TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI. LL.D. 1896 . 6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. WEIGHT. AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. f?K£... VOLUME ? I. ? /V DATE.. de GOEJE. ROBERTSON SMITH. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN.\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W. J. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W.

AND C. F.(o2)05 v. . CLAY.l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. Fleischer and other scholars. but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author. Moreover Prof. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. Wright had noted here and there . whilst the had extended over 30 pages more. W. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. He began it with his usual ardour. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. Robertson Smith. Prof. to take all initials. Miiller. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. are given corrections in square brackets. have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. After earnest deliberation I consented. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself. through Prof. Bevan. resolved to undertake this task. to continue the revision. which he had marked with my initials. Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A.

who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. February. who drew my attention to several omissions. Bevan. but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. initials. "A .VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself. on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. without . Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. de GOEJE. I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous. has noted on the margin wants revision. § 353)." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. J. M. But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890). Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252. 1896. Leyden.

I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe. the Mufassal (jJa4. new work alteration. In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. ( Broch. with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. 'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. 2de eU. 1851. 1854). 1859) . which last. and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866).p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. vol. Beirut. Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. and the Beirut edition of 1872). f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. 1813). with the 1866). for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. second 'l-Hitab edition. Dieterici. . the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision.. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is. (w>LLaJt J-oi. . 1831-33). founded upon the above. with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. but to subject In fact. Volck. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. Beirut.1CL). both ancient and modern. i. A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. 1867). Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. 1831). second edition.

Sayce. and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian.Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. — preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. —have. . except in matters of I have read. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. and therefore but ill-adapted. 1869). may bear the greatest reIn . I have not found much to alter. in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however. standpoint remains. the Assyrian*. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). and original Semitic language. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. but especially the former. 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. My the same as it formerly was. however. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. the south Semitic dialects. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions. Portuguese. Assyrian. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew). In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. nearly everything that detail. Spanish. semblance to this parent speech but. as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. apart from its bulk and rarity. I believe.und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). * As of Oppert. is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. seem I still think. Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. grammar beginners. tongues. regards Assyrian. Philippi. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. on the whole. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic.

ten of Madras. ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. W. (Fort William). and thereby laid me. look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . sixty copies. 1st July. under a fresh obligation. and I hope I may say other Orientalists. the Govern. S. Australia). Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. Cambridge. he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. Murray (of Adelaide. amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. and the . I trust. \ . ment of Bengal. WRIGHT. Germany. and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely. in which. extending over a period of more than twenty years. fellow. the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. twenty-five and of the Punjab. twenty. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. 1874. Home Department .PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. the Government of Bombay. . pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office.

de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements. They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof.The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F. which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition. Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar. l\ .

.. 1. III.CONTENTS... 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D. Verb 29 A. C. PART FIRST. V. GENERAL VIEW. E. B. Medda or Matta . PAGE I. I. VI. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 19 24 26 27 IV. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 . The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND. THE VERB.. The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A.. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. II..

. 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A. The 1.. Fourteenth. 3.Xll CONTENTS.. Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B. and Genders 52 B. 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C.. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form . expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. Weak Verbs. Persons. Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 . 1.*. 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3.. Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / . C. THE STRONG VERB. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth. Thirteenth. THE WEAK VERB. expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns. 2. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns. 2.. of the First ... Form The Active Voice a. 53 .. and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers.

97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes. Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II. (y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I. and Blame III. . Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J . . THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. (e) . 106 The Deverbal Nouns. THE NOUN. . (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis .Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality . .148 149 .. 149 151 II. or Relative Adjectives . . The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3. their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a. The Denominative Nouns. and A. 1. . The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus . . . expressive of Surprise or Wonder . 147 . Adjective. 156 III.. .. The Forms B. (a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b.159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2. I. which express the Accusative .CONTENTS.100 II. Appendix A.

291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D.xiv CONTENTS. 252 B. THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA. 280 THE ADVERBS. 253 260 262 2. PAGE 4.. The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C. The Pronominal Suffixes... Article 1. The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C. . III. 279 A. THE PARTICLES.. The Declension I. 3. THE PREPOSITIONS. 3. THE NUMERALS. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS. Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The .. which denote the Genitive . of Nouns . The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2. . 1. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns .

Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. 8i .

B NAME. Arabic. terminate in a bold stroke. when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order. and are all consonants. aJl^J! o^aJt. though three of them are also used They vary in form. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. along with their names and numerical values. and. is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. Hebrew and letters 1. Syriac. THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS. I. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. like left. . as vowels (see § 3). according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter.PAKT FIRST. for the most part. a word.

English and Arabic are intermingled. c. #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh. In some old Mss. The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted.] * This is not confined. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts. 3. i. to African Mss. in which one letter stands above another. k has the point below. <^. At the Rem. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. The object of elif a. 3. r+-. b. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz. *>). or even . [These ligatures. of which the following are examples.. as is A . But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. § 15). or in the more elegant Eastern founts. a. and is V. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. ir l * gh. I. and inserted before a. thus s a f but 9 k below. £ £ ^. in the earliest times. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. J. end of a word these points are usually omitted. § 3. I Rem. it is Rem. The Letters as Consonants. %. are very inconvenient to printers. J A This combination ^. or. The latter method a recent innovation. ut. as in this book. &* *!* sh.§ 1] I. fy. on the other hand. not only in Europe but in the East. and form ligatures. especially when. : ^ t single point k*. The Arabs sequence . from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon. hh.

in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). plur. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances. e. the use of the two points below is optional. 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. 5. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. To the former class belong ». j^. Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 . — Orthography and Orthoepy. 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o. are divided the loose or free. the sibilants. and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI. [§ 1 Rem. iUU^Jt iUM.e. letters. j. which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). (. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). ^ has only one point above.>)*. placing a point below. which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds. JeJu). c^U!»ug. tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt. cit.. ^ 3 sua ^ i h. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). O. I ^ and c j to the latter £-. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>. such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. h pointed. below. prints. k %. ^. the M 3 J 0* gingivals. dL Those letters which are identical in form.e. so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. and the like. i. the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip). The letters are also divided into the following classes. etc.] . J^j. unpointed. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. j. and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . J. a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. rem. and then ^ takes Rem. or an angular mark above. from 5. x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) .4 a Part First. letters. i. especially those issued at Bairut.

. but not rough Europeans. same relation to > that <1> does to O. the liquids ^ J ^. homme or English hour. the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m. It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. the Heb. the letters. ^e weak 2. however. the gutturals. softer than our like the t. The Letters as Consonants. > is the Italian dental. The following hints however.] Greek 0.)\). like »-. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH). The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. will. rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI. softer 5 bears the than our d. has the sound of the Heb. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). the letters O > b. which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l). 0. as well as Turks and Persians.has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch.. PI. s 3 J 0* J J f. except by long intercourse with natives. as in sing. or Arabia. ».)t »J>jj3»Jt. 9-. see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. or th in thing. utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. It is sounded . soft letters. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. <f. I >^ c c *. t. I C with hemza (t. stronger than d.§ 2] J ul ui I. or the German Roche. The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^. it In Egypt and some parts of U. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire. x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. it is some of these letters. O £> is is the Italian dental. is our g in get. less often with ^*.or d-iJJt »J^aJI.

and the French r grasseye. with. s. without aspiration. the Heb. are of Arabia. is* is the surd s in sit. the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. V. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa. j the English z.6 Part First. as in gargling.] . into or th in that. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss. is an aspirated 6#. it*. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&. for bX^xA. the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/. — De G. — Orthography it and Orthoepy.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r. JJ. related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. is a strongly articulated guttural k. mist. Hamdanled.]. The y of the r. 17 etc. )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a. or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng. is a guttural g. To distinguish it from do to O and z. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©. the Heb. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound. v°. unpronounceable) guttural. the Heb. and often in Mss. as a mere vowel-letter. J. ft. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. which we have no example in English. of modern Greeks. [In Egypt an emphatic d. as in run. J^. z.] y. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. bears. strictly speaking. It is described as . in any of the Semitic languages.. p. shin shut. AJaJI. it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. the Heb. It is wrong to treat it. is a strongly articulated palatal t. produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this).

w and #. originally 3. A j followed by the letter w>. obscure resembling the Welsh y. of a syllable . To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. are exactly our k. (JX&. * is our h. without any vowel coming between them. ji lau.. jf H -> H 7). In the is grammatical termination nounced like O. e. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. not g&nb. the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v. o 1.>». 4. which the old pausal - (ah). and the modern . and tj.g.Bsr or fetha (lm*&). 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. When immediately . 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai. 0. w (as in Zw/Q. g. 4] II. * In point of fact. (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin). or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . e. j9tj=& i (as kerlmun. /. the German o in Mortel. see § •>) 1. i (a dull. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. m. yakulu. The Turks and Persians > II. ww. shibau.1 —). The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels. m as w^».g. 'anbar. *+* 'bmrun. (a) L feth (~$) . ^-^ shmsun. a. iUw sembd'u. e.gemb. e (as in pet). or the (c) in bird) . . I. <d Ww. as 'ultu. E. o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**).g. and § 15) for a.§§ 3. n. The Vowels and Diphthongs.g. ^ ^ for t and ai. la. : use of the three t (without hdmza. e (nearly the French (b) e muet). t)*. halaka. j~& 'ambar. ^r* hum. 1x5 1 ^Bftw. (Heb. au. for kultu. a. ya'ulu. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. in last the d is silent. e. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels. this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb. £ du. rem. <v fo*Ai. & J. as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning.

(a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. gards the signs L. for damma. Compare the Hebrew MH^. a. The terms ^^u and *3j. a. will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. through for the various 1. JULwt or J|y£w. A vowel 5 is called dib^a. [§ 5 A Rem. o.]' are sometimes applied to L. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. Lin for other positions. or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a.] . and one in the middle. is x ^sb * bakiya. The distinction between the names feth. X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. one below for As rekesra. be given for the guidance of the learner*. is that the former denote the sounds a. kesr. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). The following rules may. In the oldest Mss. xx e. the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . i. x x x . are probably derived from 5. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. kesr a. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. S ywftU ajj^jaJI. however. of the Kor'an. i. ^3. uttered. u. Rem. . u. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. e.g. O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &. 6. commonly used of the casee. damm. ktmrun. one above for fetha. — . w**J la'bun. or on the line. 1. j*±. a motion. — its De Rem. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified.g. and ^£ or a. the latter the marks L. B mark t Ox plur.— Orthography and Orthoepy. into e.8 Part First. and fetha. or 0. c. _. u. xO p plur. Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. damma. though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure.. *\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a.c © . form or figure. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels. jj*o sadrun.

JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. K+£\. are indicated I. More in exactly. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. e. literae productionis. w. 0^**> nearly torun. s J . respectively. e. O**-' seniinun. less clear sound.g. J ( e. Rem. cap. a. $j*». "letters of prolongation. i. Z words hat. 3»o i. a weaker. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). sUrtm. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. SjU garatun. or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). IJJb. JikJ to/a. The long vowels a.j**fi> 'o'mrun. by placing the marks C and ^. *aj bVa. <C. nor immediately precede. ^^1.g. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. — .g. ^=>j*« m^rkebun. ^ao.g. so as to resemble a small elif . c>**^> axJ^JI. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. It retains. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that. approaching to that of a in the English — . $$** sukun. C~l£> katabta. sound of to that of the French u or German jy». f *. however. J 15 kola. j+&\ 'akbaru .§ 6] _ II.JUt from (^e resurrection. Ot^-JI. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with.g. however. iUi. e. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim. tunun.. e. a was at and hence long vowels. of the short vowels before the letters ^j. g. at a later period. oSS or £*$. Zjj* marratun. suratun . after the the vowel-points. ^Ac 'ilmun.g. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun. The Vowels and Diphthongs. Jj bdl." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u. u. the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case.g. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u. one of those letters. C>£^l)t. and also in general at the 6. end of a word. • # 9 x «. U^A. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. pronounced as e. «£l«~> sbnibkun. e. e. garratun. ^>j*jJI. to be carefully distinguished 2 . letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. olUI. <JUI. ^-£3 Bsrun.g. and o\ o. e. w*fc> ro bun. 1J&.

o^o saifun. tl-imdla.] . I • I J t 0/ . a^oJI c*». jJJ} . and occasionally some other vocables. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn.» j^. Ztow Pedro. ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. \ Si / j J/ I J . just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4.g. J / / U^A. / *y-U. a. . are written a». which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics. / »j\ i^tj. JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3. oW*-j c£J^*j 7. JO / j . ojJsu ^j>. J w^aJt. # of Rem. c. are I also frequently written defectively wJi. price. i. / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. ^^^aJI. Qordn's.. / . Lebrilla. in later times and in certain from a to e. dJ>l5. I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. conversely. preceded by damma. ^ stor damma. j>?UM. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy. and 3. The words ^*}U. Caniles. el-Haft. are sounded ri&#. ^j-^tijt.g. the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. o/* ^. 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. the final I was shortened or dropped. D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t. Gesch. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. el-'Asi. localities.10 Part £©**JI / First. ^l^Jt. — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. jj^iu. for ^yUjt. bnu H-Yemani. Carlo. is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. j J . etc. &i&. See Noldeke. final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity. such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3. lisin and. J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t . 0/ e.g. aIU. / / Rem. The letter o. • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au. than in others. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra. / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ.jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu .t. value). m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu. 0/1/ and ^jj^U.b. 6a6. d.» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*. whence sister of fetha. 251. Z?e/a. I corresponds to fetha. / £e£m. * [The omission of ^ p. and " § 5. This change is called aJU*jM. 6. inclines. The sound of L. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . ^ Wver Guadiaro. and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . . 6). S^JOI C^»-t.

which it is protected by hemza. ^-)> e. a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U. f).g. On the other hand many Mss. the world). £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. \j£ yaza). lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters. is often written.*^. It receives this name because. the elif that Jx e&/*. d. Rem. is \^cj. a). L*^j Behnesa. * 0*0*. otiosum). but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj. after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai. both when preceded by damma and by fetha.» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e. 6)f. . Rem. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya .g. x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. See the details below §§ 167.Jl Hid*. and //»/ " x x is called. ... when old Mss. l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . rem. letters A. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. as in # * j I. even very ancient ones. etc. particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom. can be abbreviated. and 1. as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g. The Vowels and Diphthongs. and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. . Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun). 213 (as Li^-j he will live. rem. A w*** sefun. § 19. the separating eiif Rem. After ^ at the end of a word. xx or a**). ^J*-» yedai. but and o (Heb.g. »XX .1 ** .§ 7] x II. become nearly 9 (Heb. suprascript. like J * itself . not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1.e. (£lif e. *-) sfTftft.J3 fata. tjj-aJ. y. in j If a pronominal suffix be . b. must be considered. ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e. e. tj>>*J- This I. a.~\ The diphthong ai.g. the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM.-oj rama. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf. . like I. § 10).g. [But ^-.^. shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant.1.] . in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23. as in final. 169. before jj/J\ (see x § x 20.

way l affecting the sound of the ten win. ^a^ 114. SyU. j+£. tenwln genit. Amr (not x Amru). _ in. rihdn. JU a. p. e.£ in three cases]. b) j>©. it a. L an.12 Part Rem. To one word j * . * i. Rem. genit. but 4aJ^». it as in j^jdb. b. of 31. l^jj. The j of $. rarely j \jj-+&. so also \y>j. g. [Cf. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. when precedes a ^. when acto . L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. 2jj j*c medlnetan. is added. nor. Sj£»j or 3>%j. See t § 308. First. without in any to the proper 4 . falls jj-o*. companies a hemza. Rem. djXo or S^Lo. — Orthography and Orthoepy. according to the older orthography. . rem. . as bb. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. which is always short : bdbdn. 8. viz. [§ 8 A d. of the Kor'an. further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*.. \j+&. accus. no I is written. and accus. O .] . the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions. name JS jj*©^ [or.or S^a-. malun. . z = — _ =_. for l\ J^.1 . and bpt . The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n. t>^Jt for b>. [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\. c. for which we more usually find U*w. all when the away (§ 315. l viz. as in 1-w. Rem.— DeG. Zamahsari. SyCiLo.] In old Mss. X j+c 'Omar.+£• and JJ-+& ) is. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. j ju*. as S^a. often neglected in old manuscripts. Sjjwt. 1 or iL un. This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. however. However.

are marked '. or a*j^. (amputation). x J strengthened (3juL&). c. § x- 59/ j*±e*. but marked with the sign -. b. ^J=>. j>*o. which is called . as between feth &&& fetlia. productionis they Rem. A. Ox Rem. fore to the hum. ^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. e. to separate the two. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. letter. m A letter which letter.g. used. ^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. a. 13 III. whence the C of the 2 . a quiescent See § 4. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14). has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*.g. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. are retained in writing. Gezma or Sukun. ^jJb B. etc.g. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). - -. J**i. is written only once. movent rem. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables. In some old Mss.g. later d. b. and serves. a). The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. A Gezma x or Sukun.» letters of prolongation. d). Other Orthographic Signs. with which other name x \j£~i. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e. a).§11] III. but not marked with a gezma. is D 11. as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 . b. for ^s>. Jj bel. ^j and 3. Gezma. JL3. instead of the common ±: or 1 . as the Arabs say. or. . when another syllable J follows. ^jXt. SIGNS. when they form a diphthong with fetha. ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7. rest. rem. (see § 4. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. z. Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. ^&i ~£= katabtum. coincides. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2. © x x e. 5 x \ 9. e. Rem. A consonant that fl to be doubled. Rem. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. ^£»L>. rem. c. j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa. . O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '. JJ.

—De G. The African Arabs constantly write for -. of the fifth form Rem. y* murrun. is sometimes written.£. takes place. jv» semmin. b. i. In the oldest Mss. tesdid is * expressed by « or ^. In African Mss. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. -. -. to. Rem.14 Part First. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. Perf. The solitary exception to this rule. of the Kor'an. c. — Orthography e. All consonants whatsoever. J&\ Si M-kulla.] . no doubling. as well as £. ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. properly so called.. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. at least in old manuscripts. ± alone may be = t . * [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>.»). only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. as in African Mss. the vowel is not always written with the sedda . not even excepted. e. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun. In combination with . therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru. Rem. e. <fec.e. stand for £. [§11 A JujJLSf. a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. of ji Of CU5. the tesdid {strengthening)*. It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi. ~ . it and Orthoepy. in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila.>jut>. Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. which.«. elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule. Tesdid. 2d pers. D Rem. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). Rem. in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . cj-tU na"agun. in combination with -.*. instead of Jj3 and J>*3. (from UubL^ lightened. C <*£&>. a. is not required . Ojji. is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. sing. and receive tesdid. when accompanied by kesra.g. .g. as may be seen from the above examples.g.is an abbreviated ^i. below the line. single). 3d pers. -. e. -. . *$d> kullan.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere. Perf. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " . fern. d. or the first letter of the name ojut>. £ may . sing.

and Jj. . letters. Tesdid or Sedda.> [see § 277]. solar because the word u~+J*. jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. ^-^Jt Ss-semsu. . like ilcu^a.g. Ja. JIaj <jt after the nunation. &. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant. yi. as C^»tj letters j. but ja\ (ammara). The w of the . j>. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. used : — (a) With the letters O. is B. is bitter. j. sibilants. and &*£$. in African and Spanish manuscripts. <>?. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^. y> (murrun) language. e. for kiidbun mublnun. ^L 14. or. Other Orthographic Signs. >. ^. appointed some one commander . e. ui. 0> (dentals. 13. J-JJt el-leilu. ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi. UkjodH. and after n with £ezm. is. ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu. the Rem. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI. moon. e. JJ ^>o. 'ar-rahmanu . but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). save in rare instances. With the J.) after the article Jl . (b) b. it is sometimes found after it 1. It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). j. sun.§ 14] III.g. J». JJI. letters. Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. 5. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends. a. 15 12. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. as in jto. j^UI k-timru. 3. c J. the because the word j^3. iesdFid. and the other lunar them.>L©. though expressed in writing. to avoid harshness of sound. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. j. *£>.g. This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. which. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. ^. he. happens to begin with one of them.

jl. so that only one O is O. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9. . a. j^\ .. ^Sj. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu . union of the two indicated by the tesdid C. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel. v° b. and rem.16 Part First.g. rightly. is of the upper part of the windpipe. e -g. mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. Rem. for ^ O*. the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel . but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*. e.. b.. on the contrary. when it is sonant. juXSI. g.g. with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. and grammarians. (dentals). £>*> 0*> I*. after e. is distinguished by the viz. such as >. elevation)'. for C-slsua. it i. d. like O. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N). If the verb ends in O in the above cases. ^Jj\. — Orthography and Orthoepy.O-*a. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant. c. * D 15. jwl. which \j3. Rem.>«. are hardly ever written separately.» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. with redundant U). in a si . a. a. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. a). always. it naturally unites with the is written. \j}\ t Ua*. *£>. pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation.. [§15 A words v>«. 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God. He^mza or Nebra. u° or h. . Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether. )» s With the letter O . as C~J for cJL5. k*±. see § 4. lj. rem. Ut £ for U. (tf/iatf.^t. 6. is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. W* for U £>*> ^ itself. e. .jl £ (i/*. second b. but a conthe spiritus lenis.jt £ {if not). £>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta.. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . Rem. also sometimes called nebra (S^J. by a C weaker servile letter. but the . Elif. ILd. ^ v >«. f°r O**** or v>» . compression. ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. jilf. JL. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. Rem. however. *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1.31.

g.j>Jwl£. J0^i\js>\ (but for J . In the oldest Mss. ^j\ or <jt for ^>t.] 3 . like.§ 17] III. . e. § 4. of the Kor'an. *U*. f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem. (jlt^iJI. s uun\ i^o. for ^>>L. a)'.. for ^j^-wl^.g.. Other Orthographic Signs. for Ol». Rem. C. j5~t for j-w (see § 16).3. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. jt.. In African (and certain other) Mss. ** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss. or ltu»» for U*i». after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma. j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota. 4JL%*©. is e.g.l.g. though [See below. * J gaa. Ji* and the d. £^3. Ju*>. I. is written between the t and the vowel that . e. ^. tbj. Accusatives * w. (a) Always at the end of a word. hemza e. Hemza it. by a large yellow or green dot.Ufc. when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L.. b. . el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu). l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &. C*£».g. 17 Rem. ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word.. rem. c).. 16. e-j ^^j for it chW. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui. as ^j^t\^J. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl).. like l^ and l^J? are often written. l^. after elif productio?iis. Rem. varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above. Rem. in the fol- lowing cases. or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8. preceded by a shut syllable. c. Hemza or Nebra. pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. §§ 131 seq. e. c£X±. and in the middle of a word. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain. w*33j 17. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points .

and Orthoepy. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of . at. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh .1^. as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. or after a consonant with gezma. and followed by a or s a. oUJ]. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>. S$j-£* for SjjjXo. and also e. PuUr* for 0^ . pronounced makrit'atun. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. we find such instances Z\}j.>*1t. Hemza between w&. o. as JLtj for JLjj. ai. called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c. £. from S^a-o. The name j^tj or ^i\y David. as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. jit£ for ^otjj. necessarily so. 0^34 for oL5^. placed itself. hati'atun. Rem. j c-> . £lif with [This hemza. if the preceding consonant be an . and uu. — ^. is. as J£*t. or ^hj^j which words must always be . 1 ^eU for ^oU). ^^jj for ^Hji. Rem. 6.18 Part First. ua. a following After a consonant with gezma. J-~j for JL*j . iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. but must always be pronounced Da'udu. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&. which is connected with letter. for^. a. *Zo* j 9io. rn'usun. power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel. (b) Frequently in the middle of words. as ^>ott or is ^\. j to. however. Rem. A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i.. e. more frequently. O/ as for i — Orthography .kri c or &Lla». though improperly. after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^. ^j^ au. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. u.g. [§ 17 A contrary to rule.g. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o. is often written ^\y . J^/f. for **o*> from *^. l*J* \\>j and in old Mss. for ^t. ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. and damma before the for ^Hjjj.. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. for JU»t. Lw.g. e. ^ £ j 3 .

of the usual sbs. according to the preceding vowel. I i. x See § 15. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. X *>*> . d. a).o$ or 4JL0 . and § 19. In ancient MagribI Mss. JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13. rem. . 19 D. S^-j&JI. a&I. f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. £ s 'OiO . j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# . j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. rem. In the oldest Mss. was appointed governor . which sometimes varies in position. and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35).g. When the vowels with hemza (t I). he said. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13. or rather. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . i. and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. Wasla. Wasla. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e. e.g. listen. we rr J- L instead b. union. or &L03. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM. a.a. |x X .e.§ 19] III. xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e. with a point to indicate the itself. D. O x ^ x 5x § 4. "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt. With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA. Hence even I. i. the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign . a. Other Orthographic Signs. Slif. kill. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ .g. yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut. or 2X& (see x bi rem.e.. t J~~> . «i. the stroke is used. Imperative. 19. <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif. the father of (b) the we~zir. and called J*&3.written over the . dU^l c-ol. in modern African Mss. Rem. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . e. he said.& downfall or extinction. + * regular verb. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. Rem. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red). J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < . at the commencement of A a word. I 18. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active.

* .>M. in a contracted form. and § 18. as (lit. and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it. 9t-*0 a name. b. 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l. and occasionally m after the prepositions *. prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. as ^t^iiNjI ^. in part merely prosthetic. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. jl^l5N)l. 3 d.>*-J. Rem. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic. is in ^>*-jl after J). is also elided after the asseverative particle J. It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza. as rem.20 Part (d) First. Rem. <ft jL^jf.\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*. the anus. 9 J 9*0 §j*\. 9 a woman. See § 15. two (fern. xO xxO O^'l.^0-MvNjt J^. or. rem. s-Jj^-- . but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms. The hemza of j>^-»l. especially after the article. to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. c. J Oi Rem. because it is then no longer necessary. oatfAs. b.© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). a. and Orthoepy. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^.). and * ^J\ * or ^j\.^r^\^AJ\ JA>. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. — Orthography son. in part original. omitting the altogether. orjj-ot. Rem. * 9 /) fe is neglected. so. /). : [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\. JO* C is Rem. e. a. the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. two (masc). j^\ 30 (rarely^wt). Cwl. aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God). a * a daughter. the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\. that to say. but. a man.

g. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . The suffixes of the 1st pers. f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t . a diphthong. Wasla. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis. A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel . the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel.^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. To vowel. but begins the next syllable.g. instead of . forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels. in the other two an elif separationis. ^^t )^o*J my grace which. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). ^. as u«jJi . Other Orthographic Signs. Hence gtj£^t ^3. J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. see § 19. u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^. fear the people. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ .JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI . B shortened e. according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. O in the eyes of the king. the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. viz. (a) 20. the elect of God. and au into cm as (c) . subject to change (a I weak elif letter). or a consonant with gezma. but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. at into ai. for <UJt ^aJsucuo. J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). 21 Rem. AJJt j)BJn.20] III. in e the beginning. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. being sJgJUl oUI. b and c. sing. A II .. the connective elif the opposite elif. father of the wezir. these different cases the following rules apply. D. This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri. for ft and 'abu. elif sejunctionis or separationis. J*Wi.rfi. is pronounced as written Q tjuJi. ^_ and e.yju&t. according to the law stated in § 25. which equally admissible. »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. The silent elif (§ 7. first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis. 'n-nasi. for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma. rem.« mustafdu 'lldhi.

instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^. J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel. masc. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm . In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85. as . or adopts the lightest of the three vowels. J*. kesra. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) . j£* your. you (accus. . The preposition .>*.)..»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma. Perf. from. plur. [§ 20 xx A thong. & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. } Rem. which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s. as tjjiaST jj. J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . them. j and^A they. ^j\. and particles. Rem. viz. C fetha djj\. rem. x v~k*. because contracted for Ju*. for IjjjkTt Ji. before the article. Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers. they threw the stones . If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. The same it is is the case with Jco. and ^A their. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. D Rem.6. so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha . A . £ take kesra. but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. a.22 Part xx x 0*> First. the pronoun yj*. ^A or^A. since. viz. jS. which time forth. etc. and after they saw the star. x0£<0.. ^Sj. Jj.\. as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. is The final £ of rejected. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c.^0^ you. plur. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu.>£). as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu. verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS. b. J — Orthography w and Orthoepy. from.0*> x name . takes . x J x <5 ^j . such as sjs. b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. masc. yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra .>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu. Oi Ox But jt and to meet.

the son of Halid. the an adjective. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather.c.§21] - III. J^pJ to the man. but form part of the predicate. it is ls**J> Ridha. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs. in a genealogical series. if that word happens Rem. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j.ijj sjj£. that is to say. 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. of the son precedes. thus: j^. so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. t. ^t j+s. . O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«. forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. .g. b. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. B when the name the genitive lira .] the second noun be not in apposition to the first.0* . are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. D. a. for J*^). For example. for aJUI^wb. la tadriba 'bnaka. aUI j^s." being Amr. when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to. as a whole. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad. In the article Jl. Wasla. (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr. 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka. as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary . the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh. the son struck Sa'd. real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. rem. as by the J J OtO j . Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. ' interposition of the noble. § 315. if ^jj\ jU. [Cf. . jy&J*o wise. oUaaJI Rem. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. omission of the In the word ^t. son. and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. "the black. e. but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname. Z . the J s I retained. b. DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss. to stand at the beginning of a line. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained.

g. the two . In the oldest and best Mss. As mentioned above 1U*. then the J of the article is omitted. is it (fem. and the sign of prolongation. verily. xxOjx^o^ ^. 22. 5jL« or aJsh.e. a. wj^aJI yJ — De G. ^*>.a»Jt. rem.) is written instead of the former. ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna. we find in old Mss. a. in poetry. c .gaa. is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti. [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. (£) by the affirmative particle J truly.. shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases. y>^tf.. elif In this last case. Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij. according to some.. Ih. for *l». for JUS. then a mere hemza etc. has fetha.). for ^UjM. to ask.] Medda or Matta. and the article Jt. a. j-o3. and that for alJJN). E. for (d) In nouns. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>. is placed over the latter .. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as .>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19. *U. (i. (t. the form of the medda » x ji*). e. a. 6. as Jlli. » a>. § 140. cited in § 358.Z . for Oj-Jull. o e. rem. rem. when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\. is frequently omitted. as S&JJ. [Cf. for llo-*. (§ 17. — Orthography and Orthoepy. *X*~> semdun.24 Part First.). ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'. for 2JJJJ.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto. b. after the conjunction J sj.>. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained. i. in Mss. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>. Rem. is Rem. rem. Its opposite is j*oA (i. such forms as tbj.*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^). Q Rem. verbs. extension). lengthening. elifs # when the second j s s o. as aJUJ to the night. is son—1 O^Xit... I.e. so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\. for iOn. he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M . I .] . of the Kor'an. for^5Jo»Jtt..

d. e. The mark -.g. [But we some- times find U. of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. U^-l . h). E. instead of with Rem. —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript. tut instead of L*t or tutt. for 4 . b. the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). (t) is at the beginning of a syllable. or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. W for LS jo*-. when followed by an elif hemzatum. . along with the medda. When. upon him/ for 6j±. Other Orthographic Signs. $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. aJUt ^y^j. has nothing in common with medda but is the form. rem. as ly~J j jo£ . In some old Mss. 25 this is is but rarely written. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem.J I.g. U for Uh*»»l. a. e. may God be <*JUI well pleased with. Ut or to the end of etc. Rem. e. the lengthened or long elif. So Jtj for jJUj. alwt for }tL*l. GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to. medda (see § 6. only is (§ 17. . Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha.j£*. o or t. ajx.^* or ^**.\ . l^a***. ^2J\ j&. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. often written over abbreviations of words. in and the verbal termination j£. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. a) c. Medda prolongation. b). when they are used as long poetry. In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza.. rem. Cfor J^a-. informed us. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\.] 1 Rem. w. 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17. the hemza being written final a) .e.jt or . then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda. Ae narrated to us tfAew. i. Medda or Matta. see § 174. rem.§ 23] III. or the vowel.g. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. He (God) exalted above all.^**. may GW /*e Aave mercy it.

Vlp). correction. -*~o stands for ^o. and stands for < ~*J. or ^!wa1. is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. which commence with a syllable of this sort.26 Part First. ^)L^. A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum). *-Jj*y\. etc. as sf or fir. emendation. rem. may be either long or short. syllable that terminates in a vowel. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable.e. B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct.Generally speaking. and is repeated more clearly on the them. may (i. explanation. a copy. is.). the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir. to be placed first. the first of which is destitute of a vowel. usually before the . to fypov 27. A take an additional vowel. first consonant . and ~~*a over of Mss. on passing into the Arabic language. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. Jy> (Heb. either separated or followed . find words with the letters *f~. tin. THE SYLLABLE. which we call a shut or compound syllable. though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. we often W O * these indicates a variant. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. JU pause. The first of U J margin. J . it is correct. as . 0*0 0* y^M. is almost always short . which are not by a vowel (except in pause). as J13 ka-la. another manuscript . the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text. together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. that the ancient it is as kul. the fix o < correct one 5*-o. Foreign words. ^. IIXaTwv f J . end in two consonants. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. the third implies that the marginal reading. Before a double consonant a (see § 13. — Orthography and Orthoepy. and not that of the text. — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant. D Rem. and denotes form or vocalization. in the writer's opinion. ' « . 26. where the final short vowels are suppressed. dJbd over a <x\x). and jajJLc. to be placed last. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|. text. C we 24. an. — Again it is. 25.

'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un. Rem. ^. is the interrogative enclitic j> . kd-ti-bdt. j. I. ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. bu-nei. 5 *' *" ** x* J . as ^. ne-bi-yun. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. ya-kH-ldn-na. *!_ or 2t_. _ ^J ^i li-ma. .33 wa-kul. V. in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. j_. U la-nd. bil-ldu-run. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. J. When has four or more syllables. ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. Jl-rfnd. (a) The pausal forms . and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^. The Accent 27 THE ACCENT. y bi-hi. Rem.§ 31] V. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28. j>V. i). ku-beil. long by nature. U-^t 'ei-na-md. £15 fa-kdt. kd-nun. \S£> ka-dd. *fe\ 'a-fa-ld.e. d-du. it is 29. l^ bi-md. The penult takes the accent when . 9 lj-4 biir-un. ^r* kd-ta-ba. bil-ldur. hdm-ra. J. (b) * Monosyllables in combination with . rem. that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. i D ^^ the penult is short. mdk-ru . UJ ^-rad See 351. the accent falls upon the antepenult. g^lsu ba-ti-un. l Oxx kd-ti-bun. w>. mu-mi-nfn. nature or position « x .J . ly-»|p fa-?-a- . '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. i>*>^ yun. as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun. But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl.B *3j** mak-ru-un. XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. . c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. ham-rd-'u. j js. m». The last syllable of does not take the accent. and vJ.>*) li-mdn. The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position. *j_. or. is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la. ul-J . Vj wa-ldm. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. if it 31. i. it is 30. X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma. as ya-kul. ne-bi . Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. J3I 'a-kdl-lu. bd-ti. 9 uf ma-fdr. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun.j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na.a-du- l wun.

: 123 4 67890 . . Grain. Their form. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt. p.28 Part First. have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians. however. as jut*a£. THE NUMBERS.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed.g. calling them Arabian. &v. and Wallin in the same journal. and Orthoepy. [also Spitta.. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd. ten in number. because we took them from the Arabs. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij.j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. pp. as the following table shows. pp. as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°. Egypt and among the Bedawin.« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun. xii. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**. Rem. des arab. VI. 1874. They are the same that we Europeans make use of. the Indian notation. vol. tAvt. — Orthography . at other times peculiar signs. vol.»>. B 32. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. 670-3. Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum. 1874. the the alphabet. iv. On deviations from these principles of accentuation. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md. They are written from right to left. 183-6. Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them. Vul- 59 sqq..] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880).

is X. 33. JiS I. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. JiliA j£ Ju& II. Rem. I. JU**t XV. the Triliteral 1. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms. that is The great majority to say. J*tf V. because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. sing. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. IX. III. The Forms of Verb. Jl3 to kiU. but the learner XL XII. A. JJuilt XIV. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. (with juSt number. >& JiL ? l VI. being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). THE VERB. JjuJI. VII. literal verbs are by no means rare. instead of he has killed.. Ji^t VIII. pers. a.PART SECOND. The 3d of the verb. . JjiSl XIII. but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive. A General View. contain three radical letters. Perf. masc. which first.

to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. ' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill. c.» to be heavy. that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition. j^~* old. Rem. a. the learner should 36. [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. ^j+e to be J* blind.Part Second. is B 37. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful. sJj& high or noble*. ^v^a. —Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. thinking. (scire). D Rem. whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. e. j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. 415. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam. * [Or. to sit. *£t or to E. to become noble. De G. u*j^ be sick. w>o to beat. for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before.j+& j**o to be small. ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear.] — . to s^^ to become gray. *-ji or JJ^ glad. to be large.g. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. and not a few of the write. 38. * to be safe and sound. As are those adopted in note them carefully. t^~U. sorry. jj&> to know upon. Kamil. v** J y^3 to go away. 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . and therefore govern the accusative.g. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO . to think. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. b. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons. jJ*j to go right way. Rem. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so. The vowel signification.g. j*y\ to become whitish. . j*£* become ugly. according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. The distinction between them is. p.

UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&.to ?raa#0 carry. but derived in the former. JU. The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical.^jiz x w-A to wWto. The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach. JS3 to to Mil. Rem. it is Rem. though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. the apparent difference being that original in the latter. or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). . JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . p. xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces. w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry. Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often.~\ /S/ X Xx A 39. transitive or causative in the second # . fo«£. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. w>j~o to #£#£ violently . The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . Gr.5 to cw£. Jjy to separate. a. b. j~£> to break. form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. The Verb. 40. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification. Jt*». to believe him. b. Jjji to disperse . as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie. ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. as^Xft know. [See Comp.g. xx or <J\h to go round. or during a long time (temporally extensive). XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). 1. Js3 to massacre . w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. General View. Forms of Triliteral Verb. w>o B j*& ala. first Verbs that are intransitive in the . 9-j* to gladden. *IaJ to cut in pieces . A. term. 165 $eq. or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive). 31 Rem. E. Ubt^ to weaken. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down.§ 41] I. ^J to weep.

Rem. JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt). fi like the fourth form. and ex- or doing of. Rem. Sometimes. g. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry. j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w. o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him . x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). 43. iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar.j). it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). to coZ/ec2 to to e. . ing ways. agju*. . compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). ^fap and Aram. J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x .] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical.g. (_>»U. It modifies the signification of the 42. a&3 he killed him. to the Heb. derived. perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object.to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»). j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^. Uju*.32 Part Second. *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). a mutual one. Gr. or the like. ^UT. x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5). dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee).). (may GW prolong J^O thy life). — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. ^&0— [See Comp. to dwell in a place. in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative. " to skin an animal. or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with. (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). first p. . (^^J&t <*£M). T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly. ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. isj-o . by the elif productionis. c. ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar. d.i. jl*. (??i«2/ thy nose. ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja). he said to off). as well as in signification. 198 sea. j&j*. jQ+m. be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U». to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin. JUi corresponds in form. hfap.

\J&\+b to double. AiS*) he treated him it . Forms him of Triliteral Verb. jlS>t he advised him. . >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. Aiwl». oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied.g. (c) . tli to be hard.Io he wrestled with . <uuw he outran him. £f$ to be soft or gentle. to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly . Rem. as in the former case. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry. £>*~j*. conversed with him . „ . ^U. When the or fourth form denotes an act. he went first is to law with him.§ 43] I. sulted with him. of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. The Verb. 1.to d-wla. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. sj**±.^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him.he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . the relation B of which to an object object). ojsMt he competed with him in doing so. «o *i« he fell upon aAs. 33 alii he overcame him. (something). A^ol*.. axStj do. from Julc the like or equal . t mander of the Faithful. »^jafe more or less distinctly implied. aljlS he corresponded with him. he threw him down.U» 5 . he treated he. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. attacked him. ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do. . he vied with him in rank and glory . X X J . E. oa. Ji. General View. gently . ideas a. aijli he strove to do so. g. the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). a^pU he procured him means of doing so. 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. E. o^Sh he strove to do so. and affects him or brings X him into that state. . dJuL* he ran a race with him. A. ac. him kindly . X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. A aJU he tried to overcome him . do. he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit. treated be good or kind. Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . g. . is here. <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan. w.

44. If the in 45. to \Jj** sit to run. G. (Gl. fold well. .g. The fourth form I. verb is . v~y** to sit down. to be. from which they are derived. Thus J*. t^&S he shewed him Rem. many that of a transitive verb. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing. niggardly . like the second as t alsLjt he thought him.. sjof^\ \S^ c. he found him. 6) see Corap. of which it is the direct object. the first. because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. [§ 44 A double. C c/~^t bid one to down.v. it becomes doubly transitive in the E. Faih. p..* ot oj*+*»\ J . ( .. i. he to be praiseworthy or commendable.<» . ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. UJ is ^. found the district abounding in fresh herbage. in others the same. or found him to be. Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). The fourth form J' s Of. cites xiii. The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. they have in some cases different to teach. 6V. to know.g.34 Part Second. Geog. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun. to the Heb. of denomi- Rem. J±}). a.] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt..g. and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . b. When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>). found him cowardly .t to >*swJt make run. 202 seq. D Rem. e£c. Zamahsari. intransitive in the first form. Jailw ojicb.— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. E. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. B Aghdni —De dUU.aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty. Jjbl . a . natives. tj>». [Rem. 52. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth. or or it. . b.lj. 197 c. to let go. a). if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth. J*^t he ate bread. he thought him. rem. j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. ^s- inform one of a thing . Rem. eat. ^oAfct to E. significations. a = Heb.^JU to escape. sometimes declarative or estimative.s.

Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. Ae re^'reo?. J^D^H. well or *^J. or suffering something therein). j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory .] . run with *• outstretched neck. jJsuot to O . ^3t advance. -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. the entering — of time (being.1 jJUl to act a proof ill. go to Aoi go to the left) . j^\. w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. x . ^ ^.. ." "to seed.^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&. or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ . people) or oe aVy (of a season). serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face. or VIII. 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\). I 4(S o 9-~o\. " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower. ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA. go # to the right. ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). ^£wl.11). s i * to give " . 0>£»>t. .oi to E. or becoming something. to >~».. A." "to lamb").^. ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . Usui.g.it>i a male or a female child. Thus AetoJ ^ J VII. The Verb.) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face. *£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) . General View. to to ebx Irak . obtaining or getting having something. ~ . i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa.it commit a commit a blunder. (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin. ol . doing. 35 produce herbage (j^j). . o t (Jjtj*M). sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently. Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). x x oi and 7*X£KTl. j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place. of a certain kind*. in Hebrew. I. JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . jj>\ to retire ("reculer"). . < . w-^/'t a noble . is I battle ." calve. C-^Ui sAe son. w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV. . into a state or condition. Usui to 6e sto or B tardy. j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. upon a period * soi ssoi to . acquiring a quality.i to cto fault or error. Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them. *L>I. ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi. wwt. ^° 1. ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3).l.* (J»iu). tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt).§45] to I. to enter x x * . pj~i\ a * i to make haste.

