. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI... WEIGHT. f?K£.D. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W. ROBERTSON SMITH. ? /V DATE. J. 1896 . THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W. LL. 6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. de GOEJE. VOLUME ? I. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN.\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE.

CLAY. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. . AND C.l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J. F.(o2)05 v.

to continue the revision. After earnest deliberation I consented. Prof. Moreover Prof. revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. whilst the had extended over 30 pages more. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself. to take all initials. resolved to undertake this task. Wright had noted here and there . but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. through Prof. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. W. Bevan. He began it with his usual ardour. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. Fleischer and other scholars. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. which he had marked with my initials. Miiller. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author. are given corrections in square brackets. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. Robertson Smith.

But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. 1896. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself. February. Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252.VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. without . I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous. on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. de GOEJE. initials. Bevan." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. § 353). Leyden. has noted on the margin wants revision. "A . but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890). unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. who drew my attention to several omissions. M. J.

. entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. but to subject In fact. 1831-33). and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866). Volck. and the Beirut edition of 1872). 1854). second edition. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is.p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. founded upon the above. second 'l-Hitab edition. the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision. I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S.1CL). 2de eU. Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. 1867). as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. with the 1866). ( Broch. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe. Dieterici. the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. . A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. which last. new work alteration.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. 1831). (w>LLaJt J-oi. the Mufassal (jJa4. Beirut. with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. vol. i. Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse.. for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. 1813). 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. 1859) . both ancient and modern. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. 1851. In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. 'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. Beirut.

— preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. the Assyrian*. the south Semitic dialects. is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew).und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). nearly everything that detail. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. and original Semitic language. I believe. seem I still think. 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. may bear the greatest reIn .Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. however. 1869). and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian. Sayce. Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. * As of Oppert. on the whole. semblance to this parent speech but. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. Philippi. except in matters of I have read. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig. and therefore but ill-adapted. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic. —have. Portuguese. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however. standpoint remains. . tongues. I have not found much to alter. Spanish. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. My the same as it formerly was. apart from its bulk and rarity. of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. grammar beginners. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). regards Assyrian. in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. Assyrian. but especially the former.

WRIGHT. the Government of Bombay. Australia). Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. sixty copies. and I hope I may say other Orientalists. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. Germany. 1st July. under a fresh obligation. twenty. pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office. ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . \ . Cambridge. the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely. W. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. . I trust. (Fort William). twenty-five and of the Punjab.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. ten of Madras. Murray (of Adelaide. Home Department . the Govern. he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. 1874. fellow. and thereby laid me. whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. ment of Bengal. in which. extending over a period of more than twenty years. amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. and the . from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. S.

de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements. Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar. They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof. which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition. l\ .The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F.

C. 1. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. B. THE VERB. Medda or Matta . The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND. III.. The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A.CONTENTS. GENERAL VIEW. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. PART FIRST.. VI.. PAGE I. Verb 29 A. II. I.. V. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 ... E.. 19 24 26 27 IV. 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D.

expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns.. and Genders 52 B.. Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B. Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 . of the First . 53 .. 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. THE WEAK VERB. Persons. and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers... The 1. expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b. 3. 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3.. Form The Active Voice a. Fourteenth. Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / .. 1. Thirteenth. Weak Verbs. THE STRONG VERB.*. 2. C. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth.. 2. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form .. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns. 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C.Xll CONTENTS.

(a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b. expressive of Surprise or Wonder . . The Forms B. 156 III. (y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I. and Blame III. 97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes. . (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . 147 .CONTENTS. . Adjective. 1. The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus . .100 II. Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II.. which express the Accusative . . (e) . . 149 151 II. and A.148 149 . 106 The Deverbal Nouns. . .. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J . THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. The Denominative Nouns. I.. . The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3. Appendix A.Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality . THE NOUN. or Relative Adjectives .159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2. their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a.

279 A.xiv CONTENTS.291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . . THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA. 1. THE PREPOSITIONS. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II.. 3.. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. . PAGE 4. III. which denote the Genitive . 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D. of Nouns .. 252 B. THE NUMERALS. 3. The Pronominal Suffixes. Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The . The Declension I. The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix. 280 THE ADVERBS. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns . The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C. 253 260 262 2.. THE PARTICLES. Article 1.. The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C.

Part First. 8i . — Orthography and Orthoepy.

THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS. aJl^J! o^aJt. B NAME. is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. . though three of them are also used They vary in form. Syriac.PAKT FIRST. and are all consonants. I. terminate in a bold stroke. Hebrew and letters 1. for the most part. along with their names and numerical values. when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. Arabic. and. like left. as vowels (see § 3). a word.

of which the following are examples. or even . I Rem. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. J. But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. hh. #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh. c. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz. fy. as is A . 3.§ 1] I. it is Rem. § 3. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts. b. In some old Mss. on the other hand. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. or. or in the more elegant Eastern founts. and is V. i. are very inconvenient to printers. The Arabs sequence . in which one letter stands above another. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. k has the point below. : ^ t single point k*. end of a word these points are usually omitted. The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. [These ligatures. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. At the Rem. in the earliest times. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon. § 15). as in this book.. and form ligatures. J A This combination ^. 3. English and Arabic are intermingled. The object of elif a. to African Mss. ut. The latter method a recent innovation. *>). a. ir l * gh. thus s a f but 9 k below. generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. The Letters as Consonants. and inserted before a. from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. r+-. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. &* *!* sh. I. not only in Europe but in the East. <^. £ £ ^.] * This is not confined. %. especially when.

] . c^U!»ug.e. letters. cit. j. prints. JeJu). Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 . J^j. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances. 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. dL Those letters which are identical in form.4 a Part First. i. which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds. 5. ^. which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). and then ^ takes Rem. especially those issued at Bairut. To the former class belong ». are divided the loose or free.e. j^. O. ^ 3 sua ^ i h. or an angular mark above. i. etc. iUU^Jt iUM. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt.. placing a point below. letters. the sibilants. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). unpointed. the M 3 J 0* gingivals. and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI. and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. below. — Orthography and Orthoepy. x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). k %. from 5. ^ has only one point above.>)*. 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o. rem. (. so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. the use of the two points below is optional. j. h pointed. plur. J. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. e. such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) . The letters are also divided into the following classes. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip). and the like. a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. I ^ and c j to the latter £-. [§ 1 Rem. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>.

. or the German Roche. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). 9-. same relation to > that <1> does to O. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^. softer than our like the t. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem. PI. utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play. it In Egypt and some parts of U. The Letters as Consonants. the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH).or d-iJJt »J^aJI.has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch.. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. 0. s 3 J 0* J J f. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire. I >^ c c *.§ 2] J ul ui I. softer 5 bears the than our d. it is some of these letters. will. less often with ^*. see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. the letters O > b. or th in thing. the Heb. It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. has the sound of the Heb. homme or English hour. is our g in get. The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s. but not rough Europeans. [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. as well as Turks and Persians.)t »J>jj3»Jt. O £> is is the Italian dental. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». the liquids ^ J ^. soft letters. It is sounded . <f. I C with hemza (t. ».)\). the gutturals. stronger than d. t. the letters. like »-.] Greek 0. > is the Italian dental. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. as in sing. rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l). The following hints however. however. except by long intercourse with natives. or Arabia. ^e weak 2.

it*. 17 etc. as in run. p.6 Part First. To distinguish it from do to O and z. )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a. — De G. shin shut. AJaJI. without aspiration. It is wrong to treat it. produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath. z. the Heb. into or th in that.]. the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/. or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&. V. are of Arabia. [In Egypt an emphatic d. The y of the r. related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©. J. the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. bears.] .] y. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z. of modern Greeks. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. mist. as in gargling. in any of the Semitic languages. and the French r grasseye. is a guttural g. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound. j the English z. is* is the surd s in sit. it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. the Heb. and often in Mss. v°. for bX^xA. as a mere vowel-letter. with. unpronounceable) guttural. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this). — Orthography it and Orthoepy. the Heb. ft. the Heb. is a strongly articulated palatal t. strictly speaking. is an aspirated 6#. s. JJ.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r. J^. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa.. It is described as . Hamdanled. is a strongly articulated guttural k. which we have no example in English. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss.

j9tj=& i (as kerlmun. the German o in Mortel. o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**). for kultu. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. * is our h. n. without any vowel coming between them. <v fo*Ai. a. this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb.g. la. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. jf H -> H 7). 0. & J. The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels.. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. or the (c) in bird) . yakulu. *+* 'bmrun. £ du. The Turks and Persians > II. ya'ulu. o 1.1 —). m. and the modern . 4. e (nearly the French (b) e muet). halaka. . shibau. E. a. When immediately .§§ 3. w (as in Zw/Q. e. au. as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning.gemb. /. (JX&. e (as in pet). iUw sembd'u. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels.g. and tj. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. g. A j followed by the letter w>. (a) L feth (~$) .>». I. rem. obscure resembling the Welsh y. are exactly our k. the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v. (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin). as 'ultu. i (a dull.Bsr or fetha (lm*&). ww. and § 15) for a.g. e. j~& 'ambar. ^r* hum. or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . In the is grammatical termination nounced like O. m as w^». * In point of fact. 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai. The Vowels and Diphthongs. originally 3. 1x5 1 ^Bftw. ^ ^ for t and ai. : use of the three t (without hdmza. <d Ww. ji lau. see § •>) 1. e. of a syllable . (Heb. 'anbar. t)*. ^-^ shmsun. in last the d is silent. not g&nb. 4] II. e.g. which the old pausal - (ah). w and #.

X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. c. a motion. xO p plur. for damma. xx e. j*±. uttered. gards the signs L. and ^£ or a. The distinction between the names feth. kesr. ^3. owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified. i. u. is x ^sb * bakiya. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels. Compare the Hebrew MH^. or 0. *\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a. A vowel 5 is called dib^a. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. or on the line. though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. B mark t Ox plur. and fetha. e. 6. Lin for other positions. kesr a.]' are sometimes applied to L. of the Kor'an. x x x . . is that the former denote the sounds a. o. u. the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. one above for fetha. ktmrun. — its De Rem. In the oldest Mss. a. commonly used of the casee.g.c © . into e. JULwt or J|y£w. _. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. a. form or figure. will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. damm. and one in the middle. be given for the guidance of the learner*.— Orthography and Orthoepy.. The terms ^^u and *3j. jj*o sadrun. damma. the latter the marks L. Rem. through for the various 1. u. are probably derived from 5. S ywftU ajj^jaJI.8 Part First. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). w**J la'bun. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &.] . 1. however. — . i. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds. or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a. Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. The following rules may.g. one below for As rekesra. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides. [§ 5 A Rem.

cap. are indicated I. however. SjU garatun. — . The long vowels a.. or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). i. a. j+&\ 'akbaru . ^^1. e. Rem.g. e. <C.g. oSS or £*$. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u. e. Jj bdl. nor immediately precede. so as to resemble a small elif . pronounced as e. approaching to that of a in the English — . w*fc> ro bun. w. ^-£3 Bsrun. Z words hat. J ( e. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun. however. C>£^l)t. of the short vowels before the letters ^j. JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. end of a word. sound of to that of the French u or German jy». $$** sukun. Ot^-JI. e.JUt from (^e resurrection. 0^**> nearly torun. tunun. suratun . literae productionis." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u. and also in general at the 6. K+£\. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim. IJJb. and o\ o. C~l£> katabta.§ 6] _ II. ^>j*jJI. Zjj* marratun.g. f *. e. at a later period. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. e. $j*». «£l«~> sbnibkun. More in exactly. The Vowels and Diphthongs.g. g. "letters of prolongation. 3»o i. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. O**-' seniinun. J 15 kola. • # 9 x «. ^Ac 'ilmun. JikJ to/a. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. *aj bVa. ^=>j*« m^rkebun. s J .g. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. u. <JUI.g.g. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with. a was at and hence long vowels. 1J&. letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. respectively. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. less clear sound. to be carefully distinguished 2 . one of those letters. after the the vowel-points. a weaker. e. sUrtm. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that. garratun. It retains.g. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case. ^ao. c>**^> axJ^JI.j**fi> 'o'mrun. U^A. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. olUI. by placing the marks C and ^. iUi.

b. 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. jj^iu. 0/1/ and ^jj^U. The words ^*}U. Caniles. el-'Asi. I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. 6). lisin and. J w^aJt. / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t. and " § 5. J / / U^A. a^oJI c*». / £e£m. Z?e/a. Gesch. the final I was shortened or dropped. JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3. m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu. for ^yUjt. tl-imdla. are sounded ri&#. &i&. . — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. Carlo. ^ stor damma. preceded by damma. bnu H-Yemani. / . * [The omission of ^ p. \ Si / j J/ I J . ^j-^tijt. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra. This change is called aJU*jM. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. aIU. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn. the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. Qordn's. conversely. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . value). inclines.. are I also frequently written defectively wJi. c. than in others. d. whence sister of fetha. JO / j . J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t . final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity.g.t. are written a». Lebrilla. dJ>l5.10 Part £©**JI / First. I • I J t 0/ . localities. ^l^Jt. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy.» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*. 0/ e.g. The sound of L. See Noldeke.» j^.jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu . o^o saifun. ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. Ztow Pedro. etc. such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3. which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics. price. oW*-j c£J^*j 7. . and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . # of Rem. j J . 6. I corresponds to fetha. in later times and in certain from a to e. ^^^aJI.g. a. S^JOI C^»-t. ojJsu ^j>. and occasionally some other vocables. is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. jJJ} . • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au. / / Rem. Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ. j>?UM. just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4. 251. o/* ^. i. / »j\ i^tj. and 3. ^ Wver Guadiaro. 6a6. The letter o.] . / *y-U. el-Haft.

J3 fata. 213 (as Li^-j he will live. become nearly 9 (Heb.g. in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. etc. the elif that Jx e&/*.g. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf. * 0*0*.Jl Hid*. lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\. rem. [But ^-. and //»/ " x x is called.g.~\ The diphthong ai. but and o (Heb.§ 7] x II. like I. Rem. 169. (£lif e. in j If a pronominal suffix be . must be considered. is \^cj. Rem. L*^j Behnesa. . before jj/J\ (see x § x 20. like J * itself . The Vowels and Diphthongs. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters. . £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant. See the details below §§ 167. letters A. § 10). y. as in final. l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai. 6)f. a. *-) sfTftft.] . can be abbreviated.-oj rama. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. After ^ at the end of a word. x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun). f). but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj.. »XX . a). b. the separating eiif Rem. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya . \j£ yaza).1.g. when old Mss. ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e. after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. § 19. as in # * j I. d.» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e. e. It receives this name because. even very ancient ones. the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM. . rem. and 1. not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1. is often written. tjj-aJ. suprascript. tj>>*J- This I. ^J*-» yedai. in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23.e. as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g.. .g. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom. which it is protected by hemza. the world). particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs. otiosum). and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. On the other hand many Mss.^. xx or a**). ^-)> e. both when preceded by damma and by fetha.*^. A w*** sefun. a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U.1 ** .

. for which we more usually find U*w. \j+&. further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*. L an. To one word j * . First. genit. — Orthography and Orthoepy. p. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n. nor. _ in. it as in j^jdb. Amr (not x Amru). 2jj j*c medlnetan. all when the away (§ 315. j ju*. JU a. rem.+£• and JJ-+& ) is. X j+c 'Omar.or S^a-. Sjjwt. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. [Cf. j+£. as S^a. which is always short : bdbdn. This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). Zamahsari. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. Rem. of 31.1 . Sj£»j or 3>%j. is added. viz.. malun. L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . Rem. accus. name JS jj*©^ [or. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. often neglected in old manuscripts.— DeG. * i. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. as bb. without in any to the proper 4 . and accus. g. tenwln genit. djXo or S^Lo. it a. However. c. when precedes a ^. l viz. ^a^ 114.] . but 4aJ^». O . SyCiLo. no I is written. rihdn. companies a hemza. z = — _ =_. way l affecting the sound of the ten win. l^jj. the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions. . rarely j \jj-+&. [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\.12 Part Rem. t>^Jt for b>. falls jj-o*. b. according to the older orthography. b) j>©. however. for l\ J^. of the Kor'an. when acto . 1 or iL un. SyU. Rem. so also \y>j. The j of $. and bpt . as in 1-w.£ in three cases].] In old Mss. [§ 8 A d. 8. e. the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. . See t § 308.

g. or a*j^.g. x J strengthened (3juL&).§11] III. JL3. m A letter which letter. has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*. is written only once. whence the C of the 2 . j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa. . as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 . as the Arabs say. A consonant that fl to be doubled. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14). rest.g. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. c. is D 11. Other Orthographic Signs. b. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. 5 x \ 9. ^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. SIGNS. c. z. (see § 4.g. ^jJb B. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables. b. j>*o. JJ. instead of the common ±: or 1 . a quiescent See § 4. rem. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. In some old Mss. are retained in writing. § x- 59/ j*±e*. later d. ^jXt. a). and serves. for ^s>. - -. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. © x x e. Gezma or Sukun. J**i. Rem. ^&i ~£= katabtum. with which other name x \j£~i. A Gezma x or Sukun. are marked '. coincides. rem. b. movent rem. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. Jj bel. when another syllable J follows. ^J=>. ^£»L>. O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '. to separate the two. as between feth &&& fetlia. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e. (amputation). Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. but marked with the sign -. a). productionis they Rem. A. e. letter. but not marked with a gezma.» letters of prolongation. e. etc. when they form a diphthong with fetha. ^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. a. which is called . \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). ^j and 3. ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7. . In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. fore to the hum. Rem. used. The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. Ox Rem. d). 13 III. Gezma. or.

of the fifth form Rem. *$d> kullan. C <*£&>. of the Kor'an. [§11 A JujJLSf. i.«. It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere. no doubling. a. as in African Mss. in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . the tesdid {strengthening)*. single). ± alone may be = t . Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " . Tesdid. c. —De G. a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. e.g. properly so called. not even excepted.is an abbreviated ^i. The African Arabs constantly write for -. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. The solitary exception to this rule. is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. Rem. fern. . of ji Of CU5. Rem. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. -. J&\ Si M-kulla. * [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. <fec. as may be seen from the above examples.£. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. in combination with -. Perf. to. or the first letter of the name ojut>. -.g. e. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. — Orthography e. e. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun.*. -. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. £ may . and receive tesdid. takes place. at least in old manuscripts. Rem. y* murrun.g.. All consonants whatsoever. -. therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru. as well as £. Ojji.>jut>. admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). sing.»). which. stand for £. In African Mss. when accompanied by kesra. 3d pers.14 Part First. tesdid is * expressed by « or ^. d. ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. the vowel is not always written with the sedda . In combination with . only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. is not required . below the line. ~ . In the oldest Mss. D Rem. Perf.e. 2d pers. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. it and Orthoepy. sing. elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule.] . (from UubL^ lightened. is sometimes written. cj-tU na"agun. in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila. b. jv» semmin. . instead of Jj3 and J>*3.

Tesdid or Sedda. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. ^. >. *£>.§ 14] III. Ja. JJI. 13. and the other lunar them.) after the article Jl . 'ar-rahmanu . is B. the Rem. . ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. sun. and after n with £ezm. . as in jto. 15 12. UkjodH. JIaj <jt after the nunation. letters. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant.g. and &*£$. he. moon. happens to begin with one of them. ^-^Jt Ss-semsu. It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. in African and Spanish manuscripts.g. j. 5. sibilants. &. e. e. j^UI k-timru. yi. The w of the . like ilcu^a. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. it is sometimes found after it 1. With the J. which. appointed some one commander . whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). but ja\ (ammara). c J. ui. the because the word j^3. ^L 14. as C^»tj letters j. for kiidbun mublnun. e. <>?. JJ ^>o. jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. J-JJt el-leilu. letters. save in rare instances. ^. (b) b. though expressed in writing. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI. J». is. Other Orthographic Signs. j. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^. 0> (dentals. is bitter. used : — (a) With the letters O. 3. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. iesdFid. ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi. j>. and Jj. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). or. solar because the word u~+J*.> [see § 277].>L©. y> (murrun) language.g. to avoid harshness of sound. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends. j. a.

by a C weaker servile letter. £>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta. compression. ^Sj. like O. and rem. W* for U £>*> ^ itself. u° or h. Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether. *£>. union of the two indicated by the tesdid C. the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel .. with redundant U). ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. e. rightly.>«. and grammarians. Rem. £>*> 0*> I*. a. e. JL.g. ILd. but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*. rem. \j}\ t Ua*. k*±. however. Rem. see § 4. . it naturally unites with the is written. in a si . [§15 A words v>«. Ut £ for U. but a conthe spiritus lenis. a.jl £ (i/*. are hardly ever written separately.31. * D 15. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N).g. when it is sonant. He^mza or Nebra. *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1. such as >. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel..16 Part First. after e. . 6. elevation)'. . j^\ . e -g. )» s With the letter O . ^ v >«. always. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant. a. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. c. f°r O**** or v>» .jl. lj. is distinguished by the viz. jilf. Elif. Rem. 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God.» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. it i.^t.. which \j3. as C~J for cJL5. also sometimes called nebra (S^J.. — Orthography and Orthoepy. but the . mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. g. (dentals). for C-slsua. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . Rem. v° b. juXSI. for ^ O*.O-*a. is of the upper part of the windpipe. jwl. If the verb ends in O in the above cases. with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu . pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation. b. is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word.. second b. (tf/iatf. ^Jj\. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. on the contrary. so that only one O is O. a). d.jt £ {if not).

(a) Always at the end of a word.g. §§ 131 seq. though [See below. * J gaa. jt. c. accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L. after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma. . Ji* and the d. for ^j^-wl^. j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota.j>Jwl£. l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &.Ufc. is written between the t and the vowel that . for Ol». varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above. e-j ^^j for it chW. Hemza it.l. or ltu»» for U*i». ** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss. l^.. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui. s uun\ i^o. (jlt^iJI. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. w*33j 17. e. ^. preceded by a shut syllable.g..§ 17] III. is e.g. tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points . pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain... hemza e. e. f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. rem. J0^i\js>\ (but for J . ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word. tbj. c). In African (and certain other) Mss. Rem.g. Other Orthographic Signs. *U*. C*£». as ^j^t\^J. c£X±. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). by a large yellow or green dot. £^3. after elif productio?iis. Ju*>.. or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8.g. Rem. e.. C. in the fol- lowing cases. 17 Rem. j5~t for j-w (see § 16). . like l^ and l^J? are often written. and in the middle of a word.] 3 . In the oldest Mss. a)'. § 4. like.3.. el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu). b. for ^>>L. Hemza or Nebra. I. Rem. of the Kor'an. when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). Accusatives * w. ^j\ or <jt for ^>t. 4JL%*©. 16.

which is connected with letter.g. ^j^ au. or ^hj^j which words must always be . for **o*> from *^. Rem. O/ as for i — Orthography . J-~j for JL*j . power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel.g. *Zo* j 9io. rn'usun. l*J* \\>j and in old Mss. 1 ^eU for ^oU). more frequently. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. ^ £ j 3 . and Orthoepy. — ^. iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>. after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^. ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. as J£*t. e.>*1t. u. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. and also e. from S^a-o. is. and followed by a or s a. called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o. necessarily so. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh .. ua. j to. A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i. or after a consonant with gezma. placed itself. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of . S$j-£* for SjjjXo.g. Rem.. Rem. as JLtj for JLjj. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. at. as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. for^. Hemza between w&. ai. pronounced makrit'atun.18 Part First. The name j^tj or ^i\y David. as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. 6. a following After a consonant with gezma. Lw. but must always be pronounced Da'udu. [§ 17 A contrary to rule. £. e.kri c or &Lla». oUJ]. £lif with [This hemza. o. and uu. ^^jj for ^Hji. J^/f. we find such instances Z\}j. 0^34 for oL5^. if the preceding consonant be an . and damma before the for ^Hjjj. jit£ for ^otjj. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation. as ^>ott or is ^\. PuUr* for 0^ .1^. however. for ^t. j c-> . 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. a. is often written ^\y . though improperly. hati'atun. for JU»t. (b) Frequently in the middle of words.

When the vowels with hemza (t I). which sometimes varies in position. or &L03. union. we rr J- L instead b. f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. Other Orthographic Signs. xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e.& downfall or extinction. Imperative. according to the preceding vowel. .g. rem. i. and called J*&3. j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# . t J~~> .o$ or 4JL0 .. Rem. <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. I 18. a). O x ^ x 5x § 4. the father of (b) the we~zir. j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. D. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e. In the oldest Mss. of the usual sbs. the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign . X *>*> . at the commencement of A a word.a.written over the .g. was appointed governor .§ 19] III. he said. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM. Wasla. «i. rem. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red). Slif. and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. Hence even I. dU^l c-ol. listen. + * regular verb. Rem. x See § 15. in modern African Mss. a. I i. a&I. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ . or 2X& (see x bi rem. a. or rather.g. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. 19 D. S^-j&JI. Wasla. kill. as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . and § 19. JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13. 19. e. £ s 'OiO . yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut.e. and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35). with a point to indicate the itself. With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA. In ancient MagribI Mss. i. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . |x X . J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < . d. e. the stroke is used.e. he said. "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active.

prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. jl^l5N)l. orjj-ot. The hemza of j>^-»l. a man. a * a daughter. rem. * . especially after the article. Rem. the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\. as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. JO* C is Rem. 3 d. but. 9 J 9*0 §j*\. /). is also elided after the asseverative particle J. J Oi Rem. in part original. is in ^>*-jl after J).^0-MvNjt J^. Rem. the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article. e. or. b.>*-J. but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. 9t-*0 a name. 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l. Cwl. because it is then no longer necessary. and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it. two (masc). : [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\. oatfAs. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. See § 15. the anus. two (fern.). * 9 /) fe is neglected.^r^\^AJ\ JA>. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. as (lit. aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God).© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). Rem. so. s-Jj^-- .\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*. a. b. <ft jL^jf.>M. j^\ 30 (rarely^wt). c. that to say. as ^t^iiNjI ^. as rem.20 Part (d) First. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^. and Orthoepy. omitting the altogether. and § 18. It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza. 9 a woman. in part merely prosthetic.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. and * ^J\ * or ^j\. and occasionally m after the prepositions *. a. to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. in a contracted form. — Orthography son. xO xxO O^'l.

b and c. O in the eyes of the king. Wasla. these different cases the following rules apply. ^.20] III. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). sing. This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels. first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis. Other Orthographic Signs. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . ^_ and e. u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^. according to the law stated in § 25. subject to change (a I weak elif letter). (a) 20. J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). which equally admissible. »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. the connective elif the opposite elif. A II .rfi. but begins the next syllable. ^^t )^o*J my grace which. in e the beginning. The silent elif (§ 7. for ft and 'abu.. or a consonant with gezma. the elect of God. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri.yju&t. as u«jJi .g. D. in the other two an elif separationis. the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel. viz.JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI . and au into cm as (c) . J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. To vowel. according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ . a diphthong. fear the people.« mustafdu 'lldhi. but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t . A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel . B shortened e. instead of .^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. rem. 21 Rem. J*Wi. father of the wezir. is pronounced as written Q tjuJi. AJJt j)BJn. being sJgJUl oUI. elif sejunctionis or separationis. Hence gtj£^t ^3. the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. The suffixes of the 1st pers. 'n-nasi. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis.g. for <UJt ^aJsucuo. at into ai. see § 19.

since. x0£<0. such as sjs. J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. £ take kesra.6. A . ^Sj.>*. The same it is is the case with Jco. which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^. j and^A they. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. Oi Ox But jt and to meet. b.»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma. ^A or^A.). yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra . & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. a. them. JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s. The preposition . .^0^ you. you (accus. masc.>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu. rem. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm .. which time forth. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. x J x <5 ^j .22 Part xx x 0*> First. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. kesra. etc. the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns. from. C fetha djj\. and after they saw the star. the pronoun yj*. Perf. jS. or adopts the lightest of the three vowels. J — Orthography w and Orthoepy.\. for IjjjkTt Ji. and ^A their. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. J*. takes . as . } Rem. viz. and particles.>£). as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. as tjjiaST jj. viz. verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS. so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha . because contracted for Ju*. In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c. is The final £ of rejected. Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers. before the article. they threw the stones . Rem. Jj. b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. x v~k*. plur.. plur. masc.0*> x name . [§ 20 xx A thong. from. J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . D Rem. j£* your. as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu. ^j\. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) .

e. [Cf. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. in a genealogical series.g. Wasla. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«. t. la tadriba 'bnaka. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather. but form part of the predicate. as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. a. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j. ' interposition of the noble. "the black. . jy&J*o wise. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. if that word happens Rem.ijj sjj£.0* . real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. the an adjective. 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad. oUaaJI Rem. 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka." being Amr. the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh. D. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr. B when the name the genitive lira . b. DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss. as a whole. son. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname. In the article Jl. For example. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW. when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to. Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. aUI j^s. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary . § 315. J^pJ to the man. for aJUI^wb. omission of the In the word ^t. .c. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. b. of the son precedes. ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. it is ls**J> Ridha. the son struck Sa'd. Z . rem. thus: j^. ^t j+s. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs.] the second noun be not in apposition to the first.§21] - III. . the J s I retained. that is to say. (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases. to stand at the beginning of a line. as by the J J OtO j . for J*^). forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. the son of Halid. if ^jj\ jU. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained.

after the conjunction J sj. a. rem. y>^tf. *U. elifs # when the second j s s o.. b. I . as aJUJ to the night.. xxOjx^o^ ^.. 6. is it (fem. a. for ^UjM. for 2JJJJ. extension). for iOn. rem. for llo-*. e. o e.g.] Medda or Matta. to ask. is placed over the latter . verbs. ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'. » a>.e. 22.e. Rem. Ih. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>. in Mss. of the Kor'an. when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\. [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij.>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19. such forms as tbj. is son—1 O^Xit. — Orthography and Orthoepy. the form of the medda » x ji*). [Cf.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\. lengthening.. elif In this last case. (§ 17. (t. E. cited in § 358. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>.>. c . rem. rem. (i. for JUS. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto. i. as Jlli. wj^aJI yJ — De G.gaa. ^*>.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t. a. § 140.). so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem. and the sign of prolongation. is Rem.24 Part First.) is written instead of the former.). (£) by the affirmative particle J truly. As mentioned above 1U*. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as . a. the two . Q Rem. Its opposite is j*oA (i. and that for alJJN).*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^).. according to some. and the article Jt. then the J of the article is omitted. *X*~> semdun. for *l». I. 5jL« or aJsh. for Oj-Jull. for (d) In nouns. in poetry.. is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti. verily. then a mere hemza etc. he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M . as S&JJ. j-o3.a»Jt. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained. we find in old Mss. shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases. ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna. for^5Jo»Jtt.. has fetha. In the oldest and best Mss. is frequently omitted.Z .] .

In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza. the lengthened or long elif. when they are used as long poetry. 25 this is is but rarely written. ajx. Rem. instead of with Rem. Medda or Matta. medda (see § 6. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. rem. Cfor J^a-.jt or . upon him/ for 6j±. for 4 . [But we some- times find U. U^-l . is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. may God be <*JUI well pleased with. GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\.§ 23] III. Ut or to the end of etc. o or t.] 1 Rem. In some old Mss. b). may GW /*e Aave mercy it.g. informed us.g. see § 174. a. along with the medda. the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. b. alwt for }tL*l. the hemza being written final a) . or the vowel. w. rem. e. an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. e. . —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript. when followed by an elif hemzatum. rem. ^2J\ j&. aJUt ^y^j. Medda prolongation.\ . 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17.. Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha.J I.^**. When. often written over abbreviations of words. W for LS jo*-. then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda. . $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. d. as ly~J j jo£ .^* or ^**. only is (§ 17. Other Orthographic Signs.j£*. in and the verbal termination j£. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem. a) c. tut instead of L*t or tutt. i. Ae narrated to us tfAew. of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. U for Uh*»»l. (t) is at the beginning of a syllable.e. h). E. l^a***. has nothing in common with medda but is the form. He (God) exalted above all. e. The mark -.g. So Jtj for jJUj.

find words with the letters *f~. to fypov 27. or ^!wa1.e. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. text. to be placed first. to be placed last. which we call a shut or compound syllable. IIXaTwv f J . first consonant . — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. another manuscript . etc. the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir.). usually before the . the first of which is destitute of a vowel. the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text. Vlp). ^. and jajJLc. 0*0 0* y^M. where the final short vowels are suppressed. -*~o stands for ^o. on passing into the Arabic language. explanation. C we 24. either separated or followed . is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. ^)L^. and stands for < ~*J. a copy. may be either long or short. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable. end in two consonants. syllable that terminates in a vowel. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. JU pause. which commence with a syllable of this sort. is almost always short . and denotes form or vocalization.Generally speaking. and is repeated more clearly on the them. 25. it is correct. tin. *-Jj*y\. correction. Jy> (Heb. — Again it is. though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. may (i. which are not by a vowel (except in pause). dJbd over a <x\x). rem. Before a double consonant a (see § 13. Foreign words. the fix o < correct one 5*-o. emendation. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|. ' « . the third implies that the marginal reading. and ~~*a over of Mss. J . is. together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. an. THE SYLLABLE. A take an additional vowel. B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct. — Orthography and Orthoepy. D Rem. as . 26. that the ancient it is as kul. A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum). and not that of the text. The first of U J margin. as J13 ka-la. in the writer's opinion. we often W O * these indicates a variant. as sf or fir.26 Part First. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant.

is the interrogative enclitic j> . d-du. ku-beil. if it 31. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. bil-ldur. UJ ^-rad See 351.j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na. rem. (b) * Monosyllables in combination with . XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. mdk-ru . *!_ or 2t_. Jl-rfnd. The penult takes the accent when . But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl. i>*>^ yun. ne-bi . y bi-hi.33 wa-kul. l Oxx kd-ti-bun. 9 uf ma-fdr. 'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un. _ ^J ^i li-ma. When has four or more syllables. long by nature. The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position. g^lsu ba-ti-un. £15 fa-kdt. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. The Accent 27 THE ACCENT. j>V. l^ bi-md. and vJ. ly-»|p fa-?-a- . as ya-kul.>*) li-mdn. j_. *fe\ 'a-fa-ld. ya-kH-ldn-na. kd-nun. 5 *' *" ** x* J . U la-nd.a-du- l wun. J3I 'a-kdl-lu. I. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. *j_. 9 lj-4 biir-un.§ 31] V. . bil-ldu-run. c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. . bu-nei. i). j. ham-rd-'u. it is 30. the accent falls upon the antepenult. ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w. i D ^^ the penult is short. Rem. is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la. '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. (a) The pausal forms . The last syllable of does not take the accent. and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. ul-J . it is 29. 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. as ^. bd-ti. \S£> ka-dd. ^. U-^t 'ei-na-md. i. mu-mi-nfn. Vj wa-ldm. w>. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun. ne-bi-yun. m».B *3j** mak-ru-un. or. that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». hdm-ra. in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun. Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. j js. V. J. J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma. kd-ti-bdt. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28. J.J . ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^. nature or position « x . ^r* kd-ta-ba.e. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. Rem.

Their form. and Wallin in the same journal. and Orthoepy. [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum. have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians. vol. the Indian notation. VI. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd. ten in number.: 123 4 67890 . vol. iv. xii. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). Grain. 183-6. pp.28 Part First. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. [also Spitta.. as the following table shows.g. — Orthography .j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. They are written from right to left.« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun.] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880). however.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. pp. as jut*a£. because we took them from the Arabs. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt.. as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°. letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. Egypt and among the Bedawin. des arab. On deviations from these principles of accentuation. \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md. They are the same that we Europeans make use of. 1874. &v.»>. 1874.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them. Rem. the the alphabet. and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. at other times peculiar signs. p. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed. THE NUMBERS. Vul- 59 sqq. Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. tAvt. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society. 670-3. . B 32. calling them Arabian.

THE VERB. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. JjiSl XIII. JJuilt XIV. JjuJI. instead of he has killed. (with juSt number. III. because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. is X. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). JiS I. The Forms of Verb. Jl3 to kiU. contain three radical letters. being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. >& JiL ? l VI. pers. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. A. J*tf V. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV. JiliA j£ Ju& II. 33. A General View. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. masc. which first. but the learner XL XII. that is The great majority to say. I. Rem. literal verbs are by no means rare. The 3d of the verb.. but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive. JU**t XV.PART SECOND. Perf. a. the Triliteral 1. VII. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. . Ji^t VIII. IX. sing.

a. ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear. j^~* old. p. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO . 38.g.] — . Kamil. j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. thinking. Rem. t^~U. Rem. the learner should 36. that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition. [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful.g. u*j^ be sick. j*y\ to become whitish. The distinction between them is. to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. The vowel signification. to s^^ to become gray. and not a few of the write. and therefore govern the accusative. according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. ' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . w>o to beat. to sit. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. to be large. b. 415. v** J y^3 to go away. *-ji or JJ^ glad.g. jJ*j to go right way. De G. *£t or to E. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. (scire). for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before. e. D Rem. * [Or. * to be safe and sound. is B 37.j+& j**o to be small. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons. or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill. to become noble. 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. —Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so. As are those adopted in note them carefully. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. jj&> to know upon. ^v^a. ^j+e to be J* blind. j*£* become ugly. to think. c. sorry. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. sJj& high or noble*. .» to be heavy. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam.Part Second.

b. 1. 31 Rem. Rem. i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down. ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification.^jiz x w-A to wWto. The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often. or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive). The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . or during a long time (temporally extensive). XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). it is Rem. xx or <J\h to go round.§ 41] I. the apparent difference being that original in the latter. ^J to weep.to ?raa#0 carry. Gr. JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . a. xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces. w>j~o to #£#£ violently . Jjji to disperse . w>o B j*& ala.5 to cw£.g. The Verb. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical. *IaJ to cut in pieces . fo«£. or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). first Verbs that are intransitive in the . term. as^Xft know. j~£> to break. but derived in the former. Js3 to massacre . JU. w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. Jt*». b. p. General View. ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. 40. to believe him. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth. as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie. w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry. transitive or causative in the second # .~\ /S/ X Xx A 39. 9-j* to gladden. 165 $eq. Ubt^ to weaken. Forms of Triliteral Verb. Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach. E. [See Comp. . A. Jjy to separate. UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&. though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. JS3 to to Mil.

^° en ters (the city of) Zafar. to coZ/ec2 to to e. . Uju*. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry. g. " to skin an animal. (^^J&t <*£M). d. hfap. ing ways. [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative. x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5). Rem. isj-o . JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar. a&3 he killed him. and ex- or doing of. first p. or the like. ^fap and Aram. ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. by the elif productionis. ^UT. dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee). be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U». agju*.i. j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^. compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him . ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja). JUi corresponds in form.g. to dwell in a place. — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. ^&0— [See Comp. 198 sea. (_>»U.32 Part Second. derived. (may GW prolong J^O thy life). he said to off). x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. (??i«2/ thy nose. . iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. as well as in signification. fi like the fourth form. *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). a mutual one. . JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt).). (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with.] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical. j&j*. Sometimes. jQ+m. Rem. to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin. J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x . to the Heb. 43. T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly.j). Gr. perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object. jl*. c. j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w.to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»). It modifies the signification of the 42.

sulted with him. (something). »^jafe more or less distinctly implied. axStj do. X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. g. sj**±. o^Sh he strove to do so. ^U. When the or fourth form denotes an act.. Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . ac. to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly .§ 43] I. E. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. conversed with him . £>*~j*. w. he treated he. ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do. General View. <uuw he outran him. AiS*) he treated him it .U» 5 .he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. „ . the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). Aiwl». attacked him. dJuL* he ran a race with him. X X J . as in the former case. ojsMt he competed with him in doing so. do. The Verb. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. the relation B of which to an object object). E. <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan. t mander of the Faithful. jlS>t he advised him. and affects him or brings X him into that state. 33 alii he overcame him. A^ol*. but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied.g. Rem. of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. aijli he strove to do so. gently . «o *i« he fell upon aAs. A aJU he tried to overcome him . . treated be good or kind. he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit. Forms him of Triliteral Verb. \J&\+b to double. A. 1. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. aljlS he corresponded with him. g. oa. is here. £f$ to be soft or gentle. . d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry. he vied with him in rank and glory .^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him. ideas a. tli to be hard. a^pU he procured him means of doing so.to d-wla. he went first is to law with him. (c) . Ji. >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. him kindly .Io he wrestled with . he threw him down. 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. from Julc the like or equal . . .

many that of a transitive verb. eat.. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth. p. rem.] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun. fold well. intransitive in the first form. 202 seq. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. he thought him. t^&S he shewed him Rem. of which it is the direct object. 6V. Rem. i. J*^t he ate bread. 44. if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth. [§ 44 A double. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing. Thus J*..aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty. he found him. natives. found the district abounding in fresh herbage. G. from which they are derived. UJ is ^.— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. B Aghdni —De dUU. like the second as t alsLjt he thought him. found him cowardly . The fourth form J' s Of. When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41. Jjbl . significations. a . a = Heb. ^s- inform one of a thing . v~y** to sit down. to \Jj** sit to run.g. the first. Jailw ojicb. E. ^oAfct to E. cites xiii. 6) see Corap. J±}). . (Gl. C c/~^t bid one to down.lj.t to >*swJt make run. The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>). b. The fourth form I. to know. sometimes declarative or estimative.s. verb is . b.* ot oj*+*»\ J . to be. [Rem.34 Part Second. or or it.<» . and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . Geog. a. ( . a).g. 197 c. niggardly .^JU to escape. or found him to be. If the in 45. Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. of denomi- Rem. j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. Faih. to the Heb. D Rem. Zamahsari. in others the same.g. . sjof^\ \S^ c. he to be praiseworthy or commendable. tj>». 52. they have in some cases different to teach. it becomes doubly transitive in the E.. e£c.v.. to let go.

