a yotmg woman. a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast. by the radical ^ letter. affecting the ^— 294. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_.). in ship. the mouth. since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . i-jjLo mi #> . C From most adjectives 293.§ 294] II. A. A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue.- great. j£&>.— Fern. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. a. The above list. jui» the liver. a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac. (gen. JJ M# (gen. before 3. a water-carrier. or CC (§ 290. x w>jj~cu© j^. s the shoulder. 9 J ' . u^m 9 . but the . Rem. fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen.

confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. has ^j^t. Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * . as SAJLj. . a. ^UUa*. rem. The latter word can be used indefinitely.184 Part Second. in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. i jsuc^S the smallest. Kamil. is ^jk** *0* .\ (forjjktl) other. B 295. . in which case the feminine "0 largest. io* . The numeral jt»»t. § 301. •&\ not superlatives. *0 * (-0* . feminine. . with hemza. 87. * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . * O is * . The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first.pregnant. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . at. 1. ijj/^t. of the n yj .-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat). angry. 7 supra). . o io* lowing genitive. Rem.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. . because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. not in signification. and the modern d_. ^J*%c. (b) O^A±- timid. ^Jiji* . . cities. te\j£. O***** sated. &UL*w O^j* naked. § 299. 30* . * b. as . iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. without any corresponding masculines. £)^+^> * ^^as-. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . {£j£~> thirsty. another. ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a. e. .-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. gCA 3 *0i form J^t. as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. c. ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. *03 Rem. when they have the superlative signification. 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. Gr. do\jj£. are preferable c. comp. " iJy^S that of j±. rem. feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. *>» [§ 295 A forms p. This view is . 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. i*JL». fearing.] 10—15. 0*0* Rem. " ° J 3* . see Comp. and below b. (a) * * . and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . one. 133—137. ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. .

The following forms are of both genders. fern. nor one for milking. OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad. Nouns Subst. D. x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. A. • " (a) sitive). Rem. as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress).— Fern... rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race. which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x .§297] II The Noun. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . ^£j-t^ an d 297. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*. or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient . Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . db^£>j and 5->>^». OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . and also if it has the Ox J x . patient . J x £ as yua\ yellow. of Adj. 24 . All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular. But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed. A JajI. . i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. antelope]. or / thought her.j a patient and grateful man. " J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed. J x . Ojdx Ox J x .» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U. an enemy. where Ox J x x . i\^~*** beautiful. *bjjdt */» / (rain). G. nor one 'x J to x carry loads. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w.^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5. as }j& x hostile. C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**.] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached. Stw a sAorw sAeep. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was. Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^. Rem.. 8 O Exceptions are rare < .-3 [and again. amazed. & Adj. ibj^. ° -» " . J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman. a. w>J*^ £ J Jj*.. *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman . tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. Jj**. [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx . . 185 296. . . £ r<0 s .^ a lying man.

= 5^^=>. <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor.and p a declivity. <1 D. J*o*^» x . but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume. <Ua>JU . blameworthy habit. a wounded woman. fern. J UJLd.o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . x x Exceptions in either case are i rare. Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*._ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives .J mountain-road « of ascent. 0x0 « and J**a*. For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^.C>». Zj~a-> + + . or the Parts of Speech. <jUju» isU a <* «. . mercy (c) is C>xru>a». $$^=> a D. 4jli*^ [. as ^yJL^c poor. J-^5 oUi a murdered woman. or j-Ja. but (t ^. x JJ/ (b) J**s.186 Pakt Second.< Sl^ot is allowed. . b. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ». rem.g.. tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. 3 ju^».] . Ox x self-willed woman. x 5 x t jlj <aa. '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. on the other hand. —Etymology fern. G.J1 . (§ 6). docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel. Hence the difficult nouns >yt. or intransitive). which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ .j^ w^j-5 well. it If J~*s has the meaning of . j^J^o. and under the G . 233. ZjuslZ oLag temperate. = iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and. . ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. x 2ri^A. jlkfc* ajjU*. x .g.** *oW>> 2x perfume. 0x0 II ^ . £/te Exceptions are rare Ox . **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***. 228).j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl. fa^C. Ox Rem. aa^ac t/ojj* Rem.<« x x x W a new wrapper. ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper. G. [§ 297 A [Rem. a praiseworthy way of acting. chaste. a x ~ x J x .o an l^-Jfe O acclivity.

lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 . Rem. as iU.tlib. . three numbers. they form a feminine in 3_. dsuo). JLac etc. at any rate. or about to begin (£ol». jy>. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. CUa-ojl U. The Noun. . 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day . ^J-a**. pregnant. J B ^U. jJbl). to females only. JJ»U without ornaments. ^Zo bearing twins. But they designate the said action or state as beginning. last 9 1. A. bust naked.. *->*>*>-.j&3 and some others as jU. her. p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam .] ^. of course. a) e. chaste.witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck. w-.§299] [(d) II. O x 0*0' «r. I ji£ iiUUs . ^aui*. Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her. like verbs. jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^.. 00^*' A and yj am M Vol. by their signification.ti Adj. £/&e J JkJlk divorced. Nouns Subst.— The Numbers. n. w^olk. j-wl».0 ** her time or term. rem. Adjectives which are. as ^J-ol*. § 136. . s * 9s. 0s . s S. J**** D. 187 infinitives (§ 230. ' j-ojto. having swelling breasts. as C ^oaJI i-tful». J) 3. 96* *r^> *. 299. The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting. / 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. R. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i . 15.jX^i £Lcl». oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn. actually in progress. G.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it.] menstruating.g.. applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate . 298. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling. an action or state as natural and permanent. and plural Nouns have. (see § 81). The Numbers of Nouns. dual. O^j or . js*-c [^jLa».-A sAe will is to-morrow . the singular.

the hemza is may retained or changed into 3. \j\5sid. [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in .-XS. said by some to be admissible. sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj). %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some. r*' x w*s b x x x X . ^ fi.>0. . usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. a). O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^.« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^. as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom. \j\}\jjua. it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual .) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc). oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£. ^j\i\j*~a. Rem. If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. 3 is changed into buttock. jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow. for . § 167. ft. becomes 3 x . x are. which was originally a 3. But <Ut a J and testicle.a bustard. for 16 3 3^). rem. I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l). as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ).. a.*. m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground. CT ^L^». which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff. «L»£> a dress (for jdJb). as ^J3 a youth. t. ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- . a. a. . the j x o£ . § 294. 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . the singular of which. {\J>— a). as Lac a for $*a£. The hemza . x © x nine X (§ X 296). >**>ja butt for shooting. B OW occur. —Etymology a nation. but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. x x however. not restored in the dual. —In and even ^jbl^a^o.188 Part Second.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco . SI . <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). jl. Forms like ^jtzl/*.red. x the termination either be as *T_. two buttocks. though the former preferable. b. x x x . used. when sprung from a radical $ or ^. would be Rem. r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert. however.»>. Rem. jjljt^^o *" x i\j^». O (see rt^ ^rni. l£>** legal opinion. J .. of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi. the j is restored the dual . J) c. oW^ a 15*:. admit the forms oWUl .

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

\JyJ&. of j^ti) an inferior poet. * * in the 9 commentary on the Diw. The Noun. B f ' lLauL£». vs. 195 AaJ-b). (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. c. £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. Masc.. though by their to fern.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings. rem. etc. 13. of jus Abd). have also the s plur. » of Hudeil. OJJ^&y*' 9 * . sing. b. (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. of J**g a man). To the words enumerated under highest heavens. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. £-*»»t. § 304. We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions . however. Adjectives. and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin. App. II. J) Rem. have the plur. A. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur.] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. 5) we find o>*^ 120. jjt the goose.0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. p.*?. San. see § 340. they might seem belong rather to the class of plur. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. «. Rem. only to substantives denoting rational beings. D. but more especially from adjectives when used substantively. fern. £^t> A***. J***J (dimin. G. c)*. etc. san. adjectives exemplified by j**o\. Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. sanus masc. masc. which denote rational beings. fern. sanus masc. * J m O^U^s . etc. a. rem. < . ±jbj\ the earth. ones family. Jjbt . when joined Rem.§302] II. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification. from last < 1. Nouns Substti Adj. their diminutives. § 296. For the see 2. s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO .— Plur. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin.

rem. e. D but in the case of compounds with to say . not of persons. x 3 x in x . Comp. which have no singular. sanus masc. J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. 325. like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. from 20 up to 90 x J x '. rem. Rem. a stony. c). ^JA x O J > JP a . see § 340. x x x \jjj hu\j $£. 03J^ . d. > *^* a stick ?/ear. j>~L*>. i 'z-Zubeir . it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. a sphere. In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264). ^j^k* obliq. e. men x Construct compounds. (§ 323). is rem. Rem. 4 ^. stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. — It may be b. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. [cas. rem. which the third radical (j. h). it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. form ol. ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191. (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299. Some x fern. x etc. JL». si)3J^ *jj an d. vulva. especially those of Od x . thing. $>\. Great Bear.g. a privy. volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. d) nouns in S_l . . and the like. used by children at play. [like &+Lc ii.196 Part Second. have a plur. x . and called j*4j)\ l O^t. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. § viz. makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. when they are the names. %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl. possessors. <J}L*. very J irregularly.. £)£j 3j£» a ball. has been elided. « xx wholly indeclinable. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. also § 108]. J ^t. jx which are called j 0. a secondary formation ^>*iw. £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung.j-|juj £bt w>t. ^t J any one of etc. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. Thus w>j£jjui«©. as also the numerals denoting the tens. s i Further. 6). arises a. as Zj&.U ^J^. which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable. juj j-ojJt H-^t.

x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_. 5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m. Jas. Oljlj-o 301.. duj. xx and fourth forms. be put also in the plural. OUUa^o. G. as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * . The pluralis sanus fern. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus. 197 is put in the plural. The Noun. (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 .§303] II. Nouns Subst. which are usually feminine « .*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 . when r ' Rem. (a OL-UJ juA Hind. . OUJLli (§ 301.lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. Proper names of women. The feminine nomina (§ 5 . 6^/ a gazelle. 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. oL©*}Lfc. Rem. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot. Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man. f. as uL^-cu. Feminine adjectives. admit also of a pluralis fractus.z2a. A.. x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D. b). may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % .—Plur.. w**. x J ^Ufc. •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. b) . of the letters. If a jo <& Adj. and such names of 3 ^x 5. o . » The names 3 . as xx . e) . as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition. 196). San. Fern. x 3s. 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. OUiJa. plur. of the months x . rem. J xOx t 9 xxtfx . The names # # (§ 292. O^t^w. 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. o£ J *0£ . ObjL*. According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' . of the second oW^LLot.] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress. OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx . x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. 00 9 x ( xx . a (<#) 9 £ bustard.Lp. as j*j 5 . . Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). sanus fern. (a) etc. rem.0*3 3 . [Rem. 9 ^+»-x pregnant. the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . o*> . (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— .9 a village. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi. The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense. wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or . 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx . verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal.

prognostics. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b. oU-jt a /afoe rumour.^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. existing) literary . s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha. iUt j*£ a caravan of . Ot^Iwt. works (from ui . ^aj\ the earth or ground. a 9 %<• j book. as * 9 . which have no plur.- 136) f~ijti a date. termination 9 * . loaded * 9 s < * camels. which are used in the plural as substantives. ol***. 9*0' stout camel. Many fern. fractus O . marvels. (jlj^U* a jet deau. Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher.^. ObU^. 301. o '* *£: . § U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). masc. however. a chronicle.> . O^Jbt or C^aI.c arranged. . jLL~ijl+. Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ . jtJlwt. ou».«gv . (i) Verbal adjectives. 9 oU L^a. £>WJ*aa . difficulties. classified) ..198 Part Second. or the Parts of Speech. 9 s * s . even ff» when they denote persons i . c-aJI^j J (compare . C/^ t» . ji U^ . a fountain. Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. § a literary composition.. Obj. w-j^Uj wonders. a * compositions. which some. j created) . OUtj^U> a . (lit. oUtj*».t § word is .U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations. rem. irj a OUU^U^o o * . Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301. OtS^l^-w .6t or marriage. Otjl©~> (though this 9 . Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is .tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities.) . Ob^. . Olojt (see J * * . Ul aw ^4##. * C inanimate or inorganic thing. J ' x . b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. d s * ^l q» an '. J ***** * a 9 . uLoLeJ. 9 < Olw^. d * a warm 9 ' bath. or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property. j*wlo annunciations. D rem. 9 c-s —Etymology an era. ' s j S . a tent. J J . Jbtj-* awning. substantives. which have not a fern.« living thing. -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses. and * some nouns. entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) . . B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin. "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ . an animal. 6) from f" .

3 L J*5. and Adj. except those specified in § 302.§304] * u> II. w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. adjectives. J 9 ' J . and The more common forms J ' of the plur. of Jy^t). . 304. are twenty-nine in number. j±\. all£> « kidney. Jy^t »te greatest. Nouns Subst. Plur. (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. .^»-). ^^.3. 0*}L**r*. 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune. . on a horse's forehead. i*3 [a leather tent. jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern. as Ja». § 213) . i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. or &&&&? (Germ. fern. SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad. 4*1 J a nation. x^P a )> a dome.0 j^aJ) . *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand. . OLJS. ^^IsuUt .. 4Jl*5. Fr actus. Jj* village. 9 * . and examples. as J-*»- a hillock.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest. § Similarly b). AjjX». k. 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin.— Plur. 199 uJ ^ J bound books. <j?Ji Su^j a turn. ^ali JSJ 9. (§ j^^U*. s J The Noun. 9. w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. Fract. Bldsse). j^\. ^a\ 6 ' J . a . 9. b) . . with the principal corresponding singulars. . ^jlx)\.39. of j^t. A (i) All diminutives. J 9 * J ilas ^ j. fractus of substantives triliteral roots. which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical. a dynasty. t J 9 jya ' J . LUJt M<? highest. 3. without tenwin. The following is a list of these forms.] district (Gr. 9. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. another (fern.3 rare .. Rem. a trinket. Hj <>£ i^j a knee. 234 and § 295.3 (for . <L*J a foard.^ 5x as <Haj a present. ^j^t . w*J> s J 5 . of J*$l as a superlative . 5/JJ 1. . (J^t o^er. see D 295. 9 x J .6. § 213) 9 *J . rem. w-£>j white spot. as 9. UU»J 0' . j).

ii. * s * as £jjio yellow. j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j . 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i. 302. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. make *»*<»». rad. Jtf. has certainly both £$~t and £yi. j J . ptjuj fern. I 9 J J j$\. J3J 9 3 . derived from verba med. 9 .. j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red.] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. Fract. D. 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*. woman). . [Accordingly a efawrt has J^.] 93 J>»-]. etc. and 3. A*-^^ ^-^J. vol. b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years. . as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick. and superlative 9 6 3 . § 137 and rem. w>jla. i\x+*. [Comp. *- of J*it. JUi. not derived . ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. 1. had young. iU-oJ. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. 1. JUi. J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU. G. § *£*. They may. ^o ^ . however.] 4.jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. [Also in some other cases. «*-j^ etc. JUi.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2. J^fcli. ot Sing. e. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309.g. J-*it. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j . jJua lU^ fawe. C a middle-aged married woman. 3>-»l 6/ac&. &$£ .200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 5. rad.l. 9 * Isufc. derived from verba med. (§ 296) . as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 . JUi. without tenwin [§ all together. i\*Z£>. jy*> jljl heat. ^©-ot <&«/. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi. of *«*».). O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet. JUi. w>**-*-' humpbacked. 9 3 II. 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad. [§ 304 A Plur. 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. R S. a. III. retiring 9 * 9 3 . s WSfWJ. 8]. rem.. [Rem. j**.l and i[x2j (fem. cAsrft tfliwfe. . 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. 9 3 j 5 . a#). not comparative 3 . c.J in. farrow. J***.. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '. ^-O^.

'Oi jjUft a rein.>£». a message. for or 9 sacrifice. J^i ^0^/0. and not derived from verba 9 3 3 . 93 w~o£ 3 .jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood. " a large bowl or tree. a 9 throne. 9 ' 3 Saturday.La*»&. rough. uUL* 9 J I . a 9 ' messenger. as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . 91 3 . jealous. w *>*»» . j et ^j . T III. & Adj. ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a.jUa». *• cloth. 933 > a 7-00/*. tertiae rad. ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar. 93' who warns. 9 ' .'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. A. 9 JjtS continued. 9 j j . J>*s. J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' .JL>! female. J>**. 3 3 . a thin. the heavens. it £y&. '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> . j j J>w. j et ^ [ . ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' . as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut.—Plur. 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. J*3. jj~* 9' ' £ . 3 3 . * . Rem. verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy. Fractus. J*3. 9 ' 91 » 9 . Fract. 9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' . fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs. The Noun. tj£* jtji -t) a tick. \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick. 9 3 3 . t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . ^ j yet. J*w>. . . jjJ j±~e patient. iUi. J*$. 2. ' thicket. }j. ju*c . 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . w. 933 . &**£. j^J . a dromedary. white piece of sphere.4a. s^jo.§ 304] II. or ra/.$. J***. j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. » 3 . Nouns Subst.I Ojj 9 . not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat. a stallion. ^Xi v>jj an idol. rare 9b' as w. O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna. 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion.] tertiae rad. f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. qj*> J 2 . Jas. %~o. 9 3 ' 3. 93393' JU^i j^s . bier. Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*. 9J * A Sing. geminatse or verba tertiae rad. J**i. j^o 933 9 . 9 3 3 . 201 Plur. 3' . [A rare case is s^ot from .

