6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.. WEIGHT. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. f?K£. ROBERTSON SMITH.. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN.D. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI. LL.. AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M.\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. ? /V DATE. 1896 . de GOEJE. J. VOLUME ? I. THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. . F.l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J.(o2)05 v. CLAY. AND C.

Wright had noted here and there . revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. which he had marked with my initials. He began it with his usual ardour. to take all initials. Miiller. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine. resolved to undertake this task. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. Prof. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. through Prof. Fleischer and other scholars. Moreover Prof. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author. W. After earnest deliberation I consented. are given corrections in square brackets. to continue the revision. Robertson Smith. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. whilst the had extended over 30 pages more.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. Bevan. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself.

unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. initials. M. Bevan. Leyden. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. has noted on the margin wants revision. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890). on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. J. without . § 353).VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252. "A . de GOEJE. February. who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. 1896. Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. who drew my attention to several omissions. I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous.

1813). ( Broch. 1851. Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. (w>LLaJt J-oi. i. 1831). the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. 1831-33). f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . Beirut. entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. 1859) . both ancient and modern. 'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. but to subject In fact. and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866). de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. the Mufassal (jJa4. Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse. with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. second 'l-Hitab edition.1CL). . A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. founded upon the above. Dieterici. . In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. Beirut. 2de eU. for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. with the 1866). 1854). the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision. 1867). I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. new work alteration. vol. second edition..p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. which last. and the Beirut edition of 1872). and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. Volck.

nearly everything that detail. apart from its bulk and rarity. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions. . and therefore but ill-adapted. for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however. In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew). as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. standpoint remains. of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. regards Assyrian. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. Sayce. I have not found much to alter. tongues. —have. Assyrian. I believe. I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. grammar beginners. however. — preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). the south Semitic dialects. and original Semitic language. seem I still think. but especially the former. 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. Portuguese. Spanish. My the same as it formerly was. Philippi. except in matters of I have read. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. * As of Oppert.Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. the Assyrian*. semblance to this parent speech but. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig. Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. 1869). and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian. may bear the greatest reIn .und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. on the whole.

WRIGHT. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. and I hope I may say other Orientalists. W. Australia). the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. under a fresh obligation. fellow. S. \ . the Govern. and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely. Murray (of Adelaide. Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. 1st July. look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . 1874. twenty-five and of the Punjab. extending over a period of more than twenty years. sixty copies. ment of Bengal. and thereby laid me. amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. Cambridge. ten of Madras. he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. in which. and the . ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. . from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office. Germany. the Government of Bombay. whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. (Fort William). twenty. I trust. Home Department .

de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements. which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition. They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof.The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F. l\ . Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar.

19 24 26 27 IV. V. THE VERB.. C. VI. III. E. I. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.. The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND..CONTENTS. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. GENERAL VIEW. B... PAGE I. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 .. 1. Medda or Matta . The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A. II. Verb 29 A. 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D.. PART FIRST.

Xll CONTENTS. THE WEAK VERB. expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b. Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / . 53 . and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form . Weak Verbs. 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C. of the First . Thirteenth. Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 . C. Form The Active Voice a.. 2.. THE STRONG VERB.. 3. and Genders 52 B. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. Persons. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth.*. 1.. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns... Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B... The 1.. expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns. 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A. Fourteenth. 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3. 2.

CONTENTS. The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus . 97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes. (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . (y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I..159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2. Appendix A. .Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality . 147 . I. THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. THE NOUN. and Blame III. 156 III. and A. their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a. . . which express the Accusative .100 II. .. The Denominative Nouns. Adjective. expressive of Surprise or Wonder . .. . or Relative Adjectives . (e) . . The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3. 149 151 II. 1. .148 149 . . (a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b. 106 The Deverbal Nouns. The Forms B. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J . Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II.

THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2. 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D. The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C... THE PARTICLES.. The Declension I. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS. 279 A. Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The . THE NUMERALS. 252 B. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II. The Pronominal Suffixes. 253 260 262 2. III. which denote the Genitive . PAGE 4. 3. 3. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns .xiv CONTENTS.. THE PREPOSITIONS.291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . . .. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix. 1. 280 THE ADVERBS. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C. Article 1. of Nouns .

8i . — Orthography and Orthoepy.Part First.

aJl^J! o^aJt. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. along with their names and numerical values.PAKT FIRST. is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. like left. a word. though three of them are also used They vary in form. terminate in a bold stroke. I. Hebrew and letters 1. B NAME. Arabic. and are all consonants. according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter. and. for the most part. . Syriac. as vowels (see § 3). THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS. when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order.

and is V. ut. a. i. end of a word these points are usually omitted. to African Mss. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. J A This combination ^. <^. hh. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. on the other hand. The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. of which the following are examples. b. are very inconvenient to printers. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. § 3. 3. The latter method a recent innovation. and form ligatures. The Arabs sequence . £ £ ^. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts.§ 1] I. c. &* *!* sh.. [These ligatures. thus s a f but 9 k below. from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. The object of elif a. The Letters as Consonants. : ^ t single point k*. k has the point below. as in this book. ir l * gh. or. At the Rem. or in the more elegant Eastern founts. In some old Mss. especially when. 3. as is A . § 15). I Rem. *>). I.] * This is not confined. and inserted before a. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon. or even . English and Arabic are intermingled. r+-. But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. not only in Europe but in the East. #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh. generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. it is Rem. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. %. J. in the earliest times. in which one letter stands above another. fy. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz.

the M 3 J 0* gingivals. the sibilants. JeJu). a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. cit. I ^ and c j to the latter £-. below. especially those issued at Bairut.>)*. and then ^ takes Rem. O. To the former class belong ». by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. are divided the loose or free. iUU^Jt iUM.4 a Part First. placing a point below. j. i. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. or an angular mark above. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances. rem.] . and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . letters. ^ 3 sua ^ i h. ^. and the like. unpointed.. The letters are also divided into the following classes. etc. the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip).e. prints. [§ 1 Rem. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. j. 5. from 5. j^.e. J^j. x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. h pointed. ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) . letters. in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds. 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI. k %. Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 . 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). c^U!»ug. i. e. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. (. dL Those letters which are identical in form. tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt. J. ^ has only one point above. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). — Orthography and Orthoepy. so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. the use of the two points below is optional. plur. such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt.

the letters O > b.)t »J>jj3»Jt. 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). the liquids ^ J ^. it is some of these letters. > is the Italian dental. [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. homme or English hour.has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch.] Greek 0. <f. less often with ^*.)\). see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l). It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. is our g in get. but not rough Europeans. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire. or th in thing. softer 5 bears the than our d. has the sound of the Heb. The Letters as Consonants. I C with hemza (t. like »-. It is sounded . softer than our like the t. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI. as in sing.§ 2] J ul ui I.or d-iJJt »J^aJI. 9-. will. ^e weak 2. however. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. 0. The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. or the German Roche. the letters. The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s. I >^ c c *. ». the gutturals. the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m. t. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem.. as well as Turks and Persians. The following hints however. s 3 J 0* J J f.. stronger than d. x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play. PI. same relation to > that <1> does to O. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH). rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. except by long intercourse with natives. O £> is is the Italian dental. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. the Heb. it In Egypt and some parts of U. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». or Arabia. soft letters.

it*. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this). as a mere vowel-letter. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. as in gargling. To distinguish it from do to O and z. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound. — Orthography it and Orthoepy. Hamdanled. are of Arabia. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©.] y. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa. the Heb. — De G. as in run. bears. s.6 Part First. the Heb. is a strongly articulated palatal t. and often in Mss. which we have no example in English. mist. v°. and the French r grasseye. related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. z. [In Egypt an emphatic d. V. strictly speaking. into or th in that. the Heb. of modern Greeks. )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a. 17 etc. for bX^xA. AJaJI. It is wrong to treat it. with. the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/. J. J^. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng. produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath. in any of the Semitic languages. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z.] . it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. the Heb.. unpronounceable) guttural. j the English z. ft. The y of the r. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&. without aspiration.]. shin shut. is a guttural g. is an aspirated 6#. is a strongly articulated guttural k. the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. JJ. is* is the surd s in sit. p.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r. It is described as . strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z.

o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**). g. 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. * In point of fact. ji lau. e. j~& 'ambar. When immediately . obscure resembling the Welsh y. 4] II. as 'ultu. as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning. in last the d is silent. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. iUw sembd'u. which the old pausal - (ah). (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin). The Vowels and Diphthongs. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels. see § •>) 1. for kultu. j9tj=& i (as kerlmun.Bsr or fetha (lm*&).§§ 3. 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai. e. ^r* hum. <d Ww. are exactly our k. jf H -> H 7). t)*. ya'ulu. n.>». and tj. ww. <v fo*Ai. . & J. e (as in pet). la. or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . (a) L feth (~$) . halaka. without any vowel coming between them. *+* 'bmrun. shibau. i (a dull. originally 3. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. o 1. and the modern . this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb. A j followed by the letter w>. or the (c) in bird) .g. In the is grammatical termination nounced like O. 0. : use of the three t (without hdmza.g. the German o in Mortel. of a syllable . At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels. I. ^ ^ for t and ai. yakulu. the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v.. rem. 'anbar. e (nearly the French (b) e muet). 4. (Heb. 1x5 1 ^Bftw. /. e. w (as in Zw/Q. au. m. E. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. and § 15) for a. a. * is our h.g.gemb. £ du.g. w and #. (JX&.1 —). a. e. not g&nb. The Turks and Persians > II. ^-^ shmsun. m as w^».

and fetha. xx e. kesr a. xO p plur. _. the latter the marks L. [§ 5 A Rem. Compare the Hebrew MH^. though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure. *\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a. ktmrun. o. . The terms ^^u and *3j. owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . one above for fetha. uttered. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified. A vowel 5 is called dib^a. kesr. S ywftU ajj^jaJI. one below for As rekesra. In the oldest Mss.g. c. gards the signs L. however. damma. X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. i. commonly used of the casee. x x x .8 Part First. for damma. u. u. will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. jj*o sadrun.]' are sometimes applied to L. or 0. O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &. the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. Rem. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds.] . through for the various 1. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. The distinction between the names feth. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides.g. j*±. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels.— Orthography and Orthoepy. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. B mark t Ox plur. JULwt or J|y£w. or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a. be given for the guidance of the learner*. e. u. 6. damm. Lin for other positions. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. of the Kor'an. a. and one in the middle.. w**J la'bun.c © . a. into e. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. The following rules may. or on the line. is that the former denote the sounds a. are probably derived from 5. is x ^sb * bakiya. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw. ^3. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. i. 1. a motion. form or figure. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). — its De Rem. — . and ^£ or a.

f *. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim. suratun . It retains. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). olUI.§ 6] _ II.g. end of a word. literae productionis. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u.g. 3»o i. c>**^> axJ^JI. so as to resemble a small elif . however. w*fc> ro bun. a. letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. sound of to that of the French u or German jy». are indicated I. U^A. *aj bVa. iUi. Z words hat. ^>j*jJI. nor immediately precede. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. JikJ to/a. by placing the marks C and ^. j+&\ 'akbaru . Rem.g. after the the vowel-points. of the short vowels before the letters ^j. <C. cap. SjU garatun. ^=>j*« m^rkebun. ^-£3 Bsrun. More in exactly. Zjj* marratun. and o\ o. J ( e. s J . "letters of prolongation." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u.g. less clear sound. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun. Jj bdl. w. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. e. e. $j*». u. 1J&. however.g. respectively. J 15 kola. C>£^l)t. IJJb. O**-' seniinun. ^Ac 'ilmun. oSS or £*$. $$** sukun. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. e. e. a was at and hence long vowels.g. and also in general at the 6. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. e.JUt from (^e resurrection. The Vowels and Diphthongs. garratun. C~l£> katabta. e. approaching to that of a in the English — .. JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with. — . pronounced as e. tunun. i. K+£\. g. sUrtm. to be carefully distinguished 2 .j**fi> 'o'mrun. 0^**> nearly torun. Ot^-JI.g. a weaker. • # 9 x «. «£l«~> sbnibkun. e. <JUI. the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case.g. or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). The long vowels a. at a later period. one of those letters. ^ao. ^^1.

a.g. just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4. &i&. / *y-U. I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. 251. and " § 5. The sound of L. / .10 Part £©**JI / First. J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t . final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity..t.g. / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. This change is called aJU*jM. which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics. such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3. ^j-^tijt. D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t.jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu . * [The omission of ^ p. / »j\ i^tj. dJ>l5. the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . are written a». preceded by damma. ^ Wver Guadiaro. are sounded ri&#. Carlo. d. \ Si / j J/ I J . Ztow Pedro. The letter o. ^^^aJI. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra. ^ stor damma. See Noldeke. m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu. Qordn's. 0/1/ and ^jj^U. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3. el-Haft. whence sister of fetha. The words ^*}U. aIU. # of Rem. . — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. Lebrilla. is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ. 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. JO / j . J w^aJt. the final I was shortened or dropped. etc. . and 3. are I also frequently written defectively wJi. conversely. ojJsu ^j>. bnu H-Yemani. Z?e/a. o/* ^. ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. value).g.b. lisin and. Gesch. 6a6. / / Rem. el-'Asi. • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au. S^JOI C^»-t. I • I J t 0/ . jJJ} . for ^yUjt. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. localities. j J . price. than in others. 6). 6.] .» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*. a^oJI c*». c. / £e£m. jj^iu. ^l^Jt. in later times and in certain from a to e. tl-imdla. I corresponds to fetha. i.» j^. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy. j>?UM. inclines. and occasionally some other vocables. Caniles. 0/ e. oW*-j c£J^*j 7. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn. J / / U^A. o^o saifun.

must be considered. »XX .-oj rama. can be abbreviated. . suprascript. After ^ at the end of a word.§ 7] x II. and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. is \^cj. a)..» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e.*^. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. On the other hand many Mss. and //»/ " x x is called. even very ancient ones. * 0*0*. as in final. x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM. tj>>*J- This I. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. 169.g. A w*** sefun. 6)f. but and o (Heb. . as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g. but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj. both when preceded by damma and by fetha.^. xx or a**). Rem. before jj/J\ (see x § x 20. the world).] . ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e.g. See the details below §§ 167. L*^j Behnesa. in j If a pronominal suffix be . l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U. which it is protected by hemza. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya .g.~\ The diphthong ai. £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. is often written.1 ** . with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai. tjj-aJ. like I. like J * itself . become nearly 9 (Heb. f). The Vowels and Diphthongs. § 10). after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. otiosum). a. Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun). § 19. ^J*-» yedai. d. and 1. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf. as in # * j I.g. the separating eiif Rem. .e. the elif that Jx e&/*. rem. in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. y. e. particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs. rem. (£lif e. shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant. It receives this name because.. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom. [But ^-. when old Mss. \j£ yaza). . *-) sfTftft. not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1. in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23.1.g. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters. 213 (as Li^-j he will live.J3 fata. lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\. Rem. ^-)> e.Jl Hid*. letters A. etc. b.

] In old Mss. * i. viz. 2jj j*c medlnetan. rem. all when the away (§ 315. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. Zamahsari. is added. tenwln genit. First. of the Kor'an. as in 1-w. according to the older orthography. [Cf. l viz. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. SyU. name JS jj*©^ [or. However. malun. . [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\. j ju*. the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions. accus. z = — _ =_. but 4aJ^». See t § 308. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n. To one word j * . no I is written. way l affecting the sound of the ten win. rarely j \jj-+&. which is always short : bdbdn. — Orthography and Orthoepy. Rem. . as bb. ^a^ 114. j+£. Sjjwt.1 . L an. The j of $. L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . Rem.] .+£• and JJ-+& ) is. so also \y>j. rihdn.— DeG. of 31.12 Part Rem. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. b. 8.£ in three cases]. Amr (not x Amru). further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*. and accus. _ in. SyCiLo. X j+c 'Omar. however. it a. for which we more usually find U*w. for l\ J^. as S^a. [§ 8 A d. g..or S^a-. t>^Jt for b>. e. Rem. JU a. when acto . This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). l^jj. p. \j+&. genit. djXo or S^Lo. the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. it as in j^jdb. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. . companies a hemza. c. 1 or iL un. O . without in any to the proper 4 . b) j>©. often neglected in old manuscripts. when precedes a ^. and bpt . falls jj-o*. Sj£»j or 3>%j. nor.

Rem. SIGNS. are marked '. § x- 59/ j*±e*. Other Orthographic Signs. instead of the common ±: or 1 . productionis they Rem. ^£»L>. ^jXt. is D 11. or. The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. a. as the Arabs say. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. x J strengthened (3juL&). . ^jJb B. used. which is called . has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*. when another syllable J follows. O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. In some old Mss. rem. letter. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. movent rem. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2.§11] III.g. ^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. rem. rest. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e. a quiescent See § 4. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14). j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa. when they form a diphthong with fetha. © x x e. and serves. A. ^&i ~£= katabtum. \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda. with which other name x \j£~i. fore to the hum. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. to separate the two. for ^s>. Rem. 5 x \ 9. b. d). ^J=>. . Ox Rem. JL3.g. but marked with the sign -. e. JJ. (amputation). a). coincides. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables.» letters of prolongation. is written only once. j>*o. but not marked with a gezma. later d. b. c. - -. Jj bel. a). ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7. Gezma. Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. A consonant that fl to be doubled. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). A Gezma x or Sukun. e. are retained in writing. etc. J**i. z. (see § 4. Gezma or Sukun. as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 . as between feth &&& fetlia.g. ^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. c. or a*j^. b. whence the C of the 2 . 13 III.g. ^j and 3. m A letter which letter.

* [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. All consonants whatsoever.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere. the vowel is not always written with the sedda . *$d> kullan. The African Arabs constantly write for -. and receive tesdid. fern. Rem. a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. e. ~ . stand for £.14 Part First. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. —De G. (from UubL^ lightened. is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. The solitary exception to this rule. e. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. . is sometimes written. 2d pers. in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila. Rem. therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru.g. as may be seen from the above examples. In combination with . below the line. -. -. instead of Jj3 and J>*3.. is not required . which. it and Orthoepy. d.*.«. a. of ji Of CU5. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun. no doubling. £ may . Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. as well as £. .>jut>. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. i. takes place.g.g. In African Mss.] . 3d pers. at least in old manuscripts. Rem. sing. to. single). Tesdid. the tesdid {strengthening)*.£. admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. in combination with -. <fec. only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. of the fifth form Rem. — Orthography e. J&\ Si M-kulla. ± alone may be = t . It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi. of the Kor'an.e. In the oldest Mss. e. -. when accompanied by kesra. -. tesdid is * expressed by « or ^. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule. c. properly so called. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. Ojji. D Rem. sing.»). not even excepted. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " . jv» semmin. b. Perf. or the first letter of the name ojut>. as in African Mss. C <*£&>. cj-tU na"agun.is an abbreviated ^i. y* murrun. Perf. [§11 A JujJLSf.

which. yi. whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). is bitter. for kiidbun mublnun. appointed some one commander . is B. letters. 15 12. and Jj. JIaj <jt after the nunation. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. . This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. sibilants.>L©. 3. happens to begin with one of them. save in rare instances. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. e. ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^. *£>. 'ar-rahmanu . ^L 14. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. j. as C^»tj letters j. solar because the word u~+J*. JJI. 0> (dentals. <>?. in African and Spanish manuscripts. ui. J-JJt el-leilu. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. (b) b. JJ ^>o. is.§ 14] III. j^UI k-timru. y> (murrun) language. It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. The w of the . and &*£$. and after n with £ezm. ^-^Jt Ss-semsu. iesdFid. he. as in jto. 13. Tesdid or Sedda. ^. &. J». 5. j. used : — (a) With the letters O. to avoid harshness of sound. or. c J. but ja\ (ammara). j>. though expressed in writing. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. moon.g. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI. a. the Rem. e.> [see § 277]. like ilcu^a. sun. UkjodH. but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. . jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. letters. ^.g. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends. Ja. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant. j. and the other lunar them. Other Orthographic Signs. >. the because the word j^3.g. Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. e. it is sometimes found after it 1. With the J.) after the article Jl . as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu.

it naturally unites with the is written. jilf. c.. b. — Orthography and Orthoepy. Rem. k*±. on the contrary. rem. ILd. and rem. j^\ . 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God. second b. as C~J for cJL5. pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation.31. (dentals). but a conthe spiritus lenis. mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. v° b.>«. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N).g. u° or h. see § 4. ^ v >«.g. Elif. *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1.jl. ^Sj. like O. lj. £>*> 0*> I*. also sometimes called nebra (S^J. when it is sonant. . £>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta. If the verb ends in O in the above cases.. f°r O**** or v>» . but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*. with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. and grammarians.O-*a. for C-slsua. juXSI. 6. JL.^t.jl £ (i/*.» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. are hardly ever written separately. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. *£>. a. e. g.. [§15 A words v>«. is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. rightly. such as >. a. ^Jj\. the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel . He^mza or Nebra. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant. Rem. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9. ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. . compression. union of the two indicated by the tesdid C.jt £ {if not). Rem. for ^ O*. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel. is of the upper part of the windpipe. \j}\ t Ua*. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . after e. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. Rem. a). which \j3. with redundant U). W* for U £>*> ^ itself.. but the . * D 15. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu . by a C weaker servile letter. always. however. Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether. elevation)'.16 Part First. so that only one O is O. e. it i. . jwl. e -g. in a si . is distinguished by the viz.. a. d. Ut £ for U. (tf/iatf. )» s With the letter O .

§ 17] III. though [See below. of the Kor'an. s uun\ i^o. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points . when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). like. 4JL%*©. e-j ^^j for it chW. (a) Always at the end of a word. Ji* and the d. after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma. Rem. c. jt. In African (and certain other) Mss. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui. £^3. c). (jlt^iJI.. J0^i\js>\ (but for J . . § 4. 17 Rem. rem. c£X±. f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. Hemza or Nebra. for ^>>L. preceded by a shut syllable. or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8. tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem.j>Jwl£. l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &. Accusatives * w. after elif productio?iis. l^. for Ol».... a)'. I. Other Orthographic Signs.l. e. varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above. hemza e. like l^ and l^J? are often written. *U*.g.] 3 . C. for ^j^-wl^. b. * J gaa. el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu).. pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. e. j5~t for j-w (see § 16). ^.3. j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota.. e. w*33j 17. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). ** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss.. . Ju*>. Rem. Rem. is e. accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L. as ^j^t\^J.g. In the oldest Mss. Hemza it.g. is written between the t and the vowel that . ^j\ or <jt for ^>t. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain. ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word. and in the middle of a word. or ltu»» for U*i». §§ 131 seq. tbj.g. in the fol- lowing cases.Ufc. 16. C*£». by a large yellow or green dot.g.

placed itself. more frequently. PuUr* for 0^ . j to. j c-> . iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. Rem. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. and also e. however. A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i. a. called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c.g. e. at. as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. is. from S^a-o. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. ^ £ j 3 . Rem.18 Part First. £lif with [This hemza. for^. 6. J-~j for JL*j . for JU»t. 1 ^eU for ^oU). and followed by a or s a. l*J* \\>j and in old Mss. — ^. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh . as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. (b) Frequently in the middle of words.>*1t. ^j^ au. as JLtj for JLjj. 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation. pronounced makrit'atun. ua.kri c or &Lla». J^/f. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. a following After a consonant with gezma. though improperly. e. as J£*t. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>.. power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel. as ^>ott or is ^\. necessarily so. for **o*> from *^. and Orthoepy. 0^34 for oL5^. oUJ]. u. for ^t. O/ as for i — Orthography . and uu. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&. Lw. or after a consonant with gezma. [§ 17 A contrary to rule. and damma before the for ^Hjjj. The name j^tj or ^i\y David.. Rem. hati'atun. ^^jj for ^Hji. but must always be pronounced Da'udu. is often written ^\y . ai. which is connected with letter. jit£ for ^otjj. £. Hemza between w&. S$j-£* for SjjjXo. if the preceding consonant be an .g. o. rn'usun. after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of . *Zo* j 9io. or ^hj^j which words must always be .g.1^. we find such instances Z\}j.

written over the . f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. in modern African Mss. a. a&I. he said. x See § 15. we rr J- L instead b. j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# .a. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13. J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < . . xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e. or 2X& (see x bi rem. i. e. dU^l c-ol. was appointed governor . rem. or &L03. In the oldest Mss. a. and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35). Imperative. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ . the stroke is used. at the commencement of A a word.§ 19] III. and called J*&3. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e. and § 19. i. the father of (b) the we~zir. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. of the usual sbs. kill. he said. Hence even I. as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13. rem. Rem. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active. Wasla.e. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM..g. listen. I i. When the vowels with hemza (t I). X *>*> . «i.g. with a point to indicate the itself. which sometimes varies in position. Rem. O x ^ x 5x § 4.e. "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt. the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign . yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut. |x X . e. + * regular verb. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. D. <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif. Slif. 19. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . 19 D. t J~~> . d. j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. S^-j&JI. Other Orthographic Signs.& downfall or extinction. £ s 'OiO . With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA.g. or rather. union. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. according to the preceding vowel. Wasla. a). I 18. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red).o$ or 4JL0 . In ancient MagribI Mss.

the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. rem. Rem. 9 J 9*0 §j*\. : [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\. Rem. in a contracted form. 9t-*0 a name. is in ^>*-jl after J). as (lit. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic. omitting the altogether. but. * . as ^t^iiNjI ^. J Oi Rem. b. j^\ 30 (rarely^wt).^r^\^AJ\ JA>. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. See § 15. the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\. or. b. two (masc). two (fern.\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*. <ft jL^jf. a * a daughter. jl^l5N)l. It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza.20 Part (d) First. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^. is also elided after the asseverative particle J. * 9 /) fe is neglected. as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. Cwl. 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l. that to say. in part original.>M. e. a man. 3 d. and § 18. /). aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God). oatfAs. as rem. 9 a woman. so. in part merely prosthetic. a. but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms.^0-MvNjt J^. The hemza of j>^-»l. prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. because it is then no longer necessary. and * ^J\ * or ^j\. xO xxO O^'l. JO* C is Rem. c. Rem. — Orthography son. the anus.>*-J. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. especially after the article. orjj-ot.© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. and occasionally m after the prepositions *.). and Orthoepy. s-Jj^-- . to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. a.

« mustafdu 'lldhi. »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. (a) 20. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ . at into ai. To vowel. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis. A II . which equally admissible.20] III. J*Wi. as u«jJi . first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis.yju&t. father of the wezir. D. J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. the connective elif the opposite elif. in the other two an elif separationis. AJJt j)BJn. being sJgJUl oUI. elif sejunctionis or separationis. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . ^. ^_ and e. f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t . viz. ^^t )^o*J my grace which.. Wasla. b and c.^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. B shortened e. in e the beginning. instead of . is pronounced as written Q tjuJi. Other Orthographic Signs. these different cases the following rules apply. Hence gtj£^t ^3.g. subject to change (a I weak elif letter). J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. The suffixes of the 1st pers. see § 19. O in the eyes of the king. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri. A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel .g. the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel. or a consonant with gezma. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. 'n-nasi. a diphthong. according to the law stated in § 25. for <UJt ^aJsucuo. for ft and 'abu. for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma.rfi.JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI . the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. sing. and au into cm as (c) . but begins the next syllable. forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels. 21 Rem. This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. rem. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). fear the people. the elect of God. The silent elif (§ 7. u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^.

for IjjjkTt Ji. them. viz. J*. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra . The preposition .>£). verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS. } Rem. x v~k*. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) . and particles. such as sjs. takes . as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu. ^A or^A. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm . J — Orthography w and Orthoepy. rem. Perf.. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. £ take kesra. JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s. jS. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. and ^A their. before the article. J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel. since. or adopts the lightest of the three vowels. The same it is is the case with Jco. Oi Ox But jt and to meet.>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu. because contracted for Ju*. [§ 20 xx A thong. they threw the stones . is The final £ of rejected. Rem. as tjjiaST jj. etc.6. viz. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers.. from.»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma. which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha . ^j\. b. C fetha djj\. x0£<0. kesra. which time forth.). In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85. masc. as .22 Part xx x 0*> First. the pronoun yj*. j£* your. plur. as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . . but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. ^Sj. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu.^0^ you. b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. x J x <5 ^j .0*> x name . the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns. a. Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers. from. A . & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. D Rem.\. plur. and after they saw the star. Jj. j and^A they. masc. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c. you (accus.>*.

t.g. for J*^). but form part of the predicate. when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to. if that word happens Rem. 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka. in a genealogical series. .c. so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. omission of the In the word ^t. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW. la tadriba 'bnaka." being Amr. as a whole. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«. son. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j. jy&J*o wise. [Cf. oUaaJI Rem. if ^jj\ jU. real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary . b. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather. J^pJ to the man.§21] - III. and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. of the son precedes. thus: j^. . it is ls**J> Ridha. e. forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. Z . the son of Halid.0* . § 315. B when the name the genitive lira . Wasla. the son struck Sa'd. 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases. b. to stand at the beginning of a line. rem. for aJUI^wb. as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. . a. but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname.] the second noun be not in apposition to the first. ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. the J s I retained. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss. that is to say. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. D. the an adjective. as by the J J OtO j . Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. "the black. ^t j+s. aUI j^s. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. ' interposition of the noble. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs. For example. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad.ijj sjj£. the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh. In the article Jl.

I.] . (£) by the affirmative particle J truly. rem. is it (fem. then the J of the article is omitted.>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19. for iOn. » a>. xxOjx^o^ ^. e. the two . is Rem. we find in old Mss. so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem. such forms as tbj. rem.. y>^tf. then a mere hemza etc. — Orthography and Orthoepy. cited in § 358. and that for alJJN). to ask. I . as S&JJ. as aJUJ to the night. ^*>. is frequently omitted. verily. ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'. is placed over the latter . for ^UjM. and the article Jt. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained. Rem. Q Rem.24 Part First.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\.*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^). of the Kor'an. elif In this last case. for 2JJJJ. after the conjunction J sj. E. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto. has fetha.] Medda or Matta.g. the form of the medda » x ji*). Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij. is son—1 O^Xit. ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna. (i. *U. according to some. is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti.e. (§ 17. in poetry. [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. *X*~> semdun. a.Z . 22. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as . extension). as Jlli. a. Its opposite is j*oA (i. for Oj-Jull. wj^aJI yJ — De G. c . and the sign of prolongation. o e. when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\.gaa. for llo-*.. As mentioned above 1U*. rem.. a. for (d) In nouns... rem. § 140.). [Cf. 6. (t. 5jL« or aJsh. Ih. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>. j-o3. lengthening. elifs # when the second j s s o. b. in Mss. for^5Jo»Jtt. In the oldest and best Mss. verbs. a.. shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases.). for JUS. he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M . i.e.) is written instead of the former.>.. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>. for *l».) brokenl ^Jjd^5t.a»Jt.

the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. instead of with Rem. of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. h). or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. informed us. o or t. for 4 . Medda or Matta. So Jtj for jJUj. E. along with the medda. w. may GW /*e Aave mercy it. W for LS jo*-. 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17. a.g. l^a***. medda (see § 6. —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript. Ae narrated to us tfAew. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. may God be <*JUI well pleased with. In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza. a) c. as ly~J j jo£ . rem. only is (§ 17. e. when they are used as long poetry. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda.. Other Orthographic Signs. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem. 25 this is is but rarely written. is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. . ajx. Medda prolongation. GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to.^* or ^**. b).J I. ^2J\ j&. e. alwt for }tL*l. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\. rem. U for Uh*»»l.^**. the hemza being written final a) . When. the lengthened or long elif. .§ 23] III.jt or . b. i.\ .j£*. an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). see § 174. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. Cfor J^a-. (t) is at the beginning of a syllable. He (God) exalted above all.] 1 Rem. [But we some- times find U. upon him/ for 6j±. Rem. $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. has nothing in common with medda but is the form.g. often written over abbreviations of words. U^-l .g. rem. d. aJUt ^y^j. e. In some old Mss. Ut or to the end of etc. in and the verbal termination j£.e. or the vowel. Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha. The mark -. tut instead of L*t or tutt. when followed by an elif hemzatum.

Generally speaking. 26. Vlp). — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. on passing into the Arabic language. is. syllable that terminates in a vowel. an. 0*0 0* y^M. explanation.). first consonant . ^)L^. it is correct. as . Foreign words. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. may be either long or short. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable. THE SYLLABLE. usually before the . together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. and stands for < ~*J. to fypov 27. is almost always short . C we 24. The first of U J margin.26 Part First. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. and not that of the text. to be placed last. as J13 ka-la. IIXaTwv f J . and is repeated more clearly on the them. which commence with a syllable of this sort. though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. correction. the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir. Before a double consonant a (see § 13. the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text. may (i. 25. as sf or fir. another manuscript . The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant. the first of which is destitute of a vowel. either separated or followed . D Rem. *-Jj*y\. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|. A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum). that the ancient it is as kul. -*~o stands for ^o. — Again it is. J . the third implies that the marginal reading. or ^!wa1. find words with the letters *f~. the fix o < correct one 5*-o.e. rem. JU pause. ^. and denotes form or vocalization. ' « . A take an additional vowel. B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct. dJbd over a <x\x). a copy. which we call a shut or compound syllable. Jy> (Heb. end in two consonants. — Orthography and Orthoepy. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. and ~~*a over of Mss. emendation. in the writer's opinion. we often W O * these indicates a variant. which are not by a vowel (except in pause). and jajJLc. text. to be placed first. tin. etc. where the final short vowels are suppressed.

is the interrogative enclitic j> . ^r* kd-ta-ba. Jl-rfnd. . d-du.a-du- l wun. y bi-hi. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. bil-ldur. c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. mdk-ru . J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. the accent falls upon the antepenult. _ ^J ^i li-ma. ham-rd-'u. nature or position « x . i. hdm-ra. long by nature. and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28. 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. U-^t 'ei-na-md. as ya-kul. ly-»|p fa-?-a- . The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position. j_. bd-ti. bil-ldu-run. it is 29.B *3j** mak-ru-un. ul-J .J . i D ^^ the penult is short. ne-bi-yun. ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^.e. ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. bu-nei. as ^. \S£> ka-dd. that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». it is 30. mu-mi-nfn. is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w. V.§ 31] V. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. 9 uf ma-fdr. I. 5 *' *" ** x* J . J. j js. in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. (b) * Monosyllables in combination with . J. ku-beil. kd-nun. rem. ^. j. But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl. 9 lj-4 biir-un. l Oxx kd-ti-bun. *!_ or 2t_.j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na. if it 31. *j_. ya-kH-ldn-na. 'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. m». g^lsu ba-ti-un. The last syllable of does not take the accent. £15 fa-kdt.>*) li-mdn. j>V. and vJ. as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun.33 wa-kul. . The Accent 27 THE ACCENT. '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. Vj wa-ldm. Rem. U la-nd. kd-ti-bdt. ne-bi . or. *fe\ 'a-fa-ld. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun. X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma. XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. w>. The penult takes the accent when . J3I 'a-kdl-lu. When has four or more syllables. Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. i>*>^ yun. UJ ^-rad See 351. (a) The pausal forms . ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. Rem. l^ bi-md. i).

and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**. Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. Grain. as jut*a£. ten in number. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). On deviations from these principles of accentuation. des arab.j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt.28 Part First. 183-6.g. Rem. p. They are the same that we Europeans make use of. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed. as the following table shows.« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun. . have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians. 1874. [also Spitta. 1874. because we took them from the Arabs. at other times peculiar signs. xii. They are written from right to left. &v.] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880). vol. Their form. Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. 670-3. VI. iv. B 32. — Orthography . the the alphabet.. THE NUMBERS. pp.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor.: 123 4 67890 . letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. however. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md. [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd. the Indian notation. Vul- 59 sqq. Egypt and among the Bedawin. calling them Arabian. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. pp. vol. and Orthoepy.»>. tAvt.. as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°. and Wallin in the same journal.

is X. JjuJI. the Triliteral 1. . because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. a. instead of he has killed. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). III. masc.. but the learner XL XII. 33. Jl3 to kiU. contain three radical letters. Ji^t VIII. which first. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. that is The great majority to say. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms. The 3d of the verb. The Forms of Verb. JiS I. sing. Rem. literal verbs are by no means rare. but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive. IX. I. JJuilt XIV. JU**t XV. J*tf V. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Perf. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV.PART SECOND. pers. VII. THE VERB. >& JiL ? l VI. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. A General View. JiliA j£ Ju& II. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. A. JjiSl XIII. (with juSt number.

j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. and not a few of the write. is B 37. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam. 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. p. sJj& high or noble*. jj&> to know upon.g. v** J y^3 to go away. w>o to beat. (scire). ^v^a. to s^^ to become gray. ^j+e to be J* blind. j^~* old. The vowel signification. 38. Rem. according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. e. 415. jJ*j to go right way. to be large. w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill. As are those adopted in note them carefully. ' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. to become noble. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful. * to be safe and sound. D Rem. ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear.g. c. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO .j+& j**o to be small.] — . *-ji or JJ^ glad. j*y\ to become whitish. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so.Part Second. The distinction between them is. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. to sit. to think. the learner should 36. *£t or to E.» to be heavy. or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . j*£* become ugly. sorry. b. thinking. u*j^ be sick.g. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons. [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. —Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. a. t^~U. Kamil. that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition. to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. . De G. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. and therefore govern the accusative. for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before. * [Or. Rem.

term.g. as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie. A. b. Gr. The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical. The Verb. General View. to believe him. Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry.^jiz x w-A to wWto. The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . *IaJ to cut in pieces . the apparent difference being that original in the latter. Jt*». The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). fo«£. or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . but derived in the former. xx or <J\h to go round. JU. . b. or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive). Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach.5 to cw£. p.to ?raa#0 carry. i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down. 165 $eq. as^Xft know. E. a. w>o B j*& ala. Forms of Triliteral Verb. first Verbs that are intransitive in the . 9-j* to gladden. UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). Jjji to disperse . w>j~o to #£#£ violently . form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. Jjy to separate. ^J to weep. [See Comp. Js3 to massacre . ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. 1. transitive or causative in the second # . it is Rem. j~£> to break. xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces. ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. Rem. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. JS3 to to Mil. 40. Ubt^ to weaken.~\ /S/ X Xx A 39.§ 41] I. 31 Rem. though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. or during a long time (temporally extensive). Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth.

g. (??i«2/ thy nose. or the like. Rem. . in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5). Sometimes. ^&0— [See Comp. [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative. j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w. — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. and ex- or doing of. o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him . to dwell in a place. iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. jl*. ^UT. ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar. JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt). by the elif productionis.g. (_>»U. 43. j&j*.32 Part Second. JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar. a mutual one. first p. . fi like the fourth form.j).i. to the Heb. " to skin an animal. (may GW prolong J^O thy life). d. to coZ/ec2 to to e. T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly. compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). a&3 he killed him. *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja). (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). (^^J&t <*£M). ^fap and Aram. ing ways. Rem. isj-o . Uju*.). or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with. x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). hfap. he said to off). JUi corresponds in form. j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^.to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»). derived. ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object. dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee). It modifies the signification of the 42. agju*. . c. 198 sea. be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U». J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x . Gr. to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin.] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical. jQ+m. as well as in signification. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry.

A aJU he tried to overcome him . E. Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. (c) . \J&\+b to double. do. 33 alii he overcame him. g. ac. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. he threw him down. . A^ol*. . £>*~j*.Io he wrestled with . The Verb. £f$ to be soft or gentle. he vied with him in rank and glory . Rem. conversed with him . <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan. (something). ^U.g. ojsMt he competed with him in doing so.he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . General View. axStj do. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. <uuw he outran him. as in the former case. E.§ 43] I. ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do. dJuL* he ran a race with him. the relation B of which to an object object). . sj**±. d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry. gently . »^jafe more or less distinctly implied. o^Sh he strove to do so.to d-wla. he went first is to law with him. w.^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him. g. Ji. . Aiwl». aljlS he corresponded with him. oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. X X J . aijli he strove to do so. tli to be hard. sulted with him. t mander of the Faithful. treated be good or kind. When the or fourth form denotes an act. „ . 1. attacked him. oa. A.. of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). and affects him or brings X him into that state. he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit. Forms him of Triliteral Verb. to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly . AiS*) he treated him it . a^pU he procured him means of doing so. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. from Julc the like or equal . «o *i« he fell upon aAs. jlS>t he advised him. ideas a. ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. is here.U» 5 . him kindly . he treated he. but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied.

. natives.. found the district abounding in fresh herbage. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun. or or it. G. v~y** to sit down. Rem. C c/~^t bid one to down. Geog. the first. The fourth form I. in others the same.aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty.g. b.g.^JU to escape. Faih. because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. (Gl.lj. Thus J*. Jailw ojicb.t to >*swJt make run. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>). a). Zamahsari. sjof^\ \S^ c. like the second as t alsLjt he thought him. If the in 45.* ot oj*+*»\ J .s. many that of a transitive verb. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing. they have in some cases different to teach. niggardly . UJ is ^. i.v. 44.g. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth. ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. 197 c. sometimes declarative or estimative. to let go. . from which they are derived. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. tj>». 52. a. t^&S he shewed him Rem. p.— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. Jjbl . to know. to \Jj** sit to run. fold well. if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth. a . ( . j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. 6) see Corap. and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . found him cowardly . J±}). When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41. eat. The fourth form J' s Of. B Aghdni —De dUU. intransitive in the first form. of denomi- Rem..34 Part Second. [Rem. he thought him. b. [§ 44 A double. a = Heb. verb is . to be. ^oAfct to E. E. ^s- inform one of a thing . he to be praiseworthy or commendable. Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). 6V. .<» .. J*^t he ate bread. of which it is the direct object.] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt. significations. 202 seq. to the Heb. D Rem. The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. cites xiii. he found him. e£c. or found him to be. it becomes doubly transitive in the E. rem.