35 produce herbage (j^j). to >~».11). into a state or condition. -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. go to Aoi go to the left) .^. .1 jJUl to act a proof ill. is I battle ." "to seed. < . 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\).. or suffering something therein). x . o t (Jjtj*M). JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . of a certain kind*. ~ .oi to E. A.it>i a male or a female child. acquiring a quality. w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. Ae re^'reo?. j^\." "to lamb").l.* (J»iu). ^° 1. sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently. j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory . ^3t advance. abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ . w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV.^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&. i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa. I 4(S o 9-~o\.i to cto fault or error. ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . doing. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. jj>\ to retire ("reculer").) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face. General View. to to ebx Irak . w-^/'t a noble . *L>I. ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). go # to the right. obtaining or getting having something. in Hebrew. ^ ^. j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. well or *^J. ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . Usui to 6e sto or B tardy.it commit a commit a blunder. wwt.g. J^D^H. ol . the entering — of time (being.. . ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi. Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. x x oi and 7*X£KTl. j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place. (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin.§45] to I. pj~i\ a * i to make haste. Usui. The Verb. Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). . tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt). or VIII. 0>£»>t. " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower. s i * to give " . people) or oe aVy (of a season). serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face. to enter x x * . ^£wl. Thus AetoJ ^ J VII. I. jJsuot to O . .] . or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels. or becoming something. ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3). *£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) . upon a period * soi ssoi to . ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA. . C-^Ui sAe son. run with *• outstretched neck. Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them." calve.

that is to say. . j~£3 to be broken in pieces. ^4^1. to be proud.. as its must often be rendered by the passive. *->j*o3 . reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '. 'jJojS. seo/. become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused.Jl.. "°Z Rem. to wish.Of. St break one's compact with a person. like XXX £\j& are 118). }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth . See Comjt?. D 47. GV. for to give discoverable in Arabic. g. £jJu to be dispersed. uJS). action denoted by the second form effect or result. owe. . to let rest. has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP .36 Part Second.. it is the pjUa-o of the second form. h*ppn. „ . and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf. jm£\ garment) or clear. it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action. e. or the Parts of Speech. obscurity or toani of clearness. w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . Forms 69. Phcen. This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67. Aram. JJJL». patient. '£&. 204 The Hebrew. d. The . as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) . become possible. to terrify). SftpK. girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3. ^g» (*&*J). \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±.'. . or «3!/v°> 46. ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint.g. j^\. O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. prefix.t . JJtjJh for to pour out rest to ./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O. to be [§ 46 A farthing. o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-. J~l&. to reduced to utter want. (P *^) . in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the . took away its 4*a*£. '*'. J B . deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ.» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated. . 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. Heb.jij^\. ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) . instead of it will be observed. for (rad. In English it E. %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces. p. literally.

sip to or sup. to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids.g. understand. sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). c) Thus for ^^3. without change of sense. to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain.] we may substitute ±r»yu. j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. a». Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. £jj3. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. 2*j-**3. A. j**\3. e. or atvta* sm or crime. to affect courage or manliness. [In some cases the difference between II. to abstain from. 1. »J to pursue step by step (literally. to look at to. dispersed.j (§41. The Verb. \f^. 37 with Kais or Nizar. so that to may be quite clear. fo become a Jew (^O^). or to affect. cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab. i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. General View. entirely disappears. as a prophet to (J^*J). ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow. £***£. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. Rem. a earnestly. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). to have wholly disappeared. **-~J to liear to speak. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of. J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. rem. tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. and V. JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. Jiia^J. Forms of Triliteral Verb. a. but Q Rem. long or repeatedly. ^>a*j. Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. j^j^ to amid blame. *xwU become as bold or . jjjj * to take as an abode. to examine or study. b. to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent. *»•>> . w ^a>J . at first sight. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative. to make to oneself or turn oneself into. to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!). ^ra? as a foora (ju»t).§47] I.

d). pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form. whether it be caused by another or by himself. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. I kept sixth . Rem.g. he was learned (= taught). Rem. the action of another . E. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41. 50. form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. by prefixing the syllable It is the O. whence we see its identity with the Heb. becomes e. g. We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£. to (become learned)*. distinct. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. different j^jo to become learned. 48. D 49. JJU»J become. which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. to teach. but did not learn to be separate. j^s. 0-++> to appear clear or certain . ^G o-o to make clear. clear. g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism.g. but also of a personal passive. whereas object of. b. or prove to be.38 Part Second. to to learn. Rem. ^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned. explain. which transitive in the third form. as J^l3 d3 j&b. (received instruction). namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. sometimes the indirect object (dative). or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him. even more common. ILo-*^ to know. he was taught Again. Q only of an impersonal. [§ 48 A c. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. effective. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. rem. we might say. but did not learn. The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative). JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. . the reality or fact. a.

subjects. *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . aJI C~«U3 . above all. gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. aJjti he fought with him. j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult. for him . OjUj to pretend to be dead. Somewhat similarly. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. or perfect. and lUaaJt C~~*y3. above all . D made itself (became or was) too great. Rem. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred. a. or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). § 1 f . Rem.g.JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed. ii. General View. *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . ^jloJ to feign sickness. * * collective. Further. vol. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together. to ^j^W* to pretend to cry. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf. with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance. e. oU»J pretend to be deceived. A jjULj to pretend to squint. another. him. inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . rem. JaUJ feign ignorance. the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. b.§50] I. si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another .]. j^Uj to to pretend to be blind. 39 the thing. w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them. 1. The Verb. jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly.g. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. whence in the passive. e. or exalted. A. . When used in speaking of God. w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. Forms of'Trilateral Verb.

Geog. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. supporting. may be added but always the direct object itself. Ji*»>. 20 first vs. c. and so strengthening. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3. By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build.40 Pakt Second. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj.g. Rem. d. ! see with rem. this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts. another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification.v. to which sative). J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111)." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. The seventh form has also originally. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). first rem - 51. before which § 26). in walking*). added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). and why. d. of one The idea of reciprocity e. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i. and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. Hamasa p. s.] C is Rem. For the cases in which 19. c. compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. the others) . a middle or reflexive signification. §§18 and J.] . ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so. however. rem. as pjUx* of the first. t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. [Hence bit. D 52. as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. as it were. this I becomes I. and as to the orthography instead of § 19. and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. and comm. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. [§51 A (^ c. It must be remarked. — De G. Slj^t colnerentes.

[Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt. - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit.] jilit corresponds to the Heb. X XX O p. The radical in consequence loses its vowel. Gr. j~£j\ to break (intrans.«sul.). from to 6e stupid or foolish . At the same it time. General View. from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. from *JLot JUJxil.g. i. to be made x manifest. o£ to j»w£ to rights. 7fcDp3> see Comp. ^£>fjt. 6 . JUJt to open (of a flower). ^\Ji7b 63. 54.'»t. Sometimes. jUjI X 6e repeated. are incorrectly formed. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. out of the reflexive. UJsul # to fo extinguished. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived.. jtjM to be non-existent or missing. to be ended. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress. to x x end. JUul to be uttered or spoken. Forms of Triliteral Verb.. x x O \ appear . rem. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. The Verb. jaJ\ a. from >U to return. *a. x x x Rem. g. from JiA£t x^xog e. (§ 51. especially in more recent times. A. to fo |?w« to rights. becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w. jJbJLit to be to split itself. to be to be broken. from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down. 41 often to a passive. to £xxo 60^. c. Si to be docile or submissive.— De Rem. x J x .§54] I. to fall. 215 seg. not to be found. from JjUj to 6e narrow. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals. B upon him e. 6. 1. or an effect to be produced . JUdtil to 6e bolted. the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. m Rem. G. particularly in modern Arabic. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. and so ancient. the last in a tradition. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. though in actual use. to break into pieces . ^mm*J to become broken.g. 53. cut to off. UUJQI uncovered.s* .). to flee. E.

** * * j . J^t to to go asunder.1 they * * * were neighbours. to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). *. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification.. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative. to carry off by force. . e. to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing.42 Part Second. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J. * Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another. like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree. fought with one another. . especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . Greek active and middle voices.. implying for oneself. l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God). as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces. Jt£» and JU£»t meat. J~+l to touch.. to be victorious .g. to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t.l * to collect firewood. to snatch away.»Jg»t * earn one s living . w»j&\ do. or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical. as Jjji to divide. ^U*t to be full. p. sJ^jt to be turned back. Rem.] explanation of the actual form is O 55. word. -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO . and sixth forms.. to part . The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. 208. see Comp.— Etymology Rem. and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ]. Gr. and * tjtfudt. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another. to measure corn.f> and ^. D 57. * * * US and •*&£). for one's own advantage. . to seek for it * * * v . = ******* . that they may be translated by the same to relate . to to place (something) before one. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . ^oS . dative.. to * * follow one's track. u°j* way. b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another. Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive. yJa* * and w*kl». * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people . B J»ji to beat. L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro. ** . **o tjj^jfc. as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). so closely in their signifi- cation.

or languid . If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. the ninth and eleventh forms or . a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». the distinction between is.l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked. 2.t to become commingled. is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable. is ^ or /( ^. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. draws the accent upon the penult. indicates . (for ^£5*Xa-t. to >o run quickly. to show that E. . Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. 43 58. A. The Verb.g. £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. Rem. j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked . is Neither of these forms is very common. u^tf^ an d u^W white. and hence the doubling of the third is radical. The ninth form (jiit) . the first radical. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . According to some grammarians. t rem. confused. They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. and the eleventh the rarer of the two. . the night reached its middle point. see § 167. jo>t to be ash-coloured. £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). a. vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape).). jl£. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears).§59] I. jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. to be stern or £ * t gloomy. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . Forms of Triliteral first Verb. colours b. o hasten. 59. As the third radical. General View. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . to squint. a [Others hold that XI. 1. Rem. and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51. loses its vowel. when doubled. being more rapidly pronounced.

or obeyed him. equip. O of Cwl. ^aJ^. oppressive or troublesome. prepare. . Rem.). in doing something. to take entire possession . D &mm*Z* it to think him. A. a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire. . * ° " ° (of it). in reference to himself or for his benefit. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. juCwl to get to yield be ready . factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle. to preserve alive. : [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX.] : " °' 60.jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . ready. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author. * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary. first form. deliver over. to ' * . 1299) p. . or s accepted. J*£lwl to find heavy. ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * . (for E. to think one a bore. js. H. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). the quality expressed by the *> 62. rem. The prosthetic is necessary.g. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses. ^©J~»t to give up. to grieve or distress. and the former editions of this work .44 Part Second.\ to oneself ready. JU- to be . good or beautiful. jU»jL>l to think good or excellent. to think lightly of or one. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. think it it light. .j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) . cA». osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. § 51. his prayer. or a * * o it. according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61. \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*». *Jl*JL*\ despise. U»-t to bring to life. but this view was marians.\ up {something) wholly. ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E. lawful. g. 50 seq. up. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

seeking. t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. or caliph (Zsul*.for oneself : factitive 64. 1. A. reflexive. \ to become like (lit. to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^). Rem. jk£> to pardon. JU*£wt to be worthy lit. \J}>\ . lit. j+**Z* x x * o .g. s .§65] I. Hence to ^. General View.JL«I*1 permit.y^x^JiwI literally means is so . to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission. The Verb. ask for something to drink. it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy. is asking for. rem. to deserve. of. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . or demanding. to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing. 6). . desire that & * .. to conduct oneself humbly . lit. governor (J*»^). j he should be fetched. in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. what meant by the first.to be present. j-oA. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. 45 so strictly factitive. was. ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble. but estimative or declarative s 45. A ' 0* also the tenth. lit. at least originally.«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I. \Jy~i\ it . ^oUiwt to stand upright. L5 Al»> l. successor. <\r* Z to require one's presence. GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) . &c. E. to make oneself G humble. to hold oneself upright . Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb. The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. E. help. This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. ^jiw to give one to to drink. permission. to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon. g. 63. it The tenth form is frequently denominative. to take possession of . * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help . x Zwt be ashamed.g. to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. to pray for rain.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * .

J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples. (rad.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£. *iU*w) .) . XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . to become soft or tender (j-a». to fo obscure (rad. our geese are all stvans). JU**.oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt.JU. must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation. x x J^^o ^t . J&L^A to be big (rad. to become moist (= J«a». xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^. with one or two more.1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*. ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o. xO and obd).) xx dx .46 j Part Second. . xxx of . to be green and rank (of a plant).) to be long or last long. s^JIS. —XII. . to mount a camel . to be long and thick (of the hair).) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo. ^)^l».—XIV.t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked).) . (rad. which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t.t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x . vJUH> and tJbJt (IV.\). to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back.do. may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*. (=j«a±. os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x . do. 66. "&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth. corresponding to the Aram. sufficient . which has the same signification as ^iXw. #o 60 arched. 5x0 . curved. »/*») to —XIII. to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad. /l»\ b^jj*. &}jj£\X X . ax fo &&rc?) .) .) . j>Ut heavy (jJU. wJJu> dash ground. x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x . iJlCJU. so as to exhibit their formation.) to j** black (JSL do. IxXft). If so. ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) . xx x Rem. JU~>. or x humpbacked to (*->***. not in use. xxdxO efo.

of. u . ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper. J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters. to be filled with rage (LfL do. The Quadriliteral Verb. •^JL*. ^Jsu^. Jx»A». 2. expressing a sound or movement.and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly). jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake. as XII. —XV.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t. be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) . j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *. repeated. ^^ X was sweet).§ 67] x x Ox I. 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair.''£ . (b) A fourth letter. deceive to with soft words a ^J^. to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. is prefixed or affixed to.g. generally a liquid or sibilant. XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x .1X j jo v:o x o 7<.g.). 9 x» x some of them foreign words. Pers. oj^. shout. bellow.g. xxx to to xxOx to be high) X . JT& al-Istikak. or inserted in the middle E. to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw. ^ ^o^-oxfc. to retire) to . E. v~x£ x Ox do.B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . . to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». XXX md^ ^ retire). bb to G say baba (papa). jj-as) x x o x o x . aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. is A biliteral root.. 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ .J«Jl». 67. but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions. x x JLU) . be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^».a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad. to Mttfo rws£& or rattle. (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*. xxOx ji-ji- to gargle. ^. The Verb. x E. rad. —XV. Rem. 2. General View. p.e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse .t. 227. . A.). a triliteral verbal form. 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms. All these forms are habitually intransitive. to xxOx to rwi^A.1 to swollen or inflated.

The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I.#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^.) to ^ .48 Part Second. xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along . xx Ox to roll. 69. f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates . JP^». poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress.o fow&/. jt^Xw) or tunic . Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) .g. The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals. Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. to Pitch. . saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. Tlb/J?) </>iA. signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70.g. X JX+& to gather ripe dates. X X E.») <• . and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification. to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik . quickly. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . JJUtf II. fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch . to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E. pfe>). also to be active or nimble . to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . JJtUlt III. . jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier. JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. humble. Heb. Ju/tIV. or humility.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ. ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another . Pers. I E. to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb.g. verb are three in 68. pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ . J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U. «nriaT/>os). They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas. xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**.and J3>». J (^)UslL»). etc. * x x . xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>». or the Parts of Speech. number. to abase x x . £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) .

11th. or intensively high degree of E. Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A. that the characteristic not prefixed. to jk. and expresses an extensively act. have two voices. 3. which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). 49 71. . The third form A E.A of The fourth form the quadriliterals. The Verb. 13th. of triliteral. rem.§ 73] I. as j*s&. All the verbal forms.. 72. right. . 2. Si* o 9 *? ^aw back). JuJ to be is bad. or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive).t or j*oya*J\ order. \j\+^^ Si. but inserted between the second and third radicals.g.l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc.g. 7 .»>t to to stretched out on one's side. o § a^ C o^ * i o . j*++*. to become green. and 15th forms (cf. j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality. The Quadriliteral Verb. with the exception of intran9th. wrong. *J~o to be good. A. is intransitive. to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd . 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. 12th. in = fJ*& an . the active and the passive . pULwl to lie on ones back ..) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3. wa#0 Aaste. The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). w. JU-^t Voices. the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). § 66. = Ju-3. whose act voice is either object. of a bird). ground.» o vanish away . General View. Jjc*£t to dispersed . jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. very hard. state. i dark. Ja». or not . J*cu^». in disorder. . 7%£ 73. stretched on to flow. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower). which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals. ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#. nearly =j-c^. j£~t£*\ very high or proud . both primitive and derivative. w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th.

of that. J JjyoLpJt. God. and ^UJJ cj. j& to sleep). or some higher being. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. or. Rem. are aptly called neuter verbs. etc. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient.e. also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases . strictly speaking. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!. ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named. is when the author is unknown.. J x Ox J J x Ox These terms. the patient). Verbs that express a state or condition. JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick. since they are neither really active nor really passive. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. confined to the person of the subject. Ox . or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act .» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. J JjuUI. or signify an act which is. J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. than to the doer of (agens.50 Part Second. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5. namely (a) when . when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more . are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. . by its very nature. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. more shortly. though this latter H x J named. 75. J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt. 74. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent. or feeerc &em# done. or ^sJ X J^cUJt.*> J J x Ox is. XXX & x biO J the build x0. The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. the agent).)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent. but something between the two.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt. the mould or form of J x the agent. the passive J J subject. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U.

On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. or Future-perfect. seventh. present. the one expressing a finished act. however. succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. Syntax and use. five 78. and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect. ajjuiIoJI j*£. in and of itself. first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). 77. Perfect. A. or Future. <Scc. is These are.§ 78] I. The Verb. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. General View. and the future (J^fc^Jt). the other an unfinished act. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it. intransitive verbs. Subjunctive. must not be thought and eighth to be forms. The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. J The Voices. namely. whilst the other 4. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. Imperfect. Pluperfect. or A^Ut JUi^l. one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. Rem. J' 3. one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. Imperative. b. A Imperfect has. and Energetic. The Moods. The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. 76. strictly speaking. The Arabic verb has moods . It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past. from A JwNjI. The names Preterite and Future. the Indicative. by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. a. Jussive or Conditional. effective (see § 48). Imperfect). transitive verbs. by our Present. or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. . in connection with the verbal forms.

.. the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. strong. H. the former class . ^oJiXoJt. they have two verbal passive participle). cj). the spoken to (second person). *W»J1. or j^tyi). and the individual spoken of (third person). (first and the Plural (£*aJt.] 6. . ^^IloJI). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. -d Instead of the Infinitive. § 192. the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). and 1st pers.). The Numbers. . in any of the but are retained throughout. the speaker individual person). the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis. and likewise three persons. and the the fourth. the Singular (>j&\. plur. ~ 82. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. There are three numbers. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. sing. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma). active participle). in the second (see § 128). but also from the imperative. 79. 2d pers. wsSliJt (the absent). The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum).52 Part Second. or jJ&«JI) . and the other the patient (nomen patientis. or imperative. adjectives. fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect. B. In place of participles. ^JsU*-*)!. 1 b sD. 83. . Persons. [Cf. Js » 0* 81. *j*+3\. Rem. namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. and Genders. 80. The Syntax treats of their significations and use. dual. nor are rejected inflexions. is expressed by .a>. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc.. [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form. The genders j are two.

* The nomina with verbi. j+** x*J t see § 190. On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes.o 9 * ' J*s . standing by itself. The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns. accusative see 89. B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. rad. and patientis. suffixes./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*]. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect. 88. designated by the special term «»*a». 9 * J : 85. a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. or connected [J-cu*]. the con- nected shorter forms. partly the accusative. (V"y). partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative. the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes. . and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb. to D § 185 Rem. but some grammarians treat ^a». The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb. The separate pronouns have longer. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i. agentis. than the latter. annexed to the various moods and tenses.o and^oJL* as synonyms. persons. 86. 9 s 84. The personal pronoun \jt+£. or which belongs to the class med. gemin. a is weak verb. 53 is Rem. 1.JJ^t« Jji5. B. § 317.— Table I* a. that C prefixed or suffixed. The Strong Verb. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called . and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. as verb. The Verb.§ 89] I. The numbers. .

54 Part Second. [§ 89 A B . or the Parts of Speech. —Etymology 1.

55 Rem. defectively. The Strong Verb. c). jj Masc... d. Common . plur. Masc. t- (of-> . b. expressing the Nominative. The Verb. Gr. Singular. . and § 23. U w& The forms within brackets are those . suffix of Rem. a. . Prefixed Pronouns. O thou. Fern. O she. • O c4 tlwy. Fern. t ^ou - 2 p. 3 2 p. 2p-^ 1 p. tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. Singular. expressing the Nominative. Rem. lp. O . (o>> *>) . C 2 p. The the 1st pers. c. . Plural. thou. L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp. 2. <j. p. [Though written defectively this terminal vowel. 3 p. d. .. 95 seq. . Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. . he. .. is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. p.(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo. !/. .. ol she. and also in the wasl (§ 20.§ 89] I. used in poetry. .. rem. Suffixed Pronouns. B..] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem. of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect.. .. O (<**k c£-) 1 p. Common. . 3 p. I> (o>. 3 p.. {J . . .. m • • (6) s» . O 1-) Z Dual. . !>) *%• d .. .

[§ 90 Masc.56 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. .

a as Jj«i to do. of which the guttural letter. tut we d. $ ** tjj * . " may . . p. . . jI o . J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding. . particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. Thus. C^. thou hast bound . to sit Jux» . ^jjui. For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp. . jU* to to hinder. . * ^ J * ^. the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * .1 for^J^t. however. %X+t t°" . Rem. Verbs. Not a few. believed. as ^Jes. take either x ^ • damma J J . J^aLi to . Some verbs have two 8 w. c^Aa*^. as . for ±y*\ and Uut. ^. it b. Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. --J£ throw. to perceive. J Many 0* * . iJmu . verbs admit of both forms s s t . and the geznia. \j+j * <> x x . *j>j-**i v~ke* down. to cut. ka. to sneeze. %bJu . conform to is " the rule. m+~i or to stick upright into the ground. B. reach. *Ja3 ask. 57 To indicate the assimilation. On ^j. 7 J J x x x right. I'O* to create. A Ojuc. is omitted. cp aVaw 0* . ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. j*****. The Verb. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. jjlsu .JL> . 91. p-jb. 165 seq. ^JLcu *Jl> attain to. or t T . 5 £^* to ascend. . FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return. it this assimilation see Rem.. w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike. c. j&j-i- C radical is Rem. ye have § 14.JUj .•Zfr* to write. cJJJ j**£ to bray. x xx J J x *. Gr. x x x # * '0' . x J x Ox . C-Jaj) for taken./fow. are an exception to the rule. J * %+jj .. When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. as j*J* know. JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. good.. J^5 * * s to kill. a. c. The Strong Verb. or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . o. / have J d x £ served.1 . " to *-iJ to blow. jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit. or 2?mW away. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox .§ 91] I. j *-^ . O** ' 5 to ' transpierce.

comfortable. j. i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure. x kesra. unless they be primse rad. to. a~ojji. J x x . £~e*jj cut or hew. b. j «» *-U 6m#.Iw to .. x*x gush out. Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. or suppose. w > * J x . ^j.j^j j <o incline to. * * * q Rem. to be present. when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . or tert. excelled him in c. x x x x x * B Rem. oj. io. always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). x '. '. £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick. . rare are cases like jJx*. ^i«-> j Ox . J x x ojjlj .. as Jpo to croak. him in composing J J J Ox poetry. J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful. as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx .» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L. x x ^ J x x . j^j '.to know.j .». . to J x done with. lean upon. * s * ' ~£j xx to marry. '> . Rem. xx x ' %j j^> *. Very . J o. dye. a ' t present. rad. *~^>. ' " '*' %+$ to . Jx$ denoting superiority. u^j-^i '. x . SJLiJI 6. ^£jj to be clear. -^. j*mm j j . a. med. forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to . Verbs of the form a). v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j. has kesra. rad. x x /^^» . as ojlcj he outbid J . goodness.» him in promising. ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. x £o tf/iiwA. O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess. j^u to be affluent. 7 ./toy.a>A. ^^i *->* . 9J&0 . See also §§ 142 and 146. as j^s. J-cub . 'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan. ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory. . Jiave .^~*i- Rem.58 Part Second. x x J x x '. abound..a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing. A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. the Imperf.^~* to be safe. . the kesra of x t the Perf.jsu ^ and even three. [§92 j A . as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance). C^mmij x ' i. ^$. X . .»-o Ox . quit.j J x x -j . v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. X dx .. J x to J ' give as »*• . lean upon. x x or w. takes When the second radical of the Perf. ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty. or the Parts of Speech. . as w^*>^. oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows.» *° drink.

C-***> / became I became bad. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. between the Perf." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is. because completed. a." Hi (i." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing. and persons. fem. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl. 94. retained in the Imperf. The most common example to die (for A a verb med. are only suffixed to the Perf. genders. In the Imperf. and to some extent the gender. masc. damma. p. . jj+j or t^. Thus. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise. in regard to that the marks of the numbers. masc. When the second radical of the Perf. O^j. jJ<j to be dull or stupid. sing. and Imperf. Comp. the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground. sing. viz. has Gr. cL«). I • With the above forms compare the Heb. Oji. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense. l J Ox I." Rem. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers." = " I have = "I am killing. as o*LL to be beautiful. done by me). rem. jJL>. w*2o. 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. v^P to be high. In the Perf. p'-m. a). * in * [Anbarl. ^ot.J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj.. The Strong Verb. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers.. j**\. x B. *l%y. Jjl. Rem. j£\.§ 94] or innocent is I. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77.—Similar cases 93. and accordingly we . noble. Perf. are it 'it very rare. verbs ft?p*. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. get masc. killed. C Rem. sing. j-*t. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. the agent. that . b. The Verb. masc. 180*. from its fern.. in the Imperf.e. — De . j. the 2d pers. J a in the Imperf. OU.. p^lC p. o^J . 59 of this kind of. more generally the latter. The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf. however. a suffix is necessary. sing. 1st p. J ©Jx as 73B*.

in the verb.o. x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha . jsyu. and Jussive. vol. 0l H. which seems originally i. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is .] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. In the active voice of the first form.] Rem. b. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm. is 95. and Accus. because j * . one must not say ^ojit.- called cji^Jt. 4.. nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju . fetha of the Imperf. which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem. The forms of the Indicat. Subj. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission.. / ^ (^Xju).— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. In one case. w-I&. X Cy^. The . That is. because the genders. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^. as the apocopated Imperfect. J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. a. falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. for j»^S\ etc. . but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. etc. . j). ^fflZmj in Sura i. the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth. to have been At ii. vowel with the third radical. The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any .«- it D resembles the noun. 60 are recognized as . and the Jussive >j>%^H. and Subjunct. correspond to the Nom. [Cf. j cjLa*H. w tive w>^. preferred. numbers. as Indie. J x .. [§ 95 A Rem. the Subjunc- ) © © <.1. least the poets § 247. c.60 Part Second. the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too. Dialectically. ^\ . distinguished by the third its radical having x damma. 96. as in juxi for juau. suppose. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. is closely akin to the noun. and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. and its government in the Subjunct.

IV. In the 2d and 3d pers. is The syllable ^— often written !_. and pronounced in D in pause I—. influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. apparently because the sound of the syllable . as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. according to § 26. The Strong Verb.j. O s b. Com- 0>A ^y^k .(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. with \y££=> . is retained. & C Rem. and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened. is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. a. p. . 0~$3. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination . a short . because vt i b. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o . are exceptions.jit * j elided.j_ or (J. \j~S3. Gomp. a short vowel before and not to the dual. t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc. 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo . 98. plur. A gender. 61 2d and 3d because pare pers. B. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. In the dual. and in consequence the second fetha : of . 194.becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem. ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. a j * * in a shut syllable: . rem.jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear. plur. with Cm^> Hi X 97. plur. Gr. because its forms would then . U£3. the of the termination. fem. c). sing. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— ..or . since it begins with two consonants. the fetha of 6* <j. Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but. c. oW^J . . of ^U. Rem. despise not the poor. nor to the fem. coincide with those of the singular. i^-*^. it takes.§ 98] I. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. t>W>> from <jUl. in the Energetic. fern.B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>. The Verb. the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have.

^ J J t. come its and play meaning game called ar ara. listen ! j\j&. or the Parts of Speech. Lilt with a various reading .>*A)t. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. in cases where that elision does not take place. E. 99. b. 1842. and on the orthography § 19. a. 23. vol. is and 1. with the finite verb. c. Abs. wRem.] .j±. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b. * — DeG. the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash. IV. b) in addressing a single person. damma. (§97). Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations. a.\. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. —De G. 1. ii. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. which used in the same way.62 Part Second. cf. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1. *&&. is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel. see ^ 19. i. this vowel 0^0 Jjtil. and the final short <m vowel dropped). t^&ipt. the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem. g. as j\Jx*. « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma.] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . —Etymology kesra . § 35. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*. The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head. d. 6 . rem. When or kesra. <- rem.>top (o for a. Imper. Rem. D [Rem.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J.

is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms. and Imperf. 1.— Table 100. JJUil. In the Perf. from JJ3I. The Perf. and the second radical Rem. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. J^Jb and JJUaj. 21. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. not J^SIj. if the last radical . and Imperf. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. where the treated like the o of b. The second radical of the Perf. Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. the prefixes of the Imperf. i. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. are pronounced with damma. a pot I set is on tlie fire. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed . Act. Pass. The Imperfects and eleventh forms. the first radical has damma. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb. [Rem. B the Jussive being used instead. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. and the second radical kesra.] originally JJjisI 106. the prefixes take fetha. Sij^i. damma. third. In the second. In the Imperf. and Ju£>. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest. Sibaweih. The Strong Verb. and also ^Ju^j. 63 2. Active. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. § 118. in the rest with fetha.— De G. Act. II. Pass. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. 101. 9. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. is 102. q This Rem. 104. 3.§ 106] I. and fourth forms. 103. See §§ 106 and 120. The Verb. B. Act. rem.— Table III. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). as J^aj. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb. 105.

If the last radical has no vowel. a. j**a\ for jj**e\. O. in the Perf. only by the vowel of the instead of. J3ut. prefixes. vowel. 3. pronounced J with damma.g.64 Part Second. a. frequently) loses its vowel. jj**o\ (see § 120). and tenth forms. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e. Pass. and Imperf. fetha. Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. Pass. of the sixth. or the Slif . being neutral in their signification. but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. the first Since the idea of the Perf. When b. J^St. Pass. identical.j. 107. Pass. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. there results in the Passive * j . The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms. * fifi consonants (compare § 54). D 110. C 109. of the first fifth and sixth forms. *Z». of the is forms) .. and unites with radical to form a double letter. b. not only characteristic * the first radical. which is damma 108. Jibl. J3>£>. the preceding radical loses . J * * jJuau for jjslaj. The Imperfects Pass. jj^aj. as £>jj**o\. The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem. not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. O of ^ u*. ». Compare 98 and rem. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. J^&wl. seventh. eighth. or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. >. J3&. jjW. u°> the sjo. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. the word remains uncontracted . Oij^ . the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. 111. of the first Rem. )». jJ>t. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act. In the Perf.g.g. of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass. J^j£>. have of course no passive (see § 73). e. E.g.

example namely instead.]. — v~<oJ\. The Strong Verb. B.). as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. 3d pers. J^W3). >. P . j^lo. ^UJ. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. wn. and du. j^i. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic. A .g. ^. ijijj. The Verb. Jb+aJg i. Jf*H> jl^i. du. for for j~»&3. for £i3 JjvS. 113. Verbs of which the first radical is t.. for j±> j£. [and necessarily ijycjJJ. jio\j\ (Kamil. Rem. J**yl jJjJt. are of common occurrence. to take breath. ^ji. J. J^tJ) . into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 . j-cut. rem. iJu5. Rem. Jn»^.j of the seventh it form often unites with w. fern. n^n. by assimilation for ^**£j\. or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. ss * and i fern. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. 114. If the first radical is^». "' &ytjj& ) Zl e. . iio«y.*&>. j^x3 j£>£i. . f^. ComP Gr. and compare such Hebrew forms as . *jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&. in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms. j£\. a. to sing. to lie concealed. j. but use the fifth or eighth. See § 48. 65 UC\. j. Rem. b. G. ^L\. 569. note u±jj\. is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers.§ 114] I. sing. The *v\ton. masc. the characteristic . j. 112. i. t Ci which O is and ! plur. J»*W^>. rJ*k preformative of the O . J J^p.) + . p.5jj.Ut. B in those persons of the Imperf. Act. . In modern Arabic such forms as J^.

from cji.g. *. but Lane gives in Lexicon only *. which unites with an initial > into 3. depends upon usage j-i. from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl. bj*\ for bjZ*\. Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the . *S)j3>\.g. as well as D tfcSt Rem. Jjjit. E. from c. <jjjt. from U> JXjt .l. Rem.Jt. If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>. letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl».g. If the first radical be is y j. or >Z>. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form . instead of the usual £+„*. ijj* . for j^Jjl. jJ^I. for £3j\ . or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. aud ^jit. from %+j jUt or jUt. the characteristic w». is B Rem. A for JJa^J^I. Rem. and with an initial 3 into > or 3. Rem. j. C from ji. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j . from ji>3j or ybjt. . . >»Ojt. from j^j jbjl. Jpt. for ^>\.!. from j^jt or :>pt from j>p . the characteristic O of the . or j^>l. ji?t orjJul from jju. from j*. letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^. etc. for tj>^l. a. as q\j\.^w. eighth form changed into >. .. for j^iit..-a^ct. . for from Jp . . Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. . The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. £***>j.66 Part Second.«a*-©t for 115. ^j\j. for **£M. from «. ^jt. *0 . j *»*J.^it. letter b. for ^Ijkjl. for *-»2wt. as *»*~>t. for j£&. for jUJI. J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt. J**. j+. £*Jl»J. ^ . initial The e. or j. E.it for instance. y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. 116. for ipjl. l»*©it ? from Jsuco.S . from jtj .

Imperf. x. act. or jUxbt. jZ~»* (jZ~**) . j£~j. Part. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118. x x x x x x x t. xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. ^aUo . 67 If the first radical be ^a. ^Jbuot. //£ xxx . j^-U . Jte\. b. with initial 1» into x x h l. Inf. [117*. The Verb. // IS as j^ot. ^Uxot.. or £.§118] 117. ^y-ol. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. i>. Rem. U^>. The Qiiadriliteral Verb. rem. j^J»t. or &. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^». Act. ^A k o . four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second. a). The O. ^Uw (see § 202. which unites with b into j». omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb. -*. ^6. x x x from %+. 4. y^ xxx XXX a. 49). C rem.Lo E. O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i. d. Jfljt). the characteristic initial A changed into h. ^JLL *$& . or 91. The D 69—72). If the second radical be O the characteristic it. JJJLl. for j*Jxot.— Table IV. a. or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o . from lJ*.. from j-o. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel.*o. to believe. x x. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf. is I. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. h. o xSx * . .i . just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). fifth. ^jA-ol. ^i£t.I ±*Jo\. B. JJ&\. in § 45. quadnhterals: . Rem. or JJSJiS.Si£t. 2~^t. B J^t. x x x . j Rem. jifat. v>ii. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears. 3p»t.g. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs. J» ii. and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6.lo.] Koran (Sur. occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19. u° ix. etc. from 0*k> w>jJxot. eighth form 6. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? . ^L^. *. The Strong Verb. Rem. As mentioned out. xxxvi. b. 36.

^^ to become dear (to one). tie firmly. j^ for >j^i. so as to form a double for jj9 to . so as to form a double for J-U^j. But if the third radical has no vowel. become wise or intelligent. first. letter. 119. Jgj^. jJ* to make hard or firm. act. Pass. to obey. v** to touch. JfJJbt.J B 5. jtj viz. and no contraction takes place as Ojji. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. for yj~~~t> smell. Imperat. Perf. J^->. but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. j* to flee.68 Part Second. with the exception of . JU> to split or cleave. **1a~j or **1~>. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}). C*j to sever or separate entirely . Imperf. Norn. and third radicals have vowels. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel. letter. J^ . and then E. we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. damma in the Imperfect. a. [Also. Imperf. £fo doubled verb. the solid verb. — Table V. is aSI^A. Rem.g. for w«J. —The J^A. also used.jjiL». for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . JjA. E. tenth form of elt. w^J. The form viz. J-ft-j for JX+j. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt.». tesdid. the and unites with the third. jro*)\. which is marked with . and then converted into c Ik*!. (6) If the third radical has a vowel. the second retains its vowel. for Jii£ for j*+Zt . which also admit kesra absolute. of the form JjtJ. clLLrft. >jk+j. combines with the third. in verse. have six. Imperf. but the former is irregular: Imperf. Transitive verbs of this class. (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. J*c . oJA. *Jx~j.g. [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi. make decisive or to to repair. or t^lo^t 120. The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech.

as. but OS* s in s N. Imperf. ol »l also occur. CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel. Co***.v. o . is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one . or else s its . Rem. — C/ow/?.1). . »// . Rem.§ 120] I. s s . as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. are. B la Us to 6e mrfo/. oj. s cJLb form 2. jj£» to be bad. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. The second vowel iss s dropped. O^j.). a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5. CXolU. Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse). C~Ui*. to have its etc. b.*J. 5. wvUlsu. £foss. ^-^. s s £)}j. B. to 69 water (camels) a second time. «.^*} to be uyly. a).>fc»t se?. . however. p. Africa ai becomes Ol i. The Geminate Verb. Cw is S or Cw. <£&». jjsetc. to Ibn al-Fakih s. : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. or cJLb for cJULk. w*J to be vrise or intelligent. rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). viz. c. along with the s vowel. it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye). sj s *iU3 to be silly. woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl. 227 Such forms as C« g >. The Verb. detest.] / . The third radical is united with the second. j^> 0* jjb to abhor. to smell badly. for C*«w . C-. A Imperf. w*». S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse. Crr. and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc. s for *Z>jj«JS. to fove (instead of the common IV.).~oiJ. ewe. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways. s for O^j. etc. * o . Forms like Ojji. as redctit for Co3). JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o). modern Arabic. d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. * 1. [See De Goeje. One verb has only kesra. the long vowel !_. in one's dotage. s * I first radical Os s . times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks.

and therefore tjjil. cf. c. 566. Higaz. the contracted to that of TamTm. j*c for jjl*I.jj*>. sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. [But 120. and combines with the third. i ' for ^aJsju. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels. jj*j>. etc. or j^^t. because is already doubled. Slbaweih ii. j&i or^Aj. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. fifth. however. apply also to its Passive. for Conj. rules that apply to the Active of the first form. 443. Iji. >ji. »j->*.70 Part Second. seventh. rem. ±£x£ or u*xkj. and eleventh. has a vowel (sing. sing. the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first. J^ or vi J*©-». the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary.. hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third. 121. for or *ji. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. as ^£jj*\. undergo no contraction.g. Consequently jj±. either fetha or kesra .. sometimes do not follow § 120. sixth. y 6 s0>O ly-oft. in those that have u. tjj-*t. The masc. dual. and plur. not U^j. [§121 A In the Jussive. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Faik ii. S| or^e^l The same >j. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc). JA*j ul . and to the third. (§ 121).] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. masc). w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* . I . ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. and tenth forms. ij-i.] * — . j^j. If the verb has a suffix. the choice of the supplemental suffix . E. . —instead of ^jjit. and jtjit. ninth. l/*t. in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf. for ^o-o-i. j^j. tjji —not ij!j*\. C Rem. this vowel may be (§ 27). But in the second. it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other. b. D eighth. Cf. undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. ^-^-j or s^-j. the Arabs say ^Jj*.g. V. fourth. j3 for jjtt. B 122. j . § jj*\.

5>-»-^. The weak letters are I. The Verb. are not contracted.g. j J«l»-). in some parts of their inflexion. These are called verba Jidmzata. * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. C. D 127. to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less. sudda (with the French u). B such as 9 * s uoclJ. and eleventh forms. German ii or 124. -»^fc. Forms like x>jj. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\. C. whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other). as I.3 . and ^. However. the weakest of the gutturals.U. * * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI. as jj. * * J * Aa*A. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. ^. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*. (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza. alone (§ 25. . rildda. rem. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ . jew. a long vowel. Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£. <djl for aJUjt. combining the second radical with the third. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. on account of its weakness. sing.§128] Rem. by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first. not unfrequently occur. radicals is . and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. instead of rudda. (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). 125.). the uncontracted forms. namely case oi In the third. for J*. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject. 128. Juss. s-*jI~j>. These are more particularly called weak verbs. the 1st pers. J>SU>. sixth. The Weak Verb. consonant. Sudda. jo ol j-p E.. The Weak Verb. 126. tlamraa. which is a.U*»o.

The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. into ^ with hemza after the kesra. VII.. and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. e£$t. (^). * ^ [This is a convenient formula. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. In a root there may be two. to be trebly weak. for to and Ui (see § 133). 132. These are divided into three according as the hemza second. sing. after the damma and (J) . 2d pers. VIII. rem. C Pass. we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted. Perf.72 Part Second. kesra. or ^ by » alone without a kursl. which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs. sing. sing. and that indicated by the later points. or even three weak letters . Perf. ^ 129. — . Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. such as *. B is 130. and ^y*. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. the first. If the elif with hemza and gezma. or third radical (verba primse. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. or supporting letter. for good But from an historical point practical reasons. Act. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse). when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. into ^ with hemza 6 . (I). 1. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc. Pass. or IV. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . as ^j\j. 131.. I. Imperf. weak. for Ol^». to whose method of exposition this work. of view.— Tables VI. of jj\. it is damma. masc. Rem. 1st pers. is closely conformed. [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs. to be doubly ^Sj. classes.). mediae.

find traces of a softer pronunciation. j)t[+. In modern Arabic. at the end of a syllable. so). u. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi. w^». 6. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. a. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17.] w. at of a syllable.. jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets. *£%<*»». soft breathing (as cJLi. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. preceded and followed by vowels. having the character of a sacred tradition. show their origin from 73 I. Rem. however. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area. become j and . to read. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. ^Uk. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. C*Jji for Ol^3. Verba Hemzata. with a slight emphasis . and ^_. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. that danu-a. b]. in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. rad. as ^Ji for [Ji. at the present day. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). ^JjJu for \jju. and is almost universal in Aramaic. of resolving the verba C tert. The hemza retained. Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an. ylta. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '. The Verb. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. it was already lost or 10 . Rules for writing hemza as J. whilst ^ is to say. sani'-ta. rem. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with. h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. ^^J. we the ancient language. n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. that and when B J fc. The modern Arab also pronounces i. by writing ^yf. gi'ta. was bdusa. ^ §§ 133-4. and hence the custom. This change has already begun in Hebrew.§ 132] is I. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. y without touching the old consonants. 1.

VIII. rem. whence with 10 . sing. Perf. O . elif hemzatum. ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. • Oti (from it is C^jt. as G j-^t^. Imper. of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. as ba'da'tilqfin. /it/ J). written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . ^l-oli. peratives. and. 0* in its altered form . d. 250. t I. not £. Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. sing. c. pers. 0+\ oU^J.74 Part Second.] » . . because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . Imperat. In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e. [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . 14.jili. . Perf. though it may be retained in writing. of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t .jJt. Jijt. VIII. not j-Jt. Rem. when preceded by ^ or sJ. of Jit ' '1 . 1st pers. for j*\j. O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem. elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t. (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. as j-wb . not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. Q . it-. Noldeke Gesch.. of ^1. of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina. 257.J0. from ^j . J w> yakulildan. J I ^t. sing. b. Os 1 >. rem. 6. C/ [And so even of old prolongation. J^»b. IV. Imperat. g. rem. Perf. Qordns. jjj\. in Mecca. and the radical hemza . 3d pers. not JLijt. J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. said^LJ for >#J£>.£ . I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage.J*M' . hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina. * 1 •» .0 ' .jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. sing. U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. * *. but in modern Arabic J . J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. $1 3d Act. p. —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech. . o * (§ 17. J^U JO %. Pass. . . . as ^*b. Imperat. 0X3 (£§. In other cases retained. In Imin pronunciation. Imperf. comes into the wasl. . - q$\ . c) also Sura xlix. J passes into the elif of . Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . it is usually rejected to come). not jH»^t. 8criptio defectiva (§ 6.0*3* 0* . of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort. b). a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94. .

for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. ofj»*$. . an impression Infin. The Verb. I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged. rem. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134.o. E.0 . VIII. $y*tsuffixes. 1. Pass. Oj oj Imperf. for jjb. a). of made. for JU. or j*\. for^UI. comes J or Finally. III. for >lUl. . U^j l. is I. VIII. IV. III. a syllable ending in a consonant.of j& Rem. At the beginning I. Particip. Imperf. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. Imperf. which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. agree with. for ^U>. . when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha. £ usually left unchanged i . to be mean. Pass.o. ^J^t . y>\>.> instead of jj*i. to. . J of JL* j j^t. sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass. the end of a word. Imperf. II. preceded by fetha. j££\. j££ peace is made (between them). III. for % ^Uj. damma and I. J)\ J^ hsB was asked. O i I . if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one. of a word. y^i. of J$. to be . or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif.0 and meanly. be reconciled for Imperat. worthless. of j>*$ to. and into ^. j\j\. 135. Rem. of j>^ ^o-LUwt. when (see § 17. u*»>«-». is y>.. At . of ^j. Verba Hhmzata. groan. JO* . /^ E. X. Imperat. jj&i. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. yyi. 0. pronounced with I.g. Imperf. damma Eg. for ^11. Perf. *> for^Lj. he acts stingily Is . to twang. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). of . Perf. l. of J •«« h. be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf.g. l~.§ 135] I. to consult. J^ for J*>b. of JL» . II. for^tjJ. it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . Pass. passes into 3 or ^. or with fetha and pre1 133. put on armour. as \jJu from \j3. jj\. of j3l J&Jl. of^oU. A ceded by damma or kesra. 75 In the same way. Pass. b). as j*l.

