THIRD EDITION REVISED BY %\ <f\ *i W. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CASPARI. ROBERTSON SMITH.\%%o\l:l A GRAMMAR OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. de GOEJE. 6 CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.. AND EDITED WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS BY W. LL.D. LATE PROFESSOR OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. J. WEIGHT.. f?K£. PROFESSOR OF ARARIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN. ? /V DATE. AND LATE PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE M. 1896 .. VOLUME ? I.

AND C. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. .(o2)05 v. CLAY.l Cambrfofit : PRINTED BY J. F.

Smith in that part of the Grammar which he Trifling and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. who deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair. through Prof. W. revision At his death 56 pages had been printed. resolved to undertake this task. Wright had noted here and there . have I added my Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at the end of the Second Volume. He began it with his usual ardour. to continue the revision. Robertson Smith had made use of some notes of mine. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary the responsibility upon myself. Miiller. Robertson Smith. After earnest deliberation I consented. but the illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. Fleischer and other scholars. Moreover Prof. influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete that which another dear friend had begun. Prof. The demand for it having become well more and more pressing. rflHE Second -*- Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic its language had been out of print long before the death of author.PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITION. which he had marked with my initials. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me. whilst the had extended over 30 pages more. but he was never able to find the leisure necessary preparing a for New Edition. to take all initials. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson revised. Bevan. are given corrections in square brackets.

de GOEJE. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. where I felt Once or twice Wright sure that he would have done it himself. M.VI PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. But my warmest ( thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. February. "A . initials. unless they seemed quite any distinctive sign. on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted. Semitic languages have for the I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton. Leyden. who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press. but has contributed by many judicious remarks much to the improving of it. has noted on the margin wants revision." The notes bearing upon the Comparative " Grammar of the most part been replaced by to Wright's Comparative Grammar. § 353). I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not with his definitely revised almost all of these have been marked superfluous. Bevan. who drew my attention to several omissions. without . J. Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively small number of passages (for instance § 252. 1896. published after his references death by Robertson Smith (1890).

1813). Dieterici. and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn Malik. the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat. and the Beirut edition of 1872). A -*--*- SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for. f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf . new work alteration. Of the former I may mention the in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik. founded upon the above. with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut. second 'l-Hitab edition. the Mufassal (jJa4. the present is almost a it again to a thorough revision. both ancient and modern.. I have thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book. (w>LLaJt J-oi. 1854). 1831-33). and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language. with Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse. second edition. 1867). Beirut. 'l-Talib Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. 2de eU. as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. ( Broch. i. Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar. for there is and much hardly a section which has not undergone additional matter has been given. entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah (9-U0-0J! f^^*. with the 1866). 1831). 1859) . vol.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu that is. but to subject In fact. In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Arab Grammarians. 1851. . de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe. Volck. Beirut. which last. and Nasif 'el- Yazigi's Faslu 1866). .1CL).p PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

— preserved a higher degree of likeness to the The Hebrew of the Pentateuch. except in matters of I have read. Philippi. on the whole. semblance to this parent speech but. I have not found much to alter. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe. nearly everything that detail. Pro- standing to them they are all daughters of a deceased mother. Assyrian. for the I have also consulted with advantage the use of however. as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions. in the relation of Latin to the other European languages just specified. My the same as it formerly was. and Aramaic (so-called and scholarly treatises of Noldeke. I rely chiefly upon the well-known works and Schrader. In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. Portuguese. . and original Semitic language.und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). seem I still think. standpoint remains. tongues. I believe. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70). Spanish. is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians. whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew). of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska of Spraket. grammar beginners. however. may bear the greatest reIn . 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. —have. the south Semitic dialects. Arabic and ^Ethiopic. the Assyrian*. regards Assyrian.Vlil PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. * As of Oppert. and French —are as closely connected with each other Romance languages : — Italian. in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack. but especially the former. 1869). apart from its bulk and rarity. and therefore but ill-adapted. — Chaldee and Syriac) as the vencal. nearly The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic. Sayce. as well as the learned — and Tegn£r. particularly the some points the north Semitic Hebrew. But I am indebted above all to the labours Professor Fleischer of Leipzig.

the Govern. extending over a period of more than twenty years. and the . look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of . Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will. ten of Madras. . 1st July. and thereby laid me. the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. W. S. Murray (of Adelaide. to IX me to have already attained nearly the same stage of grammatical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic. 1874. twenty-five and of the Punjab. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work. the Government of Bombay. ten My friend and former schoolhas also given Mr D. Australia). from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year. I trust. sixty copies. WRIGHT. Germany. ment of Bengal. in which. under a fresh obligation. and I hope I may say other Orientalists. Cambridge.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. \ . he has celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends. fellow. whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help. twenty. pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office. Home Department . (Fort William). and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies namely.

which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition. de Goeje the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements. Du Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar.The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Pre" Mr F. They gratitude desire to to take this opportunity of for expressing their Prof. l\ .

.. PART FIRST... V.. The Forms of the Triliteral ^ Form The Second Form The Third Form The Fourth Form The First 30 31 32 34 . III.. Medda or Matta . ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. GENERAL VIEW. THE VERB.. The Syllable The Accent The Numbers 28 PART SECOND. E. B. I.CONTENTS. Verb 29 A. VI. 1. 19 24 26 27 IV. C. 1 7 13 13 13 16 Gezma or Sukun Nebra Tesdid or Sedda Hemza Wasla or \ D. PAGE I. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. The Letters as Consonants The Vowels and Diphthongs Other Orthographic Signs A. II.

Thirteenth.. of the First . 61 63 63 67 The Derived Forms Quadriliteral of the Strong Verb Verb Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical C. 60 61 The Passive Voice The of the First Form .. 2. expressing the Nominative of the Tenses 55 57 b.Xll CONTENTS. Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ B. The 1. 78 81 Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et et ^ ^ 3. 53 .. and Fifteenth Forms 46 47 Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms The Voices States (Tenses) of the 49 Verb 51 51 The Moods The Numbers. 1.. and Genders 52 B. Inflexion by Persons 53 Separate Pronouns Suffixed Pronouns. expressing the Nominative 54 55 Prefixed Pronouns. C. 72 Verba Homzata Verbs which are more especially called A. THE WEAK VERB. 2. Doubly Weak Verbs Trebly Weak Verbs / . 3. Forms and Moods The Imperfect Indicative The Subjunctive and Jussive The Energetic The Imperative 57 . Fourteenth.. Weak Verbs. PAGE Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form The Ninth and Eleventh Forms The Fifth 36 38 40 41 43 44 The Tenth Form The The The Twelfth.. Persons.. Form The Active Voice a. THE STRONG VERB.. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak.*..

or Relative Adjectives . THE NOUN. . I. (y) (8) The Nomina Vasis The Nomina Eelativa I.CONTENTS. (e) . . Adjective. and A. and Blame III. 147 .100 II.159 165 The Abstract Nouns The Diminutive (C) (rj) 166 Some of other Nominal Forms 175 2. . (a) The Nomina Verbi 110 122 123 (0) (y) (5) (e) The Nomina The Nomina Vicis Speciei et The Nomina Loci Temporis 124 The Nomina Instrumenti 130 Patientis (£) The Nomina Agentis Adjectives et and other Verbal 131 b.. . .148 149 . 156 III. THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. The Numbers The Dual The Pluralis Nouns 187 187 Sanus 192 199 The Pluralis Fractus . 106 The Deverbal Nouns.. . . Xlll PAGE The Verb The Verbs J~J of Praise 96 II. 1. 97 98 Appendix The Verbal Suffixes.. The Forms B. their The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and different Forms a. expressive of Surprise or Wonder .Changes in the Vocalisation of Quality . . which express the Accusative . 149 151 II. . Appendix A. The Denominative Nouns. The Gender Forms which Nouns 177 183 185 Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives are of both Genders of 3. (a) (/3) The Nomina Unitatis The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J .

The Cardinal Numbers The Ordinal Numbers The remaining Classes of Numerals C. 3. 288 THE CONJUNCTIONS. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns . Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (6) The .. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the 264 270 270 274 277 2.. 1. THE PREPOSITIONS. THE PARTICLES. The Declension I. The Declension Nouns 247 Appendix.291 294 298 THE INTERJECTIONS PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS . The Pronominal Suffixes. of Nouns ... PAGE 4. 253 260 262 2. 290 The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions D. which denote the Genitive . 279 A. The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions B. 252 B. .. Article 1. THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA. 234 The Declension Diptotes of Undefined Nouns 234 239 of Defined II. . THE NUMERALS. 3. 282 283 The Inseparable Adverbial Particles The Separable Adverbial Particles Adverbial Accusatives C. III. 280 THE ADVERBS.xiv CONTENTS.

8i .Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy.

when they stand alone or at the end of The following Table gives the letters in their usual order. B NAME. Hebrew and letters 1. . aJl^J! o^aJt. I. terminate in a bold stroke. THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS. is written and read from A right to The of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** are twenty-eight m LfL^\. ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY. like left. and. a word. Syriac. though three of them are also used They vary in form. and are all consonants. or^a^l *-*3j~) number. as vowels (see § 3).PAKT FIRST. Arabic. for the most part. according as they are connected with a preceding or following letter. along with their names and numerical values.

ut. k has the point below. J. and is V. in the earliest times. [These ligatures. 3. from merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza. The object of elif a. The latter method a recent innovation. and inserted before a. English and Arabic are intermingled. are very inconvenient to printers. The Letters as Consonants. and form ligatures. £ £ ^. to African Mss. and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts. § 15).. Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different viz. a. of which the following are examples. generally reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet. I. In some old Mss. hh.] * This is not confined.§ 1] I. and most founts have some device to bring the letters into line. first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of the letters are interwoven with one another. I Rem. At the Rem. The Arabs sequence . ir l * gh. i. *>). from JJ by giving the former a They distinguish and the latter one above. b. But in writing Arabic the student ought to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. r+-. or. fy. c. &* *!* sh. not only in Europe but in the East. or in the more elegant Eastern founts. #• $' C j&'% s*& Imh. as in this book. in Thus JF appears as -* ^£\&- % the fount used for this grammar. 3. end of a word these points are usually omitted. <^. thus s a f but 9 k below. as is A . J A This combination ^. it is Rem. on the other hand. or even . The order of of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. in which one letter stands above another. 3 in connection with a preceding forms the figures is called lam-elif. § 3. especially when. %. : ^ t single point k*.

(.e. ^ 3 sua ^ i h. h pointed. 3 * *t0* j ^ ^o.>)*. ^e w^A j fa#o points above (3) . the M 3 J 0* gingivals. The letters are also divided into the following classes. cit. and the like. so that we find in carefully written c manuscripts ^ ^ «£. letters. tfAe J tcwft one point j (j) j O ^ £> „ O-* SU^Jt iUt. rem. or an angular mark above. To the former class belong ». which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs that is J&'SitOJJjO* 3d *ui tO chiefly instrumental in &+ 3 St <» producing their sounds. * ' 2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l). and JLqj^jQ OjjoJI. j. in uttering which the -pw tongue 3 Si is * pressed against the gum (itJUt). the labials (£i£ a 3 3 3 0* lip).e. [§ 1 Rem. e. dL Those letters which are identical in form.4 a Part First. the sibilants. 3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m the bolted or fastened. j. placing a point below. below.. i. k %. and distinin writing only by the aid of the small guished from one another dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} . O. — Orthography and Orthoepy. always insert them except when the represents elif maksura (§ 7. J^j. w> Ov* j- Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt. iUU^Jt iUM. ^. ZO* 4*L^I iJijj^Jt. x> w> and is ^ are generally distinguished as follows w* called Sj^^Jt l^iji lUI. are divided the loose or free. c^U!»ug. j^. 5. ^ has only one point above. JeJu).] . such as writing the letter in a smaller size below the line. Also >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J by way 3 . by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt. unpointed. a or o of distinction In some a point old Mss. u*> u^> ^ and £• : The letters w>. from 5. „ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j* A* J 6to *> St* w^/t two points below (3). letters. I ^ and c j to the latter £-. and then ^ takes Rem. i. etc. J. especially those issued at Bairut. b) thus * [With final ^ Some modern but ^ : ^>. which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). prints. plur. the use of the two points below is optional. ^e J with three points The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished from the pointed by various contrivances.

The Turks pronounced and Persians usually convert it into the surd s. or th in thing.)t »J>jj3»Jt. enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. or Arabia. the letters O > b. rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it.. stronger than d. like »-. except by long intercourse with natives. see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks. > a o a >o 3 j j o* 4jja». which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of the palate xfi (£^t <« or £i*^l). softer 5 bears the than our d. PI. for ex- ample and scarcely possible for a European to acquire.has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch. is our g in get. x5 s * Os jjUjj^JJI ^J^^a ^^ jSi the letters J J Os an d *^> * n uttering which the B uvula (SlyAJt) y 0* » is brought into play.§ 2] J ul ui I.)\). <f. softer than our like the t.. less often with ^*. I >^ c c *. It is sounded . same relation to > that <1> does to O. ^}X? the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* tpKH). It may be com- pared with the h in the French word w> is our b. as in sing. ». [In Egypt it is commonly confounded with O. the liquids ^ J ^. utto j j j os s * ^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI. the Heb. 'which are pro- A nounced with the extremity j of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). or the German Roche.or d-iJJt »J^aJI. > is the Italian dental. will. The letters t j ^ are called 0*3 J^ O-JJt O^j-a. ^e weak 2. the gutturals. has the sound of the Heb. soft letters. 9-. t. but not rough Europeans. The following hints however. the letters. and Jl* J J aJLsUt s»ijj^. homme or English hour. s 3 J 0* J J f.] Greek 0. I C with hemza (t. O £> is is the Italian dental. a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate. it is some of these letters. 0. The Letters as Consonants. j) «f corresponds to our g in gem. & J 13 A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI. it In Egypt and some parts of U. however. the letters *r j o J* u° a x which are uttered through the open J Si orifice of J Si the lips \»i (js*m. JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt. The 9- correct pronunciation of c. as well as Turks and Persians.

or (worse still) as D a nasal b n or ng. as well as to 9- Turks and Persians. the Heb. z. The Turks and Persians J» is somechange it into a common z. is a strongly articulated somewhat like ss in » c^ this). the Northumbrian approximations to wJ is our/.] y. and the French r grasseye. as in gargling. as in run. it is pronounced as a s J * [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc Mliller 193. v°.]. The Turks and sometimes z but Persians usually convert often er d. ft. JJ. are of Arabia. strictly speaking.] [In Egypt it is j is is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r.6 Part First. into or th in that. is a strongly articulated guttural k. is an aspirated 6#. without aspiration. which we have no example in English. J. in any of the Semitic languages. V. as a mere vowel-letter. J^. unpronounceable) guttural. strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in it is The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. of modern Greeks. It is described as . It is wrong to treat it. — De G. produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath. j the English z. 17 etc. s. mist. the Heb. shin shut.] . )o It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated a. [§ 2 like the 8 of the modern Greeks. for bX^xA. To distinguish it from do to O and z. is a guttural g. [In Egypt an emphatic d. it*. with. the Heb. p. though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua C [with which it is often confounded in Mss. The y of the r. AJaJI. and often in Mss. more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u&. related in its nature with which it is sometimes confounded. the same relation to b that *£> and i palatal ^. is a strongly articulated palatal t. is a strong (but to [most] Europeans. bears. — Orthography it and Orthoepy. is* is the surd s in sit. times spoken of as aJUmoJI ©.. but in parts and throughout Northern Africa. Hamdanled. the Heb. accompanied by a grating or rattling sound.

(j~£>) or kesra i}j~&)t i in pin). the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] pro- B 3 and ^J are precisely our usually give j the sound of v. this figure the ancient 5 is merely a compromise between 1 (Heb. au. The Turks and Persians > II. ^ ^ for t and ai. e.g.Bsr or fetha (lm*&). (Heb. the German o in Mortel. In the is grammatical termination nounced like O. o (nearly as ** D L damm (j^i) or damma («**). and § 15) for a. are exactly our k. as well as at tj takes the sound of : O J ***** the beginning. The Vowels and Diphthongs. e (as in pet). in last the d is silent. iUw sembd'u. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels. * In point of fact. w and #. *+* 'bmrun. To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made consonants that come nearest to them in sound viz. £ du. 7 hard g whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly confounded with elif hemzatum. 4] II. ww. THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. yakulu. * is our h. obscure resembling the Welsh y. as 'ultu. and tj. jf H -> H 7). n. <d Ww. halaka. e. E. 3 for u and C fi y ^s kai. ^r* hum.gemb. e. which the old pausal - (ah). g. <v fo*Ai.g. w (as in Zw/Q. j9tj=& i (as kerlmun. m as w^». j~& 'ambar. <£Ua) 'ahlaka. A j followed by the letter w>. & J. ji lau. for kultu. 'anbar. a. la.. ^-^ shmsun. It is distinctly aspirated at the end. ya'ulu. not g&nb. without any vowel coming between them. t)*. 1x5 1 ^Bftw.g. /. 4. : use of the three t (without hdmza. i (a dull. The Arabs had no signs for the short vowels. a. (JX&. When immediately . originally 3. .1 —). see § •>) 1. e. and the modern . (a) L feth (~$) . 0.§§ 3. rem.>».g. shibau. or the French #w in O » J JUMM) . o 1. e (nearly the French (b) e muet). I. m. or the (c) in bird) . of a syllable .

w**J la'bun. ^3. of the Kor'an. or on the line. the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated.— Orthography and Orthoepy.]' are sometimes applied to L. u. uttered. e. o. j*±. O O x 9 x D approaching to that of the Swedish &.8 Part First. and fetha. x x x . are probably derived from 5. though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure. the vowels are expressed by dots (usually red). X L the third t is a small j and the other two respectively. [§ 5 A Rem. damm. Rem. S ywftU ajj^jaJI. u. form or figure.. gards the signs L. damma. A vowel 5 is called dib^a. .c © . will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. however. — its De Rem. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4. and dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points and besides.] . commonly used of the casee. u. xO p plur. jj*o sadrun. kesr a. i. *\1& Ox Ox and V!)3p a. a. i. The distinction between the names feth. or 0. can scarcely be laid down with certainty original sounds. The terms ^^u and *3j. is x ^sb * bakiya. B mark t Ox plur. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their for those in C which they are modified. the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants. xx e. be given for the guidance of the learner*. [Another name 5 x x x damm is kabw. Under the same circumstances kesra an opportunity [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good. and who have of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants. one above for fetha. and one in the middle. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels. one below for As rekesra. In the oldest Mss. ktmrun. into e. a. a motion. Ol&»j»» J J is termed jJXw. for damma. — . 1.g.g. JULwt or J|y£w. Lin for other positions. kesr. the latter the marks L. x endings £ laJI xOj0Oxj2JxO*> G. owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are . or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a. _. The following rules may. 6. is that the former denote the sounds a. Compare the Hebrew MH^. through for the various 1. c. and ^£ or a.