D 47. Forms 69. . . SftpK. ^4^1. j^\. In English it E. '£&. <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67. . or «3!/v°> 46. literally. 204 The Hebrew. This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . jm£\ garment) or clear. reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '. girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3.» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated. to be [§ 46 A farthing. like XXX £\j& are 118). Aram. in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the . e. for (rad. O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP .. uJS). . St break one's compact with a person. took away its 4*a*£. J~l&. patient. Phcen. "°Z Rem. JJtjJh for to pour out rest to . ^g» (*&*J).. to be proud./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O.jij^\. h*ppn. 'jJojS. become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused. to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . £jJu to be dispersed.36 Part Second. 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. '*'. to terrify). w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action.Jl. become possible. instead of it will be observed. and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf.. g. owe. }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth . prefix. deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ. ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint. „ . to wish. j~£3 to be broken in pieces. or the Parts of Speech. o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-. to let rest. obscurity or toani of clearness. seo/. as its must often be rendered by the passive. \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±. d. ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) .Of. as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) . *->j*o3 . to reduced to utter want. it is the pjUa-o of the second form. J B . that is to say.'. (P *^) . GV.g. JJJL». See Comjt?. Heb. action denoted by the second form effect or result. The .t . p. for to give discoverable in Arabic. %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces.

to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. *»•>> . dispersed. ^>a*j. to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids. a». b. Forms of Triliteral Verb. ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of. at first sight. but Q Rem. to make to oneself or turn oneself into. j^j^ to amid blame. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. to abstain from. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow. \f^. as a prophet to (J^*J). i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. and V. long or repeatedly. 1. without change of sense. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative. J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth.§47] I. j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain. jjjj * to take as an abode. cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. or atvta* sm or crime. to look at to. or to affect. understand. fo become a Jew (^O^). (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. so that to may be quite clear. 2*j-**3. £jj3. Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. j**\3. Rem. sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). **-~J to liear to speak. 37 with Kais or Nizar. e.] we may substitute ±r»yu. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully. Jiia^J. A. £***£. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). a earnestly. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent. to examine or study. »J to pursue step by step (literally. [In some cases the difference between II. rem. w ^a>J . tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. c) Thus for ^^3. General View. *xwU become as bold or . Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. to have wholly disappeared.j (§41.g. JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!). ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. entirely disappears. to affect courage or manliness. The Verb. sip to or sup. Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. ^ra? as a foora (ju»t). a.

^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned. different j^jo to become learned. to to learn. the reality or fact. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). Rem. Rem. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. E. g. 48. even more common. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. D 49. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. I kept sixth . . ^G o-o to make clear. rem. form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. whether it be caused by another or by himself. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. we might say. 0-++> to appear clear or certain . but also of a personal passive. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism. him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram.g. by prefixing the syllable It is the O. likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). distinct. b. but did not learn to be separate. he was taught Again. namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. j^s. which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. but did not learn. JJU»J become. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. sometimes the indirect object (dative). We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£.g. Rem. explain. pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form. ILo-*^ to know. d). clear. or prove to be. to (become learned)*. effective. (received instruction). whereas object of. whence we see its identity with the Heb. as J^l3 d3 j&b. he was learned (= taught). or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him. The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative). which transitive in the third form. a. to teach. Q only of an impersonal. 50. g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41.38 Part Second. [§ 48 A c. becomes e. the action of another .

JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed. aJI C~«U3 . jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . him. b. for him . When used in speaking of God. ii.]. j^Uj to to pretend to be blind. the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. Rem. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred. Forms of'Trilateral Verb. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf. or perfect. to ^j^W* to pretend to cry. The Verb. w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them.g. General View. or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. or exalted. Further. .§50] I. A. a. 1. above all . OjUj to pretend to be dead. * * collective. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. rem. D made itself (became or was) too great. Somewhat similarly. another. subjects. gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another . inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . 39 the thing. w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. e. with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance. and lUaaJt C~~*y3. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. e. A jjULj to pretend to squint.g. Rem. above all. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . oU»J pretend to be deceived. *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . aJjti he fought with him. JaUJ feign ignorance. vol. ^jloJ to feign sickness. *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together. whence in the passive. § 1 f . j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult.

and so strengthening. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3.] C is Rem." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. rem. Rem. By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth. compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. §§18 and J. Slj^t colnerentes. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. as it were. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so. D 52. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i. 20 first vs. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj. in walking*). may be added but always the direct object itself. however. The seventh form has also originally. as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. a middle or reflexive signification. and as to the orthography instead of § 19. and why. [§51 A (^ c. to which sative). this I becomes I. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build. this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts. ! see with rem. c. Hamasa p. added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem. of one The idea of reciprocity e. before which § 26). J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111). supporting. and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. s. Geog. d. Ji*»>. It must be remarked. c. another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification. t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. — De G.g. For the cases in which 19. and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). as pjUx* of the first.40 Pakt Second.] .v. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. [Hence bit. d. the others) . and comm. first rem - 51.

^mm*J to become broken. *a. i. o£ to j»w£ to rights. cut to off. to be to be broken. pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived.g. particularly in modern Arabic. JUJt to open (of a flower). 6. jaJ\ a. to flee.§54] I. Gr. Forms of Triliteral Verb. - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. m Rem. UUJQI uncovered.«sul. g. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. E. to x x end. Sometimes. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. x x O \ appear . especially in more recent times.— De Rem. ^\Ji7b 63. rem. from JjUj to 6e narrow. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress.g. out of the reflexive. from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. c. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals. 54. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. X XX O p. jtjM to be non-existent or missing.] jilit corresponds to the Heb.'»t.. A. to fo |?w« to rights.). 1. to be ended. from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down. from >U to return. B upon him e. from to 6e stupid or foolish .. G. though in actual use. x x x Rem. the last in a tradition. JUdtil to 6e bolted. jUjI X 6e repeated. JUul to be uttered or spoken. to break into pieces . 215 seg. 6 . The Verb. jJbJLit to be to split itself. Si to be docile or submissive. 41 often to a passive. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit. or an effect to be produced . j~£j\ to break (intrans.s* . are incorrectly formed. from JiA£t x^xog e. 53. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. At the same it time. the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. from *JLot JUJxil. (§ 51. to fall. UJsul # to fo extinguished. becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w. [Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt. and so ancient. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. The radical in consequence loses its vowel. x J x . ^£>fjt.). to £xxo 60^. General View. to be made x manifest. not to be found. 7fcDp3> see Comp.

The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. = ******* . ** . to measure corn. to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t.f> and ^. * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people . and sixth forms. to * * follow one's track. yJa* * and w*kl». p. word. ** * * j . **o tjj^jfc.. especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . to be victorious . Greek active and middle voices. D 57. . to carry off by force. u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative. for one's own advantage. w»j&\ do. to part . *.1 they * * * were neighbours. and * tjtfudt. l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God).. -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. . * * * US and •*&£). implying for oneself. b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another.42 Part Second.. . sJ^jt to be turned back. ^oS . Jt£» and JU£»t meat. as Jjji to divide. Gr. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification. as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive. J~+l to touch. u°j* way. so closely in their signifi- cation. and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ]. to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing. to to place (something) before one. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another. e.l * to collect firewood.— Etymology Rem. that they may be translated by the same to relate . J^t to to go asunder. 208. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J.] explanation of the actual form is O 55. L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro. * Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another. dative. B J»ji to beat. like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree. or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical.g. which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO . fought with one another.. as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). see Comp.»Jg»t * earn one s living . to seek for it * * * v . Rem. to snatch away. ^U*t to be full..

<jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). A. They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape). indicates .t to become commingled. 43 58. According to some grammarians. and the eleventh the rarer of the two. 59.§59] I. mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. Forms of Triliteral first Verb. Rem. being more rapidly pronounced. colours b. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked . u^tf^ an d u^W white. is ^ or /( ^. jo>t to be ash-coloured. loses its vowel. 1. when doubled. Rem.).l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. General View. the first radical. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked. t rem. jl£. is Neither of these forms is very common. As the third radical. jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. to be stern or £ * t gloomy. to show that E. 2. The ninth form (jiit) . the distinction between is. The Verb. or languid . If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . the night reached its middle point. a [Others hold that XI. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities. £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. confused. to >o run quickly. is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable. to squint. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . . and hence the doubling of the third is radical. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. the ninth and eleventh forms or . see § 167. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears). a.g. a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». . (for ^£5*Xa-t. o hasten. draws the accent upon the penult.

to think one a bore. The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author. Rem. H. . to grieve or distress.). lawful. .g. JU- to be . O of Cwl. D &mm*Z* it to think him. rem.\ up {something) wholly. first form. to preserve alive. § 51. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses. equip. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. * ° " ° (of it). ^aJ^. (for E. U»-t to bring to life. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. ready. . ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E. g. to think lightly of or one. 50 seq. 1299) p. \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*». in reference to himself or for his benefit. *Jl*JL*\ despise. J*£lwl to find heavy. ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. : [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX.44 Part Second. juCwl to get to yield be ready . The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). prepare. factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle.jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary. his prayer. A.j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) . js. to take entire possession . Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * . to ' * . or obeyed him. a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire. or a * * o it. but this view was marians.\ to oneself ready. according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61. good or beautiful. and the former editions of this work . . for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . ^©J~»t to give up. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. up. think it it light.] : " °' 60. deliver over. in doing something. The prosthetic is necessary. or s accepted. cA». the quality expressed by the *> 62. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. oppressive or troublesome. jU»jL>l to think good or excellent.

in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing. of. The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. at least originally. <\r* Z to require one's presence. L5 Al»> l. or demanding. governor (J*»^). to make oneself G humble. x Zwt be ashamed. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. rem. lit. to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. A. ^oUiwt to stand upright. it The tenth form is frequently denominative. permission. to take possession of . Hence to ^. This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink.§65] I. \ to become like (lit. it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. reflexive. to hold oneself upright . The Verb. to deserve. help.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * . A ' 0* also the tenth. what meant by the first. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E. \Jy~i\ it . General View.to be present. jk£> to pardon. j he should be fetched. ask for something to drink. ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble. . to pray for rain. but estimative or declarative s 45. to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . lit. JU*£wt to be worthy lit. desire that & * . E. Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb. 1.for oneself : factitive 64. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. seeking. successor. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission.«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I. or caliph (Zsul*.. is asking for.JL«I*1 permit. E. 63. s . jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon. t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^). D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy. * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help .g. j-oA. g. \J}>\ . Rem. 45 so strictly factitive. to conduct oneself humbly . GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) .g. j+**Z* x x * o . &c. ^jiw to give one to to drink. lit. 6).y^x^JiwI literally means is so . was.

[§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J. to become moist (= J«a». sufficient .46 j Part Second. J&L^A to be big (rad. ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) . ^)^l». 66. (rad. vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. xxdxO efo. JU**.JU.1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*. wJJu> dash ground. J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. j>Ut heavy (jJU. or x humpbacked to (*->***. iJlCJU. »/*») to —XIII. *iU*w) . /l»\ b^jj*. must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation.\). Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples.) to j** black (JSL do. so as to exhibit their formation. may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*. xO and obd).) to be long or last long. do.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£. curved. to be long and thick (of the hair). which has the same signification as ^iXw. IxXft). to fo obscure (rad. corresponding to the Aram. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x . not in use. x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x . XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . to mount a camel .t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked). (rad. xxx of . xx x Rem. xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^.) .) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo. to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad. which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t. 5x0 .) . "&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth. x x J^^o ^t .t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x . (=j«a±. s^JIS.) xx dx .) . to become soft or tender (j-a». ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o. ax fo &&rc?) . to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back. and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. to be green and rank (of a plant). —XII. If so.—XIV.oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt. &}jj£\X X . .do. #o 60 arched. os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. with one or two more. our geese are all stvans).) . . JU~>.

J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters. Jx»A». is prefixed or affixed to. j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *. ^ ^o^-oxfc.B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms. Pers. ^. to be filled with rage (LfL do. XXX md^ ^ retire). XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x . General View. 2. or inserted in the middle E. to xxOx to rwi^A. p.g.§ 67] x x Ox I. ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper. (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*. u .e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse . . but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions. expressing a sound or movement.g. ^^ X was sweet). 9 x» x some of them foreign words. of. deceive to with soft words a ^J^. generally a liquid or sibilant. Rem.a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t. A. The Quadriliteral Verb. 67.g.1 to swollen or inflated. repeated. be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) . •^JL*. shout. rad. a triliteral verbal form. —XV.. JT& al-Istikak. 227. (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. xxx to to xxOx to be high) X .t. jj-as) x x o x o x . The Verb. is A biliteral root. x x JLU) .J«Jl». 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ . ^Jsu^. xxOx ji-ji- to gargle.and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly). bellow.). to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^».''£ . to Mttfo rws£& or rattle. to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw. E.). . All these forms are habitually intransitive. as XII. —XV. 2. x E. v~x£ x Ox do. to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake. bb to G say baba (papa). oj^. (b) A fourth letter.1X j jo v:o x o 7<. 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair. to retire) to .

number.») <• . JP^». The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I. f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates . xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along . quickly. vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E. . xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**. * x x . verb are three in 68. J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U. saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik .48 Part Second. Ju/tIV. JJtUlt III. They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas. I E. . Pers. signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70.g.) to ^ . Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) . to abase x x . JJUtf II.g. JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch . X JX+& to gather ripe dates. The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals. to Pitch.and J3>».g. ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another . J (^)UslL»). pfe>). J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. «nriaT/>os). X X E. also to be active or nimble . pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ . £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) . Tlb/J?) </>iA. and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification. xx Ox to roll.#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^. or humility. xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>». jt^Xw) or tunic . humble. etc.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ.o fow&/. 69. Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb. jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier. to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . Heb. or the Parts of Speech. poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress.

^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#. stretched on to flow. 72. wa#0 Aaste. ground.g. Si* o 9 *? ^aw back). or intensively high degree of E. o § a^ C o^ * i o . both primitive and derivative.g. i dark. whose act voice is either object. j*++*. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower). J*cu^». w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. state. to become green. with the exception of intran9th. Ja». j£~t£*\ very high or proud . and 15th forms (cf. The Quadriliteral Verb. but inserted between the second and third radicals. wrong.. nearly =j-c^. 49 71. of a bird). *J~o to be good. 11th. \j\+^^ Si.. . the active and the passive . JuJ to be is bad. as j*s&. jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. w. to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd . The Verb. rem. JU-^t Voices. very hard. § 66. The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive). Jjc*£t to dispersed . that the characteristic not prefixed. the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. . All the verbal forms. j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality.) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3. which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). 13th. The third form A E. 12th.l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc. = Ju-3. 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. of triliteral. 7 . which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals.§ 73] I. the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). is intransitive. 3. Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A. in disorder. 7%£ 73.»>t to to stretched out on one's side. General View. A. in = fJ*& an .» o vanish away .t or j*oya*J\ order. right. . sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th. 2. pULwl to lie on ones back . and expresses an extensively act.A of The fourth form the quadriliterals. have two voices. to jk. or not .

the passive J J subject. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. or feeerc &em# done.. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act . or some higher being. than to the doer of (agens. JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . and ^UJJ cj. Rem. when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more . namely (a) when . the mould or form of J x the agent. J JjuUI. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient. of that. though this latter H x J named. XXX & x biO J the build x0. J x Ox J J x Ox These terms. The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. .e. are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. is when the author is unknown. also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing.*> J J x Ox is. or ^sJ X J^cUJt. or signify an act which is. J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt. by its very nature. since they are neither really active nor really passive. the patient). confined to the person of the subject. 75. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent.50 Part Second. j& to sleep). but something between the two. ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named.» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. Ox .)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a. more shortly. and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick. or. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!. strictly speaking. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases . are aptly called neuter verbs. 74.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt. Verbs that express a state or condition. 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. etc./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent. J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt. God. J JjyoLpJt. equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. the agent).

is These are. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. The Arabic verb has moods . The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. . however. A Imperfect has. or Future-perfect. or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies. intransitive verbs. The names Preterite and Future. the other an unfinished act. Syntax and use. no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it. and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. present. Subjunctive. a. Imperfect). from A JwNjI. J The Voices. but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. General View. Perfect. effective (see § 48). or A^Ut JUi^l. and Energetic. 77. in connection with the verbal forms. The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. by our Present.§ 78] I. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. transitive verbs. 76. five 78. first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). The Moods. namely. or Future. seventh. the one expressing a finished act. <Scc. and the future (J^fc^Jt). A. Rem. the Indicative. must not be thought and eighth to be forms. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. Imperfect. Jussive or Conditional. Pluperfect. by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . strictly speaking. It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past. b. in and of itself. The Verb. whilst the other 4. J' 3. one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. Imperative. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. ajjuiIoJI j*£. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect.

a>. *j*+3\. active participle). .. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . in the second (see § 128). the speaker individual person). the spoken to (second person). 2d pers. sing. the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). 80. and likewise three persons. namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. The genders j are two. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. (first and the Plural (£*aJt. 1 b sD. the former class . is expressed by . [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form. -d Instead of the Infinitive. Rem. cj). The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). adjectives. the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis. plur. [Cf. ^oJiXoJt. nor are rejected inflexions. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma). Persons. and the individual spoken of (third person). or imperative. Js » 0* 81. In place of participles. the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. The Numbers. strong.. they have two verbal passive participle). The Syntax treats of their significations and use. or j^tyi). or jJ&«JI) . *W»J1. and the the fourth.). B. . and Genders. in any of the but are retained throughout. dual. wsSliJt (the absent). fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect.52 Part Second. the Singular (>j&\. ~ 82. 79. ^JsU*-*)!. but also from the imperative. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc. H. 83. and 1st pers. § 192. ^^IloJI). There are three numbers.] 6. and the other the patient (nomen patientis. .

The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. gemin. that C prefixed or suffixed. B. the con- nected shorter forms. and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns.o 9 * ' J*s . and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb. § 317. agentis. a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect. The personal pronoun \jt+£.§ 89] I. The numbers. or connected [J-cu*]. ./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*]. partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative. The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called . 9 s 84. j+** x*J t see § 190. but some grammarians treat ^a». standing by itself. annexed to the various moods and tenses. The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb. as verb. 1. 53 is Rem. .— Table I* a. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables.JJ^t« Jji5. 86. The Strong Verb. accusative see 89. The Verb. On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes. to D § 185 Rem. the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes. 9 * J : 85. designated by the special term «»*a». suffixes. The separate pronouns have longer. partly the accusative. persons. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i.o and^oJL* as synonyms. B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87. * The nomina with verbi. than the latter. a is weak verb. 88. (V"y). a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. or which belongs to the class med. rad. and patientis.

[§ 89 A B . or the Parts of Speech.54 Part Second. —Etymology 1.

Suffixed Pronouns. p. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. . Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. • O c4 tlwy. . thou. .. d. expressing the Nominative. . lp.. . suffix of Rem..§ 89] I. !/. Common. . b. . d. 2p-^ 1 p. Plural. The the 1st pers. <j.. O (<**k c£-) 1 p. and also in the wasl (§ 20. O she. . . m • • (6) s» . [Though written defectively this terminal vowel. 3 p. he. .. . is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. 55 Rem. C 2 p. L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp. O thou. !>) *%• d . 95 seq. t ^ou - 2 p. Fern. defectively. c). used in poetry. Gr. 3 p. {J . . Prefixed Pronouns. ol she. Rem.. 3 2 p. . and § 23. rem. Singular. Masc. a. B... . I> (o>. 2. tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. Common .. Fern. U w& The forms within brackets are those . O 1-) Z Dual. plur.] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem. The Verb. Singular.(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo... jj Masc. O . 3 p. of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect. expressing the Nominative. c. (o>> *>) . The Strong Verb. .. p. t- (of-> .

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 90 Masc.56 Part Second. .

as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. ka. or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . as . " may . a. J Many 0* * . 57 To indicate the assimilation. \j+j * <> x x . it b. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox . J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding. O** ' 5 to ' transpierce. . When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. 91. . believed. tut we d. *Ja3 ask. jjlsu . however.§ 91] I. C-Jaj) for taken. c. . Gr. . 5 £^* to ascend. ye have § 14. .JUj .. of which the guttural letter. cJJJ j**£ to bray.1 for^J^t. verbs admit of both forms s s t . . x x x # * '0' . it this assimilation see Rem.•Zfr* to write. J * %+jj . x J x Ox .. are an exception to the rule. J^aLi to . 7 J J x x x right. A Ojuc./fow. iJmu . as j*J* know. j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * . j&j-i- C radical is Rem.1 . to sit Jux» . c^Aa*^. For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp. ^. ^JLcu *Jl> attain to. jU* to to hinder. thou hast bound . jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit. " to *-iJ to blow. Rem. Thus. good. The Verb. p. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return. ^jjui. reach. for ±y*\ and Uut. cp aVaw 0* . j*****. o.. FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. On ^j. / have J d x £ served. --J£ throw. I'O* to create. £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. 165 seq. or 2?mW away. $ ** tjj * . the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. %bJu . x xx J J x *. is omitted. to cut. p-jb. w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike. *j>j-**i v~ke* down. conform to is " the rule. J^5 * * s to kill. %X+t t°" . Not a few. to sneeze. ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. Some verbs have two 8 w. Verbs.JL> . * ^ J * ^. to perceive. as ^Jes. JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. C^. particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. The Strong Verb. c. jI o . Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. or t T . take either x ^ • damma J J . . a as Jj«i to do. B. j *-^ . m+~i or to stick upright into the ground. and the geznia.

'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan.j J x x -j . C^mmij x ' i. to be present. lean upon. J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. x £o tf/iiwA. '> .j . . the kesra of x t the Perf. x x x x x * B Rem. to J x done with. as w^*>^. as j^s. as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx .» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L.» *° drink. comfortable. J x x ojjlj .. a ' t present.Iw to . the Imperf. x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful. 7 . a~ojji./toy. X dx . ^j. Verbs of the form a). or the Parts of Speech.a>A. quit. £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick. '. * s * ' ~£j xx to marry. rad. ^£jj to be clear. ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty. 9J&0 .j^j j <o incline to. x x /^^» . w > * J x . x x ^ J x x . b.58 Part Second. J x to J ' give as »*• . J-cub . abound. or suppose. . £~e*jj cut or hew. lean upon. v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j. Jx$ denoting superiority. . rad.to know. has kesra. takes When the second radical of the Perf. as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance). j. always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). or tert. goodness. u^j-^i '. v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. dye. forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to .»-o Ox . when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . x x J x x '. ^^i *->* . a. oj. [§92 j A . as ojlcj he outbid J . oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows. O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess. i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure. j*mm j j . x x or w. A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. excelled him in c.. X .» him in promising. x kesra. to. rare are cases like jJx*. ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory. ^i«-> j Ox . x '. . j^j '. J x x ..a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing.».. ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. ' " '*' %+$ to .jsu ^ and even three. med. x*x gush out. Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. ^$. *~^>. him in composing J J J Ox poetry. Jiave . as Jpo to croak. j «» *-U 6m#. xx x ' %j j^> *. See also §§ 142 and 146. * * * q Rem. . j^u to be affluent. Very . io.^~*i- Rem. SJLiJI 6.^~* to be safe. . -^. J o. x . Rem. unless they be primse rad.

and accordingly we . the agent. the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground. OU. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77. I • With the above forms compare the Heb.§ 94] or innocent is I. Rem.e. fem. C Rem. 94. jj+j or t^. masc. viz. * in * [Anbarl. however. that .. J ©Jx as 73B*. The Strong Verb. 180*. has Gr. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. 1st p. j-*t. and Imperf. rem. When the second radical of the Perf. jJL>. sing. p. v^P to be high. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is. Thus. jJ<j to be dull or stupid. sing. because completed." = " I have = "I am killing. In the Perf." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. — De . Perf. O^j. the 2d pers. are it 'it very rare. are only suffixed to the Perf. get masc.. l J Ox I. and persons. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers. ^ot. J a in the Imperf. The most common example to die (for A a verb med." Hi (i. a suffix is necessary. in regard to that the marks of the numbers. between the Perf. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing. *l%y." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing. genders.—Similar cases 93. sing.J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj. Comp. in the Imperf. damma. The Verb. cL«). Jjl. Oji. 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. done by me). C-***> / became I became bad. from its fern. and to some extent the gender. killed. verbs ft?p*. p'-m. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise. as o*LL to be beautiful. j£\. masc. sing. The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf." Rem. b. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense. In the Imperf. masc. o^J . j. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. j**\. noble.. a). retained in the Imperf. a.. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. 59 of this kind of. p^lC p. more generally the latter. x B. . w*2o.

4. j cjLa*H. because the genders. w tive w>^.] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. [Cf. preferred. least the poets § 247. is closely akin to the noun. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is . the Subjunc- ) © © <. and Subjunct. x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha . nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju . wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem. 96. [§ 95 A Rem. Subj. because j * . etc. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. a. fetha of the Imperf. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel. and the Jussive >j>%^H. The forms of the Indicat. . and Jussive.- called cji^Jt.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. X Cy^. 0l H.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. correspond to the Nom.«- it D resembles the noun. The . is 95. and j^\ in Sura xxxvi.1. in the verb. Dialectically. . 60 are recognized as . But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^.. the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too. as the apocopated Imperfect. ^fflZmj in Sura i. vol. as Indie. to have been At ii.60 Part Second. for j»^S\ etc. c. the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth. but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. as in juxi for juau. one must not say ^ojit. vowel with the third radical. suppose. b. / ^ (^Xju).o. numbers.] Rem. which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. jsyu. which seems originally i. J x . J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. and Accus. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^. That is. j). ^\ . and its government in the Subjunct. The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any . w-I&.. In one case.. falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. In the active voice of the first form. distinguished by the third its radical having x damma.

because its forms would then .jit * j elided. it takes. A gender. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o . Com- 0>A ^y^k . O s b. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. with \y££=> . The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. In the dual. The Verb. fern. a.or . a j * * in a shut syllable: . 61 2d and 3d because pare pers. Rem.j. and in consequence the second fetha : of . p. rem.(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. coincide with those of the singular. 194.becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem. and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened. influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. plur. the fetha of 6* <j. is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. the of the termination.. 0~$3. c. In the 2d and 3d pers. t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc. since it begins with two consonants. c). and pronounced in D in pause I—. because vt i b. sing. Gomp. . . 98. The Strong Verb. ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but. according to § 26. is The syllable ^— often written !_. & C Rem. as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. with Cm^> Hi X 97. plur. fem. i^-*^. is retained. oW^J . 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo .B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>.j_ or (J. U£3. of ^U. a short . nor to the fem. plur. \j~S3. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— . IV. Gr. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination .§ 98] I. apparently because the sound of the syllable . t>W>> from <jUl. in the Energetic. B. despise not the poor. a short vowel before and not to the dual. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have. the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a.jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear. are exceptions.

d. is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt.] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. damma. D [Rem. This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . with the finite verb. a. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*. 23. —Etymology kesra . and the final short <m vowel dropped). Lilt with a various reading . in cases where that elision does not take place. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b. Abs.62 Part Second. see ^ 19. ^ J J t. which used in the same way. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel. When or kesra. the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash. ii. 99. listen ! j\j&.j±. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). b. E. cf. is and 1. * — DeG. IV.>top (o for a.\. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. <- rem. Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. vol. (§97). come its and play meaning game called ar ara. this vowel 0^0 Jjtil. wRem.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J. b) in addressing a single person.>*A)t. The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. —De G. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. 1. 6 . or the Parts of Speech. the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem. rem. « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma. a.] . i. t^&ipt. g. and on the orthography § 19. § 35. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. as j\Jx*. 1842. Rem. *&&. Imper. c.

The Imperfects and eleventh forms. and Imperf. 101. if the last radical . The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb.— De G. B. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. [Rem. in the rest with fetha. 21.] originally JJjisI 106.— Table III. 3. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest. In the second. 9. 1. is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms. II. and also ^Ju^j. See §§ 106 and 120. are pronounced with damma. damma. JJUil. J^Jb and JJUaj.§ 106] I. Act. the prefixes of the Imperf. 63 2. rem. The Strong Verb. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. from JJ3I. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. the prefixes take fetha. and Ju£>. Act. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. Act. Sij^i. and the second radical Rem. a pot I set is on tlie fire. q This Rem. i. third. In the Perf. The second radical of the Perf. Active. The Verb. 105. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). 103. Sibaweih. and the second radical kesra. In the Imperf. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb. as J^aj. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. and fourth forms. The Perf. § 118. not J^SIj. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. where the treated like the o of b. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. is 102. and Imperf. B the Jussive being used instead. Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. Pass. 104. Pass.— Table 100. the first radical has damma. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed .

pronounced J with damma.g. as £>jj**o\. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act.64 Part Second. Oij^ . 107. D 110. If the last radical has no vowel. u°> the sjo. only by the vowel of the instead of. J^St. E. jJ>t. frequently) loses its vowel. and unites with radical to form a double letter. J3>£>. ». the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. jjW. but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner. Compare 98 and rem. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. The Imperfects Pass. *Z». and Imperf. not only characteristic * the first radical. C 109. or the Slif . 3. vowel. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. prefixes. there results in the Passive * j . Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. of the first Rem. j**a\ for jj**e\.g. of the first fifth and sixth forms. When b. being neutral in their signification. J^&wl. O of ^ u*. b. >. and tenth forms.g. Pass. a. )».g. or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. identical. In the Perf. Pass. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. O. The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem. not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. e. Jibl.j. jj**o\ (see § 120). of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass. Pass. the first Since the idea of the Perf. J * * jJuau for jjslaj. seventh. J^j£>. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e. J3&. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. jj^aj. of the sixth. a. eighth. The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms. which is damma 108. * fifi consonants (compare § 54). J3ut. of the is forms) . the word remains uncontracted . 111. Pass. have of course no passive (see § 73). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. in the Perf. fetha. the preceding radical loses .

[and necessarily ijycjJJ. The Strong Verb. 569. The Verb. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. . >. P . i. 113.j of the seventh it form often unites with w. ^L\.. to take breath. J^W3). but use the fifth or eighth. Rem. a. J**yl jJjJt. ijijj. is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers. 3d pers. to lie concealed. 65 UC\. masc. in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms. ^ji. rJ*k preformative of the O . n^n. note u±jj\. . or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. t Ci which O is and ! plur. j. the characteristic . ^UJ. in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. G. example namely instead. into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 .*&>. rem. In modern Arabic such forms as J^. and compare such Hebrew forms as . J. and du. *jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&.g. J J^p. Jb+aJg i. 114. Rem. j^i. ^.5jj. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. for for j~»&3. as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. ss * and i fern. j£\. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. Verbs of which the first radical is t. — v~<oJ\. J^tJ) . B in those persons of the Imperf. J»*W^>.]. B. for £i3 JjvS. merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. ComP Gr. p. to sing. du. for j±> j£. Jf*H> jl^i. sing. j^lo. "' &ytjj& ) Zl e. 112. b. Act. j^x3 j£>£i. j. iio«y. Jn»^. fern.Ut. f^. The *v\ton. are of common occurrence. j. iJu5. A .). jio\j\ (Kamil. j-cut.§ 114] I.) + . Rem. by assimilation for ^**£j\. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. . If the first radical is^». See § 48. wn.

ji?t orjJul from jju. etc. *0 . ^jt. J**. depends upon usage j-i. >»Ojt. j *»*J. for ipjl. j.g. J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt. A for JJa^J^I. initial The e. for ^>\. letter b.Jt. Rem.l. for jUJI. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. ^ . or j^>l. is B Rem. for j£&. as q\j\. for *-»2wt. from U> JXjt . letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl». . . from ji>3j or ybjt. bj*\ for bjZ*\. from c. which unites with an initial > into 3. If the first radical be is y j. but Lane gives in Lexicon only *.it for instance. from «. Jjjit.!. *. or >Z>. the characteristic w». Rem. Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the . Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. the characteristic O of the .. from jtj . for j^Jjl.«a*-©t for 115. . *S)j3>\. aud ^jit. as well as D tfcSt Rem.-a^ct. E.^w. E. for j^iit. for £3j\ . C from ji. and with an initial 3 into > or 3. for tj>^l. eighth form changed into >. j+. from j*. <jjjt. for **£M. letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^. Rem. l»*©it ? from Jsuco. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j . or j. Jpt. . jJ^I. 116. ^j\j. from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl. £*Jl»J.g. If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>.g. £***>j.^it. a. from j^j jbjl. from cji. ijj* .. for from Jp . y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.66 Part Second. .S . or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. . These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form . The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. as *»*~>t. from %+j jUt or jUt. for ^Ijkjl. from j^jt or :>pt from j>p . instead of the usual £+„*.

to believe. ^Uxot. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z. 3p»t.— Table IV. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. JJJLl. for j*Jxot. b. Rem. from 0*k> w>jJxot. xxxvi. j Rem. u° ix. four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second. and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6. a). ^aUo . o xSx * . seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118. from j-o. 2~^t. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs. 36. ^jA-ol. eighth form 6. x x x from %+.] Koran (Sur. ^i£t. or &. ^L^. i>. [117*. *. words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. or £. B. The Strong Verb.§118] 117. Jfljt). 67 If the first radical be ^a. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i. j^-U . *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. is I. Part. Act. with initial 1» into x x h l. ^Uw (see § 202. xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o . J» ii. j£~j. .. //£ xxx . v>ii. j^J»t. ^A k o .Lo E. The Qiiadriliteral Verb. ^6. x x x . If the second radical be O the characteristic it. x x. The Verb. a. JJ&\. b. in § 45. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? . the characteristic initial A changed into h. 49). ^y-ol. The O. The D 69—72). etc. omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb.*o. 4.I ±*Jo\. h.. -*. ^JLL *$& . fifth. ^Jbuot. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. x. // IS as j^ot. jifat. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf. Imperf. y^ xxx XXX a. which unites with b into j». Inf. B J^t. d.lo. x x x x x x x t. or 91. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel.i . Rem. act. Jte\. Rem. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^». from lJ*. or jUxbt. As mentioned out. jZ~»* (jZ~**) . occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19. quadnhterals: . or JJSJiS. rem.g.Si£t. C rem. U^>. just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112).

tesdid. jro*)\. *Jx~j. so as to form a double for jj9 to . But if the third radical has no vowel.g. JfJJbt. become wise or intelligent.». for w«J. make decisive or to to repair. act. J^->. but the former is irregular: Imperf. JjA. and then E. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. to obey. combines with the third. and no contraction takes place as Ojji. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}). letter.J B 5. in verse. for Jii£ for j*+Zt . Rem. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel. of the form JjtJ. —The J^A. with the exception of . have six. Imperf. >jk+j. Imperf. the second retains its vowel. is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt.jjiL». letter. Pass. jtj viz. The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech.68 Part Second. which is marked with . The form viz. (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. oJA. 119. tenth form of elt. but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. Perf. £fo doubled verb. Jgj^. [Also. or t^lo^t 120. J-ft-j for JX+j. clLLrft. the and unites with the third. Imperf. JU> to split or cleave. and third radicals have vowels. for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . so as to form a double for J-U^j. first. j^ for >j^i. j* to flee. ^^ to become dear (to one). the solid verb. which also admit kesra absolute. C*j to sever or separate entirely . v** to touch. also used. w^J. damma in the Imperfect. Imperat. [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi.g. (6) If the third radical has a vowel. Transitive verbs of this class. and then converted into c Ik*!. E. for yj~~~t> smell. **1a~j or **1~>. is aSI^A. a. jJ* to make hard or firm. Norn. tie firmly. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. J^ . — Table V. J*c .

One verb has only kesra. JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o). and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse). A Imperf. a). in one's dotage. B la Us to 6e mrfo/. p.] / . to fove (instead of the common IV. d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. b. Rem. w*J to be vrise or intelligent. to 69 water (camels) a second time. s for O^j. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. Forms like Ojji. Co***. to smell badly. £foss. as redctit for Co3). etc. it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. »// . or else s its .^*} to be uyly. viz.1). Crr. to have its etc. jjsetc. C~Ui*. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways. C-. rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). however. 5. The second vowel iss s dropped. [See De Goeje. Imperf. detest. c.). as.*J. * 1. The third radical is united with the second. as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. ^-^. O^j. : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse. . s s . Cw is S or Cw.§ 120] I. j^> 0* jjb to abhor. the long vowel !_.>fc»t se?. modern Arabic. woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl.v. . Rem. The Geminate Verb. s cJLb form 2. (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc. sj s *iU3 to be silly. * o . — C/ow/?. times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks. s * I first radical Os s . m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye). s for *Z>jj«JS. is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. to Ibn al-Fakih s. <£&». «. Africa ai becomes Ol i. oj. along with the s vowel. 227 Such forms as C« g >. The Verb. o . B. but OS* s in s N. ewe. or cJLb for cJULk. w*». are.~oiJ. for C*«w . CXolU. wvUlsu. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel. ol »l also occur. jj£» to be bad.). CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one . s s £)}j. a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5.

C Rem. l/*t. S| or^e^l The same >j. undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. fourth. Higaz. c. j^j. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . the Arabs say ^Jj*.70 Part Second. sing. or j^^t. i ' for ^aJsju. Consequently jj±. JA*j ul . Iji. ±£x£ or u*xkj. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc). as ^£jj*\. Faik ii. the choice of the supplemental suffix .] * — . sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. But in the second. etc. hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. fifth. w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* . ij-i. >ji. ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first. j3 for jjtt. y 6 s0>O ly-oft. [§121 A In the Jussive. undergo no contraction. tjji —not ij!j*\.. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. 566. J^ or vi J*©-». and jtjit. in those that have u. and therefore tjjil.. for or *ji. sixth. 121. j*c for jjl*I. and combines with the third. »j->*. j^j. (§ 121). ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. j . sometimes do not follow § 120. jj*j>. for ^o-o-i. E. in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf. D eighth. 443. apply also to its Passive. either fetha or kesra . —instead of ^jjit. the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary. and to the third. Cf.g. masc). ninth. b. the contracted to that of TamTm. tjj-*t. and plur. ^-^-j or s^-j.g. this vowel may be (§ 27). dual. for Conj. [But 120. rem.] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. seventh. V. has a vowel (sing. because is already doubled. and tenth forms. and eleventh. however. cf. B 122. rules that apply to the Active of the first form. I . not U^j. j&i or^Aj. § jj*\.jj*>. Slbaweih ii. If the verb has a suffix. The masc. it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels.

which is a. tlamraa. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*. by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first. <djl for aJUjt. B such as 9 * s uoclJ. These are more particularly called weak verbs. namely case oi In the third.). to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less. * * J * Aa*A. 5>-»-^. These are called verba Jidmzata. sing.. combining the second radical with the third. instead of rudda. The Weak Verb.U. Juss. 125. 128. rildda. Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£. as I. J>SU>. -»^fc. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject. sixth. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. The Weak Verb. consonant. on account of its weakness. the 1st pers. and ^.g. Forms like x>jj. in some parts of their inflexion. a long vowel.U*»o. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other).3 . rem. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. alone (§ 25. The weak letters are I. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ . * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. jo ol j-p E. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. C. radicals is . jew. are not contracted. * * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI.§128] Rem. as jj. ^. D 127. The Verb. and eleventh forms. s-*jI~j>. the uncontracted forms. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\. However. 126. C. sudda (with the French u). and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. German ii or 124. Sudda. j J«l»-). for J*. (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. not unfrequently occur. . (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza. the weakest of the gutturals.

to be trebly weak. and that indicated by the later points. The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. Act. or IV.). Rem. VII. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). Perf. and ^y*. B is 130. into ^ with hemza after the kesra. 1st pers. * ^ [This is a convenient formula. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. or ^ by » alone without a kursl. Pass. when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. for Ol^». I.— Tables VI. such as *. into ^ with hemza 6 . at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted. Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs. sing.. 132. These are divided into three according as the hemza second. to whose method of exposition this work. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. is closely conformed. . Perf. sing. we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs. (^). C Pass. masc. it is damma. mediae. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse). for good But from an historical point practical reasons. sing. The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. Imperf. after the damma and (J) . 2d pers. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. In a root there may be two. or third radical (verba primse. e£$t. or even three weak letters . (I). as ^j\j. rem. of jj\. If the elif with hemza and gezma. classes.. — .72 Part Second. the first. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. weak. to be doubly ^Sj. 131. or supporting letter. kesra. of view. VIII. 1. ^ 129. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc. for to and Ui (see § 133).

C*Jji for Ol^3. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17. find traces of a softer pronunciation. ylta. show their origin from 73 I. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). w^». The modern Arab also pronounces i. 1. y without touching the old consonants. was bdusa.] w. we the ancient language. and is almost universal in Aramaic. rem. having the character of a sacred tradition. at the present day. sani'-ta. h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. Rem. j)t[+. jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets. as ^Ji for [Ji. The hemza retained. In modern Arabic. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. a. u. Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an. rad. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi. by writing ^yf. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '. to read. that and when B J fc. and hence the custom. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. ^ §§ 133-4. The Verb. 6. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with. and ^_. become j and . n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. *£%<*»». so). because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. Verba Hemzata. b]. at of a syllable. that danu-a. This change has already begun in Hebrew. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. gi'ta.§ 132] is I. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area. ^Uk. except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. at the end of a syllable. ^^J. soft breathing (as cJLi. it was already lost or 10 .. preceded and followed by vowels. ^JjJu for \jju. of resolving the verba C tert. with a slight emphasis . whilst ^ is to say. Rules for writing hemza as J. however.

Jijt. Perf. J passes into the elif of . it-. . written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . 14. . rem. .J*M' . Noldeke Gesch. a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94. Q . Imperf. .74 Part Second. J^»b. jjj\. d. said^LJ for >#J£>. but in modern Arabic J . . of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t . 257. . Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . from ^j . Perf. sing. 0X3 (£§. VIII. J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. O . * 1 •» . I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage. and. In Imin pronunciation. of Jit ' '1 . of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. 0+\ oU^J. * *. beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. Imper. —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech. 3d pers. $1 3d Act. 6. Imperat. sing. as G j-^t^. rem. sing.J0. J w> yakulildan.0 ' . it is usually rejected to come). O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem. whence with 10 . U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. rem. c) also Sura xlix. ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina. Perf. hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina.jJt. C/ [And so even of old prolongation.. and the radical hemza .] » . o * (§ 17. ^l-oli. p. b). ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. elif hemzatum. not j-Jt. for j*\j. 250. in Mecca. • Oti (from it is C^jt. 0* in its altered form . 8criptio defectiva (§ 6. not £. In other cases retained. J I ^t. not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. Imperat.jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. Rem. because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . Qordns. IV. 1st pers. of ^1. Os 1 >. pers. not jH»^t. J^U JO %. though it may be retained in writing. - q$\ . when preceded by ^ or sJ. . of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. as j-wb . J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort.0*3* 0* . sing. not JLijt. peratives. VIII.jili. g. b. Pass. elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t. In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e. . t I. Imperat. comes into the wasl. (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. as ^*b. /it/ J).£ . as ba'da'tilqfin. c.