6W&<#. Nomina It commenced. see also § 175. q for L^tt. J . to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt. as ^^-tj or 'parallel to. rad. for to the characteristic to take for oneself. to come. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132. rem. Ufc. IV. b) . for tjj^U3 Perf. for Jiff. find J-itl. agentis and actionis. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . u*\yo. . they deliberated together. and SUly*. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. J ^O J t (§ 132. rem. to prefer. xx£ to take. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif. we often jjll 136. J x . .tU or L»A3. and J^. b. rem. where. JXs. ^£jtj to eat to console. from U. 139. Rem.t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\. of jj\. In a more modern stage of the language. or the Parts of Speech. The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form. L». In old Mss. as Ij^tjJ. .t (for ^il). prim. J X ^. rem. i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with. rem. b). as . of or tjj-«U. to a. as Jjf. j-«t. and the etc. a. J3u.. and J J J^l J to eat. according to § 17.tj. of course.. and j^.-wt^j. for 3d plur. For the rule as regards other verba . b. j*o. • I . to put on an Hzar.76 Part Second. and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . O of that form . reject radical in the Imperat.. elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $. b) pers. to give wages. rem. VI. b and on the Imperative of ^yl. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. hemz. see § 132. the first of . or J3f. . tfc £wo became intimate friends.—Etymology to order. "% Rem. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. X 138. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\.3. J^tj along with. j) which make only J^j.\. X making X J**. Act. in the Imperf.

from ^jJ for \j\ji. JL» Jl~i to ask. b). still 77 give alms. a. elif J~*. ^. see Comp. we may say JuTj Rem. 6. into b). 282. and marry. — Sometimes the JC . 46. I^LTi. J~> for JL»J (Imperat. and in Syriac it the rule . an angel p]X a?)in the fern. Gr. p. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^. Jtffc and j**j. ^j\.§ 141] I. more rarely in J^l. whence ^-U. D 2. j_kj|. letter These likewise or fall three classes. an^ with B ^ i. from {j\j to see. When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. or third radical (verba prim®. for JI~j. Rem. \jj). J-~> for JI~j. tertise rad. its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. t^JL>.t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt. Rem. 6). or J-^. and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. Jjbl. 141. in secondary radicals rem. not ^C. from the rad. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. hemzatum is elided. sing. to A v>*3t. IjjLi d. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw. p. for ^t. o?o. for J^U. ^ et . Perf.-kjA_»|. du ^U». etc. etc. to be safe. Pass. according as the ^ ^ is the first. t to trade (see § 148. 140. plur. second. to take. Compare . to JrwsJ or confide in. for e"lif J^jt. to receive wages . which has Jlw JL>. for O-oJut. cJ~» [not cut*]. Verba Hemzata. iUt to send. From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. The Verb. an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149. or I^LLs. Verba med. rad. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. for Kg. secunda). 2d m. 6. rem.). This for is particularly the case with the verb pers.). J-~> C jtl>. —The tenth form of J^.

— Table IX. J^ to stick . ja. x j»)$ to swell. ^o**i> t° oe happy. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. But those verbs primse rad. morning ! 6. js.. comfortable.C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has . ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l». £^3 to be in pain. Verbs of which the First Radical rad. ^jj to be firm and hard J X . j^. or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. Rem.. retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid. ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to. which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. JxOxxx jtyi '. [§ 142 A A. to be melancholy. cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful). to forget. in § 92).for jaA (jue^l). The Imperat. . and Imperat. Ox OOO E.g. J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf. JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly. J^ aJLj. ^. J y of the form Ja3. i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid . JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t). full of hatred (of ground). j**~j. jJ$ x x x to to bear children. £>jj . I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj .^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat. Imperf.g.g. xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. g JxJxOxxx j § of. ^° ^ e Jx diyj . Imperf. to be in charge also dialectically the ^. 143. J^->.^ 2o 6e angry with. j**$i or J*->>. xx xx in these forms. £*->. Eight verbs primae rad. a. and Aram. Imper.Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su. is ^ (verba prima? 142.JJu ^3 to be near. jju. X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of. inherit. Imperf. (of fat). jbjj i . 3 or (£). reject the 3 in these forms. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf. angry. jJv. of verbs |"£.78 Part Second.. j. jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise. Imperat. Ji*J. Rem. Imper. juu for j^-^i. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. £0 fove. J-fcjj. j»-b for jJ^». t condition and handsome.

J for x Jj^j.lj J x Ox and J*»*u. xx xx gjl x x to restrain. B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*.§ 144] J I. b. to 6e tfi j)« . £-«y. £~«i.j. owes its existence is. » U». and Imperat. radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j). J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. s>j x to let alone.. s-**. of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. **. from j*b}. I J rain. . to let alone. and Imperat. * . the is In a few verbs.j. £0 £>e afraid . « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}. has fetha.ai. Jx Ox .j or J x r% jj. Usy. *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. a. J x x c>. Ox for %a*yi. x x x C » . yoy*. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. /Off. dialects x In verbs primae rad. Xs* and . y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. t. geminatse . x . J £*• xx to give. x x JxOx %». J**.yi . The Verb. some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf. 79 by the mur. Others even use the forms Jjwj. E. X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. $>$ to be visited A J0_ . J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. most commonly occur. j ^ • Ox #J. cjj and j±j are not used in . ©ju. xx Ox ^Jbj y^i. Ox xx £3 x jSj. the Perf. Verba t pr. Rem.g. are at once primse rad. of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn. j et {J. # ©jJ. Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair. rad. to moke a mistake. y J s Jibuti.ov-jj. notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. Rem. ^. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. „ 144. in the mud. for ^*A>j. %o»\i and J x x ». radicals are strong. 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon.» ji.

I. *J^]. . has ^^^ a. . the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. easy. ^*-j. according b . XL. 146. Pass. Jl^jl for jjtjjt. . Imperf.. Perf. the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis. C*5t. according to the preceding vowel. it. w^jt. Hence Jo^-jl. j *^ to or become ripe. for ws^jt. * to be sb< J J 6s . although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O. In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. .. Act. teristic In the eighth form. producing O »j * * * * . g. &*>>. ** grown up. to be gentle. IV.. IV. of verbs primse rad. to despair. Perf. hill). to play at hazard. JO. ctjuzll. (^jl»I). In the Passive I. and ^U* ^sb. Verbs primse rad. J J .. Act. Imperat. for J***]. for Infin. ctjut. 147. IV.g. See § 143. approve of Sometimes. . ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. Imperat. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . j~»> to play at hazard. Rem. JJjt. j~3\. ' '. fetha. and kesra. * J^**'. and X. for j~~*i. jLmjUA. #0 receive a promise ..80 Part Second. for <£*3j. e. *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. and X. for Oj and as judt. —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. ^^-l. for jL~>| and j Infin. j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. or u-^-rf. ^tSjlll. ^Uo *0s See or § 92. Imperf. IV. rem. however. but pass after ^ and ^ damma. or J s ' . 145. j-~>$i. J J jl~>t J and OJ . ^J. ^Uj. forj-wt a. for ju*Z>I. IV. s^^-yi for w^>j. . of j~»j and &Ju . the preceding vowel. t. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for . Rem. D teJuj . vowelless j. ^ is revealed. (juujl). J ' ' jt jibs gg. c>^iwl. O. or y^^-o. %yi J %yi and . J*a*j . the j is ^ s or j productions. ^. *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake. and X. £t>Jl.0 L»+Z~>\. f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e.* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . Jiio JiAj do. ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time). 148. J ' rem.

b. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. indicate the principal points of difference. . Compare b. Jyb. I. to face . Imperf. The Verb. he is afraid. 150. Gr. B or long possessed . — C 149. j. ^. j~~i. IV. (§ 145). radicals . Imperf. et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first. Uul to insert . J*£j.g. Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). and the third has one. pardon w. rem. to and in the fourth form. JJjLl et ^j. Verba pr. to prop him up . c. *l. J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. j * „ j . ^JSj to rely be to upon. eighth. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. or ^Jj. seventh. p. Act. E. Rem. Pass. J^>> Imperf. w^v-. j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147). is „ JUj. Pass. it is said. 234 seq. JaaJI. 11 . j for J«15jt. he is afraid. Rem. is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. follow . *$3. and rem.§ 150] tion. Compare § 139. ^"t to fear (God) . „ granted. djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . in the Imperf. J^Ll for for JJ^y . I. or If the first radical is without a vowel. ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person. 3 or ^j (verba X. ^J^arJi. I. rad. inherited. do. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. becomes „ „ Jy^t. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. ^^i. do. and tenth forms. For the inflection of verbs Comp. of this class in the cognate languages.g. Verba mediae rad. >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave). 81 I. see B. *r>^> j do. *~3 to be wide or spacious . to be hereditary. for j-^ri. ^*^j j-^ a. he goes. E. j Jyu. XIII. make one lean. in the Perf..

IV. he softened. OJ&X. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j).a»*) I do. into *sL. I. its Imperf. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. because (§ 25). x 03 o. J»$*-i. Imperf. x do. fo stands upright. 2d x p.). X. Act. (j*yy). x xOg ^\i\. do. J*. 3. Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). Imperat. x 3 J*£l~j. 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech. do. the long vowels ^J— $—. JU^j.g. Jussive Act. . 3. is Rem. (J**t). > „ 3 O^jl. Jussive Pass. i x o t. j 0*k. he softens. S^-s^. Imperf. d v>Jt. 03 0*k. 151. IV. IV. IV. Perf. Pass. IV. Act. X. plur. sing. for . Perf. Pass. soften. IV. Plur. » 2 I Ojit. I-.„ 3 .. 3 Perf. [§ 151 A he remains. especially by the poets. (CM^)j 2d f. he was thought is gentle. t^-j3t. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»). (C^ll). p.*x. pardon asked.0. oj \yyi\. „ „ t^lJI. X. IV. X. X do. plur. 3 t i (J3. do. 1^-iJI. Act. 03 3 ij*A*~i\. 3 oi Imperat. Pass.$. l>o*3I Jx 3 . x a£ 3d p. he remained. Act. do. . . IV. IV. do.. Jju. Jussive Act.82 Part Second. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!).03 . 03. j»£\. ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. ji} £. O Oi Jit. 0. m. Pass. I. xx to be. x (j-j**. x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt). f. remain. Act.j. C^UXtaWl x ).AJ). are changed into the corresponding short ones. But if the third radical loses vowel. Perf. sometimes still farther abbreviated. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. Imperat.

$ et ^£. E.§153] 152. rad.g. If three first succession. Verba med. I. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l. The Verb. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel. E. 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules. 3 o 3*0 3*0 153. Q . J>5I.g. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it. then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122).

—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. o~«ji. but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. Jjo»). Os s dj~» Oj-j~>.). (^tfui). if it was 3. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. 2*J). ss s C-s^5 s for . Pass. If the first radical has fetha 155. pronouncing or &.1. In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel.l. hula. s E. German Rem. and i changing those letters into j productionis . Instead of J*3 (J>3). j-m^. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. do. 154. j*X». giida. if it s i damma. Act. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. Q b.g. a ^JOIj).\. rem. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t. VIII. some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I. I. was ^. In forms like Ji^Xwt. sOi i J^*. is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. three cases arise. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. J>$). j^6.. (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. and the third is without a vowel. (for £)y*». s i E. (Jj^)j like. j^t s i i „ » a. il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula. suka. j-^l).84 Part Second. -is for JL» _ siila. si (see § 140). namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive.\ (for j#*. and ^J[$**>. sing. 2d pers. and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra. " O i s i Rem. s s i. J**. B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. to say. the damma elided substituted in its place. Pass. (J productions.g. s sis £# (for £*j. Rem. . forms The verb JL>. m. Perf.

from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. to fo . say CuXS. 2d pers. (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. ^£. Rem. bU'a.] rad. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem. m. (c^J). change the fetha of the x O x Kg. and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel. Perf. pyj. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»). — De G. do. Act. for E. to . Perf.. B x c*a£> for a C^»*. c). suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. J Osju. I. ^ J of the form J*5. (§ 155. Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. In verbs mediae rad. e. bii'tu. *.g. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). forms. and in those mediae rad. etc. as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. In this case the same i elision takes place. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. etc.g. [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. sing. m. ^ et ^J. a § present. and most verba . Act. . fern. » m.* 6. and Perf. rad. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh . I. sing. 93) . C-o*-> for Cou. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. „ a. x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj). J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J. m. 156. sing.. I. as in a. the § 25. x x x *£*. The Verb. the 1st and 2d pers. kuta. ^>* (^y*).g. a) and C* **.* for C-s^*. are J O J . grew m J J X J J}/ . Ci4 x xdx e. fo/i#. cJJ» ° cJ^b. do. according to x x o E. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. seventh. do. Act. 157. Perf. ^j kesra. 2d c> pers.§157] (b) I. D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. Pass. to move away. 2d 3JLik pers. Most verba mediae j take damma. mediae rad.g. VIII. comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). sing. Oxx identical in form 155. radical is is Verba med.

C*o. no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. 159. *y~>\ . . for CJj. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. to get. for example. for C^Zc. for Uu. Imperf. . XX.. IV. •• Syr. Jlft. to cease. and b. 3 et ^j. A Jxx JxOx . are always written. j^^ IV. • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. and O3-0I (Heb. second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . rem. Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. are mentioned by the lexicographers. ^JU^. and T B also C~*->. for. Imperf. TVlD*. j***.). rad. jj* to be one-eyed. 158. O^* f° r fr° W C guard . fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). or the Parts of Speech. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. oU->. from J\j (J^tj). ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. ^. xx ^^. ((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y). JU. co^ XX Heb. OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. See § 11. § 90. a. the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3. to tc?M&. X JJ £j>j and £»>*3.S. j. »*x x £x G x . of the form }»3. though w~o. these In verba mediae rad. and a few mediae . s Some verba mediae rad. lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. ( J-»j-») . See U>. comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J). Imperf. Syr. of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. ' E. xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. takes fetha (§ 92) e. x Of . the X X X X J X X Imperf. £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. O or Q. . j~~j ijv~i). c. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. >jV( •>>* to 60 6M. which rem. jj*>i. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly. Hence we write J33. . XX ^. a. ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate.g. if it did. to sleep.86 Part Second. obtain. from ifa night . Imperf. 3 —Etymology in some. But which are of the form J*». 3. ^£*. C-*o. rad.g. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. to . 160. . are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf./ktr. ^>?j.

*' ' A Oi . the eighth form. ^ -»x et ^. jU o>^ Mjo one another. 242 seq. b. Verba med. rad. O^verba mediae rad. from ^*^S a bow . from the rad. and flexible.. or intermarry. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->. x x x W0c£.>t. to " marry x x . c.»t. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. Ox ^.o to have a particular disease (ju-«. Imperf. juou JL* have a slender waist. E. JU-I or 162.§ 163] Jx Ox x .. from the rad. 161. jlr*.g. Jx Ox to squint. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. x x elixwt or cUwt. xx Ot J-j£j. to be cloudy. . ju*. Imperf. oftey. to watch a rain-cloud. J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting. x x Imperf. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. u . w»Ut or <^^j\.. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp. xx inflection. which almost always adopt the strong. j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . x <Jyau J^a. Imperf. M . On form from verba med. Jf^wt to become like a . J>*j. see §§ 240-1. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx .. to reward. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**).«a. 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age. from Jl». p. xxO of sU». ^ from^U do. from verba med. Some verba mediae weak rad. rem. in Rem. from the x X . [chiefly denominatives]. The Verb. I. to 6e a&Je to do. M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx . C from the rad. to consider right. as jy**\ to be neighbours. to have a long. xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. XX* xxxxxO rad. Similarly. x x j glanders). On X. j et ^.>t or w>j a». Gr. IV. ju. rad. a. used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad. x Imperf. said of a camel. Many inflection. to give an answer. IV. x 87 x x xx Ofc . to Rem. but they generally prefer the weak. w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^.. the Jx X . shortened from cl :^l. w> U* » . A few verba mediae rad. Imperf.g. see § 118. xx to j>^t to borrow.jfe>\ or^^l. from the w>L« . the first b. with the exception of a few. J^a*->. E. Jx x . slender JxOx x . Rem. J>fct ju. *" *~3>)\ to pair. from m\j do. rad. the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad. grant a prayer. 9-lj . Hebrew and . D xxOx she-camel (*$U).

: jet fj.. ft a). 164. j of the form as to make a foray or raid. j of the form J*J . of the form Ja$ . as ^oj to throw. sing. ends with a consonant. as iJD±. a). —a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. O ss s Rem. a. (§ 167. s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j. (a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb). a. after I. not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. namely. might have been O^j^. /?. for^j£ (b) (§ 167.. sss* In the first and second and II. Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels . place. on the other hand. (c) Verba tertise rad. and Ojj-w. The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*. forms tj£. % . b—). where they . a). Verba tertise rad. 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ). the 3d pers. s s E. jjx. u—a ($—). that retains its power as a consonant. for ^j B with. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. a).— XVIII. etc. one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. l£J^> for ^o>. I!**). the masc. classes. and. ^ 3 of the form Jii . UjJ^. a. when the preceding f . (e) Verba tertise rad. 166.g.to be ashamed. or it is elided. is [§ 164 A C. Act. sis as jj~> to be noble.88 Part Second. — \j£> Verba tertise rad. u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). s w-»j^j. C-oj^. fern. /?.— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j. ^ of the form Jj*i sis . u —a. There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. or it resolves itself into a vowel. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. 165. (d) Verba tertise rad. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf. In the dual. namely Jjtf .

ty pass into ^— u and t -d. (from ^^>j for^-oj. rad. c^j for C^ w. and and the two vowels are contracted . in J At It the end of a syllable. 89 fern. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable. cally. . is (b) The i third radical u. ^-. Hence arise the following cases. sing. ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. a. might have but said b\j£ and UU. in the second syllable. as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3. The 2d pers. j. rem. according to §§ 166.. ^-©jl for ***j\. ^— 7. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a. that is to say. = cJjii. j 167. rem. as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij.uw and ^. as for t^JjJ. they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians. one of two ways. Verba tert. \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-. O^j-j for Ojj-».X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. sing. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P. Rem. a. lT^J L5~^ . the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. ^*j>»» for C*j>». as for Ojjx. as Ijj^fc for tj. lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . . The Verb.. or after dropping a short vowel. owing to the influence of the /?. or elided. 3 et ^.. as t^-oj-j. E.*j£ ^ . and 168).§ 167] I. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—. as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and . Imperat. 12 . L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. and 154.. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -).g. 'ugzu).. yi— into j_. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '. or a). u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123. fern. !>*«.

for ramayta. tenwln of x damma and for kesra. ^j*\j and ^\j jU . x O xx gazawta . OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on. it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E. jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical. 5) for ay.90 Part Second.. but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for . ^^H f° r ^p. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable. (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a. G. J J The a. and ^— rem. but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. (jj-xt). ^_ X for ^J— and ^_. 3jU. fi for j>*j. D. Oj^fc. J***. E. it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0. etc. Vol. J**-». 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166. Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis. j_ X for j— lib ^_ . (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 4J}\ approach. not naturally. <u#cj. it is vocalised in three different ways. 00 jJaj xOx .g. jo f. sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. ## for ^-). third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative. a) . These vowels are x > elided at the same time. j£\. ramaita.g. for (j?jU. but the tenwln E. for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj. OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!. for . Jju. t>£ for jj£. X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). (3. ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. E. J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj.] . gazauta. 3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I . fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation.$>*»». O as as . ii. ^-Stj) 5 J . j>j-~>.g. Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . and . (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji). (see § 236).g. It has been already mentioned is (§ 166. The Jussive § 230). for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168. /?. a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j. ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. a syllable. before the J^U is x (§ 80). ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable.

whether attacked or attacking. / am mra from (&&e) the lion. sing. in consequence. (§ ^. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain. g it/ admit of either form. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£.. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129). the preceding for ^j«j*c. in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. 255 seq. from lw to irrigate. we get 5 inflection. In the nomina patientis. rad. ^ijp. verb . C>*"^P fr° m 169. maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently. Such verbs as ^*oj. I. e.. Rem. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. Imperf. Jyta* (§ 80). The form ^>*-o ^jk*. of verba tertiae 3. wliich have both which comprises several varieties. ^jZ-. J}^\. ^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. each of of those . In verba tertise rad. a). ^>j^. C-*-©. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. JLLj. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. for l££jtj waws into j.§171] (tj—) into i^. as $jsu> for jji>«-«. to attack. is occasionally found in verba tert. . j et ±J. ^. from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i. For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. a. and not ^. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . 171. rad. rad. compared with the correp. masc. 3.g. The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land.tjt (Ji*J1. b. rhyme as for u^U). the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. and. Imperf. as far as the above rules permit. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59. a). 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. rem. ^J^l \JJ&[. The Verb. Rem. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. Perf. 170. 3. Gr.1 Rem. the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+. ^o\j. Verba tert.

92 Part Second.XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. hemzatae. as jt$ to frighten. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs. hemzatae. 144). follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. (for U*. rem. J^3 to tread upon. sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. ^bt. j&. rarely See § 146. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. . according to the position of B 173.) to come. J D x The Imperf. Such words . : — . X»X X«< C 174. and 142.g. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. x Imperf. 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad. X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return. [§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172. —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. [also ^sb and u~jb] . tju. J is ^l-a-j. 3 i 6 x Rem. it t^a*. Rem. as bj to smooth. of u~-*-^> to despair. hemza. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. J$ (j-rfU-!. to wish. as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. and (/?) verba tertiae rad. its Imperat. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. hemzatae. 3 ^. varieties. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. more OS. . hemzatae. .

§ 176] I. 93 of. The Verb. A . Doubly Weak Verbs. J>\. a.

rem. ^jjj. Rem. in which j or ^ is occurs twice.g. 0>l. Rem. whatever. as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard. 178. -^ (for gjl). In the fourth form. B 177. jj. i . e. ^^j) or. * J [§177 S3 (like is The . the hemza . 3 or ^. In the second E. always elided : ^jj\. . the hemza it is . ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J .g.1 < st . there are two sorts radical. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained.3 it>3 elided. Of the second : class. as ^$£ to roast. by transposition. Pass. is or the Parts of Speech. C ^j . a).94 Part Second. to be strong. ^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. .3 ^j 03 tjj. when si it signifies to show.g.3 to be near. just as in the voice. those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. —Etymology Perf. radical. for ^tjj. ^3 ^3. ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . In the Imperf. ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech. L5^ ' E. sort. The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad. is c. J or or A* a). 3 3 . the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . 179. b. (§ 175. J 3 . . Pass. Active z^Jj*.

178). as is it seems to consist of only one verb. rem.§ 181] for I. . which letter hardly ever used j viz.-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. first class are of two sorts.a*J. and — The § 153. .).. to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. ^a+j. for La»l»>t. ^jt to is betake oneself to. as . B Rem.g.. (§§ 80 and 20'2. — ^c.ou into forms . (c) in the A nomen actionis IT. ^j^> (§ 179). the first radical. <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect. e -ge. also admits of being contracted into . * t a*3 for 4****J. in the Imperf. when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. LL> to ivrite the ^. £>t**!.. C as (^lj to promise. I.. rem. and l. j^**. Doubly Weak Verbs. (b) as j^^j. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to . (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf. The Verb.-£. .. The former l£jW. 180.**£**>. X.). We pass over the second class. and rem. -i-. and Imperf. >. 123. . are inflected like j-^t and ..wt. Verbs of the is 181. 95 ^fc.».

[§ 182 .Paet Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

to fo 6ad. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w. U«ju. B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. excellent as a companion is Zeid. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. Appendix A. its x x x If the second radical be guttural. which x last is obviously the original form. instead of being elided. may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii). as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). ^>~». and are generally indeclinable. Verbs of Praise & Blame. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. fern. wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. according Comp. juj ^^a-LsJI j^. 166. which has been thus attained. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. If followed by l«.^^*3. Arabic verb of the form Jas or . may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. the dual U*J. x J —a contraction which x © . Instead oij^su we may say ^3. They are used as exclamations.» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9.] Rem. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. U-Jb. S>**J. and ^^j. and U ^oju or. J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. v»^» for^cjib. by contraction. it is said. as j^JSj. U ^^Jj or ^U. I^ju. as: a dependent lit. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$. ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j. These forms are to be explained as follows. and the p. b. juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a. Zeid is an excellent companion. jjj for jjj.» and x JLy£.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju. In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. and the plur. to be good. though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. 97 II. article or O-**5 ) occur. . is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS. x x write Rem. and^^so. . [The following noun must be denned by the genitive.§183] I. jt^ for jl^w x . Gr. s^&y X Hence ^*j. as xx for j^ " for j^. J*2J to [or rather.for ^>~»»«. and ^-£4. vowel. The Verb.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

a. a 2 seq. In certain cases this form alone is used.104 Part Second. to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct. Gr. Jerem. A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. is 190. . J s 0* designated vo-^t. Me therefore. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. Q Rem. help. the pronoun is. if appended to the verb. he gave (b) me. of i^_. The nomen substantivum. he gave it to him. nomen. Very frequently. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. sO* Jt. instead § 317. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). II. but not always (see § 187). is Rem. b. placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. a. qualificabile. from d-JlLct he gave him to me . Rem. a. in this case ^. sing. the verb worship. THE NOUN. a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. VOX?! *HWr*&. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. Rem. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. it to instead of 4-JUast. (a) The Noun. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. Compare in Heb. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. Thus. or Substantive. fear Me. as abl ^ylkc-t. ^-»^l. instead of AAlkct. for the sake of emphasis. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. See rem. 189. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. see Oomp. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb. b. more 1 especially is. When . 22.

. descriptive epithet.gv as the above translation shows. they are identical in almost every respect. J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum. the substantive to which the pronoun refers. D * elliptical expressions. avTaiVVfiia.. after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353). 14 . 84 —89 and 185 — 189. — ui regard to form. The Noun. called 3u\jm\. A quality. for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j. 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). »J 105 .-0. or cJtdf. in Rem. word by which something the concealed or kept in.- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum. or Personal Pronoun. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI. * the noun of number. of by. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately. a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. w. the noun of indication. is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. or Adjective. because. are Rem. j^S SjU^t. is. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. 3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\. 3 Jit * ^^1. that out. or Numeral Adjective. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* . The names of the pronoun. \Juo^\. or Demonstrative Pronoun. >o or Relative Pronoun.§ 190] II. that which is apparent or It is also manifested. . is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M.)l. the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. * as opposed to &La)l. is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. and a. b. by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. aa-oJI. (c) The nomen numerate.

106 Part Second. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). a horse. derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye. ^l^JI human . as . classes. a. act. ^ 9 0* . in respect of their origin. derived from nouns. is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth. is «U a denominative verb. Rem. and which does not give birth to a nom.^wt. or denominative. and are either » deverbal. b. ^-> how ?). 9 a key (from *J3 to open). its root. one that a nom. the root of ^ji. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). and a comparison of the meaning word. is not derived from oU. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc.. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. derived from verbs. ^j* may . |Lo water. as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion). formed from *U nor 9" from it.. [§ 191 A 1. . from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative).. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. into two derivative. ^ji. . stantives as J*y man. follows. .jUJI « human being). 191. or verb. not itself nomen actionis or infinitive.. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. that is. and their different Forms. water. and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ .^5*^ qualitative. but a denominative Rem. A. primitive and . that is.£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide). u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . full of water. to be skilled in horsemanship. The s . in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools.\Zjlo . nor derived from act. a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns. of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U. Nouns are divisible. conversely. At a later period. to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. nouns were formed. The horse..

sJ^*. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. as ^LxJt ^jt. 4«~ot.o-L j^£>. compounded with JO i ^jI. an ^>*£^o~>t. w>jj/5. or . x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass. as i«L»l for the cat. roottra that is augmented by additional letters. the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind. opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t. riding. mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot.^t. a as^oJLft knowledge. 2lJju. act. daughter of. names of men. as jj-o*. ^J^jJui a quince. or (6)^*1 ^y*o. fox) . as ^-»». 5 J x The Noun. or^at.e - a name of.^U. as ^^ft knowledge.jjl. the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^. jU». Nouns Substantive and Adjective. an ^Ji^^wl. understood. as ^J***.l^ and ^t^JJt. father o/. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more. but^aj^JLo. a noun that is A derived from a nom. « man. or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos.^a./***> of. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. smi as ^L». J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S. ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO . x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment. . in its strictest sense. names of women. dx . J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1. Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A .§ 191] II. JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel. tfAe £ion. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J. or verbal root. juw. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. 02 / A. or xO rawie. . • a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object. names of horses. as 0x00 man. ( ^ji a horse .

3 x extemporised. transferred from some other use. jb^SXZs j»\. JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7. a surname. x 3 consisting of a single word. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound. ^ijs- ^t. d simple. ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort. existing only as a proper name. which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J). as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. Ox BaJal-bek.^0*-. (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally. 6). « x J Ma'di-karib. jX^j. 0*3 It. 6.O J genitive. —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. x 0*» x joica/. w*jj$ &\. ZjZ£- . ^--jiM _$j-«t. (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). predicative. 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . as t^itu jus. c.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. as io (see above. amir pounded. Bebba (imitation of a sound). B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>. latter class is of six kinds. the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. or (b) %^^»^o. OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . x J x ^jtjSJj^c. J>*b ws-U. or an honourable epithet. as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God). a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose. as w>^»t ^jt. 3 . the "patient" camel.. ^e tortoise. x x arm). as 2J*j Duck or Bottle. ft 2ro30 x U -p. improvised. . The 9*x as j^> (a bull). aj^^. (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^. Siba-weih . or wilcu*.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. ^b*. (excellence). j**). The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. as C iUju. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. . as ^3 1. as j^w. viz. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J. * . £&e female hycena. Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals. or proposition. Job's father. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt. &15U (bestowing). impromptu. ^^ JOxJ wA*5. xDx . tfAe weasel. i the sun of virtues. gift)'.a*J^o. c) (8) X.

nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. nouns denoting the strument. the reference or relation). but have substantives. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. £3^1 £l©-/t. (d) Nomen relativum. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. 194. The Noun. also called nomina (d) vasis.»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. Sj^. om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time. but have the nomina agentis et patientis . the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. llo-wt JjjtfcoJt. place C in- Nomina instrument i. (participles). (b) Nomina Nomina speciei. A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O .^1 ^^1.§ 194] II. A.. come to be used also as B 193. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. nouns of kind or manner. The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. *W*l. Nomen vasts. the noun that denotes the individual. namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis. 109 192. nouns of. J^UJt ll+*\. >. (a) Nomina vicis. \Jj&. particular class of derivative ad- . namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis. Nomina bo agentis. and nomina patientis. is c>J&\ ^wt. are by their nature adjectives. action once. (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes . . a jectives. *Uyt ^S. w^ » .\\ ll^wt. J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). the referred noun. pyi\ ilo-^t.

J>5. (/) Nomen deminutivum. The Deverbal Nouns. the lessening). 9// J"k>> voj-^. -*j^. D 4. The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. as w~U». ^i. j-w. list The following a nearly complete within brackets. SlXw. are abstract substantives.Q\ ^~/\. 9// 9// 9/' Ja3. ^J*p. the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*». ^U. the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). *yj. The nomina verbi. /0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis.Ju. JaaJI *U^I. which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. or time. the diminutive. The Nomina Verbi. subject. O***. as»£>. . Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. oc 195. J*». / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s. o e>M3 (a) „ . 9. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/.. as *Jl£. 9// JaaLw. £j 6. where it originates). %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. Rem. 9/ J ? J 2 J w^. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. <". 9«« / 2. wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-.. J / /O/ (lit. JUi. v5j^> wJJU*. j£w. j^>3. ^j. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j*o. >a-c. 9 of them. B which express the action. the lessened noun. t^j~». 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj. J**. as <U*^s *j^> fat. as ^**A. 196.110 Part Second. 8. Z. J*». • . are very numerous. as w>jm£. The nomina verbi. 9 J 9/ j ? 5. as i*A». >j. J£>. J*3. . / 3. ^o-lafr. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive. without any reference to object. CO/ 1.*. a. jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. ibuo. 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . 3j£. passion. M*-* j> 7. as w>*^> ^a^.. as 0*4*> Jaw.mj.

o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ . as £jl*i..] ^**. as Oj^^xj. as cA*«»g. «''» as i*Aafc». j) . 11. lS**3 - L5£**. ^-U*. %>^=>y . 14. JU». £Ui. iitjjL. ^3>iif.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. 16.] Sul. JU-. Nouns Subst. as *£*>] o^. liUL^. SjUi. The Noun. 0^i © •J J[Jl. £J£ (also written <uU). as ^-^o. 3)U~>. ^»>i. II. iip. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. SjLs. . v 9*1 l*3.J [13*. 5JU3. [15. ^^Uj. as *jU£». rial.Lai. 12. [24* 25. —Nomina Verbi. 4JL0. as Ujl*. as [18. oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21. 31. as ^J-o*-. SjuLi. [24. ^i**. ^J^. iCLj. 9 as oy. aJUs. o^o^. as as iW-] ^>^. as Ait^i.jtjl.. 53UaJ.. 29. as ajUj.§196] 10. 22. *1^> *^> 3&. as iol. JUi. Sjlij. 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. aX*5. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . ^5**^^^Ui.^f&] illi. [13. iUi. JUi. Kr&z. [19. as O^*^. ^l^j. cA&. 26. 4>^-»-. as < V »a-. ^lU (or J&). io-«ac. Ill ILJ. as ilAt^>. i3Ui.] ilJUi. J 27. JU3. 28. as TClj.<& Adj. O^***.. A. [30. as ^jA». as eg^y B 17. 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. JU*. al^Ui. 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J. SUU.] O^iii.] [19* [20. 4^. as ^IK Jl>w.

as i^jJI.. a^-*. as Jj**. ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s . 42. d->j*o. 0..112 Part Second. aJLai. 3ijAo. The 9 0* five forms. a-wo^-cJ. G * 40. J**j. v**i»i<jtj Je*3. 34. as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. Sy^. see further §§ 208. JmA '. 221. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. insight. J*^-> B 38. triliteral verb.] 37. cAs [41.. J**s. 198. £T / d . • 3>5j. : Jli. (a) ** * . diksuLc. J*£*. * ** ibUi. very 197.o £^~«.Jjfc3 * J** * is * . i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t. 1. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo. Urn** .] All these nouns cannot. 5 Syii. 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-. 39 c. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. must be learned D from the Lexicon. 2. GO* as J^-Jl*. as 3 ji»a*. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*. .J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i. — 44. as *J££. A*a»^e. «»/ JJ£ to kill. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. Ij^ii. / • • d «. as Ag^ci*. j*a. 43. few of more than two or three. J***** asj*£«. jyd. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44.> t a> -e. 33. as ib^e.] [Rem. GO* 00s u . .. 34. to snatch. rem.0* tS$y°.— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech. are 28.» / i^x S s 39. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35. J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj. Slo^o. J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*.. J-oa-c. £J>*i. What these are. 33. Ji*. however. as oj^a^o. ' «• . SjJtLc. as ^SU^.' 9 * 0* . ?-s*-j«c. jrf understanding.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. which are most frequently used. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand. Sj^j^o. and the remarks to 222—225. J>*i. J»***. I 32.

palpitate. 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. J**3. as j\h x x to fly. «J xxx 9xJ to bark. or 9 x . Nouns Subslti Adj. refusal. jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. as juiS and ^J^. s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. { j*L±. 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . }\jJli . 9 x 37. vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash. ^xj l\SJ . ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). J***. . to xxx lash the tail. u°j*° to be sick. u°j* sickness. to 9 palpitate. Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . go out. ^ *-jjL.. usually take the form 26.sitting . 9 X . 9 x xx > ^Ja*. /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». rider (of a horse).> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. r> JU* as ji. 9 x J j\i to flee from. ^J^Jt9. jJu. xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form . AJtjjh. x xx to to run. ' . Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£. Sx x x to be generous. run away with . jtiu. shun with horror. . xx to croa&. 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . as 9 x .§198] (b) xxx IT. to brandish. - wju wjbu and ^~x. Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. J^-* to fo smooth. pcfc to * become refractory. firmness or soundness of judgment . * * . *-U-»^->\ to refuse. ^o 9xjxxx . 9 The Noun. ^JUi and xxx . Ci s jjliUi. to ft* ^'c£ and t large. to sit.. to to flee. 21. xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. p-U«o xx . J^-tf J>yj to bray. J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. x *-*»£ 9 x '. B aJ^^w smoothness. xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. f-\r>e . Rem. ^A*^ x x x . x run quickly.— Nomina Verbi. to be agitated. to bray. *-L3 ^Xj to weep. J 9 Us. £)\jlx±. *bt. BjyL±. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight.jb^. 9 9 x . 7»5j±> going out. j\y* xxx . . A. y^x3 and J J ^yU. 9xJ Jo roar. to be x j x of sound judgment. to be rough. xx ^ys> 15 to w. *-ji joy . as ^Jslc to sneeze. cry out 9xx for help. 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . 27. U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness. his 9 9 * . * . as J*~j 9 to travel. ^° gallop (of a camel). change of place. Si* * xx xxx }j£. * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*. # xJ 37. i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound.

114 Part Second. act as deputy. each of to its meanings. 201. trade or handicraft.Jj to be in charge or command o . to find. or jjj^-. but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. but j^»». or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x . to fo plain. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight. ly». Ox£jU£» . x xx Thus. xx traffic. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. the caliphate . has £*Jj. . as t^il*. Jjji . but Jji. to be afraid.j. to be exalted or noble. be chief of. X X X U>j£>. U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel).^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after . [§ 199 A howl. Sj^. The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. but in the sense of Ox xx . 4j*^5. to part. fl x . the office of secretary . noble or eminent. 3)lyj>x x <*J>2».to Ox x sew.) or caliph. that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. 3jU*j 2mofe. 5 x it signifies curb {a horse). J^i. loud. Ai^Li. SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . or the Parts of Speech. 3 J in. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels. jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. office.s*J to trade. Ox X i»ti. to judge. „ or tmir. have a hud Ox© usually has voice. open or public. ^ZS** to write.g. *liu .. has jj*. sense x x . . has ^. <bto xxx deputy ship . . j-v*-. <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. for accordingly. xxx ju*. has OXX ' j^j*. or jl-^. E. to ^ OX XX .. u^P or Aitjw. governorship. grief or anger. tions. and to 60 moved by love. one Perfect. j-ij** to £*j. w>U to take one's place. *UUs. divide. but »*i^w. %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat. tfAe 29. it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns.. gUj xxx x x . one of which peculiar to. and wi^w be exalted. and xx x have several abstract nouns. B 199. to succeed. 200. j£j*-. If a verb has only one form. Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy.

] signification . Nouns Subst.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . as ££1^3. from j~» £o glad.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. i*> . S^J. JUA3. . The Noun.§202] its II. «^'>^>. 5^a5. oi jUfe. A. as jjjj-w Joy. to Bibl. aXxaj. JStc. JUA5. 25}s!*3. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem. a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. gladness. X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. G. S>~J. existence. 2^. as lUu-I*k. The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. x S^-cuS. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. x JUjJU. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. JuU. u^Uy. triliteral II. 9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. as Jl^cu. SwiJ. »LJ. see the Gloss. iGX>. a^v>. Jt ji.] [6. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. employed in the active and Lane. a^Xj. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification. il^io. as ^>^. x/0 fl£J. to exist (see §200)*. 1. XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. D. 9 J'^a^>. X as 1>\S£>. iSCJ^. C JtaXJ. . O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. x V&£>. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3. £3ja3. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. J£«*. of the strong 202. ibuu. J**&. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. Geogr. $50^5 from j^j to be found. ?^h^. first. 9 x as JU^j.

]. JcUf. ?5uJt. only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. V. autli. Jajuu tert. Jilil [2. and are represented in the .] B VI. J**a3. JUiXwt. 1. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin. 1. XII. 0-00 X. [4. JUil. to excess energy or intensity. j3U?. yjjuu. [§ 202 . as j&. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. as jjy-3 from tp) I. but is chiefly by far the most common. infin. as v£*-*> cfe. 2. >«£. JbLait. strictly speaking. ( absol. [2. XL XIII. is and rad.. JUA3I. VII. in. [or frequency. hemz. •£«. to Heb. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i. the form JJUi is the original infinitive. jSL. substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. [2. J!jU5t. ii&fo c xv. . JUtf .116 Part Second.. Jaw. as OjUj. XIV. [3. 7$}£&?. as JUS. akin to /SJ&fi. but of an obsolete are. Jtjait.] 5-0 IX. as >*£. JU*.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I. /^P). the infinitives. latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare. JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. J^U5. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as JU-*->.] IV. used in verba rad. 1. a.] VIII. J&. 3 et ^ (in which . Rem. J&. whereas JUaj. J%*lt. Jt***. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ. JUllt. OjUl] [3. is In II. alxsu tert.

the original form is JUaj. The nouns formed from the iLUi. 117 /^JUH. /J » x ___ III. —In VIII. D [The irregular form IV.& Adj. III. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem. II. * [Barth. ]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ.. 9 xOx JUj-.§203] II. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. Hv^in. 0x0 2. I. JLiutf . into <Jmu.] . Nominalbildung.^). Rem. common form particip.UJ). as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*.t.j*. • < • In XUal is the common form. — In ([in form identical with the] V. [3. x WShft. x « &AAj~i. Oj^e*. § 180 disapproves of this theory. JU$. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant. is as jli*^> oUloit.] 203. C 1. as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL».j3. those B Arabs alone use JUJ.*— In III. as Jig. or Jjti.. as>l*j£». JUJU. 0x0 JUX3. 00 J^JLxit. and Lii to VI. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft. UjLoJL etc. A. etc. D. J&Jl. 6. G. The Noun. 3p*s^. rem. Nouns Subst. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj. Perf. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive.. as p. fUU. and Imperf. jj*a* ^o-A] I. of all is aJUULo fern..— Nomina Verbi. Jbt^i is the original infinitive. The most pass. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III.). J^Jj*. who shorten the Jji5. JjtAj.] J-***?. A Wan. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. <U. J'iUJ. as *-tj«o. Zlsy>. JUu^.