SjU garatun. f *. at a later period. i. approaching to that of a in the English — . u. a was at and hence long vowels. less clear sound. w. s J . O**-' seniinun. suratun . e. and also in general at the 6.JUt from (^e resurrection. A / damma assumes the sound of an obscure (especially ^ and e) to o. end of a word.g. e. a.g. letter is when that doubled or follows a long a or u. <JUI.g. J ( e. though and % after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the u. Zjj* marratun. The Vowels and Diphthongs. a weaker. respectively.§ 6] _ II. g. after the the vowel-points. by placing the marks C and ^. however. literae productionis. c>**^> axJ^JI. garratun. cap. a-Ljj^ medHn&tim. in which case these letters are called jLoJt sJ^ja. ^>j*jJI.g. 5 y J * Si ' J "0 words merely by a fetha. — . It retains. and o\ o. tunun. J * ' *>»—''» 03J*> a&M. olUI. whilst inclining with the gutturals lotfun. invention of more rarely marked than the other happens that. More in exactly.j**fi> 'o'mrun. of the short vowels before the letters ^j. Ot^-JI. (b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor emphatic consonants. w*fc> ro bun. ^^1. sound of to that of the French u or German jy»." The comnot e binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u. ^=>j*« m^rkebun. iUi.. Jj bdl.g.g. j+&\ 'akbaru . Rem. C~l£> katabta. e. IJJb. e. • # 9 x «.g. it was indicated in some very common first it J j. «£l«~> sbnibkun. e. to be carefully distinguished 2 . The long vowels a. $$** sukun. e. ^ao. Z words hat. <C. its pure sound of a before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics). one of those letters. the fetha should be written perpendicularly this case. 1J&. "letters of prolongation. U^A. however. or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed by a long one). K+£\. JikJ to/a. 3»o i. sUrtm. ^-£3 Bsrun. ^Ac 'ilmun. oSS or £*$. C>£^l)t. and in open syllables which neither commence fetha either has with. e. pronounced as e. so as to resemble a small elif . are indicated I. JL&J £1L hosnun *? 9 6 j or hosnun. 0^**> nearly torun. $j*». nor immediately precede. J 15 kola. *aj bVa.g.

the Spanish names **!/**• Jaen. / . J / / U^A. ^^^aJI. and 3. 251. 0/ ^LJ The Hence lisan. tl-imdla.t. * [The omission of ^ p.» 1 0/ ending in <jt^ v >k*wuJ! djyc* jX*.g. / *y-U. a a ^ and j to damma /O/O/0jo| . oW*-j c£J^*j 7. just as that of fetha does from a to e (see j/ / «/ C § 4. than in others. 0/1/ and ^jj^U. in later times and in certain from a to e. the " deflection of the sound of a and a towards that of % and Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. preceded by damma. I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word. such as 2ux^j and // / J / / / J j U/ J / / / 0>**3.» j^.g. whence sister of fetha.. final in these cases is hardly a mere orthobut expresses a variant pronunciation in which graphical irregularity. . jJJ} . See Noldeke. c. el-Haft. — / 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 7 B e. The letter o. jj^iu. JO / j . which retain their original clear 4t sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics. This change is called aJU*jM. / / Rem. ^ stor damma. the final I was shortened or dropped. Z?e/a. inclines. 0/ e. — Orthography • **\ and Orthoepy. The words ^*}U. / »j\ i^tj. &i&. is used by the Arabs North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words e. aIU. a. • Fetha before 9 ^ and 3 forms the diphthongs ai and au. o/* ^. a^oJI c*». Gesch. dJ>l5. i. Lebrilla. £/^ sister of & j £ khsra. and " § 5. bnu H-Yemani. el-'Asi. 6. 6a6. D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t. \ Si / j J/ I J .jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu . I corresponds to fetha. Qordn's. j>?UM. o^o saifun. Carlo. j J . ^ Wver Guadiaro. are written a». localities. / O/O/0 j e I ^ to kesra. ^j-^tijt. price. Ztow Pedro.b. JUy " 5 1/ 2u*$3. / / / • The long vowel is more common in Magribl Mss. Magribl 0/ w>l£>j / WMJ. J w^aJt. for ^yUjt. and occasionally some other vocables. value).] . and /»/ 8 1 This other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt . m [§ 7 A el-Tdmetu. . ojJsu ^j>. lisin and. Caniles. ^l^Jt.10 Part £©**JI / First. / £e£m. S^JOI C^»-t. The sound of L. I • I J t 0/ . d. 6). are sounded ri&#. J^J and ^^Uj O-**^ 0-«-«)> an(^ other proper names I I t . ^Citf J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. are I also frequently written defectively wJi.g. conversely. 10/ w>b jj£l Zo&tn. etc. # of Rem.

g. 213 (as Li^-j he will live. like I. (£lif e. even very ancient ones. § 19. rem. 169. and //»/ " x x is called. and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. . It receives this name because.g..^. A w*** sefun. The Vowels and Diphthongs.g. otiosum). the world).g.J3 fata. is often written. L*^j Behnesa. [But ^-. the separating eiif Rem. write \L where the received rules require y£L in According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya . in contradistinction to the lengtliened J s 0*» fO/ S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23. y. 6)f. ^L x x xOj In words of three letters. in itself quite superfluous intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it It is belongs. ^J*-» yedai. particularly in the plural of I J x x © xx 3 0* verbs. Rem. not f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical made a distinction of sound between ^1. but <Lm6j it is commonly changed into as dUj. the elif that Jx e&/*. is \^cj. See the details below §§ 167. d. e. but and o (Heb. *-) sfTftft. \j£ yaza). with the mark gezma (see the diphthong ai. Oj* m « x a otun (almost motun).» J *0>O £ Ox in the same position J (e. tjj-aJ. £tL*o J^ ^J_ XX U?*^> i. can be abbreviated. after the other letters x 11 «Jyk haufun. like J * itself . tj>>*J- This I. etc. when old Mss.§ 7] x II.-oj rama. ^J4! is is Ml often J marked « in XX by the 2/ec&&. b. shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant. xx or a**). become nearly 9 (Heb. pronouncing usage the former nearly as e cf.] . as are the j and ^£ in jjt and j-jf *^ g. letters A. both when preceded by damma and by fetha. § 10).*^. l<Jj origin of the final a ^— . On the other hand many Mss. a "converted Yd" gives a "converted Wdw" gives U. suprascript. Rem. which it is protected by hemza. * 0*0*. the j i ^ is added to a word ending q sometimes retained according to old custom.~\ The diphthong ai. as in final.1 ** . . must be considered. and 1. rem. .. lj y*k+)\ \J&*$\. as in # * j I. f). ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha <* ** is pronounced t B * e.g.1. the guarding elif or <LLoUM ( jj> *0to j io* sJU*iM.e. when comes in contact it is with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see rem. in j If a pronominal suffix be . . ^-)> e. x x o& j £ ^ called 3u\9^\ oUI. before jj/J\ (see x § x 20. a). a.Jl Hid*. After ^ at the end of a word. »XX .

Zamahsari. SyU. . b) j>©. Sj£»j or 3>%j. z = — _ =_.. Rem. is added. X j+c 'Omar. accus. _ in. L an. all when the away (§ 315. [§ 8 A d. 2jj j*c medlnetan. l^jj. c. as S^a. malun. j+£. p. no I is written. L takes an after all the consonants except 3 it . g. rarely j \jj-+&. j ju*. Sjjwt. . JU a. name JS jj*©^ [or. Rem. according to the older orthography. it as in j^jdb.1 . as bb. which is always short : bdbdn. way l affecting the sound of the ten win. so ' ' J written to distinguish from another proper name that has the J y J same radical letters. \j+&. however. e. nor. 1 or iL un. First. for which we more usually find U*w.] In old Mss.+£• and JJ-+& ) is. [Cf. when precedes a ^. of 31. * i. See t § 308. — Orthography and Orthoepy. The j of $. Rem. when acto . 8. b. and takes place only at the end of a word C^JJ bintin. l viz. genit. and bpt . further 2oL for Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or of £j»3 J according to which older nearly as a or mode e writing we ought to pronounce the \L re- spectively*. O . without in any to the proper 4 .12 Part Rem. for l\ J^. so also \y>j. djXo or S^Lo. Amr (not x Amru). ^a^ 114. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 2>^a»J. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced with the addition of the sound n. tenwln genit.£ in three cases]. the use of to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions. To one word j * . [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\. as in 1-w. the tenwln is expressed by doubling the dots which represent the vowels. . This is called CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun). of the Kor'an. companies a hemza. but 4aJ^». often neglected in old manuscripts. SyCiLo.— DeG.or S^a-. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel. it a. However. rihdn.] . viz. falls jj-o*. and accus. rem. t>^Jt for b>.

^ -*~' \ an(^ over * ne ^lif O^J maksura. to separate the two. SIGNS. rem. etc. J**i. as the Arabs say. b. for ^s>. is D 11. ^jXt. e. z. but marked with the sign -. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter. whence the C of the 2 . movent rem. a). (see § 4. instead of the common ±: or 1 . as between feth &&& fetlia. later d. when another syllable J follows. c.g. j** OfOJ x x O x ±J~Ji~t sefsefa. \^$*>A- Tesdid or Sedda.g. or a*j^. JJ. j>*o. In some old Mss. is written only once. Gezma. b. ^J^t but when they stand for elif do not take this sign (see § 7.g. ^' xx x ^ 1 * xx x ^J 1 - Rem. 5 x \ 9. A consonant that fl to be doubled. used. 13 III. - -. rest. <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). ^jJb B. Ox Rem. It corresponds thereits Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew. without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. productionis they Rem. Other Orthographic Signs.g. with which other name x \j£~i. but not marked with a gezma. O-* <H> 0-°> *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*I \ '. Rem. A Gezma x or Sukun. A. and serves. d). are retained in writing. which is called . a quiescent See § 4. Gezma or Sukun. or. © x x e. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2. c. a). Rem. ^j and 3. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the with a gezma. a. . has no following vowel vi is called \J>j*. rem. ^&i ~£= katabtum. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC A. ^J=>. letter. B ' * J s <*> as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-. Jj bel. The same distinction exists between the words gezm and gezma. JL3.» letters of prolongation. § x- 59/ j*±e*. (amputation). b. m A letter which letter. as xOxOOJxxO xx 2 . e. . coincides.§11] III. Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is 10. ^£»L>. when they form a diphthong with fetha. fore to the hum. 6 W0x d 5 x J J WW S Os£ wi B /I e. x J strengthened (3juL&). are marked '. is written over the final «JOx x * consonant of all shut syllables. which receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14).

It corresponds «/ m8 * ^-Jl fa-semmi. In African Mss. Perf. which the African Arabs s 5 use instead of the other. no doubling.g.g. [§11 A JujJLSf. is not required . ~ . a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. -. single). £ may . <fec. as in African Mss. tesdid is * expressed by « or ^. Rem. or the first letter of the name ojut>.] .is an abbreviated ^i. e. and receive tesdid. — Orthography e. instead of Jj3 and J>*3. sing.g. when accompanied by kesra. e. the tesdid {strengthening)*. ± alone may be = t .*. cj-tU na"agun. -. jv» semmin. Rem.. in the verbal forms j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila. of the Kor'an. J&\ Si M-kulla. A when a vowel precedes and consonant can be doubled. is sometimes written. which. d. (from UubL^ lightened. Q and write ^ttj ra"asun. as may be seen from the above examples. * [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. Perf. y* murrun. ^Jtt-w sa"dlun. in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence. -. a. takes place.e.«. Tesdid. the vowel is not always written with the sedda . 3d pers. therefore to the j j-oJI et-murru. in the oldest Or it may stand sJia* for * jw r J (from . is placed between the consonants and these vowel-marks. to.the Egyptians write £ instead of £ but elsewhere.£. All consonants whatsoever. fern. In combination with . b. C <*£&>. of ji Of CU5. since is «* and most carefully written manuscripts its form Its opposite is M» 9 a " . it and Orthoepy. and — B consequently the tesdid masc. 2d pers. stand for £. . below the line. c. only The cases treated of in § 14 follows it. e. admit of being doubled and take tesdid. i. *$d> kullan. The solitary exception to this rule. the first radical o o * o of the name S * jljj^J. sing.>jut>.»). . D Rem. of the fifth form Rem. The African Arabs constantly write for -. as well as £. -. in combination with -. In the oldest Mss. at least in old manuscripts. —De G. Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. not even excepted. Rem. admits When a consonant is repeated of an easy explanation (see § 159). elif hemzatum Hence we speak form no exception to this rule.14 Part First. properly so called. Ojji.

ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi. appointed some one commander . iesdFid. in African and Spanish manuscripts. is.§ 14] III. he. 5. and Jj. used : — (a) With the letters O. It is passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. j. The w of the . and the other lunar them. and The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant. is B. whether short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U). j. y> (murrun) language. ^-^Jt Ss-semsu. for kiidbun mublnun. like ilcu^a. necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^. c J. Tesdid or Sedda. <>?. ^L 14. . letters. Thus j*\ (amara) means he commanded. ^.>L©. is bitter. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a Consequently tesdid long vowel and terminating in a consonant. indicates a doubling the signification of the word depends. e. This assimilation extended by some to the J of JJb especially before j. solar because the word u~+J*.g. to avoid harshness of sound.) after the article Jl . Other Orthographic Signs. 13. Ja. it is sometimes found after it 1. e. . ^. j>. *£>. as in B wJ^M >>«3] though § 25). 'ar-rahmanu . or. the because the word j^3. the Rem. though expressed in writing. and &*£$. 0+j**j)\ and liquids. ui. JJI. J». 3. but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the Rem. With the J. ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu. O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun. save in rare instances. e. which. JIaj <jt after the nunation. happens to begin with one of them. J-JJt el-leilu. sibilants. UkjodH.g. and after n with £ezm. A upon which The necessary which always follows a vowel. yi. commences with one of is letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI D Rem. >. (b) b. jjUliu (see Nor does occur after the diphthongs $1. moon. &. j. JJ ^>o.g. 0> (dentals. TeSdid either necessary or euphonic. j^UI k-timru. letters. These letters are called A*~*»£Jt ojj^JI. but ja\ (ammara). 15 12. a. sun. as C^»tj letters j.> [see § 277]. as in jto.

. a). Many reject this kind of assimilation altogether. jilf. is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. * D 15. but the . £>*> 0*> I*. d. for C-slsua. k*±. 4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God. ILd. .. ^Sj. *£>. pronounced like not a mere letter of prolongation. as C~J for cJL5. Rem. £>}j\ 'aratta for O^l 'aradta. juXSI. ^ v >«. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9.O-*a. . which \j3. j^\ . *J O' ^s e q ua 0>^^! common with % ^1. and rem. He^mza or Nebra.g. with B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for (c) U^t j. c. but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» «» 8* I©*.>«. when it is sonant. u° or h.g. but a conthe spiritus lenis. the If to the is above letters we add ^ as w*X& mnemonic word Rem. compression. jwl. see § 4. elevation)'. b.jl £ (i/*. v° b. also sometimes called nebra (S^J. )» s With the letter O . by a C weaker servile letter. a. Elif.16 Part First.» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. Ut £ for U. Rem. in a si . 6. f°r O**** or v>» . e -g. Similarly we find *$\ £ for *N). — Orthography and Orthoepy. mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A. for ^ O*. because the absorption of a strong radical consonant.31. Rem. always. ^Jj\. are hardly ever written separately. is of the upper part of the windpipe. second b. such as >.. a. . \j}\ t Ua*. a. ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum. (dentals). it i. [§15 A words v>«. with redundant U). on the contrary. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations as js> for Ojcc. so that only one O is O. i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with D-*> ^ . and grammarians. e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel. union of the two indicated by the tesdid C.jt £ {if not). rem. it naturally unites with the is written. e. like O. is distinguished by the viz.^t. after e. rightly.jl. however. g.. the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel . (tf/iatf.. JL. Rem. W* for U £>*> ^ itself. j certain parts of the verb C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu . lj. If the verb ends in O in the above cases. e.

** ^s = O^J *^' 1 Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- a ^ so marked in such Mss. § 4. ft and occa- • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J for JJL> or sionally Usui. preceded by a shut syllable. for ^j^-wl^.. 16. after elif productio?iis. or more commonly £oi» an (see § 8. Ju*>.. like l^ and l^J? are often written..§ 17] III. el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu). Hemza it. l^. e. ^j\ or <jt for ^>t. 1 is probably a small c and indicates that the elif is to be pronounced almost as ain. rem. j mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) iota. £^3. tS>j\ 4 *L5^"> ffi a > D 6 s s ><£*J> *3~*> rem. though [See below. 4JL%*©. C*£». f°r uplift ft * Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t. after a letter of prolongation or a consonant with gezma.g. . Ji* and the d. C. as ^j^t\^J.g. Rem. c). b. l A o j j o £ it is sometimes actually written &. like.g. w*33j 17. . (a) Always at the end of a word. \J'\yA\ indicated by doubling the vowel-points . e-j ^^j for it chW. e.Ufc. Accusatives * w.g. Rem. varying in position according to the accompanying vowel (see above. Hemza or Nebra. In African (and certain other) Mss.. ^ e-J Jwmzatum* and j take hemza. when they stand (in which case the two points of the in place of letter an eli/G ^ are com- monly omitted). jt. c£X±. * J gaa. tbj. In the oldest Mss. Other Orthographic Signs.l. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t ^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). ^. for Ol». is written between the t and the vowel that . j5~t for j-w (see § 16). s uun\ i^o. ear at the The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word.j>Jwl£. a)'. J0^i\js>\ (but for J ..3. for ^>>L. c.. I. §§ 131 seq. is e. accompanies or the gezma (see the examples given above) but B we often find ^jJl*\L. *U*. of the Kor'an. Rem.g.] 3 . by a large yellow or green dot. hemza e.. e. and in the middle of a word. pro- vided the hemza has the vowel fetha. 17 Rem. (jlt^iJI. or ltu»» for U*i». in the fol- lowing cases.

£lif with [This hemza. A hemza preceded by u or 0^ i. for **o*> from *^. ^ £ j 3 .. 1 ^eU for ^oU). a following After a consonant with gezma. *Zo* j 9io.1^. oUJ]. after the letters of pro- longation oi 3 and * * ^.kri c or &Lla». more frequently. and also e. rn'usun. hati'atun. iiQs 9 - StjjJLo for SjjjjU. Rem. 5 likewise be changed into Ow->0*0^ J0x 3 ^. o£jOx <w j be changed into pure o„ j or 0^ for A^o. £. placed itself. Rem. as be djjJLo for SjjjjU. which is connected with letter. j c-> . [§ 17 A contrary to rule. as JLtj for JLjj. ^y for ^15*1 D W* f° r t~A — hemza has gezma. The name j^tj or ^i\y David. for^. 6. If preceded by u or or the or 5 -> diphthong the hemza 1» may 1 whatever 1 the following vowel. after kesra ^ and j of prolongation.g. J3J for 9 j-o J>^J. Lw. from S^a-o. over the letter of prolongation «_ Of J»/ 6 3 s Of . called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] c. u.g. j £ j ^ j may Jtj~>. Hemza between w&. PuUr* for 0^ . pronounced makrit'atun. for ^t. and followed by a or s a. e.18 Part First. Rem. or after a consonant with gezma.. for JU»t. « *• ltv 5^ for l^' *0s from If the \^ hh . o. as J£*t. is. necessarily so. as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 1. at. e. power and] be changed into the it may [lose its consonantal letter of prolongation that is homo- geneous with the preceding vowel.g. as ^>ott or is ^\.>*1t. and damma before the for ^Hjjj. (b) Frequently in the middle of words. J-~j for JL*j . O/ as for i — Orthography . is often written ^\y . if the preceding consonant be an . and uu. j to. ua. though improperly. jit£ for ^otjj. however. l*J* \\>j and in old Mss. we find such instances Z\}j. ^^jj for ^Hji. hemza and its vowel may be placed above the J/Of 3 c oi C connecting line. B On^^ for <jJJ»l&. a. ^j^ au. and Orthoepy. S$j-£* for SjjjXo. — ^. J^/f. but must always be pronounced Da'udu. or ^hj^j which words must always be . 0^34 for oL5^. ai.

Wasla. £ s 'OiO . |x X .g. the father of (b) the we~zir. or &L03. in modern African Mss. Wasla. according to the preceding vowel. are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word. dU^l c-ol. In the oldest Mss. yet the student must not forget that the more correct C orthography I• is *£U*Jt x x and *2Jlut. With the t of the article J I as xj^' ^ )i x Ox fr> r jt Jij$ yA. Rem. rem. we rr J- L instead b. JJJ3I J 13 for D J^3t J 13.a. listen. j*jir>\ >* he was put f OJOAJx L OJOJx to flight . a. and called J*&3. e. j£j& find X Ox Sj-o*Jt~. i. at the commencement of A a word. J With the and x b>o t of the Imperatives of the x first form of the 6 J 0«7 x x > < .e. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red). and Nomen x x x 0>O x J actionis of the seventh § 35). with a point to indicate the itself. «i. or 2X& (see x bi rem.g. + * regular verb. S^-j&JI. 19 D. union. e. d. . I i. of the usual sbs. j x 0*» J'O x 3 x c x x 6*> ois e.written over the . the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign . kill. raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. he said. I of the Perfect Passive in the x same forms x . and § 19. (a) This elision takes place in the following cases. D. xxxOxJ for jbj^j] e. j »*C«*fj for JU*S* 'J» «w^ ^ . j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) X ^t^ii'Njt J I £/# . In ancient MagribI Mss. the stroke is used.§ 19] III. which sometimes varies in position.g. Rem. X *>*> . as *-n~>\ OiOj x x J 13 for %+~>\ J 13.& downfall or extinction. O x ^ x 5x § 4. a&I. "« Though we have written x «x _ x in the above examples ^JUL^I "" "* and ^wt. a. s2)X(J\ juc abdu x x o l 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt j oe-s juc abdu M-mUiM.o$ or 4JL0 . rem. When the vowels with hemza (t I). f seems to be an abbreviation of it is yo © x Ox in J*. i.. or rather. and all the following forms of the verb (see and the ^. Slif. he said. x See § 15. a). was appointed governor . Hence even I. (c) With £ the J of the Perfect Active. t J~~> . Imperative.e. 19. <tf)L the word &Ho original vowel of the elided £lif. Other Orthographic Signs. I 18.

