1896 . WEIGHT. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W. f?K£. THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W.. ? /V DATE.. ROBERTSON SMITH. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN. 6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M. LL. VOLUME ? I.\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE.. J. de GOEJE.D.

AND C. F. .l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J. CLAY.(o2)05 v. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Prof. Bevan. to continue the revision. to take all initials. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. Wright had noted here and there . influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. Miiller. are given corrections in square brackets.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. Moreover Prof. Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. resolved to undertake this task. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine. He began it with his usual ardour. through Prof. but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. After earnest deliberation I consented. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. whilst the had extended over 30 pages more. which he had marked with my initials. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself. Robertson Smith. Fleischer and other scholars. have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author. W.

without .VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. February. on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. initials. Leyden. published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890). M. has noted on the margin wants revision. Bevan. But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. § 353). Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252. de GOEJE. J. I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous. unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. "A . who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. who drew my attention to several omissions. 1896." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself.

Beirut. Beirut. with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed.. 1854). Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. which last. as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. 1831-33). the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. (w>LLaJt J-oi. 1867). 2de eU. and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866). ( Broch. new work alteration. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe. I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. founded upon the above. i. 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. the Mufassal (jJa4. second 'l-Hitab edition. A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is. entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse. Dieterici.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. 1813). the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. second edition. Volck. with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. both ancient and modern.1CL). 1831). In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. 1859) .p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. vol. with the 1866). f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . but to subject In fact. and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. . 'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. and the Beirut edition of 1872). . 1851.

— preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian. I have not found much to alter. In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. —have. I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions. the Assyrian*. 1869). but especially the former.Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. I believe. grammar beginners. and therefore but ill-adapted. may bear the greatest reIn . semblance to this parent speech but. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. nearly everything that detail. the south Semitic dialects. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. on the whole. * As of Oppert. and original Semitic language. for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however. Spanish. in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. . 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. tongues. Portuguese. My the same as it formerly was.und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic. standpoint remains. except in matters of I have read. Sayce. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew). regards Assyrian. Philippi. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. seem I still think. apart from its bulk and rarity. is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). Assyrian. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. however.

I trust. look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . fellow. and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely. the Government of Bombay. Cambridge. twenty. W. under a fresh obligation. \ . he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office. (Fort William). Murray (of Adelaide. ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. Germany. . and I hope I may say other Orientalists. extending over a period of more than twenty years. Home Department . the Govern. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. and the . twenty-five and of the Punjab. sixty copies. from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. ment of Bengal.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. in which. and thereby laid me. WRIGHT. S. Australia). ten of Madras. whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. 1st July. amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. 1874.

They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof. de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements. Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar. which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition.The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F. l\ .

. VI. PART FIRST. Verb 29 A. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. GENERAL VIEW. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 . 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D. II. C. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. 19 24 26 27 IV... 1.CONTENTS... V. The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND. E.. PAGE I. B. III. I. The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A. Medda or Matta . THE VERB..

Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. Thirteenth. 1. 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A.. 53 .Xll CONTENTS. THE WEAK VERB. 3. The 1. expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b. C... Fourteenth.*. 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C. 2. THE STRONG VERB.. of the First . expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth. Weak Verbs. Persons. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns. 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3.. Form The Active Voice a. and Genders 52 B.. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form . Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 . Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / . Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B.. 2. and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers...

Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II.. THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. (y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I. 97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes. . expressive of Surprise or Wonder ..100 II.148 149 .Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality . which express the Accusative . .159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2. . . 156 III. and Blame III. THE NOUN. (e) . I. The Denominative Nouns. Appendix A. The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus . their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a.CONTENTS. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J . The Forms B. . 1. Adjective. 147 . and A. . The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3. . or Relative Adjectives . 149 151 II. 106 The Deverbal Nouns.. . (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . (a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b. .

THE NUMERALS.. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C. .xiv CONTENTS. 1. 253 260 262 2. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2. PAGE 4. The Declension I. . The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix. of Nouns . III. The Pronominal Suffixes. 3. Article 1. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS. 280 THE ADVERBS.291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C. 252 B. which denote the Genitive . 279 A.. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II. 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D. 3. THE PARTICLES.. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns . THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA... Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The . THE PREPOSITIONS.

— Orthography and Orthoepy.Part First. 8i .

like left. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order. a word. Hebrew and letters 1. Syriac. as vowels (see § 3). . and are all consonants. terminate in a bold stroke. Arabic. I. aJl^J! o^aJt. along with their names and numerical values. THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS. is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. for the most part. B NAME. though three of them are also used They vary in form. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter.PAKT FIRST. and.

as in this book. ut. as is A . thus s a f but 9 k below.§ 1] I. 3. end of a word these points are usually omitted. The Letters as Consonants. In some old Mss. The Arabs sequence . generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. not only in Europe but in the East. r+-.. [These ligatures. and inserted before a. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. or in the more elegant Eastern founts. <^. or. k has the point below. At the Rem. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts. But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. J. on the other hand. &* *!* sh. and is V. especially when. %. in the earliest times. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. of which the following are examples. a. § 15). #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh.] * This is not confined. £ £ ^. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz. § 3. fy. b. to African Mss. are very inconvenient to printers. The latter method a recent innovation. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. J A This combination ^. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon. hh. *>). English and Arabic are intermingled. The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. i. : ^ t single point k*. in which one letter stands above another. or even . it is Rem. c. I. from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. I Rem. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. The object of elif a. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. 3. ir l * gh. and form ligatures.

the sibilants. h pointed. ^. To the former class belong ». plur. 5. x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. letters. O. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) . etc. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). dL Those letters which are identical in form. The letters are also divided into the following classes. which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds. and the like. by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. ^ has only one point above. the M 3 J 0* gingivals. rem. 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o. J. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. below. a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. unpointed. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. JeJu). letters. iUU^Jt iUM. j. e.>)*. placing a point below.e. i. I ^ and c j to the latter £-. k %. which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). ^ 3 sua ^ i h. J^j.. tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt.4 a Part First. in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). — Orthography and Orthoepy.e. the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip). and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI. cit. are divided the loose or free. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. from 5. i. and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . j. the use of the two points below is optional. Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 . such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. especially those issued at Bairut. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances. and then ^ takes Rem. (. j^. [§ 1 Rem.] . prints. or an angular mark above. so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. c^U!»ug. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>.

The following hints however. <f. homme or English hour. I >^ c c *.)t »J>jj3»Jt.or d-iJJt »J^aJI. it In Egypt and some parts of U. the liquids ^ J ^. less often with ^*. softer than our like the t. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. like »-.. t. stronger than d.. > is the Italian dental. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire. the letters. but not rough Europeans. rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l). 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). as well as Turks and Persians. or Arabia. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH). x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play. O £> is is the Italian dental. has the sound of the Heb. see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. same relation to > that <1> does to O. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem. utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^.§ 2] J ul ui I. The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m. the Heb. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. or the German Roche.] Greek 0.has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI. The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s. s 3 J 0* J J f. except by long intercourse with natives. the gutturals. or th in thing. It is sounded . it is some of these letters. ^e weak 2. as in sing. is our g in get. The Letters as Consonants. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». 0. softer 5 bears the than our d. soft letters. It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. ». [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. the letters O > b. PI. however. I C with hemza (t. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds.)\). will. 9-.

the Heb. Hamdanled. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z. It is described as . z. and the French r grasseye. J^. and often in Mss. the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. — De G.] . is a guttural g. into or th in that. strictly speaking. p. the Heb. ft. — Orthography it and Orthoepy. as in run. is* is the surd s in sit. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. To distinguish it from do to O and z. is a strongly articulated palatal t. it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a. the Heb. s. as a mere vowel-letter. produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath.. unpronounceable) guttural. bears. The y of the r. shin shut. J. with. which we have no example in English. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©. AJaJI. in any of the Semitic languages. mist. are of Arabia. is a strongly articulated guttural k. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa. without aspiration. JJ. V. it*. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound. [In Egypt an emphatic d.]. the Heb. or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng. is an aspirated 6#. as in gargling. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this). j the English z. of modern Greeks. v°. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&.6 Part First. for bX^xA.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. It is wrong to treat it.] y. the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/. strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss. 17 etc.

/. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels. 4] II. which the old pausal - (ah). o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**). m as w^». as 'ultu. la. *+* 'bmrun. and § 15) for a. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. and tj. the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v. o 1. (a) L feth (~$) . 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. E. i (a dull. see § •>) 1. ya'ulu.g. e (as in pet). e (nearly the French (b) e muet).§§ 3. & J. j9tj=& i (as kerlmun. 1x5 1 ^Bftw. : use of the three t (without hdmza. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai. 'anbar. The Turks and Persians > II. t)*. In the is grammatical termination nounced like O.gemb.. ^r* hum. iUw sembd'u. w and #. 4. e. When immediately . e. or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . ^ ^ for t and ai. (Heb. * In point of fact.1 —). originally 3. shibau. ji lau. <d Ww. A j followed by the letter w>. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. yakulu. for kultu. not g&nb. the German o in Mortel. g. e. 0. in last the d is silent. * is our h. n. jf H -> H 7). j~& 'ambar. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. £ du. of a syllable . without any vowel coming between them. halaka. this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb. rem. The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels. I.g.g. a. . The Vowels and Diphthongs. and the modern . are exactly our k. w (as in Zw/Q. m. a. or the (c) in bird) . ^-^ shmsun.g. obscure resembling the Welsh y. (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin).Bsr or fetha (lm*&).>». as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning. ww. au. e. (JX&. <v fo*Ai.

*\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a.] . o. j*±.c © . a. one below for As rekesra. owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . damm. Lin for other positions. or on the line. a motion. e. is that the former denote the sounds a. O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &. Rem. into e. form or figure. kesr..g. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels. Compare the Hebrew MH^. or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. JULwt or J|y£w. a. . x x x . The distinction between the names feth. the latter the marks L.]' are sometimes applied to L. w**J la'bun. the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. B mark t Ox plur.8 Part First. 6. S ywftU ajj^jaJI. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified. 1. The following rules may. — its De Rem. The terms ^^u and *3j. and ^£ or a. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. ^3. damma. are probably derived from 5. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw. commonly used of the casee. — . xx e. ktmrun. and one in the middle. In the oldest Mss. kesr a. c. of the Kor'an. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. xO p plur. uttered. u. through for the various 1. u. for damma. jj*o sadrun. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). A vowel 5 is called dib^a. be given for the guidance of the learner*. is x ^sb * bakiya. however. u.g. X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. _. will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. [§ 5 A Rem. Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. gards the signs L. one above for fetha.— Orthography and Orthoepy. i. and fetha. i. though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure. or 0.

$$** sukun.j**fi> 'o'mrun. e. • # 9 x «. C~l£> katabta. IJJb. cap. e. after the the vowel-points. at a later period. to be carefully distinguished 2 ." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u. the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case. of the short vowels before the letters ^j. 0^**> nearly torun. U^A. olUI. O**-' seniinun. e. ^ao. iUi. s J .g. ^-£3 Bsrun. ^>j*jJI. *aj bVa.g. garratun. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. Zjj* marratun.g. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u. i. 3»o i. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim.g. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with. SjU garatun. w*fc> ro bun. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that.g. u. by placing the marks C and ^. <JUI. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. C>£^l)t. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun.JUt from (^e resurrection. end of a word. however. a weaker. ^=>j*« m^rkebun. It retains. Jj bdl. "letters of prolongation. sUrtm. suratun . approaching to that of a in the English — . More in exactly. f *. Z words hat. less clear sound. «£l«~> sbnibkun. literae productionis. Rem. pronounced as e.g. w. and o\ o. <C. however. tunun. sound of to that of the French u or German jy».. K+£\. e. are indicated I. j+&\ 'akbaru . nor immediately precede. JikJ to/a. The Vowels and Diphthongs.§ 6] _ II. and also in general at the 6. Ot^-JI. c>**^> axJ^JI. $j*».g. e. 1J&. oSS or £*$.g. a was at and hence long vowels. J ( e. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). The long vowels a. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. — . ^^1. JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. respectively. e. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. J 15 kola. ^Ac 'ilmun. so as to resemble a small elif . letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. e. g. one of those letters. a.

j>?UM. ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu.. a. value). ^l^Jt. I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. This change is called aJU*jM. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra. and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . / / Rem. 6.b. and occasionally some other vocables. / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. 6a6. The letter o. and " § 5. j J . such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3. and 3.g. * [The omission of ^ p. in later times and in certain from a to e. 251. c. a^oJI c*». J w^aJt. / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn.g. conversely. i. price. # of Rem.» j^. are written a». Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ. Caniles. oW*-j c£J^*j 7. aIU. ^j-^tijt. Qordn's. ojJsu ^j>. d. Z?e/a. are I also frequently written defectively wJi. bnu H-Yemani. for ^yUjt. Carlo. jj^iu. jJJ} . whence sister of fetha. the final I was shortened or dropped. I • I J t 0/ . — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. ^ stor damma. Lebrilla. JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3.» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . . JO / j . \ Si / j J/ I J . tl-imdla. J / / U^A. / £e£m. I corresponds to fetha. . The words ^*}U. Ztow Pedro. The sound of L. el-'Asi. J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t . / »j\ i^tj.10 Part £©**JI / First. 6). D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t. o^o saifun. el-Haft. lisin and. &i&. 0/ e. is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity. • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au. just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i.] . the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. S^JOI C^»-t. Gesch. ^^^aJI. inclines. / . dJ>l5.jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu . 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. preceded by damma.t. o/* ^. See Noldeke. / *y-U. than in others. etc. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy.g. localities. 0/1/ and ^jj^U. are sounded ri&#. ^ Wver Guadiaro. which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics.

and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and.g. can be abbreviated. It receives this name because. before jj/J\ (see x § x 20.g. in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. rem.1.*^.Jl Hid*. Rem. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom. both when preceded by damma and by fetha. b. Rem. (£lif e. etc. e. in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23.g. a). x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. . must be considered. a. the elif that Jx e&/*. after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. letters A.g. 213 (as Li^-j he will live. y. ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e.] .g. d. \j£ yaza). *-) sfTftft. l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . as in final. After ^ at the end of a word.1 ** . ^-)> e. § 19.J3 fata. otiosum). tjj-aJ. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. The Vowels and Diphthongs. the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM.^. ^J*-» yedai. which it is protected by hemza. xx or a**). is often written. is \^cj. like I. become nearly 9 (Heb. 169. 6)f. like J * itself . Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun). even very ancient ones. * 0*0*. but and o (Heb.. when old Mss. as in # * j I. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. . § 10). shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant.e. . and //»/ " x x is called. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters. [But ^-.~\ The diphthong ai. a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U.. £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. and 1. but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj. as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g. particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya . On the other hand many Mss. tj>>*J- This I. L*^j Behnesa. lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\. in j If a pronominal suffix be . with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai. suprascript.§ 7] x II. See the details below §§ 167.» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e. not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1. the separating eiif Rem. the world). rem. .-oj rama. »XX . A w*** sefun. f).

or S^a-. b. for l\ J^. Amr (not x Amru). further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*. often neglected in old manuscripts. . Rem. z = — _ =_. e. Zamahsari. p. it a. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. of 31. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n.12 Part Rem. X j+c 'Omar. way l affecting the sound of the ten win. First. accus. Rem.£ in three cases]. [Cf. and accus. c. . j+£. according to the older orthography. _ in. t>^Jt for b>. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. ^a^ 114. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions. but 4aJ^».] . however. so also \y>j. L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . falls jj-o*. See t § 308. and bpt . tenwln genit. The j of $. SyU. djXo or S^Lo. rihdn. all when the away (§ 315. L an. Sjjwt. This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). To one word j * . In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. SyCiLo. However. of the Kor'an. g. as in 1-w. as bb. Sj£»j or 3>%j. viz. l viz. * i.+£• and JJ-+& ) is. b) j>©.1 . no I is written. [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\. name JS jj*©^ [or. it as in j^jdb. nor.. genit. which is always short : bdbdn. for which we more usually find U*w. as S^a. the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. j ju*. JU a.] In old Mss. is added.— DeG. Rem. 8. malun. . O . [§ 8 A d. when precedes a ^. l^jj. — Orthography and Orthoepy. rem. companies a hemza. without in any to the proper 4 . rarely j \jj-+&. 1 or iL un. \j+&. when acto . 2jj j*c medlnetan.

^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa.» letters of prolongation. c. as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 .g. x J strengthened (3juL&). for ^s>. \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda. ^jJb B. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. Other Orthographic Signs. . are marked '. O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '. as between feth &&& fetlia. letter. a). instead of the common ±: or 1 . rem. In some old Mss. JJ. ^jXt. to separate the two. z. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. c. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14). a quiescent See § 4. Gezma. 5 x \ 9. rem. - -. b. JL3. whence the C of the 2 . but marked with the sign -. ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. or. SIGNS. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. A consonant that fl to be doubled. and serves. b. movent rem. Ox Rem. Jj bel. J**i. 13 III. . (amputation).g. is D 11. ^j and 3.§11] III. when another syllable J follows. ^&i ~£= katabtum. with which other name x \j£~i. e. Gezma or Sukun. A Gezma x or Sukun. fore to the hum. (see § 4. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables. b. m A letter which letter. coincides. Rem. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e. ^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. etc. has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*. when they form a diphthong with fetha. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). which is called . a). is written only once. rest. are retained in writing. as the Arabs say. productionis they Rem.g.g. © x x e. ^£»L>. § x- 59/ j*±e*. but not marked with a gezma. used. j>*o. Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. later d. ^J=>. d). Rem. a. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. A. e. or a*j^.

and receive tesdid. C <*£&>. jv» semmin. fern. is sometimes written. single). The solitary exception to this rule. when accompanied by kesra.e. [§11 A JujJLSf.is an abbreviated ^i. takes place. as may be seen from the above examples. Rem. The African Arabs constantly write for -. at least in old manuscripts. stand for £. ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. d. of the Kor'an. as in African Mss.14 Part First. e. e. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. Tesdid. therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru.. cj-tU na"agun. y* murrun. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. sing.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere. <fec. £ may . admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). D Rem. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. is not required . in combination with -. ~ .£. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun.] . 2d pers. of the fifth form Rem. Perf. e. properly so called.*.>jut>. . In the oldest Mss. * [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " .g. Ojji. —De G. i. as well as £.g. 3d pers. c. only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. Rem. -.»). ± alone may be = t . not even excepted. In combination with . -. (from UubL^ lightened. the vowel is not always written with the sedda . no doubling. In African Mss. is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi. -. or the first letter of the name ojut>. below the line. the tesdid {strengthening)*. in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila. elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule. J&\ Si M-kulla. a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. which.g. instead of Jj3 and J>*3. All consonants whatsoever. Rem. of ji Of CU5. -. to. sing. — Orthography e. a. . Perf. b. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. tesdid is * expressed by « or ^.«. in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . *$d> kullan. Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. it and Orthoepy.

>L©. j. JIaj <jt after the nunation. but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. to avoid harshness of sound. and Jj. though expressed in writing. j. moon. he. happens to begin with one of them. and after n with £ezm. appointed some one commander . . ui.§ 14] III. letters. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI. y> (murrun) language. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. ^. >. solar because the word u~+J*. e. j>. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. ^-^Jt Ss-semsu. Other Orthographic Signs. JJ ^>o. as in jto. (b) b. J-JJt el-leilu.g. 5. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. j^UI k-timru. JJI. UkjodH.g. the Rem. c J. a. as C^»tj letters j. e. is bitter. Ja. which. as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). save in rare instances. is. 'ar-rahmanu . for kiidbun mublnun. iesdFid. jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi. letters. Tesdid or Sedda. used : — (a) With the letters O. yi. and &*£$. ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^. whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). or. and the other lunar them. sibilants. With the J. . it is sometimes found after it 1. ^. *£>. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. J». 15 12. in African and Spanish manuscripts. like ilcu^a. Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. is B.g.) after the article Jl . The w of the .> [see § 277]. sun. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends. <>?. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant. but ja\ (ammara). 0> (dentals. e. j. ^L 14. &. 13. 3. the because the word j^3.

£>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta. such as >. for C-slsua. which \j3. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant. as C~J for cJL5. Ut £ for U. ^ v >«. Rem. k*±. the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel . d. 6. * D 15. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel. . is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. compression. after e. Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether. and grammarians. f°r O**** or v>» . . ^Jj\. rem. is distinguished by the viz. a. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9.jt £ {if not). union of the two indicated by the tesdid C. e. Rem. *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1.» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum.^t.. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . a. . by a C weaker servile letter. and rem. u° or h. (tf/iatf. b. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. in a si . second b. but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*. a).jl. rightly. £>*> 0*> I*. ^Sj. ILd.O-*a..g. v° b. it naturally unites with the is written. so that only one O is O. *£>. when it is sonant. mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. If the verb ends in O in the above cases. Elif. ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. see § 4. \j}\ t Ua*. lj. on the contrary. e. Rem. are hardly ever written separately.16 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy.jl £ (i/*. W* for U £>*> ^ itself. it i. j^\ .. also sometimes called nebra (S^J.. like O. JL. c. jilf. e -g. )» s With the letter O . g. with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. [§15 A words v>«. with redundant U). a. is of the upper part of the windpipe. juXSI. but a conthe spiritus lenis.>«. but the . Rem. however. (dentals). elevation)'. jwl.31. always.g.. He^mza or Nebra. pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu . 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N). for ^ O*.

§§ 131 seq. l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &. e. 17 Rem. c. In the oldest Mss. I. In African (and certain other) Mss. for Ol». tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem..g. *U*. Rem. pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. for ^>>L. 4JL%*©. (jlt^iJI. c).l.Ufc.j>Jwl£. is written between the t and the vowel that . £^3. . hemza e. . by a large yellow or green dot. or ltu»» for U*i». Hemza or Nebra. Accusatives * w. e. e-j ^^j for it chW. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points . or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8. w*33j 17. though [See below.§ 17] III. c£X±.3. in the fol- lowing cases.. Ju*>. a)'. Rem. ^j\ or <jt for ^>t. l^. b. like l^ and l^J? are often written. C. 16. Hemza it.g. Rem. like. ^.] 3 . ** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss. when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). for ^j^-wl^. § 4.g. ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain. jt. after elif productio?iis.g.g. as ^j^t\^J. * J gaa.. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). j5~t for j-w (see § 16). varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above. Ji* and the d. tbj. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L. C*£». J0^i\js>\ (but for J .. Other Orthographic Signs. (a) Always at the end of a word. el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu).. j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota.. of the Kor'an. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui. preceded by a shut syllable. s uun\ i^o. f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. rem. e. and in the middle of a word. is e.. after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma.

(b) Frequently in the middle of words. Rem. j to. or ^hj^j which words must always be . though improperly. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of . S$j-£* for SjjjXo. 1 ^eU for ^oU). o. as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. for ^t. 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&. 6. ^ £ j 3 . rn'usun.>*1t. however.g. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o. [§ 17 A contrary to rule. Lw. £lif with [This hemza. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel. from S^a-o. placed itself. and uu. more frequently. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh . we find such instances Z\}j. l*J* \\>j and in old Mss. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. necessarily so. J^/f.1^. and also e. for^. pronounced makrit'atun. PuUr* for 0^ . The name j^tj or ^i\y David.18 Part First. *Zo* j 9io. as ^>ott or is ^\. J-~j for JL*j . but must always be pronounced Da'udu. — ^. ^j^ au. and followed by a or s a... ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. and Orthoepy.g. after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^. called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c. j c-> . jit£ for ^otjj. as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. which is connected with letter. A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i. if the preceding consonant be an . a following After a consonant with gezma. as JLtj for JLjj. as J£*t. ua. Hemza between w&. e. for JU»t. at. is often written ^\y . or after a consonant with gezma. hati'atun. and damma before the for ^Hjjj. Rem.kri c or &Lla». ai. is. for **o*> from *^. u. ^^jj for ^Hji. O/ as for i — Orthography . £. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>. e.g. oUJ]. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. 0^34 for oL5^. a. Rem.

rem. In ancient MagribI Mss. Imperative. xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e. D.a. he said. When the vowels with hemza (t I). I 18. Wasla. as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red). Wasla. Hence even I. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e. £ s 'OiO . rem. or &L03. j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# . 19. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM.g. X *>*> . e. the stroke is used. and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35). <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif.o$ or 4JL0 . according to the preceding vowel. S^-j&JI. was appointed governor .g. O x ^ x 5x § 4. dU^l c-ol. listen. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active.§ 19] III. J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < . or rather. yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut. «i. |x X . Rem. the father of (b) the we~zir. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. Other Orthographic Signs. in modern African Mss.written over the . union. Rem. . which sometimes varies in position. d. of the usual sbs. or 2X& (see x bi rem. i. 19 D. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . i. a. a&I. t J~~> . and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. In the oldest Mss.e. a). Slif. the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign .& downfall or extinction. I i. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . kill. x See § 15. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. he said. and called J*&3.g.e. With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA. and § 19. we rr J- L instead b. "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt. with a point to indicate the itself.. a. + * regular verb. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ . e. JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13. j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. at the commencement of A a word.

: [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\. Rem.). the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\. or. as rem. b. /). s-Jj^-- . It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza. as ^t^iiNjI ^. xO xxO O^'l. The hemza of j>^-»l. 9 a woman. that to say. aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God). the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article. * 9 /) fe is neglected. 9 J 9*0 §j*\. especially after the article. 3 d. in part merely prosthetic. and § 18. is also elided after the asseverative particle J. J Oi Rem.>*-J. Rem. so. two (fern. orjj-ot. <ft jL^jf. as (lit. rem. See § 15. and * ^J\ * or ^j\.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. two (masc). jl^l5N)l. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic.^r^\^AJ\ JA>. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. Rem. a * a daughter.© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms. to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. and occasionally m after the prepositions *.^0-MvNjt J^. Cwl. a. but. oatfAs. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l.>M. a man. prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. because it is then no longer necessary. b. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it. omitting the altogether. and Orthoepy. in a contracted form. e. a. is in ^>*-jl after J). in part original. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^.20 Part (d) First. c. 9t-*0 a name. — Orthography son. j^\ 30 (rarely^wt).\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*. JO* C is Rem. the anus. * .

or a consonant with gezma. being sJgJUl oUI.rfi. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri. as u«jJi . f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t . The suffixes of the 1st pers. for <UJt ^aJsucuo. for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma. first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ . according to the law stated in § 25.JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI . u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^. This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. viz. To vowel. fear the people. forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels. in the other two an elif separationis. Other Orthographic Signs. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis. but begins the next syllable. J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). at into ai. and au into cm as (c) . »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. AJJt j)BJn. A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel . ^. instead of . elif sejunctionis or separationis. A II . is pronounced as written Q tjuJi.« mustafdu 'lldhi. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel. O in the eyes of the king. 21 Rem. the elect of God. in e the beginning. ^_ and e. a diphthong. rem. J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). sing. ^^t )^o*J my grace which. for ft and 'abu.yju&t. see § 19. subject to change (a I weak elif letter). D. Wasla. Hence gtj£^t ^3. but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. 'n-nasi. the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. b and c. J*Wi. father of the wezir.^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. B shortened e. these different cases the following rules apply.g. which equally admissible. the connective elif the opposite elif. The silent elif (§ 7.20] III. (a) 20.g..

In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85. verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS. such as sjs.22 Part xx x 0*> First. which time forth. before the article. because contracted for Ju*. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c. instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^.>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu.6. J — Orthography w and Orthoepy.^0^ you. masc.0*> x name . as tjjiaST jj. and ^A their. a.»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma. etc. j£* your.). J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . The preposition . as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu. but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. Rem. } Rem. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. . which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. and after they saw the star. ^j\. x v~k*. from. Perf. JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s. since. ^Sj. viz. they threw the stones . masc.. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns. the pronoun yj*. D Rem. Oi Ox But jt and to meet.. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. x0£<0. takes . x J x <5 ^j . A . plur. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. j and^A they.\. you (accus. them. C fetha djj\. The same it is is the case with Jco. yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra . ^A or^A. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm . rem. kesra. Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers. from. Jj.>*. £ take kesra. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu. as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. viz. J*. jS. [§ 20 xx A thong. and particles. or adopts the lightest of the three vowels. b. for IjjjkTt Ji. is The final £ of rejected. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) .>£). as . If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha . J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel. plur.

J^pJ to the man. the son of Halid. in a genealogical series. and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. In the article Jl. of the son precedes. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases.0* .ijj sjj£. "the black. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. thus: j^. . 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs. as by the J J OtO j . b. as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. for J*^). so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr.g. B when the name the genitive lira . a. ' interposition of the noble. that is to say. forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence.] the second noun be not in apposition to the first. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad. the J s I retained. . D. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j.§21] - III. if ^jj\ jU. § 315. son. . la tadriba 'bnaka. Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to. ^t j+s. t. For example. real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. if that word happens Rem. [Cf. the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh." being Amr. as a whole. for aJUI^wb. b. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. aUI j^s. jy&J*o wise. e. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather. the son struck Sa'd.c. it is ls**J> Ridha. omission of the In the word ^t. oUaaJI Rem. ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. Z . rem. DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss. but form part of the predicate. the an adjective. Wasla. but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname. to stand at the beginning of a line. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary .

i. b. e.. 5jL« or aJsh. so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem.. the form of the medda » x ji*). for JUS. in Mss.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t. In the oldest and best Mss. ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'... is Rem. y>^tf.>. for *l». rem.] . lengthening. verbs. when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\. after the conjunction J sj. § 140. — Orthography and Orthoepy. the two . ^*>.. Its opposite is j*oA (i.. I. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto. wj^aJI yJ — De G. then the J of the article is omitted.] Medda or Matta. shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases. Rem. verily. j-o3. xxOjx^o^ ^. for (d) In nouns.) is written instead of the former. for iOn. for Oj-Jull. » a>. we find in old Mss. (t. rem. for llo-*. to ask. in poetry. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>. E. a. Q Rem. is it (fem. o e.g. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained.gaa. extension). then a mere hemza etc. *X*~> semdun.a»Jt. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as . for 2JJJJ. is son—1 O^Xit. a. such forms as tbj. and the sign of prolongation. elif In this last case.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\. I .*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^). rem. (£) by the affirmative particle J truly. as S&JJ. elifs # when the second j s s o. cited in § 358. as Jlli.).>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19.24 Part First. as aJUJ to the night. As mentioned above 1U*. *U. and the article Jt. c . (§ 17. Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij. is frequently omitted. for ^UjM. for^5Jo»Jtt. (i. is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti. 22. rem. he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M . according to some.e.). a. of the Kor'an. [Cf. and that for alJJN). a.Z . [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>.e. ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna. is placed over the latter . Ih. 6. has fetha..

^2J\ j&.g. Medda or Matta. o or t.g. often written over abbreviations of words. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\. e. when they are used as long poetry. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem.^**.\ . may God be <*JUI well pleased with. only is (§ 17. In some old Mss. is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. b). GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to. a. . Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha. 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17. or the vowel. U^-l . medda (see § 6. w.jt or . alwt for }tL*l. in and the verbal termination j£. In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza. along with the medda. (t) is at the beginning of a syllable. tut instead of L*t or tutt. So Jtj for jJUj. informed us. $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. aJUt ^y^j. for 4 . as ly~J j jo£ . U for Uh*»»l. Other Orthographic Signs. a) c.j£*. then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda. the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. rem. h).] 1 Rem. an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. see § 174.J I. W for LS jo*-. upon him/ for 6j±. e. i. d. He (God) exalted above all. l^a***. b. The mark -. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. when followed by an elif hemzatum.§ 23] III.g. 25 this is is but rarely written. may GW /*e Aave mercy it.. the lengthened or long elif. Rem. —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript. ajx. . has nothing in common with medda but is the form. e. Cfor J^a-. When. rem. Ae narrated to us tfAew. the hemza being written final a) .^* or ^**.e. Medda prolongation. of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. rem. instead of with Rem. E. Ut or to the end of etc. [But we some- times find U.

etc. that the ancient it is as kul. A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum). 25. Vlp). The first of U J margin. a copy. and denotes form or vocalization. the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir. and stands for < ~*J. — Again it is. or ^!wa1. Foreign words. tin. ^. together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. explanation. the first of which is destitute of a vowel. an.Generally speaking. dJbd over a <x\x). — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. is. 26.). which are not by a vowel (except in pause). either separated or followed . may (i. correction. emendation. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. the third implies that the marginal reading. A take an additional vowel. ^)L^. syllable that terminates in a vowel. and ~~*a over of Mss. JU pause. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|.26 Part First. the fix o < correct one 5*-o. may be either long or short. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. IIXaTwv f J . *-Jj*y\. to be placed first. find words with the letters *f~. J . where the final short vowels are suppressed. ' « . The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant. is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. to be placed last. first consonant . as sf or fir. on passing into the Arabic language. rem. usually before the .e. another manuscript . end in two consonants. D Rem. it is correct. as . and not that of the text. and is repeated more clearly on the them. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable. which we call a shut or compound syllable. — Orthography and Orthoepy. -*~o stands for ^o. THE SYLLABLE. we often W O * these indicates a variant. Before a double consonant a (see § 13. as J13 ka-la. is almost always short . in the writer's opinion. to fypov 27. which commence with a syllable of this sort. C we 24. and jajJLc. Jy> (Heb. 0*0 0* y^M. text. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct. though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text.

U la-nd. J. But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl. UJ ^-rad See 351. U-^t 'ei-na-md. ly-»|p fa-?-a- . as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun.a-du- l wun. ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^. i. g^lsu ba-ti-un. w>. The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position.e. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun. '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. When has four or more syllables. 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. ^r* kd-ta-ba. J. 'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un.j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na. hdm-ra. _ ^J ^i li-ma. i D ^^ the penult is short. j_. The last syllable of does not take the accent. bil-ldur. that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la. ne-bi . 9 uf ma-fdr.J . long by nature. and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. y bi-hi. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. V. bil-ldu-run. mu-mi-nfn.33 wa-kul. (a) The pausal forms . the accent falls upon the antepenult. j>V. Vj wa-ldm. j js. is the interrogative enclitic j> . l Oxx kd-ti-bun. as ya-kul. Jl-rfnd. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. \S£> ka-dd. ne-bi-yun.B *3j** mak-ru-un. . bd-ti. it is 29. Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. mdk-ru . *fe\ 'a-fa-ld. 5 *' *" ** x* J . J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. 9 lj-4 biir-un. l^ bi-md. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. nature or position « x . (b) * Monosyllables in combination with . £15 fa-kdt. in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. as ^. kd-nun. or. ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. kd-ti-bdt. ham-rd-'u. I. ^. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28.§ 31] V. Rem. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma.>*) li-mdn. ya-kH-ldn-na. d-du. *!_ or 2t_. i). bu-nei. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w. J3I 'a-kdl-lu. ul-J . The penult takes the accent when . i>*>^ yun. ku-beil. c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. *j_. XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. rem. j. if it 31. The Accent 27 THE ACCENT. m». and vJ. . ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. Rem. it is 30.

as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°... pp. Vul- 59 sqq. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). On deviations from these principles of accentuation.] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880).: 123 4 67890 . Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md.j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. tAvt. xii. at other times peculiar signs. vol. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. and Wallin in the same journal. 1874. because we took them from the Arabs.g. p. &v. B 32. as jut*a£. however. letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. 670-3. pp.»>. Grain. calling them Arabian. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. as the following table shows. [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd. [also Spitta. They are written from right to left. iv. vol.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij. the the alphabet. 183-6. Rem. Their form. — Orthography . the Indian notation. They are the same that we Europeans make use of. 1874. Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt. and Orthoepy. have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians. .28 Part First. des arab.« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun. ten in number. VI. Egypt and among the Bedawin. THE NUMBERS. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed.

PART SECOND. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms. JiliA j£ Ju& II. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. contain three radical letters. masc. JiS I. because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. A General View. Rem. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). JJuilt XIV. but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive. the Triliteral 1. Perf. IX. A. THE VERB. III. sing. literal verbs are by no means rare. Ji^t VIII. pers. Jl3 to kiU. JjuJI. but the learner XL XII. I. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. instead of he has killed.. >& JiL ? l VI. is X. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. The 3d of the verb. J*tf V. VII. that is The great majority to say. JU**t XV. which first. a. The Forms of Verb. 33. . JjiSl XIII. (with juSt number.

' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . is B 37. The vowel signification. D Rem. sorry. and therefore govern the accusative. *-ji or JJ^ glad. p. thinking. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO . ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear. [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. * [Or. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful. —Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam. .» to be heavy. to think. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill.j+& j**o to be small. ^j+e to be J* blind. u*j^ be sick. De G. 38. or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . to become noble. e. for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before. b. *£t or to E. ^v^a.Part Second. to s^^ to become gray.] — . whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. Rem. and not a few of the write. the learner should 36. v** J y^3 to go away. jJ*j to go right way. j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. Rem. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so.g. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons.g. j*y\ to become whitish. j*£* become ugly.g. according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. Kamil. (scire). 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. c. j^~* old. * to be safe and sound. to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. t^~U. to be large. The distinction between them is. 415. a. As are those adopted in note them carefully. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. jj&> to know upon. w>o to beat. to sit. sJj& high or noble*. that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition.

The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . Jjji to disperse .^jiz x w-A to wWto. j~£> to break. though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. Js3 to massacre . as^Xft know. JU. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). a. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification. to believe him. transitive or causative in the second # . Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth. xx or <J\h to go round. Jt*». 9-j* to gladden. Gr. the apparent difference being that original in the latter. but derived in the former. xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces. w>j~o to #£#£ violently . 31 Rem. p. ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. JS3 to to Mil. XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). 1. form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. Ubt^ to weaken. . Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often. [See Comp. or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative).to ?raa#0 carry.~\ /S/ X Xx A 39. E. Forms of Triliteral Verb. The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical.g. The Verb. General View. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic.5 to cw£. 165 $eq. w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. Jjy to separate. Rem. or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive). or during a long time (temporally extensive). as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie. b. it is Rem. Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach. UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&.§ 41] I. term. fo«£. 40. w>o B j*& ala. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. *IaJ to cut in pieces . ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down. first Verbs that are intransitive in the . ^J to weep. A. w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry. JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . b.

Sometimes. " to skin an animal. JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar. and ex- or doing of.). to coZ/ec2 to to e.i.32 Part Second. (may GW prolong J^O thy life). (_>»U. he said to off). ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry. a mutual one. or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with. ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja). dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee). Rem. 43. or the like. to dwell in a place. . . *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x . fi like the fourth form. compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). as well as in signification. hfap. (??i«2/ thy nose. agju*. it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin. first p. isj-o . j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w. x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). j&j*. derived. 198 sea. ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar. T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly.] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical. a&3 he killed him. It modifies the signification of the 42. c. — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object. ing ways. iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. . ^&0— [See Comp. by the elif productionis. (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U». JUi corresponds in form. jl*. j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^. jQ+m. o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him . Gr. [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative. JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt).g. x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5).j). ^UT. d. g. ^fap and Aram. (^^J&t <*£M). to the Heb. Rem. Uju*.to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»).

1. Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . sulted with him. he threw him down. jlS>t he advised him. . he went first is to law with him. a^pU he procured him means of doing so. (something). the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied. Forms him of Triliteral Verb. >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. Ji. <uuw he outran him.to d-wla. „ . t mander of the Faithful.he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . A^ol*. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. 33 alii he overcame him. X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. E. E.U» 5 . ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do.. treated be good or kind. of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. Aiwl». . d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry. do. w. and affects him or brings X him into that state. axStj do. When the or fourth form denotes an act. aijli he strove to do so. A. oa. £>*~j*. from Julc the like or equal . the relation B of which to an object object). «o *i« he fell upon aAs. he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit. Rem. »^jafe more or less distinctly implied. tli to be hard.g. attacked him. gently . (c) . g. conversed with him . The Verb. £f$ to be soft or gentle. General View. him kindly . aljlS he corresponded with him. he treated he. AiS*) he treated him it . to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly .§ 43] I. ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. ^U. ideas a. . dJuL* he ran a race with him. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. ac. he vied with him in rank and glory .^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him. ojsMt he competed with him in doing so. sj**±. is here. g. .Io he wrestled with . A aJU he tried to overcome him . o^Sh he strove to do so. oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. X X J . <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan. \J&\+b to double. as in the former case.