0 and meanly. or with fetha and pre1 133. Particip. jj\. when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha.§ 135] I. passes into 3 or ^.o. The Verb. III. 1. or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif. to. as \jJu from \j3. agree with. A ceded by damma or kesra. . a syllable ending in a consonant. 75 In the same way. rem. II. preceded by fetha. the end of a word. groan. Pass.g. he acts stingily Is . for % ^Uj. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). . J of JL* j j^t. which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. for^UI. Imperf. u*»>«-». Imperat.o. for >lUl. At . /^ E. is I. of^oU. ^J^t . Rem. 135. of J$. for jjb. worthless. X. j££\. l. *> for^Lj. put on armour. it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . J)\ J^ hsB was asked. . for ^11. j££ peace is made (between them). if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one.0 . to be .> instead of jj*i. jj&i. Imperf. At the beginning I. y>\>. of ^j. ofj»*$. Imperf. an impression Infin. l~. $y*tsuffixes. Verba Hhmzata. II.of j& Rem. III. E. Oj oj Imperf. of j>*$ to. for ^U>. be reconciled for Imperat. a). of J •«« h. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134. J^ for J*>b. of j3l J&Jl. yyi. y^i. I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged. for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. IV. j\j\. damma and I. Imperf. of . . U^j l. Pass. when (see § 17. pronounced with I. Perf. VIII. Pass. JO* . damma Eg. to be mean. is y>. and into ^. £ usually left unchanged i . or j*\. sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass. to consult. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb. 0. b).g. comes J or Finally. Perf. Pass. as j*l. of a word. for^tjJ. for JU. O i I . VIII. III.. be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. of made. of JL» . to twang. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. of j>^ ^o-LUwt.

agentis and actionis. to prefer. In a more modern stage of the language. j*o. rad. b) pers. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b.. j) which make only J^j. JXs. For the rule as regards other verba . see § 132. as ^^-tj or 'parallel to.-wt^j. Rem. i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with. .t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. VI. for 3d plur. they deliberated together. L». 6W&<#. and J J J^l J to eat. . as Ij^tjJ. or the Parts of Speech. J x . or J3f. a. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif. to put on an Hzar. j-«t. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. "% Rem. for Jiff. b. rem. J X ^.. for tjj^U3 Perf. Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\. for to the characteristic to take for oneself. In old Mss. X making X J**. b.76 Part Second. to come. Ufc. hemz. find J-itl. of or tjj-«U. we often jjll 136. rem. 139. of course. and SUly*. and J^. in the Imperf. Nomina It commenced. IV. J3u.\. and j^. . rem. q for L^tt. . u*\yo. xx£ to take.tU or L»A3. and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . b). rem. where. b) . J^tj along with.tj. J ^O J t (§ 132. • I . The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. rem. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . b and on the Imperative of ^yl. the first of . Act.t (for ^il). O of that form . to give wages. of jj\. as Jjf. and the etc.—Etymology to order. J . rem. ^£jtj to eat to console. X 138. see also § 175. elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $. to a. to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt. prim.. reject radical in the Imperat. from U. tfc £wo became intimate friends. according to § 17. The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form. as .3.

6. — Sometimes the JC . ^ et . from {j\j to see. from the rad. to take. D 2. from ^jJ for \j\ji.§ 141] I. to receive wages . an^ with B ^ i. or J-^. not ^C. which has Jlw JL>. 46. Rem. Verba Hemzata. to be safe. for JI~j. Gr. hemzatum is elided. more rarely in J^l. rad. p. or I^LLs. 140. 6). ^. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw.). —The tenth form of J^. ^j\. Compare . see Comp. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. b). and marry. The Verb. for ^t. Rem. IjjLi d. to A v>*3t. o?o. in secondary radicals rem. tertise rad. a.-kjA_»|. for Kg. Verba med. sing. whence ^-U. to JrwsJ or confide in. and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. second. Jjbl. Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. J~> for JL»J (Imperat. for J^U. du ^U». and in Syriac it the rule . From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. Perf. according as the ^ ^ is the first. letter These likewise or fall three classes. for O-oJut. Jtffc and j**j. elif J~*. an angel p]X a?)in the fern. t to trade (see § 148. 6. etc. plur. I^LTi. \jj). j_kj|. secunda). J-~> for JI~j. This for is particularly the case with the verb pers. t^JL>. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^.t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt. still 77 give alms. we may say JuTj Rem. p. 2d m.). rem. 282. its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. cJ~» [not cut*]. JL» Jl~i to ask. an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149. or third radical (verba prim®. into b). 141. etc. When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. for e"lif J^jt. iUt to send. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. J-~> C jtl>. Pass.

js. X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of. J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly. cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful).JJu ^3 to be near. J^ aJLj. [§ 142 A A. angry. ^o**i> t° oe happy. jJ$ x x x to to bear children. xx xx in these forms. comfortable. j. (of fat). Ji*J. juu for j^-^i. J^ to stick . t condition and handsome. But those verbs primse rad. 3 or (£).g. Imper. to be in charge also dialectically the ^. x j»)$ to swell.g. Ox OOO E. —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. Eight verbs primae rad. ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to. I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj . reject the 3 in these forms.. jju. i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid . Rem. which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. in § 92). £*->. Imperf. and Imperat.for jaA (jue^l). jJv. morning ! 6. j^. g JxJxOxxx j § of. j»-b for jJ^». ^jj to be firm and hard J X . JxOxxx jtyi '. JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. The Imperat. 143. xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. full of hatred (of ground). inherit. of verbs |"£. Imperf.g. j**$i or J*->>. ja.C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has .^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf. Imper. retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid.78 Part Second. jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise. J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf. ^° ^ e Jx diyj .^ 2o 6e angry with. J^->. is ^ (verba prima? 142. £>jj . and Aram. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. Imperf.. j**~j. Verbs of which the First Radical rad. Rem. to be melancholy. £^3 to be in pain. ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l». Imperat.Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su. J y of the form Ja3.— Table IX. £0 fove. ^. jbjj i . or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t).. to forget. . a. J-fcjj.

in the mud. yoy*.ai. 79 by the mur.lj J x Ox and J*»*u. the Perf. E. *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. Ox xx £3 x jSj.j. b. Others even use the forms Jjwj. to let alone. for ^*A>j. Verba t pr. is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. are at once primse rad. Usy. B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*. /Off. radicals are strong. geminatse . of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. t.. y J s Jibuti. j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn.§ 144] J I. 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon. Ox for %a*yi.g. « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}.j. x x x C » . s-**. £~«i.j or J x r% jj. J**. radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j). I J rain. has fetha. xx xx gjl x x to restrain. Jx Ox . owes its existence is. x x JxOx %». £-«y. the is In a few verbs. » U». J £*• xx to give. J x x c>. s>j x to let alone. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf. %o»\i and J x x ». y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. x . j et {J. Rem. Rem. . Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair.yi . and Imperat. The Verb. £0 £>e afraid . of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. „ 144. notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. to 6e tfi j)« . cjj and j±j are not used in .ov-jj. Xs* and . $>$ to be visited A J0_ . rad. ©ju. dialects x In verbs primae rad. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. from j*b}.» ji. # ©jJ. X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. J for x Jj^j. some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^. and Imperat. **. xx Ox ^Jbj y^i. most commonly occur. j ^ • Ox #J. * . J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. a. to moke a mistake. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. ^.

Act. and X. s^^-yi for w^>j. C*5t. Rem. ^Uo *0s See or § 92. *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . fetha. Imperf. ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . e.* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . . Hence Jo^-jl. ctjuzll. for jL~>| and j Infin. and X. the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . t. however. producing O »j * * * * . and kesra. *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake. for ju*Z>I. . Perf. ^*-j. —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. J*a*j . but pass after ^ and ^ damma. . Imperat. D teJuj . * to be sb< J J 6s . O. ^tSjlll. according to the preceding vowel. IV. g. J J jl~>t J and OJ . j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. it. 147. j~3\. Imperat. &*>>. J ' ' jt jibs gg.80 Part Second. forj-wt a. ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time). XL. ' '. although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O. 146. JO. of verbs primse rad.. or u-^-rf. the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis. ctjut.. IV. for Infin. f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e. c>^iwl. or y^^-o. Rem. easy. 145. IV. Jl^jl for jjtjjt. J ' rem. rem. <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. or J s ' . w^jt. 148. £t>Jl. IV. See § 143. for j~~*i.0 L»+Z~>\. ** grown up. In the Passive I. (^jl»I). to despair. for ws^jt. j-~>$i.g. .. I. to play at hazard. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for . ^ is revealed. hill).. and ^U* ^sb. Jiio JiAj do. . Pass. Perf. to be gentle. and X. * J^**'. ^^-l. J J . ^J. j *^ to or become ripe. vowelless j. approve of Sometimes. teristic In the eighth form. ^Uj. [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. JJjt. #0 receive a promise . Act. *J^]. the preceding vowel. for <£*3j. has ^^^ a. j~»> to play at hazard. for Oj and as judt. of j~»j and &Ju . jLmjUA.. IV. ^. Imperf. (juujl). Verbs primse rad. In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. %yi J %yi and . . for J***]. according b . the j is ^ s or j productions.

The Verb. J^>> Imperf. ^J^arJi. and rem. for j-^ri. eighth. 234 seq. B or long possessed .§ 150] tion. Act. becomes „ „ Jy^t. of this class in the cognate languages. IV. >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave).. ^^i. Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). For the inflection of verbs Comp. ^JSj to rely be to upon.g. 81 I. the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . indicate the principal points of difference. Gr. E. or If the first radical is without a vowel. rem. ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person. he goes. in the Imperf. JJjLl et ^j. to face . c. j Jyu. is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. j * „ j . in the Perf. he is afraid. I. *$3. it is said. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. inherited. JaaJI. ^. p. seventh. Verba mediae rad. (§ 145). and the third has one.g. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. — C 149. j for J«15jt. Rem. rad. pardon w. see B. Rem. ^*^j j-^ a. I. j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147). and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. Verba pr. to be hereditary. Uul to insert . J^Ll for for JJ^y . Pass. radicals . 3 or ^j (verba X. . b. 11 . make one lean. follow . Compare § 139. J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. to prop him up . is „ JUj. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. or ^Jj. „ granted. I. 150. he is afraid. *r>^> j do. do. ^"t to fear (God) . XIII. w^v-. J*£j. and tenth forms. Compare b. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . E. *l. j~~i. *~3 to be wide or spacious . do. to and in the fourth form. Imperf. Jyb. Imperf. Pass. j. et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first.

the long vowels ^J— $—. J*. Plur. Act. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. I-. Jussive Pass. x xOg ^\i\. I. S^-s^. do. plur. he softens. I. ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. l>o*3I Jx 3 .$. x do. IV. m. oj \yyi\. he was thought is gentle. soften. Imperat. JU^j. Act.AJ). because (§ 25). 03 3 ij*A*~i\. Imperf. Pass. Perf. IV. IV. its Imperf. X.03 . Jussive Act. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. do. Act. do. i x o t. (j*yy). 03. x (j-j**. Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). especially by the poets. [§ 151 A he remains. ji} £. Jju. Act. O Oi Jit.a»*) I do. f. d v>Jt. are changed into the corresponding short ones. » 2 I Ojit. Act. 03 0*k. x a£ 3d p. Pass. do. 3 oi Imperat. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j). he remained. Pass. Jussive Act. he softened. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!). 3.). . X. remain. IV. (C^ll). 0. is Rem.j. X do. p. Perf. (J**t). IV. for . C^UXtaWl x ). sometimes still farther abbreviated. into *sL. x 03 o. pardon asked. plur.. 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech. 2d x p. . x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt). Pass. (CM^)j 2d f. sing. IV. „ „ t^lJI. xx to be.0. 3 Perf. J»$*-i.82 Part Second. IV. Imperf. IV. 1^-iJI.g. t^-j3t. j 0*k.. Imperat. X. 3 t i (J3. j»£\. > „ 3 O^jl. do. OJ&X. Perf. IV. 151. fo stands upright. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»). But if the third radical loses vowel. X. x 3 J*£l~j. .*x.„ 3 . 3.

$ et ^£. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it. 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules. If three first succession. Verba med. J>5I. E. then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122). The Verb.g.§153] 152. E. 3 o 3*0 3*0 153. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel. I.g. Q . rad.

-is for JL» _ siila. . il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula. (^tfui). m. In forms like Ji^Xwt. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. (for £)y*». j^6. and i changing those letters into j productionis . but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. s s i. Os s dj~» Oj-j~>. j-^l). and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra. namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^.g. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t. Perf. In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel. J>$). was ^. forms The verb JL>. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive. suka. if it s i damma. rem. the damma elided substituted in its place. ss s C-s^5 s for .g. Instead of J*3 (J>3). 154. If the first radical has fetha 155. Jjo»). if it was 3.1. " O i s i Rem. to say. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. J**. Pass. s sis £# (for £*j. first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. j*X». Act. 2*J). si (see § 140).. Q b.\ (for j#*. VIII. and the third is without a vowel. some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I. Pass. is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. sOi i J^*. o~«ji.84 Part Second. (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. j^t s i i „ » a. sing. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. giida. B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. hula. 2d pers. pronouncing or &. (J productions. (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. I. German Rem. j-m^.l. (Jj^)j like. do. Rem.). and ^J[$**>.\. s E. three cases arise. s i E. a ^JOIj).

^£. do. but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. kuta. 156. I. e..* 6. say CuXS. [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. a § present. Oxx identical in form 155. 157. 93) . cJJ» ° cJ^b. C-o*-> for Cou. bU'a. Act. (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). fern. ^>* (^y*). as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. etc. fo/i#. Ci4 x xdx e. Act. and in those mediae rad. do. In this case the same i elision takes place. a) and C* **. comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). seventh. and Perf. Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). the 1st and 2d pers. I. forms. (§ 155. 2d c> pers. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»). to . 2d pers. The Verb. and most verba . and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel.* for C-s^*. to move away. ^ et ^J.g. mediae rad..g. Perf. Rem. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. Perf. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel. x x x *£*. m. as in a. D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. the § 25. J Osju. sing. do. grew m J J X J J}/ . sing. rad. m. I.] rad. 2d 3JLik pers. ^ J of the form J*5. — De G. x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj). Perf. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem. pyj. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. for E. J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J. (c^J). B x c*a£> for a C^»*.§157] (b) I. bii'tu. to fo . „ a. change the fetha of the x O x Kg. Act.g. In verbs mediae rad. . ^j kesra.g. *. sing. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh . Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. VIII. c). Most verba mediae j take damma. etc. radical is is Verba med. Pass. sing. » m. according to x x o E. m. from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. are J O J .

and a few mediae . ./ktr. co^ XX Heb. for CJj. XX. j~~j ijv~i). O or Q. But which are of the form J*». are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf. IV. are always written. the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3. 3 —Etymology in some. XX ^. s Some verba mediae rad. . second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . rad. jj*>i. Syr. . Imperf.S. C*o. and b. ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. 159. the X X X X J X X Imperf. to get. Jlft. See § 11. xx ^^. jj* to be one-eyed. for Uu. £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. 160. or the Parts of Speech. of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. j***. ^>?j. JU.g.. and O3-0I (Heb.86 Part Second. rem. oU->. X JJ £j>j and £»>*3. 3. though w~o. . Imperf. from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. ^. from J\j (J^tj). to sleep. of the form }»3. lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. j. a. for example. Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. these In verba mediae rad. . A Jxx JxOx . and T B also C~*->. See U>. fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. ((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y). »*x x £x G x . which rem. takes fetha (§ 92) e. 158. are mentioned by the lexicographers. for. TVlD*. x Of . from ifa night . ' E. Imperf. Hence we write J33. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate. a. >jV( •>>* to 60 6M. if it did. to . O^* f° r fr° W C guard . • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. to tc?M&. obtain. Imperf. ( J-»j-») . C-*o.). j^^ IV. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. c. comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J). for C^Zc. OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. ^JU^.g. to cease. 3 et ^j. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly. § 90. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). ^£*. *y~>\ . rad. •• Syr.

to reward. . x x elixwt or cUwt. C from the rad. said of a camel. to watch a rain-cloud. J>*j. M . Similarly. x x j glanders). jU o>^ Mjo one another. jlr*. Some verba mediae weak rad. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. Jx Ox to squint. ^ from^U do.. to Rem. xxO of sU». Jx x .§ 163] Jx Ox x . w> U* » . u . to consider right. from the x X . J^a*->. p.g. from Jl». D xxOx she-camel (*$U). from verba med. Hebrew and . On X. Gr. Rem. b. which almost always adopt the strong. Verba med. x x x W0c£. ^ -»x et ^. J>fct ju. M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx .>t. x Imperf. E. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. rad. Ox ^. O^verba mediae rad. from m\j do. *' ' A Oi . but they generally prefer the weak. ju*. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. Imperf. E. XX* xxxxxO rad. from the rad. to give an answer. xx Ot J-j£j. in Rem. Imperf. JU-I or 162.»t. On form from verba med. the Jx X . 9-lj . the eighth form. IV. from ^*^S a bow . rem. Imperf. *" *~3>)\ to pair. w»Ut or <^^j\. a. I. shortened from cl :^l. 242 seq. 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age. see § 118. from the rad. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx . J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting. ju. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**).. The Verb. Imperf. xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad.>t or w>j a». [chiefly denominatives]. Many inflection. 161. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->.g. xx inflection. x x Imperf. c. to be cloudy. w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^. Jf^wt to become like a . and flexible. xx to j>^t to borrow. used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp.«a. juou JL* have a slender waist. j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . see §§ 240-1. rad.. to 6e a&Je to do. j et ^.jfe>\ or^^l. rad. grant a prayer. with the exception of a few. A few verba mediae rad. x 87 x x xx Ofc . x <Jyau J^a. from the w>L« . or intermarry. as jy**\ to be neighbours.. to have a long. oftey. IV.. slender JxOx x . to " marry x x .o to have a particular disease (ju-«. the first b.

(a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb).. 164. 165. place. they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j. j of the form as to make a foray or raid. (c) Verba tertise rad. ^ of the form Jj*i sis . In the dual. % . u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). namely Jjtf . or it resolves itself into a vowel. might have been O^j^. /?. on the other hand. a). d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*. There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. sing. a. as ^oj to throw. u—a ($—). (e) Verba tertise rad. u —a. sss* In the first and second and II. O ss s Rem. as iJD±. of the form Ja$ . s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j. one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. where they . s s E. the masc. Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. that retains its power as a consonant. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. the 3d pers. namely. and Ojj-w. /?.g. for ^j B with. 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ).88 Part Second. 166. forms tj£.to be ashamed. is [§ 164 A C. j of the form J*J .. classes. The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. Act. ends with a consonant. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels . jjx. s w-»j^j. a). after I. a). as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. (§ 167. a. — \j£> Verba tertise rad. UjJ^. I!**). etc. Verba tertise rad. : jet fj. (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. fern. C-oj^. —a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. for^j£ (b) (§ 167. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. ^ 3 of the form Jii . l£J^> for ^o>.— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . and. when the preceding f . ft a). a. (d) Verba tertise rad. not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). b—). or it is elided.— XVIII. sis as jj~> to be noble.

Hence arise the following cases. as Ijj^fc for tj. sing. 89 fern. ^*j>»» for C*j>». \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-.. owing to the influence of the /?. rem.§ 167] I. might have but said b\j£ and UU. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -). !>*«.uw and ^. as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and .*j£ ^ . Rem. or after dropping a short vowel. u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123. 12 . O^j-j for Ojj-». as t^-oj-j. The 2d pers. yi— into j_. j 167. lT^J L5~^ . they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>. E. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. or a). c^j for C^ w.. ^— 7. = cJjii.. as for t^JjJ. (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable. and 168). ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. ^-©jl for ***j\. one of two ways. is (b) The i third radical u.. rem.. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '. as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians. ^-. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a. and 154. as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3.g. L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. Imperat. in the second syllable. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P.X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—. cally.ty pass into ^— u and t -d. . a. a. sing. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. as for Ojjx. and and the two vowels are contracted . that is to say. lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . according to §§ 166. j. rad. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. . The Verb. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. in J At It the end of a syllable. or elided. the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. (from ^^>j for^-oj. 3 et ^. 'ugzu). Verba tert. fern.

jo f. fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation. and ^— rem. These vowels are x > elided at the same time. t>£ for jj£. J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj. etc. 00 jJaj xOx . (jj-xt). for (j?jU. but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for . j£\. 3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I . tenwln of x damma and for kesra. OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on. ramaita. J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj.. ^^H f° r ^p. ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. J J The a. ## for ^-). /?. third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative. a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j.90 Part Second. O as as . G.g. Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . (see § 236). 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166.g. OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!. a syllable. Vol. Jju. ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. D. fi for j>*j. (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168. 4J}\ approach. it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0. E. Oj^fc.g. it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E. The Jussive § 230). (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji).] . J**-». before the J^U is x (§ 80). and . E. gazauta. J***. for . a) . Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis.$>*»». for ramayta. <u#cj. [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). j_ X for j— lib ^_ . sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. (3.g. it is vocalised in three different ways. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable. jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical. ii. 3jU. X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. 5) for ay. ^_ X for ^J— and ^_. x O xx gazawta . ^j*\j and ^\j jU . but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. not naturally. but the tenwln E. for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . ^-Stj) 5 J . It has been already mentioned is (§ 166. j>j-~>. (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a.

tjt (Ji*J1. masc. for l££jtj waws into j. J}^\. from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i.g. verb . we get 5 inflection.. Gr. (§ ^. 3. The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. ^jZ-. and. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain.§171] (tj—) into i^. ^ijp. Verba tert. For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. C-*-©. The Verb. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. Imperf. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. e. rhyme as for u^U). compared with the correp. I. . Rem. is occasionally found in verba tert. ^. instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . 171. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . In the nomina patientis. though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently. / am mra from (&&e) the lion. 3. or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land. the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+. and not ^. 170. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59. as far as the above rules permit. the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . ^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. in consequence. Imperf. rad. whether attacked or attacking.1 Rem. in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. wliich have both which comprises several varieties. of verba tertiae 3. ^J^l \JJ&[. as $jsu> for jji>«-«. JLLj. Rem. j et ±J. Jyta* (§ 80). C>*"^P fr° m 169. Such verbs as ^*oj. rem. a). ^>j^. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129).. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£. rad. The form ^>*-o ^jk*. In verba tertise rad. from lw to irrigate. the preceding for ^j«j*c. sing. a). rad. to attack. a. 255 seq. b. 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. Perf. each of of those . ^o\j. g it/ admit of either form.

as bj to smooth. j&. hemzatae. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. J is ^l-a-j. tju. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. . to wish. and 142. : — . and (/?) verba tertiae rad. Such words . hemzatae. X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. hemza. ^bt.92 Part Second. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. 3 i 6 x Rem. Rem. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs. [§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172. J^3 to tread upon. rarely See § 146. its Imperat. rem. sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad.XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. .) to come. (for U*. X»X X«< C 174. . of u~-*-^> to despair. as jt$ to frighten. J$ (j-rfU-!. varieties. hemzatae. 3 ^. [also ^sb and u~jb] . —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. it t^a*. x Imperf. follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. 144).g. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. hemzatae. J D x The Imperf. more OS. according to the position of B 173.

J>\.§ 176] I. Doubly Weak Verbs. 93 of. a. A . The Verb.

when si it signifies to show.g. is or the Parts of Speech. a).94 Part Second.1 < st . Rem. In the second E. there are two sorts radical. 3 or ^. Pass. . 178. ^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. ^jjj. Pass. (§ 175. ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech. The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad.3 ^j 03 tjj. .3 to be near.3 it>3 elided. J or or A* a). the hemza . In the Imperf. C ^j . to be strong. ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . for ^tjj. 0>l. 179. is c. the hemza it is . ^3 ^3. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained. the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . as ^$£ to roast. J 3 . In the fourth form. e. as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard. -^ (for gjl). jj. radical. sort. by transposition. 3 3 . * J [§177 S3 (like is The . just as in the voice. always elided : ^jj\. in which j or ^ is occurs twice. whatever. . Rem. ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J . ^^j) or. Active z^Jj*. b. Of the second : class. rem.g. B 177. those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. i . —Etymology Perf.g. L5^ ' E.

95 ^fc. >.). The Verb.-£.).. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. 180. when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. j^**. * t a*3 for 4****J.§ 181] for I.. as is it seems to consist of only one verb. and — The § 153. ^jt to is betake oneself to. to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. -i-. £>t**!.wt. The former l£jW.». namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to .. . (c) in the A nomen actionis IT. and rem. ^j^> (§ 179). <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect. the first radical. (b) as j^^j. and l. — ^c. 178). rem. which letter hardly ever used j viz. rem. as . also admits of being contracted into . first class are of two sorts.. are inflected like j-^t and .. ^a+j. (§§ 80 and 20'2.g.**£**>. X. e -ge. Doubly Weak Verbs. in the Imperf. 123.a*J. .. We pass over the second class.ou into forms . B Rem. C as (^lj to promise. . for La»l»>t. Verbs of the is 181.-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf. and Imperf. . I. LL> to ivrite the ^.

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 182 .Paet Second.

Arabic verb of the form Jas or . x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a. and ^-£4. x x write Rem. instead of being elided. is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS. 97 II. as xx for j^ " for j^. I^ju.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju. They are used as exclamations. as: a dependent lit. The Verb. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^. as j^JSj. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. the dual U*J. J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j.» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$.^^*3. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. s^&y X Hence ^*j. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. b.] Rem. Verbs of Praise & Blame. [The following noun must be denned by the genitive. which x last is obviously the original form. If followed by l«. and ^^j.§183] I. jt^ for jl^w x . fern. wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. U ^^Jj or ^U. it is said. These forms are to be explained as follows. . x J —a contraction which x © . by contraction. and the p. which has been thus attained. and U ^oju or. In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. juj ^^a-LsJI j^. U«ju. jjj for jjj. U-Jb.» and x JLy£. Zeid is an excellent companion. and the plur. ^>~». Instead oij^su we may say ^3. and are generally indeclinable. excellent as a companion is Zeid. 166. its x x x If the second radical be guttural. to be good. vowel. article or O-**5 ) occur. Gr. and^^so. to fo 6ad. may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii). . Appendix A.for ^>~»»«. according Comp. J*2J to [or rather. B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. S>**J. though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. v»^» for^cjib.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

it to instead of 4-JUast. 189. (a) The Noun. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. or Substantive. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb. Q Rem. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). J s 0* designated vo-^t. II. is 190. Rem. See rem. sing. see Oomp. fear Me. in this case ^. if appended to the verb. . a. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. but not always (see § 187). for the sake of emphasis. 22. sO* Jt. more 1 especially is. Gr. VOX?! *HWr*&. Jerem. A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. THE NOUN. as abl ^ylkc-t. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. instead of AAlkct. b. the verb worship. a. Very frequently. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. ^-»^l. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. of i^_. he gave it to him. Me therefore. nomen. help. the pronoun is. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. he gave (b) me. Thus. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. is Rem. Rem. b. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. a. The nomen substantivum. from d-JlLct he gave him to me . instead § 317.104 Part Second. qualificabile. a 2 seq. placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. When . Compare in Heb. In certain cases this form alone is used. to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct.

by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. that out. >o or Relative Pronoun. D * elliptical expressions.. — ui regard to form. A quality. . 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). or cJtdf. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. »J 105 . or Adjective. of by. are Rem. word by which something the concealed or kept in. The names of the pronoun.)l.- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum. 84 —89 and 185 — 189. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* . that which is apparent or It is also manifested. \Juo^\. b. called 3u\jm\. The Noun. is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M. is. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately.. (c) The nomen numerate. or Numeral Adjective. avTaiVVfiia. the substantive to which the pronoun refers. * as opposed to &La)l. because. j^S SjU^t. 14 . they are identical in almost every respect. w.gv as the above translation shows. the noun of indication. aa-oJI. 3 Jit * ^^1.-0. is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI. J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum. for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j.§ 190] II. in Rem. is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. or Demonstrative Pronoun. descriptive epithet. after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353). or Personal Pronoun. 3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\. the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. * the noun of number. and a.

and a comparison of the meaning word. full of water. and are either » deverbal. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc.jUJI « human being). a. derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools. water. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). . ^ 9 0* . The horse. ^-> how ?). 9 a key (from *J3 to open). ^ji. b. stantives as J*y man. Nouns are divisible. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ . At a later period. . classes. derived from verbs. A. . ^l^JI human . to be skilled in horsemanship.^wt. follows. formed from *U nor 9" from it. 191. derived from nouns.. one that a nom. of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U. |Lo water. in respect of their origin. ^j* may . [§ 191 A 1. and which does not give birth to a nom.. nouns were formed. but a denominative Rem.. to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. nor derived from act. conversely.106 Part Second. The s . primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye.. that is. is not derived from oU. that is. its root. primitive and . The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. into two derivative. y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. not itself nomen actionis or infinitive.£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide). a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns.\Zjlo . and their different Forms. from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. or verb. a horse. u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . act. as . Rem.. the root of ^ji. or denominative. as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion). is «U a denominative verb.^5*^ qualitative.

§ 191] II. « man. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J. a noun that is A derived from a nom. in its strictest sense. x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment. an ^>*£^o~>t. a as^oJLft knowledge. as i«L»l for the cat. mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot. the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^./***> of. JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel. 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S. jU». names of men. 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. Nouns Substantive and Adjective.o-L j^£>. w>jj/5. . or verbal root. 4«~ot.^t. 02 / A. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos. riding.^U. as 0x00 man. a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. as ^-»». the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A . 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. as ^^ft knowledge. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. but^aj^JLo. an ^Ji^^wl. as ^J***. juw. • a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object.e - a name of.jjl. ^J^jJui a quince. ( ^ji a horse . or (6)^*1 ^y*o. fox) . daughter of. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more.l^ and ^t^JJt. smi as ^L».^a. tfAe £ion. x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass. . J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t. or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. as ^LxJt ^jt. as jj-o*. roottra that is augmented by additional letters. or^at. 2lJju. names of women. or xO rawie. J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . names of horses. act. understood. x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. father o/. ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO . dx . 5 J x The Noun. compounded with JO i ^jI. sJ^*. or .

or an honourable epithet. which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J). &15U (bestowing). tfAe weasel. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J. 0*3 It. The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. Job's father. d simple. Bebba (imitation of a sound). « x J Ma'di-karib. J>*b ws-U. j**). —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. ^e tortoise. as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). . or wilcu*. x 3 consisting of a single word. x x arm). ^^ JOxJ wA*5. as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. . amir pounded. as t^itu jus. 6. as C iUju. OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . 3 . the "patient" camel. ^ijs- ^t. Siba-weih . aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose. [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . gift)'. xDx .. jb^SXZs j»\. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound. ^--jiM _$j-«t.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. as j^w. ft 2ro30 x U -p. as 2J*j Duck or Bottle. The 9*x as j^> (a bull). latter class is of six kinds. c. (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally. x 0*» x joica/. * . x J x ^jtjSJj^c. transferred from some other use. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. 6). or (b) %^^»^o.^0*-. Ox BaJal-bek. as w>^»t ^jt. existing only as a proper name. B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>. (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^. the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. as io (see above. jX^j.O J genitive. ^b*. as ^3 1. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. improvised. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. (excellence). £&e female hycena. ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort. ZjZ£- . a surname. impromptu. viz. as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God). JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7.a*J^o. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. w*jj$ &\. 3 x extemporised. ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt. predicative. or proposition. c) (8) X. The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals. aj^^. Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. i the sun of virtues.

is c>J&\ ^wt. namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis. The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. *W*l. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). 194. nouns of kind or manner. are by their nature adjectives. but have the nomina agentis et patientis . . a jectives. (participles). but have substantives. w^ » . the reference or relation). (d) Nomen relativum. action once.\\ ll^wt. (a) Nomina vicis.. Nomen vasts. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. pyi\ ilo-^t. *Uyt ^S. the referred noun. and nomina patientis. the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. (b) Nomina Nomina speciei. come to be used also as B 193. particular class of derivative ad- . nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. nouns of.§ 194] II. £3^1 £l©-/t. place C in- Nomina instrument i. llo-wt JjjtfcoJt. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. Nomina bo agentis. also called nomina (d) vasis. the noun that denotes the individual. A. (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes . J^UJt ll+*\. Sj^. \Jj&. >. A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O .^1 ^^1. nouns denoting the strument. om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time.»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. The Noun. namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis. 109 192.

/0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis. >j.mj. £j 6. O***.Q\ ^~/\. *yj. >a-c. ibuo. o e>M3 (a) „ . J**. ^o-lafr. %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. the diminutive. list The following a nearly complete within brackets. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive. 9// 9// 9/' Ja3. J / /O/ (lit. as ^**A. wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-. j*o. (/) Nomen deminutivum.. 9// JaaLw. Z. SlXw. J*». . the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*». —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. or time. The Deverbal Nouns. D 4. J*». j^>3. v5j^> wJJU*. the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). 9// J"k>> voj-^. CO/ 1. 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj. J*3.. as <U*^s *j^> fat. 3j£.Ju. subject. . oc 195. the lessening). Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. j-w. as 0*4*> Jaw. 9/ J ? J 2 J w^. 196. 9 J 9/ j ? 5. are very numerous. 9 of them. a. which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. -*j^. J£>. ^i. Rem. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. The nomina verbi. The nomina verbi. 9«« / 2. ^U. J>5.*. ^j. 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . are abstract substantives. 9. as i*A».110 Part Second. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/. B which express the action.. as w~U». as w>*^> ^a^. where it originates). ^J*p. • . as *Jl£. the lessened noun. M*-* j> 7. The Nomina Verbi. / 3. j£w. 8. as»£>. <". JUi. jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. passion. t^j~». as w>jm£. / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s. JaaJI *U^I. without any reference to object.

26. II. as *jU£». 4>^-»-. 29. SjuLi.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. as TClj. ^»>i. 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J.. Sjlij. al^Ui.] ^**.] Sul. io-«ac. j) . ^5**^^^Ui. iitjjL. 0^i © •J J[Jl. as *£*>] o^. i3Ui.] O^iii. ^l^j. as cA*«»g. J 27.Lai. ^J^.. 9 as oy. The Noun. ^lU (or J&). *1^> *^> 3&. 22. —Nomina Verbi. lS**3 - L5£**. o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ . oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21. aX*5. O^***. JU*.jtjl. 4JL0. as as iW-] ^>^. [19. as Oj^^xj.§196] 10. cA&. 31. A. JUi. as Ujl*. as [18. SUU. as O^*^. as eg^y B 17. 14. Nouns Subst. as ^-^o. [30. [24. 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. JUi. iCLj. v 9*1 l*3.. SjUi.J [13*. rial. o^o^. ^3>iif. 12. as ajUj. SjLs. 5JU3. 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. 53UaJ. [24* 25. 4^. liUL^.^f&] illi. as ilAt^>. ^^Uj. as ^jA». ^-U*. 11. as ^IK Jl>w. [13. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. «''» as i*Aafc». . aJUs. £Ui. as £jl*i. [15. as iol. JU3.] ilJUi. iip. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . JU-. JU». Ill ILJ. as < V »a-. 3)U~>. as ^J-o*-.<& Adj. 28. iUi. as Ait^i.. ^i**. Kr&z. £J£ (also written <uU). %>^=>y . 16.] [19* [20.

J*^-> B 38. as Ag^ci*. : Jli.. i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t. SjJtLc. a^-*.' 9 * 0* . 0. 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. 39 c. few of more than two or three. J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj. 33.] 37.. 43. J**j. * ** ibUi. as Jj**.— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech. G * 40. . ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s .. as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. cAs [41. The 9 0* five forms. 2. 34. / • • d «. 33. I 32. J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*.o £^~«. 1.. which are most frequently used. . ?-s*-j«c. ' «• .] All these nouns cannot. v**i»i<jtj Je*3. as 3 ji»a*. J***** asj*£«. as i^jJI. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand..> t a> -e. are 28. A*a»^e. insight. a-wo^-cJ. d->j*o. as ib^e. £T / d . £J>*i. 5 Syii.Jjfc3 * J** * is * .J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i.112 Part Second. • 3>5j. and the remarks to 222—225. to snatch. triliteral verb. J>*i. 198. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*.0* tS$y°. J**s. 221. j*a. Ji*. Ij^ii. diksuLc. rem. Sy^. GO* 00s u . jrf understanding. 42.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44. aJLai. 34. «»/ JJ£ to kill. What these are. Sj^j^o. — 44. GO* as J^-Jl*. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. J-oa-c. Slo^o. J»***. jyd. as oj^a^o.] [Rem. however. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35. 3ijAo.» / i^x S s 39. JmA '. (a) ** * . J*£*. very 197. must be learned D from the Lexicon. see further §§ 208. Urn** . as ^SU^. as *J££. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo.

jJu.. . as J*~j 9 to travel. * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. x xx to to run. Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . to to flee.jb^.> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. 27. jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. u°j* sickness. A. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form . 9 X . Rem. p-U«o xx . j\y* xxx . # xJ 37. *-ji joy . £)\jlx±. cry out 9xx for help. 21. f-\r>e . u°j*° to be sick. 9 9 x . ^° gallop (of a camel). ^J^Jt9. 7»5j±> going out. or 9 x . run away with . Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*. refusal. palpitate. change of place. 9xJ Jo roar. Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£. xx ^ys> 15 to w. 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. BjyL±. to brandish. to xxx lash the tail. to be x j x of sound judgment. as j\h x x to fly. J**3. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight. Si* * xx xxx }j£. *-U-»^->\ to refuse. 9 The Noun. xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. . x run quickly. rider (of a horse). 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*.— Nomina Verbi. *-L3 ^Xj to weep. go out. as ^Jslc to sneeze. to sit. 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. * . x *-*»£ 9 x '. xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. J^-tf J>yj to bray.. ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . *bt. xx to croa&. AJtjjh. as 9 x . to be rough. ^o 9xjxxx . Ci s jjliUi.sitting . i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound. shun with horror. { j*L±. J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. firmness or soundness of judgment . Sx x x to be generous. pcfc to * become refractory. to be agitated. 9 x J j\i to flee from. 9 x xx > ^Ja*. * * . jtiu. to ft* ^'c£ and t large. ^JUi and xxx . 9 x 37. . /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». Nouns Subslti Adj. J^-* to fo smooth. to bray. «J xxx 9xJ to bark. xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam.§198] (b) xxx IT. y^x3 and J J ^yU. }\jJli . J***. ^ *-jjL. - wju wjbu and ^~x. vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash. his 9 9 * . s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. ^A*^ x x x . usually take the form 26. ^xj l\SJ . 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . ' . J 9 Us. to 9 palpitate. as juiS and ^J^. r> JU* as ji. B aJ^^w smoothness. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness.

or jl-^. Ox£jU£» . the caliphate . grief or anger. [§ 199 A howl. „ or tmir. j-ij** to £*j. w>U to take one's place. *UUs. Ai^Li. to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. noble or eminent. as t^il*. each of to its meanings. . and to 60 moved by love.. X X X U>j£>. office. has jj*. has OXX ' j^j*. to succeed. ly». 200. divide. governorship. to find. to fo plain. . one Perfect. u^P or Aitjw. 3jU*j 2mofe. sense x x . xxx ju*. 3)lyj>x x <*J>2». .j. tions. The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself. has ^. If a verb has only one form. U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel). <bto xxx deputy ship . open or public. xx traffic. 4j*^5. loud.g. or jjj^-. E. and xx x have several abstract nouns. to judge. x xx Thus. Ox X i»ti. for accordingly. but j^»». but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. Jjji . *liu . to part. fl x . to be afraid. be chief of. Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy. tfAe 29. B 199. 5 x it signifies curb {a horse). If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels. and wi^w be exalted.. one of which peculiar to. to ^ OX XX .) or caliph. or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x .^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after ..Jj to be in charge or command o . j£j*-. 3 J in. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w. has £*Jj. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns. SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . act as deputy. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight. the office of secretary . to be exalted or noble. Sj^.s*J to trade. jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. but Jji. gUj xxx x x . %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat. <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. but in the sense of Ox xx .114 Part Second. J^i. have a hud Ox© usually has voice. j-v*-.to Ox x sew. but »*i^w. 201. trade or handicraft. ^ZS** to write. or the Parts of Speech.

JuU. il^io. The Noun. 2^. »LJ. of the strong 202. D. u^Uy. ibuu. . G. oi jUfe. iGX>. from j~» £o glad. as ^>^. The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows. . a^v>. JUA3. as Jl^cu. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. existence.§202] its II. SwiJ. to exist (see §200)*. 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. £3ja3. X as 1>\S£>. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. x V&£>. x JUjJU. see the Gloss. triliteral II. S^J. JUA5. «^'>^>. 5^a5. to Bibl. a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . JStc.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. S>~J.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . i*> . XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. 9 J'^a^>. gladness. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem. J£«*. x/0 fl£J. $50^5 from j^j to be found. employed in the active and Lane. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. as lUu-I*k. x S^-cuS. aXxaj. iSCJ^. J**&. ?^h^. first. Nouns Subst. a^Xj. as ££1^3. Jt ji. 9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. 25}s!*3. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification. Geogr. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. 9 x as JU^j. as jjjj-w Joy.] [6. A. X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. C JtaXJ. 1.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3.] signification .

substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. 2. as JU-*->. a. •£«. XL XIII. Jajuu tert. as jjy-3 from tp) I. [or frequency. ?5uJt. J&. [4. jSL. as v£*-*> cfe. JUiXwt. only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. J&. XIV. JcUf.] B VI. ( absol. [2. [§ 202 . JUtf . as OjUj. yjjuu. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i. to Heb. Rem. and are represented in the . J**a3. akin to /SJ&fi. J%*lt. the form JJUi is the original infinitive. . autli.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I. J!jU5t. Jilil [2.].. in. j3U?. ii&fo c xv. VII.] VIII. JU*. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. 1. 1. XII. /^P). Jt***. infin. [2. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. is In II. >«£. but of an obsolete are. as JUS. hemz. Jaw. JUA3I. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. JUil. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin. 0-00 X.] IV. the infinitives.. 1. JUllt. used in verba rad. as >*£. latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare. 7$}£&?. whereas JUaj. OjUl] [3.116 Part Second. strictly speaking. but is chiefly by far the most common. to excess energy or intensity. Jtjait. 3 et ^ (in which . alxsu tert. JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. as j&. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ.] 5-0 IX. JbLait. V. J^U5. is and rad. [3.

JjtAj. J'iUJ. into <Jmu. 6. <U.t. * [Barth. as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*. Nominalbildung. as p. jj*a* ^o-A] I. Hv^in. 117 /^JUH. as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL».*— In III. is as jli*^> oUloit. C 1.). x « &AAj~i. who shorten the Jji5. of all is aJUULo fern. etc. J^Jj*. JUu^. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj.^). {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem. common form particip..] 203. Oj^e*. Perf.UJ). /J » x ___ III. Rem.j*. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive. x WShft.— Nomina Verbi. fUU. as>l*j£». ]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ. — In ([in form identical with the] V.] . 0x0 2.. in the cases mentioned in § 117*.§203] II. and Lii to VI. and Imperf. J&Jl.j3. those B Arabs alone use JUJ.. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant. or Jjti.. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. the original form is JUaj. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft. as *-tj«o. § 180 disapproves of this theory. Zlsy>. The Noun. I. A Wan. rem. UjLoJL etc.] J-***?. 3p*s^. —In VIII. Jbt^i is the original infinitive. 00 J^JLxit. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. JU$. 9 xOx JUj-.& Adj. III. as Jig. D. The nouns formed from the iLUi. 0x0 JUX3. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. II. JLiutf . • < • In XUal is the common form. Nouns Subst. JUJU. D [The irregular form IV. The most pass. G. A. [3. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*.