\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. as rem. for which t we may also write A? J J Ox aJUI Hi AS ^. xO xxO O^'l. 3 d. the anus. prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with and a vowelless consonant. a * a daughter. and § 18. is in ^>*-jl after J).© Jj AS J J OA>x and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma). is also elided after the asseverative particle J. two (masc). especially after the article. b. <ft jL^jf. 9 J © O^'* 9i* s !^*l. the vowel with hemza weakened through constant use (as * in the article. that to say. two (fern. rem. in part merely prosthetic. j^\ 30 (rarely^wt). In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- junctionis (see rem. to indicate that the they omit the hemza and express only its accompanying vowel. Rem.\ but the gramma' * S x x x £ x £ nans brand this as Ji*. Cwl.>*-J. 9 a woman. or. 9 J 9*0 §j*\. * . * 9 /) fe is neglected. J Oi Rem. as aSS ' ' jl©aJI instead * Ot of J) aSi »x»aJI. orjj-ot.^r^\^AJ\ JA>. oatfAs. — Orthography son. in a x&x 0*0* B Arabic. as (lit. and Orthoepy. because it is then no longer necessary. b. /). e. classical With the article Jj-ol 3i and l\^t>\ take. 81if is The Arabs themselves never do an elif conjunctionis (see rem. s-Jj^-- .^0-MvNjt J^. and consequently it vanishes as soon as a vowel precedes it. JO* C is Rem. The hemza of j>^-»l. the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\.20 Part (d) First. : [§19 A With the 930 t of the following eight nouns 9*0 9'* <vj\. See § 15. but. in part original. as ^t^iiNjI ^. Rem. aJUl ^>oJ*^ % GW Hi by the oaths of God). a. It is naturally an absurd error to write I t at the beginj o * Ota ning of a sentence instead of I elif with hemza. and * ^J\ * or ^j\. and occasionally m after the prepositions *. omitting the altogether. Rem.>M. in a contracted form.). c. a man. but has been 9 3 oi In the above words and forms. jl^l5N)l. a. 9t-*0 a name. so.

fear the people. AJJt j)BJn. a diphthong. the elect of God. A II . father of the wezir. at into ai. 21 Rem. The silent elif (§ 7. »JUI or Sj^Jb A Jmo^JI. J*Wi. A A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its vowel . f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t .rfi. in the other two an elif separationis. being sJgJUl oUI. (b) long vowel is in pronunciation. ^^t )^o*J my grace which.g. instead of . first of these examples the it is is an conjunctionis.« mustafdu 'lldhi.g. Wasla. is pronounced as written Q tjuJi. in e the beginning.JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI . a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- . To vowel. viz. these different cases the following rules apply. rem. may assume before the article the older forms ^_ me on and the J) ^ . J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide latter way. in consequence of the elision of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic as if license). subject to change (a I weak elif letter).^s-s O^Ox l^-3 /« Wwcw s 'l-meliki. Other Orthographic Signs. iK/" or hemza conjunctionis. for ft and 'abu. and au into cm as (c) . This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel. J^*^M In the 3$ (for J^U^t). but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an elif conjunctionis. according to the rule laid jj>j^\ down in §25. according to the law stated in § 25. #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri. for /Oil s O 'QlO w »iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma. ^. for <UJt ^aJsucuo. b and c. but begins the next syllable. Hence gtj£^t ^3. (a) 20. the connective elif the opposite elif. which equally admissible. u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^. elif sejunctionis or separationis. 'n-nasi. forms are diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels. the disjunctive The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short a long vowel. sing. or a consonant with gezma.20] III.. The suffixes of the 1st pers.yju&t. see § 19. B shortened e. O in the eyes of the king. D. as u«jJi . the ^UJI ^3 ft among men. ^_ and e.

masc. the pronoun yj*. as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati Ox Ox Ox 'r-Rumu. J*iXwt £ if he went it consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel.>t ^o^L* seldmunu dhulu. for IjjjkTt Ji. as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are u> «* jA-« jjxxx J J bis the liars. In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85. £ take kesra. jS. J jOt take damma (in which they originally ended) x J . since. ^A or^A.>£). but in other cases kfera as J^JjT x ^>-o. as tjjiaST jj. because contracted for Ju*. x v~k*. The preposition . them. rem. or adopts the lightest of the three vowels. x0£<0. the pronominal e j suffixes of the same pronouns. & a >o o a < > nouns having the ten win. Jj. is The final £ of rejected. such as sjs. j£* your. j and^A they.»£xfixx v J9a!~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma.0*> x name . b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra. D Rem. [§ 20 xx A thong. JjOms £ as a^wt jt or his s. if had one or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis (d) . and ^A their. and particles. instead of J J 0«» x x t^J^. kesra. Oi Ox But jt and to meet.6.\. as w>tJoJt x xx J x ^o I mani l-kadddbu. you (accus. aJJt ^©v*** maV @°d curse j j them ! iJ**jM jA\j Ve ^ ave SP£n th# man. as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu. from. } Rem. and the verbal termination of the 2d pers.^0^ you.22 Part xx x 0*> First. as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata. Rem. etc. before the article. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma. and after they saw the star. J — Orthography w and Orthoepy. ^j\. plur. Perf. A . so that the wasl is effected the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) by the preceding fetha . Hence the pronouns of the j B 2d and 3d jo£ pers. they threw the stones . which in its nature ap- proaches nearest to the gezma. j ^3J&>\ OJO^Jxxx J^ /T^* CJUj c. takes . b. viz. C fetha djj\. masc. which time forth. . plur. as .. x J x <5 ^j . a. the wasl is sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowelless i consonant or » b-o 3 J tenwm . ^Sj. yj*t> XXX All other words ending in a consonant with m §ezma take ke'sra .)..>*. from. viz. The same it is is the case with Jco. verbal forms like ji" " xxx cJlS. J*.

if ^jj\ jU. the J s I retained. omission of the In the word ^t. the son of Halid. as by the J J OtO j . when preceded as : (a) by the preposition J to. and that of his father follows in provided always that the said s series. For example. Z . forms part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. so that the two together make a complete senif *> But s J 0*> s tence. la tadriba 'bnaka. the son of of 'Abdu 'lldh. son. Jesus the son of 1 0>o i Mary . B when the name the genitive lira . it is ls**J> Ridha. Even 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. Wasla. for aJUI^wb. Mikdad the son of U-Aswad OOs 3j*o*)- (the real if name of el-Aswad. [Cf. thus: j^." being Amr. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid. as^j^* the <j->t ^^s>. ^ ja* 'Auf t § * * * | j J Os s < s jl±. the an adjective. to stand at the beginning of a line. b.] the second noun be not in apposition to the first. . but a J) j o*> o surname or nickname. if that word happens Rem. jy&J*o wise. (a) t is altogether omitted in the following cases. the son struck Sa'd. b. O If the is name following -< ^t Os be that of the mother or ^ J O/O grandfather. In the article Jl. 23 tadribani &Jj\ w^-*aj 'bnaka. then the W -» 1 is J OiO OMS retained. oUaaJI Rem. § 315. e. DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the the copyists of Mss.g. s Or the series be interrupted iu any way. In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j. aUI j^s.§21] - III. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter w>. ?^m<? <?/ m ^ {b) 6JW. ' interposition of the noble. that is to say. J^pJ to the man. as a whole. D. . of the son precedes. but form part of the predicate. sO*° s Other Orthographic Signs. "the black. for J*^). t. *$ and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la A 21. in a genealogical series. . 'Ammar s (yrand)son of Mansur. rem. a. as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) * J s 3 Zeid («*) the son ofC 'Amr.0* . real j Like- the following name be not the o£o>o name * of the father. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd J J 0x> s O - ^0 son of Meirnun (pronounced (c) like ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ the word zirba) the son of Musa. to I in the first case the of ^t is retained. as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«.c.ijj sjj£. ^t j+s.

to ask. the two . elifs # when the second j s s o. is Rem. 5jL« or aJsh. j-o3. when preceded by the thy interrogative particle as &*>\. I . o e. In the oldest and best Mss. *U. for ^UjM.e. as aJUJ to the night. [Cf. further the contracted tribal names j++*X>. Its opposite is j*oA (i. of the Kor'an. cited in § 358.. we find in old Mss.. a. a. then the J of the article is omitted. is son—1 O^Xit. and the article Jt. for *l».. is it (fem.>. and the sign of prolongation. so that 'X^S with the interrogative is often written ll©Jk Rem.Z . he ofKorei's or he of Takif? b) for dXM dlLo^ M .>^> is thy oath l by God'? (see § 19. in Mss. a. c .24 Part First. Rem. as S&JJ. such forms as tbj. for^5Jo»Jtt. Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij. Ih. and that for alJJN). § 140. 22. *X*~> semdun. after the conjunction J sj. E. ^aw? is ^ received! B *0'. extension). in poetry. e. verbs.) is written instead of the former. (i. — Orthography and Orthoepy.] . a. is placed over the latter . shortening)^ though * [Note also the cases.] Medda or Matta. the form of the medda » x ji*). then a mere hemza etc. 6. rem. may blend into one with medda (see t below) as . » a>. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of l*>.). ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna. 1 medda or matta 5/ o £ * 3/ j) (jto.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t. is frequently omitted. As mentioned above 1U*. (t. according to some. y>^tf. xxOjx^o^ ^. ^*>. for (d) In nouns. for iOn. is When elif preceded by an Slif of with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin prolongation (ti. lengthening.. [§ 22 also A If the first letter of the noun be J. i. elif In this last case. wj^aJI yJ — De G.. for 2JJJJ.).*)juft is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^).e.gaa. f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article I may however be retained. (£) by the affirmative particle J truly. b. verily. rem.a»Jt.. rem. for Oj-Jull. Q Rem.g. I.. has fetha. for JUS. (§ 17. as Jlli.)tt ^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\. for llo-*. rem.

He (God) exalted above all. Ut or to the end of etc. Ae narrated to us tfAew. U^-l . Rem. then the two are commonly represented in writing single elif with ' e-i- medda. e. . aJUt ^y^j.\ .^* or ^**. tut instead of L*t or tutt. i. ajx. when they are used as long poetry. So Jtj for jJUj. U for Uh*»»l.§ 23] III. as ly~J j jo£ . b. rem. may God be <*JUI well pleased with. or the vowel. 25 this is is but rarely written. —The letters j* j» are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript.j£*. a. medda (see § 6.. (t) is at the beginning of a syllable. Cfor J^a-. b). e. In this case it is not usual to write either the hemza. The mark -.] 1 Rem. ^2J\ j&. see § 174. w. j^> aJUI for^JLJI <*JLc. only is (§ 17. St*\ Si'* 5- £ Rem. or gracious him/ mj «>JI or a»-j for a^a-j. Medda prolongation. alwt for }tL*l.jt or . the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7. rem.e. upon him/ for 6j±. an Slif with hemza with and fetha followed by an elif of prolongation or an i elif hemza and gezma by a S'f St (I). h). of the Kor'an medda expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • A 23. Medda or Matta. along with the medda. . a) c. $ and sometimes placed over the other letters of C ^. [But we some- times find U. GW Jfess him and grant him peace ! du&j for to.g. o or t. the hemza being written final a) . may GW /*e Aave mercy it. j j Also over the j j j j vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\.J I. Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha. for 4 .g. is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t. when followed by an elif hemzatum. 0>^' f° r Ol^H> B tul for U*M (see § 17. In some old Mss. Other Orthographic Signs. When. d. instead of with Rem. in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t. e. has nothing in common with medda but is the form. 'peace be D upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU ^JLo. often written over abbreviations of words. in and the verbal termination j£. informed us. E.g. W for LS jo*-. rem. the lengthened or long elif.^**. l^a***.

the second means that a word has been indistinctly written in the text. — Orthography and Orthoepy. it is correct. either separated or followed . which are not by a vowel (except in pause). Before a double consonant a (see § 13. *-Jj*y\. the Franks (Europeans) j*~£>] an elixir. the fix o < correct one 5*-o.). a copy. and not that of the text. ^. and denotes form or vocalization. etc.e. that the ancient it is as kul.Generally speaking. JU pause. 26. the third implies that the marginal reading. Jy> (Heb. J . though there Iao be something peculiar in la*. rem. find words with the letters *f~. usually before the . and jajJLc. ^)L^. B Written over a word in the that the word its is correct. which we call a shut or compound syllable. THE SYLLABLE. — ^ [§ 24 A On the margin j**>o. Foreign words. IIXaTwv f J . where the final short vowels are suppressed. ' « . 0*0 0* y^M. J *0t anroyyos ^^b >l|. -*~o stands for ^o. end in two consonants. 25. A syllable cannot (medicamentum siccum).26 Part First. may (i. or ^!wa1. and is repeated more clearly on the them. tin. as sf or fir. first consonant . D Rem. Vlp). is. is however not infrequent [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma sometimes receives a medda. to be placed last. we often W O * these indicates a variant. and ~~*a over of Mss. explanation. not only in Arabic admits of such syllables as in. C we 24. as J13 ka-la. as O^^-] syllable cannot begin with two consonants. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant. is almost always short . another manuscript . emendation. may be either long or short. an. in the writer's opinion. dJbd over a <x\x). A take an additional vowel. the first of which is destitute of a vowel. to fypov 27. word on the margin implies a conjectural emendation perhaps IV. as . and stands for < ~*J. text. The vowel of a which call an open or simple syllable. together) is written over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels are correct. which commence with a syllable of this sort. The first of U J margin. to be placed first. correction. — Again it is. syllable that terminates in a vowel. on passing into the Arabic language.

§ 31] V. is the interrogative enclitic j> . rem. 9 lj-4 biir-un. *!_ or 2t_. ul-J . long by nature. The penult takes the accent when .j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na.a-du- l wun. mdk-ru . ne-bi . \S£> ka-dd. XX oU3l^ X Ox kd-ti-ba-tun. bil-ldur. as ^. is an open syllable containing a long vowel 5 J as J15 kd-la. or. *fe\ 'a-fa-ld.33 wa-kul. The last syllable of does not take the accent. ji-o ma-fdrXX xOxJ Wxx S0j3 bu-neiku-bei-la. £15 fa-kdt. xx Of Jxxx ^y fr ka-taS £w. the accent falls upon the antepenult. d-du. in contrast with C X Uj bi-ma. J. kd-nun. l Oxx kd-ti-bun. Jl-rfnd. c*~k»-lX X Wx Jx * 'ig-lis. 5 *' *" ** x* J . V. J3I 'a-kdl-lu. . bd-ti. ^3 5x x 9 6 df-bun. a word consisting of two or more syllables : A 28. ne-bi-yun. Exceptions are of § 29 and § 30. j js. it is 29. j>V.>*) li-mdn. UJ ^-rad See 351. as ya-kul. w>. as j ^S3 5x£ kdl-bun. y bi-hi. i>*>^ yun. U-^t 'ei-na-md. ^Jl^ ^JU» td-la-bun. i. ^. But words ending becomes in ^- j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun Ko-ra-sl.B *3j** mak-ru-un. ya-kH-ldn-na. 9 uf ma-fdr. i). _ ^J ^i li-ma. '• ~ s * % i L Oy\$ kd-nu-nun. bil-ldu-run. Rem. which retain their original accent as *^l 'a-ld. X The only exception as § to this rule in old Arabic bi-ma. (a) The pausal forms . *j_. Vj wa-ldm. in which the accent remains unaltered 'a-kdl. bu-nei. m». 9 x x Jyu ya-ku-lu. that the antepenult is long by ^ xxx Oxxx C<%». ' ' 'ik-ti-nd ' ilj-o^. ham-rd-'u. When has four or more syllables. I. and %^throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms. . if it 31.e. kd-ti-bdt. ly-»|p fa-?-a- . ku-beil.J . hdm-ra. 'I' ( %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un. The penult has 6 likewise the accent when a shut syllable and consequently long by position. (b) * Monosyllables in combination with . g^lsu ba-ti-un. J*J J*>j* fi-rm-dun. U la-nd. J. provided that the word has not more than three syllables. ^r* kd-ta-ba. mu-mi-nfn. ^ Jx x kd-ta-bat. j. i D ^^ the penult is short. and vJ. Rem. it is 30. nature or position « x . l^ bi-md. j_. The Accent 27 THE ACCENT.

670-3. as JjA J**j\) usual in North Africa : J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°.»>.g. because we took them from the Arabs.« thrown as far back as possible U^f> mds-a-la-tun. ten in number. and Wallin in the same journal. THE NUMBERS. Indian: ^ ^ r ^ r 8 (ffct ^^^x^^o °9$-i 5 Arabic :\ Europ. as jut*a£. differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed.. pp. as the following table shows. 183-6. VI. as In other cases the kd-ta-ba-td. Vul- 59 sqq. iv. &v. numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1).28 Part First. pp. [§32 A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum.j> A J"*^ The special numerical figures. have been adopted D by the Arabs from the Indians.. — Orthography . \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md. Grain. Their form. 1874. l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jaoor.: 123 4 67890 . p. They are the same that we Europeans make use of. and Orthoepy. the the alphabet. Ulytfn accent is ka-tdb-tu-md. B 32. y a a They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals e. vol. des arab. Egypt and among the Bedawin. letters of To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the In the former case. however. and usually distinguished from the surrounding words by a stroke placed over them.] gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880). at other times peculiar signs. On deviations from these principles of accentuation.jj* vl J^' y Oi- ^ s * s y x y s s s s J Si * *J»-i Jck^ Cvij. vol. . [also Spitta. They are written from right to left. Rem. the Indian notation. and are therefore called i^J^t^pt. 1874. xii. This arrange- ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged. see in Lane in the Journal of the German Oriental Society. tAvt. and tained in the barbarous words : is con- iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& (otherwise pronounced: -- ^J**. calling them Arabian.

III. A. JiliA j£ Ju& II. fifteen in The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned may pass over the last four. because the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. JjiSl XIII. A General View. literal verbs are by no means rare.PART SECOND. which first. pers. though quadriliteral (^Wj) 34. . From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadriverbs are derived in different ways several other forms. Jl3 to kiU. Ji^t VIII. of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj). is X. JiS I. The 3d of the verb. that is The great majority to say. a. masc.. VII. but the learner XL XII. being the simplest form commonly used as paradigm. JU**t XV. JJuilt XIV. C Jm J*£*t Jili IV. contain three radical letters. The Forms of Verb. JjuJI. Perf. but for shortness' sake it we always render into English by the infinitive. J*tf V. THE VERB. IX. Rem. B express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the 35. ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH. (with juSt number. the Triliteral 1. >& JiL ? l VI. instead of he has killed. 33. I. sing.

—Etymology first or the Parts of Speech. D Rem. v** J y^3 to go away. thinking. ' 1 ' »~J> to be JJu . . according to the vowel which accompanies second radical. 0>*- Jau £o fo proud and insolent. to our Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according way of e. 38.j+& j**o to be small. sJj& high or noble*. is B 37. c. [§ 36 as The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ paradigm. a. to be large. w>o to beat. Ja* to be low or j * * j * mean. De G. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juCU ) or J//J intransitive (j*Zo JO .» to be heavy. *-ji or JJ^ glad. e.] — . (scire). The distinction between them is. the above order and numbering of the conjugations all the European Lexicons. for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before. ^o^g to pity or have mercy *^w to hear. to sit. jJ*j to go right way. * [Or. or a to 0* C naturally inherent quality. or a merely accidental quality in persons or things . Kamil. to think. As are those adopted in note them carefully. u*j^ be sick. * to be safe and sound. sorry. same position has generally an intransitive u invariably so. that i i in the indicates a temporary state or condition. to s^^ to become gray. whilst u indicates a permanent to fe state. w-l£» tJie to JuS to hill. to become noble. b. j^~* old.g. ^j+e to be J* blind. 415. Rem. the learner should 36.g. j*y\ to become whitish. ^v^a.Part Second. and therefore govern the accusative. whence the radical of the triliteral verb is called by them tJie l\i)\ the fa. The vowel of the second radical intransitive verbs t° 9^ve > a in most of the transitive. jj&> to know upon. Rem. the second O* ^' ^e 3 ' a ^ n anc* tne third ^o^UI t lam. t^~U.g. j*M oyj»j*$) in its signification. The vowel signification. and not a few of the write. si* but to be yj****- to be beautiful. p. *£t or to E. j*£* become ugly.

xxx x*5x x 5 x to break in pieces.g. ^J to weep. Those that are transitive in the first become doubly to teach. Gr. The Verb. or during a long time (temporally extensive). 9-j* to gladden. ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels kneeled doum. Jjji to disperse . The second form is often rather declarative or estimative than factitive in the to strict sense of the . it is Rem. transitive or causative in the second # . though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked. The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by doubling the second radical. [See Comp. w>j~o to #£#£ violently . *IaJ to cut in pieces . 40. JU*M O^-o m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to . E. as^Xft know. w>J«i=» to think or call one a liar the truth. w i^ to toacA to xxx 5 x -• factitive signification is wnto / J-»»» to carry. to believe him. as w>Jt£> JJjlo to lie. Jt*». or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). fo«£. .to ?raa#0 carry. or to or by a number of individuals (numerically is to extensive). JS3 to to Mil. XX XXX implies that an act done with t/mrf violence (intensive). The signification agrees with the form in respect of being Originally it intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). Rem. b. The causative or common to J) the second and fourth forms. the apparent difference being that original in the latter.§ 41] I. 31 Rem.~\ /S/ X Xx A 39. Jf juo to tell think that one tells the truth. JU. ftta j x x 0<» ^) 41. j~£> to break. Ubt^ to weaken. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic.5 to cw£. 165 $eq. b. Jjy to separate.^jiz x w-A to wWto. first Verbs that are intransitive in the . Forms of Triliteral Verb. term. UbtA to XJ X X St X to fo wca&. Js3 to massacre . p. Sx J>»J or «J>j4? x OxJ X fl X #o round much or often. 1. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C causative or factitive signification. i)^ j/5" x5x J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down. but derived in the former. ^^ ^A\ to w&?jt? much. form become transitive in the second as 9-ji to be glad. w>o B j*& ala. A. xx or <J\h to go round. General View. a.

iisiS he (tried to kill he beat him. ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of I the eye. ^fap and Aram. to dwell in a place.32 Part Second. be cut oL»> Ae said to to him aDI ^)U». JxO m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar. (J**) by indicated as is ground-form in the follow- D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object (direct object or accusative). — Etymology is or the Parts of Speech. to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin. j-o»> jUl> O -0 ^e w. Sometimes. (??i«2/ thy nose. ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar. (^^J&t <*£M). *j3 to clean an animal of ticks (>tji). T^ \ 2 /|3B etc - Similarly. d. Rem.g.] The third form (J*U) is formed from the lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical.j). to the Heb. Rem. ing ways. . it expresses movement /fix x fi x 6 x Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^). JJjJ* to ^ towards a place J as x #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt). or being presses with various modifications the making the thing expressed by the noun from which it is occupied with. . ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja). Uju*. dukz^X** he said him «x x x5 x s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee). jl*. " to skin an animal. isj-o . to coZ/ec2 to to e. agju*.to pitch x x 'fl * a G x tent (£**£»). perform that act upon J X X X J Cx the object. in J^li expresses the effort or attempt to which case the idea of reciprocity effort is necessarily or accidentally (i&jll^JI) is added when the E. derived. by the elif productionis. jQ+m.). fi like the fourth form. g. ^UT. o him or) fought with him ojlL jJU* he fought with him . hfap. It modifies the signification of the 42. he said to off). as well as in signification. [§ 42 A The second form frequently denominative. and ex- or doing of. a mutual one. or the like. 43. first p. . a&3 he killed him. j&j*. j x Compare x in B Hebrew him *iU }fc^. x fi x i J/0/ oji C to go to the west (w^iil). 198 sea. Gr. J***- an army like (c£*»«)> sr**j to x P ave ***& marble 5 x . compare our stone fruit" and "to stone a person"). JUi corresponds in form. (may GW prolong J^O thy life). ^&0— [See Comp. (_>»U. c. x ^^3 5 x x become bent a bov) (^^5).i. j*£> he i j x 3 s 'x 5 x xxx Ox xx /»/ x I shouted the Moslem war-cry.

General View. oLAS he hardened himself against him the or **j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life. d^jti> he con- When Jjii denotes a quality or state. t mander of the Faithful. he got the better of him in a (b) lawsuit. «o *i« he fell upon aAs. from Julc the like or equal . Rem. . dJuL* he ran a race with him. ideas a. 33 alii he overcame him. aljlS he corresponded with him. ^U. When the or fourth form denotes an act. X */» X X ^t X *iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king. is here. AiS*) he treated him it . as in the former case.g. X X J . (c) . to be rough or JX X X U JX X Si* him harshly . him kindly . A^ol*. he vied with him in rank and glory . A. tli to be hard. <*J J 15 he said to ^UxLJt ^t J^jl v he sent (a message) to the sultan.^-0*3^1 j~t>\ him. do.to d-wla. 1.§ 43] I. g. E. sj**±. 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank. o^Sh he strove to do so. gently . „ . d^xw he ->X excelled rt him in composing poetry. aijli he strove to do so. £f$ to be soft or gentle. £>*~j*. The Verb. he threw him down. . attacked him. Forms him of Triliteral Verb. he treated he. E. he went first is to law with him. axStj do. a^pU he procured him means of doing so. . \J&\+b to double. (something).he sat beside the Corn' t»*Z . A aJU he tried to overcome him . treated be good or kind.Io he wrestled with . jlS>t he advised him. g. ^U-Jt ^Jl^ him he wrote to the king. ^ jjUsuLJI J^wtj do. Js>& indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards another . and affects him or brings X him into that state.. ac. Ji. »^jafe more or less distinctly implied.U» 5 . <uuw he outran him. but the and reciprocity are always more or less clearly x x x 06 ++ t implied. sulted with him. x A «» The idea of s reciprocity E. ojsMt he competed with him in doing so. Aiwl». the third expressed by means of a preposition (indirect form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). of effort The third form is sometimes denominative. . w. >*io^ 's Jt j+a\ juc crJ^. t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory. conversed with him . oa. the relation B of which to an object object).