] u . 1. unless O * J . l£) or i«&}].13 a time. ^~*Jk Ox . character. J J III.] J is j*£ x (for j+%). O O J Rem. R. J** continued. % J » Jifcti. 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. JAj]. rare Ox dx a to£. OxOx fo*^ « farm. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain. jj~* ju **». Some- times the darama of words med. x JJ. C il*9. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*. Gs . . . Jul. j&*-'. JjJ. ^o-j»* . 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. X X Sing. * S^J aw example . ^*xa. s* . dL»£ft. as A*Ja. j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. as j**& a merchant. or pattern. xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J). milk. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae. from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o).g. * [Again. or :>j^- IV. Ox %~6 r. jwt. f .5 a £M0tf. ^^\ (for t^t) . . v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5.202 Part Second. »tew. 5. ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. i. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. *JaS . as j-ij~>. Ox x J J changed into x J fetha. . J For. V. e. a building. ^ « foc£ o/* tar. < oooej . jUfe. [§ 304 A Plur. 957. ^o*3 a flock of sheep. are is J '. so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. manner of 2 Ox . just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT. Jjtf.j*3 4*15 a fathom. It may be J J a poetical license for Jju. J Forms rare. rare r. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. JUi. wo. Jjii * J J a sea. OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. a maxim. £«J living. O 0J-. aX*5. xJ JuJJ pleasant. w>b3 ^e common fly. Fract. S. J—j. OxOxx . as a rule. \£).Jj . [j-4^. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . 1. rad. oox 1. gemin. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad.

Ox iojj ^ garden. a woman. 9 * . V.. 203 Plur. JU-j . w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard. 9*90 . handsome. *W-£. as ^^1 female. £-j£ . <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . Stj-«t. aX*s Ox # dish. a dress. /JJ milch-camel. Fractus. 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . 9 * . 0x0 4^ jU a a note. cU § * OJx . s^aefe. JJ* # a shadow. not superlatives X .. iw>. 90/ 5. *1>L». not derived from verba medise rad. o^~*-J x 9 J x . «x . .ai . <>* cm occasion. wolf. p{~6 * . 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying. u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. • <• 4. B Ox a foW. *.a 9 * he-camel. &J a o£^o Rem. lM» 9-\jj • • . J. 0»x oxj iUi. *'£' duij the neck. <LUi. w*tfi a wind. has a plural of this form. A Sing. Ox Ox . cloth. ^o. w»^c> ° { 6. J^». cUj . * as ^J*** a hill. colt. Nouns Subst. «.§304] II. iUi. an arrow. J**. ° £ 9*** JL». ^Ut a hermaphrodite. t -* j?L»J. jtj-» . 5*5. pt«i 9*0 \ . <z sp^arr. 9 * * * . fern. as v*~> x A*8* . camel's xOJ 7. **~> a beast of prey. ^J» a ~-jj gazelle. J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. cbj fern. *0l L5J*J. 9 * . J*i. x # Ox w>U*© .—Plur. * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . 9 * * JIoa. Fract. geminatse or tertise rad. J Us 9 * continued. J^U» . 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. O - 9 .aA a late born camel's colt. £U£ (rare). oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 . # 9 . v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. A. The Noun.*-£ a hywna. J Ox v*o - difficult. D w>Jls «m^. & Adj. verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. 9**9*** 3. rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. *-UJ 9 * . ^Uj . district. 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f.

9 s . Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. [§ 304 A Plur. w>U^o 9 s 9 . O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J . [wi^g. 9 s 9 s . s 9 s . j^Ls . 9 s a. 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry. js\% 9 s ju». o 9 s feeble. ~s yaJo a merchant.c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw. 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant. verbal adjectives. Dorrat.- ># adjectives 9 s . 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. j-h^) (rarely vt base. 11. The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 9 s 9 . tfAe channel of a torrent . verbal adjectives. not having a passive 9 s 9 s . . j^J JjbU drinking. JUai. . ^*£j£*. 97 seq. J. jL^. - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . J 8. thirsty. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping. is C Rem. j*\>£*. 9 s 9 s signification 9 s . as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . %. 6. fern. iLai. used . sick. 9. ^*ij£>> noble. as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. few words and Hafagi's comm.204 Part Second. jU£» . 9 . w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10. V. Fract. An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. s s £-Usuj from fern. 9 x tertise rad. oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**.) good. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem. $/ / »/ &*$***. 9 a courser . From words ^su pure. Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». Thorb. ed. as j+*£* large. j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3. J«^Lj. standing. . JUs 9 continued. UU^fr l " IV s . old.(for #00<^.*-«-* . 9 9 s . i\ -* s k s . s s - Sing. ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>.

^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical.3 JU* continued. 9 J jys^j J . 3 J^j (for of the vowels. J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr . 9 3 3 . Fractus. f»5+wi c). b. ^J> (comp. r^^yi Jy^ a year. tor. G. ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man. 5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow. own 5 .J calf. Rem. u-^i soul. u*>*»- *>*»• the neck. 9 . A Sing. >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle.j or Jl*-. 5 -£ Ja3.3 or ^^3. D. The Noun. 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem. Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . 9 0^ 9 J J . # military force.> usually makes ^~.^*!). or f-y**.] Some J bid. q 903 33 . 90' 9 i/fo JJ . to Tabari).—Plur. 1. 9 . others g vi. 5 J J . and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e. 9 . Jl^j from Jjj mean. a ewe lamb. j>U. Nouns Subst. ^M. V. ju*. JA 90^ Jjji. J*5. # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder. *y~>\ w>ju a scar. 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp. 5 3 141 #~J seq. that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^.§ 304] II. l£^>) § 215). fLcj from c. ^»^j^ a J^. a doc§ 269. a chief. A. assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket. 0- syllable is In words med. J) as if from y~$. jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army. an ^> Dv ^£ . 9-2. 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. 205 Plur. 3 . 5 0- Rem. Fract. gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss. J 933 (for 90' .3 Jui. a 9 Mtn. as 5JJ 3 5J 5 . g. gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year.ji a troop. «j. 3 J 9 0' . w>J*^ ju& . & Adj. -- 5 JJ ... From words med.\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd. *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 . 50 { a. Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . 0- C-wO a house. 50 - 50 90J .) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 . rad. rad. 5 - lion. Jas # as j^*j a sea.

^yL> or ^iu. as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. not derived from verba tertise rad. D vii. sitting. J^j a xx j mountain-goat. wicked.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. aa». J J' '? . 3-0). j-©~> j*>v sleeping. wiytw 5t^> Q •4. rare 9 J J . a casket. 9 * * B Rem. 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 .JU> («JLo) a W6. Ox J^U. a j9wrs# of money. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua». J^Z and J*£ . £fc fcwr. not mediae rad. j*y and jtg^o fasting. j>yo and j^e . . «i)b ^y^» . . O^x OJJCxOx . 3 of the form J-a-i . jcclS. 9 x rad. a M#. ^. 1. 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself. OJx time. 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night. J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. . t^JU.o or ^j. Fract. . a period of Jj>*». plural is From words med. -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «. V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. ^JUU a #m<7. 3 ojj 5 -» standing. aw inkhorn. Sing. gemin. rad. VI. # O3S3 J J . > ^^-At (for ^3-ac). verbal adjectives. J3** continued. or med.>>*=> 9 J J . Ox Ox £UJ. a %? or summit. 9 d J . 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#. iUi. [§ 304 A Plur. as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&.* this J 9 x x rare. witness. 0x0 J *4j±. tooth. OJJ [Rem..206 Part Second. ^53 or ^j3. *->>** .0. ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a . vel verbal adjectives. Ox ^b. . -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant. J>c$ o JJ . OU S j proud. JjU> pregnant.] X J3.

SjjJ (for . fern. of the preceding a. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad. Anomalous is having no weapon. etc. in which into B case the j must be changed ^ . ^ et ^. x as J^U a workman. in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. St x 5 j fU». is Rem. * [ J^ defeated. and not derived from verba tertise rad. is by usage pi. icb j5U s^'wa. 9 x J.>lju©]*. Ox 9 3 J . verbal adjectives. ^ et ^ 9 . js\y o . gem. v'>> -i"3 > sleeping. 9 * 65 J .» a deputy.§304] II. **+*£ 2. Nouns Subst. u^u*- fi iUU. Fract. &**). ^U^ JaU. unbeliever. cUo j-*L^ aw C . of ji. 9 5 j . menstruating. ignorant. The Noun. fd j .js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower. A. as Ujk for U^*. VIII. ^^a..xLj. Jj«i continued. . . R. cLi «Jlo aw artisan. jU a soldier. ^u» conjuror. [or med. . denoting rational beings. 5^^ [^tfula. (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£. of 9-y>. ^ . properly pi. *5lb obedient. %\}b- . fugitives. *• j 9 et fl ^ J . - . x Jxli. <jU. aw offender. 1. JUli» perfect. of Jli. x 9 5 J . as AaJU mourning. -» absent.& Adj.] JU5. § 213). d J 9 . . 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b. jU JiJLb repudiated. 3 i D *£** . SjiJa . from oi5U» fearing .ajudge. verbal adjectives. [jlo avoiding. i J VII.] (with rare exceptions) as^»^». IX.S. djztie (for **>&) . 5p*w ^ b . jwows. 9 Si A Sing. [Rem. j^^ a «^ unbeliever. aiiJ. dutiful. 207 Plur.] . J *-*-»- ^U 9 #».Fractus.— Plur. 0>£. JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier.

208 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». as x J . R S.) cLj a manager. tertiae ^ denoting rational beings. l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S. 9 x xx IX. rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* .w Oxx generous. an ox. Ox x 9 x x . [2.] D XL £&. yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place. and derived from verba Ox x J rad. 1. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ . ^ &J«o ^^j a shield. as *r> Sx . Ox Ox .treacherous. a weaver. 0' 9 2. 6 xx J x . 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf. Sj^** or Sjl*. i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt.. du^*. SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter. iUi continued. 9 ^ x J et ^ . « i-4*«. . J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x . casket. verbal adjectives. rehearser. oW* a sinner. * x . foar. acting wrongly.» . <L*jJ. olxw. Oxx x ££*». 3U». j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural. [§ 304 A Plur. Stjj (for x J ajj^) . a nickname given to the Muslims. Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a . x J or traditionary. tertiae rad. yo 13 ^ judge. J*9. Fract. $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . x X x 3 . An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. not derived from verba Gxx J . fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 .] X. JaJ. \j*" *ibl».* jj a husband or ^2/0. 9 x Sing. 4*»^j -**w aw o/d . Oxx branch. Rem. ZJuca ^.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. with the same restriction. J^U from verba med. J OOJi^S Q s a .>L». jU x « a soldier. aw earring. (for «*«*.o feeble.] [Rem. Oxx tjy> or Sjaj . as j^j x . &oo*. O x CO J^ti. as jjU*. Ja3.

J*i cl3 . 9x0 9 . a**o X . &kk3. 9xx 3. a brave. 5^». iUfc. J-J** ^'c&. as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea. . . 9 cM ow& elephant. A. a eunuch. 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard. ' S Cj. jJa~>\]. Rem.>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope.^aa* a gelding. u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin.Ja~» a /me of writing.ork. 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. <7rea£. dijt ^6*^U a youth. The Noun.—Plur. R. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y. Fract.. 9x0 JU$ . jA a tom-cat. Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. 9 x x 9x x 5 . J*** x fo'a. Oji Jai. has a plural of this form. as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . x J JU*. S^J «^w aw . (for j>«») a neighbour. coarse. x g „ . 90 x . jawt u~*J W* sow/. XL iUi continued. <UaJa. aw p ape. Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket.»£>. ^U.. J*i as jjj a bull. 1. # . S^-J.§ 304] II. as a^U 4. 27 . j et ^. 5x0 2. 209 Plur. ^^Jil . few J ground. Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. & Adj. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace. . «xx . Nouns Subst. old man. /a#. .] XIII. brother. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 . SjJj . not derived from verba mediae rad. aJUsj 9. flaccid. *^~b a J t «J Of . • waw. B °*i . S. 90 9 x x f [j. 6x0 aJU*. X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. £s>> . Slj««t X a woman. &L». hj£ - JJ>j ag#. X OxO rt. 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. J . . 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i. Jiil. £n#e. **^ XII. o . as jJj a cMc?.. *>*-©) X a boy. w. AjjXi. ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*. s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). Fractus. A Sing.

xx JOi £ x . w>$jI or J w^t - . o£ '} ^ occur.t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . *JL© a rib. Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . 4. JUfct . %^~Jt.210 Part Second. ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant. j ^^c an eye. . by transposition. o*-^ a sword. Feminine quadriliterals. as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. « jrf Gtot Jijjt. w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. ^ et x x J ^. J*w. and. ^^ 60 C a bow. whence. jj}\. ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '. cji! . ^>o. iUs. 5 seq. for if masc. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. <3>*t. Exceptions are. o j J*». . • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . for example. a fountain. 6' cloth. J oi XIII. aw oath. as J+*.] .jLJ •* the tongue*. Fract. a well. 84J J**. 1. JpjI.^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . . according to "El- Mubarrad 50. j^Jt . by o J oi transposition. a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. Ja3. it has <U»»JI (XV. as p\j$ the arm. w*^ a raven. a staff. rare o x£ . G. . ^3j\ . [§ 304 A Plur. hill. o£ J^t 5// 3. Ja3. • m 3^*t). j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey.t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\. Sing. D. she-camel. •• ' Rem. JU^t and. j-*j. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . ^b a house. for example. * [If fern.t oi &*) o » oi time. xj eagle. by transposition. not derived from verba mediae rad. not ending in *—. &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. and OJOii JJjJt. the x x neck. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\. Rem. O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . oibi JfjJl. oi~ gjoI o o . 1). w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. <} . as x a leopard. x C Rem. . at a § di . TV D • dialectically. has j>jI and. 2. JOi xxx . j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. x x rare . Jj«it continued. JjUc « female kid. jly3 c^ay. ^ left J hand. ^tt) i5U a . .

w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o . a mistake. Fract. j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 . *->\yi\ • £rac#. jbt 9 x 9 . 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . J***. a notion. as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time. 9 x~> . ^. w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) . 9 XIV. J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t . jbt f V>t . dutiful. * 9x0? . 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . opinion. 1. The Noun. .^£». yj+*\ . 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. J*».f old she-camel. JU^t foc&. ^^L© a companion. 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep. jl*JI xO? . <jt$t fjto . Ox . from verba mediae rad. js\x*. (for 9 w~J) a canine . fo^y. Rem. and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. and primse rad.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. jlcul jJblw t a witness. son. jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . rare 9 x as j-ob a helper. a friend. J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? . Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms. . Fr'actus.«£. JU5I .\ . JLwl j*y> a day. $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes. jZ> a well. J«*i a Mz'aA. especially .U~ol jj\* tepid.^©A3 a fancy. . 9 « Jlo*> a foad. 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5. t %l>\ . 2) . w>lJt m>. not buying a passive signification. 9x0? . 0U3I . . ^lj tdftv. jly^l .^l (for >o~>) a warn^. 211 Plur. J x aft 9x0? arm. $>-t/il x a thousand.» festival. one would D 9x 3. £ . 9 £ an f. 9 x . 9 '-» . w^J*- Ox x x 0? . 0/ camels. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. Nouns Subst. w. |U^t .xxO? tooth. ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword. A Sing. (f° r 3^0 a father. makes *Lwl.§304] II. 5 0?" J»bl Ji. 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing. by transposition. verbal adjectives.— Plur.j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free. X 4.3 9 a x>« aw ^ar. . Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard. >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit. j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w. jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door. . J*». x . *. jUsl. v' o ? . rarely J*» (see no. Ju^ « 9 .a judgment. 2. 9 . 9 x 9x0? J^ti. A. jJblb 9 x j3wr<?. & Adj.