1 jJUl to act a proof ill. j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory ." calve. < . w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV. Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). or becoming something. abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ . ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3).^. doing. into a state or condition. ^3t advance.g. I 4(S o 9-~o\.l. or VIII. go to Aoi go to the left) . -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA. x x oi and 7*X£KTl. 0>£»>t. Usui to 6e sto or B tardy. serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face. in Hebrew. w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. go # to the right.i to cto fault or error. run with *• outstretched neck. Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin. *L>I. j^\. . ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). x . The Verb. to enter x x * .^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&. ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi. . *£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) .§45] to I. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. ^° 1. jJsuot to O .it commit a commit a blunder. Thus AetoJ ^ J VII. ~ . ol . . ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . J^D^H. ^ ^. obtaining or getting having something.oi to E. acquiring a quality.] . C-^Ui sAe son. j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place. JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . upon a period * soi ssoi to . people) or oe aVy (of a season). well or *^J. Ae re^'reo?. Usui. pj~i\ a * i to make haste." "to seed. ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . . " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower. j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. ^£wl.. or suffering something therein). 35 produce herbage (j^j)." "to lamb"). tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt). wwt.* (J»iu). to >~». w-^/'t a noble . jj>\ to retire ("reculer").11). of a certain kind*. Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them. to to ebx Irak . the entering — of time (being.it>i a male or a female child. i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa. A. sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently. o t (Jjtj*M). I. or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels.. .) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face. s i * to give " . 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\). is I battle . General View.

patient. 204 The Hebrew. J~l&. <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67.'.g. *->j*o3 . that is to say. to be [§ 46 A farthing. Aram. Forms 69. owe. uJS). to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . . "°Z Rem.» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated. 'jJojS. it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action. like XXX £\j& are 118). . ^g» (*&*J). D 47. d. 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. „ . JJtjJh for to pour out rest to .. instead of it will be observed.. girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3.t . in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the . }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth . \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±. '*'. j~£3 to be broken in pieces. to reduced to utter want. Phcen. '£&. o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-. as its must often be rendered by the passive. See Comjt?.Of. seo/. ^4^1. become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O. . GV. or «3!/v°> 46. J B . %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces. (P *^) . to let rest. prefix. to wish. . action denoted by the second form effect or result. literally. become possible. for to give discoverable in Arabic. to terrify). has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP . as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) . to be proud. g.jij^\. for (rad. p.36 Part Second. and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf. e.Jl.. h*ppn. Heb. took away its 4*a*£. deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ. ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) . In English it E. reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '. JJJL». or the Parts of Speech. O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. SftpK. w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. it is the pjUa-o of the second form. St break one's compact with a person. The . ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint. jm£\ garment) or clear. This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . obscurity or toani of clearness. j^\. £jJu to be dispersed.

The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent. a earnestly. ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). [In some cases the difference between II. General View. to affect courage or manliness. Forms of Triliteral Verb. to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain.g. jjjj * to take as an abode. j**\3. JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. to abstain from. ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire. £***£. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. Rem.] we may substitute ±r»yu. so that to may be quite clear. j^j^ to amid blame. j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). a. Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. Jiia^J. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow. 2*j-**3. \f^. to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids. *xwU become as bold or . sip to or sup. or atvta* sm or crime. cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab.§47] I. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). understand. ^>a*j. to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. to look at to. fo become a Jew (^O^). entirely disappears.j (§41. (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. ^ra? as a foora (ju»t). Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. a». rem. to have wholly disappeared. without change of sense. b. 37 with Kais or Nizar. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative. to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!). »J to pursue step by step (literally. **-~J to liear to speak. £jj3. to make to oneself or turn oneself into. *»•>> . and V. but Q Rem. c) Thus for ^^3. as a prophet to (J^*J). e. dispersed. to examine or study. at first sight. A. The Verb. or to affect. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of. 1. tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. w ^a>J . Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. long or repeatedly.

g. Q only of an impersonal. the reality or fact. which transitive in the third form. by prefixing the syllable It is the O. effective. I kept sixth . but did not learn to be separate. [§ 48 A c. j^s. namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. but also of a personal passive. We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£. becomes e. . we might say. whereas object of. form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b. he was taught Again. he was learned (= taught). JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism. sometimes the indirect object (dative). E.38 Part Second. Rem. him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. to teach. g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). as J^l3 d3 j&b. to to learn. Rem. the action of another . Rem. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. ILo-*^ to know. explain. to (become learned)*. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. ^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned. different j^jo to become learned. The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative).g. which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. whether it be caused by another or by himself. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. 48. or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. d). 0-++> to appear clear or certain . 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41. g. rem. ^G o-o to make clear. 50. (received instruction). even more common. a. pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form. but did not learn. JJU»J become. distinct. clear. or prove to be. whence we see its identity with the Heb. likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. D 49.

aJjti he fought with him. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together. him. 39 the thing. rem. ^jloJ to feign sickness. whence in the passive. § 1 f . ii.§50] I. j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult. inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . Forms of'Trilateral Verb. jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly. w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them. JaUJ feign ignorance.g. j^Uj to to pretend to be blind. . above all . Rem. with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance.g. another. si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another . gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. e. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf. A jjULj to pretend to squint. to ^j^W* to pretend to cry. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . aJI C~«U3 . a. The Verb. D made itself (became or was) too great. *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . Further. for him . 1. and lUaaJt C~~*y3. w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. Rem. or perfect. b.]. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred. the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. above all. vol. Somewhat similarly. A. oU»J pretend to be deceived. When used in speaking of God. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. subjects. e. or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). OjUj to pretend to be dead. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. General View.JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed. *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. * * collective. or exalted.

Ji*»>. [Hence bit. [§51 A (^ c. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i.v. in walking*). however. may be added but always the direct object itself. and so strengthening. §§18 and J. rem. ! see with rem. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification. this I becomes I. as pjUx* of the first. d.] . t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. s. of one The idea of reciprocity e." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. 20 first vs. For the cases in which 19. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. before which § 26). By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth. J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111).g. Rem. and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3. Hamasa p. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj. d.] C is Rem. as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. The seventh form has also originally. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build. It must be remarked. added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem. Slj^t colnerentes. and why. supporting. and as to the orthography instead of § 19. ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. and comm.40 Pakt Second. — De G. this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts. first rem - 51. a middle or reflexive signification. as it were. c. the others) . D 52. c. Geog. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. to which sative).

and so ancient. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. Sometimes. 41 often to a passive. from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. JUJt to open (of a flower). 6 . J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. to flee. Gr. 1. E. - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. cut to off. 53. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 7fcDp3> see Comp. the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. to x x end. to break into pieces . from >U to return. though in actual use. B upon him e. [Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt. pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived.. JUdtil to 6e bolted. x x O \ appear . X XX O p. Si to be docile or submissive. especially in more recent times. JUul to be uttered or spoken. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals.'»t. are incorrectly formed. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. UUJQI uncovered.. from *JLot JUJxil. not to be found.— De Rem.g. The radical in consequence loses its vowel. g. The Verb.). x x x Rem. or an effect to be produced . from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down. out of the reflexive. *a. from to 6e stupid or foolish . m Rem. jtjM to be non-existent or missing. ^\Ji7b 63. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. jJbJLit to be to split itself. to fo |?w« to rights. 215 seg. UJsul # to fo extinguished. jUjI X 6e repeated. x J x . to £xxo 60^. from JiA£t x^xog e. jaJ\ a. o£ to j»w£ to rights.§54] I. General View. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. (§ 51. A. i. from JjUj to 6e narrow. G. to fall.«sul. 54. j~£j\ to break (intrans. becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w. rem.s* . to be to be broken.). 6. ^mm*J to become broken. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress. to be made x manifest.g. to be ended. At the same it time. ^£>fjt. particularly in modern Arabic.] jilit corresponds to the Heb. the last in a tradition. c.

**o tjj^jfc. Greek active and middle voices. ** . * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people . as Jjji to divide. L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro. = ******* . * * * US and •*&£). D 57. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative.. u°j* way. Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive. to part . as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces.. ^oS . ^U*t to be full. as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). see Comp. .»Jg»t * earn one s living . Gr. and * tjtfudt. to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t. fought with one another. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J. to to place (something) before one.— Etymology Rem. ** * * j . Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification. . to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). w»j&\ do. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God). Jt£» and JU£»t meat. to snatch away. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another. p. to * * follow one's track. dative. *.42 Part Second. that they may be translated by the same to relate . or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical. to seek for it * * * v . especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . Rem. * Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another.. J~+l to touch. u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. . to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing. to be victorious .l * to collect firewood. The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. 208.1 they * * * were neighbours.. word. b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another. e. like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree.g. and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ]. to measure corn.] explanation of the actual form is O 55. yJa* * and w*kl». which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO . and sixth forms. J^t to to go asunder. implying for oneself. -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. sJ^jt to be turned back. for one's own advantage. B J»ji to beat. to carry off by force. so closely in their signifi- cation..f> and ^.

to show that E. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears). mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . . u^tf^ an d u^W white. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . colours b. . loses its vowel.g. Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. Rem. being more rapidly pronounced. draws the accent upon the penult.§59] I. General View. is Neither of these forms is very common. If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. 43 58. According to some grammarians. Forms of Triliteral first Verb. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities. and the eleventh the rarer of the two. a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. 2. indicates . vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape). the ninth and eleventh forms or . to squint. the night reached its middle point. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. The ninth form (jiit) . £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. o hasten. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. (for ^£5*Xa-t. see § 167. 59. 1. or languid .l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. when doubled. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). is ^ or /( ^. jo>t to be ash-coloured. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. to be stern or £ * t gloomy. the first radical. and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51. The Verb. Rem. As the third radical. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. the distinction between is. jl£. to >o run quickly. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked.t to become commingled. j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked . a [Others hold that XI. A. a. <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). t rem. is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable.). confused. and hence the doubling of the third is radical.

U»-t to bring to life. ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E. according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61. js. ^©J~»t to give up. JU- to be . Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * . or s accepted. factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle. lawful. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). oppressive or troublesome. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. to think lightly of or one. : [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX. good or beautiful. O of Cwl.\ to oneself ready. deliver over. * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses. . J*£lwl to find heavy. . his prayer. . prepare. (for E. juCwl to get to yield be ready . or a * * o it. equip. cA». \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*». first form. g. the quality expressed by the *> 62. to ' * . but this view was marians. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. rem. § 51. jU»jL>l to think good or excellent. to think one a bore. ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. to take entire possession . D &mm*Z* it to think him. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. The prosthetic is necessary. and the former editions of this work .] : " °' 60. to preserve alive. * ° " ° (of it). . to grieve or distress. Rem. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. think it it light.\ up {something) wholly. The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author. up. osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . ready. ^aJ^. 1299) p.44 Part Second. A. *Jl*JL*\ despise.).g. 50 seq. or obeyed him. H. a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire.j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) .jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . in reference to himself or for his benefit. in doing something.

of. Hence to ^.g. to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^). desire that & * . it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. permission. . to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing. 63. in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. governor (J*»^). General View. to take possession of .to be present. E. j+**Z* x x * o .y^x^JiwI literally means is so . ask for something to drink. to deserve. \J}>\ . to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission. was. to hold oneself upright . ^oUiwt to stand upright. t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink. or caliph (Zsul*. to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E. what meant by the first. s . ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. JU*£wt to be worthy lit.«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I.g. to conduct oneself humbly . lit. to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . 45 so strictly factitive. but estimative or declarative s 45.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * . j-oA. \ to become like (lit. \Jy~i\ it . reflexive. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. The Verb. g. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . to pray for rain. rem. 1. Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb. lit. it The tenth form is frequently denominative. jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon. GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) . to make oneself G humble. 6).JL«I*1 permit. ^jiw to give one to to drink. Rem. D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy.§65] I. A.for oneself : factitive 64. <\r* Z to require one's presence. lit. A ' 0* also the tenth. j he should be fetched. seeking. at least originally. help. successor. x Zwt be ashamed. L5 Al»> l. E.. or demanding. &c. The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. jk£> to pardon. * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help . is asking for.

may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*. to become moist (= J«a». do.\). 66.t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked). JU~>. j>Ut heavy (jJU. "&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x .) xx dx .oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt. ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o. (rad.1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*. which has the same signification as ^iXw. If so. xxdxO efo.JU. to be long and thick (of the hair).) to be long or last long.) . not in use. Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples. *iU*w) . ax fo &&rc?) . to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad. . xx x Rem. wJJu> dash ground. iJlCJU. (=j«a±.) . to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back. . x x J^^o ^t . xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^.) . to mount a camel . #o 60 arched. x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x . (rad. with one or two more. —XII. corresponding to the Aram. ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) . &}jj£\X X .) to j** black (JSL do. xxx of . to become soft or tender (j-a». »/*») to —XIII.t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x .) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo. must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation.—XIV. ^)^l».46 j Part Second. our geese are all stvans).do. os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.) . J&L^A to be big (rad. to be green and rank (of a plant). which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t. vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. 5x0 . IxXft). so as to exhibit their formation. and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. [§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J. J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. /l»\ b^jj*. s^JIS. to fo obscure (rad. or x humpbacked to (*->***. sufficient . XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . xO and obd). JU**. curved.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£.

to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw. but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions. a triliteral verbal form. repeated.).. Rem. to retire) to . j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *. (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. expressing a sound or movement. 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms.g. jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake.J«Jl». to be filled with rage (LfL do. bellow. Jx»A». rad. ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper. JT& al-Istikak.B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . •^JL*. to Mttfo rws£& or rattle.g. x x JLU) . x E. The Quadriliteral Verb. The Verb. XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x . A. bb to G say baba (papa).and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly). ^^ X was sweet). —XV. All these forms are habitually intransitive.§ 67] x x Ox I. 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ . or inserted in the middle E.1 to swollen or inflated. 2. 67.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t.''£ . ^ ^o^-oxfc.t. xxOx ji-ji- to gargle. to xxOx to rwi^A. ^. aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. General View. . is A biliteral root.a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad. to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*. E. 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair. 2. be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) . 227.1X j jo v:o x o 7<. p. be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^».e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse . J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters.). jj-as) x x o x o x . u . is prefixed or affixed to. to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. of.g. XXX md^ ^ retire). xxx to to xxOx to be high) X . shout. generally a liquid or sibilant. (b) A fourth letter. oj^. ^Jsu^. . as XII. v~x£ x Ox do. —XV. deceive to with soft words a ^J^. 9 x» x some of them foreign words. Pers.

saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. verb are three in 68. X JX+& to gather ripe dates. also to be active or nimble .and J3>». pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ . xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>». The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals. to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. I E. poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress. vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E. signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70. and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification. to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . pfe>). JJtUlt III.48 Part Second. f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates . Pers. JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. . Ju/tIV. «nriaT/>os). xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along . They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas. * x x . humble. xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**. to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik .g. 69.g. xx Ox to roll. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . Heb. J (^)UslL»). X X E. number. Tlb/J?) </>iA. ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another . etc.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ.) to ^ . JJUtf II. jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier. fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch .») <• . Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb. to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) . or humility. . J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U.o fow&/. jt^Xw) or tunic . or the Parts of Speech. JP^». quickly.#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^.g. The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I. to abase x x . Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) . to Pitch.

i dark. in = fJ*& an .g. state. pULwl to lie on ones back . Ja». jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. *J~o to be good. of triliteral. w. wa#0 Aaste.»>t to to stretched out on one's side. 49 71. rem. The Verb.A of The fourth form the quadriliterals. j£~t£*\ very high or proud . JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower). 2. All the verbal forms. .) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3. of a bird). or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive). nearly =j-c^. which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals. the active and the passive . Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A. . 13th. The Quadriliteral Verb. The third form A E. 3. stretched on to flow. which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). to jk. w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. as j*s&. JuJ to be is bad. 12th. j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality. and 15th forms (cf. but inserted between the second and third radicals.t or j*oya*J\ order. General View. with the exception of intran9th. 11th. The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). . very hard. 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. is intransitive. to become green. j*++*. the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). Jjc*£t to dispersed . = Ju-3. have two voices. JU-^t Voices. both primitive and derivative. or intensively high degree of E. 72. or not . to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd .. and expresses an extensively act. ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#. \j\+^^ Si. § 66. right. that the characteristic not prefixed.§ 73] I. whose act voice is either object. J*cu^». sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th. wrong. o § a^ C o^ * i o . in disorder.g. 7%£ 73..l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc. 7 . A. the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. ground. Si* o 9 *? ^aw back).» o vanish away .

or some higher being. ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases . The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. . J x Ox J J x Ox These terms. J JjuUI. (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient. and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick. the agent). Rem. strictly speaking. JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . is when the author is unknown. of that. though this latter H x J named. or. are aptly called neuter verbs. but something between the two./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent. when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more .» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j& to sleep). more shortly.50 Part Second.*> J J x Ox is. the patient). J JjyoLpJt. etc. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. the mould or form of J x the agent. confined to the person of the subject.)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a.e. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U. 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt. equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. God. Verbs that express a state or condition. 74. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. 75. or signify an act which is. and ^UJJ cj. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. Ox . XXX & x biO J the build x0. or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act . namely (a) when . by its very nature. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!. since they are neither really active nor really passive. J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent. J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt. or feeerc &em# done. than to the doer of (agens. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing. or ^sJ X J^cUJt.. the passive J J subject. are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices.

no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it. Subjunctive. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). whilst the other 4. Imperfect. b. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. 76. The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect. A Imperfect has. namely. The Moods. one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. General View. J The Voices. by our Present. one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. and the future (J^fc^Jt). transitive verbs. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. from A JwNjI. It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past.§ 78] I. 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. Imperfect). J' 3. intransitive verbs. Jussive or Conditional. . The Arabic verb has moods . and Energetic. the one expressing a finished act. The Verb. present. Syntax and use. strictly speaking. A. The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. Imperative. a. must not be thought and eighth to be forms. Perfect. succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. The names Preterite and Future. On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. in and of itself. seventh. ajjuiIoJI j*£. and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. in connection with the verbal forms. or Future-perfect. or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies. Rem. Pluperfect. effective (see § 48). however. or Future. is These are. 77. the Indicative. but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. the other an unfinished act. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. five 78. or A^Ut JUi^l. <Scc.

and likewise three persons. active participle).). -d Instead of the Infinitive.52 Part Second. Persons. § 192. B.a>. . sing. . On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc. the speaker individual person). in any of the but are retained throughout. plur. but also from the imperative. ^JsU*-*)!. cj). adjectives. the Singular (>j&\. *W»J1. namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. or imperative. 2d pers. The genders j are two. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. . wsSliJt (the absent).. . or jJ&«JI) . In place of participles. fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect. the spoken to (second person). The Syntax treats of their significations and use. and the individual spoken of (third person). nor are rejected inflexions. *j*+3\. the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis. and Genders.] 6. There are three numbers. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma). in the second (see § 128). Rem. Js » 0* 81. ^^IloJI). and the other the patient (nomen patientis. strong. the former class . 79.. ^oJiXoJt. 1 b sD. The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). [Cf. H. 83. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. or j^tyi). is expressed by . they have two verbal passive participle). dual. the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). 80. ~ 82. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. and the the fourth. (first and the Plural (£*aJt. The Numbers. and 1st pers. [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form.

suffixes. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i. B.§ 89] I. The personal pronoun \jt+£. (V"y). * The nomina with verbi. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called .— Table I* a. . The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb. 9 s 84. rad. partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative. 1. The numbers. gemin. B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. partly the accusative. or which belongs to the class med.o 9 * ' J*s . but some grammarians treat ^a». 86. than the latter. The Verb.JJ^t« Jji5. the con- nected shorter forms. standing by itself. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87. a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns. § 317. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. as verb. that C prefixed or suffixed. agentis. The Strong Verb. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect. to D § 185 Rem. annexed to the various moods and tenses. The separate pronouns have longer. 53 is Rem. 88. On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes. a is weak verb. . and patientis. designated by the special term «»*a». the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes.o and^oJL* as synonyms. 9 * J : 85. j+** x*J t see § 190. and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb. or connected [J-cu*]. persons. and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*]. accusative see 89.

54 Part Second. —Etymology 1. or the Parts of Speech. [§ 89 A B .

The the 1st pers. O . .(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo. Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. Masc. O she. tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. {J . <j. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. !>) *%• d . b.§ 89] I. . expressing the Nominative. . . plur. Common . he. .. of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect. Common. Singular. 2. • O c4 tlwy. Fern. . expressing the Nominative.. . m • • (6) s» .. [Though written defectively this terminal vowel. defectively. . . d.. lp. Rem. U w& The forms within brackets are those . O (<**k c£-) 1 p. suffix of Rem. Fern. I> (o>. . 2p-^ 1 p. thou. rem. Plural. The Verb. t ^ou - 2 p. !/. . t- (of-> .. and also in the wasl (§ 20. . . 95 seq. O thou.. c.. c). p. Suffixed Pronouns. 3 2 p. Singular. 55 Rem. B. Prefixed Pronouns. L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp. d.. . ol she. is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. O 1-) Z Dual. . The Strong Verb. used in poetry. 3 p. jj Masc.. 3 p. 3 p.. (o>> *>) .. and § 23. p.. C 2 p.] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem. Gr. a.

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 90 Masc.56 Part Second. .

J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding. J^aLi to . as j*J* know. m+~i or to stick upright into the ground. c^Aa*^. j&j-i- C radical is Rem. j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * . The Verb. iJmu . I'O* to create. as ^Jes.1 . p. to perceive. / have J d x £ served. ka. . verbs admit of both forms s s t . reach. x x x # * '0' . jI o . or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . or 2?mW away. 165 seq. C-Jaj) for taken. Thus.§ 91] I. FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. cJJJ j**£ to bray.1 for^J^t.. A Ojuc. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox . For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp. ^jjui. x J x Ox . Rem. B. tut we d. . conform to is " the rule. jU* to to hinder. . it b. J * %+jj . as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. Gr. to sneeze. of which the guttural letter. c. w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike. o. 91.. the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. jjlsu . x xx J J x *. ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. On ^j. Verbs. however. to sit Jux» . a as Jj«i to do. O** ' 5 to ' transpierce. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return. believed. --J£ throw. p-jb. %bJu . *j>j-**i v~ke* down. particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. * ^ J * ^. a. j*****. j *-^ . for ±y*\ and Uut. " to *-iJ to blow. as . cp aVaw 0* . . J Many 0* * . Not a few. \j+j * <> x x . %X+t t°" . $ ** tjj * . jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit.. or t T . Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. Some verbs have two 8 w. c. . JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. 7 J J x x x right. ye have § 14. . 5 £^* to ascend. C^. *Ja3 ask./fow.JL> . " may . and the geznia. J^5 * * s to kill. The Strong Verb. ^JLcu *Jl> attain to. take either x ^ • damma J J . is omitted. 57 To indicate the assimilation. to cut. it this assimilation see Rem. ^.JUj . good.•Zfr* to write. thou hast bound . £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. are an exception to the rule. .

^$.j J x x -j .58 Part Second. *~^>. lean upon. abound. a ' t present. ' " '*' %+$ to .. u^j-^i '.Iw to . * s * ' ~£j xx to marry. as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance). forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to . J-cub . Very . ^i«-> j Ox . £~e*jj cut or hew. x £o tf/iiwA. x*x gush out. j. the kesra of x t the Perf. j*mm j j . io. or suppose. x x or w. to J x done with.. or tert.j^j j <o incline to. . J x x . x kesra.^~*i- Rem. v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. * * * q Rem. as j^s. X . Verbs of the form a). . unless they be primse rad. has kesra. . med. the Imperf.» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L. j^j '. or the Parts of Speech. quit. i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure.jsu ^ and even three. goodness. See also §§ 142 and 146. Rem. as w^*>^. ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. j^u to be affluent. to. ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty.» *° drink.to know. rare are cases like jJx*. '> . xx x ' %j j^> *.. him in composing J J J Ox poetry.a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing. . Jiave . x x ^ J x x . ^£jj to be clear. oj. X dx . J x to J ' give as »*• . a~ojji. C^mmij x ' i. lean upon.j . when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . 'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan./toy. Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. a.»-o Ox . oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows.. Jx$ denoting superiority. ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory. comfortable. rad. [§92 j A . . SJLiJI 6.». x x x x x * B Rem. x x J x x '. . O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess. £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick. to be present. rad.a>A. x . ^j. J x x ojjlj . x x /^^» . as Jpo to croak. x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful. v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j. J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. b. as ojlcj he outbid J . 9J&0 . ^^i *->* . x '. j «» *-U 6m#. takes When the second radical of the Perf. dye. J o. w > * J x . as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx . '. always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). 7 .^~* to be safe. -^. A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. excelled him in c.» him in promising.

. w*2o. jJ<j to be dull or stupid. When the second radical of the Perf. a. J a in the Imperf. l J Ox I. are it 'it very rare. j**\. that . * in * [Anbarl. verbs ft?p*. from its fern. jj+j or t^. OU. In the Imperf. The Strong Verb. has Gr. the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing. damma. masc. The Verb. sing. *l%y. and Imperf. the agent. The most common example to die (for A a verb med. v^P to be high. the 2d pers. done by me). sing. however. I • With the above forms compare the Heb.§ 94] or innocent is I. jJL>. are only suffixed to the Perf. and accordingly we . rem. Rem. C Rem. Oji. masc. because completed. a suffix is necessary. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl. Comp. In the Perf. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense." = " I have = "I am killing. j.. get masc. 180*. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise.. Thus.J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj. fem.—Similar cases 93. 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. 94. sing. 59 of this kind of. o^J .e. J ©Jx as 73B*. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is. between the Perf. ^ot. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. p'-m. Perf." Hi (i. sing. killed." Rem. and to some extent the gender. retained in the Imperf. Jjl. x B. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. in the Imperf. O^j. j£\. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77. noble. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. more generally the latter. — De . cL«).. viz. and persons. in regard to that the marks of the numbers. b." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing. p^lC p. a). C-***> / became I became bad. genders. j-*t. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers. p. 1st p. masc. . as o*LL to be beautiful. The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf.

] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. j cjLa*H. . J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. preferred. one must not say ^ojit. . and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. because the genders. falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. as the apocopated Imperfect. etc. In one case. b. [Cf. [§ 95 A Rem. for j»^S\ etc. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. The forms of the Indicat. correspond to the Nom. the Subjunc- ) © © <. w tive w>^. and Subjunct. But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^. and its government in the Subjunct.- called cji^Jt. / ^ (^Xju). a. w-I&. to have been At ii. nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju . ^\ . but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. numbers. because j * . The damma and fetha of the Indicat. X Cy^. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. is closely akin to the noun.o. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. which seems originally i. least the poets § 247. vowel with the third radical.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is . 0l H. That is.] Rem. J x .«- it D resembles the noun. ^fflZmj in Sura i. distinguished by the third its radical having x damma. The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any . 4. and Jussive.1. In the active voice of the first form. jsyu.60 Part Second. the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth. fetha of the Imperf. and Accus.. the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too.. in the verb. is 95. suppose. 60 are recognized as . vol. j). and the Jussive >j>%^H. 96. as Indie.. as in juxi for juau. Subj. wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem. c. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission. x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha . which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. The . Dialectically.

B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>.jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear.(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. i^-*^. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o . influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. and pronounced in D in pause I—.jit * j elided. despise not the poor. as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo . fem.. apparently because the sound of the syllable . plur. Gomp.becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem. according to § 26.j. since it begins with two consonants. is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. p. because vt i b. it takes. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— . is retained. t>W>> from <jUl. is The syllable ^— often written !_. U£3.j_ or (J. a short . ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. 0~$3. the of the termination. a. c). rem. nor to the fem. Gr. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have. In the 2d and 3d pers. IV. the fetha of 6* <j. and in consequence the second fetha : of . plur. plur. a short vowel before and not to the dual. Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but. in the Energetic. O s b.§ 98] I. & C Rem. with \y££=> . The Strong Verb. c. \j~S3. are exceptions. because its forms would then . sing. B. Rem.or . 98. The Verb. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. . with Cm^> Hi X 97. a j * * in a shut syllable: . of ^U. 61 2d and 3d because pare pers. A gender. fern. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination . oW^J . . the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a. Com- 0>A ^y^k . In the dual. and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc. 194. coincide with those of the singular.

The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. b. t^&ipt. come its and play meaning game called ar ara.>*A)t. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel. This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . vol. b) in addressing a single person. IV. the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem. a.\. and on the orthography § 19. d.>top (o for a. § 35. or the Parts of Speech. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS.] .62 Part Second. E. —De G. Lilt with a various reading . and the final short <m vowel dropped). c. rem. 99. with the finite verb. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. is and 1.j±. Rem. *&&. (§97). Imper. g. <- rem. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b. cf.] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. When or kesra. * — DeG. D [Rem. 1. ^ J J t. 6 . The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. —Etymology kesra . see ^ 19. a. Abs. in cases where that elision does not take place. Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations. is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt. this vowel 0^0 Jjtil. damma. which used in the same way. as j\Jx*. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash. i. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. 1842. 23.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J. listen ! j\j&. wRem. ii.

in the rest with fetha. a pot I set is on tlie fire.§ 106] I. the first radical has damma. if the last radical . is 102. Sibaweih. 101. The Imperfects and eleventh forms. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. In the second. and Ju£>. Pass. is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms. The Perf.— Table 100. 103. are pronounced with damma. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb. 105. [Rem. from JJ3I. 1. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. i. and Imperf. Act. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. B. Pass. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. Act. 63 2.— Table III. 9. and the second radical kesra.] originally JJjisI 106. Active. The Verb. 3. and also ^Ju^j. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb. third. Sij^i. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. In the Imperf. JJUil. damma. not J^SIj. 21. q This Rem. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. Act. as J^aj. and Imperf. B the Jussive being used instead. The Strong Verb. II. J^Jb and JJUaj. 104. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed . the prefixes of the Imperf. See §§ 106 and 120.— De G. and the second radical Rem. the prefixes take fetha. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. The second radical of the Perf. In the Perf. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). where the treated like the o of b. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest. § 118. rem. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. and fourth forms.

Pass. E. 107.64 Part Second. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. D 110. the preceding radical loses . Pass. u°> the sjo. in the Perf. J^j£>. prefixes. When b. jjW. frequently) loses its vowel.. eighth. of the is forms) . ». pronounced J with damma. identical. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. J3ut. * fifi consonants (compare § 54). jj^aj. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms.g.g. J * * jJuau for jjslaj. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. the word remains uncontracted . The Imperfects Pass. fetha. b. Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem. Oij^ . Compare 98 and rem. J^St.g. O. 111. and unites with radical to form a double letter. a. >. or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. there results in the Passive * j . O of ^ u*. as £>jj**o\. but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner.g. 3. Jibl. Pass. e. jJ>t. of the first Rem. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e. J3&. the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. J^&wl. which is damma 108. of the first fifth and sixth forms.j. and tenth forms. In the Perf. )». only by the vowel of the instead of. C 109. vowel. jj**o\ (see § 120). Pass. a. or the Slif . of the sixth. and Imperf. being neutral in their signification. *Z». of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass. have of course no passive (see § 73). J3>£>. seventh. not only characteristic * the first radical. If the last radical has no vowel. the first Since the idea of the Perf. j**a\ for jj**e\.

*jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&. wn. example namely instead. If the first radical is^». G. iJu5. Verbs of which the first radical is t. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. note u±jj\. to take breath. for j±> j£. as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 . . i. B. J. Rem. 569. . J»*W^>. or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. ^. ss * and i fern. masc. t Ci which O is and ! plur. 114. 3d pers. b. — v~<oJ\. j.Ut. are of common occurrence. ^ji.§ 114] I. 113. [and necessarily ijycjJJ.5jj.. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. Rem. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic. Act. but use the fifth or eighth. ComP Gr. B in those persons of the Imperf. for for j~»&3.]. The Strong Verb. J^W3).g. The Verb. Jf*H> jl^i. See § 48. is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers.) + . >. j-cut. to sing. to lie concealed. by assimilation for ^**£j\. iio«y. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. and compare such Hebrew forms as . a. The *v\ton. Jn»^. sing. P . j^x3 j£>£i. du. J J^p. "' &ytjj& ) Zl e. for £i3 JjvS. In modern Arabic such forms as J^.*&>. A . in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms. j£\. ijijj. p. j^lo. f^. j. rJ*k preformative of the O . ^UJ. Jb+aJg i. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. jio\j\ (Kamil. rem. . 112. 65 UC\. J**yl jJjJt. j^i. j. the characteristic . J^tJ) . and du. Rem.). ^L\. n^n. fern.j of the seventh it form often unites with w.

g. . for ^Ijkjl. E. for **£M. *S)j3>\. for from Jp . is B Rem. for £3j\ . ^ .66 Part Second. for j£&. a.l. ^jt. ^j\j. or >Z>. C from ji. Rem. as *»*~>t. from j*. l»*©it ? from Jsuco. aud ^jit. as well as D tfcSt Rem. . Jpt. y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. from ji>3j or ybjt. j *»*J. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j . initial The e. Rem. £***>j. for j^Jjl. J**. which unites with an initial > into 3.it for instance. letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl».-a^ct. or j. j+.S . from «. from c.«a*-©t for 115. j. from j^j jbjl. bj*\ for bjZ*\. Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the . for j^iit. . £*Jl»J. for *-»2wt. or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. as q\j\. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©.Jt. J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form . ijj* . the characteristic w».g.!. eighth form changed into >. for ^>\. *. ji?t orjJul from jju. from jtj . jJ^I. Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. but Lane gives in Lexicon only *. The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. instead of the usual £+„*. and with an initial 3 into > or 3.. the characteristic O of the . for ipjl. from cji. *0 . If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>. A for JJa^J^I. Rem. depends upon usage j-i.g. .^it.. letter b. from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl. 116. Jjjit. from j^jt or :>pt from j>p . <jjjt. from U> JXjt . or j^>l. .^w. for tj>^l. letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^. E. from %+j jUt or jUt. >»Ojt. . If the first radical be is y j. etc. for jUJI.

x x x x x x x t. with initial 1» into x x h l. b. ^6. Jte\. quadnhterals: . ^A k o . or JJSJiS. *. The Strong Verb. The O. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears.I ±*Jo\. [117*. act. omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb. from j-o. from 0*k> w>jJxot. o xSx * . ^aUo . ^Uxot. ^L^. Inf. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? . 3p»t. JJJLl. from lJ*. Rem. fifth. 4. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. ^y-ol. jifat. or 91. xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. //£ xxx .i .lo. jZ~»* (jZ~**) . JJ&\. Jfljt). 36. v>ii.. Rem. B. -*. j^-U .] Koran (Sur. or jUxbt. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs. a. the characteristic initial A changed into h. or £. eighth form 6. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^». x x x . x x x from %+. *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. . 67 If the first radical be ^a. ^JLL *$& . b. to believe. Part. u° ix. ^Jbuot. is I. C rem. ^jA-ol.*o.— Table IV. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. ^i£t. or &. O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i. x. 49). The D 69—72).Si£t. j Rem. Imperf. If the second radical be O the characteristic it. which unites with b into j». and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6. rem. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel. j£~j. seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118.§118] 117. words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. x x. in § 45. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z. xxxvi. four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second.Lo E. occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19. a). d. j^J»t. y^ xxx XXX a. ^Uw (see § 202. As mentioned out. The Verb. J» ii. or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o . for j*Jxot. Rem. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . B J^t. just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). i>.g. The Qiiadriliteral Verb.. Act. // IS as j^ot. h. etc. 2~^t. U^>.

tenth form of elt. is aSI^A. to obey. [Also. or t^lo^t 120. Transitive verbs of this class. the solid verb. the and unites with the third. jro*)\. first. is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt. [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi. also used.g.J B 5. for yj~~~t> smell. tesdid. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. j^ for >j^i. which is marked with . E. J^->. and then converted into c Ik*!.jjiL». we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. J^ .68 Part Second. but the former is irregular: Imperf. Imperat. a. which also admit kesra absolute. for Jii£ for j*+Zt . clLLrft. j* to flee. but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. Perf. have six. combines with the third. v** to touch. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel. become wise or intelligent. of the form JjtJ. ^^ to become dear (to one). Rem. Jgj^. make decisive or to to repair. 119. The form viz. JfJJbt. the second retains its vowel. jtj viz. Imperf. for w«J. Imperf. act. in verse. so as to form a double for J-U^j. jJ* to make hard or firm. Norn. C*j to sever or separate entirely . and then E. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. tie firmly. J*c . (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. damma in the Imperfect. with the exception of . (6) If the third radical has a vowel. *Jx~j. for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . JjA. Pass. —The J^A. The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech. and no contraction takes place as Ojji. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}). oJA.g. — Table V. **1a~j or **1~>. But if the third radical has no vowel. so as to form a double for jj9 to . and third radicals have vowels. letter. w^J. Imperf. JU> to split or cleave. £fo doubled verb.». letter. >jk+j. J-ft-j for JX+j.

CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. detest. s cJLb form 2. £foss. Africa ai becomes Ol i. b. m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye). ewe. The Verb. d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. 5. »// . C-. : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. s for *Z>jj«JS.>fc»t se?. for C*«w .v. w*J to be vrise or intelligent.~oiJ. however. B la Us to 6e mrfo/. to have its etc. it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. a). The third radical is united with the second. Co***.§ 120] I. s * I first radical Os s . to Ibn al-Fakih s. S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse.] / . ^-^. (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc. o . One verb has only kesra. * 1. as. CXolU. Imperf. Rem. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel. s for O^j. in one's dotage. w*». O^j. p. — C/ow/?. and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. sj s *iU3 to be silly. jj£» to be bad. etc. Forms like Ojji. viz. but OS* s in s N. Rem. to smell badly. the long vowel !_. oj.*J. modern Arabic. is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). jjsetc. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways. . a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. A Imperf. . s s . woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl. or else s its . Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse). j^> 0* jjb to abhor.^*} to be uyly. Crr. * o . «. Cw is S or Cw. or cJLb for cJULk. as redctit for Co3).).1). JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o). to 69 water (camels) a second time.). 227 Such forms as C« g >. to fove (instead of the common IV. times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks. wvUlsu. as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. s s £)}j. The Geminate Verb. along with the s vowel. C~Ui*. [See De Goeje. B. The second vowel iss s dropped. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. <£&». are. This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5. c. ol »l also occur. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one .

undergo no contraction.. apply also to its Passive.g. tjji —not ij!j*\. J^ or vi J*©-». i ' for ^aJsju. ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third. Consequently jj±. 121. c. l/*t. j^j. ninth. C Rem. Iji. undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. for Conj. the choice of the supplemental suffix . dual. ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. j*c for jjl*I. [But 120. If the verb has a suffix. »j->*. either fetha or kesra . for ^o-o-i. has a vowel (sing.. Slbaweih ii.g. this vowel may be (§ 27). because is already doubled. . in those that have u. w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* . >ji. S| or^e^l The same >j. and tenth forms. and eleventh. etc. sometimes do not follow § 120. the Arabs say ^Jj*.70 Part Second. sing. the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first. (§ 121). rem. Cf. I . it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other. and jtjit. and to the third.] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. JA*j ul . not U^j. however. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j&i or^Aj. the contracted to that of TamTm. cf. masc). jj*j>. fifth. § jj*\. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels. and combines with the third. b. tjj-*t. 443.] * — . fourth. —instead of ^jjit. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc). Faik ii. j^j. seventh. B 122. j3 for jjtt. ^-^-j or s^-j. ±£x£ or u*xkj. the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary. V. y 6 s0>O ly-oft. as ^£jj*\.jj*>. and plur. j . in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf. E. and therefore tjjil. Higaz. rules that apply to the Active of the first form. for or *ji. hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. The masc. [§121 A In the Jussive. ij-i. or j^^t. sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. D eighth. But in the second. 566. sixth.

128. Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. -»^fc. not unfrequently occur. sixth. jew. <djl for aJUjt. * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject. B such as 9 * s uoclJ. namely case oi In the third. by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first. the 1st pers. These are called verba Jidmzata. and ^. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). * * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI. J>SU>. rem.U*»o.. These are more particularly called weak verbs. 125.§128] Rem. sudda (with the French u). The Verb. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. in some parts of their inflexion. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\. However. and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. radicals is . Sudda.). sing. The weak letters are I. for J*. * * J * Aa*A. the weakest of the gutturals. instead of rudda. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*.U. a long vowel. C. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. . are not contracted. on account of its weakness. C. to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less. whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other). (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza. the uncontracted forms. combining the second radical with the third. (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs. ^. Juss. rildda. jo ol j-p E. as jj. The Weak Verb. which is a. and eleventh forms. 126. Forms like x>jj. alone (§ 25. s-*jI~j>.3 . consonant. tlamraa.g. 5>-»-^. German ii or 124. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ . as I. The Weak Verb. j J«l»-). D 127.

kesra. 2d pers. VIII. or even three weak letters . we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. classes. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.). 131. * ^ [This is a convenient formula. when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. masc. for good But from an historical point practical reasons. I.. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. to whose method of exposition this work. after the damma and (J) . Act. sing. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. C Pass. — . to be trebly weak. such as *. of jj\. Perf. the first.72 Part Second. for Ol^». Perf. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. and that indicated by the later points. for to and Ui (see § 133). 1st pers. and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. rem. e£$t. is closely conformed. These are divided into three according as the hemza second.— Tables VI.. Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. B is 130. ^ 129. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. or third radical (verba primse. weak. to be doubly ^Sj. mediae. of view. as ^j\j. it is damma. which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs. a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. VII. 132. (^). and ^y*. If the elif with hemza and gezma. sing. at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). or supporting letter. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse). or IV. Pass. into ^ with hemza 6 . into ^ with hemza after the kesra. (I). Rem. sing. In a root there may be two. 1. Imperf. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc. or ^ by » alone without a kursl. . [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs.

so). because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. it was already lost or 10 . This change has already begun in Hebrew. to read. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. and hence the custom. ^JjJu for \jju. preceded and followed by vowels. The hemza retained. and is almost universal in Aramaic. w^». h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. Rem. y without touching the old consonants. having the character of a sacred tradition. j)t[+. gi'ta. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '. that and when B J fc. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area.§ 132] is I. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. become j and . The modern Arab also pronounces i. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. C*Jji for Ol^3. soft breathing (as cJLi. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). ylta.] w. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi. The Verb. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. with a slight emphasis . at the present day. whilst ^ is to say. Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an. ^Uk. in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets. rad. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. ^^J. Rules for writing hemza as J. 1. and ^_. ^ §§ 133-4. as ^Ji for [Ji. find traces of a softer pronunciation. was bdusa. however. rem. b]. except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). In modern Arabic. u.. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. show their origin from 73 I. at the end of a syllable. 6. a. n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. of resolving the verba C tert. that danu-a. at of a syllable. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17. we the ancient language. sani'-ta. *£%<*»». by writing ^yf. Verba Hemzata. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with.

d. of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. though it may be retained in writing.J*M' . elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t. Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . .jJt. beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. 0* in its altered form . of Jit ' '1 . J I ^t. p. in Mecca. O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem.jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina. of ^1. because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . Q . Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. not £. rem. c. In other cases retained. as ba'da'tilqfin. from ^j . sing. ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. $1 3d Act. Perf. of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e. . b. 1st pers. as G j-^t^. . - q$\ . J^»b.£ . Imperat. sing. rem. comes into the wasl. Qordns. not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. as ^*b.J0.jili.0*3* 0* . O . 8criptio defectiva (§ 6. . t I. for j*\j. . Perf. of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t . Rem. C/ [And so even of old prolongation. /it/ J). Jijt. IV. g. . . sing. . 0X3 (£§. 3d pers. * *. hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina. sing. o * (§ 17. peratives. whence with 10 . Perf. Os 1 >. Imperf. c) also Sura xlix. when preceded by ^ or sJ. Noldeke Gesch. written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . not jH»^t. I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage. a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94. In Imin pronunciation. J w> yakulildan. 0+\ oU^J. b).74 Part Second. it is usually rejected to come). J^U JO %.] » . • Oti (from it is C^jt.0 ' . and the radical hemza . Imperat. —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech. Imperat. * 1 •» . rem.. VIII. elif hemzatum. jjj\. U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. not JLijt. but in modern Arabic J . pers. Pass. Imper. VIII. said^LJ for >#J£>. 257. of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort. 14. it-. (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. J passes into the elif of . [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . as j-wb . and. 250. not j-Jt. ^l-oli. J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. 6.

yyi. O i I . of JL» . b). agree with. the end of a word.. ^J^t . comes J or Finally. of ^j. Perf. JO* . VIII. Imperf. jj&i. of made. and into ^. II. l~. preceded by fetha. to twang. put on armour. jj\. J)\ J^ hsB was asked. a syllable ending in a consonant. for >lUl. £ usually left unchanged i . Particip. Oj oj Imperf. III. *> for^Lj. of j3l J&Jl. or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif. Pass. be reconciled for Imperat. Pass. for^UI. .> instead of jj*i. damma Eg. . it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . . X. or j*\. u*»>«-». Perf. for^tjJ. for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. 1. worthless. pronounced with I. Imperf. of j>^ ^o-LUwt. for % ^Uj. 75 In the same way. E. damma and I. Pass. is I.0 . /^ E. as j*l. Rem. sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass.g.0 and meanly. The Verb. Imperf. j££ peace is made (between them). III. j££\. ofj»*$. I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged. A ceded by damma or kesra. Imperat. to be . U^j l. At the beginning I.g. to. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. of .§ 135] I. for jjb. Pass. when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha. VIII. groan. rem. passes into 3 or ^. II. or with fetha and pre1 133. of J •«« h. for JU. III. Imperf. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. J^ for J*>b. of a word. which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. 0. At . of J$. . j\j\. 135. as \jJu from \j3. he acts stingily Is . if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one.of j& Rem. J of JL* j j^t. l. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb. an impression Infin. y>\>. to consult. Verba Hhmzata. $y*tsuffixes.o. IV. for ^U>. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). for ^11. is y>.o. of j>*$ to. be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf. of^oU. y^i. when (see § 17. a). to be mean.

elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $. In a more modern stage of the language. to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt. b. JXs. The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form. a. in the Imperf. Act.t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. • I . and the etc. Nomina It commenced. j) which make only J^j. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. O of that form . to a. for to the characteristic to take for oneself. rad. find J-itl. as ^^-tj or 'parallel to. and SUly*. and J^. and J J J^l J to eat. i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b. reject radical in the Imperat. VI. and j^. rem. X 138. from U. J X ^. IV. J ^O J t (§ 132. xx£ to take. J . Ufc.tj. J x .76 Part Second. and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . for Jiff. rem. rem. hemz. to put on an Hzar. J3u. b) . Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\. In old Mss. 139.\.tU or L»A3. to give wages. as Ij^tjJ.. of or tjj-«U. b. j*o. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif. For the rule as regards other verba . tfc £wo became intimate friends. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. b) pers. we often jjll 136. j-«t. agentis and actionis. . prim. q for L^tt. to come. where..—Etymology to order. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\. 6W&<#. rem. b). X making X J**. or J3f. . to prefer. as Jjf. as . of jj\.-wt^j. or the Parts of Speech. ^£jtj to eat to console. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . see also § 175. they deliberated together. rem. b and on the Imperative of ^yl.3. Rem.t (for ^il). . for 3d plur. the first of . . according to § 17. "% Rem. of course. J^tj along with.. u*\yo. rem. see § 132. L». for tjj^U3 Perf.

to be safe. 2d m.). JL» Jl~i to ask. Jtffc and j**j. When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. an^ with B ^ i. ^j\. for JI~j. I^LTi. Compare . more rarely in J^l. cJ~» [not cut*]. for ^t. into b). —The tenth form of J^. J-~> for JI~j. b). t^JL>. sing. hemzatum is elided. to take. J~> for JL»J (Imperat. t to trade (see § 148. which has Jlw JL>. This for is particularly the case with the verb pers. 140. IjjLi d. etc. Perf. Rem. p. Gr. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. from the rad. o?o. whence ^-U. secunda).t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt. 6). not ^C. The Verb. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw. etc. From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. du ^U». Verba Hemzata. Jjbl. 46. plur. rad.-kjA_»|. 282. to receive wages . for O-oJut. see Comp. 141. still 77 give alms. second. to A v>*3t. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^. D 2. elif J~*. iUt to send. 6. tertise rad.§ 141] I. and marry. we may say JuTj Rem. in secondary radicals rem. for J^U. ^. its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. ^ et . \jj). an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149. p. for Kg. an angel p]X a?)in the fern. rem. Pass. Verba med. or I^LLs. according as the ^ ^ is the first. from {j\j to see. or third radical (verba prim®. — Sometimes the JC . and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. and in Syriac it the rule . a. 6. Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. J-~> C jtl>. letter These likewise or fall three classes. from ^jJ for \j\ji. Rem. for e"lif J^jt. j_kj|. to JrwsJ or confide in. or J-^.).

retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid. juu for j^-^i. jju. —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. £*->. But those verbs primse rad. jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise. cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful). (of fat). Ji*J. Rem. J-fcjj. comfortable.g.— Table IX. angry. j**~j. js. Ox OOO E. of verbs |"£. J^->. and Aram.. 3 or (£). £0 fove. JxOxxx jtyi '. X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of.Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su.78 Part Second. jbjj i . which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. Imper. j**$i or J*->>. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf.g. j^.g. Imperf. g JxJxOxxx j § of. x j»)$ to swell. Rem. JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. in § 92).for jaA (jue^l). £^3 to be in pain. reject the 3 in these forms. Eight verbs primae rad. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. J^ aJLj. £>jj . Imperf. jJv. ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to. ja. ^. ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l». a. morning ! 6.^ 2o 6e angry with. to forget. xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. to be melancholy. is ^ (verba prima? 142. ^° ^ e Jx diyj . i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid .JJu ^3 to be near. inherit. J^ to stick . J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf.C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has . jJ$ x x x to to bear children. full of hatred (of ground). j»-b for jJ^». Imper. to be in charge also dialectically the ^. The Imperat. xx xx in these forms. J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly.^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat. and Imperat. ^jj to be firm and hard J X . 143. J y of the form Ja3. ^o**i> t° oe happy. t condition and handsome. Verbs of which the First Radical rad. . I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj ... JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t). [§ 142 A A. Imperf. Imperat. or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. j.

B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*. £~«i. to moke a mistake. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf. most commonly occur. notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. „ 144. Ox for %a*yi.j.j. £-«y. are at once primse rad. Others even use the forms Jjwj. dialects x In verbs primae rad. x . J for x Jj^j. * . I J rain. **. has fetha. « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}.g. xx Ox ^Jbj y^i.. a. x x x C » . t.ai. j et {J. J**. and Imperat. 79 by the mur. *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. the is In a few verbs. J £*• xx to give.§ 144] J I. s-**. /Off. b. cjj and j±j are not used in . j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn. 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon. Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. the Perf. radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j).ov-jj. %o»\i and J x x ». s>j x to let alone. E. Rem. some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^. and Imperat. j ^ • Ox #J. # ©jJ.yi . in the mud.j or J x r% jj. of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. Xs* and . to let alone. y J s Jibuti. to 6e tfi j)« . Ox xx £3 x jSj. J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. Rem. of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. rad. ©ju.lj J x Ox and J*»*u. £0 £>e afraid . J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. from j*b}. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. Jx Ox . Usy. $>$ to be visited A J0_ . x x JxOx %». » U». y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. . owes its existence is. J x x c>. for ^*A>j. geminatse . yoy*. xx xx gjl x x to restrain.» ji. is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. ^. The Verb. Verba t pr. radicals are strong.

jLmjUA. Imperat. J ' rem. but pass after ^ and ^ damma. to play at hazard. Perf. #0 receive a promise . *J^]. Hence Jo^-jl. In the Passive I. ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time). although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O. approve of Sometimes. IV. fetha. to despair. Imperf. according to the preceding vowel.. Act. . In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. to be gentle. for Infin. Rem. JJjt. of j~»j and &Ju . the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis. the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. ^*-j. ctjuzll. the j is ^ s or j productions. Perf. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . s^^-yi for w^>j. XL. 148. c>^iwl. ^ is revealed. for J***]. vowelless j. rem. IV. j~3\.80 Part Second. the preceding vowel. into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . £t>Jl. C*5t. for jL~>| and j Infin. ^. [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. (^jl»I). . and kesra. or u-^-rf. has ^^^ a. J ' ' jt jibs gg. and X. forj-wt a. * to be sb< J J 6s . t. 147. *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake. for Oj and as judt.. IV. Rem. <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. * J^**'. f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e. and X. J J .* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . ctjut. Verbs primse rad. for ju*Z>I. or J s ' . ^tSjlll. for j~~*i. ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . O. J*a*j . Jiio JiAj do. ^^-l. IV. ' '. IV. J J jl~>t J and OJ . j~»> to play at hazard. —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. . hill). ** grown up. 146. and X. Imperf. j *^ to or become ripe. teristic In the eighth form. however. ^Uo *0s See or § 92. and ^U* ^sb. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for . D teJuj . easy. e. . w^jt. I. j-~>$i. of verbs primse rad... according b . Act. Pass. 145. %yi J %yi and . for <£*3j. producing O »j * * * * . &*>>. ^J. ^Uj. g.0 L»+Z~>\. See § 143.. . for ws^jt. . it. (juujl). JO.g. Imperat. or y^^-o. *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. Jl^jl for jjtjjt.

J^Ll for for JJ^y . . ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person. E. ^*^j j-^ a. j * „ j . rad. *l. is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. 150. j. w^v-. The Verb. J^>> Imperf. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. Pass. and rem. — C 149. j Jyu. do. and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. j~~i. pardon w. do. to be hereditary.g. I. Rem. For the inflection of verbs Comp. ^J^arJi. in the Imperf. *$3. for j-^ri. 3 or ^j (verba X.g. *~3 to be wide or spacious . (§ 145). J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. ^"t to fear (God) . see B. to face . and the third has one. or ^Jj. eighth. Imperf. XIII. b. Verba pr. JaaJI. p. Act.§ 150] tion. the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. make one lean. djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . rem. Imperf. he goes. IV. ^JSj to rely be to upon. „ granted. B or long possessed . is „ JUj. it is said. of this class in the cognate languages. J*£j. E. becomes „ „ Jy^t. et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first. Gr. radicals . or If the first radical is without a vowel. in the Perf. Pass. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. Verba mediae rad. seventh. JJjLl et ^j. Uul to insert . j for J«15jt. c. ^^i. he is afraid. inherited. ^. indicate the principal points of difference. I. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . 11 . Rem. Compare b. to and in the fourth form. 81 I. to prop him up . and tenth forms. I. Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). Compare § 139. *r>^> j do. he is afraid. j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147).. follow . Jyb. >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave). 234 seq.

OJ&X. IV. especially by the poets. > „ 3 O^jl. sometimes still farther abbreviated. I-. 151. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. Act. » 2 I Ojit. x xOg ^\i\. pardon asked. IV. 3 t i (J3. Jju. IV. remain. he was thought is gentle. Act. . plur. for . Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). p. t^-j3t. Imperf.03 . I. Perf. . fo stands upright. do. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j).). (C^ll). is Rem. JU^j. (CM^)j 2d f. 3. Imperat.*x. Pass. 03 0*k.AJ). do.$.. 3. 2d x p. m. 0. 3 Perf. x 3 J*£l~j. . Imperf. 3 oi Imperat. J»$*-i. the long vowels ^J— $—. d v>Jt. ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. oj \yyi\. 03. I. i x o t. IV. IV. because (§ 25). Jussive Pass. IV. x (j-j**.. But if the third radical loses vowel. C^UXtaWl x ). into *sL. do. x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt). IV. x do. X do. are changed into the corresponding short ones. IV. sing. (J**t).j.0.g. Imperat. Jussive Act. do.a»*) I do. j 0*k.82 Part Second. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!). he softened. he remained. Pass. Pass. 03 3 ij*A*~i\. Act. S^-s^. X. he softens. Act. x 03 o. j»£\. O Oi Jit. ji} £. X. f. do. soften. J*. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»). [§ 151 A he remains. x a£ 3d p. Pass.„ 3 . plur. Act. Jussive Act. 1^-iJI. Plur. Perf. l>o*3I Jx 3 . 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech. X. X. xx to be. Perf. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. (j*yy). IV. „ „ t^lJI. its Imperf.

3 o 3*0 3*0 153. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it. The Verb. rad. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel. Verba med. $ et ^£. Q . If three first succession. the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122). E. J>5I.g.g. I. then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l.§153] 152. 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules. E.

. sOi i J^*. and i changing those letters into j productionis . (J productions.). the damma elided substituted in its place. Instead of J*3 (J>3). -is for JL» _ siila. (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive. j-^l). In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel. (for £)y*». ss s C-s^5 s for . 154.84 Part Second. some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I. suka. Jjo»). (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. s E. Act. 2*J). s s i. and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra. Perf. s sis £# (for £*j. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t.g. VIII. . If the first radical has fetha 155. and the third is without a vowel. if it was 3. m. Pass. giida.\ (for j#*. is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. 2d pers. o~«ji. but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. si (see § 140). J>$). first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. pronouncing or &. three cases arise. j-m^. Pass.\. German Rem. sing. J**. j*X». rem. j^t s i i „ » a. namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^. s i E. Rem. Os s dj~» Oj-j~>.l. " O i s i Rem. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. a ^JOIj). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Q b. B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. forms The verb JL>. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. I. to say. hula. (Jj^)j like. if it s i damma. j^6. il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula. do.g. In forms like Ji^Xwt. and ^J[$**>. was ^.1. (^tfui).

e. Act. and Perf. as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). and in those mediae rad.. Act. but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj). etc. [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. m. seventh. suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel. ^£. change the fetha of the x O x Kg.* for C-s^*. radical is is Verba med. 157. say CuXS. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. (c^J). sing. (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. for E. pyj. etc. In verbs mediae rad. m. to move away. 2d c> pers. bU'a. a § present. ^j kesra. D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. do. 2d pers. do.g. — De G. I. sing. » m. J Osju. Perf. 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. In this case the same i elision takes place. and most verba . Most verba mediae j take damma.g. forms. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»). Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). B x c*a£> for a C^»*. VIII. I. cJJ» ° cJ^b. 2d 3JLik pers. C-o*-> for Cou. *. Act. mediae rad. do. Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). 93) . m. (§ 155. x x x *£*. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel. fern. Ci4 x xdx e. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. a) and C* **. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh .. sing. to fo .* 6.g. Oxx identical in form 155. . I. ^ et ^J. „ a.§157] (b) I. to . ^ J of the form J*5. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem.] rad. Perf. c). ^>* (^y*). J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J. according to x x o E. the § 25. as in a. rad. bii'tu. are J O J . grew m J J X J J}/ . Rem. Pass. kuta. from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. the 1st and 2d pers. Perf. sing.g. fo/i#. The Verb. 156.

and T B also C~*->. j***. for Uu. comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J).g. *y~>\ . to sleep. XX. Imperf. obtain. the X X X X J X X Imperf.g. c. 3. from J\j (J^tj). rad. 3 et ^j. •• Syr. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. Imperf. no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. j^^ IV. from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. Imperf. oU->. X JJ £j>j and £»>*3. • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. rem. jj* to be one-eyed. ^. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). s Some verba mediae rad. co^ XX Heb. from ifa night . a. >jV( •>>* to 60 6M. Jlft. which rem. are always written. A Jxx JxOx . ((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y). xx ^^. Hence we write J33. and a few mediae ./ktr. XX ^. a. to . . TVlD*. takes fetha (§ 92) e. . OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. though w~o. lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf.S. are mentioned by the lexicographers. JU. these In verba mediae rad. 160. to cease. See U>. of the form }»3. See § 11. for example. j~~j ijv~i). xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. 159.86 Part Second. ^JU^. IV. ^>?j. Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. for CJj. O^* f° r fr° W C guard . and b. to get. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly. or the Parts of Speech. for. »*x x £x G x . x Of . of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. jj*>i. C*o. j. O or Q. . for C^Zc. to tc?M&. C-*o. ^£*. 158. £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. if it did. ' E. rad. Imperf. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . 3 —Etymology in some. § 90. ( J-»j-») . But which are of the form J*». . Syr. fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate. . the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3.. and O3-0I (Heb.).

juou JL* have a slender waist. x 87 x x xx Ofc . from m\j do. w> U* » . Jx x . w»Ut or <^^j\. On X. x x x W0c£. Imperf. J^a*->. xxO of sU». O^verba mediae rad. but they generally prefer the weak. Some verba mediae weak rad. u .. xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. with the exception of a few. from the rad. the Jx X . rem. 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age. J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting.«a.§ 163] Jx Ox x .. x <Jyau J^a. from ^*^S a bow . the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad. Rem. rad. to be cloudy.>t or w>j a». x x elixwt or cUwt.>t. xx to j>^t to borrow. C from the rad. 161. IV. 242 seq. jlr*. Many inflection. from the rad. 9-lj . to have a long. D xxOx she-camel (*$U). to give an answer. which almost always adopt the strong. Jx Ox to squint.g. to watch a rain-cloud. p. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. Verba med. rad. c. jU o>^ Mjo one another. Similarly. oftey. JU-I or 162.»t. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->. to 6e a&Je to do. as jy**\ to be neighbours. see §§ 240-1. Imperf. used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad. IV. Hebrew and . J>*j. see § 118.. ^ from^U do. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. x x j glanders). from the w>L« .. ju. Imperf. Ox ^. from verba med. j et ^. to consider right. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp. Imperf. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. and flexible. rad. x Imperf. in Rem. x x Imperf. w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^. j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . the first b. to Rem. from Jl». ^ -»x et ^. On form from verba med.jfe>\ or^^l. a. slender JxOx x . to " marry x x . *" *~3>)\ to pair. the eighth form. xx Ot J-j£j.. said of a camel. M . xx inflection.g. I. from the x X . E. A few verba mediae rad. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**). J>fct ju. [chiefly denominatives]. M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx . . E. b. to reward. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx . Gr. grant a prayer. ju*. XX* xxxxxO rad. shortened from cl :^l. or intermarry.o to have a particular disease (ju-«. *' ' A Oi . The Verb. Jf^wt to become like a .

There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. place.— XVIII. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels . namely. — \j£> Verba tertise rad. a). : jet fj. classes.g. l£J^> for ^o>. on the other hand. ^ 3 of the form Jii . (a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb). (§ 167. the 3d pers. C-oj^. might have been O^j^. 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ). where they . not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). ^ of the form Jj*i sis . % . u —a. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. for ^j B with. one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. of the form Ja$ . /?. 165. a). namely Jjtf . a). is [§ 164 A C. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. s s E. /?. b—). a.to be ashamed. (e) Verba tertise rad. In the dual. sis as jj~> to be noble. as iJD±. and Ojj-w. sing. that retains its power as a consonant. the masc. Act. The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf.— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . a.. 166. I!**). Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. forms tj£. (d) Verba tertise rad. d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*. when the preceding f .88 Part Second. j of the form J*J . (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. and. ends with a consonant. u—a ($—). ft a). etc. Verba tertise rad. as ^oj to throw. or it is elided. as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. sss* In the first and second and II. or it resolves itself into a vowel. u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). O ss s Rem. s w-»j^j. (c) Verba tertise rad. —a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. 164. a. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j.. fern. after I. s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j. jjx. for^j£ (b) (§ 167. j of the form as to make a foray or raid. UjJ^.

as t^-oj-j. owing to the influence of the /?. ^*j>»» for C*j>».. one of two ways. Verba tert.g. ^-©jl for ***j\. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a.*j£ ^ . The 2d pers. !>*«.. and 168). \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-. is (b) The i third radical u. sing. or elided. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123. The Verb. rad. or a). E. a. that is to say. and 154. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians. (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable. as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3. or after dropping a short vowel. . 'ugzu). cally. sing. as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and . as Ijj^fc for tj. ^— 7. as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij.X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. j 167. Imperat. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. according to §§ 166. in J At It the end of a syllable. Hence arise the following cases. yi— into j_. lT^J L5~^ . 12 . c^j for C^ w. = cJjii.ty pass into ^— u and t -d. fern. in the second syllable. as for Ojjx. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. 3 et ^. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—. ^-. O^j-j for Ojj-». Rem. ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. . rem. a. lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . rem. might have but said b\j£ and UU. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P. and and the two vowels are contracted .. 89 fern.§ 167] I.uw and ^. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -). they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>.. as for t^JjJ. j. (from ^^>j for^-oj..

4J}\ approach. OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!. ramaita. Oj^fc. ^^H f° r ^p. for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168. ii. 00 jJaj xOx .. E. ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. The Jussive § 230). J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj. J***. but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a. 5) for ay.g. J J The a. J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj. 3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I . for (j?jU. ^_ X for ^J— and ^_.] . a) . (jj-xt). for ramayta. These vowels are x > elided at the same time. jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical.g. and .$>*»». Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis. ## for ^-). fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation. fi for j>*j. Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . it is vocalised in three different ways. (3. (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji). j£\. for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . a syllable. O as as . it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0. ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. E. sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. j>j-~>.90 Part Second. (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. before the J^U is x (§ 80). third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative. for . etc. not naturally. G. [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). and ^— rem. 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166. ^-Stj) 5 J . x O xx gazawta . OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on.g. ^j*\j and ^\j jU . X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. It has been already mentioned is (§ 166. but the tenwln E. J**-». Jju. t>£ for jj£.g. 3jU. gazauta. <u#cj. but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for . j_ X for j— lib ^_ . jo f. a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j. /?. D. it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E. tenwln of x damma and for kesra. ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable. (see § 236). Vol.

maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129). a. b. each of of those . from lw to irrigate. a). 255 seq. and not ^. ^ijp. Perf. though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. 171. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. . JLLj. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. masc. instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . The Verb. rad. as $jsu> for jji>«-«. J}^\.1 Rem. rad. Imperf. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+. to attack.g. e. For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. is occasionally found in verba tert. 3.. ^J^l \JJ&[. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£. the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. ^o\j. Rem. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . wliich have both which comprises several varieties. a). we get 5 inflection. the preceding for ^j«j*c. ^jZ-. compared with the correp. ^>j^. rhyme as for u^U). for l££jtj waws into j. in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. C-*-©. I. 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. 170. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain. rad. j et ±J. ^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. The form ^>*-o ^jk*. Such verbs as ^*oj. 3. as far as the above rules permit. in consequence. whether attacked or attacking. The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. of verba tertiae 3. Imperf.. (§ ^. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59. In verba tertise rad. / am mra from (&&e) the lion.tjt (Ji*J1. C>*"^P fr° m 169. Jyta* (§ 80). from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i. g it/ admit of either form. ^. sing. or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land. verb . Rem. In the nomina patientis. Gr.§171] (tj—) into i^. and. rem. Verba tert.

Rem.XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. according to the position of B 173. tju. follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. hemzatae. and (/?) verba tertiae rad. more OS. its Imperat. sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. as bj to smooth. . 3 ^. [also ^sb and u~jb] . varieties. J is ^l-a-j. ^bt. hemzatae. X»X X«< C 174. 3 i 6 x Rem. as jt$ to frighten. —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. [§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172.) to come. it t^a*. to wish. . J D x The Imperf. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. rem. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad. hemzatae. and 142. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. hemza. J$ (j-rfU-!. 144). Such words . j&.92 Part Second. : — . (for U*. x Imperf. J^3 to tread upon. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs. of u~-*-^> to despair. hemzatae.g. rarely See § 146. .

The Verb.§ 176] I. a. 93 of. A . J>\. Doubly Weak Verbs.

. Rem. e.1 < st .3 it>3 elided. L5^ ' E. 3 3 . whatever. ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J .g. there are two sorts radical. Rem. rem. 178. . In the Imperf. The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad. ^jjj. In the fourth form. Of the second : class. when si it signifies to show.3 ^j 03 tjj.g. ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech. ^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. the hemza . by transposition. ^^j) or. as ^$£ to roast. the hemza it is . the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. radical. Pass. 179. i . 0>l. J or or A* a).3 to be near. sort. J 3 . for ^tjj.94 Part Second. Active z^Jj*. —Etymology Perf. to be strong. B 177. in which j or ^ is occurs twice. a). jj. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained. In the second E. C ^j . as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard. b. .g. is c. * J [§177 S3 (like is The . is or the Parts of Speech. always elided : ^jj\. ^3 ^3. Pass. -^ (for gjl). ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . 3 or ^. just as in the voice. (§ 175.

123.. (b) as j^^j. for La»l»>t. 180. ..wt. -i-. first class are of two sorts. We pass over the second class. rem. which letter hardly ever used j viz. (c) in the A nomen actionis IT. 178).§ 181] for I. I.. B Rem. * t a*3 for 4****J. (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf. X. e -ge. — ^c.-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. ^j^> (§ 179). namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to . <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect.). and l. The former l£jW. and — The § 153..). j^**.g. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$.ou into forms . C as (^lj to promise. .-£. . also admits of being contracted into . Verbs of the is 181. £>t**!. LL> to ivrite the ^. 95 ^fc. ^jt to is betake oneself to. The Verb.a*J.**£**>. >. in the Imperf.». when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. rem. to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. as is it seems to consist of only one verb.. and rem. ^a+j. Doubly Weak Verbs. and Imperf. the first radical.. as . . (§§ 80 and 20'2. are inflected like j-^t and .

[§ 182 .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.Paet Second.

They are used as exclamations. and^^so. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. Appendix A. x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju. and U ^oju or.» and x JLy£. B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. 97 II. is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS. In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$. juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. [The following noun must be denned by the genitive. as xx for j^ " for j^. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. U ^^Jj or ^U. though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. which has been thus attained. v»^» for^cjib. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. jjj for jjj. U«ju.] Rem. U-Jb. Gr. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a. its x x x If the second radical be guttural.^^*3. and are generally indeclinable. which x last is obviously the original form. . may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii). Instead oij^su we may say ^3. as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). x J —a contraction which x © . These forms are to be explained as follows. Verbs of Praise & Blame. excellent as a companion is Zeid. If followed by l«. x x write Rem. S>**J. juj ^^a-LsJI j^.for ^>~»»«. and ^^j. vowel. article or O-**5 ) occur. J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . fern. wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. The Verb. instead of being elided. it is said. ^>~».» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9. I^ju. . as j^JSj. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^. 166. b. to fo 6ad. Arabic verb of the form Jas or . Zeid is an excellent companion. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. and the plur. and the p. and ^-£4. according Comp. jt^ for jl^w x . ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j. may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. by contraction. to be good. as: a dependent lit. the dual U*J. s^&y X Hence ^*j.§183] I. J*2J to [or rather.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

^-»^l. Q Rem. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. from d-JlLct he gave him to me . a. Very frequently. Me therefore. instead § 317. help. qualificabile. b. or Substantive. nomen. it to instead of 4-JUast. the verb worship. a. 189. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. the pronoun is. The nomen substantivum. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. 22. THE NOUN. II. Thus. Rem. VOX?! *HWr*&. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b.104 Part Second. a. See rem. J s 0* designated vo-^t. When . is 190. a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb. he gave (b) me. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. Gr. as abl ^ylkc-t. is Rem. (a) The Noun. Rem. but not always (see § 187). instead of AAlkct. Jerem. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. Compare in Heb. of i^_. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. in this case ^. more 1 especially is. he gave it to him. In certain cases this form alone is used. if appended to the verb. . for the sake of emphasis. A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. see Oomp. sO* Jt. a 2 seq. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. fear Me. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct. sing. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases.

3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\.gv as the above translation shows.. . A quality. called 3u\jm\. or cJtdf. and a. for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j. w. >o or Relative Pronoun. The names of the pronoun. 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). or Personal Pronoun. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately. is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. »J 105 . in Rem.- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum. is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. 3 Jit * ^^1. are Rem.-0. aa-oJI. \Juo^\. — ui regard to form. avTaiVVfiia. they are identical in almost every respect. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI. The Noun.§ 190] II. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* . D * elliptical expressions. or Numeral Adjective. is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M.. is. * the noun of number. that out. 14 . after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353). or Adjective. 84 —89 and 185 — 189. b. a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum. because. * as opposed to &La)l. or Demonstrative Pronoun.)l. of by. descriptive epithet. by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. (c) The nomen numerate. that which is apparent or It is also manifested. the noun of indication. the substantive to which the pronoun refers. the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. word by which something the concealed or kept in. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. j^S SjU^t.

.. or denominative.^wt. and which does not give birth to a nom. a horse. derived from nouns. formed from *U nor 9" from it. derived from verbs. ^ji.106 Part Second.£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide).^5*^ qualitative. nouns were formed. into two derivative. A. a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. that is. b. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative). primitive and .\Zjlo . in respect of their origin. follows. ^ 9 0* . and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ .. The horse. water. The s . as . y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). and a comparison of the meaning word. u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . Nouns are divisible. is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth. as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). classes. . as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion). derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. act. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. that is.. or verb. . The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. stantives as J*y man.. and their different Forms. [§ 191 A 1.. not itself nomen actionis or infinitive. At a later period. full of water. ^l^JI human . to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. its root. one that a nom. the root of ^ji. nor derived from act. and are either » deverbal. conversely. ^j* may . Rem. 191. to be skilled in horsemanship. |Lo water. is not derived from oU.jUJI « human being). in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools. but a denominative Rem. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc. 9 a key (from *J3 to open). of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U. primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye. ^-> how ?). is «U a denominative verb. a.

^a. mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot. 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. names of horses. ^J^jJui a quince. riding. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind.o-L j^£>. daughter of./***> of. a as^oJLft knowledge. the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^.e - a name of. . jU». smi as ^L». a noun that is A derived from a nom. roottra that is augmented by additional letters. sJ^*. as ^^ft knowledge. tfAe £ion. understood. as i«L»l for the cat. 2lJju. ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO .^U. fox) . or xO rawie. x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment.jjl. « man. w>jj/5. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. father o/. but^aj^JLo. as ^J***. as jj-o*. 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S. juw. 02 / A. as ^LxJt ^jt.^t. 5 J x The Noun. as ^-»». act. J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos. compounded with JO i ^jI. or . an ^>*£^o~>t. J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. or verbal root. or (6)^*1 ^y*o. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. as 0x00 man. Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A . x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass. names of women.§ 191] II. 4«~ot. ( ^ji a horse . in its strictest sense. • a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object. opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more.l^ and ^t^JJt. . or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. an ^Ji^^wl. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. names of men. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J. dx . the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. or^at.

as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. The 9*x as j^> (a bull). ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J. ^b*. 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. &15U (bestowing). i the sun of virtues. amir pounded. improvised. ^^ JOxJ wA*5. 0*3 It. predicative. as w>^»t ^jt. c) (8) X. aj^^. 3 . as C iUju. or wilcu*. ^--jiM _$j-«t. the "patient" camel. 3 x extemporised. [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. xDx . which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J). impromptu. (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^. as t^itu jus.^0*-. or (b) %^^»^o. as 2J*j Duck or Bottle. OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . J>*b ws-U. « x J Ma'di-karib. x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7. 6. viz. x x arm). x 0*» x joica/. existing only as a proper name. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound.a*J^o. The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. * . Job's father. Ox BaJal-bek. B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>. as j^w. as io (see above. —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. Bebba (imitation of a sound). a surname. x 3 consisting of a single word. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. c. (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). ft 2ro30 x U -p. j**). latter class is of six kinds. the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. or proposition.O J genitive. as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God).. tfAe weasel. ^e tortoise. ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort. Siba-weih . w*jj$ &\. . as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. transferred from some other use. The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals. d simple. jX^j. . (excellence). (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. x J x ^jtjSJj^c. gift)'. £&e female hycena. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o. ^ijs- ^t. ZjZ£- . jb^SXZs j»\. 6). or an honourable epithet. as ^3 1. aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose.

the reference or relation). The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. nouns of. particular class of derivative ad- . namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis. Nomen vasts. action once. w^ » .»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. £3^1 £l©-/t. nouns of kind or manner. also called nomina (d) vasis. \Jj&. 194.§ 194] II.\\ ll^wt. (a) Nomina vicis. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. nouns denoting the strument. pyi\ ilo-^t. J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). the noun that denotes the individual. *W*l. a jectives. A. are by their nature adjectives. om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time. 109 192. but have the nomina agentis et patientis . A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O . . >. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. and nomina patientis. (b) Nomina Nomina speciei. place C in- Nomina instrument i. Sj^. the referred noun. is c>J&\ ^wt. the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. The Noun. J^UJt ll+*\. (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes . Nomina bo agentis. come to be used also as B 193. *Uyt ^S. (participles).^1 ^^1. llo-wt JjjtfcoJt. (d) Nomen relativum.. but have substantives. namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis.

J / /O/ (lit.. 9 of them. where it originates). / 3. ^J*p. M*-* j> 7. J*». 9. v5j^> wJJU*. j^>3. JUi. >a-c. 9/ J ? J 2 J w^. / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s..Q\ ^~/\. the lessening). B which express the action. 8. as 0*4*> Jaw. 196. SlXw. 9// JaaLw.Ju. The nomina verbi. Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. ^o-lafr. <". The nomina verbi. . list The following a nearly complete within brackets. the diminutive.. oc 195. CO/ 1. (/) Nomen deminutivum. as <U*^s *j^> fat. j*o. The Deverbal Nouns. as w>*^> ^a^. 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . as w~U». as ^**A. passion. D 4. jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. o e>M3 (a) „ . O***. as *Jl£.*. £j 6.mj. the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). Z. 9«« / 2. J*3. 9// J"k>> voj-^. which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. ^j. Rem. J£>. J**. wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-. ^U. the lessened noun. without any reference to object.110 Part Second. %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj. 9 J 9/ j ? 5. JaaJI *U^I. 3j£. • . are very numerous. t^j~». *yj. ^i. as»£>. -*j^. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. 9// 9// 9/' Ja3. or time. a. The Nomina Verbi. /0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis. ibuo. >j. . subject. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/. j£w. j-w. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive. the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*». The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. as w>jm£. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. are abstract substantives. J>5. J*». as i*A».

iip.Lai.] O^iii. J 27. [24* 25. iUi. j) . 4>^-»-. 16. ^i**. 5JU3. 31. as Ujl*..§196] 10.<& Adj. %>^=>y . 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J. as *£*>] o^. JU3. as ^J-o*-.] [19* [20. 14. ^»>i. io-«ac. as ajUj. as < V »a-. SjLs. 22. JU». [15. II. liUL^. o^o^. A. 26.. [30. iCLj. cA&. —Nomina Verbi. . [13. «''» as i*Aafc». JUi. 28. as *jU£». al^Ui. JUi. lS**3 - L5£**. Ill ILJ. O^***. aX*5. ^3>iif.] ilJUi. as as iW-] ^>^. as cA*«»g.. JU*. ^l^j. JU-. 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. i3Ui. rial. £Ui. Nouns Subst. iitjjL. o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ . as ^-^o.J [13*. v 9*1 l*3. as eg^y B 17. ^J^. *1^> *^> 3&. The Noun. as Ait^i.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. SjUi.] ^**.. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. as ^jA». 4^. £J£ (also written <uU).] Sul. ^-U*. [19. 29. 9 as oy. ^^Uj. as O^*^. 12.^f&] illi. as Oj^^xj. as ilAt^>.jtjl. 11. as TClj. 53UaJ. as £jl*i. ^5**^^^Ui. oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21. as [18. 4JL0. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . Kr&z. SUU. SjuLi. 0^i © •J J[Jl. as iol. aJUs. 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. Sjlij. 3)U~>. as ^IK Jl>w. ^lU (or J&). [24.

rem. J**j. as Ag^ci*. 43.J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i. GO* 00s u . 198.' 9 * 0* . as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. 221. i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t..112 Part Second. as ^SU^. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. J*^-> B 38.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. £T / d . jyd. to snatch. 34.Jjfc3 * J** * is * . G * 40. diksuLc.] 37. must be learned D from the Lexicon. a-wo^-cJ.> t a> -e. aJLai. 42.] All these nouns cannot. as 3 ji»a*. — 44. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*. * ** ibUi. insight. j*a. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35. Sy^.. What these are.0* tS$y°. • 3>5j. Slo^o. and the remarks to 222—225. v**i»i<jtj Je*3. 39 c. Sj^j^o. d->j*o. are 28. ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s . / • • d «. 33. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44. «»/ JJ£ to kill. as i^jJI. 1.. however. as oj^a^o. as ib^e. jrf understanding. few of more than two or three. . J**s.] [Rem. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand.. J-oa-c. J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj. (a) ** * . A*a»^e. : Jli. The 9 0* five forms. 33. Ji*. J***** asj*£«. 3ijAo. which are most frequently used. 2. as *J££. SjJtLc. I 32. 34. Urn** . JmA '.o £^~«. J*£*. triliteral verb. 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-. . 5 Syii. J»***. cAs [41. J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*. £J>*i. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. ?-s*-j«c. as Jj**. 0. ' «• . see further §§ 208.» / i^x S s 39.— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech. J>*i. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo. Ij^ii. a^-*. very 197.. GO* as J^-Jl*.

jtiu. *-U-»^->\ to refuse. ^° gallop (of a camel). AJtjjh. jJu. to brandish. . J***. as ^Jslc to sneeze. U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*. ^A*^ x x x . 7»5j±> going out. r> JU* as ji. ' . his 9 9 * . Sx x x to be generous. . as J*~j 9 to travel.sitting . jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£.— Nomina Verbi. x xx to to run. xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam. pcfc to * become refractory. *-ji joy . 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. ^J^Jt9. ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). 9 X . Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . «J xxx 9xJ to bark.§198] (b) xxx IT. to ft* ^'c£ and t large. firmness or soundness of judgment . palpitate. * * . { j*L±. s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. xx ^ys> 15 to w. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form .> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. BjyL±. Rem. u°j* sickness. 9 9 x . to xxx lash the tail. xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash. to to flee. p-U«o xx . J 9 Us. *bt. to bray. cry out 9xx for help. 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . B aJ^^w smoothness. ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*. 21. y^x3 and J J ^yU. 9 The Noun. 27. to be agitated. # xJ 37.. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight. *-L3 ^Xj to weep. refusal. . ^JUi and xxx . 9 x J j\i to flee from..jb^. rider (of a horse). to be x j x of sound judgment. J^-tf J>yj to bray. J^-* to fo smooth. ^xj l\SJ . f-\r>e . ^ *-jjL. w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . - wju wjbu and ^~x. xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. Nouns Subslti Adj. x *-*»£ 9 x '. Ci s jjliUi. x run quickly. u°j*° to be sick. i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound. to be rough. run away with . £)\jlx±. Si* * xx xxx }j£. usually take the form 26. 9xJ Jo roar. change of place. Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. * . or 9 x . ^o 9xjxxx . xx to croa&. /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». go out. }\jJli . as 9 x . J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. as j\h x x to fly. 9 x 37. to 9 palpitate. 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . A. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness. 9 x xx > ^Ja*. j\y* xxx . as juiS and ^J^. J**3. to sit. shun with horror.

has jj*. and wi^w be exalted. .g. and to 60 moved by love. xx traffic. the office of secretary . loud. divide. j-v*-.^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after . 200. Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy. has OXX ' j^j*. Sj^. xxx ju*. Ai^Li. E. J^i. *UUs. but Jji. one of which peculiar to.to Ox x sew. and xx x have several abstract nouns. .s*J to trade. grief or anger. Jjji . each of to its meanings.. If a verb has only one form. to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. or the Parts of Speech. act as deputy. as t^il*. but j^»». SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . <bto xxx deputy ship . has ^. 4j*^5. j£j*-. or jjj^-. open or public. The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself. to succeed. 201. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. 3jU*j 2mofe.114 Part Second. Ox£jU£» . U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel). to judge. B 199. w>U to take one's place. to fo plain. „ or tmir. jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. but »*i^w. j-ij** to £*j. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w. to ^ OX XX . u^P or Aitjw.Jj to be in charge or command o . one Perfect. to be afraid.j.) or caliph. or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x . but in the sense of Ox xx . tfAe 29. %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat. 5 x it signifies curb {a horse). but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns. ly». <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. gUj xxx x x . the caliphate . or jl-^. Ox X i»ti. noble or eminent. 3 J in. fl x . trade or handicraft. . governorship. to be exalted or noble. 3)lyj>x x <*J>2». has £*Jj. office. to find. to part. *liu . [§ 199 A howl. x xx Thus. that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight. X X X U>j£>. tions. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels. for accordingly.. ^ZS** to write. sense x x . have a hud Ox© usually has voice. be chief of..

aXxaj. of the strong 202. JStc. G. X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. to exist (see §200)*. «^'>^>. as ^>^. XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. employed in the active and Lane. to Bibl. i*> . . The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows. 2^. ?^h^. a^v>. A. x S^-cuS.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. X as 1>\S£>. Jt ji. see the Gloss. triliteral II. iGX>. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. first. 1. iSCJ^. as lUu-I*k. Nouns Subst.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. S>~J. x V&£>. JuU. J£«*. as ££1^3. C JtaXJ. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. x/0 fl£J. il^io. £3ja3. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. D. 5^a5.] [6. . a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . Geogr. »LJ. S^J. O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification. The Noun. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . as Jl^cu. JUA5. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem.] signification . from j~» £o glad. 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. 9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2. existence. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. JUA3. ibuu.§202] its II. $50^5 from j^j to be found. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. a^Xj. J**&. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. 25}s!*3. SwiJ. as jjjj-w Joy. 9 x as JU^j. 9 J'^a^>. oi jUfe. gladness. x JUjJU. u^Uy.

] B VI. 0-00 X. infin. /^P). V. and are represented in the . Jaw. J&. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. to Heb. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i.] VIII. as v£*-*> cfe. XIV. . only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. ( absol.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I.] 5-0 IX. XL XIII. [4. [2. as jjy-3 from tp) I. [3. JUiXwt. alxsu tert. JU*. autli. J&. J!jU5t. Rem. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin. to excess energy or intensity. 1. j3U?. J%*lt. J^U5. Jajuu tert. hemz.. JUtf . is In II. JUllt. yjjuu. a. XII. jSL. JcUf. 1. [2. Jilil [2. JUil. OjUl] [3. whereas JUaj. ii&fo c xv. VII. 1. [§ 202 . strictly speaking. JUA3I. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ. 2. akin to /SJ&fi. as OjUj. >«£. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. ?5uJt. is and rad. as j&. as >*£. as JU-*->.] IV. [or frequency. in. substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. 7$}£&?. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. the form JJUi is the original infinitive.116 Part Second. but of an obsolete are. as JUS. Jtjait. 3 et ^ (in which .. Jt***. but is chiefly by far the most common. JbLait. latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare. JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. used in verba rad. the infinitives.]. •£«. J**a3.