^s- inform one of a thing . like the second as t alsLjt he thought him. The fourth form I. ( . Jailw ojicb.s.^JU to escape. Geog. i. 6) see Corap. E. Faih. t^&S he shewed him Rem.aJ and <<&>*>! to set at liberty.<» . 197 c. D Rem.g.* ot oj*+*»\ J . he thought him. tj>». to the Heb. significations. in others the same. Zamahsari.34 Part Second. because the Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state.. . Thus J*.] ( d^U is for ojuul Also *Jb=aXjt. or or it. J*^t he ate bread. fold well. a = Heb. (Gl. [Rem. ji$t) formed by prefixing to the root first the syllable in consequence of which the radical loses its vowel. The fourth form J' s Of. When (§ both the second and fourth forms of a verb are causative 41.. the first. they have in some cases different to teach. many that of a transitive verb. The fourth form comprises a great number of which are apparently intransitive. e£c. 44. cites xiii. a. sjof^\ \S^ c. found the district abounding in fresh herbage. of denomi- Rem. rem. G. from which they are derived. p. or found him to be. 52. if transitive in it becomes transitive the fourth fourth.. verb is . he found him. Rem.lj. niggardly .g. C c/~^t bid one to down. eat. ^oAfct to E. b. a . intransitive in the first form. sometimes declarative or estimative. it becomes doubly transitive in the E. to know. found him cowardly . to let go. Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun. of which it is the direct object. b.— Etymology to or the Parts of Speech. 202 seq. and thee safe Jj£) on fold i&t JtiU may God keep from *LdU robust health . . B Aghdni —De dUU. z^y^l ^j he saw the thing. Jjbl . In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of the fourth.. natives. he to be praiseworthy or commendable. j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave *tjt him bread the thing. v~y** to sit down. If the in 45. UJ is ^.g.v. [§ 44 A double. StOip J^li corresponds in form and signification (Arab. jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>). Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). to be.t to >*swJt make run. to \Jj** sit to run. a). 6V. J±}).

tJie x time of morning x£ £ x 0£ JO i * (•-U-aJt).^. ol . Thus AetoJ ^ J VII.11). or becoming something. JJjj' P ui (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" to 6e<?e£ A fruit give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) . obtaining or getting having something. ***»>t to *"' abound in 5x£ *r*ot to of prey or . upon a period * soi ssoi to . < . jj>\ to retire ("reculer"). *L>I. acquiring a quality. or suffering something therein).l. ^° 1." calve. Forms of Triliteral oui leaves Verb. to enter x x * . I. of a certain kind*. . sAe 6ore * x * ot * ot iX>\ to speak eloquently. . well or *^J. j^\.it>i a male or a female child. abound in x x lizards xx (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y xxf£ . (°*ib) to of his prowess in sin. " to 6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower.§45] to I. Ae re^'reo?.g. serves (instead X J of as the pjt»U* of his face. ^J»l lie fell on ^»» Ae /wm ^ctcA. ~ . 0>£»>t. into a state or condition. J^D^H. pj~i\ a * i to make haste. 3% 5 x j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\). I 4(S o 9-~o\. people) or oe aVy (of a season). j*j&\ to go on boldly to C (compare. Aave one's flocks X 3 devoured by them. The Verb. .* (J»iu). x x oi and 7*X£KTl. or winter (iU£Jt) beasts J^^t to to Iiave many D camels.) 5 x Wxf Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face." "to lamb").] .i to cto fault or error. ^ ^. . or VIII. i>*->t to to el-Yemen J X X (0-**^)> Jijfrt **^t go x io 9° i t° el-JVegd (jLa. C-^Ui sAe son. s i * to give " . A. *£ i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) ..^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&. Another class of these denominatives indicates movement towards a place (compare "to make for a place"). is I battle .oi to E. ^f»~dy to enter a upon »*x xOx . ^ mid-day (j^JaJt). the entering — of time (being. to >~». ( or evening (lL»+S\) »*x wl upon the summer xx of UkyjJt) JO 3 x uiLoi. Usui to 6e sto or B tardy. 35 produce herbage (j^j). go to Aoi go to the left) . to to ebx Irak . j*\$\ to dwell or remain in a place. x . o t (Jjtj*M). ^£wl. jJsuot to O . w>J^t to suffer from drought (of ' xxd£ j^JLil to become penniless (to be * [Hence in a few cases IV. ." "to seed. ^3t advance.it commit a commit a blunder. doing. go # to the right. w>Lot or say what JUfct & to t* at right. in Hebrew. General View.1 jJUl to act a proof ill. -»~oit to speak with purity *0i and v correctness. run with *• outstretched neck. wwt. ^^il go to Tihama haram (*uly3).. j>j**\ to enter the * ot- or sacred oi territory . Of (oLc) jJl$\ to to become desert. Usui. w-^/'t a noble .

obscurity or toani of clearness.t . to let rest. '£&. 204 The Hebrew. ^4^1. to be [§ 46 A farthing. "°Z Rem. jm£\ garment) or clear. for to give discoverable in Arabic. D 47. and >JxJ J OJ O'J QxxJ JJIjv* x -> imperf. Heb. to wish. ./?/fcA f° rm (J**3) *s formed from the second (J**) by prefixing the syllable O. to be proud..Jl. St break one's compact with a person. e. seo/..g. (P *^) . become possible. ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause tiO of complaint. JJtjJh for to pour out rest to . it is the pjUa-o of the second form. . that is to say. it expresses the state into which the object of the is brought by that action. J B . action denoted by the second form effect or result.'. . as its must often be rendered by the passive. %JoJu to be cut x £ x in pieces. O-o-Jb = P0XTI J ^° believe. Phcen.jij^\. literally. 5 xDxJ JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. has J"J as the Some traces the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- XXX x x£ of the h are still C x xx^ x x£ x xx x xP . SftpK. deprivation) to may x x Oi be exemplified by such words as jAoJ. Aram. See Comjt?. become cloudy to become worn out - (of a x£ Kj££t\ become dubious or confused. instead of it will be observed. The . }\jA for }\j\ JJt^t X xP X XX X x£ P> 1 ^or ^° mar& a cloth . to reduced to utter want. in ^JasI corresponds form and signification to the . took away its 4*a*£. to xWxx to be x lie £ C x . j^\. „ . girt a sword upon to side him—another ^S3. ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi person) . or «3!/v°> 46. \Jy£*3 ~ x afraid (sJj±. p. 'jJojS. like XXX £\j& are 118). reduced to the last to xx e£ x x —Etymology o ex '. '*'.. <3 treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67.Of. as *-t^l p-IjA ^ J^ J^ X OU Ot X X nnNj &> come) . owe.» be JxGxx5xx moved or agitated. w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the x text of) the book. for (rad. In English it E. h*ppn. JJJL». g. . prefix.36 Part Second. J~l&. This form annexes to the significations of the second the reflexive force of the syllable O x x J . o£ to ^>Cot — Another x ^\A to become plain shade of meaning (iJ-. or the Parts of Speech. ^g» (*&*J). Forms 69. *->j*o3 . j~£3 to be broken in pieces. to terrify). £jJu to be dispersed. d. GV. uJS). patient.

to look at to. ^>a*j. to abstain from. \f^. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent. to have wholly disappeared. Forms of Triliteral Verb. ^ra? as a foora (ju»t). to examine or study. *xwU become as bold or . The Verb. ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire. to&e la->L> /m£ or under one's arm. understand. Rem. to investigate ascertain a thing ybr certain. (*3j\j*$\) jj^j* £ ~£J. to affect courage or manliness. rem. i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow.j (§41. at first sight. dispersed. <3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals. tJ*M3 j^suJ ihorougldy. sip to or sup. Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation. or atvta* sm or crime. but Q Rem. b. jj ^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience. *»•>> . to discJiarge the to & + * fj>s*3 swallow by mouthfids. e. so that to may be quite clear. to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!). sJ»jjo to pursuer of something). »J to pursue step by step (literally. General View. leaving the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. jjjj * to take as an abode. or to affect. J9+ji& to smell leisurely and carefully. Jij*3 the separation into a great many groups or in various directions. ^X^j seek try to it &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully. a. w ^a>J . j^tfUj to become a Christian to (^jtj-cu). fo become a Jew (^O^). Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases where it seems. a».] we may substitute ±r»yu. **-~J to liear to speak. and V. ^^o-tf become as savage as a leopard (j+1) clemency. 37 with Kais or Nizar. Jiia^J. JJjJO to ywfcj gnaw. 2*j-**3.§47] I. 1. A. to make to oneself or turn oneself into. especially in such verbs as govern an accusative. entirely disappears. * * Sti* %^3 to become a fire-worshipper L^j to grww oneself out z * i (j^w^a^o). as a prophet to (J^*J).g. without change of sense. a earnestly. j^j^ to amid blame. [In some cases the difference between II. j**\3. long or repeatedly. c) Thus for ^^3. £***£. cr» w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab. to D or listen duties of j$S3 * 8 * * jJ>> to have cliarge of. £jj3.

g. explain. clear. I kept sixth . to (become learned)*. b. 48. the action of another . sometimes the indirect object (dative). him abof and he kept is (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and reflexive in the attempt. form is —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. but did not learn to be separate. to neglect draw a good omen from 1 Using a Scoticism. which is Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second. but did not learn. Rem. ^G o-o to make clear. we might say. but also of a personal passive. or prove to be. even more common. rem. . he was learned (= taught). Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111). The above examples show that the subject of the fifth sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative).g. to to learn.38 Part Second. he was taught Again. pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form. E. different j^jo to become learned. 0-++> to appear clear or certain . D 49. 50. quite from ^o-Ls (passive of ) - ^i^) be taught. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not e. by prefixing the syllable It is the O. a. effective. Rem. Q only of an impersonal. ILo-*^ to know. to Jili5 to be off ones guard. which transitive in the third form. JJJo ^laJI he learned the art of medicine. namely the the passive in this the passive indicates that a person is the or experiences the effect of. the effective implies that an act is done to a person. whereas object of. the reality or fact. We can say ^ a^ij^3j^£.g. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil and the Aram. as J^l3 d3 j&b. ^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine was learned. Rem. to teach. or a state pro- —that It differs from duced in him. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] is ( se © § 41. j^s. g^ibb I)Jt5 full length. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at a thing. (received instruction). becomes e. [§ 48 A c. distinct. JJU»J become. whence we see its identity with the Heb. d). likewise The sixth form (J*U5) formed from the third (Jil3). whether it be caused by another or by himself.

the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes a necessary reciprocity. him. A. *->$% I W^^-3 two pulled the garment and fro between them. gl og-J UwU3 I the two frrgot their mutual hatred. and lUaaJt C~~*y3. the assertory (not optative) perfects £)j(+3 signification of and . A jjULj to pretend to squint.g.§50] I. aJI C~«U3 . aJjti he fought with him. § 1 f . Rem. another. above all . D made itself (became or was) too great. Further. whence in the passive. Somewhat similarly. t^oJlio they (the three) to B w>>3t <vM»» he tried the pull away to the garment from him. oU»J pretend to be deceived. a. si^jj^JI l^£jU3 they conversed together or argued with one another . or &^o\j£J itself greater yk it is a matter than which nothing makes more important). to ^j^W* to pretend to cry. aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted. Forms of'Trilateral Verb. with which nothing can vie in (or ^ j*\ importance. . w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them. The Verb. or perfect. above all. * * collective. ^jloJ to feign sickness. OjUj to pretend to be dead. ^UJt <u a-oLo the the people heard of from one closely. or exalted. rem. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two is the singular of the sixth form j in this case it always duo . for him . 39 the thing. ii. *$3\J3 the two fought to with one another . vol. w>>^' VJ3* \ ^ CmiJmJS fj*£. *UJl£» the two spoke conversed together. j^Uj to to pretend to be blind.]. 1. e. Rem. e. j-o^t a^]o\jo difficult. When used in speaking of God.JU3 are examples : of the reflexive become of this form <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is and through Himself) blessed. gUaiJI oL>U he tried to make him forget the hatred between them. jLa»*N)t jUxo^l C«ajU3 C* rains followed one anotlier A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly. b.g. inasmuch as the sixth form includes the object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence upon one another . JaUJ feign ignorance. ^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) has said the thing Z^pti [cf. General View. subjects.

this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by or by successive (and painful) efforts. to which sative). and approaches more nearly * [See Gl. may be confined to the parts and the same thing. J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111). compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ side. Slj^t colnerentes. of one The idea of reciprocity e. d. The seventh form (jiiul) is is formed from the I (J**) by prefixing a jj.v. and why. d.] C is Rem. J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i. Geog. another direct object (accuand (b) that it never assumes the reciprocal signification. §§18 and J. before which § 26). The seventh form has also originally.g. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3. and as to the orthography instead of § 19. the others) . may be added but always the direct object itself. Rem. in walking*). D 52." to be of compact and firm C^J^Uj m« woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body. as JaJM**J to fall piece by piece. For the cases in which 19. Ji*»>. added a prosthetic to facilitate the pronunciation (see Rem.] . c. and so strengthening. and comm. (a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect object (dative). [§51 A (^ c. and °)- consequently identical with the Heb. By these two points the seventh form is distinguished from the eighth.40 Pakt Second. supporting. 20 first vs. enemy advanced against him from every jtf-jjt^ JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). this I becomes I. however. c. t^kP —Etymology %ore™ came or the Paris of Speech. Hamasa p. tr^ oe °f) t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^iem ^ following one anotlier. as pjUx* of the first. rem. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se build. — De G. ! see with rem. It must be remarked. as it were. s. first rem - 51. [Hence bit. a middle or reflexive signification. ^\*>3 parts the iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its B called on one another to do so.

— De Rem. from *JLot JUJxil. to be to be broken. from JiA£t x^xog e. out of the reflexive. JUdtil to 6e bolted. At the same it time. The Verb. from x x < £x«£ ULl to extinguish. jtjM to be non-existent or missing. ^£>fjt. an act to be done Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows in reference to him. to let oneself be drawn or dragged. *a. to £xxo 60^. General View. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight. 6 . UJsul # to fo extinguished.§54] I. though in actual use. g. Sometimes. 41 often to a passive. c. A. to flee. 1. m Rem.. to fall. to be ended.«sul. rem. jJbJLit to be to split itself. [Similarly j) xxxO ^Ltful 9»ftJJt. 7fcDp3> see Comp. jUjI X 6e repeated. o£ to j»w£ to rights. x x x Rem. 215 seg. Hence it is clear that such x x /S words as J^. to fo |?w« to rights.g. from to 6e stupid or foolish .'»t. Forms of Triliteral Verb. JjLaJl x to fee straits or distress. jaJ\ a. cut to off. pJ^Jt to let oneself be x b deceived. to be made x manifest. are incorrectly formed. from ^3-fc to sink x C /» xx to x x 6 down. ^mm*J to become broken. X XX O p. 6. x x O \ appear . Gr.). G. not to be found. x J x . and so ancient. from JjUj to 6e narrow. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first first XXX (J**) by inserting the syllable first O I between the and second and it radicals. - jUJt to let x - oneself be led. 54. becomes necessary to prefix the prosthetic w. especially in more recent times. The radical in consequence loses its vowel. UUJQI uncovered. particularly in modern Arabic. (§ 51. E. from^jcft wo£ to Aave. Si to be docile or submissive. i.).s* . to x x end. JUul to be uttered or spoken. JUJt to open (of a flower). 53. to break into pieces . from >U to return.] jilit corresponds to the Heb. ^\Ji7b 63. the effective signification 5 x is A developed in lit. or an effect to be produced . the seventh O x J xx x form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth. B upon him e. j~£j\ to break (intrans.. the last in a tradition.g.

1 they * * * were neighbours. Jt£» and JU£»t meat. which j si* common ***^ to this form with the sixth J UttO . dative. J~+l to touch. and sixth forms. w»j&\ do. to seek for it * * * v .— Etymology Rem. especially in verbs § which have not got the seventh form (see 113) . * Cf» \yu)\ they = UuLJ another. e. to part .l * to collect firewood. yJa* * and w*kl». D 57. to carry off by force. l** * * *t u3t to be helped (by God).g. . to snatch away. ^" ' * ** reflex object is either (a) the direct object or accusative. and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ]. like the In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree. to u~+2\ ' ' * to feel about for a thing. =^»\^\ J3\Ju one another.»Jg»t * earn one s living . Rem. -' ^>w C is and ^>Zwl to n>as£ 56. fought with one another. Lp-au^l the two disputed with to * * . p. = j* \jj ju*«3 met one = l^i^J. Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the passive. implying for oneself. as Jjji to divide.. L>jL*o\ to move oneself and fro. ** * * j . J^t to to go asunder. sJ^jt to be turned back. Greek active and middle voices. *. to measure corn. = ******* . . and * tjtfudt. to be agitated (com- or (b) the indirect object or pare the French battre and se debattre). ^U*t to be full.. so closely in their signifi- cation. u6jZ*\ put oneself in to the oppose. to follow *^ * and uU»I*» t. or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 A One would expect as in the fifth [For a possible to be placed before the first radical. The eighth form The mice properly the reflexive or middle ' '' * * * * (ftjUft*) of the first. u°j* way. B J»ji to beat. that they may be translated by the same to relate . as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt). **o tjj^jfc. to to place (something) before one. word. * * * US and •*&£). 208.f> and ^. as ^ji to tear' a prey in pieces. ^oS . see Comp. Gr. ** . for one's own advantage. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification.42 Part Second. to * * follow one's track.] explanation of the actual form is O 55.. * as ** ^UJI tJ^St the people . . b lo*a\ai*j U*I*I the two tried t outrun one another.. to be victorious ..

If the third radical of the root * * xa Rem. jl£. to show that E. to be stern or £ * t gloomy. <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair). 1. these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and things . As the third radical. is Neither of these forms is very common. . and hence the doubling of the third is radical.g.t to become commingled. £* o jJ>jl j o u^j^ to to be dispersed. indicates . The ninth form (jiit) . to squint. 2. and the eleventh the rarer of the two. The Verb.§59] I. (for ^£5*Xa-t. j*+*&\ and>»U»*ot £ x o to be wrymouthed or wry£ ' o £ * o necked. draws the accent upon the penult. Rem. t rem. u^tf^ an d u^W white. Rem. to £ * o drop or flow (of tears). j»->£t a * o a * o £ * o and «ft>fct to £ * o be crooked . Jj^-t turn £ *o Jt^^t to become verdant. the night reached its middle point. jjj\ and jljjl to away or £ *d retire from. . to >o run quickly. a * o St yuo\ £ /o o £*o to be /{ and jUot to be yellow . A. is ^ or /( ^. Q o wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or £ * o disordered. and therefore requires the prosthetic (see § 51. 43 58. see § 167.l and i^jt^^t to to be blackish brown or blackish green. colours b. the proper signification of both a *> intensiveness (aaJLoJI). a [Others hold that XI. vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape).). is formed from the ( (J*3) by by- A doubling the third radical the eleventh JUit) from the ninth lengthening the fetha of the second syllable. or languid . They serve chiefly to express colours and B defects. mutable as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red at one time and yellow at another. a. a) to stand or rest the tips of D ^j^». when doubled. General View. £ £ J*Ut j\^j\. the ninth and eleventh forms or . 59. the ninth ' ' ° ** and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit on as ^jju^t the toes. According to some grammarians. being more rapidly pronounced. loses its vowel. o hasten. jo>t to be ash-coloured. ^Jj*j\ refrain or abstain. the distinction between is. confused. the first radical. }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black . Forms of Triliteral first Verb. that the ninth indicates permanent the eleventh those that are transitory or qualities.

for as the fourth form (like the second) frequently not . according to first 26 (compare the and the fetha of the radical is thrown B back upon 61.\ up {something) wholly. The better view seems to be ultimately abandoned by the author.j be ^^^nt thought it was necessary (for to him) . rem. think it it light. *Jl*JL*\ despise. but this view was marians. to take entire possession . to think one a bore. deliver over. in doing something. oppressive or troublesome. . A. ^©J~»t to give up. ±jaXMmZ~t \ to " * ^ claim (something) for oneself. (for E. his prayer.). JU- to be .44 Part Second. jU»jL>l to think good or excellent. D &mm*Z* it to think him. to preserve alive. see Hafagl's that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense comm. * * * J^~>l to he thought necessary. up. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that a certain thing possesses.] : " °' 60. 1299) p. H. The prosthetic is necessary. or s accepted. lawful. ready. or a * * o it. Lo^Zwt to preserve alive C for one's own advantage )' * . * ° " ° (of it). U»-t to bring to life. or obeyed him. J*£lwl to find heavy. Rem. osUj * * w>UJL>t He (God) answered. O of Cwl. a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire. g. to grieve or distress. ^aJ^. and the former editions of this work .jt make ^*^^t\ to be grieved or sorry . ^~»Z~t\ to give oneself E. \ that it was lawful he himself to do) w*». § 51. cA». 50 seq. the quality expressed by the *> 62. first form. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. to think lightly of or one. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle is sense. to ' * . factitive signification of the The tenth form converts the fourth into the reflexive or middle.g. good or beautiful. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. in reference to himself or for his benefit. prepare. . .\ to oneself ready. equip. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ ° t) is formed by prefixing the t letters C*w § to the first (J**). juCwl to get to yield be ready . js. : [§ 60 A so most European gramhigher degree of the quality than IX. .