x . a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS . Fract. ^JLfr temperate. especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ .» 9. .t X 0? . and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ . an oath. * £ . a strait. . glorious. XX 6 . . <L2£r> XX . S t 3JLfr t J . OxOxO£"3x j c»*).t ^obtb * . Quadriliterals.a>. Sju*fcl o£ x rod. 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble. C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. x U*3 a certain measure. A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . x x right hand. 05 £ *L». 9* bi . 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. *a*-wt X . d. 4~aSI X Ox o£ . »t rare . 3 et 93 t Ox Of. xo£ '. [§ 304 A Plur. t 9 xx 4s*u*fc. A«-ot . 1. %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?. jU»* can ass.s>j\ v***1* a branch. X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. sJ)j£\ XIV. y^^* o X c^ar. from verba X mediae rad. Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x . . 3ui^\. . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. JUi. see the footnote to XIII. [If masc. Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. 9 * &* ** tongue*.^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant. JU*t continued.) ' • 2 p <0I g a god. chaste. § 242). a wing. Ha3\. B xv. Ox »--£*£. vowel). aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest. a o ""*? colt. ^-:. (for stingy.] . 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ . stuttering. 9 s f}Hil £ . 2. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart./bo^. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. ' o£ Rem. O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie. S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy. of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . O x J Us.212 Part Second.^ a fo# niggardly. 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * . o^-*i <*wi| *y. 9* OS. 9 . as Jjj& mighty. 5^». X derived 2. 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ . ^jLaJ. *•** a pillar. D geminatae or ultimse rad. 9 £) Ox X d£ . &>J^I O^ ** . &Jf.

l^^s^S.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. jt?o£. female slaves. Ci^b a motive J * * . rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . 65 i AJLaut Oi . 9 . a cover or &d. Fractus. 9 * 4. J**. jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. it In the old language there are some instances of e. substantives . £Jl>» . Ja». v^J-*or cawsg. Oi . 9 0* . & Adj. 9 is* 9 . 9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a . Nouns Subst. ji|>»» v^W. jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). ^JIS a mould. bird.g. a £wc£- «x hare. a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile. J^1>» . 9* i hjj\ * s . *dyi\ Jju a s^. 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . mothers 9 ' t>i " side). £ . dew. j*ty*. Rem. in vulgar pro- nunciation. .] . di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck. vi^l^ 5 . letter is bound). in proper names. The Noun.>t^ a watercourse. as JJjt^J* Touareg. as <>J» 9 . [L». J^U» a 2. Oj 9 ' *i . 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture. J**. XV. crucible. iJbet continued. J^U . cP^-i. as ^5U» a a signet-ring.— Plur. A. passes into damma. 1. 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! . 3. Z+teS 9' oi » . ^>\y*- . 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). JU. *iJo\ jj^i. Ajjjj . 9 0* 9 Sing. >u an assembly.vm/wz. . Fract. xvi. <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. »£ . 9. 213 Plur. J*3.§304] II. u*j\£. j\js*. rare 9* Oi ..« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. Jii. djj^j\. ' J^.G. £JU» a s^/. S «* B I >i . Sj^l 9 J jj a button.

. a proximate cause. and fern. X? . Ox by their signification only J x •» rem. 5 S a horseman. jJbljJ. x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding. . a 7 . verbal adjectives J . P Ox . i^li. s * . J XX * s . substantives Ox x JxxOxx . X Ox 4. «x x JJtjl (for JJI. J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. J . etc. Ox divorced. Juotj^. x x . . rare. earners hump. jJbtjw. B *to A«*a*.sU J a rarity. J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. J*l>* continued. sociable. Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt. Fract. )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. region. a Rem. C 5. XXIII.) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x . a district.^^.. X X J XX . a joke. ^U. 5»xx verbal adjectives. as X 4y£bU yfowtf. profit. u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example. O X ^ Ox witticism. XVI. J x x 5 9 x a wave. 5 x wp^r classes. ^-Jljt 4*». verbal adjectives. 3. [§ 304 A Plur. vulgar. >^^\^o «( .) J i* ^oSl*. J applicable x to J men. as J-«L». *-\y (for ^^y). as x tr*j^ xx . A-JM3 custody.. ^Ijxi. *f\y> i x x . x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. J^ti. J &>\yo 5j. Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. X ^oSU*. see no. . a girl.) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. a X X X . ^x x . tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. applicable to females (§ 297. ajjU.214 Part Second. x Ox aJLcU. rem. menstruating. J^U. of J Sing. xx .. Jxx <£l)tyb . 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce. (for ij^tj*.53.U? a female companion. j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. pregnant.

j->!>»X X . a »XX »xxx J x J X . 6. *UsU. D. 5x x # *. j->\j*o < x x . 9 x x a cowrtf."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " . Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. a wawtf or weed. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 . 215 Plur. ' x x . i . a J *»x x . j-j^o a pronoun.l». J wages.. JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket. J *»x x . termination 5. 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. but nevertheless fern. The Noun. as 4uU*w a c/owa*. *' i* * a treatise. *5l©-o. igt>^). o/a woman..§304] II. x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . J^l*». 600/. G. *~5ULo x W0W0. f-5bi ttrcwa*. x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . Fern.] . A Sing. 85 x x ^x x J affair or business. of B (a long vowel). >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. SfjJ**. Nouns Subst. aw J »X t*" island. y£XVII. Fract. gen. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . H*£ X . J^Lit . l&uotf. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees. »»x x (for ^Jt^*-). w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. a _ thing. law. JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent . * f Rem. Ft actus.or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. « X X victim. ^J^^ X ««X X . x ^^Oi. A. JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* . £a*»~o a written or plank. from 5^«] jJJ the night. quadriliterals. 5 " &a/. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. x >"' . D x x . ^ti^. ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. <So Adj. <JI^». ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*. . J! x x x xx J xx .> X X a joroo/*. J ^ x x . lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. £))*?. x juLej] «x 4«.— Plur. a &£ter. J*fcty continued. [J*J. *)!** or <ULx^. x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . whether they have the fern. a letter. as iDu. [Also applied to the male. x x s/a£>. ^xx .

x* yu a nightingale. v«*^ « ^^^ . o****9 Oj M t Sing. 9 Ox j door. from radicals mediae 3 x J . a fish. lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. o!>** 5 J«*»."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x . * ^)U*-J . 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. Fract.216 Part Second. and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe. 9 rare . Sx as J-^. oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle. '0 5 % * * B 2.jUJ j3~> 9 . jtH a yoke. Ol***ixJ 3. J . a waW. a branch. 0'***^ * . % ^j^j. Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . 6 a I oxj O fl . O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . 5/J bird. 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*.» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > . JU$. Ox neighbour.x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . 9 * 0^°3 9 . 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown. s/aw0. Ox x J 5 . 603/. \)j3 a lizard./Sre. d 5 meteor. as > Oj*-. XVIII. OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. J*i and J*5. *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. as juft ' a s/aw. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. w>b a *. J J*». 5 v!** a raven. Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. J 9*9* . Ox . 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. a worm. uW^ ^0 x £ i brother.» 4. xj O^*^ « ^%. v**M « branch. Sx»^*x . growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. OW« oW ^ - «x 6. oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . O >0 root. O x . Ol*^ rare . ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird.jtju* O . o*^**^/j xx Ox . 1.a buck-hare.' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest. [§ 304 A Plur. a black beetle. Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard. 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5.

9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-. a meteor. Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**. 3-i5 d^oj.—Plur. rare xJ . has ^lj-«t . more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . Fract. 90 50x . A continued. an irregular plural ^jtj**J. a woman. 9 x J . 28 . 0>**> rar e . <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx . x x etc. not nightingale. 217 Plur. { g § 8. j%<^. 9 . as 5x0 <jU*£» . 9 ->x Sing. as x Jl5j a lane. X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf.* >i wjl^w a firebrand. 9 x x 3. # a bustard. ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. Nouns Subst & Adj. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. Fractus. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew. JUi. 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. the short side of a *%» . Sx£ 5x x£ Rem. as Ja5l»ii mW. ^L-a*. J-*-**. 9x0x9 Ox roof. rare J .^ *» a wood-pigeon. a strait.. and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. A. jtfrj a slave.. \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel. [v*** grain. J-j-©^. J^li. &%+•* B 9. a to»i6. Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat.jU£* . J x 9x0 a /<wra&. as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. 9x0 diminutives. o/" d^afe. xix. '•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. 5 . O^j9x0j 9xx 2. xO J . rare XX 9 .] 9 feather. oW* J . 5 x 9 . 9x 10. The Noun. 3 ' XVIII. x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. j Uai w. 6 . C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . 1. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l). the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. J>»J. wing-feather. &\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J . [7. rare 9 as »J>jj^. 9 xJ 9 £j . 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. 50x Jjt*. O^fa maidservant. o^. dates.§ 304] II. 0^> 6raw..

9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. oU-^ 9 < . 3 . v~&j a chief . B 5. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. from jt^-». ^L*>J. XIX. J-oLj stingy. verbal adjectives. cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 . . J n L&** a channel for irrigation. 1. ^*o a fo# or child. ^^^9 * a sand-hill. O !/**• tffcui. jtgtoS 9 ' fern. as w^b oW*> a n<for. as Rem.. geminate or r" «» tertise rad.218 Part Second. j~*\ a or chief.] J-j«i. ctj « shepherd. as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye. o^** 9 continued. jLc. For example. J-J*. or recluse. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J . I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. applicable to signification. w^Jbtj a Christian . V^ . l\js* ilwjj . . O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. are. and 9 ^j\jy»*. . unweaned foals of 9 - camels. < Sing. Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. rational beings. ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. * J Ol)^ c***^ white. J^ti. et ^. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. 4. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 A Plur. . verbal adjectives. even in cases where we should hardly expect it. poor.3 . j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. used conjointly or interchangeable.jLs> JxdS 6. which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad. oW^j 5 a companion. £)*$*** oW«*. a youth. ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. Fract. O^ . 9 i f /* commander . ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. a friend. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. oW^j1* s s . from 9 * j 3 j^\. 9 . 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show.

iL». l\*y*. i oW-*^ cowardly. lUybt . 9 x x x iS'^f. liberal. geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad. i^Lu (for iUall. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£.a. as J^J^d a friend. ^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am. ^x 0£ . i%^ j^li a jtKxtf. right. iZj>\ 4-*^-. * . v*^* a relative.— Plur.x B x x . exempt from.1) . adjectives. 2. usually makes \J&%±. easy. il©Ac JJbU. adjectives of the same kind as XX. i*k*j continued. j .xx lUol X . a physician. ignorant. i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ . . in the former senses. but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad. w««*». lu&wl ~ ~. eloquent. 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving. — JUg> o». ^?/<xm. 9 x *s * j . j-J. « prophet. a deputy. 219 Plur. «£ . *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. 9 ' xx J . and XXI.§304] II The Noun. (from .> noble.» Rem. Jjli good. a friend. easy. Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light. Oi . 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal. iSCu. Fract. 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. *U*a.j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth. It^xw JSU r*" «*&.. i\^SJ>.j^o 3 x cfear. above . *UJI ~' ot . . Fractus. *L»I #xx jujlw strong.. lLa». eloquent. plain. some masc. ila^^w 9 . XX. J*^. iUX»- f. U . A. as * as ^U . 9 X learned. « /r^wc?. a philosopher or sage. in the last. X i<^ ^^x stuttering. - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . ^^ X ^^ X *W- . . a successor. ^^). o£ . quit of. A Sing. . ^y*-* 5 x liberal. x . with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S . I^aX*.l. l\}>j]. i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. a caliph. J^U. iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. .j-Jb (for r" Oi . . r£iU . Nouns Subst. for £\ejj.. masc.> sj+i clear. 9 *IjlwI . et ^J . x x J . HjJX. 1.d Adj. llSjusl . C J-oi5. (j^ 2\^j*>. l\~J. ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. 3 x stammering.-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. ws^J* a physician.

jUy goblin. XXII. of ' body or mind 9 ' . ^>y* . * * JU*-. an * [ old hag. ^Ia. AjjAas. as ^J%~£a lazy. ^~& . oW*** {J!j£~*. < viz.. itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. J^> s . £*}Ia9 .j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . Q angry. b s 9 . xxiii. Rem. jis^a . j^j 3.J . . u4j*f 2. 9 * + + . rough ground. ^^3 * s *~>ja. ^y*t*3 . 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing. . age. denoting injuries. *f« a fool. 1. and jjWj-k a polecat. )\j&- .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. or *->j**\.JLo^. or J^»-t. Fracf. ^a>. ^y0j*° J5{e> poor. verbal adjectives. u&ij** sick. {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken. scabby. 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words. . \J=>y>. vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner. ^iL»*-* w^w. as lljJ^ desert. i^**. [§ 304 A Plur. »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . Sij-* drowned. etc. l£>^ a ctok. juS. mangy. 9 . J*»»^ a partridge. . stung by a 9 scorpion. bone behind the ear. &*j paralytic. l\su9 a oL3. ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. ^5^*5 . '0 * . Ot . wounded. as D 2. S'^Ui. Jbu* . \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake. ^j^ '. ^5j£ &\& perishing. i£>£ a judicial opinion. pain. as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . as J^3 y slain. ^Us .. ^jl*. C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. %c*.220 Part Second. j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^. ^jA * . a virgin. . J**^ 9 y defects. Ob*** drunken. 9 . ^£j*~£a ' . J / ^l+z. 0^***> verbal adjectives .rw. 9 s »f silly. (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis .

" ^JUj (both with the art. xx XXIII. 5. feminine adjectives. ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert. jj^ULo xOx 2. opinion. i JU . makes with the xx art. In nos. 0x ft as ajjJ**. *.. 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. ^»o\j\). JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. the forms JUi XXX and . dite. Fract. The accus. . x x x .pregnant. t l£>^ a complaint.— Plur. as o!/*-* xxx drunken. f* 9' it . 1. .JUi are D interchangeable. ^Jl x fc . . 0/J(/ .. 2. x&x xxx a judicial x xO . ^Jj^h x»J 3. 221 Plur. u±\j\ (ace. ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken.JUAJI. JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x .^5^*. J . A. 'A*** x . ^yUl ^jX**. for iJlxs and x x Ox . x ^**. ^«i. Rem. $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner. . x l^Ui as i\jjs> .§304] II. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. * hackles of a cock. r. JUi stands in the nom. »xx . "it"' ^^3 # . however. verbal adjectives J . ^UiJI). perplexed. and genit. jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ. JJtp *£jG- a bucket. desert.row^A ground. (ace. 4. Fractus. ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr. JUt XXIV. The Noun. ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V». ^** sweetmeat. A continued. ^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a . x tey. B xx . JU* Sing. (ace. the earth. XX Rem. J xO x XXX hungry. 9x0 . xxx .Ud. and 4. . XXX ^jU&. <jL-o£ angry. ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. *»x x xxx a a as virgin. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x . J&. not superlatives as ^Jul female. 9 £ xf .a hermaphro^^. 1. t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx . ^W*. J x x fem - v^**j and J**». ^>3 x . ^U^. ^Ut) and u6j\. JJt/s. ^W*.. Nouns Subslti Adj. ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear.jl^-fc. . jj^L^b * xxx . K/ 4/ . i£jl£* x x xxx . is ' x x x x x xOx always night. ij>*3 .