Those verba primse rad. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . mutual thrusting and stabbing .118 Part Second. as 3»lo»« or olo-«. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. (§§ 142 and 144). that reject the ^ in the Imperf. undergo no contraction x x as jju>. x x a. b. of which the first and second . abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. The B Rem. to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. Imperat. >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). Hence %x« for jjco. x xxx j . Those nouns. Imperfect julj. Rem. [§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). yJAfr.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. 205. ^*jUJ or w>L*J. and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not.g. j. radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha. o Sjcfr from js-2. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. like JjJj. E. and Imperat. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. drop it also in the verbal noun. which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206. mj 204.

bt* . 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti. x > 11. 5JLo for aJl^o. etc.-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s . for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem.] ••!• 5 x ^M). >Uut and **X X *ti. prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. as w>j>>. rf.Jj. *«*. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. ^ -B (&).§ 209] e -gfl II. this radical is ^. Rem. it is If the letter j. of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157). in Hebrew. l j from verba med. from olo .^f.—Nomina J ' Verbi. . x x x . Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. 3i. Imperf. as Jy>. pronounced with fetha. changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3. where it remains .). . ^om nb\ . and kesra precede as .ijjfc. x Rem.T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^). Jj>»». rad. J^j**. 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^. x x J & Adj. if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra.1. Compare > . . rem.9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. * * ma T •• (&*). from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form.l.jl*x&. if it be without a vowel. 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145. 5 If the noun from a verb mediae . >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M. 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©). ' nsr.xx d for w>Ufc. ^o). fr° m YW.' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J. from ^©13. (or § by assimilation 223. . )L±* (rad.j and Sj^.). . Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. -Jfc*).' rOfc? (*^).. « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3. A . ^ .» See § 145. j. b. ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. or ^j be of the form x 208. from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. Nouns Subst. x The Noun. be preceded by kesra. as . 9 c. . as^oLS for^ftly>. 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3. rem. and the [See D 209. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med. A. j-w. l\j*~* like. 207. Initial ^. frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*. x j£. . from the tenth of .

x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *. ^-^j-j*.. they say.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui.g. E. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£). 77^*3 to prove that pi3.5. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£). aJ^JLx. aJ^JUi as the original form. Oli^ I5U. [§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti.^u. Dtfll) . in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . confusion. x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. jMj) fromjy'J).^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«. aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i). all combine DDte. OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui. (->>>). 211. a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. shortened JL**s. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. mixture. first ^ et ^5. and >U*^t. on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables. jtj— 1I3J from jjL*.*• (jj~>). ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad. were.120 Part Second.from ^U-. i 5J^Ui. so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^. ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. or the Parts of Speech.Jtlilwt . the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical .— Etymology . S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . pb. is and then x ) . and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). into <la. j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o.^w. and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2). ^ et ^ x the nominal form . S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©). . from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. Ox J J Rem.4. j|>». &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and. In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided. ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i. from is 210. tjjjyfa+i 2. and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x .*>. rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>. J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ . ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ. rad. x hj*J from *> *13 (^1). and then altered. 0&&aff and llcu. £0 6e chief or ruler.

£). ^cj. [if B * J J*5. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167. xxi. ^. Sur. SlXw for 3j£i.. 121 Rem. y^. In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained. •* Jjj for j>\>. the (etymologically more x Rem. The Noun. S^a. 3bj*o for 2-o^o. as jjs-. the j productionis changed. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z. the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj. second radical. 5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^.. 212. I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. e. combines But. often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. * * 9** * 0*0* Rem..g. and Jj«i.. 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class. ^^J*. A. and becomes quiescent. for * * for for (*V). an * 2> * t 5 * J**.] 5 " •• forms J*s.'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o). the . tjj L5J*. for S^a. In the same way as SLa. ^1. a.. c). Nouns Substdk Adj. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see. *}£a. for 00* 00* ^^a.. and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. j>»^. whilst. 73 (for^»U5t. L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6. ft and 214. 213. 6. as L5a*. .» U*>. e?). the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter. J. ^jj. 3l£>j for S^»j. ^. tertise rad. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. tertiae rad. these forms come from verba tertiae rad.^eUM in the Kor'an. at the same time. GO* (j£>i. %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . through the influence of the third radical. tertise rad. rem. * * $ of the form al*5. 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S . 16 . ^c^ y for (J^jt. We often find. as w. the ^5. is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. throws back the ten win upon the Eg. sj^ 2 . j C as changed. its fetha. the j productionis of the second .. into combines with it into J$. Sj£>j (§ 7. if is with the radical j into j as 3J3. a. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y.i\ 5 A occur. 215.§215] II. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\. rem. ^ et ^. etc. \ however. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj . into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a. after the elision of for S>L«. to show (§ 176. 5 La.

et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. tertise rad. If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***. J£. [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). as ^>A for ^jA. {\yt^>\ x . ^. 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167.Uju~>t. when it ^x form Jt*3. from ^yb. ^o. In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. XX has the . seventh. we is. tertise y> rad. fe. the third radical of verba as £U±. J# for jfi (J&). Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). rem.. —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. gU^t. 218. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth. 216. ^ et ^ is changed into hemza . as 2J<~3. Uxp. and xx in that of the third. t x X f\^*j\. For this . as ^1 for ^y\. That an act has taken place once i}j+). ^ 3 x from ^>3. P). is In the same form from verba tertise rad. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217. (ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms.). the third radical converted into J?. e. 219. ^5. kesra. g^a»Jt. 3. as gUact. further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . find ^3.122 Part Second. and following forms. JU3. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. rad. ^jt. and JUi. ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot. b. ££j. « . sometimes takes place. the influence of the third radical D (always ^$.

ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. «< E.<& Adj. sitting down. Rem. aj>w.* being rolled. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. Rem. Otj-o-». *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t. and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. A-U-5. manner. * 3J3\Ju. 5$ j&. 0**0 A^tj^o. * * *j*. fleeing. a^-jJ. S*a*S. iolSt. 3 jc». be appended to it. seeing. as du. V 0**0 dJ1j. 4*y>. J**aj in the second. . * * * pi. he had pity or compassion upon * * * . 0**0 du>\j£=>\. coming. \j*. derived from weak verbs. 220. o o?. snuffing. *&** SlSaj. is —Nomina first Vicis. a **>o neglecting. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot.§220] II. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj. m * * * * * *$. ij^. AJLJt. honouring. ^\. turning round. * o t being uncovered. rejoicing. shuddering. o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener.oJ.ja. 9**0 Zj[s£)\. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. The Noun. or . turning over. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping. * * V*i 0*0* **«. A. striking. _ a. once. . Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way .0/0/ 0/0/ .e^. 3j. be formed * * * Rem.*0* 3ja3. giving rest. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. 6 a^ao. (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind. meeting. Nouns of this sort. . him once. Rem.. or nouns that express the doing of an action once. drinking. has always the form aX*j. These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt.. *b>o. ^j. rolling over.g. nomina vicis.> ***> f r o b. mode. ** J*J»>1*. vexing. ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. 0*0* «/» r. once. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind. 0*10** <Lc*. inhaling or B rolling.g-». do not 0/0/. ^. 3u^j. Nouns Subst.lj one. c. and so with *+*£>. feUU. * * a»^. * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo.j3. £)\3j*a£. D as rti*. of course. a**1*. £ £ ^-oJ. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * .

g. 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself. * E. S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis). verbi has the form dJUi. (from fast vicis.. A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes. as 4£j«a.124 Part Second. sitting. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». a place for drinking. from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). be used in a passive sense. Z+s.g. a. dying. way of putting on a turban. but kesra. we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. a miserable way. by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. if form of the verb. imperf. /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). ^j^i . e. D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). killing. speciei may. So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb. b. w^-u*o . or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. he writes a^j. verbi and nom. 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. a good hand. from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * . if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma. 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. The nom.g. J-^ the time or place far watering . sleeping. eating. from v>^ t° drink. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. like the 0*0 5 * nom. or yashmak . [§ 220 E. Rem. riding. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. ac^cJI &~»». oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221. 5*0 C nom. speciei .

a from ^Sb J 1 to write. #0 out. J**&* the place JO. the west. or to A place where. to drink. from v~^ ' to sit. The Noun. Nouns Subst. Oj^ of division. 9.- where anything falls.> to go ftflM imperf. & Adj. notwithstanding. habitation. where tlie hair divides in different directions. . f*j±-i. ^~C> . Twelve of these nouns. slaughterhouse or shambles.o-» u-^Xa*. a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in. as it were. a. whereon one rests. from Jyj is imperf. of ascent or rising. Rem. J^. viz. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. where a plant grows. one imperf. of prostration in prayer. or w^w. (camels). room. b. several persons 5 sit. 0. 0. B and Rem. the east. 9 . fcut 9 mo . imperf. 5. w**£* a place where writing taught. £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. 4. where one dwells. il+~*\. from juaS aim make for. 0. assembly. J^J slain. the vessels in which the act or state con- tained. ' . school.6 . 10.* £fa place where. or-* p 7. —Nomina Loci. kesra. where the sun rises. J~a3u. in particular. v~^*~i at. £j-*a* the time when. Q 9 0. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco. a mosque. . £j><ai . where the sun sets. the crown of the head. L £)S mA 6. and J^. 1. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. the elbow. . 125 J . from j»-j^ 9 to 0. imperf. A. take. ingress. to aimed at or made for.§221] II. party. imperf. imperf.

[§ 222 the A 11. nos.o.•g. which has /Ma in the imperf.o. or the Parts of Speech. go down (to draw water). Nouns and place. 5. o?. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0).o. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp. imperf. ^Jla^o. imperf.. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci. and the same the rest. ^L». meeting or assembling. rata of time (U^>> rad.«*->«o jjtcu*. (dij?b). ij^o watering-place. it'* J^sw-c. 7. w>^>-«. cases the c.&». be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ».o and closet. retain the first radical.. languages.03 See § 228. are of nomina temporis or Rem.«. license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect. . also makes B « a> o or . from >)$ . as a < general rule. formed from verba primse ^ et {J. ji* i«*. >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment.. 9. which.. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders. fixed time or place. 11.. MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose. 2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. J. * —Etymology nostril. The vowel of the cjoL. a copy of the Kor'an. and even jj)-* also »o. rem. (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142.126 Part Second. Q Rem. The verb * «. E.0^^0. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew. 144). . jjLo. ^^mje. the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into . fetha.<». a pfoce o/* collecting. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2. and 12. cjd».. J 0303 jtL jri> U. J-**. 12. takes fetha in the second syllable.g..and _.a>. ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. jt?2oce hiding or concealment. a small room or 0. as m&fc.». wJj-^U. a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin.s ^>N?a>. and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable. . %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^. 0' et loci from the . where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these. promise.o .

<ix § 208.*--wo « or cL*. j-~u 3 x * Here the . X S C x x Rem. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. place. Those formed from verba mediae rad. . as *«^>o. . after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra. from J^-j x . imperf. dreaded. imperf. this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical. as w>U. by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation . s (t or t ^). D w^t. x x r. JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj). x x . some examples with fetha in the second syllable. from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day. a place. C J J 2 x . — Nomina Loci. return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc. JU. J-Xo or JtC*. J***o or Jl©*o. & Adj. imperf. J^. ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf. ^^uak^o or ^^law. ^xxxx S. 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x . imperf. but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . have the same form as the nomina loci et temp. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med.. and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . s from 9 ^oU x .^. xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o. u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx .g. a . J-»->*et 223. and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear. . j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand. from J^j to be afraid.§224] II.**** jjueu* should. imperf. but the grammarians give B Rem. to place. x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing.» to x dive. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). imperf. or ^iUto. for they always take fttha in the second syllable.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. from ^JU. wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. from is put down. The Noun.3-0 a place that . ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say. #0 jpfay a£ hazard. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. J-Jb J <»x (Ja). A. imperf. "("'' r. . \ J^U 224.). sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire. J-JU or JliU. ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. from j-~> Ox . x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place. £0 fear. Subst. E. strictly speaking. imperf. Nouns where anything %*eu . syllable. imperf. See Those formed from verba tertise rad. according to § 221.

imperf. «: B l£^* to fold. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. a desert. Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j . iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. o/* occupation. sits in the sunshine. Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground.. where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop. xO x (l£3~c ) the place do. imperf. as i^k*** hunger. ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. a station. from ^j. . 4£j-£*o the C. etc. as S/*&© cemetery.*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form. from ^j #0 bend. L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u. from £Ox . frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . E. suppose. imperf. business .g. ^^4*. from . x Nouns «xx . W <5 x x Rem. 225. >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. x . of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle. the edge. • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be. If derived from a strong verb.jJ» to think. imperf. jai^) place of refuge.. from xx x . SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape. imperf. ban- queting-room.128 Part Second. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. *t> * pasture or graze. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . #o or wsort xx a place. xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213). imperf. In regard to their contraction. as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. to \^y^ ^>t» t. O^i9 x x Rem. : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. imperf. Ox . w^r# tifo x Ox are watered . xx The . ^j-> stops. x . imperf. imperf. tejjL* watering-place. i^j^ (^3^*) * O . aJj-U a halting-place. SbjJi* place for drinking. the second rad. tJ^'—J.. . « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold.

A^JJa^. rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) . JujJL* X X From ii// very rare. O x as mesrdk = £j***. o x o B Rem. A. as Ji^A* or . take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E. x x Og or evening (»<«). the The nouns verb. y^»~o *t#w of the foWA.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. . 3 X X Rem. rad.g. to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco. OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!». 226. \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) . ft-j*~* the place through which. f& x . from jJj to foar. from jccj to 'promise. 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e. triliteral or from the are identical in form E. ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« ./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . in preference to Sju»a»-o. Sjjio. ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise. &c*Lo .g. place. -f. £~Xo. ^4 x QxOJ 2 . with the nomina patientis or passive participles. g ^a ^ . The Noun. [or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action]. from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time.«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . or x x 0* w^w.g. —Nomina Loci. J ^^ a place C ^j— **. 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«.a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs. 17 . w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox.\ gathered together in a crowd). g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . ft? 60 collected) . 3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) . <So Adj. x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227. Nouns Subst. 3 et and 0x0 ^. Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. ^5 — Op ©t.jA. S^Aa^o. A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x . The same form is also used as a .§227] II. derived (see § 228). me'rdb = w^Jt*. of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral.

rad. the 228. j-oj. hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4. xO #0 cut . aL**«. j et xx x ^. Sl5^» (for £*$>*). are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t. XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet. a******. u°\r**. a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan.aj juj 5x J '. a branding-iron or cautery.- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. Ox x and aJUa*. . 3>2U. a comb. making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. OxO 5x6 • * * > 0.0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX». and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced. St^x*.>uu Oxx (for . . [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered . jyU.0 to xxOjo. a 6We?/0 or halter. to file . . xO XX r. nomina instrumenti. aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on. in s*1*> . xxx a t a ^0.>mJU). lancet. a strainer . J. a staircase or ladder . >3j*. . a key. e. Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom. When derived 6+ from verba med. . X XXX X . They have the forms Jaa*. » 3 x J. ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . JUa*. X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ . a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. A a». t from . *-«**. mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J .0 0x0 0x0 or snare. a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*. x x and <Uy»«.oJL. wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ. . — 6*s*»<i*J . B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument.»£xJ0x»x . D packing-needle . J^aa and . .» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI . E. a jwwr 0/ scissors.a. a cupping-glass.g.Jt.130 Part Second. x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . a needle . a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****. from >jj. 6x0 they remain uncontracted. —Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. ' * 3^0.

Jmo^o. When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive . e. > Jyduo. JijJ^c 5 J J 9.. 230. a sword. A . a scribe or secretary. indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. from &*. existing. Wo?e on. Nouns Subst & Adj. > %* =j. adjectives derived from verbs. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose .o. nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\. Adj.j. these real participles. to be mad. a servant. O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be . a master.J*s (as to fear.g. iTTftb. • >5+y* found. oi 229. from^x»\ judge ..§230] II. to " ^jj^~c mad. ^Tfc. 6. E. The Noun. *o*> * . have two principal forms. D ' ' ' j**{±> serving. The form JjJU also used. These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic. and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. i.— Verbal 4/0J 9J J . Dnpk&. 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — . verbal in C adjectives. a censer. ^Jl^ 9 J writing. 9 ' J*l3. substantives. * from w*l£> .a». Rem. a. Rem. ^>5l^ being.». mm*** = hA ^ . . * * Rem. 5 J from *x». + J from exist . to be found. as well as _. the nomen agentis. *->y&* written. Jj juo = J> jco. ^Aft to know. 9 s The verbal adjectives. derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. a judge. as in other languages. a madman. 131 9 J J Rem. from^oj^. j^\+.Q.g. in the syllable. nomina patientis. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis. B mats. from^oj^ jbjj^e to served. namely. is raato . w-Jfcj a. {J^c to touch). Wl».0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle. and the nomen patientis. a to serve. (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. a sieve . letter. from 9 * ^Jgr to write. < * * to be possessed. and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles.e. judging. A.

^j\£z. Imrdiness. o^Jo^-o = back. distress . ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . j£\sX Ox . g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do. the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. J ft E. sturdiness. ^>j»o = 3j. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. e. a hax Ox bitual state of being. GO JOj UU^ . being glad.). sense. perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$. Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? . # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa. 6e£?i<7 cowardly. proft J x ft J mising.] X bountiful. O x [Comp. ^Jjla. ->Jftx£ E. generous. the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231... jul&» . Sj 00 y J J J / x . but also serve as adjectives or substantives.. as te^Xa—*. C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen . =j*£>. opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>. and J>*o narrow. ^X J ft tJ. 5/ J ft The Ox fern.or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. 5 #x x B rejoicing. Conversely. however is 232. Ox . The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 . ^jU*. j£s\». X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem. x J 3x ft swearing. ^ opposed to jy»ju* . ft Ox x J jco. = Lct-btj. 4^iU^ aIo-^. j^>^. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *. x ft c.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^.oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw.). being got or acquired . Sx x x SJJ easity (do. one's utmost . %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic. / came to /wm riding hard.. labour. j^xm . knowledge. < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' . 6. O J ft x 00 x understanding. expressing a continuous action. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal. T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence. rem. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.g. instead of x form I^jjm^.. 5. § ^^)J^>. as ili^la^o. >tj^. J a x x * intelligence . jl^*. l\jyt£*. cheery.> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227.**. 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined. an oath . But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. . Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. rem. .g. Rem.) Jjju^. they have only the participial . a promise penury. and tfAe telling of the truth.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis.g. or a x permanent quality Ox (see above). endurance. as in the phrase W>15^$. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being. is 3 . or as an adjective. =j-*»£. La^j a^>'. X a XX scholar..132 Part Second. ft p^j* = *ij.

1. 3. just men. so \j~o aZX3. J** 9.j. =jj\e. j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. 4. c). I slew cold blood bound. Jj*. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. adjectives which are ticiples. ^oAo. Adj. 5. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. that he could not or escape). the emir. . they are * B of God. a o for a). A I met him face him in resist face (lit. & Adj. the Heb. = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. UUt aLa). o^** Jjl5t 8. Jjjtft jj£ £U. 232. 12. 13. 7. or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. express. made like. confined or . Rem. viz. 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. Jcli is the Aram. a jwstf maw. A. J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. rem. and partly. a just woman. 7 . 231. Of these the following are the principal.— Verbal to lip). 4J3U.j. 11. 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb. lip = ly$liLo . Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. a water winch sinks into the ground. 16. = UjU^. eye to eye). a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. J^i.§ 232] II. Nouns Subst. The Noun. (lit. = \jj~aa Jj^ J*». JU5 JU3 J**i 2. 14. J jcc . Sl^t. JU. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. ^Jb. held. 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. = J^U. =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) . Besides these.

from from j-wt »-ji. JAJ». 0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». ^Ja». a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2.»-3 m pain. rugged.^ov* strong. j-**. ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. * from ^ov^. harsh. #M. . untaught. xx J^& . crushing. x J . from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^.» jJJ unclean. polluted. X x J x awake. 3 and xxxx©£ox . from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. *. clever. 8. from xxx ^o-***-. jl£ rough. m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» . ^ xj x vJ^* tender. from J^-w . J*** treacherous. sorry. —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. clever. i^h^. y> J J bitter. from o^e- xx liberal. ma//. difficult. x L5^) X . from ^^a-j « . J J from yXc jA*. 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. J***-* J****. iaij XX G . 10. yA« from vJ^-j easy. w>*xc sweet. B self-conceited and insolent. from **J. ^>*^ rough. liberal. from . from ^ju. x degree of intensity.j . j-«4>. ' J fromj^. S .*. 5x Ja.breaking... J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. abundant. —which x . from JJu* . having his foot or ^oo/ chafed. from x . J* . X XX abandon. partly. m* teto. 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> . from t>~». Oxx . JJ*a- >wt. x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. 0*x x x . J x J x from J**. 5 Jj^. 5 |a. c^rse. 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. having a swollen stomach. x J x .134 Part Second. jJJ. j-**> x J x inexperienced. J^c. g^'c£. cautious. timid. *». # 6 and 7. from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. from j*o . from Jx*a- . fidious. x x «5 wary. and jJau . v»v^. S x xjx j*xS. x ^ x . 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave. jtwr^. from # * { ** t J*aj. intelligent. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*. Examples 6' : 1 . . laA£. ^m. 4.) perishing. jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5. . young. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent. /<#. Jxjo. X J . from j£w x. JJ^-. (for ^>o-. —and./w^. 9-ji. from j**£ to forsake. from ^^x*. £*•** fr° om from 3U. from . Jo*g. § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. j*U from proud. sw<?0£. from o J^ ' -> * . « ft fargg. ^j from » t^Jj. P^-^ Jmw. x . from cfoW#.J. [§ 232 A thing. X x 0^3 x j Jiij. xx 5xJ O^** «^^. acute. bruising. from ^A. betray. x J x from 5 J JJj. J^b to 60 tender. 5 x x x . from f 5x3 . x x from (^:>j x oi». is their signification (see § 38). hardy. oJ X X remaining in one place. from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. jx jj£.

J^»t . . from JUa*. from « h-i». . from ^3* . from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous. . ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry.» . r..to 11. J«o*j xJ x . oWj* waW. Vmoc XX . . from j>j£a & Adj. <J!>».— Verbal Adj. from JaJU compassionate. handsome. from <>~». impotent.^ot ^«/. «£^£ <jUlw •77. J x . ^iil having a long chin djii) . satisfied with food. x J x x x from to Jfj». «*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. J*aj tev#. from x . from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. clumsy.» . [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x . . LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows. from affection or t mov^c? % j»%. *>' . from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**. cheerful in countenance. from 0^*^ repentant. thirsty. open. j . foolish. ^j*^ ?m^A. Jn>*- .. .. A. 15.w Jx9x ^jUJac. stupid. thrusting or kicking violently. t/o. from ^oXw ogriT?. J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing.232] J II. X X . slender. * I x x £ paltry. £ JxOx 0^>**> from *. . J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. from jJS^ x-> x . straight nose. J^Sj ma//. from £i£ . XX0X . bright. Jj*-' unskilful. Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak. burn. . « «»*. ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14.. 16. humpbacked. O^-*^.t squinting. /•/> "* XXXX . from Jib [jtj^5 O . I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. Jj^.. from Jju© Jj>3 to «i. from J^». from ^w . i^il 6/ac&. from ^**S. from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. . from ^ji. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white. " <7ras£. *^aj^ W06/0. 12. » maft^.. from C^i x x . j^^oJi 0^^> . J-J^. merciful. dnwA. Olji A sweet (of water).s&/£ (of water). w-o&fe. drunk. from Ja«j .>». ^->i-». xx jj. J|>». from Jja.> ^ talkative [or to speak]. XX j-a»-. coarse. from Jo. 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0. to /ymgr. from w>ju». xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . Ox Jty» /^r. ^\ yellow. C JJ 3^*. glorious. hungry. Jjjlo veracious. from ^o*^ m' . x . t from J^. foul. »«J^kc j$~*a*. fifomjjJ x erf]. ugly. s/c&.jl~». from (j^ oW>»» ashamed. from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X . numerous. x J The Noun. xJxOx to//. from x J x . stupid. x J x stingy. from px a^ fow^. . from cU.. from uU . daring. Nouns Subst. xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0.t foolish. from JiJ from JU» . ignorant.continent. from J 13 . niggardly.. from j-~». W2£A a n xxJxOx . . . . from ^ J^t xxx . jl^-t ?W. ^//. j^ct one-eyed. *iwt unseemly. from J«*. w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3.

intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x .^L». f-lj**' 6 x wounded . either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses.. = x . J**$. a prisoner.— Etymology Rem. Rem. especially jit**-). OOOO s }m. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^.136 Part Second. X ft X XX . got the signification of bearer of a message. transitive verbs. J-jA». and Jjti. as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class . acid.. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas. ^tfuola. it is originally a Hence. G. C a victim. often indicate. as w>>&) ridden upon.. a) . [§ 232 x A and a. Latin nuntius. is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. sowr. it meaning message. ~D. as j^j. rem. X «o/e. f*+£> slaughtered. tJt*&j. if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\. has usually J ft x .] . sound. ^>ct *a/e.» ft s . e. the forms . trpmjJLa j. as j-aw. but more especially the latter. j x Jx sometimes from Jjii. and so also in substantives. ^Jjji xJ x x . or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. x or ^>*l. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i.g. .*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject. As is . x from ^apr* or X Rem.SU barren. j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. Rem. 9 or the Parts of Speech. from O^ifr .» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. or Jjti (see § 230.. j*j£=>. —^L^t. = ^j^\ 5. j->«->. c. secure. ". as shown by some of the above examples.»-jja»a . Ox o?. though the distinction J . =^U. J j*ij^ '. and hence they are forms. from ^^1 . w>^l». according to the native scholars. j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans. jux»>. shown by the above examples. milked*. j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx .

. ^^ knowing. a porter. a beggar. gULw a water-carrier. drunken. repelling. violently. JU3. as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>. a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller. T9*. as TBDK. J***. Compare etc. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl .> l\j$ 1. derived an adjective Jl*s. since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit. |loj. some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti. i3 Jjii. = J>^t P wot^ .i)b weeping. j^=> very forye. x 233. Jj*i. as ^^=^3.— Verbal Adj. 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si. 2. e. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking. in Hebrew and Aram. and 5. cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings). J 0t3j ^L%»a-.& baker. • as ^H?| (6 for a). . as £H)"| = w> j^. S3D. . ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. 2. as well as from 5x others. |Uj a builder or JU^. a carpenter. as * J*. # < . xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. the J noun of intensiveness. cli^ pushing. J*s. «t. f1^6. in the former. WX wry learned. = w>jJ^ lying. • 1. a tailor. 191 Rem. etc. ^-jU fearing. learned. . The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist. w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing.§233] II. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. JjiS. J*i. T 7 TDK. The Noun. J>*b. w. l\& weeping much. Nouns Subst. KOfi. s^+jjJZt. it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. jflt^j j*£~». a. & Adj. j»\j£z very noble. J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton. jla»J . a 2 x gardener. J5L> asking. « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar. cli. D Ax 6.j • .U» « coo&. ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. J^as. architect. less j J 4. ijx adjectives. common than JUi. thrusting. #* x C x v&^U.g. fi J 113*3.. x 0xx O x x example. 137 Hem. . E. J^JLo gwrcy astray. T T ' r. J^ 5 x x . Rem. T • WJW. wry handsome. 18 . 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. A. 5 x »x3 x jU». s y^Ua*. 0*<i2x 6 ft x . JU~» importunate. k5/ - J x wJjj-w . i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. addicted to wine. addicted wine. Other intensive H 3.

J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious. ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. 3. 6 «3 mean. Jj*. J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). deceitful." E. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly. 6x0 thrusting with the spear. x timid. greedy. u^tj^ fond of opposition..^1-U. but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj. § (nomina instrumenti. T> . w^a^o. all-glorious. 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. except J>jj-©) . j*a*i wl g boastful. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much. x male children. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£. . w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious. 5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting. ^aJxo.v. 228). ^oUJJ.g. w^UJLj. 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal.t. too. o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . w>La*-o. a wrestler . Jxj-b* very liberal. X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^. &UA3. strictly speaking.c. cunning. slothful. J^UJj fickle. 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly.] . ^ » ^ffiV>\*. brave warrior. spy. swallowing big morsels. Jijji timid. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U.138 Part Second. *»>j-o one often or violently. w>UAj. . ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel). 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci. . ^jjJi . tractable. which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely. 4. w^$. poor (JSD&. ' X D ji.Ro. w>UJ3. is Similar. given play or sport. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre. mechanically. ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. are. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children. eloquent. and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually). 6x0 6 jtuU?. mendacious. XX 6x0 JJ>**. to ^SL^ — Jbuu. pitable. very talkative. and A^jUl*. D. 6 turning.. daring. 6x06x0 ^l*^. G. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand. flkn* very X Ak. j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. x uJ e. imn</ perfumes. 5. docile. JUi-o.>LU stinking. 6x0 jJ^o. do. J knowing. eating much or giving to eat. and actionis. >#&*. Jt^iL©. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. 0x0 talkative.k'go.g.>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful. . or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%.. J . B^Xsu very learned.j*»j~>lft. a —On yia. substantives Jjii^.

> 0/* comprehension. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller. as . of intensiveness. a </rea£ collector. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. dJbuU. <ul~J a great genealogist. 9" 5^3 1*. from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. ioliU lowing big morsels. *' '* Ziy* asking often. ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5. greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs.§233] II. $' > or prostrating often. as very timid . Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often.o prone to laughter. as dijji very or cautious. 4L05J abusive. from J>«i. as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. to strengthen the aJlfrli. of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_. ^i3^j) b crafty. from Jj^li. For example. ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$. <L5lrk treacherous. as io*^ very learned. <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. <Ltb Sj.mcA. from o ij-oii. from JUi. <L*£ finding fault . AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . . SjjJl£» lying. 139 Rem. excellent. no&£e. which // /il here used. idea jlj to signify intensiveness. 0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo. as 44-Ja. as <l$jj^. as 5. disgusted with. begging. a^Ua. faithless . "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). The Noun. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai. . dijjls x x timid. from Jj**. sillily. £xa».>laJU very unjust. crushing ' bits. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * .ti Adj. *3j>*> timid. &>**. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° . very contrarious . H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. dj^A. AtlSj ill-natured. Heb. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. 4JUiJ loquacious. as . from ^j-jai. xx as /JW the grammarians say. jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*. fl Ox 5 x slanderous. Nouns Subst. A. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia». <UAb j cb calling or summoning. ^U^li.Lo aw dJUi. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. aJj**. 2'* . from JUaj.— Verbal Adj. S3 J axXjo always on the watch. an emissary or missionary. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^. 2x AiJL^JJ. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep.3G Aaib clever. <Ujti. dJyi loquacious. ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?. Aft. X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj. iLJLt. 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . crafty. bold in attacking. breaking in pieces. . c.

>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. for the purer vowel example. jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. 16 seq. 53. and J**5. as pHTl. as <uUA5 morsels.. [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) .\ more or mos£ glorious. very mwA addicted to play or greedy. 142). 1. 6. sw<?0£. Jytf. but with a in the first syllable (jjd). the colocynth. J^. * j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. Kitab U-istikak. the noun of preeminence. much —Etymology to sportf. ITs^ = Aram. the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. 98. these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article. from JUaj. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic.». . S. J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. Rem. as *fjaa = jui. *])$$ ( =j-t&~>. Rem. ugliest . are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. as derived from anything bitter. aJUaj. WO (coming nearest to J*jj3). or the Parts of Speech. or else be in the construct state. as f*W . however (xii. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. ^js-. t . 7t3p = J**)- 234.] it is differently explained. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul. or with three letter of prolongation. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence. others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. and are therefore J>»st.140 Part Second. d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense.great.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. as . WlTl. In the Lisan. 1. iTTO. J-j^a. according to 'Ibn Dureid. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest. f ft Kg. joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»). •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. R. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp. &. spec. glorious.

i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. A. j*£. Nouns Subst b. b)./zerce. however. or giving better a answer than he . perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces. according to strict rule. J { ^**o\ . and the like. perennial. your hearts became hard. ' J si j£> worse. (for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can. better. <Sc Adj.— Verbal Adj. Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj . II. ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder. < s o s J si- like stones. rem. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent. —As stronger as to hardness). where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact. none in Aramaic. the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then. nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184. form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying. 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb. i i- i especially from IV. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). or even harder ii. original signification. ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK . E. \j^c eye. we ought to prefix to the corre& . Of this Hebrew. * * j/ tc tj~»». ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier. after that. (lit.§ 235] II.t it more beautiful. false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer). \. JJVX lasting. 141 Rem. s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify. from cro*e£.g. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. The Noun. of j^o to be clean or pure .>**».) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb.

. bZ or flabby . . of ^©13 *ot t to . . of wJbi relaxes. J ^*^t giving more freely. excellent . of j*^-** to be safe.142 Part Second. of ^aj to remain. of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. from C-*Sl. b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. fow^. from ^^Jit * x jwor. than. ^>»»'.bz wAa to fear . II. to clarify or clear. of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. of ^j J ^oj^l . II. . from JU»-I. x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better. of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. . of $±. x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. . of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . IV. -. xx j x bZ to fear . bZ to ' x bZ xOg .\ ' causing me greater alarm about. respect. . J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw. . IV. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than. stand xx „ x*£ upright . middle. from ^©j^l. x . from JU*t. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. # IV. from^-Lw. more. of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better.*"„' IV. J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. of x © P m . from ^^t ^^. from j * or the Parts of Speech.^*$±. from ^Ut IV. jsbZ . : or more docile. IV.>U3t. £ bestowing more liberally. of t*-**. from ^J^l IV. ^s. or ' Z <*JUJ. from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV. to 60 good.j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to. ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. of JJ» . of C*o . last x x p x x x ftp . from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert. IV. D showing greater honour O to. x II. j^6 JJit giving more shade than. Maw. of ^J* . or loosens. J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. of to help. of >l». IV. JU. VIII. noble. * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. IV. be firm. * from £l»»t. x£ or IV. from i^a-cul to be just. 'bZ away . s-*«At. . 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better.— Etymology clearer or purer. to 60 crafty. n C 6i /. ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?. of . IV. from^UH. from ' wi^. IV. Jib to fo xx IV. ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\. x IV.to live grtiw s^acfe. VII. from . quickly. of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . from «-*»-). J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. r^acA the j . x x p x J >>». to 5 . IV. of >13 to &a<#.t causing to be better. IV.

literal verb. j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j . s . O : (^^ * Of- or VIII.i j-wt # known . ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) .ot j * l.§236] II. ^>o %y*\ blacker than . B 236. JjL£>I more occu. The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb. j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused. Nouns Subst. more praiseworthy or commendable . CJU . oi 1 wor^ i . of VIII. j *oi pied . J \*$j£>\ better A .— Verbal Adj. o ^^t ^t. waor^ occupied with pass. A. are and from the quadri- the following. o i . The Noun.^ Adj. &ztee? or hateful .). j more glad of or pleased by. j>^\ more deserving of blame . s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. . J^jl more readily found . j . *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than .

and Aram. " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q. sceptic. b. 6. admits of assimilaSee § tion. (manafek) tremble. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed. j&\ JJ-cn. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^.^.^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH.P". >^U becomes >U 238. j * be- 237. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. preceded by and w. in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L. (see § 13. Rem. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. as j~>y* for . 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt.£j for^. >>t>o for j. J«>a* etc. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed . .) . geminatse. rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad.144 Part Second.. ma. I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.g.jtU # » <J (§ 133). CTO C0. o o j . the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed. 239. jj^wt. heretic (J3U»o) . ^0. rem. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata. I JjC for JtU G (§ 133).CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. Final hemza. fjfcgOTD* to . j3yc for jfc (§ 131).(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ. a 's. as S**rt = S^pHD. p G s- s G e- * D Rem. "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t. b. rad.^) 5. G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135). *3J** 17 > &> rem. [§ 237 A quadriliteral. a. in ' Heb.

as JbLS (for JH-3). as^jU. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). Rem. 9 * . j\& feeble. stupid . 5. >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£. the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . forjjlfc. j. from 9>x+a.j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). cowardly. from »J>3^&**. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^. x A ^ with hemza (arising. first 241. throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c.— Verbal Adj. water-hearted. [A poet even allows himself Zeid. »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. Js^o^y. t ^x x . In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c. 26 infra. in consequence. the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133. for 9 »xx Ox . for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. as ». Nouns Subst. The same thing takes this difference. to say UjU UpL. Abu w. place in verba mediae rad. x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU.] 19 . Rem. * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw. clb obedient. in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU. which retain their middle radical unchanged. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). JuU?. 145 240. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160. for <}"'<>' a51a . usually changed into Jx J . ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). and. wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. k. £~-«. bristling with weapons . & Adj. &j. instead of JjlS. after letter . for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ . with the ^) damma is changed into kesra. according to »- out of I). as cby.§241] II The Noun. for ^51U*. for oiMJs is ijib clayey. Naw&dir.^LJI (^5^^. rad. rad. % a. G. for J^y. Jj>*>>v©j>>. *. the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided. j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. D. J X Rem. for <J>j^a»-o. as instead of e>~». j->l~».

JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. [ J^ dependent for sustenance. 6 «-/ J e. Rem. E. vo^s-o. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti. / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight.). £)£iJ*c. an enemy. of III. tall. O^jJ-o. / ultima? rad. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o. g. C and ^^3 243. ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. become by transposition Jju*. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. rad. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. D 244. etc. Ixo^o. for O^**. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare.g. exceeding (±*jy). ^j. Rem. From verba med. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o. ^£j~t generous. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . 6&ae?. JI^^Co. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. right. ** b^+a***. ^LZo. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy. 2/ captive. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. § 170). managing. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. ^w ^. for 33^. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. p. 01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. e. for oW. 6 »"" J ^->U«. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile.g. 245. as / ££**•«. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. noble. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*. 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically. j+j. in that of having charge of. and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. In 3 et . 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. ^ et ^£. contemptible (^jj^b).146 Part Second. 6 / 242. of verba med. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI. for *•**«.

* . <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. Gloss. 4ul*». is almost entirely restricted. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice. J s for ^kig. Noam Sabst. from ^>*j straw*. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E. designate one individual out of a genus. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. 0/ a date. SlLolj an onion. a. S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake. A.0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^. unit. Fragm. a pigeon {male or female). A+jL a ) portion of meat. or nouns of individuality. vicis (§ 219). v&U&J t. Unit. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. the genus or whole.§246] if is II. b). from ^Jki *L*3 a straw. D.! (jJUU).0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. ^j&t Compare j^&t. Comp. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. Add. and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. 1. rem. They are formed. from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ . for adjectives of the form J*»t. /'a^. If the form be one that admits of complete declension. The Noun. 2ub$ a bit of gold. a nugget. with the O< *< article. The Denominative Nouns.] . 417. the Individual. as the above examples show. 331. ii. fc+ji a portion of cheese. or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts. § 167. the or tenwin. According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari.— Norn. 129. (>o. . j^jt b. /?. B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of. Sj+j a fruit. to created things or natural objects. ^^jlc for J . 4). G.* (jkwt). from jJb cattle. The use of the nom. from v»W». and b. a. g. from Sxx G* * { duck . 173.^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. j^jXa-t for ^X*. head of cattle {bull or cow). & Adj. Rem. a. the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. 323. !£+* a Mubarrad etc. 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha.t). i. from j^j efotes .pigeons.

used in this sense.g. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). boats. SUA*. chamaileons x x J (^bj^). Also from XII. Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning . SLa^o or 3t^&**.o jjyt children are a cause . a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities. scorpions 6. (w^ift). The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling.. ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks . *JtJ*c. fern. scorpions. from ^iw X shipping. i B 247. A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare. /iares. a.148 Part Second. with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis. Sometimes the . —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech. Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. From quadriliterals this formation . *. 5U£*. O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). Ajjijto. 7^^). consequently.. 6. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). Oft ax*. Rem. E.g. (a place) abounding in foxes. [§ 247 e. jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»). and are. >. cucumbers (ILLS). iJj3^ . 4-U^-«.»». aJbuwo. (a pfoce) ^joj\ .a. SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers. SjurU. a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t). a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. Ox > . Similar forms in Heb. is rare.. as JJuu^ x x x . Ox OP J ^jowo. a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221). Oxx x «" abundantly. or nouns of abundance. 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick. Rem. designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed. 3JU1». 2uJut a ship or boat. black beetles (Jju*. I They have the form x £ SlxLo. as dX^^c <U . c. rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem.).o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***). The SjJLxJt iU-^t. r» 4a*Jsu*.

O**-* ct milk-pail.mtfl .g. $ . The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t. like.). — Rel. to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o. .. t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly.iT>). ' from ^ajS the earth. i. evil or ill-feeling . family. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%. or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived. ft rem. >©U~JJ •itto a j . #/^ a/r. the Vessel which 248. dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. A. j*£o a needle-case.• a)>*-o a urinal.*. sfy. . 249. from Rem. el- v5^» aerial.* * <. (relationes). from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&. the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o).. The nomina (§ vasis.e. Nouns Sabst. from d-U a brick. . etc.k. or w~jX». " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. from w-A».a». <i E. The Noun. rt. belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin. J 0* J J 9 . ' trade. aSj^o a spittoon. e.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth.* j**. it sect. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance . ^3^1 jJJ 3. £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . Adjectives.).& Adj. Adjectives. disease. q/* ^ooc? health. . from ^Aj otf.. have the same form as the Oxft 228). »U>)I 0^0 il^t. A & came ^J-a*.§ 249] II. (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives. or a brick-mould. 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc. as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar. from JjlJJ saliva.«. &.>.6.g.*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». * * from ^-^w descended sun.-o a milk-pail. • *>. ft . £.J. from Sjj! a needle. joy or happiness. ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228.». 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM . » + + from .

viz. PvJ. in such words as . J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . and even from Rem. or 0^<? o/". jj^"*». has the *T>ffi last of these forms. .. express " b. in general use The . but in more modern Arabic. . the language of the schools. as ch<5. & a from j«aa Egypt . as : 9° 'ay. ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw). I is ^7X1^ L Israelite. ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . (m.150 Part Second. ^1 from <j\ truly. Rem. perceptible by one of the senses . a corroborative or D. ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. 3/0*5/5/* ^c*. *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. legitimate. from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. . *_. This termination common in Heb.t.j\±.|"l. ^jwt. scientific. as iEthiopic. c. compassionate. \_ •' % f. B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. gwc? . from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*. Aram.] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives. according to some.b* . and especially in particles (see § 191). ft^^: i . —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. (kJjfi). ^*£> cj£ intellectual. ij>*»* from j*±.«**»• relating .. usual £HPl) and **Urh£:.: (harrasl) a ploughman. ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?). a.(medrawl) terrestrial. L5^^° belonging to. f as Egyptian. wjuj^JjId eastern. «S '4* tives Rem. from^Xfr knowledge. the law . science. to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to. according (^y). tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . H*— and JV— ). YlC. G. ^^ o/*.tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian. . also from the other kinds of nouns.*!^. In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives. whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations. 1*]^$ Hebrew." ^ [However. ^3 * strange. The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective.