[§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not. Hence %x« for jjco. undergo no contraction x x as jju>.118 Part Second. (§§ 142 and 144). >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. ^*jUJ or w>L*J. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. Rem. b. radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha.g. x x a.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. x xxx j . and Imperat. The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. Those verba primse rad. mj 204. E. Imperfect julj. o Sjcfr from js-2. mutual thrusting and stabbing . as 3»lo»« or olo-«. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206. to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. yJAfr. which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. 205. drop it also in the verbal noun. like JjJj. j. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. that reject the ^ in the Imperf. Imperat. Those nouns. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . The B Rem. of which the first and second .

ijjfc.» See § 145. 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145.9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©).] ••!• 5 x ^M).-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s . x j£. frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*. . ^ -B (&). x > 11. Nouns Subst. and kesra precede as .1. as Jy>. Jj>»». 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3. * * ma T •• (&*). j. for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem. ^ . 5 If the noun from a verb mediae . changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M.' rOfc? (*^). as .Jj. prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. -Jfc*). « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3. . of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157). rf.xx d for w>Ufc.§ 209] e -gfl II.T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^). ^om nb\ .). 207.. >Uut and **X X *ti. . in Hebrew.). 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^. pronounced with fetha. Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. . from ^©13. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. it is If the letter j. this radical is ^. as^oLS for^ftly>.—Nomina J ' Verbi. 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti. x x x . ^o). x Rem.' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J. Compare > . Imperf. etc. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med. J^j**. Rem. rem.jl*x&. l\j*~* like. ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. j-w. rem. 5JLo for aJl^o. A. if it be without a vowel. . . b. x x J & Adj. or ^j be of the form x 208. from the tenth of . if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra. x The Noun. the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3. be preceded by kesra. A . and the [See D 209. rad. where it remains .l. (or § by assimilation 223. Initial ^. as w>j>>. fr° m YW. 3i.^f. . bt* . )L±* (rad. from olo . from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form. from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. l j from verba med. Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. ' nsr. *«*.j and Sj^. 9 c.

jtj— 1I3J from jjL*.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui. S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©). [§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti. (->>>). and then altered. Oli^ I5U. from is 210. jMj) fromjy'J). x hj*J from *> *13 (^1). i 5J^Ui. is and then x ) . j|>».4. ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i.Jtlilwt . E. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£).^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«. and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). confusion. a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. or the Parts of Speech. the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical . they say. on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables. were. and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2).— Etymology . mixture. OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui. in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . ^-^j-j*. &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. tjjjyfa+i 2. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. aJ^JUi as the original form. from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. . S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^.120 Part Second. and >U*^t. all combine DDte.*>. j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o.. £0 6e chief or ruler.5. SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and.from ^U-. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£). pb. ^ et ^ x the nominal form . aJ^JLx. first ^ et ^5. ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ. 0&&aff and llcu.^u. In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided.*• (jj~>). x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ . Ox J J Rem. aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i).^w. 211.g. x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *. ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad. 77^*3 to prove that pi3. shortened JL**s. into <la. and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x . Dtfll) . rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>. rad.

5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^.§215] II. to show (§ 176. 5 La. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj . the j productionis of the second . A. 73 (for^»U5t. 3l£>j for S^»j.^eUM in the Kor'an. e. tertiae rad.'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o). a. and becomes quiescent. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$. We often find. The Noun. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\. y^. as L5a*. for 00* 00* ^^a. xxi. \ however. . e?). c). %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . Nouns Substdk Adj. the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj. at the same time. the . [if B * J J*5.g.i\ 5 A occur. tertise rad. throws back the ten win upon the Eg. the ^5. and Jj«i. sj^ 2 . * * 9** * 0*0* Rem.. Sj£>j (§ 7. is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. ^cj. rem.. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z. ^1.. L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6. I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. these forms come from verba tertiae rad. 212. 16 . ^. for S^a. the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter... its fetha.» U*>. 213. through the influence of the third radical. In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained. 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S . *}£a. 121 Rem. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see. if is with the radical j into j as 3J3. whilst. as jjs-. In the same way as SLa. GO* (j£>i. ^^J*. an * 2> * t 5 * J**. 3bj*o for 2-o^o. 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class. second radical. the (etymologically more x Rem. ^jj. •* Jjj for j>\>. S^a. etc.] 5 " •• forms J*s. into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a. SlXw for 3j£i. £). ^c^ y for (J^jt. 6.. the j productionis changed. j C as changed. ^ et ^. for * * for for (*V). 215. ft and 214. ^. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y. after the elision of for S>L«. often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. combines But. j>»^. a.. tertise rad. tjj L5J*. into combines with it into J$. rem. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167. J. Sur. and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. as w. * * $ of the form al*5.

(ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. ^ 3 x from ^>3. gU^t. ^jt. —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. the third radical converted into J?. J# for jfi (J&). sometimes takes place. b. further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . ££j. as ^>A for ^jA. If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***. « . In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. Uxp. 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167. rem. from ^yb. is In the same form from verba tertise rad. the third radical of verba as £U±. rad. ^ et ^ is changed into hemza . and JUi.Uju~>t. ^. For this .122 Part Second. when it ^x form Jt*3. XX has the . [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). and xx in that of the third. as gUact. {\yt^>\ x . the influence of the third radical D (always ^$. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms.. as ^1 for ^y\. ^5. find ^3. J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. tertise y> rad. J£. the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . 3. 219. P).). t x X f\^*j\. 218. and following forms. et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. tertise rad. That an act has taken place once i}j+). fe. as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. kesra. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217. JU3. Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). 216. g^a»Jt. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth. we is. ^o. e. seventh. as 2J<~3. ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot.

a^-jJ. \j*. or . £)\3j*a£. Rem.<& Adj. 0*0* «/» r. (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind. ^j. Otj-o-». once. ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. * * V*i 0*0* **«. be appended to it. m * * * * * *$. 5$ j&. * * * pi. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl. J**aj in the second. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj.g-». and so with *+*£>.*0* 3ja3. coming. a**1*. A-U-5. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind. 0**0 A^tj^o. nomina vicis. Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way . meeting. 3u^j. «< E. *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t. ^. has always the form aX*j. V 0**0 dJ1j. rolling over.e^. ^\.* being rolled.§220] II..oJ. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot. £ £ ^-oJ. derived from weak verbs. 0*10** <Lc*. sitting down. *&** SlSaj. . 3 jc».j3. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * . . inhaling or B rolling.ja. vexing. * * a»^. 9**0 Zj[s£)\. snuffing. or nouns that express the doing of an action once. as du. * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo. Nouns Subst. . and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. do not 0/0/. Rem. him once. shuddering. of course. giving rest.. c. aj>w. be formed * * * Rem. Nouns of this sort. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. * o t being uncovered. Rem. feUU. *b>o. once. A. The Noun. manner. turning round. turning over.lj one. 3j. * 3J3\Ju. AJLJt.0/0/ 0/0/ . rejoicing. ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. 4*y>. ** J*J»>1*. drinking. striking. * * *j*. fleeing. 220. a **>o neglecting. _ a. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. S*a*S.g. 0**0 du>\j£=>\. These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt. 6 a^ao. mode. honouring. seeing. is —Nomina first Vicis. o o?. he had pity or compassion upon * * * .> ***> f r o b. o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener. iolSt. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping. D as rti*. ij^.

J-^ the time or place far watering . ^j^i . but kesra.. sitting. from v>^ t° drink. a good hand. if form of the verb. or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis). verbi has the form dJUi. way of putting on a turban. dying. the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. he writes a^j. e. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». be used in a passive sense. a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. Z+s. w^-u*o . verbi and nom. 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. a miserable way. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). eating. as 4£j«a. as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself. * E. riding.g. The nom. 5*0 C nom. killing.g. If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb. a place for drinking. D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». speciei . we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. a. Rem. or yashmak . or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. (from fast vicis. like the 0*0 5 * nom.124 Part Second.g. 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. sleeping. by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. imperf. if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma. b. ac^cJI &~»». speciei may. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes. [§ 220 E. oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221. Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting.

A. 0. as it were. a from ^Sb J 1 to write. b. from v~^ ' to sit. or to A place where.6 . ingress. in particular. 0. Oj^ of division. kesra. & Adj. ' . 9. assembly. room. (camels). Twelve of these nouns. where one dwells. 125 J . 10. whereon one rests. J^. £j-*a* the time when. B and Rem.- where anything falls. Rem. viz. . one imperf. school. . the west. or-* p 7. the elbow. 5. where the sun rises. J~a3u. the vessels in which the act or state con- tained. from j»-j^ 9 to 0. £j><ai . Nouns Subst. 0. .o-» u-^Xa*. where a plant grows. of prostration in prayer. a. v~^*~i at. or w^w. of ascent or rising. take. 1. Q 9 0. the east. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. to aimed at or made for. where the sun sets. imperf. f*j±-i. a mosque. from juaS aim make for. imperf. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco. —Nomina Loci. il+~*\. L £)S mA 6. party. The Noun.§221] II. imperf. from Jyj is imperf. a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in. J**&* the place JO. the crown of the head. several persons 5 sit. notwithstanding. J^J slain. slaughterhouse or shambles. fcut 9 mo . habitation. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. imperf. where tlie hair divides in different directions.> to go ftflM imperf. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. and J^.* £fa place where. ^~C> . to drink. #0 out. £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. w**£* a place where writing taught. 9 . 4.

which. MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book.». a copy of the Kor'an. >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment. where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these. ^Jla^o. * —Etymology nostril. fixed time or place.126 Part Second..«. meeting or assembling.o .o and closet. J-**. be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ».. ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. are of nomina temporis or Rem. which has /Ma in the imperf. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci. takes fetha in the second syllable. 0' et loci from the . formed from verba primse ^ et {J. the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into ..g.. a pfoce o/* collecting. license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect. rem. cases the c. ^L». nos. or the Parts of Speech.«*->«o jjtcu*.o. retain the first radical. J. imperf. rata of time (U^>> rad. 12. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0). %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^. ji* i«*. jjLo. (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142. ij^o watering-place.. 144). jt?2oce hiding or concealment.and _.&». 7. The verb * «. ^^mje. go down (to draw water). a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin. wJj-^U. o?. a small room or 0. and even jj)-* also »o. . Nouns and place. (dij?b). 9. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew. 11.. E.03 See § 228.. J 0303 jtL jri> U. and 12.o. as m&fc. promise. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2. The vowel of the cjoL. also makes B « a> o or . Q Rem. w>^>-«.<». .•g.0^^0. it'* J^sw-c. fetha. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp. imperf. 5.s ^>N?a>. and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable.o. 2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. and the same the rest. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders. from >)$ . . [§ 222 the A 11. languages. cjd». as a < general rule.a>.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose.

^. s from 9 ^oU x . imperf. from J^j to be afraid. but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . a . from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day. ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. D w^t. & Adj. £0 fear. E. J-»->*et 223. for they always take fttha in the second syllable. JU. . — Nomina Loci. xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. from is put down. to place. j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand.g. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf. or ^iUto. this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical. sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire. Nouns where anything %*eu .» to x dive. 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x . a place. The Noun. ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say. by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation . . ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . from j-~> Ox . imperf. according to § 221. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing.**** jjueu* should. imperf. . JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj). imperf. after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra. syllable. place.*--wo « or cL*. j-~u 3 x * Here the .. X S C x x Rem. and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear.). Subst. J^. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med. J***o or Jl©*o. See Those formed from verba tertise rad. some examples with fetha in the second syllable. imperf. ^xxxx S. have the same form as the nomina loci et temp. return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc. s (t or t ^). imperf. J-Xo or JtC*. dreaded. <ix § 208.§224] II. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. \ J^U 224. as w>U. x x r. J-Jb J <»x (Ja). . A. x x . u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx . from ^JU. Those formed from verba mediae rad. C J J 2 x . imperf. from J^-j x . #0 jpfay a£ hazard. x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place. imperf. ^^uak^o or ^^law.3-0 a place that . imperf. strictly speaking. wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. as *«^>o. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. but the grammarians give B Rem. J-JU or JliU. "("'' r.

^^4*. . xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213). #o or wsort xx a place.128 Part Second. ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. ^j-> stops. etc. frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . business . as i^k*** hunger. SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . from ^j #0 bend. imperf. iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. E. imperf. ban- queting-room. sits in the sunshine. x . as S/*&© cemetery. 4£j-£*o the C. 225. O^i9 x x Rem. o/* occupation. imperf. the second rad. a desert. jai^) place of refuge. w^r# tifo x Ox are watered . xx The .. SbjJi* place for drinking. imperf. W <5 x x Rem. from ^j.. UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape. from xx x . tejjL* watering-place.*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form. • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be. Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j . from . [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. a station. suppose. aJj-U a halting-place. xO x (l£3~c ) the place do. as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. imperf. *t> * pasture or graze.jJ» to think. imperf. from £Ox . >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. imperf. . : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. . of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle. i^j^ (^3^*) * O .. x . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. to \^y^ ^>t» t. x Nouns «xx . where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop.g. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. the edge. In regard to their contraction. If derived from a strong verb. imperf. Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. imperf. tJ^'—J. «: B l£^* to fold. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. Ox . « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold. L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u.

[or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action]. 17 . JujJL* X X From ii// very rare.a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs. A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x . ^4 x QxOJ 2 . take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E. The Noun. O x as mesrdk = £j***. J ^^ a place C ^j— **. g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox.g. of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral. or x x 0* w^w. —Nomina Loci. with the nomina patientis or passive participles. <So Adj. o x o B Rem. The same form is also used as a . place. S^Aa^o. derived (see § 228). to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco. rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) . . A^JJa^. f& x . -f.g. Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time. me'rdb = w^Jt*. x x Og or evening (»<«).«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . &c*Lo . rad. ft? 60 collected) . triliteral or from the are identical in form E. the The nouns verb. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. 3 X X Rem. 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«. Sjjio.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. in preference to Sju»a»-o. Nouns Subst. x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . y^»~o *t#w of the foWA. g ^a ^ . 3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) . 3 et and 0x0 ^.\ gathered together in a crowd). A. ^5 — Op ©t. from jJj to foar. as Ji^A* or . 226. from jccj to 'promise. £~Xo. 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e.g. ft-j*~* the place through which. ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« .§227] II. ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise. \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) .jA. OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!».

—Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. St^x*. JUa*. A a». Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on. a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****.» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI . a******.130 Part Second. When derived 6+ from verba med. Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom.>mJU). >3j*. a 6We?/0 or halter. *-«**. u°\r**. B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument. rad. X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. OxO 5x6 • * * > 0. j et xx x ^. from >jj. X XXX X . E. J. to file . . Ox x and aJUa*. J^aa and . ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . a branding-iron or cautery. x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . a comb. They have the forms Jaa*. . mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J . .Jt. xO #0 cut . a needle . xO XX r.>uu Oxx (for . are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t. a cupping-glass.g. a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. e. Sl5^» (for £*$>*). God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. a strainer . ' * 3^0. jyU. j-oj.aj juj 5x J '. . wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ.a. 6x0 they remain uncontracted. a jwwr 0/ scissors. a staircase or ladder . . [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered . lancet. nomina instrumenti.0 to xxOjo. — 6*s*»<i*J . a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*. and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced. aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. in s*1*> . x x and <Uy»«. aL**«. . XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet. the 228.oJL.»£xJ0x»x . a key. » 3 x J.0 0x0 0x0 or snare.- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan. t from . w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ . . D packing-needle . 3>2U. xxx a t a ^0.0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX». making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4.

a master. j^\+.e. have two principal forms. ^>5l^ being. Jmo^o. Jj juo = J> jco. from^oj^. The form JjJU also used. ^Jl^ 9 J writing. When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive . from^x»\ judge . D ' ' ' j**{±> serving. > %* =j. a servant. * * Rem. and the nomen patientis. E. Adj. Nouns Subst & Adj. substantives. iTTftb.. . a sword. adjectives derived from verbs. a censer. Rem. a sieve . from 9 * ^Jgr to write. + J from exist . w-Jfcj a. from^oj^ jbjj^e to served. mm*** = hA ^ . A.j. these real participles. 9 ' J*l3.. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis.0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle. Wl».g. 230. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose . Rem. derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. ^Aft to know. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — . 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U. namely. Wo?e on.§230] II. 6. * from w*l£> . letter. The Noun. a to serve.Q.g. as in other languages.o. to be found. < * * to be possessed. e.a». nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\. B mats. *o*> * . a madman.— Verbal 4/0J 9J J . These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic. indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. 5 J from *x». the nomen agentis.J*s (as to fear. O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be . a scribe or secretary. existing. to be mad. A . and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles. JijJ^c 5 J J 9. {J^c to touch). Dnpk&. 131 9 J J Rem. judging. as well as _. • >5+y* found. ^Tfc. in the syllable. is raato . (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. > Jyduo. i.». nomina patientis. *->y&* written. 9 s The verbal adjectives. to " ^jj^~c mad. from &*. a. oi 229. verbal in C adjectives. and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. a judge.

as ili^la^o. jl^*. But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic. is 3 . X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem. Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal.. being glad. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. as te^Xa—*. perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$. l\jyt£*. J a x x * intelligence . ^jU*. a promise penury. J ft E. o^Jo^-o = back.g. ^>j»o = 3j. ^X J ft tJ. T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *.oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw. 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined. ^Jjla. x ft c. or as an adjective. being got or acquired . sturdiness. ->Jftx£ E.). O x [Comp. Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' . 5.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis.). an oath . e. Sx x x SJJ easity (do. 5/ J ft The Ox fern. ft Ox x J jco.g. O J ft x 00 x understanding. ^j\£z. 4^iU^ aIo-^. cheery. The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 . jul&» .. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . § ^^)J^>. expressing a continuous action. proft J x ft J mising.**. ^ opposed to jy»ju* .. 5 #x x B rejoicing. j^xm . =j-*»£. opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>. or a x permanent quality Ox (see above). j£s\». . Imrdiness. =j*£>. g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being. the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. as in the phrase W>15^$. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. distress .. . but also serve as adjectives or substantives.> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227. = Lct-btj. 6e£?i<7 cowardly. X a XX scholar.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^. Sj 00 y J J J / x . C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen . instead of x form I^jjm^.g. La^j a^>'. they have only the participial . Conversely. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa. and tfAe telling of the truth. and J>*o narrow. rem.) Jjju^.or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. j^>^.] X bountiful. endurance. knowledge. one's utmost . >tj^. sense. j£\sX Ox . Ox .. GO JOj UU^ . generous.. x J 3x ft swearing. / came to /wm riding hard. labour.132 Part Second. the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. Rem. ft p^j* = *ij. a hax Ox bitual state of being. however is 232. 6. Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? . rem.

a water winch sinks into the ground. eye to eye). . 7. J jcc .j. rem. = UjU^. express. = J^U. confined or . held. 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. they are * B of God. = \jj~aa Jj^ J*». Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. 231. ^oAo. j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. Nouns Subst. Jjjtft jj£ £U. Of these the following are the principal. Besides these. A I met him face him in resist face (lit.§ 232] II. 13. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. JU.j. adjectives which are ticiples. c). 1. = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. a o for a). 232. lip = ly$liLo . the Heb. A. =jj\e. 5.— Verbal to lip). and partly. Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. 14. J^i. ^Jb. Rem. J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. 12. UUt aLa). & Adj. 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. JU5 JU3 J**i 2. I slew cold blood bound. just men. The Noun. Adj. 16. Sl^t. 3. a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . Jj*. the emir. =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) . made like. 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. Jcli is the Aram. that he could not or escape). 4J3U. J** 9. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. o^** Jjl5t 8. 11. 7 . 4. viz. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. so \j~o aZX3. (lit. a jwstf maw. a just woman. there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb.

harsh. clever. jl£ rough. betray.. # 6 and 7. c^rse. from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^. —which x . from JJu* . from t>~». x J x from 5 J JJj. and jJau . J***-* J****. from o^e- xx liberal. J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. yA« from vJ^-j easy. partly. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed. 4. X x J x awake.) perishing. . clever. from x . jJJ. [§ 232 A thing. untaught. acute. « ft fargg. S x xjx j*xS. ^j from » t^Jj. ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. B self-conceited and insolent. § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. cautious. difficult. *». fidious. a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2. *. xx 5xJ O^** «^^. from # * { ** t J*aj. 0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3. jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5. from o J^ ' -> * . crushing. 5 |a. . 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave./w^. (for ^>o-. from j**£ to forsake. J^b to 60 tender. j*U from proud. sw<?0£. J J from yXc jA*. JJ*a- >wt. Jo*g. x x from (^:>j x oi». young. from xxx ^o-***-. m* teto. Jxjo. bruising. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*. x x «5 wary. X XX abandon. j-**. #M. from . from ^^a-j « . —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. abundant.J. 0*x x x . x J . having a swollen stomach. timid. w>*xc sweet.^ov* strong. jtwr^.j . from f 5x3 . ^m. x ^ x . 5 Jj^. is their signification (see § 38). v»v^. sorry. J* . oJ X X remaining in one place. from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. /<#. from from j-wt »-ji. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent. ^ xj x vJ^* tender..» jJJ unclean. * from ^ov^. x J x . X J . from **J. 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. P^-^ Jmw. ' J fromj^. rugged. x degree of intensity. polluted. 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. . g^'c£. from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. J^c. x L5^) X . 3 and xxxx©£ox . ^Ja». 9-ji. 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing. x . liberal. from ^^x*. ma//. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. from j£w x. from J^-w . J x J x from J**.»-3 m pain. Oxx . y> J J bitter. m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» . JAJ». from ^ju. X x 0^3 x j Jiij. from . laA£.134 Part Second. iaij XX G .breaking. from Jx*a- . J*** treacherous. Examples 6' : 1 . —and. from j*o .*. 10. xx J^& . hardy. j-**> x J x inexperienced. 5x Ja. intelligent. i^h^. from ^A. from cfoW#. jx jj£. 5 x x x . S . £*•** fr° om from 3U. JJ^-. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> . x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. 8. ^>*^ rough. j-«4>.

. *>' . O^-*^. from Ja«j . drunk. from px a^ fow^. s/c&.^ot ^«/. from Jja. 12. from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0. from Jju© Jj>3 to «i. from ^w . xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#. from ^oXw ogriT?.to 11. £ JxOx 0^>**> from *. .. ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. from ^3* .. I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. open. from jJS^ x-> x . Jj^. 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0.s&/£ (of water). ignorant.— Verbal Adj. LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows. fifomjjJ x erf]. foolish. satisfied with food. from w>ju». from x J x . from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. r. from JaJU compassionate. Jjjlo veracious.jl~». thirsty. oWj* waW. w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3. from x . slender. C JJ 3^*.continent. Jj*-' unskilful. . j^ct one-eyed. clumsy. .» . ^->i-». J x . * I x x £ paltry. from J«*. from uU . XX j-a»-.>». x J The Noun. J-J^. ^//. t from J^. «*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. j . numerous.. glorious. from Jib [jtj^5 O . " <7ras£. *^aj^ W06/0. foul. burn. from £i£ . w-o&fe. . coarse. bright. »«J^kc j$~*a*. Vmoc XX . niggardly. from cU. ^\ yellow. from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**. ^iil having a long chin djii) . from « h-i». stupid. J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing. from ^ji. daring. from JiJ from JU» .> ^ talkative [or to speak]. . . from (j^ oW>»» ashamed. J^»t . from J^».. cheerful in countenance. to /ymgr. from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry. 15. X X . » maft^. . x J x x x from to Jfj». W2£A a n xxJxOx . from ^**S. stupid. xx jj.232] J II. Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak.t squinting.» . . i^il 6/ac&. handsome.. . merciful. J*aj tev#. from C^i x x . Olji A sweet (of water). Nouns Subst. «£^£ <jUlw •77. /•/> "* XXXX . impotent. from ^o*^ m' . ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14. from j>j£a & Adj. x . J^Sj ma//. xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . from JUa*. Jn>*- . from ^ J^t xxx .w Jx9x ^jUJac. humpbacked. .t foolish. from 0^*^ repentant. from Jo. . straight nose. <J!>». from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x .. « «»*. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white. from affection or t mov^c? % j»%. dnwA. j^^oJi 0^^> . J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X . 16. t/o. J«o*j xJ x . ^j*^ ?m^A. XX0X . from <>~». Ox Jty» /^r. jl^-t ?W. A.. ugly. from j-~». from J 13 . J|>».. hungry. . *iwt unseemly. x J x stingy. thrusting or kicking violently. xJxOx to//.

^L». [§ 232 x A and a. x or ^>*l. ^tfuola. the forms . c.136 Part Second. J j*ij^ '. Latin nuntius. often indicate. j x Jx sometimes from Jjii. Ox o?. from O^ifr . is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. and hence they are forms. or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. transitive verbs. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas. j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. according to the native scholars. OOOO s }m. w>^l». as shown by some of the above examples. as j-aw. ^>ct *a/e..» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. J**$. jux»>. it is originally a Hence. trpmjJLa j.. f*+£> slaughtered. j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. but more especially the latter. acid. =^U. ^Jjji xJ x x .. got the signification of bearer of a message. especially jit**-).» ft s . sowr.— Etymology Rem. a prisoner.»-jja»a .. C a victim. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class . Rem. milked*. e. either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses. 9 or the Parts of Speech. has usually J ft x . X ft X XX . a) . secure. j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx . from ^^1 . f-lj**' 6 x wounded . tJt*&j. = ^j^\ 5. . ~D. = x . and so also in substantives. though the distinction J . —^L^t.SU barren.g. J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x . Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans. X «o/e. j->«->. it meaning message.*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^. as j^j. if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\.] . or Jjti (see § 230. j*j£=>. as w>>&) ridden upon. J-jA». as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls. sound. As is . shown by the above examples. G. Rem. and Jjti. rem. ". intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. x from ^apr* or X Rem. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i.

T T ' r. j»\j£z very noble. derived an adjective Jl*s. s y^Ua*. • 1. i3 Jjii. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. as well as from 5x others. «t. as ^^=^3. as * J*. addicted to wine. a 2 x gardener. 191 Rem. w. WX wry learned. a tailor. repelling. Other intensive H 3. addicted wine. etc. ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker.> l\j$ 1. The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist.. J 0t3j ^L%»a-. = w>jJ^ lying. learned. Jj*i. J*i. = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking. # < . A. cli. . as £H)"| = w> j^. since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit. as TBDK. . thrusting. 0*<i2x 6 ft x . D Ax 6. #* x C x v&^U. J^ 5 x x . « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar. a. a beggar.§233] II. JjiS.g. in Hebrew and Aram. |Uj a builder or JU^. J*s. |loj. KOfi. 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. f1^6. JU3. e.i)b weeping. J^as. a carpenter. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. 2. x 0xx O x x example. architect. ijx adjectives. drunken. J***. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl . the J noun of intensiveness. J^JLo gwrcy astray. Nouns Subst. s^+jjJZt. cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings).& baker. i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton. as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>. J>*b. k5/ - J x wJjj-w . it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. The Noun. fi J 113*3. 2. w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing. T9*. . wry handsome. a porter. & Adj. ^-jU fearing. • as ^H?| (6 for a). 18 . . j^=> very forye. gULw a water-carrier. ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. = J>^t P wot^ . in the former. Compare etc. common than JUi. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. T 7 TDK. cli^ pushing. . 137 Hem. S3D. T • WJW. jla»J . some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti. a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller. 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si. J5L> asking. Rem. jflt^j j*£~». JU~» importunate. xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. violently.— Verbal Adj. E. and 5. less j J 4.j • . l\& weeping much. x 233. ^^ knowing.U» « coo&. 5 x »x3 x jU».

and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually). § (nomina instrumenti. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£. x timid. except J>jj-©) . o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . Jxj-b* very liberal. 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal. are.138 Part Second. J^UJj fickle.. brave warrior. 6x06x0 ^l*^. w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious. Jt^iL©. to ^SL^ — Jbuu. imn</ perfumes. 6 «3 mean. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre. poor (JSD&. ^oUJJ. 6x0 jJ^o. mendacious. pitable. but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. very talkative. 5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting. w^a^o. eating much or giving to eat. J . B^Xsu very learned. tractable. Jijji timid. 0x0 talkative. w>UAj. j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. ^ » ^ffiV>\*.. 3. swallowing big morsels. D.] . 4. deceitful. XX 6x0 JJ>**. w^UJLj. and actionis.j*»j~>lft. ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly. G. j*a*i wl g boastful. ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. J knowing. mechanically. >#&*. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children. T> . slothful. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly. w>La*-o. daring. 6 turning. x uJ e. is Similar. JUi-o. u^tj^ fond of opposition. ' X D ji. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. x male children. ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel).>LU stinking. 6x0 6 jtuU?.t. ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. ^aJxo. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj." E. w^$. spy. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand.g. w>UJ3.^1-U. 6x0 thrusting with the spear. .g. &UA3. a wrestler . 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. and A^jUl*. eloquent.c. J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious. substantives Jjii^. J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). 228).>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful. . strictly speaking. . *»>j-o one often or violently. cunning. 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci. do. flkn* very X Ak. which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely. too. greedy. given play or sport.. or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U. docile.k'go.v. Jj*. all-glorious. X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^. ^jjJi . 5.Ro. . a —On yia. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much.

Lo aw dJUi. iLJLt. *' '* Ziy* asking often. from Jj**. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai.§233] II. from Jj^li. an emissary or missionary. The Noun. fl Ox 5 x slanderous. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller. &>**.>laJU very unjust. begging. as 5. from JUi. S3 J axXjo always on the watch. A. <Ujti. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. <L5lrk treacherous. from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. breaking in pieces. For example. of intensiveness. Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often. crafty. Nouns Subst. ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?. 4L05J abusive. <L*£ finding fault .o prone to laughter. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * . as . AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . ^i3^j) b crafty. X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj. AtlSj ill-natured. which // /il here used. from ^j-jai. 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. as dijji very or cautious. to strengthen the aJlfrli. as very timid . as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. . 9" 5^3 1*. as <l$jj^. of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_. dijjls x x timid. > 0/* comprehension. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° . ioliU lowing big morsels. ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$. dJbuU. dJyi loquacious. 139 Rem. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^. excellent. 0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo.3G Aaib clever. ^U^li. Aft. a^Ua. . from J>«i. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia». faithless .mcA. H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. <ul~J a great genealogist. from o ij-oii. $' > or prostrating often. bold in attacking. *3j>*> timid. 4JUiJ loquacious. a </rea£ collector. sillily. dj^A. 2x AiJL^JJ. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep. as . as 44-Ja. c. jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*.ti Adj. very contrarious . aJj**. disgusted with. or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. 2'* . as io*^ very learned.— Verbal Adj. xx as /JW the grammarians say. no&£e. greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs. idea jlj to signify intensiveness. SjjJl£» lying. <UAb j cb calling or summoning. Heb. from JUaj. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). <Ltb Sj. £xa». . ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5. crushing ' bits.

98. 53. as f*W . WlTl. spec. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense. J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. 142). as <uUA5 morsels. the colocynth. Jytf. R. jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. and are therefore J>»st. aJUaj. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly. d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above. from JUaj.] it is differently explained. ITs^ = Aram. or with three letter of prolongation.great. Kitab U-istikak.140 Part Second. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul. as . and J**5. [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) . the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. J-j^a. 16 seq. t . joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»). as derived from anything bitter. very mwA addicted to play or greedy. as *fjaa = jui.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. . Rem. but with a in the first syllable (jjd).». &.. *])$$ ( =j-t&~>. the noun of preeminence. glorious. 1. or else be in the construct state. Rem. S. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. ugliest .\ more or mos£ glorious. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest. * j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. however (xii. •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. 1. WO (coming nearest to J*jj3). as pHTl. are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. or the Parts of Speech. these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article. ^js-. others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. J^. In the Lisan. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence. according to 'Ibn Dureid.>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic. for the purer vowel example. iTTO. much —Etymology to sportf. f ft Kg. sw<?0£. 6. 7t3p = J**)- 234.

i i- i especially from IV. 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK . J { ^**o\ . JJVX lasting. false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer).g. A. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can. perennial. or giving better a answer than he . II.t it more beautiful. we ought to prefix to the corre& . < s o s J si- like stones./zerce. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then. ' J si j£> worse. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). 141 Rem. none in Aramaic. ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder. E. or even harder ii. original signification. \j^c eye. Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering. —As stronger as to hardness).>**». however. rem. and the like. The Noun. qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. j*£.— Verbal Adj. form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj . after that. \. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. (for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. b). nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184. s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent. * * j/ tc tj~»». <Sc Adj. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235. according to strict rule.i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb. from cro*e£. the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage. better. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb. Of this Hebrew. (lit. where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). your hearts became hard.) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces. Nouns Subst b. of j^o to be clean or pure .§ 235] II.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier.

x II. to 5 . .t causing to be better. .j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to.\ ' causing me greater alarm about. : or more docile. fow^. of wJbi relaxes. Jib to fo xx IV. from ^©j^l. x IV.142 Part Second. than. to 60 good. J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw. . £ bestowing more liberally. from ^^t ^^. of JJ» . from^UH. ^>»»'. of $±. ^s. s-*«At. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. of . IV. J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. IV. from i^a-cul to be just. b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. from j * or the Parts of Speech. II. of ^aj to remain. IV. x . from ' wi^. of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. * from £l»»t. from ^^Jit * x jwor. D showing greater honour O to. from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than. r^acA the j . x x p x J >>». quickly. IV. of x © P m . . to clarify or clear. middle. or ' Z <*JUJ. II.^*$±.>U3t. more. to 60 crafty. J ^*^t giving more freely. ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?. of j*^-** to be safe. from ^Ut IV. J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. from . # IV. VII. of ^©13 *ot t to . x£ or IV. j^6 JJit giving more shade than. of C*o . respect. of >13 to &a<#. IV. bZ to ' x bZ xOg . IV. of >l». of ^j J ^oj^l . * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. be firm. . of ^J* .*"„' IV. IV. of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. from^-Lw. 'bZ away . x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. of t*-**. jsbZ .to live grtiw s^acfe. of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . from «-*»-). of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. n C 6i /. from JU*t. from JU»-I. . bZ or flabby . . last x x p x x x ftp . from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV. ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\. . sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better. or loosens. -. of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . VIII. from ^J^l IV. J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better. .— Etymology clearer or purer. IV. excellent . x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better. from C-*Sl. noble.bz wAa to fear . IV. Maw. IV. ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. stand xx „ x*£ upright . of to help. xx j x bZ to fear . JU.

o ^^t ^t. *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than .i j-wt # known . literal verb. j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j . j *oi pied . JjL£>I more occu. ^>o %y*\ blacker than . ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) . B 236. j . The Noun. more praiseworthy or commendable . j more glad of or pleased by. waor^ occupied with pass. are and from the quadri- the following. s . J \*$j£>\ better A . Nouns Subst. . O : (^^ * Of- or VIII. j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused. oi 1 wor^ i .).§236] II. of VIII. CJU . &ztee? or hateful . A. o i . j>^\ more deserving of blame . J^jl more readily found . s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than.— Verbal Adj. The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb.ot j * l.^ Adj.

G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135).^) 5. preceded by and w. ma.^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH. I JjC for JtU G (§ 133). the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed.jtU # » <J (§ 133). jj^wt. rem. b. 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt. I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed.g. ^0.£j for^. >>t>o for j. sceptic. in ' Heb.^.144 Part Second. . " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed . 239. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^. *3J** 17 > &> rem. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. geminatse. admits of assimilaSee § tion. and Aram. "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e. Rem. rad.) . ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t. Final hemza.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a. [§ 237 A quadriliteral.P". J«>a* etc.CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . 6.. j&\ JJ-cn. CTO C0. in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L. o o j . b. rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. as j~>y* for . (manafek) tremble. j * be- 237. >^U becomes >U 238. heretic (J3U»o) . (see § 13. a 's. as S**rt = S^pHD. p G s- s G e- * D Rem. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata. fjfcgOTD* to .(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ. j3yc for jfc (§ 131).

from 9>x+a. Naw&dir. for 9 »xx Ox . »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. instead of JjlS. t ^x x . in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU.§241] II The Noun. The same thing takes this difference. first 241. 145 240. j\& feeble. according to »- out of I). x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. as JbLS (for JH-3). * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw. place in verba mediae rad. JuU?. In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c. for <J>j^a»-o. for oiMJs is ijib clayey. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). Abu w. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). rad. bristling with weapons .^LJI (^5^^. water-hearted. in consequence. the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . to say UjU UpL. % a. wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . Nouns Subst. as ». J X Rem. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^. forjjlfc. 26 infra. j->l~». 9 * . the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided.j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). x A ^ with hemza (arising. Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU. the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133. cowardly. *. £~-«. D. Rem. stupid . usually changed into Jx J . rad. for <}"'<>' a51a . throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c. with the ^) damma is changed into kesra. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160. after letter . which retain their middle radical unchanged. & Adj. Js^o^y. G.— Verbal Adj. as instead of e>~».] 19 . clb obedient. and. j. j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. &j. for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ . for ^51U*. Rem. k. Jj>*>>v©j>>. from »J>3^&**. 5. as^jU. for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£. ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. [A poet even allows himself Zeid. as cby. for J^y.

§ 170). j+j. for O^**. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. JI^^Co. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . managing. of verba med. 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically. Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***. rad. Rem. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. E.g. p. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. D 244. 245. etc. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o. of III.). ^LZo. and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. ^£j~t generous. Rem. contemptible (^jj^b). In 3 et . an enemy. 01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. noble. 6 »"" J ^->U«.g. ** b^+a***. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile. From verba med. / ultima? rad. 6 / 242. C and ^^3 243. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight. right. for oW. ^w ^. g. as / ££**•«. for 33^. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. £)£iJ*c. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare. for *•**«. tall. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. become by transposition Jju*. Ixo^o. in that of having charge of. ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. 6 «-/ J e. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*.146 Part Second. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy. exceeding (±*jy). 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. 2/ captive. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . ^j. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti. O^jJ-o. vo^s-o. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. ^ et ^£. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o. [ J^ dependent for sustenance. e. 6&ae?.

v&U&J t. a. They are formed.— Norn. 4). and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. a pigeon {male or female). The Denominative Nouns.§246] if is II.! (jJUU). A. /'a^.0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^. <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. Gloss.^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. Fragm. g. According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. The use of the nom. a. head of cattle {bull or cow). The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. 323. from ^Jki *L*3 a straw. b). J s for ^kig. S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. & Adj. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. rem. * . 1. § 167. Unit. 173. is almost entirely restricted. a nugget. from v»W». and b. i. 129. 331. 2ub$ a bit of gold. Add. If the form be one that admits of complete declension. B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. from ^>*j straw*. from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ . or nouns of individuality. A+jL a ) portion of meat. . with the O< *< article. /?. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice. the genus or whole. 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha. j^jt b. !£+* a Mubarrad etc. Rem. (>o.] . for adjectives of the form J*»t. unit. Sj+j a fruit. fc+ji a portion of cheese.pigeons. SlLolj an onion. j^jXa-t for ^X*. ii. 0/ a date. Comp. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E. the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. from Sxx G* * { duck . ^^jlc for J .* (jkwt).0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari. from j^j efotes . from jJb cattle. 417. vicis (§ 219). 4ul*». ^j&t Compare j^&t.t). a. Noam Sabst. the Individual. The Noun. designate one individual out of a genus. G. as the above examples show. to created things or natural objects. the or tenwin. the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of. D. or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts.

used in this sense.. The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling. Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities. c. designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed. >. /iares. a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. From quadriliterals this formation . black beetles (Jju*.. *. consequently. (a pfoce) ^joj\ . 2uJut a ship or boat. as JJuu^ x x x . Oft ax*. ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks .. [§ 247 e. —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech. as dX^^c <U . SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers. and are. fern. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). Rem. Rem. SjurU. Oxx x «" abundantly. 7^^).g. iJj3^ . scorpions. a. a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. aJbuwo. Ajjijto.g. (w^ift). are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis. O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem. Also from XII. Sometimes the . is rare. with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. (a place) abounding in foxes. 5U£*. jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»). or nouns of abundance. 4-U^-«. from ^iw X shipping.»». SLa^o or 3t^&**. a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t). chamaileons x x J (^bj^).148 Part Second. *JtJ*c.a. 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick. 6. scorpions 6. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). 3JU1». a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221). Similar forms in Heb. Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning . SUA*. The SjJLxJt iU-^t. r» 4a*Jsu*. E. i B 247.o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***). Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. cucumbers (ILLS). I They have the form x £ SlxLo.). boats.o jjyt children are a cause . Ox OP J ^jowo. Ox > . A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare.

to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o. O**-* ct milk-pail. aSj^o a spittoon. The Noun. J 0* J J 9 .§ 249] II.. .6.e. <i E. the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o). i.*. or w~jX». from ^Aj otf. £. from Sjj! a needle. #/^ a/r.k. sfy. ^3^1 jJJ 3. ' from ^ajS the earth. » + + from .J. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance . etc. or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived. (relationes).g. rt. from w-A». The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t.-o a milk-pail. Nouns Sabst.. j*£o a needle-case. ft rem. dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. it sect. >©U~JJ •itto a j . . .& Adj. from d-U a brick. el- v5^» aerial. e. • *>.>.».• a)>*-o a urinal. joy or happiness. (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives. $ . Adjectives. ' trade. disease. &. A & came ^J-a*.).* * <. evil or ill-feeling . 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». like. the Vessel which 248.*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . »U>)I 0^0 il^t. from JjlJJ saliva. 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM . Adjectives. 249. * * from ^-^w descended sun. q/* ^ooc? health. 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc. " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228.). as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar. .* j**. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth.«. family. A. belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin. The nomina (§ vasis.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything. — Rel..mtfl . from Rem. from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%.a». ft . or a brick-mould. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly.g.iT>). have the same form as the Oxft 228).

wjuj^JjId eastern. or 0^<? o/". c.] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). H*— and JV— ). Aram. ij>*»* from j*±.150 Part Second. . and even from Rem. as : 9° 'ay. «S '4* tives Rem. \_ •' % f. and especially in particles (see § 191). ^^ o/*. . & a from j«aa Egypt . perceptible by one of the senses .|"l. PvJ. ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). a corroborative or D. This termination common in Heb." ^ [However. ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . ^jwt. a. 3/0*5/5/* ^c*. Rem. ^*£> cj£ intellectual. ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw).: (harrasl) a ploughman. to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to. The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective. in such words as . but in more modern Arabic. has the *T>ffi last of these forms. J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. (m. (kJjfi)..(medrawl) terrestrial. viz. tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . ^3 * strange. *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. jj^"*». f as Egyptian. ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?).«**»• relating .j\±. according (^y). . ^1 from <j\ truly. YlC. science. In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives.tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian. G. from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*. from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives. according to some. as ch<5. gwc? . I is ^7X1^ L Israelite..*!^.t. scientific. as iEthiopic. B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. also from the other kinds of nouns. compassionate. the law . —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. usual £HPl) and **Urh£:. from^Xfr knowledge. . in general use The .b* . express " b. 1*]^$ Hebrew. L5^^° belonging to. the language of the schools. legitimate. ft^^: i . whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations. *_.