«/ x . 0t 00% .]. for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] . J as {Jj^L. bljJb instead of . i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. [Luc evening. [^b>*. covered with shame. \J>S}+: * Rem. j^Lfc. (for 4~Ja£. ^gjbt * 9 . j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried.having 9 J .cautious^ wary. bU»w . something over and the above. iL*s. Rem.). 90 ^JW*. ^Uis. Ja3. *5 t*J ^ et ^ . Fract. as x ^ x x x (Jul . j^Us 9 continued. disposition. Ja*. "[§ 304 A Plwr. Sing. L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7. etc.J5Us XVII.^ en j)«m. *». to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179.-jtjJb. 5J/ 9 6. rem. ^bl . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.222 Part Second. a)Ui. *Ja».sad. a swollen belly. 000 . 9 . x b^b . we find.. x ^ ^ . as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. 5 and 6.) a sm. . 9 * 8. blfcuo io^ bliftA. XXIV. W x m* x nature. SJ$*z the upper part. We write 000 etc. iJjC*-./afe. btu 4*fc) subjects. aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding. for {J\ juk (§Ui). bUj . 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. from verba tertise rad. 9 t 9v)t . x x x . ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. SjUl a ta#. * bl£c *]. bt jJk a-mU . . j*t^> a boon-companion.. et 9 .tJ^ B o>». (JJ. 90 * ^ ^£ . ^AZ-t 9 I . fern. aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. in nos. a). verbal adjectives as ix*». / x xx C *j!**a # present. btj^. jtx+l an orphan. bt jca. jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. Instead of ^Ui 00 . —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form . ^W-j 000 jJ^. ^j*\^> 0% 3 .

j£j * „- cattle. as juft ^" . Fract. Jjtf. Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from . 223 Plur. . aiyU(rare). Fractus. 90 * . ju*fc 2 - . a large water-skin.ti Adj.yLo otU fodder. ' [Rem. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier.^c> 9x J . bljj for Here . from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad. ^•y.an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side). w~J^» . . a s/a«0.1 (&**.^tj-tfu a Christian.. Jjti . CtSJ. j-jif 1^*5 a .L 9 * a pilgrim.» an uncle (by 9 . 9' J . § J J %&* 9 . ***». as ^l^j b. etc. x c) . Ziyi* .] C XXV. ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem. as 9. * 2J^*» (comp. t ** . a ^U* Sing. 1. bt^j. J»*J. 9 . S. B ^ et 9. rem. * . Rem. JtftU 3 x . a 9x J thread. X - Ox . The Noun. 3J^a*J [h^. yi£» a (fogr. 9* *3 . A continued. ii>U]. as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water. stout stick. \S\jJf. y*£- a wild ass.— Plur. tertise rad. J**3 a 9' J J stallion. AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. JLoJ(rare). as Jjo a husband. ^ and ^ . bi>»a. 240. * XXIV. Ox *J used for washing anything. etc. A. > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3. Nouns Subst. Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. Ox 2. 4> * * * aj^I*.JUi (|Tjj). as ^U. . an intestine. * * XXVI. 0> tjljj . thought to stand for ^J^l^i. the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 . Ox .§304]- II. &UU. {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^.). JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass.JUs is thought to stand for JjUs .„ mill. for Here too . J\*. Jjis fttfo). clothes. . 3u^\j is a corner.

x x OxOx *. ftx fracta.» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion.# sfowe. 3. «^U a *i # follower. Sing. (rare). Ox j. jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr . <i b ' «x x 5 x x . bull. as w*». watching.«aJI x S x x *lo-*t).. a guardian.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . as j*}* etc. aXxi.' ". 5 ft w^-L^ a companion. as ^U*J. The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. XXVII. J^J ^Jlb seeking. XXIX. as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels). XXV. SftxSx . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. helper. aJUa. Jii(rare). JiX». Ox J*3 . XXVIII. j. [§ 304 A Plur. a %' " . but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl). which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a . .. . Sftx 6 . u»j*- v^W. a n'w^. Ox x .lo # companion.». (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc. 2. ^Juii and Jjii are . v^J a.. ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). wJJa xx . j*j>a. °" «xx Jjii. a - servant. 1. J^li . keeper. Rem. * * * an attendant. J*\~* a traveller. and ft x J xft£ XXIX.224 Part Second. x a caw^Z. j*oj driver.U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. and the generic rft ( u . ^^U. are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur. m'° ' as a£X». J^ti. mM£.xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). jjj]. 1.. The forms J-j*i. Q . SftxSx w>£> . J*5 as ^^j x a t" * . wnU. Ox x . j*aJ a merchant. 2. && Sftx (rare).l£»$ j^-». XXVIII. j&. a %p . fix S x . j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. a)U*i x J^c*. # 3j& a pulley. ^w x > . Oftx . aAai * x . 6 ft x .« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer. circle. Fract.

%—^.—Plur.& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. ju*£. s^ow^. masculine by form. 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx.« a sword. which 0* x J pi. feminine by signification. « x . lU$3l* . a). <U> ^>>>-o. HA*. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr . fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e. S^j. (as j^l* x pi. . present. it <& Adj. Ox j*~> a sea. c.«). a he-ass.g. OOx J J )\£\. Sjujco.xx a s&we. j^U. « and are : £&»»>.) from an obsolete J*** 0**w). ib^oto.§304] II. O x . O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£.» for instance. v x x a>^3. . see rem. Ox x x .o». 6. o x sfow. il^^sw. <U£^o oW man. . A. see rem. g.o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. llo^-bt*. OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. J»x Rem. Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x . 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© . Fractus. ^jLa^o (besides a. J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat. w>U>.Jl*i. Ox x The forms XXVI. OOx ^>Ut a she-ass. jj*£. From the preceding i obvious that one sing. a). but from others. o . XX Ox OlUi.>j. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e. x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use.. SjuA* chief. O and I^^juLo. and J^U.o l. <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x .o. OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass. ul jLc. Nouns Subst. A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " . jus. Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived. jLct. Rem. 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. no^ x te»3yfiU . g. Sjufel. SjUj. x J ^^ x Jfcx . /»jP ^ar^e. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w. jl^». x w^-lo a companion. •> 2L/3-JU. X 9^9' E. a O x x a Ox doctor. . wim^. sing.) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb). OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U».xx JJu a x . ilj^at*. The Noun. ^^ ^ _. juftl. 29 . ^xxJ lUxw. £tjj-oc*. °° " T" * t ' l man. a poet. w>la» -o. (as JJUU perishing.JL ^ D (besides jut. ^J&*. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . necessary to notice .

bridge. 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness. fract. 305. ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. as f-t-o}. (2) 9 J J a valley. *^*&y» a ta&& 2. formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . to take another instance. >y^>. fract. of substantives and adjectives. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . O. c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. x ' jj^jJfcl*. In such cases. J*UU). xx . Again. X j*U3. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. 9 * * . Quadriliterals (5 not included). (4) the interior. t [§ Oi . in the third. >U^. which consist of four or more consonants. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example. is O^o or OLot. worshipping. CHJ/J 9 * . ^sS^s a streamlet. v>-^t. v>^ * . * 0>tu. its plur. in the latter almost always : Owl. are exhibited. 9 in the former sense the B plur. in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 . (3) a tribe. (4) a distinguished man. ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. w*J^ a fish. O^W- The forms of the plur. (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather . 9 J Oi its plur. in the following table. along with the corresponding singulars. as a letter). (2) a fountain. or ^Lftl 9 9 .» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . 6x * if prefixing !. in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. Plur. £#£> signifies (1) an eye. *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . the consonants of which are all radical j . —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech. or ^0 . (jL^l. (3) peculiar nature or essence. 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth.. a finger. sing. s jl^. ^J^J^. JJUi X 1. . star.226 Part Second. 4 ** + j^. Or. (2) 9 a verse of poetry . ** . j j has jdbtyw. if the has several meanings. in the second. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc. x jdbl£. + • 3* serving. fract. (J*lil. in the second. I. eye-witness. as wJju j *' . obUj X jJt^*. it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it. fract. X X Sing. J^tjc». *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house. iifcut. JJ 9 ISC. 9*0 a fox.-. 3^*1 J^^ . Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . j For example. &>cms£. 3ju£.gems. Fract. a column or (in a book). 9 x or used in preference to the rest. £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj.

. i<i«^ meaning.. ex- w^U^ . ^— is not converted after the as happens.g. Rem. In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. compare perience. in the e. often taking the form JjtJI. J i* x x remains unchanged. of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). in that case.— Plur. The Noun.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t. ^. aw open XX x »-U-o.) 2uj**3 trial. w^lcc*. or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick.> ». x x 9 x ?»-. j»yk* . and usually ^^Ltfuo. x x clil (for x* ^lit. J Jxx into (. Nouns Subst. ^. make. £m<7. fract. ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J .c. J »»xx form XVII. cont. O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x . a station. J jU*o . XXIIL. Jxft* see § 309. viper. J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. Fractus. C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» . A. 227 Plur. XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>). ^.»>. a minaret.ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. XX Rem.& Adj. *Ag»i means of J i. 9 < ul x halting -place. of ^tu. AcwL. J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar. Jclli) .g. J^lit e. J*U5. rem.. [f^j-o suckling.o a claw or J talon. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a.§305] II. In the plur. jjU-« x or dwells. J^OI] J ^jt Adam. ^. as^jtu. b. and X X usually j^U*. [and. e. Ua». j-»Uu«. 6. I.L^«. .»). <sLo*}Lo a reproof. *^JlaL* .g. ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase.1 xf . the productionis into hemza (5). § —but 240).« a cwr/ (from «. as J Jj^. a plur. y]. rad. Jjlii (Jwrf. for instance. Fract. of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx . the 9x . ^jXJI . t* « . a r. especially with the superlative meaning.>). *~b\j*c]. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving.X^. § 304. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I . . >jtjt no. £Jj-U a x x . w>3-d) a misfortune. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert. 0/ a finger.

.228 Part Second. desert. xx . C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . J x£ . i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. xx .) x . J*»»!. S x xx . j JU65.jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble.> a Bactrian camel. i^fbtfL* X xx .] . jjI£»*n)I. grandees. B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Fract. D 2 o c o ra<7^. l l.bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds.^o$j\ a mottled snake. ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. JJlii (J*tft. £>*a*\j~t X . o3 »J ^».j-**Uo x . £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky. ^Ia>. J x x . ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. Ox x Op a garland or crown. x£ . J**uJ.>*£-> X X fe/tf.t & . Jj. xg . >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp. I. [§ 305 A Plur. [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*. J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ . jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx .o jooor. JP J **3Ui W X . J statue. 0x0 JU«j # chronicle. ^Ut |S [4*». (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included). ^£jly* an<^ jV 0.« a #03/. XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*. as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being.JUi-j and Ols*j. w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x . a litera productions x o j x x j. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303. x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>». ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah. £ .t a tent-rope.t . flowers. Je^tji). of (I. o ^) x . ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx . (jU3 s&?r£ drawers.j-Jslw X . O*^lo a . nobles. 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed. rem. JWu)4oat j Sing. ^jltf J (for x x . J*ftlii.£ . as O^*** a sultan. .. auspicious. & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky. II. . J § j o oj devil.*. j**u5. inauspicious. six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr. J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture. ». ^jt/j) C x . *Ujj . an ^ ostrich's nest. w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt . . O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . /. Jjtil (J-^Ut. ^>U»w a X J wolf.

(v?^*) quinsy.ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 . o o£ - jo. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo. xxj g g x hojSj. C plur.) J .» JjUxo 9 ' . i>£$t>>. J**£?. J x£ . J^JUaW. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. from^oUl*. ot^ 7?"W>' brocade. from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges. J J^tji. cont. curds. jy^^J hemorrhoids. B as^^Jt^a. Fractus.> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. J^lii.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov). f fi r. J x Conversely. II.. used. Oy'» a furnace. a collection Ox J office or bureau. Rem. k. a public xx x£ ( an account-book. Sing. & Adj.l. of V jtaftt a dust-storm. * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. ^Jilia. Rem. 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . J vestibule or apartment. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . ^I^ai. x g Ox « Ox register. x x having a young one with clever. . j**U3. J Ox x «. a sacred claim.0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning. Compare rem. ^j\yi> a of poems. Fract. J-J. xx OxO Ox x Ox J . xx JxxJ off. a dungeon. j x x j*~*\y}. 6. u-^wol^ a. 229 Plur. has ?»-^W. from a form \Jy£\) JjLai. J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . J JJU* . . t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284. license. Nouns Subst. The Noun. has J^Jl^aW and. JJUs sing. apum). chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio. A J^V') i x£ . The plur. a spring. a x x 3 x buffalo. J § § i** j jJbU^ .§305] II. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet. signet-rings. =^i[±. in modern Arabic. b\j«3 a carat. a bath. JJU3 ( j-^lit. « J xx . J^jlw. her. plur. j+^l^c. x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her.—Plur. xx make j-Jlo. jtL>3 « dinar. form either rare or does not (pi. and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico.

relative adjectives. Syr. S^-oL*J XX . J xx . a great letters.g. TraTpiKio?). StJj T» J (Heb. D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop.« .A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c . — especially many E. oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J . of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — . Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters. Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor. I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx . ajjUu* a . SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X .230 Part Second. Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f .—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>».« S stocking or &?£& < . . a-jJLy-*. C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin. w^Sa). a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords. xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X . Sing. Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). T&Sfi. « money-changer. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda. Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers. Ko/xrjs). liHis. XX « X 2. —and S . J . (Pers. J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. as iUwt (Pers. jLjU and IjjCf. S Sxxx « Moor. (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). angel. S x . which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's).Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter. aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes. jj—»•». a pupil. ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . iUwl) a master. 1. J i>j. SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . Chosroes) the king of . x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . 03-*^-* Pharaoh. of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen. [§ 305 A Plw. . w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. III. x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar. a teaclwr. Fract.

fract. x XX woman. XIII. 4-^>l 2ri6e. XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. Ox a 9 xx x spider. xx A Sing. The Noun. rem. oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale.§ 305] II. x£ t^jbl) XV. of nouns which contain JxOx E. rejected. besides . . Nouns Subst. c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. x£ . I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j. j£~*\ '. more rarely V. D JliS. £>yfii* x . fowwf. and XIV. Persia. <LJlku oo/acotikos). J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. & Adj. i Jjjtji x . . O-Jlii.g. b). This form is also found. J*frUt . OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. * X i Ox xx . Sjyi\. j»ola»^ «x J Ox.^ AiaJ Ptolemy. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . the plur. x as jU». letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract. J^JU< J v> a quince. of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. iJUif make Jclil. and XIX. has. Kg. 4*-*!^/. Jlii. ljA*a*. XX five or Rem.-w^llS). and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. Fractus. literals 5 «S Rem. a XX jfatf. a. J>-Jt. The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb. ca^o. 4J& « <%. and the J letters of prolongation). ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. 0X XX JU>Uo. and XVIII.1). 0JO* J XX . 264. Zazy xx . J5U3. £)&* a £Xol. jut (for t^ju. more J In forming the plur.» the x x (for ^^l^w). 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. ^jlii. of the plur. C x 2 x .>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. In particular. «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. 9/ III. ca&e. one of the radicals xx . or secondary plural). an equal. jilt and XV. * ajJUi continued. J_«-l£L»). Fract. 2j6 a x£ . 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar. Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. though rarely. or 2 ' " » . 6. and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. forms XIII. . she- 5 Ox J 0x camel. generally the last. 3i»wl£»l. 0X . ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt. plur. * £ r* * t 5^ x x . ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . a like.—Plur. 231 Plur..« tyrant^ a giant. Lr>ft. A.

. a he-camel.1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc.> OJOxJOx jj>. JuJU*-t x £ j . JU-. ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls. ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as . t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . smoke. or clientship. A x J Ox also be derived from V.*. and JUjI. j^i.. J^Jj^t.xxx .xxx Ox .. jutj^. t an iron -y»jL»J. ^Ua. foe>£. J »»x x £$*a*. x (for . # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter.a» . j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . ^UiM. <L>j£\. og Oxx jJa. . Cxt^^»».Ou». XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI. she-camels having x £ Oxx J V. J "1 £ x x 4. O3-0. AjJtjjj^l. J|y> « saying. is °» J ^ OU. JjUj. a party or sec£. family. JUi.ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV. fix xxOxxx jb « house. ^Ut *Z . Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink. £ijje . il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites . OtjJ^k.. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. j»\xj\. J . . x £ XV. Jjiij-XVII. dUUt. . Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house. Otjulj^.. rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass. Oxx a she-camel. • ea#-£e.». O'NjUfc. and a few other forms. j**\)\ x? .. XIX. especially those that indicate the — relations of sect. j-o^. J>ai. families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ. .. Rem.lo a female companion. &£>>). —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). *LJt.. ^su oox camels. a he-camel.. anything woven or plaited. or when their number is indefinite. houses.j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j . w*».t^o. O^U*. Oxx . 4-Jatt. ^tjit. pi. [^u». great d. J^lSt jJite a nail. j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk. OUUjI (with the dimin.>^Ut. §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine. 9+9 . "x OlSLJ. j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». J^a. Olf"6 0<.»x O*^^- Again.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees). '. many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives. joay. » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% . XVIII. a speech. Ox < JjtJ.'-.>l «x q . t 6 J x £ J Jl^il.\. jj-c*. OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*. Ob^wl ~s . J Ot^ji Cxfc . x OU^J. Ox JUjfc. \^yo a Sufi. j a vessel. jUjt. VI. j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech.232 Part Second. J^j a man. as ^k**. X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc. J>jJ». Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number. a * J3l*». Oxx j^xx III. oZ *Uj a building. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower.

jl^~J (from the rad. a oxi x 4jj-ojJt. atyl (from a x »»x £ sing. 4JL». S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. The plural of some nouns is anomalous. 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi). only by a constructio ad sensum.-xOxOOx* a woman. 30 . SjUsu spectators. < fil « P - «P« o . A.Olk)|). 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x . <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb.1 & Adj. * . OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. The Noun. a jii. dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . dUw. Rem. aJlxJ. the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus. horses. h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. x O x 6£ . dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat. mules . w. or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. IZ. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. for x . persons who own or &eep camels. X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed.e. rarely J x x . several individuals 6 . The consequently. dU«. water. B e. a spring. dl^ot (from a sing.— Plur. XgOtf l#-*)). Fr actus. XX ' %>. the partisans 5. Nouns Subst. collectively. i. as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. and can be used as masc.*).. o Oly-ot (Syr. strictly speaking. O^J» human being (Heb. singulars with a collective signification. whence #*« fWX. As regards their meaning.jjl. 306. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^». See § 233 268. ^UJ. |Z.. X*. C the rad. in use.. ' anus. $)}$ Aram. (k)|. [ajI^ j^w- cferers]. of Marwan. Cwl tfAe «£/» . Hence. yottfA (juvenilis). who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . ^^Jt. the former a number of individuals viewed . asses. l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. *U>. w^w. together. they are all of the feminine gender. a mole. oUw . J0 X For are D example. (men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking.306] j II. J^J). 5 #}« n^X). oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general. . who SJ slaves.Ui (from . aJULw travellers. too.

rem.). * viz. and XV.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural). Diptotes are (Gen.. fracti 307.234 Part Second.-L^-* whilst . . [yjjl camels. either triptotes or diptotes. The former may be styled abstract. A noun may be w^**. _ (Gen.). named lj5£* £>*»». and \1 or 1 (Ace. the latter concrete collectives. or the Parts of Speech. This observation applies. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz. in the singular number. or ^y**c.. if C of course. XIII. people or tribe. substantives 308. as Jo*J bees. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju. for one of the forms alone be used. the nominal character or nature. or . Triptotes are those .. These are called *. Juil. a). Rem..*aJl § l\+~i\ a. • • J or possessed is of. to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches. Jill. Ixfcj. The Declension of Nouns. are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10). fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). on 246 and 292. plurals of paucity.. XIV. plurals of abundance. as^o^i. Hi declined without tenwln.£ o^uU j*s. . a established in. A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns. o j declined with tenwln. or simply o »» ^jSioZc. which are indeclinable.. only to such nouns as have also other plurals. it is necessarily employed without any 4. I. 1 (Nom. those which have only two terminations — Ace. see § 8. and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246). The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . and whilst the rest are fy***. jSL*s> an army .)*. 2jJ\. noun may be declinable. A declinable J^. Ij&. limitation as to number.) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. 1 D (Norn. The Declension of Undefined Nouns. —Etymology u . 2/ie JS& sheep]. (1) Undefined and adjectives are. The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c.