J sul £ . and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr. the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants. to which the Muslim turns in praying. however. In the case of nouns which. 3>£» a window. 151 250. <J>oj ulul . 251. a. ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w . A. j^jXJ* . to the final radicals ^ and ^.).§252] It The Noun. . G. only a single instance has been mentioned in the T.JxL« Malatya. aiyjt el-Kufa. 3u—. [and j^^-w from 4-w D.Basra.ti Adj. and to the vocalisation. be a weak radical. j ^). tjs.-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians. J ^ . Nouns Subst. besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. the nouns ending in ^— fern. the higher classes. ^J&. ^gste vulgar. as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and . A. D. ^^ . and 2UUJI £/^ common people. have lost their first Q Rem. measure. Jj & * * . of this form. (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from . 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. ^5-w. (&) S^-* But the name of two months. ^U»». j^ycw*. L5*U.a promise. the vulgar . ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa. as ^£)W»- « bustard. (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. G. like ojs-.*£j). Sj-oJI s * el. Adjectives. are rejected .] .].] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. I. J s £ ^^>'. 252. letter. In forming the nomina relativa. 1. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. foil. [fa J LM direction party of All. ^-^^- refined. ZSU Mekka. [^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or . &j weight.— Rel.

The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . it may . Baradd. elif if it is e. \j-lj* 3 relationship. ^L^ or ^j-U*. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " .. or the Parts of Speech. pregnant. rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). ^lbj. ^5***-.- (2ljj**)\) Spain . —Etymology . 3 Similarly. viz. from substantives like bullrush. or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath. The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . £by> to assimilate 3 . /sj . ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 . & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite. the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. or a bug or tick.**. or *0J j changed . ^sj+*. a vulgarism. j^^b ^Sb. x * j ^i^t & /3. admissible. * J to \J$U. e. s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0. O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. (^>»j'. stout camel. world. and 2 *oi ' 6. 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. 2*0** big. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable). «// Os* . D 3 •»* as ^4%*-. the into 5 ^ may either be <** . \^>j*>. one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI).5) as ^j£sj+&. ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1). as 3 *L». ^Sb or ^y.. ij>>©j*-. name of a river. the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. (a) [§ 253 A ^. belonging 3 * MekM. the bean. which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word. a ^j£* . *L-. L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. the two cases are to be distinguished. If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. 0/ and ^j* 254. but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i.* - In 3 b. o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. and ^£>j->. 3 .152 Pakt Second. of relative adjectives fall 253. If the second letter is is without a vowel.g. - or ^iU 1.3 2. Gufi (^J&c. (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^. But if it to »J . ^>iU Rem. 3 a 0* seat. j. (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. 3 o . as .Sb. ^5***.

in the latter it j >. l^jJ^Jj. j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. C)3*H) Zeidun. ) . *&*» of the o ^ . A . Oli^ 'Arafat. ^j^a. from *' '->? . It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it. 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . 6.jU^aJt 3 ' ' . plur.l. to two. We may. 5^ i_ . j '3 ^^j-^ / * . £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«. 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j .jjj^~. as — Rel.3 Kinnesrin.g. In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. u'' bjb. 3' ^j-^3. « '0 name of Zeid. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ. the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. instead of \^£y3 or . Nouns Subst. Adjectives. ^jit. <fc. J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ.Jtf!. J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t. 0?. Nisibis. ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj . ' jjO' j^xj. A. ^J^UX**. B Rem.. the Muslims. as . . for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie. O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias. in their formations 3 ' e. 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w. > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem. ^V^. instead of 3 ' . Rem. O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' .jl_. Foreign names of towns. ending in ^-j— sometimes . a.j^a*-JI.& Adj. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*. 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl . ^^^Jaudl. however. ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' . from f A 0'* ^jjX*. as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln.§254] II. t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. 20 .»>. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc. JO' 3 0' . The Noun. Ji'' i . j 3 '' . 3 o . are very irregular Some proper names. i-xpcti. ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. (^jj-». D ^jLx^. o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais. L^J Ji >-^ ***><. use ^j^j^. of aJU a hundred. but ^j~U3. ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'. O'O'O' . .>. 3 QjJ-^ twenty. j Rem. / j j«/ Fcftriin. c. from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. 153 nation . are rejected ' ' * <v . J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->.

§ 319. Faik of the i. Ox .^(^i\). Comp. ^5*^. xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p. . 3 or ^ as ^J^. . and ^U*! likewise s Comp. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. they < remain unchanged. as <ULa*. O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ .a piece of iron. l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. ^5-^5 (men). 5 tool. e. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 . SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes). the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . 7 and Slbaweih 66. G. ^>o-Jt el-Yemen. ^>i*« and . which occur. ^y^. L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the .. S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -. D. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^). 3 (a town). t^JWj J**£. Otherwise 5 remains <" > . if they come from verba mediae rad. ^a*a». § island. G. 3 Sju jc». **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). 1 fern. and XX <* ^-^. and j „o. cb> and ~-L£ (=^^.154 Part Second. gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x . (a man). reality. Tiliama . from ^ul^J. # unchanged. D.. ^*ej*. ^3-^. *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . The forms ^^V>.] .*luJt). X rejected. x x xOxdxJ . ^<^U». Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina. . when is not derived from verba mediae rad. " x « X&X J 255.-jl^Jt). O^J 5 ul (with the art. ^5*^. X XX -t> are also used. ***y»*. from S^ii». 3 vel ^£. «*Jtu. 2 5 ul <LjI*j. ^yot from £*>ii&. is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc.*3t©. 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes). fern.] art. fern. But. the words jJUj. i' 0xJ . also Mufassal 90. instead of ^^lyJ. A^lyj. art. as 5 SxOx . or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. ^^^-v*-. ii. The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**. A**U>. as in ^tw 1. j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria.1^).

. Ji*>jS.. A Ufr»l» nature. Uu*3 ^j&fc. — ^t^^j a prophet. g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn. *$js-. a.& Adj. ^ju~» . [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin. reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra. 257. ^3*^. of j^wt.' .g. is rejected. «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256. however. 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis. 3 (a place) *J . however. . jtnX^. . jJ^a^a. Words of the form J*j (for J**s. ^j-j^ft. A. The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected. <&JJ*6 a city. The Noun. ^jjj**. »x J an ass. Jj M. <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . £)>»».' ^JUk.~J. ^Ju (tribes).§257] II. . W«s&. —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin. ^j*j-*. and the second 9 5 J + vt .Mesopotamian) . from the assimilated form . the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). ^A**> *. ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?. mediae 6. belonging . of jl*»-. uSyej*. form ^jJ^ from both j**c and . Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**. exceptions to these { E. wlx 9 s Rem. as ju~> a lord or master.-auJa . g makes ^£yo. But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^. derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. from i*J~>. a female enemy. But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. Adjectives. § 242) its from radicals j et ^. — Rel. and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . Many. or in other words follow the shorter form J-J . ^^o-U. < There are. JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina). Nouns Svbsb. 155 rules. j^o-*-. ^^is ^Llc. verba Lastly. of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown.-o-Jlw. ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^.**J». it Rem.

Jju. e£>**. Rem. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^3J^5. or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem. rem. ^£Jux*. as ^j£ a youth. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. always rejected. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. but must be borne ^ becomes fetha. S X J and ^ako. j before adding the termination . —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^. as . Sld^e a ladder. a § 7. b). ^J^3 « mo^.» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). a. x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. as ^aJa^o chosen. ^ . ^^Jl^. ^^-oc . *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful. .g. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . as the third radical of a triliteral noun.^ for ^tu^uo. (H^Pl).156 Part Second. the (^ ^^ju is ^y**. is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**). which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind.3. {Jy* J a district in Palestine.0} letters.> IL does not writing-case. 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). either be changed B into ^. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . noun contains five or ^ -» more 1. Jxx Slo^. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167. changed into . X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop. \J$$*-j to* a staff.X£»o. a musical instrument. ^j. or 258. w x x ox x or d-J l». /?). But if the noun has four letters. are modern and corrupt. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. .-lx£«*^. b. E. 2 6. j«yJ-« play. 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge. \jys*£i. which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. SxOOxx SUl». ^jj-^ . ^^AJxcuo. The Uif maksura is (t ^. if it be changed into 3. 3 x x Hama Sxx . <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. ^J^j-c vintner. and also. [§ 258 II. P affect the rule of formation. ^(I .

2. a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon. 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza . dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother. The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper .^ £fa 6/a^ beetle. »-t. ^jUUi . w>' (for y>\. in the * ^jl^w. *tjjj*is ^3-U. *byJ a tribe).. i. ^jy\ (for ^i.— Rel. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d. 260. * . ^ or not. a garment. those which have lost D weak radical. a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place). —as w>t.. IjJ). a). J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW. & Adj. The Noun. du. as l\jjs> a virgin.i.. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. ^ '. if ^yb/*-. may . it appears as ^.1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother. ^tp. -» j^jUU. 2b/». names. memduda.§260] II. etc. J^Stf. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father. 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I. whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^.1. £bj£>j " ^jUu . whether it was originally . the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective. £3. ^^b. i^y^Sb. ^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). j . ^jbj^-. On the contrary. is § 252. . axJ. . A. jjgjW* * . *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » . Nouns Subst. a). 3 - . C Rem. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored. 5-*' (places).^». reappearance be not necessary. "-•» .. ti*~> the heaven. ^S^jJ^-'.. ?^3b £& focm. — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural. ±$y++> . their third Primitive defective substantives. ~.. it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. <l~£» a robe. either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb. Ol*^') £. Adjectives. i^jbj^j.. ^yb^. as tyy**. »" > . E.* Zachariah. (a town in Persia). rem. or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. 157 259. ^y^U. A always changed into j. ^b.g. is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23.e. But ** in the termination 1 1— . ^ji-A.

x vw(w. a —Etymology ^$*) O x* . Cukl.^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»).4 . 9x0 . ^Ao 8. [§ 261 A a*j (rad.. as {J* (for l$£>) a fold. a SO r-xOJ . ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. xx . 3 has t^jU.— SU Rem. x . ^3^. ^^iw. 6. 3 . ^3^. (rad. ^^3 #* . this ^ resolved into its original consonants. ^J Me . ^£>0. some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm. ^j£ ct. 4j>* a village. a a gazelle. {£*2>j. CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti. .S 3 3 lip. from ajji. ^yj\ OJ . {$5)* 5 ' °£ . ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* . combining with tho third radical into ^. as ^jjo. the final second radical takes fetha. makes ^£^. L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. 00 « ^yL* j^. ' ^3a£. 0x0^ j £<wo an image. 3 du. l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£. Rem.). xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*. ^y** 2 £*t (rad. or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad. and ^ is converted into living. xx . handle.! and ^£y^. ^$y^> a grammarian . Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©. L5^» or du. . x 261. a daughter. — x 4&2>. 2 x . as 1^3/*. ^U ox 3 3 and ^U». as {£$j£. ^ot) a female slaw. *3~>.) ^ 3-o .* ^m. y£}£ . 5 * . J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. j^^o. ^>w 3 . U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow. ^ (for \£Jo. O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . bribe. (from .158 Part Second. ^3-0. a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU. (rad. <0) ox podex.or ^ay*. a 3 So ^j^U. the second radical takes i^^**. °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3.. t^U) a hundred. Ox as 3**J x grammar. x J oW) x go a «w. £3 (rad. >i)) J dialect.jj| (for v) ^J. and 2u£ a possession. >*~>) a name. The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox . 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. >w) a 00 year. 3 -£ C-Uj. § A . D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3. o £ 00 sister. has the three forms 3- v». . fetha.>. or the Parts of Speech. ^£^j Soj 3^ But .

s x x . Adjectives. 3 x x Rem. ^J^**-. j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. \^^ is **» # snake. i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). t/j «/«/j aJlaii. ^jx But in Jjti. 262. j j-o-JI (tribes). Rem.. ^SULw. final ^ retained.§262] - II. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . 159 . . as S^ULw misery. So also in & * t 3 J*j.*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . etc. though very incorrectly. Nouns ^ . ^jlii . 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle. twist or turn. as J5oJt (a tribe). make m ^jI. *j\j a banner. x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. and. oo* ^ju. of D more than three consonants. J^ai. From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL. . irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . Nouns Subst. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). the is Rem. C III. ^51. ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. —"Words . ^jj\ or ^^J. See §§ 255-6. Changes in the Vocalisation.. as well as . verba 6. et ^£. or j^jt. from tertise rad. (JV>I). as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. ^^U jufb /twr. the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x . a x o^-ait. x 5 ftfo 2> x x . reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. The Noun. «x x . — Rel. of the forms J-ati.dk Adj. In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered. i . {Jj3&. is j Ox Ox . {£3+* <H>^ a town). and ^jj£j are admissible. (the ancient . the kesra may be retained. makes desert. as J-»l camels. « s . — In words of the form A <UUi. . rest at night. ^£j+j £-» . a. A. though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . a desert. etc. ^Uic. 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*. etc. but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza.

the following points must be attended to. —B. \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. Of rare and arbitrary changes. two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. 264.jt\ mother. — then is in the second word 3 ct. as zjj>j^j\. 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm.from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. governing the arise. \^£j^> from ««' . two secondary cases arise. a grammar can take no account. termination 3 - ^— appended to the first . the warrior). a man's name. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. 3 ^\ 3 son. is [§263 changed A 263. B J*± time. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio.. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©. x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. 2c second in the genitive. as ^*-j&. VJyiS.160 Part Second. (see the preceding ^>i£ Rem.»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\. 2 —A. or in . such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a. 3 rejected. Archibald Bell-the-cat.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech. •**£. dj-aJI. ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four. If the first word the status constructus. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words.^p). . and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. or CUj . —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas. damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. ox jg it is ox . status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. omitted. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§). ^>ol . . ' ^M*^. daughter. j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday. xx x and .* lOUwt w.

from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj . 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein. ^^^ 3 • « . with the s . from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker.x from oJa&t jb. <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B. then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. attached to the vt ^— wl is first word. ^tki aXlt j^c. A. B x0/« *" . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X . hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing. xxOx ^jO** x x . as ^^^. nisba from the whole this license compound word. Adjectives. j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ. (CameVs-nose. allow a J J Q J x x double formation. To this stage of the language.§264] II. . 3 o . Oi x x S x J Rem.& Adj. as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted. b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ.— Rel. from j^o. \JIS±J CH**M ^jK. L5^*5. some . \ .^tf. - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. . 0>^' ji ( a 21 .<£>t^.«J>o from w. The Noun. j — the But first word is rejected. ^-^iJt »*t.-Jl^C^o. x x as ^JJ^j-^^j. 2> * " 0' . ij5& jUoJt ^oUau. In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o. is i«/ \£tS}[ '. x.. u^IU|tf>.. l£*'> Guadix in Spain. /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj. Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI. is £ omitted s . from both parts of the word 3 e. and A 'I the second takes is ^— . ^$j*~> *^£jt J . j0/<» . Nouns Subst.>tj. belong such words as . J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' . . and the second XX . For example from \y* C-wO. ^^j^U^U. from 3 JyUJI jJ3.g. (from the assimilated form 3^w). ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^. iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. ^J^ . nickname of a man). too. J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw.

^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. ^%^> name 3 . or approximate to them in sense. strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants. i-ijjuo). bs j / ot»/ ij.-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji. bib. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. ^hj^I. as are either . 2.ojcirw from O^o^-a*. the desert. j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet. the singular. ~ ' s Such plurals. - D e. manuletter. Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o. —Etymology <^£)U^j c. ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s . a and /?. ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras.ain .jj-a^Jt. ^j. ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt.o a written a a book. also a learner or student. from Ju»yl 'abuged. from dU*a». are excepted * t 3 *bi . plur. Z jo E. jU»Jt (plur. LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe).g. abecedaire). the of a poet. properly the plur. really proper s o£ names. Hadramaut . footn. iJ?jiU*. fib " . ^^JIjl^ °S .o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus. [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. e. s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i.g. 5. ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ . o^!/* . (a . plur. ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 . or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o . from jt^^i plur.. 6. even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa. of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur.. in classical Arabic. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' .)] . the (§ 32). 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. at el-Medina). A relative adjective is never formed. however. > b . 265.162 Part Second. four letters of the alphabet Rem. o . jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. 3 s s « efo^). .g.. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . the tribe of Kilab. 3 - and U-Hazrag. In many cases falling under B. Ctesiphon. Ojlfr* (a tribe). 3 . or the Parts of Speech.. from the plural. it. [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * . 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats. script.

of 9 x 266. are I I belonging women. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature . J^-Lu X sieves. & surgeon. adjectives «• * oi.'^t # the confederate tribes.Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur. G. # £ ^l/^l. as ^jV- In the case of ^£. j*om* (plur. if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. Adjectives.) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s. /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur. the opinions of grammarians o< differ. The Noun. JsuI^a. if be a strong letter. . of wounds. . as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . of early date. D.g. from • V plur. of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. ^j. etc. [o^a. ^jUjt. a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. of Jji»*U) sieves. forms in Syriac. plur. orae w/io makes or seZfo them .UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc. studies. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles. Olio God 3 > (pi. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade.) mats. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. (plur.] In more modern Arabic. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. j-ateJtjrffc. j->jty> x (plur. Persian colonists in Yemen. — Rel. A. 3 x OUL x x x (plur. o & Adj. the second ^ being changed into j . {£&£* ^ in. 5 x 163 | j* io. J^UJl (plur. E. Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition . Oxx X ^. ^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to. attributes. this latter form x alone admissible. the simple doubling is permitted. 3 x X . x x mats. In the case of $. 3«" not.J^. as ^^* that.-butj^.§ 266] * Oi II. ^%e*\. ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. Nouns Subst. &Lo) qualities.Aj|. of JxoJ) rugs. of ikuj^. ^-5t/»» of (pi. a woman. a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches. ^ — Similar .) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^. of j**au*. on the contrary. 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J . at pleasure. of |2.^t*. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St. . a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles.

mendacious. ^^SU 0^0 .having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck). 232) that the termination ^L.] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed. We . 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w).» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J). [. s^/s foarcs. j^S^SU or .164 Part Second. vociferous .*.jUao J-l or ^j\2suo. 267. have seen above (§§ 231. 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded. ju£»U) Z*~»d\. ^i^koj.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 . sordid. ^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x . there [§ 267 A ^3-^. .-y^U. 2 x x of the Aramaic) .» J straight-haired. 1). ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood. jJLo—^w 2^0 e. but . under the influence 5 * . Fleischer. ^^ or ^^. i^W^i ^ -» corpulent. #cAr. G. t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU. <jla^aJI corpulent. 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C . which may be changed * 3 . n. e. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. appearance. large head of hair (**»). strong. G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring. haired. ox xx ^U*. letter be a quiescent 2 Slif.g. reckless. G ' .Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . aspect.jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given. as the grammarians say. ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. I e • ^U^*.g. . ^yly^li a fruiterer.). both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter. oo 2 large in the body (J*-*.JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^). 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c.). robust.— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech. Ox q[*SXo vile. or . <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a. Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-. from jisu*. instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU. to strengthen the relation.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking. perhaps. 245. JK. as *j not. is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza. D.(. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J . .

2l*J>1^*$\ D. ..§268] 3 - II. i^te'. J v> ty.-fcUw. is arms.». *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. j\ * E. 2 * 4J3*. Rem. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . upper. as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing. S (flSH). 5©5fi. i**'oi. aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective .. i (til nO?).» external. G. \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower . . particularity] substantivity. schaft. corporeal. a substantive. (U wlwt ?) . . <Lu^Jt Lordship. 165 outward. ^JU-jj spiritual (. I s+ . and ^«. private. ^j^JLSU. & Adj. B 5 *J large head . . . or Z~&yA±. ears.] the divine nature. 268. 8 .j is ^JUi as a ^. £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\. 9 vt 4-*o~»t. A 3 form and applicable ex. and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality. It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit. 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality. - The Noun. ^jlju-*. Nouns. corresponds * a i o* thum. etc. ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). Nouns Subst. [^uoj-oi.j manhood. S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood. public. ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose.g. * Oi from j*-~»\. interior.—Abstr. A-JbU substance. as distinguished from the concrete thing itself. dom. and to English ones in head.. ^j^jy relating to light. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t.wljj having So. quiddity totality . ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness. and oL^j. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) . A. the mind or temperament. keit. 0* D adjectivity. xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS . 9 aJLoj. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite. ^'^ wr. 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic . the school of . to the soul.

jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM. When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. [These nouns are. 9. a. not merely in its literal sense. of the masculine gender.166 Part Second.. t . when formed from a xj c * . the very . is jia» *. .. dirham. J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . S ^^t. the servile letters are generally taken into account. not usual to back upon the root-consonants.o. S Ox J . Jxjjl (for j^ujt). haughtiness. JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue. J***. [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.»w (a man's name).001_£\). omnipotence. takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- .] B 269. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth. j***..a*n) divinity. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J . a severe it is trial]. but 5 J J »/J . On the contrary.>* J©. 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom. oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). [§ 269 A the Hanefites.! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree. ^ J . j*Ju*aC ^ hey. the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp . 6. fall Rem. a. is Rem. * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\. 5x0 *-Ui-c a. J****. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ. In forming a diminutive. j^o-c is .:xo. 9 J Rem. The diminutive used. the Christian religion. as Oj. 9 . 5 -2 8.. and j Sal-o. as J*?. humanity (\l. pride.xxOxi best.. 'J.> .» a mosque. scorpion. . »/J . (|Z. du^y^S Judaism. as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune. in Arabic. When .Q-mS\). 9 x . Jk. . See however § 283.wi. The diminutive.>.-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^).. Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a . triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). j&d)* 5 ^a». < « &'#. ' x 1 x <fo<7. the noun 9 quinqueliteral.lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt. . In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed . etc. x J . JJj jlo a special friend).j a man.

§ 270] II. and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. of which the fourth five. (2) from certain prepositions. the . syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. like J/'**. as C**«j. from Jt>£). biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem. The first & Adj. is When the noun contains Jive letters.1. Nouns Subst.. 270. or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . e. Yjfl . ^. the *_). is sounded A^/|/e or gfife.. The Noun. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four. ?^*£. /i«fe. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. A. a 2/o^A ' C*J^. obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative. a kind of small bird. J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX. when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . rem. however. xx OOxJ «£~wJt». If so.. an(* w--wJ. f). c. for c^u. a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. On the other hand.. ^Z^^> a bay horse. a basket. In Hebrew we (j*juo). as O x J ^J-j-o^. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem. : cerastes.— Diminutives. like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa. juju a little J>j>J a etc. which x Ox J are. siH3> a little below. a con B temptuous diminutive. a sort of snake («Ju*>). d. <Uua5. a little nearer than. Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N. they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184. Ox > ^w. . . as well as jj£jJl . as J*a5 a after.J-ai5 is 167 Rem. : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig. the J diminutive of <U5. ^ may perhaps consider as such. . an d HS^D. and (3) little above. 4 if' example. and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. from^U). (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. little before. nffSff T . strong. where.

or more letters. however. 6. exceed the form Jju*5 O'„. rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem.3 d. consonants do not . . a sort of cap. as <\ . 3 short and big-bellied. tive.3 JjuJcS. 3 0^. more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained.03 . m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^). B Rem. 0. 3 00.j^.3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants.. j~**~o (for j^U). the diminutive of ^julc.3 0. a sort of thorn. Out . . <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. J) c. 0.3 . in front.3^ 6. 3 9 0. and in § 269). £. is not rejected.1 saffron.3 . ^Lauil. J ^^ . Thus 6 . are of equal value. lazy. little. and therefore is 0. J^. 6. formed out of the preceding consonants. r. ^juXfr) of ty ill. as aS%£. . old woman.168 Part Second. five Rem. and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman.36. Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider.r-.3 (for 0.3 . Jb» & . 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade. a nightingale. 6. J ^3ujS.3 0. j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O. : of h . but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . which is 0.j* a 0.^ .0.3 >j->j*. The termination ^1— when appended . Jjj-ol .« trying to render perfect. o o . to Rem.». The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed. le snake. ^^xJU . 3 6. make either j^on*. tick. *-j**-> . . £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0. b. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake. sarily b. wXwic. t tr r J 0.. . nouns of four 9 . we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please. Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. or jZj^a***. 3 6e.0. .jJut is not a fat. Jfej*. [§270 0. 0. In place of the rejected consonants. If there be off. But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters.j£a rolling oneself. ma. . these are . 3 . and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a.. 6. Rem.63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. .3 either juJLc or juX& 0. 0. 3 3 . indicates the participial form. rejected. .0 . is Q In A+KLm+t for example.3 .. 2 6. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.3 6. 0.

OS- oWA-~o Muslim women. Other (see § plurals. <bUJI.3 castle.Basra. i. or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. ^A***2. 0. a o*> £>. & Adj..3-. . 3 . 5 o L»L. iU^Xm .0 .0 3 V 3 . Muslims. . . in adjectives of which the feminine . besides their JUil.g.3 . and the 271. J^o-X«.0. slaves. the ending ^1— . (fern. . a+X~~c (a man's .0. .t- 5 W^£ verses. 3 if. .S~*4 . jj!/^ . 4**A£ J**'' as 0. jJUj. ) j ^»L . —Diminutives. .3 . el.Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#. ^_ is rejected. of the class called j j j aJlSJt r.5 jj£j->*J a riddle.ot Rem.». . and Ol_ . 4*A. . five letters. .§ 271] II. . 3 . and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0. . and these terminations added « . jj^L-* .». 3. Pj*+ O 307) form . \^+*. B preceding consonants.« r. ^$j£~>) drunken. w>la*->. pL- . . . 22 .0 oJlai. J jlo-L 3 ) .jUA-$~»* . and the second JUil . JjJusi. . supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal. C J^O^J >j\j+. A. may be omitted. . But . 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard. ^i**. 3 ^.$ 3 . or j**». 3 .0 . The Noun. The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and . w.3 4*A£ boys. . " of the E. mighty. to them. e- oLj^t . ZxXS a S^Xb *. the third of which »/J /}'j .0. is when the noun 0. JU^I. viz. The diminutives must be formed out 3 . . SjuJj diminutives regularly. be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. ^jJL**. name). {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj . The fern. 3 . (a man's name). either ^Jj-***- or the Oot. J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). perfect. .pregnant. 3 Oi 9. Rem. 0.. .3 consists of . 3 . ". 3 . . <U*»»-« /»/j ~.03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims. S . 5 . 3 weak servile.-.0. w>la*~ot companions. -kUJt words. . the relative termination is ^_ . (for ^)o . strong. c camels.3 . . ^+X~j (a woman's naine). A (/J like. 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. Nouns Subst. as SjJj children. Olgt. the third letter be a . 3 3 < . are /«/ all disregarded. .0. queliteral noun. 3.o . *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. a. in the quinit.ol.. . 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t .

^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. 4*JL£l . ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a ./foc& jh a house. of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names. 272. l\jj& xO x J poets. adding . £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. 9*0*3 St j x x J . ^^JLJ3. 03/J such exist. two courses may be J x J adopted. ll . C*^ an eV e or fountain.g. from the plural (see § 278). as x 3 * x J x . <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269. . or the Parts of Speech. x E. x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r.170 Part Second. S^tel Joys. radical. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j . O . Otj-jjj. provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis . x I Aj««j». I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars. which has not however a feminine termination. i**^ . x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^. r ' «/ »( 6 . ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun.^3.» children. G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. 0>***> from ^ZJ. O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. groate. or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows. $j>++£\ . «* from the plural (for 10|1). from lij? -» J*te. JJJ* (a woman's name). O a . wJ^»t « x dogs. *»L-£l J and 3JUJI. ^^**. <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim. jjW** youths. <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah .» . ^. Proper names. rem. ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274. 246). as <Ltjx*. OxO xp . g. x x ^ a K *l»> . x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?). x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G . 3 f> —Etymology 3 . consisting of two words (see § 264). . J ^j&jac. e. <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. from j^lw. w>jijjux*. slaves.jt— in triliteral nouns.t ** * x .\ bags. jjj houses. ^jsuyZt. jjUauL> power. B from yj. form their diminutives from the first word. 5 o-» j o x (see § 274).jlo^ a Ox g wo//". The termination x .^-0*^3^. sultan. jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 . %LJ>\ ribs. . £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o). to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e. S_ diminutive.g. the second remaining unchanged 273. (see § 307).. Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) .

u~^ a cup (Fr. £ x d *• . *t* 3 .— Diminutives. **+&. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#.. a bow. but S^aj cm o«r or cow. and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG.**^*. S_ B not added to the diminutive. Rem. j**J a sea. has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j. 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. rem. 3 f rad. J3 a J-^>.3.. 9 For example. 3 /(^ «* * 3 . 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J. tasse). geminatae are resolved. O a herd of she-camels.»»1> 2j*o time. A. * from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. E. war. i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich. 3* 9 0*3 . which in is masc. Rem. is b. The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill. Rem. But see § 319. as 9 0*3 . 5— is O 171 But diminutive. If the second radical be a weak letter. a. the rear or back. and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). same reason.g. w*>j£- . rem. the front. 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. b. a tree. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy..] 7 f" l\j2. ^/tfuXS. «5^9^J e>j*su. J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride. in order to avoid ambiguity. J* 9 frij* A^3. If the noun contains more than three consonants. value. but *^w S^a^w jX» . cattle. e. pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs. 9 0*39 .g. O^ij-iy^- . 9 0*3 .$>. The diminutives of the fem. which <i masc. makes s^j^88/J . 276. «. . D. 90*390* sj^. Sju jc«.. M/J ones people or 2W6e. is whilst j*\j3. w>G (v>^ a door. j*a>. *3 . ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth. j^. seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju.. 9*0*3 U m. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. E.. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . a wedding feast. c. j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales. j*aj. Nouns Subst..). is usually masculine. G.g. j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" . do not take 3_ for the yive (fem. u°y* 9 a young she-camel.§ 276] if II. <Sc Adj. Juj3 * j . 00* w-^ * J r. u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). and fem. though also of both genders. t w~«j 3 s»-J. makes Zj*t 275. cardinal numbers. 90* J *->j&-.—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . . Tfie Noun.

rem. juc. Rem. and Ml >y*~i\ are also used. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . it Words • of the form J^li. £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 . £$»-). b. as js. an egg. from <blw a young woman. Ox ^_. (***». certain bitter tree.c> « farm.\jj x J a poet. /"Lb a fold (i£j£). it § 13. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown.172 Part Second. e. o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation. The forms J^jj^. A>*1 &/ac£. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich. (J?>k x J a snake.— Etymology Rem. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. a. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-. J *£j£-. as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. instead of f^w.g. or the Parts of Speech. 4jb aw animal.> x J be formed C-sJ^J. weak.] 278. ^S^> . an ^ **^>-£. * x i^*b a calamity. ?r^ w»ry. x x these letters § must be separated. the latter for 6. Ju~>t. i^>. as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j. . but the regular forms are preferable. ^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ .jt. x J x Rem. though derived Ju*fc. If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. £>*£> an eye or fountain. ^5^-j a ?m7/. ***i&. ^lu OWxJ . D Jb***' a ^^. fri^. and <5ju. Words 5 x of the <Lj^w. youth. a-suj x . [§ 277 and thing. £*>>o.^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. 277. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£. If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. in which the e. Ox cHj^ a horseman. initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth. £~i$Z>. x a slave. . Rem. o x vulgarly 2u^t..). a. -i^w an old man. this JLolj.into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p . elif. from the radical ^^. <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. «l not vJ-^uj^.g. djj^ 9 s J a handle. a festival. and treated 5 x r a 9 . 3. ^J^cu^!. x J . OwxJ ybtfd. a o 5 x j . [Oomp. makes following the plural ^Lt'. In other cases § change is optional. commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. O 5x J ^. ajU? a Rem. Conversely. From C-*u a fcm*e.

x J . . some at 0^1 say ^^. forms its diminutive accordingly. Awj. A.§ 281] II. they termination 3_ or not. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a . x x I Rem. affluence. Rem. pa#. have the E. j* x£ § 278. § 278). x resume ^ x J . j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. A5JA. Sj^j J 3ji». iwte. . 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John). others ^j**\ ^j*-\. and a. is dji or d$i. of which the radical <su^i. the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs .1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. <**a* (for *«x#).l). £ * I ^^pA. a*«o~> . ^js. which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). i**-!. ajju j^. # . but irregularly. 4-0U 3-w a JWW. such as Jucj from j^j.g. etc. the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . Rem. J still. Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ . duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£. 281. Sjljl a sma// water-skin. A^al ' brother (>±. (accus. lost their third radical. for . letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. radical The infinitives fern.\ (accus. ^^. 6. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. if the . mouth. it in the diminutive. & s J . {y>\). ^i. —Diminutives. iy-j^w £*w & »p. r. L5 r ^£. . The Noun. which the - 173 two 279. ( .1 j>* blood. Nouns Subst. —recover . v-tj^. last * A '•* 3 5 weak. 280. of . rejects one of them x . ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven. —whether 3 . £U*c a ^/£. spots. a £-t . *U water. itj^A. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. a). rem.-*»-t. A lost first or second radical is not restored. — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use. 05 x Sjufih. of verba primse j. like 5x1 and others x . as 3 j^c & promise. Nouns which have fern. 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. ^JJ^) 0i x J f . . 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name). x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl.^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted. & Adj.> ju~>l.

C* i Jam < (see § 269. and *. if of four. .0 J ' ^— . this consists 9 of three consonants. w-->j^-. and ^La. rem. nouns in . s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. ^-jy jIa (for jjIa.t. their original letter. With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed. exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240. " " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«. b) feeble. the softened or curtailed diminutive.174 Part Second. falls (a) If a masc. . and ^ Rem. <u£. b). &-i^. j-*£. 283. this termination away . as ^-^j^. <uiA (see C § 281). J C^A thing. the root. E. >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo. . feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. ^. *"***»- *!/©»•. ^hU j-}>* . or the Parts of Speech. j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*. are like those of fern. (b) Fern.] B 282. djj-** (a name). take a prosthetic E. 242) dead.-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9. ^f O^t a son. the diminutive 9** 0*J .) good. 284. D. Uutdu.l sister. (for ^-Ul) people. 0*J J*j& 9 .^*-^ reject the . consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i .g. r. r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus. [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — .t. G. ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). e. 9 0* J 9 o * J . and distinguished <u^». j^t^A.g. j^J^a-o]. as u^i$* from ^13 a judge. (for j->». a The diminutives formed of Cs». Those nouns which. noun ends in S_. diminutives would have been J^\. and recover .'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0. « name.**0 ' and take S_ . after elif. elif. in the first two by the termination. %i$) from ctj a pastor. .g. rem. It— reject these terminations s * i . 3 . C-w*j* . This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ. ^t. daughter. having lost their third radical.i j) ^ M^ U .

a rag. w**^». an allotment. 3u<LJlz. as " . 8 a firebrand. a morsel. vi anything. J**->3j * A . »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. .^t g . as if or * p-L*-** brocade.Q. *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#.a milk-pail. as SJJi. »-x 1^3. X a-a»J a portion.. b) ^jtj* (see § 305. from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. and tjt^Jj a register. jUjj n dinar. Nouns Subst. ^Ua garment. Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases.jUJI a human being. rem. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286. *$>£. . 0x0 l^Js a fragment. A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset. as 3-cu5 a quantity. &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. ika. : J^. as^»l*». x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or . *$j* a sect.jUic. iakS. OxJ JU-/ a . II. x x |Ut. as Ox Oj S/o* brown. irregular diminutives are d^j . OxJ tjl^O smoke. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl».— Diminutives. of <>>1). a public •'u office or bureau. J x 175 Ox J . The Noun. Very <i & Adj. such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. a pelisse. — The form (6) a wooden pin.*. fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. x * i" A J . a*a). as r. Zjsuo yellowness. O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. a gulp.j a man. aJ-wJ (compare the plur. j»\£*j a cold. a fever. from 0s J jU> and ->. acj**-. aj^> a draught (of water). -**& . ~ 5 a *" c nightfall. jljt. a live coal. OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet.M. a piece.. O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. tj ltLJL g. A. dJU a night. j~*>*. 2*b. a« cl «. piece of 285. '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. of J-wol ^e evening). »xx ilfcj. ^jL-^Jl . iL^I.M. O Rem. 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . . Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J .§ 286] II.->»>. O-i^ij}. SlLJl*. account-book. <i. a piece of land. a mouthful. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small . if B a collection 5 of poems. ^x Ox a vessel. Ox certain garments. . 23j) a light blue. and j L. redness.

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

l a Aar# ' (gen. juf» the liver. [JUa.). JU< - state. used in producing fire (gen. masc). a road. fern.]. J O^. fern. i^ji a horse [gen.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path.].—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [j^c.jUaiw authority. . clouds. *• (gen. J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part. a booth. hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power.). a shop. fumed] jjS a pot. fern. ?-*-o peace.] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding.L». 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^. w**l3 a 0* well. condition (gen. a road (via strata). a marriage. fern.] * V cL. a knife 0-a^> s (gen.] ^h^S a bow » (gen. - J~~£ /toney. [prop. > JUs the neck. <Sj~> journeying by night. natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. I) . soul [when signi£-3j spirit. j**~t peace.- C o of wood. p\*o a measure for the forenoon. £. fern. masc). ySis> OJ a spider (gen. fern.). a o o m kettle (gen. fern. a phantom. a sovereign. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. .ambergris. fern. rain.]. masc). 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. weapons.* « B shop. t3>w « market.).).). the rump [gen. masc).b nature. street or lane.). etc.182 Part Second. J US the the nape of the neck. s OjJla. tion [gen. <» tj»o J a way. corn. 0>jJ» a road. IU-w the sky or heaven. fern. 90 j ^o^w a ladder. fern. Ij3~> a wall (gen.] a tooth.

masc). %\+~t a. [*zXLc dominion. fern. b).— Fern. x w>jj~cu© j^. 9 J ' . ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man. an intestine (gen. The most usual termination. and that contained in § 291. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_. a. the mouth. since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender. i-jjLo mi #> . which must be learned by practice.] and jJj a well. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word . (gen. of Adj. Rem. 9^J0^3" struck. A. ^ grandfather. 9 x Rem. C From most adjectives 293.- great. jui» the liver. Jjj the bone (either ceiling. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue. the upper arm. a water-carrier. The Noun. become masculine. JJ M# (gen. u^m 9 . cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. B b. 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc). a^3) a yotmg woman. masc). are mas- culine. but the . *+Jk* 9 • x . CO . j) 9 x • . - 2^i <jl©ju repentant. « y 9 " ' For example. and s-^ja.] Rem. from the masculine. & Adj. s the shoulder. or CC (§ 290. are later times ^i. 9 ^ 3_. j£&>. radius or ulna) of the fore-arm.§ 294] II. before 3. aj^jJxa . . Nouns Subst. by the radical ^ letter. the maw. a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast.). as S^l^w from ^l-o-w. ^— . The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. in ship. [^j£s. fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen.] [j^jdfc ffl^l. ajUL» from *Uuw.. a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac. The above list. as jU fire. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. fo'to or shin-bone. the right direction. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . [Rem. affecting the ^— 294.

184 Part Second. ^J*%c. 87. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . ijj/^t. Rem. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . B 295. another.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. with hemza. This view is . feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first. and the modern d_. do\jj£. {£j£~> thirsty. when they have the superlative signification. ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a. confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. The latter word can be used indefinitely. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. ^UUa*. fearing. . of the n yj . * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . . *03 Rem. 7 supra). is ^jk** *0* . i jsuc^S the smallest. e. cities. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . . at. * O is * . not in signification. 133—137. . . angry. te\j£. 1. 0*0* Rem. c. *>» [§ 295 A forms p. 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. comp. a. Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * . gCA 3 *0i form J^t. as SAJLj. * b. without any corresponding masculines. ^Jiji* . o io* lowing genitive. § 301. •&\ not superlatives. 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. one. " iJy^S that of j±. . £)^+^> * ^^as-. O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. io* .-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. Gr.\ (forjjktl) other. &UL*w O^j* naked. " ° J 3* . as . and below b. because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. . (b) O^A±- timid.pregnant. in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. . feminine. rem. are preferable c. has ^j^t. O***** sated. (a) * * . Kamil. ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. *0 * (-0* . § 299. The numeral jt»»t. in which case the feminine "0 largest. i*JL». rem.] 10—15. 30* . see Comp.-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat).

antelope]. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5. Nouns Subst. [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx . OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman. Jj**. nor one 'x J to x carry loads. £ r<0 s .^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. w>J*^ £ J Jj*. 8 O Exceptions are rare < . ibj^. But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed.» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U. D. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was. fern. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . A. J x £ as yua\ yellow. or / thought her. and also if it has the Ox J x . 185 296. .§297] II The Noun. *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman .] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. A JajI. i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. an enemy. of Adj. nor one for milking. or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. The following forms are of both genders. Ojdx Ox J x .. ° -» " .-3 [and again. OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad. 24 . patient .. Rem. Stw a sAorw sAeep. • " (a) sitive). when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular. db^£>j and 5->>^». as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**.. which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x . \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient . ^£j-t^ an d 297. J x . " J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed. tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. i\^~*** beautiful. rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race. . & Adj..j a patient and grateful man. . x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. as }j& x hostile. Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^. amazed.^ a lying man. . where Ox J x x . Rem. *bjjdt */» / (rain). Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w. G. as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress).— Fern. a. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*.

C>». <Ua>JU . a praiseworthy way of acting. Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*. —Etymology fern. [§ 297 A [Rem. or intransitive). 4jli*^ [. or the Parts of Speech. ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ». <1 D. ZjuslZ oLag temperate. £/te Exceptions are rare Ox .<« x x x W a new wrapper. and under the G . <jUju» isU a <* «. rem. j^J^o. x x Exceptions in either case are i rare.] . fern. docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel..J mountain-road « of ascent. (§ 6). ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. J-^5 oUi a murdered woman. jlkfc* ajjU*. = 5^^=>. x JJ/ (b) J**s.j^ w^j-5 well. . which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ . x 2ri^A. 233. but (t ^.< Sl^ot is allowed. as ^yJL^c poor. Zj~a-> + + . x 5 x t jlj <aa. chaste.g.j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl. x . '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor. it If J~*s has the meaning of . but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered.o an l^-Jfe O acclivity. blameworthy habit. when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***. Ox Rem. For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^. 3 ju^».o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . fa^C.** *oW>> 2x perfume.and p a declivity. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*. = iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and. 0x0 II ^ .J1 .186 Pakt Second. 0x0 « and J**a*. a wounded woman. on the other hand. a x ~ x J x . **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. G.g. Hence the difficult nouns >yt. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume. ._ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives . J UJLd. 228). $$^=> a D. or j-Ja. Ox x self-willed woman. mercy (c) is C>xru>a». J*o*^» x . b. aa^ac t/ojj* Rem. G. .