J&Jl. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. the original form is JUaj. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. C 1. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. as p.. into <Jmu. <U. common form particip. — In ([in form identical with the] V.. Rem. I. or Jjti. rem. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive.. A. ]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ. 9 xOx JUj-. Nouns Subst. fUU.).] J-***?. JLiutf . Perf. The nouns formed from the iLUi. 6.] . of all is aJUULo fern. as *-tj«o. UjLoJL etc. The most pass. Oj^e*. x WShft.j*.§203] II. III. as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*. JUu^. § 180 disapproves of this theory. /J » x ___ III. JjtAj. JU$. 3p*s^. as>l*j£». [3. G. J'iUJ. 0x0 JUX3. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft. x « &AAj~i.UJ). 117 /^JUH. {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. D [The irregular form IV. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III. as Jig. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant. 00 J^JLxit. Zlsy>. II. J^Jj*.j3. A Wan. 0x0 2. Hv^in.] 203. D. is as jli*^> oUloit.*— In III.^). • < • In XUal is the common form. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*. who shorten the Jji5.— Nomina Verbi. as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL». * [Barth.& Adj. Nominalbildung. those B Arabs alone use JUJ. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj. JUJU. jj*a* ^o-A] I. etc. The Noun. Jbt^i is the original infinitive.. and Imperf. —In VIII.t. and Lii to VI.

g. like JjJj. which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. drop it also in the verbal noun.118 Part Second. The B Rem. Those verba primse rad. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206. abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. of which the first and second . 205. x xxx j . and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not. Hence %x« for jjco. ^*jUJ or w>L*J. j. Rem. E. that reject the ^ in the Imperf. and Imperat. Imperat. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. Those nouns. mj 204. yJAfr. mutual thrusting and stabbing . [§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). as 3»lo»« or olo-«. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. (§§ 142 and 144). to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. o Sjcfr from js-2. radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. x x a. >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. Imperfect julj. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . undergo no contraction x x as jju>. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. b.

J^j**. be preceded by kesra. ^o). frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*.' rOfc? (*^).1. 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145. x > 11. rem. 3i. 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3. * * ma T •• (&*).^f. . .9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. fr° m YW. rad. from olo . Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. (or § by assimilation 223. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med.§ 209] e -gfl II. .Jj. as Jy>. )L±* (rad. A. Compare > . and the [See D 209. . . 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©). ^ -B (&). rem. j-w. ^om nb\ . as^oLS for^ftly>.. from ^©13. in Hebrew. x x J & Adj. Jj>»». ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. l\j*~* like. pronounced with fetha. where it remains . 5 If the noun from a verb mediae .ijjfc.] ••!• 5 x ^M). if it be without a vowel. x x x . 5JLo for aJl^o.' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J.l.). . A . rf. x j£. b. « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3. as w>j>>. 207. Nouns Subst. the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3. for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem. this radical is ^.jl*x&.-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s . l j from verba med.j and Sj^. of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157).xx d for w>Ufc. changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. bt* . Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra. from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form. x Rem. x The Noun. 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^. etc. >Uut and **X X *ti. from the tenth of .T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^). from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. it is If the letter j. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. j.). Imperf.—Nomina J ' Verbi. >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M. as . 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti. Initial ^.» See § 145. Rem. or ^j be of the form x 208. 9 c. . -Jfc*). and kesra precede as . ' nsr. ^ . *«*.

*>. S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . Ox J J Rem. is and then x ) . rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>. jMj) fromjy'J).120 Part Second. on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables. and then altered. S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©). x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *. j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o. x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical .^u. so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^.g. In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided. they say. and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). shortened JL**s. into <la. [§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti.5.from ^U-. aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i). Oli^ I5U.Jtlilwt .*• (jj~>). pb. and >U*^t. ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i. from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. (->>>). j|>». and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2).^w. ^ et ^ x the nominal form . ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. E. a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. 0&&aff and llcu. or the Parts of Speech. ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ. Dtfll) . from is 210. OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui. ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad. all combine DDte. J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ . &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. confusion.— Etymology . aJ^JLx. rad. jtj— 1I3J from jjL*. SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and.. 211. in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x . x hj*J from *> *13 (^1). £0 6e chief or ruler. i 5J^Ui. ^-^j-j*. 77^*3 to prove that pi3. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£).4. tjjjyfa+i 2.^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«. mixture. were.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui. . aJ^JUi as the original form. first ^ et ^5. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£).

often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. Nouns Substdk Adj. the j productionis changed. rem. a. the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter. * * 9** * 0*0* Rem. 5 La. 213. second radical. tertiae rad. sj^ 2 .] 5 " •• forms J*s. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$.. the (etymologically more x Rem. c). GO* (j£>i. after the elision of for S>L«. to show (§ 176.. into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a. £).. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj . through the influence of the third radical. for S^a..'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o). ^ et ^. throws back the ten win upon the Eg.i\ 5 A occur.» U*>. as L5a*.g. e. into combines with it into J$. 5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^.. j>»^. the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj. J. In the same way as SLa. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\. *}£a. etc. and becomes quiescent. 212. ^. ^cj. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z. tertise rad. the ^5. SlXw for 3j£i. ^jj. The Noun. ^.. 16 . the . 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S . j C as changed. y^. is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. combines But. an * 2> * t 5 * J**. rem. whilst. a. 3l£>j for S^»j. A. %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . for * * for for (*V). S^a. 215. L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6. as jjs-. its fetha. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. . for 00* 00* ^^a. [if B * J J*5. We often find. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167. 73 (for^»U5t. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y. Sj£>j (§ 7. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see.. as w. xxi. I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. tertise rad. and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. \ however. these forms come from verba tertiae rad. ^c^ y for (J^jt. ^1. at the same time. ^^J*. 121 Rem. 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class. * * $ of the form al*5. and Jj«i. e?). In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained.^eUM in the Kor'an. •* Jjj for j>\>. ft and 214. the j productionis of the second . 3bj*o for 2-o^o. Sur. 6.§215] II. tjj L5J*. if is with the radical j into j as 3J3.

. 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167. —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***. seventh. kesra. JU3. e. b. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth. ^jt. tertise y> rad. ^5. ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot. {\yt^>\ x . and JUi. J# for jfi (J&). 218. sometimes takes place. the influence of the third radical D (always ^$. For this . ^. J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. from ^yb. In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. as ^1 for ^y\. 216. g^a»Jt. rem. J£. (ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. Uxp. 219.Uju~>t. the third radical of verba as £U±. as 2J<~3. fe. as gUact. [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). ^ et ^ is changed into hemza . P). and xx in that of the third.122 Part Second. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms. That an act has taken place once i}j+). further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . XX has the . « . t x X f\^*j\. tertise rad. ^ 3 x from ^>3. is In the same form from verba tertise rad. we is. gU^t. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217. when it ^x form Jt*3. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. the third radical converted into J?.). Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). rad. as ^>A for ^jA. find ^3. as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. and following forms. ^o. 3. ££j.

AJLJt. once. ** J*J»>1*.ja. manner. of course.e^. 6 a^ao.. o o?. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. m * * * * * *$. *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t. drinking. o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener. . mode. he had pity or compassion upon * * * . Nouns of this sort. striking. ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind.oJ.g. * o t being uncovered. £)\3j*a£. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl. 220. has always the form aX*j. vexing. snuffing. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping. rolling over. \j*. 5$ j&.*0* 3ja3. shuddering. fleeing. be appended to it. as du. V 0**0 dJ1j. and so with *+*£>.0/0/ 0/0/ . ij^. giving rest.j3. 0*0* «/» r. derived from weak verbs. These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt. is —Nomina first Vicis.> ***> f r o b. 3 jc». D as rti*. _ a. The Noun. aj>w. 3u^j. a^-jJ. or nouns that express the doing of an action once. ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. A-U-5. * * *j*. Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way . 3j. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. A. 0*10** <Lc*. * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo. turning over. nomina vicis. rejoicing. honouring. 4*y>. *&** SlSaj. once. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot. 0**0 du>\j£=>\. 9**0 Zj[s£)\.<& Adj. * * V*i 0*0* **«. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * . (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. or . c. a**1*. ^\. be formed * * * Rem. a **>o neglecting. Rem. Rem. * * * pi. * 3J3\Ju. «< E. turning round. ^j. * * a»^. . coming. ^. meeting. seeing. . him once. iolSt. 0**0 A^tj^o. £ £ ^-oJ. *b>o. and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. J**aj in the second. sitting down. Otj-o-». Nouns Subst.. do not 0/0/.g-». Rem. inhaling or B rolling. feUU.lj one.§220] II. S*a*S.* being rolled.

^j^i . 5*0 C nom. a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. a good hand. (from fast vicis. So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb. from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z).g. ac^cJI &~»». 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. sitting. killing. SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). from v>^ t° drink. D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself.. but kesra. oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221. way of putting on a turban. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. [§ 220 E. Rem.124 Part Second. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. eating. as 4£j«a. e. by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. like the 0*0 5 * nom. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis). A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting. a place for drinking. dying. 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * . if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma. 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. speciei . verbi and nom. b. if form of the verb. verbi has the form dJUi. J-^ the time or place far watering . * E.g. be used in a passive sense. w^-u*o . J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. or yashmak . the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. Z+s. speciei may. The nom. riding. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. sleeping. we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. imperf. a miserable way. he writes a^j.g. a. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes.

Rem.- where anything falls.§221] II. 0. of ascent or rising. notwithstanding. Oj^ of division. B and Rem. take. ' . or to A place where. A. J**&* the place JO. one imperf. £j><ai . Twelve of these nouns. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco. 1. 4. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. & Adj. J~a3u. . from juaS aim make for. and J^. party. 125 J . imperf. of prostration in prayer. school. il+~*\. several persons 5 sit. a mosque. viz. from j»-j^ 9 to 0. (camels). whereon one rests. 0. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. or w^w. b. ^~C> . imperf. #0 out. a. where tlie hair divides in different directions. f*j±-i. where the sun rises. v~^*~i at. as it were.* £fa place where. slaughterhouse or shambles. where one dwells. kesra. —Nomina Loci. from Jyj is imperf. . or-* p 7. The Noun. a from ^Sb J 1 to write. imperf. 9 . a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in. J^J slain. Nouns Subst. in particular. L £)S mA 6. . the west.6 . where the sun sets. room. £j-*a* the time when. 5. habitation. the elbow. from v~^ ' to sit.> to go ftflM imperf. the crown of the head. imperf. J^. Q 9 0. fcut 9 mo . w**£* a place where writing taught. to aimed at or made for. 9. 0. £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. to drink. the east. ingress. the vessels in which the act or state con- tained. where a plant grows. assembly. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. 10.o-» u-^Xa*.

2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. it'* J^sw-c. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp.a>.. are of nomina temporis or Rem. J 0303 jtL jri> U.s ^>N?a>.o. cjd». (dij?b). w>^>-«. Nouns and place. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2. jt?2oce hiding or concealment..«*->«o jjtcu*. fetha.03 See § 228. and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable. as a < general rule. ^Jla^o..0^^0. takes fetha in the second syllable. and 12. formed from verba primse ^ et {J. jjLo. a copy of the Kor'an. %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^. 7. ji* i«*. ^L». . from >)$ . nos. MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book. the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into . which has /Ma in the imperf. E. wJj-^U.. fixed time or place. cases the c. (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142. The vowel of the cjoL.o and closet. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0). a pfoce o/* collecting.. promise. languages. imperf.». as m&fc. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew.<». be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ». 144). rem. retain the first radical..and _. rata of time (U^>> rad. The verb * «.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose.«. ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. 12. * —Etymology nostril. meeting or assembling.o. and the same the rest. 11. J-**. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci. [§ 222 the A 11. Q Rem. or the Parts of Speech. license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect. where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these. ^^mje. >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment. also makes B « a> o or . a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin. . which.•g.126 Part Second.g. and even jj)-* also »o. ij^o watering-place. . a small room or 0. 9. 0' et loci from the . imperf. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders. go down (to draw water).o. o?..&». J. 5.o .

g. dreaded. imperf.). have the same form as the nomina loci et temp.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. imperf. imperf. <ix § 208. j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand. from J^j to be afraid. j-~u 3 x * Here the . ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. Those formed from verba mediae rad. "("'' r. imperf. from ^JU. x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing. E. from is put down. as w>U. return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc. C J J 2 x . JU. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra. X S C x x Rem. from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day.3-0 a place that . ^xxxx S. . J-Jb J <»x (Ja). J-Xo or JtC*. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf. from J^-j x . as *«^>o. Nouns where anything %*eu . ^^uak^o or ^^law. some examples with fetha in the second syllable. from j-~> Ox . imperf. imperf. this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical. a place. JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj). xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o. to place. See Those formed from verba tertise rad. s from 9 ^oU x . D w^t. 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x . . but the grammarians give B Rem. s (t or t ^). ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. J^. u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx . £0 fear.§224] II. \ J^U 224. or ^iUto.*--wo « or cL*. . sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire.. according to § 221.**** jjueu* should. . place. imperf. #0 jpfay a£ hazard. x x r. x x . ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say. J-»->*et 223.» to x dive. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. for they always take fttha in the second syllable. x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place.^. The Noun. syllable. strictly speaking. Subst. & Adj. wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. J-JU or JliU. J***o or Jl©*o. — Nomina Loci. a . A. imperf. and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation . but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . imperf.

w^r# tifo x Ox are watered . ^^4*. imperf. O^i9 x x Rem. In regard to their contraction. frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . aJj-U a halting-place. as S/*&© cemetery. imperf. Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. E. Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j . . . the second rad. the edge. etc.g.. from ^j #0 bend. x . L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u.128 Part Second. 225. SbjJi* place for drinking. from . as i^k*** hunger. to \^y^ ^>t» t. tejjL* watering-place..*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form. imperf. a station. jai^) place of refuge. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. xO x (l£3~c ) the place do. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle. from ^j. ^j-> stops. imperf. «: B l£^* to fold. ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. business . where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop. *t> * pasture or graze. from xx x . iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. #o or wsort xx a place. as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. x Nouns «xx . imperf. ban- queting-room. imperf. : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. tJ^'—J. W <5 x x Rem. If derived from a strong verb. xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213).. . imperf. xx The . sits in the sunshine. UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape. Ox . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be. a desert. imperf. suppose. SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . o/* occupation.jJ» to think. 4£j-£*o the C. from £Ox . >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. imperf. « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold. x . i^j^ (^3^*) * O .

<So Adj. A.§227] II.«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!». to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco. 3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) .g. o x o B Rem.g. as Ji^A* or . ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« . with the nomina patientis or passive participles. ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise. **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox. S^Aa^o. .a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs. the The nouns verb. [or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action]. The same form is also used as a . The Noun.jA. 3 X X Rem. 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e. x x Og or evening (»<«). from jccj to 'promise. J ^^ a place C ^j— **. triliteral or from the are identical in form E. 3 et and 0x0 ^. ^5 — Op ©t. in preference to Sju»a»-o. O x as mesrdk = £j***. -f. Sjjio. A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x . ft-j*~* the place through which. Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. or x x 0* w^w. &c*Lo . of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral. me'rdb = w^Jt*. Nouns Subst. rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) . g ^a ^ . x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227.\ gathered together in a crowd). ft? 60 collected) . derived (see § 228). take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E. A^JJa^. JujJL* X X From ii// very rare./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . £~Xo.g. 17 . place. y^»~o *t#w of the foWA. \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) . g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . f& x . —Nomina Loci. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. from jJj to foar. 226. ^4 x QxOJ 2 . rad. 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«.

t from . xO XX r.0 to xxOjo. u°\r**. .- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. x x and <Uy»«. God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. j-oj. —Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. to file . the 228. When derived 6+ from verba med. in s*1*> . making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. . ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . a comb.oJL. 6x0 they remain uncontracted. a 6We?/0 or halter. j et xx x ^. mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J . are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t.130 Part Second. OxO 5x6 • * * > 0. . x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan. J. ' * 3^0. wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ.0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX». Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom. aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. Sl5^» (for £*$>*). . X XXX X . lancet. hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4. » 3 x J. Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on. nomina instrumenti.g. >3j*. St^x*. a staircase or ladder . D packing-needle . *-«**. Ox x and aJUa*.0 0x0 0x0 or snare. a key. XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet. J^aa and . a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*. 3>2U. a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****.>uu Oxx (for . a branding-iron or cautery. — 6*s*»<i*J .a. A a». . a cupping-glass. a jwwr 0/ scissors. w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ . a needle . jyU. [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered . e.» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI . a strainer .>mJU). xxx a t a ^0.Jt. They have the forms Jaa*. .aj juj 5x J '. B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument. JUa*. aL**«. from >jj. rad. . X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. xO #0 cut .»£xJ0x»x . E. and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced. a******.

a madman. A. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis. ^>5l^ being. Jmo^o. adjectives derived from verbs. a scribe or secretary. namely. ^Jl^ 9 J writing.Q. D ' ' ' j**{±> serving. Rem. verbal in C adjectives. letter. derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. a master.o. O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be . a. from^oj^. ^Aft to know. > %* =j. The form JjJU also used. JijJ^c 5 J J 9. The Noun. a to serve. Adj. * * Rem. When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive . 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U. 9 s The verbal adjectives. E. substantives. and the nomen patientis. to " ^jj^~c mad. iTTftb.§230] II. judging. • >5+y* found. have two principal forms. Rem. the nomen agentis. to be found. and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. existing. (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. * from w*l£> . ^Tfc. from^x»\ judge .. and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles. as in other languages. 6. from &*.a». mm*** = hA ^ . nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\. from^oj^ jbjj^e to served. to be mad. i. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — . + J from exist . e. j^\+. {J^c to touch). Jj juo = J> jco. Nouns Subst & Adj. is raato .g.. > Jyduo.e.j.g. as well as _. these real participles. .0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle. *o*> * . 5 J from *x». 9 ' J*l3. a judge. oi 229. indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. Dnpk&. w-Jfcj a. nomina patientis. 230. These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic.— Verbal 4/0J 9J J . a sword. B mats. A . in the syllable. Wo?e on.J*s (as to fear. a servant.». a censer. < * * to be possessed. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose . 131 9 J J Rem. from 9 * ^Jgr to write. Wl». *->y&* written. a sieve .

one's utmost .. j£\sX Ox .). < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' . x ft c. Imrdiness. being got or acquired . as te^Xa—*. O x [Comp. La^j a^>'.. # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa.> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227. knowledge. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being. being glad. C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen . ^>j»o = 3j.. or as an adjective. j^xm . j£s\». The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 . / came to /wm riding hard. 5 #x x B rejoicing. perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$. >tj^. %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic. as in the phrase W>15^$. endurance. . But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. and J>*o narrow. ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. Conversely. J ft E. is 3 . 4^iU^ aIo-^. l\jyt£*. as ili^la^o. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. j^>^. they have only the participial .] X bountiful. labour. J a x x * intelligence . 5/ J ft The Ox fern. a promise penury. ^jU*. e. rem. the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231.). .oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw. 6. expressing a continuous action. X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem. Sx x x SJJ easity (do. g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do.g. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. x J 3x ft swearing. or a x permanent quality Ox (see above). ^j\£z.g.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis. Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. jl^*. ^ opposed to jy»ju* . the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. 6e£?i<7 cowardly.) Jjju^. ^Jjla. Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? . Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal. Ox . GO JOj UU^ . opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>. an oath . generous.**. sturdiness. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *. =j-*»£. instead of x form I^jjm^. = Lct-btj.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^. ft Ox x J jco. X a XX scholar. 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined.or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence.. 5.. and tfAe telling of the truth. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . sense. however is 232. Rem. § ^^)J^>. cheery. O J ft x 00 x understanding.132 Part Second. ->Jftx£ E. =j*£>.. a hax Ox bitual state of being. proft J x ft J mising. rem. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. ^X J ft tJ. but also serve as adjectives or substantives. Sj 00 y J J J / x . distress . o^Jo^-o = back. ft p^j* = *ij.g. jul&» .

A. they are * B of God. held. confined or . c).j. viz. The Noun. 13. UUt aLa).— Verbal to lip). a water winch sinks into the ground.§ 232] II. Besides these. = J^U. and partly. eye to eye). ^Jb. JU5 JU3 J**i 2. =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) . Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. rem. a o for a). 232. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. J** 9. just men. 3. 7. made like. Sl^t. Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. Jcli is the Aram. a jwstf maw. Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. 7 . 16.j. 4. 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. the emir. J jcc . 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. 14. Nouns Subst. so \j~o aZX3. the Heb. A I met him face him in resist face (lit. & Adj. 231. J^i. Adj. 12. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. = UjU^. o^** Jjl5t 8. lip = ly$liLo . 11. JU. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. (lit. adjectives which are ticiples. that he could not or escape). Rem. Of these the following are the principal. = \jj~aa Jj^ J*». express. a just woman. j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. 1. or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. . I slew cold blood bound. =jj\e. ^oAo. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. Jjjtft jj£ £U. 4J3U. a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb. 5. J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. Jj*.

0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3. ^Ja». from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. ^m. . from . acute. ^ xj x vJ^* tender. (for ^>o-. J^b to 60 tender. ' J fromj^. j*U from proud. from ^A. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent.^ov* strong. X x 0^3 x j Jiij. sorry. 3 and xxxx©£ox . x . from Jx*a- . from o J^ ' -> * . j-**. c^rse. crushing. from t>~». j-**> x J x inexperienced. abundant. from ^ju. J^c. a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2. x J x . from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. J x J x from J**. from j*o . from x . from from j-wt »-ji. *. rugged. # 6 and 7. J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. i^h^. partly. from ^^x*. x degree of intensity. —and. is their signification (see § 38). 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> . *». sw<?0£. J J from yXc jA*. 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. J* . Jxjo. « ft fargg. from ^^a-j « . jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5. xx 5xJ O^** «^^. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». JAJ». clever. oJ X X remaining in one place. 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave. from . harsh. 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing. ma//. from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^. laA£. X J .»-3 m pain. 8. xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*. timid.J. ^>*^ rough. v»v^. ^j from » t^Jj. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed. B self-conceited and insolent. 5x Ja. having a swollen stomach. jtwr^. young. 5 Jj^. from **J. m* teto. clever. JJ^-. x J . liberal. from f 5x3 . Oxx . X XX abandon. betray./w^. from j**£ to forsake. S x xjx j*xS. yA« from vJ^-j easy. * from ^ov^. difficult.breaking. from xxx ^o-***-.» jJJ unclean. g^'c£. jl£ rough. from # * { ** t J*aj. m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» . x J x from 5 J JJj. hardy. bruising. § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. xx J^& . jx jj£. jJJ. J***-* J****. £*•** fr° om from 3U. Jo*g.134 Part Second. iaij XX G . from cfoW#. 5 x x x . from j£w x. . and jJau . w>*xc sweet.. 0*x x x . x x from (^:>j x oi».*. x x «5 wary. #M. polluted. from o^e- xx liberal. 10. 5 |a. 9-ji. J*** treacherous. . x L5^) X . Examples 6' : 1 . cautious. from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. [§ 232 A thing.j . P^-^ Jmw. S . —which x .. /<#. from J^-w . intelligent.) perishing. ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. x ^ x . untaught. j-«4>. JJ*a- >wt. 4. y> J J bitter. fidious. x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. from JJu* . X x J x awake.

«*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. 15. satisfied with food.>». . from £i£ . fifomjjJ x erf]. daring. xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#.w Jx9x ^jUJac. from JaJU compassionate. J-J^. XX j-a»-.t foolish.s&/£ (of water). J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. foul. from j>j£a & Adj.. from JiJ from JU» . J«o*j xJ x . LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows. . merciful. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0. J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing. from C^i x x . oWj* waW. J*aj tev#. stupid. from j-~». J x . XX0X .t squinting. A. bright. from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**. from Jju© Jj>3 to «i. ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14. w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3. Nouns Subst.. impotent. from <>~». .continent. niggardly. from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X . Ox Jty» /^r. W2£A a n xxJxOx . ignorant. . from (j^ oW>»» ashamed. glorious. thrusting or kicking violently. t from J^.» . [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x . Vmoc XX . »«J^kc j$~*a*. from x J x . .to 11. Olji A sweet (of water). from Jja.» . xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . x J x stingy. from JUa*. /•/> "* XXXX . slender. x J x x x from to Jfj». *>' . from 0^*^ repentant. Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak. s/c&.. xJxOx to//.. * I x x £ paltry... clumsy. ugly. from ^3* . hungry. O^-*^. «£^£ <jUlw •77. <J!>». t/o. from ^ji. ^iil having a long chin djii) .232] J II. from « h-i». from J^». to /ymgr.. from ^**S. Jn>*- . thirsty. from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. j^ct one-eyed. ^//.. w-o&fe. ^->i-». from cU. drunk. . i^il 6/ac&. « «»*. from ^oXw ogriT?. ^j*^ ?m^A. from affection or t mov^c? % j»%. . from uU . from Jib [jtj^5 O . open. J|>». . humpbacked. x . Jj*-' unskilful. *^aj^ W06/0. cheerful in countenance. stupid.^ot ^«/. . . coarse. j . ^\ yellow. straight nose. . dnwA. xx jj. 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0. 12. C JJ 3^*. J^Sj ma//.— Verbal Adj. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white. £ JxOx 0^>**> from *. handsome. from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous. » maft^. . r. from Jo. I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. from w>ju». j^^oJi 0^^> . Jjjlo veracious. J^»t . jl^-t ?W. x J The Noun. from x . " <7ras£. numerous. from Ja«j . burn. from px a^ fow^. from jJS^ x-> x . X X . . from J 13 . from ^o*^ m' . from J«*. *iwt unseemly. ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry. from ^w . from ^ J^t xxx . 16.> ^ talkative [or to speak]. foolish. Jj^.jl~».

j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. J**$. —^L^t. x from ^apr* or X Rem. j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. secure. especially jit**-). either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses. J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x . X «o/e.. = x . and Jjti. but more especially the latter. shown by the above examples. ^>ct *a/e. x or ^>*l.— Etymology Rem. J j*ij^ '. a prisoner. =^U. X ft X XX . it is originally a Hence.136 Part Second. and so also in substantives. ~D. according to the native scholars. OOOO s }m. = ^j^\ 5. [§ 232 x A and a. has usually J ft x . ^Jjji xJ x x . G. Rem. rem. as j-aw. is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. C a victim. 9 or the Parts of Speech. c. f-lj**' 6 x wounded . acid. j*j£=>. e. Latin nuntius. Ox o?. j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx . j->«->. got the signification of bearer of a message. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i. sowr. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas.» ft s .SU barren. J-jA». j x Jx sometimes from Jjii. ". ^tfuola.. As is . from ^^1 . and hence they are forms. from O^ifr . if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\.*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject. Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans.. or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. a) . Rem. . as j^j.»-jja»a .] .» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class . often indicate. trpmjJLa j.. transitive verbs.g. tJt*&j. sound. intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. w>^l». as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls.^L». as w>>&) ridden upon. f*+£> slaughtered. as shown by some of the above examples. the forms . milked*. or Jjti (see § 230. though the distinction J . jux»>. it meaning message.

a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller.U» « coo&. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. # < . a 2 x gardener.g. e. Other intensive H 3. J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton. x 0xx O x x example. cli^ pushing. 191 Rem. as well as from 5x others. repelling. cli. addicted wine.§233] II. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. s^+jjJZt.& baker. S3D. T T ' r. Nouns Subst. 2. J^JLo gwrcy astray. A. ^-jU fearing. it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>.i)b weeping. JU~» importunate. less j J 4. in the former. J^as. common than JUi. |loj. J***. 5 x »x3 x jU». violently. . • 1. . ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker. T • WJW. T9*. ijx adjectives.— Verbal Adj. 18 . jflt^j j*£~». a carpenter. the J noun of intensiveness. KOfi. some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti. J5L> asking. w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing. J 0t3j ^L%»a-. architect. . l\& weeping much. J>*b. Rem. and 5. WX wry learned. j^=> very forye. . J^ 5 x x . T 7 TDK. addicted to wine. as * J*. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl . learned. ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. etc. a tailor. in Hebrew and Aram. 137 Hem. i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. & Adj. D Ax 6. wry handsome. since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit. i3 Jjii. 2. . gULw a water-carrier.. a beggar. a. #* x C x v&^U. E. The Noun. Jj*i. cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings). 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si. k5/ - J x wJjj-w . = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking. j»\j£z very noble. JU3. 0*<i2x 6 ft x . w. Compare etc. « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar. thrusting. J*s. as £H)"| = w> j^. J*i. f1^6. ^^ knowing. • as ^H?| (6 for a). |Uj a builder or JU^. JjiS. «t. = w>jJ^ lying. fi J 113*3. s y^Ua*. as ^^=^3.j • . 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. jla»J . drunken. The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist. = J>^t P wot^ . x 233. as TBDK. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic.> l\j$ 1. a porter. xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. derived an adjective Jl*s.

>#&*. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly.. brave warrior.j*»j~>lft. J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious. X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^. all-glorious.v. . w^a^o. 5. and A^jUl*.>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful.g. § (nomina instrumenti. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. 6 «3 mean. 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal. ^aJxo.. 6x0 6 jtuU?. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand. swallowing big morsels. &UA3. ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly. very talkative. w^UJLj. is Similar. j*a*i wl g boastful. 3.k'go. J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. JUi-o. ^ » ^ffiV>\*.t. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U. given play or sport. but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. substantives Jjii^. T> . docile. XX 6x0 JJ>**. Jxj-b* very liberal. 6x06x0 ^l*^. w>UAj. u^tj^ fond of opposition. pitable. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj. . J^UJj fickle. imn</ perfumes. x male children. mendacious.^1-U.] . w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious. . 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. 6x0 jJ^o. w^$. B^Xsu very learned. or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%. G. ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually). J . 0x0 talkative. slothful. D. 228). x uJ e.138 Part Second. ' X D ji. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children. which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely. are.g. too. o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . 4. x timid. Jijji timid. strictly speaking. ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. 5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting. *»>j-o one often or violently. greedy.. and actionis. do. ^oUJJ. tractable. 6x0 thrusting with the spear.Ro. . daring. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£. mechanically. 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci.c. except J>jj-©) . flkn* very X Ak. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much. 6 turning. a wrestler . cunning. w>La*-o. poor (JSD&. Jj*. 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel). Jt^iL©. a —On yia. spy. w>UJ3. J knowing. eating much or giving to eat. eloquent. to ^SL^ — Jbuu.>LU stinking. deceitful." E. ^jjJi .

AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . 139 Rem. X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj. of intensiveness. from JUi.o prone to laughter. excellent. iLJLt. . to strengthen the aJlfrli. as <l$jj^. $' > or prostrating often. 4L05J abusive. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia».— Verbal Adj. <ul~J a great genealogist. as . no&£e. a^Ua. crafty. as 5. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller. ^i3^j) b crafty. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. *3j>*> timid. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * . as very timid . from o ij-oii. disgusted with. <L5lrk treacherous. <Ujti.ti Adj. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep. <L*£ finding fault . an emissary or missionary. H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. a </rea£ collector. Aft. greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs. For example. 2x AiJL^JJ. 0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo. 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . as 44-Ja. as . dijjls x x timid. 4JUiJ loquacious.>laJU very unjust. Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often. xx as /JW the grammarians say. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*. dj^A.mcA. <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5. ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?. . fl Ox 5 x slanderous. A. 2'* . bold in attacking. which // /il here used.§233] II. as io*^ very learned. ioliU lowing big morsels. faithless . ^U^li. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° . "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). begging. from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. aJj**. from JUaj. > 0/* comprehension. from Jj^li. Heb. breaking in pieces. or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. sillily. crushing ' bits. from J>«i. AtlSj ill-natured. *' '* Ziy* asking often. . <UAb j cb calling or summoning. &>**. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_.3G Aaib clever. The Noun. from ^j-jai. <Ltb Sj. from Jj**.Lo aw dJUi. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai. very contrarious . 9" 5^3 1*. dJbuU. idea jlj to signify intensiveness. S3 J axXjo always on the watch. dJyi loquacious. SjjJl£» lying. as dijji very or cautious. Nouns Subst. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^. £xa». as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. c. ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$.

ugliest . . and J**5. J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest. ^js-. WlTl. are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp. glorious. 98. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. as pHTl. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly. or with three letter of prolongation. much —Etymology to sportf. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence. f ft Kg. J-j^a. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense. 142). as f*W . d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above. aJUaj.\ more or mos£ glorious. Jytf. as <uUA5 morsels. 16 seq. 6. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. 7t3p = J**)- 234. these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article.140 Part Second. very mwA addicted to play or greedy. the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. spec. iTTO. J^. *])$$ ( =j-t&~>.] it is differently explained. jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. sw<?0£. as .>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. t . and are therefore J>»st. 1.». Rem. In the Lisan. Rem. as derived from anything bitter. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul. R. 1. or the Parts of Speech. according to 'Ibn Dureid. from JUaj. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. the colocynth.. as *fjaa = jui. joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»). * j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. 53. but with a in the first syllable (jjd). &. S. however (xii. WO (coming nearest to J*jj3).great. the noun of preeminence. Kitab U-istikak. others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. for the purer vowel example. ITs^ = Aram. or else be in the construct state. [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) .

141 Rem. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. Nouns Subst b. b). none in Aramaic. <Sc Adj. however.t it more beautiful. perennial. JJVX lasting. (for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. A. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage.>**». < s o s J si- like stones. i i- i especially from IV./zerce. ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder. perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces. Of this Hebrew. \j^c eye. (lit. —As stronger as to hardness). better. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). II. according to strict rule. after that. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235.g. nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj . \.— Verbal Adj. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb. original signification. or even harder ii. and the like. where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact. ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can. of j^o to be clean or pure . false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer). ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK . we ought to prefix to the corre& .) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. ' J si j£> worse. E. be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb. J { ^**o\ . your hearts became hard. The Noun. from cro*e£. 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent. j*£.i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. * * j/ tc tj~»». Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering. or giving better a answer than he . s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify. rem.§ 235] II.

>U3t. from j * or the Parts of Speech. of ^aj to remain.bz wAa to fear . from ' wi^. than. IV. . of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. of x © P m . noble. jsbZ .to live grtiw s^acfe. s-*«At.\ ' causing me greater alarm about. of $±. 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better. IV. of j*^-** to be safe. IV. from^-Lw. Maw. . of >13 to &a<#. b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. ^>»»'. or ' Z <*JUJ. from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert. more. J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. from . ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. respect. IV. from i^a-cul to be just. JU. IV. of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. to 5 . of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . II. or loosens. of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV. middle. n C 6i /.*"„' IV. of to help. r^acA the j . ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?.j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to. IV. ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\. D showing greater honour O to. J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw. . . IV. Jib to fo xx IV. VII. bZ to ' x bZ xOg . . to clarify or clear. # IV. from «-*»-).t causing to be better. sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better. stand xx „ x*£ upright . of C*o . x£ or IV. excellent . be firm. IV.^*$±. x II. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than. j^6 JJit giving more shade than. from ^^Jit * x jwor. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. of wJbi relaxes. of ^©13 *ot t to . from C-*Sl. II. of ^J* . of JJ» . 'bZ away .— Etymology clearer or purer.142 Part Second. J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. : or more docile. * from £l»»t. £ bestowing more liberally. ^s. . last x x p x x x ftp . to 60 good. IV. x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. of t*-**. fow^. quickly. . from^UH. from ^J^l IV. from ^Ut IV. xx j x bZ to fear . from JU*t. of ^j J ^oj^l . J ^*^t giving more freely. to 60 crafty. x . x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better. bZ or flabby . x x p x J >>». of . x IV. IV. . * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. from JU»-I. from ^^t ^^. . from ^©j^l. -. VIII. of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . of >l».

o ^^t ^t. ^>o %y*\ blacker than .). O : (^^ * Of- or VIII. ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) . j *oi pied . literal verb. A. Nouns Subst. j more glad of or pleased by. &ztee? or hateful . J^jl more readily found . j . j>^\ more deserving of blame . j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused. are and from the quadri- the following.ot j * l. J \*$j£>\ better A . more praiseworthy or commendable .§236] II. waor^ occupied with pass. The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb. of VIII. s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. o i .— Verbal Adj. B 236. s . oi 1 wor^ i .^ Adj. . The Noun. j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j . JjL£>I more occu.i j-wt # known . *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than . CJU .

preceded by and w.CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . j3yc for jfc (§ 131). ^0. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^. "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed . fjfcgOTD* to . . in ' Heb. (see § 13.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. rem. I JjC for JtU G (§ 133). 239. (manafek) tremble. " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q. J«>a* etc. j&\ JJ-cn.^) 5.£j for^. Rem. heretic (J3U»o) . I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem. b. CTO C0. >>t>o for j. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t.144 Part Second. ma. a 's.. Final hemza. the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed. b. in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L. rad. [§ 237 A quadriliteral. 6. admits of assimilaSee § tion. a. as S**rt = S^pHD.P". geminatse. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed.^. o o j . as j~>y* for . and Aram. *3J** 17 > &> rem.(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ. ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. sceptic.jtU # » <J (§ 133). p G s- s G e- * D Rem.g.) . >^U becomes >U 238. j * be- 237.^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH. jj^wt. 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135). rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad.

instead of JjlS.^LJI (^5^^. x A ^ with hemza (arising. * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw. Nouns Subst. j. according to »- out of I). Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU. [A poet even allows himself Zeid. from »J>3^&**. as ». for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. for ^51U*. bristling with weapons .] 19 .j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). 26 infra. &j. the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . for <}"'<>' a51a . for J^y. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£. k. rad. In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c. *. ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). 145 240. cowardly. j->l~». usually changed into Jx J . to say UjU UpL. clb obedient. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^. first 241. j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. JuU?. & Adj. G. for oiMJs is ijib clayey. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160. in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU. £~-«. throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c. x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. as instead of e>~». after letter . Rem. Naw&dir. which retain their middle radical unchanged. D. Js^o^y. wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . for <J>j^a»-o. water-hearted. for 9 »xx Ox . stupid . and. as cby. % a. 9 * . place in verba mediae rad. »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. 5. the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided. as JbLS (for JH-3). rad. j\& feeble. Abu w. The same thing takes this difference.§241] II The Noun. Rem. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133.— Verbal Adj. as^jU. for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ . J X Rem. from 9>x+a. Jj>*>>v©j>>. t ^x x . in consequence. forjjlfc. with the ^) damma is changed into kesra. The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb.

01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*. for *•**«. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. become by transposition Jju*. 2/ captive. [ J^ dependent for sustenance. Rem. contemptible (^jj^b). ^£j~t generous. The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile. managing. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare. 6&ae?. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . noble. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. etc. of verba med. In 3 et . JI^^Co.g. £)£iJ*c. e. as / ££**•«. g. / ultima? rad. of III.146 Part Second. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^£. 6 «-/ J e. § 170). tall.). C and ^^3 243. j+j.g. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. 6 »"" J ^->U«. Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***. Rem. ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. for oW. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. vo^s-o. / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight. JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. 245. and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . From verba med. which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . exceeding (±*jy). for O^**. p. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti. rad. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. ^LZo. in that of having charge of. 6 / 242. ** b^+a***. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. E. ^j. O^jJ-o. an enemy. 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy. Ixo^o. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o. ^w ^. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o. right. for 33^. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI. D 244.

4ul*». from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ .— Norn. a. 4). <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. G. v&U&J t. from ^Jki *L*3 a straw. They are formed. j^jt b. a. a nugget. * .* (jkwt). & Adj. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice. This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari. j^jXa-t for ^X*. S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake.] . or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts. or nouns of individuality. 417. the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. with the O< *< article. Comp. i. from v»W». .0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. If the form be one that admits of complete declension. Noam Sabst. to created things or natural objects. Unit. vicis (§ 219). from ^>*j straw*. head of cattle {bull or cow). The Denominative Nouns. 2ub$ a bit of gold. 173. designate one individual out of a genus. Fragm. is almost entirely restricted. and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E. Rem. B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. (>o. 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha. /'a^. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. !£+* a Mubarrad etc. rem. the genus or whole. as the above examples show. /?. The use of the nom. § 167.t).! (jJUU). ^j&t Compare j^&t. 129. the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of. the or tenwin. The Noun. from j^j efotes . Add.§246] if is II. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. ^^jlc for J .pigeons. ii. and b. for adjectives of the form J*»t. Gloss. 331. from Sxx G* * { duck . unit. 323. Sj+j a fruit. D. fc+ji a portion of cheese. SlLolj an onion. from jJb cattle. b).0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^. J s for ^kig. g. A+jL a ) portion of meat. a.^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. 0/ a date. 1. a pigeon {male or female). the Individual. A.

The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling. Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities. consequently. From quadriliterals this formation . Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning . Rem. SUA*. as dX^^c <U .). Oxx x «" abundantly. Sometimes the ..g. —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech. with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. used in this sense. Ox OP J ^jowo. Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. E. scorpions 6. a. >. SjurU. (a pfoce) ^joj\ . aJbuwo. (w^ift). i B 247. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). scorpions. fern. Rem. 6. boats. or nouns of abundance. *. black beetles (Jju*. 2uJut a ship or boat.. 4-U^-«.»». designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed. a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). c. Ajjijto. are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis.a. r» 4a*Jsu*. iJj3^ . Also from XII. cucumbers (ILLS). a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221). (a place) abounding in foxes.148 Part Second. jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»). is rare. ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks . Similar forms in Heb. [§ 247 e. *JtJ*c. I They have the form x £ SlxLo. SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers.o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***). 7^^). /iares.g. 3JU1». and are. 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick. O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). 5U£*. Oft ax*. Ox > . as JJuu^ x x x . rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem. a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare. SLa^o or 3t^&**. from ^iw X shipping. chamaileons x x J (^bj^)..o jjyt children are a cause . a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t). The SjJLxJt iU-^t.

ft rem.a». O**-* ct milk-pail. £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . £. .«. or w~jX».g. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%.>. as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar.* j**. 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc. ' from ^ajS the earth. or a brick-mould. or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived.e. have the same form as the Oxft 228). " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. disease.* * <. dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. etc. joy or happiness. el- v5^» aerial. The Noun. The nomina (§ vasis. <i E. ^3^1 jJJ 3. it sect.J.).g. The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t. — Rel.). » + + from .-o a milk-pail.*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance . ' trade. q/* ^ooc? health. family. Nouns Sabst. from d-U a brick. to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o.». t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly. evil or ill-feeling . Adjectives. from JjlJJ saliva. J 0* J J 9 . #/^ a/r. 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». Adjectives.k. rt.. * * from ^-^w descended sun. aSj^o a spittoon. A.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything. A & came ^J-a*. from w-A». ft . from ^Aj otf.mtfl . e.*. like. »U>)I 0^0 il^t. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth. >©U~JJ •itto a j . $ .6. . &. .• a)>*-o a urinal. (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives.. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. • *>. from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&. sfy. 249.& Adj. i. 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM . . the Vessel which 248. (relationes). from Sjj! a needle. from Rem.iT>).§ 249] II. the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o).. belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin. ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228. j*£o a needle-case.

" ^ [However. the law . The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective. a. This termination common in Heb. G.b* . «S '4* tives Rem. from^Xfr knowledge. jj^"*». ^1 from <j\ truly. as : 9° 'ay. ij>*»* from j*±. legitimate. scientific. science. . tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . \_ •' % f. & a from j«aa Egypt . PvJ.. the language of the schools. In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives. ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?). . in such words as . I is ^7X1^ L Israelite. but in more modern Arabic. wjuj^JjId eastern. from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. . f as Egyptian. *_. from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*. or 0^<? o/". Rem.. as ch<5. and even from Rem.(medrawl) terrestrial.t. L5^^° belonging to. according (^y). —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to.j\±.] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). as iEthiopic. (kJjfi).*!^. in general use The . compassionate. also from the other kinds of nouns. ft^^: i . whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations. ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw). perceptible by one of the senses . YlC.: (harrasl) a ploughman. viz. *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. usual £HPl) and **Urh£:. Aram. B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. according to some. [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. 1*]^$ Hebrew.|"l.150 Part Second. ^^ o/*. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives. a corroborative or D. 3/0*5/5/* ^c*. c. has the *T>ffi last of these forms. J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . express " b. H*— and JV— ). .«**»• relating . ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). gwc? . ^jwt. (m. ^*£> cj£ intellectual. and especially in particles (see § 191).tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian. ^3 * strange.