*3 where J&*». for ^£j\^. J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word. j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U. 4ifA«JI. plural of 4Jjl»>.<& Adj. jjt— (Nom.. tJie a * the vowel a voice). jlaJI). 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ. Nouns 8ubst.— Beclen. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. x and the pluralis fractus.) and <>j_ (Gen. in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice). also called . . as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 . . and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes. I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s.\ duy^j.. t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite. as CA+JL**. in 3*0*0* between the definite. *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih. * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. cjSLti\.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. * * of an indeclinable noun. Ace. viz. J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*. tfAe of annexation . case . as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat. is a designated w*cudl. as J^-j. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt. This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition. (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence. the : nunation of compensation. 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter.§308] II.)*. of Nouns. in the singular v>jj-3. as in the in jlj*. at the on.\.. —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable. A. — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent. . found in the plural feminine. The Noun. 235 * * common (3) to both genders. (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. or 5 x ^ j^Jt. possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U.

B .j->_ (Gen.) and . exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309.236 Part Second. Substantives. a).). for the masculine. Triptote or First Declension. viz.)*.) and or the Parts of Speech. Ace. — substantives and adjectives. for the feminine.. (Nom. Ol— Ot- (Gen. — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. Ace. — Etymology Oi— (Nom. [§ 308 A gender..

Substantives. Nouns Subst.§308] II. of Nouns. A .— Declen. The Noun.& Adj. A. 237 Triptote or First Declension.

—Etymology or the Parts of Speech.238 Part Second. [§ 308 B .

Gr.. JJU* of nouns which have causes. of Nouns. Ace. Gen. Faik C 524. J3U* (XVII. d). ^i. and II. the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda . p. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb. a man. the forms etc. A Masc. Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. Ac. Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti. & Adj. iSjii . G. 180. . a. (I. flexional a. also used (see § 19. more than three radical letters) . viz. There are two words in Arabic.. Adjectives. 239 Diptote or Second Declension.). and ^o*Ut. . For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. 309. J ^i Op. ^oi. Jstji (XVI. The following nouns are diptote. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. fract. as quoted by Zamahsari.] Rem. that is to say. 139 seqq. and JJU* etc. ^jJa*^^ sultans.. Plur. L*-5. D. Aja* Rem. b. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. The Noun. Schr. j) viz. for t^«ot and^ul. « son. jj-«t. as £*&\y.. w*5U^ wonders. jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t. which are Sing. (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N. (of jJte poor) Fern. Kl. as J '' A*i C^tj. Nouns Subst. G.—Declen. Comp.. Lane and Fleischer. C J J J Nom. Loijt [According to i.). in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive .§ 309] II. . A. j-bU5 bridges.

£^>.).] b. C Compare and Rem. ^Xati (XXII. /?. b. /? (*1— ) c.. wise men. another .g. [(e) iUwt.. and ^Us fract. viz. «// together. \SjZ~* drunken 295. 16. w-Jjt (l e. . without O x a wife. and 296) . rem.> white (§ 296). rem. is .' first . as \£^> memory. /?). needy. J*it. B £^. a). JU3 (XXIII.1. are as J*ojt poor. c. j^. XIV. Jj^t a hawk.) . Ji'j pl ur fract. J*». and of fract. j*>*-\ red. is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical. si j - w£ . triptote .t a green woodpecker. ii > at . Rem. and § 301. ^Ct j prisoners. of J r*s - x Op which the fern. £-aj. J s bi e. W plnr. &&L viz.1. btjUfc presents (compare . other. J ' i men. its fern. plur. Compare elif y and c.virgins. and 234—5). ••11 T« admissible {. ^^-j*?b. — Etymology c. iUZj.). (a) Common nouns and memduda a. (3 wounded /?). f.) and b. a widow. of this form are usually t regarded as triptote. needy. (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. wonderful . e). Hii (XX. of *U***. and 'I c. ^^S.240 Part Second. adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . ). of etc. (compare § 299. ij>*>'. Excepting those in which the § 213). iU-cu. dX*j\ poor. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb. as v**i^ more f. as [§ 309 A (. maksura radical . Jj^-t. /?. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232. (XXIV. iUil. of Jjt. or the Parts of Speech. viz. Ju«U. its and of fern. fern. rem. as j\js. . by elif as a virgin. J*ojl « humming . £*a». is ^ar<?. is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295.11). s without a husband. Various common nouns and adjectives .1. 2. *-©**. the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. l\sC£=>. of j^. but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_. —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J .g. &*i\ (XXL) .

^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. Rem. tofi (mo? slender .^o o O x x ' dry. Nouns Subst. jjt^cu Christian. —Adjectives a. x ^^£ ignorant.^o. ^*^i Jx so x J and so. A which would be very b. dun). slender. 5 x The word ^l». ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun. one. (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern. vile. [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . . Mtm % three.-a»-cJI) . ^0 6y New. are rare. gravelly water-course. are all triptote. fljUdL* Ao£ 3 . however. or jjUa^w . 9 x x ^jS^La thin. of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop. ^^o. & Adj. iLojl. as being formed by adding 3_ 295.g. ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. e. stantives. retain the diptote inflection blackish. Rem. okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x . as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. when used as sub. as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken. ^Jflui a wide. o x ^la^o x o and <jl». eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (. The Noun. JjjS stony j * o p mottled). Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. mean. j * oS e. as iUj and w. stolid. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion.§300] II. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . their fern. is x x f- x x '' 295. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3. 31 . Adjectives of the form J*£l. 9 3u*$j&.angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to . 6. a) . Some J x x > of these. O*^**.^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . rem.^o ^Ij^S.jl». a * withered. 241 J -it Rem. Rem. 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. 0^**> J x or x O^** J . —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. ^jtoju a boon companion. « x xx S x .g.—Diptotes. black). a. ***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^. such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi. Q x jU*w stupid. • o j Q%*i . rem. »£OU and wJJlo. A. ^U^-o stupid.jl». a) SxOxSxxOx f. is &%x3 295. . have also % x J the form x J ^^*s.

is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. Jka*~>t Isaac. 4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. 5 J Joseph. J&\ tremor. whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. (a) Foreign names of men. (used) as an adjective. declined without tenwm (e. we must employ the word nunation. l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. as O J *.g. oW*-* Sufydn. a. /?) and . in the sense of each. jjib David. maksura (compare a. when it is an indefinite noun. [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. JUi (§ 333). a). after it in the genitive . requires an indefinite and so in other cases. those that were originally ijlyj*.jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman. as A#] Many proper names . . with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I. c. 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al. Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b. l^ij^j Zachariah. excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis.>U Adiyd. as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- . (y) Proper names in jjt_. o!/** Imran ('Amram). <bjJ Lot. is declined without tenwm. j-**-\ red) . as . [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al. y and p and b. memduda (compare John. [with the exception of of the forms Solomon. because J^».242 Part Second. letters. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. ^^ Sulma. which is an adjective. as (§ ju^t. l ^U*** Hittan.g.£> Noah. as ^*At/jt Abraham. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. j^yJ LUla. every. viz.

^£**. >oUj Tumddir. Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. though 3 consisting of only three letters. as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar. and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). j$*.] 3_. icj Ztogw (a woman). j£Z*£ Yeskur. as^oUai Katdm. w^JU a scorpion. ace. Gu&m. x x x* £a*-U» Talha. Nouns Subst.§ 309] II. owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* . Ot keep ** * . D (6) common Proper names. consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names . S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men). The Noun. — But name fem. jZZ> Satar. Oli^c and even Oli^. the second of which has gezma. j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) . A. proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters. * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty. *-. / j-a* Egypt. Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . 3 * * jyo Tyre. proper names in * Oec. e. B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name). ^y~j Yubnd. j»\j^ Haddm. * w>o J/ if Dor ib. A 3 d * f and J*$. These latter.j*j Zufar. proper names. however. 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). as Ol^pt gen. juJj Yizid.\jj the sun. w-A*j Taglib. Fem. w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. Yurdmil. ace. Gur. 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . oUpl . Ols^c. of the feminine gender. 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. have .. letters.g. which do not end in foreign origin. 3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the . J^j planet Saturn. jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). . their tenwln.—Diptotes. are trisyllabic.g. J*U>j Bakas". A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). e. Oli^c gen. or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or. jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM. ace. [Fem. joa or jUA Hind. . cfc Adj. ££c M"ekka. '(c) Common nouns letters. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna .

10. l**-J*o (§ 264). ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii. J^». some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1. of which the jUa- the female hycena.. in terms of abuse. x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. u^l5j. as a.Jt Sur.). even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*. J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. J»^-*t. j*\j«o war. be declined separately. ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city). O^-o*-. as^&lii. ^ juu. Rem.) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j). gen. *jjj. x O^-a*. w>U». aj^j-©*.« £y* (Fdik i. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*.244 Part Second. J Li b o .. Words of the form JUS. xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . for we may acc. however. nom. J JO O^-oj-o*.. as ou^^w. *£*!*» improbe f. and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x . xx x nom. and Besides being used as proper names. ou^Lii. ! f.) or w^» . (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». ^aCOvilis! Rem. and are wholly indeclinable . etc. w^ 1. 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all.—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable. . say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*.] ... last letter is r. jb\j\ a year of famine. Hadar (a star in the Centaur). 5).^Us the female hyama. Rem. Compare Beladorl 60. D xx gen. x acc.g. ' . jLo*. *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. and ace. foil. Ofrxo^rw. Each word may.» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313. e.C J~J b sceleste ! f. " x x *£Ubo. word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. the second being in the genitive. G. gen. c. JUi. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421. last and Baidawi D. are » almost invariably indeclinable. cxi.death. jl»s». The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J . the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. viXJju. forms. [§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us. Oj^o». ftffl*.^IJ^.. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. J-^-ctj*.

(3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI.o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c. from j-olc. the case naturally Proper names.jll». and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb. The Noun. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. A. There however. period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i.jt_.g. radical u**.L~o mosques. ' * * . w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in . is e. d. 245 Rem. when used indefinitely are employed in . The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln. as £©i»li. w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . as ^jUJk.yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural]. termination £)\—.1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is. . . UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form. J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name. J x Ajjjut* from A^blS). J 5 it is triptote. (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*. Hassan. e. grammarians to be nine in number . >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai. is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**. which in is Jxx Jjjuco. (a) . D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination .§ 309] II.g. ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective. 6* *> J x S Rem. Nouns Subst & Adj. -*4jLa4 lamps. *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i .—Diptotes. J + w-^JBI. are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met. are usually reckoned by the viz. i <o x . Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln . so jlo^. o j$} * . viz. for there x x x . jt». or transformed. Hence we say <jU»». J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu. word . a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil.. . derive it if we derive this name from the .

Nouns ending in — . follow in the nom. ^ (verbal adj. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . 311. acc. U^«o j*3 . in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ .g. Tab. ace. or j- (§§ 213 and . as u*j^} a. asjH^. ^5*-j> and L»-j .g. ace. a). ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. 0— (according to E. XVIII. 312. L>JJt* Cjte . in + J*a)\ J c. ^J for ^^J (^^3). >*o£. ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. for j_ (§ 167. but § 166. though feminine in form. for and l^-os . in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. which ^ is ^ .) and Tab. (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI.) for 1jJa> acc. ace. ace. a. toft for 3-ac. f$ c. o* B the termination jjt_. C E. and § 218). 1*^*3 . « ^ j«Xai. Petrus. ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb. 6. as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. for ^y*t. ace. and gen. L**.. Z+iuo^S + . acc. ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. yet is the name of a man). D >»!. as j^.. /«/ fern. which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . 245). . for ^— . . which follow the J ' . the first declension instead . /?).246 as Part Second. L^tj . so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309. [§310 in form but not in meaning. in the ace.1. jl£ for jjl£. »~w (verbal ^a-w. Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c. (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI. + JaaJI Oj j. retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. . -q. ^-« for ^^^o.) for ^5^^. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl. y b. ^^ ^or for ^5^. and those in . . Jjuo for ^>*^. 310. which ought regularly ^j— . to end in All plurals of the second declension. for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj. Ww . first declension. not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). Jjtst.

j i&l^ *" . i^j^l the city. Gen. ace. The of the acc. the chaste {woman). acc.. and gen.. ) t JU-pt the men. vol. 313. § I 78) . j E. J rem. and gen. and substitute 311. c. nom.. the following D If it belongs to the first declension. 247 ^-). (a) by adding a noun in the genitive. nom. n^ . unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. - (for They moreover in retain. b. . a^U. by prefixing the by adding article J 2. they remain true to the second declension.] 314. therefore. nom. —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining). ^y**o. 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace.§ 314] II. d). . plur. Subst. and conbut in the ace. The Noun. Nouns. it loses the tenwin. the & Adj. II. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*). or (b) a pronominal suffix. man. and gen. A. jt^». v. ^U* . . they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. and have ^-.—Decl. The Declension of Defined Nouns. . Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. 4 plur.g. of the second. of Def. l\j^~o. j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. disappears along with the tenwin. j\*>~a. cases arise. ^jU^o. ACC. [Rem.. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309. become defined : 1. for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o). (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. 3 ii. § 309.o properly the beautiful) never have the article. if. plur. Ox Undefined nouns I . w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined).

and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed. ^j+jjJsAS. sanus masc. D the book of God.f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men. ^yU^Jt from .j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . x Gen. 312).. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem. j^^^t the nobles. part of the the men of the Gen. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun. \J^.. sanus fern. Norn. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^. Rem. oU^JI the believing (women). w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. Gen. M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth.> Norn. Acc. it loses the tenwin. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Acc. it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension.j x x i . Acc. as acc.jU*o. Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . JUg city. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). x J G x 0>o everyday. assumes the Norn. the black (m. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311.* cM-^t ->*. Acc. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur. l5-h>^I from 0^5. 3 B Norn. b. (b) minations of the first. The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314).). ^yt from ^& I. oUJiyjt the darknesses. Gen. the following changes are produced. OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< . The plur.248 Part Second. oCubl a. c%JLLoJt the creatures.*! JU. 315. and jbecomes triptote. gen.» wonders of creation.

\ dialectically. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . * X )l UUjU . has in the - B «x . J X makes Gen. after £>!. var. as * The same Gr. Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin. first Rem. HE) constr. Nouns. and the second Ubl the m t genit. a]. cases [bl being. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. and Gen. either X : XX Nom. U. yiA. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. in the ace. o x 249 Rem. a. of w>t. Ace. J9^. p. does not do J xg wrong .\. 6 J 15 whilst ^.. ^^o*-. Ace. M. bt. lengthen itit s * j x at Norn. ^a~. the owner or possessor of a thing. C f. after rejecting the tenwin. etc. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. 5 P & Adj. D. less frequently .. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive. with suffix ^Jpfi. j^\ lit.. J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£.-i. according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp. Subst. for w>t. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. etc. . £fa mouth (Aram. k.— Decl. or: ^3. in all the three dial. ii. ^1. La. as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. instead of ly«ot. gen.* The word £. as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>.I. *£). in-law. x ~-t a ^» brother.a>. ft!)3). J. f*. for yl. The Noun. ^oi. ±j\. a. X vol. see Comp. the preceding vowel.ja a thing.§315] II. a father- A . i of Def. ^t. etc. xlix. G. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt. and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father.] Comp. ^5. b. The words w>t 5 a father. 321. Ci. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . Noldeke in Zeitsehr. § 39. for etc. J>. ^yf. where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus. which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. S\. 142 seq. rem.