J) 3. / 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. ^aui*. a) e. p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or.jX^i £Lcl». Adjectives which are. 299. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i . actually in progress. an action or state as natural and permanent. of course. J**** D. dsuo). The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting. jJbl). 0s . . (see § 81). Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her.-A sAe will is to-morrow . and plural Nouns have. .tlib. jy>. as ^J-ol*. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 . her. The Noun. they form a feminine in 3_.— The Numbers. O x 0*0' «r. I ji£ iiUUs . R. 00^*' A and yj am M Vol. JJ»U without ornaments.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it. 298. pregnant. last 9 1.] ^. A.g. ' j-ojto.. as iU. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day .. Rem. chaste. § 136.witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck. bust naked. jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^. at any rate. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling. n. s S. having swelling breasts. O^j or . applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate .j&3 and some others as jU. £/&e J JkJlk divorced. 96* *r^> *. oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn.] menstruating. J B ^U. JLac etc. rem.. CUa-ojl U. *->*>*>-. dual. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. G. or about to begin (£ol». 187 infinitives (§ 230. But they designate the said action or state as beginning. js*-c [^jLa».§299] [(d) II. ^J-a**.ti Adj. like verbs. 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. by their signification. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam . s * 9s. Nouns Subst. w-. The Numbers of Nouns. to females only. 15.0 ** her time or term. w^olk. three numbers. as C ^oaJI i-tful». ^Zo bearing twins. the singular. j-wl». .

188 Part Second. sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. B OW occur. t. <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow. § 294. \j\5sid. Rem.« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^. ft. ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- . <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£. O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^.. admit the forms oWUl . as Lac a for $*a£. which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff. two buttocks.a bustard. J . x © x nine X (§ X 296). O (see rt^ ^rni.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco .. SI . x are. but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. CT ^L^». as ^J3 a youth. l£>** legal opinion. —In and even ^jbl^a^o. J) c. Rem. when sprung from a radical $ or ^.*. {\J>— a). usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. § 167. Forms like ^jtzl/*. b. a. as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom. it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual .>0. x x however. But <Ut a J and testicle. >**>ja butt for shooting. said by some to be admissible. r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert. not restored in the dual. 3 is changed into buttock. oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. —Etymology a nation. the singular of which. x the termination either be as *T_. the j is restored the dual . for . [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in . a. r*' x w*s b x x x X . .-XS. x x x . a. jjljt^^o *" x i\j^».red. though the former preferable. %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some. jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground. which was originally a 3. however. ^j\i\j*~a. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj). a). 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . oW^ a 15*:. becomes 3 x . the hemza is may retained or changed into 3.) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc). «L»£> a dress (for jdJb). . as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ).»>. would be Rem. rem. ^ fi. for 16 3 3^). used. The hemza . \j\}\jjua. the j x o£ . jl. I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l).

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

though by their to fern. jjt the goose. A. see § 340. \JyJ&. Masc. etc. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . 5) we find o>*^ 120. D. b. their diminutives. masc. » of Hudeil. c)*. (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. Adjectives. * * in the 9 commentary on the Diw. fern. £-*»»t.§302] II. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. £^t> A***.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings. For the see 2. they might seem belong rather to the class of plur. however. ones family. rem. of jus Abd). rem. and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. B f ' lLauL£». which denote rational beings. 195 AaJ-b).*?. § 304. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. < . OJJ^&y*' 9 * . adjectives exemplified by j**o\. * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin. s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO . sanus masc. have also the s plur. p. § 296. ±jbj\ the earth. Nouns Substti Adj.. Jjbt . App. (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. To the words enumerated under highest heavens. a. G. etc. The Noun. etc. 13.0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. * J m O^U^s . have the plur. san. San. vs. from last < 1. of j^ti) an inferior poet. c. j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin. «. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification. of J**g a man). but more especially from adjectives when used substantively. J) Rem. when joined Rem. fern. Rem. J***J (dimin. £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. II. We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions . sing.] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. sanus masc.— Plur. only to substantives denoting rational beings.

[cas. rem. and the like. x 3 x in x . Rem. x . Some x fern. which the third radical (j. a stony. Comp. Rem. makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. « xx wholly indeclinable. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264). rem. it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. when they are the names. thing.j-|juj £bt w>t. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. see § 340. juj j-ojJt H-^t. men x Construct compounds. s i Further. used by children at play. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. Thus w>j£jjui«©. si)3J^ *jj an d. . e. rem. especially those of Od x . as also the numerals denoting the tens. £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung. ^t J any one of etc. vulva. ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel. volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. possessors. as Zj&. 03J^ . — It may be b. which have no singular. Great Bear. h). which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable. J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word. 6). (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299. arises a. [like &+Lc ii. also § 108]. ^j^k* obliq.. J ^t.196 Part Second. £)£j 3j£» a ball. not of persons. very J irregularly. § viz. sanus masc. is rem. d. 4 ^. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. j>~L*>. x x x \jjj hu\j $£. 325. it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. JL». $>\. d) nouns in S_l . stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. jx which are called j 0. > *^* a stick ?/ear. D but in the case of compounds with to say . have a plur. %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl. form ol. from 20 up to 90 x J x '. a secondary formation ^>*iw. e. c). i 'z-Zubeir . (§ 323). a privy.U ^J^.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. x etc. like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. and called j*4j)\ l O^t. ^JA x O J > JP a . a sphere. has been elided. <J}L*. but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191.g.

o . Feminine adjectives. of the second oW^LLot. of the letters. x 3s. which are usually feminine « . The names # # (§ 292. (a) etc. rem.§303] II. 5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m.. If a jo <& Adj. admit also of a pluralis fractus. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot.z2a. 197 is put in the plural.] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j. 196). plur.9 a village. (a OL-UJ juA Hind. The Noun. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi.. 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' .lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx . b). w**. Nouns Subst. xx and fourth forms. •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. 9 ^+»-x pregnant. sanus fern. x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_. » The names 3 . Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man. b) . (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 . San. Jas. o£ J *0£ . O^t^w. f. Rem. x J ^Ufc. the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . duj. The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense. OUJLli (§ 301. e) . OUiJa. when r ' Rem.*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 . x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. [Rem. J xOx t 9 xxtfx . verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal. rem. as xx . as j*j 5 . Fern. G. is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx . A. wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or .—Plur. . (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— . . Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). and such names of 3 ^x 5. 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D..Lp. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus. The feminine nomina (§ 5 . ObjL*. Proper names of women. 6^/ a gazelle. Oljlj-o 301. of the months x . as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition. a (<#) 9 £ bustard. o*> . x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. OUUa^o.0*3 3 . The pluralis sanus fern. oL©*}Lfc. 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * . be put also in the plural. as uL^-cu. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress. 00 9 x ( xx . may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % .

prognostics. Otjl©~> (though this 9 . Ob^. Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is . ^aj\ the earth or ground. § U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). o '* *£: . j*wlo annunciations. Olojt (see J * * . 6) from f" .- 136) f~ijti a date.198 Part Second.6t or marriage. 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ . B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin. a * compositions. £>WJ*aa .c arranged. s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha. oU-jt a /afoe rumour. which have no plur.. 9 s * s . as * 9 . Many fern. 9 < Olw^. "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. Ot^Iwt. entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) . -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses. j created) . (lit. or the Parts of Speech. an animal. a 9 %<• j book. termination 9 * . D rem. Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301.^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b. § a literary composition. d s * ^l q» an '. works (from ui . d * a warm 9 ' bath. which are used in the plural as substantives. which have not a fern. Jbtj-* awning. or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property. b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. a fountain. a chronicle. ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. (i) Verbal adjectives. .« living thing.> .t § word is . J J . Ul aw ^4##. uLoLeJ. OUtj^U> a . . 9 oU L^a. Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. difficulties.. which some. * C inanimate or inorganic thing. O^Jbt or C^aI. jLL~ijl+. 9*0' stout camel. existing) literary . Obj. and * some nouns. irj a OUU^U^o o * .«gv . . however. J ***** * a 9 . a tent.) . c-aJI^j J (compare . 301. substantives. OtS^l^-w . C/^ t» . fractus O .^. Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher. oUtj*». even ff» when they denote persons i . ji U^ . ' s j S . jtJlwt. 9 c-s —Etymology an era. iUt j*£ a caravan of . w-j^Uj wonders. ol***. ou». (jlj^U* a jet deau. masc. J ' x . Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ . rem. marvels. ObU^. loaded * 9 s < * camels.tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities. classified) .U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations.

^»-). volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin. 4Jl*5. i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. (J^t o^er. w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. and Adj. . Jj* village. . as Ja». *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand. w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. i*3 [a leather tent. all£> « kidney. LUJt M<? highest. w*J> s J 5 . § 213) .39.3 rare . ^^IsuUt . <j?Ji Su^j a turn. . SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. Bldsse). j). j^\.§304] * u> II. without tenwin. Hj <>£ i^j a knee. § Similarly b). J 9 * J ilas ^ j. a dynasty. <L*J a foard. are twenty-nine in number. (§ j^^U*. rem. 3. 4*1 J a nation. w-£>j white spot. x^P a )> a dome. a . k. ^a\ 6 ' J ..3.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest. except those specified in § 302. Plur. as 9. ^ali JSJ 9. 304. Jy^t »te greatest. OLJS.— Plur. 0*}L**r*. another (fern. 9. . and The more common forms J ' of the plur. Nouns Subst. A (i) All diminutives. J 9 ' J . fern. 9. The following is a list of these forms. UU»J 0' . on a horse's forehead. 9.. which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical. jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern. 5/JJ 1.0 j^aJ) . a trinket. 199 uJ ^ J bound books.3 L J*5. adjectives. fractus of substantives triliteral roots. 234 and § 295.^ 5x as <Haj a present. s J The Noun. or &&&&? (Germ. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune.6. t J 9 jya ' J . . 9 * . of J*$l as a superlative . see D 295. and examples. 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. ^^. . as J-*»- a hillock. . 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. 9 x J . § 213) 9 *J .3 (for . ^jlx)\. of j^t. b) . Fr actus. Rem. AjjX». Fract.] district (Gr. ^j^t . with the principal corresponding singulars. j±\. (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. of Jy^t).

O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet. D.. rad. without tenwin [§ all together.200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 . vol.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2. and superlative 9 6 3 . JUi. e. * s * as £jjio yellow. of *«*». & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309. (§ 296) .jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU. JUi. a#). 3>-»l 6/ac&. [Also in some other cases.. [Rem. w>jla. JUi. 8].] 4. J***. a. derived from verba med. 9 * Isufc. 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i.. III. 1. Jtf. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . C a middle-aged married woman. § *£*. 9 . s WSfWJ. 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad.J in. . J^fcli. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. . § 137 and rem. not comparative 3 . jJua lU^ fawe. JUi. [§ 304 A Plur. has certainly both £$~t and £yi. ^-O^.l. j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j . «*-j^ etc. as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick. G. 1. w>**-*-' humpbacked. ptjuj fern. iU-oJ. ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. [Comp. ot Sing. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '.). b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years.l and i[x2j (fem. not derived .] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. woman). 9 3 j 5 . jy*> jljl heat. j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red. 9 3 II. ^©-ot <&«/. however. i\x+*. J3J 9 3 . c. j J . A*-^^ ^-^J. Fract. I 9 J J j$\. j**. They may. . derived from verba med. R S. rad. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j . JUi. &$£ . 302. ^o ^ . J-*it. and 3. *- of J*it. 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*. [Accordingly a efawrt has J^. ii.g. rem. cAsrft tfliwfe. etc. 5. make *»*<»». i\*Z£>.] 93 J>»-]. 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi. farrow. retiring 9 * 9 3 . 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. had young.

as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . or ra/. 9J * A Sing. ju*c . 201 Plur. jealous. Jas. j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. Rem. and not derived from verba 9 3 3 . O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna.—Plur. 9 3 3 . J*w>. J**i. tj£* jtji -t) a tick. 9 j j . j^o 933 9 . a thin. w. as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut. the heavens. * . J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> .JL>! female.§ 304] II. rare 9b' as w. J*$. & Adj. a 9 ' messenger. 93393' JU^i j^s . s^jo. }j. ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a. 9 3 3 . jjJ j±~e patient.jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood. The Noun. 9 ' 3 Saturday. 3 3 . J>*s. J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' . Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy. &**£. white piece of sphere. 93' who warns. 9 ' .La*»&. 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs.] tertiae rad.$. T III. w *>*»» . Nouns Subst. 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. a message. f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. ^ j yet. a stallion. a 9 throne. not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat. J^i ^0^/0. J*3. bier. geminatse or verba tertiae rad. 9 3 ' 3. \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick. 933 . qj*> J 2 .I Ojj 9 . t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . j j J>w. 3 3 . it £y&.jUa». as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . 9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' . 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. . rough. Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*. ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. for or 9 sacrifice. » 3 . 91 3 . 'Oi jjUft a rein. J***. Fractus. jj~* 9' ' £ . '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . 3' . " a large bowl or tree. 93 w~o£ 3 . uUL* 9 J I .4a. iUi. j et ^ [ . tertiae rad. j et ^j . verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion. ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar. a dromedary. ^Xi v>jj an idol. Fract. . u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' . j^J .'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. %~o. J>**. [A rare case is s^ot from . 2. fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. 9 ' 91 » 9 . *• cloth. J*3. ' thicket. 933 > a 7-00/*. 9 JjtS continued. A.>£».

oox 1. < oooej . JAj]. ^*xa. v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5. J** continued. gemin. S. wo. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. ^o*3 a flock of sheep.g. OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. O O J Rem. jwt. »tew. OxOx fo*^ « farm. 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. j&*-'. rad. Jul.Jj . Jjii * J J a sea. are is J '. as A*Ja. J—j. rare r. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). 957. w>b3 ^e common fly. aX*5. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. [j-4^. Ox %~6 r. . ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. rare Ox dx a to£. just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). * S^J aw example . ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. J Forms rare. ^~*Jk Ox . as a rule.5 a £M0tf. £«J living. manner of 2 Ox . f . J J III. . ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*.13 a time. i. s* . xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J). % J » Jifcti. J For. jUfe. a building. xJ JuJJ pleasant. a maxim. Ox x J J changed into x J fetha. x JJ. Gs . \£).202 Part Second. from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o). so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. Fract. . 5. OxOxx . character. or pattern. dL»£ft. O 0J-. as j-ij~>. V. ^o-j»* . It may be J J a poetical license for Jju. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae. [§ 304 A Plur. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.j*3 4*15 a fathom. unless O * J . X X Sing. as j**& a merchant. 1. ^ « foc£ o/* tar. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain. milk. l£) or i«&}]. e. R. j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. JUi.] J is j*£ x (for j+%). C il*9. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . *JaS . * [Again. . Some- times the darama of words med. jj~* ju **». 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. JjJ. ^^\ (for t^t) .] u . Jjtf. or :>j^- IV. 1.

u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f. cU § * OJx . pt«i 9*0 \ . A Sing. /JJ milch-camel. 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying. a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. not superlatives X . district. Ox iojj ^ garden. o^~*-J x 9 J x . **~> a beast of prey. p{~6 * . 90/ 5. Ox Ox . a dress. ^Uj .§304] II. ^J» a ~-jj gazelle.. A. geminatse or tertise rad. *-UJ 9 * . camel's xOJ 7. not derived from verba medise rad.aA a late born camel's colt. Nouns Subst. lM» 9-\jj • • . 9 * * * . s^aefe. B Ox a foW. cloth. J^». 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. O - 9 . a woman. 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . 9 * . £U£ (rare). iw>. 203 Plur. *W-£. J^U» . «. *0l L5J*J. 0»x oxj iUi. iUi. x # Ox w>U*© .—Plur. oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 . <>* cm occasion. wolf. <z sp^arr. *'£' duij the neck. an arrow. J. * as ^J*** a hill. Fract. t -* j?L»J. verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . . *. jtj-» . J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard. 5*5. 9 * * JIoa. 9**9*** 3. # 9 . ° £ 9*** JL». <LUi. JU-j . 9 * . «x . *1>L». &J a o£^o Rem.ai . colt. The Noun. rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. J Us 9 * continued. w*tfi a wind. v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. aX*s Ox # dish.a 9 * he-camel. £-j£ . has a plural of this form. 9*90 . & Adj. <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . D w>Jls «m^. J*i. cUj . Fractus. * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . as v*~> x A*8* . 0x0 4^ jU a a note. Stj-«t. JJ* # a shadow.*-£ a hywna. 9 * . fern. cbj fern. handsome. ^Ut a hermaphrodite. J Ox v*o - difficult. • <• 4. as ^^1 female.. V. w»^c> ° { 6. J**. 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. ^o.

) good. 9 s a. is C Rem. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3. An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. . 11. as j+*£* large. verbal adjectives. thirsty. . 97 seq. 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». ^*ij£>> noble. j^J JjbU drinking. JUai. as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. fern. 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant. j-h^) (rarely vt base. %. Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. JUs 9 continued. ^*£j£*. V. ed. [§ 304 A Plur. w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10.- ># adjectives 9 s . j*\>£*. J 8.(for #00<^. 9. 9 x tertise rad. From words ^su pure. jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.204 Part Second. - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . Thorb. 9 s . s s - Sing. Fract. sick. [wi^g. o 9 s feeble. old. 9 s 9 . J«^Lj. 9 s 9 s . used . O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J . few words and Hafagi's comm. ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>. s s £-Usuj from fern. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping. 9 9 s . tfAe channel of a torrent .*-«-* . 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry.c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw. i\ -* s k s . iLai. j^Ls . js\% 9 s ju». Dorrat. UU^fr l " IV s . . s 9 s . 6. jU£» . standing. as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. $/ / »/ &*$***. ~s yaJo a merchant. j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. verbal adjectives. 9 . J. 9 s 9 s signification 9 s . oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**. w>U^o 9 s 9 . 9 a courser . ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. not having a passive 9 s 9 s . jL^. 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem.

J calf. Rem. assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket. 0- syllable is In words med. 9 J jys^j J . q 903 33 . 3 . 5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow. J 933 (for 90' ..> usually makes ^~. J*5. D.3 Jui. J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr . # military force. a ewe lamb. jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army. # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder. b. r^^yi Jy^ a year. 9 . Jl^j from Jjj mean. u*>*»- *>*»• the neck. A. 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp. that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^. 0- C-wO a house. 50 - 50 90J . 5 0- Rem. 1. Jas # as j^*j a sea. G. others g vi.3 or ^^3. 205 Plur. f»5+wi c). 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem. a chief. 3 J 9 0' . w>J*^ ju& . a 9 Mtn. and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e. a doc§ 269. -- 5 JJ . 9 . 9 3 3 . >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle. rad. ^M.] Some J bid. fLcj from c. 9-2. Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. JA 90^ Jjji. *y~>\ w>ju a scar. 5 3 141 #~J seq. tor. V.—Plur. rad. ^»^j^ a J^. to Tabari). Fract. gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year. own 5 . ju*. 5 J J . 3 J^j (for of the vowels.j or Jl*-.) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 . 50 { a.§ 304] II. j>U. ^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical.. The Noun.3 JU* continued. u-^i soul. 9 .\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd. & Adj. Fractus. 90' 9 i/fo JJ . Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . Nouns Subst. 9 0^ 9 J J . an ^> Dv ^£ . ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man.^*!). ^J> (comp. 5 -£ Ja3. A Sing. J) as if from y~$. as 5JJ 3 5J 5 . or f-y**. g. l£^>) § 215). From words med. «j.ji a troop. 5 - lion. 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 . gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss.

9 x rad. . . 3 of the form J-a-i . or med. vel verbal adjectives. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. O^x OJJCxOx . > ^^-At (for ^3-ac). 3-0). rad. a period of Jj>*». «i)b ^y^» .206 Part Second. Ox ^b. 3 ojj 5 -» standing. wiytw 5t^> Q •4. £fc fcwr. j-©~> j*>v sleeping. gemin. OJJ [Rem. tooth. witness. .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a j9wrs# of money. . u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a . J^Z and J*£ . a M#. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua». verbal adjectives. 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself. a %? or summit. t^JU. as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. JjU> pregnant. 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 .. # O3S3 J J . Ox J^U. aw inkhorn. Ox Ox £UJ. [§ 304 A Plur.0.o or ^j. 9 * * B Rem. OU S j proud. OJx time. not mediae rad. ^yL> or ^iu. ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . J>c$ o JJ . J3** continued. sitting. not derived from verba tertise rad. j*y and jtg^o fasting. J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#. V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant.>>*=> 9 J J . j>yo and j^e . aa». . rare 9 J J . ^. -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «. ^JUU a #m<7. 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night. a casket. as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&. D vii. jcclS.] X J3. plural is From words med. VI. 0x0 J *4j±. #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. iUi. 9 d J . wicked. Sing. ^53 or ^j3. *->>** . J J' '? . Fract.* this J 9 x x rare. 1. J^j a xx j mountain-goat.JU> («JLo) a W6.

as AaJU mourning. SjjJ (for . . SjiJa . 3 i D *£** . VIII. is by usage pi. from oi5U» fearing . icb j5U s^'wa. *5lb obedient. j^^ a «^ unbeliever. aiiJ. <jU. Fract. 9 x J. and not derived from verba tertise rad. verbal adjectives. 207 Plur. Jj«i continued.ajudge. %\}b- .§304] II. v'>> -i"3 > sleeping.S. JUli» perfect. **+*£ 2. denoting rational beings. ^ . in which into B case the j must be changed ^ . . x 9 5 J . St x 5 j fU». ^u» conjuror. (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£.] . menstruating.>lju©]*. of Jli. djztie (for **>&) . jU a soldier. is Rem. of the preceding a. unbeliever. x as J^U a workman. Anomalous is having no weapon. The Noun. ignorant. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad. - . u^u*- fi iUU. fugitives. in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. gem. of 9-y>. ^^a. 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b. A. fd j . * [ J^ defeated.Fractus. 0>£. properly pi. of ji..js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower. 1.] (with rare exceptions) as^»^».» a deputy. Ox 9 3 J . jwows. verbal adjectives. ^ et ^ 9 . dutiful. IX. JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier. &**). 5^^ [^tfula. cUo j-*L^ aw C . as Ujk for U^*. *• j 9 et fl ^ J . 9 Si A Sing. ^U^ JaU. . i J VII. 5p*w ^ b . § 213). jU JiJLb repudiated. x Jxli.— Plur. [jlo avoiding. js\y o . fern. Nouns Subst. . aw offender. etc. R.xLj. 9 * 65 J . d J 9 . -» absent. J *-*-»- ^U 9 #». [Rem.& Adj. ^ et ^. cLi «Jlo aw artisan.] JU5. 9 5 j . [or med.

9 x xx IX. oW* a sinner. iUi continued. verbal adjectives. Oxx x ££*».] [Rem. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ . aw earring. \j*" *ibl». An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. Oxx branch. [§ 304 A Plur. JaJ. tertiae rad. j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural. 6 xx J x . Rem. rehearser.>L». R S. 4*»^j -**w aw o/d . 0' 9 2. $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . ZJuca ^.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. an ox. not derived from verba Gxx J . Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a .w Oxx generous. tertiae ^ denoting rational beings. as x J . SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. Stjj (for x J ajj^) . acting wrongly. Fract. 1. a weaver.* jj a husband or ^2/0. rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* .] X. du^*. 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf.treacherous. x J or traditionary. as *r> Sx . yo 13 ^ judge. 3U». and derived from verba Ox x J rad. casket. J OOJi^S Q s a . Ox Ox . Ox x 9 x x .208 Part Second..) cLj a manager. fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 . J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x . a nickname given to the Muslims. [2.o feeble. as jjU*. J*9. * x . Oxx tjy> or Sjaj . l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S. x X x 3 . &oo*. foar.] D XL £&. Ja3. 9 ^ x J et ^ . ^ &J«o ^^j a shield. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». 9 x Sing. (for «*«*. olxw. yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place. Sj^** or Sjl*. J^U from verba med.» . . jU x « a soldier. « i-4*«. i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt. as j^j x . O x CO J^ti. <L*jJ. with the same restriction.

9 x x 9x x 5 . jA a tom-cat. as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea. 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. # .—Plur. a brave. B °*i . ' S Cj. as a^U 4. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace.^aa* a gelding. 9xx 3. &L». . *>*-©) X a boy. s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). AjjXi. . *^~b a J t «J Of . x J JU*. 9 cM ow& elephant. S^J «^w aw . J*i as jjj a bull. ^^Jil . has a plural of this form. 90 x . jJa~>\]. £n#e. Nouns Subst.. 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. A. jawt u~*J W* sow/. R. S^-J. as jJj a cMc?. 5^». • waw. A Sing. J-J** ^'c&. S. Jiil. J*** x fo'a. dijt ^6*^U a youth. J*i cl3 . (for j>«») a neighbour. & Adj. 90 9 x x f [j. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y. SjJj . aJUsj 9. X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. w. aw p ape. &kk3. £s>> . u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin. The Noun. 1. /a#. 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard.. ^U. . Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. <7rea£. Rem. j et ^. **^ XII. . 209 Plur. <UaJa. x g „ .>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope. brother. 27 .ork. Oji Jai. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 .Ja~» a /me of writing. 6x0 aJU*. not derived from verba mediae rad. «xx . Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket. a eunuch. 5x0 2. . 9x0 9 . flaccid. hj£ - JJ>j ag#.§ 304] II. as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. 9x0 JU$ . J . 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i. a**o X . coarse. Fractus.. XL iUi continued. Fract. old man.] XIII. Slj««t X a woman. X OxO rt. ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*. few J ground. o .»£>. iUfc.

w*^ a raven. oi~ gjoI o o . ^3j\ . JUfct . [§ 304 A Plur. O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . 1. it has <U»»JI (XV. w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. she-camel. uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. JpjI. a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. cji! . for example. ^ left J hand. o£ '} ^ occur. Feminine quadriliterals.t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\. rare o x£ . JU^t and. o j J*». and OJOii JJjJt. o*-^ a sword.jLJ •* the tongue*. •• ' Rem. TV D • dialectically. 6' cloth. j ^^c an eye. Ja3. B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. G. * [If fern. o£ J^t 5// 3. hill. not derived from verba mediae rad.t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . the x x neck. a staff. as x a leopard. D. . %^~Jt. oibi JfjJl. a fountain. jly3 c^ay. . . ^ et x x J ^. j^Jt . ^b a house. J oi XIII. Exceptions are. at a § di . ^>o. *JL© a rib. 2. <} . Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. by o J oi transposition. Sing. jj}\. j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey. 4. j-*j. as J+*. by transposition. Fract. • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . w>$jI or J w^t - . et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\.t oi &*) o » oi time. as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 5 seq. . iUs. whence. ^tt) i5U a . . x C Rem. for if masc.^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . Jj«it continued. Ja3. &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. xx JOi £ x . ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '. for example. J*w. JjUc « female kid. ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant. by transposition.] . xj eagle. JOi xxx . not ending in *—. aw oath. 84J J**. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . as p\j$ the arm. ^^ 60 C a bow. x x rare .210 Part Second. has j>jI and. a well. and. . 1). according to "El- Mubarrad 50. w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. <3>*t. • m 3^*t). Rem. « jrf Gtot Jijjt.

w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o . . ^^L© a companion. especially .3 9 a x>« aw ^ar. a notion. 9x0? .\ . rarely J*» (see no. 9 « Jlo*> a foad. 9 x . ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword. jl*JI xO? . jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes. Ox . 9 x~> . opinion. J x aft 9x0? arm. .xxO? tooth. (f° r 3^0 a father.^£». Ju^ « 9 . J***. fo^y. 9 XIV. <jt$t fjto . j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. & Adj. JU^t foc&.» festival.j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free. jlcul jJblw t a witness. JU5I .f old she-camel. one would D 9x 3. dutiful. Fract. . w>lJt m>. 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep. jJblb 9 x j3wr<?. J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t . ^. 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. w^J*- Ox x x 0? . x . 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 . 211 Plur. 0/ camels. verbal adjectives. and primse rad. jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door.a judgment. son. 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. from verba mediae rad. (for 9 w~J) a canine . not buying a passive signification. 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . |U^t . 9 . £ . v' o ? . yj+*\ . makes *Lwl.U~ol jj\* tepid. jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard. 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5. jUsl.§304] II. A. Nouns Subst. ^lj tdftv. 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing. jZ> a well. J«*i a Mz'aA. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. a friend. rare 9 x as j-ob a helper.«£. * 9x0? . .^©A3 a fancy. *->\yi\ • £rac#. as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time.^l (for >o~>) a warn^.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. J*». Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms. 2) . . w. JLwl j*y> a day. by transposition. $>-t/il x a thousand. J*». 9 £ an f. jly^l . J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? . Fr'actus. *. 9 x 9x0? J^ti. js\x*. w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) . X 4. a mistake. The Noun. j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w. 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . 9 '-» . A Sing. t %l>\ . 2. jbt f V>t . 0U3I . 5 0?" J»bl Ji.— Plur. 1. jbt 9 x 9 . . >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit. Rem.

1. a o ""*? colt. S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy. a strait.) ' • 2 p <0I g a god. jU»* can ass. 2. t 9 xx 4s*u*fc.] . . Sju*fcl o£ x rod. A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . Ox »--£*£. o^-*i <*wi| *y. 9 . x . 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ . ^jLaJ. . O x J Us. 9 s f}Hil £ . . a wing. (for stingy. *a*-wt X . 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * . 05 £ *L». stuttering. A«-ot . ^JLfr temperate./bo^.a>. <L2£r> XX . C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. ' o£ Rem. O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie. of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . Ha3\.212 Part Second. Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?. § 242).t ^obtb * . ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart. [If masc.t X 0? . 9 £) Ox X d£ . Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x . 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble. 4~aSI X Ox o£ . d. &>J^I O^ ** . see the footnote to XIII. and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ . X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. vowel). aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest.^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant. an oath. B xv. from verba X mediae rad. JUi. S t 3JLfr t J . [§ 304 A Plur. D geminatae or ultimse rad. XX 6 . ^-:. a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS . y^^* o X c^ar. »t rare . * £ . Fract. chaste. especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ . &Jf. x x right hand.^ a fo# niggardly. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. sJ)j£\ XIV. *•** a pillar. xo£ '. 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. OxOxO£"3x j c»*). as Jjj& mighty. 9* bi . . X derived 2. . 3 et 93 t Ox Of.s>j\ v***1* a branch. 3ui^\. JU*t continued. glorious. x U*3 a certain measure. 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ . Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. 9* OS. 5^». —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. 9 * &* ** tongue*. Quadriliterals.» 9.

3. rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . Z+teS 9' oi » . 9 0* . Fract. [L». Oi . vi^l^ 5 . a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile. J**. *iJo\ jj^i. 9 is* 9 . <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. 9 0* 9 Sing.vm/wz. S «* B I >i . letter is bound). *dyi\ Jju a s^. as JJjt^J* Touareg. bird. XV. The Noun. Ajjjj . djj^j\. Nouns Subst. cP^-i. j\js*. ji|>»» v^W. & Adj. l^^s^S.— Plur. as ^5U» a a signet-ring. 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). >u an assembly.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. J^U» a 2. jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. 9. 9 * 4. Fractus. dew. J**. 9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a . 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . Ja». iJbet continued. Oj 9 ' *i . J^1>» . mothers 9 ' t>i " side).] . »£ . it In the old language there are some instances of e. crucible. v^J-*or cawsg. jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). A.§304] II. female slaves. as <>J» 9 . 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. Rem. in proper names. u*j\£. 1. 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture. xvi. Sj^l 9 J jj a button.>t^ a watercourse. £Jl>» .G. J^U .« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. ^JIS a mould. passes into damma. £JU» a s^/. JU. . £ .. 9* i hjj\ * s . di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck. ^>\y*- . 213 Plur. a £wc£- «x hare. J*3. a cover or &d. jt?o£.g. 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! . 65 i AJLaut Oi . Ci^b a motive J * * . Jii. rare 9* Oi . ' J^. substantives . j*ty*. . 9 . in vulgar pro- nunciation.

x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding. a X X X .. J applicable x to J men.sU J a rarity.) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x . and fern. as J-«L».U? a female companion. as x tr*j^ xx . 5»xx verbal adjectives. vulgar. A-JM3 custody. pregnant. s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example. J^ti. jJbljJ. 3. a girl. as X 4y£bU yfowtf. J XX * s . XXIII.214 Part Second. etc.53.) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. x x . rem. B *to A«*a*. J . Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt. X Ox 4. . C 5. Fract. a Rem. ^U. )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). 5 S a horseman. J*l>* continued. substantives Ox x JxxOxx . a district. j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. 5 x wp^r classes. . a proximate cause. ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. Jxx <£l)tyb . P Ox . applicable to females (§ 297. >^^\^o «( . J &>\yo 5j. ajjU. profit. j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. ^-Jljt 4*». a joke.. rare. . «x x JJtjl (for JJI. J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. see no. sociable. a 7 . Juotj^. xx . X ^oSU*. verbal adjectives J . verbal adjectives. ^Ijxi. Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. s * . X? . (for ij^tj*. jJbtjw. menstruating. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. J^U. i^li. *-\y (for ^^y). x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. XVI. earners hump. ^x x . J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. of J Sing.) J i* ^oSl*. region. Ox divorced. . Ox by their signification only J x •» rem. [§ 304 A Plur. O X ^ Ox witticism. J x x 5 9 x a wave. X X J XX . *f\y> i x x .. x Ox aJLcU.^^. 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce.

w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. a letter. y£XVII. £a*»~o a written or plank. o/a woman. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . J wages. 215 Plur. igt>^). J ^ x x .— Plur. f-5bi ttrcwa*. 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. « X X victim. Ft actus. aw J »X t*" island. 85 x x ^x x J affair or business.or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees.. Nouns Subst. *UsU. ^J^^ X ««X X . D x x . SfjJ**. x juLej] «x 4«. J^Lit . x >"' . J*fcty continued. 5x x # *. <JI^». [J*J. J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. The Noun. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. *' i* * a treatise. 9 x x a cowrtf.§304] II. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* . but nevertheless fern. ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. . >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . law. as 4uU*w a c/owa*. 6. J! x x x xx J xx .] . termination 5. x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent . x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . *)!** or <ULx^. quadriliterals. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . whether they have the fern. ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*. j->\j*o < x x . as iDu. &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. D. from 5^«] jJJ the night."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " .. of B (a long vowel). *5l©-o. gen. [Also applied to the male. H*£ X . <So Adj. »»x x (for ^Jt^*-). j-j^o a pronoun. *~5ULo x W0W0. G. J *»x x . i . ^ti^. Fract. £))*?.l». 600/. JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket. a wawtf or weed. x x s/a£>. j->!>»X X . l&uotf. J^l*». Fern. x ^^Oi. A Sing. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 . ^xx . ' x x . a _ thing. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. a J *»x x . a »XX »xxx J x J X . 5 " &a/.> X X a joroo/*. A. * f Rem. a &£ter.

Ox ."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. a black beetle. J . d 5 meteor. s/aw0.» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > .' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest. O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . jtH a yoke. a waW. Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. o!>** 5 J«*». 1. Fract. 9 * 0^°3 9 . and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe.a buck-hare.216 Part Second. o****9 Oj M t Sing. [§ 304 A Plur. OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*. J*i and J*5. * ^)U*-J . JU$. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. x* yu a nightingale. Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . o*^**^/j xx Ox . J 9*9* . 0'***^ * . 603/. a branch. growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. as > Oj*-. O >0 root. OW« oW ^ - «x 6. 5/J bird. 5 v!** a raven./Sre. 6 a I oxj O fl . Sx as J-^. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x . Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard. *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. % ^j^j. w>b a *.jUJ j3~> 9 . J J*».x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . v**M « branch. Sx»^*x . 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. 9 rare . from radicals mediae 3 x J . 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown. XVIII. 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5. \)j3 a lizard. uW^ ^0 x £ i brother. as juft ' a s/aw. Ol***ixJ 3.» 4. '0 5 % * * B 2. Ol*^ rare . v«*^ « ^^^ .jtju* O . Ox neighbour. Ox x J 5 . 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. xj O^*^ « ^%. O x . a worm. lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird. 9 Ox j door. oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . a fish. oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle.

xix. rare J . '•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf. x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. rare XX 9 . J x 9x0 a /<wra&. [v*** grain. C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . 3-i5 d^oj. 3 ' XVIII. o^. 9 x J . 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. 50x Jjt*. x x etc. wing-feather.. Fractus. 9 x x 3. a meteor. 217 Plur. 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. J-*-**. Nouns Subst & Adj. j%<^. ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. 5 x 9 . JUi. 90 50x . 9x 10. &%+•* B 9.§ 304] II. as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . J-j-©^. a woman. jtfrj a slave. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew. a to»i6. A. the short side of a *%» . A continued.* >i wjl^w a firebrand. has ^lj-«t . rare xJ .] 9 feather. # a bustard. Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat. more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . ^L-a*. &\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J .jU£* . as Ja5l»ii mW. j Uai w. and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. dates. The Noun. 9x0x9 Ox roof.. \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel. 6 . Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**. Fract. 0^> 6raw. 28 . O^fa maidservant. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. not nightingale. [7. 5 . rare 9 as »J>jj^. o/" d^afe. a strait. oW* J . 1. xO J .^ *» a wood-pigeon. 9 xJ 9 £j . 9 ->x Sing. { g § 8. as 5x0 <jU*£» . 0>**> rar e . O^j9x0j 9xx 2.. Sx£ 5x x£ Rem. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l). 9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-.—Plur. 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. J>»J. an irregular plural ^jtj**J. as x Jl5j a lane. 9x0 diminutives. 9 . <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx . J^li.

^^^9 * a sand-hill. For example. V^ . used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. * J Ol)^ c***^ white.] J-j«i. rational beings. J-oLj stingy. £)*$*** oW«*. are. j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. jLc. oW^j 5 a companion. ^*o a fo# or child. j~*\ a or chief. from 9 * j 3 j^\. O^ .3 . J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. verbal adjectives. ctj « shepherd. [§ 304 A Plur. .jLs> JxdS 6. 9 i f /* commander . as Rem. XIX. oU-^ 9 < . O !/**• tffcui. from jt^-». J n L&** a channel for irrigation. The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show. et ^. geminate or r" «» tertise rad. 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 . as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. < Sing. even in cases where we should hardly expect it. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. w^Jbtj a Christian . jtgtoS 9 ' fern. poor. a friend. 9 . J^ti. 4. O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. . ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. as w^b oW*> a n<for. a youth. l\js* ilwjj . v~&j a chief . ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. . Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. unweaned foals of 9 - camels. o^** 9 continued. ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. and 9 ^j\jy»*. ^L*>J. 1. oW^j1* s s . used conjointly or interchangeable. applicable to signification. instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye.218 Part Second.. B 5. J-J*. 9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. or recluse. Fract. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J . . verbal adjectives. 3 . I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad.

^^ X ^^ X *W- . a physician. 2. ila^^w 9 .> sj+i clear. Jjli good. adjectives of the same kind as XX. il©Ac JJbU. i oW-*^ cowardly. x . . A Sing. iZj>\ 4-*^-. . a caliph.. . (j^ 2\^j*>. 1.xx lUol X . iL». liberal. . easy. l\}>j]. eloquent. a deputy. *U*a. geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad. i*k*j continued. A. . as * as ^U . l\*y*. I^aX*.j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth. - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . lLa». i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ . right. ignorant. 9 x x x iS'^f. l\~J. as J^J^d a friend. some masc. iUX»- f.-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. a friend. *UJI ~' ot . i\^SJ>.j^o 3 x cfear. x x J . w««*». above .— Plur. 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving. «£ . ^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am. r£iU . ws^J* a physician. o£ . 9 X learned. *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. XX.> noble. plain. Oi . 219 Plur. C J-oi5. but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad.a.d Adj. Fract. lu&wl ~ ~.1) . a philosopher or sage. quit of.» Rem. in the last. * . 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. It^xw JSU r*" «*&. HjJX. exempt from.. iSCu. 9 x *s * j . 9 *IjlwI . masc.x B x x . 3 x stammering. iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. and XXI. with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S . J*^. ^y*-* 5 x liberal. . ^?/<xm. et ^J .j-Jb (for r" Oi . « /r^wc?. easy. X i<^ ^^x stuttering. « prophet. Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light. lUybt . U . a successor. adjectives. eloquent. Fractus. j . *L»I #xx jujlw strong. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£. 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal. (from .l. for £\ejj. ^^). usually makes \J&%±.§304] II The Noun. v*^* a relative. 9 ' xx J . in the former senses. Nouns Subst. — JUg> o». J^U. i^Lu (for iUall.. i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. ^x 0£ . ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. j-J. llSjusl . i%^ j^li a jtKxtf.

a virgin. ^~& . vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner. as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . . rough ground. or J^»-t. as ^J%~£a lazy. Rem. Q angry. l\su9 a oL3. AjjAas. 1. Ob*** drunken. ^Ia. . ^y0j*° J5{e> poor. ^j^ '. )\j&- . '0 * .J . J*»»^ a partridge. jis^a . i^**. and jjWj-k a polecat. %c*. *f« a fool. of ' body or mind 9 ' . . {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken. 9 .220 Part Second. ^^3 * s *~>ja. stung by a 9 scorpion. ^a>. j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^. ^jl*. 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing. etc. \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake. ^jA * . scabby.. age. 9 . jUy goblin. as D 2. ^5j£ &\& perishing. [§ 304 A Plur. verbal adjectives. ^y*t*3 . S'^Ui. as lljJ^ desert. &*j paralytic. as J^3 y slain. j^j 3. ^iL»*-* w^w. (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis . XXII. \J=>y>. ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. xxiii. Sij-* drowned. 9 s »f silly.j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . oW*** {J!j£~*. J / ^l+z. Fracf. itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. i£>£ a judicial opinion. ^Us . J^> s . juS. mangy. bone behind the ear.JLo^.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. Ot . 9 * + + . * * JU*-. £*}Ia9 . . ^£j*~£a ' . or *->j**\. wounded.rw.. »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . b s 9 . J**^ 9 y defects. < viz. Jbu* . ^5^*5 . 0^***> verbal adjectives . l£>^ a ctok. an * [ old hag. pain. u4j*f 2. 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words. denoting injuries. ^>y* . . u&ij** sick.