1. E. is asking for. or caliph (Zsul*.«gt 0* 5 x Ox J«oju~>I.JL«I*1 permit. lit. desire that & * . to make itself stone (j****) J ' 5 jJ*)\ C%y»5U#1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 9 x x . E. Rem. The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking. to x cause something to be due to oneself as to a right or desert * * ( J^) to . Hence to ^. ^jiw to give one to to drink.§65] I. but estimative or declarative s 45. ^oUiwt to stand upright.for oneself : factitive 64. to pray for rain. ^Ui*t to be a * * o humble. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- be 65. The Verb. successor. rem. was. &c. governor (J*»^). j he should be fetched. lit. to make oneself G humble. s . L5 Al»> l. 45 so strictly factitive. permission. to take possession of . jk£> to pardon. reflexive. to deserve. seeking. JU*£wt to be worthy lit. of. it so or say it think or say that but w**-^t make it is so. what meant by the first.g. or demanding. D **^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy.) * s O * O j)y~t\ * . A ' 0* also the tenth. it The tenth form is frequently denominative. <\r* Z to require one's presence. . jsJCU>\ to to ask pardon. 6). In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter sense. x Zwt be ashamed.. ask for something to drink. t or judge (u°tylike) —Further. to hold oneself upright .g. A. to make something to necessary for oneself it think to necessary for others. in which case /»/ unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. \Jy~i\ it . j-oA. Forms of Triliteral (§ Verb. 63. help. lit. j+**Z* x x * o . GO* (u**3 ) * * * 0* J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) .to be present.y^x^JiwI literally means is so . to iJ*\Z*j\ s * * ask permission. * * w>U A to ^»l*2wt to call to for help . This signification is also a combination of the and middle to procure a drink. General View. at least originally. but in such cases a it more minute examination shows that E. to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing. to appoint one as wdzir x (j-*j^). to conduct oneself humbly . g. \J}>\ . \ to become like (lit.

(rad.oZ xxx x in meaning with •JUt. .) . vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. "&<"> » ? and its passive /tOpDt^K to v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the first x same relation xO x one another as the Arabic x x and to eighth. . may be x x regarded as traces of the form JjuL*.) .46 j Part Second. do. x x J^^o ^t . xx x Rem. to become moist (= J«a».) to be long or last long.) fo? Ac^lJt to fe cfor£.—XIV.) xx dx . j>Ut heavy (jJU. xxx of .) . which has the same signification as ^iXw. *iU*w) . ^)^l».t) xx ^jjj^t x x x to ride on a horse without a saddle (^Jj* J to be naked). os —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.) to j** black (JSL do. x ^^wj-u^l to be covered with x x 6 xxx #0 luxuriant herbage (^*ts) x x* x . —XII. to the Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back. corresponding to the Aram. ^j&^&oS to become xJx vm/ or x x row#A (o^*- be rough) j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 2x0 blackish green x ( XX <#o. to mount a camel . which is The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form 7fcpflfc^ } ^)*k~t. or x humpbacked to (*->***. (=j«a±. JU~>. to become soft or tender (j-a». J&L^A to be big (rad. sufficient . with one or two more. must be a of the triliteral verb it later triliteral formation. If so. ^^03-aftt 60 gathered together (v**^ D to foW) .t fe xJx be sweet (>^»x x .) . ax fo &&rc?) . to go quickly xrtx* ^t* to last long (rad. xxdxO efo. so as to exhibit their formation. our geese are all stvans). IxXft). #o 60 arched. curved. wJJu> dash ground.) ^iAJ^JU-t xxx Ox C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo. to fo obscure (rad. »/*») to —XIII. XX to be iy^-l x *U»») . JU**. J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly. iJlCJU.\). xx to xxOxO r>>*j>»-\ X 60 ji^ to iCijJ^. and jj JUL x0£ xx x to swallow. 66. /l»\ b^jj*. xO and obd). s^JIS. &}jj£\X X . to be long and thick (of the hair). (rad. Of the remaining forms to x x may mode * be of give a few examples. since they are nearly identical x x 6i x .do.1 X bear oneself erect XX x (tju*. [§ 66 *x x ei AjmJZmj U*©jb x x * *6* 2 %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture (j~J. 5x0 .JU. to be green and rank (of a plant). not in use.

''£ . to retire) to . 0x0 w»j>^) ow xOx ^ S^rW to to put on one the garment called « x J xxOx a wjIJ^ . XXX md^ ^ retire). is A biliteral root. bellow. ^Jsu^. XXX xxOx jdm*& x'x .1X j jo v:o x o 7<. . Jx»A». xxOx ji-ji- to gargle. repeated. E. be Ox proud (f~o£ ^ xxx J*o£ > £*^» xxx jvo^ «*#** (compare ^». (c^*y to s&w^ the head <kX*. to put stockings *» 0? x > xO x 1 (w>j^». •^JL*. ^^ X was sweet). but there are xxxO/0 x xO a few exceptions. ^»x-»£ ^^3 to to whisper. be xOx xx to be stout ^juXftt and strong (jJlfc to be ^arc?) . shout. —XV. expressing a sound or movement.and *"©»-) £0 #0 00 scattered = Ox «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 xx D (w-i»y to advance slowly). ^.»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump o in front (the reverse of x trJ&jj^t. Rem. aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid. JT& al-Istikak. or inserted in the middle E. 2.1 to swollen or inflated. 2. J^*^ rmv (c) They are denominatives from nouns of more X X than three X letters. deceive to with soft words a ^J^. 227. to xxOx to rwi^A.g.. 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb W x J and its Forms. Pers. —XV.B Ox it found j j ox x it sweet (but also . ^ ^o^-oxfc. to be filled with rage (LfL do.g. to xxOx XXX drive back ( J^»y cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with j xxxxxOx c^) c»"<'* 5 withdraw. jUfc A* xxOx Jjjij to shake.e u*jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse . The Verb. xxx to to xxOx to be high) X . 9 x» x some of them foreign words.). All these forms are habitually intransitive.a^icl to ^ro A x O quickly (rad. x x JLU) . A. 67. .J«Jl». j^j**-^ and ^^XS put on one the cap called a l ymiJj *. a triliteral verbal form. General View. v~x£ x Ox do. (b) A fourth letter.).§ 67] x x Ox I. is prefixed or affixed to. rad. of.g. p. (a) Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. to Mttfo rws£& or rattle. generally a liquid or sibilant. The Quadriliteral Verb. bb to G say baba (papa). oj^.t. u . to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. 47 x x Ox A *iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair. as XII. jj-as) x x o x o x . x E.

to [§ 68 A oj** xx xx from cfj£ &X>3 -» put on a girdle ( * ik . 69.g.g. xx to /<?//ow oneself >X>». to to ac£ like as e/ owe were sultan. and is both XX X D transitive and intransitive in signification. to abase x x . . jt^Xw) or tunic . Jjj>yk to run The second form agrees in formation x and xO x x the fifth of the triliteral verb. number. vW^ &J**J3 ') 0x0 xxOxx E.#0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 " xx ^3 Jj^.and J3>». £nfo ^^m) 0/ Ma add 1 5 B (***•«) . xx x x JjU~J to <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**. J (^)UslL»). pfe>). fo jpw£ —Etymology pitch . JJtUlt III. humble. Ox ^U J^i cast up an account. * x x . Tlb/J?) </>iA. The first and conjugation to the second form of the form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation triliterals. to Pitch. saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. JjjJbj to xxOx laugh much. I E. ^jJbJLj ma^ oneself sultan over another .) to ^ . to lord devil it Q^eA* act a (J&A. Heb. poor) w*a*W a &?c£ ( >Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress. X JX+& to gather ripe dates. f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates . verb are three in 68. X X E. J^JJ to £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U. or humility. xx to roll ^4*%3 £0 to jt?w£ <m or wear a O x O'x x along . quickly. also to be active or nimble .48 Part Second. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ X J x x Ox XX to (t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 xx 0/ 6«W) xxOx . Jj^»» to I say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs 5 x ui Ox <* J xx xOxx *s) Gtod) . JP^». xx Ox to roll. or the Parts of Speech. «nriaT/>os).o fow&/. etc. JJUtf II.oo-o<£os) ULJU3 philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ. . Pers.g. The derived forms of the quadriliteral Jiii I. signification with xxOx 7rj^> 70. pjJmoJ wear a Sij J** J jJ>+j to to wipe ones fingers with a napkin lowliness x x ( J*»jui mantile) (t ^j£l«3 a^c£ .») <• . jisuo to practise the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o (d) a farrier. Ju/tIV. to (there is no C power and no strength save in God) . They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or x x x t/<» letters in certain very common x x formulas.

very hard. Jjc*£t to dispersed . or intensively high degree of E. 72. stretched on to flow. § 66. the seventh of the ij is the quadriliteral verb corresponds to with this difference. 12th. 11th. wrong. have two voices. *J~o to be good. 13th. ground. in = fJ*& an . nearly =j-c^.t or j*oya*J\ order. w. 60 scattered or j**M to fo scattered or 1° oe dispersed. All the verbal forms. pULwl to lie on ones back . Si* o 9 *? ^aw back). Jt>»-I to Wse to be ^A.»>t to to stretched out on one's side.A of The fourth form the quadriliterals. The subject of the active voice always an agent (person or thing). . J*cu^». A. j*++*. JuJ to be is bad. with the exception of intran9th. which answers to B the ninth of the triliterals. but inserted between the second and third radicals. The third form A E. that the characteristic not prefixed. sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 14th. wa#0 Aaste. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower).§ 73] I. to become green.. 2.. j£~t£*\ very high or proud . as j*s&. 3. j9-^>\ to be very to an intransitive to be or quality.» o vanish away . state. both primitive and derivative. to jk. i dark. of a bird). in disorder. to bloom or flourish < ' O " ^afJjM*\ to be its gathered together in a mass or crowd . or not . . the active and the passive . General View. right. w^t^t to rata* A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck. 7%£ 73. and expresses an extensively act. . of triliteral.l 0/ / » / «- to puff out crop the % * » * (ilo^fc. The Verb.g. is intransitive. Ja». which designate not an act (transitive or intransitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming). the subject of the passive the object of the former (personal passive). o § a^ C o^ * i o . \j\+^^ Si. and 15th forms (cf.g. 49 71. The Quadriliteral Verb. rem. jjUJ\ and rest (from tffo jU^t to shudder with horror. or the abstract idea of the may affect act (impersonal passive). JU-^t Voices. = Ju-3. 7 . whose act voice is either object. ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#.) as well as of those verbs of the D forms J*3 and J*3.

namely (a) when . ^e patient whereof the agent has not been named.. U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj1ra*-oJ!.)| J J J J 10 x O<0 D and dxUti J^a.50 Part Second. JO Ox forms of expression for J*i)t elliptical . J J * d-U-li also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt. the mould or form of J x the agent. confined to the person of the subject. are aptly called neuter verbs. than to the doer of (agens.e.» J x 0<« J J /W ^e action of which the agent is known. whereof the agent has not j j x a x j «xx U. etc. and ^UJJ cj. J JjyoLpJt. 75. XXX & x biO J the build x0. but something between the two. or ^sJ X J^cUJt. the patient). the passive J J subject. J (^ft^XatoJI) x OjjAoJt. Verbs that express a state or condition. [§74 A (b) (c) The passive is especially used in four cases . also^-^^J Uc x JO Jj»i C 4-Uli the doing. j& to sleep). equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl i. x J ( J^UJI J*i Ox J xO/O xx action of the agent. when the speaker or writer does not wish to is name him more . more shortly. or. 4Afcl3^~*>^) J J X Ox 5. or signify an act which is. Rem. or at least not known for certain indicated as the author of the act . or feeerc &em# done. God. though this latter H x J named. J JjuUI. the action (or verb) X X is put into is form of which manner the agent the subject. 74. J x Ox J J x Ox These terms.oqM) j^i^JI that Jj^AJt.*> J J x Ox is. of that. is when the author is unknown. (d) when the attention of the hearer or reader affected directed to the person it by the act (patiens. and its cannot pass to another individual as object (as Jo^a to be sick./O of the 'G0O J J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent. The Arab grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs. Ox . are also used to designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. by its very nature. or some higher being. J ft The passive voice in like called rtjLwo Ox x 0-a Sx J J|yuLoJt 2Ae J J X mould or form of the patient. . strictly speaking. the agent). since they are neither really active nor really passive. 2Ae action of which the agent is x Ox J J unknown. The m # # < J x Ox x Ox active voice J is J 'x and the passive J^^^JI. The ** active voice is called by the Arab grammarians jUUJt iUj B J^UJI A*frO X X x the agent. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

but have given an undue importance to the idea of time. A. Rem. five 78. It is precisely these relations which determine in what sphere of time (past. the one expressing a finished act. The Moods. or future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies. C — The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not. by their division of it the into the past (^aLoi\). is These are. The Arabic verb has moods . strictly speaking. transitive verbs. or Future-perfect. the Indicative. effective (see § 48). and by which of our tenses it is to be expressed whether by our Past. the other an unfinished act. A Imperfect has. 51 vi" JO* /»(«/ and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt. Imperfect. or Future. or A^Ut JUi^l. The will give more precise information as to their meaning 5. Imperative. whilst the other 4. by which these forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately Semitic Perfect or correspond to the ideas inherent in them. succeeded in keeping this important point distinctly in view. The States (Tenses) of of the Verb. the D which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Imperfect. from A JwNjI. wrfo £to are confined to the subject. J' 3. The Verb. in connection with the verbal forms.§ 78] I. <Scc. and the future (J^fc^Jt). The temporal forms the Arabic verb are but two in B number. first of present (JlaJt or j-oUJt). J The Voices. however. Syntax and use. Perfect. Imperfect). The idea of the passive voice absolutely identical with that of the fifth. Jussive or Conditional. and Energetic. by our Present. one that is done and completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) . 77. in and of itself. present. The names Preterite and Future. b. a. General View. . one that is just commencing or in progress (the Rem. namely. 76. intransitive verbs. Pluperfect. On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. seventh. must not be thought and eighth to be forms. ajjuiIoJI j*£. Subjunctive. no reference to the temporal relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions which are brought into juxtaposition with it.

sing. and Genders. The Numbers. cj). The genders j are two. *j*+3\. The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). 80. fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect. and the the fourth. the verbs which have I for one of their radicals. but also from the imperative. There are three numbers.. dual. they have two verbal passive participle). Persons. or j^tyi). 1 b sD. plur. and the individual spoken of (third person). the one denoting the agent (nomen agentis.52 Part Second.. -d Instead of the Infinitive. ^oJiXoJt. . [Cf. § 192. ~ 82. 83. .). is expressed by . the former class . Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in infirma). the Singular (>j&\. strong. 2d pers. Js » 0* 81.a>. 79. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc. the speaker individual person). The Syntax treats of their significations and use. *W»J1. Rem. and likewise three persons. in any of the but are retained throughout. active participle). adjectives. wsSliJt (the absent). and the other the patient (nomen patientis. or imperative. ^^IloJI). . namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and Z£ jo* but they are not distinguished from one the feminine (wJ^-oJt) another in some of the persons (1st pers. or jJ&«JI) . Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are and consequently neither undergo any change. . the Dual (3ui^S\ or s-joaJl. in the second (see § 128). the Arabs use nouns expressing the action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). (first and the Plural (£*aJt. and 1st pers. ^JsU*-*)!. [§79 A Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and to the imperfect imperfect states the second and third are restricted a special form. H. the spoken to (second person). nor are rejected inflexions.] 6. In place of participles. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. B.

o 9 * ' J*s . j+** x*J t see § 190. annexed to the various moods and tenses. 9 s 84. to D § 185 Rem. or connected [J-cu*]. standing by itself. suffixes. persons. 88. The following tables give a general view of the separate prefixes personal pronouns.JJ^t« Jji5.o and^oJL* as synonyms. B. the con- nected shorter forms. opposed to ^JL» Jj«i. § 317. are given along the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. rad. partly nominal The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative. . The personal pronoun \jt+£.§ 89] I. designated by the special term «»*a». a sound A - verb which has 9 I for one of is its radicals. that C prefixed or suffixed. a ver6 $Aa£ free from defect.— Table I* a. a is weak verb. 86. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< A called . B THE INFLEXION BY PERSONS. than the latter. as verb. 1. and of those pronominal and suffixes which express the nominative to the verb. partly the accusative. and patientis. The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong Verb./] 9 is either is Sj separate [J^aii*]. 9 * J : 85. or which belongs to the class med. agentis. but some grammarians treat ^a». The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal. (V"y). and genders of the verb are expressed by means of personal pronouns. The numbers. The Verb. accusative see 89. * The nomina with verbi. . the verb The connected pronouns which express the nominative are also in part prefixes. 53 is Rem. The separate pronouns have longer. The former are much more closely united with the verb 87. gemin. The Strong Verb. On the verbal suffixes which express the and on the nominal suffixes.

[§ 89 A B .54 Part Second. —Etymology 1. or the Parts of Speech.

For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. suffix of Rem. of the Imperfect and Imperative the others those of the Perfect. Fern. O thou.. t ^ou - 2 p. . 55 Rem.. m • • (6) s» .. he. 95 seq. Common. O (<**k c£-) 1 p. and § 23.. c). The Strong Verb. 2. . 3 p. tf# ftflfc ••• '-) ^. Masc. Common . • O c4 tlwy. (o>> *>) . Plural. b. . <j. . O . jj Masc. Fern. rem. I> (o>.] A u is commonly scanned as a long Rem. Rem. expressing the Nominative.. 3 p. 3 p. [Though written defectively this terminal vowel. Suffixed Pronouns. t- (of-> . O 1-) Z Dual.. p. Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t. C 2 p. !>) *%• d ... . The Verb. Singular. a. {J . d.. 2p-^ 1 p. 3 2 p. and also in the wasl (§ 20. ol she. defectively..§ 89] I. . U w& The forms within brackets are those . . The the 1st pers. . thou. Prefixed Pronouns. is sometimes shortened j) in poetry (no) and written 3. c.(o'-> y* '-) ^y *wo. . . !/. p. d. . . . Singular. Gr. .. B. used in poetry.. lp. plur. . O she. L»5 (o'-> ** • • • lp. expressing the Nominative.

[§ 90 Masc.56 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. .

to sneeze. A Ojuc. and the geznia. FORMS OF THE TENSES AND MOODS. p. cp aVaw 0* . c. J y**J^ * * * J teg to return. / have J d x £ served. When the third radical is unites with the s ** yj**\ ^ of the suffixes into a single a ** ^ with te&did. ka. j*****.. ye have § 14. . jI o . The Verb. Some verbs have two 8 w. it b. J < J x and j£*j \j* M*j •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding.•Zfr* to write. J^aLi to . c^Aa*^. 5 £^* to ascend. for ±y*\ and Uut. %bJu . O** ' 5 to ' transpierce.. as ^Jes. . p-jb. *j>j-**i v~ke* down.1 for^J^t. tut we d. x J x Ox . or t T . 57 To indicate the assimilation.. --J£ throw. j) *° »e ' 1 xx J{» ' O*^* 1 > J**J J&J* * . Ojufc for i * t takes tesdid. C^. 165 seq. . jU* to to hinder. For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with Imperfect Arabic see Comp. good. " to *-iJ to blow. J Many 0* * . . JL» to JL^j to ^Jfcj go away. conform to is " the rule. " may . *Ja3 ask. however. Gr. jjlsu . ^JLcu *Jl> attain to.JUj . 7 J J x x x right. I'O* to create. j *-^ . . £*J*i i **<• J \ sound. as * o they (women) ** * o ** believed. \j+j * <> x x . . jaLj JJ-x t0 sa V> J j jmS x to t0 sit. x xx J J x *. * ^ J * ^. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha. J^5 * * s to kill.1 . C-Jaj) for taken. to perceive. a as Jj«i to do. as j*J* know. Rem. o. verbs admit of both forms s s t . to sit Jux» . ^. Thus. The Strong Verb. or Jcesra in the Imperfect * . J * %+jj . to cut. ^jjui. cJJJ j**£ to bray. m+~i or to stick upright into the ground.JL> . w-^^-j w*>-£ to strike. the O with which the third radical ought properly to be marked. are an exception to the rule. Not a few. reach. thou hast bound . $ ** tjj * . take either x ^ • damma J J . B. iJmu . %X+t t°" . On ^j. particularly when the second radical x jj«* jjo. is omitted. . of which the guttural letter. c.§ 91] I. for they commonly second or third retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect J x Ox . 91. j&j-i- C radical is Rem. it this assimilation see Rem./fow. as . x x x # * '0' . a. ^JbJu JiaJ to look at. believed. Verbs. or 2?mW away.