Jj & * * . ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. ^J&. like ojs-. a. G. if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from . (&) S^-* But the name of two months. be a weak radical. J ^ . measure. the higher classes. the nouns ending in ^— fern. [^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or . [and j^^-w from 4-w D.-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians. and 2UUJI £/^ common people. have lost their first Q Rem. as ^£)W»- « bustard. Nouns Subst.Basra. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. of this form.JxL« Malatya. ^gste vulgar. 252. however. j^ycw*. letter. 3>£» a window. foil. ZSU Mekka. ^U»». to the final radicals ^ and ^. are rejected . D. and to the vocalisation. J sul £ .*£j).— Rel. Sj-oJI s * el. &j weight. tjs. A. 1.a promise. J s £ ^^>'. and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr. besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. j^jXJ* . 3u—. (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. Adjectives. [fa J LM direction party of All.]. <J>oj ulul . In forming the nomina relativa. aiyjt el-Kufa. I.] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. . the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants. ^5-w. ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa. ^-^^- refined. only a single instance has been mentioned in the T. to which the Muslim turns in praying. G. 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w . ^^ .). as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and . 251. j ^). (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. L5*U. the vulgar .§252] It The Noun. In the case of nouns which.ti Adj. A.] . 151 250.

the into 5 ^ may either be <** . D 3 •»* as ^4%*-. 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. a vulgarism.. or *0J j changed . «// Os* . or a bug or tick. world. the two cases are to be distinguished. If the second letter is is without a vowel. —Etymology . admissible. a ^j£* .- (2ljj**)\) Spain . or the Parts of Speech. e. *L-. x * j ^i^t & /3. belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. ^L^ or ^j-U*. rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). pregnant.. - or ^iU 1. 3 Similarly. stout camel. * J to \J$U. j^^b ^Sb. it may . (a) [§ 253 A ^. /sj . o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. ^lbj. and 2 *oi ' 6.Sb. as 3 *L». j.3 2. and ^£>j->. \j-lj* 3 relationship. The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . (^>»j'. Baradd. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " . from substantives like bullrush. which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word. \^>j*>.g. the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. ^5***. belonging 3 * MekM. 3 . ij>>©j*-.* - In 3 b. If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. 3 o . & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable). elif if it is e. ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 . one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI). the bean. or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath.**. The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . viz. ^Sb or ^y. £by> to assimilate 3 . as . (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. ^sj+*. name of a river. s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0. 2*0** big. (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^. 3 a 0* seat. 0/ and ^j* 254. ^5***-. ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1). But if it to »J .5) as ^j£sj+&. but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i. ^>iU Rem.152 Pakt Second. L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. Gufi (^J&c. the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. of relative adjectives fall 253.

g. 3 QjJ-^ twenty. . ^V^. (^jj-». « '0 name of Zeid. 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w. ^J^UX**. A. for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie. Nouns Subst. *&*» of the o ^ . <fc. 153 nation . '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j . j Rem. in their formations 3 ' e. . B Rem. the Muslims.Jtf!. We may. 3 o . are rejected ' ' * <v . o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais.§254] II. ^j^a. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' . > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem. as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln.»>. Foreign names of towns. JO' 3 0' . ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'. 0?. Adjectives. The Noun. ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. ) . instead of \^£y3 or . use ^j^j^. D ^jLx^. are very irregular Some proper names.l. J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ. A . j '3 ^^j-^ / * . 3' ^j-^3. / j j«/ Fcftriin. j 3 '' . plur. L^J Ji >-^ ***><. however. in the latter it j >. from f A 0'* ^jjX*.jU^aJt 3 ' ' .jjj^~. O'O'O' . ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj .. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc. 6. to two. ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«. In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. ' jjO' j^xj.>. ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' . but ^j~U3. a. J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->. u'' bjb. c. t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . Ji'' i . j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . as — Rel. ^^^Jaudl.jl_. Oli^ 'Arafat. instead of 3 ' .j^a*-JI. 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it. 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl .3 Kinnesrin. O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias. O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic.& Adj. as . 5^ i_ . £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). i-xpcti. C)3*H) Zeidun. ^jit. of aJU a hundred. from *' '->? . the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. l^jJ^Jj. Rem. ending in ^-j— sometimes . J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ. 20 . Nisibis. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*.

But.. instead of ^^lyJ. . ^a*a». ^>i*« and . SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes).a piece of iron. gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x . reality. xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . A^lyj. (a man). ***y»*.*luJt). fern. ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p. 3 Sju jc». X rejected. 1 fern. ii. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . 3 or ^ as ^J^. i' 0xJ . art. D. from ^ul^J. if they come from verba mediae rad. Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina. L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the . ^^^-v*-.^(^i\). X XX -t> are also used. geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^). from S^ii». " x « X&X J 255. ^>o-Jt el-Yemen. and ^U*! likewise s Comp. § island. G. D.. 5 tool. as 5 SxOx . x x xOxdxJ . Comp. the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . . ^5-^5 (men).1^). 3 vel ^£. or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes).] art.154 Part Second. ^*ej*. as <ULa*. l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. . is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc. ^3-^. the words jJUj. «*Jtu. The forms ^^V>. ^y^. Otherwise 5 remains <" > . 3 (a town). as in ^tw 1. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ . and j „o. and XX <* ^-^. [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 . 2 5 ul <LjI*j. ^5*^. Faik of the i. which occur. 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute.-jl^Jt). also Mufassal 90. **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). ^yot from £*>ii&. ^<^U». The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. 7 and Slbaweih 66. e. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). Tiliama .*3t©. § 319. O^J 5 ul (with the art. t^JWj J**£. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria. cb> and ~-L£ (=^^. O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech. S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -. ^5*^. A**U>. G. they < remain unchanged. # unchanged. fern.] . Ox . when is not derived from verba mediae rad.

so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis.~J. . Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**. JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina). Adjectives. The Noun. Many. <&JJ*6 a city. § 242) its from radicals j et ^. g makes ^£yo. . < There are. jtnX^. ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?. or in other words follow the shorter form J-J . A Ufr»l» nature. ^^is ^Llc. But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. ^^o-U. —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin. however. <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . verba Lastly. Words of the form J*j (for J**s. 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. Nouns Svbsb. »x J an ass. a.-auJa . 3 (a place) *J . belonging . exceptions to these { E. £)>»». is rejected. mediae 6. «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256.' . of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown. The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected.g. . of j^wt. ^ju~» . — ^t^^j a prophet. Jj M. g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn. it Rem. of jl*»-. ^A**> *.**J». ^jjj**. uSyej*. W«s&. ^j-j^ft. from i*J~>.' ^JUk. *$js-. A. a female enemy. . ^j*j-*. j^o-*-. wlx 9 s Rem. the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). Ji*>jS. ^Ju (tribes). reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra.& Adj. as ju~> a lord or master.-o-Jlw. 257. form ^jJ^ from both j**c and . 155 rules. But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^.. ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^. Uu*3 ^j&fc.§257] II. [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin.Mesopotamian) . and the second 9 5 J + vt . and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . jJ^a^a. — Rel. ^3*^. from the assimilated form . however.

changed into . the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . \J$$*-j to* a staff. But if the noun has four letters. b. if it be changed into 3. w x x ox x or d-J l». or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. Sld^e a ladder. j«yJ-« play. and also. as . x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind. 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge. {Jy* J a district in Palestine.> IL does not writing-case. or 258. SxOOxx SUl». ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. The Uif maksura is (t ^. as ^aJa^o chosen. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn. ^3J^5. is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**). b).156 Part Second. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. 3 x x Hama Sxx . <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. a musical instrument. ^^-oc . which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167. j before adding the termination .g.0} letters. either be changed B into ^. a. as the third radical of a triliteral noun. 2 6. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. a § 7. ^J^3 « mo^. ^(I .3. rem. noun contains five or ^ -» more 1. . but must be borne ^ becomes fetha. ^£Jux*. S X J and ^ako. x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. [§ 258 II. Jju. . \jys*£i. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). (H^Pl).X£»o. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. are modern and corrupt. always rejected. ^J^j-c vintner. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). ^j. P affect the rule of formation.^ for ^tu^uo. the (^ ^^ju is ^y**. Rem. e£>**. /?). ^jj-^ .-lx£«*^. ^^Jl^. X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop. *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful. Jxx Slo^. ^^AJxcuo. ^ . E. —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^. as ^j£ a youth.

Nouns Subst.1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother. the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I. is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23. it appears as ^. ^tp. ?^3b £& focm. w>' (for y>\. as tyy**. ^jy\ (for ^i. £3. ^ji-A. -» j^jUU. ^b. ±$y++> . it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. rem. whether it was originally . names. ti*~> the heaven. (a town in Persia).— Rel... *tjjj*is ^3-U. A. a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place). is § 252. ^ '.1. ^ or not. jjgjW* * . the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective. either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb.. "-•» .. The Noun. <l~£» a robe. 3 - . ~.i. 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . i. Ol*^') £. dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother. . On the contrary.* Zachariah.. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. *byJ a tribe). may .e. —as w>t. Adjectives. 260. in the * ^jl^w. »" > . their third Primitive defective substantives. *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » . axJ. J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW. du. i^y^Sb. IjJ). & Adj. ^jbj^-. 157 259. But ** in the termination 1 1— . — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural. those which have lost D weak radical. i^jbj^j.. £bj£>j " ^jUu .. ^jUUi . The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper . whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^. j . etc. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored.g. 2b/». ^^b. ^y^U. a). reappearance be not necessary. a).^ £fa 6/a^ beetle. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d. or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. . C Rem. a garment. ^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). 2. if ^yb/*-. as l\jjs> a virgin. ^yb^. a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon. A always changed into j. * . ^S^jJ^-'. J^Stf.^». memduda. »-t. E. 5-*' (places).§260] II. 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza .

[§ 261 A a*j (rad. *3~>. >w) a 00 year. fetha. ^y** 2 £*t (rad. 9x0 . ^^iw. — x 4&2>. ^J Me . 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. ^^3 #* . (rad. D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3.* ^m. x . ^3^. 00 « ^yL* j^. a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU.or ^ay*. 3 -£ C-Uj. O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . a 3 So ^j^U.jj| (for v) ^J. >*~>) a name. from ajji. j^^o. has the three forms 3- v». {£*2>j. a a gazelle. 3 du. £3 (rad. xx . Cukl. t^U) a hundred.— SU Rem. ^£^j Soj 3^ But . ^ot) a female slaw. the second radical takes i^^**.158 Part Second. x vw(w. ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* . ^$y^> a grammarian .. J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . . o £ 00 sister. ^Ao 8. a SO r-xOJ . this ^ resolved into its original consonants. some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm. y£}£ . ^>w 3 . Rem.>. x 261. 4j>* a village. ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. combining with tho third radical into ^. CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti. makes ^£^.4 . 3 has t^jU.). {$5)* 5 ' °£ . L5^» or du. and 2u£ a possession. handle. the final second radical takes fetha.S 3 3 lip. as 1^3/*. xx .) ^ 3-o . ^3-0.^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»). . or the Parts of Speech. as {£$j£. as ^jjo. (rad. ' ^3a£. a daughter. ^3^. 0x0^ j £<wo an image. as {J* (for l$£>) a fold. L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. ^yj\ OJ . . ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. § A . >i)) J dialect. (from . xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*. Ox as 3**J x grammar. <0) ox podex. U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow. 5 * . °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3. ^£>0. The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox . 3 . a —Etymology ^$*) O x* .! and ^£y^. bribe. x J oW) x go a «w. 2 x . and ^ is converted into living. ^ (for \£Jo. Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©. l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£. ^j£ ct. or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad.. 6. ^U ox 3 3 and ^U».

verba 6. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. —"Words . changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. a x o^-ait. ^SULw. ^^U jufb /twr. a desert. 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. twist or turn. etc. «x x . {Jj3&. Changes in the Vocalisation. but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza. irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. — In words of the form A <UUi. — Rel. {£3+* <H>^ a town). from tertise rad. « s . a. x 5 ftfo 2> x x . makes desert. oo* ^ju. From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL. 3 x x Rem. ^jx But in Jjti. (JV>I). the kesra may be retained. as well as . . as J-»l camels. i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . and ^jj£j are admissible. t/j «/«/j aJlaii. 159 . In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered. etc. . et ^£. of the forms J-ati. make m ^jI. the is Rem. ^Uic. as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. C III. See §§ 255-6. *j\j a banner. ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. though very incorrectly. Nouns ^ . Rem. though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . rest at night. 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. is j Ox Ox . So also in & * t 3 J*j. final ^ retained. ^J^**-. i . . or j^jt.dk Adj. as S^ULw misery. ^jj\ or ^^J. ^jlii .*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. \^^ is **» # snake. s x x . of D more than three consonants. ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . Nouns Subst. A. J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*. ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. The Noun. and.. j j-o-JI (tribes). etc. ^£j+j £-» . the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x . 262. as J5oJt (a tribe). ^51. (the ancient . Adjectives. J^ai..§262] - II. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle.

(see the preceding ^>i£ Rem.from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. daughter. ox jg it is ox . two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. ' ^M*^. \^£j^> from ««' . — then is in the second word 3 ct. Of rare and arbitrary changes. a man's name. such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a.»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\. \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm.* lOUwt w. or in . or CUj . VJyiS. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio.160 Part Second. dj-aJI. 2c second in the genitive. as zjj>j^j\. •**£. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©. a grammar can take no account.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech. If the first word the status constructus. B J*± time. . two secondary cases arise. . the warrior). xx x and . ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four. damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday. the following points must be attended to. 2 —A. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§).. termination 3 - ^— appended to the first . ^>ol . —B. and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. 264.jt\ mother. 3 ^\ 3 son.^p). is [§263 changed A 263. status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. Archibald Bell-the-cat. —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas. governing the arise. 3 rejected. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words. omitted. as ^*-j&.

. 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein. from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. B x0/« *" .— Rel. xxOx ^jO** x x . attached to the vt ^— wl is first word. j — the But first word is rejected.g.>tj. then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. u^IU|tf>. J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. from both parts of the word 3 e. ^^j^U^U. /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj. as ^^^.-Jl^C^o. Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . ^^^ 3 • « . x x as ^JJ^j-^^j. from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj . j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ. . - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. \ . nickname of a man). belong such words as . iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. 2> * " 0' . ij5& jUoJt ^oUau. b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ. and A 'I the second takes is ^— . nisba from the whole this license compound word. J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. To this stage of the language. from j^o. allow a J J Q J x x double formation.<£>t^. is £ omitted s . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X . is i«/ \£tS}[ '. x. 0>^' ji ( a 21 . A. \JIS±J CH**M ^jK. l£*'> Guadix in Spain. ^-^iJt »*t. L5^*5. j0/<» . and the second XX . ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^. as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted. ^tki aXlt j^c. Nouns Subst. and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI.. 3 o . Adjectives.«J>o from w. (from the assimilated form 3^w). with the s . . some . (CameVs-nose. J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' .& Adj. (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker.§264] II. For example from \y* C-wO. . from 3 JyUJI jJ3. The Noun. In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o.x from oJa&t jb.^tf. ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw. ^$j*~> *^£jt J . too. hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing. Oi x x S x J Rem. <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B. ^J^ .

from jt^^i plur. the singular. from Ju»yl 'abuged. bs j / ot»/ ij. manuletter. ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ . it. [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. the (§ 32). ^hj^I. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. ^j. ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 . —Etymology <^£)U^j c. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . 265.jj-a^Jt. abecedaire). even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. 3 - and U-Hazrag.. ~ ' s Such plurals. 3 s s « efo^). 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet. or approximate to them in sense. in classical Arabic. plur. o . fib " .. e. - D e. ^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. Ctesiphon. ^%^> name 3 . or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o .g.g. 5. from dU*a».)] . 2. jU»Jt (plur. ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s . jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. (a . are excepted * t 3 *bi . properly the plur. 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats. also a learner or student. 3 . s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i. the of a poet. as are either . four letters of the alphabet Rem.. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' . In many cases falling under B. of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. i-ijjuo). plur. bib. at el-Medina). script. 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa. Ojlfr* (a tribe). Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o. however.162 Part Second. Z jo E. the desert.. footn. (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur.ojcirw from O^o^-a*. iJ?jiU*. o^!/* . strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants. from the plural. ^^JIjl^ °S . ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras. Hadramaut . really proper s o£ names. . Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt.o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus. LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe). a and /?.ain . the tribe of Kilab.-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji.g. or the Parts of Speech.o a written a a book. 6. A relative adjective is never formed. > b . [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * .

g. etc.-butj^. if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. A. J^UJl (plur. G. (plur. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. j-ateJtjrffc. if be a strong letter. J^-Lu X sieves. forms in Syriac. of Jji»*U) sieves.'^t # the confederate tribes.) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c.Aj|. 3 x OUL x x x (plur. . ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. 3 x X . of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. of JxoJ) rugs. of wounds. — Rel. 3«" not.) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s. [o^a. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition . of j**au*.] In more modern Arabic. a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature . In the case of $.UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc. 5 x 163 | j* io. of |2. ^-5t/»» of (pi. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles. Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. ^%e*\. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles. are I I belonging women. Oxx X ^. as ^jV- In the case of ^£. o & Adj. ^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to. ^j. the simple doubling is permitted. Olio God 3 > (pi. j*om* (plur. orae w/io makes or seZfo them .Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur. as ^^* that. . E. a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. studies. the opinions of grammarians o< differ. /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur. adjectives «• * oi. this latter form x alone admissible.^t*. j->jty> x (plur. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. attributes. Adjectives. . Nouns Subst.§ 266] * Oi II. ^jUjt. of early date. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St. on the contrary. as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . &Lo) qualities. from • V plur. the second ^ being changed into j . a woman. Persian colonists in Yemen. & surgeon. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade. ^ — Similar . {£&£* ^ in. 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J . plur. at pleasure. # £ ^l/^l. The Noun. D. x x mats. of 9 x 266.J^.) mats. JsuI^a. of ikuj^.

i^W^i ^ -» corpulent. #cAr. but . appearance. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja.*. JK. 232) that the termination ^L. reckless. letter be a quiescent 2 Slif.).» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J). We . <jla^aJI corpulent. 1). 245. ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood.having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck). perhaps.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking.] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed. j^S^SU or . ^yly^li a fruiterer. 267. s^/s foarcs.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 .jUao J-l or ^j\2suo. D. haired. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. . aspect. ^^ or ^^. sordid. G.» J straight-haired. oo 2 large in the body (J*-*. 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C .jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given.(. ^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x . ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. large head of hair (**»). G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. ju£»U) Z*~»d\.— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech. jJLo—^w 2^0 e.JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^). as the grammarians say. e. to strengthen the relation. ^^SU 0^0 . Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-. vociferous . strong. which may be changed * 3 . 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c. robust. I e • ^U^*. both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter. n. instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU. there [§ 267 A ^3-^. is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza. . [. Ox q[*SXo vile.g. mendacious. under the influence 5 * . ^i^koj. or . t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU. ox xx ^U*. 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w). <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a. . have seen above (§§ 231. Fleischer.g.-y^U. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring. from jisu*.Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . as *j not.164 Part Second. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J . 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded.). 2 x x of the Aramaic) . G ' .

and to English ones in head. ^j^jy relating to light. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite. It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t. J v> ty.j is ^JUi as a ^. S (flSH). to the soul. J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS . 8 . is arms. i^te'. a substantive. Nouns. <Lu^Jt Lordship. ^j^JLSU.». Rem. 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality. .j manhood. ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). dom. I s+ . B 5 *J large head . S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood. corresponds * a i o* thum. schaft. . 2l*J>1^*$\ D. and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality. G. (U wlwt ?) . 9 aJLoj. as distinguished from the concrete thing itself. . the school of . i**'oi.-fcUw. 9 vt 4-*o~»t. \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower . A-JbU substance. 165 outward.g. 5©5fi. i (til nO?). private. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . . ^JU-jj spiritual (. xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic .] the divine nature. ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose. keit. and oL^j... or Z~&yA±. etc. * Oi from j*-~»\. the mind or temperament. A. particularity] substantivity. upper. *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. Nouns Subst.. ^'^ wr. £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\.» external. 268. - The Noun. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) . ^jlju-*. aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective . corporeal. 2 * 4J3*. [^uoj-oi.§268] 3 - II.wljj having So. 0* D adjectivity. ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness. j\ * E. quiddity totality . ears. interior. & Adj.—Abstr. as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing. and ^«. A 3 form and applicable ex. . public.

9.. See however § 283. is Rem. the servile letters are generally taken into account. the very .001_£\). xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a . du^y^S Judaism. as J*?. JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue.» a mosque. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J . [These nouns are. as Oj. . fall Rem. a. 5 -2 8. . 6. < « &'#. the Christian religion.j a man. Jxjjl (for j^ujt). a. triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). In forming a diminutive. When .»w (a man's name). S ^^t. the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow. j&d)* 5 ^a». x J . ' x 1 x <fo<7.:xo. haughtiness. etc. 9 x . jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM. not usual to back upon the root-consonants. t . not merely in its literal sense.wi. and j Sal-o. . The diminutive.>.] B 269. j***. »/J . dirham. omnipotence..>* J©. Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. 'J. [§ 269 A the Hanefites.xxOxi best. JJj jlo a special friend). in Arabic. j*Ju*aC ^ hey. (|Z.> .-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^). the noun 9 quinqueliteral..— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.Q-mS\). oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth. In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed .. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ.166 Part Second. 5x0 *-Ui-c a. 9 . a severe it is trial]. 9 J Rem. but 5 J J »/J . Jk. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp . j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive.a*n) divinity. scorpion. j^o-c is . J****.! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree. takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- . . J***. pride. The diminutive used. is jia» *. humanity (\l. S Ox J . J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. when formed from a xj c * . On the contrary.lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt...o. ^ J . 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom. as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune. of the masculine gender. * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\.

. they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. nffSff T . from Jt>£). 4 if' example. for c^u. and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. (2) from certain prepositions. as J*a5 a after. : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. : cerastes. ^. d. a 2/o^A ' C*J^. . On the other hand. /i«fe. as O x J ^J-j-o^. which x Ox J are. xx OOxJ «£~wJt». f). of which the fourth five. the J diminutive of <U5. A. and (3) little above. Nouns Subst. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four. . (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. a basket. little before. like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa. biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem. <Uua5. The Noun. an d HS^D. 270. strong. as C**«j.— Diminutives.1. a con B temptuous diminutive. The first & Adj. syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. Ox > ^w. where. like J/'**. a sort of snake («Ju*>). .. Yjfl . c. obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative. a little nearer than. If so. ^Z^^> a bay horse. P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N. as well as jj£jJl . is When the noun contains Jive letters. siH3> a little below. rem. ?^*£. from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184.J-ai5 is 167 Rem.§ 270] II. when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . an(* w--wJ. from^U). or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX. a kind of small bird. e. juju a little J>j>J a etc.. is sounded A^/|/e or gfife. Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). ^ may perhaps consider as such. the . however.. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem. a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. the *_). In Hebrew we (j*juo).

6. these are .3 6. a nightingale.0.3 . tive. 6. more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained.3 . indicates the participial form. o o . 6. ma. [§270 0. however. rejected. t tr r J 0. 0.0 . j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O.63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. 3 6e. . J ^^ .3 >j->j*. exceed the form Jju*5 O'„.. or more letters. as <\ . Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider. a sort of cap. old woman.3 either juJLc or juX& 0. or jZj^a***. . j~**~o (for j^U). : of h . ^Lauil. the diminutive of ^julc. rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem. ^juXfr) of ty ill.3 .3 JjuJcS. The termination ^1— when appended . 3 3 .^ . J) c. 6. *-j**-> . Thus 6 .j^. . which is 0. r. ^^xJU . If there be off. consonants do not . make either j^on*.3 0. are of equal value. formed out of the preceding consonants. . and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman.3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants. But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters. Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. £. <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. Rem. wXwic. Jjj-ol . In place of the rejected consonants. in front. to Rem. five Rem. le snake. 3 6. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake.3 d.36. a sort of thorn. 3 . . 3 short and big-bellied. £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0.« trying to render perfect. we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please.1 saffron. 0. 2 6. lazy. as aS%£. is not rejected. b. 0..j* a 0. nouns of four 9 .r-. and in § 269). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. little.3 .168 Part Second.. The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed. Jb» & . ..0. and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a. is Q In A+KLm+t for example. 0.3^ 6. J ^3ujS. tick. . but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . 0. 3 9 0. Out . B Rem.3 0. sarily b. J^.03 . 3 00.j£a rolling oneself. . 3 0^. m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^). Jfej*.». 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade.jJut is not a fat. .3 (for 0. and therefore is 0.

jj^L-* . either ^Jj-***- or the Oot.0 . and Ol_ . Rem.3 . or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. is when the noun 0. 4**A£ J**'' as 0. w.t- 5 W^£ verses. But . JU^I. 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t .3 4*A£ boys. 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard. The fern. JjJusi.Basra.3 . Pj*+ O 307) form . <bUJI. . . A. (a man's name). . (for ^)o .». iU^Xm .0. ZxXS a S^Xb *. w>la*->. 3. jj!/^ . .Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#.0. .$ 3 . may be omitted. . . the third of which »/J /}'j . as SjJj children. C J^O^J >j\j+. Other (see § plurals.3 consists of . J jlo-L 3 ) . 3 weak servile. the third letter be a . be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. . . 3 . jJUj. . name). {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj . queliteral noun. five letters. . . 4*A. 3 . pL- .. 3 3 < . ^_ is rejected. A (/J like.§ 271] II.5 jj£j->*J a riddle. 5 .S~*4 . in adjectives of which the feminine . B preceding consonants. 5 o L»L.-. " of the E. The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and .0. viz. \^+*.« r. or j**». . . and the 271. the ending ^1— .jUA-$~»* . . w>la*~ot companions. perfect. The diminutives must be formed out 3 . 0. . 3 . (fern. Nouns Subst. 3 . ^A***2. 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. . 3 .0 3 V 3 . and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0. are /«/ all disregarded. Olgt. of the class called j j j aJlSJt r. J^o-X«.0. slaves. *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. 22 . c camels. —Diminutives.ol. a o*> £>. to them. a.3 .0.3-.3 castle. OS- oWA-~o Muslim women. ^i**.. . in the quinit. mighty. e- oLj^t . SjuJj diminutives regularly. ".0 oJlai. . The Noun. supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal. and these terminations added « . the relative termination is ^_ . . 3 ^. besides their JUil. .. . el.». 3 Oi 9. -kUJt words.o . & Adj. ) j ^»L . 3 . <U*»»-« /»/j ~. J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). . . Muslims. strong. 3. 0.03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims. ^+X~j (a woman's naine).g.0 . a+X~~c (a man's .pregnant. ^jJL**. i.ot Rem. S . 3 if. . ^$j£~>) drunken. and the second JUil .

%LJ>\ ribs. x I Aj««j». consisting of two words (see § 264). radical. Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) .^-0*^3^. e. x x ^ a K *l»> . ^^**.. . ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274. 9*0*3 St j x x J . jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. . «* from the plural (for 10|1). or the Parts of Speech. $j>++£\ . ^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah .» children. <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269. O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. x E. S_ diminutive. JJJ* (a woman's name). wJ^»t « x dogs. ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a . to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e.jlo^ a Ox g wo//". as x 3 * x J x . ^^JLJ3. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j . slaves. If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun.\ bags.t ** * x . l\jj& xO x J poets. *»L-£l J and 3JUJI. and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 .g. (see § 307). 4*JL£l .^3. form their diminutives from the first word. i**^ . O . 3 f> —Etymology 3 . <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim. x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r. 03/J such exist. <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. Otj-jjj. 0>***> from ^ZJ. C*^ an eV e or fountain./foc& jh a house. the second remaining unchanged 273. 272. 246).» .jt— in triliteral nouns. as <Ltjx*. or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows. groate. x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^.170 Part Second. of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names. ^. Proper names. rem. r ' «/ »( 6 . provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis . jjUauL> power. £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars. 5 o-» j o x (see § 274). J ^j&jac. B from yj. x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?). jjj houses. from j^lw. g.g. sultan. jjW** youths. ll . which has not however a feminine termination. adding . The termination x . from the plural (see § 278). S^tel Joys. . £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o). G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. ^jsuyZt. two courses may be J x J adopted. w>jijjux*. OxO xp . O a . from lij? -» J*te. x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G .

*t* 3 . is whilst j*\j3. D. Juj3 * j . The diminutives of the fem. e. ^/tfuXS. and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). w>G (v>^ a door. j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" . j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales. w*>j£- . 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. cardinal numbers. S_ B not added to the diminutive. Tfie Noun. j^. E. value. Rem. j**J a sea. * from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy. is b. makes Zj*t 275. tasse). and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG. though also of both genders. But see § 319.). has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j. u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees. O a herd of she-camels.»»1> 2j*o time.g. cattle.g. t w~«j 3 s»-J. which in is masc. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. j*aj. Nouns Subst.. and fem. O^ij-iy^- . 3 f rad. which <i masc. a. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. in order to avoid ambiguity.**^*. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. Sju jc«. E. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth. geminatae are resolved. is usually masculine.—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . «5^9^J e>j*su. G. do not take 3_ for the yive (fem. 9*0*3 U m. a tree. 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi. rem.§ 276] if II. rem. 3 /(^ «* * 3 . but S^aj cm o«r or cow. i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich. u°y* 9 a young she-camel. If the second radical be a weak letter.. same reason.. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . **+&. 9 0*39 . c. the front. M/J ones people or 2W6e. J3 a J-^>. 5— is O 171 But diminutive. 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J. 3* 9 0*3 .3. A. a bow. the rear or back. Rem. 90* J *->j&-. b. «.. as 9 0*3 . The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill. 9 0*3 .. 90*390* sj^.g. J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride. j*a>. If the noun contains more than three consonants. *3 . 9 For example..] 7 f" l\j2. . £ x d *• . seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju. 276.$>. J* 9 frij* A^3. pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs.— Diminutives. war. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#. makes s^j^88/J . Rem. <Sc Adj. a wedding feast. . u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). 00* w-^ * J r.. u~^ a cup (Fr. but *^w S^a^w jX» .

.into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p . [§ 277 and thing. djj^ 9 s J a handle. certain bitter tree. Ox cHj^ a horseman. 3. and <5ju. ^5^-j a ?m7/. a-suj x . b. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j.jt. fri^. makes following the plural ^Lt'. and treated 5 x r a 9 . an ^ **^>-£. * x i^*b a calamity.g. £~i$Z>. From C-*u a fcm*e. in which the e. ^J^cu^!. instead of f^w. weak. Words 5 x of the <Lj^w. £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 . £*>>o. i^>.— Etymology Rem. /"Lb a fold (i£j£). 4jb aw animal. as js. (J?>k x J a snake. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth. £>*£> an eye or fountain.c> « farm. o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation. In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . Ju~>t. «l not vJ-^uj^.172 Part Second. A>*1 &/ac£. a. ^lu OWxJ . from <blw a young woman. an egg. [Oomp. (***». If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. a festival. ^S^> . it § 13. as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. In other cases § change is optional. . juc. though derived Ju*fc. e. x x these letters § must be separated. Ox ^_. o x vulgarly 2u^t. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich. The forms J^jj^. it Words • of the form J^li. but the regular forms are preferable. x J x Rem. ^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ . a o 5 x j . initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive.> x J be formed C-sJ^J. -i^w an old man. OwxJ ybtfd. £$»-). and Ml >y*~i\ are also used. rem. <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). elif. a. . Rem. x a slave. D Jb***' a ^^. Conversely. youth. ***i&. ?r^ w»ry. from the radical ^^. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown. ajU? a Rem. If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. this JLolj.^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. x J . or the Parts of Speech. 277. J *£j£-.\jj x J a poet. the latter for 6. O 5x J ^. may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£.] 278.). Rem.g.

they termination 3_ or not. rem. (accus. a £-t . 280. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. forms its diminutive accordingly. it in the diminutive. have the E. Awj. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. Nouns which have fern. x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl. # . & Adj. if the . J still. —recover .§ 281] II. which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). . £U*c a ^/£. L5 r ^£. Nouns Subst. others ^j**\ ^j*-\. A5JA. which the - 173 two 279. a). is dji or d$i. the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . radical The infinitives fern. and a. x x I Rem. of verba primse j. ajju j^. spots. Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ . as 3 j^c & promise. v-tj^. pa#.l). 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven.1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. itj^A. A^al ' brother (>±. a*«o~> . r. some at 0^1 say ^^.-*»-t. <**a* (for *«x#). 281. duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£.g. 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. last * A '•* 3 5 weak.1 j>* blood. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a . ^JJ^) 0i x J f . of which the radical <su^i. ^i. ^^. ^js. iwte. {y>\). . for . lost their third radical. affluence. such as Jucj from j^j. Sj^j J 3ji». — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use. 6. i**-!. etc. x J . ( . The Noun. A. —Diminutives. . —whether 3 . Rem. £ * I ^^pA. *U water. letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. rejects one of them x . j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. iy-j^w £*w & »p. j* x£ § 278. 4-0U 3-w a JWW.> ju~>l. but irregularly. A lost first or second radical is not restored. . of . 05 x Sjufih. Rem. Sjljl a sma// water-skin. x resume ^ x J . 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name).^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted. as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John).\ (accus. § 278). the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs . mouth. 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. like 5x1 and others x . & s J .

It— reject these terminations s * i . rem. <u£. j^t^A. . " " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«. as ^-^j^. and ^La. take a prosthetic E. b). With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed. ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). . the diminutive 9** 0*J . E. consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i . 3 . and ^ Rem. *"***»- *!/©»•.i j) ^ M^ U . the softened or curtailed diminutive. this consists 9 of three consonants. this termination away . ^hU j-}>* .g.) good. ^-jy jIa (for jjIa. elif.0 J ' ^— . and distinguished <u^».t. w-->j^-. >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo.^*-^ reject the . %i$) from ctj a pastor.174 Part Second. 0*J J*j& 9 . as u^i$* from ^13 a judge. ^. djj-** (a name). <uiA (see C § 281). s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*.g. r. r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . or the Parts of Speech. &-i^. the root. and recover . [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — . their original letter. nouns in . G. exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240. ^t. diminutives would have been J^\. a The diminutives formed of Cs». (for ^-Ul) people.'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0. and *. Those nouns which. C* i Jam < (see § 269. ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus. This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ. having lost their third radical.g. C-w*j* . . b) feeble. feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. 242) dead. falls (a) If a masc. 283. J C^A thing.] B 282. in the first two by the termination. « name. noun ends in S_.l sister.t. (for j->».-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9. are like those of fern. j^J^a-o]. daughter. 284. (b) Fern. e. Uutdu. . after elif. rem. if of four. ^f O^t a son.**0 ' and take S_ . 9 0* J 9 o * J . D. j-*£.

a milk-pail. j»\£*j a cold. . Nouns Subst. '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. a rag. tj ltLJL g. ^jL-^Jl . w**^». a live coal. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286. J**->3j * A . of <>>1). iL^I. »-x 1^3. jljt. ^Ua garment. account-book. <i. a mouthful. ~ 5 a *" c nightfall. aj^> a draught (of water).->»>.j a man. OxJ tjl^O smoke. 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . SlLJl*. a fever. a gulp. as^»l*». Very <i & Adj. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl». OxJ JU-/ a . O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J .. X a-a»J a portion. J x 175 Ox J . Zjsuo yellowness. 8 a firebrand. iakS. of J-wol ^e evening). »xx ilfcj. a« cl «. as r. a pelisse. vi anything. . 3u<LJlz. x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or . from 0s J jU> and ->. as 3-cu5 a quantity.jUJI a human being. acj**-. a morsel.*. irregular diminutives are d^j . jUjj n dinar. *$j* a sect. as Ox Oj S/o* brown. A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset. *$>£. a*a). x x |Ut. such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. II. b) ^jtj* (see § 305. as SJJi. aJ-wJ (compare the plur.— Diminutives. &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. j~*>*. The Noun. »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. Ox certain garments. a piece. 23j) a light blue.. if B a collection 5 of poems. as " . 2*b. A. an allotment. from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. a public •'u office or bureau. -**& . *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#. a piece of land. dJU a night. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small . rem. ^x Ox a vessel.Q. as if or * p-L*-** brocade. O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. . . O Rem. : J^.M. O-i^ij}. — The form (6) a wooden pin. Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases. 0x0 l^Js a fragment.^t g . and tjt^Jj a register. redness.§ 286] II. piece of 285. fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet. x * i" A J . and j L.M.jUic. ika.

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

used in producing fire (gen. s OjJla.] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding.] ^h^S a bow » (gen. ?-*-o peace.ambergris. fern.]. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. a booth. a phantom. a marriage. JU< - state. [prop.). *• (gen. fern.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path. [JUa. . a o o m kettle (gen. condition (gen.L».- C o of wood. 90 j ^o^w a ladder. corn. the rump [gen.). [j^c.l a Aar# ' (gen. etc. p\*o a measure for the forenoon. t3>w « market.). i^ji a horse [gen.]. a shop.] a tooth.). J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part. masc). masc). masc). fern. 0>jJ» a road. J O^. I) . fern. natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. fern.] * V cL. fern. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^. fern. rain. a road.). J US the the nape of the neck. street or lane. . hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power.). Ij3~> a wall (gen. fumed] jjS a pot. <» tj»o J a way.]. ySis> OJ a spider (gen. <Sj~> journeying by night. a sovereign. 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. weapons. a road (via strata). 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. clouds. tion [gen. fern.* « B shop. w**l3 a 0* well. IU-w the sky or heaven. j**~t peace. - J~~£ /toney.—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. masc). soul [when signi£-3j spirit. fern.jUaiw authority.b nature.). > JUs the neck. juf» the liver.182 Part Second. fern. £. a knife 0-a^> s (gen.

%\+~t a. « y 9 " ' For example. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. [^j£s. i-jjLo mi #> . 9 x Rem. affecting the ^— 294.. 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc). become masculine. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. ^ grandfather. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word . by the radical ^ letter. a water-carrier. fo'to or shin-bone. B b. j) 9 x • . since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. x w>jj~cu© j^. in ship. s the shoulder. fern. aj^jJxa . the upper arm. ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man.— Fern. CO . The most usual termination. Jjj the bone (either ceiling. from the masculine. ajUL» from *Uuw. before 3.). & Adj. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. radius or ulna) of the fore-arm. as jU fire. are later times ^i. the maw. 9^J0^3" struck. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . b). JJ M# (gen. j£&>. The above list. are mas- culine. ^— . (gen. but the . - 2^i <jl©ju repentant. a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac. which must be learned by practice.] Rem. a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast. fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen. an intestine (gen. C From most adjectives 293. a.] and jJj a well. *+Jk* 9 • x . u^m 9 . 9 ^ 3_. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_. or CC (§ 290. and that contained in § 291. jui» the liver. of Adj. cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. masc). [Rem. a^3) a yotmg woman. the right direction. The Noun. A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. Rem. . A.§ 294] II. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender.- great. [*zXLc dominion. masc). and s-^ja. the mouth.] [j^jdfc ffl^l. Nouns Subst. 9 J ' . as S^l^w from ^l-o-w.

without any corresponding masculines. 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . e. another. one. confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. £)^+^> * ^^as-. angry. te\j£. {£j£~> thirsty. § 301. iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. 87. 7 supra). ^UUa*. fearing. feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . see Comp. 0*0* Rem. Kamil. in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. in which case the feminine "0 largest. *0 * (-0* . feminine. cities. *03 Rem. O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. . i*JL». is ^jk** *0* . The latter word can be used indefinitely.] 10—15. o io* lowing genitive. at. gCA 3 *0i form J^t. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. . . of the n yj . ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a. . " iJy^S that of j±. comp. 30* . as SAJLj. &UL*w O^j* naked. * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. B 295.\ (forjjktl) other. not in signification. has ^j^t. Gr. * O is * . and below b. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. § 299. rem. Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * . (b) O^A±- timid.184 Part Second. io* . . This view is . . as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. with hemza. The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first. 1. (a) * * . . a. and the modern d_. i jsuc^S the smallest. O***** sated. rem. ^J*%c.-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat). and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . do\jj£. 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. c. *>» [§ 295 A forms p.-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. Rem. The numeral jt»»t. 133—137. when they have the superlative signification. ijj/^t. are preferable c. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. as . " ° J 3* . •&\ not superlatives.pregnant. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . ^Jiji* . * b.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. .

or / thought her. as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress). rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race. or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed. *bjjdt */» / (rain). Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*.. C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. of Adj. nor one for milking. fern. tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. where Ox J x x . amazed. Jj**. \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient . which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x . ibj^. . Nouns Subst.^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. & Adj. OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . " J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed.§297] II The Noun. Rem. J x . 8 O Exceptions are rare < . J x £ as yua\ yellow.j a patient and grateful man.-3 [and again. nor one 'x J to x carry loads. ° -» " . db^£>j and 5->>^». an enemy. i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached. [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx .— Fern. i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. patient . A. .. . as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . i\^~*** beautiful. w>J*^ £ J Jj*. a. x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad. 185 296. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. Rem. .. antelope]. • " (a) sitive). ^£j-t^ an d 297. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5. and also if it has the Ox J x . 24 .] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc.^ a lying man. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was. as }j& x hostile. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w. D. J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman.» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U. Stw a sAorw sAeep. *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman . A JajI. The following forms are of both genders. G. when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular. £ r<0 s . Ojdx Ox J x ..

x x Exceptions in either case are i rare. Ox Rem. docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*. on the other hand.g. <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor. 0x0 II ^ . 0x0 « and J**a*. it If J~*s has the meaning of . . J*o*^» x . 3 ju^». . (§ 6).<« x x x W a new wrapper. when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***.** *oW>> 2x perfume. 233. as ^yJL^c poor.and p a declivity. . J-^5 oUi a murdered woman.J mountain-road « of ascent. a praiseworthy way of acting. fern. or j-Ja. = iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and. ZjuslZ oLag temperate. mercy (c) is C>xru>a». Hence the difficult nouns >yt. a x ~ x J x .C>». <Ua>JU . J UJLd.o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . b.g. 4jli*^ [.< Sl^ot is allowed. For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^.186 Pakt Second. or the Parts of Speech. <jUju» isU a <* «. Ox x self-willed woman. x 5 x t jlj <aa. a wounded woman.. G. x . aa^ac t/ojj* Rem.j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl. or intransitive). rem. '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. x 2ri^A. Zj~a-> + + .] . x JJ/ (b) J**s. blameworthy habit. which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ . $$^=> a D.J1 . G.o an l^-Jfe O acclivity. but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered. 228)._ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives . £/te Exceptions are rare Ox . <1 D. —Etymology fern. **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper. ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ». [§ 297 A [Rem. but (t ^. jlkfc* ajjU*. chaste. fa^C. and under the G . j^J^o. = 5^^=>.j^ w^j-5 well.