—Etymology jAJto. C-. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. a daughter. Ace. . the son of O^t. ^>~$ . of the king came . [The latter was formerly preferred. jJU. takes a kesra instead of a gezma. ^ Muhammad.250 Part Second. for those who are \^3*$ h** c).jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 . Instead of OU^. lxvi. the t son of Halid.] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual. [§ 315 A j^m ^ c.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. On the elision of the in Rem. the son of Gafar. or warning. \j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen. ^o^iL^I drawing Gen. we may use. I saw the king's sons.< >««. 12) and often in old Mss. Muhammad. *£U*Jt yij eU. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. the form djj\. ms belong the two holy temples of God. rem. C Rem.ijj. or the Parts of Speech. to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came. the sons their swords.-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence. from two 'Abu Bekrs. see § 21. rem.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20.>£ etc.q. b. ^>\ ^^jU. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. the Kor'an (Sur. the final dUL^Jt ^ . wjU^t *O>0 an example. * J tit* St to J Acc. h). when a genitive follows. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire. (viz. j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302. poems. c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1.

the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book. »-! and . begins with an elif conjunct. as acc. my gardens. suffix when it has kesra (Gen. lose the tenwln. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. remains unchanged. the genit.§316] II. the final vowels of the sing. of Def Nouns. with it o^LJ. ly3UJJ» darkness. j_ and jl. . If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> . rem. and into £$. nom. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. OUAI? darkness.. 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. 9 t 9 t Rem. are elided . my of book. ajLj. as aOt ^akAo a. c). (c) plur. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc). plur. wjt. rem. as icjU£» fract. sanus fern. from £Jty. i)yJ thy sons. i)UL£> thy two books. of *jtf . plur.. &yJ sons. The Noun. & Adj. a. plur. the B following changes take place. ^JH+su. rem. A these terminations become. from *->*$&. ^_ # (see Q § 185. instead of the gezma 20. Subst. * ^ . from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s. before a following gen. Of the words mentioned in § 315. * j * * If the plur. ^U^. § 7. though incorrectly. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra... * and plur. his women. see 316. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza. j_. a.—Decl. fractus. this letter passes before the suffixes into J. added to the nominal term. (a) Triptotes and the plur. from OU. and plur. Ajusa Ais book. and § 317). this letter is • changed into (or rather. as |L»J it women. gen. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft .). If the noun ends form in 3. when it has damma (Nom. sanus of 4-i». sing.) . the final j takes ^— j i and if damma. fract. the dual ' 9 . d*L»J. A. ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers. sanus fern. as ioju a favour or benefit. sanus masc.

p. The Pronominal Suffixes. x x J of^L**. —^JA makes J .-£^L~o J y J . xxj from <jU^. dbt . ' £)y>\. for ^gt^A. Jy. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ . i "g . •^ X . the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—. when the word ends in ^_ or ^_. ^bUw*. the kesra X ^_ (see § 185. * js- [§ 31. ray ^0 my slaves. note *. ic^*-. — ^x my mouth. is ^-.-JL _: — B see § 315. sing. and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge. j^t^A for my Zove. from &***$£. The pronominal genitive. nom. rem. X ^-OA X or . for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. _.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi.^uo) or ^jAJsua* . o ray Muslims. 4«i. <jui |x**x j j .c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom.. ^UUafcaJaa. but X X J more usually. d) being simply elided.7 i . from ^^JLyO (^^q. £ IjUa£. Rem. i)^Ii or >^JUa. from fract. l*±>\. i * Jbt. o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^.L». X ace. *£U$.. and suffix of not . X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit.l>» . and likewise forms ^.g. A o .-jt. ^Ui. in all the three cases. The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). t3 gen. &»J\. with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p.£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA. nom.«>.^Uoli). sing. becomes ^. for «*t . suffixes which denote the Genitive. the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. of ^U^ . of j_. D from ^>A. j ray xxxxj sins. a. rem. «$jt ii i i gen. a«i. in the long vowels t_.(§ 185).*)li. which a. for 6xJ . APPENDIX. GZ E. x i ^. XX x 5 x x J plur. attached to nouns to denote the 317. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. x . for L5*«olS (. j si ... from or . are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative . Further. xOxxJ ray taw slaves.252 Part Second. oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases. A-ot • " ace. plur. oy X .-iA X j but .>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). x ^_. for xxxj ^ U^.

c. The Numerals. ^Jb. The Noun. d. applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. suffix . — On ^>A. little son has both ^Xj and ^. 253 ( Ly a ftJft. into kesra after — . rem. Just as the verbal rem. like — From words instead of § ^>A. or ^_.§ 318] II. yj^A^auc. f-\. 13 § 38. The Cardinal Numbers. arise. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — . Rem. into ^j b. U^jU^. the form ^I^A.] Rem. du)o\.] The Numerals. 1. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc. i^Ui.— Cardinal. B. has been said in ii § 185. t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316.>A«). the What in o. ^Jb. rem. of them both. — [^> a 185. is used dialectically w>l. ^£_. ii. plur. of the change of damma l^A. his two female slaves. j**-. E. <t*Z>jl».] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b. .g. ' ' S * If is [Rem. from QjkitfOt*.9 his murderers. sanus of j^aJxcl*. : 318. ^5. peojrte [Com p.J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. attached ! is in as w>j b. rem. c). [which is the or^^U^). particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol. <u\S£s of his book. ^j\&. US.

. form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic. 2£Xj. only one or two forms deserve notice here. snow. the fraction ^ju. for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14. sedestu and sessw. Rem. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . rem. men. the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb. The Jewish Aram. = J?£^. a). ^jl*. n^l) _ . is istin apparently identical with cognate languages. according to the § Arab ^juj. a. . ##. or E. The cause of this phenomenon. fern. — Etymology >L?$3. [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. aj*}U. ten men (lit. =pnt)j T or> as others think. ten women. o* a. b. as it were the dual of jjj . form. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. — Qft^W. lexicographers. and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. Rem. ft %f i < for dJloJ. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. and.254 Part Second. for one in the sing. ^ rwe. derived from the single. when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. form. a sixth. plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th. gender and conversely. Rem. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). masc. sixth. JU-j Zj***. fern. rem. a. c). . for sedsu). when the objects numbered are fern.» jw. &}$ (H becoming as in gjf. }Hfi. D 319. t . the masc. T • stand for BHBf.g.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy . The daghesh in the Heb. and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». HB^. (for rnnN). . D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. CH^K) indicates . a decade. £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. S-mLoj (§ 6. . as in tfiPft. and v v J I exchanging with ^. or sUJ j-&s. The Assyrian therefore. numbered are of the masc. or the Parts of Speech. sole. and the ordinal adj. but the the Heb. — C*w stands. c>j£* JU->. .

in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural. ace. 255 cardinal numbers. B. of men. An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. They either follow the objects d. as JU^. etc. aajjI. rarely construed with the Rem. —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc. ^ a part or <- portion)'. and gen. Rem.jl*j has.. o. rem.yOj ^UJ (see § 320).5*$3 numbered. § 99. the implied j>\A). fern. and has 321. a. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. of three men (lit. See jj also § 322. in the sense of broken plur. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives. — consequently a£Xj. If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article. they of course lose the tenwin 314. ..] 320. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very . ten days. (viz. in the genit. S^J **su some women. LjUj (according to § 311). or they precede them. or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-. a triad) .jj\. — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj. is are really masc. *. nom.. and are put in apposition with them.. with the . b. 6. The Noun.. vol. few J years. J s The 'o. a triad of j) men). ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R.. c. a). j^-t^J j»^*M. [Comp. Rem. Rem.§ 321] II. which follow the gender of their substantives. etc. either as a singular masc. ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men.-i in a . or Jx^lj^t j^jOI.0 s*0 .0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace. is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj].— Cardinal. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. The Numerals. yj*+~i %*cJ . . either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan. ii.'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months. as JU-j aj^U. for example. rem. in the construct state. three men (lit. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325). or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say.

—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b). 0^0 Rem.256 Part Second. rem. plur.. which are in the genitive of the . as JJa-ia. sing. of the objects final j^j numbered. instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o. or simply ^jUUsO^. d. LUj two colocynths. [§ 322 genit. and then of course drop their (§ 315. %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered. b) . fractus (see § 319.

20. .

3UJ. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth. ^O C T _ asu .. etc. Rem. 400. &w " U5U. " Assyr. Rem.«© (with the Ox article. The O xJOx * D. &U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. is O^**6 Ox x Olio. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word. c. but juaj and are 325. it in the 4w £jU. mS) Ox 9«>* . instead of after. Ox w*Xj. The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU. the forms ^Jjyc. to 900 are :— 600. Ox Rem. Heb.. 800. " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U.. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. a. and hence in poetry ^)UU. as £)3J-*»*3 also used. X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3. excess. G. B #U 1HS #U ajjt J .258 Part Second.0 2u*. ntf£> Aram. . scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i.JU-M) are rare. J* ' ' a5U 900. twenty and odd .1U.e. but was inadvertently placed J) before. b. The numerals from 100 100.] i x | J O plur. or x ^U.] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry]. a5U genit. 500. 300. The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. as £5loiij. and more recently . and .0't. a5Lo. i^w ijl^JLj. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit. O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year). P a5U « .? t": me'e*. . —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech. of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an." x Rem. (see § 321).. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**. 0x6 surplus). sing. the j (5). 700.

are : 259 326.§ 327] II. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000. The Noun. B. The Numerals. .— Cardinal.

The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C . :- 328.260 Part Second. Masc.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 328 2. The Ordinal Numbers.

x x . ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. Rem. 261 Rem.— Ordinal. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. And j ijl5. in the construct state and with .33UM. 329. and genit. ^jJju\ the twentieth. (formed directly from C-w. compound of this sort be defined. Rem. they remain unchanged. etc. £rtj***3 >{*». 9x x (gen. for ^^l*. x x —Jtf. ace. construct state so with the rest and with the art. ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. j-&t etc. X X (ace. however. 03j**c. these latter precede. x x Ox The L3U. admit the inflection of the unit. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . b. ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. etc. when Ml defined. of course. S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom. the art. /jl5. If joined to the ordinals of the units. : — B Masc. ^^ X iJ&\. defined . 2 *U~/) are occasionally used.330] II. as %LsX OX wJUM. and even These numerals are not declined. and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. as Ojj*^ x twentieth. twenty-first x x xJOx fern. The Numerals. 330. ^^X c. aj^I».].eleventh. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. iJlj. B. . x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some. O^J-^J ^3^*).3 *^**- If a .. The Noun. A jJIj. ijlif. when they are unif defined by the article. both its parts take the article as .yU)t in the ace. <jtf makes. S^c.

. or ibtf 3j-o *U. ijptiiJf) twenty-first. or as 5^o once. he rose up once or twice. By the noun S^». f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. liltf IW* *W»). 333. are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways. the fourth of the twenties. third time.. once.. in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. and similar words.e. (i. The numeral adverbs a j^stf. S^£d 0*h* twice. or j\j*o stJJ. § 108.262 Part Second. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. are D expressed either by adding the accus./£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. i. life twice. adverbs. [Rem. etc. b>o. thrice. twenties. etc.jJS*& 2/*e .e. Com p. he fought once or twice. O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. the also permitted to use the simple . U)U eU. should be wanting. CHj*** twenty times. thou hast given us death twice. tfe i*0 *U. ^3^.. twice. etc. ^ came a third time. 3. the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. or (i. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332. vol.. or. O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS. or aio sJ^T *W. in the accus. OU3. by means of one of the words S^. G. E. —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. second. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ .] B 331. vicis (§ 219). i*0 jj-^iJf *U. if this By the accusative of the nomen . \Jj. A* came third time. (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus. Ot^o wJJ.S wJJ. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij. The distributive adjectives are expressed ..). again . cardinal numbers.g. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb . etc.e. by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma. D. %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl. thrice. isij. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S.

the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. The fractions. double. patientis of the second form. a tetrastich. together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. 6 E. from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. the 'people . jji* (nom. #w eighth. [The form JUiU I . The Numerals. C/^Lm. jILjlc. ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. pi. i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . £Jj. pentagonal . which a whole 5 * r made up. square. x J x or j~*x. ^tjwl. £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . pleaseth you of women. patient. according . ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU. etc. £**++ threefold. or A came two by two . or j»^Ai\ sU. ^ju*. nor. j^yo 2Uj. etc. uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina . *U-j. Numeral is adjectives. 335. B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj. pi. 334. \J~£\ >»>^' *W». The Noun. words of the forms Jj*3. ' > $ four spans or cubits in height. triangular.O^j'. dualized. *£Jb. . take the form . J Us x 0. two of the forms J x x .» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth.g. and ^.§ 336] II. ^j£* twofold. ^ju». According to Zamahsari. a third. Single or ^^a^ fivefold. jj. lj*U. >uj-«. or er*>ju». Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. . and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. J x x . ^1*$ . A^>* fourfold. IV. pi. 0**^ /«/ etc. Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification. B.» Ox up to a fof»tf.. x «£ Ox* 0. but the formation is admitted [by some] up [. as ^Uj ^ i • . three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral. derived from the cardinal numbers J J e. J*s. fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three .Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj.} a mom. five spans in lieight . • • . 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi. ^^Vj triliteral. and J**$. j£s. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ. ^wUfc quinqueliteral.g. expressing the number .— Distributive. of parts of biliteral . 263 either singly or repeated. 336. simple is triple.). {walking) by twos and threes .

uLo J «i . or £JjJt> every fourth. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa). B Rem. and Aram. D. because they are both. are either simple or compound.» j (vulg. etc.g. The Demonstrative Pronouns and ..fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. xlix. fifth. month. article). or w**JI L5fr*. titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth.) . J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e. The form Ja9 occurs e. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty. The period. in the third. 337. 3jlw*^t l\+~*\. UU. * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr. 210 seqqJ] .. 338.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ. The demonstrative pronouns. either with or < x Oirf x without the article . the latter the relative. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. year. M. as £0x0* etc. or w*U)t. in the accus. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech. pronouns. £$ J . according to our D terminology. every third (day. .. "rubu. — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. in one chapter.g. the former being the demonstrative pronouns. S x Ujj. »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. the Article. uou). o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. less frequently ouaj." Heb.264 Part Second. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc. C as w%X3t j*^*. same sense in Assyrian. ^ fortw C. 1.*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. G. G. at the end of which an event usually recurs.

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

^t J^^l. ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). viz. $* . JJI . .. Rem. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos. vulgar form. o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom.§ 347] II. It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc. [Cu$$f Nom. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f . ^-^JUt. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . C Rem. J*\ (cJI . f$S\ or . that. whoever. ^£&S (O^ 1 ". because of their frequent occurrence. CHsfi&f Gen. cJt .. 271 he who. The other forms. with which : gender. that the same meaning as v>«. is —The modern.G. . a. when used adjectively. and case. Ace. ^JJt. 0j&) . for numbers and genders. ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . grammarians. *J . and sJJtJM. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. j^JJt (J}\ . according to the Arab the nom. plur. number. . 6. ^J>i\ in the gen. Ace. rem. as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift. This £)3^ must.]) ^^Jl . § 340. Du. 2. of course. D. [According to as-Sabban. «. are written defectively. chJJI (^Jjf . Plur. ut* Sing. ^tifif (gfjAf. . it which. it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. j«JI. which. ^JJt. and ^jjjli\. wlx Fern. Gen. used \jjj>)\ in D and ace.<fW or Jjj0l+. j^t. Norn. masc. U. A whatever. Comp. The Noun. U&1). instead of ^JJJt. p.JI or jJUt. C.] . generally J of the article all and the demonstrative. signifies who. which are not retain the double in such constant use.

e. Gr. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' . ej which I J am meditating).i*a of which ace. D. employ £ (Heb.'^ / suffices me. is -ffith. ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven. sjj—.. za). and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p.272 Part Second. H= . y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1. 117. ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form. 'Aganl 18. Si d. x fi * St "St * '. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. some of the Arabs. Oj*W St* OUJUt. H. G. as its derivation shows. and ic2 f ^^^Jt. UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. I) / lined (or cased). fi B fern. !)J*?>n. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£). ^ 25. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing. a its demon- strative pron. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a». gen. former. J^&\ pi. c. f^H T _ (= ds J3t). Rem. 5 are vulgar and incorrect. See Gomp. . —The * forms ^j^^Ut. _ coram. the nom. The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable. Rem. Instead of ^JJI. St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt. <j\iMS.*. Aram. UJJt.—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Rem. which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&).U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus. * JR. x i.] or . di. and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur.. ^JJt was originally. ^.