G. E. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. 6V. of denomi- Rem. D Rem. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>).34 Part Second. he found him.— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. a = Heb. and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . significations. to let go.. B Aghdni —De dUU. 197 c. ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth. [Rem. eat. Faih. p. tj>». ^oAfct to E. natives. 6) see Corap.. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun. a .lj. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing. to the Heb..aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty. UJ is ^. the first. like the second as t alsLjt he thought him. it becomes doubly transitive in the E. Jailw ojicb. because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. 52. found him cowardly .* ot oj*+*»\ J .g. in others the same. fold well. . ( . to be. The fourth form I.s. of which it is the direct object. from which they are derived. t^&S he shewed him Rem. i.. a. 202 seq. J*^t he ate bread. cites xiii.v. a). intransitive in the first form. b. J±}). If the in 45. Rem. C c/~^t bid one to down. .] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt. 44. When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41. Geog.^JU to escape. he thought him. sometimes declarative or estimative. or found him to be. or or it. Zamahsari. niggardly . v~y** to sit down. Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). sjof^\ \S^ c.g. (Gl. j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth.<» . [§ 44 A double.g. to know. Jjbl . ^s- inform one of a thing . verb is . The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. rem. to \Jj** sit to run. e£c. b.t to >*swJt make run. he to be praiseworthy or commendable. they have in some cases different to teach. The fourth form J' s Of. Thus J*. many that of a transitive verb. found the district abounding in fresh herbage.

jJsuot to O .l." "to lamb"). *£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) . . . jj>\ to retire ("reculer"). 35 produce herbage (j^j). tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt). Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. j^\. ^ ^. w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV.* (J»iu).§45] to I. or VIII. ^° 1. ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . *L>I. abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ . Thus AetoJ ^ J VII. C-^Ui sAe son. pj~i\ a * i to make haste.it commit a commit a blunder. . ^£wl. or suffering something therein). < . to enter x x * .i to cto fault or error. J^D^H. 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\). serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face. . go to Aoi go to the left) ." calve. obtaining or getting having something. people) or oe aVy (of a season). General View. is I battle . sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently. wwt.g." "to seed. A. w-^/'t a noble . -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. ol . I.it>i a male or a female child. w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. doing.oi to E. ^3t advance. acquiring a quality. 0>£»>t. ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place. ~ . x .11). the entering — of time (being. ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA.) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face. Usui. o t (Jjtj*M). well or *^J.^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&. upon a period * soi ssoi to . of a certain kind*. x x oi and 7*X£KTl. . The Verb. j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory . Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. in Hebrew. ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi. go # to the right. Ae re^'reo?.1 jJUl to act a proof ill. Usui to 6e sto or B tardy. run with *• outstretched neck. (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin. ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3).] .. into a state or condition. to to ebx Irak .^. " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower. I 4(S o 9-~o\. Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. or becoming something. to >~».. JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels. s i * to give " . i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa.

in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the . 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth .» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated. owe. deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ.g. or «3!/v°> 46. GV. p. Forms 69. SftpK. „ . In English it E. to be [§ 46 A farthing. it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action. £jJu to be dispersed. prefix. Phcen. ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) . . . seo/. ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint. and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf.'. J~l&. O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. . J B . The . This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . 'jJojS. for (rad. to terrify). it is the pjUa-o of the second form. Aram. for to give discoverable in Arabic.jij^\. to reduced to utter want. as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) . e. ^4^1. j~£3 to be broken in pieces. as its must often be rendered by the passive. h*ppn. like XXX £\j& are 118). %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces. become possible. Heb. girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3. . St break one's compact with a person. uJS). took away its 4*a*£. j^\./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O. d..t . action denoted by the second form effect or result. (P *^) . g. to wish. to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . patient. 204 The Hebrew. JJJL». obscurity or toani of clearness. \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±.. to let rest.Jl. w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. literally. See Comjt?. ^g» (*&*J). o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-. or the Parts of Speech. that is to say. *->j*o3 . become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused.Of. <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67. has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP . to be proud. instead of it will be observed. reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '. jm£\ garment) or clear. '*'. '£&.. D 47. "°Z Rem.36 Part Second. JJtjJh for to pour out rest to .

j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). without change of sense. j^j^ to amid blame. £jj3. ^>a*j. a». a. and V. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative. or to affect. sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. The Verb. Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. A. to have wholly disappeared. Jiia^J. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully. c) Thus for ^^3. so that to may be quite clear. w ^a>J . e. fo become a Jew (^O^). i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab. ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire.§47] I. \f^. [In some cases the difference between II. entirely disappears. 1. a earnestly. j**\3. (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent.g. to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. **-~J to liear to speak. at first sight. dispersed. to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids. ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. but Q Rem. b. Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. Forms of Triliteral Verb. ^ra? as a foora (ju»t). tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. £***£. *xwU become as bold or . to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!).j (§41. sip to or sup. 37 with Kais or Nizar.] we may substitute ±r»yu. to affect courage or manliness. to abstain from. jjjj * to take as an abode. long or repeatedly. to examine or study. as a prophet to (J^*J). »J to pursue step by step (literally. *»•>> . General View. to make to oneself or turn oneself into. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. understand. to look at to. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. or atvta* sm or crime. rem. 2*j-**3. to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain. Rem. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of.

becomes e. Q only of an impersonal. pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form. g. 50. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. explain.g. to teach. the action of another . the reality or fact. to to learn. j^s. whereas object of. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. effective. him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. d). Rem. sometimes the indirect object (dative). 0-++> to appear clear or certain . Rem. but also of a personal passive. We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£. we might say. whether it be caused by another or by himself.38 Part Second. which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. he was taught Again. b. [§ 48 A c. E. as J^l3 d3 j&b. The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative). which transitive in the third form. rem. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. ^G o-o to make clear. or prove to be. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram. clear. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him. he was learned (= taught). 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41. Rem. JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. JJU»J become. but did not learn to be separate. to (become learned)*. whence we see its identity with the Heb. . (received instruction). ILo-*^ to know. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). even more common. ^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned. D 49. different j^jo to become learned. a. 48. by prefixing the syllable It is the O.g. but did not learn. I kept sixth . g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. distinct.

§50] I. jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . and lUaaJt C~~*y3. ii.g. above all. *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . e. a. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. to ^j^W* to pretend to cry.g. j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult. rem. § 1 f . *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together. Somewhat similarly. Further. him. with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance. Rem. D made itself (became or was) too great. aJjti he fought with him. . or perfect. ^jloJ to feign sickness. A. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . e. inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. b. whence in the passive. JaUJ feign ignorance. or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). above all . or exalted. * * collective.]. 1. another. si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another .JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed. OjUj to pretend to be dead. subjects. w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. When used in speaking of God. j^Uj to to pretend to be blind. A jjULj to pretend to squint. the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. aJI C~«U3 . vol. oU»J pretend to be deceived. Rem. gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. Forms of'Trilateral Verb. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred. 39 the thing. for him . w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. General View. The Verb.

d. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. Hamasa p. and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. however. ! see with rem. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). supporting. this I becomes I. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3. as it were. §§18 and J. another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification. and why. s. before which § 26). added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem. [Hence bit. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. Geog.] C is Rem. and so strengthening.v. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). first rem - 51." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. a middle or reflexive signification. [§51 A (^ c. 20 first vs. compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. and comm. may be added but always the direct object itself.40 Pakt Second. ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i. this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build. of one The idea of reciprocity e. — De G. D 52. as pjUx* of the first. and as to the orthography instead of § 19. For the cases in which 19. Rem.g. rem. as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj. the others) . t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. Slj^t colnerentes. c. J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111).] . d. The seventh form has also originally. to which sative). It must be remarked. in walking*). By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth. c. Ji*»>.

The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals. General View. from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down. 215 seg. pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived. from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. Sometimes. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit. not to be found. jtjM to be non-existent or missing. from >U to return.). particularly in modern Arabic. from JiA£t x^xog e. 6. to be to be broken. from *JLot JUJxil. jaJ\ a.«sul. to be ended. the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. 54. especially in more recent times.] jilit corresponds to the Heb. to x x end. At the same it time. and so ancient. to fall. 6 . G. to break into pieces . E. to fo |?w« to rights. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. UUJQI uncovered. m Rem. though in actual use. from JjUj to 6e narrow. UJsul # to fo extinguished. JUJt to open (of a flower). JUul to be uttered or spoken. ^mm*J to become broken. rem. x J x .s* . Si to be docile or submissive.§54] I. from to 6e stupid or foolish . [Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt.. 7fcDp3> see Comp. (§ 51. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. out of the reflexive. *a.'»t. JUdtil to 6e bolted. The radical in consequence loses its vowel. j~£j\ to break (intrans. jUjI X 6e repeated. to £xxo 60^. or an effect to be produced . ^£>fjt. A. x x x Rem. i.). B upon him e. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. 1.. c. the last in a tradition. to flee. g. x x O \ appear . - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress. Forms of Triliteral Verb. The Verb. o£ to j»w£ to rights. 41 often to a passive. becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w.— De Rem.g. Gr. jJbJLit to be to split itself. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. cut to off. X XX O p. to be made x manifest. are incorrectly formed. 53. ^\Ji7b 63.g.

which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO .1 they * * * were neighbours.. w»j&\ do.42 Part Second. u°j* way. Gr. to part . D 57. * * * US and •*&£). implying for oneself. to * * follow one's track. . like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree.. for one's own advantage. *. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . Jt£» and JU£»t meat. = ******* . and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ].g. e. ** . dative. as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . sJ^jt to be turned back. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J. yJa* * and w*kl». to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t. Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive..l * to collect firewood. to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing. so closely in their signifi- cation. to seek for it * * * v . ** * * j . L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro. Rem. to carry off by force. p. as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces. to snatch away. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative. **o tjj^jfc. J^t to to go asunder. * Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another.»Jg»t * earn one s living .— Etymology Rem. -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. ^oS .] explanation of the actual form is O 55. . that they may be translated by the same to relate . ^U*t to be full.. as Jjji to divide. and sixth forms. see Comp. to measure corn.. b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another.f> and ^. fought with one another. l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God). B J»ji to beat. J~+l to touch. . to to place (something) before one. to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical. u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification. and * tjtfudt. to be victorious . word. Greek active and middle voices. * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people . 208.

the distinction between is. when doubled. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). General View. loses its vowel. or languid . 43 58.t to become commingled. is Neither of these forms is very common. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . jl£. to be stern or £ * t gloomy. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. and the eleventh the rarer of the two. j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked . the night reached its middle point. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities. Rem. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears). and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51.g. a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. t rem. Rem. being more rapidly pronounced. o hasten. the ninth and eleventh forms or . is ^ or /( ^. indicates . As the third radical. is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable. . jo>t to be ash-coloured. 2.l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape). u^tf^ an d u^W white. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked. The Verb.). and hence the doubling of the third is radical. Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. to >o run quickly. see § 167. a [Others hold that XI. The ninth form (jiit) . <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). 59. A.§59] I. jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. to squint. If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. to show that E. draws the accent upon the penult. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. 1. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. the first radical. £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. According to some grammarians. . colours b. a. Forms of Triliteral first Verb. confused. (for ^£5*Xa-t.

). The prosthetic is necessary. js. to preserve alive. : [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX. JU- to be .\ to oneself ready. J*£lwl to find heavy. g. or a * * o it. first form. and the former editions of this work . his prayer.jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . O of Cwl. ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. D &mm*Z* it to think him. Rem. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. ^©J~»t to give up. to take entire possession . jU»jL>l to think good or excellent. osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. the quality expressed by the *> 62. up. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). in reference to himself or for his benefit. or s accepted. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. U»-t to bring to life. or obeyed him. according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61. deliver over. to think one a bore. * ° " ° (of it). a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire. cA». prepare. oppressive or troublesome. lawful. to think lightly of or one. rem. good or beautiful. * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary.] : " °' 60. Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * .g. (for E. 1299) p.j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) .44 Part Second. . to ' * . for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . think it it light. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses. *Jl*JL*\ despise. H. ^aJ^. \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*». factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle. . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. to grieve or distress.\ up {something) wholly. The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author. . § 51. 50 seq. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. ready. . juCwl to get to yield be ready . equip. but this view was marians. A. in doing something. ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E.

ask for something to drink. 6). \J}>\ . * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help . This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink. <\r* Z to require one's presence. to pray for rain. The Verb.§65] I. governor (J*»^). to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing. or demanding. rem. lit. of. what meant by the first. ^jiw to give one to to drink. or caliph (Zsul*. g. was. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. Hence to ^. to make oneself G humble. to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . jk£> to pardon. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E.g.. j-oA. seeking. A. E. 1. x Zwt be ashamed. Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb. reflexive. D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy. E. to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. at least originally.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * . lit. t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. to hold oneself upright . s . to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^). \ to become like (lit. j+**Z* x x * o .y^x^JiwI literally means is so .for oneself : factitive 64.to be present. JU*£wt to be worthy lit. permission. it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. \Jy~i\ it . The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) . 45 so strictly factitive. General View. to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission.JL«I*1 permit. help. but estimative or declarative s 45. lit. &c. A ' 0* also the tenth. desire that & * . in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. ^oUiwt to stand upright. L5 Al»> l. j he should be fetched. ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble. . Rem. to conduct oneself humbly .«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I.g. it The tenth form is frequently denominative. is asking for. to take possession of . 63. successor. to deserve.

to fo obscure (rad. do. »/*») to —XIII. to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back. s^JIS. or x humpbacked to (*->***. to become moist (= J«a». xO and obd). to be long and thick (of the hair). If so. must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation. XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . so as to exhibit their formation. ^)^l». with one or two more. os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j>Ut heavy (jJU. (rad. IxXft). to become soft or tender (j-a». and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. —XII.oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt. [§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J.) .46 j Part Second.t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked).) to be long or last long. curved.t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x . to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad. ax fo &&rc?) . #o 60 arched.\). ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) . (=j«a±. &}jj£\X X . . wJJu> dash ground.do. our geese are all stvans). x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x . not in use. xx x Rem. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x . which has the same signification as ^iXw.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£. x x J^^o ^t . Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples.) . J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t. . xxdxO efo.—XIV. 5x0 . iJlCJU. ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o.) to j** black (JSL do. /l»\ b^jj*. to be green and rank (of a plant).) xx dx .1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*.) . 66. may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*. sufficient . vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. J&L^A to be big (rad. (rad. "&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth. xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^.) . JU**. to mount a camel . JU~>. xxx of .JU.) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo. *iU*w) . corresponding to the Aram.

repeated. to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair. be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) .1X j jo v:o x o 7<.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t. 2. oj^. All these forms are habitually intransitive. ^^ X was sweet). is A biliteral root. of. be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^». 227.a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad.g.§ 67] x x Ox I. ^Jsu^. j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *.1 to swollen or inflated. as XII. shout. E.). JT& al-Istikak. XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x . (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. Pers.. 2. to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw. jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake.''£ .g. bellow. is prefixed or affixed to. The Verb. . but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions. x x JLU) .). to retire) to . 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ .g. ^ ^o^-oxfc. deceive to with soft words a ^J^. 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms. Rem. aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*.e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse . or inserted in the middle E. generally a liquid or sibilant. to Mttfo rws£& or rattle. ^. v~x£ x Ox do. —XV. —XV. A. p.and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly). •^JL*. u . to be filled with rage (LfL do. The Quadriliteral Verb. xxOx ji-ji- to gargle. 9 x» x some of them foreign words.J«Jl». J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters. (b) A fourth letter. x E. jj-as) x x o x o x .t. expressing a sound or movement. XXX md^ ^ retire).B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . Jx»A». 67. ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper. to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. a triliteral verbal form. . to xxOx to rwi^A. bb to G say baba (papa). General View. rad. xxx to to xxOx to be high) X .

X X E. ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another .o fow&/.48 Part Second. to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. JJtUlt III.g. £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) .and J3>». jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier. also to be active or nimble . or the Parts of Speech. Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb. vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E. The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I.») <• . Ju/tIV.g. They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas. to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . humble. signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70. jt^Xw) or tunic . to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>». Pers. Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress. JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ . . xx Ox to roll. «nriaT/>os). and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ. X JX+& to gather ripe dates. to abase x x . saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. Tlb/J?) </>iA. J (^)UslL»). Heb.) to ^ . etc. The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals. number. quickly. * x x . verb are three in 68. 69.g. Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) . . xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**. I E. to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik . fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch . JP^». JJUtf II. J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U. to Pitch. pfe>). xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along . or humility. f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates .#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^.

The Quadriliteral Verb. or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive).g. the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. nearly =j-c^. Si* o 9 *? ^aw back). Jjc*£t to dispersed . the active and the passive . JuJ to be is bad. and 15th forms (cf. The third form A E..g. w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. . . to become green. in disorder. o § a^ C o^ * i o . The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). 13th. 3. ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower). j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality. state. wrong. both primitive and derivative. or not . of triliteral. § 66.» o vanish away . wa#0 Aaste. sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th. i dark.»>t to to stretched out on one's side. 72. = Ju-3.. w. A. rem. which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). as j*s&. 7 . but inserted between the second and third radicals. with the exception of intran9th. 49 71. to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd . General View. All the verbal forms. pULwl to lie on ones back . \j\+^^ Si.) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3. 11th. . of a bird). 7%£ 73. j*++*. J*cu^». or intensively high degree of E. whose act voice is either object. j£~t£*\ very high or proud . is intransitive.A of The fourth form the quadriliterals. in = fJ*& an . Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A. have two voices. the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals.§ 73] I. jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. very hard. ground. 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. JU-^t Voices. 2. Ja». The Verb. that the characteristic not prefixed. right. stretched on to flow. to jk. and expresses an extensively act.l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc. 12th. *J~o to be good.t or j*oya*J\ order.

equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . is when the author is unknown. the patient). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a. more shortly./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent. or ^sJ X J^cUJt. though this latter H x J named.50 Part Second. 75. J JjuUI. ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named. J x Ox J J x Ox These terms. or some higher being. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!. and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. confined to the person of the subject. but something between the two. the passive J J subject. God. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. j& to sleep). or signify an act which is. than to the doer of (agens. J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt. etc. 74. J JjyoLpJt. or feeerc &em# done. strictly speaking. (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. XXX & x biO J the build x0. . namely (a) when . 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5. J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt.. or. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. Rem. the mould or form of J x the agent. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more . are aptly called neuter verbs. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient. of that. also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing.e. or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act . Ox . The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. since they are neither really active nor really passive.*> J J x Ox is. the agent). by its very nature.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases .» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. Verbs that express a state or condition. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U. and ^UJJ cj.

from A JwNjI. whilst the other 4. the other an unfinished act. present. however. It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past. A. ajjuiIoJI j*£. The Arabic verb has moods . by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. namely. by our Present. Syntax and use. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. a. Subjunctive. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). The Verb. and Energetic. the one expressing a finished act. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect. or Future-perfect.§ 78] I. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. Imperfect). Pluperfect. five 78. The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. and the future (J^fc^Jt). succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. is These are. Imperfect. in connection with the verbal forms. 77. J The Voices. Imperative. Rem. or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies. in and of itself. Perfect. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. 76. or Future. On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. intransitive verbs. and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. effective (see § 48). first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). Jussive or Conditional. 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. The names Preterite and Future. General View. A Imperfect has. strictly speaking. The Moods. the Indicative. seventh. must not be thought and eighth to be forms. <Scc. one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . b. or A^Ut JUi^l. J' 3. no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it. The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. . transitive verbs.

fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect. the Singular (>j&\. The Numbers. *j*+3\. *W»J1. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. 80. [Cf. The genders j are two. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. or imperative. Js » 0* 81. or j^tyi). the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. nor are rejected inflexions. plur. Rem. The Syntax treats of their significations and use. 83. the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). they have two verbal passive participle). the speaker individual person).. 1 b sD. adjectives. and Genders. and the other the patient (nomen patientis. Persons. -d Instead of the Infinitive. ^oJiXoJt. cj). 79. wsSliJt (the absent). 2d pers. ~ 82.a>. . . There are three numbers. the former class . ^JsU*-*)!. and 1st pers. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. in the second (see § 128). In place of participles. active participle). dual.52 Part Second. in any of the but are retained throughout. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc.). ^^IloJI). § 192. strong. H. and likewise three persons. or jJ&«JI) . and the the fourth. the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis. the spoken to (second person).] 6. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma). is expressed by . (first and the Plural (£*aJt. The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). sing. . and the individual spoken of (third person).. namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. B. . [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form. but also from the imperative.

The Strong Verb. The separate pronouns have longer. partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative. (V"y). 86. and patientis. and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns.o and^oJL* as synonyms. 1. suffixes. The numbers. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87.— Table I* a. The personal pronoun \jt+£. The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns. or connected [J-cu*]. * The nomina with verbi. or which belongs to the class med. as verb. the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes. . 88. .o 9 * ' J*s . rad. The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb. a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. 9 s 84. 9 * J : 85. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called . accusative see 89. a is weak verb. agentis. B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. persons. designated by the special term «»*a». than the latter. and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb. j+** x*J t see § 190. partly the accusative. § 317./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*].JJ^t« Jji5. 53 is Rem. gemin. The Verb. to D § 185 Rem. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i.§ 89] I. a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. but some grammarians treat ^a». On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes. that C prefixed or suffixed. standing by itself. annexed to the various moods and tenses. B. the con- nected shorter forms.

—Etymology 1. [§ 89 A B . or the Parts of Speech.54 Part Second.

. suffix of Rem. C 2 p. L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp. 2p-^ 1 p. B.. of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect. . 3 2 p. Plural. expressing the Nominative. 55 Rem.. t- (of-> . and also in the wasl (§ 20. I> (o>. Masc. . c. . U w& The forms within brackets are those . tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. Rem.. . .. 3 p. and § 23. p. !/. c). . Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. 3 p. Fern. ... lp. • O c4 tlwy.(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo. Prefixed Pronouns. expressing the Nominative. O thou.. The Verb. used in poetry. {J .§ 89] I. Fern. jj Masc. plur. [Though written defectively this terminal vowel.] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem... Gr. . O (<**k c£-) 1 p. a. O she. Singular. . Common . m • • (6) s» . d. p. defectively. . For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. 3 p. . . d. O . Suffixed Pronouns. 95 seq. ol she. 2. . Singular.. he. !>) *%• d . <j. thou. . (o>> *>) . The Strong Verb. The the 1st pers. O 1-) Z Dual. rem. b. t ^ou - 2 p. Common.. .

.56 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 90 Masc.

j*****. x xx J J x *.. . J Many 0* * . J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding. The Verb. take either x ^ • damma J J . \j+j * <> x x . are an exception to the rule. x x x # * '0' . J^aLi to . Thus. . C^. as .1 for^J^t. p. particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. to sneeze. w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike. J^5 * * s to kill. *Ja3 ask. ye have § 14./fow.. c. tut we d.JL> . " may . . it this assimilation see Rem. * ^ J * ^. for ±y*\ and Uut. 165 seq. 57 To indicate the assimilation. as ^Jes. x J x Ox . p-jb. C-Jaj) for taken. ka. For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp.§ 91] I. Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. Rem. believed. Verbs. the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. iJmu .. thou hast bound . conform to is " the rule. . j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * . c. Not a few. as j*J* know. it b. is omitted. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox . £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. j *-^ . 91. On ^j. or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . I'O* to create. --J£ throw. c^Aa*^. J * %+jj . a. of which the guttural letter. and the geznia. 7 J J x x x right. ^. o. B. 5 £^* to ascend. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return. JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. verbs admit of both forms s s t . O** ' 5 to ' transpierce. to perceive. ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. %X+t t°" . The Strong Verb. jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit.JUj . j&j-i- C radical is Rem. jU* to to hinder. A Ojuc. a as Jj«i to do. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. jjlsu . . Some verbs have two 8 w. %bJu . or 2?mW away. cJJJ j**£ to bray. Gr. good. ^JLcu *Jl> attain to. however. . as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. m+~i or to stick upright into the ground. / have J d x £ served. to cut. . jI o . cp aVaw 0* . or t T . reach. *j>j-**i v~ke* down. " to *-iJ to blow.1 . to sit Jux» .•Zfr* to write. $ ** tjj * . When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. ^jjui.

as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx . x x J x x '.j .»-o Ox . io. abound. a ' t present. or suppose. med. rad. See also §§ 142 and 146. ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory. x*x gush out. J x x .to know. O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess.» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L. as Jpo to croak. rare are cases like jJx*. x . A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. ^$. j^j '.a>A.58 Part Second. ^j.^~*i- Rem.jsu ^ and even three. ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty. when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . x '. a.. 'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan./toy..» *° drink. dye. goodness. unless they be primse rad.» him in promising. ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. '> . as ojlcj he outbid J . Very . Jx$ denoting superiority. 7 . *~^>.. i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure.. J-cub . ^i«-> j Ox . always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). lean upon.j^j j <o incline to. j*mm j j . him in composing J J J Ox poetry. forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to . '. to J x done with.a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing. . the kesra of x t the Perf. . J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. to. takes When the second radical of the Perf.j J x x -j . rad. as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance). SJLiJI 6. the Imperf. x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful. or tert. j «» *-U 6m#. -^. J o. u^j-^i '. [§92 j A . x x /^^» . £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick. w > * J x . xx x ' %j j^> *. comfortable. J x x ojjlj . or the Parts of Speech. Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. as j^s. . j^u to be affluent. oj. * * * q Rem. Jiave . x x x x x * B Rem. x x or w. j. Verbs of the form a). Rem. v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j. ' " '*' %+$ to . x £o tf/iiwA. x kesra.^~* to be safe. v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. ^£jj to be clear. has kesra. lean upon. as w^*>^. X . * s * ' ~£j xx to marry. x x ^ J x x .Iw to . oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows. . . C^mmij x ' i. b. . to be present.». quit. £~e*jj cut or hew. a~ojji. excelled him in c. ^^i *->* . 9J&0 . X dx . J x to J ' give as »*• .

x B. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. rem. o^J . and Imperf. *l%y. j£\. I • With the above forms compare the Heb. C Rem. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise. OU. in the Imperf.. retained in the Imperf. sing. b. cL«). jJ<j to be dull or stupid. damma. between the Perf. J ©Jx as 73B*. 94. in regard to that the marks of the numbers. fem." Rem. p'-m. that . masc. 180*. l J Ox I. The most common example to die (for A a verb med. and persons. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl.. are only suffixed to the Perf. a suffix is necessary. p. j. w*2o." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing." = " I have = "I am killing. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. 59 of this kind of. a).e. done by me). j-*t. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense. Rem. and accordingly we . Thus. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers. The Strong Verb.. In the Imperf. p^lC p. ^ot. v^P to be high. 1st p. Oji.—Similar cases 93. — De . * in * [Anbarl. noble. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. Jjl. the agent. the 2d pers. the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground. has Gr. Perf. O^j. a. because completed. masc. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is. genders. jj+j or t^. Comp. sing. C-***> / became I became bad. viz. sing. verbs ft?p*. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. killed. however. j**\. and to some extent the gender. get masc. sing. are it 'it very rare.J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj. The Verb. The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf. In the Perf." Hi (i. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. from its fern. jJL>..§ 94] or innocent is I. masc." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing. as o*LL to be beautiful. 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. J a in the Imperf. more generally the latter. . When the second radical of the Perf.

as in juxi for juau. c. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm. because the genders. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. for j»^S\ etc. Dialectically. The forms of the Indicat. correspond to the Nom. as the apocopated Imperfect. a.«- it D resembles the noun.] Rem. 60 are recognized as ..- called cji^Jt. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. numbers. in the verb. nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju . X Cy^. The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any . fetha of the Imperf. x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha . 4. The . least the poets § 247. J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. as Indie. the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth.60 Part Second. ^\ . but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^. and Subjunct. jsyu. and its government in the Subjunct.] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. J x . distinguished by the third its radical having x damma. preferred. one must not say ^ojit. w-I&. b. 96.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. . [§ 95 A Rem.1. because j * . to have been At ii. which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. vol. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission. 0l H. falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. In one case. etc. [Cf. j).. . is closely akin to the noun. ^fflZmj in Sura i. and the Jussive >j>%^H. is 95. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is . j cjLa*H. the Subjunc- ) © © <.. which seems originally i. / ^ (^Xju). That is. and Jussive. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^. and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. vowel with the third radical. and Accus. suppose. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel. w tive w>^. In the active voice of the first form. wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem.o. Subj.

Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. O s b. The Strong Verb. with Cm^> Hi X 97. \j~S3. despise not the poor. In the dual. since it begins with two consonants. sing. fem. of ^U. because its forms would then . is The syllable ^— often written !_. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination . Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— . plur. a j * * in a shut syllable: . are exceptions. Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but. The Verb. and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened.jit * j elided. A gender. Com- 0>A ^y^k .becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem. the fetha of 6* <j. it takes. 0~$3.j_ or (J. Gomp. oW^J . 61 2d and 3d because pare pers. & C Rem.or . the of the termination. B. because vt i b.(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. In the 2d and 3d pers. apparently because the sound of the syllable . 98. 194. and pronounced in D in pause I—. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have. is retained. c).jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear. a short . U£3. the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a. fern.. . plur. with \y££=> . rem. plur. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. t>W>> from <jUl. influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. a short vowel before and not to the dual. c. and in consequence the second fetha : of . according to § 26.§ 98] I. is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. coincide with those of the singular. Rem. t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o . 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo . a. nor to the fem. i^-*^. ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. .j. in the Energetic.B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>. Gr. IV. p.

<- rem.>top (o for a. this vowel 0^0 Jjtil. come its and play meaning game called ar ara. is and 1. Imper. b. as j\Jx*. 1842. Rem. § 35. damma. When or kesra. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. see ^ 19. a. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). 23. *&&. wRem. listen ! j\j&. —Etymology kesra . a. ^ J J t. D [Rem. c. 1. Lilt with a various reading . * — DeG. —De G. E. cf. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*. the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem. (§97). is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt.\. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. b) in addressing a single person. vol. The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head. 99. ii. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel.] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. Abs. IV. 6 . or the Parts of Speech. with the finite verb. and on the orthography § 19. g. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1. in cases where that elision does not take place. and the final short <m vowel dropped).>*A)t.62 Part Second.j±. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. which used in the same way. i. d. « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations.] . rem. t^&ipt. This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b.

Act. and also ^Ju^j. 1. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb. In the Imperf. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. 9. Active. 21.§ 106] I. The Imperfects and eleventh forms.— Table 100. The second radical of the Perf. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. B the Jussive being used instead. in the rest with fetha. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. 63 2. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. § 118. Pass. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. q This Rem. In the Perf. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. and Ju£>. The Perf. as J^aj.] originally JJjisI 106. 105. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. are pronounced with damma. where the treated like the o of b. J^Jb and JJUaj. is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms. JJUil. rem. The Strong Verb. a pot I set is on tlie fire. Sibaweih. Act. 3. Pass. i. if the last radical . Sij^i. and the second radical kesra. II. The Verb. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb.— De G. third. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest.— Table III. [Rem. and Imperf. damma. 103. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. 101. Act. from JJ3I. and the second radical Rem. See §§ 106 and 120. the prefixes take fetha. the first radical has damma. and fourth forms. the prefixes of the Imperf. not J^SIj. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed . and Imperf. B. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. 104. In the second. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. is 102.

identical. of the is forms) . e. ». When b. have of course no passive (see § 73). not only characteristic * the first radical. pronounced J with damma. E. a. of the first fifth and sixth forms. O. The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem. of the first Rem. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act. the word remains uncontracted . eighth. jj^aj. frequently) loses its vowel. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e. or the Slif . Pass. there results in the Passive * j . the preceding radical loses . the first Since the idea of the Perf. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. and Imperf. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. J3&. J^j£>. of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass. prefixes. of the sixth. j**a\ for jj**e\. Pass. J * * jJuau for jjslaj. only by the vowel of the instead of. 111. a. b. If the last radical has no vowel. the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. jjW.g. seventh. J3ut. *Z».g. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. vowel. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. as £>jj**o\. fetha. C 109. or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. Jibl.64 Part Second. not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. J3>£>. The Imperfects Pass. In the Perf. * fifi consonants (compare § 54).j. D 110. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. 3. being neutral in their signification. u°> the sjo. )». which is damma 108. Oij^ . Compare 98 and rem. and unites with radical to form a double letter. jJ>t. The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms. Pass. 107. >.g. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. in the Perf. J^&wl. J^St. Pass. but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner. and tenth forms..g. jj**o\ (see § 120). O of ^ u*.

for for j~»&3. J»*W^>. by assimilation for ^**£j\. 112. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. jio\j\ (Kamil. in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. j^x3 j£>£i.. iio«y. A . to lie concealed.) + . >. ComP Gr.j of the seventh it form often unites with w. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic. j^lo. and du. ^L\. — v~<oJ\. Jn»^. for j±> j£. Rem. 569. "' &ytjj& ) Zl e.5jj. ^.g. j. ijijj. B in those persons of the Imperf. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. Verbs of which the first radical is t. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. . ss * and i fern. to take breath. is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers. wn. but use the fifth or eighth. j£\. ^UJ. p. rJ*k preformative of the O . to sing. iJu5. as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. a. The Verb. rem. j-cut. in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms.]. See § 48. G. J. note u±jj\. . b. . j.*&>. Jb+aJg i. sing. In modern Arabic such forms as J^. into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 . the characteristic .§ 114] I. ^ji. fern. Rem. i. j^i. n^n. for £i3 JjvS. f^. Act. 65 UC\. *jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&. t Ci which O is and ! plur. Jf*H> jl^i. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. du. or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. J^tJ) .). The *v\ton.Ut. J J^p. B. j. example namely instead. and compare such Hebrew forms as . merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. are of common occurrence. If the first radical is^». J**yl jJjJt. The Strong Verb. 114. masc. 113. 3d pers. J^W3). P . Rem. [and necessarily ijycjJJ.

letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^.-a^ct. Jjjit. from j^j jbjl. for j^iit.. from c.Jt. for from Jp . from ji>3j or ybjt.^w.l. for *-»2wt. initial The e. which unites with an initial > into 3. E. or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. for j^Jjl.. If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>. Jpt. from %+j jUt or jUt. for ipjl. as well as D tfcSt Rem. aud ^jit. for jUJI. for **£M. ^jt. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j . C from ji. a. . *0 . from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl.!. depends upon usage j-i.S . y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j+. *S)j3>\. . letter b. *. ijj* . E. Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the .g. the characteristic w». £*Jl»J.66 Part Second. from j*. from j^jt or :>pt from j>p .^it. Rem. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form . Rem. or >Z>. j. The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. . Rem. ^j\j. . l»*©it ? from Jsuco. jJ^I. for j£&. Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. . If the first radical be is y j. for ^Ijkjl. <jjjt. from jtj . ^ . or j^>l. letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl». J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt.g. from U> JXjt . is B Rem. instead of the usual £+„*. for tj>^l. bj*\ for bjZ*\.it for instance. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. A for JJa^J^I. for ^>\. and with an initial 3 into > or 3. J**. from cji. eighth form changed into >. j *»*J. from «. as *»*~>t. £***>j. 116.g. . etc. but Lane gives in Lexicon only *. ji?t orjJul from jju. as q\j\.«a*-©t for 115. the characteristic O of the . or j. for £3j\ . >»Ojt.

quadnhterals: . the characteristic initial A changed into h. -*. O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i. a. words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. Jte\. U^>. JJ&\. x x x from %+. ^JLL *$& . x x. omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb. Inf. i>. [117*. to believe. 3p»t. y^ xxx XXX a. The O. and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6. Act. j£~j. Rem. ^jA-ol. etc. Rem. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel. j^-U . Jfljt). or 91. just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). xxxvi. x x x x x x x t. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs. or jUxbt. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z.— Table IV. v>ii. in § 45. d. Rem. or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o . Imperf. j^J»t. C rem. b. 4. x. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? .Si£t.§118] 117. u° ix. 67 If the first radical be ^a. The Strong Verb. or &.] Koran (Sur. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. x x x . with initial 1» into x x h l. ^aUo . b. fifth. 49). is I. o xSx * . The Verb. ^A k o . 36.I ±*Jo\. from j-o. ^L^. 2~^t.lo. rem.. h. which unites with b into j». JJJLl. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf. seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118. *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. ^Uw (see § 202. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^». from lJ*. ^i£t. As mentioned out. ^Uxot. B. ^y-ol. a). *. //£ xxx .i . jifat. or JJSJiS. The D 69—72). four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second. jZ~»* (jZ~**) . eighth form 6. for j*Jxot. .g. or £. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears. j Rem. J» ii. xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. If the second radical be O the characteristic it. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19.Lo E. ^Jbuot..*o. The Qiiadriliteral Verb. ^6. from 0*k> w>jJxot. act. // IS as j^ot. Part. B J^t.

J*c . J-ft-j for JX+j. act. in verse. jro*)\. Imperf. Pass. but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. jJ* to make hard or firm. — Table V. letter. Jgj^. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. make decisive or to to repair. w^J. v** to touch. for yj~~~t> smell. —The J^A. 119. with the exception of . **1a~j or **1~>. [Also. and no contraction takes place as Ojji. and third radicals have vowels. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt. for Jii£ for j*+Zt . The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech. tenth form of elt. but the former is irregular: Imperf. the and unites with the third. combines with the third. oJA. Transitive verbs of this class. Imperf. jtj viz. tesdid. the solid verb. ^^ to become dear (to one). become wise or intelligent. JU> to split or cleave. to obey. Imperat. C*j to sever or separate entirely . *Jx~j. and then E. Perf. clLLrft. JjA.J B 5. E. (6) If the third radical has a vowel. j^ for >j^i.».g. we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. J^->. The form viz. so as to form a double for J-U^j.g. which also admit kesra absolute. damma in the Imperfect. tie firmly. letter. £fo doubled verb. >jk+j. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel.68 Part Second. of the form JjtJ. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}). Rem. which is marked with . [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi.jjiL». have six. so as to form a double for jj9 to . for w«J. Norn. (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. the second retains its vowel. a. or t^lo^t 120. J^ . also used. and then converted into c Ik*!. JfJJbt. is aSI^A. for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . first. Imperf. j* to flee. But if the third radical has no vowel.

The Verb. CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. jjsetc. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one . however. or else s its . £foss. <£&». w*J to be vrise or intelligent. oj. . One verb has only kesra. b. s cJLb form 2. «.§ 120] I. rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). to fove (instead of the common IV.~oiJ. O^j. as redctit for Co3). as. (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc. for C*«w . as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. sj s *iU3 to be silly. s * I first radical Os s . or cJLb for cJULk. s s £)}j. S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse. Cw is S or Cw. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways.). . to Ibn al-Fakih s. * o . a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. ewe. times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks. in one's dotage. s for *Z>jj«JS. etc. C-. Imperf. m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye). are. Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse). ol »l also occur. The second vowel iss s dropped. Rem. »// . jj£» to be bad.>fc»t se?. the long vowel !_. j^> 0* jjb to abhor. Forms like Ojji. B. The third radical is united with the second. and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. w*». p. to have its etc. [See De Goeje. along with the s vowel. : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel. Africa ai becomes Ol i. ^-^. to 69 water (camels) a second time. — C/ow/?. viz. modern Arabic. but OS* s in s N. Co***. woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl.*J.^*} to be uyly. Crr. The Geminate Verb.v. o .1). it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. A Imperf. detest. c. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. 5. * 1. CXolU. JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o).).] / . This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5. Rem. a). B la Us to 6e mrfo/. C~Ui*. to smell badly. wvUlsu. s s . is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. s for O^j. 227 Such forms as C« g >.

If the verb has a suffix. JA*j ul . 121. has a vowel (sing. the Arabs say ^Jj*. tjj-*t. for Conj. masc). (§ 121). V. the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first. sometimes do not follow § 120.70 Part Second. apply also to its Passive. cf. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels. E. as ^£jj*\. undergo no contraction. [§121 A In the Jussive. because is already doubled. Consequently jj±. j^j. sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. 443. Iji.. B 122. The masc. Cf. I . —instead of ^jjit. j3 for jjtt. and eleventh. for ^o-o-i. Higaz. sing. . either fetha or kesra .. j^j. D eighth. l/*t.g. the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j . sixth. and jtjit. in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf.g. however. not U^j. fifth. ^-^-j or s^-j.] * — . and tenth forms. »j->*. jj*j>. rules that apply to the Active of the first form. i ' for ^aJsju. C Rem. the contracted to that of TamTm. and combines with the third. and plur. dual. j*c for jjl*I. and to the third. hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. fourth. this vowel may be (§ 27). ±£x£ or u*xkj. ij-i. 566. Faik ii. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. c. y 6 s0>O ly-oft. ninth. Slbaweih ii. seventh. in those that have u. S| or^e^l The same >j. for or *ji. undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. rem. j&i or^Aj. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. J^ or vi J*©-». tjji —not ij!j*\. or j^^t. the choice of the supplemental suffix . b. w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* . ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third. But in the second. ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. >ji. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc).] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. § jj*\. [But 120. and therefore tjjil. etc.jj*>. it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other.

* * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI. j J«l»-). and ^.). rildda. C. which is a.U*»o.3 . combining the second radical with the third. not unfrequently occur. the weakest of the gutturals. on account of its weakness. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. jew. jo ol j-p E. The Weak Verb. namely case oi In the third. These are more particularly called weak verbs. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. a long vowel. whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other). (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs. 126. by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first. <djl for aJUjt. (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza. 128. The Weak Verb. German ii or 124. sing. are not contracted. instead of rudda. and eleventh forms. However. These are called verba Jidmzata. J>SU>. to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less. Juss. as I. and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. * * J * Aa*A. alone (§ 25. B such as 9 * s uoclJ. the 1st pers. . The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. radicals is . s-*jI~j>. for J*. consonant. ^. * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). sudda (with the French u). Sudda. -»^fc. sixth. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ . Forms like x>jj. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject. in some parts of their inflexion. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. The weak letters are I. D 127. tlamraa. The Verb. the uncontracted forms.. 125. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\. Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£.§128] Rem. as jj. rem. 5>-»-^.U. C.g.

and that indicated by the later points. Act. VII. for good But from an historical point practical reasons. sing. [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs. into ^ with hemza 6 . 1. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. If the elif with hemza and gezma. B is 130. kesra. to whose method of exposition this work. for Ol^». Rem. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. e£$t. These are divided into three according as the hemza second. classes. The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. for to and Ui (see § 133). and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. to be trebly weak. masc.. is closely conformed. or supporting letter. (^). at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted. when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. — . 2d pers. of jj\.). and ^y*. ^ 129. sing. 132. Imperf. or even three weak letters . a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. VIII. the first.— Tables VI. or third radical (verba primse. weak.. Perf. C Pass. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. such as *. Pass. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse). we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. * ^ [This is a convenient formula. it is damma. into ^ with hemza after the kesra. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc. . 1st pers. The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. Perf. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). as ^j\j. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. or ^ by » alone without a kursl. In a root there may be two. mediae. Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. after the damma and (J) . or IV. to be doubly ^Sj. I. of view. which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs. 131. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. (I). rem. sing.72 Part Second.

j)t[+. of resolving the verba C tert. ylta. to read. in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). with a slight emphasis .. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. at the present day. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17. *£%<*»». having the character of a sacred tradition. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area. n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. preceded and followed by vowels. whilst ^ is to say. a. by writing ^yf. In modern Arabic. gi'ta. w^». Verba Hemzata. The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. soft breathing (as cJLi. ^^J. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. that and when B J fc. jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets. as ^Ji for [Ji. h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. and hence the custom. The Verb. Rem. however. u. was bdusa. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. The modern Arab also pronounces i. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with. b]. C*Jji for Ol^3. ^Uk. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '. we the ancient language. ^ §§ 133-4.§ 132] is I. at of a syllable. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. and ^_. at the end of a syllable. This change has already begun in Hebrew. The hemza retained. find traces of a softer pronunciation. ^JjJu for \jju. Rules for writing hemza as J. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi. that danu-a. rad. show their origin from 73 I. 6. y without touching the old consonants. sani'-ta. except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). become j and .] w. because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. 1. and is almost universal in Aramaic. so). rem. it was already lost or 10 . Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an.

250.74 Part Second. Imper. c. and. rem. • Oti (from it is C^jt. o * (§ 17. Pass. but in modern Arabic J . - q$\ . it is usually rejected to come). Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina.J0. J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. b. Rem.] » . not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. it-. [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . . 0+\ oU^J. J I ^t. though it may be retained in writing. . as ba'da'tilqfin. 1st pers. /it/ J). ^l-oli. a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94. * 1 •» . VIII. Imperat.£ . In other cases retained. J^»b. Q . I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage. Imperf. g. b). of ^1. Qordns. IV. not £. sing. comes into the wasl. written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . whence with 10 . Imperat. peratives. for j*\j. Perf. 6. not j-Jt. . because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem. . elif hemzatum. Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. in Mecca. Jijt. p. from ^j . J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. 0X3 (£§. Os 1 >. t I. J w> yakulildan. beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. not jH»^t. sing. hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina. of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. 14.jJt. 8criptio defectiva (§ 6. . c) also Sura xlix. sing. of Jit ' '1 . as ^*b.. Noldeke Gesch. of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort. of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t . U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. rem. —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech. $1 3d Act.jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. d. sing. VIII. not JLijt. Perf. . * *. 257. J^U JO %. (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. jjj\. Perf. O . as G j-^t^. when preceded by ^ or sJ. In Imin pronunciation.jili. 3d pers. 0* in its altered form . as j-wb . pers. .0 ' . elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t. .J*M' . said^LJ for >#J£>. rem.0*3* 0* . and the radical hemza . J passes into the elif of . In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e. Imperat. of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. C/ [And so even of old prolongation.