JLac etc. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day . actually in progress. rem. dual. O^j or . of course. A..jX^i £Lcl». and plural Nouns have.-A sAe will is to-morrow . last 9 1. p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. jy>. n. js*-c [^jLa». £/&e J JkJlk divorced. 15. 0s . . 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. O x 0*0' «r. .0 ** her time or term. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling. a) e. bust naked. J) 3. as C ^oaJI i-tful». lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or.. I ji£ iiUUs . Adjectives which are. the singular.j&3 and some others as jU.— The Numbers. as ^J-ol*. But they designate the said action or state as beginning.witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck. 299. they form a feminine in 3_. Nouns Subst.. chaste. ^aui*. s S. G. like verbs.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it. CUa-ojl U. her. oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn. w-. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. by their signification.tlib. ' j-ojto. 00^*' A and yj am M Vol.g.] ^. JJ»U without ornaments. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i . ^J-a**.ti Adj. 96* *r^> *. Rem. Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her. three numbers. J**** D. s * 9s. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam . jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^. The Noun. to females only. 187 infinitives (§ 230. an action or state as natural and permanent.§299] [(d) II. *->*>*>-. 298. ^Zo bearing twins. pregnant.] menstruating. having swelling breasts. The Numbers of Nouns. at any rate. J B ^U. (see § 81). . j-wl». R. as iU. / 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate . § 136. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 . jJbl). The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting. or about to begin (£ol». dsuo). w^olk.

\j\5sid. J) c. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj). ft. for 16 3 3^). a). a. 3 is changed into buttock. —In and even ^jbl^a^o. used. «L»£> a dress (for jdJb). admit the forms oWUl .>0.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco . I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l). as ^J3 a youth. as Lac a for $*a£. which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff. <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). the j x o£ . But <Ut a J and testicle. x the termination either be as *T_. SI . the singular of which.. for . m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground. a. when sprung from a radical $ or ^.*. oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. § 167. . %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some. ^ fi. 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . would be Rem.red. becomes 3 x . r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert. r*' x w*s b x x x X .-XS. x are. The hemza . x x however. \j\}\jjua. Rem. . sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- . which was originally a 3. not restored in the dual. x © x nine X (§ X 296). CT ^L^». Rem.« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^..»>. said by some to be admissible. a. though the former preferable. If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^. of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi. B OW occur. O (see rt^ ^rni.) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc).188 Part Second. oW^ a 15*:. as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ). l£>** legal opinion. b. the hemza is may retained or changed into 3. <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow. jl. but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. § 294. >**>ja butt for shooting. it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual . as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom. rem. {\J>— a). —Etymology a nation.a bustard. jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. Forms like ^jtzl/*. x x x . J . two buttocks. jjljt^^o *" x i\j^». [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in . however. the j is restored the dual . t. usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. ^j\i\j*~a.

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions . c)*.— Plur. fern. (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. however. san.0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. sing. etc. San. * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin. see § 340. etc. £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO . masc. sanus masc. have also the s plur. j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin. etc. and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . though by their to fern. fern. G. sanus masc. «. ±jbj\ the earth. The Noun. of j^ti) an inferior poet. when joined Rem.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings. from last < 1. < . For the see 2. 195 AaJ-b). Rem. Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. * J m O^U^s . they might seem belong rather to the class of plur. § 296. £^t> A***. OJJ^&y*' 9 * . adjectives exemplified by j**o\. ones family. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . Masc. 5) we find o>*^ 120. which denote rational beings. jjt the goose. J***J (dimin. § 304. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. b. c. Jjbt . of J**g a man). * * in the 9 commentary on the Diw. p. B f ' lLauL£». (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification.§302] II. \JyJ&. A. but more especially from adjectives when used substantively. J) Rem. rem. their diminutives. II.*?. vs. D. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. have the plur. To the words enumerated under highest heavens. only to substantives denoting rational beings. £-*»»t. Nouns Substti Adj.. App.] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. 13. a. of jus Abd). rem. » of Hudeil. Adjectives.

has been elided. used by children at play. rem. $>\. si)3J^ *jj an d.j-|juj £bt w>t. jx which are called j 0. a sphere. e. Thus w>j£jjui«©.g. e. Some x fern. [like &+Lc ii. x etc. not of persons. i 'z-Zubeir . (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299. rem. when they are the names. vulva.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264). — It may be b. and called j*4j)\ l O^t. a stony. JL». is rem. ^JA x O J > JP a . Rem. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. arises a. Comp. 4 ^. 325. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. ^j^k* obliq. rem. it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. x 3 x in x . d) nouns in S_l . it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. Rem. « xx wholly indeclinable. 6). stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. as Zj&. ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel. juj j-ojJt H-^t. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. § viz. a secondary formation ^>*iw. especially those of Od x . x x x \jjj hu\j $£. form ol. %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl. as also the numerals denoting the tens. a privy. from 20 up to 90 x J x '. j>~L*>. <J}L*. possessors. men x Construct compounds. sanus masc. d.196 Part Second. Great Bear. c). see § 340. but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191. very J irregularly. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. x . J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word. D but in the case of compounds with to say . which have no singular. and the like. h). thing. [cas. volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. s i Further.. 03J^ . have a plur.U ^J^. (§ 323). £)£j 3j£» a ball. which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable. J ^t. > *^* a stick ?/ear. . like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. which the third radical (j. also § 108]. £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung. ^t J any one of etc.

e) . OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. . The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense. admit also of a pluralis fractus. 196). of the second oW^LLot.. be put also in the plural. x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. O^t^w. o*> . Oljlj-o 301. OUUa^o. xx and fourth forms. as uL^-cu. Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). ObjL*.] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j. x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_. of the months x . . x J ^Ufc. 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi. The feminine nomina (§ 5 . G. 9 ^+»-x pregnant. verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal. [Rem. 6^/ a gazelle. x 3s. f.Lp. as xx . •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. a (<#) 9 £ bustard. may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % . wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or . San. OUiJa.—Plur. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress..0*3 3 . 197 is put in the plural. Fern. (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 . According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' . b) . (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— . (a OL-UJ juA Hind. A. » The names 3 . when r ' Rem. as j*j 5 . b). as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * . 5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m. which are usually feminine « . 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. J xOx t 9 xxtfx . If a jo <& Adj. The pluralis sanus fern. Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus. oL©*}Lfc. and such names of 3 ^x 5. Rem. The names # # (§ 292. as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition.. The Noun.lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. (a) etc. Nouns Subst. rem. x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. duj. x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D. sanus fern. rem. o£ J *0£ . OUJLli (§ 301. of the letters.§303] II. plur.9 a village. Jas. w**. Proper names of women. Feminine adjectives. is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx . 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx . 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . o .z2a. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot. 00 9 x ( xx .*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 .

oUtj*». as * 9 . Obj. ObU^. a fountain. even ff» when they denote persons i . an animal.) . Ob^.«gv . 9 s * s . O^Jbt or C^aI. ou». . a 9 %<• j book. 9 < Olw^. rem. d s * ^l q» an '. (lit.t § word is . s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha. however. 6) from f" . o '* *£: . a * compositions. loaded * 9 s < * camels.U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations. oU-jt a /afoe rumour. Otjl©~> (though this 9 . OUtj^U> a . Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. termination 9 * . Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301.> . Olojt (see J * * . j created) .^. fractus O . Many fern. "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. masc. and * some nouns. D rem. J J .. (i) Verbal adjectives. jLL~ijl+.^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. which some. irj a OUU^U^o o * . -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses. OtS^l^-w . 9 c-s —Etymology an era. J ' x . d * a warm 9 ' bath.- 136) f~ijti a date. * C inanimate or inorganic thing. jtJlwt. difficulties.c arranged. B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin.« living thing. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b. ' s j S . ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. j*wlo annunciations.. Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher.tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities. or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property. .6t or marriage. a tent. entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) . which have no plur. 9*0' stout camel. b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. Ul aw ^4##. ol***. Ot^Iwt. marvels. which are used in the plural as substantives. existing) literary . 301. J ***** * a 9 . or the Parts of Speech. uLoLeJ. £>WJ*aa . prognostics. Jbtj-* awning. (jlj^U* a jet deau. ji U^ . works (from ui . a chronicle. . § a literary composition. C/^ t» . 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ . which have not a fern. Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ . c-aJI^j J (compare . § U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is . classified) . iUt j*£ a caravan of . ^aj\ the earth or ground. 9 oU L^a.198 Part Second. w-j^Uj wonders. substantives.

and Adj.3 rare .— Plur.] district (Gr. J 9 ' J . . and examples. j^\.^»-). j). s J The Noun. OLJS. 5/JJ 1. another (fern. § 213) 9 *J . fern. w*J> s J 5 . The following is a list of these forms. 9. SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad. Rem. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. w-£>j white spot. Jy^t »te greatest. i*3 [a leather tent. <L*J a foard. (§ j^^U*. 0*}L**r*. i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. . with the principal corresponding singulars. ^ali JSJ 9. of Jy^t). (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. fractus of substantives triliteral roots. 9. w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. Hj <>£ i^j a knee. LUJt M<? highest. 9. Fract. 9 * . ^j^t . t J 9 jya ' J . 4Jl*5. Fr actus. .^ 5x as <Haj a present. adjectives. a . x^P a )> a dome. § Similarly b). AjjX». 3. as Ja». 4*1 J a nation. jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern.6. . are twenty-nine in number. 304. which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical.3 (for . 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. Plur. k. . see D 295. ^jlx)\. as J-*»- a hillock. Jj* village.. and The more common forms J ' of the plur. Bldsse).3 L J*5. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune. ^^. volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest.§304] * u> II. of J*$l as a superlative .39. (J^t o^er. a dynasty. except those specified in § 302. UU»J 0' . 234 and § 295. without tenwin. of j^t. ^^IsuUt . j±\. § 213) . all£> « kidney. *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand. A (i) All diminutives. as 9. b) .0 j^aJ) . . 9 x J . J 9 * J ilas ^ j. rem. 199 uJ ^ J bound books. ^a\ 6 ' J . . <j?Ji Su^j a turn. Nouns Subst.3. a trinket. on a horse's forehead.. 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. or &&&&? (Germ.

rad. 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*. 9 . I 9 J J j$\. ^-O^.] 4. [Rem. & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309. vol. A*-^^ ^-^J. had young. ii. J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU. .200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. derived from verba med. § 137 and rem. however.] 93 J>»-].g. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . *- of J*it. J***. Fract. JUi. a. a#).). 1. 3>-»l 6/ac&. retiring 9 * 9 3 . J^fcli. woman). * s * as £jjio yellow. ^o ^ . JUi. i\x+*. 302. 9 * Isufc. and superlative 9 6 3 . &$£ . jJua lU^ fawe. rem. 8].. 9 3 II. J3J 9 3 . [§ 304 A Plur. e. jy*> jljl heat. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j . 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. etc. i\*Z£>. 5. s WSfWJ. Jtf. b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years. farrow. ptjuj fern. 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. j**. JUi. «*-j^ etc. w>**-*-' humpbacked. . O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2. as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 . 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i. C a middle-aged married woman. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '. of *«*». 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi. derived from verba med... and 3.jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. ^©-ot <&«/. as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick. [Comp. not derived . [Also in some other cases. 9 3 j 5 . G. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. (§ 296) . iU-oJ. without tenwin [§ all together. j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red. D. . ot Sing. R S. III. has certainly both £$~t and £yi.l. rad.] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp.J in. 1.l and i[x2j (fem. JUi. cAsrft tfliwfe. They may. J-*it. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. § *£*. ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. not comparative 3 . w>jla. JUi. [Accordingly a efawrt has J^. j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j . j J . make *»*<»». c.

Jas. rare 9b' as w. \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick.4a. j j J>w. 'Oi jjUft a rein. Fractus.I Ojj 9 . jjJ j±~e patient. &**£. * . Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*.'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. iUi. white piece of sphere. and not derived from verba 9 3 3 . tj£* jtji -t) a tick. ^Xi v>jj an idol. 933 > a 7-00/*.$. ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar. or ra/. Rem. Nouns Subst. J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' . uUL* 9 J I . . jj~* 9' ' £ . a 9 throne.—Plur. 9 ' . J>*s. 9 3 ' 3. . not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat. 3 3 . J*3. ju*c . }j. J*$. [A rare case is s^ot from . ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a. u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' . 93 w~o£ 3 . 93393' JU^i j^s . w. J**i. *• cloth. for or 9 sacrifice. 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion. '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . %~o. a thin. " a large bowl or tree. Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy. fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. & Adj. 91 3 . The Noun. 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. 93' who warns.>£». a 9 ' messenger. ' thicket. s^jo. tertiae rad.jUa». a stallion. » 3 . J>**. A.] tertiae rad. J*w>. j^J . a message. t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . ^ j yet.jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood.§ 304] II. f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. 3 3 . J^i ^0^/0. 9 ' 91 » 9 . the heavens. as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. 2. J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> . O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna. bier. ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. 9 j j . 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. 9 3 3 . 9J * A Sing. 933 . T III. J*3. it £y&. 3' . a dromedary.La*»&. as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut. rough. Fract. w *>*»» . geminatse or verba tertiae rad. 9 3 3 . 9 JjtS continued.JL>! female. j^o 933 9 . J***. 9 ' 3 Saturday. as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . 201 Plur. verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. qj*> J 2 . j et ^j . jealous. 9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' . 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs. j et ^ [ .

ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT. milk. . JAj]. *JaS .j*3 4*15 a fathom. R.202 Part Second. 1. ^o*3 a flock of sheep. [§ 304 A Plur. < oooej . i. character. a building. aX*5. ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. J** continued. J—j. JUi. x JJ. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. l£) or i«&}]. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. X X Sing. gemin. as j-ij~>. 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. jwt. rare r. * S^J aw example . jj~* ju **». a maxim. * [Again. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae. rad. .g. rare Ox dx a to£. J J III. O 0J-. f . ^~*Jk Ox . ^*xa. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain. from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o). j&*-'. xJ JuJJ pleasant. It may be J J a poetical license for Jju. J For.5 a £M0tf. V. OxOx fo*^ « farm.13 a time. wo. JjJ. dL»£ft. or :>j^- IV. or pattern. oox 1. J Forms rare.Jj . Some- times the darama of words med. OxOxx . s* . so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. 1. Jul. S. Ox %~6 r. as A*Ja. ^^\ (for t^t) . just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). 5. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. are is J '. . 957. Gs . Jjii * J J a sea. manner of 2 Ox . unless O * J .] u . C il*9. xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J). . Ox x J J changed into x J fetha. jUfe. Jjtf.] J is j*£ x (for j+%). ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. »tew. [j-4^. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). O O J Rem. \£). % J » Jifcti. OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. e. w>b3 ^e common fly. ^o-j»* . as j**& a merchant. as a rule. £«J living. ^ « foc£ o/* tar. Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . Fract.

fern.aA a late born camel's colt. J**. a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. 9 * . jtj-» . cU § * OJx . JU-j . as v*~> x A*8* . J Ox v*o - difficult. 0»x oxj iUi. not superlatives X . £U£ (rare). 9**9*** 3.. A Sing. <>* cm occasion. *-UJ 9 * . J^U» . has a plural of this form. v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. O - 9 . s^aefe. *W-£. lM» 9-\jj • • . 9 * * JIoa. £-j£ . & Adj.. 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying. 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. ^Ut a hermaphrodite. rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. w»^c> ° { 6. <z sp^arr. <LUi. «x . 203 Plur. iw>. . aX*s Ox # dish. V. J^». 90/ 5. 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . * as ^J*** a hill. x # Ox w>U*© . cloth. Nouns Subst. 9 * . * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . 9 * * * .§304] II. 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. pt«i 9*0 \ . as ^^1 female. JJ* # a shadow. ^Uj . 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f.*-£ a hywna. verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 . w*tfi a wind. /JJ milch-camel. handsome. camel's xOJ 7. 5*5. Ox iojj ^ garden. *. *'£' duij the neck. D w>Jls «m^. Stj-«t. cbj fern. «. geminatse or tertise rad. colt.ai . J Us 9 * continued. *1>L». district.—Plur. • <• 4. 0x0 4^ jU a a note. t -* j?L»J. not derived from verba medise rad. ^o. p{~6 * . 9*90 . The Noun. ° £ 9*** JL». J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. wolf. u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. Ox Ox . 9 * . A. B Ox a foW. o^~*-J x 9 J x . iUi. # 9 . *0l L5J*J. J. w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard. a dress. <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . ^J» a ~-jj gazelle. J*i. an arrow. a woman. &J a o£^o Rem. **~> a beast of prey. Fract.a 9 * he-camel. cUj . Fractus.

~s yaJo a merchant. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem. is C Rem. 9 a courser . 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. s s - Sing. JUs 9 continued. ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>. J 8. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3.*-«-* . j-h^) (rarely vt base. verbal adjectives. [wi^g. verbal adjectives. standing. iLai.(for #00<^. 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . 11. j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. used . as j+*£* large. JUai. ^*£j£*. j^Ls . jL^. . Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. Dorrat.204 Part Second. s 9 s . J.c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw. 9 s 9 s . js\% 9 s ju». 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry. ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J .) good. sick. j*\>£*. 9 x tertise rad. ed. - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . UU^fr l " IV s . 9 s a. . 9 9 s . Thorb. J«^Lj. w>U^o 9 s 9 . 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant. jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem. not having a passive 9 s 9 s . 9 s . . An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. From words ^su pure. i\ -* s k s . Fract. 9. fern. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping.- ># adjectives 9 s . 9 s 9 . jU£» . %. tfAe channel of a torrent . 9 s 9 s signification 9 s . j^J JjbU drinking. [§ 304 A Plur. as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. s s £-Usuj from fern. 6. w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10. 97 seq. 9 . V. Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». o 9 s feeble. oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**. few words and Hafagi's comm. as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. $/ / »/ &*$***. thirsty. old. ^*ij£>> noble.

gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year.\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd. 50 - 50 90J . 0- C-wO a house.> usually makes ^~. V. J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr . 50 { a. u*>*»- *>*»• the neck.J calf.—Plur. 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp. 90' 9 i/fo JJ .3 Jui. j>U. 3 J 9 0' .. J*5. tor. J) as if from y~$. l£^>) § 215). Jl^j from Jjj mean.§ 304] II. an ^> Dv ^£ . 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 . u-^i soul. >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle.3 or ^^3. r^^yi Jy^ a year. 5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow. a 9 Mtn. Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . A. gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss. ju*. as 5JJ 3 5J 5 . 9 0^ 9 J J .. jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army.3 JU* continued. 3 . g. Fract.^*!). 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem. *y~>\ w>ju a scar. -- 5 JJ . Nouns Subst. A Sing. a chief. rad.] Some J bid. 9 . G. ^»^j^ a J^. others g vi. b.ji a troop. 5 J J . w>J*^ ju& . that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^. 205 Plur. JA 90^ Jjji. Rem. 5 3 141 #~J seq. # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder. 9 . 5 0- Rem. 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. 0- syllable is In words med. «j. 9 3 3 .j or Jl*-. & Adj. fLcj from c. a ewe lamb. Jas # as j^*j a sea. 9 . J 933 (for 90' . a doc§ 269. 5 -£ Ja3. *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. or f-y**. 1. ^M. rad. ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man. f»5+wi c). q 903 33 . assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket. The Noun. Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . ^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical. 9-2. and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e. ^J> (comp. Fractus. From words med. D. 3 J^j (for of the vowels. own 5 . 5 - lion. to Tabari). 9 J jys^j J .) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 . # military force.

j>yo and j^e . a j9wrs# of money. *->>** . O^x OJJCxOx . 3-0). -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant.206 Part Second. Ox J^U. ^yL> or ^iu. OJx time. .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.JU> («JLo) a W6. 3 ojj 5 -» standing.* this J 9 x x rare. [§ 304 A Plur. Ox ^b. «i)b ^y^» . t^JU. JjU> pregnant. 9 x rad. # O3S3 J J . jcclS. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua». V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . not mediae rad. VI. J^Z and J*£ . #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. iUi. 9 * * B Rem. aw inkhorn. plural is From words med. J J' '? . as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&. . 3 of the form J-a-i . rad. Sing. ^. ^JUU a #m<7. 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#. wiytw 5t^> Q •4. vel verbal adjectives. J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. or med. j-©~> j*>v sleeping. a casket. 0x0 J *4j±. as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. verbal adjectives. J>c$ o JJ . . -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «.] X J3. witness.>>*=> 9 J J . sitting. not derived from verba tertise rad. ^53 or ^j3.o or ^j. Fract. gemin.. 1. OJJ [Rem. wicked. 9 d J . rare 9 J J . £fc fcwr. J^j a xx j mountain-goat. OU S j proud. > ^^-At (for ^3-ac). Ox Ox £UJ. J3** continued. a period of Jj>*». u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a .0. aa». . . a M#. 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. j*y and jtg^o fasting. ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . D vii. a %? or summit. tooth. 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 . 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night.

JUli» perfect.] (with rare exceptions) as^»^». of 9-y>.ajudge. fern. j^^ a «^ unbeliever. Jj«i continued. Ox 9 3 J . djztie (for **>&) . St x 5 j fU».— Plur. %\}b- . x 9 5 J . Anomalous is having no weapon. [jlo avoiding. u^u*- fi iUU. jU JiJLb repudiated. ignorant.] JU5.js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower.§304] II. of ji. Nouns Subst. dutiful. ^^a. unbeliever. **+*£ 2. 1. as Ujk for U^*. 9 x J. SjjJ (for . R.xLj. of Jli. as AaJU mourning.S. A. icb j5U s^'wa. 9 Si A Sing. (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£. &**). ^ . JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier. 5p*w ^ b . ^ et ^ 9 . of the preceding a. denoting rational beings. is by usage pi. The Noun. d J 9 . . § 213). fd j . *5lb obedient. 0>£. jU a soldier. and not derived from verba tertise rad. 9 * 65 J .>lju©]*. is Rem.& Adj. [Rem. -» absent. *• j 9 et fl ^ J . aiiJ. J *-*-»- ^U 9 #». IX. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad. .Fractus. VIII. properly pi. cUo j-*L^ aw C . . menstruating. [or med. in which into B case the j must be changed ^ . js\y o . aw offender. ^ et ^. v'>> -i"3 > sleeping.] . verbal adjectives. x as J^U a workman. in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. etc. x Jxli. 207 Plur. - . from oi5U» fearing .» a deputy. ^U^ JaU. <jU. gem. . * [ J^ defeated. 9 5 j . SjiJa . 3 i D *£** .. fugitives. ^u» conjuror. i J VII. Fract. cLi «Jlo aw artisan. verbal adjectives. 5^^ [^tfula. 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b. jwows.

fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 . rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* . (for «*«*. Ja3. with the same restriction. An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. J OOJi^S Q s a . J*9. a weaver. [2. ^ &J«o ^^j a shield.treacherous. Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a .» .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Sj^** or Sjl*.* jj a husband or ^2/0. an ox. JaJ. and derived from verba Ox x J rad. as x J . Stjj (for x J ajj^) . 3U».] X. yo 13 ^ judge. x X x 3 .. 9 ^ x J et ^ . J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x . J^U from verba med. casket. rehearser.208 Part Second.>L». [§ 304 A Plur. \j*" *ibl». Fract. Rem. R S. l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S. not derived from verba Gxx J . $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . tertiae rad. 1. Oxx branch.) cLj a manager. Ox x 9 x x .] [Rem. <L*jJ. 4*»^j -**w aw o/d . Ox Ox . foar. ZJuca ^.] D XL £&. 9 x xx IX. « i-4*«. j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural. * x . jU x « a soldier. 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf. verbal adjectives. a nickname given to the Muslims. Oxx tjy> or Sjaj . . x J or traditionary. olxw. yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place.o feeble. tertiae ^ denoting rational beings.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». Oxx x ££*». iUi continued. as *r> Sx . du^*. 9 x Sing. SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter. &oo*. as j^j x . i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt. O x CO J^ti.w Oxx generous. acting wrongly. oW* a sinner. aw earring. 0' 9 2. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ . as jjU*. 6 xx J x .

Fractus. a brave.] XIII. /a#. S^J «^w aw . Nouns Subst. aJUsj 9. J*i cl3 . S^-J. J*** x fo'a. jawt u~*J W* sow/. £s>> . (for j>«») a neighbour. # . s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). brother. Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*. coarse. x g „ . A.. . j et ^.ork. ' S Cj. Oji Jai. 1. u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin. dijt ^6*^U a youth. as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . few J ground. Fract. 90 x . X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. *>*-©) X a boy. 9 cM ow& elephant. 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. J . ^^Jil . X OxO rt. aw p ape. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y.^aa* a gelding. ^U. 5x0 2. 27 . J*i as jjj a bull. o . Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket. not derived from verba mediae rad. 6x0 aJU*. . x J JU*.. • waw. R. . 5^».§ 304] II. a**o X . hj£ - JJ>j ag#. S. & Adj. flaccid. J-J** ^'c&. . **^ XII. 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. &kk3. a eunuch. 9xx 3.. w. iUfc. 9x0 9 . <UaJa.—Plur. 9x0 JU$ . jJa~>\]. B °*i . Rem. 209 Plur. «xx .>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope.Ja~» a /me of writing. Jiil. as jJj a cMc?. XL iUi continued. old man. has a plural of this form. <7rea£. Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. AjjXi. £n#e. Slj««t X a woman. as a^U 4. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace. *^~b a J t «J Of . 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard. A Sing. &L». as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea.»£>. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 . 9 x x 9x x 5 . . 90 9 x x f [j. 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i. jA a tom-cat. SjJj . The Noun.

] . JpjI. JOi xxx . JU^t and. JUfct . for if masc. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . cji! . the x x neck. j^Jt . as J+*. hill. a well. Exceptions are.t oi &*) o » oi time. ^b a house. . B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. j-*j. as p\j$ the arm. • m 3^*t). as x a leopard. Feminine quadriliterals. ^ left J hand. w*^ a raven. • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . 1). aw oath.^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. and. . J oi XIII. o£ '} ^ occur. it has <U»»JI (XV.t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\. ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant. * [If fern. . o*-^ a sword. o£ J^t 5// 3. Jj«it continued. rare o x£ . jj}\. « jrf Gtot Jijjt. not ending in *—. Fract. a staff. has j>jI and. <} . by o J oi transposition. a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. ^ et x x J ^. . 6' cloth. and OJOii JJjJt. for example. 2. . Ja3. oibi JfjJl. xj eagle.210 Part Second. uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. iUs. ^tt) i5U a . jly3 c^ay. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 5 seq. j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. . whence. G. O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . *JL© a rib. w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. by transposition. TV D • dialectically. D. Sing.t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . 1. ^3j\ . oi~ gjoI o o . not derived from verba mediae rad. et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\. JjUc « female kid. j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey.jLJ •* the tongue*. w>$jI or J w^t - . as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. j ^^c an eye. she-camel. by transposition. %^~Jt. ^>o. at a § di . 4. ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. according to "El- Mubarrad 50. x C Rem. [§ 304 A Plur. 84J J**. Ja3. Rem. x x rare . <3>*t. for example. Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . xx JOi £ x . ^^ 60 C a bow. a fountain. o j J*». •• ' Rem. J*w.

2. *->\yi\ • £rac#. <jt$t fjto . opinion. 9 '-» .xxO? tooth. J***. jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door.^©A3 a fancy. fo^y. t %l>\ . J*». |U^t . 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . A.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. Fract. . jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes. rare 9 x as j-ob a helper. and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. JLwl j*y> a day. w^J*- Ox x x 0? . jZ> a well.» festival. yj+*\ . Nouns Subst. jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . * 9x0? . ^. 9 « Jlo*> a foad.U~ol jj\* tepid. 9 XIV.j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free. w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) . js\x*. (for 9 w~J) a canine . 9 x . J*». 9 £ an f. . Fr'actus.^£». J«*i a Mz'aA. j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w. a friend. w>lJt m>. £ . 0/ camels. J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t . j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. A Sing. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. JU5I . 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep. 9 x 9x0? J^ti. 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 . Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard.3 9 a x>« aw ^ar. v' o ? . 9 x~> . jUsl. verbal adjectives. w. ^lj tdftv. (f° r 3^0 a father. Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms. one would D 9x 3. >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit. 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5. X 4. 0U3I .a judgment. 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. 5 0?" J»bl Ji. JU^t foc&. & Adj. . . 211 Plur. 9 . J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? . 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . ^^L© a companion. $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. jl*JI xO? . . and primse rad.f old she-camel. x . *. son. jbt f V>t .— Plur.§304] II. a notion. makes *Lwl. especially . jly^l . Ju^ « 9 . 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing. w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o . 1. from verba mediae rad. J x aft 9x0? arm.«£. 9x0? . 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . Ox . . not buying a passive signification. $>-t/il x a thousand. jbt 9 x 9 . dutiful. jJblb 9 x j3wr<?.^l (for >o~>) a warn^.\ . rarely J*» (see no. jlcul jJblw t a witness. Rem. by transposition. ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword. The Noun. 2) . as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time. a mistake.

O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie. X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. S t 3JLfr t J . x x right hand. Sju*fcl o£ x rod. Ox »--£*£. 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ .212 Part Second. 5^». 05 £ *L». ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart. 9 s f}Hil £ . Quadriliterals. OxOxO£"3x j c»*). O x J Us. 9* bi . ^JLfr temperate. Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. XX 6 . a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS . . C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. xo£ '. (for stingy. glorious. Fract. *a*-wt X . and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ . especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ .t ^obtb * . chaste. 2. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. 3 et 93 t Ox Of. a o ""*? colt. a wing. ' o£ Rem. o^-*i <*wi| *y. stuttering. y^^* o X c^ar. A«-ot . t 9 xx 4s*u*fc. x U*3 a certain measure. 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. 9 . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Ha3\. 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble. aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest. d. D geminatae or ultimse rad. see the footnote to XIII. &>J^I O^ ** . »t rare .^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant.a>. .] . S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy. Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?. JUi.s>j\ v***1* a branch. [§ 304 A Plur. .» 9. 4~aSI X Ox o£ . 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ . 9* OS. a strait. 3ui^\. JU*t continued. ^-:. B xv. ^jLaJ. x . from verba X mediae rad.) ' • 2 p <0I g a god.^ a fo# niggardly. . sJ)j£\ XIV. <L2£r> XX . § 242). &Jf. 1. of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . an oath. A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . vowel)./bo^.t X 0? . %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. * £ . 9 £) Ox X d£ . jU»* can ass. [If masc. . 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * . as Jjj& mighty. X derived 2. 9 * &* ** tongue*. *•** a pillar. Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x .

§304] II. J^1>» . 9* i hjj\ * s . J^U . j*ty*. 9 0* 9 Sing. The Noun.— Plur. cP^-i. a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile. vi^l^ 5 . v^J-*or cawsg. 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! . . Oj 9 ' *i . A. 9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a . 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture.g. djj^j\. letter is bound). 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). bird. £Jl>» .G. as <>J» 9 . & Adj. in proper names.>t^ a watercourse.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. l^^s^S. 3. mothers 9 ' t>i " side). Jii. 1. jt?o£. Rem. 9 . J^U» a 2. substantives . ^>\y*- . »£ . XV. rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . . Fract. Ja». rare 9* Oi . Ci^b a motive J * * . iJbet continued. female slaves. J**. S «* B I >i .] . 213 Plur. ^JIS a mould. as JJjt^J* Touareg. xvi. 65 i AJLaut Oi . jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. *iJo\ jj^i. £JU» a s^/. Z+teS 9' oi » . 9. j\js*. JU. J**. u*j\£. ' J^. Fractus. it In the old language there are some instances of e. crucible. in vulgar pro- nunciation. <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. *dyi\ Jju a s^. 9 is* 9 . ji|>»» v^W. >u an assembly.vm/wz. a cover or &d. jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. Sj^l 9 J jj a button. [L». Oi . 9 * 4. as ^5U» a a signet-ring. J*3. di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck.« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. 9 0* . dew. passes into damma.. Ajjjj . a £wc£- «x hare. £ . Nouns Subst.

^Ijxi. substantives Ox x JxxOxx . X ^oSU*. Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt. of J Sing. . verbal adjectives. j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. Ox by their signification only J x •» rem. ^-Jljt 4*».53. a girl. pregnant. applicable to females (§ 297. s * . J^ti.. J^U. rare. x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding.. C 5. J XX * s . a proximate cause. 5 x wp^r classes. u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. P Ox . ajjU. . J applicable x to J men. menstruating. J x x 5 9 x a wave. region. a X X X .) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. Ox divorced. «x x JJtjl (for JJI. vulgar. J .U? a female companion. Juotj^. [§ 304 A Plur. J &>\yo 5j. ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. jJbtjw. X X J XX .) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x .214 Part Second.. B *to A«*a*. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. earners hump. J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. a district. profit. J*l>* continued. etc. as J-«L». XVI. tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. Fract. as x tr*j^ xx . X? . *-\y (for ^^y). s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example.sU J a rarity. i^li. XXIII. X Ox 4. a 7 . Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. x Ox aJLcU. verbal adjectives J .) J i* ^oSl*. as X 4y£bU yfowtf. rem. >^^\^o «( . *f\y> i x x . 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce. 3. jJbljJ. A-JM3 custody. x x . a Rem. ^x x . j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. see no. sociable. Jxx <£l)tyb . 5 S a horseman. xx . ^U. )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). a joke. . (for ij^tj*. .^^. 5»xx verbal adjectives. and fern. O X ^ Ox witticism.

x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. ^J^^ X ««X X .. *5l©-o.l». gen. G. J*fcty continued. aw J »X t*" island. j->!>»X X . x juLej] «x 4«.> X X a joroo/*. j->\j*o < x x . as 4uU*w a c/owa*. x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . J^l*». J wages. J ^ x x . The Noun. »»x x (for ^Jt^*-). w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . a &£ter. £))*?. 600/. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees. J *»x x . ^ti^. lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. x ^^Oi. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . from 5^«] jJJ the night. 5x x # *. x >"' . j-j^o a pronoun. . H*£ X . <So Adj.— Plur."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " . a letter. [Also applied to the male. a J *»x x . o/a woman. Nouns Subst.or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. l&uotf. quadriliterals. igt>^). 85 x x ^x x J affair or business. f-5bi ttrcwa*. 215 Plur. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. 9 x x a cowrtf. *~5ULo x W0W0. i . x x s/a£>. *' i* * a treatise. Fern.§304] II. ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*. as iDu. 6. ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. <JI^». £a*»~o a written or plank. ^xx . 5 " &a/. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . « X X victim. [J*J. whether they have the fern.. D. *UsU. but nevertheless fern. y£XVII. * f Rem. Fract. of B (a long vowel). &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. J! x x x xx J xx . ' x x . a »XX »xxx J x J X . JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* .] . law. *)!** or <ULx^. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. termination 5. a _ thing. >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent . a wawtf or weed. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 . J^Lit . JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket. A. D x x . A Sing. SfjJ**. Ft actus.

from radicals mediae 3 x J . w>b a *. a waW. *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. [§ 304 A Plur. Ol***ixJ 3. \)j3 a lizard. J J*». Sx»^*x . 603/. J*i and J*5.jtju* O . 5 v!** a raven. and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe. d 5 meteor. v«*^ « ^^^ . 9 rare . a branch. O >0 root.a buck-hare. 9 * 0^°3 9 .x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . Ox . jtH a yoke. 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x . O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . J 9*9* . oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. Ox neighbour. JU$. Fract. as > Oj*-. ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird. * ^)U*-J . s/aw0. XVIII. 0'***^ * . 6 a I oxj O fl . Ox x J 5 . oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle.216 Part Second. v**M « branch. J ./Sre."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. as juft ' a s/aw. o*^**^/j xx Ox . a black beetle. O x . 1. OW« oW ^ - «x 6. 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. uW^ ^0 x £ i brother.' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest. Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard.jUJ j3~> 9 . 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*. a worm.» 4. 5/J bird. 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown. Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. o****9 Oj M t Sing. Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . Sx as J-^. Ol*^ rare . % ^j^j. o!>** 5 J«*». a fish. xj O^*^ « ^%.» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > . x* yu a nightingale. '0 5 % * * B 2. 9 Ox j door. lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5.

'•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel.§ 304] II.] 9 feather.. Nouns Subst & Adj.* >i wjl^w a firebrand. Sx£ 5x x£ Rem. 1. as Ja5l»ii mW. J-*-**. [v*** grain. has ^lj-«t . O^j9x0j 9xx 2. xO J . rare XX 9 . 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. &%+•* B 9. 9x 10. C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx .—Plur.. 50x Jjt*. # a bustard. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l).jU£* . 0>**> rar e . 3-i5 d^oj. a meteor. A. 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. ^L-a*. and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. 6 . O^fa maidservant. more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . rare 9 as »J>jj^. J^li. 3 ' XVIII.^ *» a wood-pigeon. 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. A continued. dates. oW* J . X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf. 9 x J . a strait. Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat. 0^> 6raw. 9x0x9 Ox roof. Fract.. the short side of a *%» . o^. o/" d^afe. J>»J. 9 ->x Sing. 9 xJ 9 £j . 9 x x 3. as 5x0 <jU*£» . as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. J-j-©^. a to»i6. Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**. 90 50x . 28 . &\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J . 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. a woman. 9x0 diminutives. xix. wing-feather. j Uai w. J x 9x0 a /<wra&. as x Jl5j a lane. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew. 217 Plur. an irregular plural ^jtj**J. not nightingale. ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. rare J . x x etc. { g § 8. Fractus. [7. The Noun. j%<^. x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. 5 x 9 . JUi. rare xJ . jtfrj a slave. the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . 9 . 5 . 9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-.

used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. . 3 . jtgtoS 9 ' fern.218 Part Second. [§ 304 A Plur. For example. O !/**• tffcui. XIX. The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show. J n L&** a channel for irrigation. et ^. verbal adjectives. as Rem. 1. used conjointly or interchangeable. geminate or r" «» tertise rad. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. as w^b oW*> a n<for.. O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. ^*o a fo# or child. which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad. J-J*. rational beings. or recluse. oW^j 5 a companion. J^ti. oU-^ 9 < . 9 i f /* commander . and 9 ^j\jy»*. J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . verbal adjectives. instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye. w^Jbtj a Christian . . I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. a friend. £)*$*** oW«*. from 9 * j 3 j^\. B 5. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. v~&j a chief . < Sing. ctj « shepherd. ^^^9 * a sand-hill. Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. poor. j~*\ a or chief. 4.] J-j«i. 9 . l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. Fract. ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. a youth. * J Ol)^ c***^ white. o^** 9 continued. j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J . applicable to signification. J-oLj stingy. cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 . jLc. .3 . l\js* ilwjj . are. 9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. . O^ . even in cases where we should hardly expect it.jLs> JxdS 6. from jt^-». oW^j1* s s . ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. ^L*>J. unweaned foals of 9 - camels. as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. V^ .

Jjli good. i*k*j continued. il©Ac JJbU. easy. 9 *IjlwI .. . *UJI ~' ot . l\~J. in the last.xx lUol X . easy.. ^y*-* 5 x liberal.— Plur.§304] II The Noun.> sj+i clear.l. *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. a deputy. l\*y*. a philosopher or sage. i%^ j^li a jtKxtf. a caliph. for £\ejj. It^xw JSU r*" «*&.d Adj. j-J. Nouns Subst. 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving.a. C J-oi5. 9 X learned. X i<^ ^^x stuttering. «£ . ^^ X ^^ X *W- . 9 x *s * j . 3 x stammering. liberal. some masc. iSCu. with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S . o£ .» Rem. in the former senses. l\}>j]. lLa». ws^J* a physician. right. J*^. (j^ 2\^j*>. j . lUybt . adjectives. lu&wl ~ ~. A Sing. i^Lu (for iUall.j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth. llSjusl . ila^^w 9 . ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. plain. *U*a. v*^* a relative. — JUg> o». J^U. i\^SJ>. i oW-*^ cowardly. geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad.j^o 3 x cfear. as * as ^U . 2. . ^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am.j-Jb (for r" Oi . HjJX. 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal. (from . 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light. but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad. adjectives of the same kind as XX. usually makes \J&%±. 1. a physician. masc.> noble. ^x 0£ . et ^J .. Fract. Fractus. U . 9 ' xx J . as J^J^d a friend. 219 Plur. A. i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ . . r£iU . . XX. ^^). ignorant. a friend. *L»I #xx jujlw strong. x x J . exempt from.1) . - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . « prophet. above . « /r^wc?. eloquent. I^aX*. .x B x x . . w««*». and XXI. iZj>\ 4-*^-. * . quit of. 9 x x x iS'^f. x . ^?/<xm. iUX»- f. iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. eloquent.-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. Oi . iL». a successor. i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£.

^5^*5 . {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken. C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner.220 Part Second. J / ^l+z. a virgin. ^jA * . xxiii. Sij-* drowned..j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . an * [ old hag.J . as lljJ^ desert. %c*. 0^***> verbal adjectives .. \J=>y>. or *->j**\. as ^J%~£a lazy. J^> s . ^a>. age. u4j*f 2. ^Ia. &*j paralytic. i£>£ a judicial opinion. 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing. i^**. . . l\su9 a oL3.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. etc. [§ 304 A Plur. ^>y* . Rem. * * JU*-. of ' body or mind 9 ' . . XXII. < viz. ^j^ '. stung by a 9 scorpion. . ^Us . £*}Ia9 . u&ij** sick. denoting injuries. Jbu* . ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. ^~& . Fracf. ^£j*~£a ' . bone behind the ear. ^y*t*3 . l£>^ a ctok. 9 . ^y0j*° J5{e> poor. j^j 3.rw. 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words. rough ground. pain. J**^ 9 y defects. J*»»^ a partridge. as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . 1. *f« a fool. scabby. as D 2. or J^»-t.JLo^. S'^Ui. jis^a . '0 * . ^jl*. ^5j£ &\& perishing. jUy goblin. and jjWj-k a polecat. 9 . ^iL»*-* w^w. j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^. . (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis . oW*** {J!j£~*. Ot . wounded. juS. ^^3 * s *~>ja. as J^3 y slain. 9 * + + . b s 9 . )\j&- . Ob*** drunken. \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake. AjjAas. Q angry. itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . verbal adjectives. 9 s »f silly. mangy.