2. 273 . C.§ 349] II. The Noun. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns.

in poetry the elif may be retained. Fleischer.) that the conjunctive is pronouns. ^ JJ*. Heb. of^^a. Comp. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j. etc. Hid ma. U. x Jj. enuntiative (jC±. x ^5. £ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. It has been already stated 346. (better ^o ^)l. (though. U->t £to which. Schr. a^c. marians. <l«U». Kl. in the latter case. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l). Faik. according to the Arab gram.g. 364." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari. whosoever. xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^.*$J) but never conjunctive. 0^> U^'. ^» ^*»-)- In such cases. 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech. the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. Of ^1 and &*.274 Part Second. Gr. for^o^ or lo^ (lit. whatsoever. ^o j-U. with the exception of ^JJt. rem.] . ii. and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. 125]. etc. 0-*i'> \+jS . and with those with which it is not. (§ 351. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. G. ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose.). "is usually shortened. (b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. i. exclamatory. Ji ^). ^. ^U. HJIS^ HIED D Aram. Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. s^ who. which a indeed their original signification. e.. is >ftU». part of the ace.. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather. Rem. it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . Ji^t. This ? also the origin ?). The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. are also interrogative. . D.

Nom. Sing. number. . and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc.l x . x J 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. C. to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». Fern. interrogative pronoun v>o. The Noun.§ 353] II. of gender. and case. to (the is and x so. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. who? has the it distinctions . [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. or 7" have seen some one. 275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x .«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness.

p. rem. When standing alone.*£ ^1. « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t. what or c. ace.6. or £&£>. nom. d. ace. pp. £r.276 Part Second. \J\£> and 351 and Vol.£ . he or I? in Rem. the pausal forms being : — o in § 352. oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. for U^->l. 2). a I ? [The feminine form 86. w ivii- D.i£ in the genitive . G. w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . pronoun. j^Sl second case. s&e. . With 'J Se- 8 g . 120—122. ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii. when prefixed to a fern. as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs. . masc. Rem. gen. ^\^>.. art. and the compound t^j2>. ll* Lo^-jt. is of rare 17) occurrence. it m£ Sing. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases. See CWijo.— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech. /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt).->t " M you. 'place? (see Lane. ^1. which of us? are formed the relative adjective .it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1. it 1. 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . masc. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . e. which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut. or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women. - St Dual masc. {j*£> d). Oi£ fern. nom. may be masc. 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur. and ZA which female? (Dlw. nom. § 34. ^$\ or ^t.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt . the latter being the B more common.£ o£ . 201. Hudeil. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. nom. xjt. ? w>U^ ^cf.] In the fern. 134c). Instead of ^1 with [a following noun . gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen. or] a suffix. Rem. b. n. it . a. • £ the suffixes ^1 . the more general .ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t. OiJc ^t - or ^j\.* .

o * ( UJL^ wherever. The Indefinite Pronouns. reject this theory. [Prym. it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever. § 127. if appended to ^>l. § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. This complement very rarely an adjective or participle. 2. C. ^t. 3. (Vol. § 6). p. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. . ii. as the r\ nouns. and Vol. 360 seq. rem. it is added to C*J.. 9x The U x Gr. 277 [3. 172. ii.g. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx . . ii. Comp. or § is a qualificative clause. added to certain adverbial signification. as or x ^ U something which I have. § 114. The Indefinite Pronouns. e) . and is in that case called U >o (Vol. . Schr. rem. something. p. Diss. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived. ^l£» and . rem. rem. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). but usually a preposition with following genitive. e) U (see an example 361 near the end. de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. 125)*. as J 13 ^y» one who says.. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun.2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U .] U x t as the original. whence the . (Vol. § 7) . infinitive. or in if reference to time . d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. - J s complement (aa-o). 5 Latin termination cunque. 1. Uy* whatever . U ii. rem. rem. whens a • tt a t x ever. . e. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp. pronoun ii. a. A and Ox 353*. J* and JjU (ibid. The Noun. B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here. have passed with the sense of somebody. Vol.>£) it hinders rem. »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol.. 100 and 706 seq. § 88.§ 353*] II./) and § 84. 136 a. Kl. § 36. e). considering i. ". The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. ii. with the same effect to ^>j (Vol.

it]) viz. Conjunctions. affecting their regimen.>*. 8. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. and Inter- D jections. xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. tJjLH*. iU. because the . The prepositions are . 3. § 84.e. rem. . it is also put after w>j (Vol. Prepositions. the particles which govern the genitive.. III. and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U . (§ 3ujb. THE PARTICLES. rtxxOx particles of attraction. so and x JJ«» so. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. £>s> j x and w> without . 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI). b./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». rem. CsA. [or Sl^t. see the Syntax. 4). o. In like manner (Vol.] c/M *> fern.» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. « fem. — qa X a and »*x its fem. their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . A. like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. . are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191. — On the use of these words in the vocative. * ii. attractives.). H ^Jt/*-. rem. vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed./ t and so. rj b). and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». ii. or jt^aJt (from the sing. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. b. ^ particles of annexation or connection. Heb. M.. 0/3. i • In speaking of animals. called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-. [§ 354 A prepositions . a) and in other cases § 90. JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3. tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression. The Prepositions. a5^i (§ 309. jfi M0 the . rem. 3. (Vol. C*a»«£l. i. Adverbs. W X O«0 J J J 355. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " . § 70. Otj." J x ^^. as ^/^ii\ thing. stand for names of persons. pi. xxg There are . pi. ii.278 Part Second. or xx ^ N. /). rem.

in swearing. in swearing. b. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. Aram. The kesra of the prep. rem. of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb. rem. U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358). b. J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. as J to (sign of Ice). its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel.^yj. i. him. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. into kesra. and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308. sing. O*^ rem. The Prepositions. d. and 317. See § 185. i **" (d) ^ by. 7. Aram. with. ^b. ii. at. JEth. The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels. i. by God ! 3d pers. those which are always united in writing with the 356. Except the the 1st pers. -33th.e. for.e. by God !* (c) the Dative). its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions.] <uitf (b) O by. the abbreviation Vol. G. is a ii. as (= b. on account of (Heb. 0^5 ?) and ii. those which are written as separate words. is (i). compound Comp. The Particles. or the onlyj^yj or^. near. OW- Comp. ba). without. as du. A: * . [^b. footnote). which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. It seems to be the remnant some word. Q Rem.] .§ 356] III. following noun.^S3 to you. Vol. by. Rem.. c. A. § 235) to be also remnants of words. ^) to us. D. through (Heb. 3. § 62. rem. (a) They — B ^* in. § 56. as <J to suffix of sition . as aDI^ a. is changed § after ^ c. and inseparable. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt. ft: of w> with the negative ^). The damma tjJb.

. after. *7B. notwith- standing (Heb. *>«. 358. •T'jD. Karer . is really not so. -*?«). It is a formally undeveloped noun. which becomes in the wasl **. as g^o. "KflYl:). The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. against. ij? in. upon. "79. CM-*. first class. among. dialectic variety is ^^.— Etymology Rem. which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. 12). or the Parts of Speech. Those of the all biliteral or triliteral. above. since (compounded of i>* v. or Jco. ^JJ. *>. dialectically *-«. j j Ju*. as far as (Heb. ^Ol) . like (Heb. D#. (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb. d. instar). to. 357. (d) (e) sjefrom. and they tions . (/) 0^> or lS^ (W). Aram. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. for. 3). apud). iEth. about. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—). into. rem. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So. O** (&*). c. iEth. which js commonly reckoned a preposition. Aram. away from. determined by the following genitive. Itf. as. with (penes. Jp. and ji. °^ account of (Heb. e Ezra and comp. *>> ^. ^^al till. O^X (lM*)> Syr. have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus. [§ 357 " i). but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. see 347. (c) ^* over.280 Part Second. /row a § certain time. (b) up to. ^1). on account of. sing. Aram.

the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. i*5 ^. .j-o between.o. dimin. . s ^^. rem.>o^ or ^ ^. for . *b etc. *UJ> or dU»J. beneath. according to § 185. J J The Prepositions.. beneath (fiTTl !). ^Jt. *!**». J The Particles. J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). ^s.. for JUJt ±y> . ^y c. the modern and vulgar form. * b /» into J^*. Caj *UJJ. Rem. ^_ (orig. b. a. original a. for . U-«. Jt . and *x*. L©. See 317. *Lu. JJj^3 . and ^jJ.. c. into Jft £ as JUX*.] 359. passes after the diphthong into kesra. . the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry. 36 w. p. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . ). which is under. and ^jjJ. behind. dimin. in possession of (apud. ^JS. <uXft. The ^) of ^fc. c\+Xz for and Jl ^s. o.. . assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. D orw . d).j*o being contracted b . (see § 14. Rem. sing. and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. b). •* instead of. UJt L5^. opposite J>». Rem. combines with into ^t. When 6>o followed by the article. . The damma of the suffixes of the pers. penes. tj-j jJ. The suffix of the 1st pers. chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. before (of place) . ^— . Fr. "It. against. and ^jJ § into J^JJ. or JU J-«. jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l). * . J.§ 359] III. O-ij* jUc (also jUft. dimin. JJy afow?. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. ^c.round.]. OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U.. after ^> below. note. [li. rem. with the suffixes of the 1st pers. ^jjj with ^5 B ^y. rem. rarely jus) with. is doubled in connection etc. under. J A. among 5 (J*3) . to. . JU. [Comp. ^jic. and § 317. In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20.<U. on this side of dimin. ^Js. rarely J^ or a^. about. 24. C^ J > .

The first class consists . the third class of nouns 361. partly inseparable. The form occurs IJJb. beyond. Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». the construct 06 * such as . surely. for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362. D*7p) . The Adverbs. ^JJI for ^JJt tjt.j-o interval. / wi7£ certainly do ». etc. God will suffice t/iee against them. end). inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative. . dj3 behind. t \2*Q£&. partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity. (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». [§ 360 A dimin.circumference. v #0 la that corresponds to. as aDt ^JUlSL*. &*|D. ix^j in the middle. jl*£ . the particle of amplification]. is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t.j£. as C-Jttt. *£ii5t. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra. an t is inserted between the two hemzas. These are 0* all. may be (a) w>t^^O) oath. £ The t. This (c) J. affirmative. but some do not do it is this. accusatives of nouns . B. as cr»> tj^t. There are three sorts of adverbs. converted into ^£ with hemza. jJU aOt^ by God.>»tjJ> before (of place. C dialectically. or is the complement (it) . When t is followed by another elif with hemza. the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. after. 360. as ^-JUt. [comp. ^J/*-. h). § 21. of. an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW. of B particles of various origin. as before said. in the JO * end (Heb. certainly. Aram. d].282 Part Second. among. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.] [Rem. also written C-Jtt. J>». . ^lyAlw^t |"l) .

. . I will certainly show you 2*s honour . J The Adverbs. as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. 0-^^*. ii. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. . as juj U. I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out .§ 362] III. (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. behold. j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy . as iail». 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\]. lyJx. J ..j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy. following. or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/. 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian. away. (/ will). affirmative la.1 yes. as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-. J^. which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1.j-° AiAa^Jt ~ .j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God. (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to. w-Jbju <*i>w . xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up.. ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact. [in xx x order to £ J # . ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect. confirming a previous statement. as x£ thee. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes. to use J**. Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la. B.jt). . (he has) X » X X ft .o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing.] 362. ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies. Vol. The Particles. he saw 'Amr.'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not). if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. (he did not) . verily ye would have followed Satan. better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . certainly. standing for ^jl (aLa3I . But in reply to an interrogation.t xx ft ^s. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp. o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i. OOxxOx while.

writy. Schr. wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case. § 158 and Fleischer. if it be so. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c.] certainly. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb. and Zeid was at w<? the door . as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out.. A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$. Kl. . as the preceding statement lo. D In later times corroborative.. See § 367. U*U *. and refers to the same time .] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. utrum . ii. U*.^a. N/H)surely. J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech. 5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361.or ^**~...-»]). called by the grammarians 3l». x i x lo. . Dtf . b.. truly. surely. 0<#0 (Heb. It is joined to the accus. [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity. Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft. I (Heb. x x jo* prosperity has come round. followed only by a nominal proposition. of a following noun or .U*Jt 13 1. ^tftt - XX and l^». of &. XX [oi ^ &*«%.^. usually without government. [(f) i. H). or 4*5U*a)I is 13].] XX are^et.284 Part Second. then at least. interrogative.] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then... t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us. «). t3t. Vol. (w) oj JH Hiin Syr. _.] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp. U^.lb j>i juj lo.] ^ an? j>\ j*\. in that case. literally /o/ *«e/ #w. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not... called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place.

I^jI]. wherever. ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. restrictive. 0311). the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place).jl introduces the subject. 8). however. [verily]. and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. The Particles. — . inceptive or inchoative la 36#. B. verily God great. as aOIj is ^t yes. The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (. (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. sing.] (u) j^jXj yes. [and in the 1st pers. 7ltf Phcen. <£M ^1. always followed by an oath. 73). — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. explicative. used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . but in the 1st pers. but (Heb. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1. it**). J^> way not it is so. pi. only (dumtaxat). it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. as j~£i dttl ^jt. that is. is 285 pronominal suffix. whenever a conjunction. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. |$t in if) {$&. Compounded of \j\ and U.] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb.jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact). It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. frequently used by commentators. The Adverbs. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur. on the contrary. ^t yes. [When followed by a single word a conjunction. rather.] C (p) (q) i^t. O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. yea.§ 362] III. it is 72. ^<^y> JX. by God ! aDI I.

iai. . he is C really come. (w) JJi [or a^f]. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. whilst (connected with the prep. as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. S. that something expected has been realised. iai Ja did you ever him?]f.oi. jS. R. tive sentence iai <&\j iai. with the Perfect. for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. or the Parts of Speech. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*]. [or in j .. and a negative. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever . or in opposition to.] vulgar use . an interroga- jsi djt c j^. merely (lit.. 286 Part Second. as \^i\3 j£j. (y) Jaii 0#/y. {Thou art) . is OU jJte ta.^. / was hoping that he would come. ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity. y^s.A. It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event.—Etymology . * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. Delectus. really (jam). # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. and well. D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr. now. Kl. and with the Future. o x as iai <xZAj U. o** between. may be used 2 . Schr. iai.j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. awe? enough). already. 1. 98. J&L).^=> 1©JL. among). iai. [but also frequency. 4. 32. Rarer forms are and in pause iai. o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o .l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. da. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up. or in affirming a negative proposition. see Noldeke. . (he did). see Fleischer. in pause j-j*. perhaps. solely. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * . i. ^Aj yes. certain symptoms or circumstances . or iai te I have never seen him see . «$. there (Heb. Yes. 434 seq. that something has happened in agreement as with.. Ljo [and U~^] while.

it is [When . [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344. but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect. and more rarely ^*3.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju. X7 is and ^X. (gg) O not J>J. j^u and yes. rem. B. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne). U^J. X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me . not. as joj jb\»\ has i . q. . j (and). to.] . (II) ^JU when? Heb. not It thus . ii. rem. VlD. are used as well as ^^^i. yet. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. d) and all. [It is also used as a conjunction. rem. by no means.§ 362] III. *$. j>\*±. not. <jt *^ (i. (/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive. o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative. negative of the Perfect. joined to the Subjunctive.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at .' Zeid stood not). C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed. likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340.] U. a conjunction. (he has forms are^xi. of % and & (Vol. (he has) . iuj^> (§ 343.>£) is followed by a single word. [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn. negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. § 367.e. up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up. by no means.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. joined to the Jussive. used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. ^yA U# f I yet. combines the Aram. § 169). not. b). (mm) j^o it is agreeable). The Particles. but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers. The Adverbs. d).