^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a .JUAJI. 9 £ xf . x tey. *. feminine adjectives. ^U^.jl^-fc. and genit. not superlatives as ^Jul female. the forms JUi XXX and . ^W*. A continued. ^UiJI). i£jl£* x x xxx . dite. 221 Plur. <jL-o£ angry. J xO x XXX hungry. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x .. *»x x xxx a a as virgin. x&x xxx a judicial x xO . (ace.. ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. ^Jj^h x»J 3. ^«i. xx XXIII. ^Jl x fc .Ud. ^** sweetmeat. 0/J(/ . 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. . 'A*** x .§304] II. Nouns Subslti Adj. ^yUl ^jX**. x ^**. desert. (ace. ^Ut) and u6j\. ^»o\j\). f* 9' it . ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V». ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear. Fract. . verbal adjectives J . J&. J . jj^ULo xOx 2. . i JU . ij>*3 . xxx . as o!/*-* xxx drunken. the earth.^5^*. J x x fem - v^**j and J**». opinion. JU* Sing. ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. JUt XXIV. ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert. XXX ^jU&. Rem. ^>3 x . 9x0 . 2. The Noun. "it"' ^^3 # . jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. makes with the xx art. In nos. ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken. JJtp *£jG- a bucket. JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x . $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner.row^A ground. r. JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. A.pregnant. . . x x x . JJt/s.a hermaphro^^. however. for iJlxs and x x Ox . jj^L^b * xxx . t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx . 0x ft as ajjJ**. »xx . 4. JUi stands in the nom. * hackles of a cock. is ' x x x x x xOx always night. 1. XX Rem. 5. K/ 4/ . t l£>^ a complaint.JUi are D interchangeable. and 4. B xx .— Plur. perplexed. u±\j\ (ace. ^W*. x l^Ui as i\jjs> .." ^JUj (both with the art. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ. 1. Fractus. . The accus.

^j*\^> 0% 3 ./afe. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. btu 4*fc) subjects. bU»w . . a swollen belly. 5J/ 9 6. ^W-j 000 jJ^. *5 t*J ^ et ^ . Rem. \J>S}+: * Rem.having 9 J . in nos. 000 . W x m* x nature.) a sm. ^Uis. j*t^> a boon-companion. bUj .222 Part Second. from verba tertise rad..tJ^ B o>». et 9 .^ en j)«m. x x x . a). Sing. j^Us 9 continued. 9 t 9v)t ..J5Us XVII. something over and the above. (for 4~Ja£. jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. 9 . Instead of ^Ui 00 . for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] . jtx+l an orphan. x ^ ^ . a)Ui. btj^. Ja3. iJjC*-. *Ja». covered with shame. as x ^ x x x (Jul . verbal adjectives as ix*». i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. ^bl . x b^b . Ja*. 0t 00% . 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding.]. We write 000 etc. * bl£c *]. rem. L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7.cautious^ wary. ^AZ-t 9 I . *». [^b>*. «/ x . ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. bljJb instead of . Fract. etc. fern. ^gjbt * 9 . . 90 ^JW*. SjUl a ta#.). j^Lfc. bt jJk a-mU . blfcuo io^ bliftA. SJ$*z the upper part. 90 * ^ ^£ . for {J\ juk (§Ui).-jtjJb. J as {Jj^L. [Luc evening. "[§ 304 A Plwr.sad. 9 * 8. we find. bt jca. aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. XXIV. / x xx C *j!**a # present. —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form . as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried. 5 and 6. (JJ. disposition. iL*s. to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179.

&UU. stout stick. 240.L 9 * a pilgrim. bi>»a. ***». 9* *3 . an intestine. Jjti . ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem. bt^j. as ^l^j b. Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. Nouns Subst. ^ and ^ .^tj-tfu a Christian. 223 Plur. j£j * „- cattle. a ^U* Sing.§304]- II.. 9 . the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 .] C XXV. j-jif 1^*5 a . . 3u^\j is a corner. Fractus. J»*J. for Here too . aiyU(rare). Fract. Jjis fttfo). 1. rem. tertise rad.JUi (|Tjj). A. 4> * * * aj^I*. J\*.^c> 9x J . Ziyi* .). Ox . etc. JtftU 3 x .yLo otU fodder. CtSJ. w~J^» .JUs is thought to stand for JjUs . ii>U]. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier. The Noun.an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side). ju*fc 2 - . as juft ^" .ti Adj. A continued. JLoJ(rare). a 9x J thread.1 (&**. J**3 a 9' J J stallion. * XXIV. . * 2J^*» (comp. Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from .» an uncle (by 9 . 9' J . . t ** . \S\jJf.„ mill. > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3. . x c) . AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. 0> tjljj . ^•y. as Jjo a husband. yi£» a (fogr. Jjtf. ' [Rem. Rem. * * XXVI. Ox *J used for washing anything. etc. as ^U. Ox 2. {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^. a large water-skin. JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass. * . X - Ox . as 9. S. a s/a«0. bljj for Here . as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water. thought to stand for ^J^l^i.— Plur. 3J^a*J [h^. y*£- a wild ass. 90 * . § J J %&* 9 . B ^ et 9. clothes. from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad.

XXVII.. ^^U. j*oj driver. j*aJ a merchant. j*j>a. 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a . a n'w^. Fract. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. m'° ' as a£X». u»j*- v^W. XXVIII. as ^U*J. mM£. and ft x J xft£ XXIX. a guardian. [§ 304 A Plur. j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. * * * an attendant. v^J a. and the generic rft ( u . x a caw^Z. a)U*i x J^c*. circle. ^w x > . as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels). (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc.«aJI x S x x *lo-*t). wJJa xx . jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr . SftxSx w>£> . °" «xx Jjii. 1. J*\~* a traveller. ^Juii and Jjii are . 6 ft x . && Sftx (rare).»..' ". j. J*5 as ^^j x a t" * . as j*}* etc. J^li .# sfowe. a %p . j&.« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer. XXV. Ox j. <i b ' «x x 5 x x . aXxi. a - servant. are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur. wnU. but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl). XXIX. The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. keeper. bull. jjj]. Oftx .l£»$ j^-». «^U a *i # follower. as w*». SftxSx . 2. ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). a %' " . 1. XXVIII. Sing. J^ti. Rem. G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . x x OxOx *.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. aAai * x . # 3j& a pulley. Sftx 6 . helper. Ox x . watching. Q . (rare). 2.224 Part Second. . JiX». ftx fracta.. .. which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. The forms J-j*i. Jii(rare).xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). 5 ft w^-L^ a companion. J^J ^Jlb seeking. Ox J*3 . Ox x .U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. 3.lo # companion. aJUa.» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion. fix S x .

xx a s&we. . .) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb). 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx. Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. w>U>. ju*£. x w^-lo a companion. Fractus. (as j^l* x pi. 6. ilj^at*. j^U. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w. no^ x te»3yfiU . OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. llo^-bt*. O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£. <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x . a). fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e. %—^. g.xx JJu a x . O x . feminine by signification. x J ^^ x Jfcx . From the preceding i obvious that one sing. <U£^o oW man. <U> ^>>>-o. /»jP ^ar^e. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e. SjuA* chief. The Noun. of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x .Jl*i.JL ^ D (besides jut. il^^sw. jLct. X 9^9' E. 29 . Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived. Sjufel. J»x Rem. A. HA*. present. ^^ ^ _. Ox j*~> a sea. S^j. Sjujco. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr . masculine by form. OOx J J )\£\. a poet.o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. w>la» -o. lU$3l* . sing. Ox x x . juftl.o. and J^U.g. c. o x sfow. SjUj.«). ^J&*. OOx ^>Ut a she-ass. a he-ass. OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass. but from others. A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " . ul jLc. (as JJUU perishing. which 0* x J pi. jus. necessary to notice . Nouns Subst. •> 2L/3-JU.o». x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. jl^». J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat.—Plur. Rem. g.» for instance. O and I^^juLo. jj*£. « and are : £&»»>.>j. see rem.& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. s^ow^. . ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U».o l.. £tjj-oc*. 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use. it <& Adj. a).) from an obsolete J*** 0**w). see rem.§304] II. ^xxJ lUxw. « x . Ox x The forms XXVI.« a sword. . wim^. ib^oto. 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© . ^jLa^o (besides a. °° " T" * t ' l man. XX Ox OlUi. v x x a>^3. o . a O x x a Ox doctor.

*^*&y» a ta&& 2. X X Sing. a finger. 305. j j has jdbtyw. (4) the interior. *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . >y^>. j For example. fract. (2) 9 a verse of poetry . 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth. Quadriliterals (5 not included). to take another instance. + • 3* serving. 9*0 a fox. J^tjc». (3) peculiar nature or essence. (2) a fountain. if the has several meanings. x ' jj^jJfcl*. JJ 9 ISC. which consist of four or more consonants. obUj X jJt^*. as wJju j *' . (jL^l. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech. 9 * * . formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . of substantives and adjectives. bridge. 3^*1 J^^ . (3) a tribe. c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. CHJ/J 9 * . (2) 9 J J a valley. . ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example. (4) a distinguished man. a column or (in a book). £#£> signifies (1) an eye. Again. ** . in the latter almost always : Owl. fract. 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness. 4 ** + j^.226 Part Second. along with the corresponding singulars. ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. xx . as f-t-o}. or ^Lftl 9 9 . in the third. JJUi X 1. 9 x or used in preference to the rest. 9 J Oi its plur. in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. v>-^t. v>^ * . s jl^. Plur. O^W- The forms of the plur. 9 in the former sense the B plur. in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 .» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . &>cms£. (J*lil. t [§ Oi . worshipping. in the following table. or ^0 . fract. >U^. fract. (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather .. ^J^J^. iifcut. Or. * 0>tu. 6x * if prefixing !. *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house.gems. its plur. is O^o or OLot.-. the consonants of which are all radical j . star. in the second. In such cases. eye-witness. in the second. 3ju£. £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc. w*J^ a fish. X j*U3. ^sS^s a streamlet. J*UU). x jdbl£. as a letter). Fract. Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . I. or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj. are exhibited. sing. O.

especially with the superlative meaning. ^— is not converted after the as happens. and usually ^^Ltfuo.— Plur. Nouns Subst. J*U5. ^. w>3-d) a misfortune. a plur. AcwL. as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase.& Adj. for instance. a station. as J Jj^. j»yk* . XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>). w^lcc*. The Noun. Jxft* see § 309. in that case. *Ag»i means of J i. J^OI] J ^jt Adam. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx . b. [f^j-o suckling. e. Fract. 0/ a finger.g. cont. § 304. jjU-« x or dwells. of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). j-»Uu«.. £m<7. XXIIL. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I .§305] II. fract.ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. the productionis into hemza (5). >jtjt no.g. J Jxx into (. *~b\j*c]. and X X usually j^U*. J »»xx form XVII. of ^tu. 227 Plur.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town. ex- w^U^ . O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x . in the e. t* « . I. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert. [and. Fractus. a minaret. viper. . ^.1 xf .« a cwr/ (from «. Jclli) . compare perience. ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J . x x clil (for x* ^lit.X^.g. *^JlaL* . In the plur. aw open XX x »-U-o. J i* x x remains unchanged. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick. ^. ^. § —but 240).c. £Jj-U a x x . y]. i<i«^ meaning. C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» . Adjectives of the form Jjt^t.»). often taking the form JjtJI. Ua». rem. ^jXJI . a r.»>. In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. Jjlii (Jwrf. Rem. <sLo*}Lo a reproof. .L^«. A. of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad.o a claw or J talon. x x 9 x ?»-. J jU*o . . or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li.) 2uj**3 trial. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a. J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. rad. J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar. J^lit e. XX Rem.. make. 9 < ul x halting -place.> ». 6. as^jtu. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving.>). the 9x .

jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx . D 2 o c o ra<7^.t & . Jj. JP J **3Ui W X . as O^*** a sultan. rem. O*^lo a . Jjtil (J-^Ut. [§ 305 A Plur. grandees.^o$j\ a mottled snake. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds.« a #03/.o jooor. [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*. C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . JJlii (J*tft. J x x . . J statue.> a Bactrian camel. desert. XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*. a litera productions x o j x x j. J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ . ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx . ^>U»w a X J wolf. J § j o oj devil. J*ftlii.£ . I. x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>». S x xx . ^Ia>. o3 »J ^». j**u5. w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x . 0x0 JU«j # chronicle. ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. inauspicious. JWu)4oat j Sing.JUi-j and Ols*j. Fract. J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky.*. £>*a*\j~t X . jjI£»*n)I. l l. auspicious. >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp. ». & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky. o ^) x . xx .] . J*»»!.>*£-> X X fe/tf. as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being. 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed. /. (jU3 s&?r£ drawers.t . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. xx . j JU65. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303.t a tent-rope.228 Part Second. x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt . nobles.) x . £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. Je^tji). ^Ut |S [4*». w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr. of (I.j-Jslw X . (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included).j-**Uo x . ^jt/j) C x . ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah. II. Ox x Op a garland or crown. flowers. xg .. £ . ^jltf J (for x x . an ^ ostrich's nest. J**uJ. J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture. ^£jly* an<^ jV 0.jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble. x£ . B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * . i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. . O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . i^fbtfL* X xx . *Ujj .bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA. . J x£ . .

J x£ . jtL>3 « dinar. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast.. x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her. in modern Arabic. b\j«3 a carat. ^Jilia. The plur. Sing. Fract. Oy'» a furnace. JJUs sing. J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . o o£ - jo. JJU3 ( j-^lit.0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning. from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges. J^JUaW. * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. xxj g g x hojSj. a collection Ox J office or bureau. J^jlw. J JJU* . II. form either rare or does not (pi. . k. ^I^ai. J § § i** j jJbU^ . The Noun. x x having a young one with clever. curds. J vestibule or apartment.§305] II. Nouns Subst. 6. ot^ 7?"W>' brocade. Compare rem. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. cont. j+^l^c. j x x j*~*\y}. xx OxO Ox x Ox J . J^lii. j**U3. 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico. i>£$t>>.ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 . a spring. a dungeon. a bath. « J xx .» JjUxo 9 ' . a x x 3 x buffalo. f fi r.—Plur. plur. t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . B as^^Jt^a. has ?»-^W. from a form \Jy£\) JjLai. signet-rings. . her. A J^V') i x£ . t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . Fractus. u-^wol^ a.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov).l. a public xx x£ ( an account-book. xx JxxJ off. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo. apum). C plur. J Ox x «.) J . (v?^*) quinsy. license. is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . xx make j-Jlo. J J^tji. J x Conversely. 229 Plur. Rem. x g Ox « Ox register. ^j\yi> a of poems. Rem. of V jtaftt a dust-storm. has J^Jl^aW and. jy^^J hemorrhoids. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. J-J. of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet. a sacred claim.> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio. J**£?. used. & Adj. from^oUl*. =^i[±.

—and S . of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — . of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar. Syr. I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's). Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor. angel. a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords.« . S x . XX « X 2. C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin. jj—»•». 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>». Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). J xx . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. TraTpiKio?). Chosroes) the king of . Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters. a teaclwr.g. III. (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). a pupil. ajjUu* a . tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen. StJj T» J (Heb. J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. .—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f . JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx . jLjU and IjjCf. liHis.« S stocking or &?£& < . SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. 03-*^-* Pharaoh. aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes. x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . . [§ 305 A Plw. Sing. (Pers. Fract.A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c . 1. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda. xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X . J i>j. relative adjectives. ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . S^-oL*J XX . a great letters. as iUwt (Pers. — especially many E. SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X . Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers. oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J . a-jJLy-*. D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop. w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic. which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. Ko/xrjs).Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter.230 Part Second. T&Sfi. Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . w^Sa). « money-changer. S Sxxx « Moor. iUwl) a master. J .

<LJlku oo/acotikos). jut (for t^ju. J5U3. Sjyi\.-w^llS). J_«-l£L»). j»ola»^ «x J Ox. oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale. 0JO* J XX . of the plur. O-Jlii. 231 Plur. 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar. J^JU< J v> a quince. XIII. and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. besides . The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb. plur. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. a like.—Plur. jilt and XV. Fract. 4*-*!^/. j£~*\ '. a. rem. literals 5 «S Rem. xx A Sing. are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. more J In forming the plur. and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. 4-^>l 2ri6e. ^jlii.1). £>yfii* x . 0X . J*frUt . * X i Ox xx . 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. ca^o. I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j.. the plur. 3i»wl£»l. Kg. of nouns which contain JxOx E. Jlii.» the x x (for ^^l^w). i Jjjtji x . J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . Fractus. & Adj. The Noun. 264. an equal. fowwf. ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. and XVIII. J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. has. D JliS. This form is also found. x£ t^jbl) XV. J>-Jt. OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. x XX woman. forms XIII. a XX jfatf. ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. and XIV. In particular. £)&* a £Xol. and the J letters of prolongation).^ AiaJ Ptolemy. iJUif make Jclil. c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. . XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. she- 5 Ox J 0x camel. XX five or Rem. ljA*a*.g. or 2 ' " » . 6. b). letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract. C x 2 x . * £ r* * t 5^ x x . though rarely.« tyrant^ a giant. ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt. * ajJUi continued. fract. ca&e. 4J& « <%. Lr>ft. Ox a 9 xx x spider. 9/ III.>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. 0X XX JU>Uo. Zazy xx .§ 305] II. A. . of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. 2j6 a x£ . «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. x£ . generally the last. rejected. . Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. more rarely V. one of the radicals xx . Persia. or secondary plural). Nouns Subst. and XIX. x as jU».

t an iron -y»jL»J.. Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house. # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter. anything woven or plaited. AjJtjjj^l. og Oxx jJa. . Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number.. JuJU*-t x £ j . . joay. or when their number is indefinite. ^Ut *Z . XIX. J^lSt jJite a nail.>^Ut. &£>>). j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». JUi. Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink.> OJOxJOx jj>. families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ.ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV. oZ *Uj a building. Ox JUjfc.*. jj-c*.. a he-camel.. il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites . 9+9 . j^i.Ou». OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*. J Ot^ji Cxfc . Rem. 4-Jatt. —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk. j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls. J . a * J3l*». especially those that indicate the — relations of sect.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees).a» . \^yo a Sufi. O'NjUfc. j a vessel. fix xxOxxx jb « house. x OU^J. houses. Jjiij-XVII. J>ai. a he-camel. ^tjit. jutj^. '. [^u».xxx Ox . j**\)\ x? . jUjt. XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI. j»\xj\. Oxx a she-camel.. X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc.232 Part Second. j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech. <L>j£\. or clientship. as ^k**. smoke. family. Otjulj^.lo a female companion. t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . OUUjI (with the dimin.. . Cxt^^»». J "1 £ x x 4. and JUjI. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. A x J Ox also be derived from V. Oxx . "x OlSLJ. ^UiM. foe>£. *LJt. J>jJ». OtjJ^k. JU-..>l «x q . J^Jj^t. J »»x x £$*a*. J^a. rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass. t 6 J x £ J Jl^il. £ijje . a speech.xxx . w*».». ^su oox camels. j-o^. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower. JjUj. XVIII. x £ XV. . Ob^wl ~s .1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc. a party or sec£. J^j a man. she-camels having x £ Oxx J V. dUUt. ^Ua. pi. O^U*. x (for . • ea#-£e.»x O*^^- Again. O3-0. Olf"6 0<. Oxx j^xx III.. and a few other forms.j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j . §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine. VI. many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives.\. » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% . ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as .. is °» J ^ OU. Ox < JjtJ. great d. J|y> « saying.'-.t^o.

J^J). w. OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. 306. *U>.Olk)|). (k)|. * . Fr actus. O^J» human being (Heb. Cwl tfAe «£/» . collectively. |Z. < fil « P - «P« o . the partisans 5. (men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking. 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^». o Oly-ot (Syr.. SjUsu spectators. i. who SJ slaves. IZ. in use. water. oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general. persons who own or &eep camels. only by a constructio ad sensum. A. S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir. whence #*« fWX. oUw .— Plur. too.306] j II. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. $)}$ Aram.e. 5 #}« n^X). dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb. dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat. horses. XgOtf l#-*)).1 & Adj.jl^~J (from the rad. The Noun. X*. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. rarely J x x . they are all of the feminine gender. together. XX ' %>.. See § 233 268. Hence. Nouns Subst. ' anus. who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». yottfA (juvenilis). aJULw travellers. [ajI^ j^w- cferers].jjl. w^w. the former a number of individuals viewed . x O x 6£ . 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x . a oxi x 4jj-ojJt. 4JL». dl^ot (from a sing. the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus. 30 . h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. dU«. ^UJ. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians. mules . The plural of some nouns is anomalous. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. .*).-xOxOOx* a woman. a mole. J0 X For are D example. dUw. Rem.. The consequently. atyl (from a x »»x £ sing. asses. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . As regards their meaning.Ui (from . a spring. l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. C the rad. a jii. for x . and can be used as masc. several individuals 6 . X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed. of Marwan. B e. aJlxJ. singulars with a collective signification. strictly speaking. ^^Jt. 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi).

plurals of abundance. Ij&.. The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c. XIII. Hi declined without tenwln. as^o^i. fracti 307. a). and XV. and \1 or 1 (Ace. on 246 and 292. Rem.). A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns. fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10).. • • J or possessed is of.-L^-* whilst . a established in. —Etymology u . A noun may be w^**. _ (Gen. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju. I. it is necessarily employed without any 4. 1 (Nom.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural). Ixfcj. This observation applies.). o j declined with tenwln. to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches. Juil. (1) Undefined and adjectives are.£ o^uU j*s. Diptotes are (Gen. and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246). jSL*s> an army .) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. . the nominal character or nature. The Declension of Nouns. A declinable J^. for one of the forms alone be used. which are indeclinable. or the Parts of Speech. The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII. substantives 308.234 Part Second.*aJl § l\+~i\ a. as Jo*J bees. noun may be declinable. [yjjl camels. and whilst the rest are fy***. Jill. XIV. if C of course. only to such nouns as have also other plurals. The former may be styled abstract. These are called *. people or tribe. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz. 1 D (Norn. 2jJ\. or ^y**c. named lj5£* £>*»».. The Declension of Undefined Nouns. in the singular number. either triptotes or diptotes. those which have only two terminations — Ace.)*. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . Triptotes are those .. see § 8. or simply o »» ^jSioZc. the latter concrete collectives. limitation as to number. rem. * viz. . or . 2/ie JS& sheep]... plurals of paucity.

also called . is a designated w*cudl.. . of Nouns. as in the in jlj*. plural of 4Jjl»>.) and <>j_ (Gen. This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition. as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U.. the : nunation of compensation. in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive. 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ. possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U. 4ifA«JI. * * of an indeclinable noun. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes. at the on. case . stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat. jlaJI).§308] II. and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U. (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. The Noun. jjt— (Nom. 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. .. found in the plural feminine. Nouns 8ubst. as CA+JL**. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*.\. —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable. t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word. cjSLti\. *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence. viz. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih. or 5 x ^ j^Jt. A. for ^£j\^. J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. 235 * * common (3) to both genders. * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter. in the singular v>jj-3. x and the pluralis fractus. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice). tJie a * the vowel a voice). 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c. I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s. in 3*0*0* between the definite.— Beclen. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . tfAe of annexation . . as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 .<& Adj. — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent.\ duy^j. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). as J^-j. Ace. *3 where J&*».)*.

. a).). Triptote or First Declension.j->_ (Gen. exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309. (Nom.) and or the Parts of Speech. Substantives. Ace.)*. for the feminine. — substantives and adjectives. Ol— Ot- (Gen. B .) and .236 Part Second. viz. for the masculine. Ace. — Etymology Oi— (Nom. — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. [§ 308 A gender..

& Adj. of Nouns.— Declen. Substantives. A . A. 237 Triptote or First Declension. Nouns Subst. The Noun.§308] II.

[§ 308 B .—Etymology or the Parts of Speech.238 Part Second.

For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. G.. . There are two words in Arabic. and II. (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N.). C J J J Nom. Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. iSjii . Gen. L*-5. flexional a. 309.. 239 Diptote or Second Declension. jj-«t. more than three radical letters) .] Rem. Ac. that is to say. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. A. p. Kl. and ^o*Ut. Ace. ^i. a man. a. as quoted by Zamahsari. Loijt [According to i. j-bU5 bridges. 180.. Comp. D. Aja* Rem. as J '' A*i C^tj. . the forms etc. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. as £*&\y. in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive . d). Plur. Faik C 524. The Noun. viz. fract. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb.. and JJU* etc. Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti. Jstji (XVI.§ 309] II. Adjectives. 139 seqq. Nouns Subst. Gr. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda .. also used (see § 19. j) viz. A Masc. G. jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t.—Declen. ^oi.). J3U* (XVII. (of jJte poor) Fern. which are Sing. the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. (I. . w*5U^ wonders. ^jJa*^^ sultans. Schr. « son. Lane and Fleischer. J ^i Op. The following nouns are diptote. JJU* of nouns which have causes. of Nouns. for t^«ot and^ul. & Adj. b.

rem. (compare § 299. ). is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical. f. the irregular plural of r i^> (comp.] b. . XIV.g. is ^ar<?. (3 wounded /?). C Compare and Rem. J*».) . &*i\ (XXL) . iUil. w-Jjt (l e. /?.1. and ^Us fract.g. ^^-j*?b.11). Jj^t a hawk. of this form are usually t regarded as triptote. — Etymology c. b. fern. ^^S. Ju«U. ^Xati (XXII. triptote . [(e) iUwt. Compare elif y and c. by elif as a virgin.' first . needy. ••11 T« admissible {. of etc. Rem.1. Jj^-t. needy. B £^. /?. but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. plur. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb. rem. its fern. 16.> white (§ 296). Hii (XX. iU-cu.1. and 234—5). Various common nouns and adjectives . as j\js. (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. or the Parts of Speech. of *U***. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232. j^. of j^. adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . JU3 (XXIII. is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295. of J r*s - x Op which the fern. and of fract. 2. J*it. ^Ct j prisoners. Excepting those in which the § 213). J*ojl « humming . *-©**. a). W plnr. its and of fern. dX*j\ poor. ij>*>'. a widow. viz. si j - w£ . &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_. J ' i men. J s bi e. of Jjt. ii > at . l\sC£=>. —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J .). as v**i^ more f. viz. another .virgins. are as J*ojt poor. s without a husband..) and b. is . as [§ 309 A (. j*>*-\ red. wise men. btjUfc presents (compare . /? (*1— ) c. iUZj. other. (XXIV.240 Part Second. £-aj. wonderful . \SjZ~* drunken 295. and 296) . £*a».t a green woodpecker. without O x a wife. rem. maksura radical . c.. and § 301. «// together. as \£^> memory. (a) Common nouns and memduda a. /?). £^>. and 'I c. e). Ji'j pl ur fract. &&L viz. .).

one. is x x f- x x '' 295. • o j Q%*i . a) SxOxSxxOx f. x ^^£ ignorant. are all triptote. Some J x x > of these.§300] II. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x . vile.jl». Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern.jl».g. A. however. ^^o. o x ^la^o x o and <jl». rem. when used as sub. mean. ^jtoju a boon companion. as being formed by adding 3_ 295. 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. ***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^. as iUj and w. ^U^-o stupid.^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . j * oS e. fljUdL* Ao£ 3 . —Adjectives a. rem. . as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken.^o o O x x ' dry. black). okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. Q x jU*w stupid. —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. gravelly water-course.-a»-cJI) .g. tofi (mo? slender . A which would be very b. a. Rem. ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun.^o. ^Jflui a wide. The Noun.^o ^Ij^S. a) . « x xx S x . Mtm % three. as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. JjjS stony j * o p mottled).angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to . stolid. 241 J -it Rem. . O*^**. iLojl. 5 x The word ^l». eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (. ^*^i Jx so x J and so. Nouns Subst. a * withered. jjt^cu Christian. Adjectives of the form J*£l. 9 3u*$j&. ^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. 9 x x ^jS^La thin. their fern. retain the diptote inflection blackish. is &%x3 295. dun). stantives. [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . have also % x J the form x J ^^*s. ^0 6y New. of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop.—Diptotes. e. ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion. or jjUa^w . such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi. slender. Rem. are rare. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3. & Adj. 31 . 0^**> J x or x O^** J . »£OU and wJJlo. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . 6. Rem.

a). o!/** Imran ('Amram). 4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. those that were originally ijlyj*. is declined without tenwm.£> Noah. <bjJ Lot. a. Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . as A#] Many proper names . Jka*~>t Isaac. declined without tenwm (e. every. which is an adjective.jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman. in the sense of each. 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al. [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). (a) Foreign names of men. maksura (compare a. letters. (used) as an adjective. For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al.g. when it is an indefinite noun. as O J *. [with the exception of of the forms Solomon. we must employ the word nunation. is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. j^yJ LUla. 5 J Joseph. as (§ ju^t. requires an indefinite and so in other cases. J&\ tremor. *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al. JUi (§ 333). as . c. y and p and b.242 Part Second. . as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- . (y) Proper names in jjt_. viz. excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. memduda (compare John.g. l^ij^j Zachariah. as ^*At/jt Abraham. l ^U*** Hittan. jjib David. e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b. ^^ Sulma. /?) and . oW*-* Sufydn. with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I. l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. after it in the genitive . because J^». —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.>U Adiyd. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. j-**-\ red) .

are trisyllabic. 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . oUpl . 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names .—Diptotes. which do not end in foreign origin. / j-a* Egypt. w-A*j Taglib. *-. Yurdmil. Ols^c. have .^£**. Fem. . x x x* £a*-U» Talha. j»\j^ Haddm. joa or jUA Hind. proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters.j*j Zufar. as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar.§ 309] II. owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* . j$*. — But name fem. however. the second of which has gezma. ££c M"ekka. D (6) common Proper names. cfc Adj. Nouns Subst.g.\jj the sun. e. Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. J^j planet Saturn. '(c) Common nouns letters. or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or. Gu&m. A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). * w>o J/ if Dor ib. Ot keep ** * . [Fem. J*U>j Bakas".. and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). 3 * * jyo Tyre. which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the . juJj Yizid. ^y~j Yubnd. Oli^c gen. ace. or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) .g. j£Z*£ Yeskur. jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name). . w^JU a scorpion. j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). ace. as Ol^pt gen.] 3_. Gur. ace. >oUj Tumddir. letters. A 3 d * f and J*$. *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). proper names in * Oec. 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. The Noun. their tenwln. A. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna . of the feminine gender. or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. proper names. e. jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM. though 3 consisting of only three letters. These latter. * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty. jZZ> Satar. 3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men). icj Ztogw (a woman). as^oUai Katdm. Oli^c and even Oli^.

last letter is r. last and Baidawi D. x O^-a*. J»^-*t..» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313. gen. Each word may. are » almost invariably indeclinable.244 Part Second. The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J .. jLo*. ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii. the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. ' . nom. ^ juu. J-^-ctj*. jl»s».Jt Sur. as ou^^w. and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x . . 10.^IJ^. viXJju. as^&lii. [§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us. Ofrxo^rw. however. and Besides being used as proper names. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*. ! f. 5). gen. xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . and are wholly indeclinable . *£*!*» improbe f. ftffl*. word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. jb\j\ a year of famine. " x x *£Ubo.g. J^». J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. c. some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1. JUi. in terms of abuse.. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421.). (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». foil. and ace.death. Hadar (a star in the Centaur). x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*. J Li b o . ou^Lii. the second being in the genitive.. w^ 1. D xx gen.—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable...] .. l**-J*o (§ 264).^Us the female hyama. 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all. xx x nom. *jjj. aj^j-©*. *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. G. w>U». cxi. J JO O^-oj-o*. ^aCOvilis! Rem. Oj^o». x acc. as a. even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. u^l5j. forms. e.« £y* (Fdik i. ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city). Rem. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. of which the jUa- the female hycena. etc. Compare Beladorl 60. say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*.C J~J b sceleste ! f. j*\j«o war. Rem. O^-o*-. for we may acc. be declined separately. Words of the form JUS.) or w^» .) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j).

e. as £©i»li. i <o x .g. Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln .—Diptotes. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural]. 6* *> J x S Rem.. jt». is e.o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c. the case naturally Proper names. 245 Rem. (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*. J x Ajjjut* from A^blS). J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name. x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is.1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. . . when used indefinitely are employed in .jll».§ 309] II. as ^jUJk. ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective. for there x x x . (a) . *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i . Hassan. grammarians to be nine in number . Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai. Nouns Subst & Adj. termination £)\—. are usually reckoned by the viz. so jlo^. are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met. A.L~o mosques. . period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i. w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in . The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln. from j-olc. viz. -*4jLa4 lamps. w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . Hence we say <jU»». UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form.jt_. J 5 it is triptote. The Noun. derive it if we derive this name from the . J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu.yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning. d. D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination . o j$} * . J + w-^JBI. word . or transformed. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil. which in is Jxx Jjjuco. There however. is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**.g. radical u**. ' * * . (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI. and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb.

^^ ^or for ^5^. which follow the J ' . U^«o j*3 . ^J for ^^J (^^3). first declension.) and Tab. a. (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI.) for ^5^^. as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. and gen. 0— (according to E. ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. for ^y*t. 312. /«/ fern. (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI. not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). which ought regularly ^j— . yet is the name of a man). . f$ c. which ^ is ^ . Z+iuo^S + . asjH^. 311. D >»!.. in + J*a)\ J c. for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj. Jjuo for ^>*^. and those in . as j^. ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb. but § 166.246 as Part Second. though feminine in form. for ^— . ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309. >*o£. 1*^*3 . jl£ for jjl£. XVIII. ^-« for ^^^o. in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. ace. so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). 310. Nouns ending in — . a). -q.. Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c. ace. acc. Jjtst. ace. Petrus.1. »~w (verbal ^a-w. + JaaJI Oj j. as u*j^} a. Ww . L**. Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ . L^tj . Tab. for and l^-os . the first declension instead . retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. « ^ j«Xai. which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . ace. to end in All plurals of the second declension.g. C E. /?). follow in the nom. y b.g. 245). ^5*-j> and L»-j . for j_ (§ 167. L>JJt* Cjte . acc. . 6. in the ace. ace. toft for 3-ac. ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. o* B the termination jjt_. [§310 in form but not in meaning. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl.) for 1jJa> acc. ^ (verbal adj. . and § 218). . or j- (§§ 213 and .

and conbut in the ace. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*).g. they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^. cases arise. and substitute 311. of Def. become defined : 1. by prefixing the by adding article J 2.. § 309. and gen. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. A. ) t JU-pt the men. The Declension of Defined Nouns. nom. . for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o). —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining). . plur. a^U. and gen. the following D If it belongs to the first declension. nom. ^jU^o. w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined). the & Adj. acc. Nouns.. l\j^~o. ^y**o. b. Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article. vol. ace. i^j^l the city. disappears along with the tenwin. d). it loses the tenwin. 3 ii. unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. of the second. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. 247 ^-). ACC. or (b) a pronominal suffix. (a) by adding a noun in the genitive. J rem.] 314. n^ . nom. . the chaste {woman). 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. [Rem. 4 plur. ^U* .—Decl. j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. The Noun. v.. j i&l^ *" .o properly the beautiful) never have the article. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. 313. . § I 78) . The of the acc. jt^». Gen.. c. II. man. plur. and gen. if. and have ^-. Ox Undefined nouns I . j\*>~a. therefore. j E.§ 314] II. they remain true to the second declension. - (for They moreover in retain. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309. Subst.

D the book of God. (b) minations of the first.).*! JU.. Norn.j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth.> Norn. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur. OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< . b. and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^j+jjJsAS. j^^^t the nobles.. part of the the men of the Gen. Gen. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun.» wonders of creation. Acc.248 Part Second. Acc. w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^. JUg city. The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314).jU*o. assumes the Norn. Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . 312). c%JLLoJt the creatures. \J^. ^yt from ^& I.* cM-^t ->*. Rem. oUJiyjt the darknesses. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem. oCubl a. ^yU^Jt from . it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension. The plur.f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men. the black (m. sanus masc. l5-h>^I from 0^5. Acc. 3 B Norn. oU^JI the believing (women).j x x i . x J G x 0>o everyday. as acc. Gen. the following changes are produced. sanus fern. 315. and jbecomes triptote. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). gen. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311. x Gen. it loses the tenwin. Acc.

as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. rem. p.. gen. J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. G. k. C f. The Noun. b. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. S\. 6 J 15 whilst ^. of w>t. La. etc. or: ^3. first Rem. bt. after £>!. * X )l UUjU . Ace. for w>t. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive. 142 seq. o x 249 Rem. according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp. j^\ lit. see Comp. as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. Nouns. X vol. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. ft!)3). ±j\. for yl. i of Def. ^t.a>. ^a~. ^oi. a. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . f*.. Ci. Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin. for etc. ^5. a]. x ~-t a ^» brother. \ dialectically. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . M. after rejecting the tenwin. and the second Ubl the m t genit.— Decl. D. and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. in-law.] Comp. Ace.ja a thing. less frequently . which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. the preceding vowel. J>. J X makes Gen.-i. HE) constr. cases [bl being. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt. *£). as * The same Gr. in all the three dial. yiA. 5 P & Adj. and Gen. a father- A . var. ii. § 39. Subst. etc. ^1. U. ^^o*-. lengthen itit s * j x at Norn.§315] II. xlix. the owner or possessor of a thing. etc.. J. has in the - B «x . where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus. in the ace.\. Noldeke in Zeitsehr. The words w>t 5 a father. does not do J xg wrong .I. with suffix ^Jpfi. either X : XX Nom. £fa mouth (Aram. a. instead of ly«ot.* The word £. 321. . J9^. ^yf.

jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 . the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20. the form djj\. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. the son of O^t. ^ Muhammad. wjU^t *O>0 an example.] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire. . lxvi. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. the t son of Halid. the final dUL^Jt ^ . ^o^iL^I drawing Gen.250 Part Second. h). j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302. If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. *£U*Jt yij eU. poems.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. ms belong the two holy temples of God. when a genitive follows. rem. C Rem. to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came. ^>\ ^^jU.q. C-. —Etymology jAJto. jJU. rem. Ace. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. Muhammad. for those who are \^3*$ h** c). \j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen. from two 'Abu Bekrs. the sons their swords. (viz. we may use. b. I saw the king's sons. * J tit* St to J Acc. 12) and often in old Mss. [§ 315 A j^m ^ c.< >««. or warning. Instead of OU^. takes a kesra instead of a gezma. of the king came . see § 21. a daughter.>£ etc. ^>~$ . the son of Gafar.-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1. the Kor'an (Sur. On the elision of the in Rem. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual.ijj. [The latter was formerly preferred. or the Parts of Speech.

the genit. j_. and § 317). as icjU£» fract. gen. The Noun. A. fractus. nom. this letter is • changed into (or rather. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft . remains unchanged. as acc. i)yJ thy sons. and into £$. added to the nominal term. ajLj.). . d*L»J. OUAI? darkness. lose the tenwln. as ioju a favour or benefit. this letter passes before the suffixes into J. ^JH+su. * and plur. the final vowels of the sing. Of the words mentioned in § 315. A these terminations become. 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. rem. sanus of 4-i». i)UL£> thy two books. rem. as |L»J it women. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. »-! and . ^_ # (see Q § 185. rem. Subst. a. his women. my of book. as aOt ^akAo a.—Decl. ly3UJJ» darkness. though incorrectly. plur.. &yJ sons. § 7. from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s. from OU.§316] II. * ^ . from *->*$&. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza.. & Adj. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. sanus masc. a. with it o^LJ. c). of *jtf . * j * * If the plur. If the noun ends form in 3. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra.. when it has damma (Nom. my gardens. sanus fern.) . fract. (a) Triptotes and the plur. from £Jty. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> . If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. wjt. the final j takes ^— j i and if damma. plur. ^U^. 9 t 9 t Rem.. sanus fern. of Def Nouns. the dual ' 9 . instead of the gezma 20. j_ and jl. before a following gen. see 316. the B following changes take place. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc). suffix when it has kesra (Gen. and plur. the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book. begins with an elif conjunct. sing. (c) plur. plur. ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers. to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. Ajusa Ais book. are elided .

. x .252 Part Second.-£^L~o J y J . i "g . from &***$£. attached to nouns to denote the 317. X ace. ^Ui. suffixes which denote the Genitive. for L5*«olS (. Further. £ IjUa£. ^UUafcaJaa.(§ 185). ray ^0 my slaves.L». —^JA makes J . xxj from <jU^. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. t3 gen. the kesra X ^_ (see § 185. is ^-. becomes ^. which a. x ^_. l*±>\.*)li. APPENDIX. <jui |x**x j j . Rem. ' £)y>\. A-ot • " ace. sing. — ^x my mouth. sing. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ . a«i. rem. nom. from ^^JLyO (^^q.-jt. x i ^. i * Jbt. but X X J more usually. j^t^A for my Zove. for 6xJ . with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p.l>» . A o . j si .-JL _: — B see § 315. j ray xxxxj sins. rem. «$jt ii i i gen.g. from fract. of j_. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. x x J of^L**. plur. _. XX x 5 x x J plur. a. * js- [§ 31. The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). ^bUw*. dbt .-iA X j but . when the word ends in ^_ or ^_. oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases.«>. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^. for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. and suffix of not . 4«i.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi. GZ E. note *. X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit. o ray Muslims. dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge. d) being simply elided. i)^Ii or >^JUa. The pronominal genitive.7 i . for ^gt^A.^Uoli). for xxxj ^ U^. the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—. in all the three cases. p.. ic^*-. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom. oy X . Jy. in the long vowels t_. X ^-OA X or .>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). *£U$.^uo) or ^jAJsua* . o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes. •^ X . The Pronominal Suffixes. nom.. &»J\. from or . of ^U^ .£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA. are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative . the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. xOxxJ ray taw slaves. and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_.c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo. and likewise forms ^.. for «*t . D from ^>A.

The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — . has been said in ii § 185. sanus of j^aJxcl*. from QjkitfOt*. peojrte [Com p. yj^A^auc. The Numerals. into ^j b. is used dialectically w>l. i^Ui. B. <t*Z>jl». ^Jb. the form ^I^A. ii. particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol. — [^> a 185. the What in o. [which is the or^^U^). t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316.] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b. . into kesra after — . no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. The Noun. 1.§ 318] II. : 318. 253 ( Ly a ftJft. du)o\. The Cardinal Numbers. ' ' S * If is [Rem. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc. ^Jb.— Cardinal. of the change of damma l^A.g. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. d. c). arise. attached ! is in as w>j b. ^j\&. ^£_. his two female slaves. little son has both ^Xj and ^. applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. rem. <u\S£s of his book.J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. Rem. f-\. — On ^>A. US.9 his murderers. plur. or ^_. Just as the verbal rem. of them both. rem. U^jU^. c. 13 § 38.] Rem. E.] The Numerals. like — From words instead of § ^>A. j**-. suffix .>A«). rem. ^5.

(for rnnN). form. gender and conversely.g. when the objects numbered are fern. or E. . S-mLoj (§ 6. Rem. . lexicographers. derived from the single. which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. a. rem.. D 319. c). men. o* a. form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic. snow.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy .» jw. — Etymology >L?$3. or the Parts of Speech. ft %f i < for dJloJ. ^jl*. sixth. or sUJ j-&s. D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . for sedsu). a decade. JU-j Zj***. and v v J I exchanging with ^. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . ten men (lit. the fraction ^ju. is istin apparently identical with cognate languages. only one or two forms deserve notice here. and the ordinal adj. for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14. aj*}U. The cause of this phenomenon. = J?£^. as in tfiPft. . 2£Xj. plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th. rem. £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. — C*w stands.254 Part Second. Rem. Rem. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). ##. . ^ rwe. [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. a. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. The Assyrian therefore. the masc. The daghesh in the Heb. n^l) _ . and. The Jewish Aram. &}$ (H becoming as in gjf. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. sole. as it were the dual of jjj . but the the Heb. masc. HB^. . for one in the sing. sedestu and sessw. T • stand for BHBf. CH^K) indicates . and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». fern. according to the § Arab ^juj. the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb. numbered are of the masc. a). ten women. fern. form. t . =pnt)j T or> as others think. c>j£* JU->. b. — Qft^W. a sixth. and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. }Hfi.