1. feminine adjectives. JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. K/ 4/ . ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V».. In nos. Fract. dite. 9 £ xf . JJtp *£jG- a bucket. ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear. 'A*** x . $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner. 1. JU* Sing. (ace.JUi are D interchangeable.row^A ground. and genit. for iJlxs and x x Ox . JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x . J x x fem - v^**j and J**». ij>*3 . ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr. ^yUl ^jX**. ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken. * hackles of a cock." ^JUj (both with the art. . f* 9' it . ^Ut) and u6j\. JJt/s. opinion. xx XXIII. t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx . A continued.. 9x0 .Ud. 221 Plur. Nouns Subslti Adj. verbal adjectives J . the forms JUi XXX and .a hermaphro^^. xxx . . . <jL-o£ angry. XX Rem.^5^*. *»x x xxx a a as virgin. ^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a . Fractus. XXX ^jU&.pregnant. x&x xxx a judicial x xO . . the earth. ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. (ace. 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ. 0x ft as ajjJ**. t l£>^ a complaint. ^«i. ^»o\j\).jl^-fc. ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert. "it"' ^^3 # . »xx . and 4. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x . r. x tey. perplexed. JUi stands in the nom. 4. . 0/J(/ . . is ' x x x x x xOx always night. J xO x XXX hungry.JUAJI. x x x . A.— Plur. makes with the xx art. i£jl£* x x xxx . jj^L^b * xxx . ^** sweetmeat. x l^Ui as i\jjs> . ^Jl x fc . *. 5. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. ^UiJI). i JU . JUt XXIV. 2. ^>3 x . however.. J&. B xx . The Noun. jj^ULo xOx 2. as o!/*-* xxx drunken. x ^**. J . desert. Rem. ^W*. ^U^. The accus.§304] II. not superlatives as ^Jul female. ^Jj^h x»J 3. u±\j\ (ace. ^W*.

*5 t*J ^ et ^ . L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7. SjUl a ta#. x ^ ^ . ^Uis. \J>S}+: * Rem.) a sm. .]. bUj . —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form . etc. j*t^> a boon-companion. verbal adjectives as ix*». *». i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. for {J\ juk (§Ui). in nos. bU»w .222 Part Second. . 5J/ 9 6. aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. x x x . bt jca. (JJ. Fract. * bl£c *].. a swollen belly. j^Us 9 continued.^ en j)«m. 90 ^JW*. ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. iL*s. bljJb instead of . ^j*\^> 0% 3 . / x xx C *j!**a # present. to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179. as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. Sing. 9 . rem. j^Lfc. ^W-j 000 jJ^. Ja*. as x ^ x x x (Jul . aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding. 9 t 9v)t . ^gjbt * 9 . something over and the above. ^bl . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [^b>*. 90 * ^ ^£ . we find. iJjC*-. Rem.J5Us XVII.having 9 J .sad. j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried. 5 and 6. J as {Jj^L. jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. x b^b ./afe. *Ja». 0t 00% . Instead of ^Ui 00 . btu 4*fc) subjects.. fern. [Luc evening. disposition. jtx+l an orphan. XXIV.cautious^ wary.). "[§ 304 A Plwr. W x m* x nature. a)Ui. 9 * 8. We write 000 etc.-jtjJb.tJ^ B o>». et 9 . from verba tertise rad. Ja3. ^AZ-t 9 I . covered with shame. «/ x . blfcuo io^ bliftA. for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] . (for 4~Ja£. btj^. a). bt jJk a-mU . 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. 000 . SJ$*z the upper part.

yi£» a (fogr.JUs is thought to stand for JjUs . B ^ et 9. w~J^» . 9' J . J\*.— Plur.). Nouns Subst. j-jif 1^*5 a . as Jjo a husband.yLo otU fodder. as ^U.JUi (|Tjj). 3u^\j is a corner. 0> tjljj . A. t ** . bt^j.„ mill. Jjis fttfo). y*£- a wild ass. Rem. * 2J^*» (comp.^c> 9x J . 9 . Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from . for Here too . Fract. aiyU(rare). as juft ^" . \S\jJf. ^•y. Ox *J used for washing anything. * . ii>U]. S. JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass.» an uncle (by 9 . 90 * . a 9x J thread. . CtSJ.an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side). etc. X - Ox . {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^. thought to stand for ^J^l^i. a ^U* Sing.. 4> * * * aj^I*. stout stick. as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water. J**3 a 9' J J stallion.§304]- II.] C XXV. a s/a«0. ju*fc 2 - .L 9 * a pilgrim. The Noun. 3J^a*J [h^. Ox . A continued. from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad. . Fractus.ti Adj. tertise rad. AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. etc. Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier. clothes. JLoJ(rare). > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3. j£j * „- cattle. 223 Plur. § J J %&* 9 . as 9. ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem. a large water-skin. Ziyi* . bi>»a. * XXIV. 240. Jjtf. 1. as ^l^j b. ***». an intestine. J»*J.^tj-tfu a Christian. * * XXVI. 9* *3 . Jjti . ^ and ^ . JtftU 3 x . . . rem. Ox 2. &UU.1 (&**. the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 . x c) . ' [Rem. bljj for Here .

a n'w^. wnU.«aJI x S x x *lo-*t). 5 ft w^-L^ a companion. Ox x . j*j>a. ^w x > . j. as w*».# sfowe. as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels). G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . Sing. j*aJ a merchant.».. as j*}* etc. helper. Oftx .» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion. aXxi. mM£. u»j*- v^W. XXVIII. XXVII. keeper. XXVIII. watching. Jii(rare).. aJUa. SftxSx . J*5 as ^^j x a t" * . m'° ' as a£X». Ox x .. wJJa xx . bull. J^li . and the generic rft ( u . a guardian. Ox J*3 . # 3j& a pulley.« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer. v^J a. 3. SftxSx w>£> . jjj]. (rare). Q . j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. 6 ft x . . a)U*i x J^c*.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. J^J ^Jlb seeking. The forms J-j*i. Fract. a - servant. °" «xx Jjii. [§ 304 A Plur. ftx fracta. 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a . 1. The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. and ft x J xft£ XXIX. 2.l£»$ j^-». as ^U*J.xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). x a caw^Z. && Sftx (rare). 2. Sftx 6 . a %p . JiX». ^Juii and Jjii are . ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl). 1. J*\~* a traveller. are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur. XXIX. XXV. ^^U. Ox j. Rem..U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. J^ti.224 Part Second. a %' " . which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. <i b ' «x x 5 x x . circle. aAai * x . j*oj driver. jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr .lo # companion. * * * an attendant.' ". j&. fix S x . (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc. x x OxOx *. . «^U a *i # follower.

Rem. a poet. SjuA* chief. 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© . w>U>. ^^ ^ _. jj*£. il^^sw. juftl. j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass. Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. but from others. OOx ^>Ut a she-ass.) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb). lU$3l* . fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e. j^U. no^ x te»3yfiU . XX Ox OlUi. « and are : £&»»>.Jl*i.& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. o . feminine by signification. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e. X 9^9' E. s^ow^. HA*. 29 . ilj^at*. Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived.) from an obsolete J*** 0**w).>j. Ox x x . jLct. ^J&*. present. g. <U> ^>>>-o.xx a s&we. a). 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w. jus. o x sfow. c. w>la» -o. °° " T" * t ' l man.o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. /»jP ^ar^e. .» for instance. A. •> 2L/3-JU. Nouns Subst. . necessary to notice . x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x . OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. <U£^o oW man. 6. S^j. OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. a O x x a Ox doctor. it <& Adj. ul jLc.o l. From the preceding i obvious that one sing.« a sword. . Fractus. g. O x . J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat. x J ^^ x Jfcx . masculine by form.JL ^ D (besides jut. and J^U. ju*£. ^jLa^o (besides a. « x . J»x Rem.o». v x x a>^3. ib^oto. The Noun. A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " . Sjufel. of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x .—Plur. jl^». O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£. O and I^^juLo. Ox x The forms XXVI. OOx J J )\£\. Ox j*~> a sea. wim^. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. a he-ass. see rem. %—^. see rem. x w^-lo a companion.o. 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx. Sjujco. sing..«). which 0* x J pi.g. (as j^l* x pi. . ^xxJ lUxw. ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U».xx JJu a x . (as JJUU perishing. £tjj-oc*. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr . SjUj. llo^-bt*. a).§304] II.

9 J Oi its plur. *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house. are exhibited. Fract. 9 in the former sense the B plur. the consonants of which are all radical j . which consist of four or more consonants. v>^ * . sing. or ^0 . X X Sing. Or. v>-^t. (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather . ^J^J^. >U^. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . w*J^ a fish. t [§ Oi . j For example. fract. 305. 9*0 a fox. its plur. 3^*1 J^^ . JJ 9 ISC. is O^o or OLot. bridge. as a letter). as wJju j *' . 4 ** + j^. *^*&y» a ta&& 2. (2) a fountain. &>cms£. (3) a tribe. fract. fract.-. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example.226 Part Second.. O.gems. s jl^. . J^tjc». in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 . x ' jj^jJfcl*. In such cases. —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech. (2) 9 J J a valley. ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. as f-t-o}. Plur. a column or (in a book). 3ju£. in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . x jdbl£. (jL^l. in the following table. 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness. Again. star. >y^>. £#£> signifies (1) an eye. £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it. ** . I. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc. * 0>tu. if the has several meanings. ^sS^s a streamlet. in the second. 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth. in the third. worshipping. along with the corresponding singulars. + • 3* serving. obUj X jJt^*. CHJ/J 9 * . (J*lil. J*UU).» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . (4) a distinguished man. Quadriliterals (5 not included). *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. in the latter almost always : Owl. eye-witness. of substantives and adjectives. to take another instance. JJUi X 1. 9 * * . (4) the interior. xx . X j*U3. O^W- The forms of the plur. 9 x or used in preference to the rest. (2) 9 a verse of poetry . (3) peculiar nature or essence. or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj. or ^Lftl 9 9 . j j has jdbtyw. iifcut. a finger. fract. in the second. ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. 6x * if prefixing !.

b. make. in that case. Jjlii (Jwrf. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx . 6. aw open XX x »-U-o. ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t. and X X usually j^U*.— Plur. [f^j-o suckling. . O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x . e. the 9x . compare perience. Fract. a station.. Fractus. as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase. J i* x x remains unchanged. ^. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving.« a cwr/ (from «. of ^tu.ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. Ua». w>3-d) a misfortune.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town. j»yk* . 9 < ul x halting -place. y]. The Noun. rad. J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. . J^lit e. *Ag»i means of J i. cont. § —but 240). Nouns Subst. w^lcc*. in the e. Jclli) .> ». ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J . Rem.X^. especially with the superlative meaning. of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad. jjU-« x or dwells.»).»>.>). a r. rem. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick. for instance. I. ex- w^U^ . [and. In the plur. *^JlaL* . ^.c. and usually ^^Ltfuo. J*U5. *~b\j*c]. as J Jj^.g. J »»xx form XVII. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert.1 xf . of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). J Jxx into (. C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» .§305] II.o a claw or J talon. the productionis into hemza (5). viper. x x 9 x ?»-. ^.. £m<7. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I .) 2uj**3 trial. In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. j-»Uu«. A. as^jtu. i<i«^ meaning. a plur. <sLo*}Lo a reproof. XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>). fract. 227 Plur. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a.& Adj. x x clil (for x* ^lit. J jU*o . ^. ^— is not converted after the as happens. XXIIL. t* « . often taking the form JjtJI.L^«. . >jtjt no. or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li. Jxft* see § 309. £Jj-U a x x . 0/ a finger. § 304.g. XX Rem. ^jXJI . J^OI] J ^jt Adam. AcwL.g. a minaret. J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar.

Jjtil (J-^Ut. Ox x Op a garland or crown. (jU3 s&?r£ drawers. ^Ut |S [4*». JWu)4oat j Sing. rem. C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture. jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx .*. auspicious.>*£-> X X fe/tf. J x£ . x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt . desert. [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*. ^£jly* an<^ jV 0. J x x . ». x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>». ^jltf J (for x x .« a #03/. an ^ ostrich's nest. 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed. six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr.228 Part Second. O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . J statue.t & . O*^lo a . o ^) x . ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah. a litera productions x o j x x j. & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky. £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. 0x0 JU«j # chronicle. i^fbtfL* X xx .j-**Uo x . xx . . J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303. XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*. S x xx .jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble. J**uJ.) x .t . jjI£»*n)I. as O^*** a sultan. J*ftlii. xx .JUi-j and Ols*j. grandees. Je^tji). £ . J*»»!. B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * . JP J **3Ui W X .£ . /. j JU65. of (I. (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included). as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being. ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx . inauspicious. II. J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ . Fract.bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA.] . J § j o oj devil. w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. l l. >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp.j-Jslw X . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. [§ 305 A Plur.^o$j\ a mottled snake. ^Ia>. D 2 o c o ra<7^. . ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. .o jooor. i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. *Ujj . ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. JJlii (J*tft. I. nobles. ^jt/j) C x . x£ . xg . Jj.t a tent-rope. . j**u5. £>*a*\j~t X .> a Bactrian camel. o3 »J ^». ^>U»w a X J wolf. flowers. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds. w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x .

a spring. of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast. curds. J**£?.0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning. JJU3 ( j-^lit. J^lii. J JJU* . 6. jy^^J hemorrhoids. from a form \Jy£\) JjLai. . * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. plur. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. J § § i** j jJbU^ . t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284. her. « J xx . b\j«3 a carat. of V jtaftt a dust-storm. apum). J^JUaW. The Noun. x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her. a public xx x£ ( an account-book.ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 . a bath. xxj g g x hojSj. J x Conversely. is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . has ?»-^W. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. j**U3. x g Ox « Ox register. from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges.> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. Sing. from^oUl*. B as^^Jt^a. a dungeon. ^Jilia. Fractus. J-J. II. J x£ . f fi r.—Plur. xx make j-Jlo. Oy'» a furnace. xx JxxJ off. ^j\yi> a of poems. t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . J^jlw. ^I^ai. Rem. chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio. JJUs sing.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov). and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo. license. The plur. =^i[±. . j+^l^c. J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . Rem. J Ox x «. Fract. in modern Arabic. C plur.» JjUxo 9 ' .) J . form either rare or does not (pi. 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. i>£$t>>. & Adj..§305] II. a collection Ox J office or bureau. cont. a sacred claim. has J^Jl^aW and. j x x j*~*\y}. o o£ - jo. x x having a young one with clever. A J^V') i x£ . ot^ 7?"W>' brocade.l. Compare rem. jtL>3 « dinar. u-^wol^ a. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . 229 Plur. xx OxO Ox x Ox J . signet-rings. (v?^*) quinsy. J J^tji. Nouns Subst. k. used. a x x 3 x buffalo. J vestibule or apartment.

Fract. I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop. aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes. SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. —and S . angel. w^Sa). a pupil. . StJj T» J (Heb.g. Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . « money-changer. of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — .« . oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J . x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . S^-oL*J XX . Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor. tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen. S Sxxx « Moor. relative adjectives. (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). jLjU and IjjCf. a-jJLy-*. iUwl) a master. xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's). Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f . which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>». S x . III. [§ 305 A Plw. JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx . Syr. 03-*^-* Pharaoh. x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar.« S stocking or &?£& < . jj—»•». ajjUu* a . consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . Ko/xrjs). J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. Sing. . ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . T&Sfi. — especially many E. liHis. a teaclwr. (Pers. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda. as iUwt (Pers. SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X . J . Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers. of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . XX « X 2. Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters.230 Part Second. w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic.Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter.A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c . Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X .—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. Chosroes) the king of . a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords. J xx . Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). 1. TraTpiKio?). a great letters. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. J i>j. C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin.

J_«-l£L»). ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt. 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar. * X i Ox xx . 2j6 a x£ . * ajJUi continued. Fract. generally the last. or 2 ' " » . Persia.g.^ AiaJ Ptolemy. x£ . C x 2 x . of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. she- 5 Ox J 0x camel. ^jlii. 4J& « <%. besides . ca^o. has. Zazy xx . J*frUt .>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. jilt and XV. b). and XVIII.—Plur. OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. of nouns which contain JxOx E. & Adj. D JliS. fract. 0X XX JU>Uo. and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. and the J letters of prolongation). O-Jlii. Fractus. 4-^>l 2ri6e. more rarely V. and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. <LJlku oo/acotikos). 264. more J In forming the plur. rejected. the plur. oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale. 0JO* J XX . a XX jfatf. of the plur. letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract. Jlii. . 9/ III.» the x x (for ^^l^w).1). ca&e. x£ t^jbl) XV. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . 0X . XX five or Rem. ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j. XIII. In particular. The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb. xx A Sing. ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. and XIX. i Jjjtji x . 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. J^JU< J v> a quince. a like. . rem. j£~*\ '. literals 5 «S Rem. £>yfii* x . though rarely. plur.. * £ r* * t 5^ x x . are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. an equal. Kg. j»ola»^ «x J Ox. Nouns Subst. This form is also found. £)&* a £Xol. Lr>ft. jut (for t^ju. and XIV.§ 305] II. 4*-*!^/. x XX woman. J5U3.« tyrant^ a giant. 231 Plur. iJUif make Jclil. . or secondary plural). fowwf. J>-Jt. The Noun. and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. 6. Sjyi\. forms XIII. 3i»wl£»l. a. J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . Ox a 9 xx x spider. J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. one of the radicals xx . ljA*a*. A.-w^llS). x as jU».

J^j a man. J . t 6 J x £ J Jl^il. O^U*.a» . XIX. X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc. anything woven or plaited.. jutj^. she-camels having x £ Oxx J V. ^su oox camels. is °» J ^ OU.'-. pi.xxx Ox . \^yo a Sufi. ^Ua. w*». j**\)\ x? . J|y> « saying. A x J Ox also be derived from V. OUUjI (with the dimin. £ijje . families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ. a * J3l*». J »»x x £$*a*. XVIII. j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech. j»\xj\. Ox JUjfc.> OJOxJOx jj>. Rem. ^tjit. *LJt. O'NjUfc. Ob^wl ~s . fix xxOxxx jb « house. . J "1 £ x x 4. Cxt^^»». Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink. ^Ut *Z . J^a. . Otjulj^.t^o. jUjt. x £ XV. j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk. t an iron -y»jL»J. Jjiij-XVII. [^u». # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter. j^i. '. J>ai..lo a female companion. JuJU*-t x £ j . a party or sec£. 4-Jatt.j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j . JjUj. . family. og Oxx jJa. . t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . J>jJ».. j a vessel. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). j-o^. JUi.\. ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls. Oxx . jj-c*.. x OU^J. §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine. XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI. Ox < JjtJ. a he-camel.1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc. smoke. O3-0.Ou». and a few other forms. j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . AjJtjjj^l. • ea#-£e. oZ *Uj a building.. especially those that indicate the — relations of sect. Oxx j^xx III. il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites . OtjJ^k.xxx . <L>j£\. Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house. ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as . j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number. joay.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees).».. J^Jj^t..ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV. foe>£.>^Ut.. houses. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower. » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% . 9+9 . a he-camel. rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass.232 Part Second. &£>>). J^lSt jJite a nail. as ^k**. Oxx a she-camel. JU-.»x O*^^- Again. great d. OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*. J Ot^ji Cxfc . ^UiM. Olf"6 0<. a speech. VI. x (for . or when their number is indefinite. dUUt.. many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives. and JUjI. "x OlSLJ.*. or clientship.>l «x q .

(men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking. a jii. 4JL». x O x 6£ .*). who SJ slaves.e. the former a number of individuals viewed . (k)|. and can be used as masc. J^J). XX ' %>. ^^Jt. who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus.306] j II. a mole. i. The consequently. <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb. A. 30 . Rem. h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. of Marwan. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x . 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^». they are all of the feminine gender. singulars with a collective signification. The Noun. atyl (from a x »»x £ sing. C the rad. aJlxJ. Nouns Subst.-xOxOOx* a woman. dU«.. too. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . a spring. B e. . rarely J x x . mules .. persons who own or &eep camels. XgOtf l#-*)). oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general.jjl. aJULw travellers. $)}$ Aram. O^J» human being (Heb. horses. for x . 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi). water. dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . oUw .Olk)|).Ui (from . [ajI^ j^w- cferers]. < fil « P - «P« o . ^UJ. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. dl^ot (from a sing. IZ. ' anus. in use. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians. collectively. SjUsu spectators. of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir.. together. whence #*« fWX. strictly speaking. * .1 & Adj. or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. yottfA (juvenilis). Cwl tfAe «£/» . As regards their meaning. several individuals 6 . *U>. the partisans 5. S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. The plural of some nouns is anomalous. dUw. OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. 306. J0 X For are D example. l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. |Z. w. X*. X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed. Hence.jl^~J (from the rad. as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. Fr actus. w^w. dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat. a oxi x 4jj-ojJt. o Oly-ot (Syr.— Plur. asses. See § 233 268. 5 #}« n^X). only by a constructio ad sensum.

Jill. or ^y**c. Rem.)*. A noun may be w^**. Triptotes are those .234 Part Second. A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns. .-L^-* whilst . Ixfcj. The former may be styled abstract. limitation as to number. as^o^i. plurals of paucity. people or tribe.). see § 8. if C of course. Juil. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju. substantives 308. The Declension of Nouns.). the latter concrete collectives. those which have only two terminations — Ace. are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10). and XV. A declinable J^. and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246). on 246 and 292.. o j declined with tenwln. The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c. a). 1 (Nom. noun may be declinable. • • J or possessed is of. which are indeclinable. for one of the forms alone be used. or simply o »» ^jSioZc. plurals of abundance. 1 D (Norn. a established in. fracti 307. or the Parts of Speech. as Jo*J bees. Ij&. it is necessarily employed without any 4. Diptotes are (Gen. or . XIV. fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz. XIII.. either triptotes or diptotes. only to such nouns as have also other plurals.. The Declension of Undefined Nouns.) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. [yjjl camels. named lj5£* £>*»». * viz.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural).*aJl § l\+~i\ a. the nominal character or nature. jSL*s> an army . (1) Undefined and adjectives are. . These are called *.£ o^uU j*s.. _ (Gen. Hi declined without tenwln. The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII. and whilst the rest are fy***.. rem. 2jJ\. in the singular number. I. 2/ie JS& sheep]. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . and \1 or 1 (Ace. —Etymology u . This observation applies..

as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 . *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). A. found in the plural feminine. —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable. 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ. .. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt. (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence. or 5 x ^ j^Jt.. jjt— (Nom. Nouns 8ubst. at the on.<& Adj. for ^£j\^. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. plural of 4Jjl»>.) and <>j_ (Gen. cjSLti\. t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite. case . as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c. * * of an indeclinable noun.\. Ace.§308] II. in the singular v>jj-3. J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. *3 where J&*». x and the pluralis fractus.)*. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes. the : nunation of compensation. This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition. 4ifA«JI. also called . — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent. and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U. 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. tJie a * the vowel a voice). I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word. 235 * * common (3) to both genders. J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive. stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat. The Noun. as in the in jlj*.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice). is a designated w*cudl. . viz.— Beclen. 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter. possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U. as CA+JL**. (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. ..\ duy^j. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih. of Nouns. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*. * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. in 3*0*0* between the definite. jlaJI). tfAe of annexation . j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U. as J^-j.

Triptote or First Declension. Ace. Substantives. exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309. Ol— Ot- (Gen.j->_ (Gen.236 Part Second. — Etymology Oi— (Nom. for the feminine.) and .) and or the Parts of Speech. B . — substantives and adjectives.. [§ 308 A gender.). Ace.)*. — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. viz.. (Nom. a). for the masculine.

A . Substantives. A. 237 Triptote or First Declension.& Adj.— Declen. Nouns Subst.§308] II. of Nouns. The Noun.

—Etymology or the Parts of Speech.238 Part Second. [§ 308 B .

for t^«ot and^ul. G. For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. J ^i Op. which are Sing. as J '' A*i C^tj. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. Gr. Lane and Fleischer. The following nouns are diptote. L*-5. The Noun. A Masc. 180.. in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive . 139 seqq. iSjii . the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. and JJU* etc. . « son.] Rem. G. J3U* (XVII. ^jJa*^^ sultans. Jstji (XVI. & Adj. j-bU5 bridges. and II. and ^o*Ut. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb. b. ^i.. viz. A. Gen. C J J J Nom. D. JJU* of nouns which have causes. Ace. jj-«t. flexional a.. a. Faik C 524. Plur.§ 309] II. as quoted by Zamahsari.—Declen. jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t.). (of jJte poor) Fern. Ac. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda . (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N. of Nouns.. ^oi. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. . Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti. Nouns Subst. also used (see § 19. (I. w*5U^ wonders. . a man. d). Comp. Adjectives. that is to say. fract. Loijt [According to i.. Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. Schr. p. the forms etc.). j) viz. Kl. as £*&\y. There are two words in Arabic. more than three radical letters) . Aja* Rem. 239 Diptote or Second Declension. 309.

j^. s without a husband. but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. its and of fern.] b. btjUfc presents (compare . rem. and ^Us fract.1. ii > at . of j^. Hii (XX. of J r*s - x Op which the fern. —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J . ). Various common nouns and adjectives . (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. and 234—5). plur.. e). Jj^-t. is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical. &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_. 2. f.g. is ^ar<?. ^Xati (XXII. J ' i men. (XXIV. «// together. iUil. without O x a wife. of *U***. Compare elif y and c. J s bi e. &*i\ (XXL) . wise men. are as J*ojt poor.' first . Excepting those in which the § 213). dX*j\ poor. needy. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232. is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295. viz.240 Part Second. another . Ji'j pl ur fract.) and b. the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. rem. c. and of fract. l\sC£=>.). as [§ 309 A (. is .virgins. other. of etc.1. W plnr. £^>.> white (§ 296). b. Jj^t a hawk. ij>*>'.. J*ojl « humming . adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . . C Compare and Rem. and 'I c. viz. \SjZ~* drunken 295. fern. w-Jjt (l e. JU3 (XXIII. £*a». as j\js.11). iUZj. *-©**. J*». ••11 T« admissible {.) . needy. (a) Common nouns and memduda a. Rem. /?). rem. . Ju«U.t a green woodpecker. as \£^> memory. maksura radical . 16.1. by elif as a virgin. &&L viz. ^^S. triptote . j*>*-\ red. /? (*1— ) c.g. /?. [(e) iUwt. (compare § 299. wonderful . — Etymology c. of Jjt. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb. a). ^^-j*?b. (3 wounded /?). and 296) . as v**i^ more f. iU-cu. ^Ct j prisoners. si j - w£ . B £^. or the Parts of Speech. XIV. £-aj. its fern. J*it. /?. and § 301.). a widow. of this form are usually t regarded as triptote.

as iUj and w. 31 . —Adjectives a. Q x jU*w stupid. such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi. ^jtoju a boon companion. 9 3u*$j&. Rem. is x x f- x x '' 295.jl». retain the diptote inflection blackish. iLojl. vile. ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. ^0 6y New. rem. a) SxOxSxxOx f. 5 x The word ^l». one. are rare. . gravelly water-course. Mtm % three. . rem.§300] II. tofi (mo? slender . of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3. ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun. Adjectives of the form J*£l. eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (. A. dun). [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . • o j Q%*i . a * withered. have also % x J the form x J ^^*s. ^U^-o stupid. ***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^. ^Jflui a wide.g. are all triptote.jl».—Diptotes. 0^**> J x or x O^** J . as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. when used as sub.g. & Adj. black). x ^^£ ignorant. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x . a. 241 J -it Rem. as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken. o x ^la^o x o and <jl». stolid. mean. 9 x x ^jS^La thin. jjt^cu Christian.^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . ^^o. Nouns Subst. —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. ^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. their fern. 6. JjjS stony j * o p mottled).-a»-cJI) . is &%x3 295. »£OU and wJJlo. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . or jjUa^w . A which would be very b.angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to . as being formed by adding 3_ 295. The Noun. « x xx S x . slender. Some J x x > of these.^o ^Ij^S. fljUdL* Ao£ 3 . Rem.^o o O x x ' dry. a) . Rem. Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. ^*^i Jx so x J and so. okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion. j * oS e. O*^**. e. (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern. however. stantives.^o.

requires an indefinite and so in other cases. (a) Foreign names of men. l^ij^j Zachariah. l ^U*** Hittan. a). [with the exception of of the forms Solomon.£> Noah.>U Adiyd. ^^ Sulma. [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. 4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. 5 J Joseph. [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. as (§ ju^t.242 Part Second. viz. (used) as an adjective. maksura (compare a. o!/** Imran ('Amram). as . because J^». (y) Proper names in jjt_. Jka*~>t Isaac. is declined without tenwm. when it is an indefinite noun. *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al. letters. <bjJ Lot. JUi (§ 333). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. /?) and . declined without tenwm (e. we must employ the word nunation. whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al. every. as O J *. e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b.g. j^yJ LUla. y and p and b.jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman. after it in the genitive . is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. jjib David. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. a. l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al. memduda (compare John. as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- . in the sense of each. oW*-* Sufydn. as A#] Many proper names . those that were originally ijlyj*. with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I. j-**-\ red) . which is an adjective. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. J&\ tremor.g. excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis. as ^*At/jt Abraham. c. .

[Fem. 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). '(c) Common nouns letters. e. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna . S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men). though 3 consisting of only three letters. j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. j$*. A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). . . Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . 3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. letters. of the feminine gender. owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* .. as^oUai Katdm. Oli^c and even Oli^. Gur. e. the second of which has gezma. or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or. w-A*j Taglib. Ols^c. proper names in * Oec. 3 * * jyo Tyre. x x x* £a*-U» Talha.—Diptotes.g. The Noun. jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM. Ot keep ** * . oUpl . These latter. which do not end in foreign origin. ace. Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen.g. w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. proper names. consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names . cfc Adj. Yurdmil. icj Ztogw (a woman). 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . J*U>j Bakas". A 3 d * f and J*$. A.§ 309] II.j*j Zufar. *-. * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty. their tenwln. are trisyllabic. B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name). / j-a* Egypt. J^j planet Saturn. j£Z*£ Yeskur. which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the . Oli^c gen. or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar. 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. Nouns Subst. * w>o J/ if Dor ib. Gu&m. juJj Yizid. and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). as Ol^pt gen. proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters. ££c M"ekka. D (6) common Proper names.] 3_. — But name fem.\jj the sun. jZZ> Satar. >oUj Tumddir. or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) . ace. joa or jUA Hind. ace. *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). j»\j^ Haddm. ^y~j Yubnd. have . w^JU a scorpion. Fem.^£**. however.

" x x *£Ubo. ^ juu. jl»s». cxi. JUi. Words of the form JUS. x O^-a*. some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1. J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*.« £y* (Fdik i. jLo*. last letter is r. D xx gen.).. xx x nom. in terms of abuse.» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313.Jt Sur.. J JO O^-oj-o*. The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J .C J~J b sceleste ! f. ^aCOvilis! Rem. nom. G. as a.death. Rem.—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable. etc. x acc. jb\j\ a year of famine.^Us the female hyama.^IJ^. as^&lii. c. foil. 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all. ! f. Rem. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421. ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii. of which the jUa- the female hycena. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*... for we may acc. j*\j«o war. l**-J*o (§ 264). Each word may. u^l5j. and Besides being used as proper names. forms. viXJju.. the second being in the genitive. and ace. aj^j-©*. J»^-*t. *jjj. say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*. *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. ' . 10.. Compare Beladorl 60. last and Baidawi D. and are wholly indeclinable . gen. even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. [§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us. and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x . as ou^^w. are » almost invariably indeclinable. however.] . word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. w>U».. w^ 1. e. Ofrxo^rw. be declined separately.) or w^» .244 Part Second. Oj^o». 5). ou^Lii. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech.g. J^». J Li b o . . J-^-ctj*. *£*!*» improbe f. gen. O^-o*-.) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j). ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city). the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. ftffl*. xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». Hadar (a star in the Centaur).

o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c. J + w-^JBI. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural].g. -*4jLa4 lamps. viz. are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met. *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i . for there x x x . J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu. Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln . The Noun. Nouns Subst & Adj. word . from j-olc. . d. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*. as ^jUJk.yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning. jt».. . which in is Jxx Jjjuco. ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective. Hence we say <jU»». i <o x . Hassan. radical u**. 245 Rem. grammarians to be nine in number . and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb.§ 309] II. J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name.L~o mosques. derive it if we derive this name from the . is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**. UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form. e. J x Ajjjut* from A^blS).jll». o j$} * . ' * * . a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil.g. (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI. (a) . The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln. . termination £)\—. the case naturally Proper names. w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i. J 5 it is triptote. is e. Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai. are usually reckoned by the viz. D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination .jt_. x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is. w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in .—Diptotes. A. so jlo^. when used indefinitely are employed in . 6* *> J x S Rem. as £©i»li.1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. or transformed. There however.

Petrus. ^ (verbal adj. asjH^. XVIII. 0— (according to E. . Jjtst. ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. 245). which ought regularly ^j— . in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. Z+iuo^S + . /?). toft for 3-ac. ace. which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . [§310 in form but not in meaning. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl. as u*j^} a. ^5*-j> and L»-j . which ^ is ^ . or j- (§§ 213 and . and those in . L>JJt* Cjte .) for ^5^^. for ^y*t. so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). L^tj . Nouns ending in — .. ^-« for ^^^o. in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ . >*o£. 312. though feminine in form. ace. . y b. for ^— . f$ c. as j^. 311. « ^ j«Xai. ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb. ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. acc. 1*^*3 . follow in the nom. o* B the termination jjt_. for and l^-os . Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c. D >»!. but § 166. first declension. as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). to end in All plurals of the second declension. 310.g. and gen. Jjuo for ^>*^. Tab. ^^ ^or for ^5^. acc. for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj.1. C E. Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . »~w (verbal ^a-w. + JaaJI Oj j. a. yet is the name of a man). in the ace.. L**.246 as Part Second. ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309. ace. Ww . ace. retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. the first declension instead . ace.) and Tab. and § 218). (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI. U^«o j*3 . (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI. 6. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. /«/ fern. for j_ (§ 167.g. -q. a). in + J*a)\ J c. . . which follow the J ' . jl£ for jjl£. ^J for ^^J (^^3).) for 1jJa> acc.

nom. . . they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^. and gen. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. § I 78) . and conbut in the ace. j\*>~a.o properly the beautiful) never have the article. and have ^-. and gen.. Subst.] 314. c. it loses the tenwin. ^U* . b. and gen. vol. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. n^ . if. (a) by adding a noun in the genitive. 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. Nouns. plur. 247 ^-). a^U. and substitute 311. j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. ACC. cases arise.. 313. II. Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. J rem. j E. (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article. The Noun. Ox Undefined nouns I . v. A. ^y**o. the following D If it belongs to the first declension. j i&l^ *" .g. Gen. acc. man. [Rem. ) t JU-pt the men. 3 ii. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*). they remain true to the second declension. by prefixing the by adding article J 2. jt^». for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o). .. therefore. become defined : 1. ^jU^o. The of the acc. § 309. plur. - (for They moreover in retain. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. the & Adj. disappears along with the tenwin.—Decl. l\j^~o. —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining).§ 314] II. 4 plur. w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined). The Declension of Defined Nouns. ace. nom. . of Def. the chaste {woman). i^j^l the city. d). or (b) a pronominal suffix.. of the second. nom.

the following changes are produced. 312). OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< .> Norn. gen. Gen. (b) minations of the first.f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men.* cM-^t ->*. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). x Gen. b. oUJiyjt the darknesses. Acc. D the book of God. JUg city. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^. \J^. Acc.*! JU. sanus masc.j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . c%JLLoJt the creatures. assumes the Norn.). Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension. Norn. The plur. w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed. x J G x 0>o everyday. 3 B Norn. oCubl a. ^yU^Jt from .. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314). and jbecomes triptote. as acc..jU*o. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun. M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth.» wonders of creation. sanus fern. 315. ^yt from ^& I. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311. the black (m. part of the the men of the Gen.j x x i . oU^JI the believing (women). it loses the tenwin. Rem. j^^^t the nobles. ^j+jjJsAS. Gen. Acc.248 Part Second. l5-h>^I from 0^5. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur. Acc. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem.

var. J9^. of w>t. f*. a]. ft!)3). and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father. x ~-t a ^» brother. Ace. less frequently . ^oi.\. instead of ly«ot. k. a. Nouns. *£). D. as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>.a>. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt. HE) constr. U. and Gen. etc. as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. o x 249 Rem. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. and the second Ubl the m t genit. ^yf. after £>!. according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp.. 6 J 15 whilst ^.ja a thing. in all the three dial. The Noun.* The word £. rem. first Rem. C f. lengthen itit s * j x at Norn.§315] II.. The words w>t 5 a father. £fa mouth (Aram. cases [bl being. the preceding vowel.-i. J X makes Gen. in the ace. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . G. S\. Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin. has in the - B «x . either X : XX Nom. which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. for etc. with suffix ^Jpfi. see Comp.. ^^o*-. etc. the owner or possessor of a thing. b. gen.] Comp. for w>t. 321. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. xlix. ±j\. La. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. Ci. * X )l UUjU . i of Def. where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus. J>. ii. after rejecting the tenwin. ^1. bt. a father- A . for yl. 5 P & Adj. j^\ lit. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. yiA. ^5.I. or: ^3. as * The same Gr. X vol. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive. a. Ace. Subst. ^a~. . does not do J xg wrong . etc. J. M. ^t. p.— Decl. 142 seq. in-law. § 39. Noldeke in Zeitsehr. \ dialectically.

q.>£ etc. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. the son of O^t. I saw the king's sons. \j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen. when a genitive follows. the final dUL^Jt ^ . c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1. or the Parts of Speech. jJU. the son of Gafar.< >««. ms belong the two holy temples of God. —Etymology jAJto. h). C Rem. lxvi. *£U*Jt yij eU. 12) and often in old Mss. of the king came .ijj. Ace. ^>\ ^^jU. wjU^t *O>0 an example. On the elision of the in Rem. for those who are \^3*$ h** c). the sons their swords. from two 'Abu Bekrs. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual. to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came. rem. b. the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. ^o^iL^I drawing Gen. C-.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. poems. rem.-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence. [§ 315 A j^m ^ c. takes a kesra instead of a gezma. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. [The latter was formerly preferred. Muhammad.jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 . the Kor'an (Sur. ^ Muhammad. If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. Instead of OU^. the t son of Halid. j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302. or warning. (viz.] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn. the form djj\. * J tit* St to J Acc. a daughter. we may use.250 Part Second. . ^>~$ . see § 21.

ly3UJJ» darkness. and § 317). my of book. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. rem. this letter passes before the suffixes into J. when it has damma (Nom. as |L»J it women. »-! and .. as aOt ^akAo a. this letter is • changed into (or rather. wjt. Ajusa Ais book. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft . sing. Of the words mentioned in § 315. § 7. suffix when it has kesra (Gen. nom. the final j takes ^— j i and if damma. fractus. a. plur. the dual ' 9 . the final vowels of the sing. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. c). j_ and jl.. and plur. rem. as acc. a. the genit. with it o^LJ.). fract. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc). * and plur. * j * * If the plur. i)UL£> thy two books. from £Jty. j_. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> . 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. see 316. plur. sanus masc.. gen. sanus fern. added to the nominal term. before a following gen.§316] II. A these terminations become. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra. ^JH+su. remains unchanged. Subst. . to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. 9 t 9 t Rem. The Noun. ^U^. sanus of 4-i». A. &yJ sons. and into £$. the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book. rem. i)yJ thy sons. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. the B following changes take place. from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s. lose the tenwln. of *jtf . plur. ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers.) .—Decl. are elided . instead of the gezma 20. (a) Triptotes and the plur. & Adj. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza. ajLj. (c) plur. though incorrectly. sanus fern. my gardens.. as icjU£» fract. his women. from *->*$&. If the noun ends form in 3. as ioju a favour or benefit. ^_ # (see Q § 185. from OU. of Def Nouns. OUAI? darkness. * ^ . begins with an elif conjunct. d*L»J.

The pronominal genitive.c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo. i "g . j ray xxxxj sins. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom. nom. for 6xJ . Jy. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ . * js- [§ 31.-iA X j but .252 Part Second.*)li. o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes. from fract.. oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases. from ^^JLyO (^^q. The Pronominal Suffixes.. and likewise forms ^. — ^x my mouth. from or . *£U$.>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). dbt . nom. X ^-OA X or . i * Jbt. for «*t . attached to nouns to denote the 317. when the word ends in ^_ or ^_.-£^L~o J y J . with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p. —^JA makes J . i)^Ii or >^JUa.g. suffixes which denote the Genitive. x . but X X J more usually. l*±>\. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^. XX x 5 x x J plur. the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—.£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA. and suffix of not . t3 gen.«>. oy X . £ IjUa£. sing. note *. x x J of^L**. which a. &»J\. a.L». plur. o ray Muslims. Rem. d) being simply elided. p. for xxxj ^ U^. the kesra X ^_ (see § 185.. in the long vowels t_.-jt. x i ^. rem. ^Ui. «$jt ii i i gen. •^ X . 4«i. ' £)y>\. j si . <jui |x**x j j . The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). A-ot • " ace. GZ E. rem. ic^*-. xOxxJ ray taw slaves. sing. _. x ^_. ^UUafcaJaa. X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit. becomes ^. in all the three cases. and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_. are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative . of ^U^ . D from ^>A. for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. Further. xxj from <jU^. is ^-. APPENDIX. the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. of j_. from &***$£. A o .l>» .(§ 185). for ^gt^A. ^bUw*. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. a«i.^Uoli).^uo) or ^jAJsua* . ray ^0 my slaves. X ace.7 i .-JL _: — B see § 315. j^t^A for my Zove. for L5*«olS (.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi. dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge..

<t*Z>jl». U^jU^. [which is the or^^U^).J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. ^5. The Cardinal Numbers.] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b. US. ' ' S * If is [Rem. . plur. his two female slaves. c).g. of them both. <u\S£s of his book. c. arise.>A«). no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. 13 § 38. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. B. of the change of damma l^A. little son has both ^Xj and ^. t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316. Just as the verbal rem. 1. the What in o. ii. du)o\. i^Ui. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc. into ^j b. rem. : 318. is used dialectically w>l. 253 ( Ly a ftJft. like — From words instead of § ^>A. rem. or ^_. rem.] The Numerals. ^Jb. ^£_. particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol. Rem.] Rem.§ 318] II. ^j\&. into kesra after — . f-\. E. The Numerals. ^Jb. sanus of j^aJxcl*. from QjkitfOt*. has been said in ii § 185.— Cardinal. d. j**-. applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. attached ! is in as w>j b. — [^> a 185. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — . suffix . the form ^I^A. peojrte [Com p. yj^A^auc.9 his murderers. — On ^>A. The Noun.