J La. u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. . with a negative.^^J.g. D after an adjective \*-f**r- together. \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. j->£. of it are the following . demonstrative. t jta. prepositions 359). c-sa*J. La). referring to future time. within. usually with a negative decidedly] . nothing only this .288 Part Second. placed . La. 41. *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech. S. a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . Js> . by day. J>i. . as u*^ else. (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^. ilJt decidedly. B 363. §§ I)La.>* above*. J-i. * [On the various forms p. &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it. whence are derived LaIa or LyA. : A few of the most common examples Ij^l.b inside.>*. ju^]. and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). ^ri/. La (also La and . and ^)UyA. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. ever. The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic. *^J £^ night. Ja. but always preceded by a negative. cM v>*> before. jju . \jt^ much. 364. only . / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. *il±. j*j mostly in negative phrases. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative. whence are derived L^a.] . ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs. without. also v is **»>a»-*]. E. ' * [w~»•> enough. Csa»J . w^o. there (compare Heb. ^-jX3 ?&£&. of two or more W-jU- outside. Jy 0-*> above. extremely. in which case J they take the termination u. for^. afterwards. beneath. UaIa or LyA. Imperf Indie. can in general be used as adverbs. ^r^ wwcA. in j*£ j a or j**. never little [Uut ^W^ wow. joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). and are indeclinable. y>« whence. demonstrative. %£**»• where.j*&.

j>yA\ today (JEth.] decided (comp. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — . B (d) (e) woj. § 361. JUft) : . . U-J-* and. with the omission of the negative. lit. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. 5 j the c]. The Adverbs. once. [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j).] t {j*j*?. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except. above especially. verily. b) lit. i. uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. [comp. 37 .]t it. Fleischer. it is seems to be compounded Kl.^ . at present . seq. lit. G. A \js> tomorrow. ^ 449 (also jbjx». D. yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour .] O**. «* together. § 84.. The Particles.. xa m f& end. (lit. . 13 ^). * 'n). 381. footnote. quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb.j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j. and therefore also construed with . ii. 289 U^j one yom). day.. »J>w. Schr. tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see . truly. as J^j A^ afott*?. U^»j. B. particularly . used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes. sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C .. xO X whilst. Schr. ^*j)t wow. Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^). ^a jufc.. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. Vol.w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often. rem.. xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . p-<7°: etc.) w. y\) . It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit. lit. 13 *^ j**.§ 364] III. X Ut U-j~>. during.&ry a/o^. perhaps. a£ the time of—). xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i. but. Kl. * £ (/) all. (c) but more usually] sometimes .

Ci Ox Rem. ' genitive. be. O-*. as &» . J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations.. are [§ 365 A sundry parties. G.»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. D. The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>». fl): JO x w. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t. as b. perhaps. The Conjunctions. viz. ^fc. ^JUU). . etc. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. ending in fetha. Heb. since yesterday. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy. utinam. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. 366. however.. acx xOx 365. Heb. etc. x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). straitness.- . which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative. they " " * " and become indeclinable. The word has several rarer forms. Aram.yJUJ). a.) are. etc. either separable or inseparable.. not nouns in the accusative. x and 6 (iEth. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ). JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-). .] Rem.3x3x3^3 ^&. In u~*\. ^J. would that ^J* or J^x).. or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive. fc^ftX. D like the prepositions and adverbs.. but merely a light vowel. which sometimes unites single words. but verbs. JjO governs the ^j\. and take pronominal suffixes. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . seem to X Ox / and C*J. particle of classification gradation). — Dialectically. Quoad connective particles. They are construed with the accusative. vcuj t^u».290 Part Second. !)). X yesterday. or more exactly or v~?p ^b^. x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^. indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are .

thee. a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. [Sometimes in old poetry. (a) }] The most common when. or the reason why. 1. *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis. and consequently. %36s ^j \y^c^^. to give an imperative sense. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when. link. is A showing either that the latter in time. separable conjunctions are : — since. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. G. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed. 10. in order that. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. for. [Compound U $t whenever. used J^f^ to indicate the done . This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356. sing. and very often in later prose.§ 367] III. 852. Hamdsa 74. the kesr is usually dropped. When preceded by ^ or 3 o. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. C. so that. may be rendered and and is thereupon. 9. The Conjunctions. purpose for which. like the German so.g. Tabarl i. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle .] . or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. 291 closely behind one another. D. but more usually connects two clauses. that God may forgive c). of the Jussive. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition.] * 1. e. such as that of cause and effect. In conditional sentences. The Particles. as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. signifying that. of past time. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. thus ^jl means nonne 6$. [Rem.

jt ne). so that.1 JEth. hence called duLoj)\ if indeed.: now... as for. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. That is Paradise . < jtf . >*o*J : 'ema. even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative. <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her. o . compounded with . Bibl. time. the genitive of s which occurs. when? [Compound Utjt whenever. see non). quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14. Used twice or oftener. as if.. compounded of ol an d . (exceptive particle). conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f . DN-— ^'. 8c. *$> ( a ) if not. £>*$ that. comp. o>».jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f.] (df) Ul. tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). b) . for example. . and *TX . because.) * to if. oq^H. unless. . of jt in alternative questions. [§ 367 A (b) dition.. j£*& on that day. if> an(i if.— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. in when.g. as syn. sometimes written jjtj or 3 . Compounds g. in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. in order that (ut).. -33th. ne. * O i : O^ as & *$\ were. of . lo-. J (§ o% a verily Aram. it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix.292 Part Second. o' is that.lv — also occurs. c). that (quod). lit (§ Both of these conjunctions. Aram. usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition. dialectically .. as UJ^i. JHK. are connected with $t. Further: that not (ut non. A dialectic C variety <>s. as well as the obsolete noun » 362. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an). * i ^jtj.jt 9 . at that time. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea. d). followed by o. Compare Heb.t e. in order that. Ttf in Ju l**. as regards . £>* H. as for the ship. (f) * q\ [and Ut. in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^». and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr..] B [(c) j*\ or. it Heb. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361.

position. 6). to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara. but in the 1st pers.. m. ^UJt : See § e. $1 . %+£* in order that not. § 358. or or fact). but*. tfW. IX. thereupon. and . ^th.{ o|. only. . It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel. (§ c-s^i).] w t . Heb. rarely Ujt [or M]. or . (k) ^5^ * *o till.. next .g. Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\. ?\A= (alia) but. the pronoun of the story it s>t . Ut . £^m. ^t. connecting words and clauses. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that.. identical with the preii.. Ut. The Particles. with a preceding negative. . until. Syr. rem.—&\.§ 367] III. 362.. compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U .0. — Compounds Heb. ». c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a.. [On its sense of even. j-tr^. y .. see Vol. e.] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that. except. until that.] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362. c*«j (C««J. . ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special. w). K?~DK.. but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval. The Conjunctions. 293 saving. so that.. as if.. 0*S. a t^?^. I# ' § 52. v^jj at 366. because.. or O' ^^ (quod). (i) ^j. C. e. A Aram.. sive). with the Subjunctive. * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D. . Utj . U3t. b. O^* as ** were. j<£. of UJ).

. or b. or hip at. 0/ . 368. UtJ. and U* W* make haste.jj£> \*3*> if not. <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ . ojt. &\. //) w^ew. as long as. sounds or in use are : Some . with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al. or TiarX ^Uy^. . * it ' ZZ * — . G. tones. Jv*»» or Jv*»».Ujt (•Ujl) jl. [olylfc far ^. (tjl.* ^j\. . with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362. ma denoting duration). i . I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. as OkoJt !i^*** w ww .it' rr?n].] ji. jl (dU).j|). sense of pj-*\ make haste. *^***- C^Ly**. from it!]. U (ic^jjJt U. tj. tI u* como/ w . or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere.1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl). Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt). [UJ also syn.-*.] with the Perfect.— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech. 0I3I (otjl). or accus. is (quoniam). 0' * —Compounds: ^£. .P ! wp) <oj. o\j. at. [3J3 even though]. [as. ! «J «-iO. t. o\. *}U. . Ut^. l^j. wlien (postquam). (o) < * D. Ua. D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. up ! come ! [Heb. since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after. The Interjections. and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . (p) Perfect. especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. 6nw# Aere (Heb. (D. bl (La). Aram. ^1. followed by jic.] D. 1^1. with y\ unless. oi . lyjt C without the article.* . oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U. HX/H.294 Part Second. wAewever. OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram. iEth. if (Heb. ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot. Utj. I0 / b before nouns in the nomin.~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses . at. hypothetical particle. o *&. jt. !p). or j>jH\ keep to.

^-a -*jb. noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^. ^Us cries . wit. D. — Here in in '. as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. *-j. (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem. form often used even with feminine nouns. wit. Jjlb (a blow). JU» frog). O^*. o/* a. the t^. Sit. v>*-> . falling stone). 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. etc. in pause dt_ tj J) takes. Rem. the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] .. ' ° " kneel. driving horses. mules. ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : .§ 368] III. The Particles. . cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). instead of the usual terminations.g. w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking). or otjuj tlie tj. wit. *fij capital! f-\. ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . s^ (the stroke of a sword). f-J. in driving a dog away. as tjuj 1^. 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. in calling a dog. s\*> making camels B . f-\ ot. ^js- . l->jk . camels. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. ^a. ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*. . wit. but the masc." juA or juA. g U (the bleat of an antelope). etc. b i\ is often written defectively Wl . ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). also be used. (a) calls to domestic animals e. Instead of 1— grief! ^_. b. JjU (the croak of a raven). too may be mentioned *^U . wit. in calling camels to water. . . " * uil A f * £ mi ol . *->. ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©.1). in driving sheep or goats. go on proceed ! say on . ^»J . il ml uti dl 3* 131. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. *~} 4-J. The Interjections. ?u>t or «»~Jb.g.

as l^U pi. dUk. book. Rem. hirjith). verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. du.g. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. rem. — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . Vol. ^U. ^©jU. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj). person. hirjats. Jjj aJ Jj^JI.. in some cases. JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. 8. ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. fern. Gb. sing. Jt£»t ^). usually written thus in one word. or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. : <uU& take. d. >&&£3. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc . take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. etc. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj. or JLa. x m. ii. £)$\*'. plur. and. and is said to form a dual and plur. that they are either originally Imperatives. tjl^St x m. a certain is. Rem. Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. pi. as OU give here (§ 45. *U. $U dual U5U. hiri. f. x f. [Many and are interjections have. * J * e. say. masc. admitting its construction and inflection. rem. t^JLA. ^jkj. g. dual UJUb. J * J ' j-JUb. fern. § 35. read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f. called therefore by origin or use. b). pers. jujJ 9-Z3. a) ^j.296 Part Second. for example. b.. d). aJ J*)j.

PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w. 38 .

cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect. OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE. c. $3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. f. /JO/ Sing. m. Plur. Sub}. cJjtf f. Indie. JlS JJ B 2. JJO/ I. c. c4^ ^JU3 2. CJJ> / Dual. c. o^ S JO// 5 i. 3. m. ul3 Sing. m.joi 1. 3. f. J31S IJblS . m. 3. m. f. f. IjJUS f. J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* .

and the N. s . Sing. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. Imperf. J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. c. D m.299 OF THE STRONG VERB. ^c^US f. m. m. Pat. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual. ^>Uii Ox J x Norn. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. o f. JlS x . Perf.. Act. UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f. and Imper. m. Impf. J XX Smg. II. m. Sing. J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. c. Imperfect. cJj. t^JUS x f. x j II. m. u~^- ^ x (2. 'fcs xxOx f. c. x J Energ.* 9 f. 3.> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2. xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2. J . m. CUfe^) . i x x I. m. m. Indie. PASSIVE.. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1. Subj. 3. 3. TABLE Perfect.. 3. Verbi. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur. a ) Jussive.

Jl3 . in. DERIVED FORMS VI.300 TABLE ir. III. Active Perf. IV.

A IX.301 OF THE STRONG VERB. VII. .

n. f. m. Imperfect. iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. C. Simple. . lb*** D iV. m.»x 1. © j* 5 jx Sing. O****' O^^* . FIRST FORM OF THE Active. 2. ft *M f. En. J OJ Imperative. COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. I. S 1 s x ft . Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. En. Siihj. m. 2. F<?r^. n. ^. 2.» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . 1 x iV. 3.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . ft Ml J X 2. c. Co*** • * * f.a. 3. Perfect.302 TABLE V. c. Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. Jussive. ft Ml ->X C Plur. f. o j o* Energ. 3. ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing. jU 0*3 Sing. c. X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1. f. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2. m. i j. m. Energ. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. m. Wo*** i j. s> s> I. m. m. Indie.

J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. m. GEMINATJE. Juo. Passive. C. c. 2 II. >i.J x x 2. Jussive. f. i j 3.^jjuo * f. 3. Imperf. o f. m. Indie Sing. or J* .j Hi S/J o 2. Imperf. f. m. x j m. 3. 1) Other forms of the Perf. Perfect.303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. Jj. 5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a .. Act. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2. \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4. 4" J x Sing. ((2. c. Imperfect. Iojl* V J » X f. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2. Imperat. Jussive. Jussive.>£>. J^». or J*** JA*!. J o 2 xj 2.m. >>Xo-«. Subj. . tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1. 3. S// or >i j jj3». a x . O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. a j Perf Sing. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1. I..m.Efo. O^juo ' f. #n. m. (/ tc <i // / cM^j. m. or and Imperat. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i.

Pat. e. .x D The remaining forms present no Perf. III. Act.304 A TABLE Y.b. Act. JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. Ag. Verbi. Pass.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x. Imperf. VI. IV. GEMINATJE.g. II. x. Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N. >. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf. Pass. VII. or j »U >U . VIII. jjuo x at J >•** V. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat. irregularity . £ xx o Active Perf. ij£ . S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf.»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx.

s VI. VERBUM PRIMJE RAD.51 ^0 Al . "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>. HEMZAT^l. II.305 TABLE VI. or B A N. Imperf. . »* - •>.. IV. i. V.. j~ot y^t jJI A j. jJU *| *. Active Perf.Ag.*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At . III.

- x£ ©C Active Perf. V. JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. VI. Pat. JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . J^-i . Pat. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. IV. N. ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf. Passive Perf. Passive Perf. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. 1 III. x w x . x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf. x£ VIII. c o x Imperf. it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. J5L. II. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. HEMZATiE. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. J>?&k N. J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf. Ag. ^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . Verbi.306 TABLE VII. x j . * >* J>%* VII. j&U li spte* N. Ag. Verbi.

in.307 TABLE VIII. HEMZAT^l. 3 . Active Perf. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD.

Pat.jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N. i. 3 ET ^. v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » . {fa JO O x JG x J x N. j^j js>^j *» •^jy. w*». jay js> Imperat. Ag. VERBA PRIM^ RAD. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. Pat. oi IV. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . w^>« j~>5* .0 Ox J N. wA^ *-**. xx o* t xOx Active Perf.. js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf. VIII. 5 « x B N. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf.$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf.»»<Mii>w ^ D N. Verbi. Active Perf. ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf. Verbi.308 TABLE IX. Passive Perf. JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/.

VERBUM MEDICI RAD. . Perfect.309 TABLE X. > Active Voice of the First Form.

tjL> f. Perfect. m f. Sing. Dual. Active Voice of the First Form. x ft ft 1. c. c. C Plur. 3.310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. 3. UjL/ U3j~> 2. IjjC D . ^. m. m. 3. m. jL» f. B 2.

cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2. Sing. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f. Pat. cis CJLd m. &6 U3 © x x ©xj .» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f./j 1. m. m. /J J X J Plur. U& x x Ml J. Energ. m. ^Uu J13I jud . 3. C. Perfect. 9 x SJyU 9 x x . i. Indie. j>&«.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x .m.** ^la om .311 TABLE XII. n. JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f. VERBA MEDLffi! RAD.i » . Dual. ^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2. JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom. o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1. c.>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f.. Energ. Jussive. ^3 /j . m. I^Ls f. Sing. Imperfect. 3. 3. Subj. 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. %3 UL3 f. 2. c.

VIII. cJLSt B Imperf. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. m. J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. s. The Derived Forms. Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / . VII. J^j*3 Passive Perf. J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. N. JUL* J^» JU-u III. VI. Verbi. %yJS Imperf. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. jb>wt XI. Perf. J^J J12U v. Verbi. 3V3—»l jtj>. J N. 3. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. Active Perf. ->* N. Verbi. >jm^ jf>~i N. s. IV. 3 ET & x. m. Pat. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. N.J>£~>l . JUU II. Kg. Active Perf.312 TABLE XIII.

. Perfect.313 TABLE XIV. y MEDICI RAD. VERBUM TERTLE RAD. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form.

FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. Perfect. ^. VERBUM TERTIxE RAD. MEDI2E RAD.314 A TABLE XV. .

O^s-f. n. 3. t> /(/ Sing. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. m. f. Imperfect. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. f. F«r6*. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. Indie. L5*^ iV. f. U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. x x Jussive. 3. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . c. 3. f. . m. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. En. C. En. Sub}. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . I. KESRAT^l. Active Voice of the First Form. m. x f. m. Ox x xOx 1.315 TABLE XVI. c. u^tj 0x0 . m. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. m.

3 ET ^.316 TABLE XVII. Passive Voice of the First Form. Pe . VERBA TERTI^l RAD.

c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. Act.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. X. m. x o£ V. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. Verbi. Pass. ^AA4 9x . Act. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf. . VIII. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII. f. VI. f. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N. Imperf. VERBA TERTIJE RAD.317 TABLE XVIII. IV. Act. Ag. 3 ET ^. 5xx xxx Active Perf. Pat. The Derived Forms. m. ii. Pass. III. L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat.

Camforfoge : PRINTED BY J. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. . CLAY. AND C. F.

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