*£j). a. A. and 2UUJI £/^ common people. like ojs-. J ^ . j^ycw*. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. however. In the case of nouns which. the higher classes. J sul £ . <J>oj ulul . In forming the nomina relativa. ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w . G. the nouns ending in ^— fern. A.). J s £ ^^>'.] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. ^U»». tjs. ^5-w. aiyjt el-Kufa.— Rel. Adjectives. ZSU Mekka.§252] It The Noun. Nouns Subst. D. (&) S^-* But the name of two months. 252. measure. j^jXJ* . ^J&. (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52.] . ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa.Basra. besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. [and j^^-w from 4-w D. L5*U.-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians. ^-^^- refined.ti Adj. [^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or . to which the Muslim turns in praying. and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr. only a single instance has been mentioned in the T. ^^ . to the final radicals ^ and ^. the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants. are rejected . &j weight. as ^£)W»- « bustard. as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and . 151 250. foil. and to the vocalisation. Jj & * * . 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. 251. . ^gste vulgar.JxL« Malatya. of this form. be a weak radical. G. letter. j ^). 3u—.].a promise. j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. have lost their first Q Rem. (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. Sj-oJI s * el. if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from . 3>£» a window. I. 1. the vulgar . [fa J LM direction party of All.

s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0. 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. elif if it is e. or the Parts of Speech. O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. the two cases are to be distinguished. (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^.. (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite. ^Sb or ^y. stout camel. or a bug or tick. one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI). admissible. (^>»j'. and 2 *oi ' 6. ^lbj. Baradd. 2*0** big. If the second letter is is without a vowel. If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. ^5***-.. j^^b ^Sb. belonging 3 * MekM. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " . and ^£>j->.Sb. which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word.* - In 3 b. 3 . the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. of relative adjectives fall 253. \j-lj* 3 relationship.**. ^5***. e. or *0J j changed . 3 a 0* seat. the into 5 ^ may either be <** . 3 Similarly. it may . j. «// Os* . world. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable).- (2ljj**)\) Spain . but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i. ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 . a ^j£* .5) as ^j£sj+&. £by> to assimilate 3 . as 3 *L». rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). Gufi (^J&c. from substantives like bullrush. —Etymology . D 3 •»* as ^4%*-. viz. L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. * J to \J$U. ^>iU Rem. But if it to »J . 0/ and ^j* 254. ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1). o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. *L-. \^>j*>. The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . ^sj+*. - or ^iU 1. /sj .3 2. (a) [§ 253 A ^. name of a river.152 Pakt Second. as . The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . ^L^ or ^j-U*. pregnant.g. the bean. the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. 3 o . a vulgarism. or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath. ij>>©j*-. x * j ^i^t & /3.

The Noun. i-xpcti. from *' '->? .l. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ. the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. L^J Ji >-^ ***><.§254] II. A . j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj . Rem. . ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it. B Rem. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc. Foreign names of towns.& Adj. A. 5^ i_ . o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais. ^jit. 153 nation . as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln. the Muslims. however. ^J^UX**. instead of \^£y3 or . 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl . j '3 ^^j-^ / * . We may. 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' . Ji'' i . from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. use ^j^j^. in the latter it j >. are very irregular Some proper names. ^^^Jaudl.3 Kinnesrin. are rejected ' ' * <v .jl_.Jtf!. > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem. ) . . Nisibis. C)3*H) Zeidun. ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«. 3 o . ^j^a. J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t.g. <fc.jU^aJt 3 ' ' . ^V^. Nouns Subst. u'' bjb. Adjectives. « '0 name of Zeid. in their formations 3 ' e. as . c. ' jjO' j^xj. *&*» of the o ^ . D ^jLx^. '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j . 3' ^j-^3. for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie. ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' .j^a*-JI. a. of aJU a hundred. as — Rel. ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'. ending in ^-j— sometimes . from f A 0'* ^jjX*. 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . but ^j~U3.>. ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. Oli^ 'Arafat. O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic. j 3 '' . plur. In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. j Rem. JO' 3 0' . l^jJ^Jj. 6.jjj^~. instead of 3 ' . t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). / j j«/ Fcftriin.»>. 20 . O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias. (^jj-». It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . 0?. to two. 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->. O'O'O' . 3 QjJ-^ twenty. J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ..

t^JWj J**£. as in ^tw 1. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). ^^^-v*-. ^5-^5 (men). «*Jtu.. ^y^. is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. ^5*^. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ . Tiliama . 3 vel ^£. G. ^>o-Jt el-Yemen. ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p. The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**. But.154 Part Second.-jl^Jt). and XX <* ^-^. x x xOxdxJ . ^<^U». *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x . fern. xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. § island.*3t©. when is not derived from verba mediae rad.1^). D. SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes). S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 . The forms ^^V>. geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^). 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes). . O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech. 3 Sju jc». if they come from verba mediae rad. X rejected. 7 and Slbaweih 66. reality. # unchanged. (a man). D. and ^U*! likewise s Comp. ^a*a». Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina. L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the .] .] art. Comp. they < remain unchanged. fern. the words jJUj. A**U>. l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. 3 (a town). ***y»*. Faik of the i.^(^i\). 1 fern. instead of ^^lyJ. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . ^>i*« and . and j „o. ^*ej*. 2 5 ul <LjI*j. j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria. **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). Ox .a piece of iron. cb> and ~-L£ (=^^. as <ULa*. O^J 5 ul (with the art. Otherwise 5 remains <" > . . which occur. 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute. as 5 SxOx . from ^ul^J. " x « X&X J 255. § 319. from S^ii». the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . i' 0xJ . ^yot from £*>ii&. 5 tool. ^3-^. .. G. A^lyj. or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. ii.*luJt). 3 or ^ as ^J^. also Mufassal 90. e. art. ^5*^. X XX -t> are also used.

^3*^. < There are.' ^JUk. of jl*»-. — ^t^^j a prophet. —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin.' . Ji*>jS. <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). jtnX^. . Many. . of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown. 155 rules. — Rel. j^o-*-.. Jj M. a female enemy. g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn. mediae 6. Words of the form J*j (for J**s. £)>»». uSyej*. <&JJ*6 a city. . But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs.-auJa . jJ^a^a. . ^^o-U. Nouns Svbsb.§257] II.g. however. of j^wt. form ^jJ^ from both j**c and . the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina). ^ju~» . W«s&. g makes ^£yo. »x J an ass. ^jjj**. wlx 9 s Rem. or in other words follow the shorter form J-J . and the second 9 5 J + vt . however. Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**.**J». But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^. it Rem. derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. ^Ju (tribes). «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256. so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis.~J. ^A**> *. is rejected. Adjectives. a. reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra. and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . Uu*3 ^j&fc.& Adj. as ju~> a lord or master. ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?. The Noun. The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected. 3 (a place) *J .-o-Jlw. *$js-. ^^is ^Llc. belonging . from the assimilated form . verba Lastly. ^j*j-*. ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^. A. ^j-j^ft.Mesopotamian) . [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin. A Ufr»l» nature. § 242) its from radicals j et ^. from i*J~>. exceptions to these { E. 257.

g. either be changed B into ^. the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . But if the noun has four letters. x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind. j before adding the termination . a § 7. noun contains five or ^ -» more 1. or 258. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. Sld^e a ladder. always rejected. ^3J^5. as .> IL does not writing-case. . [§ 258 II. Jju. SxOOxx SUl». Jxx Slo^. 2 6. ^J^3 « mo^. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn. rem. b). The Uif maksura is (t ^. a musical instrument. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. ^(I .0} letters. is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**). . S X J and ^ako. j«yJ-« play. which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. if it be changed into 3. as ^j£ a youth. E. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. ^jj-^ . the (^ ^^ju is ^y**. ^j. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b. as the third radical of a triliteral noun. {Jy* J a district in Palestine. ^ .X£»o. w x x ox x or d-J l». e£>**. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167.^ for ^tu^uo. /?). ^J^j-c vintner. as ^aJa^o chosen. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. Rem. are modern and corrupt. and also. P affect the rule of formation. 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge.3. <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. ^^AJxcuo. ^^Jl^.» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop.156 Part Second.-lx£«*^. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. (H^Pl). \J$$*-j to* a staff. ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . \jys*£i. ^^-oc . 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. 3 x x Hama Sxx . *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful. jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). changed into . ^£Jux*. but must be borne ^ becomes fetha. or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem. —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^. a.

& Adj. whether it was originally . ?^3b £& focm. dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother. *byJ a tribe). ^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). Ol*^') £. * . 157 259. But ** in the termination 1 1— . if ^yb/*-. i. £3. in the * ^jl^w. ti*~> the heaven. 2. 3 - . whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^. a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place). du.g. £bj£>j " ^jUu . a garment.. A always changed into j.* Zachariah. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father. is § 252. — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural. ^tp. (a town in Persia). the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective. i^jbj^j. rem.1.— Rel.§260] II. jjgjW* * . a). it appears as ^. axJ. The Noun... ^jbj^-. 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza . "-•» . it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. . 5-*' (places). either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb.1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother. J^Stf.. *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » . ^ji-A. ^ '. names. ^ or not. i^y^Sb. ^yb^. may . as tyy**. ^S^jJ^-'. —as w>t.e. ±$y++> . A. J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW. memduda. or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. ^y^U.i. a). reappearance be not necessary. The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper .^». j . <l~£» a robe. . 2b/». »-t. On the contrary.. is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23. -» j^jUU. ^jy\ (for ^i. IjJ). ^b. w>' (for y>\. as l\jjs> a virgin. C Rem. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I. Nouns Subst. *tjjj*is ^3-U. ^jUUi . E. ~. those which have lost D weak radical..^ £fa 6/a^ beetle. etc. 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . ^^b. 260. a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon.. »" > . Adjectives. their third Primitive defective substantives.

5 * . fetha.— SU Rem. ^^iw. x . £3 (rad. ^ot) a female slaw.>. as {J* (for l$£>) a fold. ^£^j Soj 3^ But . y£}£ . 3 has t^jU. a —Etymology ^$*) O x* .or ^ay*. ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* . x vw(w. >*~>) a name. . the final second radical takes fetha. 3 -£ C-Uj. a daughter. as {£$j£. >w) a 00 year. ^3^. 3 .). ^>w 3 .4 . and ^ is converted into living. *3~>. (rad. ^$y^> a grammarian . 4j>* a village. xx . O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . this ^ resolved into its original consonants.^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»).S 3 3 lip. . j^^o. J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . handle. xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*. — x 4&2>. or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad. ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. as ^jjo. or the Parts of Speech. x J oW) x go a «w. has the three forms 3- v». some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm. from ajji.! and ^£y^. o £ 00 sister.) ^ 3-o . and 2u£ a possession. a 3 So ^j^U.. as 1^3/*. t^U) a hundred. 6. a SO r-xOJ . The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox . L5^» or du. D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3. °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3. ^Ao 8. (from . U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow. {£*2>j. ^j£ ct. >i)) J dialect. xx . a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU. makes ^£^. bribe.* ^m. [§ 261 A a*j (rad.jj| (for v) ^J. 0x0^ j £<wo an image. ' ^3a£. ^y** 2 £*t (rad. ^^3 #* . L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. combining with tho third radical into ^. § A . l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£. ^3-0. 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. ^U ox 3 3 and ^U». Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©. ^J Me . ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. . 2 x . the second radical takes i^^**. CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti. {$5)* 5 ' °£ . a a gazelle. 9x0 . 3 du. (rad. x 261. Cukl. Ox as 3**J x grammar. Rem. 00 « ^yL* j^.158 Part Second. ^£>0. ^ (for \£Jo. <0) ox podex. ^3^.. ^yj\ OJ .

Nouns ^ . Rem. or j^jt. The Noun. 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. as S^ULw misery.dk Adj. J^ai. (JV>I). and. — In words of the form A <UUi. rest at night. 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. t/j «/«/j aJlaii. 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. {Jj3&. j j-o-JI (tribes). ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x . ^^U jufb /twr. changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. oo* ^ju. though very incorrectly. « s . A. ^Uic.*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . a x o^-ait. 3 x x Rem. x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. the is Rem. irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). is j Ox Ox . ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. —"Words ... Adjectives. Nouns Subst. So also in & * t 3 J*j. from tertise rad. of D more than three consonants. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . x 5 ftfo 2> x x . ^jj\ or ^^J. make m ^jI. *j\j a banner. of the forms J-ati. ^jlii . From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL. In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered. . ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. as well as . ^SULw. et ^£. . and ^jj£j are admissible. as J-»l camels. a. etc. as J5oJt (a tribe).§262] - II. 262. Changes in the Vocalisation. but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza. a desert. though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . ^£j+j £-» . final ^ retained. «x x . ^jx But in Jjti. C III. s x x . makes desert. ^51. {£3+* <H>^ a town). j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. etc. etc. i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). verba 6. . ^J^**-. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle. (the ancient . J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*. twist or turn. the kesra may be retained. 159 . \^^ is **» # snake. as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. i . See §§ 255-6. — Rel.

If the first word the status constructus.* lOUwt w. governing the arise. —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§). . — then is in the second word 3 ct. —B. as ^*-j&. Archibald Bell-the-cat. ' ^M*^.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech. two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. is [§263 changed A 263. 2c second in the genitive. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©.^p). such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a. ox jg it is ox . 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm. B J*± time. (see the preceding ^>i£ Rem. damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. ^>ol . dj-aJI. a grammar can take no account.from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. a man's name. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio.. or CUj . the following points must be attended to. 3 ^\ 3 son. Of rare and arbitrary changes. ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four. and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. 3 rejected. 2 —A. . xx x and . status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. the warrior).jt\ mother. termination 3 - ^— appended to the first . j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday. VJyiS. or in . as zjj>j^j\. two secondary cases arise. \^£j^> from ««' . x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. 264. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words.160 Part Second.»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\. omitted. \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. •**£. daughter.

^^j^U^U. from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj . J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. .<£>t^. 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein.§264] II. 0>^' ji ( a 21 . nickname of a man). To this stage of the language. attached to the vt ^— wl is first word.^tf. ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^.-Jl^C^o. J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. 3 o . - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. and A 'I the second takes is ^— . hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing. then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. \ . Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . and the second XX . In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o. some . b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ. is £ omitted s .«J>o from w. u^IU|tf>. The Noun. J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X . xxOx ^jO** x x . nisba from the whole this license compound word. (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker.— Rel. belong such words as . ^$j*~> *^£jt J . (CameVs-nose. Oi x x S x J Rem. <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B. is i«/ \£tS}[ '. Adjectives. 2> * " 0' . For example from \y* C-wO. B x0/« *" . j — the But first word is rejected. l£*'> Guadix in Spain.. \JIS±J CH**M ^jK. L5^*5. # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. . j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ. A. from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. from j^o..x from oJa&t jb. Nouns Subst. with the s . ^J^ . allow a J J Q J x x double formation. ij5& jUoJt ^oUau. x. ^^^ 3 • « . (from the assimilated form 3^w). ^-^iJt »*t. too. j0/<» . /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj. from both parts of the word 3 e. ^tki aXlt j^c.>tj. from 3 JyUJI jJ3. . as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted.g. x x as ^JJ^j-^^j. and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI. as ^^^.& Adj. ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw.

Hadramaut . from Ju»yl 'abuged. [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. bs j / ot»/ ij. o . four letters of the alphabet Rem. ^^JIjl^ °S . e. i-ijjuo). the tribe of Kilab.ojcirw from O^o^-a*. Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt. ^hj^I. really proper s o£ names. the (§ 32). o^!/* . Ctesiphon. however. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . plur.g. j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet. ^%^> name 3 . jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. bib.. 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats. strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants.. . - D e. abecedaire). A relative adjective is never formed. ^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. In many cases falling under B.)] . of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. > b . from dU*a». ^j.o a written a a book. ~ ' s Such plurals. 3 s s « efo^). of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. footn. the desert.g.162 Part Second. 5. (a . s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i. the singular. it.. from the plural. iJ?jiU*. a and /?. plur. (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur. Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o. are excepted * t 3 *bi . [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * . script. ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ . ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 . or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o .. Ojlfr* (a tribe). also a learner or student. —Etymology <^£)U^j c.o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus.-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji.jj-a^Jt. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' . fib " . at el-Medina). 3 . ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s .g. from jt^^i plur. properly the plur. 265. in classical Arabic. ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras. manuletter. the of a poet. Z jo E. 2. 3 - and U-Hazrag. 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa.ain . or the Parts of Speech. 6. even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe). or approximate to them in sense. as are either . ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. jU»Jt (plur.

& surgeon. a woman. plur. {£&£* ^ in. a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches. ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. ^ — Similar . studies. of ikuj^. the simple doubling is permitted. — Rel. if be a strong letter.) mats. forms in Syriac. from • V plur.] In more modern Arabic. . J^-Lu X sieves. The Noun. of |2. j*om* (plur. # £ ^l/^l. of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. o & Adj. if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. on the contrary. D. of j**au*.UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc.'^t # the confederate tribes. . ^j. 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J . /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur. ^jUjt. as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . 3 x OUL x x x (plur. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade. the opinions of grammarians o< differ. G. of wounds. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. are I I belonging women. the second ^ being changed into j . 3«" not.J^.) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c. j->jty> x (plur. orae w/io makes or seZfo them . as ^jV- In the case of ^£. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature .§ 266] * Oi II. Nouns Subst. J^UJl (plur. Persian colonists in Yemen. Adjectives. of Jji»*U) sieves. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St. j-ateJtjrffc. of 9 x 266. attributes. ^-5t/»» of (pi. a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles. Oxx X ^. (plur. [o^a. adjectives «• * oi. ^%e*\. at pleasure. &Lo) qualities.Aj|. 5 x 163 | j* io. Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. etc. E. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. this latter form x alone admissible. In the case of $. x x mats. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition .-butj^. JsuI^a. of early date. as ^^* that.Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur. Olio God 3 > (pi.) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s. of JxoJ) rugs. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^.g. A.^t*. 3 x X . ^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to. . a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles.

jJLo—^w 2^0 e. <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a. G.g. 232) that the termination ^L. n. 245. Fleischer.*. s^/s foarcs.g. . both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter. but . . t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU.). reckless. [. which may be changed * 3 . ju£»U) Z*~»d\. 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c.having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck). mendacious. haired.164 Part Second.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 . Ox q[*SXo vile.jUao J-l or ^j\2suo. 1). D. to strengthen the relation. or . ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood. strong. 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w).— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech.-y^U. vociferous . e. perhaps. We . as the grammarians say. from jisu*. JK. j^S^SU or . ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU. sordid.JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^). aspect. oo 2 large in the body (J*-*. G ' . robust. 267. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja. I e • ^U^*. ^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x . Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-. ^^SU 0^0 .Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . appearance.] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed. .). i^W^i ^ -» corpulent. ^i^koj. 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C . there [§ 267 A ^3-^. large head of hair (**»). under the influence 5 * . G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. as *j not. is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza. letter be a quiescent 2 Slif. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. ^^ or ^^. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J . ox xx ^U*. #cAr.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring. 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded. ^yly^li a fruiterer. 2 x x of the Aramaic) .» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J).jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given. <jla^aJI corpulent. have seen above (§§ 231.» J straight-haired.(.

2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic . ^jlju-*. Rem.». the mind or temperament. . Nouns.wljj having So. i^te'.g. A. and ^«. \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower . - The Noun. A 3 form and applicable ex. . xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. i (til nO?).. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . as distinguished from the concrete thing itself.. S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood. 8 . is arms. . ears. 268. the school of . and to English ones in head. £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\. 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality. <Lu^Jt Lordship. It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit. interior.. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite. 9 aJLoj. B 5 *J large head . schaft. Nouns Subst. keit. 5©5fi. 9 vt 4-*o~»t. ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness. particularity] substantivity.j is ^JUi as a ^. ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose. or Z~&yA±. I s+ .—Abstr. dom. . 2 * 4J3*. quiddity totality .] the divine nature. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) .-fcUw.» external. & Adj. ^'^ wr. private. * Oi from j*-~»\.j manhood. to the soul. A-JbU substance. and oL^j. etc. upper. J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS . *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. (U wlwt ?) . ^j^JLSU. 0* D adjectivity. 165 outward. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t. a substantive. and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality. corresponds * a i o* thum. ^j^jy relating to light. ^JU-jj spiritual (.§268] 3 - II. i**'oi. . G. ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). J v> ty. aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective . public. [^uoj-oi. as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing. j\ * E. 2l*J>1^*$\ D. corporeal. S (flSH).

j a man.a*n) divinity. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ..— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. »/J .-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^). J****. xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a . 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom. J***.xxOxi best.wi. Jxjjl (for j^ujt). See however § 283.»w (a man's name). S Ox J . when formed from a xj c * . JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue. In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed . 9 J Rem. 9 . x J . dirham.. [§ 269 A the Hanefites. triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). du^y^S Judaism. ^ J .>. j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive. the servile letters are generally taken into account. the Christian religion. the very . as J*?. as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune.o. 9 x . takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- . oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). . as Oj. a. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J . the noun 9 quinqueliteral. Jk. a. On the contrary. 5x0 *-Ui-c a. t . in Arabic.. ' x 1 x <fo<7. and j Sal-o. Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. j*Ju*aC ^ hey. When .001_£\). j^o-c is . When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. 6. [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. JJj jlo a special friend). . of the masculine gender. haughtiness. .lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt.166 Part Second. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp .» a mosque. * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\. 5 -2 8. In forming a diminutive.] B 269.> . etc. . j***. j&d)* 5 ^a». J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . fall Rem. [These nouns are. is Rem. the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow. not usual to back upon the root-consonants. jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM. 'J. The diminutive. is jia» *. The diminutive used.Q-mS\).>* J©. but 5 J J »/J .. pride. omnipotence.:xo.. S ^^t. 9.! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree.. not merely in its literal sense. scorpion. a severe it is trial]. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth. < « &'#. (|Z. humanity (\l.

: cerastes. xx OOxJ «£~wJt». siH3> a little below. <Uua5. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem. which x Ox J are. as C**«j.1. c. syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX. ?^*£. a kind of small bird. Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. /i«fe. . rem. as O x J ^J-j-o^. the *_). (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. an d HS^D. an(* w--wJ. 270. . d. a con B temptuous diminutive. a basket. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. as well as jj£jJl . or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184. however. where. : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig. In Hebrew we (j*juo). The Noun. a sort of snake («Ju*>). (2) from certain prepositions. like J/'**.J-ai5 is 167 Rem. the J diminutive of <U5. when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. is sounded A^/|/e or gfife. On the other hand. obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative.§ 270] II. little before. P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four. Ox > ^w. e. juju a little J>j>J a etc.. from Jt>£). ^ may perhaps consider as such. a 2/o^A ' C*J^. a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. nffSff T . as J*a5 a after. A. the . Yjfl . ^Z^^> a bay horse. ^. Nouns Subst.. is When the noun contains Jive letters. and (3) little above. for c^u.— Diminutives. . strong. biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem. of which the fourth five. f). If so. 4 if' example. a little nearer than... The first & Adj. they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. from^U). like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa.

j£a rolling oneself. o o . make either j^on*. The termination ^1— when appended . ^^xJU . J) c. 3 . . sarily b. Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. old woman. a sort of cap. Thus 6 . . [§270 0. .3 6. tive.3 either juJLc or juX& 0.63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. little. as <\ .^ . r. J ^3ujS. however. 3 0^. . Jjj-ol . In place of the rejected consonants. . j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O. The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed. Out . ^juXfr) of ty ill. tick. and therefore is 0. 0. b.3 0. 2 6. j~**~o (for j^U).0. B Rem. 6. 0.« trying to render perfect.03 .3 . .. a sort of thorn. exceed the form Jju*5 O'„. a nightingale. 3 9 0.3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants.r-.3 0. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.1 saffron. consonants do not .3 . to Rem. the diminutive of ^julc. as aS%£. 3 6e. J ^^ .0 . le snake. is not rejected. and in § 269). <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. is Q In A+KLm+t for example. ma. or more letters.jJut is not a fat. which is 0. . we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please. . Jb» & . 6. formed out of the preceding consonants. t tr r J 0. 3 short and big-bellied. But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters. Jfej*. wXwic. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake.3 d. 6.0. Rem. : of h . *-j**-> .3 JjuJcS. and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman. Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider.168 Part Second. rejected. five Rem. 3 3 .3 . 0. If there be off. 0.». £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0... 3 6. J^.3^ 6. in front. 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade.j* a 0. these are .j^. nouns of four 9 .3 . and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a. . lazy. are of equal value. 0. but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . 6. rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem. £.3 (for 0.36. indicates the participial form. ^Lauil.. 3 00. m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^). more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained.3 >j->j*. or jZj^a***.

ZxXS a S^Xb *. . (fern. 3 Oi 9. .3 .3 consists of . besides their JUil. But .5 jj£j->*J a riddle. . a.0.§ 271] II. jJUj. viz. strong. 3.$ 3 . mighty. {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj .3 . supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal. B preceding consonants. . . el. and the second JUil .t- 5 W^£ verses. . slaves. A (/J like..».0 3 V 3 . . 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. JU^I. . ". 3 ^. jj^L-* . . .ot Rem. . Nouns Subst. J jlo-L 3 ) . the ending ^1— . 4*A. 5 . either ^Jj-***- or the Oot.0 . C J^O^J >j\j+. 3 . c camels. 3 . to them. the third letter be a . in adjectives of which the feminine . 0. is when the noun 0. e- oLj^t .« r.». jj!/^ . <bUJI. the relative termination is ^_ . & Adj.pregnant.0. . 3 3 < . . (for ^)o . 3 . The fern. Other (see § plurals.0.0. (a man's name).3 4*A£ boys. The Noun.. 22 . . or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. 3 if. 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t .0 oJlai. J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). i. . Rem.. " of the E. -kUJt words. 3 . a o*> £>. as SjJj children. and these terminations added « . OS- oWA-~o Muslim women. J^o-X«.ol. may be omitted. 4**A£ J**'' as 0. . SjuJj diminutives regularly. Olgt. <U*»»-« /»/j ~. a+X~~c (a man's . —Diminutives. Pj*+ O 307) form . \^+*. 5 o L»L. The diminutives must be formed out 3 . and Ol_ . ^jJL**. *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. w. 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard. pL- . and the 271. Muslims. be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. . iU^Xm .jUA-$~»* . w>la*->.3 castle. name). 3. ^$j£~>) drunken. 3 . JjJusi.0 .Basra. . . in the quinit. .0. 3 . The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and . .o . ) j ^»L . ^A***2. queliteral noun.3-. . 3 weak servile. the third of which »/J /}'j .-. are /«/ all disregarded. A. ^+X~j (a woman's naine).Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#. and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0.g. . ^_ is rejected. 0. ^i**. w>la*~ot companions. .S~*4 . or j**». five letters. S .3 . of the class called j j j aJlSJt r.03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims. . perfect.

groate. «* from the plural (for 10|1). <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim. 9*0*3 St j x x J . <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah . x x ^ a K *l»> . ^jsuyZt. from j^lw. wJ^»t « x dogs. consisting of two words (see § 264).g. 5 o-» j o x (see § 274). <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269. of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names.. which has not however a feminine termination. radical. . to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e.\ bags. and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 . l\jj& xO x J poets. r ' «/ »( 6 . form their diminutives from the first word. Proper names. £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. the second remaining unchanged 273. ll . I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars. ^^JLJ3. £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o). ^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?). ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274. jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. rem. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j . ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a . Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) . g. or the Parts of Speech. B from yj. ^^**. (see § 307).jlo^ a Ox g wo//". two courses may be J x J adopted. OxO xp .» . adding . G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. jjUauL> power. 03/J such exist. *»L-£l J and 3JUJI./foc& jh a house. . as x 3 * x J x . x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r. provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis . as <Ltjx*. S^tel Joys. i**^ .170 Part Second. x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^.jt— in triliteral nouns. ^.» children.g. O a . C*^ an eV e or fountain. or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows.t ** * x . 272. S_ diminutive. from the plural (see § 278). O . x E. %LJ>\ ribs. <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. The termination x . O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. 4*JL£l . If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun. jjj houses. e. w>jijjux*.^3. ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. sultan. jjW** youths. 3 f> —Etymology 3 . slaves. J ^j&jac. 0>***> from ^ZJ. $j>++£\ . JJJ* (a woman's name). . 246). Otj-jjj.^-0*^3^. from lij? -» J*te. x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G . x I Aj««j».

—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju. The diminutives of the fem. <Sc Adj.. A.»»1> 2j*o time. D. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth.— Diminutives. 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J. If the noun contains more than three consonants.. value.. Juj3 * j . 3 /(^ «* * 3 . is usually masculine. cardinal numbers. E. j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales. If the second radical be a weak letter. Nouns Subst. tasse). and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). and fem.**^*. 3 f rad. **+&. Tfie Noun. u~^ a cup (Fr. Sju jc«. j*a>. as 9 0*3 . u°y* 9 a young she-camel. Rem. which <i masc. i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich. which in is masc. rem.$>. a wedding feast.3. E. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" . geminatae are resolved. ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees. but S^aj cm o«r or cow. cattle.] 7 f" l\j2. is whilst j*\j3. w>G (v>^ a door. and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG. S_ B not added to the diminutive. 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. rem. the front.). . J* 9 frij* A^3. is b. w*>j£- . has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j. 9 0*3 . u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. 9*0*3 U m. £ x d *• . *t* 3 . J3 a J-^>. the rear or back. The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill. * from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi. u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). 00* w-^ * J r. 9 For example. war. a tree. ^/tfuXS. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy. though also of both genders. 90* J *->j&-. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#. . a. Rem.. j^. J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride... j*aj. do not take 3_ for the yive (fem. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . *3 . Rem.. e. makes Zj*t 275. in order to avoid ambiguity. O a herd of she-camels. 9 0*39 . O^ij-iy^- . t w~«j 3 s»-J. makes s^j^88/J . But see § 319. same reason.g. 276. «. 3* 9 0*3 . 90*390* sj^.g.g. c. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. but *^w S^a^w jX» . b. pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs. j**J a sea. 5— is O 171 But diminutive. G. «5^9^J e>j*su. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. a bow.§ 276] if II. M/J ones people or 2W6e.

elif. a.^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. the latter for 6. o x vulgarly 2u^t. x J x Rem. o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation. . as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. instead of f^w. as js. from the radical ^^. makes following the plural ^Lt'. as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j.). From C-*u a fcm*e.. ^lu OWxJ . [§ 277 and thing. 3. «l not vJ-^uj^. £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 .into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p . D Jb***' a ^^. a o 5 x j . Rem. £~i$Z>. Ox ^_. though derived Ju*fc. juc. ajU? a Rem.172 Part Second. a-suj x .g. O 5x J ^.— Etymology Rem. If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. * x i^*b a calamity. (***».c> « farm. Words 5 x of the <Lj^w. Rem. £>*£> an eye or fountain. commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£. The forms J^jj^. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown.\jj x J a poet. -i^w an old man. OwxJ ybtfd. (J?>k x J a snake. this JLolj. youth. certain bitter tree. b. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). in which the e. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . but the regular forms are preferable. If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. a. and treated 5 x r a 9 . an ^ **^>-£. and <5ju. it § 13. ^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ . ?r^ w»ry. /"Lb a fold (i£j£). e. x x these letters § must be separated. and Ml >y*~i\ are also used. ***i&. an egg. 277. x J . [Oomp. x a slave.] 278. In other cases § change is optional. Conversely. 4jb aw animal. ^J^cu^!.jt. Ox cHj^ a horseman.> x J be formed C-sJ^J. . it Words • of the form J^li. ^5^-j a ?m7/. fri^. a festival. J *£j£-. or the Parts of Speech. £*>>o. i^>. £$»-). <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. weak. Ju~>t. djj^ 9 s J a handle. A>*1 &/ac£. rem. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. from <blw a young woman. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth. initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive. ^S^> .g. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich.

6.§ 281] II. letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. itj^A. Awj. A^al ' brother (>±. last * A '•* 3 5 weak. j* x£ § 278. ^js. pa#. r. iy-j^w £*w & »p. 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name). (accus. *U water. v-tj^. Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ .1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. —whether 3 . like 5x1 and others x . such as Jucj from j^j. —Diminutives. as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John). . is dji or d$i. . j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. £U*c a ^/£. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. ^i. some at 0^1 say ^^. & Adj. for . Rem. mouth. A5JA. Sjljl a sma// water-skin. A. a). ^^. which the - 173 two 279. Nouns Subst. x J . duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£. # . others ^j**\ ^j*-\. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a . and a. <**a* (for *«x#). x resume ^ x J . rem.1 j>* blood. L5 r ^£.-*»-t.\ (accus. as 3 j^c & promise. affluence. Rem. lost their third radical. the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . Sj^j J 3ji». 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. spots. ajju j^. J still. but irregularly. it in the diminutive. ( . iwte. x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl. etc. 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. have the E. a*«o~> . 05 x Sjufih. of verba primse j. 281.l). 280. . — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use. they termination 3_ or not. i**-!. of which the radical <su^i. a £-t . & s J . The Noun. § 278). which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). . ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven. if the . £ * I ^^pA.g.> ju~>l. the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs . rejects one of them x . radical The infinitives fern.^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted. 4-0U 3-w a JWW. {y>\). 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. A lost first or second radical is not restored. —recover . forms its diminutive accordingly. Nouns which have fern. ^JJ^) 0i x J f . of . x x I Rem.

nouns in . . if of four. r. e.'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0. as u^i$* from ^13 a judge.t. 0*J J*j& 9 . rem. 242) dead. (for j->». noun ends in S_. 283. E. . C-w*j* . the softened or curtailed diminutive. and recover . w-->j^-. consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i . ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus.g. " " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«. and distinguished <u^». having lost their third radical. j-*£. ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). and *. It— reject these terminations s * i . ^-jy jIa (for jjIa. C* i Jam < (see § 269. (for ^-Ul) people. ^t. this consists 9 of three consonants. <u£.) good. This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ.i j) ^ M^ U . ^hU j-}>* . are like those of fern. feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. 3 . 9 0* J 9 o * J . Uutdu.**0 ' and take S_ . exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240. Those nouns which. their original letter. the diminutive 9** 0*J . j^t^A.174 Part Second. j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*. J C^A thing. and ^ Rem. elif. b).0 J ' ^— . daughter.g. [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — . s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. j^J^a-o]. djj-** (a name). take a prosthetic E. %i$) from ctj a pastor. &-i^. the root. . after elif. or the Parts of Speech. >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo. falls (a) If a masc. *"***»- *!/©»•. « name. r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . ^. With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed. as ^-^j^. diminutives would have been J^\. ^f O^t a son.t.-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9. (b) Fern. a The diminutives formed of Cs». rem.g. D. and ^La. G.] B 282.^*-^ reject the .l sister. this termination away . b) feeble. 284. in the first two by the termination. <uiA (see C § 281). .

O Rem. Nouns Subst. *$j* a sect. j~*>*. ^x Ox a vessel.jUic. and j L. II. ika. O-i^ij}.M. as if or * p-L*-** brocade.M. a*a). <i. J x 175 Ox J . SlLJl*. j»\£*j a cold. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286. as 3-cu5 a quantity. Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J .->»>. . acj**-. OxJ JU-/ a . a piece. ^jL-^Jl .Q. irregular diminutives are d^j . : J^. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl». Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases. of <>>1). vi anything. as Ox Oj S/o* brown.§ 286] II. fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. as SJJi. of J-wol ^e evening). .*. a pelisse. x * i" A J . '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. 2*b. &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. — The form (6) a wooden pin.jUJI a human being. Zjsuo yellowness. X a-a»J a portion. 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . a live coal. rem. A. if B a collection 5 of poems. a rag. a mouthful. »xx ilfcj. from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. 23j) a light blue. a« cl «.j a man. jljt. from 0s J jU> and ->. account-book. such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. a piece of land. 0x0 l^Js a fragment. x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or . tj ltLJL g. redness. The Noun. a fever.. dJU a night. O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. w**^». »-x 1^3. as r. OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet. jUjj n dinar. ^Ua garment. . 3u<LJlz.^t g . *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#. O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. a public •'u office or bureau. a morsel. iakS.a milk-pail. and tjt^Jj a register. J**->3j * A . as " . a gulp. ~ 5 a *" c nightfall. *$>£. -**& . — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small . aj^> a draught (of water). »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. piece of 285. x x |Ut. iL^I. as^»l*». aJ-wJ (compare the plur. A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset. 8 a firebrand. . b) ^jtj* (see § 305.— Diminutives. Ox certain garments. Very <i & Adj. OxJ tjl^O smoke.. an allotment.

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

p\*o a measure for the forenoon. juf» the liver. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^. tion [gen. fern. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. - J~~£ /toney. [prop.182 Part Second. used in producing fire (gen. JU< - state. masc). ySis> OJ a spider (gen. masc).). i^ji a horse [gen. fumed] jjS a pot. fern. 90 j ^o^w a ladder.). s OjJla. a knife 0-a^> s (gen.ambergris. fern. .] ^h^S a bow » (gen. masc).). the rump [gen. condition (gen. hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power.). J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part.). etc.] * V cL. 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. fern. corn. 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. > JUs the neck. masc). I) . a o o m kettle (gen. J US the the nape of the neck.]. j**~t peace. [j^c. . fern. t3>w « market. [JUa.L». a shop.jUaiw authority. a road.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path.] a tooth.l a Aar# ' (gen. w**l3 a 0* well. ?-*-o peace. a booth. soul [when signi£-3j spirit. £. <Sj~> journeying by night. fern.]. fern. 0>jJ» a road. rain. weapons. fern.—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a road (via strata). clouds. a sovereign. a marriage.- C o of wood. Ij3~> a wall (gen. a phantom. natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. fern.b nature. street or lane.] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding. *• (gen. fern. <» tj»o J a way.]. J O^.).).* « B shop. IU-w the sky or heaven.

cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. Nouns Subst. x w>jj~cu© j^. become masculine. fo'to or shin-bone. and s-^ja. a. s the shoulder. radius or ulna) of the fore-arm. jui» the liver. masc).] and jJj a well. The Noun. Rem. a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac.— Fern. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue.- great. from the masculine. 9 ^ 3_. JJ M# (gen. by the radical ^ letter. [*zXLc dominion. 9^J0^3" struck. ^— . - 2^i <jl©ju repentant.. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. as S^l^w from ^l-o-w. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_. affecting the ^— 294. & Adj. a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast. 9 x Rem. « y 9 " ' For example. or CC (§ 290. aj^jJxa . a^3) a yotmg woman. before 3. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. [Rem. i-jjLo mi #> . an intestine (gen.). 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc). CO . fern. the maw. masc). the right direction. The above list. [^j£s. in ship. *+Jk* 9 • x . B b. ajUL» from *Uuw. and that contained in § 291. C From most adjectives 293. fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen. are later times ^i. the mouth. but the . since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. u^m 9 . The most usual termination. j£&>.§ 294] II. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . Jjj the bone (either ceiling. are mas- culine. A. . b).] [j^jdfc ffl^l. as jU fire. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. of Adj. j) 9 x • . ^ grandfather. the upper arm. a water-carrier.] Rem. Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word . 9 J ' . %\+~t a. (gen. which must be learned by practice. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender. ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man.

rem. and the modern d_.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. B 295. o io* lowing genitive. " ° J 3* . io* . feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . . one. 7 supra). 30* . ^J*%c.-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. 87. 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first. fearing. e. te\j£. ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. * b. ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. as . is ^jk** *0* . *>» [§ 295 A forms p. &UL*w O^j* naked. Kamil. in which case the feminine "0 largest. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . feminine. and below b. iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. . *03 Rem. see Comp. {£j£~> thirsty. * O is * . c. rem. when they have the superlative signification. ^Jiji* . 133—137. i jsuc^S the smallest. " iJy^S that of j±. 1. confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. £)^+^> * ^^as-. This view is . . are preferable c. O***** sated. . . without any corresponding masculines. with hemza. ijj/^t. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. (b) O^A±- timid. because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. has ^j^t. as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. § 299. a. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . § 301. 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. . angry. i*JL».-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat). The numeral jt»»t. O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . cities. . not in signification. as SAJLj. Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * . Gr. at. (a) * * .\ (forjjktl) other. •&\ not superlatives. . 0*0* Rem. of the n yj . comp. do\jj£. Rem. another.184 Part Second. The latter word can be used indefinitely.pregnant. gCA 3 *0i form J^t. ^UUa*.] 10—15. *0 * (-0* . ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a.

" J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed. Rem. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*. .§297] II The Noun. A JajI. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. J x £ as yua\ yellow. *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman .. x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. antelope]. or / thought her.] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. an enemy. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5.. where Ox J x x . G. nor one 'x J to x carry loads.— Fern. But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed.-3 [and again. *bjjdt */» / (rain). and also if it has the Ox J x . J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman. 24 . Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^. w>J*^ £ J Jj*. i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was. as }j& x hostile. when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular. Nouns Subst.. . Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . ^£j-t^ an d 297. A. C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. ° -» " . a. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w.^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. nor one for milking. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . & Adj. i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. 185 296. OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient .» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U. 8 O Exceptions are rare < . [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx . fern. Stw a sAorw sAeep. tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. Ojdx Ox J x . as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress).j a patient and grateful man. Rem. rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race. as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**. which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x . . amazed. . £ r<0 s . patient . • " (a) sitive). db^£>j and 5->>^». OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad. of Adj.. ibj^. J x . or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. The following forms are of both genders. D.^ a lying man. Jj**. i\^~*** beautiful.

= iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and. 4jli*^ [. <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor. Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*. . **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. Ox x self-willed woman. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ». a wounded woman. x 5 x t jlj <aa. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume. blameworthy habit. aa^ac t/ojj* Rem. 3 ju^». or j-Ja. fern. G. but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered.< Sl^ot is allowed. 228). or intransitive). x 2ri^A.J mountain-road « of ascent.o an l^-Jfe O acclivity. mercy (c) is C>xru>a». J UJLd. jlkfc* ajjU*. For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^. x JJ/ (b) J**s. ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. Hence the difficult nouns >yt. 0x0 « and J**a*. and under the G . it If J~*s has the meaning of .g. as ^yJL^c poor. Ox Rem. <Ua>JU . which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ . .186 Pakt Second.] . but (t ^. 233.g.j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl. docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel. Zj~a-> + + . when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***. (§ 6). ZjuslZ oLag temperate. <jUju» isU a <* «. j^J^o. a x ~ x J x . chaste.j^ w^j-5 well. b. £/te Exceptions are rare Ox . J*o*^» x .<« x x x W a new wrapper. = 5^^=>. x . ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper.J1 . tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. J-^5 oUi a murdered woman.C>». a praiseworthy way of acting. [§ 297 A [Rem. G. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*. '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. $$^=> a D.. <1 D. on the other hand. . —Etymology fern._ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives . 0x0 II ^ .** *oW>> 2x perfume. fa^C.and p a declivity. rem. or the Parts of Speech.o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . x x Exceptions in either case are i rare.