X dx . 'C n > ' ° ' £**~*i \ V ijj to tan. Jx$ denoting superiority. quit. the kesra of x t the Perf. £~e*jj cut or hew. u^j-^i '. med.j . Very . j*mm j j . ^$. 7 . x '.. ^j. SJLiJI 6. £)}*~i u°j-* to be sick. J o. abound. .to know. rad. * s * ' ~£j xx to marry. J-cub .. him in composing J J J Ox poetry.. j «» *-U 6m#. always have damma (the jx grammarian x x el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural). a ' t present. [§92 j A . or suppose. i^u cji x to x ' be to J j at leisure. oj.58 Part Second. io.j^j j <o incline to. J x x ojjlj ./toy. excelled him in c. C^mmij x ' i. x x ^ J x x . J x to J ' give as »*• . . ^stJo ^^j to be in distress or poverty. ^i«-> j Ox . . J Excessively rare are cases like Ox O^) > ^° incline to. or tert. as w^*>^. ^^i *->* . to.a>A. . lean upon.j J x x -j . lean upon. Verbs of the form a). J x x . O^Ji \J*<** to be * in excess. rad. x x or w. -^.^~*i- Rem. X . x x /^^» . forms * * x —Etymology JpU> to . as j^s.» *Jx> to 9-Ja-L. xx x ' %j j^> *. oj*a*J> *\+j Ae surpassed him in shooting with arrows. See also §§ 142 and 146. comfortable.»-o Ox . x kesra. Jiave . ' " '*' %+$ to . j. as Co>J ?-**) j J to incline (of a scale of a balance).a> ^jij x j) £o 6e J 0* green J and flourishing. x x J x x '. as Jpo to croak. '> . w > * J x . has kesra. x*x gush out. Rem. when they take ** " 7ie d«l»> . x .. x £o tf/iiwA. as ojlcj he outbid J . b.Iw to . '. A x few verbs may retain in the Imperf. goodness. dye.» *° drink. Jjii j-U JljJ! (see § 43. the Imperf. unless they be primse rad. . a. * * * q Rem. 9J&0 . x x *-Jj**i Oj-^ J x fo x x x x x be sorrowful.». as ojj& he excelled JJJOxJxxx . to be present. takes When the second radical of the Perf. to J x done with. ^^Jm-j or ^Lj. a~ojji. rare are cases like jJx*. or the Parts of Speech. ^jaLj oja+i he surpassed him in glory.» him in promising. ^£jj to be clear. j^j '. x x x x x * B Rem. *~^>.^~* to be safe. v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 rem - °- 92. j^u to be affluent. v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms O-^j.jsu ^ and even three. .

x B. from its fern. sing. J ©Jx as 73B*. because still occupied in the act If we look upon the (see § 77. damma. The their inflexion prefixed to the Imperf." Rem. has Gr. The Verb. Jjl. and Imperf. When the second radical of the Perf. ^ot. and to some extent the gender. In the Perf. C-***> / became I became bad. as o*LL to be beautiful. fem. C Rem. p.. Thus. verbs ft?p*. J a in the Imperf. o^J . sing. the agent. a). masc. ^JO is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. vowel is in Syriac and Hebrew. — De .—Similar cases 93. . sing. genders. Perf. w*2o. jj+j or t^. whereas they are both suffixed and difference is. j-*t. sing. \^Sj by the form of the temporal prefix but to distinguish the 2d pers. <Z>jj£t C^J / itii became wise. I • With the above forms compare the Heb. v^P to be high. Oji." Hi (i. masc. masc. 59 of this kind of. root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing. j£\. OU. The Strong Verb. * in * [Anbarl. 3h)3* in o usually take nS&^ B In Heb. *l%y." = " I have = "I am killing. j**\." and J*3I as meaning "I-killing. Comp. cL«). and accordingly we .. p'-m. that .J J*5 makes Jmu and Jaaj.. viz." we may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " "my killing. 94. a. noble. jJ<j to be dull or stupid. The most common example to die (for A a verb med. Some 2ttl authorities admit the forms ^Jl. p^lC p. because completed. J whereas in Arabic instances like ugly. l J Ox I. more generally the latter. in the Imperf. however. jJL>. get masc. 180*. Nozhat el-alibba j j Ox 459 states from personal observation Yemen and Higaz a x that in some dialects every verb G. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) or tense. O^j. rem. a suffix is necessary. In the Imperf.. are it 'it very rare. retained in the Imperf. 1st p. killed. done by me). and persons. in regard to that the marks of the numbers.§ 94] or innocent is I. Rem. j. whilst the suffixes serve J J Ox solely to indicate the gender. are only suffixed to the Perf. between the Perf. the 2d pers. b.e. the act is placed conspicuously in the foreground.

in the verb. the vowel of JJ ft the J prefix J J might be Ox assimilated to a following damm.] Rem. fetha of the Imperf. wi& Ox whence it is sometimes called Rem. vowel with the third radical. because the genders. for j»^S\ etc. preferred. In the active voice of the first form. j). b. suppose. because j * . .«- it D resembles the noun.1. but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and •*• *''*•*. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. J x . x J ft the Subjunctive by is J having fetha . the prefixes of the Imperfect are pronounced with feth. and its government in the Subjunct. In one case. j j © xftx [The Indicative j is . is 95. vol. w-I&.» *x Hence the technical name of the Imperf. in the noun (see § 308) damma and j for the Imperf. is closely akin to the noun. as the apocopated Imperfect. one must not say ^ojit. a. 0l H.o. [§ 95 A Rem. as Indie.60 Part Second. / ^ (^Xju). The Jussive ft denoted by the absence of any . j cjLa*H. The .] make use of the form ^J^sb in rhyme. least the poets § 247. which end in ^ and <j reject these syllables in the Subjunct. B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai Jl^-t for Jl^. That is. and Subjunct. ^fflZmj in Sura i. and the Jussive >j>%^H. which seems originally i. and Jussive.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. save in the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. and Accus. numbers. and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. ^\ . correspond to the Nom... The forms of the Indicat. But a pronunciation with kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^.- called cji^Jt. Dialectically. the pronunciation with kesr is generally The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix too. 96. jsyu. 4. nor ^Xju J J ft is 0* for j^ju . X Cy^. Subj. c. etc. as in juxi for juau. falls under the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. 60 are recognized as .. and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission. w tive w>^. distinguished by the third its radical having x damma. [Cf. J J ft The m Indicative of the Imperf. to have been At ii. . the Subjunc- ) © © <. The it peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought along with the rejection of the final vowel.

the fetha of 6* <j. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination . the of the termination. 194.becomes kesra O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A COis Rem. 0*+&> fr° m j j j *^ jo . of ^U. The Strong Verb. the fetha of the verb unites with the initial fetha of <j— into a long a. 98. a. is retained..j. The Verb. p. with \y££=> . is The syllable ^— often written !_. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl x (§ 19) the J * n of the termination f xDA> x ^_ for is rejected (§ 20. coincide with those of the singular. influence of the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1. c). is is Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ a corroborative n) If the Jussive ends in I or u. for in it is absolutely necessary in order to » them mark the o . a j * * in a shut syllable: . because its forms would then . i^-*^. 0~$3. since it begins with two consonants. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic first appended only to those persons which have. fern. oW^J . Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive but.jit * j elided. c.§ 98] I. & C Rem. U£3. plur. and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers.(called by the grammarians to the Jussive. plur. Com- 0>A ^y^k . 61 2d and 3d because pare pers.B and the second weakened into a kesra through the : same long vowel oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative j o ib* H— . t>W>> from <jUl. In the 2d and 3d pers. A gender. . and pronounced in D in pause I—. according to § 26. sing. a short vowel before and not to the dual. Rem. because vt i b. Gomp. and in consequence the second fetha : of . \j~S3. in the Energetic. apparently because the sound of the syllable . t>*^!> 0*&i> from I^jXj etc.j_ or (J. with Cm^> Hi X 97. nor to the fem. rem. as j-Ju)l t>*H *^. are exceptions. a short . ^2u> with Ll^ and Q*tS&. it takes.jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to the ear. . B. plur. In the dual. Gr.or . despise not the poor. IV. O s b. fem.

—De G. 99. When or kesra. listen ! j\j&. the Arabs also use the indeclinable ! B Rem. ii. ^ J J t. is and 1. Fetha never employed as a prosthetic vowel. or the Parts of Speech. Abs. c. and on the orthography § 19. E. 23. g. 1. * — DeG.] . —Etymology kesra . in cases where that elision does not take place. <- rem. Occasionally it seems to take ?*»t>^»- from one of the derived conjugations. this vowel 0^0 Jjtil. i. (§97). D [Rem. IV. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- perative as to those of the Imperf. cf. 6 .] is [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab.j±. C j\3jS the = *MgJW let l and j^Z/Z. This corresponds to the Hebrew absolute is also . beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> £)\y let alone w>b. Rem. b) in addressing a single person. and the final short <m vowel dropped). vol. with the finite verb. a. § 35. 15 parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic I vowel (I). « the second radical pronounced with fhtha it is is when with damma. Imper. rem. As an Imperative be present ! form JUS. wRem.>*A)t. as overtake bring out! j)\j$ != S}*.>top (o for a. is is sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d then explained by the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* ju£>yJt. come its and play meaning game called ar ara. Lilt with a various reading .\. 1842. *&&. t^&ipt. as ])^ remember I* T In quadri- literals this form jSj*} l is very rare. is [§99 A prosthetic vowel. d. The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head. the only examples mentioned being thy thunder crash. o - bi at Similarly Kor'an 1.j creep along / Asu announce the death — of / from <<«J. a. as j\Jx*. damma. b. see ^ 19. which used in the same way.62 Part Second.

Act. In the second. rem. i. In the Imperf.— Table III. 21. and the Imperatives jjUSI and jjull. 1. in the rest with fetha. 63 2. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the same. J^Jb and JJUaj. and fourth forms. The Verb. where the treated like the o of b. and Imperf. as J^aj. The is characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D another letter prefixed . and also ^Ju^j. In the Perf. The ninth and eleventh forms were But. not J^SIj. Passive are distinguished from the corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. B the Jussive being used instead.] originally JJjisI 106. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive. Sibaweih. The Imperfects and eleventh forms. See §§ 106 and 120. whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. are contractions may be seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j. [Rem. third. Sij^i. and the second radical Rem. The Strong Verb. 9. 103. JJUil. the prefixes of the Imperf. are pronounced with damma. Pass. Active. if the last radical . a pot I set is on tlie fire. the prefixes take fetha. II. q This Rem. § 118. the first radical has damma. 3. is 102. by a rule of the language (see and § 120). from JJ3I. fetha The second radical of the Imperf. and Ju£>. pronounced with fetha in all the derived forms. 104. is pronounced with in the fifth and sixth forms. The second radical of the Perf.— Table 100. B.— De G. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a Verb. and the second radical kesra.§ 106] I. Act. 101. But we find S\Juyc jjJ. Pass. 105. with kesra of the ninth for JXz&j in the rest. The Perf. Act. damma. and Imperf. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb.

O of ^ u*. J^j£>. u°> the sjo. and Imperf. of the first Rem. identical.. but also the prosthetic § JOJ - J * Oj J e.g. of the first fifth and sixth forms.j. vowel.g. have of course no passive (see § 73). the preceding radical loses . pronounced J with damma. which is damma 108. Compare 98 and rem. If the last radical has no vowel. C 109. D 110. not only is the fetha of the radical changed into damma. take a prosthetic The forms thus originated when they happen to commence with two «- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> \j\>\. J3&. of the fifth and sixth forms are distinguished from their Imperfects Act. or the verbal root begins with the characteristic O. >. 3. and tenth forms. jjW. In the Perf. Pass. fetha. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Passive in the exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. radical with is expressed by pronouncing and the idea of the third form by damma. ». and unites with radical to form a double letter. or the Slif . 107. Pass. in the Perf. the word remains uncontracted . The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms.g.64 Part Second. being neutral in their signification. of the is forms) . O. Pass. the first Since the idea of the Perf. eighth. b. *Z». jj**o\ (see § 120). a. seventh. jJ>t. prefixes. only by the vowel of the instead of. 111. frequently) loses its vowel. )». not only characteristic * the first radical. Oij^ . * fifi consonants (compare § 54). J * * jJuau for jjslaj. The Imperfects and fourth forms are B Rem. j**a\ for jj**e\. its fix [§ 107 A in vi such words has a vowel. of the sixth. J3>£>. When b. The formation is derived forms of the Perf. but also the fetha of the characteristic *VtJJ * O JJ (which expresses the reflexive idea of these In like manner. there results in the Passive * j . Pass. lengthening the vowel of the first radical. the fifth and sixth forms occasionally (in the first Koran Slif. a. J3ut.g. of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form * JJy and j j hence in the Pass. e. and // * the two are combined into one letter with tesdld s s e. J^St. E. as £>jj**o\. jj^aj. Jibl. The Imperfects Pass. J^&wl.

The Strong Verb. j.). G. B. J**yl jJjJt. jio\j\ (Kamil. b. Rem. note u±jj\. J^W3). [and necessarily ijycjJJ. to take breath. the characteristic .) + . for £i3 JjvS. rem. t Ci which O is and ! plur. ^. is*** j *+ Ji // £ *s » Z s** » Z s *s j~£j. 112. Jb+aJg i. to sing. ^ji. j^lo. j^i. J.]. as u~*£\ for ^r**^ b. p. for for j~»&3. The Verb. iio«y. i. of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^. ^L\.j of the seventh it form often unites with w. . — v~<oJ\. are of common occurrence. 65 UC\.5jj. If the first radical is^». "' &ytjj& ) Zl e. or o> nave the no seventh form in passive of the classical Arabic. du. Verbs of which the first radical is t. iJu5. j. n^n. .g. Rem. j-cut.Ut. wn. The *v\ton. into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 9 . is O i s of the fifth and sixth forms sometimes omitted prefixed (2d pers. or In the (so far as we know) solitary first. Some grammarians regard u~+i\ as being of the eighth D form. ijijj. a. Rem. Jf*H> jl^i. merely rejecting the vowel Jj^aJ. but use the fifth or eighth. B in those persons of the Imperf. masc. *jU3 &&3 (Faik 130)—De These shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons and third forms (j~&. 114. In modern Arabic such forms as J^. ^UJ. J J^p. . example namely instead. and du. J^tJ) . A . and compare such Hebrew forms as . in the active voice of the second and by the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C the second and third forms (/••*>. See § 48. sing. in all The language in its later stages admits this verbs of the fifth and sixth forms.*&>. 569. to lie concealed. f^. —the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to the first radical. J»*W^>. P . fern. 3d pers. for j±> j£. Act.§ 114] I. 113. j.. j£\. j^x3 j£>£i. ComP Gr. >. by assimilation for ^**£j\. rJ*k preformative of the O . ss * and i fern. Jn»^.

. the characteristic w». from «. from j^jt or :>pt from j>p . eighth form changed into >. which unites with an initial > into 3. for from Jp . from jtj . but Lane gives in Lexicon only *. for jUJI.. is B Rem. A for JJa^J^I. J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to his is and j^jt. bj*\ for bjZ*\. E.^it.S . for j^iit. aud ^jit. l»*©it ? from Jsuco. for j£&. or j. for j^Jjl. ji?t orjJul from jju. *. or Jaa-ei [§ 115 A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«. . Jpt. from cji. *0 . Jjjit. for £3j\ . and with an initial 3 into > or 3. for ^>\. Rem. letter O is sometimes changed into > after an jl».it for instance. for *-»2wt. <jjjt. . for tj>^l.«a*-©t for 115. or >Z>. from j^j jbjl.^w. initial The e. jJ^I. If the first radical be is y j. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form . C from ji. a. If the first radical be eighth form unites with the initial O or O into *t>. ^-U-it or t^JUt from c*JU ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. y sO —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. j *»*J. J**. Rem.g.Jt.66 Part Second.-a^ct. O of the with the initial w> into O j\j . *S)j3>\. from ji>3j or ybjt. Some grammarians extend ' Si this assimilation to the . the characteristic O of the . as well as D tfcSt Rem. letter The same assimilation * * St sometimes extended to the s s * * * ^. from Ji>} c£\ or cjjl. . from U> JXjt . ^j\j. ^ . . £*Jl»J. as *»*~>t. ^jt. from %+j jUt or jUt.l. . 116. from j*. for ^Ijkjl. Whether the form with j > or 3 is to be preferred. etc. Rem. or j^>l. instead of the usual £+„*. . as q\j\. £***>j. >»Ojt. letter b. depends upon usage j-i. ijj* . j+.g. j. for **£M. for ipjl.g. E. The unassimilated jib*}! also said to occur. from c.!.

The O. -*.lo. j Rem. j^J»t. ^L^. Act. jifat. a.Si£t.. or &.*o. etc. either a or 1 and the helping vowel ft x xx x3x unnecessary and disappears. Part. The letter x i xui X X ^ 5 i? .I ±*Jo\. a). ^jA-ol. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs.g. ^aUo . the characteristic initial A changed into h. j^-U . ^JLL *$& . in § 45. ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 5^0 jJxot. . xxxvi.— Table IV. The first then necessarily assumes a vowel. words like Jl^b (for to pour and are treated as ^>o-Jb. j£~j. *. ^6. or x x x v>^^ i m *r>j*° 5 xxx ?ta-o . quadnhterals: . fifth. four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout their inflexion the second. Rem. from lJ*. and occasionally with initial x x ui into ^6. h.Lo E. Inf. JJ&\. d. 49). o xSx * . xxx sometimes assimilates the following XI? XX X *XJxot. ^A k o . Jfljt). Jte\. x x. B. or £. act. rem. U^>. The Strong Verb. from 0*k> w>jJxot. which is is prefixed to certain persons in the Imperf. 4. 67 If the first radical be ^a. //£ xxx . which unites with b into j». x. to believe. omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral verb. ^i£t. b. x x x x x x x t. x x x from %+. or jUxbt. seventh and ninth forms of the trilateral (see §§ 118. [117*. just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). C rem. *& xx5 " '' from^olb ^aI?. u° ix. If the second radical be O the characteristic it. // IS as j^ot. from jUo fr° / |>«Jtt. or 91. jZ~»* (jZ~**) . from j-o. with initial 1» into x x h l. The D 69—72). The Qiiadriliteral Verb. x x x . or JJSJiS. occur (or are recorded as variants) in the 19. ^Jbuot. O of the radical may lose its vowel and unite with i. Rem. B J^t. As mentioned out.. JJJLl. The Verb. 3p»t. j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra is to the first radical) . 36. 2~^t.§118] 117. Rem. y^ xxx XXX a. ^Uw (see § 202. ^y-ol. i>. Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z. Imperf. is I.i . Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* xii Jul J/ JWxx Jul X JW or jJ^».] Koran (Sur. J» ii. v>ii. ^Uxot. b. eighth form 6. for j*Jxot.

and then converted into c Ik*!. The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ J**Jt. tenth form of elt. >jk+j. and no contraction takes place as Ojji.». act. first When both the C second radical rejects its vowel. *Jx~j. Imperf. The —Etymology or the Paints of Speech. Norn. jtj viz. Rem. and third radicals have vowels. Jgj^. Perf. jro*)\. become wise or intelligent. letter. ^^ to become dear (to one). we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical. — Table V. for w«J. for v***- 5 j^ v^ ^ . but the its first is the second radical throws back j) vowel upon the without one. E. 119. tesdid. is aSI^A.J B 5. Pass. first. **1a~j or **1~>. [§119 A latter is inflected exactly likejixoi. The form viz. in verse. make decisive or to to repair. so as to form a double for jj9 to . to obey. JfJJbt. j* to flee. the second retains its vowel. [Also. have six. But if the third radical has no vowel. J*c . with the exception of .jjiL». is sometimes shortened into alkwt or cliLt. the solid verb. the and unites with the third. JU> to split or cleave. so as to form a double for J-U^j. and then E. jJ* to make hard or firm. also used. which also admit kesra absolute. (a) They differ from other strong verbs in two points. but the former is irregular: Imperf. combines with the third. clLLrft. —The J^A. for yj~~~t> smell. j^ for >j^i. J^->. tie firmly. which is marked with . J^ . £fo doubled verb. JjA. a. Imperf. radicalis These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce geminatw (]}"]}). for Jii£ for j*+Zt . damma in the Imperfect. letter.68 Part Second. of the form JjtJ. v** to touch.g. oJA. or t^lo^t 120. w^J.g. (6) If the third radical has a vowel. J-ft-j for JX+j. Imperf. Transitive verbs of this class. Imperat. C*j to sever or separate entirely .

m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye).~oiJ. jj£» to be bad. ol »l also occur. ^-^. viz. s s £)}j. for C*«w . The third radical is united with the second. * o . S J * hoof worn at the edges (of a horse. to 69 water (camels) a second time. The second vowel iss s dropped.>fc»t se?.v.). the long vowel !_. b. but OS* s in s N. or cJLb for cJULk. — C/ow/?. to fove (instead of the common IV. someradical is times contracted in different its s Os — ways. to have narrow orifices of tlie teats (of a she-camel. oj. 5.1). O^j. Forms like Ojji. w*». <£&». Imperf. as. Rem.] / . as redctit for Co3). (compare the Aramaic s S S flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^or f° r OjJ"*^> O-ih! O^thJ efc. s cJLb form 2. s s . Co***. Rem. «. : : (compare in the Hebrew Imperf. to have its etc. Crr. . and a vowel-sound be either S t>S inserted before the pronominal suffix. or (b) t t v \ s s s sSts as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew The form described under 2 a is the usual one . [See De Goeje. Cw is S or Cw. The Geminate Verb.^*} to be uyly. s * I first radical Os s . »// . s for *Z>jj«JS. as s 0£ ss 05 <" * ' ° * " • C*yJt3. etc. c. £foss. detest. Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse). * 1. . modern Arabic. it spread abroad or divulge it secretly. sj s *iU3 to be silly. ewe. CU-~* for ^ C^ Os S S / £)ttj. or else s its .*J. This Ct s S «i //» may (a) the S diphthong ^— s as C«gdJ s i' for C-wcua5. Africa ai becomes Ol i. w*J to be vrise or intelligent. s for O^j. B. to smell badly. One verb has only kesra. a). times occur to as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks.). along with the s vowel. to Ibn al-Fakih s. however. A Imperf. are. o . C-. p. JJ1 to y«Md abound in lizards (»^-*o). CXolU.§ 120] I. in one's dotage. 227 Such forms as C« g >. is transferred to si s s Q Os 6s. C~Ui*. j^> 0* jjb to abhor. The Verb. jjsetc. d« M*M i for C% Oj *A. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some. woj-~wl s for Oj^-^wl. a s 02 ss form which s Outs s is 5 not ss uncommon s s in the fifth conjugation. rt^lD where 5 = in J ftTSDM for PODSDfl). wvUlsu. B la Us to 6e mrfo/.

J^ or vi J*©-». the Arabs say ^Jj*. and to the third. this vowel may be (§ 27).. as ^£jj*\. sj°* d d » for ^a-ofcl. ninth.70 Part Second. sometimes do not follow § 120. jj*j>. apply also to its Passive. j^j. j . § jj*\. for or *ji. ^-^-j or s^-j. b. however. Higaz. has a vowel (sing. »j->*. The masc. not U^j. and tenth forms.] * — . —instead of ^jjit. and plur. j*c for jjl*I. Slbaweih ii. sing. Cf. in which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf. ^ 6 the rule given in » but keep the second radical apart from the J 6 third. either fetha or kesra . for ^o-o-i. [§121 A In the Jussive. S| or^e^l The same >j. E. 566. Consequently jj±. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical fern. [But 120. I . undergoes exactly the same contraction as the Jussive a rejecting at the 6 6 same time the prosthetic 6 J 6j e. vowel depends to some extent upon that of the 4Jos> (a*oc). C Rem. and therefore tjjil. rem. j&i or^Aj. cf. ij-i. etc. y 6 s0>O ly-oft. j3 for jjtt. for Conj. . masc). Faik ii. and eleventh. 121. and combines with the third. Iji.. ly-ac In the wasl 20) say Sj j6^\ 123. * 6 *6iO uij say (§ oj (*>j)y but U^j. But in the second. fifth. JA*j ul . (§ 121). — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. dual. tjji —not ij!j*\. c. the second radical not unfrequently its vowel upon the first.g. in those that have u. tjj-*t. V. it may be any one of the throws back three vowels. l/*t. w ^ >IJ/ J s ulJ ' v)i* .] [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of De G. j^j. hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes place. seventh. and jtjit. the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary. it the second or third radical cannot be united with the other. >ji.g. undergo no contraction. sixth. because is already doubled. the choice of the supplemental suffix . B 122.jj*>. the contracted to that of TamTm. If the verb has a suffix. D eighth. 443. i ' for ^aJsju. or j^^t. fourth. rules that apply to the Active of the first form. ±£x£ or u*xkj.