An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. See jj also § 322. either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan. in the genit. Rem. rarely construed with the Rem. etc. and has 321. with the . Rem.5*$3 numbered. § 99. ten days. B. J s The 'o. a triad) . for example. o. aajjI. fern. ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men. ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R. The Noun. [Comp. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say. — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj.jl*j has. yj*+~i %*cJ . ii. vol. The Numerals. *. three men (lit. b. as JU-j aj^U.-i in a ..] 320. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. which follow the gender of their substantives.0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace. and gen.'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months..jj\. either as a singular masc.. is are really masc. the implied j>\A). or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-. of three men (lit. 6. rem. in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural. or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj.§ 321] II. 255 cardinal numbers. or Jx^lj^t j^jOI. .. is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj]. ace. nom. or they precede them. etc. Rem.— Cardinal. and are put in apposition with them. LjUj (according to § 311). a. If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325). in the construct state. a). they of course lose the tenwin 314. as JU^. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very .. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. rem. in the sense of broken plur. —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc. ^ a part or <- portion)'. (viz. — consequently a£Xj..yOj ^UJ (see § 320). They either follow the objects d.0 s*0 . . c. S^J **su some women. of men. a triad of j) men). j^-t^J j»^*M. few J years.

%*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered. sing. which are in the genitive of the . as JJa-ia. or simply ^jUUsO^. instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b) . and then of course drop their (§ 315.. rem.256 Part Second. fractus (see § 319. LUj two colocynths. [§ 322 genit. b). 0^0 Rem. of the objects final j^j numbered. d. plur.

20. .

a5Lo. The numerals from 100 100. . G.258 Part Second. ntf£> Aram.] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry]. The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU. sing.. &U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. 700.0't. 300. Rem. 500. &w " U5U. The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. excess. c. to 900 are :— 600.JU-M) are rare." x Rem. b. of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**.. a. is O^**6 Ox x Olio. and hence in poetry ^)UU. J* ' ' a5U 900. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit. a5U genit.1U. Ox Rem. 400. scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i. B #U 1HS #U ajjt J . " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U.«© (with the Ox article. the forms ^Jjyc. Heb. O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year). ^O C T _ asu .. as £5loiij. but juaj and are 325. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word. P a5U « . but was inadvertently placed J) before. etc. instead of after. . Ox w*Xj. and .0 2u*. i^w ijl^JLj..3UJ. Rem. mS) Ox 9«>* . 800.] i x | J O plur. or x ^U.? t": me'e*. 0x6 surplus). (see § 321). as £)3J-*»*3 also used. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. The O xJOx * D. X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth.e. the j (5). and more recently . twenty and odd . " Assyr. it in the 4w £jU. —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech.

The Noun. B.— Cardinal. are : 259 326. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000. .§ 327] II. The Numerals.

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.260 Part Second. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C . The Ordinal Numbers. :- 328. [§ 328 2. Masc.

when they are unif defined by the article. etc. ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some. defined . and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. twenty-first x x xJOx fern.. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . Rem. S^c. ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. /jl5. these latter precede. iJlj.330] II. £rtj***3 >{*». j-&t etc. x x —Jtf. The Numerals. . admit the inflection of the unit. 261 Rem. X X (ace.yU)t in the ace. 329. ^^ X iJ&\. and even These numerals are not declined. O^J-^J ^3^*). A jJIj. 330.— Ordinal. And j ijl5. ^jJju\ the twentieth. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. and genit. x x . both its parts take the article as . b. compound of this sort be defined. ace.eleventh.33UM. of course. The Noun. : — B Masc. for ^^l*. Rem. as Ojj*^ x twentieth. etc. in the construct state and with . however. S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom. 03j**c. B. ijlif. ^^X c. aj^I».].3 *^**- If a . If joined to the ordinals of the units. when Ml defined. ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. they remain unchanged. construct state so with the rest and with the art. (formed directly from C-w. 9x x (gen. <jtf makes. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. the art. x x Ox The L3U. 2 *U~/) are occasionally used. as %LsX OX wJUM. j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs.

i*0 jj-^iJf *U. third time. OU3. isij.e. he rose up once or twice. CHj*** twenty times. in the accus. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij.S wJJ. § 108. ^3^..] B 331. A* came third time. or as 5^o once. by means of one of the words S^. S^£d 0*h* twice. or (i. should be wanting. he fought once or twice. again . etc. U)U eU. cardinal numbers..g. life twice. etc. Com p. adverbs. the fourth of the twenties. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S. The distributive adjectives are expressed . Ot^o wJJ. twenties. 3. O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS. thrice. . 333./£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. i. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb . thrice. [Rem. the also permitted to use the simple . vicis (§ 219). —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. ^ came a third time. etc. f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ .jJS*& 2/*e . G. or j\j*o stJJ. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332. and similar words. (i. b>o. (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus. or. twice. are D expressed either by adding the accus.262 Part Second.e. etc. D. O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. \Jj. E.. liltf IW* *W»). ijptiiJf) twenty-first. By the noun S^». or aio sJ^T *W.. The numeral adverbs a j^stf. or ibtf 3j-o *U. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma.. once. second. tfe i*0 *U. if this By the accusative of the nomen . thou hast given us death twice. are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways. %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl.). in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. vol.e.

take the form . A^>* fourfold. but the formation is admitted [by some] up [. pentagonal . j£s. 6 E.Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj.» Ox up to a fof»tf. square. 0**^ /«/ etc. ' > $ four spans or cubits in height. £Jj. or j»^Ai\ sU. J Us x 0. jILjlc. J x x . and ^. C/^Lm. x J x or j~*x. ^1*$ . [The form JUiU I .). and J**$. 334.g. Numeral is adjectives. as ^Uj ^ i • . ^ju». uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina . or A came two by two . £**++ threefold. patient. *U-j. double.§ 336] II. Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral. dualized. patientis of the second form. J*s. ^tjwl. and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. #w eighth. simple is triple.» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth. two of the forms J x x . ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU. the 'people . ^^Vj triliteral. which a whole 5 * r made up. ^ju*. B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj. 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi. 263 either singly or repeated. £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. x «£ Ox* 0. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ. five spans in lieight . etc.. of parts of biliteral . words of the forms Jj*3. According to Zamahsari. • • . .— Distributive. \J~£\ >»>^' *W». . >uj-«. *£Jb. a tetrastich. the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. pi. ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. expressing the number . The fractions. ^wUfc quinqueliteral. pleaseth you of women. j^yo 2Uj. or er*>ju». nor. jji* (nom.g. Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification. according . 336. Single or ^^a^ fivefold. from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. etc. a third. IV. £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . jj. 335. fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three . The Noun. together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. pi. i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . lj*U.} a mom. derived from the cardinal numbers J J e. B. pi. triangular.O^j'. The Numerals. ^j£* twofold. {walking) by twos and threes .

UU. at the end of which an event usually recurs. according to our D terminology. either with or < x Oirf x without the article . "rubu. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. 210 seqqJ] .. xlix. pronouns. in one chapter. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty. as £0x0* etc. etc.g. S x Ujj. year.» j (vulg.. The Demonstrative Pronouns and . 338. the Article. or w**JI L5fr*. x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. The form Ja9 occurs e. every third (day. less frequently ouaj. C as w%X3t j*^*. The demonstrative pronouns. . same sense in Assyrian." Heb. because they are both. * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. or w*U)t. fifth. 3jlw*^t l\+~*\. ^ fortw C. the latter the relative. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa).264 Part Second. uou).g. or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. 1. M. or £JjJt> every fourth. The period.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ. £$ J .fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e. B Rem. the former being the demonstrative pronouns. month. G. uLo J «i . _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech.. o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. D.*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. 337.) . in the third. and Aram. titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth. — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. article). »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. are either simple or compound. G. in the accus.

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

J*\ (cJI . cJt . ut* Sing. according to the Arab the nom. This £)3^ must. A whatever. *J . The other forms. . instead of ^JJJt. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. Gen. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos. Rem. ^£&S (O^ 1 ". It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc.§ 347] II. Ace.] . ^JJt. whoever.]) ^^Jl . Comp. ^JJt. . 2. plur. it which. rem. U. at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom.JI or jJUt. and ^jjjli\. ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). p. j«JI. for numbers and genders. 6. and sJJtJM. ^t J^^l.. 0j&) .G. chJJI (^Jjf . which. U&1). «. a. 271 he who. C Rem. j^JJt (J}\ . when used adjectively. vulgar form. Norn. is —The modern. are written defectively. j^t. and case. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. masc.. CHsfi&f Gen. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). used \jjj>)\ in D and ace. D. that the same meaning as v>«. $* . The Noun. signifies who. Du. ^J>i\ in the gen. f$S\ or . C. number. because of their frequent occurrence. Ace. . with which : gender. JJI . as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . Plur. of course. ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . [According to as-Sabban. it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. ^tifif (gfjAf. which are not retain the double in such constant use. viz.<fW or Jjj0l+. generally J of the article all and the demonstrative. ^-^JUt. § 340. wlx Fern. grammarians. . [Cu$$f Nom. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f . o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). that.

^ 25. ej which I J am meditating). —The * forms ^j^^Ut. _ coram. J^&\ pi.272 Part Second. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. di. employ £ (Heb. f^H T _ (= ds J3t). UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du. sjj—.*. as its derivation shows. former. x fi * St "St * '.—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a its demon- strative pron. fi B fern. y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. Oj*W St* OUJUt. H= .U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. ^. Rem. Gr. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£). 5 are vulgar and incorrect. ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven. za). has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus.'^ / suffices me. is -ffith. and ic2 f ^^^Jt. . Instead of ^JJI.] or . H. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. G. Si d. Rem. St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt. <j\iMS. the nom. which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&). !)J*?>n. ^JJt was originally. I) / lined (or cased). for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' . x i. UJJt. ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form.. D. 'Aganl 18. and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing. c. * JR. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a». Aram. The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt. some of the Arabs.i*a of which ace.. gen. Rem. and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p. See Gomp. e. 117. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable.

273 . 2.§ 349] II. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. C. The Noun.

(b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. This ? also the origin ?). i.) that the conjunctive is pronouns. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l). Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . ^ JJ*. which a indeed their original signification. 0-*i'> \+jS . in poetry the elif may be retained. Heb. etc. x ^5. ii. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. 0^> U^'.g. Of ^1 and &*. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j. <l«U».*$J) but never conjunctive. "is usually shortened. ^U. Ji^t.] . Faik. s^ who. (§ 351. the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. whatsoever. G. D. ^. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. Schr. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather. in the latter case. Rem. 364.274 Part Second. and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual. Kl. whosoever. a^c. enuntiative (jC±. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. are also interrogative. ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. HJIS^ HIED D Aram.. (though. of^^a. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. x Jj. with the exception of ^JJt. 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech.. part of the ace. according to the Arab gram. Ji ^). marians. £ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. and with those with which it is not. The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose. e. U->t £to which. It has been already stated 346. Comp. exclamatory. ^» ^*»-)- In such cases. ^o j-U. U.). 125]. vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. . for^o^ or lo^ (lit. (better ^o ^)l. Hid ma. Gr. Fleischer. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. rem. is >ftU». etc." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari.

. number.«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness. and case. [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». of gender. who? has the it distinctions . x J 2. C.§ 353] II. interrogative pronoun v>o. only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. Nom. to (the is and x so. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc. or 7" have seen some one.l x . Sing. The Noun. Fern. 275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x .

? w>U^ ^cf. 120—122. • £ the suffixes ^1 . or £&£>. gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen. ^$\ or ^t.276 Part Second.] In the fern.— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech.£ o£ . \J\£> and 351 and Vol.6. pronoun. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun .i£ in the genitive . xjt. 201. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. it 1. as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs.ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t. or] a suffix. the pausal forms being : — o in § 352. /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt). nom. it m£ Sing. « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut. ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii. nom. 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. ll* Lo^-jt. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases.* . £r. gen. may be masc. See CWijo. masc. ^\^>. p. Rem. d. nom. Oi£ fern. 134c). Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . 2). oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. b. what or c. pp. - St Dual masc.->t " M you. and ZA which female? (Dlw. With 'J Se- 8 g . ace. ace. Hudeil. a I ? [The feminine form 86. ^1. rem. or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women. and the compound t^j2>. the more general . is of rare 17) occurrence.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt . he or I? in Rem. . e. it ..£ . for U^->l. which of us? are formed the relative adjective .it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . . n. w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . G. art. OiJc ^t - or ^j\. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t. {j*£> d). 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur. nom. 'place? (see Lane. when prefixed to a fern. a. w ivii- D. j^Sl second case. masc. the latter being the B more common. § 34. When standing alone. s&e. Rem.*£ ^1.

g. C. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp. rem. 360 seq. § 7) . § 114. 2. ii. 277 [3. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. reject this theory. . Diss. and is in that case called U >o (Vol. »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol. ^l£» and . added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx . considering i. or § is a qualificative clause. ii. - J s complement (aa-o). p. 1. it is added to C*J.. Schr. 125)*. rem. it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever. § 88. 172. 5 Latin termination cunque. ". This complement very rarely an adjective or participle. pronoun ii. B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here. Kl./) and § 84. rem. rem. 100 and 706 seq. with the same effect to ^>j (Vol. § 6). as J 13 ^y» one who says. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun. have passed with the sense of somebody. whence the . § 36. Vol. ii. e). U ii. as or x ^ U something which I have. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). if appended to ^>l. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. something. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived.] U x t as the original. d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. The Indefinite Pronouns. o * ( UJL^ wherever. 9x The U x Gr. e. Uy* whatever . or in if reference to time . de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. a. [Prym. ^t. J* and JjU (ibid.§ 353*] II. Comp. but usually a preposition with following genitive. The Noun.2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U . rem. e) U (see an example 361 near the end. (Vol.. . added to certain adverbial signification. A and Ox 353*. The Indefinite Pronouns. 136 a. (Vol. e) . ii. . whens a • tt a t x ever. infinitive. 3. . § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. rem. p..>£) it hinders rem. as the r\ nouns. § 127. and Vol.

it]) viz. A. or xx ^ N. see the Syntax. Prepositions. rem. Conjunctions.). and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». Heb. The prepositions are . their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . [§ 354 A prepositions . because the ." J x ^^. tJjLH*. H ^Jt/*-. iU. £>s> j x and w> without . 4). jfi M0 the . pi. o./ t and so.. * ii. are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191. a) and in other cases § 90.] c/M *> fern. 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI). rem. so and x JJ«» so. (Vol. § 84. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " . rj b). and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U . the particles which govern the genitive.. CsA. 3.» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. as ^/^ii\ thing. xxg There are . III. affecting their regimen. § 70. tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression. THE PARTICLES.278 Part Second. M. i • In speaking of animals. 3.>*. In like manner (Vol. [or Sl^t. may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». a5^i (§ 309.e. xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. — On the use of these words in the vocative. The Prepositions. rtxxOx particles of attraction. attractives. /). called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-. rem. or jt^aJt (from the sing. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. it is also put after w>j (Vol. (§ 3ujb. pi. b. « fem. — qa X a and »*x its fem. stand for names of persons. . and Inter- D jections. ^ particles of annexation or connection. Adverbs. like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. 0/3. . rem. W X O«0 J J J 355. ii. C*a»«£l. ii. b. vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed. rem. Otj. 8. i.

ba). of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb. [^b.] <uitf (b) O by. and 317. i. J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308. near. as (= b. A. d. footnote). Q Rem. Aram. the abbreviation Vol.e. § 56. as J to (sign of Ice). rem. as aDI^ a. which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. with. at. JEth. is changed § after ^ c. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. b. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. 7. as du. sing. b. § 62. D. ^) to us. U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka. Rem. for. A: * . is a ii. G. ft: of w> with the negative ^).e. -33th. him. Vol. by. and inseparable.^S3 to you. Except the the 1st pers.^yj. (a) They — B ^* in. The damma tjJb. those which are written as separate words. as <J to suffix of sition . on account of (Heb. The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels. The Particles. ^b. It seems to be the remnant some word. See § 185. rem. or the onlyj^yj or^. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt. ii. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358). i **" (d) ^ by. i. by God ! 3d pers. Aram. c. those which are always united in writing with the 356. its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions. OW- Comp. in swearing. The Prepositions. in swearing. without. O*^ rem.§ 356] III. into kesra. § 235) to be also remnants of words.] . through (Heb. is (i). The kesra of the prep. following noun. 3. its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel. compound Comp. 0^5 ?) and ii. by God !* (c) the Dative). rem..

(/) 0^> or lS^ (W). among. 357. iEth. Aram. (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb. have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus. into. (c) ^* over. to. above. determined by the following genitive. ^Ol) . CM-*. or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. c. which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. /row a § certain time. first class. "79. as. and ji. Karer . or Jco. since (compounded of i>* v. Aram. iEth. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So. notwith- standing (Heb. see 347.— Etymology Rem. and they tions . •T'jD. j j Ju*. after. away from. d. instar). *7B. (b) up to. 358. *>«. ^^al till. [§ 357 " i). Those of the all biliteral or triliteral.. with (penes. as far as (Heb. "KflYl:). *>. 3). (d) (e) sjefrom. rem. which js commonly reckoned a preposition. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—). or the Parts of Speech. sing.280 Part Second. against. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. 12). O^X (lM*)> Syr. *>> ^. ^JJ. It is a formally undeveloped noun. e Ezra and comp. which becomes in the wasl **. -*?«). for. apud). dialectically *-«. upon. Jp. but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. about. is really not so. The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. Aram. like (Heb. D#. <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. on account of. °^ account of (Heb. ^1). O** (&*). ij? in. as g^o. dialectic variety is ^^. Itf.

^jjj with ^5 B ^y. The ^) of ^fc.<U. . JJj^3 . ^JS. ^_ (orig. opposite J>». Fr. c\+Xz for and Jl ^s. 24. 36 w.. UJt L5^. * . rem. J J The Prepositions. . O-ij* jUc (also jUft. o. for . Rem. for JUJt ±y> . *b etc. note. a. to. In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20. JJy afow?. the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry. ^— .. about. C^ J > . which is under. after ^> below. rem. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. JU. dimin. is doubled in connection etc. and ^jJ.]. rem. passes after the diphthong into kesra. ^y c. U-«. behind.§ 359] III. rarely jus) with. . under. L©. among 5 (J*3) . p.round. with the suffixes of the 1st pers. tj-j jJ. or JU J-«. c. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . When 6>o followed by the article. <uXft.o. * b /» into J^*. combines with into ^t. J The Particles. [Comp. Caj *UJJ. The suffix of the 1st pers. before (of place) . b. *Lu. *UJ> or dU»J. and ^jjJ. ^c. jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l). beneath (fiTTl !).j-o between. s ^^. into Jft £ as JUX*. i*5 ^. Rem. ^s. b). . Jt . against. J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). dimin.. and *x*. d). the modern and vulgar form. Rem.j*o being contracted b .] 359. the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. ^jic. ^Js. . and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. according to § 185. "It. [li.>o^ or ^ ^. penes. *!**». J A. See 317. beneath. The damma of the suffixes of the pers. assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. in possession of (apud. . OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U. and § 317. ^Jt. for . and ^jJ § into J^JJ.. on this side of dimin. dimin. D orw .. rarely J^ or a^. ). sing. original a. J. chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. •* instead of. (see § 14.

360. beyond. the particle of amplification]. as cr»> tj^t. also written C-Jtt. &*|D. D*7p) . J>». may be (a) w>t^^O) oath. as before said. jl*£ . or is the complement (it) . There are three sorts of adverbs. in the JO * end (Heb. v #0 la that corresponds to. § 21. B. among. The Adverbs. These are 0* all. . ^lyAlw^t |"l) . as ^-JUt.circumference.j£. as aDt ^JUlSL*. partly inseparable. the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. the third class of nouns 361. etc. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra. certainly. (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». an t is inserted between the two hemzas. t \2*Q£&. Aram. dj3 behind. This (c) J. affirmative. as C-Jttt. When t is followed by another elif with hemza. [§ 360 A dimin. jJU aOt^ by God. [comp.>»tjJ> before (of place. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^JJI for ^JJt tjt. for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362. surely. *£ii5t. C dialectically. h). is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t. God will suffice t/iee against them. ^J/*-. of B particles of various origin. after. an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW.j-o interval. The form occurs IJJb. end). £ The t.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity. the construct 06 * such as . but some do not do it is this. Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». d]. partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative.] [Rem. . / wi7£ certainly do ». ix^j in the middle. of. inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative. converted into ^£ with hemza. accusatives of nouns .282 Part Second. The first class consists .

ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies. or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect. . following. I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out . ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact. 0-^^*. standing for ^jl (aLa3I .j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God. as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-. . certainly. w-Jbju <*i>w .§ 362] III.t xx ft ^s. .j-° AiAa^Jt ~ . as juj U. [in xx x order to £ J # . Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la. as iail». lyJx. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes. . j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy .'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not). affirmative la. if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la. o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i. he saw 'Amr. But in reply to an interrogation. behold. as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. as x£ thee. confirming a previous statement. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. away. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp. which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1. Vol.o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing..1 yes. The Particles. better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up. J . I will certainly show you 2*s honour . J The Adverbs.] 362. 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian.j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy.jt). ii. verily ye would have followed Satan. (he did not) . (he has) X » X X ft .. to use J**. or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/. J^. OOxxOx while. (/ will). 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\]. B. (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to.

. and refers to the same time . as the preceding statement lo.. U^. wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case. writy. of &. usually without government.. truly. U*.. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected. utrum . if it be so.. «).. Vol. [(f) i. then at least. I (Heb. or 4*5U*a)I is 13].. x x jo* prosperity has come round. U*U *. called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. x i x lo.284 Part Second. 0<#0 (Heb. _. Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft. interrogative. t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us.or ^**~. Schr. See § 367. H). B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place. Dtf .U*Jt 13 1. Kl. followed only by a nominal proposition. ^tftt - XX and l^».] certainly. [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c. ii. t3t. N/H)surely.] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn..] ^ an? j>\ j*\.^a. £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361.] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then.^. J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech. A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$. of a following noun or . ..] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. b. § 158 and Fleischer. and Zeid was at w<? the door . 5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. It is joined to the accus.-»]). literally /o/ *«e/ #w.] XX are^et. (w) oj JH Hiin Syr. only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not.lb j>i juj lo. XX [oi ^ &*«%. called by the grammarians 3l». surely.. as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out. D In later times corroborative. in that case.

wherever. It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. that is. — . 73). [When followed by a single word a conjunction. and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . |$t in if) {$&. pi. J^> way not it is so. Compounded of \j\ and U. yea. [and in the 1st pers. frequently used by commentators. whenever a conjunction. it is 72. by God ! aDI I. ^<^y> JX. the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place). The Adverbs. The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (. 8). on the contrary. but (Heb. as aOIj is ^t yes. explicative.] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb. The Particles. B. always followed by an oath. verily God great. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1. but in the 1st pers. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur. O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. [verily]. I^jI].] C (p) (q) i^t. ^t yes. <£M ^1.jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact). (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. as j~£i dttl ^jt. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. restrictive. inceptive or inchoative la 36#.jl introduces the subject. is 285 pronominal suffix. 0311).§ 362] III. — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. sing. only (dumtaxat).] (u) j^jXj yes. 7ltf Phcen. it**). ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. rather. however.

(he did). already. 4. or iai te I have never seen him see . (w) JJi [or a^f]. may be used 2 . y^s.A. and well. D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr. with the Perfect. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * .l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. iai. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. . [or in j . for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. there (Heb. 434 seq. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». as \^i\3 j£j. and with the Future.] vulgar use . «$. Ljo [and U~^] while. certain symptoms or circumstances . . an interroga- jsi djt c j^. that something has happened in agreement as with. i. Kl. solely. (y) Jaii 0#/y. whilst (connected with the prep. / was hoping that he would come.. 286 Part Second. 32. 98. or the Parts of Speech. S. {Thou art) . J&L). Schr. jS. o x as iai <xZAj U. now. that something expected has been realised. or in affirming a negative proposition. see Noldeke. tive sentence iai <&\j iai. ^Aj yes. or in opposition to. It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event.j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. awe? enough).—Etymology . in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity. as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. he is C really come. # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. iai.oi.. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up. see Fleischer. among). iai. o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. Delectus.^=> 1©JL. iai Ja did you ever him?]f. merely (lit. and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o . R. perhaps. really (jam). jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». in pause j-j*. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever . [but also frequency.^. * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. Rarer forms are and in pause iai. and a negative. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*].. da. Yes. 1. is OU jJte ta. o** between.

(/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive.e. not. U^J. X7 is and ^X. ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed. B. (gg) O not J>J.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. . are used as well as ^^^i. likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340.] U. rem. as joj jb\»\ has i . not. X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb. ^yA U# f I yet.§ 362] III. d). rem. j^u and yes. § 367. *$. by no means. b). joined to the Subjunctive. not. by no means. but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers.] . The Adverbs. joined to the Jussive.' Zeid stood not). [It is also used as a conjunction. to. ii. negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up. yet. (mm) j^o it is agreeable). and more rarely ^*3. iuj^> (§ 343. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne). The Particles. (he has) . of % and & (Vol. d) and all. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. q. rem.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at . a conjunction. (II) ^JU when? Heb. VlD. <jt *^ (i.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju. but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect. j>\*±. o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative. used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. combines the Aram. it is [When . (he has forms are^xi.>£) is followed by a single word. [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344. negative of the Perfect. § 169). j (and). [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me . not It thus .

also v is **»>a»-*]. c-sa*J. beneath.j*&. J La. u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . \jt^ much. Jy 0-*> above. prepositions 359). demonstrative. ever. referring to future time. * [On the various forms p. whence are derived L^a. within.>* above*. J>i. extremely. D after an adjective \*-f**r- together. of it are the following .288 Part Second. w^o. by day. 364. whence are derived LaIa or LyA. in j*£ j a or j**. without. B 363. j*j mostly in negative phrases. and are indeclinable. *il±. ' * [w~»•> enough. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. jju . . afterwards. nothing only this .b inside. in which case J they take the termination u. Imperf Indie. S. Csa»J . E. Js> . of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. demonstrative. ^ri/. ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs. : A few of the most common examples Ij^l. *^J £^ night.g. joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). there (compare Heb. %£**»• where. 41. can in general be used as adverbs. as u*^ else. ilJt decidedly. §§ I)La. La. with a negative. ju^]. a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . for^. Ja. J-i. t jta. \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. j->£. but always preceded by a negative.^^J. UaIa or LyA. cM v>*> before. *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech. ^r^ wwcA. and ^)UyA. usually with a negative decidedly] . of two or more W-jU- outside. La).>*. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative. only . and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). ^-jX3 ?&£&. . &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it. (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^. placed .] . La (also La and . y>« whence. never little [Uut ^W^ wow. The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic.

U^»j. above especially.) w. B (d) (e) woj.j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . truly. Kl.. Schr. xa m f& end. p-<7°: etc.]t it. y\) . a£ the time of—).§ 364] III. verily. »J>w. yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour . used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes. Fleischer. . i. during. X Ut U-j~>. * 'n)... It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit.^ . 381. § 361. The Particles. ^a jufc. [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j). B. xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i... A \js> tomorrow. seq. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**.] t {j*j*?. once. JUft) : . and therefore also construed with . rem. D. lit. uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. * £ (/) all. j>yA\ today (JEth. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — .] decided (comp. 13 *^ j**. prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see . § 84. as J^j A^ afott*?. with the omission of the negative. lit. ^ 449 (also jbjx». G. ^*j)t wow.&ry a/o^. Vol. Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^). xO X whilst.. b) lit. but. at present . Schr. perhaps. tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. The Adverbs. 13 ^).w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often. [comp. (c) but more usually] sometimes . particularly . 37 . sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C . «* together. U-J-* and. (lit.] O**. it is seems to be compounded Kl. 289 U^j one yom). day. 5 j the c]. ii. lit. . quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb. footnote. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except.

and take pronominal suffixes. In u~*\. not nouns in the accusative. perhaps.. viz. but merely a light vowel. ' genitive. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t. indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are . D like the prepositions and adverbs. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. particle of classification gradation).290 Part Second. or more exactly or v~?p ^b^.) are. acx xOx 365.. The Conjunctions. x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^. !)). . X yesterday. either separable or inseparable. ^JUU). vcuj t^u». would that ^J* or J^x).. The word has several rarer forms. etc. ^fc. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . Heb. — Dialectically. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive. are [§ 365 A sundry parties. x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>». ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. a.- . since yesterday. utinam. .. The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. JjO governs the ^j\. D. etc. ^J. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy.yJUJ). etc. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. Heb. as b. straitness. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ).3x3x3^3 ^&.] Rem. which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative. however. Aram. J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations. they " " * " and become indeclinable. Quoad connective particles. or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles. be. Ci Ox Rem.. but verbs. which sometimes unites single words. x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). G. O-*. JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-). ending in fetha. seem to X Ox / and C*J. They are construed with the accusative. fl): JO x w. fc^ftX. x and 6 (iEth.»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. as &» . 366.

and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition. In conditional sentences. thee. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when. a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. D. the kesr is usually dropped. for. may be rendered and and is thereupon. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. but more usually connects two clauses. 10. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. Tabarl i. %36s ^j \y^c^^. link. 9. 852. [Compound U $t whenever. [Rem. thus ^jl means nonne 6$. is A showing either that the latter in time. [Sometimes in old poetry. purpose for which. used J^f^ to indicate the done . C. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. When preceded by ^ or 3 o. Hamdsa 74. and very often in later prose. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. such as that of cause and effect. This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356. of past time.§ 367] III. as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease.g. like the German so. that God may forgive c). 1. *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle . in order that. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. The Conjunctions.] * 1.] . or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. sing. to give an imperative sense. signifying that. 291 closely behind one another. The Particles. separable conjunctions are : — since. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me. (a) }] The most common when. of the Jussive. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. and consequently. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed. e. or the reason why. G. so that.

when? [Compound Utjt whenever. so that. -33th. £>*$ that. . of . hence called duLoj)\ if indeed. for example. DN-— ^'. in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^». as UJ^i.] B [(c) j*\ or. quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14. * O i : O^ as & *$\ were.. o . in when. as syn. lit (§ Both of these conjunctions. *$> ( a ) if not.: now. as regards . Ttf in Ju l**.. * i ^jtj. in order that. oq^H. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an). dialectically . J (§ o% a verily Aram.jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f. as if.g. 8c.t e. and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr. of jt in alternative questions.. Bibl. j£*& on that day. compounded with . . <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her. Aram. sometimes written jjtj or 3 . as well as the obsolete noun » 362. £>* H. usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition. b) .] (df) Ul.— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. Further: that not (ut non. (f) * q\ [and Ut. and *TX . d). if> an(i if.lv — also occurs.292 Part Second. (exceptive particle).. followed by o. time. Compounds g..jt 9 .. unless. that (quod). it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea. JHK. lo-. compounded of ol an d .) * to if. >*o*J : 'ema. ne. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative.jt ne). o' is that. tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). A dialectic C variety <>s. Used twice or oftener. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361. are connected with $t.1 JEth. see non). because. < jtf . o>». Compare Heb. in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. That is Paradise . at that time. the genitive of s which occurs. comp. [§ 367 A (b) dition. c). conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f . it Heb. as for. in order that (ut). as for the ship..

compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U . to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara. until. £^m. rarely Ujt [or M]. because. connecting words and clauses... position.] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362.] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that. until that.. of UJ). ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special. ». Heb. The Conjunctions.. $1 . O^* as ** were. j-tr^. 0*S. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel. as if. * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D.] w t .. Utj . § 358. ^t. v^jj at 366. but in the 1st pers. the pronoun of the story it s>t . or O' ^^ (quod). — Compounds Heb.. ?\A= (alia) but. The Particles.—&\. m. [On its sense of even. but*. except. y . I# ' § 52. U3t. w).. b. .. sive). only. (§ c-s^i). 6). so that. Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\. (i) ^j. %+£* in order that not. and .§ 367] III. next . but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval. or . e.. see Vol. c*«j (C««J. Ut. 293 saving. (k) ^5^ * *o till. e.{ o|. with the Subjunctive. 362.. It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. IX. . A Aram. ^th. . . thereupon. K?~DK. Ut . identical with the preii. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that. tfW.. with a preceding negative. a t^?^. rem. ^UJt : See § e. Syr. j<£. c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a.0. or or fact). C.g..

with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362.j|). *}U. jt. ! «J «-iO. oi . D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. Aram. . at.~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition. iEth. ^1. UtJ. ojt. . up ! come ! [Heb. *^***- C^Ly**.] ji.P ! wp) <oj. Ua.* . .-*. followed by jic. 0/ .it' rr?n]. bl (La). o\. I0 / b before nouns in the nomin. with y\ unless. G. * it ' ZZ * — .] with the Perfect. 6nw# Aere (Heb. [3J3 even though]. if (Heb. and U* W* make haste. and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . as long as. Jv*»» or Jv*»». //) w^ew. i . ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot. ma denoting duration). 0' * —Compounds: ^£.— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech. (tjl. tI u* como/ w . with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al. [as. HX/H. since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after.294 Part Second. I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. Ut^. o *&.jj£> \*3*> if not. oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U. from it!]. or hip at. especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ . or TiarX ^Uy^. is (quoniam). hypothetical particle. [olylfc far ^.* ^j\. &\. 0I3I (otjl). at. tj. tones. sense of pj-*\ make haste. Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt). (o) < * D. (p) Perfect. . sounds or in use are : Some . wlien (postquam). as OkoJt !i^*** w ww . [UJ also syn. (D. 1^1. jl (dU). o\j. 368. or b. t. or j>jH\ keep to. .] D. or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere. or accus. lyjt C without the article. !p). OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram.1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl). The Interjections. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses . Utj. l^j. U (ic^jjJt U. wAewever.Ujt (•Ujl) jl.

. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. O^*. ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . JU» frog). camels. ' ° " kneel.§ 368] III. in pause dt_ tj J) takes. cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). go on proceed ! say on . too may be mentioned *^U . mules. as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^. etc. Jjlb (a blow). *->. b.g. instead of the usual terminations. Rem. The Particles.. 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. Instead of 1— grief! ^_. wit. falling stone). s^ (the stroke of a sword). ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). ^js- . as tjuj 1^. Sit. also be used. o/* a. form often used even with feminine nouns.1). . s\*> making camels B ." juA or juA. in calling a dog. ?u>t or «»~Jb. l->jk . JjU (the croak of a raven). the t^. (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] . but the masc. or otjuj tlie tj. — Here in in '. w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking). v>*-> . wit. in driving sheep or goats. ^a. b i\ is often written defectively Wl . wit.g. in calling camels to water. . *~} 4-J. ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*. ^»J . etc. ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©. f-J. g U (the bleat of an antelope). " * uil A f * £ mi ol . ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : . il ml uti dl 3* 131. driving horses. . as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. *-j. *fij capital! f-\. ^-a -*jb. ^Us cries . in driving a dog away. (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem. f-\ ot. (a) calls to domestic animals e. wit. wit. D. The Interjections.

$U dual U5U. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . as l^U pi.. x m. take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj). in some cases. x f. Jt£»t ^). or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. fern. Vol. read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f. ^©jU. The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. etc. ii. usually written thus in one word. JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. a certain is. person. sing. jujJ 9-Z3. d). called therefore by origin or use. book. *U. Rem. dual UJUb.g. * J * e. J * J ' j-JUb. rem. dUk. ^U. t^JLA. £)$\*'. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. du. and is said to form a dual and plur. g. Jjj aJ Jj^JI. hirjats. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj. tjl^St x m. a) ^j. f. Gb. verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. as OU give here (§ 45. § 35. pers. rem. Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. aJ J*)j. fern. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. masc. say. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc .. admitting its construction and inflection. — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . plur. [Many and are interjections have. b). d. b. ^jkj. or JLa. ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. >&&£3. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. 8. : <uU& take. hirjith). pi. and. hiri. Rem.296 Part Second. for example. that they are either originally Imperatives.

38 .PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w.

$3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. m.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect. JJO/ I. f. ul3 Sing. f. Indie. c. IjJUS f. J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* . m. 3.joi 1. CJJ> / Dual. cJjtf f. c4^ ^JU3 2. 3. m. c. cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m. JlS JJ B 2. o^ S JO// 5 i. Sub}. 3. f. Plur. OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE. J31S IJblS . m. f. m. /JO/ Sing. c.

c. JlS x . PASSIVE. and Imper. m. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1. TABLE Perfect. i x x I. 3. Pat. 3. x J Energ. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur. m. t^JUS x f. c. m. Imperfect. 3. o f. a ) Jussive. D m. Subj. 'fcs xxOx f. CUfe^) .. II. x j II. ^c^US f. UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f. m. u~^- ^ x (2. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. m.. m. cJj. Sing. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. ^>Uii Ox J x Norn.* 9 f. Sing. c. J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2.. Act. m. J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. Impf. Verbi. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual. Imperf. and the N. m. Indie. J . J XX Smg. 3. Perf. s .> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2.299 OF THE STRONG VERB.

III. DERIVED FORMS VI. Jl3 .300 TABLE ir. Active Perf. in. IV.

A IX. . VII.301 OF THE STRONG VERB.

Wo*** i j. En. C. m. X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1.» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . f.»x 1. m. i j. I.302 TABLE V. ft Ml J X 2. S 1 s x ft . o j o* Energ. ft *M f. Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. c. Co*** • * * f. 3. m. COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. Imperfect.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . 2. m. lb*** D iV. F<?r^. Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. Jussive. O****' O^^* . c. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. En. Energ. 1 x iV. m. Perfect. . jU 0*3 Sing. 2. m. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2. n. Indie. Siihj. 3. m. s> s> I. FIRST FORM OF THE Active. 3. 2. ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing.a. c. m. © j* 5 jx Sing. f. J OJ Imperative. ft Ml ->X C Plur. Simple. f. n. ^.

Jussive. x j m. tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1.Efo. m.J x x 2. 1) Other forms of the Perf. (/ tc <i // / cM^j. 3. Imperf. Jj. Iojl* V J » X f.m. O^juo ' f.>£>. or J* . i j 3. J^». I. GEMINATJE. S// or >i j jj3». 2 II.m.. C. m. m. Imperf. a j Perf Sing. \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4. 5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a . 4" J x Sing. 3. Jussive. Imperat. Juo. #n. m. 3. Imperfect. o f. or and Imperat. c.303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. ((2. m. O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1. J o 2 xj 2. Perfect. or J*** JA*!.. f. c. Passive. J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. a x . >>Xo-«.j Hi S/J o 2. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2. . Subj. Indie Sing. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i.^jjuo * f. f. Jussive. >i. Act.

Verbi. jjuo x at J >•** V. £ xx o Active Perf.b. or j »U >U . x. e. III.304 A TABLE Y. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx. Imperf. . irregularity . S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf.g. Pass. IV.x D The remaining forms present no Perf. Act. Pass. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N. II.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x.»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf. VII. >. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD. Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. Ag. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat. Pat. Act. GEMINATJE. VI. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf. VIII. JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. ij£ .

»* - •>. Imperf. i. "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>.. IV.*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat.305 TABLE VI. II. Active Perf. . j~ot y^t jJI A j.. jJU *| *. III. VERBUM PRIMJE RAD. V. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At .Ag. HEMZAT^l. or B A N. s VI.51 ^0 Al .

c o x Imperf. J>?&k N. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf. J5L. ^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . II. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. Verbi. J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf.306 TABLE VII. it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. Pat. x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf.- x£ ©C Active Perf. jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. * >* J>%* VII. JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. 1 III. Passive Perf. J^-i . x w x . Pat. j&U li spte* N. VI. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. HEMZATiE. V. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. x j . JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . Verbi. x£ VIII. Passive Perf. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. IV. Ag. N. Ag.

Active Perf.307 TABLE VIII. 3 . HEMZAT^l. in. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD.

5 « x B N. Passive Perf. wA^ *-**. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf. Ag. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » . ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat.$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf. JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/. jay js> Imperat. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf. w*». j^j js>^j *» •^jy. oi IV. VIII. xx o* t xOx Active Perf.jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N. 3 ET ^. {fa JO O x JG x J x N. VERBA PRIM^ RAD. js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf.. Verbi. Pat. Pat. Active Perf.0 Ox J N.»»<Mii>w ^ D N. i.308 TABLE IX. w^>« j~>5* . Verbi.

VERBUM MEDICI RAD.309 TABLE X. > Active Voice of the First Form. . Perfect.

x ft ft 1. m. m. B 2. Perfect. m f. jL» f. UjL/ U3j~> 2. c. m. 3.310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. 3. IjjC D . Active Voice of the First Form. c. ^. Dual. Sing. 3. C Plur. tjL> f.

Sing. 3.i » . 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. Energ. ^3 /j . C. c. m. c. /J J X J Plur. &6 U3 © x x ©xj .311 TABLE XII. JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom./j 1.>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f. Indie. %3 UL3 f. cis CJLd m. o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x . cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2. 2. m. Perfect. JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f. Pat. 3. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f. VERBA MEDLffi! RAD.. i. m. j>&«. Energ. 9 x SJyU 9 x x . Jussive. Subj. 3. n.** ^la om . I^Ls f.m.» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f. Imperfect. Sing. ^Uu J13I jud . U& x x Ml J. Dual. m. ^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2.

jb>wt XI. 3. s. Pat. J N. J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. J^J J12U v. J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. Kg./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. VIII. VII. N. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. Verbi. Verbi. cJLSt B Imperf. J^j*3 Passive Perf. Perf. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. m. IV. The Derived Forms. >jm^ jf>~i N. Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / . 3 ET & x.312 TABLE XIII. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. Verbi. %yJS Imperf. JUU II. N. Active Perf. Active Perf.J>£~>l . ->* N. VI. 3V3—»l jtj>. JUL* J^» JU-u III. m. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf. s.

VERBUM TERTLE RAD. . FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form.313 TABLE XIV. Perfect. y MEDICI RAD.

Perfect. MEDI2E RAD. VERBUM TERTIxE RAD.314 A TABLE XV. . FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. ^.

m. f. n. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. Imperfect. 3. m. m. 3. xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1. f. c.315 TABLE XVI. Sub}. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. m. KESRAT^l. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. O^s-f. En. U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . m. En. t> /(/ Sing. Ox x xOx 1. f. . I. Active Voice of the First Form. Indie. L5*^ iV. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . x f. x x Jussive. 3. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. F«r6*. f. C. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. c. m. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. u^tj 0x0 .

316 TABLE XVII. Pe . Passive Voice of the First Form. 3 ET ^. VERBA TERTI^l RAD.

Verbi. Pass. Act. The Derived Forms. Act. Pass. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N. 3 ET ^. 5xx xxx Active Perf. X. c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. Imperf. m.317 TABLE XVIII. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. f. Ag. m. VIII. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. ii. x o£ V. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf. IV. . Act. f. Pat. ^AA4 9x . L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat. VI. III.

CLAY.Camforfoge : PRINTED BY J. . AND C. F. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

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