£ usually left unchanged i . as j*l. of ^j. IV. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. 0. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb. II.0 . /^ E.of j& Rem. of a word. ^J^t . Pass.> instead of jj*i. VIII. or j*\. which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. II. l~. a syllable ending in a consonant. Imperf. 1. he acts stingily Is . u*»>«-». agree with. ofj»*$. to consult. be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf. groan. Imperf. jj\. jj&i. 135. to.o. rem. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). $y*tsuffixes. be reconciled for Imperat.g. Imperat.0 and meanly. as \jJu from \j3. when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha.§ 135] I. for ^U>. an impression Infin. Particip. b).. preceded by fetha. X. it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . At . III. for^UI. for % ^Uj. 75 In the same way. Rem. A ceded by damma or kesra. j\j\. damma and I. Pass. to be . . a). Pass. of JL» . if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one. of j>*$ to. and into ^. Perf. of^oU. yyi. for^tjJ. . *> for^Lj. of J •«« h. j££ peace is made (between them). is I. Pass. J of JL* j j^t. VIII. to twang. or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif. passes into 3 or ^. pronounced with I. . damma Eg. The Verb.o. worthless. y>\>. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. when (see § 17. Imperf. comes J or Finally. for JU. y^i. l. U^j l. put on armour. III. is y>. E. At the beginning I. III. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134. Perf. for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. Oj oj Imperf. or with fetha and pre1 133. of j>^ ^o-LUwt.g. the end of a word. for jjb. sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass. Verba Hhmzata. JO* . to be mean. for ^11. J)\ J^ hsB was asked. J^ for J*>b. for >lUl. Imperf. . O i I . of made. of . of j3l J&Jl. of J$. j££\. I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged.

Act. JXs. to prefer. j-«t. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. see also § 175. for Jiff. to a. rem. In a more modern stage of the language. as . rem. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. as ^^-tj or 'parallel to. b) pers. j*o. . and SUly*. elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $.. and J^. agentis and actionis. to put on an Hzar. . rem. J x . Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\. in the Imperf. rem. according to § 17. IV. . a. to come. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b.3.\. ^£jtj to eat to console.t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. X making X J**.-wt^j. J X ^.76 Part Second. of course. we often jjll 136. of jj\. j) which make only J^j. i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with. • I . as Jjf. and J J J^l J to eat. In old Mss. J . to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt. or J3f. 139. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . for 3d plur. Nomina It commenced. to give wages. rem. prim. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. 6W&<#. and j^. b. tfc £wo became intimate friends.. Rem. J ^O J t (§ 132. O of that form . see § 132. find J-itl.t (for ^il). u*\yo. xx£ to take. of or tjj-«U. and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . the first of . reject radical in the Imperat.tj. VI. rad. J^tj along with. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\. hemz. as Ij^tjJ. for to the characteristic to take for oneself. or the Parts of Speech. b and on the Imperative of ^yl. q for L^tt. "% Rem. b) . from U.—Etymology to order. . The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form. rem. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif. X 138. L». and the etc. Ufc. For the rule as regards other verba . J3u. b. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132.. where. for tjj^U3 Perf. b). they deliberated together.tU or L»A3.

Rem. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. 6. from {j\j to see. to JrwsJ or confide in. JL» Jl~i to ask. plur. 6. cJ~» [not cut*]. more rarely in J^l. secunda). 2d m. an angel p]X a?)in the fern. according as the ^ ^ is the first. or third radical (verba prim®. iUt to send. ^j\. hemzatum is elided. an^ with B ^ i. du ^U». 46. tertise rad. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^. The Verb. J~> for JL»J (Imperat. for e"lif J^jt. 140. p. and marry. still 77 give alms. IjjLi d. ^ et . for J^U. elif J~*. and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. not ^C. from ^jJ for \j\ji. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw. sing.). When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. see Comp. whence ^-U. etc. to receive wages . Jjbl. This for is particularly the case with the verb pers. for JI~j. J-~> C jtl>. Verba med. I^LTi. its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. D 2. a. for O-oJut. second. letter These likewise or fall three classes. —The tenth form of J^. or J-^.§ 141] I. 141. 6). J-~> for JI~j. Pass. t^JL>. or I^LLs. b). to A v>*3t. etc.-kjA_»|. to be safe. for Kg. which has Jlw JL>. Gr. in secondary radicals rem. Perf. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. Jtffc and j**j. \jj).t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt.). From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. o?o. p. ^. t to trade (see § 148. j_kj|. 282. and in Syriac it the rule . Verba Hemzata. to take. into b). Compare . Rem. rem. for ^t. — Sometimes the JC . Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. rad. we may say JuTj Rem. from the rad. an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149.

^o**i> t° oe happy. is ^ (verba prima? 142.g. which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. comfortable.Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su. £*->. JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. angry. Imper. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. Eight verbs primae rad. jJv. (of fat). X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of. to be melancholy. J-fcjj. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. a. The Imperat. to forget. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf. jju. Imperat. j^. jbjj i . ^. xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. Imperf. JxOxxx jtyi '.. i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid . Imperf.g. J^ to stick .78 Part Second. J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly.^ 2o 6e angry with. Imperf. jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise. cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful). J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf. inherit. retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid.. reject the 3 in these forms.C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has . juu for j^-^i. Ox OOO E. JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t). to be in charge also dialectically the ^. J y of the form Ja3. ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l». j**$i or J*->>. J^->. £>jj . £^3 to be in pain. ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to. xx xx in these forms. x j»)$ to swell. Imper. full of hatred (of ground). in § 92). ^° ^ e Jx diyj . jJ$ x x x to to bear children.— Table IX. Ji*J. of verbs |"£.JJu ^3 to be near. j. . js. j**~j.^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat. Rem. £0 fove. t condition and handsome. and Imperat. j»-b for jJ^». ^jj to be firm and hard J X . Verbs of which the First Radical rad. Rem. —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. g JxJxOxxx j § of.. 3 or (£). J^ aJLj.for jaA (jue^l). I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj . 143. ja. or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. [§ 142 A A.g. But those verbs primse rad. and Aram. morning ! 6.

x . 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon. owes its existence is. B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*. Ox xx £3 x jSj. the Perf.ov-jj. J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. xx Ox ^Jbj y^i. Ox for %a*yi.» ji.g. yoy*. Others even use the forms Jjwj.j. y J s Jibuti.yi . j et {J. s>j x to let alone. radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j). xx xx gjl x x to restrain. j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn. cjj and j±j are not used in .lj J x Ox and J*»*u. a. Rem. radicals are strong. ^. j ^ • Ox #J. £~«i. J for x Jj^j. J**. of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. E. Verba t pr. the is In a few verbs. to moke a mistake. £-«y..ai. has fetha. are at once primse rad.§ 144] J I. . dialects x In verbs primae rad. /Off. s-**. b. # ©jJ. *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. to 6e tfi j)« . of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. geminatse . in the mud. x x JxOx %». $>$ to be visited A J0_ . * . The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf. t. „ 144. I J rain. for ^*A>j.j. ©ju. J x x c>. 79 by the mur. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. to let alone. **. rad. J £*• xx to give. Rem. X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. and Imperat. Usy. x x x C » . y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. The Verb. « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}. Xs* and . notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. » U». from j*b}. Jx Ox . £0 £>e afraid . and Imperat. J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. %o»\i and J x x ». most commonly occur. some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair.j or J x r% jj.

See § 143. hill). to be gentle. the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . . Pass. *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake.80 Part Second. e. XL. Rem.. Act. . and X. Jiio JiAj do. easy. 145. #0 receive a promise . producing O »j * * * * . In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. has ^^^ a. ^ is revealed. t.. approve of Sometimes. IV. ^Uj. J ' ' jt jibs gg. j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. however. JO. &*>>. ^^-l. or J s ' . the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis.. c>^iwl. (^jl»I). j~»> to play at hazard. Imperf. In the Passive I. of j~»j and &Ju . of verbs primse rad. IV. teristic In the eighth form. for j~~*i. Jl^jl for jjtjjt. or y^^-o. for Oj and as judt. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . 146. J ' rem. * J^**'. J J jl~>t J and OJ . Hence Jo^-jl. but pass after ^ and ^ damma.. Imperat. —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. Perf. j *^ to or become ripe. the preceding vowel. ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . ^tSjlll. Imperat. Verbs primse rad. %yi J %yi and . for ju*Z>I. and X. . and ^U* ^sb. for ws^jt. J*a*j . IV. for jL~>| and j Infin. according b . for J***]. C*5t. to play at hazard. . and kesra. g. for Infin. Rem. (juujl). £t>Jl. JJjt. Perf. ** grown up. IV. jLmjUA. D teJuj .* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . ^J. f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e.. for <£*3j. w^jt. 147. [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. to despair. rem. into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O. according to the preceding vowel. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for .g. j~3\. 148. Act. ctjut. ' '. ^. ctjuzll. ^*-j. forj-wt a. fetha. J J .0 L»+Z~>\. it. ^Uo *0s See or § 92. I. s^^-yi for w^>j. Imperf. . j-~>$i. * to be sb< J J 6s . and X. O. the j is ^ s or j productions. ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time). . *J^]. or u-^-rf. vowelless j. IV.

is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. ^"t to fear (God) . c. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. b. Rem. and rem. to be hereditary. and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. — C 149.§ 150] tion.g. in the Perf. pardon w. it is said. to and in the fourth form. ^. j~~i. do. follow . J^Ll for for JJ^y . and tenth forms. j. Compare b. he is afraid. „ granted. djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . Compare § 139. The Verb. Verba pr. Gr. (§ 145). j * „ j . indicate the principal points of difference. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. or If the first radical is without a vowel. becomes „ „ Jy^t. rem. rad. ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person.. make one lean. *r>^> j do. JJjLl et ^j. XIII. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first. Uul to insert . to face . 81 I.g. j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147). or ^Jj. *$3. ^*^j j-^ a. >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave). Imperf. Act. Jyb. do. in the Imperf. j Jyu. radicals . For the inflection of verbs Comp. J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. IV. to prop him up . E. I. 11 . E. inherited. ^^i. ^JSj to rely be to upon. w^v-. seventh. p. Pass. Imperf. j for J«15jt. I. . 234 seq. ^J^arJi. eighth. for j-^ri. J*£j. B or long possessed . of this class in the cognate languages. *~3 to be wide or spacious . see B. J^>> Imperf. he goes. Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. JaaJI. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . *l. and the third has one. Rem. is „ JUj. he is afraid. Verba mediae rad. 150. Pass. I. 3 or ^j (verba X.

soften. its Imperf. 0. S^-s^. plur. (j*yy).$. the long vowels ^J— $—. he was thought is gentle. IV. (C^ll). f. 151. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»).03 . i x o t. x do. Pass. x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt). Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). m.. plur. IV. IV. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. 03 3 ij*A*~i\. » 2 I Ojit. Imperf. he softens. are changed into the corresponding short ones. 1^-iJI. Act. x 03 o. IV. X. JU^j. because (§ 25). Jju. remain. IV. „ „ t^lJI. for . > „ 3 O^jl. Plur. 3. IV. do. x 3 J*£l~j. But if the third radical loses vowel. do. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j).„ 3 . Imperf. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!). Perf. J»$*-i.). do. xx to be. Perf. Act. he softened. Imperat. is Rem. ji} £. . . C^UXtaWl x ).j. I. Perf. x a£ 3d p.82 Part Second. especially by the poets. Act. (J**t).g. do. Jussive Act. IV. 3 oi Imperat. 03 0*k. Pass.0. 2d x p. I-. X. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. j»£\. 03. fo stands upright. t^-j3t.. into *sL. ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. j 0*k. d v>Jt. oj \yyi\. pardon asked. he remained. Pass. Imperat. x (j-j**. J*. Act. Jussive Pass. l>o*3I Jx 3 . sometimes still farther abbreviated. 3.a»*) I do. 3 Perf. OJ&X. X.*x. X do. sing. Pass. . IV.AJ). 3 t i (J3. Jussive Act. Act. [§ 151 A he remains. O Oi Jit. do. X. IV. x xOg ^\i\. (CM^)j 2d f. 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech. I. p.

Q . 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules.g.§153] 152. J>5I. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l. The Verb. If three first succession. the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122). then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. I. E. E. rad. 3 o 3*0 3*0 153. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel.g. $ et ^£. Verba med.

suka. sOi i J^*. s s i. first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. J**. and i changing those letters into j productionis . s i E. j*X». 154. (^tfui). ss s C-s^5 s for . " O i s i Rem. three cases arise. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. the damma elided substituted in its place. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. j-m^. Act. B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. Rem.\. and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra. Perf. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive. si (see § 140). and the third is without a vowel. Instead of J*3 (J>3).g. to say. (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. j^6. rem. namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^. J>$). 2d pers. . sing. Pass. German Rem. (Jj^)j like. a ^JOIj). but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. s sis £# (for £*j. If the first radical has fetha 155. and ^J[$**>. j^t s i i „ » a.). forms The verb JL>. some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t.\ (for j#*. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. o~«ji. j-^l). if it s i damma. (J productions. if it was 3. Q b. m. hula. 2*J). il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula.1. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I. In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel. Os s dj~» Oj-j~>. do. In forms like Ji^Xwt. (for £)y*». is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. I. giida.84 Part Second. Pass. Jjo»). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. pronouncing or &.l. s E. VIII.g. -is for JL» _ siila. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t. was ^.

radical is is Verba med. (c^J). Pass. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»).] rad. Act. and most verba . fo/i#. say CuXS. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel. (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. and in those mediae rad. ^>* (^y*). 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. I. to fo . 93) . 2d pers. sing. ^£. do. Most verba mediae j take damma. mediae rad. bU'a. and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. Ci4 x xdx e. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). » m. sing. Oxx identical in form 155. 156. according to x x o E. I. 157. c). do. Perf. C-o*-> for Cou. *. do. 2d 3JLik pers. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). J Osju..g.* 6. Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. grew m J J X J J}/ . 2d c> pers. a) and C* **. x x x *£*.g. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. etc. „ a. bii'tu. The Verb. m. ^ J of the form J*5. — De G. fern. etc. . for E. m. In verbs mediae rad. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh . VIII. as in a. but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. sing.§157] (b) I. a § present. [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem. kuta. Rem. pyj. e. suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. and Perf.. seventh. from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. cJJ» ° cJ^b. I. as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. ^ et ^J. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. Perf. sing. (§ 155. B x c*a£> for a C^»*. In this case the same i elision takes place. change the fetha of the x O x Kg. forms. are J O J . m. Act. comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). the 1st and 2d pers. to .g. rad. ^j kesra. Perf. Act.g. x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj).* for C-s^*. D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. to move away. the § 25. J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J.

((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y)./ktr. or the Parts of Speech. IV. ' E. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. Imperf. TVlD*. lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. See § 11. 159. are mentioned by the lexicographers. >jV( •>>* to 60 6M. from J\j (J^tj). obtain. § 90. to get.). of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. if it did. ^>?j. for. But which are of the form J*». ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. C-*o. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate. JU. • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. ( J-»j-») . from ifa night . of the form }»3.g. to tc?M&. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. j^^ IV. for CJj. Imperf. ^£*. s Some verba mediae rad. Imperf.. to cease. to .S. rad. for Uu. . . Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. co^ XX Heb. rem. XX. OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. j. from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. for C^Zc. fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). 3 et ^j. O or Q. x Of . oU->. xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. c. to sleep. . ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. j***. a. Syr. comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J). and b. 160. are always written. XX ^. are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf. See U>. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. ^JU^. rad. 3 —Etymology in some. O^* f° r fr° W C guard . »*x x £x G x . xx ^^. takes fetha (§ 92) e. £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. Jlft. and O3-0I (Heb. and T B also C~*->.g. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). a. though w~o.86 Part Second. second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . the X X X X J X X Imperf. . 3. no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly. and a few mediae . •• Syr. *y~>\ . for example. X JJ £j>j and £»>*3. A Jxx JxOx . Hence we write J33. these In verba mediae rad. 158. jj*>i. C*o. j~~j ijv~i). Imperf. which rem. jj* to be one-eyed. . the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3. ^.

^ -»x et ^. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**). The Verb. grant a prayer.>t. *" *~3>)\ to pair. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp. from the rad. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. xx to j>^t to borrow. Gr. used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad. 161. to " marry x x . JU-I or 162. Some verba mediae weak rad. Verba med. to consider right.»t. xx inflection. the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad. w»Ut or <^^j\.§ 163] Jx Ox x . x <Jyau J^a. x Imperf. *' ' A Oi . M . O^verba mediae rad.. jU o>^ Mjo one another. x x elixwt or cUwt. the first b. as jy**\ to be neighbours. xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. j et ^. shortened from cl :^l. to watch a rain-cloud. to reward. x 87 x x xx Ofc . rad. from Jl». Jx x . 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age. to have a long. with the exception of a few. to Rem. u .g. M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx . D xxOx she-camel (*$U). and flexible. XX* xxxxxO rad... x x x W0c£. j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . IV. A few verba mediae rad. rem. which almost always adopt the strong. J>fct ju. J^a*->. ju*. oftey. w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting. from ^*^S a bow .. but they generally prefer the weak. Imperf. Imperf. ju. juou JL* have a slender waist. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx . from m\j do. Ox ^.o to have a particular disease (ju-«.g. Similarly. rad.>t or w>j a». Hebrew and .jfe>\ or^^l. Imperf. Many inflection. rad. Rem. slender JxOx x . p. a. I. see § 118. IV.«a. from the w>L« . from verba med. J>*j. jlr*. x x Imperf. Jx Ox to squint. Imperf. C from the rad. Jf^wt to become like a . the Jx X . from the rad. E. xxO of sU». c. xx Ot J-j£j. [chiefly denominatives]. 9-lj . x x j glanders). b. E. On X. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. from the x X . to be cloudy. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->. in Rem. ^ from^U do. said of a camel.. to 6e a&Je to do. see §§ 240-1. the eighth form. or intermarry. 242 seq. On form from verba med. w> U* » . . to give an answer.

(§ 167. that retains its power as a consonant. (a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb). etc. UjJ^. (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. forms tj£. u —a. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. ends with a consonant. as iJD±. for ^j B with. and Ojj-w. There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. ^ 3 of the form Jii ..— XVIII. or it resolves itself into a vowel. jjx. ft a). when the preceding f . a. d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*.— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . /?. one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. O ss s Rem. classes. is [§ 164 A C. s s E. b—). I!**). : jet fj. namely Jjtf . where they . not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). (e) Verba tertise rad. s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j. —a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf. j of the form as to make a foray or raid. u—a ($—). or it is elided.to be ashamed.88 Part Second. l£J^> for ^o>. as ^oj to throw. might have been O^j^. as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ). C-oj^. s w-»j^j. a). In the dual. a. The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. a).g. 166. ^ of the form Jj*i sis . 165. namely. for^j£ (b) (§ 167. u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). sss* In the first and second and II. sing.. they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j. of the form Ja$ . a). and. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. Verba tertise rad. /?. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels . Act. the masc. j of the form J*J . % . — \j£> Verba tertise rad. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. place. a. after I. (d) Verba tertise rad. fern. 164. (c) Verba tertise rad. the 3d pers. on the other hand. sis as jj~> to be noble.

rad. Imperat. . in the second syllable. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '. a. O^j-j for Ojj-». as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and . rem. and and the two vowels are contracted .. sing. or a). as t^-oj-j. fern. according to §§ 166. ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable.g. as for Ojjx. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. ^— 7... the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. !>*«. Hence arise the following cases. as Ijj^fc for tj. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij. = cJjii. yi— into j_. c^j for C^ w. rem. or after dropping a short vowel. that is to say. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P.§ 167] I.uw and ^. ^-. 12 .ty pass into ^— u and t -d. . The Verb. Verba tert. The 2d pers. owing to the influence of the /?. \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-. sing.. lT^J L5~^ . 89 fern. they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>. cally. and 168).X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians.. a. ^-©jl for ***j\. 'ugzu). lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . as for t^JjJ. L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. E. (from ^^>j for^-oj. or elided. in J At It the end of a syllable. as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3. is (b) The i third radical u. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a. Rem.*j£ ^ . j. might have but said b\j£ and UU. j 167. u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123. 3 et ^. ^*j>»» for C*j>». one of two ways. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -). and 154.

Vol. a syllable. O as as . tenwln of x damma and for kesra. 3jU. jo f. but the tenwln E. 4J}\ approach. J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj. and ^— rem. OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on. <u#cj. (3.90 Part Second. etc. 3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I .] . Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . for (j?jU. ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. gazauta. (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji). jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical. but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for . D.g. These vowels are x > elided at the same time. a) . (see § 236). (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a. for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . Jju. OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!.g. J***.g. it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E. fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation. and . X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0. for ramayta.. x O xx gazawta . j£\. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable. before the J^U is x (§ 80). ## for ^-). t>£ for jj£. a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j. ^^H f° r ^p. ramaita. it is vocalised in three different ways. third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative. for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168. Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis. j>j-~>. The Jussive § 230). fi for j>*j. sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. for . j_ X for j— lib ^_ . 00 jJaj xOx . J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj. (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166. ^_ X for ^J— and ^_. ii. ^j*\j and ^\j jU .g. E. /?. but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. J**-». G. E. (jj-xt). ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. Oj^fc. It has been already mentioned is (§ 166.$>*»». 5) for ay. [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). ^-Stj) 5 J . J J The a. ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. not naturally.

. 3.. ^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. from lw to irrigate. (§ ^. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain. rhyme as for u^U). 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. Perf. rad. rad. as far as the above rules permit. rad. wliich have both which comprises several varieties. and not ^.tjt (Ji*J1. ^J^l \JJ&[. as $jsu> for jji>«-«. Rem. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£. g it/ admit of either form. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. compared with the correp. ^>j^. Rem. JLLj. j et ±J. each of of those . 171. C-*-©. The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. 170. b. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59. / am mra from (&&e) the lion. For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. C>*"^P fr° m 169. to attack. The Verb. whether attacked or attacking. In verba tertise rad. Imperf. a.g. Imperf. sing. masc. we get 5 inflection. a). maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently. 255 seq. the preceding for ^j«j*c. from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i.1 Rem. instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. of verba tertiae 3. ^jZ-. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. Such verbs as ^*oj. ^o\j. verb . a). the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . The form ^>*-o ^jk*. I. rem. and. is occasionally found in verba tert. ^ijp.§171] (tj—) into i^. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . In the nomina patientis. or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land. J}^\. Jyta* (§ 80). in consequence. . Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129). for l££jtj waws into j. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. ^. e. Gr. the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+. Verba tert. though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. 3.

. x Imperf. J is ^l-a-j. j&. Such words . The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. as bj to smooth. [§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172. according to the position of B 173. hemzatae. . X»X X«< C 174. (for U*. Rem. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. hemza. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. rarely See § 146. to wish. . hemzatae. as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. [also ^sb and u~jb] . 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad. it t^a*. its Imperat.g. as jt$ to frighten.XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. and 142. more OS. hemzatae.92 Part Second. 3 i 6 x Rem. and (/?) verba tertiae rad. varieties. ^bt. : — . sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. hemzatae. 3 ^. J$ (j-rfU-!. of u~-*-^> to despair. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs. J^3 to tread upon. follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. rem. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. 144). J D x The Imperf. X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return.) to come. tju.

A . Doubly Weak Verbs. a. The Verb. 93 of. J>\.§ 176] I.

for ^tjj.1 < st . always elided : ^jj\. 0>l. * J [§177 S3 (like is The . Pass. when si it signifies to show.g.3 to be near. in which j or ^ is occurs twice. is c. . Active z^Jj*. . ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . by transposition. 3 3 . The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad. ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech. In the Imperf.94 Part Second. Pass. whatever.3 ^j 03 tjj. -^ (for gjl). 179. ^jjj. the hemza . as ^$£ to roast. ^^j) or. i . Rem. L5^ ' E.3 it>3 elided. J or or A* a). there are two sorts radical. jj. rem. J 3 . as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard. B 177. those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. the hemza it is . sort.g. ^3 ^3. is or the Parts of Speech. e. (§ 175. the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . a). to be strong. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained. —Etymology Perf. In the second E. ^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. Rem. C ^j . 3 or ^. . b. ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J . 178. In the fourth form. just as in the voice. Of the second : class.g. radical.

). rem.. 123. for La»l»>t. X. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. (c) in the A nomen actionis IT. ^jt to is betake oneself to. e -ge. . LL> to ivrite the ^.g. >.a*J. in the Imperf.. C as (^lj to promise. ^j^> (§ 179). Verbs of the is 181. * t a*3 for 4****J.. are inflected like j-^t and . first class are of two sorts..**£**>. the first radical.§ 181] for I. also admits of being contracted into . B Rem..-£. <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect. and — The § 153. as is it seems to consist of only one verb. £>t**!. when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. and l. Doubly Weak Verbs. ^a+j.ou into forms . .wt. rem. to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. 95 ^fc. (§§ 80 and 20'2. as . and Imperf. (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf. The Verb.-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. 178). j^**.). (b) as j^^j. which letter hardly ever used j viz. 180. The former l£jW. .. — ^c. . namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to . I. -i-. and rem.». We pass over the second class.

Paet Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 182 .

I^ju. by contraction. Appendix A. to fo 6ad. J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. J*2J to [or rather. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii). U ^^Jj or ^U. ^>~». juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. Gr.] Rem. The Verbs of Praise and Blame.» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9. and^^so. Instead oij^su we may say ^3. as: a dependent lit. They are used as exclamations. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . it is said. 97 II. as xx for j^ " for j^. and ^-£4. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. and are generally indeclinable. ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j. Verbs of Praise & Blame. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^. Zeid is an excellent companion. and U ^oju or. U-Jb. jt^ for jl^w x . [The following noun must be denned by the genitive. juj ^^a-LsJI j^. though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS.for ^>~»»«. x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w. may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. its x x x If the second radical be guttural. x J —a contraction which x © . If followed by l«. . vowel. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$.» and x JLy£. according Comp. S>**J. and ^^j. jjj for jjj. and the p. b. fern. The Verb. U«ju. which x last is obviously the original form. and the plur. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. as j^JSj. instead of being elided.^^*3. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju. the dual U*J. 166. article or O-**5 ) occur. . Arabic verb of the form Jas or .§183] I. to be good. excellent as a companion is Zeid. In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. v»^» for^cjib. s^&y X Hence ^*j. These forms are to be explained as follows. which has been thus attained. x x write Rem.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

Rem. is Rem. When . Me therefore. fear Me.104 Part Second. nomen. . Q Rem. Very frequently. 22. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. a 2 seq. in this case ^. the verb worship. the pronoun is. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb. placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. b. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. but not always (see § 187). sO* Jt. Rem. b. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. a. Jerem. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. a. from d-JlLct he gave him to me . for the sake of emphasis. a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. if appended to the verb. ^-»^l. J s 0* designated vo-^t. (a) The Noun. it to instead of 4-JUast. he gave it to him. more 1 especially is. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. help. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. Thus. instead of AAlkct. he gave (b) me. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. See rem. Compare in Heb. Gr. 189. II. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). is 190. see Oomp. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. of i^_. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. The nomen substantivum. a. VOX?! *HWr*&. THE NOUN. or Substantive. as abl ^ylkc-t. instead § 317. sing. In certain cases this form alone is used. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. qualificabile.

J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum..)l. or Numeral Adjective. of by. called 3u\jm\. a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. descriptive epithet. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. b. is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M. 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). that out. in Rem. aa-oJI. the noun of indication.- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum. 3 Jit * ^^1. A quality. or cJtdf. or Personal Pronoun. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately. and a. or Demonstrative Pronoun. \Juo^\. . the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. that which is apparent or It is also manifested. * as opposed to &La)l. The Noun. for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j. (c) The nomen numerate. after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353). avTaiVVfiia. * the noun of number. »J 105 . is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. is.-0. 84 —89 and 185 — 189.. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* . are Rem. the substantive to which the pronoun refers.gv as the above translation shows. or Adjective. w. 14 . 3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\. The names of the pronoun. — ui regard to form. they are identical in almost every respect. because. word by which something the concealed or kept in. j^S SjU^t. D * elliptical expressions.§ 190] II. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI. >o or Relative Pronoun.

a.jUJI « human being). The horse.^5*^ qualitative. . as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). ^j* may . derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. full of water. the root of ^ji. a horse. primitive and . one that a nom. or verb. .. from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative). ^ 9 0* . that is. act. 9 a key (from *J3 to open). as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion). in respect of their origin. into two derivative. a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns. nouns were formed. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. is «U a denominative verb.. and a comparison of the meaning word. At a later period. b. classes. nor derived from act. not itself nomen actionis or infinitive. and which does not give birth to a nom. Rem. Nouns are divisible. The s . is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth. and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. formed from *U nor 9" from it. and are either » deverbal. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective.. conversely. 191. [§ 191 A 1. to be skilled in horsemanship.. y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). or denominative. stantives as J*y man. as .^wt.106 Part Second. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. derived from nouns. to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. ^ji. A. primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye. that is. and their different Forms. ^-> how ?). in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools. of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U. u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . is not derived from oU. derived from verbs. but a denominative Rem.£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide).. water. its root. |Lo water.\Zjlo . follows. ^l^JI human . .

JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel. as ^LxJt ^jt. juw.jjl. in its strictest sense. or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1.§ 191] II. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. or verbal root. Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A . smi as ^L». sJ^*. a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . a noun that is A derived from a nom. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind.e - a name of. as ^-»».^t. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos. 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. 2lJju. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J. J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. or xO rawie.l^ and ^t^JJt. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. father o/. x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. riding. as jj-o*. « man. understood. the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot. as 0x00 man. act. . a as^oJLft knowledge. 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S. ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO . the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. an ^>*£^o~>t. names of women. ^J^jJui a quince. jU». w>jj/5. roottra that is augmented by additional letters. compounded with JO i ^jI.o-L j^£>. J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. names of horses./***> of. an ^Ji^^wl. or^at. . fox) .^U. names of men. as ^^ft knowledge. 5 J x The Noun. or (6)^*1 ^y*o. tfAe £ion.^a. as ^J***. opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t. daughter of. ( ^ji a horse . 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. 02 / A. or . as i«L»l for the cat. x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass. 4«~ot. dx . • a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object. but^aj^JLo.

aj^^. Ox BaJal-bek. The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. or an honourable epithet. the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>. amir pounded.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. viz. 3 . * . x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. Bebba (imitation of a sound). 3 x extemporised.. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o. x x arm). x J x ^jtjSJj^c. 6. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. ^--jiM _$j-«t. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound. i the sun of virtues. ^b*.O J genitive. The 9*x as j^> (a bull). ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort. ^^ JOxJ wA*5.a*J^o. w*jj$ &\.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7. —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J). 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . £&e female hycena. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. . J>*b ws-U. gift)'. aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose. impromptu. [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J. 6). 0*3 It. ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt. c) (8) X. existing only as a proper name. as w>^»t ^jt. xDx . or wilcu*. tfAe weasel. c. Siba-weih . as io (see above. as 2J*j Duck or Bottle. x 3 consisting of a single word. latter class is of six kinds. ZjZ£- . ^e tortoise. ^ijs- ^t. a surname. (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). or (b) %^^»^o. x 0*» x joica/. improvised. or proposition. jb^SXZs j»\. « x J Ma'di-karib. as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. as C iUju. j**). as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God). . as t^itu jus. (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally. Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). the "patient" camel. &15U (bestowing). OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . predicative.^0*-. as ^3 1. (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^. jX^j. d simple. transferred from some other use. as j^w. (excellence). Job's father. ft 2ro30 x U -p. The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals.

The Noun. *Uyt ^S. a jectives. nouns of. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. £3^1 £l©-/t. A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O . action once. nouns of kind or manner. the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. \Jj&. (b) Nomina Nomina speciei. (participles).\\ ll^wt. but have the nomina agentis et patientis .§ 194] II. place C in- Nomina instrument i. *W*l.»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis. nouns denoting the strument.. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. 109 192. come to be used also as B 193. namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. the reference or relation). The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. J^UJt ll+*\. pyi\ ilo-^t. the noun that denotes the individual. Sj^. nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. . the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time. and nomina patientis. is c>J&\ ^wt. (a) Nomina vicis. llo-wt JjjtfcoJt.^1 ^^1. 194. the referred noun. (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes . J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). particular class of derivative ad- . w^ » . Nomen vasts. but have substantives. (d) Nomen relativum. are by their nature adjectives. >. also called nomina (d) vasis. Nomina bo agentis. A.

^i. CO/ 1. list The following a nearly complete within brackets. 8. 9// 9// 9/' Ja3. subject. J*3. passion. %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. the lessened noun. >a-c. O***. JaaJI *U^I. . The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. o e>M3 (a) „ . Rem. The nomina verbi. as w>jm£.. J*». the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). 9 of them. The nomina verbi.110 Part Second. as 0*4*> Jaw. where it originates). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. >j. are very numerous.*. £j 6. 9«« / 2. (/) Nomen deminutivum. ^U. 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . ^o-lafr. Z.Ju. oc 195. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/. j£w. the lessening). jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. /0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis. J**. J / /O/ (lit. 196. as w~U». as *Jl£. 9// JaaLw. are abstract substantives. 9.Q\ ^~/\. the diminutive. 9// J"k>> voj-^. as i*A». / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s. wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-. or time. the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*». Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. *yj. JUi. M*-* j> 7. as w>*^> ^a^. 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj. 3j£. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. SlXw. ibuo. ^j.mj. / 3. j^>3. as ^**A. as»£>. as <U*^s *j^> fat. which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive. ^J*p. . <".. The Deverbal Nouns. v5j^> wJJU*. B which express the action. t^j~». J*». 9/ J ? J 2 J w^. The Nomina Verbi.. J>5. j*o. • . 9 J 9/ j ? 5. without any reference to object. j-w. J£>. D 4. -*j^. a.

JU*. 0^i © •J J[Jl.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. ^»>i. as eg^y B 17. as cA*«»g. as *£*>] o^. i3Ui. ^5**^^^Ui. 22.] [19* [20. II. SjUi. Sjlij. ^^Uj. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. as O^*^. as ^J-o*-. SjuLi.<& Adj. SUU.J [13*. JUi.] Sul. o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ .. [15. as ilAt^>. JU3. al^Ui. ^lU (or J&).. o^o^. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . . aX*5. lS**3 - L5£**. [13. as *jU£». iitjjL. as £jl*i. 28. 11. rial. 9 as oy. as ^-^o. 4^. 29. 26.] ^**. as ^jA». The Noun. 4>^-»-. iCLj. liUL^. oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21. as Ujl*. A. as ^IK Jl>w. «''» as i*Aafc». [24. ^J^. ^3>iif. as iol. —Nomina Verbi. 12. SjLs. 31. 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. cA&. £Ui.] O^iii. %>^=>y .] ilJUi. as [18. 16. iip. as < V »a-. 4JL0. JU». aJUs. 53UaJ. io-«ac. O^***. J 27. as as iW-] ^>^. as Oj^^xj. j) . iUi. [19.. *1^> *^> 3&.§196] 10. JUi.^f&] illi. v 9*1 l*3.jtjl.Lai. [30. as Ait^i. Ill ILJ. ^-U*. ^i**. 14. Kr&z. ^l^j. as ajUj.. [24* 25. 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J. 3)U~>. 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. 5JU3. £J£ (also written <uU). JU-. Nouns Subst. as TClj.

J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj. / • • d «. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. v**i»i<jtj Je*3.> t a> -e.. The 9 0* five forms. insight. ?-s*-j«c.. 3ijAo. j*a. Slo^o.112 Part Second. 198. and the remarks to 222—225. as ^SU^. as oj^a^o. however. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44. as Jj**. as *J££. J-oa-c. d->j*o. 42. 5 Syii. — 44. a^-*. 0. GO* 00s u . 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-. 33. GO* as J^-Jl*.J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i. J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*.0* tS$y°. 34. jrf understanding. £T / d . diksuLc. J>*i.— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech. What these are. as ib^e. : Jli. must be learned D from the Lexicon. I 32. as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. • 3>5j. few of more than two or three. J**s.o £^~«. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. . (a) ** * . as i^jJI. SjJtLc. 2. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. J*^-> B 38. cAs [41. which are most frequently used. 39 c. . to snatch. are 28. Sy^. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo. Urn** .. J»***. * ** ibUi. «»/ JJ£ to kill. Sj^j^o. £J>*i. 33.' 9 * 0* . triliteral verb. jyd. 34. ' «• . 221.] [Rem. G * 40. aJLai. rem. 43. Ji*. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand. ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s .] 37. Ij^ii. see further §§ 208. J**j. J*£*.Jjfc3 * J** * is * .» / i^x S s 39. as Ag^ci*. A*a»^e. i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t... 1. as 3 ji»a*. J***** asj*£«. very 197. JmA '. a-wo^-cJ.] All these nouns cannot.

as ^Jslc to sneeze. w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . 9 x xx > ^Ja*. to bray. to to flee. jJu. to 9 palpitate. 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. to ft* ^'c£ and t large. Nouns Subslti Adj. Sx x x to be generous. # xJ 37. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness. to xxx lash the tail. Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. 21. pcfc to * become refractory. xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. xx to croa&. - wju wjbu and ^~x. i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound. firmness or soundness of judgment . ^xj l\SJ . 9 x 37.> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. as j\h x x to fly. ^° gallop (of a camel). J^-tf J>yj to bray. xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam. vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash.— Nomina Verbi. AJtjjh. or 9 x . * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. change of place. /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». refusal. 7»5j±> going out. to be agitated.§198] (b) xxx IT. palpitate. Rem. x run quickly. shun with horror. xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. J^-* to fo smooth. J**3. Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£. j\y* xxx . his 9 9 * .sitting . ' . ^o 9xjxxx . . ^ *-jjL. *-L3 ^Xj to weep.. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight. * . £)\jlx±. x xx to to run. 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. { j*L±. . p-U«o xx . x *-*»£ 9 x '. «J xxx 9xJ to bark. jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. 9 x J j\i to flee from. *bt. go out. ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*. 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*. u°j* sickness. J 9 Us. . xx ^ys> 15 to w. cry out 9xx for help. J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. r> JU* as ji. f-\r>e . y^x3 and J J ^yU. 9 The Noun. 9xJ Jo roar. usually take the form 26. to brandish. ^A*^ x x x . jtiu. to be rough. }\jJli . to be x j x of sound judgment. Ci s jjliUi. s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. ^JUi and xxx .jb^. to sit.. Si* * xx xxx }j£. run away with . 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . B aJ^^w smoothness. rider (of a horse). A. ^J^Jt9. as 9 x . as J*~j 9 to travel. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form . ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). J***. 9 X . *-ji joy . Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . * * . 9 9 x . as juiS and ^J^. u°j*° to be sick. 27. *-U-»^->\ to refuse. BjyL±.

3)lyj>x x <*J>2». Sj^. 200. or jl-^. J^i. to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. 4j*^5. has OXX ' j^j*. %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat. has jj*.s*J to trade. office. If a verb has only one form. Ox X i»ti. fl x . act as deputy. ly». has £*Jj. one Perfect. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight.. SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . have a hud Ox© usually has voice. Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy. x xx Thus. trade or handicraft. it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns. sense x x . 5 x it signifies curb {a horse). has ^. to part. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. *UUs. the caliphate . . Ox£jU£» . <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. u^P or Aitjw. but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. governorship. 201. but in the sense of Ox xx . gUj xxx x x . . [§ 199 A howl. xxx ju*. or the Parts of Speech. one of which peculiar to. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w.to Ox x sew. *liu . tions. tfAe 29. <bto xxx deputy ship . that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. to be exalted or noble. for accordingly. loud.. but »*i^w. the office of secretary . to succeed. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. as t^il*.) or caliph. divide. ^ZS** to write. to ^ OX XX . „ or tmir. B 199. or jjj^-. w>U to take one's place. 3 J in. to find. 3jU*j 2mofe.114 Part Second.j. X X X U>j£>. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels. . but Jji. but j^»». grief or anger. to judge. or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x . U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel).. be chief of. to fo plain.Jj to be in charge or command o . j-v*-. j-ij** to £*j. xx traffic.^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after . The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself.g. to be afraid. open or public. each of to its meanings. and to 60 moved by love. Jjji . noble or eminent. jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. and wi^w be exalted. E. Ai^Li. and xx x have several abstract nouns. j£j*-.

a^Xj. to Bibl. employed in the active and Lane. as ^>^. x S^-cuS. S^J. «^'>^>. JuU. JUA3. aXxaj. SwiJ. 25}s!*3. triliteral II. as Jl^cu. D. JUA5. 9 J'^a^>. 9 x as JU^j. £3ja3. O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. iSCJ^. Jt ji. JStc. 9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2. as jjjj-w Joy. x V&£>. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3. as ££1^3. J**&. x JUjJU. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. $50^5 from j^j to be found. first. il^io. G. Nouns Subst. J£«*. as lUu-I*k. XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. A. ?^h^. of the strong 202. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. x/0 fl£J.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created.§202] its II. oi jUfe. . X as 1>\S£>. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. iGX>. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. The Noun. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification. ibuu. gladness.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. see the Gloss. 5^a5. . u^Uy. »LJ. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem. Geogr.] signification . to exist (see §200)*. existence.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . 2^.] [6. S>~J. from j~» £o glad. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. a^v>. i*> . The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows. C JtaXJ. 1.

autli. but of an obsolete are. J&. 2. JU*. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 1..] B VI. Rem. [2. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin. JbLait.] 5-0 IX. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. XIV. >«£. 1. Jajuu tert.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I. [2. the infinitives. Jt***. ii&fo c xv. J&.116 Part Second. JcUf. only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. OjUl] [3. 1. the form JJUi is the original infinitive. •£«. J!jU5t. JUtf . [or frequency. V. yjjuu. JUA3I. as JU-*->. as j&. 7$}£&?. 0-00 X. but is chiefly by far the most common.] VIII. J^U5. a. J**a3. JUllt. j3U?. akin to /SJ&fi. ( absol. J%*lt. whereas JUaj. as >*£. Jaw. is In II. is and rad. to Heb. as OjUj. JUil.] IV. Jilil [2. as v£*-*> cfe. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ. /^P). in. [3. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. to excess energy or intensity. used in verba rad. and are represented in the . alxsu tert. . 3 et ^ (in which . JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. strictly speaking.]. XL XIII. as JUS. jSL. substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. [4. Jtjait.. VII. ?5uJt. [§ 202 . XII. hemz. latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare. JUiXwt. as jjy-3 from tp) I. infin.