/ 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. J B ^U. The Numbers of Nouns. w-. actually in progress. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam . a) e. 15. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i . Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her. 96* *r^> *.0 ** her time or term. J) 3. the singular.] ^. s S. . or about to begin (£ol». dsuo). applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate . bust naked. an action or state as natural and permanent. G. at any rate. of course.. they form a feminine in 3_. by their signification. . ^Zo bearing twins. (see § 81).g. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 . as iU. as ^J-ol*. jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^.witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck. . w^olk. Nouns Subst.j&3 and some others as jU. *->*>*>-.ti Adj. JLac etc. pregnant. jy>.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it. ' j-ojto. 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day . But they designate the said action or state as beginning. j-wl». her. Adjectives which are. having swelling breasts. ^J-a**. dual. JJ»U without ornaments. The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting. § 136. O^j or . O x 0*0' «r. J**** D.§299] [(d) II. last 9 1. as C ^oaJI i-tful».-A sAe will is to-morrow ..] menstruating. A. rem. £/&e J JkJlk divorced. 00^*' A and yj am M Vol. s * 9s. like verbs. js*-c [^jLa». ^aui*. The Noun. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling. R. jJbl). to females only. oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn. n. three numbers. and plural Nouns have.. 298. 0s . chaste. 187 infinitives (§ 230. p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. CUa-ojl U. 299. lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or.— The Numbers. Rem.jX^i £Lcl». I ji£ iiUUs .tlib.

m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground. Rem. r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert. would be Rem. when sprung from a radical $ or ^.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco . ft. sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in .a bustard.« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^.*. a. Forms like ^jtzl/*.. said by some to be admissible. not restored in the dual. oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. a. l£>** legal opinion.red. {\J>— a). If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. Rem. <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). 3 is changed into buttock. § 167. \j\5sid. a. oW^ a 15*:. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj). § 294. B OW occur. as Lac a for $*a£. x x however. . \j\}\jjua. two buttocks. jl. becomes 3 x . which was originally a 3. >**>ja butt for shooting. O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^. the j x o£ . jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. J .. of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi. O (see rt^ ^rni. CT ^L^». x the termination either be as *T_. —In and even ^jbl^a^o.) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc). the j is restored the dual . But <Ut a J and testicle.»>. The hemza . x x x . 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- . used. for 16 3 3^). jjljt^^o *" x i\j^». x are. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£. the hemza is may retained or changed into 3.-XS. for . r*' x w*s b x x x X . . however. which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff.188 Part Second. admit the forms oWUl . but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l). %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some.>0. <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow. a). J) c. though the former preferable. «L»£> a dress (for jdJb). as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ). as ^J3 a youth. as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom. rem. b. it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual . t. —Etymology a nation. usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. the singular of which. x © x nine X (§ X 296). ^ fi. SI . ^j\i\j*~a.

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

only to substantives denoting rational beings. however. b. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. but more especially from adjectives when used substantively. OJJ^&y*' 9 * . Masc. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur. G. of J**g a man). san.— Plur. \JyJ&. from last < 1. masc. J***J (dimin. p. they might seem belong rather to the class of plur.] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. c)*. Nouns Substti Adj. «. fern. We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions .0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. jjt the goose. § 296. when joined Rem. For the see 2. of jus Abd). D. * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin. To the words enumerated under highest heavens. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification. * J m O^U^s . 13. B f ' lLauL£». sanus masc. though by their to fern. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . sing. * * in the 9 commentary on the Diw. 195 AaJ-b). etc. £^t> A***.§302] II. which denote rational beings. £-*»»t. fern. have also the s plur. sanus masc. rem. A. see § 340. § 304.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings. rem.*?. » of Hudeil. of j^ti) an inferior poet.. and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. adjectives exemplified by j**o\. have the plur. Rem. II. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. ones family. (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. a. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. 5) we find o>*^ 120. their diminutives. Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. ±jbj\ the earth. vs. c. San. App. The Noun. < . etc. J) Rem. Jjbt . etc. s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO . Adjectives. j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin.

« xx wholly indeclinable. have a plur. a privy. (§ 323). x x x \jjj hu\j $£.j-|juj £bt w>t. Comp. like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. juj j-ojJt H-^t.U ^J^. see § 340. d.g. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. which have no singular. also § 108]. jx which are called j 0. £)£j 3j£» a ball. e. arises a. which the third radical (j. j>~L*>. %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl. form ol. a stony. In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264). rem. which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable. rem. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . especially those of Od x . ^t J any one of etc. £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung. J ^t.. and the like. rem. > *^* a stick ?/ear. J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word. Thus w>j£jjui«©. (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191. has been elided. s i Further. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. as Zj&. x etc. it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. e. thing. d) nouns in S_l . a sphere. makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. <J}L*. — It may be b. 03J^ . a secondary formation ^>*iw. sanus masc.196 Part Second. x 3 x in x . as also the numerals denoting the tens. $>\. not of persons. it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. ^JA x O J > JP a . i 'z-Zubeir . when they are the names. from 20 up to 90 x J x '. ^j^k* obliq. JL». si)3J^ *jj an d. x . ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel. volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. very J irregularly. used by children at play. o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. Great Bear. men x Construct compounds. c). . vulva. is rem. possessors. D but in the case of compounds with to say . § viz. and called j*4j)\ l O^t. stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. [cas. h). Rem. 6). [like &+Lc ii. 325. Some x fern. Rem. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. 4 ^.

The names # # (§ 292.*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 . x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_. (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 . Jas..§303] II. The pluralis sanus fern. Proper names of women.z2a. .Lp. b) . 197 is put in the plural. Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man. 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. [Rem.9 a village. o . as uL^-cu. admit also of a pluralis fractus. OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi. wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or . b). is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx . Feminine adjectives. 196). 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot. as xx . The feminine nomina (§ 5 . (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— . OUJLli (§ 301. rem. Nouns Subst.] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j. O^t^w. A. x J ^Ufc. ObjL*. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus.—Plur. x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. Oljlj-o 301. and such names of 3 ^x 5. duj.lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. o£ J *0£ . may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % . 5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m. The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense. 9 ^+»-x pregnant. sanus fern.. o*> .. e) . Rem. G. OUiJa. when r ' Rem. as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition. •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. (a) etc. . the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . of the months x . as j*j 5 . which are usually feminine « . 6^/ a gazelle. f. plur. be put also in the plural. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress. » The names 3 . x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D. The Noun. rem. San. a (<#) 9 £ bustard. 00 9 x ( xx . x 3s. (a OL-UJ juA Hind. xx and fourth forms. Fern. OUUa^o. If a jo <& Adj. 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx . of the second oW^LLot. as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * . 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal. w**. oL©*}Lfc. x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. J xOx t 9 xxtfx . Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). of the letters.0*3 3 . According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' .

entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) . Obj. o '* *£: . (lit.198 Part Second. an animal. Olojt (see J * * . d s * ^l q» an '. difficulties. and * some nouns.^. works (from ui . j*wlo annunciations. Ob^. which have not a fern.. 301.«gv . * C inanimate or inorganic thing. existing) literary . termination 9 * . 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ . "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. c-aJI^j J (compare . J J . uLoLeJ. 9 oU L^a. OUtj^U> a . £>WJ*aa . ^aj\ the earth or ground. however. substantives. 9 c-s —Etymology an era.^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. J ' x . Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. § a literary composition. classified) . b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. 6) from f" . OtS^l^-w . a * compositions. or the Parts of Speech.tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities. irj a OUU^U^o o * . a fountain.U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations. marvels. Otjl©~> (though this 9 . ObU^. 9*0' stout camel. -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses.t § word is . which are used in the plural as substantives. even ff» when they denote persons i . a 9 %<• j book. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b. (i) Verbal adjectives. oUtj*». oU-jt a /afoe rumour. which some. s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha. Jbtj-* awning.- 136) f~ijti a date. ' s j S . ol***. (jlj^U* a jet deau. C/^ t» . . which have no plur. Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is . Many fern. Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301. jtJlwt. ji U^ . rem. d * a warm 9 ' bath. ou». B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin. 9 < Olw^. Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ . a tent. jLL~ijl+. masc.. O^Jbt or C^aI. Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher. a chronicle. J ***** * a 9 . j created) . Ul aw ^4##. § U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). fractus O . 9 s * s . D rem. Ot^Iwt.« living thing. . prognostics. . w-j^Uj wonders.) .c arranged. as * 9 .> .6t or marriage. loaded * 9 s < * camels. or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property. iUt j*£ a caravan of .

^j^t . 199 uJ ^ J bound books. or &&&&? (Germ. jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern.6. Fract. J 9 * J ilas ^ j. and examples. and The more common forms J ' of the plur. 304. as Ja». 9. Bldsse). ^a\ 6 ' J . 4Jl*5. 3.39. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune. Rem. (J^t o^er. j±\.^ 5x as <Haj a present. AjjX». w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin. (§ j^^U*. w-£>j white spot. Jj* village. A (i) All diminutives. a .0 j^aJ) . s J The Noun. except those specified in § 302. of j^t.] district (Gr. Hj <>£ i^j a knee. . ^^. LUJt M<? highest.§304] * u> II.3 L J*5. j^\. 0*}L**r*. x^P a )> a dome. j). all£> « kidney. 9 x J . a trinket. with the principal corresponding singulars. of Jy^t). <j?Ji Su^j a turn. 9. of J*$l as a superlative . fern.. 9. § Similarly b). 4*1 J a nation. .— Plur.^»-). k. are twenty-nine in number. 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand. Jy^t »te greatest. . as J-*»- a hillock. adjectives. fractus of substantives triliteral roots. ^ali JSJ 9. . (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. i*3 [a leather tent. SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad.3. § 213) 9 *J .3 rare . t J 9 jya ' J . . <L*J a foard. ^^IsuUt . without tenwin. Nouns Subst. 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. Plur. . 5/JJ 1. a dynasty. b) . Fr actus. 9 * . as 9. i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. . and Adj. w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. 234 and § 295. w*J> s J 5 . ^jlx)\. rem. see D 295. J 9 ' J . UU»J 0' . The following is a list of these forms.. OLJS.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest. which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical.3 (for . § 213) . another (fern. on a horse's forehead.

JUi. ii. G. D. e. as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '. had young. ^©-ot <&«/. ^o ^ .g. and superlative 9 6 3 . J***. C a middle-aged married woman. c. derived from verba med. Jtf. b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years.] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. j**. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j . R S. J3J 9 3 . JUi. § 137 and rem. w>jla. 3>-»l 6/ac&. Fract. 8]. JUi. JUi. (§ 296) .J in. O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet.] 93 J>»-]. j J .l. has certainly both £$~t and £yi. cAsrft tfliwfe. retiring 9 * 9 3 . as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 . iU-oJ. & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309. § *£*. [§ 304 A Plur. derived from verba med. not derived . s WSfWJ. 1. ptjuj fern. rem. 9 . I 9 J J j$\. A*-^^ ^-^J. make *»*<»». farrow. J^fcli. [Comp. w>**-*-' humpbacked. 1. however. [Rem. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i. j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j .l and i[x2j (fem.] 4. rad. 9 * Isufc. &$£ . ot Sing. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. «*-j^ etc. not comparative 3 . of *«*».200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech.. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi. . jy*> jljl heat. etc. J-*it.jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. i\x+*. J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU. rad. woman). 9 3 II. They may.). i\*Z£>. jJua lU^ fawe. 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad. vol. ^-O^. 9 3 j 5 .. ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. . 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. 5. JUi. a#). . without tenwin [§ all together. III. a. [Accordingly a efawrt has J^. [Also in some other cases.. * s * as £jjio yellow. *- of J*it. j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red. 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. 302. and 3. 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2.

}j. u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' . " a large bowl or tree. ju*c . J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' . *• cloth. [A rare case is s^ot from . 9 ' . 3 3 . %~o. f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. J>**. Fractus. fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. T III. 9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' .§ 304] II. ^Xi v>jj an idol. j^o 933 9 . 9 JjtS continued. 9 ' 3 Saturday. qj*> J 2 . \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick. 9J * A Sing. iUi. as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs. Jas. » 3 . Nouns Subst. J*w>. ' thicket. the heavens. jealous. Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy. 93 w~o£ 3 . 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. j j J>w. 3 3 . for or 9 sacrifice. jj~* 9' ' £ . a message. tertiae rad. verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. Fract. Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*. 9 j j . The Noun. white piece of sphere. or ra/. O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna. J***. J^i ^0^/0.JL>! female. . . a 9 throne.—Plur. s^jo. j^J . 9 ' 91 » 9 .] tertiae rad. 93393' JU^i j^s . w. * . ^ j yet.jUa». J*$. 3' . 2. a thin. w *>*»» . rare 9b' as w. j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion.>£». a stallion. ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. bier. j et ^j . a dromedary. as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . J*3. j et ^ [ . &**£. '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . Rem. J*3. geminatse or verba tertiae rad. 201 Plur. 933 . J>*s. not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat. rough.$. and not derived from verba 9 3 3 .La*»&. 91 3 .jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood. 93' who warns. 9 3 3 . as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut. 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. a 9 ' messenger. J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> . & Adj.'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. jjJ j±~e patient. it £y&. ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar. tj£* jtji -t) a tick. 9 3 ' 3. ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a. 933 > a 7-00/*. t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . A. J**i. 'Oi jjUft a rein.I Ojj 9 .4a. uUL* 9 J I . 9 3 3 .

oox 1. x JJ. unless O * J . w>b3 ^e common fly. 5. jwt. OxOxx . 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. character. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*. a building. a maxim.13 a time. JjJ. Some- times the darama of words med.] u .] J is j*£ x (for j+%). JUi. as j-ij~>. f . ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT. R. V. jUfe. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae. Gs . xJ JuJJ pleasant. just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). X X Sing. i. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. J Forms rare. 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. as j**& a merchant. ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. dL»£ft. 1.5 a £M0tf. < oooej . gemin. Fract. or pattern. 957. or :>j^- IV. Jjtf. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain. % J » Jifcti. »tew. rare r. It may be J J a poetical license for Jju.j*3 4*15 a fathom. . from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o). ^ « foc£ o/* tar. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. as a rule. Jul. Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . j&*-'. manner of 2 Ox .g. ^^\ (for t^t) . xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J). are is J '. ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5.202 Part Second. . ^o*3 a flock of sheep. jj~* ju **». O O J Rem.Jj . Jjii * J J a sea. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. \£). J J III. [j-4^. as A*Ja. s* . J For. * [Again. e. J** continued. ^~*Jk Ox . wo. 1. *JaS . so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. rare Ox dx a to£. Ox x J J changed into x J fetha. [§ 304 A Plur. £«J living. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. l£) or i«&}]. J—j. JAj]. S. O 0J-. C il*9. . * S^J aw example . rad. Ox %~6 r. ^o-j»* . milk. ^*xa. OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. aX*5. . OxOx fo*^ « farm.

iw>. aX*s Ox # dish. Fractus. 9**9*** 3. camel's xOJ 7. *0l L5J*J. • <• 4. a dress. ^Ut a hermaphrodite. «x . Stj-«t. *1>L». &J a o£^o Rem. rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. Nouns Subst. ^Uj . 5*5. has a plural of this form. The Noun. handsome. cloth. w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard. oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 . iUi.a 9 * he-camel. Ox iojj ^ garden. w»^c> ° { 6. v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. 9*90 . o^~*-J x 9 J x .§304] II. *W-£. 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . D w>Jls «m^. 0x0 4^ jU a a note. 9 * . V. not derived from verba medise rad. . & Adj. 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying. 90/ 5. cU § * OJx . <z sp^arr. 9 * . a woman. £U£ (rare). JJ* # a shadow. 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f. # 9 .. *-UJ 9 * . J^». B Ox a foW. fern. x # Ox w>U*© . A Sing. s^aefe. £-j£ . lM» 9-\jj • • ..ai . * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . <>* cm occasion.—Plur. J**. *. not superlatives X . **~> a beast of prey. <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . w*tfi a wind. O - 9 . *'£' duij the neck. u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. wolf. pt«i 9*0 \ . geminatse or tertise rad. J*i. colt. as v*~> x A*8* . 9 * . a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. Ox Ox . J^U» . J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. JU-j . 9 * * JIoa. an arrow. J Ox v*o - difficult. cbj fern. ° £ 9*** JL». ^J» a ~-jj gazelle. A. cUj . <LUi. district. p{~6 * . verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . as ^^1 female. J. /JJ milch-camel. Fract.*-£ a hywna.aA a late born camel's colt. jtj-» . 203 Plur. 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. «. ^o. t -* j?L»J. * as ^J*** a hill. J Us 9 * continued. 9 * * * . 0»x oxj iUi.

. o 9 s feeble. j^Ls . ^*£j£*. verbal adjectives.) good. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem. as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. 9 s a. jL^. used . as j+*£* large. thirsty. s 9 s . 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry. $/ / »/ &*$***. not having a passive 9 s 9 s . JUs 9 continued. 9 s 9 s . 97 seq. w>U^o 9 s 9 . i\ -* s k s . %. w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10. ^*ij£>> noble. [wi^g. . An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. j^J JjbU drinking. 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . JUai. jU£» .*-«-* . J«^Lj. 9 s . j*\>£*. j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. s s £-Usuj from fern. Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . UU^fr l " IV s .204 Part Second. 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. j-h^) (rarely vt base. V. From words ^su pure. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3. 9 .(for #00<^. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping. 9 s 9 . ~s yaJo a merchant. is C Rem. Fract. ed. 9 s 9 s signification 9 s . 9. 9 a courser . tfAe channel of a torrent . fern. [§ 304 A Plur. J 8. O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J . 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant.- ># adjectives 9 s . js\% 9 s ju». . J. 9 x tertise rad. oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**. 11. ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>. s s - Sing. old. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Thorb. Dorrat. ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. 9 9 s . jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem. Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. sick. iLai. few words and Hafagi's comm. 6. verbal adjectives. standing.c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw.

5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow. Jas # as j^*j a sea. or f-y**. 205 Plur. u*>*»- *>*»• the neck. 5 0- Rem.3 JU* continued. 9-2. rad. J 933 (for 90' . 9 3 3 .\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd. 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem. Nouns Subst.] Some J bid. r^^yi Jy^ a year. gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year. 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. as 5JJ 3 5J 5 .ji a troop. «j..> usually makes ^~. ^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical. Rem. Fractus. a doc§ 269.^*!). 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp. 9 . a chief. others g vi. an ^> Dv ^£ . 9 . q 903 33 . D. to Tabari). 50 { a. gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss. *y~>\ w>ju a scar.J calf. 5 - lion.—Plur. 3 . G.) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 .§ 304] II. & Adj. l£^>) § 215). fLcj from c. rad. assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket. *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. J*5. own 5 . -- 5 JJ . 0- syllable is In words med. j>U. 50 - 50 90J . 9 . Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 . 90' 9 i/fo JJ . 3 J^j (for of the vowels. 9 0^ 9 J J . # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder. tor. a 9 Mtn. J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr . # military force. 3 J 9 0' . 1. u-^i soul. JA 90^ Jjji.. Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . ^M. that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^. ^»^j^ a J^.3 or ^^3. ^J> (comp. f»5+wi c). >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle. A Sing. From words med. 5 -£ Ja3. g. Jl^j from Jjj mean.j or Jl*-. V. 0- C-wO a house. jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army. ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man. The Noun. ju*. a ewe lamb. b. and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e. J) as if from y~$. w>J*^ ju& . 5 J J . 9 J jys^j J . Fract.3 Jui. 5 3 141 #~J seq. A.

JjU> pregnant. not derived from verba tertise rad. not mediae rad. O^x OJJCxOx . ^JUU a #m<7. 3 of the form J-a-i . as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&. VI. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. OJJ [Rem. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua».0. j*y and jtg^o fasting. 9 x rad. [§ 304 A Plur. tooth. rare 9 J J .JU> («JLo) a W6. a j9wrs# of money. a period of Jj>*». Fract. 9 d J . . Ox Ox £UJ. -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «. ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . J^j a xx j mountain-goat. J J' '? . plural is From words med. £fc fcwr. J>c$ o JJ .o or ^j. as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. Ox J^U. sitting. wiytw 5t^> Q •4.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. rad. 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night. t^JU. *->>** . ^yL> or ^iu. a M#. 1. gemin. J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. 0x0 J *4j±. a %? or summit. -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant.* this J 9 x x rare. 3-0). # O3S3 J J . iUi. J3** continued. ^. Sing. j-©~> j*>v sleeping. verbal adjectives. j>yo and j^e . witness. jcclS. u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a . J^Z and J*£ . OU S j proud.] X J3. OJx time. Ox ^b. 9 * * B Rem. V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . aw inkhorn. «i)b ^y^» . 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself.206 Part Second. . .. a casket. or med. aa». 3 ojj 5 -» standing. . #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. ^53 or ^j3.>>*=> 9 J J . vel verbal adjectives. D vii. 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 . . wicked. 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#. > ^^-At (for ^3-ac).

Anomalous is having no weapon. - . 1. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad.S. JUli» perfect. jU JiJLb repudiated. -» absent.& Adj. ^u» conjuror.Fractus. etc. cLi «Jlo aw artisan. x Jxli. 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b. ^U^ JaU. of the preceding a.] JU5. 9 5 j . . R. J *-*-»- ^U 9 #». i J VII. [Rem. icb j5U s^'wa. of ji.js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower. aw offender. . 5^^ [^tfula. verbal adjectives..ajudge. dutiful. jwows. (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£. SjiJa . verbal adjectives.xLj. in which into B case the j must be changed ^ . Nouns Subst.§304] II. as Ujk for U^*. in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. ^ et ^. properly pi. 5p*w ^ b . St x 5 j fU». 9 * 65 J . *5lb obedient. ^ et ^ 9 . d J 9 . ignorant. Jj«i continued. gem. fugitives.— Plur. 3 i D *£** . 9 x J. Fract. IX. x 9 5 J . djztie (for **>&) . * [ J^ defeated. 0>£. v'>> -i"3 > sleeping. . JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier. *• j 9 et fl ^ J . **+*£ 2. x as J^U a workman. ^^a. . jU a soldier. is Rem. menstruating. § 213). SjjJ (for . js\y o . of Jli. unbeliever. of 9-y>. VIII.>lju©]*. %\}b- . u^u*- fi iUU. ^ . and not derived from verba tertise rad. fern. from oi5U» fearing . 207 Plur.] .» a deputy. is by usage pi. Ox 9 3 J . &**). 9 Si A Sing. as AaJU mourning. cUo j-*L^ aw C .] (with rare exceptions) as^»^». aiiJ. A. The Noun. <jU. j^^ a «^ unbeliever. fd j . [or med. denoting rational beings. [jlo avoiding.

fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 . J^U from verba med. O x CO J^ti. SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter. Oxx x ££*». rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* . [§ 304 A Plur. oW* a sinner. [2. casket. JaJ. Rem. du^*. and derived from verba Ox x J rad. R S. J OOJi^S Q s a . <L*jJ. tertiae rad. 3U». a nickname given to the Muslims. 0' 9 2. ^ &J«o ^^j a shield.>L».o feeble. iUi continued. Oxx tjy> or Sjaj .* jj a husband or ^2/0. as x J . &oo*. foar.] D XL £&. l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S.w Oxx generous. 9 ^ x J et ^ . x X x 3 . x J or traditionary. 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf. i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt. verbal adjectives. 9 x xx IX.. Ja3. aw earring. Ox Ox . acting wrongly. Stjj (for x J ajj^) . Sj^** or Sjl*. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ . an ox. * x . yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place.] X. 6 xx J x . $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . jU x « a soldier. « i-4*«. \j*" *ibl». . (for «*«*. 4*»^j -**w aw o/d .] [Rem. rehearser. Oxx branch. olxw.208 Part Second. yo 13 ^ judge. with the same restriction.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. as jjU*. 9 x Sing. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». a weaver. 1. not derived from verba Gxx J . Fract.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.treacherous.) cLj a manager. J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x . tertiae ^ denoting rational beings. An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural.» . Ox x 9 x x . as j^j x . Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a . ZJuca ^. as *r> Sx . J*9.

jJa~>\]. A Sing. 209 Plur.. coarse. (for j>«») a neighbour. w. x J JU*. <7rea£. ^^Jil . a brave. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 . brother. 5x0 2. J-J** ^'c&. . j et ^. S^-J. s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). &L». A. • waw. XL iUi continued. J*** x fo'a.Ja~» a /me of writing. &kk3. J*i cl3 . # . 6x0 aJU*. The Noun. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y. J*i as jjj a bull. dijt ^6*^U a youth. Slj««t X a woman. . ' S Cj. old man. 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i. 9xx 3. J . X OxO rt.] XIII. «xx . flaccid. AjjXi. *>*-©) X a boy. 27 . Nouns Subst. . S. u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin. 90 9 x x f [j. Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. aJUsj 9. 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace. jawt u~*J W* sow/. 9x0 9 . Rem. 9 cM ow& elephant. as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea. has a plural of this form. S^J «^w aw .. & Adj. iUfc. . <UaJa. as a^U 4. aw p ape.. SjJj . 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. /a#. x g „ . Jiil. *^~b a J t «J Of . Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. 9x0 JU$ . . o . hj£ - JJ>j ag#.§ 304] II. 5^». Fractus. few J ground. 9 x x 9x x 5 .ork.—Plur.»£>. a eunuch. B °*i . **^ XII.^aa* a gelding. as jJj a cMc?. ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*. Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket. 90 x . ^U. 1. as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . Oji Jai. 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard. £n#e. a**o X . £s>> .>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope. jA a tom-cat. X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. not derived from verba mediae rad. Fract. R.

as p\j$ the arm. « jrf Gtot Jijjt. at a § di . Rem. and. not ending in *—. w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. JpjI. and OJOii JJjJt. j-*j. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. a well. ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant. TV D • dialectically. o£ '} ^ occur. it has <U»»JI (XV. 4. rare o x£ . <} . uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. ^ et x x J ^. jly3 c^ay.] . . w*^ a raven.t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\. according to "El- Mubarrad 50. as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. <3>*t. ^3j\ . Ja3. by transposition. 5 seq. JU^t and. a fountain. aw oath. JUfct . a staff. 1. . . Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . G. j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. by o J oi transposition. 2. *JL© a rib. Feminine quadriliterals. by transposition. a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . as x a leopard. . x x rare . B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. xj eagle. as J+*. Exceptions are. j^Jt . iUs. 84J J**. o j J*». o£ J^t 5// 3. 6' cloth. &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. ^>o. hill. x C Rem. ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '.jLJ •* the tongue*. whence. • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . • m 3^*t). Ja3. for example. ^^ 60 C a bow. Sing. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 1). oibi JfjJl.^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . * [If fern.t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . jj}\. •• ' Rem. %^~Jt. o*-^ a sword.t oi &*) o » oi time. D. et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\. has j>jI and. w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. ^b a house. J oi XIII. xx JOi £ x . for if masc. . JOi xxx . the x x neck. she-camel. Jj«it continued. j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey. ^ left J hand. ^tt) i5U a .210 Part Second. J*w. for example. cji! . Fract. oi~ gjoI o o . [§ 304 A Plur. w>$jI or J w^t - . j ^^c an eye. . not derived from verba mediae rad. JjUc « female kid.

^. w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o . . ^lj tdftv.j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free. 9x0? .\ . 0/ camels. ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword. 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. makes *Lwl. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. . w. jUsl. 9 x . 1. 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep. Nouns Subst. dutiful. <jt$t fjto . JLwl j*y> a day. opinion. from verba mediae rad. $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. 9 . A.«£.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. *->\yi\ • £rac#. v' o ? . Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard. j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w. and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. J x aft 9x0? arm. 0U3I . jJblb 9 x j3wr<?. 9 x~> . Fr'actus. J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? . as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time. jbt 9 x 9 . 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 . j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit. jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . ^^L© a companion. and primse rad.3 9 a x>« aw ^ar. jlcul jJblw t a witness.a judgment. rarely J*» (see no. 2) . . Fract. not buying a passive signification. Ju^ « 9 .» festival. yj+*\ . Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms.§304] II. w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) .f old she-camel. 9 « Jlo*> a foad. J*». 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing. jl*JI xO? .^©A3 a fancy. The Noun. w>lJt m>. jZ> a well. J***. & Adj. verbal adjectives. jbt f V>t . X 4. 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door.xxO? tooth. one would D 9x 3. JU^t foc&. especially . Ox . by transposition. a mistake. 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . 9 £ an f. 5 0?" J»bl Ji. 2. 9 x 9x0? J^ti. (f° r 3^0 a father.^l (for >o~>) a warn^. 9 '-» . a notion. . J*». A Sing. js\x*. * 9x0? . J«*i a Mz'aA. x . (for 9 w~J) a canine . $>-t/il x a thousand. son. rare 9 x as j-ob a helper. 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5.U~ol jj\* tepid. 9 XIV. . 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . . jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes. fo^y. *. w^J*- Ox x x 0? .^£». JU5I . Rem. 211 Plur. J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t . £ . a friend. |U^t . jly^l . t %l>\ .— Plur.

[§ 304 A Plur. a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS . »t rare . .] .) ' • 2 p <0I g a god. ^JLfr temperate. Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?.a>.t X 0? . Ox »--£*£. Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. 9 . vowel). chaste. o^-*i <*wi| *y. t 9 xx 4s*u*fc.^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant. glorious. 5^». from verba X mediae rad. ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart. S t 3JLfr t J . C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. see the footnote to XIII. Quadriliterals. S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ . B xv. stuttering. 9* OS. [If masc. * £ . JU*t continued. . A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . a wing. A«-ot . Sju*fcl o£ x rod. 9 £) Ox X d£ . 9* bi . 9 s f}Hil £ . X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie.» 9. 9 * &* ** tongue*. x U*3 a certain measure. *•** a pillar. XX 6 . a strait. d. 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ . ^jLaJ. Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x . 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * . . OxOxO£"3x j c»*). &Jf. *a*-wt X . . x x right hand.^ a fo# niggardly./bo^. x .212 Part Second. 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ . jU»* can ass. JUi. X derived 2. 1. Fract. y^^* o X c^ar. 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble.t ^obtb * .s>j\ v***1* a branch. D geminatae or ultimse rad. ^-:. &>J^I O^ ** . as Jjj& mighty. 05 £ *L». § 242). 4~aSI X Ox o£ . especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ . ' o£ Rem. an oath. aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest. %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. 3 et 93 t Ox Of. xo£ '. a o ""*? colt. . 3ui^\. Ha3\. 2. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. (for stingy. sJ)j£\ XIV. <L2£r> XX . O x J Us.

Fract. Oi . jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). J**. a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile. XV. J*3. passes into damma.>t^ a watercourse. it In the old language there are some instances of e. ^JIS a mould. cP^-i.G. l^^s^S. substantives . The Noun. 9 . Z+teS 9' oi » . dew.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. £JU» a s^/. ' J^. mothers 9 ' t>i " side).« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. Ja». 3.— Plur. crucible. 9.] . Fractus. *dyi\ Jju a s^. 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . & Adj. jt?o£. iJbet continued. Jii. in proper names. 9 * 4. A. as <>J» 9 .g. »£ . a cover or &d. 1. Rem. . 213 Plur. v^J-*or cawsg. rare 9* Oi . *iJo\ jj^i. J^U» a 2. JU. 9 is* 9 . bird. [L». £Jl>» .. 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. 9 0* 9 Sing. j\js*. 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture. >u an assembly. Ajjjj . xvi. rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . 9 0* . 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). a £wc£- «x hare. letter is bound). ^>\y*- . djj^j\. S «* B I >i . in vulgar pro- nunciation. female slaves. u*j\£.vm/wz. J^1>» . j*ty*. 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! . 9* i hjj\ * s . Oj 9 ' *i . ji|>»» v^W. . J**. £ . 9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a .§304] II. vi^l^ 5 . <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. Ci^b a motive J * * . di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck. 65 i AJLaut Oi . as JJjt^J* Touareg. jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. J^U . Sj^l 9 J jj a button. Nouns Subst. as ^5U» a a signet-ring.

j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. menstruating. X? . ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. x Ox aJLcU. earners hump. O X ^ Ox witticism. J^U. X Ox 4. ^x x . profit. xx . *-\y (for ^^y). Juotj^. . J &>\yo 5j. a joke. X X J XX . rem. 5»xx verbal adjectives. applicable to females (§ 297. s * . jJbtjw. pregnant. of J Sing. B *to A«*a*. a district. as J-«L». J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. a X X X .214 Part Second. jJbljJ. ^-Jljt 4*». 5 x wp^r classes. as x tr*j^ xx . XXIII.53. P Ox .. tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. J*l>* continued. x x . J XX * s . )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example. x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. see no. i^li. a 7 .sU J a rarity. sociable. *f\y> i x x . Fract. J applicable x to J men. «x x JJtjl (for JJI. ^Ijxi.^^. . Jxx <£l)tyb . a proximate cause. 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce. substantives Ox x JxxOxx .) J i* ^oSl*. >^^\^o «( . a Rem. . region. J^ti. X ^oSU*. ^U. A-JM3 custody. . Ox divorced.. Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt. ajjU. etc. verbal adjectives J .) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. verbal adjectives. u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. 3. C 5. as X 4y£bU yfowtf. Ox by their signification only J x •» rem.. j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. vulgar. J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. [§ 304 A Plur.) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x . XVI. J x x 5 9 x a wave.U? a female companion. and fern. rare. J . x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. 5 S a horseman. (for ij^tj*. a girl.

l». >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. aw J »X t*" island. 9 x x a cowrtf. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 . a _ thing. gen. J *»x x . Fract. y£XVII. ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. 6. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. D. Nouns Subst. A Sing. *UsU. 5 " &a/. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. a &£ter.or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. j-j^o a pronoun. &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. J^Lit . JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket. Fern. *5l©-o. The Noun. JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* . whether they have the fern. *)!** or <ULx^.> X X a joroo/*. G. J! x x x xx J xx . but nevertheless fern. A.§304] II. x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . * f Rem. x ^^Oi. ^J^^ X ««X X . JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent ."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " . as 4uU*w a c/owa*. w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. £a*»~o a written or plank. a letter. J^l*». x >"' . [Also applied to the male. 5x x # *. i . ' x x . [J*J. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees.. ^ti^. *~5ULo x W0W0. o/a woman. as iDu. a wawtf or weed. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. Ft actus. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . D x x . J*fcty continued. « X X victim. from 5^«] jJJ the night. x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . j->!>»X X . J wages. x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . *' i* * a treatise. a J *»x x . f-5bi ttrcwa*. 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. 85 x x ^x x J affair or business. a »XX »xxx J x J X .— Plur. law. <JI^». x juLej] «x 4«. of B (a long vowel). quadriliterals. j->\j*o < x x . ^xx . ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*. igt>^). <So Adj. J ^ x x .. l&uotf. H*£ X . »»x x (for ^Jt^*-). £))*?. termination 5. x x s/a£>. 600/. 215 Plur.] . . SfjJ**.

OW« oW ^ - «x 6. jtH a yoke. oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . a branch. Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. a black beetle.a buck-hare. O >0 root. growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. 5 v!** a raven. JU$. O x . oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle. d 5 meteor. o****9 Oj M t Sing. 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown. 9 * 0^°3 9 . lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. o!>** 5 J«*». from radicals mediae 3 x J . and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe. as > Oj*-. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . 1. *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. % ^j^j.» 4. 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*. Fract. Ox x J 5 . ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird. * ^)U*-J . xj O^*^ « ^%. OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. v«*^ « ^^^ . Sx»^*x . '0 5 % * * B 2. a worm. 5/J bird. O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . v**M « branch. a waW.jtju* O .» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > . s/aw0. 603/. [§ 304 A Plur. Ol*^ rare . J J*». \)j3 a lizard./Sre. x* yu a nightingale. J 9*9* . XVIII. J . uW^ ^0 x £ i brother. Sx as J-^.216 Part Second. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x ."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5. Ox . o*^**^/j xx Ox . as juft ' a s/aw. w>b a *. 6 a I oxj O fl . 9 rare . 0'***^ * . 9 Ox j door. a fish. Ol***ixJ 3. 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard.jUJ j3~> 9 . J*i and J*5.x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . Ox neighbour.' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest.

Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat. 3-i5 d^oj. 90 50x . Nouns Subst & Adj. xO J . 6 . 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. 5 x 9 . J-j-©^. Fractus. 9 x x 3.—Plur. as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. 5 . { g § 8. Fract. [7.] 9 feather. ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. ^L-a*. J^li. 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. rare xJ . a strait. as 5x0 <jU*£» . j%<^. has ^lj-«t . a meteor.* >i wjl^w a firebrand.. 9x0 diminutives.§ 304] II. the short side of a *%» . a to»i6. 0^> 6raw. o^. rare J . 9x 10. J>»J. J-*-**. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. as Ja5l»ii mW. &\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J . A continued. # a bustard. 9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-. wing-feather. 9 ->x Sing. xix. x x etc.^ *» a wood-pigeon. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l). 9 . oW* J .. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew. o/" d^afe.. 3 ' XVIII. 9x0x9 Ox roof. [v*** grain. x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. rare XX 9 . 217 Plur. rare 9 as »J>jj^. O^j9x0j 9xx 2. A. a woman. 1. 9 xJ 9 £j . 28 . \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel. J x 9x0 a /<wra&. Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**. 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. 50x Jjt*. 9 x J . j Uai w. jtfrj a slave. dates. an irregular plural ^jtj**J. as x Jl5j a lane. '•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. O^fa maidservant. the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . 0>**> rar e . more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . Sx£ 5x x£ Rem. JUi. not nightingale.jU£* . <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx . C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. &%+•* B 9. The Noun. X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf.

poor. 9 . The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. or recluse. from 9 * j 3 j^\. Fract. unweaned foals of 9 - camels. jLc. are. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. oU-^ 9 < . ctj « shepherd. 1. ^*o a fo# or child. £)*$*** oW«*. from jt^-».218 Part Second. J-J*. 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. O^ . V^ . [§ 304 A Plur. . instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye. v~&j a chief . . * J Ol)^ c***^ white. geminate or r" «» tertise rad. O !/**• tffcui. j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. as Rem. rational beings.] J-j«i. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J .3 . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 9 i f /* commander . w^Jbtj a Christian . For example. 4. as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. ^^^9 * a sand-hill. oW^j1* s s . ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. oW^j 5 a companion. even in cases where we should hardly expect it. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. B 5. 3 . J^ti. a youth. l\js* ilwjj . verbal adjectives. applicable to signification. verbal adjectives. cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 . a friend. ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. J-oLj stingy. . J n L&** a channel for irrigation. jtgtoS 9 ' fern. XIX. used conjointly or interchangeable. as w^b oW*> a n<for.. and 9 ^j\jy»*.jLs> JxdS 6. 9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. j~*\ a or chief. which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad. et ^. < Sing. o^** 9 continued. I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. ^L*>J. l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. .

j^o 3 x cfear. lLa». . *U*a. j-J. 2. a friend. 3 x stammering.xx lUol X . iL». x x J . ^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am. — JUg> o». geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad. some masc. Nouns Subst.x B x x . ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. ila^^w 9 . 9 X learned. il©Ac JJbU. ^^). a physician. w««*». J^U. ws^J* a physician. 9 x x x iS'^f. with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S . exempt from. j .— Plur. i oW-*^ cowardly. Fract. C J-oi5. A. l\}>j]. a caliph. l\*y*. for £\ejj. as * as ^U . Jjli good. easy. HjJX. ^y*-* 5 x liberal. a philosopher or sage. Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light.> sj+i clear. i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ .. v*^* a relative. . llSjusl . U . liberal. eloquent.d Adj. «£ . et ^J . o£ . *L»I #xx jujlw strong. i\^SJ>. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£. eloquent. * . ^?/<xm. i*k*j continued.> noble. Oi .j-Jb (for r" Oi . (j^ 2\^j*>. *UJI ~' ot . . ^x 0£ . above . a deputy.. (from . in the last.l. r£iU . 9 *IjlwI . ignorant. adjectives. 219 Plur.a. i%^ j^li a jtKxtf. XX. a successor. X i<^ ^^x stuttering. masc. It^xw JSU r*" «*&. and XXI. iSCu. lu&wl ~ ~. 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving. - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . . usually makes \J&%±.j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth.1) . « prophet. ^^ X ^^ X *W- . i^Lu (for iUall. 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal. right. i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. plain. . . I^aX*. in the former senses. A Sing..§304] II The Noun. 9 x *s * j . « /r^wc?.» Rem. *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. x . iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. 1. easy. quit of.-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. iUX»- f. lUybt . as J^J^d a friend. iZj>\ 4-*^-. 9 ' xx J . J*^. l\~J. adjectives of the same kind as XX. 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad. Fractus.

Rem. of ' body or mind 9 ' . 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words. '0 * . vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner. and jjWj-k a polecat. as D 2. jis^a . bone behind the ear. ^iL»*-* w^w. < viz. b s 9 . juS. C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. 9 s »f silly. S'^Ui. ^jA * . ^Ia. rough ground. J^> s . Fracf.J . AjjAas. l\su9 a oL3. )\j&- .JLo^. ^j^ '. mangy. ^a>. J**^ 9 y defects. wounded.. ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. ^£j*~£a ' . ^~& . »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . stung by a 9 scorpion. oW*** {J!j£~*. &*j paralytic.220 Part Second. u4j*f 2. ^^3 * s *~>ja. as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . xxiii. as ^J%~£a lazy. \J=>y>. %c*.j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^. *f« a fool. Sij-* drowned. Ot . [§ 304 A Plur. . * * JU*-. a virgin. pain. scabby. as lljJ^ desert. . jUy goblin. u&ij** sick. \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake.. denoting injuries. 9 . . etc. i^**. Ob*** drunken. ^Us . ^y0j*° J5{e> poor. J*»»^ a partridge. £*}Ia9 . j^j 3. {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken.rw. 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing. verbal adjectives. Jbu* . or *->j**\.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis . J / ^l+z. 1. ^jl*. 9 * + + . . XXII. l£>^ a ctok. as J^3 y slain. 9 . itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. or J^»-t. Q angry. an * [ old hag. ^5^*5 . 0^***> verbal adjectives . i£>£ a judicial opinion. . ^5j£ &\& perishing. age. ^y*t*3 . ^>y* .