&}$ (H becoming as in gjf. c). b. but the the Heb. . gender and conversely. The Assyrian therefore. plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th. ##. aj*}U. form. £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. is istin apparently identical with cognate languages. sixth. and the ordinal adj. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. — C*w stands.254 Part Second.» jw. Rem. the fraction ^ju. S-mLoj (§ 6. — Etymology >L?$3. a. D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . and v v J I exchanging with ^.. . The daghesh in the Heb. a decade. fern. . for sedsu). . D 319. The Jewish Aram. for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14. }Hfi. and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». snow. [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. fern. masc. a. or E. numbered are of the masc. form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic. only one or two forms deserve notice here. or the Parts of Speech. = J?£^. ten women. and. sole. according to the § Arab ^juj.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy . lexicographers. ten men (lit. for one in the sing. as in tfiPft. men. a sixth. or sUJ j-&s. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb. ^ rwe. JU-j Zj***. sedestu and sessw. the masc. HB^. Rem. as it were the dual of jjj . rem. ft %f i < for dJloJ. — Qft^W. . rem. =pnt)j T or> as others think. ^jl*. The cause of this phenomenon.g. T • stand for BHBf. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. n^l) _ . when the objects numbered are fern. form. c>j£* JU->. o* a. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. CH^K) indicates . (for rnnN). Rem. derived from the single. 2£Xj. a). t .

vol. and has 321.'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months. few J years. nom. If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article. rem. *. or they precede them.. . ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men. with the . 6. —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc. is are really masc.§ 321] II. They either follow the objects d. the implied j>\A). they of course lose the tenwin 314. and gen. S^J **su some women. Rem. Rem. a triad) .— Cardinal. (viz. § 99. The Numerals. b.] 320. — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj. 255 cardinal numbers. or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj.. See jj also § 322.yOj ^UJ (see § 320). j^-t^J j»^*M. a.-i in a . ^U>t and ^UiS! are very .. or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-. a). three men (lit. of three men (lit. in the sense of broken plur. An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. rarely construed with the Rem.jl*j has. etc. Rem. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say. as JU^..jj\. in the construct state.5*$3 numbered. fern.. ten days. LjUj (according to § 311). yj*+~i %*cJ . rem. . ii. ^ a part or <- portion)'. in the genit.0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace. and are put in apposition with them. which follow the gender of their substantives. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives.0 s*0 . [Comp. — consequently a£Xj. ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R. is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj]. ace. aajjI. B. in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural. for example. of men. The Noun. either as a singular masc. etc. a triad of j) men). as JU-j aj^U. c.. J s The 'o. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan. or Jx^lj^t j^jOI. o. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325).

—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. which are in the genitive of the . b) .. d. instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o. b). sing. plur. LUj two colocynths. 0^0 Rem. or simply ^jUUsO^. as JJa-ia. of the objects final j^j numbered. and then of course drop their (§ 315. %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered. rem. fractus (see § 319.256 Part Second. [§ 322 genit.

20. .

b. 700. sing. ^O C T _ asu . " Assyr. 500. c. 800. &w " U5U. mS) Ox 9«>* . a5Lo. G." x Rem. excess.. and . it in the 4w £jU. P a5U « ..258 Part Second. B #U 1HS #U ajjt J . the j (5).e. of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an. i^w ijl^JLj. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word. The O xJOx * D. ntf£> Aram. a5U genit. Heb. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit. " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U. J* ' ' a5U 900.] i x | J O plur.1U. ..3UJ. 300.0't. and more recently . the forms ^Jjyc. O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year). or x ^U. The numerals from 100 100. etc. as £)3J-*»*3 also used. The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU. X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3. .? t": me'e*.0 2u*. to 900 are :— 600. and hence in poetry ^)UU. &U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. 400. twenty and odd . 0x6 surplus). Ox w*Xj.] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry]. —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech. (see § 321). Ox Rem.JU-M) are rare. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. Rem.. instead of after. but juaj and are 325. scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i.«© (with the Ox article. is O^**6 Ox x Olio. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**. The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. Rem. but was inadvertently placed J) before. a. as £5loiij.

§ 327] II. The Numerals. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000. B. The Noun. are : 259 326. .— Cardinal.

[§ 328 2. Masc.260 Part Second. :- 328. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. The Ordinal Numbers.

3 *^**- If a . And j ijl5. aj^I». twenty-first x x xJOx fern. (formed directly from C-w. defined . both its parts take the article as . Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. of course.33UM. j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs.yU)t in the ace. the art. ijlif. 261 Rem. j-&t etc. : — B Masc. and even These numerals are not declined.— Ordinal. x x —Jtf. ace. ^^X c. The Numerals. 2 *U~/) are occasionally used. ^jJju\ the twentieth. . admit the inflection of the unit. S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom. ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. b. Rem.eleventh. x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some. If joined to the ordinals of the units. as %LsX OX wJUM. they remain unchanged. x x Ox The L3U. construct state so with the rest and with the art. when they are unif defined by the article.330] II. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . compound of this sort be defined. 03j**c. these latter precede. 329. etc. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. etc. ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. X X (ace. S^c. and genit. 9x x (gen. £rtj***3 >{*». O^J-^J ^3^*). The Noun. <jtf makes. in the construct state and with . A jJIj. and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. /jl5. x x . as Ojj*^ x twentieth. Rem. however. for ^^l*. when Ml defined.. ^^ X iJ&\. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. B.]. iJlj. 330.

By the noun S^». CHj*** twenty times. The numeral adverbs a j^stf. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ . if this By the accusative of the nomen . third time. etc.. twenties. The distributive adjectives are expressed . by means of one of the words S^.). (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus. the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. in the accus. are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways. . ijptiiJf) twenty-first. 3. life twice. he fought once or twice. —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma. E. in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. etc. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb .. once. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij. should be wanting. vol. thou hast given us death twice. A* came third time. adverbs.e. D. or ibtf 3j-o *U.. b>o. etc. \Jj.S wJJ. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S.262 Part Second. S^£d 0*h* twice.e../£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. i. etc. § 108. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. [Rem. or aio sJ^T *W. OU3. and similar words. Com p. ^3^. again . O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. second. i*0 jj-^iJf *U. isij. %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl. thrice. the also permitted to use the simple . twice. thrice. Ot^o wJJ. O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS. or j\j*o stJJ. f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. tfe i*0 *U. or. G.e. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332.jJS*& 2/*e . liltf IW* *W»). or as 5^o once. 333. he rose up once or twice. are D expressed either by adding the accus. vicis (§ 219). the fourth of the twenties. (i.g. cardinal numbers.] B 331. ^ came a third time.. or (i. U)U eU.

a tetrastich. expressing the number . i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . etc. take the form . \J~£\ >»>^' *W». ^j£* twofold. dualized. which a whole 5 * r made up. 6 E.O^j'. five spans in lieight . j£s. According to Zamahsari. A^>* fourfold. according . £**++ threefold. 263 either singly or repeated. jj.Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ. Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification. a third. three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral. J x x . 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi. or er*>ju». Single or ^^a^ fivefold. ^tjwl. pi. B. *U-j.§ 336] II. pi. of parts of biliteral . J*s. the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. 0**^ /«/ etc. ^wUfc quinqueliteral. 336. etc. derived from the cardinal numbers J J e.. or j»^Ai\ sU. jILjlc. J Us x 0. two of the forms J x x .» Ox up to a fof»tf. C/^Lm. . *£Jb. ^ju». ^1*$ . IV. patient. pi. words of the forms Jj*3. as ^Uj ^ i • . ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. j^yo 2Uj. ^ju*. . ' > $ four spans or cubits in height.g. nor. x J x or j~*x. The Numerals. The fractions. #w eighth. B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj. jji* (nom. lj*U. • • . Numeral is adjectives. uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina . [The form JUiU I .— Distributive. pleaseth you of women. simple is triple. Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. and ^. and J**$. pentagonal . and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. the 'people . >uj-«. £Jj. fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three . 334. square. double.g. The Noun. triangular. £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . or A came two by two . patientis of the second form. from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. ^^Vj triliteral. ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU.» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth. 335.).} a mom. {walking) by twos and threes . x «£ Ox* 0. but the formation is admitted [by some] up [.

as £0x0* etc. either with or < x Oirf x without the article . month. and Aram. or w*U)t. xlix. D. the Article. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc. The period.) . 1. UU. are either simple or compound. fifth. or £JjJt> every fourth.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ.fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. etc. pronouns. or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty. G. The demonstrative pronouns. or w**JI L5fr*. B Rem. _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech.. C as w%X3t j*^*. in one chapter. uLo J «i . 338." Heb. in the accus. x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. "rubu. M. uou). ^ fortw C. the former being the demonstrative pronouns.264 Part Second.g. — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr. The Demonstrative Pronouns and .» j (vulg.g. titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth.. J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e. S x Ujj. 3jlw*^t l\+~*\. 337. less frequently ouaj. The form Ja9 occurs e. 210 seqqJ] . year. every third (day. according to our D terminology. in the third. article). at the end of which an event usually recurs. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. the latter the relative. same sense in Assyrian. G. because they are both. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa).*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. £$ J . ..

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

This £)3^ must. according to the Arab the nom. signifies who. It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc. «.. a.<fW or Jjj0l+. JJI . at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom. [According to as-Sabban. wlx Fern. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f . and ^jjjli\. number. it which. Ace. p. masc. plur. § 340. and case.G. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . [Cu$$f Nom. Plur. Gen. C Rem. 0j&) . instead of ^JJJt.. . that. j«JI. generally J of the article all and the demonstrative. 271 he who. The other forms. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. A whatever. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). ^JJt. U&1). ut* Sing. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos. viz. with which : gender. . used \jjj>)\ in D and ace. ^t J^^l. ^-^JUt.]) ^^Jl . chJJI (^Jjf . vulgar form. Ace. CHsfi&f Gen. whoever. The Noun. . of course. Norn. rem.JI or jJUt. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. C. and sJJtJM. Comp. grammarians. for numbers and genders. J*\ (cJI . . ^J>i\ in the gen. are written defectively. j^JJt (J}\ . Rem. because of their frequent occurrence. U. o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift. 6. $* . that the same meaning as v>«. cJt .] . ^£&S (O^ 1 ". which are not retain the double in such constant use. f$S\ or . ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). *J .§ 347] II. j^t. ^JJt. which. ^tifif (gfjAf. is —The modern. D. when used adjectively. Du. 2.

which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&). and ic2 f ^^^Jt. St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable. f^H T _ (= ds J3t). See Gomp. H= . Rem. <j\iMS.. has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus. y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1. former. Instead of ^JJI. The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt.i*a of which ace. ^. Gr. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. . sjj—. ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form. 5 are vulgar and incorrect. ej which I J am meditating). e. !)J*?>n.272 Part Second. —The * forms ^j^^Ut. _ coram. for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' . is -ffith. Rem. UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du. ^ 25.U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. za). a its demon- strative pron. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. H. Oj*W St* OUJUt. and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p. 117. x fi * St "St * '. fi B fern. ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven. some of the Arabs. G. 'Aganl 18. di. * JR. the nom. Rem. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£). x i. J^&\ pi..—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. UJJt. ^JJt was originally. as its derivation shows. and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur. D. I) / lined (or cased). Aram.'^ / suffices me. gen. c. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. Si d.*. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a».] or . employ £ (Heb.

2. 273 .§ 349] II. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. The Noun. C.

D. "is usually shortened. ^U. etc. Hid ma." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari. for^o^ or lo^ (lit. It has been already stated 346. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather.g. etc. 0^> U^'. rem. in the latter case.*$J) but never conjunctive.. Of ^1 and &*. ^o j-U. part of the ace. Fleischer. (§ 351. Comp. G. which a indeed their original signification. of^^a. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. whosoever.274 Part Second. Ji^t. x Jj. Rem. marians. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. <l«U». the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. are also interrogative. ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. x ^5. with the exception of ^JJt. Faik. (better ^o ^)l. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l). exclamatory. ii. This ? also the origin ?). The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose. Heb. and with those with which it is not. and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual. vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. U->t £to which. £ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. Schr. U. 0-*i'> \+jS .. it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . e. whatsoever. ^» ^*»-)- In such cases.] . a^c.) that the conjunctive is pronouns. i. Ji ^). Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. Gr. s^ who. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. 364. in poetry the elif may be retained. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. is >ftU». . ^ JJ*. according to the Arab gram. Kl. ^. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j. enuntiative (jC±.). 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech. (though. xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^. 125]. (b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. HJIS^ HIED D Aram.

to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». C. x J 2. and case.§ 353] II. only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc. Fern. 275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x . or 7" have seen some one.«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. . who? has the it distinctions . number. Nom.l x . [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. interrogative pronoun v>o. The Noun. Sing. of gender. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. to (the is and x so.

- St Dual masc. p. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . or] a suffix. j^Sl second case.it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1. nom. See CWijo. for U^->l.->t " M you. it . the pausal forms being : — o in § 352. 2). art.*£ ^1. £r. it m£ Sing.276 Part Second. rem. nom. « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt). ace. Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . d. Rem.£ . it 1. gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen. § 34. . nom. the latter being the B more common. he or I? in Rem.6. w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur. when prefixed to a fern. 'place? (see Lane. ^\^>. Hudeil. 201. pp. OiJc ^t - or ^j\. gen. xjt. a. • £ the suffixes ^1 . which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut. 134c).£ o£ . Rem. With 'J Se- 8 g . or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt . ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii. masc. {j*£> d).ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t. ace. ll* Lo^-jt. pronoun. . e. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases. 120—122. s&e. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. n.* . what or c.] In the fern. w ivii- D. Oi£ fern. which of us? are formed the relative adjective . as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs. or £&£>. a I ? [The feminine form 86.. 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. nom. oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. may be masc. G. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun . b.i£ in the genitive .— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech. ^1. ^$\ or ^t. and the compound t^j2>. the more general . masc. ? w>U^ ^cf. When standing alone. \J\£> and 351 and Vol. is of rare 17) occurrence. and ZA which female? (Dlw.

ii. added to certain adverbial signification. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. . The Indefinite Pronouns. it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever. B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here. § 7) . C. rem. e) . and Vol. - J s complement (aa-o). 5 Latin termination cunque. . 100 and 706 seq. (Vol. § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. § 114. The Noun. e. rem. whens a • tt a t x ever. . Comp. This complement very rarely an adjective or participle. if appended to ^>l. something. Diss. or in if reference to time . § 6). U ii. it is added to C*J. The Indefinite Pronouns. e). ii. (Vol. have passed with the sense of somebody. a. with the same effect to ^>j (Vol. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived. reject this theory. ^l£» and . § 36. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). 3. p. 360 seq.. p. added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx .] U x t as the original. Schr. or § is a qualificative clause. as or x ^ U something which I have. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. rem. Uy* whatever . »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol./) and § 84. ". § 88. 9x The U x Gr. pronoun ii. d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. ^t. rem. as the r\ nouns. e) U (see an example 361 near the end.g. 2. whence the . ii. 277 [3. § 127. rem. rem.>£) it hinders rem.. de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. [Prym.§ 353*] II. Vol. but usually a preposition with following genitive. Kl. ii. as J 13 ^y» one who says. J* and JjU (ibid. and is in that case called U >o (Vol. 172. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp. A and Ox 353*. . considering i. 125)*. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. infinitive..2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U . 136 a. o * ( UJL^ wherever. 1.

278 Part Second. III. * ii. and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U .» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. or xx ^ N. THE PARTICLES.>*. [§ 354 A prepositions . 8. rtxxOx particles of attraction.it]) viz. 4). — On the use of these words in the vocative.). xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. 3. and Inter- D jections. a5^i (§ 309. a) and in other cases § 90. Prepositions. Conjunctions. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. [or Sl^t. o. and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». Otj. /). A. 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI). § 70. like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. affecting their regimen. JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3. rem. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " . W X O«0 J J J 355. rj b). it is also put after w>j (Vol. because the . are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191. may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression. ii. see the Syntax. pi. iU. i • In speaking of animals. as ^/^ii\ thing. § 84. M." J x ^^. (§ 3ujb. or jt^aJt (from the sing. CsA. In like manner (Vol. . stand for names of persons. C*a»«£l. rem. ^ particles of annexation or connection.] c/M *> fern. their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . tJjLH*. called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-. so and x JJ«» so. b. Heb. rem. Adverbs. rem. — qa X a and »*x its fem. rem. ii. 0/3. H ^Jt/*-. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. i. attractives. 3. b./ t and so. (Vol. jfi M0 the .e. « fem.. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. .. the particles which govern the genitive. xxg There are . The Prepositions./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed. £>s> j x and w> without . pi. The prepositions are .

Aram. Vol. Except the the 1st pers. § 56. b. by.. is (i). OW- Comp. 7. 3. d. in swearing. A: * .] . ^b. See § 185. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt. A. for. ft: of w> with the negative ^). and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. G. as J to (sign of Ice). near. or the onlyj^yj or^. -33th. D. rem. as du. U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka. those which are written as separate words. its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel. him.§ 356] III. as aDI^ a. compound Comp. on account of (Heb. rem. c. Q Rem. Aram. The kesra of the prep.e. O*^ rem. [^b. It seems to be the remnant some word. Rem. rem. ii. i **" (d) ^ by. (a) They — B ^* in. is a ii. The damma tjJb. and inseparable.] <uitf (b) O by. JEth. which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. the abbreviation Vol. The Particles. The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels. ^) to us. by God ! 3d pers.e.^yj. through (Heb. J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. The Prepositions. into kesra. sing. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. as (= b. § 62. b. following noun. footnote). 0^5 ?) and ii. i. is changed § after ^ c. ba).^S3 to you. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358). its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions. § 235) to be also remnants of words. i. by God !* (c) the Dative). in swearing. as <J to suffix of sition . with. and 317. those which are always united in writing with the 356. of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb. without. at.

"KflYl:). (c) ^* over. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. for. 358.. first class. [§ 357 " i). dialectic variety is ^^. Those of the all biliteral or triliteral. which becomes in the wasl **. after. iEth. away from. but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. 357. ^Ol) . O^X (lM*)> Syr. among. *>«. apud). on account of. *>. *>> ^. like (Heb. with (penes. or Jco. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So. (b) up to. as. Aram. and they tions . Aram. j j Ju*. 3). since (compounded of i>* v. °^ account of (Heb. notwith- standing (Heb. Jp. d. *7B. iEth. which js commonly reckoned a preposition. ij? in. into. about. "79. <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. •T'jD. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—).— Etymology Rem. /row a § certain time. D#. which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb.280 Part Second. Aram. CM-*. upon. against. rem. ^JJ. to. ^1). c. determined by the following genitive. Karer . or the Parts of Speech. ^^al till. above. The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. and ji. e Ezra and comp. (/) 0^> or lS^ (W). as g^o. is really not so. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. It is a formally undeveloped noun. Itf. -*?«). dialectically *-«. O** (&*). 12). see 347. as far as (Heb. (d) (e) sjefrom. have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus. sing. or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. instar).

c\+Xz for and Jl ^s.. the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. rem. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. and *x*. ^y c.round. opposite J>». JJj^3 . . When 6>o followed by the article.] 359. rarely jus) with. The ^) of ^fc. beneath. ). UJt L5^. (see § 14. J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). 24. *!**».]. tj-j jJ. before (of place) . ^Jt. In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20. and ^jJ. ^_ (orig. D orw .o. after ^> below. which is under. OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U. the modern and vulgar form.<U. dimin.. Fr. among 5 (J*3) . for JUJt ±y> . JJy afow?. the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry. .j-o between. sing.. rem. penes. passes after the diphthong into kesra. J J The Prepositions. to. b). is doubled in connection etc. original a..§ 359] III. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l). beneath (fiTTl !). chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. The damma of the suffixes of the pers. b. or JU J-«. ^— . <uXft. "It. note. Rem. Rem. on this side of dimin. ^s. ^jic. •* instead of. 36 w. d). about. rem. ^c. [li. [Comp. ^jjj with ^5 B ^y. J. . . O-ij* jUc (also jUft. and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. ^Js. against. assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. dimin. U-«. behind.. ^JS. and ^jjJ. c. J A. combines with into ^t. and ^jJ § into J^JJ.>o^ or ^ ^. *UJ> or dU»J. according to § 185. *b etc. i*5 ^. J The Particles.j*o being contracted b . The suffix of the 1st pers. * . . into Jft £ as JUX*. for . under. . * b /» into J^*. rarely J^ or a^. Rem. JU. for . o. Caj *UJJ. *Lu. in possession of (apud. L©. a. s ^^. dimin. Jt . See 317. and § 317. p. C^ J > . with the suffixes of the 1st pers.

also written C-Jtt. ^lyAlw^t |"l) . (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative. surely. The form occurs IJJb. certainly. jJU aOt^ by God. The first class consists . an t is inserted between the two hemzas. converted into ^£ with hemza. ^JJI for ^JJt tjt. beyond. may be (a) w>t^^O) oath. the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. jl*£ . but some do not do it is this. end). accusatives of nouns . after. *£ii5t. as ^-JUt. dj3 behind. t \2*Q£&. ^J/*-. J>». § 21.282 Part Second. v #0 la that corresponds to. £ The t. The Adverbs. . among. the construct 06 * such as . is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t. h). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as C-Jttt. of. When t is followed by another elif with hemza. as aDt ^JUlSL*. as cr»> tj^t. [comp. Aram. or is the complement (it) . partly inseparable. C dialectically. These are 0* all. Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». the third class of nouns 361. affirmative. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra. . &*|D. [§ 360 A dimin.circumference.j-o interval. of B particles of various origin. There are three sorts of adverbs. This (c) J. d]. 360.j£. the particle of amplification]. partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative.>»tjJ> before (of place. etc. for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity. God will suffice t/iee against them. / wi7£ certainly do ». ix^j in the middle. in the JO * end (Heb. D*7p) . B. as before said.] [Rem. an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW.

verily ye would have followed Satan. B. (/ will). J The Adverbs. But in reply to an interrogation. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. . Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes. behold.1 yes. to use J**. ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact. o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i.. as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. .o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing. as juj U. w-Jbju <*i>w . (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. (he did not) . 0-^^*.t xx ft ^s. standing for ^jl (aLa3I . or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp.j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God.] 362. as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-.jt). certainly. away. J . ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. ii. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la. lyJx. The Particles. (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to. .j-° AiAa^Jt ~ . 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian.. or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/. better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . J^. as x£ thee. affirmative la. (he has) X » X X ft . 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\]. . OOxxOx while. ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies.§ 362] III. xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up. he saw 'Amr. I will certainly show you 2*s honour . if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. [in xx x order to £ J # . I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out . which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1. confirming a previous statement. Vol. following. j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy .j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy. as iail».'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not).

0<#0 (Heb.] XX are^et. N/H)surely. Kl. surely. only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp. in that case. truly. utrum . ii.. called by the grammarians 3l». Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft. U*U *. . [(f) i. _. £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361. b. and Zeid was at w<? the door . literally /o/ *«e/ #w.. B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place. Dtf . ^tftt - XX and l^». A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$.or ^**~. U*. (w) oj JH Hiin Syr.. x i x lo.] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. U^. J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech..lb j>i juj lo. usually without government. followed only by a nominal proposition. Vol. wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not. t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us. writy.-»]). I (Heb. See § 367.] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. § 158 and Fleischer. 5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. as the preceding statement lo.. t3t.. «).] certainly.. of a following noun or . It is joined to the accus. interrogative. or 4*5U*a)I is 13].] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then. D In later times corroborative.U*Jt 13 1. Schr. .] ^ an? j>\ j*\. x x jo* prosperity has come round. [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity..^a. H). as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c. XX [oi ^ &*«%. if it be so.. then at least. and refers to the same time .284 Part Second. of &.^.

frequently used by commentators. <£M ^1. sing. whenever a conjunction. however. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. rather. 73). I^jI]. (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. but (Heb. Compounded of \j\ and U. that is. inceptive or inchoative la 36#.] C (p) (q) i^t.] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1. as aOIj is ^t yes. |$t in if) {$&. The Particles. as j~£i dttl ^jt. 7ltf Phcen. the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place). verily God great. always followed by an oath. [When followed by a single word a conjunction. ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. 0311).] (u) j^jXj yes. ^t yes. B. [verily]. on the contrary. [and in the 1st pers. it is 72. by God ! aDI I. yea. O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. 8). wherever. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur.jl introduces the subject. is 285 pronominal suffix.jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact). and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. but in the 1st pers.§ 362] III. ^<^y> JX. it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. — . used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. restrictive. it**). explicative. It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. The Adverbs. pi. only (dumtaxat). The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (. J^> way not it is so.

J&L).A. Delectus. for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. {Thou art) . or iai te I have never seen him see .^.. [or in j . as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. ^Aj yes. see Noldeke. da. 98.. whilst (connected with the prep. certain symptoms or circumstances . perhaps. o x as iai <xZAj U. Yes. already. solely. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever .oi. with the Perfect. and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o . / was hoping that he would come. among). an interroga- jsi djt c j^. or in affirming a negative proposition. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * . in pause j-j*. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up. see Fleischer.. or the Parts of Speech. 4. there (Heb. that something expected has been realised. 434 seq. Rarer forms are and in pause iai. tive sentence iai <&\j iai. R. 32.j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*]. is OU jJte ta. 1. iai Ja did you ever him?]f. in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity. Ljo [and U~^] while.l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. he is C really come. . o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. y^s. really (jam). [but also frequency. # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. and a negative. merely (lit. iai. and with the Future. awe? enough). (he did). ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». (w) JJi [or a^f]. (y) Jaii 0#/y. D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. jS. may be used 2 . now. and well. or in opposition to. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. 286 Part Second. Schr. «$. iai. o** between. S.] vulgar use . that something has happened in agreement as with. i. jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event. . as \^i\3 j£j.—Etymology . Kl. * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. iai.^=> 1©JL.

>£) is followed by a single word. are used as well as ^^^i. [It is also used as a conjunction. but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect. (he has forms are^xi. negative of the Perfect.] U. it is [When . [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn. (he has) . up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up. not It thus . by no means. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me . q. likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne). joined to the Jussive. b). iuj^> (§ 343. § 367. not.e. (mm) j^o it is agreeable). ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed. but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers. j>\*±.] . ii. X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb. combines the Aram. The Particles. (gg) O not J>J. j (and). (II) ^JU when? Heb. by no means. o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative. joined to the Subjunctive. rem. B. to.§ 362] III. yet.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju. not. negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. VlD. rem. [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344. j^u and yes. not. U^J. d) and all. and more rarely ^*3. a conjunction. ^yA U# f I yet. used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. (/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at . of % and & (Vol.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. . C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). The Adverbs. <jt *^ (i. d).' Zeid stood not). rem. as joj jb\»\ has i . X7 is and ^X. *$. § 169).

Js> .] .>*. %£**»• where. Imperf Indie. by day. of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. for^. ju^]. demonstrative. cM v>*> before. J>i. only . never little [Uut ^W^ wow. ever. in j*£ j a or j**. ilJt decidedly. 41. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. ^-jX3 ?&£&. \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. nothing only this . E. and ^)UyA. also v is **»>a»-*]. of two or more W-jU- outside. * [On the various forms p. ^ri/. whence are derived LaIa or LyA.g. of it are the following .b inside. prepositions 359). can in general be used as adverbs. *^J £^ night. *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech. j*j mostly in negative phrases. \jt^ much. (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^. La). The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic. D after an adjective \*-f**r- together. a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . t jta. usually with a negative decidedly] . there (compare Heb. / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . without. J La. &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it. 364. j->£. jju . referring to future time. J-i. joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). y>« whence. ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs.288 Part Second. with a negative. . afterwards. Jy 0-*> above.j*&. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative. demonstrative. extremely. and are indeclinable. within. *il±. but always preceded by a negative. beneath. w^o. UaIa or LyA.^^J. c-sa*J. and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). as u*^ else. B 363. Csa»J . §§ I)La. placed .>* above*. u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. La (also La and . La. Ja. . : A few of the most common examples Ij^l. ' * [w~»•> enough. S. whence are derived L^a. in which case J they take the termination u. ^r^ wwcA.

. 13 ^). 13 *^ j**. Schr. lit. seq. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — . xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i. above especially. xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . particularly . verily. rem. a£ the time of—). * 'n). it is seems to be compounded Kl. »J>w. once. yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour . The Particles. [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j). * £ (/) all. used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes. quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb.§ 364] III. with the omission of the negative. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. Vol. Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^).j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j. during. ii. § 84. lit. at present .] O**. U-J-* and. b) lit. (c) but more usually] sometimes . X Ut U-j~>.. G.] decided (comp. ^*j)t wow. Fleischer. tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. 37 . B (d) (e) woj. D. 5 j the c].) w. It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit. xa m f& end.. . § 361. uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. 289 U^j one yom).. ^a jufc. sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C .&ry a/o^. lit.. but. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except. Kl. y\) . Schr. «* together.w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often... xO X whilst. U^»j. 381. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. [comp. as J^j A^ afott*?. footnote. day. p-<7°: etc. The Adverbs.] t {j*j*?. prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see . JUft) : . B. and therefore also construed with .]t it. truly. ^ 449 (also jbjx». (lit. i.^ . j>yA\ today (JEth. perhaps. A \js> tomorrow.

which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative. Heb.yJUJ).. viz. x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-). a. straitness. 366. Heb. vcuj t^u». indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are . x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles. x and 6 (iEth. ' genitive. however. JjO governs the ^j\. as b. !)).. be. would that ^J* or J^x). seem to X Ox / and C*J. as &» . ^J. In u~*\. O-*. . — Dialectically. The Conjunctions. The word has several rarer forms.. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive. acx xOx 365. G. The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. particle of classification gradation). fc^ftX. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t.»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. They are construed with the accusative. or more exactly or v~?p ^b^. . etc.. X yesterday. Quoad connective particles. either separable or inseparable. etc.290 Part Second. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy.. they " " * " and become indeclinable. not nouns in the accusative. since yesterday. and take pronominal suffixes. ^fc.] Rem. x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>». etc. perhaps. which sometimes unites single words. Ci Ox Rem. ^JUU).3x3x3^3 ^&. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. are [§ 365 A sundry parties. D like the prepositions and adverbs.- . utinam.) are. D. fl): JO x w. ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. but merely a light vowel. ending in fetha. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. but verbs. Aram. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ). J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations.

for. D. e. Tabarl i. (a) }] The most common when. 9. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed. When preceded by ^ or 3 o. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle . The Conjunctions. is A showing either that the latter in time. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me. In conditional sentences. [Sometimes in old poetry. and very often in later prose. 852.] . This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356. thee. %36s ^j \y^c^^. separable conjunctions are : — since. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when. *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis. or the reason why. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. signifying that. thus ^jl means nonne 6$. like the German so. a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. 10. of past time. [Compound U $t whenever. link. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. 1. the kesr is usually dropped. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. but more usually connects two clauses. [Rem. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *.g. that God may forgive c). and consequently. and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition.] * 1. purpose for which. G. used J^f^ to indicate the done . as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. Hamdsa 74. so that. 291 closely behind one another.§ 367] III. The Particles. C. to give an imperative sense. or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. of the Jussive. may be rendered and and is thereupon. such as that of cause and effect. sing. in order that.

. are connected with $t. Aram. as for the ship. compounded with . (exceptive particle).t e. £>*$ that. lit (§ Both of these conjunctions. even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative. of . and *TX . hence called duLoj)\ if indeed. -33th.. oq^H. b) . Bibl. as well as the obsolete noun » 362.jt ne). o>». at that time.292 Part Second. That is Paradise .] B [(c) j*\ or. followed by o. >*o*J : 'ema. Compounds g. comp. in when.g.— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. sometimes written jjtj or 3 .. A dialectic C variety <>s.jt 9 . in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. * O i : O^ as & *$\ were. as if. conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f . for example. time. quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14. that (quod). as UJ^i. as syn. it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix.jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f. of jt in alternative questions. DN-— ^'. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361. JHK. if> an(i if. so that. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea. ne. compounded of ol an d . < jtf . Ttf in Ju l**. it Heb. tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). as regards . Further: that not (ut non. *$> ( a ) if not. c). * i ^jtj. in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^». .. when? [Compound Utjt whenever. dialectically . the genitive of s which occurs. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an).lv — also occurs. [§ 367 A (b) dition. lo-. see non). and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr. Compare Heb.. in order that (ut). 8c.1 JEth. o' is that.: now. d).. Used twice or oftener. in order that.) * to if. J (§ o% a verily Aram. because. (f) * q\ [and Ut. usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition.] (df) Ul. as for. o .. unless. <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her. . £>* H. j£*& on that day.

until that. rem.. so that. the pronoun of the story it s>t . or O' ^^ (quod). Ut. The Particles. to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara.] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362. but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval. C. v^jj at 366. ?\A= (alia) but. Syr. 6). or or fact)... c*«j (C««J. until. ^UJt : See § e. e. IX. I# ' § 52. tfW. O^* as ** were.. c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. connecting words and clauses. The Conjunctions. m. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel. or .. Utj . ^th. $1 .. 0*S. with the Subjunctive.—&\. ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special. a t^?^. thereupon. rarely Ujt [or M].] w t . only.0.. £^m.§ 367] III. because. j-tr^.. ». as if.. U3t.. . sive).g. y . — Compounds Heb. compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U . Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\. Ut . .{ o|. . of UJ). e. Heb. (§ c-s^i). see Vol. The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a. 362. position. It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. 293 saving. with a preceding negative. next . and . but in the 1st pers. [On its sense of even. § 358. w). . (k) ^5^ * *o till. except. identical with the preii. but*. b. K?~DK. ^t. %+£* in order that not. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that. j<£.. A Aram.. * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D. (i) ^j.] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that.

with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al.* . at. ! «J «-iO. and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. Ua. or j>jH\ keep to.jj£> \*3*> if not. Aram. oi . o *&. followed by jic. o\. up ! come ! [Heb. hypothetical particle. 1^1. tj.-*. [UJ also syn.] with the Perfect. or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere. Ut^. *^***- C^Ly**. or b. 0I3I (otjl).1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl). ojt. lyjt C without the article. <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ .~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition. . I0 / b before nouns in the nomin.* ^j\.it' rr?n]. ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot. ^1. or accus. sounds or in use are : Some .— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech. jt. since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after. i . if (Heb. [olylfc far ^. from it!]. 0' * —Compounds: ^£. . t. * it ' ZZ * — . U (ic^jjJt U. .294 Part Second. The Interjections. wAewever. Jv*»» or Jv*»».j|). bl (La). jl (dU). Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt). . &\. or TiarX ^Uy^. with y\ unless. G. OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram. oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U. tones. is (quoniam).] ji. 368. as long as. tI u* como/ w . UtJ. 0/ . *}U. or hip at. (p) Perfect. . and U* W* make haste. l^j. (D. Utj. //) w^ew. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses . with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362. o\j. [as. at. wlien (postquam). [3J3 even though]. HX/H. 6nw# Aere (Heb. sense of pj-*\ make haste.] D. (o) < * D. (tjl.Ujt (•Ujl) jl. D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. ma denoting duration). iEth. as OkoJt !i^*** w ww . !p).P ! wp) <oj.

^-a -*jb. form often used even with feminine nouns.1). . but the masc. JjU (the croak of a raven). *fij capital! f-\. camels. l->jk . ^Us cries . ?u>t or «»~Jb. mules. " * uil A f * £ mi ol . wit. Rem. . ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*. go on proceed ! say on . etc.. — Here in in '. D. il ml uti dl 3* 131. 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. o/* a. wit. (a) calls to domestic animals e. ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : . noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^. the t^. the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] ." juA or juA. The Particles. as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. falling stone). v>*-> . in calling camels to water. *->. b. wit. ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. s\*> making camels B . wit.g. instead of the usual terminations. Sit.§ 368] III. Instead of 1— grief! ^_. (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). ^a. or otjuj tlie tj. in pause dt_ tj J) takes. ^js- . O^*. . wit. g U (the bleat of an antelope). s^ (the stroke of a sword). The Interjections. in driving a dog away. driving horses. 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. in driving sheep or goats.g. w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking). as tjuj 1^. f-\ ot. *~} 4-J. ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©. ^»J . ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem. b i\ is often written defectively Wl . also be used. too may be mentioned *^U . *-j. etc. Jjlb (a blow). in calling a dog. . ' ° " kneel. as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. JU» frog). f-J.

or JLa. person. f. for example. etc. >&&£3. usually written thus in one word. Jt£»t ^). d). pi. Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. as l^U pi. § 35. take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. masc. J * J ' j-JUb. ^U. Gb. verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. du. * J * e. ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. a certain is..296 Part Second. — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . b). JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. x m. book. jujJ 9-Z3. g. £)$\*'. tjl^St x m. read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f. say. Jjj aJ Jj^JI. in some cases. dual UJUb. ^jkj. aJ J*)j. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc . rem. a) ^j. Rem. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. plur. t^JLA. hirjats. hiri. $U dual U5U. that they are either originally Imperatives. admitting its construction and inflection. ^©jU. fern. ii. b. rem. and. dUk. as OU give here (§ 45. [Many and are interjections have. sing. *U. U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj). fern..g. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. 8. or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. pers. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj. d. : <uU& take. Rem. hirjith). x f. Vol. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. and is said to form a dual and plur. called therefore by origin or use.

38 .PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w.

c.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect. JJO/ I. Sub}. J31S IJblS . J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* . m. 3. m. OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE. c4^ ^JU3 2. c. m. m. cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m. CJJ> / Dual. m. IjJUS f. JlS JJ B 2. Indie. /JO/ Sing. f. o^ S JO// 5 i. 3. ul3 Sing. f. c. Plur. f. 3.joi 1. $3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. f. cJjtf f.

xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2. m. Subj. m. u~^- ^ x (2.299 OF THE STRONG VERB. x J Energ. 3. x j II.. c. Imperfect. JlS x . CUfe^) . J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. II. Verbi.. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual. J . J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1.* 9 f. m. m. 3. ^c^US f. Impf. m. and Imper. Act. Sing. c. Pat. and the N. Indie. D m. Imperf. 'fcs xxOx f. m. 3. Perf. m. TABLE Perfect. J XX Smg. cJj. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur. s . i x x I.. o f. ^>Uii Ox J x Norn. PASSIVE. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. t^JUS x f. UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. Sing.> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2. a ) Jussive. c. m. 3.

Jl3 . III. DERIVED FORMS VI. Active Perf. in. IV.300 TABLE ir.

VII. .301 OF THE STRONG VERB. A IX.

n. lb*** D iV. FIRST FORM OF THE Active. Wo*** i j. S 1 s x ft . jU 0*3 Sing. Perfect.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . 2. ft Ml J X 2. 3. m. c. o j o* Energ. . ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing.a. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. I. n. m. m. c. 2. J OJ Imperative. m.» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . Jussive. c.302 TABLE V. O****' O^^* . Indie. f. 1 x iV. 3. F<?r^. Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. m. ft *M f. Imperfect. m. En. m. s> s> I. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2. X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1. f. En. ft Ml ->X C Plur. 3. Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. Siihj. 2. C. COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. i j. Energ. Co*** • * * f. ^. © j* 5 jx Sing. m.»x 1. [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. Simple. f.

5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a . >i. a x . Imperf. Jussive. 2 II. or and Imperat. m. Imperat. Act. (/ tc <i // / cM^j.m.m. Jussive. c. Iojl* V J » X f. o f. I. i j 3. or J* . \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4.^jjuo * f.. Jussive. 3. Passive.Efo. Jj. GEMINATJE. J o 2 xj 2. 4" J x Sing. O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. Juo. m. 3. 1) Other forms of the Perf.J x x 2.>£>. Perfect. m. ((2. O^juo ' f. Imperfect.303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. Subj. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2. >>Xo-«. Indie Sing. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i. m. c. 3. #n. tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1. f.. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2. a j Perf Sing. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1. . S// or >i j jj3». C. f. m.j Hi S/J o 2. Imperf. x j m. or J*** JA*!. J^».

Ag. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N. Pass. IV. . VIII. S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf. JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. GEMINATJE. Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. £ xx o Active Perf. ij£ .g.»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf. Act. Pat. Imperf. irregularity . x. e.b. Pass. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf. >. III. VII. jjuo x at J >•** V.304 A TABLE Y.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x. Act. Verbi. or j »U >U .x D The remaining forms present no Perf. II. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD. VI.

or B A N. jJU *| *. IV. Imperf. "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>. HEMZAT^l. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At . II. V. i.. VERBUM PRIMJE RAD. »* - •>. Active Perf. III.Ag. s VI. .305 TABLE VI.*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat.51 ^0 Al .. j~ot y^t jJI A j.

jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. J^-i . ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf. J5L. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. x j . x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. IV. Passive Perf. N. J>?&k N. j&U li spte* N. it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. x w x . Verbi. ^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . Passive Perf. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. HEMZATiE. JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . x£ VIII. Pat. Ag. c o x Imperf. 1 III. II. V. VI. Pat. Ag. JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. * >* J>%* VII. J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf.306 TABLE VII. Verbi.- x£ ©C Active Perf.

HEMZAT^l. Active Perf. 3 .307 TABLE VIII. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD. in.

j^j js>^j *» •^jy.»»<Mii>w ^ D N. xx o* t xOx Active Perf. w*». ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat. VIII. Verbi. Pat. i. oi IV. {fa JO O x JG x J x N. Passive Perf. Active Perf. w^>« j~>5* . VERBA PRIM^ RAD. Pat.0 Ox J N.$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf. Verbi. Ag. wA^ *-**. 5 « x B N.308 TABLE IX.. v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » .jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N. JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf. jay js> Imperat. 3 ET ^.

309 TABLE X. VERBUM MEDICI RAD. . Perfect. > Active Voice of the First Form.

m. m f. Sing. c. 3. IjjC D . C Plur. m. ^. 3. 3. Perfect. jL» f. Dual. x ft ft 1. m. UjL/ U3j~> 2.310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. Active Voice of the First Form. c. tjL> f. B 2.

VERBA MEDLffi! RAD. %3 UL3 f.** ^la om . 2.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x . Pat.i » . j>&«. m. /J J X J Plur. Imperfect. Indie. 3. cis CJLd m.311 TABLE XII. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f. o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1. JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f. Perfect. Jussive. c. Sing. Subj. 3.» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f. U& x x Ml J. C. ^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2. i. c. JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom.. Dual. m. 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2. I^Ls f. ^Uu J13I jud . m. 3. m. n. Energ. Energ. &6 U3 © x x ©xj . Sing.m. 9 x SJyU 9 x x . ^3 /j ./j 1.>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f.

J^j*3 Passive Perf. JUU II. 3 ET & x. VI. Active Perf. 3. s. Kg. J^J J12U v. cJLSt B Imperf. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf. Pat. N.J>£~>l . J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. Perf. IV. %yJS Imperf. J N. Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / ./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. Verbi. J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. 3V3—»l jtj>. ->* N. N. m. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. Verbi. Active Perf.312 TABLE XIII. VII. The Derived Forms. VIII. >jm^ jf>~i N. Verbi. jb>wt XI. s. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. JUL* J^» JU-u III. m.

FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. VERBUM TERTLE RAD. y MEDICI RAD. Perfect.313 TABLE XIV. .

.314 A TABLE XV. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. Perfect. MEDI2E RAD. ^. VERBUM TERTIxE RAD.

315 TABLE XVI. f. F«r6*. f. m. Indie. 3. n. . m. Imperfect. 3. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. Sub}. xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1. m. x f. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. En. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . f. c. m. KESRAT^l. m. C. O^s-f. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. 3. L5*^ iV. I. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. m. Active Voice of the First Form. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. u^tj 0x0 . f. x x Jussive. En. t> /(/ Sing. Ox x xOx 1. c.

3 ET ^.316 TABLE XVII. VERBA TERTI^l RAD. Passive Voice of the First Form. Pe .

f. VI. c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. 5xx xxx Active Perf. f. X. 3 ET ^. Pass. Verbi. ^AA4 9x . Act.317 TABLE XVIII. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. Pass. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. m. x o£ V. The Derived Forms. VIII. Imperf. m. IV. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII. Ag. . Pat. Act. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf. Act. L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat. ii. III.

CLAY. .Camforfoge : PRINTED BY J. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. F. AND C.

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