^). Jbt^i is the original infinitive. The nouns formed from the iLUi. A Wan. or Jjti. Perf. III. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. 6. rem. as>l*j£». common form particip.. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. C 1. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant. /J » x ___ III. as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL». * [Barth. 9 xOx JUj-. 0x0 JUX3. 00 J^JLxit. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive. ]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ. etc. JLiutf . —In VIII. as p. the original form is JUaj. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*. fUU. x WShft. The most pass. 0x0 2. The Noun. J&Jl. <U. § 180 disapproves of this theory. is as jli*^> oUloit. UjLoJL etc. Nouns Subst. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj. J'iUJ.).. Nominalbildung. [3. Oj^e*.] J-***?. of all is aJUULo fern. {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem.j3. J^Jj*. Zlsy>.— Nomina Verbi. JUJU.j*.t. D [The irregular form IV. A..*— In III. JjtAj.UJ). jj*a* ^o-A] I. 3p*s^. 117 /^JUH. I. as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*. Rem.. JU$. Hv^in. G. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. and Imperf. — In ([in form identical with the] V. as *-tj«o. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft. those B Arabs alone use JUJ. as Jig. x « &AAj~i. II. JUu^. into <Jmu. who shorten the Jji5. and Lii to VI. • < • In XUal is the common form. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III.& Adj.§203] II. D.] .] 203.

undergo no contraction x x as jju>. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. Rem. Imperat. [§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). Those nouns. that reject the ^ in the Imperf. of which the first and second . x xxx j . j. as 3»lo»« or olo-«. (§§ 142 and 144).118 Part Second. b. to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not. The B Rem. Hence %x« for jjco. ^*jUJ or w>L*J. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha. abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. mutual thrusting and stabbing . mj 204. and Imperat. x x a.g.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206. which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. Those verba primse rad. E. The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. o Sjcfr from js-2. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. Imperfect julj. 205. drop it also in the verbal noun. yJAfr. like JjJj.

l j from verba med. .jl*x&. . from ^©13. . Initial ^. as^oLS for^ftly>. pronounced with fetha. 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3.» See § 145. changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*. *«*.-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s . as .. x The Noun. and kesra precede as . )L±* (rad. * * ma T •• (&*). A. j-w.^f. rem.l. 5 If the noun from a verb mediae . ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. . (or § by assimilation 223. ^ -B (&). -Jfc*). « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3.j and Sj^. >Uut and **X X *ti. for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem. if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra.' rOfc? (*^).—Nomina J ' Verbi. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. rf. 9 c. x > 11. 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©). or ^j be of the form x 208. 207. 3i. . and the [See D 209.' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J.Jj.xx d for w>Ufc. Nouns Subst. 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med. . A . Compare > . x Rem. it is If the letter j.). prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. x j£. rem. be preceded by kesra. ^om nb\ . as w>j>>.9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. if it be without a vowel. Rem.T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^). J^j**. Jj>»». . from the tenth of . x x J & Adj. etc. of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157). 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145. where it remains . from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. Imperf. fr° m YW. the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3. j. bt* .). 5JLo for aJl^o. as Jy>. >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M.] ••!• 5 x ^M). l\j*~* like. ' nsr. ^o).ijjfc.1. x x x . 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^. ^ . from olo . Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. rad. b. this radical is ^.§ 209] e -gfl II. from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form. in Hebrew.

*>. S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ. the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical . shortened JL**s. 77^*3 to prove that pi3. (->>>).5. ^ et ^ x the nominal form . Dtfll) . ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i. all combine DDte. ^-^j-j*. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£). j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o. jMj) fromjy'J). £0 6e chief or ruler. so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^. j|>». SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and. x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *.^w. on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables. E. they say. and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206).. mixture. were. confusion. pb.4. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£). is and then x ) . aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i). tjjjyfa+i 2.from ^U-. aJ^JLx.g. Ox J J Rem.— Etymology . &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. 211.^u.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui.^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«. and >U*^t. a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. rad. In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided.Jtlilwt . and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x . .120 Part Second. rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>. or the Parts of Speech. Oli^ I5U. and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2). ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. from is 210. aJ^JUi as the original form. into <la. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui. first ^ et ^5. [§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti. i 5J^Ui. in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ . from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. x hj*J from *> *13 (^1). S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©). and then altered. x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. jtj— 1I3J from jjL*.*• (jj~>). 0&&aff and llcu. ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad.

SlXw for 3j£i. e. a. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\. combines But. 3l£>j for S^»j. 213. tertise rad. into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a. sj^ 2 . 6. the j productionis of the second . is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. 3bj*o for 2-o^o. 212. *}£a. 215. 5 La.» U*>.^eUM in the Kor'an. for S^a.g... Sur.i\ 5 A occur. for 00* 00* ^^a. •* Jjj for j>\>. as L5a*. * * $ of the form al*5. as jjs-. ^1. second radical. for * * for for (*V). into combines with it into J$. the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj. whilst. tertise rad. ft and 214. tertiae rad. ^c^ y for (J^jt. L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6.. rem. 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S .. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj .. ^ et ^. the .] 5 " •• forms J*s. 73 (for^»U5t. GO* (j£>i. We often find. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167. * * 9** * 0*0* Rem. 121 Rem. the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter. 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class. its fetha. Nouns Substdk Adj. and becomes quiescent.. \ however. The Noun. ^^J*. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see. ^. through the influence of the third radical. 16 . e?). J. and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. S^a. %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . to show (§ 176. ^cj. ^. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$.'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o). etc. j C as changed. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z. the j productionis changed. [if B * J J*5. at the same time. .. these forms come from verba tertiae rad. rem. £). if is with the radical j into j as 3J3. c). often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. 5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^. the (etymologically more x Rem. ^jj. xxi. j>»^. the ^5. y^. A. throws back the ten win upon the Eg. as w. In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained. a. Sj£>j (§ 7. In the same way as SLa. an * 2> * t 5 * J**. and Jj«i. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y. after the elision of for S>L«. I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. tjj L5J*.§215] II.

JU3. as ^>A for ^jA. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms. J£. as 2J<~3. ^jt. J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. rad. sometimes takes place. kesra. the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). seventh. the third radical of verba as £U±. g^a»Jt. ^ et ^ is changed into hemza .). et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***. tertise rad. ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot. [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). 216. ^. ^ 3 x from ^>3. further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167. when it ^x form Jt*3. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. 219. and xx in that of the third. is In the same form from verba tertise rad. (ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. 3. the third radical converted into J?. Uxp. ^5. e. ££j. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth.122 Part Second. we is. find ^3. b. In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. the influence of the third radical D (always ^$. « . gU^t. ^o.. t x X f\^*j\. {\yt^>\ x . as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. For this . as gUact. and following forms. and JUi. That an act has taken place once i}j+). as ^1 for ^y\. from ^yb. J# for jfi (J&). rem. fe. 218. tertise y> rad. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217.Uju~>t. XX has the . P).

o o?. he had pity or compassion upon * * * . . turning round.. S*a*S. * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo. honouring. fleeing. iolSt. £ £ ^-oJ. 0**0 du>\j£=>\. *&** SlSaj. 3u^j. once.ja. . ^j. or nouns that express the doing of an action once. shuddering. of course. 9**0 Zj[s£)\. 220. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping.lj one. These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt. mode. c. inhaling or B rolling. seeing.*0* 3ja3. * o t being uncovered. 0**0 A^tj^o. £)\3j*a£. Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way . ** J*J»>1*.> ***> f r o b. * * *j*. 4*y>.g-». o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener. Rem.e^. once. * * V*i 0*0* **«. aj>w. and so with *+*£>. ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. him once. 3j. be formed * * * Rem. meeting. The Noun. manner. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. a^-jJ.g.. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind. vexing. ^. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl. a**1*. ^\. 5$ j&. giving rest. ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. rejoicing. drinking. 0*0* «/» r. derived from weak verbs.0/0/ 0/0/ . snuffing. D as rti*. 0*10** <Lc*. AJLJt. * * a»^. A.§220] II. V 0**0 dJ1j. *b>o. turning over. do not 0/0/. sitting down. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot. as du. A-U-5. (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind. \j*. * 3J3\Ju. _ a. be appended to it. Rem. . ij^. Otj-o-». rolling over. 6 a^ao. Nouns Subst.oJ. Nouns of this sort.* being rolled. Rem. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * .j3. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. feUU. has always the form aX*j. and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. m * * * * * *$. or .<& Adj. * * * pi. coming. 3 jc». nomina vicis. J**aj in the second. «< E. a **>o neglecting. is —Nomina first Vicis. *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. striking.

from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). speciei . /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself. Rem. from v>^ t° drink. like the 0*0 5 * nom. verbi has the form dJUi. we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom.g. w^-u*o . 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221. speciei may. a miserable way. A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting. sitting. SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb. [§ 220 E. (from fast vicis. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. way of putting on a turban. ac^cJI &~»». he writes a^j. or yashmak . a place for drinking. Z+s. e. a. b. 5*0 C nom. Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * .g. a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. eating.124 Part Second. J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes. if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma.. sleeping. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. imperf. a good hand. verbi and nom. or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis). * E. dying. The nom. riding. be used in a passive sense. D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time.g. or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. J-^ the time or place far watering . ^j^i . If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. as 4£j«a. if form of the verb. but kesra. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. killing.

where the sun sets. take. as it were. 1. 0. fcut 9 mo . and J^. where tlie hair divides in different directions. w**£* a place where writing taught. where a plant grows. to drink.- where anything falls. 5. Q 9 0. where one dwells. habitation. imperf. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. notwithstanding. from juaS aim make for. (camels). . J^. from j»-j^ 9 to 0. The Noun. J^J slain.6 . room. the vessels in which the act or state con- tained. party. whereon one rests. the east. of ascent or rising. from v~^ ' to sit. ^~C> . a from ^Sb J 1 to write. & Adj. 0. Rem. #0 out. a. £j-*a* the time when.§221] II. slaughterhouse or shambles. a mosque. from Jyj is imperf. . where the sun rises. or to A place where. 0. ' . the west. Twelve of these nouns. J~a3u. —Nomina Loci. of prostration in prayer. or w^w.* £fa place where. 125 J . 9. L £)S mA 6. Oj^ of division. 4. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. A. £j><ai . ingress. the crown of the head. v~^*~i at. J**&* the place JO. several persons 5 sit.> to go ftflM imperf. imperf. f*j±-i. school. B and Rem. kesra. assembly. b. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. il+~*\. 9 . Nouns Subst. or-* p 7. imperf. imperf. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco.o-» u-^Xa*. viz. in particular. £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. to aimed at or made for. one imperf. . the elbow. 10. a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in.

[§ 222 the A 11. or the Parts of Speech.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose. ji* i«*. ^L». license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect. cases the c. J-**. a pfoce o/* collecting.. 2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. formed from verba primse ^ et {J. .o. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2. and the same the rest. imperf. rem.o . w>^>-«. Q Rem.«. retain the first radical. 5.0^^0.o. 144).. and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable. wJj-^U.o and closet.». are of nomina temporis or Rem.•g. be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ». (dij?b). The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp.g. where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these. 11. ^Jla^o. o?. ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. ^^mje. jt?2oce hiding or concealment. cjd». which has /Ma in the imperf.s ^>N?a>. which. 9. imperf. promise. the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into .. meeting or assembling. a copy of the Kor'an. (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142. * —Etymology nostril. from >)$ .and _. E. The vowel of the cjoL. jjLo. go down (to draw water). .. 12... . 7. fetha. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0). MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book. 0' et loci from the . and 12..o. The verb * «. ij^o watering-place. %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^. J. as m&fc.03 See § 228.&». Nouns and place. >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci. J 0303 jtL jri> U.«*->«o jjtcu*. as a < general rule. and even jj)-* also »o. nos. takes fetha in the second syllable.a>. a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin. languages. also makes B « a> o or . fixed time or place. rata of time (U^>> rad. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders.<». it'* J^sw-c. a small room or 0.126 Part Second.

imperf. The Noun. j-~u 3 x * Here the . according to § 221. . and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . See Those formed from verba tertise rad.**** jjueu* should. as w>U. X S C x x Rem. but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say. from J^j to be afraid. . J-Jb J <»x (Ja).. £0 fear. dreaded.g. . u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx . a place. xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o. \ J^U 224. ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. ^^uak^o or ^^law. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med. imperf. place. & Adj.^. as *«^>o. sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire. a . after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra. to place. #0 jpfay a£ hazard. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf. but the grammarians give B Rem. have the same form as the nomina loci et temp. ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. x x . A. imperf.§224] II. . — Nomina Loci.3-0 a place that . E. imperf. syllable.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. from is put down. Subst. x x r. J***o or Jl©*o. return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc. imperf. wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. C J J 2 x . J-JU or JliU.» to x dive. or ^iUto. from ^JU. <ix § 208. "("'' r. for they always take fttha in the second syllable. this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical.). x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place. J-»->*et 223. 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x . and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear.*--wo « or cL*. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. J-Xo or JtC*. s (t or t ^). JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj). Nouns where anything %*eu . D w^t. ^xxxx S. imperf. from J^-j x . x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing. from j-~> Ox . by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation . some examples with fetha in the second syllable. j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). s from 9 ^oU x . imperf. from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day. imperf. imperf. JU. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. J^. strictly speaking. Those formed from verba mediae rad.

iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. imperf. w^r# tifo x Ox are watered . a station. frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j .jJ» to think. from xx x . suppose. ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213). If derived from a strong verb. business . ^j-> stops.*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form. « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold. . *t> * pasture or graze. tejjL* watering-place. 4£j-£*o the C. o/* occupation. x Nouns «xx . L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u. imperf. [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. imperf. etc.128 Part Second. . from ^j. imperf. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. «: B l£^* to fold. xx The . imperf. ^^4*. imperf. xO x (l£3~c ) the place do. 225. as S/*&© cemetery. • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be. from £Ox . x . x . i^j^ (^3^*) * O . SbjJi* place for drinking. imperf. Ox . tJ^'—J.g. SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . to \^y^ ^>t» t.. imperf. E. the edge. : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. a desert. the second rad. #o or wsort xx a place. where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop. from . >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. sits in the sunshine. W <5 x x Rem. from ^j #0 bend. as i^k*** hunger. UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape.. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. In regard to their contraction. . O^i9 x x Rem. ban- queting-room. imperf. jai^) place of refuge.. aJj-U a halting-place. of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle.

Nouns Subst.g. 226. derived (see § 228). 17 . A^JJa^.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral. 3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) .g. x x Og or evening (»<«).§227] II. g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. J ^^ a place C ^j— **. f& x . 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e. o x o B Rem. &c*Lo .g. place.«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . S^Aa^o. A. 3 et and 0x0 ^. —Nomina Loci. the The nouns verb. The same form is also used as a . Sjjio. ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« . me'rdb = w^Jt*. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. <So Adj. x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227. ft? 60 collected) . JujJL* X X From ii// very rare. ft-j*~* the place through which.jA. \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) . rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) . O x as mesrdk = £j***. to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco. from jJj to foar./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . with the nomina patientis or passive participles. as Ji^A* or . from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time. g ^a ^ . **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox. in preference to Sju»a»-o. 3 X X Rem. ^5 — Op ©t. OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!». 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«. ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise. from jccj to 'promise. . rad. y^»~o *t#w of the foWA. £~Xo. -f. [or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action]. A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x . or x x 0* w^w.\ gathered together in a crowd). ^4 x QxOJ 2 .a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs. The Noun. take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E. triliteral or from the are identical in form E.

When derived 6+ from verba med. a jwwr 0/ scissors.0 to xxOjo. a branding-iron or cautery. a staircase or ladder . E. w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ . . j et xx x ^. in s*1*> . hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4.0 0x0 0x0 or snare. nomina instrumenti. jyU. [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered . and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced.» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI . X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. u°\r**.Jt. ' * 3^0. >3j*. a key. . x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****. D packing-needle .>uu Oxx (for . .- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. Sl5^» (for £*$>*). Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom. to file . the 228. —Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. Ox x and aJUa*. j-oj. a strainer . a comb. . God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. x x and <Uy»«. 3>2U. t from . » 3 x J. JUa*.»£xJ0x»x . Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on. from >jj. a******. making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument. *-«**. a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t. A a». OxO 5x6 • * * > 0. 6x0 they remain uncontracted. a cupping-glass. — 6*s*»<i*J . J.130 Part Second. rad. J^aa and .aj juj 5x J '. They have the forms Jaa*. a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*. lancet. X XXX X . XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet.g. a needle .>mJU). xxx a t a ^0. . xO #0 cut . xO XX r. wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ.oJL. e. . a 6We?/0 or halter.0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX». mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J . a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan. aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . aL**«. . St^x*.a.

mm*** = hA ^ . Dnpk&. ^Aft to know. a master. The Noun. + J from exist . to be mad. w-Jfcj a. The form JjJU also used.— Verbal 4/0J 9J J .. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — . Rem. These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic. e. 5 J from *x». to be found. adjectives derived from verbs. Wo?e on. derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. 230. and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. and the nomen patientis. is raato . indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. a judge. A. > %* =j.». • >5+y* found. a sieve . ^>5l^ being. Adj. D ' ' ' j**{±> serving.. When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive .j. {J^c to touch). A .§230] II. O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be . verbal in C adjectives.Q. E. iTTftb. a to serve. as well as _. * * Rem. 131 9 J J Rem. 9 s The verbal adjectives. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose . 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U. 6. . existing. i. from^oj^. a madman. B mats. JijJ^c 5 J J 9. nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\. substantives. a scribe or secretary. Rem. a censer. j^\+. in the syllable. a. from &*. letter. from^oj^ jbjj^e to served. the nomen agentis. 9 ' J*l3. * from w*l£> .e.0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle.a». Wl». *o*> * . a sword. and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles. (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. a servant. Nouns Subst & Adj. > Jyduo.o.g. oi 229. as in other languages. < * * to be possessed. Jmo^o. judging. ^Tfc. from^x»\ judge . namely. from 9 * ^Jgr to write. Jj juo = J> jco. ^Jl^ 9 J writing. *->y&* written. have two principal forms. to " ^jj^~c mad. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis.J*s (as to fear. these real participles.g. nomina patientis.

or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. =j*£>. the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231.). distress . La^j a^>'.. ^Jjla. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. j£s\». and tfAe telling of the truth. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being. an oath . as in the phrase W>15^$.. ^>j»o = 3j. ft Ox x J jco. one's utmost . ^jU*. sense. ft p^j* = *ij. 5. But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen . # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa.) Jjju^. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. or as an adjective. a promise penury. 6. however is 232. 5/ J ft The Ox fern.> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227. instead of x form I^jjm^. ->Jftx£ E.g. J ft E. Conversely. § ^^)J^>. O x [Comp. >tj^. The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 .g. Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal. ^X J ft tJ.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis. 6e£?i<7 cowardly. labour. Sx x x SJJ easity (do. 4^iU^ aIo-^. sturdiness.. expressing a continuous action. = Lct-btj. as te^Xa—*.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^. Ox . X a XX scholar. endurance. x J 3x ft swearing. jul&» . e. as ili^la^o.**. the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. j^xm . rem. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *. < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' . rem. T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence. J a x x * intelligence . j£\sX Ox ..] X bountiful. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. but also serve as adjectives or substantives. / came to /wm riding hard.oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. is 3 . %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic. j^>^. generous. Rem. 5 #x x B rejoicing. being got or acquired . . ^j\£z. jl^*. GO JOj UU^ . o^Jo^-o = back. =j-*»£. g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do. l\jyt£*.). x ft c. proft J x ft J mising. Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. and J>*o narrow. they have only the participial . 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined. Sj 00 y J J J / x . X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem. opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>.132 Part Second. knowledge. Imrdiness. cheery. O J ft x 00 x understanding. perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? . a hax Ox bitual state of being. . or a x permanent quality Ox (see above)... being glad. ^ opposed to jy»ju* .g.

Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. Jcli is the Aram. = UjU^. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. just men. a water winch sinks into the ground. J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. Rem. & Adj. 1. 7 . 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. J^i. 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. 7. there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb.j. express. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. eye to eye). (lit. made like. Sl^t. =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) .— Verbal to lip). A. Jjjtft jj£ £U. so \j~o aZX3. I slew cold blood bound. the emir. a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. Jj*. 231. 12. Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. a jwstf maw. rem. ^Jb. a just woman. 232. that he could not or escape). held. 16. viz. = \jj~aa Jj^ J*». j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. =jj\e. 14. J jcc . A I met him face him in resist face (lit. UUt aLa). and partly. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. J** 9. Nouns Subst. 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. Adj. 3. JU5 JU3 J**i 2. 5. or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. The Noun. JU. the Heb. adjectives which are ticiples.§ 232] II. c). a o for a). o^** Jjl5t 8. . confined or . lip = ly$liLo . ^oAo. 4. Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. Besides these. they are * B of God.j. = J^U. Of these the following are the principal. 11. 4J3U. 13.

X x 0^3 x j Jiij. oJ X X remaining in one place. clever. from **J. from t>~». X J . laA£. m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» .. ^Ja». jtwr^. x J x . x J . from f 5x3 . 10. —and. 5 |a. jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5. iaij XX G . . difficult. x x «5 wary. jl£ rough. JJ^-. 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing.134 Part Second. j*U from proud. 9-ji.^ov* strong. m* teto. J x J x from J**. « ft fargg. young. ma//. ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. from x . abundant. polluted. untaught. 0*x x x .. from o J^ ' -> * . Oxx . P^-^ Jmw. —which x . JJ*a- >wt. hardy.»-3 m pain. liberal. 5x Ja. sw<?0£. and jJau . 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. jx jj£. § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. . x ^ x . J* . j-**. 4. v»v^. w>*xc sweet. cautious./w^. J^c. bruising.breaking. JAJ». from cfoW#. # 6 and 7. 0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3. c^rse. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> . from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. acute. Jxjo. betray. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». from xxx ^o-***-. from ^^x*. a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2. [§ 232 A thing. from # * { ** t J*aj. /<#. from from j-wt »-ji. X x J x awake. J^b to 60 tender. 5 Jj^. x x from (^:>j x oi». from Jx*a- . intelligent. x J x from 5 J JJj. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent. 5 x x x . 8. J J from yXc jA*. * from ^ov^. ^>*^ rough. rugged. (for ^>o-. from JJu* . from j*o . 3 and xxxx©£ox .J. 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave. from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. xx 5xJ O^** «^^. J*** treacherous. from ^^a-j « . £*•** fr° om from 3U. from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. .» jJJ unclean. jJJ. timid. S x xjx j*xS. xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. x . crushing. from j£w x. 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed. partly.j . *. i^h^. —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. B self-conceited and insolent. S . ^ xj x vJ^* tender. y> J J bitter. having a swollen stomach. is their signification (see § 38). clever. x degree of intensity. ^j from » t^Jj. g^'c£. from ^A. #M. j-«4>. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*.*. yA« from vJ^-j easy. from . j-**> x J x inexperienced. J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. harsh. X XX abandon. ' J fromj^. ^m. from . from J^-w . x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. xx J^& . sorry. Examples 6' : 1 . Jo*g. *». fidious. from o^e- xx liberal. from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^. J***-* J****. x L5^) X .) perishing. from ^ju. from j**£ to forsake.

from JUa*. xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#. LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows.. /•/> "* XXXX . 16. from J 13 . burn.>». ^j*^ ?m^A. ^->i-». . fifomjjJ x erf]. <J!>». " <7ras£. * I x x £ paltry. XX j-a»-. Ox Jty» /^r. foul. oWj* waW. straight nose. *iwt unseemly.. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0. from j-~». J x .to 11. . ^\ yellow. from ^ji. from x J x . ^iil having a long chin djii) . r. t/o. jl^-t ?W. Vmoc XX . J-J^. handsome. XX0X . t from J^. Nouns Subst. Olji A sweet (of water)... .w Jx9x ^jUJac. «£^£ <jUlw •77. cheerful in countenance.jl~». j^^oJi 0^^> . . . from £i£ .^ot ^«/. i^il 6/ac&. J*aj tev#. . » maft^.t squinting. from ^3* . Jj^. 12. 15. O^-*^. drunk. bright. ^//. . J«o*j xJ x . *>' . « «»*. from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. from J^». xx jj. from J«*. *^aj^ W06/0. xJxOx to//. from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. .232] J II. w-o&fe. stupid. coarse. J^»t . [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x . ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14. from ^o*^ m' . I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. from Jib [jtj^5 O . niggardly. from ^oXw ogriT?. 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0.. »«J^kc j$~*a*. J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing. open. from ^**S.> ^ talkative [or to speak]. J|>». ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. from j>j£a & Adj. from JaJU compassionate. foolish. from jJS^ x-> x . from x . ignorant. from « h-i». daring. x J x x x from to Jfj». humpbacked.. to /ymgr. stupid. J^Sj ma//. . satisfied with food. from C^i x x . ugly. from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X . w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3. from Jja. x J The Noun. Jjjlo veracious. xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . slender. x . from affection or t mov^c? % j»%.— Verbal Adj. from Jju© Jj>3 to «i. from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous.» . J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. j . Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak. thirsty.s&/£ (of water). hungry. merciful. from ^ J^t xxx . W2£A a n xxJxOx . from w>ju». C JJ 3^*. x J x stingy. «*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. from px a^ fow^. . from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry. dnwA. from cU. A. clumsy.continent. thrusting or kicking violently. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white. from Ja«j . from Jo. £ JxOx 0^>**> from *. impotent. from JiJ from JU» . from (j^ oW>»» ashamed.t foolish. from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**.. from ^w . from 0^*^ repentant. numerous.. from <>~».» . Jj*-' unskilful. Jn>*- . j^ct one-eyed. X X . . . s/c&. . from uU . glorious.

X «o/e. and Jjti..» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans.»-jja»a . the forms . sound. milked*. ^tfuola. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^. and hence they are forms. trpmjJLa j. as j-aw. often indicate. c. jux»>.] . w>^l». it is originally a Hence. . Ox o?. J j*ij^ '..— Etymology Rem.SU barren. a prisoner. tJt*&j. j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. a) . from O^ifr . it meaning message. Latin nuntius. f*+£> slaughtered. f-lj**' 6 x wounded . j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx . acid. Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans. as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls. transitive verbs. j->«->. sowr. as j^j. x from ^apr* or X Rem. [§ 232 x A and a.. is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. especially jit**-). intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. G. x or ^>*l. has usually J ft x . OOOO s }m. ~D. j*j£=>. J**$. 9 or the Parts of Speech. Rem. got the signification of bearer of a message. ".. Rem. ^Jjji xJ x x . if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\. either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i. j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. = ^j^\ 5. but more especially the latter.» ft s .^L». j x Jx sometimes from Jjii. shown by the above examples.g. J-jA». C a victim. rem. = x . according to the native scholars. secure. —^L^t.*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject. though the distinction J . ^>ct *a/e. =^U. or Jjti (see § 230. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class . X ft X XX . e. As is . and so also in substantives. or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. from ^^1 . J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x . as shown by some of the above examples.136 Part Second. as w>>&) ridden upon.

|loj. a 2 x gardener.i)b weeping. j^=> very forye. it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller. as ^^=^3. D Ax 6. cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings). JU~» importunate. thrusting. WX wry learned. e. The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist. s y^Ua*. i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. in the former. l\& weeping much.. = w>jJ^ lying. # < . 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si. x 233. • as ^H?| (6 for a). 137 Hem. jla»J . w. T 7 TDK. 18 . JU3. 5 x »x3 x jU». E.U» « coo&.> l\j$ 1.g. T9*. addicted wine. wry handsome. J^as. addicted to wine. Other intensive H 3. a beggar. Rem. a. #* x C x v&^U. ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti. J*s. ^^ knowing. . . KOfi. 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. repelling. less j J 4.j • . drunken. learned. etc. architect. cli^ pushing. «t. 2. Nouns Subst. J 0t3j ^L%»a-. T • WJW. f1^6. J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton. Compare etc. x 0xx O x x example. a tailor. ^-jU fearing. . = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking. « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar. T T ' r. fi J 113*3. |Uj a builder or JU^. S3D. A. as well as from 5x others. 0*<i2x 6 ft x . as * J*. ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker.— Verbal Adj. gULw a water-carrier. derived an adjective Jl*s. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. 191 Rem. • 1. the J noun of intensiveness. in Hebrew and Aram. i3 Jjii. xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. common than JUi. as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>. ijx adjectives. J^ 5 x x . The Noun. . j»\j£z very noble. J>*b. = J>^t P wot^ . J*i. as £H)"| = w> j^. J***. and 5. JjiS. a porter. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. J^JLo gwrcy astray. k5/ - J x wJjj-w . & Adj. w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing. . since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit.& baker.§233] II. s^+jjJZt. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl . J5L> asking. a carpenter. cli. jflt^j j*£~». violently. Jj*i. 2. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. as TBDK.

tractable. T> . J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj. 6x06x0 ^l*^. and actionis. deceitful. are. imn</ perfumes. J .Ro. ^aJxo. ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. eloquent. given play or sport.k'go. 6 turning. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly. . ^jjJi . swallowing big morsels. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U. 6 «3 mean.v. 6x0 thrusting with the spear. pitable. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much. brave warrior. 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. 5. w>UJ3.^1-U. which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely. Jt^iL©. very talkative.138 Part Second. or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%. w^UJLj. a —On yia.. and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually). J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). . § (nomina instrumenti. and A^jUl*.t. 6x0 jJ^o. x uJ e. do. daring. 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci. to ^SL^ — Jbuu.g. B^Xsu very learned. a wrestler . ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. x male children. ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly. is Similar. eating much or giving to eat.c. w^$. D. j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. w>UAj. G. 5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting.j*»j~>lft. ' X D ji. too. .g. x timid. J^UJj fickle. strictly speaking... w^a^o. J knowing. 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. *»>j-o one often or violently. XX 6x0 JJ>**. spy. cunning. >#&*. . all-glorious. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children. Jijji timid. JUi-o. 4. greedy. Jj*. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre. ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel). substantives Jjii^.>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful. ^ » ^ffiV>\*. but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . flkn* very X Ak. mechanically.] . 0x0 talkative. 228). &UA3. 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal. poor (JSD&. j*a*i wl g boastful. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand. ^oUJJ. Jxj-b* very liberal. 6x0 6 jtuU?. mendacious.>LU stinking. docile. w>La*-o. slothful. X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^. except J>jj-©) . 3." E. u^tj^ fond of opposition. w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious.

AtlSj ill-natured.>laJU very unjust. ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?. dJbuU. iLJLt. from Jj**. H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. *' '* Ziy* asking often. as dijji very or cautious. as io*^ very learned. greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. xx as /JW the grammarians say. Nouns Subst. ^U^li. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * . 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . c. "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj.3G Aaib clever. 2'* . . <UAb j cb calling or summoning. 9" 5^3 1*. a </rea£ collector. as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. no&£e. disgusted with. 139 Rem. as 44-Ja. as . dijjls x x timid. Aft. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai. from Jj^li. <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. ^i3^j) b crafty. fl Ox 5 x slanderous. *3j>*> timid. <Ltb Sj. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep. excellent. <ul~J a great genealogist. of intensiveness. S3 J axXjo always on the watch. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^. SjjJl£» lying.— Verbal Adj. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia». 4JUiJ loquacious. ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$. crafty.ti Adj. $' > or prostrating often. idea jlj to signify intensiveness. from JUaj. or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. sillily. from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. crushing ' bits. dJyi loquacious. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller. to strengthen the aJlfrli. bold in attacking. . £xa». a^Ua. from o ij-oii. jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*. as <l$jj^.mcA. 4L05J abusive. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. as 5. Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often. as . as very timid . from J>«i. from JUi. <L*£ finding fault . an emissary or missionary. very contrarious . begging. A.o prone to laughter. Heb. AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . . ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5.§233] II. For example. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° . 0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo. of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_.Lo aw dJUi. ioliU lowing big morsels. The Noun. breaking in pieces. from ^j-jai. aJj**. which // /il here used. dj^A. > 0/* comprehension. &>**. 2x AiJL^JJ. <L5lrk treacherous. faithless . <Ujti.

* j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. the noun of preeminence. 98. however (xii. J-j^a.». J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. spec. as *fjaa = jui. or else be in the construct state. [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) .140 Part Second. f ft Kg. *])$$ ( =j-t&~>. S. but with a in the first syllable (jjd). much —Etymology to sportf. or the Parts of Speech. d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above.] it is differently explained. 1. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic. Jytf. others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp. Rem. the colocynth. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest.great. . from JUaj.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. 7t3p = J**)- 234. WlTl. and are therefore J>»st. aJUaj. according to 'Ibn Dureid.. joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»). Rem.>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. R. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. iTTO. these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article. ITs^ = Aram. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly. 16 seq. for the purer vowel example. &. 142). as <uUA5 morsels. as pHTl. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul. Kitab U-istikak. In the Lisan. WO (coming nearest to J*jj3). as . are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence. ^js-. very mwA addicted to play or greedy. sw<?0£. or with three letter of prolongation. t . glorious.\ more or mos£ glorious. as f*W . the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. 6. jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. and J**5. 1. ugliest . as derived from anything bitter. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense. 53. J^.

(for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. however. i i- i especially from IV. ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj . ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK .§ 235] II. \j^c eye. original signification. ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder. nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184.t it more beautiful. be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb. false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer). according to strict rule. E. form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying. (lit.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. from cro*e£. Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering. \. rem.) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. or even harder ii.i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces. 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . The Noun. none in Aramaic. qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can. ' J si j£> worse. J { ^**o\ . <Sc Adj. b). better. after that. Nouns Subst b. where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact.g. and the like. your hearts became hard. A. j*£. of j^o to be clean or pure . the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage. we ought to prefix to the corre& . or giving better a answer than he .— Verbal Adj. Of this Hebrew. * * j/ tc tj~»». 141 Rem. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). JJVX lasting. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb. perennial. < s o s J si- like stones. s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235.>**». II./zerce. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). —As stronger as to hardness).

^s. from i^a-cul to be just. IV. of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw. of >l».to live grtiw s^acfe. bZ or flabby . than. II. b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. to 60 crafty. VIII. IV. stand xx „ x*£ upright . to 60 good. . from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV. fow^.t causing to be better. 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better. . of ^aj to remain. IV. of x © P m . ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\.bz wAa to fear . J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. IV. from^UH. of C*o . noble. or loosens. x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better. ^>»»'. excellent . of ^©13 *ot t to . jsbZ . to 5 .— Etymology clearer or purer. . of wJbi relaxes. D showing greater honour O to. J ^*^t giving more freely. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. middle. x£ or IV. 'bZ away . of to help.^*$±. be firm. from ^J^l IV. . of . IV. x .>U3t. IV. of ^J* . last x x p x x x ftp . or ' Z <*JUJ.j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to. J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. from C-*Sl. . bZ to ' x bZ xOg . from ^^t ^^. quickly. . xx j x bZ to fear . from JU*t. j^6 JJit giving more shade than. of >13 to &a<#. £ bestowing more liberally. Maw. of ^j J ^oj^l . . x x p x J >>». of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. from ' wi^. II. from JU»-I. ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert. respect. from j * or the Parts of Speech. IV. more. JU. from ^^Jit * x jwor. # IV. . : or more docile. from . * from £l»»t. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than. of j*^-** to be safe.\ ' causing me greater alarm about. of JJ» .*"„' IV. -. .142 Part Second. sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better. Jib to fo xx IV. * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. IV. IV. ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?. of $±. from ^Ut IV. IV. from ^©j^l. x IV. x II. from^-Lw. of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . to clarify or clear. n C 6i /. x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. VII. from «-*»-). r^acA the j . of t*-**. J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . s-*«At.

B 236. . j>^\ more deserving of blame . more praiseworthy or commendable . oi 1 wor^ i . CJU . j .^ Adj. ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) . *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than . s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. J^jl more readily found . are and from the quadri- the following. o i . j more glad of or pleased by.i j-wt # known . ^>o %y*\ blacker than . o ^^t ^t.).— Verbal Adj. of VIII. waor^ occupied with pass. The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb. The Noun. j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused. &ztee? or hateful . literal verb. s .ot j * l. O : (^^ * Of- or VIII. Nouns Subst. j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j .§236] II. j *oi pied . J \*$j£>\ better A . A. JjL£>I more occu.

.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b. rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad.) . In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata. in ' Heb. fjfcgOTD* to . in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L. heretic (J3U»o) .144 Part Second. >^U becomes >U 238. "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e.P". jj^wt. " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q. >>t>o for j. the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed.jtU # » <J (§ 133). 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt.. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t. b. *3J** 17 > &> rem. Rem. 239. as S**rt = S^pHD. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. and Aram. 6. ^0. ma. j * be- 237.(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ. admits of assimilaSee § tion. geminatse. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^.£j for^. j&\ JJ-cn. ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. CTO C0. (manafek) tremble. as j~>y* for . I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem. J«>a* etc. j3yc for jfc (§ 131).g.CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . [§ 237 A quadriliteral. a 's. preceded by and w. I JjC for JtU G (§ 133). Final hemza.^.^) 5. rad. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed . o o j . rem. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. (see § 13.^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH. p G s- s G e- * D Rem. sceptic. G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135). a. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed.

for <}"'<>' a51a . place in verba mediae rad. D. in consequence. for 9 »xx Ox . as cby. x A ^ with hemza (arising. for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ .§241] II The Noun. 26 infra. j->l~». throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c. after letter . for oiMJs is ijib clayey. The same thing takes this difference. rad. The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU. first 241. Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU. t ^x x . for J^y. % a. the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133. *. Rem. 5. as instead of e>~».] 19 . to say UjU UpL. Naw&dir. the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided. for ^51U*. &j. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^. & Adj. water-hearted. from »J>3^&**. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). clb obedient. the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. J X Rem. instead of JjlS. >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£. Rem. x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. and. £~-«. according to »- out of I). Js^o^y. wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . as JbLS (for JH-3). with the ^) damma is changed into kesra. k. usually changed into Jx J . 9 * . forjjlfc. as^jU. * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw. ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). rad. JuU?. Abu w. from 9>x+a. [A poet even allows himself Zeid. which retain their middle radical unchanged. as ». 145 240. for <J>j^a»-o. Jj>*>>v©j>>. j\& feeble.— Verbal Adj. bristling with weapons . j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). stupid .j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). j. Nouns Subst. cowardly. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160.^LJI (^5^^. G. In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c.

E. g. e. ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. for 33^.). and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . JI^^Co. vo^s-o. The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. 01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti. which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o.146 Part Second. an enemy. of verba med. contemptible (^jj^b). rad. p. 6 / 242. Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***.g. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI. for *•**«. Ixo^o. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. of III. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile. Rem. 2/ captive. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. 245. etc. ^j.g. 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*. tall. / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. become by transposition Jju*. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. / ultima? rad. ** b^+a***. From verba med. § 170). 6&ae?. noble. as / ££**•«. right. 6 «-/ J e. JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. O^jJ-o. Rem. exceeding (±*jy). [ J^ dependent for sustenance. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . ^w ^. 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically. for oW. ^£j~t generous. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. £)£iJ*c. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. C and ^^3 243. for O^**. In 3 et . D 244. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. ^ et ^£. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. ^LZo. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . j+j. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o. in that of having charge of. managing. 6 »"" J ^->U«.

2ub$ a bit of gold.t). !£+* a Mubarrad etc. from ^Jki *L*3 a straw. 0/ a date. for adjectives of the form J*»t. The Noun. a pigeon {male or female). the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. b). unit. a. the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of. The Denominative Nouns. 173.§246] if is II. § 167. Unit.0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. with the O< *< article.* (jkwt). rem. a nugget. vicis (§ 219). S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake. They are formed. B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. The use of the nom. Fragm. Noam Sabst. designate one individual out of a genus. A. J s for ^kig. a. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. If the form be one that admits of complete declension. Rem. Gloss.0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^.^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. to created things or natural objects. /?. v&U&J t. ^j&t Compare j^&t. from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ . D. SlLolj an onion. is almost entirely restricted. Comp. a. g.] . 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha. the or tenwin. 129. G. the Individual. <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari. from v»W». 1. (>o.— Norn. 331. Add.! (jJUU). from Sxx G* * { duck . or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts. fc+ji a portion of cheese. 4). According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. & Adj. Sj+j a fruit. and b. j^jXa-t for ^X*. from jJb cattle. /'a^. 323. 4ul*». as the above examples show. from ^>*j straw*. or nouns of individuality. 417. ii. head of cattle {bull or cow). ^^jlc for J . i. from j^j efotes . A+jL a ) portion of meat.pigeons. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. the genus or whole. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice. and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. . j^jt b. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E. * .

o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***). black beetles (Jju*.. with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. The SjJLxJt iU-^t. Similar forms in Heb. scorpions. 4-U^-«. cucumbers (ILLS). (a place) abounding in foxes. SjurU. a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. 2uJut a ship or boat. i B 247. chamaileons x x J (^bj^).g.. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning . O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). a.). jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»). fern. used in this sense. Oxx x «" abundantly. Also from XII. aJbuwo. a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221). 5U£*. E. SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers. [§ 247 e. Sometimes the . 7^^). Rem. or nouns of abundance. 3JU1». 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick.»». rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem. Ajjijto. A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare.o jjyt children are a cause . scorpions 6. Rem. The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling. a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t). Ox > . are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis. (a pfoce) ^joj\ . From quadriliterals this formation . as JJuu^ x x x . —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech. Oft ax*. 6. designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed.a.g. SUA*. ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks . *. Ox OP J ^jowo. >.. as dX^^c <U . a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. boats. /iares. (w^ift).148 Part Second. SLa^o or 3t^&**. is rare. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). iJj3^ . I They have the form x £ SlxLo. from ^iw X shipping. r» 4a*Jsu*. *JtJ*c. Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. consequently. and are. Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities. c.

' from ^ajS the earth. &.g. . from d-U a brick. rt. J 0* J J 9 . evil or ill-feeling . >©U~JJ •itto a j . Adjectives. . have the same form as the Oxft 228). ' trade. from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&. O**-* ct milk-pail. " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. it sect. The Noun. ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228. etc.* * <. (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives. family.& Adj. like. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%. A & came ^J-a*.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything. .). dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance . 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». from ^Aj otf.e. • *>. #/^ a/r. t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly. » + + from .).§ 249] II. from Rem. ft rem. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth. ^3^1 jJJ 3.g. el- v5^» aerial. as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar. (relationes). — Rel. 249.k.. the Vessel which 248. * * from ^-^w descended sun. $ . 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc. belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin. from JjlJJ saliva. aSj^o a spittoon. or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived. ft .-o a milk-pail.• a)>*-o a urinal.mtfl . joy or happiness..«. Nouns Sabst. or w~jX».*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. »U>)I 0^0 il^t.* j**. the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o).6.a».». £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . from Sjj! a needle. The nomina (§ vasis. e. Adjectives. i. A. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. q/* ^ooc? health. disease. .iT>).>.. to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o. <i E. 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM . or a brick-mould.*.J. from w-A». £. j*£o a needle-case. The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t. sfy.