In nos. 4. A continued. 'A*** x . (ace. makes with the xx art. 9x0 . ^Ut) and u6j\. t l£>^ a complaint. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x . The accus. ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ. ij>*3 . opinion.JUi are D interchangeable. <jL-o£ angry. r. * hackles of a cock. J x x fem - v^**j and J**». JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. i JU . ^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a . 2. XX Rem. ^yUl ^jX**. dite. $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner.pregnant. 9 £ xf . ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert. . J .. jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. *»x x xxx a a as virgin. however. *.Ud. . x tey. x ^**. perplexed. Rem. 221 Plur. for iJlxs and x x Ox . JUi stands in the nom. . x&x xxx a judicial x xO . jj^L^b * xxx . ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. ^Jj^h x»J 3. ^»o\j\).§304] II. i£jl£* x x xxx .jl^-fc. JJt/s. jj^ULo xOx 2. and genit. ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken. the earth. »xx . . (ace. desert. u±\j\ (ace. ^W*. ^>3 x . A. JU* Sing. The Noun. and 4. JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x . JJtp *£jG- a bucket. ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V». as o!/*-* xxx drunken. .JUAJI. x x x . 1. ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr. Fractus. XXX ^jU&. J&.. K/ 4/ . 5." ^JUj (both with the art. ^U^. Nouns Subslti Adj.a hermaphro^^. the forms JUi XXX and . x l^Ui as i\jjs> . Fract. ^«i.row^A ground. ^Jl x fc . 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. 0x ft as ajjJ**. JUt XXIV. xx XXIII. verbal adjectives J . "it"' ^^3 # . ^W*. f* 9' it . is ' x x x x x xOx always night. feminine adjectives. 0/J(/ . ^UiJI).. xxx . 1. not superlatives as ^Jul female.— Plur. J xO x XXX hungry. ^** sweetmeat. .^5^*. t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx . B xx .

* bl£c *].cautious^ wary. ^bl . 9 * 8. iL*s.222 Part Second.J5Us XVII. XXIV. *5 t*J ^ et ^ . covered with shame. j^Lfc. bt jca. Ja*. *». 5J/ 9 6. as x ^ x x x (Jul . —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form . for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] .. L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7. SjUl a ta#. etc. [^b>*. j*t^> a boon-companion. disposition. verbal adjectives as ix*».. Fract. ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. jtx+l an orphan. in nos. W x m* x nature. bU»w . et 9 .). aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried. [Luc evening. blfcuo io^ bliftA. J as {Jj^L. 5 and 6. ^Uis. btj^. as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. 0t 00% .-jtjJb. Instead of ^Ui 00 . x ^ ^ . (for 4~Ja£. . Ja3.^ en j)«m. 9 t 9v)t . btu 4*fc) subjects. We write 000 etc. 90 ^JW*. for {J\ juk (§Ui).) a sm. ^gjbt * 9 . / x xx C *j!**a # present. "[§ 304 A Plwr. bljJb instead of ./afe. SJ$*z the upper part. 9 . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding. j^Us 9 continued. 90 * ^ ^£ . bt jJk a-mU . i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. iJjC*-. . we find. \J>S}+: * Rem. x x x . something over and the above. «/ x . (JJ.tJ^ B o>». ^AZ-t 9 I .]. Rem. rem. 000 . jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. Sing. fern. a)Ui. a).sad. bUj . a swollen belly. x b^b .having 9 J . ^W-j 000 jJ^. *Ja». from verba tertise rad. to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179. 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. ^j*\^> 0% 3 .

Fract. ^•y. J»*J. a 9x J thread. S. 9 . Jjti .. an intestine. as ^l^j b. J**3 a 9' J J stallion. * . as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water. y*£- a wild ass. Jjtf. Ox *J used for washing anything. stout stick. 1. JLoJ(rare). etc. Rem. The Noun. j-jif 1^*5 a . > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3.ti Adj. 0> tjljj . Ox . AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. Ziyi* . bljj for Here . * 2J^*» (comp. B ^ et 9. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier. ***». as 9. bt^j. a s/a«0. A. Nouns Subst.JUs is thought to stand for JjUs . . 240. . Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. rem. 9* *3 . . from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad. &UU. JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass. clothes.„ mill. 223 Plur. 9' J . § J J %&* 9 . 90 * . . \S\jJf.» an uncle (by 9 .§304]- II. A continued. as ^U.). Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from . x c) . * XXIV. {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^. aiyU(rare). Ox 2. j£j * „- cattle. * * XXVI. ^ and ^ . J\*.^tj-tfu a Christian. w~J^» . a large water-skin. ' [Rem. yi£» a (fogr.^c> 9x J .L 9 * a pilgrim.— Plur. 3J^a*J [h^. ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem.JUi (|Tjj). Fractus. X - Ox .] C XXV. ju*fc 2 - . JtftU 3 x . as Jjo a husband. 4> * * * aj^I*. a ^U* Sing. ii>U]. etc. thought to stand for ^J^l^i.yLo otU fodder. bi>»a. t ** . CtSJ. tertise rad. for Here too . as juft ^" . the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 . 3u^\j is a corner. Jjis fttfo).an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side).1 (&**.

J*\~* a traveller. 1. XXVII. 1. a %' " . G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . m'° ' as a£X». fix S x . && Sftx (rare). The forms J-j*i. ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). 6 ft x . a n'w^. jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr . XXV. ftx fracta. and the generic rft ( u . u»j*- v^W. wnU. Ox x . The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. <i b ' «x x 5 x x . °" «xx Jjii. J^li ..l£»$ j^-». # 3j& a pulley. x a caw^Z. aJUa. Jii(rare). Rem. watching. 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a . Ox x . j*aJ a merchant. mM£. . XXVIII. 3. Sftx 6 . J*5 as ^^j x a t" * . wJJa xx . Fract. Ox j. a)U*i x J^c*. . JiX».U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. J^ti. ^^U. * * * an attendant. and ft x J xft£ XXIX. helper. «^U a *i # follower. bull.« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer. (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. SftxSx w>£> . j&. j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. as j*}* etc. j*j>a. ^w x > . Ox J*3 .«aJI x S x x *lo-*t). x x OxOx *. Q .».» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion. aAai * x . Oftx . v^J a. as w*». a guardian. Sing.# sfowe. but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl).. which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. a %p ..xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). j. keeper. 2. [§ 304 A Plur. a - servant. XXVIII. j*oj driver. are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur. (rare). 5 ft w^-L^ a companion. XXIX. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^Juii and Jjii are .224 Part Second. 2.. circle.lo # companion. J^J ^Jlb seeking. jjj]. as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels). aXxi.' ". as ^U*J. SftxSx .

o. jj*£. ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . J»x Rem. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e.§304] II. g. 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use. (as j^l* x pi. Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived. A. HA*. X 9^9' E. ju*£. jl^». Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. which 0* x J pi. OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. Ox x The forms XXVI. •> 2L/3-JU. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. ^J&*. it <& Adj. wim^.. sing.xx JJu a x . w>U>. c. %—^. Sjufel.xx a s&we. present.o». A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " . From the preceding i obvious that one sing. SjUj. a poet. (as JJUU perishing. x w^-lo a companion. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr .JL ^ D (besides jut.«). see rem. . 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. 29 . lU$3l* . . OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. jus. but from others. SjuA* chief. necessary to notice . ib^oto. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w.& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© . The Noun. o x sfow. O x . O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£. . a). g. Nouns Subst. feminine by signification. a). . OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U». w>la» -o. « and are : £&»»>.Jl*i.o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. OOx ^>Ut a she-ass. juftl. Rem. of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x . x J ^^ x Jfcx .« a sword. Ox x x . llo^-bt*. ^jLa^o (besides a. J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat.o l. 6. « x . S^j. a he-ass. O and I^^juLo. il^^sw. fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e. v x x a>^3. <U> ^>>>-o. o . ilj^at*. j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass.>j.) from an obsolete J*** 0**w). s^ow^.» for instance. 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx. see rem.g. j^U. Fractus. ul jLc. no^ x te»3yfiU . jLct. masculine by form. Ox j*~> a sea. £tjj-oc*. <U£^o oW man. and J^U. OOx J J )\£\. XX Ox OlUi. /»jP ^ar^e. Sjujco.—Plur. x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. a O x x a Ox doctor. ^xxJ lUxw.) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb). <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x . °° " T" * t ' l man. ^^ ^ _.

gems. ^J^J^. x jdbl£. in the second. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example. X X Sing. or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj. Or. ^sS^s a streamlet. *^*&y» a ta&& 2. (J*lil. fract. JJ 9 ISC. O^W- The forms of the plur. JJUi X 1. fract. or ^0 . if the has several meanings. to take another instance. X j*U3. j j has jdbtyw. v>-^t. fract. £#£> signifies (1) an eye. which consist of four or more consonants. Quadriliterals (5 not included). Plur. eye-witness. CHJ/J 9 * . ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. obUj X jJt^*. J*UU). xx . (4) a distinguished man. w*J^ a fish. (2) 9 a verse of poetry . ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. (jL^l. s jl^. is O^o or OLot.. as f-t-o}. (3) peculiar nature or essence. (2) 9 J J a valley. the consonants of which are all radical j . in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. O. in the latter almost always : Owl. as wJju j *' . £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. t [§ Oi . bridge. (3) a tribe. >y^>. v>^ * . formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . J^tjc». or ^Lftl 9 9 . a finger. c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. &>cms£. star. * 0>tu. 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth. in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 . 3^*1 J^^ . 6x * if prefixing !. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . 9 * * . fract. 9 x or used in preference to the rest. 305. it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it.-. in the third. sing. . 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness. x ' jj^jJfcl*.226 Part Second. Again.» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . (2) a fountain. iifcut. along with the corresponding singulars. 9 in the former sense the B plur. In such cases. I. 4 ** + j^. its plur. Fract. a column or (in a book). are exhibited. of substantives and adjectives. in the following table. j For example. >U^. —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech. *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . 9*0 a fox. as a letter). (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather . *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house. 9 J Oi its plur. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. (4) the interior. 3ju£. + • 3* serving. worshipping. ** . in the second. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc.

in that case. J^lit e. in the e.g. the productionis into hemza (5). J i* x x remains unchanged. Ua». ^— is not converted after the as happens. i<i«^ meaning. <sLo*}Lo a reproof. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I . make. AcwL. § —but 240).>). especially with the superlative meaning. a station. C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» . ^. t* « . of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad. I. ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. 6. J »»xx form XVII. J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. x x clil (for x* ^lit. Rem. as^jtu.> ». [and. . j-»Uu«. 9 < ul x halting -place.L^«. ^. *~b\j*c]. [f^j-o suckling. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx . and X X usually j^U*. y].g. >jtjt no.»). compare perience. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving. XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>). In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. fract. J jU*o . XX Rem.& Adj. Fractus. w^lcc*. XXIIL.1 xf . jjU-« x or dwells. aw open XX x »-U-o. and usually ^^Ltfuo. £Jj-U a x x .o a claw or J talon. or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li. Fract.c. x x 9 x ?»-. *^JlaL* . Jxft* see § 309. Jjlii (Jwrf. rem. of ^tu. j»yk* .X^.. a plur. for instance. 227 Plur. of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). £m<7. w>3-d) a misfortune. *Ag»i means of J i. J^OI] J ^jt Adam. cont. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert. viper. 0/ a finger.»>. e. b. . The Noun. often taking the form JjtJI. the 9x .« a cwr/ (from «. as J Jj^. ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J .ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. ^. § 304.— Plur. ^. a r. In the plur.g. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick. as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase. Nouns Subst.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town.. . A. ex- w^U^ . Jclli) .) 2uj**3 trial. J*U5.§305] II. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t. O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x . ^jXJI . J Jxx into (. a minaret. rad. J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar.

jjI£»*n)I. xg . o3 »J ^». . & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky. ^Ut |S [4*». ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx . J statue. o ^) x . (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included). . D 2 o c o ra<7^. of (I. O*^lo a .JUi-j and Ols*j. O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr. Jjtil (J-^Ut. J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky. J*»»!. J**uJ.£ . £ . [§ 305 A Plur. x£ . ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah. /. i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds. j JU65. ^jltf J (for x x .>*£-> X X fe/tf. ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. ^Ia>. as O^*** a sultan. x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt .t & . XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*.j-Jslw X . J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture. ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. ^jt/j) C x .o jooor.t . grandees. w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x . £>*a*\j~t X ..^o$j\ a mottled snake. J § j o oj devil. desert. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Je^tji). a litera productions x o j x x j.*. as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being. Fract. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303.) x . Ox x Op a garland or crown. £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. xx . rem. J x£ . i^fbtfL* X xx . Jj.t a tent-rope. J*ftlii. inauspicious.] .bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA. I. ». flowers. . auspicious. 0x0 JU«j # chronicle.« a #03/. (jU3 s&?r£ drawers. [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*. w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. . ^£jly* an<^ jV 0. B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * . nobles.228 Part Second. l l.j-**Uo x . II.> a Bactrian camel. C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . xx . *Ujj . 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed. >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp. J x x .jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble. j**u5. jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx . JJlii (J*tft. x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>». an ^ ostrich's nest. JWu)4oat j Sing. S x xx . JP J **3Ui W X . ^>U»w a X J wolf. J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ .

0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning.ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 . J x£ . t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284. JJU3 ( j-^lit. jtL>3 « dinar. is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . o o£ - jo. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. & Adj. xxj g g x hojSj. of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet. cont. b\j«3 a carat.l. from a form \Jy£\) JjLai. x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her. J J^tji. « J xx . J JJU* . x x having a young one with clever. (v?^*) quinsy. ^Jilia. form either rare or does not (pi. Rem.) J . Rem.» JjUxo 9 ' . a collection Ox J office or bureau. license. B as^^Jt^a. a sacred claim. chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio. t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . Nouns Subst. has ?»-^W. 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. jy^^J hemorrhoids. J Ox x «. a x x 3 x buffalo. J § § i** j jJbU^ . J**£?. =^i[±. . The Noun. II. j**U3. 6. Oy'» a furnace. j+^l^c. xx JxxJ off. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast. The plur. J vestibule or apartment. C plur. from^oUl*. Fractus. of V jtaftt a dust-storm. J-J.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov). k. a bath. Fract. used. j x x j*~*\y}. 229 Plur. . x g Ox « Ox register. J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . plur. a spring. a public xx x£ ( an account-book.§305] II. J x Conversely. u-^wol^ a. Compare rem. from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges. JJUs sing. signet-rings. ^j\yi> a of poems. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . in modern Arabic. Sing. a dungeon. J^lii.. J^jlw. A J^V') i x£ .—Plur.> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico. xx OxO Ox x Ox J . ot^ 7?"W>' brocade. curds. has J^Jl^aW and. * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo. xx make j-Jlo. i>£$t>>. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. f fi r. J^JUaW. ^I^ai. apum). her.

SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. . Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f . 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>». Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords. . Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters. xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X . liHis. x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . S x . x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar. relative adjectives. SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X . of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . jLjU and IjjCf. angel. consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic.g. a-jJLy-*. tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen. of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — . Chosroes) the king of . J . « money-changer. a teaclwr. 1. J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. III. [§ 305 A Plw. —and S . iUwl) a master. as iUwt (Pers. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda. C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin. JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx .A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c .230 Part Second. Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop. (Pers.« . Ko/xrjs). oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J . S^-oL*J XX . J xx . which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. a great letters. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. StJj T» J (Heb. Fract. w^Sa).—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. J i>j. TraTpiKio?). jj—»•». Syr. — especially many E. 03-*^-* Pharaoh. a pupil.Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter. ajjUu* a . Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers. XX « X 2. (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). Sing. S Sxxx « Moor. Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor.« S stocking or &?£& < . xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's). aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes. T&Sfi.

besides . 0X XX JU>Uo. XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. x£ t^jbl) XV. ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. she- 5 Ox J 0x camel.^ AiaJ Ptolemy. Kg. J>-Jt. Lr>ft. «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. fowwf. a. more J In forming the plur. C x 2 x . and the J letters of prolongation). and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. rem. though rarely. j»ola»^ «x J Ox. an equal. ca^o. and XIX. Fract. This form is also found. of the plur. a XX jfatf. 4J& « <%. and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. jilt and XV. ca&e.-w^llS). one of the radicals xx . 4*-*!^/. the plur. ljA*a*. Jlii.g. forms XIII. J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. J^JU< J v> a quince. of nouns which contain JxOx E. 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. generally the last. 6. A. c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. rejected. Persia. and XVIII. I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j. The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb. Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. D JliS. j£~*\ '. £>yfii* x . are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. Nouns Subst. and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. J*frUt ..§ 305] II. In particular. Ox a 9 xx x spider. Zazy xx . . O-Jlii. 3i»wl£»l. and XIV. . The Noun. jut (for t^ju. XX five or Rem. J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. 2j6 a x£ . oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale. x as jU». x XX woman. more rarely V. has. b). J_«-l£L»). XIII. Sjyi\. £)&* a £Xol.» the x x (for ^^l^w).1). 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar.>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. J5U3. ^jlii. x£ . iJUif make Jclil. 0X .—Plur. ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt. ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. fract. * X i Ox xx . & Adj. letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract. 4-^>l 2ri6e. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . 9/ III. 231 Plur. plur. xx A Sing. a like. * ajJUi continued.« tyrant^ a giant. * £ r* * t 5^ x x . i Jjjtji x . or 2 ' " » . or secondary plural). 264. 0JO* J XX . <LJlku oo/acotikos). . literals 5 «S Rem. Fractus.

A x J Ox also be derived from V. . . ^su oox camels. ^Ut *Z . pi. ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls. §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine.Ou». J>ai. family. especially those that indicate the — relations of sect.>^Ut. *LJt. O^U*. J^j a man. a speech. Oxx . j a vessel. —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). ^Ua. . families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ. smoke. x (for . and a few other forms.xxx Ox . [^u». oZ *Uj a building. t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . J "1 £ x x 4. x OU^J. JUi. J Ot^ji Cxfc .. 4-Jatt. fix xxOxxx jb « house.t^o.. Ox < JjtJ. Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number. XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI. j**\)\ x? . t an iron -y»jL»J. J|y> « saying. O'NjUfc. Ox JUjfc. a he-camel. j^i. great d. joay. many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives. J^lSt jJite a nail. houses.232 Part Second. anything woven or plaited. foe>£.*. as ^k**. ^tjit. jUjt. or when their number is indefinite. # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter. • ea#-£e. J . a party or sec£. jutj^. AjJtjjj^l. ^UiM. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower. og Oxx jJa.... £ijje . JU-.xxx . Oxx j^xx III. OUUjI (with the dimin. Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink. . a he-camel.\. Otjulj^. J^Jj^t. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. a * J3l*». Oxx a she-camel. J »»x x £$*a*. j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . Ob^wl ~s .»x O*^^- Again.>l «x q . j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk. jj-c*. XVIII.a» . OtjJ^k. Cxt^^»». Rem. '. O3-0. j-o^. XIX. j»\xj\.. VI. <L>j£\. j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». "x OlSLJ.. x £ XV. JuJU*-t x £ j . and JUjI. Jjiij-XVII. ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as . il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites . JjUj. is °» J ^ OU. w*». dUUt.ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV.». t 6 J x £ J Jl^il.> OJOxJOx jj>. or clientship.lo a female companion. X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees). » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% . J^a. rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass. \^yo a Sufi.'-. J>jJ».. she-camels having x £ Oxx J V. 9+9 .1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc. Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house.. j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech. &£>>). Olf"6 0<. OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*.j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j .

^UJ. 4JL». A.. . whence #*« fWX.— Plur. (k)|.Ui (from . too. 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^». X*. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». atyl (from a x »»x £ sing. and can be used as masc. mules . *U>. SjUsu spectators. ' anus. See § 233 268. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus. strictly speaking. C the rad. or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. oUw .306] j II. of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir. dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat.jl^~J (from the rad.jjl. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians. The consequently. i. aJlxJ. in use. $)}$ Aram. collectively. XgOtf l#-*)). Nouns Subst.1 & Adj. < fil « P - «P« o . The plural of some nouns is anomalous. 306. they are all of the feminine gender. oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general. S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. As regards their meaning. The Noun. a oxi x 4jj-ojJt. dU«. J^J). together. persons who own or &eep camels.e. Fr actus. 30 . only by a constructio ad sensum. w^w.-xOxOOx* a woman. (men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking. as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . a jii.Olk)|). who SJ slaves. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. the former a number of individuals viewed . O^J» human being (Heb. w. of Marwan. Rem. asses. o Oly-ot (Syr. 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi).*). water.. ^^Jt. dl^ot (from a sing.. IZ. <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb. X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed. rarely J x x . * . the partisans 5. XX ' %>. |Z. dUw. aJULw travellers. for x . h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. x O x 6£ . dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . J0 X For are D example. a mole. Hence. [ajI^ j^w- cferers]. l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. several individuals 6 . singulars with a collective signification. B e. 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x . horses. Cwl tfAe «£/» . 5 #}« n^X). OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. a spring. yottfA (juvenilis).

). _ (Gen. [yjjl camels. 1 D (Norn.. A declinable J^. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . as Jo*J bees. The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII.. Diptotes are (Gen. in the singular number. Juil.)*. the latter concrete collectives. people or tribe. those which have only two terminations — Ace.). (1) Undefined and adjectives are. are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10). on 246 and 292. Triptotes are those . 2/ie JS& sheep].-L^-* whilst . noun may be declinable.. jSL*s> an army . substantives 308. rem. Hi declined without tenwln. Jill. or simply o »» ^jSioZc. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju. or ^y**c. The Declension of Nouns.. it is necessarily employed without any 4. XIV. see § 8. and XV.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural). and \1 or 1 (Ace.. • • J or possessed is of. fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). which are indeclinable. 2jJ\. only to such nouns as have also other plurals. The former may be styled abstract. limitation as to number.. named lj5£* £>*»». Ij&.*aJl § l\+~i\ a. for one of the forms alone be used. .234 Part Second. or the Parts of Speech. as^o^i. Ixfcj. I. fracti 307. A noun may be w^**. and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246).) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. plurals of abundance. The Declension of Undefined Nouns. and whilst the rest are fy***. Rem. These are called *. 1 (Nom. o j declined with tenwln. either triptotes or diptotes. plurals of paucity. * viz. The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c. a). to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz. —Etymology u . . This observation applies. A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns.£ o^uU j*s. the nominal character or nature. a established in. or . if C of course. XIII.

.<& Adj. . x and the pluralis fractus. Nouns 8ubst. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*. tJie a * the vowel a voice). jjt— (Nom. —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable. A. for ^£j\^. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih. J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. case . as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. as in the in jlj*. of Nouns.\ duy^j. 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter. ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s. The Noun. *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. as J^-j.. also called . stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat. jlaJI).) and <>j_ (Gen. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes. possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U. and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U. *3 where J&*». the : nunation of compensation. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice). in the singular v>jj-3. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word. J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. 235 * * common (3) to both genders. in 3*0*0* between the definite. Ace. . * * of an indeclinable noun.\.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . or 5 x ^ j^Jt.— Beclen.)*. viz. is a designated w*cudl. cjSLti\. 4ifA«JI. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. . as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 . tfAe of annexation . plural of 4Jjl»>. 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. found in the plural feminine. This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition. at the on. in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive. as CA+JL**. 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ.§308] II. — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent.. 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c. t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite. (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence.

).) and or the Parts of Speech.. Triptote or First Declension.) and . — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. for the feminine. Ace. Substantives.j->_ (Gen.. viz. — Etymology Oi— (Nom. — substantives and adjectives. exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309. Ol— Ot- (Gen. Ace. for the masculine. [§ 308 A gender.236 Part Second. (Nom.)*. a). B .

& Adj. 237 Triptote or First Declension. Nouns Subst. A .— Declen. Substantives. of Nouns.§308] II. A. The Noun.

[§ 308 B .—Etymology or the Parts of Speech.238 Part Second.

as £*&\y. (of jJte poor) Fern. . 180.—Declen. The Noun... L*-5. and ^o*Ut. D. . « son. ^oi. j) viz. A Masc. Plur. a man. Ac. and II. more than three radical letters) .§ 309] II. also used (see § 19. G. Aja* Rem. the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. Kl. for t^«ot and^ul. as J '' A*i C^tj. The following nouns are diptote. Faik C 524. J ^i Op. Lane and Fleischer. w*5U^ wonders. j-bU5 bridges. Adjectives. 309. Jstji (XVI. Gen. Comp.. There are two words in Arabic. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N. Ace. 239 Diptote or Second Declension.. Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti. Nouns Subst. Schr. and JJU* etc. Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. which are Sing. d). p. that is to say. & Adj. (I. flexional a. a.. viz. as quoted by Zamahsari.] Rem. ^i. C J J J Nom. jj-«t. Gr. A. in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive . . fract. b. JJU* of nouns which have causes. jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t. ^jJa*^^ sultans. J3U* (XVII. of Nouns. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb.). the forms etc. Loijt [According to i. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda . G. iSjii . 139 seqq.).

plur.11). ij>*>'. of Jjt. £^>.. ^^-j*?b. £-aj. rem. needy.240 Part Second.. by elif as a virgin.g. and ^Us fract.). other. as j\js. ^Xati (XXII. Rem. of this form are usually t regarded as triptote. C Compare and Rem. &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_. B £^. is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical. J*». J*ojl « humming . «// together. ••11 T« admissible {. W plnr. (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. /? (*1— ) c. maksura radical .' first . rem. iUil. viz. wise men. 16. its and of fern. (XXIV. are as J*ojt poor. iU-cu. a). Jj^t a hawk. l\sC£=>. btjUfc presents (compare . and 296) . — Etymology c. *-©**.] b. (a) Common nouns and memduda a.g. iUZj. fern. j^. /?. viz. (3 wounded /?). or the Parts of Speech. [(e) iUwt. . Ji'j pl ur fract. of etc.1. ^^S. J*it. rem. c. adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . JU3 (XXIII. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232.) and b. &&L viz. e). £*a». 2. is . w-Jjt (l e. Compare elif y and c. Hii (XX. is ^ar<?. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb. dX*j\ poor. Excepting those in which the § 213).> white (§ 296). /?).virgins.1. wonderful . Various common nouns and adjectives . j*>*-\ red. si j - w£ . the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. of *U***. Jj^-t. XIV. /?. as \£^> memory. (compare § 299. another . &*i\ (XXL) . without O x a wife. is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295. s without a husband. —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J . J s bi e. ^Ct j prisoners. its fern. \SjZ~* drunken 295. . but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. and of fract.1.) . ii > at . Ju«U. b. of j^. triptote . as v**i^ more f. a widow. f.). and 234—5). of J r*s - x Op which the fern. and § 301. needy. and 'I c. ).t a green woodpecker. as [§ 309 A (. J ' i men.

stolid. »£OU and wJJlo.§300] II. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . Nouns Subst. • o j Q%*i . & Adj.^o o O x x ' dry. 9 3u*$j&. 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. Rem.jl». ^0 6y New.—Diptotes. however. one. 9 x x ^jS^La thin. o x ^la^o x o and <jl». ^*^i Jx so x J and so. j * oS e. Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. 241 J -it Rem. ^Jflui a wide. such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi. ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. A which would be very b. 6. when used as sub. their fern. rem. iLojl. black). eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (. (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern. jjt^cu Christian. mean. a * withered.-a»-cJI) . or jjUa^w . ^U^-o stupid. dun). Adjectives of the form J*£l. have also % x J the form x J ^^*s. vile. fljUdL* Ao£ 3 .^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. The Noun. . is &%x3 295. are rare. ***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^. Q x jU*w stupid. e. as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken.g. —Adjectives a. okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. stantives.^o. tofi (mo? slender . a) SxOxSxxOx f. as iUj and w. a. 5 x The word ^l». O*^**. of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop. « x xx S x . x ^^£ ignorant. JjjS stony j * o p mottled). A. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x . ^^o.angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to .^o ^Ij^S. ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun. ^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. as being formed by adding 3_ 295. Rem. Rem. Mtm % three. a) . rem. 31 . slender.jl».g. 0^**> J x or x O^** J . are all triptote. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion. is x x f- x x '' 295. . Some J x x > of these. [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . ^jtoju a boon companion. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3. gravelly water-course. retain the diptote inflection blackish.

4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. as O J *. ^^ Sulma. viz.g. in the sense of each. is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. o!/** Imran ('Amram). as A#] Many proper names . maksura (compare a. . is declined without tenwm.242 Part Second. declined without tenwm (e. /?) and . oW*-* Sufydn. 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al. memduda (compare John. with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I.g. whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). a. <bjJ Lot.jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman. 5 J Joseph. Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . Jka*~>t Isaac. (used) as an adjective. a). [with the exception of of the forms Solomon. as . as ^*At/jt Abraham. which is an adjective. For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al. after it in the genitive . (a) Foreign names of men. l ^U*** Hittan. we must employ the word nunation. as (§ ju^t. requires an indefinite and so in other cases. JUi (§ 333). l^ij^j Zachariah. when it is an indefinite noun. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. jjib David. excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis. c.£> Noah.>U Adiyd. because J^». [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b. j-**-\ red) . as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- . j^yJ LUla. y and p and b. every. letters. (y) Proper names in jjt_. J&\ tremor. l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. those that were originally ijlyj*.

Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . Oli^c and even Oli^. Gu&m. proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters. or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or. A. j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). ace. icj Ztogw (a woman). B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name). *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). as^oUai Katdm. J^j planet Saturn. though 3 consisting of only three letters. e. cfc Adj. or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) . jZZ> Satar. proper names in * Oec. x x x* £a*-U» Talha. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna . which do not end in foreign origin. are trisyllabic. j$*. S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men).\jj the sun. w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names . j£Z*£ Yeskur.g. [Fem. joa or jUA Hind..] 3_. Ols^c. owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* . >oUj Tumddir. ^y~j Yubnd. 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). e. letters. Yurdmil.^£**. as Ol^pt gen. proper names. *-. their tenwln. Ot keep ** * . The Noun. A 3 d * f and J*$. 3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar. * w>o J/ if Dor ib. Fem. have . w-A*j Taglib. Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. 3 * * jyo Tyre. D (6) common Proper names. . J*U>j Bakas". juJj Yizid. jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. ace.j*j Zufar. Gur. Oli^c gen. These latter. Nouns Subst. w^JU a scorpion.g. — But name fem. / j-a* Egypt. . ££c M"ekka. * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty. jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM. 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). '(c) Common nouns letters. the second of which has gezma. A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the .—Diptotes.§ 309] II. j»\j^ Haddm. oUpl . of the feminine gender. however. 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. ace.

. c. J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. x acc. w^ 1. xx x nom. 10.. Hadar (a star in the Centaur). the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. Each word may.» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*. x O^-a*.. ftffl*. some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1. ^ juu. 5). Oj^o». and Besides being used as proper names.^IJ^. [§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us.C J~J b sceleste ! f. l**-J*o (§ 264). ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city).death. as ou^^w. of which the jUa- the female hycena. for we may acc. jb\j\ a year of famine. last letter is r. as^&lii. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*. (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. J»^-*t. say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*. foil..—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable. G. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421. ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii. aj^j-©*. J^». xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . J JO O^-oj-o*.] . JUi. 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all. " x x *£Ubo.) or w^» . Ofrxo^rw. and ace. ou^Lii.^Us the female hyama. ^aCOvilis! Rem. Words of the form JUS.) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j). the second being in the genitive. cxi.). J-^-ctj*. however. viXJju. gen.« £y* (Fdik i. x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. Compare Beladorl 60. The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J . ! f. D xx gen.. etc. as a. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. e. nom. Rem. w>U». are » almost invariably indeclinable. and are wholly indeclinable . in terms of abuse. be declined separately. jLo*. J Li b o .g. .244 Part Second. forms. last and Baidawi D. *£*!*» improbe f.Jt Sur. O^-o*-. ' . *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. j*\j«o war... Rem. word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x . gen. u^l5j. jl»s». *jjj.

jt_.g. *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i . viz. and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb. period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i. Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai. UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form. The Noun. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural]. as £©i»li. The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln. grammarians to be nine in number . 6* *> J x S Rem. the case naturally Proper names. are usually reckoned by the viz. w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu. J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name. . . termination £)\—. which in is Jxx Jjjuco. Hassan. (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI.—Diptotes. is e. .jll». There however.1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. (a) . derive it if we derive this name from the . radical u**. d. a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil. D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination .L~o mosques. o j$} * .§ 309] II. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. word . from j-olc.. as ^jUJk. is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**. ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective. Nouns Subst & Adj. i <o x . are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met. 245 Rem. >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. Hence we say <jU»».yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning. A. e. -*4jLa4 lamps. when used indefinitely are employed in . jt». J + w-^JBI. ' * * . (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*. x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is. for there x x x . J 5 it is triptote. so jlo^.g.o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c. w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in . Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln . J x Ajjjut* from A^blS). or transformed.

^J for ^^J (^^3). ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb. in + J*a)\ J c. .g. ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. 312. asjH^. . . for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj. 1*^*3 . ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. but § 166. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. for ^— . so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). »~w (verbal ^a-w. Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c.) and Tab. ^^ ^or for ^5^. to end in All plurals of the second declension.) for ^5^^. a).1.g. which ^ is ^ . XVIII. 6. retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. acc. Nouns ending in — . L^tj . as j^. in the ace. a. for ^y*t. as u*j^} a. acc. -q. first declension. Tab. (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI. in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. + JaaJI Oj j. ace. jl£ for jjl£. in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ . Z+iuo^S + . o* B the termination jjt_. C E. ace. and gen. y b. (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI. 245).) for 1jJa> acc. and § 218). toft for 3-ac. ace. 311. 0— (according to E. « ^ j«Xai. the first declension instead . as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. 310.246 as Part Second. L>JJt* Cjte . >*o£. Jjuo for ^>*^. ace. which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . yet is the name of a man). f$ c. ^ (verbal adj. Petrus. Jjtst. which follow the J ' . Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . which ought regularly ^j— . Ww . D >»!. L**.. ^5*-j> and L»-j . ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. . ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309. though feminine in form.. /«/ fern. ^-« for ^^^o. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl. for and l^-os . or j- (§§ 213 and . U^«o j*3 . [§310 in form but not in meaning. for j_ (§ 167. follow in the nom. and those in . /?). ace.

j i&l^ *" . l\j^~o. § I 78) . acc. and have ^-. ^y**o. d). The Declension of Defined Nouns. .o properly the beautiful) never have the article. a^U. and gen. nom. Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. (a) by adding a noun in the genitive. . § 309. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309. the following D If it belongs to the first declension. and substitute 311. or (b) a pronominal suffix. w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined). man. - (for They moreover in retain. c. the & Adj. 313. disappears along with the tenwin.] 314. it loses the tenwin. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. The Noun. A. cases arise. —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining). nom. and gen.§ 314] II. ace. and conbut in the ace. if. 3 ii. Subst.. n^ . [Rem. II. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. and gen. of Def. ^jU^o. ACC. J rem. v. 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. Nouns.. Ox Undefined nouns I . for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o). i^j^l the city. ^U* . j\*>~a.. b. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^. Gen. nom. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*). plur. they remain true to the second declension. vol.. . . therefore. (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article.—Decl. j E. j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. 247 ^-). plur. jt^». The of the acc.g. become defined : 1. of the second. by prefixing the by adding article J 2. ) t JU-pt the men. unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. the chaste {woman). 4 plur.

Rem. it loses the tenwin.*! JU. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun. JUg city. c%JLLoJt the creatures. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311.). —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension. M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth. Gen. Gen. x Gen. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^. Acc.j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . oCubl a. oUJiyjt the darknesses. D the book of God. sanus masc. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur. ^j+jjJsAS. Acc. j^^^t the nobles.> Norn. Norn. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). ^yt from ^& I.. the black (m.jU*o. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem. 3 B Norn.f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men. The plur. and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed.j x x i . l5-h>^I from 0^5. assumes the Norn. 315. The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314). OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< . Acc. gen. oU^JI the believing (women). Acc.» wonders of creation. \J^. 312)..248 Part Second. part of the the men of the Gen. b. ^yU^Jt from . and jbecomes triptote. (b) minations of the first. as acc. sanus fern.* cM-^t ->*. w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. x J G x 0>o everyday. the following changes are produced.

the preceding vowel. and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father. ft!)3). The Noun. ^^o*-. in the ace.. .. ii. *£). and the second Ubl the m t genit. for w>t. lengthen itit s * j x at Norn. k. ^a~.] Comp. Noldeke in Zeitsehr. The words w>t 5 a father. first Rem. either X : XX Nom. f*. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. x ~-t a ^» brother. a. * X )l UUjU .ja a thing.\. ^t. which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. o x 249 Rem. ^yf. and Gen. yiA. Ci. i of Def. G.a>. see Comp. J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. Ace. £fa mouth (Aram. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. § 39. of w>t. after rejecting the tenwin. in all the three dial. Ace. etc. a]. S\. ^1. b. the owner or possessor of a thing. xlix. 6 J 15 whilst ^. ^5. La. U. a father- A . according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp. Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin.-i. var. Subst. does not do J xg wrong . in-law. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. M. J>. where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus. p. as * The same Gr. 321. for yl. after £>!. etc.§315] II. j^\ lit. J9^. J X makes Gen. ±j\. HE) constr. cases [bl being. C f.* The word £.— Decl. J. Nouns. for etc. etc. 142 seq. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. X vol. with suffix ^Jpfi. D. ^oi. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt. gen. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive. a.I. instead of ly«ot. has in the - B «x . rem. less frequently . \ dialectically.. 5 P & Adj. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . bt. or: ^3.

\j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen.] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. the form djj\. of the king came . poems. h).-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence. [§ 315 A j^m ^ c. ms belong the two holy temples of God. the sons their swords. Instead of OU^. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. I saw the king's sons. or the Parts of Speech. the son of O^t. or warning. [The latter was formerly preferred. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. wjU^t *O>0 an example. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual. rem. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire. a daughter. Ace. On the elision of the in Rem.>£ etc.< >««. Muhammad. * J tit* St to J Acc. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. (viz. lxvi. jJU. from two 'Abu Bekrs. the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20. C Rem. ^ Muhammad. ^o^iL^I drawing Gen. rem. to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came. when a genitive follows. for those who are \^3*$ h** c). the t son of Halid. If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. we may use. j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302. the Kor'an (Sur.250 Part Second. the final dUL^Jt ^ . *£U*Jt yij eU.q. ^>~$ . b. —Etymology jAJto.ijj. C-. ^>\ ^^jU. c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1. 12) and often in old Mss.jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 . . see § 21. the son of Gafar. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. takes a kesra instead of a gezma.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs.

and § 317). * ^ . from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s. with it o^LJ. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra. lose the tenwln. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> . ^JH+su. Subst. A. sanus of 4-i». ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers. c). this letter is • changed into (or rather. plur. suffix when it has kesra (Gen. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc). the B following changes take place. Of the words mentioned in § 315. are elided . & Adj. the dual ' 9 .. &yJ sons. instead of the gezma 20. If the noun ends form in 3. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft . fract. plur. from *->*$&. ly3UJJ» darkness. d*L»J. when it has damma (Nom. sanus masc. ^_ # (see Q § 185. »-! and .). as aOt ^akAo a. a. my gardens. the final vowels of the sing. 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. . gen. i)UL£> thy two books. rem. nom. A these terminations become. from £Jty. j_. as ioju a favour or benefit. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza. this letter passes before the suffixes into J.§316] II.. though incorrectly. OUAI? darkness. sanus fern. j_ and jl. plur. § 7.. (c) plur. to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. remains unchanged. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. ajLj. Ajusa Ais book. 9 t 9 t Rem. fractus. rem.—Decl. ^U^. the final j takes ^— j i and if damma. from OU.. as |L»J it women. as acc. before a following gen. the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book. of *jtf .) . (a) Triptotes and the plur. added to the nominal term. begins with an elif conjunct. the genit. his women. as icjU£» fract. a. and into £$. * j * * If the plur. wjt. rem. and plur. my of book. sing. see 316. i)yJ thy sons. The Noun. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. sanus fern. * and plur. of Def Nouns.

are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative . <jui |x**x j j .252 Part Second. *£U$.^Uoli). of ^U^ . from &***$£. sing. xxj from <jU^. from or .-iA X j but . •^ X . a«i.. in the long vowels t_. but X X J more usually. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom. rem. note *. nom. _.-jt. for 6xJ .c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo. ic^*-. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. Jy. for «*t . The pronominal genitive. A o . The Pronominal Suffixes. APPENDIX. ^bUw*. for ^gt^A. x x J of^L**.(§ 185).. D from ^>A. o ray Muslims. i "g . XX x 5 x x J plur. j si .-JL _: — B see § 315. d) being simply elided. and suffix of not . i * Jbt. a.>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). j ray xxxxj sins. nom. for xxxj ^ U^. is ^-. — ^x my mouth. the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—. the kesra X ^_ (see § 185. oy X . «$jt ii i i gen. suffixes which denote the Genitive. sing.^uo) or ^jAJsua* . X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit. X ^-OA X or . dbt . The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). attached to nouns to denote the 317. dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge. x .7 i . oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases.£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA. —^JA makes J .l>» . 4«i. in all the three cases.*)li. j^t^A for my Zove. o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes. becomes ^. * js- [§ 31. xOxxJ ray taw slaves.-£^L~o J y J . Rem. ^UUafcaJaa.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi. x ^_. p. ray ^0 my slaves. A-ot • " ace. for L5*«olS (. &»J\. the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. from ^^JLyO (^^q. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. of j_. t3 gen. ^Ui. Further. rem. x i ^.L».«>. i)^Ii or >^JUa.. l*±>\. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^. with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p. when the word ends in ^_ or ^_.. for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. £ IjUa£. which a. from fract. GZ E. X ace. ' £)y>\. plur. and likewise forms ^.g. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ . and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_.

into kesra after — . <t*Z>jl». of them both. j**-. Rem. ^5. The Cardinal Numbers. the form ^I^A. US. i^Ui.] The Numerals. The Noun. <u\S£s of his book. from QjkitfOt*. ^£_.— Cardinal. of the change of damma l^A. no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. little son has both ^Xj and ^. is used dialectically w>l. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — . B. yj^A^auc.] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b. ' ' S * If is [Rem. plur. . into ^j b. attached ! is in as w>j b. : 318. has been said in ii § 185. rem. rem. particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc. The Numerals. f-\.J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. peojrte [Com p.>A«). ^j\&. suffix . t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316.g. — On ^>A.9 his murderers. c. d. ^Jb. applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. 13 § 38. the What in o. 1. du)o\. arise. — [^> a 185. like — From words instead of § ^>A. ^Jb. rem. ii. U^jU^. or ^_. E. [which is the or^^U^). c). 253 ( Ly a ftJft. his two female slaves.§ 318] II. Just as the verbal rem.] Rem. sanus of j^aJxcl*.

sedestu and sessw. is istin apparently identical with cognate languages. — C*w stands. men. the masc. S-mLoj (§ 6. ^ rwe. rem. and v v J I exchanging with ^. c>j£* JU->. ten men (lit.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy . =pnt)j T or> as others think. when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. Rem. The Jewish Aram. JU-j Zj***. which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. . The daghesh in the Heb. CH^K) indicates . masc. and the ordinal adj. (for rnnN). Rem. ##. fern. for one in the sing. form. plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th. ^jl*. derived from the single. c). a. for sedsu). as it were the dual of jjj . the fraction ^ju. D 319. o* a. = J?£^. sixth. — Etymology >L?$3. as in tfiPft. a decade. according to the § Arab ^juj. for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14. only one or two forms deserve notice here. HB^. the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . aj*}U. snow.» jw. or sUJ j-&s. ten women. form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic. rem. but the the Heb. b. form. The Assyrian therefore. lexicographers.g.. . T • stand for BHBf. — Qft^W. . and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. a). [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. or E. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). fern. }Hfi. numbered are of the masc. . t . D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . 2£Xj. and. &}$ (H becoming as in gjf. or the Parts of Speech. a sixth. sole. Rem.254 Part Second. . when the objects numbered are fern. n^l) _ . gender and conversely. a. The cause of this phenomenon. ft %f i < for dJloJ.

or Jx^lj^t j^jOI. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very .'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months. *. ii. which follow the gender of their substantives. (viz.§ 321] II.jj\. etc. rarely construed with the Rem. The Noun. of three men (lit. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men. of men. rem. in the sense of broken plur. with the . — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj. as JU^.. The Numerals. is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj].yOj ^UJ (see § 320). etc. few J years. § 99. b. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325). or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj.-i in a . in the construct state. . either as a singular masc. 255 cardinal numbers. as JU-j aj^U. is are really masc.. they of course lose the tenwin 314. If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article. or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-. B. and gen.0 s*0 .. the implied j>\A).] 320. S^J **su some women.. or they precede them. . either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan.0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace. ten days. nom. Rem. fern. ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R. a triad of j) men). in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural. 6.jl*j has. Rem. vol. See jj also § 322. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives. —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc.— Cardinal. rem. three men (lit. ^ a part or <- portion)'. c. a.. Rem. aajjI. ace. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. They either follow the objects d. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say. — consequently a£Xj. LjUj (according to § 311). and are put in apposition with them. J s The 'o.5*$3 numbered. j^-t^J j»^*M. a). yj*+~i %*cJ . o. and has 321. An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. for example.. a triad) . [Comp. in the genit.