* * j Z l * j o ol aJLSI for aJULSI.3 . German ii or 124. and ^. the weakest of the gutturals. 5>-»-^. (contracted from radical a sound j*\*&£)*$\. C. * * J * Aa*A. -»^fc. However. alone (§ 25.§128] Rem. . 126. a long vowel. of the fourth * C form of Ji and J. and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. by throwing back the vowel of the second radical upon the first.U. (a) There are two sorts of weak verbs. as jj. Sudda. j J«l»-). rildda. 128. jo ol j-p E. sudda (with the French u). Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- sonants ^ and {£. C. radicals is . rem. 71 In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A J^. in some parts of their inflexion. Juss. <djl for aJUjt. the uncontracted forms. are not contracted. for J*. which is a.g. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form. jew. The Verb. whilst others gave the vowel of the first between those of kesra and damma (technically called 01 giving the one vowel a scent or flavour of the other). tlamraa. These are more particularly called weak verbs. precedes the double allowed in the fWia jj{~*. to transformation or differ rejection and which consequently more or less. consonant. (b) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza. as I. instead of rudda. The Weak Verb. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the subject. the 1st pers. and eleventh forms. which approach very nearly in their nature to the vowel-sounds u and i. 125.U*»o. s-*jI~j>. The Weak Verb. ^. not unfrequently occur. from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). sing. The weak letters are I. sixth. Forms like x>jj. * J »W> JJ **i !»«**. on account of its weakness. B such as 9 * s uoclJ. These are called verba Jidmzata. D 127.). J>SU>.. namely case oi In the third. combining the second radical with the third. jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ .

as ^j\j. of Ijj jj±> for jjL masc. 1st pers. — . for Ol^». and ^y*. or IV. VII.). These are divided into three according as the hemza second. of Oyj y> and Cs^» for Olo and oUi. B is 130. when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J. or third radical (verba primse. which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary It is known signs. The following sections point out wherein they differ from the strong verbs. ultimae radi- calis hemzatse). If the elif with hemza and gezma. (I). it is damma. restricting this appellation to those that contain a $ or (§83. for to and Ui (see § 133). [§ 129 A The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata among the weak verbs. Perf. at the end of a syllable be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels converted.72 Part Second. The ^ and represent in these cases the sound to which the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. weak. the first. into ^ with hemza 6 . to whose method of exposition this work. Hence C*5jj * 3d pers. C Pass. after the damma and (J) . 1. * ^ [This is a convenient formula. or even three weak letters . rem. for good But from an historical point practical reasons. Rem.— Tables VI. . classes. those that have Verbs that have two weak radicals are said three. a D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic grammarians. and cannot well be improved upon without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba mmzata). into ^ with hemza after the kesra. to be trebly weak. Act. I. e£$t. 132.. These may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. of jj\. sing. kesra. or supporting letter. sing. 131. ^ 129. of view. VIII. to be doubly ^Sj. such as *. we must distinguish between two pronunciations that indicated by the consonants alone. In a root there may be two. is closely conformed.. masc. (^). or ^ by » alone without a kursl. and that indicated by the later points. sing. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. mediae. Imperf. Pass. 2d pers. Perf.

so).] w. that danu-a. In modern Arabic. j)t[+. by writing ^yf. having the character of a sacred tradition. 6. The damma and t kesra remain J and the commencement short. but the old orthography could not lightly be tampered with. that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other Arabs still preserved it. ylta. and ^_. become j and . y without touching the old consonants. This change has already begun in Hebrew. a. and is almost universal in Aramaic. preceded and followed by vowels. with the spiritus lenis between the are pronounced like itself. of resolving the verba C tert. *£%<*»». w^». C*Jji for Ol^3. ^JjJu for \jju. at of a syllable. except when the former has damma and the latter kesra as explained in (j) (^). was bdusa. not danu-wa) preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi.. The Verb. Now the rules of Arabic orthography were mainly fixed by the Kor'an. 1. gi'ta. ^Uk. soft breathing (as cJLi. find traces of a softer pronunciation. however. that and when B J fc. as ^Ji for [Ji. at the end of a syllable. show their origin from 73 I. sani'-ta. h&mza in the middle and at the end of words has so completely disappeared. b]. Rem. whilst ^ is to say. rad. in ^ O s i Even ^ or total rejection. £$ or » are therefore really rules for preserving the old guttural '.§ 132] is I. we the ancient language. with a slight emphasis . it was already lost or 10 . u. because The pronunciation that §d aka and this was expressed. ^^J. and hence the custom. jl and ^_ like the long vowels especially j_ u and ^jamong the poets. Verba Hemzata. to read. in cases where transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an. hemzatse into verba tertice yd. at the present day. {jaka (or nearly prevailed. of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17. This pronunciation did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area. and resting of the voice upon the not kani-ta). ^ §§ 133-4. The modern Arab also pronounces i. The hemza retained. n The first scribes wrote they said bawusa. not only to but also to A remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in pronunciation with j_. which was originally written down in the Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. rem. Rules for writing hemza as J.

• Oti (from it is C^jt. O . [§ 132 after A an The hemza gezmatum over ^ and o o ^ falls away . Perf. In other cases retained. J </ » /W _ kJ*j&\ S/ ^J^t UhuddHina. (*iaJUI tt*fc)« IV. of ^1. written ^>*l5t i>«jj$T (also . Imper. .£ . Imperf. said^LJ for >#J£>. U5I OjjpU fa'tazarat. VIII. a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj (see § 94. ' all with elif B conjunctionis Pass. as ^*b. Those who used the form ^JU3 JsO . t I. . 1st pers. c) also Sura xlix. In later times the pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the e.jjut J^aj yakulu'dan. as ba'da'tilqfin. ^JJI ^JJt) Uladfitumina.0 ' . as j-wb . 8criptio defectiva (§ 6. sing. whence with 10 . g.jili. Imperat. comes into the wasl. J &*$% '0 not 0-*3^ 3d pers. in Mecca. J I ^t. not £. J w> yakulildan. 3d pers.. J passes into the elif of . . C/ [And so even of old prolongation. peratives. rem. c. rem. and the radical hemza . d. IV. hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel elhudatina. it is usually rejected to come). though it may be retained in writing. when preceded by ^ or sJ. Hence of of j~>\ j~j\. 14. O^V^J' cX^N^)* D Rem. sing.J0. /it/ J). sing. VIII. Qordns. sing. b). 257. J^»b. of jj\ all with separationis elif —When a word of this sort. In Imin pronunciation. * *. Rem. of ( Jue»pf 3j*i) t . 250. because of the impossibility of pronouncing it . J^U JO %. Pass. 6. pers.0*3* 0* . beginning with the the eiif conjunctionis falls away conjunctionis. Perf. elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t. . 0X3 (£§. - q$\ . rem. . Noldeke Gesch. it-. I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lanit J I guage.jJt. p. o * (§ 17. Imperat. $1 3d Act. * 1 •» .J*M' . for j*\j. . not O^l Innn t - IV - of O-? elif > y& i not Act. Q . Os 1 >. Jijt.74 Part Second. from ^j . of j+\ X s 0+*3*> not v>*$jl. 0* in its altered form . —Etymology o or the Parts of Speech. Perf. as G j-^t^. Imperat. not jH»^t. but in modern Arabic J .] » . of ^1 \&£\y is left A* ^>*jli. ^l-oli. . 0+\ oU^J. elif hemzatum. jjj\. not JLijt. and. . of Jit ' '1 . not j-Jt. b.

At the beginning I. and into ^. which is the radical the two Slifs written either with medda alone. be reconciled for Imperat. or with medda accompanied by a hemza to the right of the Slif. or with fetha and pre1 133. I pronounced with damma J I o* or kesra (t or I). . the end of a word. b). . jj\. of a word. when it is pronounced with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha. as \jJu from \j3. J)\ J^ hsB was asked. JO* . y^i. ofj»*$. of JL» . Rem. of made. IV. III. of J$. Imperat.> instead of jj*i. y>\>. u*»>«-». passes into 3 or ^. preceded by fetha. X. ^J^t .§ 135] I. is I. damma Eg. But the as *j)/aj- latter form is commonly used before the accusative 134.. 135. for^UI. J of JL* j j^t.o. Perf. £ usually left unchanged i . or j*\. II. put on armour. . J^ for J*>b. agree with. j££\. 1. a).of j& Rem. 0.g. comes J or Finally. jj&i. Imperf. j\j\. Verba Hhmzata. rem. be- C ^ * at the beginning of a syllable which j is preceded by Imperf. A ceded by damma or kesra. to be . for^tjJ. The Verb. it is pronounced with t kesra and preceded by brave . for % ^Uj. worthless. a syllable ending in a consonant. except J) in the cases stated in § 135. Pass. of j3l J&Jl. l. Imperf. /^ E. III.g. to consult. II. VIII. for jjb. . to twang. for JU. 75 In the same way. yyi. Oj oj Imperf. Imperf. of . is y>. as j*l. pronounced with I. for ^11. of^oU.0 and meanly. VIII. damma and I. Pass. $y*tsuffixes. Pass. U^j l. At . E. %Z*i \j+j from ^Jb. groan. to be mean. for ^U>. of J •«« h. if an Slif productionis follows are combined into one.o. Pass. sir \j*yi> J35~~*> 't* f° r to Jj^*» Pass. j££ peace is made (between them). of j>*$ to. an impression Infin. he acts stingily Is . I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged. for j»^*i or j»\%i it agrees with. Imperf. O i I . when (see § 17. or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular fetha (see § 6. for >lUl. III. *> for^Lj. of j>^ ^o-LUwt. Perf. Particip. to. of ^j.0 . l~.

to which makes jJZj\ or jjJt. b. and SUly*. and j^Sj\ or jj*JI . as ^^-tj or 'parallel to. for tjj^U3 Perf. Ufc. Nomina It commenced. B elif of prolongation (compare § 17. in the Imperf. The same change sometimes takes place even with the the third form. of jj\. elif hemzatum with fetha passes into $. ^£jtj to eat to console.-wt^j. rem. and the etc.t £ The verbs J^l y>\ to order. reject radical in the Imperat. as Ij^tjJ. the first of . i**»»tj initial &lif of to be opposite to be intimate with.tU or L»A3.—Etymology to order. or J3f. the Imperative j-» gene« J J rally recovers its radical d J X j-otj or j««j but not so •*£» and J^ . agentis and actionis. . b and on the Imperative of ^yl. as . j-«t. When preceded by ^ or (JC/ elif. j) which make only J^j. xx£ to take. find J-itl. In a more modern stage of the language. b) . JXs. b). and J J J^l J to eat. to give wages.. to put on an Hzar. tfc £wo became intimate friends. to prefer. X making X J**. rem. "% Rem. The same the article assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\. of course. rem. . In old Mss. X 138. 139. for 3d plur. for to the characteristic to take for oneself. to come.t (for ^il). according to § 17. 6W&<#.. J3u. as Jjf. see also § 175. of or tjj-«U. J^tj along with. we often jjll 136. hemz. for Jiff. xJ x J x x J $ took the place 137. rem. prim. [§ 136 % A j*\ is " g The same thing takes place when a radical with ^ezma (I) preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132. when preceded by fetha and followed by an b. O of that form . Rem. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form Jk±3\.76 Part Second. J x .\. q for L^tt. and J^. j*o. L». Ox x x 2 put on one of dress called j\j\. u*\yo. they deliberated together. J . rad. rem. to a. IV..3. where. VI. J ^O J t (§ 132. . and j^. b) pers. b. a. see § 132. from U. . • I . Act. For the rule as regards other verba .tj. or the Parts of Speech. rem. J X ^.

J~> for JL»J (Imperat. 282. tertise rad. D 2. b). letter These likewise or fall three classes. iUt to send. for Kg. \jj). rad. whence ^-U.). cJ~» [not cut*]. second. rem. from the rad. hemzatum is elided.§ 141] I.-kjA_»|. an angel p]X a?)in the fern. The Verb. 140. Rem. 2d m. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. ^ et . or I^LLs. we may say JuTj Rem. and take 3 et ^ radical hemza with fetha. for JI~j. etc. see Comp. 6). Perf. for e"lif J^jt. and in Syriac it the rule . 6. p. Verba med. according as the ^ ^ is the first. into b). for O-oJut. elif J~*. an^ with B ^ i. or third radical (verba prim®. p. an elif of prolongation instead of the (§ 149. or J-^. From the above assimilated forms are derived the JdL3. more rarely in J^l. 46.t may also lose its and be written Jd^wt. Verbs which are more especially called (§ Weak Verbs 128. to A v>*3t. to be safe. Jjbl. from {j\j to see. j_kj|. Gr. to take. J-~> for JI~j. IjjLi d. Jtffc and j**j. for ^t. The Imperative Juj makes ^^Xw. — Sometimes the JC . to JrwsJ or confide in. secunda). still 77 give alms. 141. etc. t^JL>. which has Jlw JL>. I^LTi. sing. from ^jJ for \j\ji. to receive wages . —The tenth form of J^. o?o. t to trade (see § 148. Compare . Verba Hemzata. 6. if Syriac l *Jl\ i-it^M> iKl!^. du ^U».). a. ^. The is elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew. J-~> C jtl>. ^j\. This for is particularly the case with the verb pers. and marry. its vowel being trans- ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. Pass. plur. for J^U. in secondary radicals rem. not ^C. Rem. When preceded by ^ and (§ 21. JL» Jl~i to ask.

Imperf. comfortable. Ox OOO E. j^. Eight verbs primae rad. to be in charge also dialectically the ^. ^o**i> t° oe happy.for jaA (jue^l).g. retain the j JxOx JxOxOx to be afraid. j**~j.— Table IX. J^ to stick .g. i Jmu to instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid . The Imperat. g JxJxOxxx j § of. and Aram.g. ^jj to be firm and hard J X .Uo ^ ' ^ooc? is x x x %\~~* j^ xxx good evening J seems to come from j^-y but This Ox in reality from ^su. full of hatred (of ground). j.^ 2o 6e angry with. £*->. jJ for jJo\ J x (jM)> J Ox j&3 promise. t condition and handsome. js. J y of the form Ja3. Imperf. of verbs |"£. juu for j^-^i.78 Part Second. J XX X J x Ox Jjbj fo 6e cowardly. j) is the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the which is so common in Heb. x j»)$ to swell. JxOxxx j^l (for j**}\ or J^t). JxJxOx <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief. in § 92).. But those verbs primse rad. 143. to forget. j»-b for jJ^». Imper. is ^ (verba prima? 142. Rem. Imperat. angry. (of fat).. Rem. ^. Verbs of which the First Radical rad. jJ$ x x x to to bear children. jbjj i . and Imperat. £0 fove. xx form ^» pj^ and a few more admit both forms xxJxOxxx J^yi 5 q e. 3 or (£). J^->. Ji*J. jJv. reject the 3 in these forms. J x which have kesra as the characteJ vowel of the Imperf. J-fcjj. [§ 142 A A. or Ox J*hI 0x0 E. ja. ro^/i and broken jX^j j^-j to 6e to. jju. ^° ^ e Jx diyj . to be melancholy. have in Ox JxOx g the Imperf. £^3 to be in pain. inherit. X X xx J L&H c£*3 *° ^ e n 9°°d of. a. j**$i or J*->>. £>jj . morning ! 6. which have fetha or damma as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf.^ or 0x0 J^ xx and Imperat. Imperf. ristic xx x Those verbs primae rad. xx xx in these forms. cjj to abstain from (what un- lawful).C J X j JUj X Of these cjj has . ^ x x j^ # in I the phrases l». —Etymology $ et or the Parts of Speech. JxOxxx jtyi '.. Imper. I'll down or confide is and hence ) elide their first radical Jmj to trust n J£} > ^>J3 cjj .JJu ^3 to be near. J^ aJLj. .

g.yi .j.§ 144] J I. from j*b}. Others even use the forms Jjwj. to moke a mistake. I J rain. £-«y. # ©jJ. Rem. J x x c>.lj J x Ox and J*»*u. *yt for toy* jjul for 335I Rem. a. b. » U». of which the second and third and in which the Imperf. ©ju. in the mud. ^. rad.. X * m x $**+%»* (jJ. most commonly occur. ^»Ab and ^»v->j. j ^ • Ox #J. „ 144. 79 by the mur. y J s Jibuti. and Imperat. to 6e tfi j)« .j. J*-^j l S>3 t° perish. 2 x x £-«• £ x U ^^5 x £0 trample upon. **. Xs* and .ov-jj. to let alone. J for x Jj^j. Ox for %a*yi. x x x C » . y>±i Jjj to be Ox unwholesome or insalubrious. yoy*. t. « xx fe) -" ^ £3^ • Ji}. Jx Ox . has fetha. s-**. radical being in each case a only to the fact of the second or third guttural or semiguttural (j). x . Ox xx £3 x jSj.ai. E. the Perf. £0 £>e afraid . the is In a few verbs. Usy. cjj and j±j are not used in . The Verb. B from J Ox J "x from x x <Jj*. Rem. xx xx gjl x x to restrain. J**. J x x £-»• x jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^. £~«i. s>j x to let alone. some Arabic J x x J x Ox J x Ox change the ^ into x t t or x x ^. . is x The same is the case with those verbs which rad. Verba t pr. /Off. of which the eight following are those that initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. %o»\i and J x x ». x x JxOx %». J £*• xx to give. Jjy> >oj to be clean and fair. $>$ to be visited A J0_ . * . geminatse . j and medise OxO • as 3j (for jjj) to x lorn. dialects x In verbs primae rad. j et {J. for ^*A>j. notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms fetha. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably that the fetha of the Imperf.» ji. x *~>3 x x x to be wide or spacious. and Imperat. radicals are strong. owes its existence is.j or J x r% jj. xx Ox ^Jbj y^i. are at once primse rad.

IV. C*5t. Imperf. according b . ^. (^jl»I).. IV. * J^**'. 145. Imperat.. of verbs primse rad. O. 148. for jL~>| and j Infin. &*>>. the ^ is sometimes changed into on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to J * uJC . and kesra. ^*-j. In the Passive I. producing O »j * * * * . approve of Sometimes. for J***]. or y^^-o. fetha. rem. j *^ to or become ripe. Act. however. I. J J jl~>t J and OJ . #0 receive a promise . j~3\. and X. 146. for j~~*i. for ju*Z>I. . ^J. ^ and ^ are assimilated to the characCo * * £ . <i Hence < j~*>\ for j~~»t. *0* J 0* * * p * Rem. j-~>$i. Verbs primse rad. to despair. and X. . t. . and ^U* ^sb. for ws^jt. * to be sb< J J 6s . ' '. *£*> JaJb JO* J ' 0' t to be awake.80 Part Second. £t>Jl. g. easy. ^Uo *0s See or § 92. Jiio JiAj do. . ^^-l. D teJuj .. the j is ^ s or j productions. although many grammarians disare not assimilated to the O. [§ 145 A In those forms in which a kesra or damma OsO precedes a to I. Rem. IV. it. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms like the strong verbs JO*'" . JJjt. Imperf. into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- . IV. but pass after ^ and ^ damma. See § 143. jLmjUA. Act.. for Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for . f lit J g the sound of the syllable ^ e.g. ^Uj. Jl^jl for jjtjjt. to play at hazard.0 L»+Z~>\. of j~»j and &Ju . In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a vowelless ^£. j~»> to play at hazard. or u-^-rf. j£b* v~*ii i0 oe dry. Imperat.. Perf. for Infin. ^ is revealed. has ^^^ a. . for Oj and as judt. to be gentle. or J s ' . . (juujl). J ' ' jt jibs gg. s^^-yi for w^>j. teristic In the eighth form. Rem. %yi J %yi and . JO. Hence Jo^-jl. hill). according to the preceding vowel. w^jt. forj-wt a. J ' rem. J*a*j . —Etymology changed into b * or the Parts of Speech. for <£*3j. IV. the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis. the preceding vowel. ctjut. ctjuzll. and X. vowelless j. J J . 147. e. Pass. ** grown up. Perf. c>^iwl. XL. ^tSjlll. *J^].* j^d J *Ju to ascend (a * J y . ft is j^ajec? or for determined (of time).

do. he goes. b. radicals . Act. rem. Pass. the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the fourth. p. is „ JUj. of this class in the cognate languages. and the third has one. Imperf. and rem. . j Jyu. seventh. in the Imperf. rad. Jyb. *r>^> j do. 3 or ^j (verba X. to prop him up . Rem. E. Pass. The Verb. 234 seq. j for J«15jt. ^^i. ^JSj to rely be to upon. j^jl f° r Jajfcl (§ 147).. Verba pr. B or long possessed . Verba mediae rad. Imperf. IV. in the Perf. ^J^arJi. or If the first radical is without a vowel. J~a3b J-^*J> *w^ § 139. Compare b. 11 . j * „ j . Uul to insert .§ 150] tion. to be hereditary. I. pardon w. indicate the principal points of difference. w^v-. j~~i. — C 149. et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians The following sections sJye^\ first. E. or ^Jj. ^L~ to suffer from indigestion . is -» ^ J D 6' its he says. he is afraid. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary to such as Aa^j ^rw oneself towards. JJjLl et ^j. inherited. I. ^*^j j-^ a. make one lean. and tenth forms. >>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave).g. *$3. for A j^J\^ for j~i^. XIII. becomes „ „ Jy^t. c. to and in the fourth form. Verbs of which the Second Radical media? radicalis is 5 ^ et — Tables yj). and the ^ changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. Rem.g. J^Ll for for JJ^y . j. *~3 to be wide or spacious . I. Compare § 139. ^. J*£j. see B. For the inflection of verbs Comp. 81 I. eighth. ^Jo\ j^\ to suspect a person. for j-^ri. do. is the vowel of the second radical thrown back upon the first. Gr. 150. he is afraid. *l. „ granted. djj to be stupefied by grief to melancholy . JaaJI. follow . ^"t to fear (God) . it is said. J^>> Imperf. to face . (§ 145).