I is ^7X1^ L Israelite. tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. jj^"*». a corroborative or D. The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective. the language of the schools. Rem. YlC. ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). usual £HPl) and **Urh£:.] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). and even from Rem. 1*]^$ Hebrew.: (harrasl) a ploughman. *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. & a from j«aa Egypt . PvJ. f as Egyptian. and especially in particles (see § 191). (m. perceptible by one of the senses . ^^ o/*. L5^^° belonging to.*!^. H*— and JV— ). also from the other kinds of nouns.(medrawl) terrestrial. .tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian. in such words as . . whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations.. This termination common in Heb. *_.. as ch<5. ij>*»* from j*±. .150 Part Second. viz. wjuj^JjId eastern. ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives. ^*£> cj£ intellectual. science. J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to. has the *T>ffi last of these forms. legitimate.t. in general use The . ^jwt. compassionate. ft^^: i . ^1 from <j\ truly. ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?). according to some. express " b.b* .«**»• relating . B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. from^Xfr knowledge. c. according (^y). ^3 * strange. [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. scientific. gwc? . Aram. as iEthiopic. or 0^<? o/". a. . G.|"l. from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*. «S '4* tives Rem. the law . as : 9° 'ay. ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw). but in more modern Arabic." ^ [However. 3/0*5/5/* ^c*.j\±. (kJjfi). \_ •' % f. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives.

have lost their first Q Rem. and 2UUJI £/^ common people. the higher classes. as ^£)W»- « bustard. and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr. ^^ . a. the nouns ending in ^— fern. A. &j weight.Basra. In the case of nouns which. 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. j ^). Sj-oJI s * el.-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians. the vulgar . to which the Muslim turns in praying. of this form. like ojs-. 3>£» a window. (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. [^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or . 151 250.a promise. ZSU Mekka. In forming the nomina relativa. I. j^jXJ* . .ti Adj. A. ^gste vulgar. besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. 1. J sul £ . only a single instance has been mentioned in the T. have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w . [fa J LM direction party of All. G.] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. D. as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and .*£j). j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. Nouns Subst. G. be a weak radical. 252. ^-^^- refined. to the final radicals ^ and ^. ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. tjs. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. ^5-w. are rejected . if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from . ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa. ^J&.). J s £ ^^>'. foil.§252] It The Noun.JxL« Malatya. [and j^^-w from 4-w D. (&) S^-* But the name of two months. aiyjt el-Kufa. J ^ . the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants.— Rel. Jj & * * . L5*U. measure. Adjectives. letter. 251. 3u—. ^U»». and to the vocalisation. however. j^ycw*.] . (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. <J>oj ulul .].

o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . world.g. the bean.**. 2*0** big. If the second letter is is without a vowel. ij>>©j*-. * J to \J$U. Gufi (^J&c. rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. \j-lj* 3 relationship. the two cases are to be distinguished. belonging 3 * MekM.. 0/ and ^j* 254. or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath. or a bug or tick.. which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word. (^>»j'. the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. Baradd. from substantives like bullrush. stout camel. —Etymology . name of a river. or *0J j changed . ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1).- (2ljj**)\) Spain . But if it to »J .5) as ^j£sj+&. 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. ^sj+*. 3 Similarly. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable). L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. a ^j£* . ^Sb or ^y. & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite.* - In 3 b. The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. viz. a vulgarism. *L-. of relative adjectives fall 253. ^5***-. and ^£>j->. If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. 3 a 0* seat. and 2 *oi ' 6. £by> to assimilate 3 . pregnant. D 3 •»* as ^4%*-.152 Pakt Second. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " . \^>j*>. it may . (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^. O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. elif if it is e. j^^b ^Sb. «// Os* . ^5***. one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI). e. but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i. as .Sb. or the Parts of Speech. ^lbj. as 3 *L». x * j ^i^t & /3. j. (a) [§ 253 A ^. 3 . s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0. admissible. 3 o . - or ^iU 1.3 2. ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 . ^>iU Rem. /sj . the into 5 ^ may either be <** . ^L^ or ^j-U*.

as . ^J^UX**. . The Noun. but ^j~U3. the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. B Rem.»>. instead of \^£y3 or . from f A 0'* ^jjX*. ^jit. for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie. J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ.jjj^~. Foreign names of towns. L^J Ji >-^ ***><. ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«. J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ.& Adj. l^jJ^Jj. (^jj-». ^j^a. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' . ' jjO' j^xj.j^a*-JI.. > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem.jU^aJt 3 ' ' . C)3*H) Zeidun. We may. ending in ^-j— sometimes . D ^jLx^. 5^ i_ . 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . <fc. i-xpcti. as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln. 153 nation . 3 QjJ-^ twenty. as — Rel. 3' ^j-^3. £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'. . o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais. j 3 '' . It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. A . Oli^ 'Arafat. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*. ) . j '3 ^^j-^ / * . plur. 6. are very irregular Some proper names. Rem. A. in their formations 3 ' e. c. from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc.jl_. JO' 3 0' . '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j .3 Kinnesrin. to two. u'' bjb. Ji'' i . j Rem.>. « '0 name of Zeid. ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' . use ^j^j^. are rejected ' ' * <v . a. of aJU a hundred. ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it.l. O'O'O' . Adjectives. ^V^. 3 o . 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . *&*» of the o ^ . 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w.§254] II. in the latter it j >. Nouns Subst. the Muslims. Nisibis.Jtf!. 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl . J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t. ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj . from *' '->? . j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. 0?. 20 . instead of 3 ' .g. / j j«/ Fcftriin. In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic. however. ^^^Jaudl.

fern. ^>o-Jt el-Yemen. # unchanged. j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria. ^3-^. 1 fern. as in ^tw 1. SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes). ^y^. and XX <* ^-^. (a man). fern.. Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina. Faik of the i.-jl^Jt). also Mufassal 90. x x xOxdxJ . G. [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 .] art. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech. 3 (a town). The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**. from ^ul^J.*3t©. e. as <ULa*. D. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . X rejected. 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes).*luJt). cb> and ~-L£ (=^^. But. reality. S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -. X XX -t> are also used. ^a*a». . «*Jtu. they < remain unchanged. ^>i*« and . § 319. 2 5 ul <LjI*j. if they come from verba mediae rad. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. Comp. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. D. the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . ^yot from £*>ii&. ^<^U». gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x . t^JWj J**£.^(^i\). art. § island. Otherwise 5 remains <" > . 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute. The forms ^^V>. is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc. " x « X&X J 255. 3 Sju jc». **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. i' 0xJ . Ox . G. which occur. ^5-^5 (men).] . geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^). as 5 SxOx . *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . ^5*^. L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the .. ***y»*. or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. O^J 5 ul (with the art. ^^^-v*-.1^). . ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p.154 Part Second. 7 and Slbaweih 66. and ^U*! likewise s Comp. and j „o. 3 vel ^£. when is not derived from verba mediae rad. A**U>. 5 tool. A^lyj. xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. ii. . ^5*^. 3 or ^ as ^J^. from S^ii». instead of ^^lyJ. Tiliama . the words jJUj. ^*ej*.a piece of iron. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ .

The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected. uSyej*. »x J an ass. 257. j^o-*-. Jj M. . and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . a female enemy. [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin. Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**. ^jjj**. it Rem. of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown. But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. as ju~> a lord or master. from i*J~>. .' ^JUk. ^j*j-*. g makes ^£yo. £)>»». Uu*3 ^j&fc. ^^o-U. < There are. Ji*>jS. however. . Adjectives. *$js-. <&JJ*6 a city. reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra.-auJa . <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . . is rejected. W«s&. so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis. ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?.-o-Jlw.' . ^^is ^Llc. 155 rules. exceptions to these { E.& Adj. of jl*»-. ^A**> *.. from the assimilated form . «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256. § 242) its from radicals j et ^. jtnX^. But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^. the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). and the second 9 5 J + vt . —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin. form ^jJ^ from both j**c and . Many. A. jJ^a^a. wlx 9 s Rem. or in other words follow the shorter form J-J . however. g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn.Mesopotamian) . Words of the form J*j (for J**s. JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina).§257] II. — Rel. ^3*^. derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. verba Lastly. of j^wt. ^ju~» . belonging . — ^t^^j a prophet. The Noun.g. ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^.~J. A Ufr»l» nature.**J». 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). 3 (a place) *J . ^Ju (tribes). ^j-j^ft. a. mediae 6. Nouns Svbsb.

ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. S X J and ^ako. ^(I . 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . ^3J^5. either be changed B into ^. j«yJ-« play.0} letters. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. /?). Jxx Slo^. is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**). ^^-oc .» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). The Uif maksura is (t ^. \jys*£i. Rem. or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem.3. always rejected. 3 x x Hama Sxx . 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge. (H^Pl). if it be changed into 3.X£»o. b). changed into . as ^j£ a youth. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. But if the noun has four letters. or 258. the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . noun contains five or ^ -» more 1. \J$$*-j to* a staff. x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . the (^ ^^ju is ^y**. x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind. as ^aJa^o chosen. *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful. j before adding the termination . ^ . . and also. . ^^Jl^. rem. Sld^e a ladder. which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. but must be borne ^ becomes fetha. <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. b. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£.156 Part Second. w x x ox x or d-J l». SxOOxx SUl». are modern and corrupt.g. ^J^j-c vintner. {Jy* J a district in Palestine. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn.> IL does not writing-case. P affect the rule of formation. a. that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. ^jj-^ . as the third radical of a triliteral noun. ^j. which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. [§ 258 II. —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^.^ for ^tu^uo. ^£Jux*. a musical instrument. a § 7. as . jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop. E. e£>**. Jju. 2 6. ^^AJxcuo.-lx£«*^. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. ^J^3 « mo^.

— Rel. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored.. (a town in Persia). ^ or not. i. their third Primitive defective substantives. But ** in the termination 1 1— . i^y^Sb.. On the contrary. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father.^ £fa 6/a^ beetle. ?^3b £& focm.^». 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza . ^ '. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. w>' (for y>\. *tjjj*is ^3-U. ti*~> the heaven.. Nouns Subst. E. 157 259. ^yb^. The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper . as tyy**. a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon. memduda. reappearance be not necessary. J^Stf. ^jbj^-. & Adj. j . 2. ~. — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural.i. ^y^U. ^jUUi . *byJ a tribe). "-•» . etc. . <l~£» a robe. i^jbj^j.e.. the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I.. ^jy\ (for ^i. whether it was originally . IjJ). is § 252.§260] II.. C Rem. »-t. A. it appears as ^. 2b/». 260. rem. axJ.1. a). Adjectives. a garment. names. »" > . ^ji-A. -» j^jUU. £3. 3 - . may . the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective. Ol*^') £. A always changed into j. *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » .. a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place). ^S^jJ^-'. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d.g. ^^b. jjgjW* * . The Noun.* Zachariah. 5-*' (places). —as w>t. ±$y++> . 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . ^b. ^tp. . if ^yb/*-. it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb. a). as l\jjs> a virgin. £bj£>j " ^jUu . * . in the * ^jl^w. dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother. du. is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23. whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^. ^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW. those which have lost D weak radical.1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother.

' ^3a£. ^ (for \£Jo.— SU Rem.* ^m. ^j£ ct. °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3. — x 4&2>. ^ot) a female slaw. x vw(w. j^^o. The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox . ^y** 2 £*t (rad. § A . makes ^£^. x 261. 2 x . ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. ^>w 3 . CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti. handle. a —Etymology ^$*) O x* . 00 « ^yL* j^. bribe. ^J Me . <0) ox podex. O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . >i)) J dialect. Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©.S 3 3 lip. combining with tho third radical into ^. as {£$j£. L5^» or du. {£*2>j. y£}£ . (rad. (from . >*~>) a name. from ajji. . as 1^3/*. a SO r-xOJ .^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»).).jj| (for v) ^J. o £ 00 sister. a daughter. t^U) a hundred.or ^ay*. £3 (rad. ^^3 #* . has the three forms 3- v». . xx . ^3-0. some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm. as ^jjo. 3 .>. ^£^j Soj 3^ But . U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow. ^Ao 8. and 2u£ a possession. D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3. the final second radical takes fetha. Cukl.) ^ 3-o . Rem. ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. . the second radical takes i^^**. [§ 261 A a*j (rad. Ox as 3**J x grammar. {$5)* 5 ' °£ . 4j>* a village. ^^iw. a 3 So ^j^U. x J oW) x go a «w. ^$y^> a grammarian . ^£>0. 3 -£ C-Uj.! and ^£y^. 3 has t^jU.4 . 0x0^ j £<wo an image. ^U ox 3 3 and ^U». L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. 3 du. ^3^. xx . or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad. as {J* (for l$£>) a fold. a a gazelle.. ^yj\ OJ . or the Parts of Speech. 5 * . fetha. *3~>. >w) a 00 year. ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* . l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£.. J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . x . ^3^. this ^ resolved into its original consonants. 6. xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*.158 Part Second. and ^ is converted into living. (rad. a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU. 9x0 .

the is Rem. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). of the forms J-ati. i . A. s x x . The Noun. From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL. et ^£. ^J^**-. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle.§262] - II. oo* ^ju. of D more than three consonants. ^jj\ or ^^J. etc. as S^ULw misery. {£3+* <H>^ a town). 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. Nouns Subst. 3 x x Rem. twist or turn. Changes in the Vocalisation. as J-»l camels. *j\j a banner. t/j «/«/j aJlaii. 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*. make m ^jI. from tertise rad. ^jx But in Jjti. « s . ^SULw. j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. makes desert. . or j^jt. ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. See §§ 255-6. j j-o-JI (tribes). So also in & * t 3 J*j. \^^ is **» # snake. a x o^-ait.. ^Uic.dk Adj. the kesra may be retained. etc. the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x . In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered. irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. and. «x x . etc. — In words of the form A <UUi. rest at night. (JV>I). ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . ^£j+j £-» . final ^ retained. ^51. as well as . changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. ^^U jufb /twr. Rem. a desert. but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza. . — Rel. {Jj3&. . (the ancient . Nouns ^ . C III. x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. verba 6. ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. a. 262.*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . and ^jj£j are admissible. x 5 ftfo 2> x x .. though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . ^jlii . is j Ox Ox . —"Words . J^ai. 159 . though very incorrectly. as J5oJt (a tribe). i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). Adjectives.

damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. . status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio. termination 3 - ^— appended to the first .»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words. the warrior). governing the arise. — then is in the second word 3 ct. 264. 3 rejected. ^>ol . ox jg it is ox . x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas. •**£. Archibald Bell-the-cat. two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four. or in . dj-aJI. a man's name. B J*± time. xx x and . as zjj>j^j\.from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. is [§263 changed A 263. the following points must be attended to. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§). 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm. j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday. 3 ^\ 3 son. daughter. or CUj . and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. Of rare and arbitrary changes.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech. VJyiS. omitted.jt\ mother.. . \^£j^> from ««' . two secondary cases arise.160 Part Second. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©. a grammar can take no account.* lOUwt w. as ^*-j&. 2 —A. —B. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a.^p). (see the preceding ^>i£ Rem. 2c second in the genitive. If the first word the status constructus. ' ^M*^.

. Oi x x S x J Rem.>tj. x x as ^JJ^j-^^j.x from oJa&t jb. # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. B x0/« *" .^tf. as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted. \ .<£>t^. with the s . ij5& jUoJt ^oUau. j — the But first word is rejected. j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ. allow a J J Q J x x double formation. \JIS±J CH**M ^jK.-Jl^C^o.g. from both parts of the word 3 e. from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. Nouns Subst. ^-^iJt »*t.. from j^o. and A 'I the second takes is ^— . ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^. 3 o . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X . In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o. ^^j^U^U. ^^^ 3 • « . is £ omitted s . 2> * " 0' . (from the assimilated form 3^w). 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein. belong such words as . J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. The Noun. and the second XX . - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. from 3 JyUJI jJ3. nisba from the whole this license compound word. u^IU|tf>. A. from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj .& Adj. too.«J>o from w. ^tki aXlt j^c. For example from \y* C-wO. b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ. (CameVs-nose. and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI. . (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker. J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. as ^^^. To this stage of the language. /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj. xxOx ^jO** x x . is i«/ \£tS}[ '.— Rel. 0>^' ji ( a 21 . attached to the vt ^— wl is first word.§264] II. x. then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. Adjectives. hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing. iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. L5^*5. J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' . Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . l£*'> Guadix in Spain. j0/<» . ^$j*~> *^£jt J . ^J^ . <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B. ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw. nickname of a man).. . some .

..jj-a^Jt. plur. Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o. even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. from dU*a». ~ ' s Such plurals. 3 s s « efo^). Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt. of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. ^^JIjl^ °S . (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur. ^hj^I. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. 265. or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o . jU»Jt (plur. abecedaire). ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. (a . plur. 6. 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa. ^j. s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i.-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji. script. [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. it. footn.)] . j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet.g. ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ . In many cases falling under B. four letters of the alphabet Rem. from Ju»yl 'abuged.162 Part Second. e. the singular. ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s . fib " . however. jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. 3 - and U-Hazrag. Ctesiphon. the of a poet. a and /?. or approximate to them in sense. Z jo E.o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus. bib. at el-Medina). manuletter. in classical Arabic. ^%^> name 3 .g. really proper s o£ names. are excepted * t 3 *bi .g. ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 . from the plural.ojcirw from O^o^-a*. ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras. 3 . i-ijjuo). strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants. LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe).. the tribe of Kilab. properly the plur. also a learner or student. the (§ 32). [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * .. from jt^^i plur. ^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. 2. 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. A relative adjective is never formed. o^!/* .o a written a a book. > b . as are either . Hadramaut . —Etymology <^£)U^j c. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . 5. Ojlfr* (a tribe).ain . . iJ?jiU*. bs j / ot»/ ij. o . or the Parts of Speech. 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats. the desert. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' . - D e.

^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to. D.J^. are I I belonging women. — Rel. {£&£* ^ in. ^-5t/»» of (pi. of JxoJ) rugs. of Jji»*U) sieves. of wounds. 3 x OUL x x x (plur. plur. Adjectives. a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. x x mats.Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur. o & Adj. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade. ^j.^t*. J^UJl (plur. 5 x 163 | j* io. of |2. Olio God 3 > (pi. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles. J^-Lu X sieves. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature . forms in Syriac. the second ^ being changed into j . of ikuj^. of early date. A. . In the case of $. Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. the simple doubling is permitted. 3 x X . The Noun.Aj|. ^jUjt. a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles. . G. if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition . 3«" not.) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s.) mats. the opinions of grammarians o< differ.-butj^. of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. of j**au*. /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur. as ^jV- In the case of ^£.g. ^ — Similar .§ 266] * Oi II. (plur. etc. j-ateJtjrffc. at pleasure.'^t # the confederate tribes. as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . &Lo) qualities. on the contrary. adjectives «• * oi. as ^^* that. Persian colonists in Yemen. this latter form x alone admissible. j->jty> x (plur.UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc. a woman. # £ ^l/^l. if be a strong letter. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^. studies. ^%e*\. Oxx X ^. [o^a. of 9 x 266. E. attributes. . JsuI^a. 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J . orae w/io makes or seZfo them . j*om* (plur. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St. from • V plur. Nouns Subst. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. & surgeon. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches.] In more modern Arabic.) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c.

ju£»U) Z*~»d\. ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. vociferous . is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza. have seen above (§§ 231. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking. ^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x . i^W^i ^ -» corpulent. #cAr. 2 x x of the Aramaic) . reckless. n. G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. aspect. D.(. which may be changed * 3 . letter be a quiescent 2 Slif.jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given. G. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja. Ox q[*SXo vile. ^i^koj. ^yly^li a fruiterer. ^^ or ^^.). We . .g. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J . I e • ^U^*. 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C .having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck). s^/s foarcs. under the influence 5 * .» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J). e. 245. 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded. t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU. robust.» J straight-haired. jJLo—^w 2^0 e. strong. perhaps. mendacious. or . as the grammarians say.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 . 232) that the termination ^L.g. there [§ 267 A ^3-^. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. <jla^aJI corpulent. 267. j^S^SU or . 1). ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood. both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter. haired.164 Part Second.-y^U.— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech. .). [. ox xx ^U*. JK. appearance. to strengthen the relation. <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a. large head of hair (**»). sordid.JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^). G ' . oo 2 large in the body (J*-*.*. 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c. 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w).Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-. Fleischer. from jisu*. ^^SU 0^0 . instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU.jUao J-l or ^j\2suo.] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed. as *j not. but . .

and oL^j. quiddity totality . J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS .§268] 3 - II. 8 .—Abstr. particularity] substantivity. schaft.] the divine nature. Nouns. - The Noun. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . A-JbU substance.. the school of . ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness. 9 aJLoj. S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood. 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic . (U wlwt ?) . ^'^ wr. interior. 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality.g. i**'oi. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t.j manhood. 165 outward. . ears.j is ^JUi as a ^. is arms. Nouns Subst. A 3 form and applicable ex. B 5 *J large head . S (flSH). It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit. Rem.». . A. 268. and to English ones in head. ^jlju-*. a substantive. i (til nO?). i^te'. . and ^«.» external. *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. [^uoj-oi. .wljj having So. £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\. <Lu^Jt Lordship. private. corporeal. 2 * 4J3*. the mind or temperament. 0* D adjectivity. ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose.. aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective . j\ * E. or Z~&yA±. and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality.-fcUw. as distinguished from the concrete thing itself. ^j^jy relating to light. dom. corresponds * a i o* thum. keit. ^JU-jj spiritual (. public. \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower . * Oi from j*-~»\. ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). upper. to the soul. I s+ . . J v> ty. & Adj. etc. ^j^JLSU.. xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. G. as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) . 9 vt 4-*o~»t. 5©5fi. 2l*J>1^*$\ D.

j&d)* 5 ^a». a. 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom. is Rem. ^ J . the noun 9 quinqueliteral. humanity (\l. S Ox J .. ' x 1 x <fo<7. in Arabic.166 Part Second. In forming a diminutive. j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive. [§ 269 A the Hanefites.lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt. (|Z. 5x0 *-Ui-c a. [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. as J*?. JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J . J***. 9 . 9 x . Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune.] B 269.. a.! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree.. when formed from a xj c * . 'J. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth.j a man. JJj jlo a special friend). 5 -2 8. du^y^S Judaism. Jk. a severe it is trial]. j*Ju*aC ^ hey. j***. fall Rem.-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^). dirham. takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- . but 5 J J »/J . the very .Q-mS\). »/J . The diminutive used. < « &'#. x J .. t . J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . scorpion. When .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\. of the masculine gender.wi. and j Sal-o. Jxjjl (for j^ujt). 9. . triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). 9 J Rem.>. S ^^t.> .o. xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a . pride. . oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). the servile letters are generally taken into account. When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. . jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM. etc. is jia» *.a*n) divinity. 6. See however § 283. . [These nouns are.»w (a man's name).. On the contrary.. not usual to back upon the root-consonants. as Oj. omnipotence. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp . j^o-c is . The diminutive. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ. In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed . the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow.:xo.>* J©.» a mosque.xxOxi best. not merely in its literal sense. the Christian religion.001_£\). J****. haughtiness.

?^*£. (2) from certain prepositions. the *_). J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX... xx OOxJ «£~wJt». ^Z^^> a bay horse. Ox > ^w. of which the fourth five.— Diminutives. biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem. A. ^ may perhaps consider as such. a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184. . juju a little J>j>J a etc. like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa. /i«fe. The first & Adj. and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. 4 if' example. The Noun. a 2/o^A ' C*J^. from^U).. . for c^u. obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative. Nouns Subst. rem. as C**«j. where. : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig. ^. a little nearer than. the .1. little before. : cerastes. P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N. In Hebrew we (j*juo). siH3> a little below. syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. d. a sort of snake («Ju*>). or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . On the other hand. is When the noun contains Jive letters. If so. an(* w--wJ. a kind of small bird. is sounded A^/|/e or gfife. however. as J*a5 a after. a basket. when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . Yjfl . 270. the J diminutive of <U5.§ 270] II. from Jt>£). a con B temptuous diminutive. which x Ox J are. and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. like J/'**. an d HS^D. as O x J ^J-j-o^. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four.J-ai5 is 167 Rem. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem.. as well as jj£jJl . they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. f). (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. <Uua5. nffSff T . c. and (3) little above. e. strong. .

3 . formed out of the preceding consonants.3 either juJLc or juX& 0. as aS%£.168 Part Second. rejected.j£a rolling oneself. in front.. £. tick. or jZj^a***. is not rejected.3 JjuJcS. as <\ . which is 0. 0. these are . The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed. exceed the form Jju*5 O'„.3^ 6. 0. <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. wXwic. 6.j^. J ^^ .0. to Rem.jJut is not a fat. *-j**-> .. indicates the participial form. j~**~o (for j^U).0.3 .03 .« trying to render perfect. 3 9 0. 0. or more letters.3 . . J) c. . Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider. ^^xJU . Thus 6 . and in § 269). £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0. and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman.3 >j->j*. . m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^). 3 0^. old woman.3 0. In place of the rejected consonants.3 0. r. 6. sarily b.3 6.63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. 2 6. J ^3ujS. Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. If there be off. Jjj-ol . but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a. however. 0. ^juXfr) of ty ill. .36. lazy. 3 short and big-bellied. 3 . a sort of thorn. we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please.1 saffron. Jfej*. t tr r J 0. 3 6. The termination ^1— when appended .r-. . is Q In A+KLm+t for example. little.^ . nouns of four 9 . 3 6e. ma.3 . le snake. are of equal value. . 3 00.. Jb» & . [§270 0. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake. 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade. Out . . 6. more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained.j* a 0. rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem. and therefore is 0. Rem. five Rem. 0. consonants do not . tive..0 . 3 3 . b.». a nightingale. . ^Lauil.3 (for 0.3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants.3 d. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters. J^. : of h . o o . . a sort of cap. the diminutive of ^julc. j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O. B Rem. make either j^on*. 6.

. pL- . e- oLj^t . 3 .3 . 3 weak servile.0.-. . . i. iU^Xm . ) j ^»L . J jlo-L 3 ) . . 3 .« r.3 consists of . & Adj. {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj . c camels. . 5 . 0. B preceding consonants.§ 271] II. .ol. are /«/ all disregarded.pregnant. <U*»»-« /»/j ~. and these terminations added « .3-. (fern. The diminutives must be formed out 3 . . S .. 3 ^.t- 5 W^£ verses. .3 . Rem. the ending ^1— . as SjJj children. .0. 5 o L»L. A. \^+*.jUA-$~»* . 3. J^o-X«..0 . OS- oWA-~o Muslim women. -kUJt words. 3 .S~*4 . ". .5 jj£j->*J a riddle. 0. .0 oJlai. supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal. a. and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0. queliteral noun. 3 . Olgt.Basra. or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. JU^I. w>la*~ot companions. be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. Other (see § plurals. the relative termination is ^_ . . in adjectives of which the feminine . besides their JUil. —Diminutives. The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and . jJUj. the third letter be a . 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. and the second JUil . J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). " of the E. 22 ..3 castle. jj!/^ . w. ^+X~j (a woman's naine). . Muslims. 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard.$ 3 . 4**A£ J**'' as 0. 3 Oi 9. 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t . name). in the quinit.0. . The fern. mighty. Pj*+ O 307) form . . and Ol_ .g. viz. . . the third of which »/J /}'j . . ^$j£~>) drunken. strong. of the class called j j j aJlSJt r. Nouns Subst.03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims.ot Rem. jj^L-* . a o*> £>.0 . . (for ^)o .o . ^_ is rejected. to them. 3. el.». and the 271.0 3 V 3 . C J^O^J >j\j+. five letters. or j**». <bUJI. . . ^i**. The Noun.Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#. 3 . perfect. ^A***2.3 . 3 if. .0.». But . ZxXS a S^Xb *. 3 3 < .3 4*A£ boys. 4*A. (a man's name). ^jJL**. slaves. is when the noun 0. w>la*->.0. may be omitted. 3 . either ^Jj-***- or the Oot. . . . SjuJj diminutives regularly. a+X~~c (a man's . JjJusi. A (/J like.

to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e. <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269. 0>***> from ^ZJ. as x 3 * x J x . i**^ . C*^ an eV e or fountain. sultan. x I Aj««j». of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names. %LJ>\ ribs. x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^. jjW** youths.g. 9*0*3 St j x x J ./foc& jh a house. 3 f> —Etymology 3 . consisting of two words (see § 264). 5 o-» j o x (see § 274). ^^JLJ3. ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a . *»L-£l J and 3JUJI.» children. adding . r ' «/ »( 6 . x E. from j^lw.170 Part Second. Proper names.\ bags. (see § 307). ll . JJJ* (a woman's name). OxO xp . l\jj& xO x J poets. as <Ltjx*. jjUauL> power.jlo^ a Ox g wo//". <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim. jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. S^tel Joys. groate. G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G . e.. J ^j&jac. g. . I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars. O a .» . Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) . from lij? -» J*te. rem. provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis . or the Parts of Speech. x x ^ a K *l»> .jt— in triliteral nouns. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j . ^^**. x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?).g. <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah . $j>++£\ . form their diminutives from the first word. «* from the plural (for 10|1). from the plural (see § 278). <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. 246). two courses may be J x J adopted.t ** * x . x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r. £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274.^3.^-0*^3^. S_ diminutive. Otj-jjj. ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows. ^. B from yj. slaves. 272. O . If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun. w>jijjux*. jjj houses. O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. which has not however a feminine termination. wJ^»t « x dogs. . radical. The termination x . ^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. ^jsuyZt. the second remaining unchanged 273. 4*JL£l . and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 . . 03/J such exist. £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o).

S_ B not added to the diminutive. makes Zj*t 275. 9*0*3 U m. . . D. but *^w S^a^w jX» . w>G (v>^ a door. 3 /(^ «* * 3 . If the noun contains more than three consonants. 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi. which in is masc.3. E. a tree. i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich. ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees. geminatae are resolved. u°y* 9 a young she-camel. 00* w-^ * J r. u~^ a cup (Fr. has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j. The diminutives of the fem.g. in order to avoid ambiguity. 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. Rem. do not take 3_ for the yive (fem..g. But see § 319.] 7 f" l\j2. u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. J* 9 frij* A^3. **+&. rem.. t w~«j 3 s»-J.. *t* 3 . u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). a wedding feast.$>.»»1> 2j*o time. J3 a J-^>. 3* 9 0*3 . which <i masc. O^ij-iy^- . 9 For example. a. b. value. is usually masculine. «. w*>j£- . j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" . j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales. A. 5— is O 171 But diminutive. cardinal numbers. ^/tfuXS. J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride. £ x d *• . The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill. and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). G.— Diminutives. war. 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J. c. j*aj. «5^9^J e>j*su.—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . is b. j**J a sea.§ 276] if II. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth. * from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#.. rem. and fem.g. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. M/J ones people or 2W6e. makes s^j^88/J . <Sc Adj. as 9 0*3 .. Rem. cattle. 9 0*39 . pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs. is whilst j*\j3. the front. *3 . tasse). e. Sju jc«. Nouns Subst. j^. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy.**^*. 276. 9 0*3 . the rear or back. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. same reason.). though also of both genders. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. E. seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju. 3 f rad. j*a>.. Juj3 * j . O a herd of she-camels.. and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG. If the second radical be a weak letter. a bow. 90* J *->j&-. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . Tfie Noun. Rem. 90*390* sj^. but S^aj cm o«r or cow.

Rem.\jj x J a poet. ^J^cu^!. x J . and Ml >y*~i\ are also used. ajU? a Rem. A>*1 &/ac£. Ox cHj^ a horseman. [Oomp. The forms J^jj^. as js. OwxJ ybtfd. djj^ 9 s J a handle. (J?>k x J a snake. £$»-). Conversely. 4jb aw animal. From C-*u a fcm*e. i^>. £>*£> an eye or fountain. ^lu OWxJ . an egg. ***i&. <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. ?r^ w»ry. or the Parts of Speech. fri^. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). elif. makes following the plural ^Lt'. x J x Rem. in which the e. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth. 3. commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). it § 13. D Jb***' a ^^. weak. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. £*>>o.172 Part Second.] 278.. x a slave. Ox ^_. and <5ju. rem. If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. a-suj x . from <blw a young woman. a festival. but the regular forms are preferable. though derived Ju*fc.— Etymology Rem. a o 5 x j . * x i^*b a calamity. initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive.jt. J *£j£-. O 5x J ^. and treated 5 x r a 9 . [§ 277 and thing. Ju~>t. £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 . Words 5 x of the <Lj^w.g. an ^ **^>-£.c> « farm. o x vulgarly 2u^t. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-.into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p . 277. as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j. In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. . the latter for 6. -i^w an old man. a. it Words • of the form J^li. may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£. youth. o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation. a. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . (***». /"Lb a fold (i£j£). x x these letters § must be separated. e. certain bitter tree. ^S^> . If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. from the radical ^^. £~i$Z>.g. ^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ .). . as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown. instead of f^w. juc. Rem. this JLolj.> x J be formed C-sJ^J.^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. ^5^-j a ?m7/. «l not vJ-^uj^. In other cases § change is optional. b.

letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. affluence. x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl. iwte. ^i. a £-t . such as Jucj from j^j. ^JJ^) 0i x J f . and a. *U water. A. —Diminutives. mouth. j* x£ § 278. it in the diminutive. Rem. <**a* (for *«x#). (accus. forms its diminutive accordingly. itj^A. radical The infinitives fern. . x x I Rem. x resume ^ x J . the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . A^al ' brother (>±. £U*c a ^/£. J still. they termination 3_ or not. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. like 5x1 and others x . . ajju j^. 05 x Sjufih. x J . for . lost their third radical. 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. 281. spots. 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name).l). pa#. . & s J . # . Sj^j J 3ji». Nouns Subst. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. if the . of which the radical <su^i.1 j>* blood. j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. —whether 3 . last * A '•* 3 5 weak. 4-0U 3-w a JWW. . but irregularly. have the E. ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven. § 278). which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). r. rem. others ^j**\ ^j*-\. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a . & Adj.g. Nouns which have fern. of verba primse j. Awj. v-tj^. of .\ (accus. Rem.> ju~>l. 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. The Noun. Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ . the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs . a*«o~> . iy-j^w £*w & »p. 280. £ * I ^^pA. — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use. as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John). A lost first or second radical is not restored.§ 281] II. {y>\). Sjljl a sma// water-skin.-*»-t. duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£. —recover . as 3 j^c & promise. ^js. etc.^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted.1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. ( . 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. 6. ^^. L5 r ^£. is dji or d$i. a). i**-!. some at 0^1 say ^^. which the - 173 two 279. A5JA. rejects one of them x .

^t. and *. nouns in . the diminutive 9** 0*J . after elif. j^t^A.g. daughter.174 Part Second. .-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9.g.l sister. rem. their original letter. (for j->». Uutdu.) good. 9 0* J 9 o * J .'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0.] B 282. diminutives would have been J^\. b). r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . « name. " " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«. feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. and ^ Rem. ^f O^t a son. &-i^. falls (a) If a masc. [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — . in the first two by the termination. 3 . if of four. *"***»- *!/©»•. 0*J J*j& 9 . ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus. elif. 284. C-w*j* . . G. j-*£. <uiA (see C § 281). exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240.g. this termination away . (for ^-Ul) people.^*-^ reject the . ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). take a prosthetic E. It— reject these terminations s * i . having lost their third radical. %i$) from ctj a pastor. C* i Jam < (see § 269. r. b) feeble. <u£. ^hU j-}>* . E. this consists 9 of three consonants. djj-** (a name).0 J ' ^— . 242) dead. This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ. With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed. .**0 ' and take S_ . as ^-^j^. e. are like those of fern. and distinguished <u^». j^J^a-o]. w-->j^-. the root. 283. Those nouns which. s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. noun ends in S_. a The diminutives formed of Cs». J C^A thing. rem. the softened or curtailed diminutive. or the Parts of Speech. . D.i j) ^ M^ U . as u^i$* from ^13 a judge.t. >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo. ^-jy jIa (for jjIa. and ^La. consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i . j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*. (b) Fern. ^.t. and recover .

piece of 285. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286. *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#. tj ltLJL g. from 0s J jU> and ->.a milk-pail. -**& . Nouns Subst.Q. redness. *$>£. jljt.->»>.M. as Ox Oj S/o* brown. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small .*. a rag. . OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet. Ox certain garments. II. a« cl «. &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. b) ^jtj* (see § 305. aj^> a draught (of water). »xx ilfcj. a fever. 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . rem. O Rem. OxJ tjl^O smoke. an allotment. a piece. J x 175 Ox J . 0x0 l^Js a fragment. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl». O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. J**->3j * A . x x |Ut. fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. X a-a»J a portion. 2*b. O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. ~ 5 a *" c nightfall. '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. a*a). if B a collection 5 of poems. Zjsuo yellowness.. x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or . from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. SlLJl*. : J^. . j»\£*j a cold. . A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset. Very <i & Adj. The Noun. a morsel. »-x 1^3. A. ^jL-^Jl . 3u<LJlz. j~*>*. as " . a public •'u office or bureau. a piece of land. of J-wol ^e evening). dJU a night. vi anything. 8 a firebrand. Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J . and tjt^Jj a register. ika. a mouthful. and j L. as if or * p-L*-** brocade. »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. jUjj n dinar. a pelisse. as 3-cu5 a quantity. ^x Ox a vessel. iL^I. aJ-wJ (compare the plur.§ 286] II.M.. *$j* a sect.j a man. irregular diminutives are d^j . account-book. x * i" A J .^t g .jUic. <i.jUJI a human being. O-i^ij}. as^»l*». iakS.— Diminutives. a live coal. as SJJi. acj**-. — The form (6) a wooden pin. Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases. ^Ua garment. 23j) a light blue. . a gulp. of <>>1). as r. OxJ JU-/ a . w**^».

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

a knife 0-a^> s (gen. street or lane.] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding. fern. £. t3>w « market. p\*o a measure for the forenoon.jUaiw authority. the rump [gen. juf» the liver.L». weapons. j**~t peace. condition (gen. > JUs the neck.b nature.ambergris. fern. fern. w**l3 a 0* well. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. <Sj~> journeying by night.] a tooth. J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part. masc). fern. natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. rain. s OjJla. 0>jJ» a road. Ij3~> a wall (gen. a road (via strata). - J~~£ /toney. 90 j ^o^w a ladder. [prop. a marriage.* « B shop. masc).). etc.]. 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. a shop. ySis> OJ a spider (gen.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path. masc).—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a sovereign.).l a Aar# ' (gen. J US the the nape of the neck. fern. [j^c. . masc).). used in producing fire (gen.). soul [when signi£-3j spirit. fern.]. corn. i^ji a horse [gen. a road. [JUa.] * V cL.). a o o m kettle (gen.182 Part Second.). fern.- C o of wood. fern. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^. a booth. <» tj»o J a way. *• (gen. clouds.]. 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. IU-w the sky or heaven. hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power.). tion [gen. fumed] jjS a pot.] ^h^S a bow » (gen. a phantom. JU< - state. . ?-*-o peace. fern. J O^. fern. I) .

& Adj. b). a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac. j£&>. *+Jk* 9 • x . become masculine. ^— . a water-carrier. %\+~t a. 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc).— Fern. radius or ulna) of the fore-arm. masc). Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word .] and jJj a well. by the radical ^ letter. and s-^ja. ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man.. are later times ^i. the right direction.] Rem. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. JJ M# (gen. C From most adjectives 293. an intestine (gen. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender.] [j^jdfc ffl^l. 9 ^ 3_.§ 294] II. jui» the liver. since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. affecting the ^— 294. as S^l^w from ^l-o-w. of Adj. a^3) a yotmg woman. aj^jJxa . The Noun. a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast. and that contained in § 291. or CC (§ 290. Nouns Subst. s the shoulder. 9 x Rem. but the . the mouth. x w>jj~cu© j^. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. fern. in ship. A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue. B b. 9^J0^3" struck.). The most usual termination.- great. are mas- culine. ^ grandfather. fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen. as jU fire. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . . CO . - 2^i <jl©ju repentant. [^j£s. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. fo'to or shin-bone. Rem. [Rem. which must be learned by practice. u^m 9 . [*zXLc dominion. ajUL» from *Uuw. j) 9 x • . i-jjLo mi #> . A. from the masculine. « y 9 " ' For example. the maw. the upper arm. Jjj the bone (either ceiling. (gen. masc). a. The above list. before 3. 9 J ' .

-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat). ijj/^t. as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. •&\ not superlatives. te\j£. ^Jiji* . 30* . rem. io* . Rem. iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. not in signification. (a) * * . * O is * . 133—137. rem. as SAJLj. in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. see Comp. *>» [§ 295 A forms p. Kamil. 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. . ^J*%c.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. is ^jk** *0* . angry. The latter word can be used indefinitely. * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . B 295. with hemza. comp. another. feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . § 299. The numeral jt»»t. This view is . 0*0* Rem. ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. (b) O^A±- timid.184 Part Second. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first. ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a. 1.\ (forjjktl) other. and the modern d_. . ^UUa*. &UL*w O^j* naked. . c. . . Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * . . .pregnant. " ° J 3* . " iJy^S that of j±. without any corresponding masculines. of the n yj . O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. feminine. in which case the feminine "0 largest. gCA 3 *0i form J^t. because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. £)^+^> * ^^as-. {£j£~> thirsty. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . . 7 supra). cities. when they have the superlative signification. fearing. * b. a. i*JL».-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. one. 87. § 301. at. do\jj£. and below b. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . *0 * (-0* . o io* lowing genitive. i jsuc^S the smallest. has ^j^t. as . o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . are preferable c. *03 Rem. Gr. O***** sated.] 10—15. e.

» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U. and also if it has the Ox J x . fern. . antelope]. The following forms are of both genders. J x £ as yua\ yellow. x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . as }j& x hostile. J x . C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w. as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress). OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . G.. \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient . Ojdx Ox J x . Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . ibj^.— Fern. " J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed. ^£j-t^ an d 297. Stw a sAorw sAeep. . Rem. Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^.-3 [and again. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*. D. [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx . But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed. where Ox J x x . or / thought her. A JajI. rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race. db^£>j and 5->>^». tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. nor one 'x J to x carry loads. 185 296.j a patient and grateful man. *bjjdt */» / (rain). *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman . a. 24 . Jj**. patient . OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad.^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**. or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular..^ a lying man. 8 O Exceptions are rare < . of Adj. nor one for milking.] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. • " (a) sitive). A.. i\^~*** beautiful. £ r<0 s .§297] II The Noun. which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x . Rem. i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was. i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5. an enemy. & Adj. . J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. Nouns Subst.. ° -» " . w>J*^ £ J Jj*. . amazed.