256 Part Second. 0^0 Rem. %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered. LUj two colocynths. fractus (see § 319. plur. sing. d. which are in the genitive of the . instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o. and then of course drop their (§ 315. b) .. rem. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. b). or simply ^jUUsO^. as JJa-ia. of the objects final j^j numbered. [§ 322 genit.

20. .

&U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. Rem. and hence in poetry ^)UU. c. —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech. " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U. the forms ^Jjyc." x Rem. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word. a5Lo.0 2u*.258 Part Second. sing. mS) Ox 9«>* . scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i. 0x6 surplus).3UJ. B #U 1HS #U ajjt J . The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. . twenty and odd . 300. P a5U « . 500. of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an. a.] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry].1U. excess.0't. Ox w*Xj. The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU.JU-M) are rare. Heb. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit. 700. the j (5). a5U genit. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. but was inadvertently placed J) before.] i x | J O plur. Ox Rem. ^O C T _ asu . it in the 4w £jU. and more recently . . &w " U5U. 800. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**. G. X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3.. as £5loiij. The O xJOx * D. to 900 are :— 600. (see § 321). 400.e. " Assyr. as £)3J-*»*3 also used. J* ' ' a5U 900.. b. but juaj and are 325. Rem. instead of after.? t": me'e*.«© (with the Ox article.. and . O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year). i^w ijl^JLj. is O^**6 Ox x Olio. or x ^U.. etc. ntf£> Aram. The numerals from 100 100.

B. The Numerals. The Noun.— Cardinal. .§ 327] II. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000. are : 259 326.

Masc. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C .260 Part Second. [§ 328 2.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. :- 328. The Ordinal Numbers.

(formed directly from C-w. they remain unchanged. If joined to the ordinals of the units. j-&t etc. ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus.330] II. ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. these latter precede. B. X X (ace. admit the inflection of the unit.yU)t in the ace. and genit. ^jJju\ the twentieth. Rem. aj^I». j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs. as %LsX OX wJUM. £rtj***3 >{*». And j ijl5. etc. and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. and even These numerals are not declined. 9x x (gen. <jtf makes. both its parts take the article as . when Ml defined. ^^ X iJ&\. A jJIj. 330. x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some. ^^X c. 03j**c.eleventh. ijlif. . /jl5. x x . : — B Masc. O^J-^J ^3^*). ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. the art. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli.3 *^**- If a . etc. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. for ^^l*. of course. as Ojj*^ x twentieth. 2 *U~/) are occasionally used. b.— Ordinal. when they are unif defined by the article. iJlj. however. 329. 261 Rem. S^c. The Numerals. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . The Noun. construct state so with the rest and with the art. twenty-first x x xJOx fern. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. defined . x x —Jtf. x x Ox The L3U. S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom. in the construct state and with .33UM. compound of this sort be defined. Rem.]. ace..

§ 108. O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS.. in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. if this By the accusative of the nomen . or aio sJ^T *W. S^£d 0*h* twice. cardinal numbers. once. \Jj. ^3^. the fourth of the twenties. CHj*** twenty times.. or (i. thrice. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S. twice. in the accus. etc. third time.. vol. vicis (§ 219).jJS*& 2/*e ..e. thou hast given us death twice. 333. tfe i*0 *U.).] B 331. ^ came a third time. are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways.. he fought once or twice. should be wanting. and similar words. U)U eU. (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus.S wJJ.g.e. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332. the also permitted to use the simple . etc.262 Part Second. The distributive adjectives are expressed . twenties. A* came third time. (i. D. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ . OU3. etc. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij. or as 5^o once. thrice. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. E. f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. or j\j*o stJJ. The numeral adverbs a j^stf. . by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma. he rose up once or twice. b>o. etc. —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. by means of one of the words S^. By the noun S^». Com p. %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl. the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace.e. second. 3. again . G. or. isij. ijptiiJf) twenty-first. Ot^o wJJ. are D expressed either by adding the accus. i./£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. or ibtf 3j-o *U. life twice. liltf IW* *W»). [Rem. adverbs. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb . O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. i*0 jj-^iJf *U.

the 'people . ^^Vj triliteral. 263 either singly or repeated. and J**$. pentagonal . \J~£\ >»>^' *W». >uj-«. pi. lj*U. The fractions. ^wUfc quinqueliteral. square.. dualized. Numeral is adjectives. a third. Single or ^^a^ fivefold. words of the forms Jj*3. 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi. • • . nor. simple is triple. ^j£* twofold. J Us x 0. Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification. and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. [The form JUiU I . or A came two by two . 334. i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . ^ju*. *£Jb. B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj.» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth. *U-j.g. fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three . ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU.Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj. According to Zamahsari. B.O^j'. The Noun. patientis of the second form. or j»^Ai\ sU. the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. of parts of biliteral . which a whole 5 * r made up. A^>* fourfold. ^1*$ . 6 E. expressing the number . double. IV. jji* (nom. jj. £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. j£s. pi.— Distributive. but the formation is admitted [by some] up [. ^tjwl. two of the forms J x x . . as ^Uj ^ i • . from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. etc. pi. a tetrastich. 335. etc. The Numerals. pleaseth you of women. take the form . £**++ threefold.} a mom. and ^.).» Ox up to a fof»tf. {walking) by twos and threes . . derived from the cardinal numbers J J e. ' > $ four spans or cubits in height. five spans in lieight . #w eighth. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ. j^yo 2Uj. J x x .g. x J x or j~*x. according . triangular.§ 336] II. 0**^ /«/ etc. J*s. jILjlc. 336. Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral. ^ju». £Jj. or er*>ju». £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina . together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. x «£ Ox* 0. C/^Lm. patient.

338. uLo J «i . We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa). same sense in Assyrian.» j (vulg. because they are both.) . or w*U)t. 1.. either with or < x Oirf x without the article . or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. and Aram. at the end of which an event usually recurs. as £0x0* etc. J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e. according to our D terminology.264 Part Second. C as w%X3t j*^*. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty.g. — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. article). 337. or w**JI L5fr*. B Rem. M. . every third (day. etc. 3jlw*^t l\+~*\. D. 210 seqqJ] . pronouns. the Article. o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. the former being the demonstrative pronouns. month. uou). are either simple or compound. * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr. year.fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. UU.*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. ^ fortw C. x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. in the third.. "rubu. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc." Heb. The form Ja9 occurs e. S x Ujj.g. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. xlix. G. or £JjJt> every fourth. G.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ. fifth. in the accus.. less frequently ouaj. The Demonstrative Pronouns and . _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech. The demonstrative pronouns. £$ J . in one chapter. the latter the relative. »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. The period. titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth.

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

chJJI (^Jjf . instead of ^JJJt. for numbers and genders.JI or jJUt. which are not retain the double in such constant use. JJI . used \jjj>)\ in D and ace. that the same meaning as v>«. o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). j^JJt (J}\ . and case. grammarians. Norn. it which. ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . of course. 271 he who. Comp. § 340. 6. with which : gender. C. A whatever. This £)3^ must. j^t.G.<fW or Jjj0l+. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). ut* Sing. and ^jjjli\. ^J>i\ in the gen. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f . *J . . because of their frequent occurrence. The other forms. viz. rem. . when used adjectively. a. $* . «. as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift.] . p. Plur. which. ^JJt. It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc. signifies who.. ^t J^^l. j«JI. U.§ 347] II. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. plur. according to the Arab the nom. whoever. [Cu$$f Nom. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . ^JJt. 0j&) . number. Ace. J*\ (cJI . U&1). ^-^JUt. ^£&S (O^ 1 ". cJt . at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. 2. Gen. masc.. ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). Du. [According to as-Sabban. CHsfi&f Gen. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos. ^tifif (gfjAf. vulgar form. f$S\ or . . generally J of the article all and the demonstrative. are written defectively.]) ^^Jl . Rem. . Ace. D. and sJJtJM. that. The Noun. C Rem. is —The modern. wlx Fern.

y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1. Instead of ^JJI. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. e. which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&). for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' . ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form. ^ 25. c.. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable. 117. the nom.U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£). za). ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven. and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p.'^ / suffices me. UJJt. <j\iMS. fi B fern. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a». di. * JR. employ £ (Heb. f^H T _ (= ds J3t).] or . sjj—. !)J*?>n. 'Aganl 18. —The * forms ^j^^Ut. x i. as its derivation shows. Rem. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur.i*a of which ace. J^&\ pi. some of the Arabs. ej which I J am meditating). ^. See Gomp. and ic2 f ^^^Jt. Gr.. UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du. H= . . Rem.—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Rem. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing. I) / lined (or cased). and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur. x fi * St "St * '. ^JJt was originally. 5 are vulgar and incorrect. _ coram. Si d. H. Oj*W St* OUJUt. gen. St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt. a its demon- strative pron. G. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. former.*. D.272 Part Second. has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus. The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt. is -ffith. Aram.

273 . The Noun. C.§ 349] II. 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns.

whosoever. Heb. which a indeed their original signification. 0-*i'> \+jS . Hid ma." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . 364. Gr. Ji ^). x Jj. Schr. ^. 0^> U^'. and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual. This ? also the origin ?).] .g. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather. Faik. Kl. Rem. s^ who. and with those with which it is not. (though. U. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. 125]. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. in the latter case. 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech. e. Of ^1 and &*. in poetry the elif may be retained. Fleischer.*$J) but never conjunctive. rem. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. a^c. of^^a. is >ftU». xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^. Ji^t. exclamatory. <l«U».274 Part Second. ^o j-U. x ^5. Comp. are also interrogative. ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. ii.) that the conjunctive is pronouns. i. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. (b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. D. with the exception of ^JJt.. marians. etc. part of the ace. according to the Arab gram.. . ^» ^*»-)- In such cases. U->t £to which. G. for^o^ or lo^ (lit. "is usually shortened. It has been already stated 346. HJIS^ HIED D Aram. enuntiative (jC±. £ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j. (§ 351. ^U. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l).). etc. ^ JJ*. (better ^o ^)l. the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. whatsoever.

275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x . or 7" have seen some one. Sing. interrogative pronoun v>o. to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. C. x J 2.§ 353] II. number. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. of gender. Fern. Nom. only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. who? has the it distinctions .«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness. and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc. . to (the is and x so. The Noun.l x . and case.

masc. it 1. ^$\ or ^t. pp. what or c. or] a suffix.it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1. - St Dual masc. £r. may be masc. he or I? in Rem. and the compound t^j2>.6. Rem. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. when prefixed to a fern. Rem. 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. the more general .£ o£ . which of us? are formed the relative adjective . 134c). w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . G. pronoun. With 'J Se- 8 g . the pausal forms being : — o in § 352. nom. ace. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t. for U^->l. oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. and ZA which female? (Dlw. a I ? [The feminine form 86.ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t. Hudeil. gen.*£ ^1. See CWijo. w ivii- D. it . 2). masc. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . n. ^1.£ . b. Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . \J\£> and 351 and Vol. ace. which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut. . e.* .->t " M you. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases. /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt).. a.i£ in the genitive . is of rare 17) occurrence. ll* Lo^-jt. gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen. 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur. nom. d.276 Part Second.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt . OiJc ^t - or ^j\. 201. ? w>U^ ^cf. art. or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women.] In the fern. • £ the suffixes ^1 . 120—122. § 34. ^\^>. nom. « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun . 'place? (see Lane. nom. it m£ Sing. the latter being the B more common.— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech. When standing alone. or £&£>. as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs. p. . s&e. ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii. j^Sl second case. {j*£> d). Oi£ fern. rem. xjt.

. a. or in if reference to time . but usually a preposition with following genitive. o * ( UJL^ wherever. § 114. The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. § 88. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. 5 Latin termination cunque. added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx . The Indefinite Pronouns. 100 and 706 seq. [Prym. The Indefinite Pronouns. whens a • tt a t x ever. with the same effect to ^>j (Vol.. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp.>£) it hinders rem. § 127. B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here.. e) . ^t. C. 9x The U x Gr. rem. 277 [3. 1.. e. and Vol. Diss. ii. whence the . § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. Comp. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun. rem. Vol. p. p. . rem. have passed with the sense of somebody. § 7) . if appended to ^>l. 125)*. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. 2. as the r\ nouns. considering i. something. de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. e). - J s complement (aa-o). rem. added to certain adverbial signification. 360 seq. reject this theory. and is in that case called U >o (Vol. The Noun. (Vol. or § is a qualificative clause. 3. . rem. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived. Schr. U ii.2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U . pronoun ii. it is added to C*J. as or x ^ U something which I have. »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol. 136 a. it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever.] U x t as the original. e) U (see an example 361 near the end. § 6). ii. "./) and § 84. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). § 36. 172. ^l£» and . Kl. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. ii. infinitive. J* and JjU (ibid. This complement very rarely an adjective or participle.g. Uy* whatever . . ii. rem. as J 13 ^y» one who says.§ 353*] II. A and Ox 353*. (Vol.

because the . 3. * ii. or xx ^ N. [or Sl^t. attractives. rtxxOx particles of attraction.. In like manner (Vol. i. — qa X a and »*x its fem. Heb. a5^i (§ 309. 3. 4).278 Part Second. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " . .» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed. § 70. — On the use of these words in the vocative. o. (Vol./ t and so. § 84. « fem. tJjLH*. pi. ii. the particles which govern the genitive. jfi M0 the . b. see the Syntax. III. may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. a) and in other cases § 90. xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. rem. b. rem. or jt^aJt (from the sing. 0/3. and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». . W X O«0 J J J 355. rem.e. rem.] c/M *> fern. are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191. and Inter- D jections. C*a»«£l." J x ^^. The Prepositions. ^ particles of annexation or connection. M. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. rj b). it is also put after w>j (Vol. i • In speaking of animals. stand for names of persons. A. Adverbs. H ^Jt/*-. affecting their regimen. rem.it]) viz. 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI). like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. (§ 3ujb. pi. 8. iU. called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-. CsA. £>s> j x and w> without . and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U . their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . Otj. The prepositions are . tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression. Prepositions. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. as ^/^ii\ thing. THE PARTICLES. [§ 354 A prepositions .. ii. /). Conjunctions.). so and x JJ«» so.>*. xxg There are .

as J to (sign of Ice). at. its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions. O*^ rem. footnote). him. JEth. The Particles. in swearing. A. near. by God ! 3d pers. ^b. by God !* (c) the Dative). Vol. by. on account of (Heb. rem. (a) They — B ^* in. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. ft: of w> with the negative ^). compound Comp. in swearing. [^b. ba). those which are written as separate words. ^) to us. those which are always united in writing with the 356. c. its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel. with. and inseparable. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358). is changed § after ^ c. D. the abbreviation Vol. G. It seems to be the remnant some word. without. for. 3. The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels. which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. into kesra. The Prepositions. and 317. rem. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. rem.e. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt. -33th. OW- Comp. through (Heb. of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb. or the onlyj^yj or^. Aram. as <J to suffix of sition .^yj. as aDI^ a.^S3 to you. and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308. See § 185. d. J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. Rem. ii.] . i. A: * . § 235) to be also remnants of words.§ 356] III. b. 0^5 ?) and ii. i **" (d) ^ by. is a ii. U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka. The kesra of the prep.e.. § 62. sing. Aram. as du. 7. § 56. i. b. The damma tjJb. following noun. Q Rem. Except the the 1st pers.] <uitf (b) O by. is (i). as (= b.

is really not so.— Etymology Rem. ^JJ. and they tions . or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. ^^al till. or Jco. which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. 358. 3). *7B. above. (/) 0^> or lS^ (W). among. after. "79. with (penes.280 Part Second. see 347. "KflYl:). *>> ^. iEth. c. Those of the all biliteral or triliteral. determined by the following genitive. on account of. ^1). ij? in. Karer . about. *>«. CM-*. *>. or the Parts of Speech. °^ account of (Heb. apud). upon. •T'jD.. e Ezra and comp. (b) up to. j j Ju*. instar). (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb. Itf. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. (d) (e) sjefrom. to. /row a § certain time. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. iEth. like (Heb. -*?«). The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. against. which becomes in the wasl **. away from. and ji. d. for. dialectic variety is ^^. Aram. <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. D#. 12). (c) ^* over. as g^o. Jp. It is a formally undeveloped noun. sing. but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. as far as (Heb. as. rem. O^X (lM*)> Syr. since (compounded of i>* v. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—). O** (&*). [§ 357 " i). Aram. 357. dialectically *-«. notwith- standing (Heb. first class. Aram. which js commonly reckoned a preposition. into. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So. ^Ol) . have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus.

When 6>o followed by the article. against. among 5 (J*3) . ^y c. ^Jt. into Jft £ as JUX*. the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry. Jt .<U. See 317.>o^ or ^ ^. * b /» into J^*. according to § 185. for JUJt ±y> . and ^jJ. jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l).. . . i*5 ^. "It.§ 359] III. o. J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U. before (of place) . Fr. tj-j jJ. after ^> below. rarely J^ or a^. which is under. . L©. * . sing. The ^) of ^fc. *b etc. (see § 14. behind. D orw . and *x*. a. penes. ^jjj with ^5 B ^y. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. for . O-ij* jUc (also jUft. c\+Xz for and Jl ^s. dimin. [Comp.. *!**». . C^ J > . •* instead of. The damma of the suffixes of the pers. JU. <uXft. is doubled in connection etc. Rem. rem. in possession of (apud.] 359.o. *UJ> or dU»J. [li.j-o between. ^jic. combines with into ^t. U-«. Rem. J A. In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20. rem. dimin. beneath (fiTTl !). to. beneath. passes after the diphthong into kesra. b). d). opposite J>». ^_ (orig.j*o being contracted b . JJy afow?. rem. the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. or JU J-«. s ^^. The suffix of the 1st pers. and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. Rem. with the suffixes of the 1st pers.. for . under. and ^jjJ. original a. and ^jJ § into J^JJ.]. UJt L5^. J J The Prepositions. about. note. assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. 24. . J The Particles. . chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. ^c. b. *Lu. ^— . ^JS. 36 w. ). JJj^3 .. Caj *UJJ. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . c. the modern and vulgar form. and § 317. rarely jus) with. on this side of dimin. dimin.round. p. ^s. J.. ^Js.

as ^-JUt. an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW.282 Part Second.] [Rem.j-o interval. after. Aram. as aDt ^JUlSL*. end). The Adverbs. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. also written C-Jtt. £ The t. The first class consists . the third class of nouns 361. affirmative. This (c) J. Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». God will suffice t/iee against them. among. When t is followed by another elif with hemza. [comp. etc. ix^j in the middle. an t is inserted between the two hemzas. J>». of B particles of various origin. (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». accusatives of nouns . partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative. D*7p) .j£. surely. or is the complement (it) . v #0 la that corresponds to. is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t. B. jJU aOt^ by God. the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. the construct 06 * such as . of. 360. [§ 360 A dimin.>»tjJ> before (of place. dj3 behind. *£ii5t. ^lyAlw^t |"l) . beyond. for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra. h). § 21. as C-Jttt. as cr»> tj^t. the particle of amplification]. certainly. . in the JO * end (Heb. There are three sorts of adverbs. / wi7£ certainly do ». may be (a) w>t^^O) oath.circumference. C dialectically. ^JJI for ^JJt tjt. &*|D. converted into ^£ with hemza. d]. These are 0* all. The form occurs IJJb. . inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative. t \2*Q£&. as before said. but some do not do it is this. ^J/*-. jl*£ . partly inseparable.

o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing.§ 362] III. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp. (he did not) . [in xx x order to £ J # .j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God. ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies. J .. But in reply to an interrogation. away.jt). if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. (he has) X » X X ft . (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes. xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up. . (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1. he saw 'Amr. o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i. certainly. Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la.] 362. I will certainly show you 2*s honour . affirmative la. Vol. behold. ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact. J The Adverbs.'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not). 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\]. as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. verily ye would have followed Satan. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. to use J**. The Particles.j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy. . standing for ^jl (aLa3I . B. better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . OOxxOx while. (/ will). as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-. j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy .. as iail». 0-^^*. 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la. lyJx. I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out . J^. as x£ thee. w-Jbju <*i>w . ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect. as juj U.t xx ft ^s. .j-° AiAa^Jt ~ . ii. or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/.1 yes. following. confirming a previous statement. .

^a. t3t. 0<#0 (Heb. Schr. in that case. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected. Kl. N/H)surely. «). _.U*Jt 13 1. See § 367. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb. truly. Vol. surely. wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case. x i x lo. U*U *. A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not. called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. then at least. [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity. and Zeid was at w<? the door . . writy. B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place. ^tftt - XX and l^». U^. Dtf . H)... J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech. and refers to the same time . b. Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft. [(f) i.. if it be so. XX [oi ^ &*«%. or 4*5U*a)I is 13]. as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out.. literally /o/ *«e/ #w. ii. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c. (w) oj JH Hiin Syr. interrogative.] certainly..] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. as the preceding statement lo.] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. . of &..^. utrum .] ^ an? j>\ j*\. I (Heb. 5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. § 158 and Fleischer. U*. usually without government.] XX are^et.284 Part Second.lb j>i juj lo. only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp. It is joined to the accus.. called by the grammarians 3l».. D In later times corroborative. t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us. followed only by a nominal proposition.. of a following noun or .] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then. x x jo* prosperity has come round.or ^**~.-»]). £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361.

as j~£i dttl ^jt. J^> way not it is so.] C (p) (q) i^t. and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. on the contrary. I^jI]. rather. it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. 73). [and in the 1st pers. but (Heb. The Particles. it is 72. restrictive. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1. Compounded of \j\ and U. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. B. explicative.§ 362] III. 0311). frequently used by commentators. is 285 pronominal suffix.jl introduces the subject. only (dumtaxat). [When followed by a single word a conjunction. always followed by an oath.] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur. used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . inceptive or inchoative la 36#. |$t in if) {$&. ^<^y> JX. — . but in the 1st pers. [verily]. verily God great. — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. wherever. ^t yes. that is. it**). pi. sing. It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. however. yea. the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place).] (u) j^jXj yes. by God ! aDI I. The Adverbs. O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. as aOIj is ^t yes. The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (. whenever a conjunction. 8).jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact). (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. 7ltf Phcen. <£M ^1.

certain symptoms or circumstances . really (jam). Yes. o** between.. an interroga- jsi djt c j^. for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. jS.^=> 1©JL. . solely.oi. iai. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*]. R. 98. Schr. / was hoping that he would come. jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». or in affirming a negative proposition. {Thou art) . may be used 2 . y^s. . and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o . 434 seq. (he did). 4. there (Heb. J&L). tive sentence iai <&\j iai. perhaps. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever . 286 Part Second. already. he is C really come.^. 32. o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. now. iai Ja did you ever him?]f.l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. [but also frequency. see Noldeke. among). with the Perfect. 1. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. awe? enough). It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event.A. * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. whilst (connected with the prep. or the Parts of Speech. see Fleischer. S. iai. «$. and with the Future. merely (lit.. Kl. Ljo [and U~^] while. is OU jJte ta. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * .j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up. or in opposition to. as \^i\3 j£j. Delectus. in pause j-j*. and a negative. in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity.] vulgar use . (w) JJi [or a^f]. that something has happened in agreement as with. i. D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr. # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. iai. or iai te I have never seen him see .. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. ^Aj yes. Rarer forms are and in pause iai.—Etymology . o x as iai <xZAj U. da. (y) Jaii 0#/y. [or in j . and well. ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». that something expected has been realised.

(/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive. U^J. VlD. to. j (and). ^yA U# f I yet.e. (II) ^JU when? Heb. yet. [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344. not It thus . but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers. rem. rem. are used as well as ^^^i. ii. joined to the Subjunctive. § 367.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. (he has forms are^xi. (gg) O not J>J. likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340. j>\*±. o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative. [It is also used as a conjunction. *$. up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up.] U. combines the Aram. it is [When . not. of % and & (Vol. and more rarely ^*3. by no means. d) and all. not.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju. as joj jb\»\ has i . The Adverbs. used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. (mm) j^o it is agreeable). iuj^> (§ 343. by no means. X7 is and ^X.>£) is followed by a single word. j^u and yes. The Particles. <jt *^ (i. joined to the Jussive.' Zeid stood not). B.] . negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). rem. not. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne). (he has) . ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed.§ 362] III. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. a conjunction.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at . [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn. q. but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me . X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb. d). § 169). negative of the Perfect. . b).

usually with a negative decidedly] . La. by day.^^J. ilJt decidedly.288 Part Second. E. within. Imperf Indie. y>« whence. placed . a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . ^ri/. S. of it are the following . whence are derived L^a. J>i. ' * [w~»•> enough. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech.>*. D after an adjective \*-f**r- together. B 363. joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). referring to future time. ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs. The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic. §§ I)La. . w^o. extremely. *^J £^ night. La). and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). * [On the various forms p. UaIa or LyA. prepositions 359). ^-jX3 ?&£&. Js> . as u*^ else. u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. whence are derived LaIa or LyA. jju . in j*£ j a or j**. ever. J-i. only . ^r^ wwcA. Ja. 364. c-sa*J. also v is **»>a»-*]. of two or more W-jU- outside. and ^)UyA. with a negative.>* above*. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative. : A few of the most common examples Ij^l. j*j mostly in negative phrases. / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . *il±. never little [Uut ^W^ wow. &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it.] . %£**»• where. Csa»J . cM v>*> before. can in general be used as adverbs. j->£. without. and are indeclinable. J La. . there (compare Heb. demonstrative. nothing only this .b inside. afterwards. \jt^ much. but always preceded by a negative.g. (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^. demonstrative. La (also La and . beneath. \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. ju^]. t jta.j*&. Jy 0-*> above. in which case J they take the termination u. 41. for^.

X Ut U-j~>. with the omission of the negative. prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see . 381. «* together. lit. »J>w. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. Vol. 37 . sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C . rem. j>yA\ today (JEth. 13 *^ j**. § 84. yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour . and therefore also construed with .. lit.. xa m f& end. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — . xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb. a£ the time of—).) w. once.] O**.. during. 13 ^). Schr. ^a jufc. p-<7°: etc. above especially. 289 U^j one yom).§ 364] III. used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes. JUft) : .] decided (comp. at present .. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except. 5 j the c]. . [comp. The Particles. U^»j.]t it. xO X whilst. footnote. The Adverbs. U-J-* and.j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j. truly. * £ (/) all. lit. perhaps. seq. b) lit.w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often. uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. A \js> tomorrow. xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i.&ry a/o^. G. as J^j A^ afott*?. § 361. [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j). but. i. tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. (c) but more usually] sometimes . Fleischer.^ . Kl. Schr. ii.. verily. y\) . day. particularly . . B.] t {j*j*?. (lit. ^ 449 (also jbjx». * 'n). It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit. ^*j)t wow. B (d) (e) woj. D. Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^).. it is seems to be compounded Kl.

x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>». etc. . x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). but merely a light vowel. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t. which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative. not nouns in the accusative.3x3x3^3 ^&. vcuj t^u». The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. a. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive. acx xOx 365. seem to X Ox / and C*J. viz. and take pronominal suffixes. are [§ 365 A sundry parties. O-*.. X yesterday. perhaps. The word has several rarer forms. straitness. Ci Ox Rem.yJUJ). fl): JO x w. etc. etc. indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are . be. or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles. which sometimes unites single words.- . particle of classification gradation). 366. The Conjunctions. fc^ftX. x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^. They are construed with the accusative. G.290 Part Second.. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. Heb. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ). ' genitive. Heb. as b.. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . either separable or inseparable. but verbs. x and 6 (iEth.) are. Aram.»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-). — Dialectically.] Rem. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy. ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. JjO governs the ^j\. would that ^J* or J^x). since yesterday. . !)). J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations.. ^J. however. ending in fetha. they " " * " and become indeclinable.. as &» . utinam. ^JUU). ^fc. In u~*\. D like the prepositions and adverbs. Quoad connective particles. or more exactly or v~?p ^b^. D.

but more usually connects two clauses. (a) }] The most common when. This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356. 852. may be rendered and and is thereupon. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed. purpose for which. signifying that. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. D. G. The Conjunctions. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle . sing. The Particles. of the Jussive.] . that God may forgive c). When preceded by ^ or 3 o. 10. In conditional sentences. like the German so. a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me. e. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. 1. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. [Sometimes in old poetry. 291 closely behind one another. 9. %36s ^j \y^c^^. separable conjunctions are : — since. C. thee. [Compound U $t whenever. or the reason why. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. thus ^jl means nonne 6$.] * 1. *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis. in order that. such as that of cause and effect. the kesr is usually dropped. used J^f^ to indicate the done . link. so that. of past time. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when. is A showing either that the latter in time. and consequently. Hamdsa 74. or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. [Rem.g. and very often in later prose. for.§ 367] III. Tabarl i. and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. to give an imperative sense.

tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). o>». ne.1 JEth. <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her.] B [(c) j*\ or. at that time.292 Part Second. £>*$ that. time. of .g.. J (§ o% a verily Aram.: now. usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition. in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. in when.. because. compounded of ol an d . as UJ^i. [§ 367 A (b) dition.. DN-— ^'. Bibl. even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative. in order that. Used twice or oftener.. oq^H. quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14.. it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an). hence called duLoj)\ if indeed. .t e. it Heb.— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. JHK. and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr. lo-. 8c. as syn. £>* H. o' is that. j£*& on that day. comp. Compare Heb.jt 9 . Compounds g. Ttf in Ju l**. dialectically . Aram. < jtf . unless. as regards . >*o*J : 'ema. * i ^jtj. compounded with .jt ne). (exceptive particle). d). the genitive of s which occurs. (f) * q\ [and Ut. that (quod).jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f. . so that. -33th.) * to if. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361. when? [Compound Utjt whenever. followed by o. as for the ship. as well as the obsolete noun » 362.] (df) Ul. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea. in order that (ut). and *TX . as if. of jt in alternative questions.lv — also occurs. for example.. conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f . in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^». b) . That is Paradise . o . see non). c). *$> ( a ) if not. * O i : O^ as & *$\ were. as for. sometimes written jjtj or 3 . are connected with $t. lit (§ Both of these conjunctions.. A dialectic C variety <>s. Further: that not (ut non. if> an(i if.

». ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special. ^UJt : See § e. so that. Ut. %+£* in order that not. or .. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel. as if. position. except.—&\.g. . ^t. connecting words and clauses. y .§ 367] III.0. of UJ). c*«j (C««J. j<£.. rarely Ujt [or M]. .{ o|.. ?\A= (alia) but. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that... — Compounds Heb. Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\. w). c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. O^* as ** were. but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval. (§ c-s^i). thereupon. Syr. because.... A Aram. IX. only. K?~DK. § 358. 6). m. 362. £^m. with a preceding negative. . The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a. The Particles. 293 saving. The Conjunctions.. ^th. 0*S. with the Subjunctive. tfW.. but*. compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U .. (k) ^5^ * *o till. to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara. v^jj at 366. see Vol. U3t. identical with the preii. rem. until that.] w t . [On its sense of even. but in the 1st pers. e. and .] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362. It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D. Utj . or O' ^^ (quod). the pronoun of the story it s>t . Ut . I# ' § 52. C. . e. or or fact). $1 . b. j-tr^. Heb. (i) ^j.] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that. a t^?^. next . sive).. until.

* it ' ZZ * — . HX/H. o\. and U* W* make haste. wlien (postquam). sounds or in use are : Some . i . oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U.* . jl (dU). or j>jH\ keep to. sense of pj-*\ make haste. as long as. . &\. 1^1. as OkoJt !i^*** w ww . *^***- C^Ly**.294 Part Second. or TiarX ^Uy^. [as. Ua. (tjl. U (ic^jjJt U. and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . oi . Utj. at. Aram.-*. at. hypothetical particle. ojt. G. (D. from it!]. tj.~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition.1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl). I0 / b before nouns in the nomin. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses . [3J3 even though]. ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot. 6nw# Aere (Heb. iEth.j|). or accus. OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram. tones. ma denoting duration).P ! wp) <oj. 368. Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt). . *}U.it' rr?n]. with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362. 0I3I (otjl). wAewever. 0' * —Compounds: ^£. o *&. o\j. !p).— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech. D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. [olylfc far ^.] ji. (o) < * D. tI u* como/ w . //) w^ew. t.] with the Perfect. . <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ . followed by jic. since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after. especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. or hip at. Ut^. with y\ unless. is (quoniam). ^1. lyjt C without the article. if (Heb. [UJ also syn. UtJ. The Interjections. 0/ . ! «J «-iO. or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere. jt.* ^j\. l^j. Jv*»» or Jv*»». (p) Perfect. . with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al. .jj£> \*3*> if not. bl (La). or b. I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. up ! come ! [Heb.Ujt (•Ujl) jl.] D.

the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] . *~} 4-J. (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem. the t^. (a) calls to domestic animals e. go on proceed ! say on . 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. JjU (the croak of a raven). etc. ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©. f-\ ot. s\*> making camels B . . f-J. wit. b. instead of the usual terminations. also be used. (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. " * uil A f * £ mi ol . b i\ is often written defectively Wl . D. *->. JU» frog). ^a. wit. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. l->jk . as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. Jjlb (a blow). ^js- . g U (the bleat of an antelope)." juA or juA. ^Us cries . noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^.. O^*. in calling camels to water.§ 368] III. falling stone). wit.g. form often used even with feminine nouns. as tjuj 1^. ^-a -*jb. wit. s^ (the stroke of a sword). ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . Instead of 1— grief! ^_. Sit. mules. — Here in in '. ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*. *fij capital! f-\. 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. v>*-> . in pause dt_ tj J) takes. . driving horses. camels. as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. or otjuj tlie tj. but the masc. il ml uti dl 3* 131. too may be mentioned *^U .g. The Interjections. ' ° " kneel. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. *-j. ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : . The Particles. ^»J . Rem. ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). etc. wit. in driving a dog away. w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking). ?u>t or «»~Jb. in driving sheep or goats.1). o/* a. in calling a dog. cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). . .

rem. that they are either originally Imperatives. admitting its construction and inflection. pi. for example. ^U. Gb. Jt£»t ^). hirjith). >&&£3. $U dual U5U. jujJ 9-Z3. in some cases. ii. : <uU& take. sing. ^jkj. or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. *U. du. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. masc. g. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . d). x f. x m. t^JLA. b. person. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. dUk. 8. ^©jU.296 Part Second. hirjats. * J * e. plur. a) ^j.g. or JLa. The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. book. Rem. pers. tjl^St x m. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj. take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. [Many and are interjections have. rem. read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f. Jjj aJ Jj^JI. Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. as l^U pi. J * J ' j-JUb. Rem. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc . fern. and is said to form a dual and plur. dual UJUb. § 35. usually written thus in one word. a certain is. b). as OU give here (§ 45. d. verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . aJ J*)j.. f. £)$\*'. called therefore by origin or use. U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj). and. ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. say. hiri. etc. Vol.. fern.

PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w. 38 .

/JO/ Sing. m. c. m. JlS JJ B 2. J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* . 3. o^ S JO// 5 i. ul3 Sing. Plur. f. J31S IJblS . c. IjJUS f. Indie. $3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. cJjtf f. Sub}. OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE. 3. c4^ ^JU3 2. cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m. m.joi 1. c. m. CJJ> / Dual. f. 3.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect. m. JJO/ I. f. f.

^>Uii Ox J x Norn. II. o f.299 OF THE STRONG VERB. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur. J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. 3. and Imper. c. m.* 9 f. JlS x . Act. and the N. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1. J XX Smg. Pat. J . s . Verbi. PASSIVE. m. Imperfect. Sing. Imperf. t^JUS x f. c. Impf. 3. D m. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. m. m. m.. 3.. c. Indie. m. UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f. 3. Sing.. TABLE Perfect. i x x I. 'fcs xxOx f. ^c^US f. Subj. xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2. u~^- ^ x (2. cJj. x J Energ. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. a ) Jussive.> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2. CUfe^) . J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. x j II. m. Perf. m.

300 TABLE ir. Jl3 . III. in. DERIVED FORMS VI. IV. Active Perf.

. A IX. VII.301 OF THE STRONG VERB.

» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . F<?r^. m. ft Ml ->X C Plur. m. 3. 1 x iV. n. 2. m.302 TABLE V. s> s> I. c. En. f.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . m. Indie. ft Ml J X 2. Perfect. jU 0*3 Sing. c. 2. lb*** D iV. o j o* Energ. ft *M f. m. I.a.»x 1. Energ. Jussive. ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing. 3. . 3. Wo*** i j. m. J OJ Imperative. Imperfect. Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . Co*** • * * f. FIRST FORM OF THE Active. Siihj. COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. En. iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. f. Simple. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. 2. [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. i j. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2. m. c. X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1. ^. O****' O^^* . C. S 1 s x ft . f. © j* 5 jx Sing. m. n.

(/ tc <i // / cM^j. m. >>Xo-«. Subj. Juo. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1.J x x 2. Imperf. ((2. or J* . J o 2 xj 2.m. O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. Jj. or J*** JA*!. 4" J x Sing. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2. Imperfect. or and Imperat.j Hi S/J o 2. m. c. Imperf. a x . c.. f. S// or >i j jj3». 2 II. Indie Sing. tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1. Passive. 1) Other forms of the Perf. a j Perf Sing. m. I. i j 3.. #n. Act.Efo. Iojl* V J » X f.m.^jjuo * f. f. 5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a . m. \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4.303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. J^». 3. Imperat. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i. m. Jussive. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2. C. GEMINATJE.>£>. . o f. Jussive. Jussive. 3. J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. x j m. O^juo ' f. Perfect. 3. >i.

e. x. Pass. £ xx o Active Perf.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x. Act. Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. VII. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N.g. VI. JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. Imperf. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx. or j »U >U . GEMINATJE. II. S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf. IV. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat. Act. Pass. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD. VIII.b. ij£ . Pat. irregularity .»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf. >. Ag. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf. III.304 A TABLE Y.x D The remaining forms present no Perf. jjuo x at J >•** V. Verbi. .

VERBUM PRIMJE RAD.*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat. s VI. i.. "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>. IV.51 ^0 Al . »* - •>..305 TABLE VI.Ag. III. HEMZAT^l. or B A N. Imperf. Active Perf. V. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At . jJU *| *. . II. j~ot y^t jJI A j.

JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . ^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . HEMZATiE. c o x Imperf. Passive Perf. Verbi. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. VI. * >* J>%* VII. ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf.- x£ ©C Active Perf. V. x£ VIII. N. Verbi. Passive Perf. x w x . Ag. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf. Ag. x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. IV.306 TABLE VII. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. J^-i . Pat. J5L. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. Pat. II. J>?&k N. x j . j&U li spte* N. jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. 1 III.

Active Perf. 3 . HEMZAT^l. in. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD.307 TABLE VIII.

w^>« j~>5* . j^j js>^j *» •^jy. wA^ *-**. i. VIII. jay js> Imperat. VERBA PRIM^ RAD. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. oi IV. js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf. {fa JO O x JG x J x N. Pat. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf.308 TABLE IX.0 Ox J N..$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf. JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/. w*». Verbi. 3 ET ^. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » . 5 « x B N. Pat. xx o* t xOx Active Perf. Passive Perf. Verbi. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf.»»<Mii>w ^ D N. Active Perf. Ag. ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat.jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N.

> Active Voice of the First Form. VERBUM MEDICI RAD. . Perfect.309 TABLE X.

m. ^. jL» f. m. 3. tjL> f. m f. Active Voice of the First Form. UjL/ U3j~> 2. c. Dual. m. Perfect. B 2. Sing. c. IjjC D .310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. C Plur. 3. x ft ft 1. 3.

JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f. Subj. Dual. i. m. 3./j 1. Indie. cis CJLd m.i » . o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1. 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. ^3 /j . 3. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f. m.311 TABLE XII. m. Sing. I^Ls f.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x .. Sing. 2. ^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2. 9 x SJyU 9 x x . Energ. Jussive.>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f. cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2. c. m. VERBA MEDLffi! RAD.m. n. c. Energ.** ^la om . U& x x Ml J. /J J X J Plur. C. %3 UL3 f. j>&«.» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f. &6 U3 © x x ©xj . Perfect. 3. ^Uu J13I jud . JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom. Pat. Imperfect.

m. N. %yJS Imperf. 3V3—»l jtj>. VIII. cJLSt B Imperf. Active Perf./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. VI. Kg. jb>wt XI. m. 3 ET & x.312 TABLE XIII. J^J J12U v. N. Verbi. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. IV. Verbi. J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. VII. ->* N. s. >jm^ jf>~i N. Pat. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. s. Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / . 3. Active Perf. Perf. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf. J N. JUU II. J^j*3 Passive Perf.J>£~>l . J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. JUL* J^» JU-u III. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. Verbi. The Derived Forms.

. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. y MEDICI RAD. VERBUM TERTLE RAD. Perfect.313 TABLE XIV.

^. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. Perfect.314 A TABLE XV. VERBUM TERTIxE RAD. . MEDI2E RAD.

x x Jussive. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. I. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. f. m. Sub}. 3. c. c. L5*^ iV. f. m. f. x f. t> /(/ Sing. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . Indie. Active Voice of the First Form. F«r6*. n. O^s-f. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. En. 3. m. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . m. . m. u^tj 0x0 . Imperfect. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. 3. Ox x xOx 1. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. KESRAT^l. m. En.315 TABLE XVI. xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1. f. C.

Passive Voice of the First Form. VERBA TERTI^l RAD. Pe .316 TABLE XVII. 3 ET ^.

317 TABLE XVIII. X. The Derived Forms. m. Pat. Imperf. VI. Verbi. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N. Pass. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. f. x o£ V. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf. 5xx xxx Active Perf. m. 3 ET ^. L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat. VIII. Act. ^AA4 9x . Ag. f. Act. III. Pass. ii. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. . IV.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. Act.

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