<1 D. which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ . For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^. jlkfc* ajjU*. Ox Rem. 233. as ^yJL^c poor. x x Exceptions in either case are i rare. docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel. J UJLd. Ox x self-willed woman. a praiseworthy way of acting. blameworthy habit.j^ w^j-5 well. [§ 297 A [Rem. when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***. $$^=> a D. x JJ/ (b) J**s. but (t ^. a wounded woman. Hence the difficult nouns >yt. fa^C. (§ 6). or j-Ja. '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. b.J1 . £/te Exceptions are rare Ox . 0x0 « and J**a*.and p a declivity. G. x 5 x t jlj <aa. but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered. or the Parts of Speech. —Etymology fern. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ».j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl. = 5^^=>.J mountain-road « of ascent. x 2ri^A.C>». ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume. 4jli*^ [.** *oW>> 2x perfume.<« x x x W a new wrapper.] . fern. on the other hand.. tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. Zj~a-> + + . 3 ju^».< Sl^ot is allowed.o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . <Ua>JU . G. <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor._ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives . ZjuslZ oLag temperate. J*o*^» x . 0x0 II ^ . 228). = iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and.o an l^-Jfe O acclivity. a x ~ x J x . j^J^o. and under the G .g. <jUju» isU a <* «.186 Pakt Second. it If J~*s has the meaning of .g. . J-^5 oUi a murdered woman. or intransitive). mercy (c) is C>xru>a». chaste. aa^ac t/ojj* Rem. . ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*. x . **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. rem. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*. .

w^olk. JLac etc. jy>.-A sAe will is to-morrow . G. O x 0*0' «r. s * 9s. as ^J-ol*.— The Numbers. actually in progress. ^Zo bearing twins. The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting.] menstruating. . £/&e J JkJlk divorced.. But they designate the said action or state as beginning. . I ji£ iiUUs . w-.witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck. dsuo). ^J-a**.tlib. O^j or . Adjectives which are. lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or. dual.0 ** her time or term. / 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. The Numbers of Nouns. *->*>*>-. j-wl». § 136. 187 infinitives (§ 230.] ^. 0s ..§299] [(d) II. the singular. three numbers. they form a feminine in 3_. (see § 81). JJ»U without ornaments.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it.. js*-c [^jLa». last 9 1. an action or state as natural and permanent. a) e. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i . jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^. pregnant. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her. and plural Nouns have. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam .g. rem. 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. 298. J**** D. R. jJbl). by their signification.jX^i £Lcl». oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn. like verbs. at any rate. ^aui*. 96* *r^> *. her.j&3 and some others as jU. as C ^oaJI i-tful». ' j-ojto. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling. A. J B ^U. The Noun. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day . or about to begin (£ol». applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate . s S. 00^*' A and yj am M Vol. 299. p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. as iU. . 15. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 . Rem. CUa-ojl U. of course.ti Adj. having swelling breasts. bust naked. to females only. Nouns Subst. J) 3. n. chaste.

when sprung from a radical $ or ^. however. SI . —In and even ^jbl^a^o.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco . r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert. \j\}\jjua. a. x x however.»>. the j is restored the dual . would be Rem. ^j\i\j*~a. Rem. «L»£> a dress (for jdJb). § 294. admit the forms oWUl . not restored in the dual. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£. [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in . t. oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. J . l£>** legal opinion. 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow.-XS. as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ). which was originally a 3. r*' x w*s b x x x X . ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- .« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^. b. Rem. CT ^L^». a. But <Ut a J and testicle. the hemza is may retained or changed into 3. used. Forms like ^jtzl/*.red. jl. as ^J3 a youth. x the termination either be as *T_. as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom.) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc).*. for 16 3 3^).a bustard. ft. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj). —Etymology a nation. it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual . two buttocks. \j\5sid. J) c. 3 is changed into buttock. %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some. a. . {\J>— a). which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff. for . a). the singular of which. as Lac a for $*a£.. but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi. The hemza . >**>ja butt for shooting. x are. § 167. jjljt^^o *" x i\j^».>0. oW^ a 15*:. ^ fi. the j x o£ . B OW occur. said by some to be admissible. O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^. If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. . x x x . <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). rem. usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. O (see rt^ ^rni. I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l). x © x nine X (§ X 296).. m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground.188 Part Second. though the former preferable. jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. becomes 3 x .

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

sing. b. J) Rem. masc. 195 AaJ-b). San. sanus masc. jjt the goose. only to substantives denoting rational beings. vs.. which denote rational beings. To the words enumerated under highest heavens.] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. fern. Rem. sanus masc. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification. but more especially from adjectives when used substantively. rem. OJJ^&y*' 9 * . rem. of jus Abd). < . Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions . \JyJ&. (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. £-*»»t. ±jbj\ the earth.0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings.*?. Nouns Substti Adj. p. have also the s plur. etc.— Plur. (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. A. For the see 2. adjectives exemplified by j**o\. see § 340. ones family. however. D. § 304. J***J (dimin. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. 13. «. etc. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . from last < 1. fern. when joined Rem. B f ' lLauL£». and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . of J**g a man). II. » of Hudeil. The Noun. they might seem belong rather to the class of plur. have the plur. san. 5) we find o>*^ 120. their diminutives. c. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur.§302] II. § 296. * * in the 9 commentary on the Diw. * J m O^U^s . Adjectives. of j^ti) an inferior poet. £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. Jjbt . s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO . though by their to fern. App. £^t> A***. a. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. G. * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin. etc. c)*. Masc.

[like &+Lc ii. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. £)£j 3j£» a ball. 6). ^t J any one of etc. has been elided. J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word. rem. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. juj j-ojJt H-^t.196 Part Second. j>~L*>. as Zj&. and called j*4j)\ l O^t. used by children at play. when they are the names. it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. a secondary formation ^>*iw. § viz. J ^t. c). x etc.g. thing. x x x \jjj hu\j $£. which have no singular. volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. rem. which the third radical (j. . s i Further. d) nouns in S_l . (§ 323). like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. very J irregularly. men x Construct compounds. %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. as also the numerals denoting the tens. e. (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299. a stony. > *^* a stick ?/ear. sanus masc. [cas. x . ^j^k* obliq. h). vulva. Rem. ^JA x O J > JP a . i 'z-Zubeir . £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung. In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264). stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable. jx which are called j 0. possessors.j-|juj £bt w>t. o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. arises a. a privy. but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191. 4 ^. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . si)3J^ *jj an d. Comp. JL». is rem. D but in the case of compounds with to say . from 20 up to 90 x J x '. it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. x 3 x in x . <J}L*. 325. especially those of Od x . rem. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. have a plur. $>\. 03J^ . and the like. a sphere.U ^J^. see § 340. also § 108]. not of persons. Thus w>j£jjui«©. Great Bear. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. form ol. Rem. makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. Some x fern.. — It may be b. « xx wholly indeclinable. e. ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel. d.

According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' . •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. of the letters.Lp. OUiJa. (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— .§303] II. may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % . x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. Nouns Subst. » The names 3 . 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. f.. G. when r ' Rem. Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi. 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. w**. and such names of 3 ^x 5. o*> . (a) etc. of the months x . a (<#) 9 £ bustard. as uL^-cu. x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. The feminine nomina (§ 5 . [Rem. as j*j 5 . 6^/ a gazelle. admit also of a pluralis fractus. (a OL-UJ juA Hind. x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_. x 3s. Feminine adjectives.. O^t^w. the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . rem. Proper names of women. sanus fern. San. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus. ObjL*. Fern.9 a village. J xOx t 9 xxtfx . rem. x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D.*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 .—Plur. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress. plur. be put also in the plural. Oljlj-o 301. b). x J ^Ufc. 196). which are usually feminine « . . oL©*}Lfc. xx and fourth forms. wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or .lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). A. 5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m. e) . 9 ^+»-x pregnant. OUUa^o. as xx . OUJLli (§ 301. duj. is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx . 197 is put in the plural. OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. Rem. of the second oW^LLot. The names # # (§ 292. as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition. as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * .z2a. The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense. The Noun. 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. The pluralis sanus fern. (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 . o .. 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx .0*3 3 . .] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot. b) . o£ J *0£ . 00 9 x ( xx . Jas. If a jo <& Adj. verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal.

prognostics. or the Parts of Speech. J ' x . Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301. loaded * 9 s < * camels. a 9 %<• j book. C/^ t» . and * some nouns. 9 c-s —Etymology an era. w-j^Uj wonders. substantives. which are used in the plural as substantives. Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ .- 136) f~ijti a date. oUtj*». 9 oU L^a. c-aJI^j J (compare . j created) . which some. 9 < Olw^. termination 9 * . masc. 301. . Jbtj-* awning. 9 s * s . § U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). d * a warm 9 ' bath. OUtj^U> a . O^Jbt or C^aI. OtS^l^-w . a tent. fractus O . . 9*0' stout camel.6t or marriage. -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses. (lit. Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. Obj. even ff» when they denote persons i . d s * ^l q» an '. Olojt (see J * * .^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. works (from ui .t § word is . "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha. uLoLeJ. . jLL~ijl+. Otjl©~> (though this 9 .tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities. B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin.« living thing. oU-jt a /afoe rumour. irj a OUU^U^o o * . or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property. ji U^ .c arranged. ' s j S . ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. J ***** * a 9 . b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. £>WJ*aa . D rem. a * compositions. o '* *£: . § a literary composition.^. jtJlwt. rem. marvels.> .U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations. 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ . 6) from f" . ^aj\ the earth or ground. Ot^Iwt. Many fern. however. ou». (i) Verbal adjectives. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b.) . an animal.. (jlj^U* a jet deau. classified) . entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) . Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher. Ob^. which have no plur.«gv . as * 9 .. ol***. ObU^. Ul aw ^4##. J J . iUt j*£ a caravan of . * C inanimate or inorganic thing. j*wlo annunciations. a chronicle. which have not a fern. Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is . a fountain.198 Part Second. existing) literary . difficulties.

of Jy^t). j^\. 304. a dynasty. *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand. . J 9 ' J . all£> « kidney.3 L J*5. 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. 9. with the principal corresponding singulars. without tenwin. 4Jl*5. which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical. on a horse's forehead. as 9. 9 * .3 (for .. j). (§ j^^U*. 9. ^^.6. § 213) 9 *J . Jj* village. and Adj.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest. . rem. Bldsse). ^jlx)\. adjectives. A (i) All diminutives. 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. a trinket. Hj <>£ i^j a knee.39. § 213) .] district (Gr. of J*$l as a superlative .^ 5x as <Haj a present. ^ali JSJ 9. see D 295. w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. (J^t o^er. as Ja». § Similarly b). x^P a )> a dome. s J The Noun. Plur. . another (fern. 234 and § 295.§304] * u> II. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune.0 j^aJ) . Rem. Jy^t »te greatest.3. <L*J a foard. volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin. The following is a list of these forms. LUJt M<? highest. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. ^^IsuUt . UU»J 0' .. t J 9 jya ' J . w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. a .^»-). 5/JJ 1. fractus of substantives triliteral roots. and examples. fern. w*J> s J 5 . jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern. k. 4*1 J a nation. or &&&&? (Germ. as J-*»- a hillock. (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. except those specified in § 302. 0*}L**r*. . AjjX». Fr actus. b) . 3. i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. w-£>j white spot. J 9 * J ilas ^ j. <j?Ji Su^j a turn. are twenty-nine in number. Nouns Subst. 9.— Plur. ^a\ 6 ' J . ^j^t . OLJS. of j^t. Fract. 199 uJ ^ J bound books. SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad. . j±\.3 rare . i*3 [a leather tent. and The more common forms J ' of the plur. 9 x J . . .

R S. & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309. without tenwin [§ all together. * s * as £jjio yellow. 302. e. JUi. ii. J^fcli. b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years. vol.. woman). rad. . D. as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2. j**.J in. w>**-*-' humpbacked. (§ 296) . ^-O^. ot Sing. however. 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*. G. cAsrft tfliwfe.).] 4. make *»*<»». not comparative 3 . jy*> jljl heat. A*-^^ ^-^J. O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet.l. w>jla.g. had young. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU. [Accordingly a efawrt has J^. J3J 9 3 . has certainly both £$~t and £yi. JUi. rad.l and i[x2j (fem. and 3. and superlative 9 6 3 . i\*Z£>. farrow. [§ 304 A Plur. J-*it. jJua lU^ fawe.] 93 J>»-]. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j .] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. § *£*. JUi. . etc. a#). 5. JUi. *- of J*it. 9 . 1. c. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. 9 3 II. as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 .. j J . 9 3 j 5 .jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. rem. ^o ^ . JUi. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi. derived from verba med. a. 1. III. 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad. 8].. 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i. J***. [Rem. 3>-»l 6/ac&. 9 * Isufc. [Comp. 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. ^©-ot <&«/. I 9 J J j$\. of *«*». [Also in some other cases. 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. retiring 9 * 9 3 . . j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j . &$£ . § 137 and rem. derived from verba med. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . ptjuj fern. not derived . Jtf. j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red. iU-oJ. i\x+*. ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. C a middle-aged married woman. Fract. s WSfWJ. They may. «*-j^ etc.200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat. & Adj. tertiae rad. 9 3 ' 3. " a large bowl or tree. ^Xi v>jj an idol. w *>*»» . bier. J>**. as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . j et ^j . The Noun. jjJ j±~e patient. . '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . J*3. &**£. ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a. ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar. s^jo. j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. 'Oi jjUft a rein. 9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' . 201 Plur.jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood. 93 w~o£ 3 . and not derived from verba 9 3 3 . fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. ju*c . 3 3 . 2. Fract. Nouns Subst. u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' .La*»&.$. J**i. Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy.'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. jj~* 9' ' £ . 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. %~o. ^ j yet. rare 9b' as w. w. Rem. ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. a message. A. tj£* jtji -t) a tick. a dromedary. Jas. . 9 3 3 . 93' who warns. Fractus. 9 ' . 9 ' 3 Saturday. * . 9 3 3 . iUi.I Ojj 9 . a stallion. » 3 . as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut. as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . 3 3 . 9 JjtS continued. 933 . J*$. [A rare case is s^ot from . t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . J*w>. uUL* 9 J I . white piece of sphere. 9 ' 91 » 9 .—Plur. O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna. jealous. 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs. Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*. it £y&. 933 > a 7-00/*. J>*s. 9 j j . J***. a thin. qj*> J 2 . 9J * A Sing. a 9 throne. f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. a 9 ' messenger. 91 3 . J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' . J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> . *• cloth. j^J .jUa».JL>! female. 3' . 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion. j^o 933 9 . or ra/. j j J>w.4a. J*3.>£».] tertiae rad. j et ^ [ . ' thicket. 93393' JU^i j^s .§ 304] II. the heavens. rough. for or 9 sacrifice. \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick. T III. verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. geminatse or verba tertiae rad. J^i ^0^/0. }j.

as a rule. or :>j^- IV. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. ^o*3 a flock of sheep. unless O * J . gemin. OxOx fo*^ « farm. or pattern. Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . J—j. just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). J** continued. . as j**& a merchant. character. J Forms rare.13 a time. rad. manner of 2 Ox . Jjtf. Jul. R. dL»£ft. aX*5. rare Ox dx a to£. JjJ. Jjii * J J a sea. Ox %~6 r. Some- times the darama of words med. xJ JuJJ pleasant. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae. so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. »tew. j&*-'. *JaS . xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J). . e. O 0J-. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT.j*3 4*15 a fathom. as j-ij~>. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). f . ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. 1. x JJ. w>b3 ^e common fly. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*. Fract. jj~* ju **». < oooej . OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. O O J Rem. \£). milk. a building. i. ^ « foc£ o/* tar. l£) or i«&}]. v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5. C il*9. wo. JAj]. 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. X X Sing. [§ 304 A Plur. 957. ^^\ (for t^t) . are is J '. a maxim. 5.5 a £M0tf. jUfe.202 Part Second. from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o). * S^J aw example .] u . ^*xa. . 1. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain. as A*Ja.g. s* . * [Again. S. % J » Jifcti. V. oox 1.] J is j*£ x (for j+%). rare r. Ox x J J changed into x J fetha. jwt. £«J living. ^o-j»* . J J III. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. [j-4^. It may be J J a poetical license for Jju. ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. OxOxx . 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. . JUi. Gs . ^~*Jk Ox .Jj . J For.

ai . D w>Jls «m^. 9 * * JIoa. «x . lM» 9-\jj • • . *'£' duij the neck. ^J» a ~-jj gazelle. 9 * . V. J^U» . w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard. JU-j .. ° £ 9*** JL». cbj fern. *. jtj-» . «. JJ* # a shadow. s^aefe.aA a late born camel's colt. *W-£. geminatse or tertise rad. J Us 9 * continued. 9 * . <>* cm occasion. A Sing. 90/ 5. ^o. *-UJ 9 * . p{~6 * . cUj . * as ^J*** a hill. wolf. x # Ox w>U*© . &J a o£^o Rem. iw>. Fract. 9 * . not superlatives X . 9**9*** 3. **~> a beast of prey. <LUi. A. *1>L». w»^c> ° { 6. J*i. B Ox a foW. fern. pt«i 9*0 \ . • <• 4. 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . 5*5. The Noun.—Plur.a 9 * he-camel. aX*s Ox # dish. verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . a dress. 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying. *0l L5J*J. iUi. 0x0 4^ jU a a note. 203 Plur. 9 * * * . w*tfi a wind. cloth. <z sp^arr. rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. /JJ milch-camel. £U£ (rare). * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. 0»x oxj iUi. colt. an arrow. Ox Ox . ^Ut a hermaphrodite. 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 .. 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. Stj-«t. J**. & Adj. 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f. o^~*-J x 9 J x . Nouns Subst. J. t -* j?L»J. as ^^1 female. has a plural of this form. camel's xOJ 7. cU § * OJx . a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. handsome. as v*~> x A*8* . ^Uj .§304] II. J Ox v*o - difficult. Fractus. a woman. O - 9 . # 9 . 9*90 . district. J^». <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . . not derived from verba medise rad. Ox iojj ^ garden.*-£ a hywna. £-j£ .

j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem. 9 a courser .204 Part Second. [§ 304 A Plur. o 9 s feeble.*-«-* . Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. J 8. jU£» . fern. 6.(for #00<^. as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. 9 . verbal adjectives. i\ -* s k s . 9 9 s . not having a passive 9 s 9 s . JUs 9 continued. J. w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10. Fract. oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**. js\% 9 s ju». j^J JjbU drinking. - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant. as j+*£* large. 9 s 9 s .- ># adjectives 9 s . O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J . . thirsty. J«^Lj. ed. 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry. j*\>£*.) good.c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw. 97 seq. 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . ~s yaJo a merchant. jL^. $/ / »/ &*$***. old. UU^fr l " IV s . 9 s a. s 9 s . j-h^) (rarely vt base. standing. 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . From words ^su pure. 9 x tertise rad. ^*ij£>> noble. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Thorb. 9 s 9 . . JUai. 9 s 9 s signification 9 s . as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. used . j^Ls . tfAe channel of a torrent . ^*£j£*. %. Dorrat. s s - Sing. few words and Hafagi's comm. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping. ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>. w>U^o 9 s 9 . ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. 9. 11. . s s £-Usuj from fern. iLai. The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. sick. is C Rem. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3. jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem. 9 s . verbal adjectives. An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. [wi^g. V.

1.—Plur.] Some J bid. 50 - 50 90J . 0- C-wO a house. Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . others g vi. an ^> Dv ^£ . *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. J 933 (for 90' . and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e.> usually makes ^~. f»5+wi c). rad. fLcj from c. >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle. D. *y~>\ w>ju a scar. 205 Plur. A Sing. a ewe lamb. 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 . that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^. as 5JJ 3 5J 5 . 5 3 141 #~J seq. ^J> (comp. «j. b. 9-2.ji a troop. 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp. 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem. Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . 5 - lion. 5 J J ... Jas # as j^*j a sea. 9 . 90' 9 i/fo JJ . & Adj. The Noun. 3 J 9 0' .3 or ^^3. 5 -£ Ja3. own 5 . q 903 33 . gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss. to Tabari). r^^yi Jy^ a year. 9 J jys^j J .^*!). 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. From words med. ^M. 9 0^ 9 J J . u-^i soul. J) as if from y~$. G. ju*. Fractus. Rem. 5 0- Rem. a chief. 9 . assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket.\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd. Fract.3 JU* continued. j>U. # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder.) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 . or f-y**. 9 . A. a 9 Mtn. u*>*»- *>*»• the neck. ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man. ^»^j^ a J^. V. JA 90^ Jjji. jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army.J calf. 50 { a. w>J*^ ju& . gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year. tor. a doc§ 269. Jl^j from Jjj mean. 9 3 3 . # military force. g. rad. l£^>) § 215). Nouns Subst. J*5.§ 304] II. 5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow. J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr . 3 . -- 5 JJ . 3 J^j (for of the vowels. ^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical.j or Jl*-.3 Jui. 0- syllable is In words med.

Ox ^b. tooth. ^JUU a #m<7. j-©~> j*>v sleeping. J>c$ o JJ . # O3S3 J J .* this J 9 x x rare.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. wicked. O^x OJJCxOx . 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself. 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 . a j9wrs# of money. 9 * * B Rem. J^Z and J*£ . jcclS. Sing. . OU S j proud. > ^^-At (for ^3-ac). aa». or med. 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night. #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua». . *->>** . not mediae rad.0. 1.o or ^j.>>*=> 9 J J . 0x0 J *4j±. D vii. . OJx time. «i)b ^y^» . ^yL> or ^iu. Fract. gemin.. J3** continued. Ox J^U. a period of Jj>*». t^JU. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. £fc fcwr. JjU> pregnant. j>yo and j^e . rad. wiytw 5t^> Q •4. 9 d J . .JU> («JLo) a W6. 3 of the form J-a-i . a casket. as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. not derived from verba tertise rad. u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a . ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . a %? or summit. 3-0). witness. 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#. . J J' '? . rare 9 J J . ^. Ox Ox £UJ. a M#. ^53 or ^j3. iUi. -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant. V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . 3 ojj 5 -» standing. J^j a xx j mountain-goat.] X J3. verbal adjectives. J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. j*y and jtg^o fasting. -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «. as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&. 9 x rad. sitting. aw inkhorn. plural is From words med.206 Part Second. OJJ [Rem. VI. vel verbal adjectives. [§ 304 A Plur.

aiiJ. aw offender.» a deputy. <jU. . ^ . . as Ujk for U^*. Anomalous is having no weapon.— Plur. dutiful. Nouns Subst. 9 5 j . (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£. in which into B case the j must be changed ^ . J *-*-»- ^U 9 #». unbeliever. St x 5 j fU».xLj.>lju©]*.js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower. verbal adjectives. R. * [ J^ defeated. fd j . is by usage pi. SjjJ (for . IX. denoting rational beings. from oi5U» fearing . § 213). cUo j-*L^ aw C . jU JiJLb repudiated. as AaJU mourning. of 9-y>. is Rem. 1. 9 * 65 J . *• j 9 et fl ^ J . of ji. 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b. u^u*- fi iUU. 5p*w ^ b . x 9 5 J . js\y o . jwows. ^^a. JUli» perfect. The Noun. etc. [or med. -» absent. 9 Si A Sing. %\}b- . j^^ a «^ unbeliever. 207 Plur. Jj«i continued. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad.] . ^ et ^. d J 9 .Fractus. in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. ^U^ JaU. properly pi. SjiJa . ^ et ^ 9 . . and not derived from verba tertise rad.S. . JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier.] (with rare exceptions) as^»^». VIII. &**). gem. 5^^ [^tfula.§304] II. A.] JU5. x as J^U a workman. icb j5U s^'wa. *5lb obedient. djztie (for **>&) . [Rem. of Jli. i J VII. 3 i D *£** . verbal adjectives. of the preceding a.. menstruating. [jlo avoiding. cLi «Jlo aw artisan. ^u» conjuror. 0>£.& Adj. fern. **+*£ 2. - . x Jxli.ajudge. ignorant. v'>> -i"3 > sleeping. jU a soldier. fugitives. Ox 9 3 J . Fract. 9 x J.

l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S.. ZJuca ^.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. as x J . Sj^** or Sjl*.» .) cLj a manager. with the same restriction. as *r> Sx . 0' 9 2. fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 . &oo*. Ox x 9 x x . $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . Oxx tjy> or Sjaj . yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place. J OOJi^S Q s a . as j^j x . 1. rehearser.] D XL £&. x X x 3 . 9 x Sing.* jj a husband or ^2/0.>L». olxw.] X. \j*" *ibl». Stjj (for x J ajj^) . [§ 304 A Plur. casket.] [Rem. JaJ. aw earring. O x CO J^ti. (for «*«*. x J or traditionary. Oxx x ££*».w Oxx generous. rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* . ^ &J«o ^^j a shield. [2. An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. verbal adjectives. tertiae rad. as jjU*. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». 3U». SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter. a weaver. yo 13 ^ judge. foar.o feeble. du^*. and derived from verba Ox x J rad. 9 ^ x J et ^ . R S. Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a . 9 x xx IX. 6 xx J x . iUi continued. * x . Fract. an ox.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt. acting wrongly. Ox Ox . 4*»^j -**w aw o/d . Oxx branch. tertiae ^ denoting rational beings. <L*jJ. J^U from verba med. oW* a sinner. not derived from verba Gxx J . jU x « a soldier. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ .208 Part Second. j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural. 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf. J*9. J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x .treacherous. a nickname given to the Muslims. Rem. Ja3. « i-4*«.

not derived from verba mediae rad.^aa* a gelding. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 . as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . **^ XII. brother. 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard. 90 9 x x f [j. /a#. XL iUi continued. old man. 6x0 aJU*. *^~b a J t «J Of . j et ^. x g „ . «xx . . coarse. X OxO rt. <7rea£. jJa~>\]. as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea.Ja~» a /me of writing. SjJj . dijt ^6*^U a youth. Oji Jai. hj£ - JJ>j ag#. 9 x x 9x x 5 . *>*-©) X a boy.. aJUsj 9. B °*i . 9 cM ow& elephant. 9x0 9 . A Sing. & Adj. .ork. jawt u~*J W* sow/. J*i cl3 . x J JU*.—Plur. • waw. R. jA a tom-cat. 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. .§ 304] II. 5x0 2. 9xx 3. u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin. <UaJa. £n#e. 90 x . J . 27 . w. &kk3. . a**o X . a brave. ^U. 1. J*** x fo'a.. &L». £s>> . Fract. aw p ape. Rem. Fractus.] XIII. a eunuch. 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. has a plural of this form. J-J** ^'c&. ^^Jil . S^-J. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y. Jiil. flaccid. . ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*.»£>. o . as jJj a cMc?. s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). few J ground. ' S Cj. iUfc.>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope.. The Noun. S. 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i. S^J «^w aw . (for j>«») a neighbour. 209 Plur. 9x0 JU$ . A. Slj««t X a woman. Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket. # . 5^». Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. AjjXi. X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. Nouns Subst. J*i as jjj a bull. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace. as a^U 4.

jj}\. as p\j$ the arm. •• ' Rem. 1. iUs. by transposition. . as J+*. rare o x£ . ^ left J hand. O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . <3>*t. JpjI. J oi XIII. JOi xxx . hill. 1). G. o£ J^t 5// 3. Fract. x C Rem.210 Part Second. . according to "El- Mubarrad 50. jly3 c^ay. . j ^^c an eye. 5 seq. at a § di . oi~ gjoI o o . o j J*». w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. 6' cloth. for example. B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . [§ 304 A Plur.jLJ •* the tongue*. has j>jI and. she-camel. not ending in *—. ^b a house. by o J oi transposition. Sing. j-*j. w>$jI or J w^t - . Rem. and OJOii JJjJt. %^~Jt. 2.] . aw oath. w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . 4.t oi &*) o » oi time. Feminine quadriliterals. D. .t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\. Exceptions are. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. a staff. and. xx JOi £ x . a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. ^3j\ . J*w. TV D • dialectically.t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . <} . Ja3. not derived from verba mediae rad. for if masc. cji! .^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . by transposition. ^ et x x J ^. ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '. • m 3^*t). j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. for example. JjUc « female kid. ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant. Ja3. ^>o. * [If fern. ^tt) i5U a . xj eagle. et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\. w*^ a raven. the x x neck. o*-^ a sword. 84J J**. x x rare . whence. oibi JfjJl. JU^t and. JUfct . as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. a fountain. *JL© a rib. . j^Jt . . a well. it has <U»»JI (XV. ^^ 60 C a bow. Jj«it continued. as x a leopard. o£ '} ^ occur. &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . « jrf Gtot Jijjt.

a friend. JLwl j*y> a day. Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard. Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms. son. v' o ? . >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit. rarely J*» (see no. 211 Plur. ^. (f° r 3^0 a father. JU^t foc&. jZ> a well. ^^L© a companion. dutiful. not buying a passive signification. verbal adjectives. w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o .U~ol jj\* tepid.f old she-camel. Ju^ « 9 . jly^l . J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t . ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword. js\x*. 9 £ an f. fo^y. 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep. 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . 9 . 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . 2. * 9x0? .^©A3 a fancy.a judgment.— Plur. JU5I . . 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . especially . 9 « Jlo*> a foad. jbt f V>t . J*». ^lj tdftv.3 9 a x>« aw ^ar. Nouns Subst. one would D 9x 3. J x aft 9x0? arm. t %l>\ . w. 9 XIV. 0U3I . jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . J*». 0/ camels. 9 '-» . a notion. jl*JI xO? . . 9 x~> . w>lJt m>. makes *Lwl. x . and primse rad. 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5. Fract. 9 x 9x0? J^ti. jlcul jJblw t a witness.§304] II. jbt 9 x 9 . j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w. 9x0? . The Noun. (for 9 w~J) a canine . £ . Fr'actus. $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. $>-t/il x a thousand. . Ox . Rem. X 4. jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. a mistake. & Adj. 1. 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing.^l (for >o~>) a warn^. rare 9 x as j-ob a helper. 2) . . . J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? .^£». jJblb 9 x j3wr<?. opinion. A Sing. J«*i a Mz'aA. <jt$t fjto .xxO? tooth. yj+*\ . |U^t . A.\ .«£. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. 9 x . w^J*- Ox x x 0? . w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) . from verba mediae rad. by transposition. *->\yi\ • £rac#. J***. jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door. 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 . jUsl. as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time. 5 0?" J»bl Ji. 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. *.» festival. and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. .j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free.

o^-*i <*wi| *y. and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ . . 9 s f}Hil £ . a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS . x U*3 a certain measure. 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * . »t rare . Fract. chaste. Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x . see the footnote to XIII. (for stingy. 9* OS. [§ 304 A Plur. 9* bi . 9 £) Ox X d£ .t ^obtb * . %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. . from verba X mediae rad. . D geminatae or ultimse rad. Ha3\. *a*-wt X . O x J Us.) ' • 2 p <0I g a god. B xv. &>J^I O^ ** . Sju*fcl o£ x rod.^ a fo# niggardly. xo£ '. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie. 9 * &* ** tongue*.^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant. ' o£ Rem. especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ . Quadriliterals. <L2£r> XX .] . a strait.a>. 9 . aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest. [If masc. . y^^* o X c^ar. A«-ot . a o ""*? colt. x . glorious. JUi. Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. *•** a pillar. 3 et 93 t Ox Of. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Ox »--£*£. jU»* can ass. OxOxO£"3x j c»*). 1. of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . x x right hand. d. S t 3JLfr t J . ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart. t 9 xx 4s*u*fc. S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy. A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . ^JLfr temperate. 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble./bo^. ^-:. 5^». ^jLaJ. 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ . XX 6 . 05 £ *L». an oath. Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?. § 242). JU*t continued. &Jf. vowel). * £ . 2. as Jjj& mighty. 4~aSI X Ox o£ .s>j\ v***1* a branch. 3ui^\. a wing.» 9. . X derived 2. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. sJ)j£\ XIV.212 Part Second.t X 0? . stuttering. 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ .

Ajjjj . jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. *dyi\ Jju a s^. 9 is* 9 . Fract. 1. »£ . xvi. J^1>» . as ^5U» a a signet-ring. a cover or &d. £ . vi^l^ 5 . 9 0* 9 Sing. letter is bound). Sj^l 9 J jj a button. XV. Rem. j*ty*. l^^s^S. £JU» a s^/. ^JIS a mould. 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. The Noun. J^U . a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile.] . in vulgar pro- nunciation. S «* B I >i . u*j\£. <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). . 3. 65 i AJLaut Oi . 9* i hjj\ * s . as <>J» 9 . 9 . [L». J^U» a 2. jt?o£. JU. rare 9* Oi . v^J-*or cawsg. Ja». Oj 9 ' *i . djj^j\. as JJjt^J* Touareg. 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture.§304] II.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. *iJo\ jj^i. Jii. di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck. ' J^. ^>\y*- .vm/wz. mothers 9 ' t>i " side).>t^ a watercourse. it In the old language there are some instances of e.G. substantives . A. Fractus. 9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a . cP^-i. 9 * 4. 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . bird. . 213 Plur. Ci^b a motive J * * . 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! .g. passes into damma. & Adj. J**.— Plur. Oi . j\js*. £Jl>» . rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . 9 0* . >u an assembly. in proper names. a £wc£- «x hare. Z+teS 9' oi » . J*3. dew. female slaves.« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). iJbet continued. crucible. J**. 9.. ji|>»» v^W. Nouns Subst.

J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. J^ti. J x x 5 9 x a wave. as J-«L». earners hump. X X J XX .53. Ox divorced. [§ 304 A Plur. i^li. J . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 5»xx verbal adjectives. a proximate cause. 5 S a horseman. j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. x Ox aJLcU. *f\y> i x x . j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. ^x x . as X 4y£bU yfowtf. Ox by their signification only J x •» rem.) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. substantives Ox x JxxOxx . )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). ^Ijxi. . rare. a joke. *-\y (for ^^y). s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example. a district.sU J a rarity. x x . Jxx <£l)tyb . . 3.) J i* ^oSl*. vulgar. X ^oSU*. tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. Juotj^. XXIII. «x x JJtjl (for JJI. X Ox 4. Fract. sociable. and fern. of J Sing. C 5. verbal adjectives. applicable to females (§ 297. x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding.. menstruating. x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. as x tr*j^ xx . J XX * s . a Rem. ajjU. ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. >^^\^o «( . X? . J applicable x to J men. Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt. ^-Jljt 4*». etc. 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce. verbal adjectives J . jJbtjw. see no. A-JM3 custody. J &>\yo 5j. 5 x wp^r classes. u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. ^U... profit. J*l>* continued.^^. XVI.U? a female companion. O X ^ Ox witticism. a girl. pregnant. B *to A«*a*. Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. a 7 . P Ox . xx .) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x . J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. rem.214 Part Second. region. (for ij^tj*. . . s * . a X X X . J^U. jJbljJ.

^J^^ X ««X X . Nouns Subst. x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. 5 " &a/. from 5^«] jJJ the night. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees. J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. J^l*». gen. whether they have the fern. quadriliterals. ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*.— Plur. Fern. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 . i . but nevertheless fern. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . a _ thing. a »XX »xxx J x J X . <JI^». *~5ULo x W0W0. . £))*?. ^xx . igt>^). a wawtf or weed. x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . x x s/a£>. *' i* * a treatise. &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. f-5bi ttrcwa*. j->!>»X X . Fract.] . of B (a long vowel). * f Rem. *UsU. J *»x x . 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. G. *5l©-o. termination 5. J^Lit . as 4uU*w a c/owa*. x >"' .§304] II. j->\j*o < x x . *)!** or <ULx^. lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. A Sing.. a letter. aw J »X t*" island. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. 6. o/a woman. H*£ X . ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. 215 Plur.or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. <So Adj. The Noun. a &£ter. JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent . « X X victim. JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* . £a*»~o a written or plank. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. 600/.. J ^ x x . [J*J. y£XVII. ' x x . law. ^ti^. JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . A. as iDu. l&uotf. j-j^o a pronoun. [Also applied to the male. w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. x juLej] «x 4«. D. J! x x x xx J xx .> X X a joroo/*. J wages. Ft actus. D x x ."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " .l». SfjJ**. a J *»x x . x ^^Oi. »»x x (for ^Jt^*-). 5x x # *. >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. 9 x x a cowrtf. 85 x x ^x x J affair or business. J*fcty continued.

s/aw0. 9 rare . Ol***ixJ 3. [§ 304 A Plur. from radicals mediae 3 x J . OW« oW ^ - «x 6. oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . 9 * 0^°3 9 . O >0 root. v«*^ « ^^^ .» 4. as juft ' a s/aw. ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird.jUJ j3~> 9 . o****9 Oj M t Sing./Sre. 5/J bird. *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. as > Oj*-. J J*». Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . J 9*9* . JU$. oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle. a worm. 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*. XVIII. 5 v!** a raven. 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. 1.a buck-hare.x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . J*i and J*5. a black beetle. % ^j^j. Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5. and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe. Fract. d 5 meteor. Sx»^*x . O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . O x . Ox . xj O^*^ « ^%. v**M « branch. Ox neighbour.» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > . a fish. lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. a branch. growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. w>b a *. \)j3 a lizard. J . o!>** 5 J«*». 9 Ox j door. 6 a I oxj O fl .216 Part Second. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. * ^)U*-J . Ox x J 5 ."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. o*^**^/j xx Ox . Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard. 0'***^ * . 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x .' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest. Sx as J-^. uW^ ^0 x £ i brother. Ol*^ rare .jtju* O . a waW. x* yu a nightingale. 603/. OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. '0 5 % * * B 2. jtH a yoke.

&\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J . 28 . A. rare xJ . 9 x J . JUi. 6 . an irregular plural ^jtj**J. '•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. 9 ->x Sing. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. J x 9x0 a /<wra&. dates. has ^lj-«t . The Noun. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l). a woman. xO J . rare 9 as »J>jj^. <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx . [7. A continued. J-j-©^.^ *» a wood-pigeon. 5 x 9 . 9x0x9 Ox roof. the short side of a *%» . the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . o/" d^afe. X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf. C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . 0>**> rar e . j Uai w. J^li. 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. as Ja5l»ii mW.—Plur. 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. # a bustard. 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . as x Jl5j a lane. Fractus. oW* J . o^. not nightingale. ^L-a*. 9x 10. J-*-**. 9 x x 3. 50x Jjt*..§ 304] II. J>»J. a strait. j%<^. Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**. rare XX 9 . a to»i6. x x etc.jU£* . 9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-. 9 . Nouns Subst & Adj. Fract. a meteor. as 5x0 <jU*£» . 9x0 diminutives.. 3-i5 d^oj.. xix.* >i wjl^w a firebrand. jtfrj a slave. 217 Plur. O^fa maidservant. 5 . as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. 9 xJ 9 £j . { g § 8. O^j9x0j 9xx 2. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew. 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel. 90 50x . Sx£ 5x x£ Rem. &%+•* B 9. 0^> 6raw. wing-feather. Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat. 3 ' XVIII.] 9 feather. 1. [v*** grain. rare J .

.3 . are.] J-j«i. J^ti. used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. oW^j1* s s . Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye. B 5. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J . verbal adjectives. 9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. and 9 ^j\jy»*. from 9 * j 3 j^\. jLc. O !/**• tffcui. verbal adjectives. w^Jbtj a Christian . j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. l\js* ilwjj . ctj « shepherd. * J Ol)^ c***^ white. J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. geminate or r" «» tertise rad. as Rem. 9 . o^** 9 continued. 1. Fract. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. or recluse. 9 i f /* commander . unweaned foals of 9 - camels. ^^^9 * a sand-hill. I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. poor. J n L&** a channel for irrigation. j~*\ a or chief. oU-^ 9 < . ^*o a fo# or child. from jt^-». O^ . applicable to signification. v~&j a chief . V^ . rational beings. oW^j 5 a companion.218 Part Second. jtgtoS 9 ' fern. 3 . cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 . as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. . The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show.jLs> JxdS 6. a friend. J-J*. J-oLj stingy. which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad. O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . 4. For example. even in cases where we should hardly expect it. < Sing. . . a youth. as w^b oW*> a n<for. ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. . XIX. used conjointly or interchangeable. et ^. £)*$*** oW«*. l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. ^L*>J. ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. [§ 304 A Plur.

* . and XXI. X i<^ ^^x stuttering. masc. plain. i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. in the former senses. *L»I #xx jujlw strong. a deputy. as * as ^U .j^o 3 x cfear. Nouns Subst. with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S .a.> sj+i clear. - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . x x J . 219 Plur. 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal. iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. adjectives of the same kind as XX. C J-oi5. eloquent. lUybt . 9 X learned. i*k*j continued. ^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am. l\*y*. l\~J. lLa». lu&wl ~ ~. i^Lu (for iUall. liberal. eloquent. A. 3 x stammering. . . (from . . in the last. 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving. ^y*-* 5 x liberal.l. ^^)..x B x x . «£ . ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. . Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light.§304] II The Noun. ws^J* a physician. *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. above . ila^^w 9 . a successor. (j^ 2\^j*>. J^U.» Rem.> noble.— Plur. 9 ' xx J . Oi . I^aX*. *U*a. v*^* a relative.1) . ignorant. Fractus. l\}>j]. easy. XX. as J^J^d a friend. Fract. 9 x x x iS'^f. . usually makes \J&%±. 2. il©Ac JJbU. j . iSCu. — JUg> o». 1. right. some masc. It^xw JSU r*" «*&. j-J. 9 *IjlwI . 9 x *s * j .xx lUol X . U . « prophet. but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad. adjectives. a caliph.. et ^J . i oW-*^ cowardly. iZj>\ 4-*^-. iUX»- f. exempt from. HjJX. Jjli good. ^?/<xm.d Adj.. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£. w««*». o£ . x . A Sing. i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ . *UJI ~' ot . J*^. i%^ j^li a jtKxtf. ^x 0£ . geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad. iL». a philosopher or sage. ^^ X ^^ X *W- .-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. for £\ejj. r£iU . easy. 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. a friend. a physician. . quit of. « /r^wc?.j-Jb (for r" Oi .j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth. llSjusl . i\^SJ>.

juS. j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^. ^5^*5 . {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken. j^j 3. Fracf. ^jA * . as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . S'^Ui. ^jl*. J*»»^ a partridge. mangy. age. a virgin. ^~& . %c*. »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . Ob*** drunken. XXII. l£>^ a ctok. b s 9 . C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing. ^£j*~£a ' . J**^ 9 y defects. Q angry. verbal adjectives. jis^a . as lljJ^ desert.. bone behind the ear. as D 2. [§ 304 A Plur. Rem. u4j*f 2. Sij-* drowned. 0^***> verbal adjectives . . as ^J%~£a lazy. . '0 * . ^5j£ &\& perishing. &*j paralytic.J . ^iL»*-* w^w. ^^3 * s *~>ja. ^>y* . ^j^ '. scabby. ^y*t*3 . of ' body or mind 9 ' .220 Part Second. < viz. *f« a fool. or J^»-t. ^Us . \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake. ^a>. J^> s . * * JU*-. as J^3 y slain. . vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner. an * [ old hag. Jbu* . denoting injuries. itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. i£>£ a judicial opinion. stung by a 9 scorpion. 9 s »f silly. \J=>y>. xxiii. . jUy goblin.. . 1.rw. ^y0j*° J5{e> poor.j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . J / ^l+z. oW*** {J!j£~*. (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis . Ot . 9 . wounded. 9 . or *->j**\. ^Ia. 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words. )\j&- . £*}Ia9 . AjjAas. ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. i^**. u&ij** sick. pain. rough ground.JLo^. and jjWj-k a polecat. 9 * + + . l\su9 a oL3. etc.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

however. makes with the xx art. ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear. xx XXIII. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x ." ^JUj (both with the art. ^yUl ^jX**. ^U^.^5^*. $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner. desert. XXX ^jU&. J&. 0/J(/ .§304] II. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. ^W*. is ' x x x x x xOx always night.a hermaphro^^. JUi stands in the nom.JUAJI.— Plur. ^«i. 'A*** x .. A continued. 1. 2. <jL-o£ angry. .JUi are D interchangeable. JJtp *£jG- a bucket. i£jl£* x x xxx .jl^-fc. The Noun. *»x x xxx a a as virgin. ^W*. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ. ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V». ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert. not superlatives as ^Jul female. »xx . x x x . . opinion. * hackles of a cock. 9x0 . and 4. 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. feminine adjectives. Fractus. the earth. JUt XXIV. and genit. "it"' ^^3 # .. 221 Plur. Fract. (ace. perplexed. . 1. In nos. 9 £ xf . JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x . JJt/s. ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. .. Rem. jj^L^b * xxx . ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken. 4. xxx . J . ^Ut) and u6j\. Nouns Subslti Adj. ^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a . x l^Ui as i\jjs> . A. *. ^Jj^h x»J 3. x ^**. jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. the forms JUi XXX and . JU* Sing. The accus. i JU . J x x fem - v^**j and J**». u±\j\ (ace. ^Jl x fc . jj^ULo xOx 2. ^** sweetmeat. ^UiJI). . ^»o\j\).Ud. ij>*3 . r. JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. as o!/*-* xxx drunken. . B xx . (ace. 0x ft as ajjJ**.row^A ground. 5. ^>3 x . for iJlxs and x x Ox . x&x xxx a judicial x xO .pregnant. K/ 4/ . XX Rem. J xO x XXX hungry. dite. verbal adjectives J . x tey. t l£>^ a complaint. f* 9' it . t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx . ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr.

Fract. [Luc evening.222 Part Second. «/ x . We write 000 etc. a). Instead of ^Ui 00 . bUj . 9 . 5 and 6. btu 4*fc) subjects. bt jJk a-mU . aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. . ^j*\^> 0% 3 . x x x . 90 * ^ ^£ . L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7.). [^b>*. iL*s. aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding. ^AZ-t 9 I .cautious^ wary. Sing. "[§ 304 A Plwr. ^bl . 9 t 9v)t . for {J\ juk (§Ui).. * bl£c *]. to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179. from verba tertise rad. rem. a)Ui. / x xx C *j!**a # present. j*t^> a boon-companion. 0t 00% . j^Lfc. (for 4~Ja£.^ en j)«m. Ja3. *Ja». . btj^. ^Uis.. SJ$*z the upper part./afe. for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] . 9 * 8. disposition. x ^ ^ . x b^b . a swollen belly.having 9 J .]. j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried. bU»w . 5J/ 9 6. iJjC*-. 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. W x m* x nature. covered with shame. (JJ.sad. j^Us 9 continued.J5Us XVII.) a sm. fern.tJ^ B o>». Rem. ^W-j 000 jJ^. etc. as x ^ x x x (Jul . something over and the above. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 000 . J as {Jj^L. we find. —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form . et 9 . Ja*. *». ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. blfcuo io^ bliftA. bt jca. SjUl a ta#. jtx+l an orphan. verbal adjectives as ix*». 90 ^JW*.-jtjJb. in nos. *5 t*J ^ et ^ . ^gjbt * 9 . jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. \J>S}+: * Rem. XXIV. bljJb instead of .

a s/a«0.ti Adj. Fractus. tertise rad. § J J %&* 9 . Jjti . a ^U* Sing. an intestine. J\*. rem.] C XXV. Nouns Subst. J**3 a 9' J J stallion. thought to stand for ^J^l^i. j£j * „- cattle. 0> tjljj . {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^. j-jif 1^*5 a . * XXIV. Ox *J used for washing anything. for Here too . JLoJ(rare). stout stick. from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad. as ^l^j b. Fract. A. A continued. . S. .). etc. bljj for Here . X - Ox . 9' J . ^•y. . Ox 2. \S\jJf.JUs is thought to stand for JjUs . 90 * .§304]- II. * * XXVI. J»*J. Ziyi* . ju*fc 2 - . ***». as Jjo a husband.yLo otU fodder. 240. Rem. 4> * * * aj^I*.JUi (|Tjj).— Plur. Ox . ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem. 1. &UU. ' [Rem. etc. w~J^» . ^ and ^ . . t ** . a 9x J thread. as 9. 3J^a*J [h^. y*£- a wild ass. JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass. as juft ^" . The Noun.. clothes. 9* *3 . Jjtf. 9 . B ^ et 9. Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from . yi£» a (fogr. as ^U. > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3.^c> 9x J . as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water.L 9 * a pilgrim. 3u^\j is a corner. Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. * . x c) .an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side). CtSJ. aiyU(rare).„ mill. 223 Plur. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier. the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 . ii>U]. a large water-skin. JtftU 3 x . Jjis fttfo). AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. bt^j.^tj-tfu a Christian. * 2J^*» (comp.1 (&**.» an uncle (by 9 . bi>»a.

Fract. 5 ft w^-L^ a companion. SftxSx w>£> . 1. Ox J*3 . 2. . XXVII. The forms J-j*i. J^li .' ". mM£. x x OxOx *. and the generic rft ( u . as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels).«aJI x S x x *lo-*t). J^ti. helper. a - servant. (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc. which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. XXIX. 1. 6 ft x . jjj]. Oftx . aAai * x . Ox x . J*\~* a traveller.. XXVIII. °" «xx Jjii. && Sftx (rare). ^^U. Jii(rare). [§ 304 A Plur. Rem.. J^J ^Jlb seeking. j&. watching. fix S x .U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. j..224 Part Second. ^Juii and Jjii are . (rare). 2. Sing. ^w x > . u»j*- v^W. bull. a n'w^. v^J a. x a caw^Z. jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr . The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. «^U a *i # follower. SftxSx .. Sftx 6 .» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion. Q . as j*}* etc.l£»$ j^-». 3. j*aJ a merchant. ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). J*5 as ^^j x a t" * . but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl). wnU.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. a guardian. j*oj driver. a %p . are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur.lo # companion. circle. Ox x . aJUa. as ^U*J. ftx fracta. <i b ' «x x 5 x x . aXxi.». G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . m'° ' as a£X». a)U*i x J^c*. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. wJJa xx .xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). and ft x J xft£ XXIX. JiX». j*j>a. a %' " .# sfowe. keeper. as w*». # 3j& a pulley. * * * an attendant. j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. . Ox j. XXVIII. 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a .« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer. XXV.

(as JJUU perishing. x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. Fractus. O and I^^juLo. A. SjUj. g.& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. see rem. g.g.o. present. juftl.« a sword. <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x . j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass. a O x x a Ox doctor. Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. From the preceding i obvious that one sing. ju*£. jj*£. 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use. OOx ^>Ut a she-ass.«). SjuA* chief. HA*. « x .JL ^ D (besides jut. jl^». OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. 29 .o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w. fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e.o l. (as j^l* x pi. llo^-bt*. j^U. /»jP ^ar^e. Ox x The forms XXVI. Ox x x . Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived.§304] II. v x x a>^3. masculine by form. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. see rem. X 9^9' E. jLct. ^jLa^o (besides a. Ox j*~> a sea. A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " . s^ow^.) from an obsolete J*** 0**w). OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. J»x Rem. XX Ox OlUi. Rem.>j. feminine by signification. a).o». wim^. . a he-ass. S^j. 6. 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . . c. ib^oto. « and are : £&»»>. <U> ^>>>-o. sing. x J ^^ x Jfcx . o x sfow. %—^. 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© .Jl*i. of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x . ^^ ^ _. Sjujco. it <& Adj. OOx J J )\£\.) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb). Sjufel. ^xxJ lUxw. and J^U.» for instance. jus. necessary to notice . but from others. <U£^o oW man.. °° " T" * t ' l man.—Plur. J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat. . Nouns Subst. x w^-lo a companion. w>U>. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr .xx JJu a x . ul jLc. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e. a). o . 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx. .xx a s&we. which 0* x J pi. £tjj-oc*. •> 2L/3-JU. OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U». no^ x te»3yfiU . ^J&*. O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£. w>la» -o. O x . il^^sw. ilj^at*. The Noun. a poet. lU$3l* .

4 ** + j^. 305. in the third. sing. Fract. bridge. it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it.gems. j j has jdbtyw. 9 in the former sense the B plur.-. Quadriliterals (5 not included). X j*U3. ^sS^s a streamlet. obUj X jJt^*. is O^o or OLot. (4) the interior. >U^. (2) a fountain. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example. JJUi X 1. in the second. (J*lil. its plur. as wJju j *' . *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . 9 J Oi its plur. in the latter almost always : Owl. or ^0 . (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather . xx . a finger. 3^*1 J^^ . worshipping. Plur. in the second. Or. fract. are exhibited. or ^Lftl 9 9 . 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth. —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech.» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . fract. X X Sing. the consonants of which are all radical j . (4) a distinguished man. star. fract. 3ju£. (3) a tribe. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc. in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 . &>cms£. s jl^. *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house. along with the corresponding singulars. 6x * if prefixing !. x ' jj^jJfcl*. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . (2) 9 a verse of poetry . 9*0 a fox. 9 x or used in preference to the rest. c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. w*J^ a fish. ^J^J^. Again. * 0>tu.. 9 * * . or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj. JJ 9 ISC. a column or (in a book). iifcut. I. j For example. in the following table. eye-witness. of substantives and adjectives. £#£> signifies (1) an eye. fract. >y^>. x jdbl£. v>^ * . J*UU). Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . O^W- The forms of the plur. (3) peculiar nature or essence.226 Part Second. t [§ Oi . (2) 9 J J a valley. J^tjc». (jL^l. ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. to take another instance. v>-^t. O. in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. as f-t-o}. if the has several meanings. ** . *^*&y» a ta&& 2. which consist of four or more consonants. £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. . ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. + • 3* serving. In such cases. as a letter). formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness. CHJ/J 9 * .

t* « . i<i«^ meaning. j-»Uu«. Nouns Subst. I. § 304. of ^tu. the productionis into hemza (5). a r. the 9x . XXIIL. J^lit e.g. w>3-d) a misfortune. a plur. *~b\j*c].g. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert. <sLo*}Lo a reproof. for instance. The Noun. and X X usually j^U*.> ». ^— is not converted after the as happens.»>. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick. often taking the form JjtJI. compare perience. J i* x x remains unchanged. ^. ^.ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. b. . make. A. J^OI] J ^jt Adam. j»yk* . J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar. Ua». XX Rem. ^jXJI . >jtjt no. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I . Jjlii (Jwrf.. as^jtu. as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase. Fractus.— Plur.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town. of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad. [f^j-o suckling. C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» .>). J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. rad.) 2uj**3 trial. 0/ a finger. viper. ^. w^lcc*. in the e. a minaret. J Jxx into (. in that case. as J Jj^. . Jclli) . e. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx .o a claw or J talon. In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. y]. or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li. 9 < ul x halting -place. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a. 227 Plur. fract. Rem.« a cwr/ (from «. Jxft* see § 309. ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J . ^. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving. jjU-« x or dwells. ex- w^U^ . J*U5. *Ag»i means of J i.& Adj. [and.g. J »»xx form XVII. £m<7.1 xf . a station. In the plur. and usually ^^Ltfuo.»). £Jj-U a x x . 6. . of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). J jU*o .X^.. XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>). ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. rem. aw open XX x »-U-o. x x 9 x ?»-.L^«. AcwL.§305] II. x x clil (for x* ^lit. especially with the superlative meaning. Fract. cont. *^JlaL* . § —but 240). O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x .c.

o ^) x . x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt . J statue. [§ 305 A Plur. O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . desert. £>*a*\j~t X . w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture.« a #03/. £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky. ^jltf J (for x x . ^£jly* an<^ jV 0.JUi-j and Ols*j. o3 »J ^».jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble.t & . an ^ ostrich's nest. jjI£»*n)I. J x x . ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. xx . [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*.] . as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being. ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx .t a tent-rope. j**u5. Fract. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303. nobles. C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . . i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included). inauspicious. flowers. ^>U»w a X J wolf. J x£ . w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x . i^fbtfL* X xx . of (I. B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * .bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA. .t . J*»»!. O*^lo a .*. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds. J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky. j JU65. xg . ^jt/j) C x . S x xx .£ . JJlii (J*tft. J**uJ. 0x0 JU«j # chronicle. auspicious. ^Ut |S [4*». a litera productions x o j x x j. Jjtil (J-^Ut. I. ». J § j o oj devil. . jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx . xx . J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ . J*ftlii. (jU3 s&?r£ drawers.228 Part Second.> a Bactrian camel. II. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*.j-**Uo x . x£ . ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah.^o$j\ a mottled snake. x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>». grandees. /. >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp.o jooor. JWu)4oat j Sing. *Ujj .j-Jslw X . D 2 o c o ra<7^. JP J **3Ui W X .. six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr. ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. . Ox x Op a garland or crown. Je^tji). as O^*** a sultan. rem.) x . ^Ia>. l l.>*£-> X X fe/tf. Jj. £ . 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed.

a collection Ox J office or bureau. J**£?. ^j\yi> a of poems. is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . plur. from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges. a x x 3 x buffalo.§305] II. of V jtaftt a dust-storm. and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico. Compare rem. C plur. J Ox x «. ot^ 7?"W>' brocade. J^lii. xx JxxJ off. J^JUaW. JJU3 ( j-^lit. u-^wol^ a. x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her. =^i[±. xx OxO Ox x Ox J . Fract. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast. i>£$t>>. Sing. jtL>3 « dinar. Oy'» a furnace. . t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . J vestibule or apartment. J^jlw. Rem.» JjUxo 9 ' . . A J^V') i x£ . J § § i** j jJbU^ . a bath. Fractus. f fi r. xx make j-Jlo. apum). a public xx x£ ( an account-book. ^I^ai. a spring. 229 Plur. from^oUl*. k. chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio. a dungeon. II. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. ^Jilia. * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. j+^l^c. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . jy^^J hemorrhoids. 6.—Plur. The Noun. of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet.ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 .> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. o o£ - jo. J J^tji. j**U3. form either rare or does not (pi. has J^Jl^aW and. x g Ox « Ox register. curds. license. B as^^Jt^a. t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284.0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo. used. (v?^*) quinsy. Nouns Subst. J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. xxj g g x hojSj. b\j«3 a carat. & Adj. in modern Arabic. J x Conversely. has ?»-^W. J x£ . x x having a young one with clever. JJUs sing.) J . from a form \Jy£\) JjLai.l.. J-J. her. Rem. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. signet-rings. cont. « J xx . The plur. j x x j*~*\y}.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov). a sacred claim. J JJU* .

angel. oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J .A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c . ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin. SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X . Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda. D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop. TraTpiKio?).—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. jLjU and IjjCf. of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . . 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>». —and S . tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen. Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters. jj—»•». Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. a pupil. (Pers. J i>j. a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords. Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers. I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. Ko/xrjs). SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. 03-*^-* Pharaoh. Syr. w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic. x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). T&Sfi. of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — .g.230 Part Second. a teaclwr. Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). Fract.Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter. J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar. . ajjUu* a . J . J xx . — especially many E. Chosroes) the king of . xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's). as iUwt (Pers. a-jJLy-*. III. liHis. Sing. Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X . [§ 305 A Plw. StJj T» J (Heb. « money-changer. consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f . w^Sa). S^-oL*J XX . S Sxxx « Moor. JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx . 1.« S stocking or &?£& < . iUwl) a master.« . a great letters. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. XX « X 2. S x . relative adjectives. aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes.

an equal. J_«-l£L»). 9/ III. 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar. Persia. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . A.« tyrant^ a giant. * £ r* * t 5^ x x . XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. 4J& « <%. of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. Ox a 9 xx x spider. iJUif make Jclil. a XX jfatf. j£~*\ '. fowwf. J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb. rejected. XX five or Rem.—Plur. xx A Sing. J5U3. has. x as jU». a like. or 2 ' " » . literals 5 «S Rem. J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. of nouns which contain JxOx E. of the plur. ca&e.» the x x (for ^^l^w). and the J letters of prolongation). C x 2 x . or secondary plural). x£ t^jbl) XV.1). x XX woman. are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. Fract. she- 5 Ox J 0x camel. Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. . more J In forming the plur. D JliS. Sjyi\. I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j. & Adj. letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract.^ AiaJ Ptolemy. though rarely. ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt.-w^llS). J^JU< J v> a quince. ^jlii. ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale. * ajJUi continued.g. one of the radicals xx . and XIV. OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. * X i Ox xx . Lr>ft. XIII. £>yfii* x . 231 Plur. Fractus.>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. besides .§ 305] II. 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. jut (for t^ju. Kg. ljA*a*. Nouns Subst. O-Jlii. Zazy xx . c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. 3i»wl£»l. more rarely V. . 4-^>l 2ri6e. The Noun. a. forms XIII. x£ .. i Jjjtji x . and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. . 2j6 a x£ . plur. In particular. fract. the plur. j»ola»^ «x J Ox. b). and XVIII. 6. jilt and XV. 0JO* J XX . 264. 0X . J*frUt . and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. 4*-*!^/. <LJlku oo/acotikos). «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. and XIX. ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. Jlii. rem. generally the last. 0X XX JU>Uo. ca^o. This form is also found. J>-Jt. and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. £)&* a £Xol.

oZ *Uj a building. a speech.. Jjiij-XVII. family. jutj^. fix xxOxxx jb « house. j»\xj\. O^U*. t an iron -y»jL»J. 4-Jatt. Oxx j^xx III. Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink.a» . many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives. J>ai. '. j^i. X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc. J|y> « saying. x OU^J. JuJU*-t x £ j ..». Otjulj^. J . J^a. og Oxx jJa. a he-camel. Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number. x (for . or clientship.\.. dUUt. a * J3l*». and JUjI. OUUjI (with the dimin.>l «x q . J^j a man. anything woven or plaited. w*». . j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . jUjt. AjJtjjj^l. JUi. Rem.. jj-c*. J »»x x £$*a*. a he-camel. JjUj. smoke. *LJt. ^UiM. J Ot^ji Cxfc . she-camels having x £ Oxx J V. ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls. VI. ^su oox camels. j**\)\ x? . j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk. pi. . x £ XV. Oxx a she-camel. "x OlSLJ.232 Part Second. \^yo a Sufi. t 6 J x £ J Jl^il.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees). j-o^. J>jJ»..'-. t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . or when their number is indefinite. Ox < JjtJ.xxx Ox .ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). J^Jj^t. A x J Ox also be derived from V.Ou». XVIII. J "1 £ x x 4. » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% .j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j . O'NjUfc. a party or sec£.. ^Ua. Oxx . # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter. as ^k**. 9+9 . ^tjit. j a vessel. Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house. especially those that indicate the — relations of sect. ^Ut *Z . ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as . Ox JUjfc. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower. O3-0. Ob^wl ~s . families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ. J^lSt jJite a nail. and a few other forms. j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech.xxx . &£>>). OtjJ^k. is °» J ^ OU.»x O*^^- Again. £ijje . • ea#-£e.. JU-.>^Ut.1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc. <L>j£\.. j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». houses. Cxt^^»». [^u». XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI.*. rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass.lo a female companion. XIX.t^o. . great d. §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine. foe>£.> OJOxJOx jj>.. Olf"6 0<. OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*. il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites . joay. .

oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general. (k)|. ' anus. 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^».e. horses. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. XgOtf l#-*)). [ajI^ j^w- cferers]. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. dU«. a mole. or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. 5 #}« n^X).306] j II. The Noun. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . *U>. <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb. mules . S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. together. |Z. The consequently. 4JL». of Marwan. 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x . $)}$ Aram. strictly speaking. x O x 6£ . Cwl tfAe «£/» . oUw . the partisans 5.. X*. they are all of the feminine gender. atyl (from a x »»x £ sing. a jii. and can be used as masc. aJULw travellers. only by a constructio ad sensum.jjl. w^w. X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed.— Plur. 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi). The plural of some nouns is anomalous. SjUsu spectators. dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. asses. the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus. See § 233 268. Fr actus. * . OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. dl^ot (from a sing. the former a number of individuals viewed . Hence. in use. rarely J x x . l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. whence #*« fWX. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians. A. J^J). singulars with a collective signification. 30 . . of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir. who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». o Oly-ot (Syr. a spring. As regards their meaning. a oxi x 4jj-ojJt.*). B e. 306. several individuals 6 . too. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. Rem. C the rad. for x . persons who own or &eep camels. w.-xOxOOx* a woman. ^UJ. IZ. dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat. aJlxJ. who SJ slaves.jl^~J (from the rad. i.Ui (from .. water. yottfA (juvenilis). O^J» human being (Heb.. XX ' %>. < fil « P - «P« o .Olk)|). dUw. J0 X For are D example. collectively. ^^Jt.1 & Adj. (men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking. Nouns Subst.

1 (Nom. to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches.) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. (1) Undefined and adjectives are. _ (Gen. the nominal character or nature. A declinable J^. noun may be declinable. This observation applies. and whilst the rest are fy***. as^o^i.. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz. or . 2/ie JS& sheep].234 Part Second.*aJl § l\+~i\ a. Juil. a established in. for one of the forms alone be used. jSL*s> an army . Triptotes are those . fracti 307. substantives 308. in the singular number.. XIV. which are indeclinable. see § 8. or simply o »» ^jSioZc. The Declension of Undefined Nouns. plurals of paucity. XIII. Jill. Diptotes are (Gen.). * viz. on 246 and 292. the latter concrete collectives.-L^-* whilst . 2jJ\. plurals of abundance.£ o^uU j*s. The Declension of Nouns. people or tribe. Hi declined without tenwln. —Etymology u . . These are called *. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju. A noun may be w^**. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . rem. as Jo*J bees. and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246). only to such nouns as have also other plurals. either triptotes or diptotes. Ixfcj. .. The former may be styled abstract. 1 D (Norn. fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). • • J or possessed is of. [yjjl camels.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural). limitation as to number. named lj5£* £>*»». and \1 or 1 (Ace.).. or ^y**c. I.)*. The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII.. A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns. The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c. those which have only two terminations — Ace. or the Parts of Speech. Ij&. Rem. and XV.. a). are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10). o j declined with tenwln. if C of course. it is necessarily employed without any 4.

possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U. cjSLti\. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). Nouns 8ubst.— Beclen.\. jjt— (Nom. 4ifA«JI. . in 3*0*0* between the definite. as in the in jlj*. I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s. in the singular v>jj-3. jlaJI). The Noun. J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes. * * of an indeclinable noun. . for ^£j\^. as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. plural of 4Jjl»>. viz.<& Adj. x and the pluralis fractus. tfAe of annexation .)*.\ duy^j. as CA+JL**. J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). tJie a * the vowel a voice). 235 * * common (3) to both genders. as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. as J^-j.. of Nouns. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt. also called . . —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable. at the on. *3 where J&*». case . as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 . and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U.. * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. the : nunation of compensation.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition.. 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter. 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ. is a designated w*cudl. found in the plural feminine. or 5 x ^ j^Jt. t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih. — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent. *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word. 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*. j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U. in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive. (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice).§308] II. (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat.) and <>j_ (Gen. ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. A. Ace. 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c.

. Ol— Ot- (Gen. [§ 308 A gender. B .j->_ (Gen. Triptote or First Declension.. (Nom. exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309. viz. for the masculine. — substantives and adjectives.236 Part Second.)*.). a). Ace. Substantives.) and . — Etymology Oi— (Nom.) and or the Parts of Speech. for the feminine. — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. Ace.

A. The Noun.§308] II. A . 237 Triptote or First Declension. of Nouns.& Adj. Nouns Subst.— Declen. Substantives.

—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 308 B .238 Part Second.

—Declen. . Schr. & Adj. Adjectives. and II. w*5U^ wonders. d). ^oi. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. jj-«t. . J3U* (XVII. 309. that is to say. For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. Plur. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb. « son. G.. viz. (of jJte poor) Fern. A. ^i. which are Sing. p. j) viz. There are two words in Arabic. for t^«ot and^ul. L*-5.] Rem. J ^i Op. C J J J Nom. fract. (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N. Ac. b. a man. Comp. Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti.. Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. A Masc. the forms etc. 239 Diptote or Second Declension. Gr. Lane and Fleischer. and JJU* etc. Nouns Subst. also used (see § 19.§ 309] II. as quoted by Zamahsari. D. Faik C 524..). Loijt [According to i. jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda . as £*&\y. Kl. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. The following nouns are diptote. (I. Jstji (XVI. flexional a. 139 seqq. Ace. the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. iSjii . Aja* Rem. j-bU5 bridges.. a. ^jJa*^^ sultans. JJU* of nouns which have causes. in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive . as J '' A*i C^tj. 180. G.). more than three radical letters) .. The Noun. of Nouns. Gen. and ^o*Ut. .

^^S. /?. Excepting those in which the § 213). l\sC£=>. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb.11). rem.g. viz. and 'I c. &*i\ (XXL) .virgins. /? (*1— ) c. and 296) . btjUfc presents (compare . £-aj. &&L viz.> white (§ 296). ^Ct j prisoners.. . as \£^> memory. the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. (a) Common nouns and memduda a. fern.240 Part Second. are as J*ojt poor. maksura radical . J*ojl « humming . ••11 T« admissible {. plur. ). as j\js. other. triptote . /?. of J r*s - x Op which the fern. \SjZ~* drunken 295. needy. as v**i^ more f. XIV. rem. dX*j\ poor. C Compare and Rem. is . ij>*>'.1.) . of Jjt. *-©**.). w-Jjt (l e. of etc. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232. £*a». needy. rem. without O x a wife. of this form are usually t regarded as triptote.1. (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical.t a green woodpecker. Jj^-t. its and of fern. iUil. —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J . viz. 16. W plnr. (XXIV. and § 301.) and b. Compare elif y and c. J*it. c. adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . Various common nouns and adjectives . — Etymology c. and 234—5). /?). si j - w£ .g. and ^Us fract. but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. a widow. wise men. (compare § 299. «// together. . is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295. B £^.' first .. iUZj. [(e) iUwt. a). Jj^t a hawk. s without a husband. ^^-j*?b. J ' i men. its fern. (3 wounded /?). b. J s bi e. wonderful .] b. by elif as a virgin. Rem. j*>*-\ red. e). of j^. j^.). or the Parts of Speech. Hii (XX. ^Xati (XXII.1. JU3 (XXIII. is ^ar<?. J*». another . and of fract. as [§ 309 A (. 2. £^>. Ju«U. &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_. Ji'j pl ur fract. iU-cu. of *U***. ii > at . f.

as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. ^jtoju a boon companion. stolid. —Adjectives a. Adjectives of the form J*£l. okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. a * withered. are rare. ^*^i Jx so x J and so. 5 x The word ^l». ^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. Rem. rem. 9 3u*$j&. 6.g. x ^^£ ignorant. O*^**. 241 J -it Rem. vile. gravelly water-course. a) SxOxSxxOx f. have also % x J the form x J ^^*s. is &%x3 295. stantives. black). rem. or jjUa^w . 9 x x ^jS^La thin. a. iLojl. Some J x x > of these. e. o x ^la^o x o and <jl». as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken. are all triptote. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . The Noun. when used as sub. Rem.jl».angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to .^o o O x x ' dry. ^^o. jjt^cu Christian. as being formed by adding 3_ 295. »£OU and wJJlo. • o j Q%*i . slender. « x xx S x . Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3.—Diptotes. retain the diptote inflection blackish. their fern. such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi.^o ^Ij^S. 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. one. ^0 6y New. . (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern. Rem. A. j * oS e. 0^**> J x or x O^** J . & Adj. eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (.jl». .^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . tofi (mo? slender .^o. as iUj and w. of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop.§300] II. —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. ^U^-o stupid. 31 . Nouns Subst. fljUdL* Ao£ 3 . however. A which would be very b. a) . Mtm % three. Q x jU*w stupid. JjjS stony j * o p mottled). ***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^.-a»-cJI) . Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun. ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x .g. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion. dun). [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . is x x f- x x '' 295. ^Jflui a wide. mean.

is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. viz. 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al. l ^U*** Hittan. because J^». o!/** Imran ('Amram). as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- .jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman. with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I. For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al. *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al.g. j^yJ LUla. maksura (compare a. memduda (compare John. requires an indefinite and so in other cases. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.>U Adiyd.£> Noah. Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . a). excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis.242 Part Second. as O J *. l^ij^j Zachariah. a. declined without tenwm (e.g. as A#] Many proper names . (y) Proper names in jjt_. e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b. 4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. which is an adjective. JUi (§ 333). we must employ the word nunation. after it in the genitive . those that were originally ijlyj*. J&\ tremor. oW*-* Sufydn. letters. c. as ^*At/jt Abraham. [with the exception of of the forms Solomon. Jka*~>t Isaac. as . /?) and . . when it is an indefinite noun. y and p and b. 5 J Joseph. (a) Foreign names of men. [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. (used) as an adjective. ^^ Sulma. whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). j-**-\ red) . every. as (§ ju^t. jjib David. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. is declined without tenwm. <bjJ Lot. in the sense of each.

A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). * w>o J/ if Dor ib. D (6) common Proper names. j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or. . proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters. w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. *-. their tenwln. Fem. as^oUai Katdm. jZZ> Satar.g. as Ol^pt gen. Gu&m.. ^y~j Yubnd. which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the . have . oUpl .^£**.] 3_. jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. ace. w-A*j Taglib. . as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar. j»\j^ Haddm. juJj Yizid. icj Ztogw (a woman).j*j Zufar. proper names in * Oec. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna . Nouns Subst.§ 309] II. j$*. 3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. ace. e. letters. Oli^c and even Oli^. jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM. >oUj Tumddir. — But name fem. J^j planet Saturn. '(c) Common nouns letters. *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). The Noun. [Fem. Yurdmil. Ols^c. J*U>j Bakas". Ot keep ** * . owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* . B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name). j£Z*£ Yeskur. consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names . w^JU a scorpion. 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . which do not end in foreign origin. A 3 d * f and J*$. A. though 3 consisting of only three letters. x x x* £a*-U» Talha. Oli^c gen. ££c M"ekka. 3 * * jyo Tyre. e. of the feminine gender. proper names. are trisyllabic. ace. joa or jUA Hind.g. or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) . / j-a* Egypt. 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . These latter. S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men). the second of which has gezma.—Diptotes. however. 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty.\jj the sun. Gur. or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. cfc Adj.

) or w^» . J^». ^ juu. Rem. foil. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421. some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1.death. JUi. of which the jUa- the female hycena. x O^-a*. as ou^^w. even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. jl»s». Rem. [§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us. u^l5j. nom. ^aCOvilis! Rem. jLo*. J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all.C J~J b sceleste ! f. however.. xx x nom. for we may acc. G. last and Baidawi D. ! f. and ace. and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x .. Oj^o»..) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j). (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». J JO O^-oj-o*. last letter is r. and are wholly indeclinable . . J Li b o . gen. say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*. etc. Each word may.^IJ^. word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. J»^-*t.. Hadar (a star in the Centaur). J-^-ctj*. " x x *£Ubo. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*. ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city). *£*!*» improbe f. D xx gen. jb\j\ a year of famine.). *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. e. ' . ftffl*.] .—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable. w>U». ou^Lii.244 Part Second. Words of the form JUS. The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J . c.. x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. and Besides being used as proper names. 10. ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii. xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . forms.^Us the female hyama. w^ 1. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*. 5). the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. Compare Beladorl 60.g. as a.. *jjj. Ofrxo^rw. l**-J*o (§ 264). — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. x acc. as^&lii. are » almost invariably indeclinable.Jt Sur. aj^j-©*. the second being in the genitive.. j*\j«o war.» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313. in terms of abuse. gen. viXJju. cxi. be declined separately.« £y* (Fdik i. O^-o*-.

J x Ajjjut* from A^blS). for there x x x . 6* *> J x S Rem. (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI. UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form. d. There however. jt». w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i . as ^jUJk. are usually reckoned by the viz. .jll». a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil. Hence we say <jU»». or transformed. are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met. word . e. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. (a) . is e.§ 309] II. J 5 it is triptote. and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb. from j-olc. radical u**. Nouns Subst & Adj. o j$} * . grammarians to be nine in number . i <o x . x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is. -*4jLa4 lamps. ' * * . is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**. ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective. derive it if we derive this name from the . Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln . w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in .1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. A.g. as £©i»li.—Diptotes. Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai. The Noun. viz. . the case naturally Proper names. (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*.jt_. so jlo^. J + w-^JBI..g. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural]. . which in is Jxx Jjjuco. period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i. J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name. when used indefinitely are employed in . J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu.o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c.L~o mosques. 245 Rem. Hassan. The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln.yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning. termination £)\—. >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination .

the first declension instead . ace.246 as Part Second. /«/ fern. + JaaJI Oj j. [§310 in form but not in meaning. as u*j^} a. Jjtst. acc. Nouns ending in — . « ^ j«Xai. which follow the J ' . L>JJt* Cjte . L**. follow in the nom. asjH^. D >»!. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. for ^— . ace. ace. U^«o j*3 . and gen.) for ^5^^. which ought regularly ^j— .. ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. Ww . not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). ^ (verbal adj.g. . ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. ace. which ^ is ^ . in + J*a)\ J c. ^5*-j> and L»-j . but § 166. . 6. . ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309.1. in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ . o* B the termination jjt_. ^-« for ^^^o. f$ c. and those in . y b. ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb.) and Tab. or j- (§§ 213 and . (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl. acc. L^tj . though feminine in form. which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . Petrus.) for 1jJa> acc. XVIII. Z+iuo^S + . toft for 3-ac. 311. and § 218). as j^. a. 0— (according to E. in the ace. ace. retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj. ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. ^^ ^or for ^5^. for ^y*t.g. Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c. a). 310. 312.. for and l^-os . . (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI. 1*^*3 . 245). so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. >*o£. yet is the name of a man). »~w (verbal ^a-w. -q. to end in All plurals of the second declension. (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI. jl£ for jjl£. ^J for ^^J (^^3). Tab. Jjuo for ^>*^. first declension. Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . C E. for j_ (§ 167. /?).

(a) by adding a noun in the genitive.. it loses the tenwin. 4 plur. and have ^-. w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined). disappears along with the tenwin. by prefixing the by adding article J 2. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309. 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. j E. § I 78) . —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining). Ox Undefined nouns I . (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article. if. ace. therefore. plur. The Declension of Defined Nouns. and conbut in the ace. they remain true to the second declension. c. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*). - (for They moreover in retain.. Gen. and substitute 311. become defined : 1. The of the acc. and gen. . and gen.o properly the beautiful) never have the article. The Noun. [Rem. of the second. § 309. of Def. vol. the & Adj. Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. . acc. . a^U.§ 314] II. 247 ^-). d). they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^.—Decl. jt^». for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o). A. j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. v. j i&l^ *" . nom. ^U* . man. J rem. the following D If it belongs to the first declension. ^y**o.] 314. Nouns... 3 ii. the chaste {woman). ^jU^o. .g. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. i^j^l the city. 313. n^ . j\*>~a. plur. and gen. b. nom. Subst. II. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. cases arise. ) t JU-pt the men. nom. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. ACC. or (b) a pronominal suffix. l\j^~o.

. sanus fern.248 Part Second. oUJiyjt the darknesses. Acc. ^yt from ^& I. the following changes are produced. it loses the tenwin. JUg city. Acc. 312).» wonders of creation. gen. x J G x 0>o everyday.*! JU. Norn. 315. Rem.. OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< . and jbecomes triptote. l5-h>^I from 0^5. Gen. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as acc. M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth. Gen. 3 B Norn.j x x i . c%JLLoJt the creatures. w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. the black (m. D the book of God. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun.). Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . Acc. The plur. j^^^t the nobles. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^. sanus masc. The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314).f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men. b. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem. (b) minations of the first. x Gen. oCubl a. oU^JI the believing (women).* cM-^t ->*.jU*o. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311. and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). Acc. assumes the Norn. ^j+jjJsAS. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur. part of the the men of the Gen.> Norn. ^yU^Jt from . \J^.j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension.

^^o*-. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . j^\ lit. Ci. ^t.. xlix. bt. lengthen itit s * j x at Norn. J X makes Gen. 6 J 15 whilst ^. J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. S\. C f. with suffix ^Jpfi. etc. for yl.] Comp. 5 P & Adj. ^a~. instead of ly«ot. a father- A .-i. the preceding vowel. Noldeke in Zeitsehr. Nouns. ^oi. in-law. J9^. G. 321. yiA.§315] II.I. var. £fa mouth (Aram. i of Def.* The word £. f*. M. ±j\. Subst. after £>!. ^1. Ace. ^5. The words w>t 5 a father. . in all the three dial. gen.— Decl. Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin.ja a thing. first Rem. HE) constr. a]. J>. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive. a. either X : XX Nom. U. less frequently .. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus. b. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . *£). and Gen. a. X vol. does not do J xg wrong . D. as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. the owner or possessor of a thing. according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp. etc. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. ii. § 39. J. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. Ace. o x 249 Rem. rem. 142 seq. * X )l UUjU . as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>. has in the - B «x . after rejecting the tenwin. The Noun. k. see Comp. for w>t. ^yf. ft!)3). p. and the second Ubl the m t genit. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt.. \ dialectically.\. as * The same Gr. of w>t. or: ^3. and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father. which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. for etc. La. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. in the ace. x ~-t a ^» brother. etc.a>. cases [bl being.

ijj.jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 .< >««. to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came. If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. wjU^t *O>0 an example. C Rem. or warning. * J tit* St to J Acc. j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302.q. ^ Muhammad. the sons their swords. the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20. —Etymology jAJto.-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence. of the king came . Instead of OU^. a daughter. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. the Kor'an (Sur.250 Part Second. Muhammad. On the elision of the in Rem. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. ^o^iL^I drawing Gen. C-. [§ 315 A j^m ^ c. the final dUL^Jt ^ . I saw the king's sons.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. *£U*Jt yij eU. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire. .] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn. the form djj\.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. poems. ms belong the two holy temples of God. the son of O^t. rem. ^>~$ . (viz. [The latter was formerly preferred.>£ etc. ^>\ ^^jU. from two 'Abu Bekrs. jJU. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual. h). or the Parts of Speech. Ace. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. 12) and often in old Mss. when a genitive follows. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. for those who are \^3*$ h** c). takes a kesra instead of a gezma. the t son of Halid. rem. b. the son of Gafar. see § 21. lxvi. we may use. \j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen. c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1.

his women. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. 9 t 9 t Rem. are elided . ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers. ^_ # (see Q § 185. sing.). rem. &yJ sons. A these terminations become. begins with an elif conjunct. Subst. ^JH+su. to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s.. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. of Def Nouns. from *->*$&. § 7. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra.) . ly3UJJ» darkness. sanus fern. when it has damma (Nom. of *jtf . i)UL£> thy two books. rem. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> . see 316. sanus fern. plur. added to the nominal term. wjt. The Noun. j_. my gardens. * and plur. though incorrectly. If the noun ends form in 3. sanus masc.. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. d*L»J. this letter is • changed into (or rather. and § 317). from OU.—Decl. the genit. a. »-! and . (a) Triptotes and the plur. plur. as aOt ^akAo a. j_ and jl. (c) plur. ^U^. Of the words mentioned in § 315. as ioju a favour or benefit. . plur. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc). the dual ' 9 . ajLj. from £Jty. & Adj. before a following gen. rem. c). this letter passes before the suffixes into J. a. sanus of 4-i». lose the tenwln. as icjU£» fract. remains unchanged. the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book..§316] II. Ajusa Ais book. * j * * If the plur. the final vowels of the sing. instead of the gezma 20. 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. fractus. and into £$. the final j takes ^— j i and if damma. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft . the B following changes take place. nom. * ^ . and plur. my of book. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza. OUAI? darkness. with it o^LJ. as acc. i)yJ thy sons. gen. as |L»J it women. suffix when it has kesra (Gen.. fract. A.

o ray Muslims. plur. <jui |x**x j j .«>.. X ^-OA X or . suffixes which denote the Genitive.L». for «*t . for ^gt^A.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi.-JL _: — B see § 315. j si .(§ 185). nom. sing. of ^U^ . for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. attached to nouns to denote the 317. * js- [§ 31. and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_. The pronominal genitive. _. are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative .. x x J of^L**. p.^uo) or ^jAJsua* . rem. l*±>\.£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA. D from ^>A. ^bUw*.^Uoli). —^JA makes J . the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. x i ^. o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes. ic^*-. — ^x my mouth. ^UUafcaJaa. APPENDIX. nom. Further. ray ^0 my slaves. £ IjUa£. but X X J more usually. the kesra X ^_ (see § 185. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom. i)^Ii or >^JUa. A-ot • " ace. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^. x ^_.-iA X j but . i * Jbt. which a. t3 gen. X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit.>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). from ^^JLyO (^^q. The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). 4«i. i "g . for L5*«olS (.*)li.g. oy X . and likewise forms ^. and suffix of not . j ray xxxxj sins. from fract. becomes ^.252 Part Second.. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. «$jt ii i i gen. x . rem. GZ E. from &***$£. xxj from <jU^.7 i . for 6xJ . XX x 5 x x J plur. note *. a«i. Rem. A o . X ace.. d) being simply elided. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge.l>» . oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases. for xxxj ^ U^.c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo. •^ X . ^Ui. j^t^A for my Zove. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ .-jt. from or . dbt . a. in all the three cases. sing. The Pronominal Suffixes. of j_. with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p. when the word ends in ^_ or ^_. &»J\. ' £)y>\. in the long vowels t_. xOxxJ ray taw slaves. Jy.-£^L~o J y J . *£U$. is ^-. the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—.

t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316. : 318. attached ! is in as w>j b. US. suffix . ii. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc. rem. ' ' S * If is [Rem.§ 318] II. or ^_. Rem. i^Ui. — On ^>A. The Numerals. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. rem. [which is the or^^U^). The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — .— Cardinal. The Noun. is used dialectically w>l.>A«). ^Jb. c. ^j\&. plur. sanus of j^aJxcl*.g. the What in o. arise. yj^A^auc. Just as the verbal rem. E.J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. — [^> a 185. f-\. from QjkitfOt*. ^Jb. applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. 253 ( Ly a ftJft. like — From words instead of § ^>A. 13 § 38. du)o\. no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. little son has both ^Xj and ^. <u\S£s of his book. of them both. peojrte [Com p. rem. has been said in ii § 185. ^5. ^£_. of the change of damma l^A.] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b.] Rem. into kesra after — . U^jU^. d. into ^j b.9 his murderers. j**-. .] The Numerals. his two female slaves. The Cardinal Numbers. the form ^I^A. B. 1. <t*Z>jl». c). particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol.

JU-j Zj***.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy . [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. The cause of this phenomenon. Rem. sedestu and sessw. =pnt)j T or> as others think. HB^. sole. the fraction ^ju. masc. rem. for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14. D 319. fern. The Jewish Aram. fern. — Qft^W. which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. for one in the sing. T • stand for BHBf. &}$ (H becoming as in gjf. lexicographers. and the ordinal adj. and v v J I exchanging with ^. the masc. ^jl*. a. form. S-mLoj (§ 6. £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). is istin apparently identical with cognate languages. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . but the the Heb. a sixth. ^ rwe. derived from the single. according to the § Arab ^juj. — Etymology >L?$3. ten women. . D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . The Assyrian therefore. o* a. gender and conversely. form. CH^K) indicates . a. }Hfi. . Rem. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. 2£Xj. a decade. or E.» jw. and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». . (for rnnN). a). . as it were the dual of jjj . ft %f i < for dJloJ. the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb.. only one or two forms deserve notice here. Rem. ##. numbered are of the masc. when the objects numbered are fern. n^l) _ . = J?£^. as in tfiPft. when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. for sedsu). b. and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. or sUJ j-&s. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic. men.g. rem.254 Part Second. The daghesh in the Heb. or the Parts of Speech. — C*w stands. sixth. and. aj*}U. snow. ten men (lit. t . c>j£* JU->. c). . plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th.

J s The 'o. and gen. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. and are put in apposition with them.. which follow the gender of their substantives. a. is are really masc. the implied j>\A). they of course lose the tenwin 314. as JU-j aj^U. a triad of j) men). either as a singular masc. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives. ii... as JU^.-i in a . rarely construed with the Rem. B. etc. ten days. S^J **su some women. is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj]. They either follow the objects d. . — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325). for example. in the construct state.— Cardinal.. Rem. of three men (lit. See jj also § 322. or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-. nom. [Comp. a triad) . rem. LjUj (according to § 311). and has 321. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very . fern.0 s*0 . either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan.0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace. The Noun. o. (viz. 255 cardinal numbers. 6. Rem. ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men.jl*j has.5*$3 numbered.'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months.. j^-t^J j»^*M. a). of men. ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R. The Numerals.yOj ^UJ (see § 320). . If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article. An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. or Jx^lj^t j^jOI.. ace. in the genit. few J years. in the sense of broken plur. rem. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural. Rem. or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj. vol. etc. b. *. three men (lit. —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc. or they precede them. § 99. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say. with the .] 320.jj\. yj*+~i %*cJ . aajjI. ^ a part or <- portion)'. — consequently a£Xj. c.§ 321] II.

fractus (see § 319. of the objects final j^j numbered. b) . %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered.256 Part Second. instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o. and then of course drop their (§ 315. or simply ^jUUsO^. b). [§ 322 genit. which are in the genitive of the . 0^0 Rem. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. plur. as JJa-ia. rem. d. LUj two colocynths. sing.

.20.

0't. 400. &w " U5U. O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year). The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU.. Rem. 0x6 surplus). i^w ijl^JLj. 800. c. " Assyr.258 Part Second.? t": me'e*. (see § 321). excess. The numerals from 100 100. twenty and odd .0 2u*. —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech. Heb. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit.] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry]. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth. as £)3J-*»*3 also used. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. Ox Rem. 500. scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i..e.. as £5loiij.3UJ.1U. The O xJOx * D. etc. sing.. a5U genit. . ^O C T _ asu . is O^**6 Ox x Olio.«© (with the Ox article. but was inadvertently placed J) before. G. and more recently . a5Lo. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**. The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. Ox w*Xj. 300. a. P a5U « . B #U 1HS #U ajjt J ." x Rem. . X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3. mS) Ox 9«>* . J* ' ' a5U 900. Rem.] i x | J O plur. &U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. it in the 4w £jU. the j (5). b. and . to 900 are :— 600. instead of after. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word.JU-M) are rare. " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U. or x ^U. ntf£> Aram. but juaj and are 325. and hence in poetry ^)UU. 700. the forms ^Jjyc. of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an.

The Noun. B. The Numerals.§ 327] II. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000. are : 259 326. .— Cardinal.

Masc.260 Part Second. [§ 328 2. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C . :- 328. The Ordinal Numbers.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

these latter precede. defined .330] II. for ^^l*. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. Rem. Rem. ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. 330. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . The Noun. b. in the construct state and with . And j ijl5. x x Ox The L3U. O^J-^J ^3^*). ^^ X iJ&\. when they are unif defined by the article. aj^I».— Ordinal. compound of this sort be defined. If joined to the ordinals of the units.eleventh. admit the inflection of the unit. . ace. as %LsX OX wJUM. j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs. j-&t etc. 329. 261 Rem. /jl5. when Ml defined.yU)t in the ace. and genit. 03j**c. X X (ace. 2 *U~/) are occasionally used. (formed directly from C-w. B. and even These numerals are not declined. x x . A jJIj. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. etc.]. ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. twenty-first x x xJOx fern.. etc. the art. construct state so with the rest and with the art.33UM. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. both its parts take the article as . S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom. ^^X c. x x —Jtf. they remain unchanged. S^c. ijlif. ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. : — B Masc. of course. as Ojj*^ x twentieth.3 *^**- If a . <jtf makes. iJlj. however. ^jJju\ the twentieth. £rtj***3 >{*». x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some. The Numerals. 9x x (gen.

he fought once or twice. By the noun S^». etc. once.jJS*& 2/*e .). are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways. The distributive adjectives are expressed . S^£d 0*h* twice. The numeral adverbs a j^stf. thrice. O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. Ot^o wJJ. he rose up once or twice. adverbs.g. thrice. second./£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ . vicis (§ 219). f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. b>o. A* came third time. (i.. etc. or (i. cardinal numbers. or aio sJ^T *W. by means of one of the words S^. by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma. liltf IW* *W»). O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS. Com p. [Rem.e. the also permitted to use the simple . and similar words. E. isij. \Jj. etc. in the accus. the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. CHj*** twenty times. should be wanting. . life twice. i. § 108. 3. tfe i*0 *U. or. or as 5^o once. are D expressed either by adding the accus. ^3^. twice. ijptiiJf) twenty-first.262 Part Second. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332. if this By the accusative of the nomen . in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. again . (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb . vol. etc.. %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl. ^ came a third time. G. D.. or j\j*o stJJ.e. —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. OU3..] B 331. U)U eU. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S. or ibtf 3j-o *U. 333.. twenties.S wJJ. i*0 jj-^iJf *U. thou hast given us death twice. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij. third time.e. the fourth of the twenties.

A^>* fourfold. square. uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina .» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth. ^j£* twofold. or j»^Ai\ sU. etc. and ^. • • .} a mom. {walking) by twos and threes . dualized. pentagonal . three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral. jILjlc. lj*U. ^^Vj triliteral. J x x . ^tjwl. as ^Uj ^ i • . #w eighth. nor. ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU. double. pi. ^ju*. £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . . .§ 336] II. words of the forms Jj*3.g. triangular. J Us x 0. B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj. The fractions. 334. which a whole 5 * r made up. etc. according .Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj. and J**$. or er*>ju». or A came two by two .. and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. ' > $ four spans or cubits in height. jj. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ.). 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi. C/^Lm. simple is triple. the 'people . Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification.» Ox up to a fof»tf. but the formation is admitted [by some] up [. ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. 335.— Distributive. >uj-«. *£Jb. Single or ^^a^ fivefold. 6 E. [The form JUiU I . pleaseth you of women. expressing the number . 0**^ /«/ etc. together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. According to Zamahsari. five spans in lieight . jji* (nom. a tetrastich. from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. j^yo 2Uj. derived from the cardinal numbers J J e. i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . ^wUfc quinqueliteral. Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. ^ju». patient. pi. IV. J*s.g. j£s. Numeral is adjectives. a third. The Numerals. fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three . pi. two of the forms J x x . the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. x J x or j~*x. patientis of the second form. £Jj. 336. \J~£\ >»>^' *W». The Noun. ^1*$ . *U-j. of parts of biliteral . £**++ threefold. x «£ Ox* 0. B. £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. take the form .O^j'. 263 either singly or repeated.

3jlw*^t l\+~*\. The period. in the accus.*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. in one chapter. article). every third (day. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. C as w%X3t j*^*. B Rem. The Demonstrative Pronouns and ." Heb. G. or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. as £0x0* etc. 210 seqqJ] . year. same sense in Assyrian. in the third.fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. and Aram. "rubu. M. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa). ^ fortw C.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc. the latter the relative. The form Ja9 occurs e. * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr. 337. The demonstrative pronouns. £$ J . according to our D terminology. pronouns.. uLo J «i . either with or < x Oirf x without the article . o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. the Article. — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. UU. less frequently ouaj.g. the former being the demonstrative pronouns. at the end of which an event usually recurs. fifth. S x Ujj. month. uou). G. xlix. or £JjJt> every fourth. 1... or w*U)t. D.) . . because they are both.g.264 Part Second. »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. or w**JI L5fr*. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty. x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. 338.» j (vulg. _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech. J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e. etc. are either simple or compound. titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth.

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

^JJt. which. chJJI (^Jjf . masc. generally J of the article all and the demonstrative. number. *J . U.. ^t J^^l. when used adjectively. Ace. p.<fW or Jjj0l+. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . ut* Sing. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. rem. vulgar form. . j^t. it which. 271 he who. j^JJt (J}\ . A whatever.] . . and case. [Cu$$f Nom. «. and ^jjjli\. a. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f . which are not retain the double in such constant use. CHsfi&f Gen. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. U&1). j«JI. . and sJJtJM. $* . Du. C. It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc. Gen.JI or jJUt. Rem. are written defectively. D. plur. o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). Norn. ^JJt. that the same meaning as v>«. ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). [According to as-Sabban. Ace. 2. . viz. cJt . C Rem. § 340. is —The modern. ^£&S (O^ 1 ". ^J>i\ in the gen. grammarians. it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. ^-^JUt. ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . because of their frequent occurrence. that. instead of ^JJJt.§ 347] II. according to the Arab the nom. wlx Fern. This £)3^ must. 0j&) . JJI .. for numbers and genders. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos. Plur. at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom. J*\ (cJI . ^tifif (gfjAf.G. as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift. whoever. The other forms. used \jjj>)\ in D and ace. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). 6. Comp. of course. signifies who. f$S\ or .]) ^^Jl . with which : gender. The Noun.

employ £ (Heb. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a». fi B fern. some of the Arabs.. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£). <j\iMS. Instead of ^JJI. Rem. 'Aganl 18. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing.i*a of which ace. * JR. is -ffith. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. See Gomp. the nom. St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt.—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form. Rem. 117. for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' . which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&). di. 5 are vulgar and incorrect. I) / lined (or cased). y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1. c. Rem. H. G. ^JJt was originally. has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus. as its derivation shows. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable. a its demon- strative pron. ej which I J am meditating). _ coram. and ic2 f ^^^Jt. e. . The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt. x i. ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven. !)J*?>n. f^H T _ (= ds J3t). x fi * St "St * '. —The * forms ^j^^Ut. and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p.U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. J^&\ pi. sjj—.272 Part Second. UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du.'^ / suffices me. gen.. H= . and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur. za). Gr. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. Oj*W St* OUJUt. UJJt. ^.*. Aram.] or . D. former. ^ 25. Si d.

The Noun.§ 349] II. 2. 273 . C. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns.

). Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l). xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^. Gr. whatsoever. D.. in poetry the elif may be retained. enuntiative (jC±. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. is >ftU». Heb. which a indeed their original signification." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari.] . whosoever. 125]. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. Ji ^). "is usually shortened. etc. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. (better ^o ^)l. exclamatory. marians. a^c. Faik. It has been already stated 346. i. Schr. it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . in the latter case. the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. x Jj. Comp. etc. ^. for^o^ or lo^ (lit. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j.. are also interrogative.g.274 Part Second. and with those with which it is not. x ^5. ^ JJ*. <l«U». s^ who. 364. vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. U. ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech. Hid ma. rem. 0-*i'> \+jS . ^o j-U. U->t £to which. G. according to the Arab gram. and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual.) that the conjunctive is pronouns. part of the ace. 0^> U^'. Rem. (though. ^» ^*»-)- In such cases. HJIS^ HIED D Aram. (§ 351. of^^a. (b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. Ji^t. Fleischer. £ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. ^U. with the exception of ^JJt. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. Of ^1 and &*. Kl. e. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather. The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose.*$J) but never conjunctive. This ? also the origin ?). . ii.

C. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. . or 7" have seen some one. x J 2. who? has the it distinctions . Fern. Nom. 275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x . only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. to (the is and x so. and case.§ 353] II.«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness. number.l x . interrogative pronoun v>o. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. of gender. [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. Sing. and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc. to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». The Noun.

Hudeil.. the more general . and ZA which female? (Dlw. j^Sl second case. oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. a I ? [The feminine form 86. Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . a. ^$\ or ^t. art. which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut. 120—122. ace.6. . Rem. 2). nom. ^1. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun . which of us? are formed the relative adjective . rem. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t. is of rare 17) occurrence. 134c). what or c. \J\£> and 351 and Vol. 201. when prefixed to a fern. ll* Lo^-jt. e. Oi£ fern. OiJc ^t - or ^j\. n. • £ the suffixes ^1 . G.£ o£ . nom. « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. {j*£> d). /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt). § 34. Rem.ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt .] In the fern. 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur. it m£ Sing. or £&£>. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . xjt. nom. for U^->l. or] a suffix.it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1. he or I? in Rem. . 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. s&e. nom. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. it . When standing alone. ace. p. masc. pronoun. gen.276 Part Second. - St Dual masc.*£ ^1. ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii.i£ in the genitive . and the compound t^j2>. d. w ivii- D.* . the latter being the B more common. ? w>U^ ^cf. masc. 'place? (see Lane. may be masc.— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech. b.£ . w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . See CWijo. gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases. ^\^>. pp. it 1. the pausal forms being : — o in § 352. or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women. With 'J Se- 8 g . as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs. £r.->t " M you.

. pronoun ii. The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. 9x The U x Gr. as J 13 ^y» one who says. if appended to ^>l. § 127. e) U (see an example 361 near the end. [Prym. (Vol. § 7) . B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here.. and Vol. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived. 5 Latin termination cunque. 100 and 706 seq. something. as or x ^ U something which I have. 2. rem. ii. 277 [3. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp. § 6)./) and § 84. 360 seq. Uy* whatever .§ 353*] II. added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx .2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U . or in if reference to time . rem.g. The Indefinite Pronouns. considering i. »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol. or § is a qualificative clause. p. U ii.>£) it hinders rem. . 3. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun. whence the .. J* and JjU (ibid. as the r\ nouns. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). e). ^t. ii. with the same effect to ^>j (Vol. This complement very rarely an adjective or participle. C. ii. Comp. infinitive. . Vol. rem. . it is added to C*J. Kl. The Noun. have passed with the sense of somebody. d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. 125)*. - J s complement (aa-o). o * ( UJL^ wherever. The Indefinite Pronouns. 172. ii. A and Ox 353*. reject this theory. Schr. (Vol. rem. rem. ". Diss. rem. § 88. a. 136 a. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. whens a • tt a t x ever. de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. § 36. e) . added to certain adverbial signification. it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever. 1. and is in that case called U >o (Vol. . but usually a preposition with following genitive.] U x t as the original. ^l£» and . p. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. § 114. e.

§ 84. stand for names of persons. § 70. and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U ./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». 8." J x ^^. The prepositions are . i. and Inter- D jections. [§ 354 A prepositions . H ^Jt/*-. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. . C*a»«£l. — qa X a and »*x its fem. rem. ii. because the .>*. o. jfi M0 the . [or Sl^t. A. b. (Vol. 3. xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. Adverbs.278 Part Second./ t and so. pi. i • In speaking of animals. Prepositions. affecting their regimen.). rem. like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. III. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " . . may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. tJjLH*. Otj. £>s> j x and w> without . so and x JJ«» so. it is also put after w>j (Vol. CsA. and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed. Conjunctions. tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression.» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI). rj b). are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191. « fem. attractives. W X O«0 J J J 355. or xx ^ N. pi. M. (§ 3ujb. rem. xxg There are . 4).. THE PARTICLES. see the Syntax. JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3. their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . ii. — On the use of these words in the vocative. * ii.it]) viz. b. ^ particles of annexation or connection. or jt^aJt (from the sing. Heb. 0/3. rem. the particles which govern the genitive. a) and in other cases § 90. rem. rtxxOx particles of attraction. 3.e. iU. called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-.] c/M *> fern. The Prepositions. a5^i (§ 309. /). as ^/^ii\ thing.. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. In like manner (Vol.

O*^ rem. ^) to us. sing. 3. i **" (d) ^ by.e. is changed § after ^ c. rem. near. The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels.] . D. c. Vol. ii. by God ! 3d pers. of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb. A: * . at. rem. compound Comp. 7. with. on account of (Heb. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358).§ 356] III. U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka.^yj. J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. (a) They — B ^* in. The kesra of the prep. as du. following noun. its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel. § 56. as <J to suffix of sition . as aDI^ a. The damma tjJb. ^b. is a ii. rem. those which are written as separate words. b. Aram. through (Heb. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions. b. in swearing. Rem. and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308.] <uitf (b) O by. The Prepositions. without. The Particles. or the onlyj^yj or^. A. ft: of w> with the negative ^). i. See § 185. which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. is (i). in swearing. into kesra. OW- Comp. by. as (= b. the abbreviation Vol.^S3 to you. d. 0^5 ?) and ii. § 62. [^b. for. those which are always united in writing with the 356. as J to (sign of Ice). -33th. Except the the 1st pers. footnote). by God !* (c) the Dative). Aram. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. JEth. It seems to be the remnant some word. and inseparable. Q Rem. him. G. and 317. ba). § 235) to be also remnants of words.. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt.e. i.

O^X (lM*)> Syr. notwith- standing (Heb. determined by the following genitive. dialectic variety is ^^.280 Part Second. ^Ol) . with (penes. Karer . /row a § certain time. for. and they tions . e Ezra and comp. *>. "KflYl:). which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. above. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. Jp. It is a formally undeveloped noun. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So.. iEth. Aram. 358. on account of. upon. or the Parts of Speech. ^^al till. among. ^1). but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. [§ 357 " i). *7B. 3). <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. d. (c) ^* over. 12).— Etymology Rem. Those of the all biliteral or triliteral. as g^o. (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb. *>«. dialectically *-«. after. °^ account of (Heb. The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. instar). 357. (d) (e) sjefrom. iEth. about. see 347. to. which becomes in the wasl **. "79. rem. against. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. Itf. or Jco. like (Heb. O** (&*). ^JJ. as. as far as (Heb. D#. and ji. into. away from. ij? in. j j Ju*. (b) up to. *>> ^. c. or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. sing. Aram. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—). •T'jD. Aram. is really not so. which js commonly reckoned a preposition. have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus. since (compounded of i>* v. first class. (/) 0^> or lS^ (W). apud). CM-*. -*?«).

and ^jJ.. 24. the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry.. J The Particles. Jt . is doubled in connection etc. dimin. and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. ^s. the modern and vulgar form. rarely jus) with. which is under.. . ^Jt. c\+Xz for and Jl ^s. jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l). *b etc. assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. Rem. c. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. rarely J^ or a^. D orw . In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20. combines with into ^t. ^jic. .j-o between. U-«. or JU J-«.round. for JUJt ±y> . p. * . JJy afow?. 36 w.>o^ or ^ ^. L©. sing. dimin.§ 359] III. under. UJt L5^. rem.. * b /» into J^*. penes. . OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U. d).o. JU. Caj *UJJ. The ^) of ^fc. s ^^. into Jft £ as JUX*. ^y c. and § 317. opposite J>». *!**». on this side of dimin. b. dimin. tj-j jJ. J J The Prepositions. . for . chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. i*5 ^. [li. and *x*.. •* instead of. (see § 14. the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . Rem. ^_ (orig. and ^jjJ. rem. ^jjj with ^5 B ^y. The suffix of the 1st pers. and ^jJ § into J^JJ.<U. *UJ> or dU»J. When 6>o followed by the article. JJj^3 . rem. ). ^JS. o. ^— . Fr. according to § 185. beneath. after ^> below.] 359. with the suffixes of the 1st pers. about. passes after the diphthong into kesra. J A. b). for . in possession of (apud. J. a. note. ^Js. The damma of the suffixes of the pers. "It. to. *Lu. against. <uXft. . O-ij* jUc (also jUft.j*o being contracted b . among 5 (J*3) .]. See 317. beneath (fiTTl !). [Comp. J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). original a. before (of place) . behind. Rem. . ^c. C^ J > .

The form occurs IJJb. the third class of nouns 361. Aram. t \2*Q£&. . for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362. the construct 06 * such as . is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t. accusatives of nouns . Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». / wi7£ certainly do ».>»tjJ> before (of place. among. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra.282 Part Second. &*|D. end). an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW. may be (a) w>t^^O) oath. J>». the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. but some do not do it is this. beyond. The first class consists . an t is inserted between the two hemzas. surely. or is the complement (it) . There are three sorts of adverbs. £ The t. also written C-Jtt. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as before said. certainly. affirmative. after. ^lyAlw^t |"l) . These are 0* all. ^J/*-.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity. jl*£ . in the JO * end (Heb. § 21. d]. as cr»> tj^t. converted into ^£ with hemza. as C-Jttt.j£. C dialectically. B. This (c) J. the particle of amplification]. v #0 la that corresponds to. ix^j in the middle.j-o interval. ^JJI for ^JJt tjt. etc. inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative. h). of. jJU aOt^ by God. D*7p) . as ^-JUt. partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative. dj3 behind. [§ 360 A dimin. of B particles of various origin. partly inseparable.circumference. God will suffice t/iee against them. as aDt ^JUlSL*. The Adverbs. *£ii5t. When t is followed by another elif with hemza. 360. [comp. (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». .] [Rem.

as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect.'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not). The Particles. 0-^^*. verily ye would have followed Satan. as x£ thee.§ 362] III. [in xx x order to £ J # .j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God. standing for ^jl (aLa3I . (/ will). . ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact.. J^. I will certainly show you 2*s honour . away. which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1. affirmative la. following. ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. behold. (he did not) . xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up. OOxxOx while. (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes.o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing. 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\].1 yes. Vol. (he has) X » X X ft . certainly. confirming a previous statement. ii. ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies. to use J**. Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la. or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/. if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy . . B. he saw 'Amr. But in reply to an interrogation. J The Adverbs. 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian..] 362.j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy. J .jt). better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . as juj U. as iail».j-° AiAa^Jt ~ . I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out . (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to. . o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp. as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la. lyJx. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. . w-Jbju <*i>w .t xx ft ^s.

then at least. Vol. followed only by a nominal proposition.. in that case.] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. 0<#0 (Heb. surely. I (Heb.U*Jt 13 1. Schr.284 Part Second. § 158 and Fleischer. t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us. Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft. x i x lo.. only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c. of &. ^tftt - XX and l^». utrum .] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. as the preceding statement lo... [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity. It is joined to the accus. D In later times corroborative. literally /o/ *«e/ #w.] XX are^et. ii. XX [oi ^ &*«%. «). writy.. [(f) i. of a following noun or . if it be so. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb. called by the grammarians 3l». wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case...lb j>i juj lo.] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then. Kl. . U*. as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out. J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech. truly. b.] certainly.^a. £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361. t3t. and refers to the same time . U*U *. called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$. 5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. . B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not..or ^**~. interrogative. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected.] ^ an? j>\ j*\. and Zeid was at w<? the door .^. or 4*5U*a)I is 13]. U^. _. H). Dtf . (w) oj JH Hiin Syr. N/H)surely. x x jo* prosperity has come round. usually without government.-»]). See § 367..

as aOIj is ^t yes. — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. explicative. The Particles. Compounded of \j\ and U. it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. verily God great. only (dumtaxat). The Adverbs. J^> way not it is so. ^t yes. always followed by an oath. that is.] (u) j^jXj yes. I^jI].] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb.§ 362] III. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1. <£M ^1. and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. restrictive. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. — . whenever a conjunction. it is 72. 0311). [and in the 1st pers. The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (. 7ltf Phcen. is 285 pronominal suffix. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. 73). but in the 1st pers. sing. rather. frequently used by commentators. pi. O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. 8). [verily].jl introduces the subject. [When followed by a single word a conjunction. inceptive or inchoative la 36#. the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place). it**). ^<^y> JX. It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. |$t in if) {$&.jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact). ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. as j~£i dttl ^jt. used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . by God ! aDI I. wherever. but (Heb. (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. B. yea. however.] C (p) (q) i^t. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur. on the contrary.

already. with the Perfect.—Etymology . iai. as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * . 286 Part Second. / was hoping that he would come. o** between. It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event. or in affirming a negative proposition. that something has happened in agreement as with. tive sentence iai <&\j iai. and with the Future. «$. Delectus.^. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up. Rarer forms are and in pause iai. iai. certain symptoms or circumstances . really (jam). among). or the Parts of Speech. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. 1. 434 seq. # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. ^Aj yes. or in opposition to. .l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. and well. see Fleischer. iai Ja did you ever him?]f. in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity. 32. jS. i.A. [or in j . jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». [but also frequency. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever . and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o . he is C really come. may be used 2 .oi. . see Noldeke.. in pause j-j*. Kl. as \^i\3 j£j. an interroga- jsi djt c j^. {Thou art) . now.. ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. y^s. there (Heb. is OU jJte ta. Yes. perhaps. D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr.] vulgar use . * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. 4. R. o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. whilst (connected with the prep. (w) JJi [or a^f]. (y) Jaii 0#/y. and a negative. o x as iai <xZAj U.^=> 1©JL.. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. merely (lit. 98. da. J&L). Ljo [and U~^] while. that something expected has been realised. iai. awe? enough). S. (he did). solely.j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*]. or iai te I have never seen him see . Schr.

to. (gg) O not J>J. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. d). joined to the Jussive. used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. (/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive. X7 is and ^X. but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers. are used as well as ^^^i. X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb.>£) is followed by a single word. not It thus . negative of the Perfect. as joj jb\»\ has i . The Adverbs. *$. combines the Aram. (he has forms are^xi. <jt *^ (i.] . The Particles. (mm) j^o it is agreeable). not. likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340. U^J.§ 362] III. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne). § 169). a conjunction.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju. . § 367. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me .e. [It is also used as a conjunction. rem. iuj^> (§ 343. rem. and more rarely ^*3. but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect. not.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. not. (he has) . VlD. C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). j^u and yes. up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up. by no means. rem.] U. negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. ii. ^yA U# f I yet. j>\*±.' Zeid stood not). [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344. b). yet. joined to the Subjunctive. j (and). (II) ^JU when? Heb. B. [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn. it is [When . ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed. of % and & (Vol. q. d) and all. by no means.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at . o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative.

Csa»J . by day. %£**»• where. of two or more W-jU- outside. t jta. UaIa or LyA. of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. ' * [w~»•> enough. Imperf Indie.b inside. without. Ja. can in general be used as adverbs. y>« whence. . ilJt decidedly. of it are the following . E.j*&. extremely. but always preceded by a negative. 41. w^o. La). D after an adjective \*-f**r- together. J-i. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. B 363. Js> . (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^. only . &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it. j*j mostly in negative phrases. there (compare Heb. c-sa*J. S. in j*£ j a or j**. with a negative. never little [Uut ^W^ wow. ^ri/. *il±. usually with a negative decidedly] . within. jju . \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. J La.] . joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). prepositions 359). La. a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . cM v>*> before. in which case J they take the termination u. afterwards. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative.g.288 Part Second. ^r^ wwcA. ever. / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . \jt^ much. Jy 0-*> above. *^J £^ night. §§ I)La.>*. and ^)UyA. . beneath. also v is **»>a»-*]. nothing only this . and are indeclinable. demonstrative. La (also La and . J>i. ju^]. ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs. 364. for^. j->£. as u*^ else. whence are derived LaIa or LyA. ^-jX3 ?&£&.>* above*. and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. referring to future time. demonstrative. The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic.^^J. * [On the various forms p. placed . *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech. whence are derived L^a. : A few of the most common examples Ij^l.

] t {j*j*?. lit. y\) . Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^). once. D.. 37 . * £ (/) all. and therefore also construed with . lit. but.w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often. 5 j the c]. xa m f& end. j>yA\ today (JEth. it is seems to be compounded Kl.) w. Kl. day.. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. particularly ..^ . 13 *^ j**. seq. «* together.§ 364] III. p-<7°: etc. * 'n). . B (d) (e) woj. A \js> tomorrow. § 84.j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j. as J^j A^ afott*?. prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see . used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i. 13 ^). 289 U^j one yom). ^*j)t wow. truly. rem. Schr. (lit.. uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. U-J-* and.. with the omission of the negative. »J>w. 381. It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit. i. sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C .. footnote. during. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — . B. G. ii. [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j). perhaps. a£ the time of—). ^a jufc. (c) but more usually] sometimes . ^ 449 (also jbjx». The Particles. The Adverbs. Schr. § 361. xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . verily. at present . b) lit.&ry a/o^. X Ut U-j~>. JUft) : . yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour . tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. lit.]t it. Fleischer.] O**. . U^»j. quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb. above especially. xO X whilst. Vol.] decided (comp. [comp.

. J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations. as &» . which sometimes unites single words. X yesterday. Heb. D. The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. D like the prepositions and adverbs. G. JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-).290 Part Second. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy. and take pronominal suffixes. The word has several rarer forms. fl): JO x w. but verbs. x and 6 (iEth. They are construed with the accusative. etc. not nouns in the accusative. which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative.] Rem. however. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive.. ending in fetha. Heb. Quoad connective particles. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. fc^ftX. perhaps. or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles.3x3x3^3 ^&. ^JUU). straitness. they " " * " and become indeclinable. etc. ^fc. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ). are [§ 365 A sundry parties. x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). 366. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. O-*. a.) are. ^J. The Conjunctions. viz. vcuj t^u». — Dialectically.. In u~*\. x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>».. !)). JjO governs the ^j\. either separable or inseparable. as b. be. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t.- . particle of classification gradation). ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are . seem to X Ox / and C*J. Ci Ox Rem. x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . would that ^J* or J^x). acx xOx 365. utinam..yJUJ).»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. since yesterday. ' genitive. Aram. etc. but merely a light vowel. .. or more exactly or v~?p ^b^.

a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. [Rem. e. D. 1. separable conjunctions are : — since. of the Jussive. such as that of cause and effect. that God may forgive c). Hamdsa 74. as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. 10. [Compound U $t whenever. so that. The Particles.g. thus ^jl means nonne 6$. 9. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed. in order that. This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me.§ 367] III. C. to give an imperative sense. used J^f^ to indicate the done . of past time. is A showing either that the latter in time. [Sometimes in old poetry. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. 852. and very often in later prose. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. (a) }] The most common when.] . sing. or the reason why. or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. purpose for which. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. G. When preceded by ^ or 3 o. %36s ^j \y^c^^. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when. In conditional sentences. The Conjunctions. link. for. but more usually connects two clauses. 291 closely behind one another. may be rendered and and is thereupon. and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. Tabarl i. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. like the German so. signifying that. the kesr is usually dropped. *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis.] * 1. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. thee. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle . and consequently.

Used twice or oftener. J (§ o% a verily Aram. it Heb. as syn. see non). in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^».. <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her.g. [§ 367 A (b) dition. o' is that. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an). of .. * i ^jtj. lo-. *$> ( a ) if not. tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14. in when. time. as for. in order that. j£*& on that day. for example. That is Paradise . . Compare Heb.] (df) Ul. as for the ship. and *TX . sometimes written jjtj or 3 . d). as UJ^i. b) .. conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f . usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition.t e.] B [(c) j*\ or. because. as regards .jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f. compounded with . JHK. as well as the obsolete noun » 362. if> an(i if. it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix.. -33th. o>».292 Part Second.: now. of jt in alternative questions. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. when? [Compound Utjt whenever. unless. and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr. < jtf . £>*$ that.jt ne). followed by o. in order that (ut)..1 JEth. Compounds g. lit (§ Both of these conjunctions. that (quod).— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. compounded of ol an d .) * to if. Bibl.. Ttf in Ju l**. c). DN-— ^'. o . £>* H. >*o*J : 'ema. the genitive of s which occurs. even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative. Further: that not (ut non.. comp. are connected with $t. Aram. as if. A dialectic C variety <>s. oq^H. . (f) * q\ [and Ut. 8c. in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea.lv — also occurs. so that. dialectically . * O i : O^ as & *$\ were.jt 9 . (exceptive particle). ne. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361. at that time. hence called duLoj)\ if indeed.

6). see Vol. and . .. ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special.—&\. [On its sense of even. sive). ?\A= (alia) but. e. Heb. $1 . c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. or . .] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362. thereupon.. or O' ^^ (quod). The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a. m.§ 367] III. . the pronoun of the story it s>t . ^t. but in the 1st pers. § 358. rarely Ujt [or M].. until. C. connecting words and clauses. a t^?^. so that. b.. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel. The Conjunctions. e. I# ' § 52.{ o|.. v^jj at 366. Ut . but*. Utj . ^th. because. (i) ^j. K?~DK.. Ut. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that.] w t .. position. O^* as ** were. with a preceding negative.. y . ». Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\. except. IX. * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D. Syr. It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. until that.. j<£.g. — Compounds Heb. %+£* in order that not. as if. tfW. (§ c-s^i). £^m.] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that. 293 saving. 0*S. ^UJt : See § e. j-tr^. of UJ). to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara.. next . A Aram. 362.. identical with the preii. with the Subjunctive. (k) ^5^ * *o till. The Particles.0. only.. w). or or fact). . but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval. rem. U3t. compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U . c*«j (C««J.

as long as. oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U. . *^***- C^Ly**. I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. and U* W* make haste. I0 / b before nouns in the nomin. or b. tI u* como/ w . [3J3 even though]. wAewever. ma denoting duration). .P ! wp) <oj. [UJ also syn. oi . ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot. or accus. 0/ . o *&. !p). or TiarX ^Uy^.294 Part Second. Aram. * it ' ZZ * — . up ! come ! [Heb. from it!]. Utj. or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere. i . &\. with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362.] ji.Ujt (•Ujl) jl. . ! «J «-iO. is (quoniam). G. UtJ. or hip at. [as. at. 0' * —Compounds: ^£.-*.— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech. 368. Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt).jj£> \*3*> if not. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses . (p) Perfect. as OkoJt !i^*** w ww . wlien (postquam). or j>jH\ keep to. sense of pj-*\ make haste. lyjt C without the article. o\j. [olylfc far ^. tones. ojt. . 6nw# Aere (Heb. especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. (o) < * D. The Interjections. hypothetical particle. Ut^. iEth. l^j. HX/H. o\. jt. Jv*»» or Jv*»». Ua. with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al. 1^1. at.] with the Perfect.] D.* ^j\.* . OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram. with y\ unless. . U (ic^jjJt U. sounds or in use are : Some . D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. *}U. (tjl. bl (La). tj. ^1. and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . //) w^ew. t. 0I3I (otjl).it' rr?n].~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition. since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after. jl (dU). (D.1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl).j|). if (Heb. <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ . followed by jic.

go on proceed ! say on . . etc. Instead of 1— grief! ^_. *~} 4-J. ^js- . in calling camels to water.1). noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^.. *-j. . o/* a. ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . s\*> making camels B . as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). ^-a -*jb. also be used. ?u>t or «»~Jb. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking). in pause dt_ tj J) takes. as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. JU» frog). f-J. wit. Sit. " * uil A f * £ mi ol . wit. *fij capital! f-\. ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*. l->jk . falling stone). v>*-> ." juA or juA. . instead of the usual terminations. 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. The Interjections. ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : . s^ (the stroke of a sword). the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] . . ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©.§ 368] III. The Particles. in driving sheep or goats. in calling a dog. D. ^Us cries . 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. O^*. (a) calls to domestic animals e. too may be mentioned *^U . *->. f-\ ot. b. wit. camels. — Here in in '.g. il ml uti dl 3* 131. etc. driving horses. ^a. cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). form often used even with feminine nouns. ^»J . as tjuj 1^. (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. g U (the bleat of an antelope). mules. wit. Rem. (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem.g. wit. the t^. in driving a dog away. JjU (the croak of a raven). but the masc. b i\ is often written defectively Wl . or otjuj tlie tj. Jjlb (a blow). ' ° " kneel.

Jt£»t ^). [Many and are interjections have.. sing. b). — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . pers. § 35. tjl^St x m. in some cases. and.g. U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj).. Rem. ^U. rem. hirjats. dUk. hiri. ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. masc. The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. *U. : <uU& take. as OU give here (§ 45. d). * J * e. verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. jujJ 9-Z3. Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. $U dual U5U. Vol. or JLa. book. as l^U pi. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f. etc. ii. g. admitting its construction and inflection. person. b. x f. or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. 8. pi. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc . a certain is. a) ^j. >&&£3. x m. Rem. aJ J*)j.296 Part Second. plur. ^jkj. fern. usually written thus in one word. ^©jU. take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. d. called therefore by origin or use. that they are either originally Imperatives. say. £)$\*'. t^JLA. du. and is said to form a dual and plur. for example. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj. f. hirjith). dual UJUb. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. J * J ' j-JUb. rem. Gb. fern. Jjj aJ Jj^JI.

PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w. 38 .

cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m. J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* . cJjtf f. o^ S JO// 5 i. IjJUS f. c. J31S IJblS . 3. 3. m. m. c4^ ^JU3 2. $3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. m.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect. c. Indie. JlS JJ B 2. Plur. c. 3. f. f. ul3 Sing. m. f. f. OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE.joi 1. m. /JO/ Sing. CJJ> / Dual. Sub}. JJO/ I.

TABLE Perfect. Indie. UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f. s . m. c. Act. JlS x . J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. Imperfect. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur. Pat.* 9 f. m. J . m. CUfe^) . xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2. ^>Uii Ox J x Norn.> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2. c. t^JUS x f. c. m. Perf. u~^- ^ x (2. o f. and the N. J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. J XX Smg. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual.. 3. Subj. m. m. II. x j II. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1. ^c^US f. Impf. m. x J Energ. Sing.299 OF THE STRONG VERB. 3. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. PASSIVE. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. 3.. a ) Jussive. Verbi. Sing. 3. i x x I. and Imper.. m. D m. Imperf. 'fcs xxOx f. cJj.

in. Active Perf. DERIVED FORMS VI. IV. III. Jl3 .300 TABLE ir.

. VII.301 OF THE STRONG VERB. A IX.

Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . En. m. Imperfect.302 TABLE V. . Siihj. ^. m. m.» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . 2. m. m. iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. Perfect. m. m. ft Ml J X 2. i j. ft Ml ->X C Plur.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . Co*** • * * f. Indie. 1 x iV. 3. 3. s> s> I. c.»x 1. Wo*** i j. I. n. COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. m. © j* 5 jx Sing. Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. 2. 3. O****' O^^* . n.a. Jussive. jU 0*3 Sing. En. C. F<?r^. 2. [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. Energ. c. S 1 s x ft . lb*** D iV. f. c. f. ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing. FIRST FORM OF THE Active. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. f. Simple. ft *M f. X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2. o j o* Energ. J OJ Imperative.

m. 4" J x Sing. tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1. 5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a . GEMINATJE. Perfect. Iojl* V J » X f.>£>. x j m. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2.Efo.303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. Juo. m. c.m. o f. S// or >i j jj3». >i. Jussive. or J* . . Act. Indie Sing. a x . J^». Jussive. #n. or J*** JA*!. Imperfect. >>Xo-«. Jussive. m. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1. 3. 3. 3.J x x 2. Subj. Jj. m. (/ tc <i // / cM^j. f. C. 2 II. or and Imperat. 1) Other forms of the Perf. O^juo ' f. f. I. i j 3.^jjuo * f. m. a j Perf Sing. ((2. Imperf. J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. c. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i. Passive. m. O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2.. Imperf.. Imperat.j Hi S/J o 2. \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4. J o 2 xj 2.

Imperf. >. II. Pass. Act. VI. Ag.g. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx. irregularity . ij£ . Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. . Pass.»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N. jjuo x at J >•** V. or j »U >U . e.b. x. Pat. GEMINATJE. S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf. Verbi.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x. Act.304 A TABLE Y. JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. VII. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD. III. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat. VIII. £ xx o Active Perf. IV.x D The remaining forms present no Perf.

j~ot y^t jJI A j. s VI. Active Perf. »* - •>. II. V. jJU *| *. .305 TABLE VI.. HEMZAT^l. Imperf.*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat. "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>.Ag. IV. III. or B A N. i. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At .51 ^0 Al .. VERBUM PRIMJE RAD.

j&U li spte* N. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. Ag. J^-i . jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. Ag. VI. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. x j . J5L. V. N. II. J>?&k N. Pat. IV. x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf. Verbi. ^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. Passive Perf. JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . 1 III. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf. x£ VIII. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. Pat. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. HEMZATiE.306 TABLE VII. * >* J>%* VII. Passive Perf. Verbi. J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf. it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. c o x Imperf.- x£ ©C Active Perf. x w x .

in. 3 . HEMZAT^l. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD.307 TABLE VIII. Active Perf.

w*». JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . 3 ET ^. js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf.jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N. VIII. Pat. Ag. Verbi. 5 « x B N. Verbi. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf.»»<Mii>w ^ D N.$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf. xx o* t xOx Active Perf. i. Pat.308 TABLE IX. w^>« j~>5* .0 Ox J N. j^j js>^j *» •^jy. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. Passive Perf. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf. {fa JO O x JG x J x N. Active Perf. v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » . VERBA PRIM^ RAD. ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat. jay js> Imperat. wA^ *-**.. oi IV.

309 TABLE X. VERBUM MEDICI RAD. . > Active Voice of the First Form. Perfect.

UjL/ U3j~> 2. Dual. m. x ft ft 1. tjL> f. ^. 3. C Plur. 3. m f. IjjC D . Sing. c. c. m. Perfect. 3. jL» f.310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. Active Voice of the First Form. B 2. m.

I^Ls f. cis CJLd m.i » . j>&«. ^Uu J13I jud . c. Dual. 3. c. n. /J J X J Plur. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f.» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f. U& x x Ml J. %3 UL3 f.. Pat. m. Sing. &6 U3 © x x ©xj . ^3 /j . 9 x SJyU 9 x x .** ^la om . Energ. Imperfect. 3. cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2. m. Jussive.m. Indie.>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f./j 1. m. i. JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom. 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x . C. 2. o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1. ^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2. Energ. m. VERBA MEDLffi! RAD. Subj. Perfect.311 TABLE XII. 3. Sing.

Active Perf. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. s. cJLSt B Imperf. m. J^J J12U v. The Derived Forms. Verbi. s. jb>wt XI. Active Perf. N. JUL* J^» JU-u III. 3.312 TABLE XIII. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / . IV. Perf. Verbi. Kg. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. Verbi. 3 ET & x.J>£~>l . VIII. J^j*3 Passive Perf. N. Pat. VI./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. m. JUU II. VII. 3V3—»l jtj>. J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. >jm^ jf>~i N. J N. ->* N. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf. %yJS Imperf.

Perfect. y MEDICI RAD. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. VERBUM TERTLE RAD. .313 TABLE XIV.

^. . VERBUM TERTIxE RAD. MEDI2E RAD. Perfect. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form.314 A TABLE XV.

m. f. Imperfect. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . m. 3. x x Jussive. f. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. 3. f. m. C. c.315 TABLE XVI. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. n. En. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . x f. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. m. . U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. f. L5*^ iV. t> /(/ Sing. I. En. Indie. m. KESRAT^l. O^s-f. c. 3. Ox x xOx 1. Sub}. Active Voice of the First Form. m. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. F«r6*. u^tj 0x0 . xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1.

Pe . VERBA TERTI^l RAD.316 TABLE XVII. Passive Voice of the First Form. 3 ET ^.

^AA4 9x . Act. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. . VI. 3 ET ^. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf. X. Verbi. f. 5xx xxx Active Perf. The Derived Forms.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. Pass. m. Ag. x o£ V. III. Pass. ii. Act. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N. L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat. IV. f. VIII. c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. m.317 TABLE XVIII. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. Imperf. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII. Act. Pat.

F. AND C. . AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.Camforfoge : PRINTED BY J. CLAY.

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