do. l>o*3I Jx 3 . t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^. Jussive Act.$. But if the third radical loses vowel. IV. 3 t i (J3. x xOg ^\i\. x a£ 3d p. S^-s^. 3 Perf. a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel e> E. x x x yJU*-> (o^-»). IV. sometimes still farther abbreviated.. do.AJ).0. 3. 0. IV. fo stands upright. Plur.*x. into *sL. O Oi Jit. IV. are changed into the corresponding short ones. (CM^)j 2d f. 151. d v>Jt. soften. [§ 151 A he remains.g. OJ&X. Pass. Pass. Jussive Pass. he softened. Imperat. he was thought is gentle. Oxg O^Ut x (o-o^St). j»£\. Imperf. Act. Perf. is Rem. m. X. (C^ll). t^-j3t. (J**t). for . 2d x p. Jyu ^^%-j O (J>*j). Act. IV. plur. Act.).a»*) I do.j. oj \yyi\. Jju. do.03 . . i x o t. because (§ 25). he remained. Act. its Imperf. ©X | „ „ „ ^s&Im. J»$*-i. x do. xx to be. X do. Perf. 03 3 ij*A*~i\. IV. IV. j 0*k. 3 oi Imperat. IV. I-. x J OJ OjuSI x J J '' *| (^Vt).82 Part Second. x 3 J*£l~j. the long vowels ^J— $—. f. 3. J*. Jussive Act. 03 0*k. Pass. plur. ji} £. C^UXtaWl x ). JU^j. Imperat. I. » 2 I Ojit. Imperf. „ „ t^lJI. Pass. . X. I.„ 3 . do. (j*yy). x 03 o. 03. ^1 131 x oi (>>*!). pardon asked. especially by the poets. > „ 3 O^jl. do. Perf. sing. IV. X. 1^-iJI. x (j-j**. Act. 3 —Etymology becomes „ „ or the Parts of Speech. X.. p. he softens. remain. .

rad. 33 * jj a j JJ>3t becomes successively J^l. then the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis. 3 o 3*0 3*0 153. J>5I. E. E. If three first succession. Q . I. the Imperative of the first form loses its prosthetic t A (see §§ 98 3 03 and 122). $ et ^£. 83 In consequence of the changes produced by the operation of the two preceding rules.g. without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it.§153] 152. The Verb. Verba med.g. the open syllables follow one another in immediate of which has fetha and the last any vowel.

j*X». (a) The second is radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. first [§ 154 A 3 But is if the vowel of the syllable be is damma. If the first radical has fetha 155. (for £)y*».g. and the and the kesra or ^£ accompanied by kesra. and i changing those letters into j productionis . namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^. j^t s i i „ » a. s E.1. sing. In forms like Ji^Xwt. Perf. m. and ^J[$**>. suka.\ (for j#*. s sis £# (for £*j. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming the Passive. they pronounce it with the sound of the § 123. si (see § 140). is said to admit of the cJ"£**'> sj^^i c. some assimilate the vowel s s D of the prosthetic elif to the following i J^~>t. In this case the is second radical elided along with its vowel. a ^JOIj). s s i. if it was 3. I. j-m^. j^6. hula. as si si s * 6 i si sisOisiOi J^S (for s i Jji. B j-~±-\ (j**^) jifi^t do. that is scent or flavour of u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. if it s i damma. " O i s i Rem. and the third is without a vowel. Pass. the damma elided substituted in its place. (^tfui). rem. was ^. .. (J productions. 154. cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ I and the some Readers of the the Kor'an give the vowel an^o-aMvoU^t. Q b. ss s C-s^5 s for . Rem. s i E. 2d pers. do.). sOi i J^*. to say. pronouncing or &. German Rem. (Jj^)j like. Os s dj~» Oj-j~>. three cases arise. Jjo»). 2*J).\. o~«ji. J>$). il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare hula. so s J>3 s i becomes (J>*) ' O J**> s Perf. Pass. giida.g. but its influence strong enough and into to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. Instead of J*3 (J>3). (&£*) s i c*~A s i Perf. J**. j-^l).l. forms The verb JL>. in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes I.84 Part Second. -is for JL» _ siila. VIII. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Act.

Rem. seventh. In this case the same i elision takes place. radical is is Verba med.* for C-s^*. according to x x o E. as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. pyj. (§ 155. suffices to but the influence of the characteristic vowel radical into kesra. kuta. and most verba .* 6. ^ 154) shortened into kesra. B x c*a£> for a C^»*. to move away. Perf. ^j kesra. JyJ (Jy»i) XX from JU» x'J X ( J J X JjJ»). but its radical into the to change the fetha of the homogeneous " vowel. is In the Perfect Passive of the the third radical loses o first. (c^J). do.. a) and C* **. ^£. m. d (c) The second radical is j with first kesra. x x x *£*. „ a. 2d 3JLik pers. as in a. 2d pers. grew m J J X J J}/ . comes JjJj ( J^J-i) from JU (Jy>). 93) . Oxx identical in form 155. sing. [The prophet himself in the 0JX al-wahy says wd^i. x x o J C OJ CJtt*1 Rem. to .g. do. and in those mediae rad. m. etc. say CuXS. Those who pronounce in the 3d i pers. £njl (O^k) fr° m jh . do. from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn. Ci4 x xdx e. sing. I. forms. » m. for E. change the fetha of the x O x Kg.g. 2d c> pers. the 1st and 2d pers. Pass. fern. J>ix> (s*~*)> (J>£J. Act. C-o*-> for Cou. and eighth productionis (§ if its vowel. the § 25. .. a § present. c). Act. VIII. J J whilst those who J prefer liadith Jy>. (§ dual and plural JO and Pass. etc. 156.g. ^ J of the form J*5. Act. The Verb. first A case the second radical influence is sufficient elided along with its vowel. bii'tu. and Perf. rad. Perf. 85 In this The second ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. Perf. fo/i#. D say in the 1st and 2d persons xJxJ kiiltu. J Osju. e.] rad. Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\). — De G. xxx xx xxx JJxJJOx xxx from Jtj (Jjj). 157. m.§157] (b) I. sing. ^ et ^J. cJJ» ° cJ^b. x a •» for C*s-u (c-ouj). I. mediae rad. sing. are J O J . In verbs mediae rad. bU'a. to fo . Most verba mediae j take damma. *.g. ^>* (^y*). I.

x Of . ' E. for C^Zc. to cease. are inflected throughout like strong verbs as jjt to fo xx JxCx JxCx xx «g curved or forctf. j. ^. of the form }»3.g. A Jxx JxOx . jj*>i.. Syr. .S. ^>?j. for CJj. for example. oU->. a. though w~o. 3. £xx6x jsUj {j*&^)- to die. fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). rad. for. ZoLqj) in the Imperfect. OU d J xx (O3-0) to <$**. X JJ £j>j and £»>*3. • has usually the form 3 C 3* (for Cy. xx ^^. •• Syr. A_»_Lo) I in the Perfect. ^£*. XX ^. 158. Imperf. § 90. of which the third radical is in the proor letters combine with an initial O ^ nominal suffixes so as to form O 30 3 O S ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 and <j. Hence we write J33. 3 et ^j. JU. to sleep. ' i [§ ' 158 A x 3 x to go. (J~o) from *U> (^-w). and a few mediae . IV. 3 —Etymology in some. j^^ IV. and T B also C~*->. ^JU^. Imperf. the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second radical into 3. . c. for Uu. j~~j ijv~i). rem. jj* to be one-eyed. O^* f° r fr° W C guard . ((J^d^j) from jb\J {j*y). TVlD*. j***. these In verba mediae rad. s Some verba mediae rad. obtain. 159. Jjl**5 not D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason. Jlft. See § 11. ( J-»j-») . lUu (U£j) from ^JU» (tj^*. *y~>\ . comes Jtj*> j xx Jx«x £ x x x *x x x j/«/ from JU ( J*J). C*o. are always written. . XX. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. j^\ ^J^o to fo woolly.). But which are of the form J*». second and and they would become identical ^ it) in appearance with the * 3 x vt 33 J - x 33 . 160. a. to get. C-*o. . rad. to . if it did. no coalition takes place in the same forms of verba mediae rad. for xdx o**^ O-^j fr° m OW xx m 0^° xx (0>°) to (l>^) to fo separate. . See U>. xO 5 WJx an d x x ->x j>o. Imperf. takes fetha (§ 92) e. >jV( •>>* to 60 6M./ktr. from ifa night . the X X X X J X X Imperf. and b. from Ob xx (C-*u) to pass xOJ for t>*0. and O3-0I (Heb. are mentioned by the lexicographers.86 Part Second. »*x x £x G x . from J\j (J^tj). which rem. Imperf. or the Parts of Speech. O or Q. the peculiar feature of these forms would be effaced. co^ XX Heb. to tc?M&.g.

c. j et ^. from the w>L« . Ox ^.§ 163] Jx Ox x . Imperf. M U» >t £0 become 9 xxOx . the eighth form. M . u . ju*. Some verba mediae weak rad. from Jl».«a. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 163. or intermarry. in Rem. to reward. ^ -»x et ^. J>»-t x j^z t to be wanting. said of a camel. grant a prayer. .o to have a particular disease (ju-«. xxO of sU». rem. [chiefly denominatives].. C from the rad. 242 seq. the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of rad. J>*j. Similarly. xx inflection. A few verba mediae rad. Imperf. x x Imperf.g. jlr*. x x j glanders).»t. to perceive the smell or otfow of a *-\j\ x x£ xxO? XX X X £ B thing. from the rad. to have a long. 9-lj . w»Ut or <^^j\.>t. On form from verba med. Imperf. O^verba mediae rad. to Rem. xx to j>^t to borrow. E. *' ' A Oi . Gr.>t or w>j a». to give an answer. a. p. jU o>^ Mjo one another. Verba med. w>Uh" x x x uj^uwl 9 x x or w> Ua^. Jf^wt to become like a . from m\j do. 9 f x xx OxO ^»}su~t\ to be bent with age. b. Jx Ox to squint.. IV. x x x W0c£. rad. ^ have only the strong inflection in xxx . to " marry x x . Many inflection.. ju. but they generally prefer the weak. j et ^ follow in the fourth form X x£ X X "i either the strong or the xx from w>U fo return . JU-I or 162. rad. as jy**\ to be neighbours.. the Jx X . ^ from^U do. and flexible. X X02 x x£ or p-jjl. Rem. Imperf. the first b. from the x X . I. Hebrew and . rad. slender JxOx x . oftey. On X. see §§ 240-1. x <Jyau J^a. xxO and on the secondary xxxO 0* cllxwl. w> U* » . used to denote reciprocity XX from the rad.g. D xxOx she-camel (*$U). J^a*->.. to 6e a&Je to do. juou JL* have a slender waist. The Verb.jfe>\ or^^l. x x elixwt or cUwt. IV. to j^h *>*£• 1° be tender *-***->. to watch a rain-cloud. *" *~3>)\ to pair. x 87 x x xx Ofc . J>fct ju. t #£0 a he-goat (v~*>) J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**). which almost always adopt the strong. to consider right. see § 118. 161. shortened from cl :^l. to be cloudy. x Imperf. from verba med. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y Aramaic see Comp. xx Ot J-j£j. XX* xxxxxO rad. Jx x . from ^*^S a bow . with the exception of a few. E. from the rad.

166. sss* In the first and second and II. j of the form J*J .. ^ 3 of the form Jii . sis as jj~> to be noble. forms tj£. s ***J s &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** letter LTf> **f> W?3 OW* 1 J>>*> 1 D is*J* O^y^j- The j between the vowels . 1 — a ((^— — a (U-) s s ). u a syllable s i s J — s * J (S3-). for^j£ (b) (§ 167. a). (d) Verba tertise rad. s w-»j^j. I!**). (a) Namely — : At the commencement of a syllable. In the dual. as iJD±. 165. namely. Verbs of which the Third Radical 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis XIV. place. UjJ^. or it is elided. C-oj^. jjx. a). O ss s Rem. u —a. sing.— XVIII.. but the ss s s Arabs followed ss in the sing. where they . s s E. a. or it resolves itself into a vowel. Verba tertise rad. O s s s s ^cj \s (§ 167. fern. and Ojj-w. (e) Verba tertise rad. for ^j B with.— Tables five These verbs are of kinds . b—). as ^oj to be pleased for^oj (§ 166. There are three things to be noticed regarding the third it radical of these verbs. a).g. % .88 Part Second. l£J^> for ^o>. might have been O^j^. ss s ' and s ss dual of the Perf. is [§ 164 A C. u—a ($—). a. classes. one of two things takes The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between s s s s the vowels a — a as also s s s (tj_. ft a).to be ashamed. : jet fj. (c) Verba tertise rad. after I. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a. not being able to say C>!j£ and * ss OU> or £*++} (§ 25). — \j£> Verba tertise rad. when the preceding f . j of the form as to make a foray or raid. as ^oj to throw. ^ of the form Jj*i sis . Act. etc. the masc. (a) ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb). /?. The letter ^ is never found between the vowels u — a. they sub- stituted 0>£ and C-«j. of the form Ja$ . (§ 167. 164. s s s s is the analogy of C*»^j. that retains its power as a consonant. on the other hand. namely Jjtf . —a s (yJ) and —a (I5— ) always passes into ^ as ^^>j. ends with a consonant. d ? s ss s J s sis si * s Os 5 s s Os ' s s s IJJS*. and. the 3d pers. /?.

!>*«. as for t^JjJ. as for Ojjx. as t^-oj-j. a. L5^"" ^~' M f°r 0**^p and ^-^p Cxs£>*3 O^e-^P and for CK/*** an(^ L£P^ and ugi*3. E. . sing. according to §§ 166. 3 et ^.§ 167] I. as Ijj^fc for tj. 03J*£ ano L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0- b^>*^ > 3d— m*o '..*j£ ^ . j 167. either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the '*#«*. Into a diphthong namely jj— into 3—.. 0**P and j^5^p 0***P and j^^^P. ly«j for 0>-^! and (^^H \ f°r U>*-^H and in *° 0^>*i and IjJaj for f°r 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \jt*°y*. ^— 7. \^jl* Into a long vowel - namely j^_ into ^-.. rad. in the second syllable. or elided. lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' L5-~ mto . is (b) The i third radical u. in J At It the end of a syllable. Hence arise the following cases. Rem. is The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- condemned by the grammarians. 12 . (a) When is standing naturally at the end of a syllable. (from ^^>j for^-oj.. ^-©jl for ***j\. as l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H C£3- m *° 5 l£-> as B for 0-i3J*3 f°r and iS3j*3. Imperat. If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -).. as t>oj for WfJ' 0**Jl and . the third radical is either vocalised may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally. Verba tert. The 2d pers.ty pass into ^— u and t -d. or after dropping a short vowel. elided between a short vowel and the long in vowels a. j. 'ugzu). c^j for C^ w. rem.uw and ^. the third radical (a) vocalised in two ways. yi— into j_.g. = cJjii. rem. a. sing. ^*j>»» for C*j>».X>*j and ^^^xj {£—. ^-. cally. and 168). The Verb. 89 fern. and and the two vowels are contracted . that is to say. owing to the influence of the /?. O^j-j for Ojj-». or a). one of two ways. and 154. fern. they followed the received A in adopting \jj£ and £o>. as in ^^-j s D J s = ^j*jji Jjtij. ^J^t may be pronounced (as in the masc. ^ and ^ become letters of prolongation. . lT^J L5~^ . might have but said b\j£ and UU. u with the ^U^t I (see §§ 123.

X?J /«J /»J XX (§ 7. t>£ for jj£. OOJ vowel of the Imperative often protected by a as oJaaS go on. etc. j£\.g. but for the sake of distinction t_ for aw. before the J^U is x (§ 80).. Vol. (jj-xt). for (j?jU. 4J}\ approach. Ox « w x J This happens in the nomina agentis. but the tenwln E. (see § 236). ^jt (Jf*|0* When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. a syllable. ^-Stj) 5 J . for 3& for jjj J Oj Ox . (b) —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. J X X«^J i X * J X J ^aj. ^JJJu for J ^Jaj and J ^JJaj. fx Ox in J which the Ox J signification of Ox Ox the form produces the abbreviation. 3j~~>Ox x ^— «# becomes ^is I . for and ^5^*-* t>**° f° r 1^5**-* 1^5*** e^c - 168. G. x O xx gazawta . third radical elided : — This J "When standing naturally at the end of C happens in the Jussive and Imperative. E. a) that 1 when the 1 third radical j. (3.90 Part Second. /?. <u#cj. for ramayta. ^_ X for ^J— and ^_. These vowels are x > elided at the same time. J J The a. but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 3 x x J x J x Ox x x (j— for . for . Jju. It has been already mentioned is (§ 166. ii. (j**0 xOx -f>H> -**}» x for OxOx 0x0 L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ^^ «0-> xO V%& u±jj (^Ji).g. sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. When j_ the third radical stands at the end of a syllable. 00 jJaj xOx . ^jU WxJ t>** ( jjU. ramaita. j_ X for j— lib ^_ . jt>\j thrown back upon the kesra x x D of the second radical. it forms with x Ox^ Ox Ox the diphthongs 3— and (J— E.$>*»». J">X ^^m J X J for ^^j and ^ajj. and . ^^H f° r ^p. j>j-~>. a) . ## for ^-). Oj^fc. O as as . and ^— rem. gazauta. fi for j>*j. D. it is vocalised in three different ways. ^j*\j and ^\j jU . 3jU. 5) for ay. (a) j— aw and X X * B we write for ^ SS (b) ^— tf# become a.g. Jx^xJjOx (b) (c) 3— ww becomes j— « . tenwln of x damma and for kesra. J**-». OJ for ^tj J and an0 - *x ^lj J (^o!. 5wxJ ^5-^*^ § 166. E. not naturally.] . [§ 168 A j and ^ If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (—). The Jussive § 230). J***.g. jo f. it passes between the vowels final —a (j_) and —a is is * [At the end of a sentence the 0.

in which the final 3 ^ «^ is far stands for 3 166. b. B into stead of contracting the two abstain or refrain. Perf. though ^oj^> more common than $^y>. compared with the correp. as far as the above rules permit. In the nomina patientis.tjt (Ji*J1.g. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak two (§ 129). For verbs 3 and ^ sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. rem. e. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into classes. in consequence. masc. 3. of verba tertiae 3. 255 seq. and not ^.§171] (tj—) into i^. the preceding for ^j«j*c. ^>j^. ^jnu (IjjU in final ^Xc j^c to D a£. rhyme as for u^U). the two coalesce damma becomes kesra Q . or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated land. maintains itself throughout the whole Consequently.. from lw to irrigate. the influence of ^*j* \Jy*j+. g it/ admit of either form. is occasionally found in verba tert. Jyta* (§ 80). as $jsu> for jji>«-«. Imperf. rad. C-*-©. Final ^ is changed into ( ^ in all the derived forms of the as jfc. 91 After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the it A 3d pers. the third radical converts this secondary j into into as (j?. whether attacked or attacking. Imperf. Rem. for l££jtj waws into j. / am mra from (&&e) the lion.. sing. ^L^j Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt I Ut. The an e'lif hemzatum and first class consists a^or^ or among their radicals the second of those in which the letter j ^ occurs twice. we get 5 inflection. ^o\j. 170. instead of i^i-*»^ c^t . (§ ^. and. the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 into j . a). Gr. Such verbs as ^*oj. a. The Arabs say ^JjZjl see § 59. each of of those . ^J^l \JJ&[. . In verba tertise rad. ^. a). ^ijp. wliich have both which comprises several varieties. ^jZ-. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule. from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms ^j-i. The form ^>*-o ^jk*. I. verb . Rem. 3. to attack. Verba tert. JLLj. rad. 171. The Verb.1 Rem. j et ±J. C>*"^P fr° m 169. rad. J}^\.

[§ 172 A There is verb that has more than one radical 172. 3 or or ^ tertiae rad. rarely x J x x ^ l^JL-j or L^JJt. J D x The Imperf. hemzatae. t\L (for s^^) Each variety unites the peculiarities of the two classes to which belongs. follow in their inflection both the classes to which they belong e. J$ (j-rfU-!. rem. it t^a*. [also ^sb and u~jb] . Such words . X»X X«< C 174. : — . J^3 to tread upon. x Imperf. hemza. j&. —Etymology no triliteral or the Parts of Speech. (for U*. Each of these admits of two the &if hemzatum. . 3 or ^j Verba hemzata and secundae Verba hemzata and rad. hemzatae. .92 Part Second.XX XX ^XPXX and verba tertiae rad. x Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3. to wish. . sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. and (/?) verba tertiae rad. rarely See § 146. X The second f X t* as w>t or w>' g (f° r (/?) VjO ^ XX? XX £ return. according to the position of B 173. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad.) to come. as bj to smooth. varieties. (a) (b) (c) Of the first class there are three sorts Verba hemzata and primae rad. more OS. ^bt. Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return. hemzatae. as jt$ to frighten. tju. hemzatae.g. 3 i 6 x Rem. of u~-*-^> to despair. as slw (for *>*) to illtreat. 144). and 142. 3 ^. J is ^l-a-j. Rem. its Imperat.

§ 176] I. The Verb. Doubly Weak Verbs. A . a. 93 of. J>\.

1 < st . by transposition. . Rem.94 Part Second. jj. 3 3 . as ^$£ to roast. —Etymology Perf. C ^j . is or the Parts of Speech. C-^jl ^jj jj jl Otherwise retained. the second radical undergoes no change *J3^> . rem. in which j or ^ is occurs twice. for ^tjj. the hemza it is . Rem. to be strong. In the fourth form. (§ 175. J or or A* a). e. ^jjj. In the Imperf. ^^ ^*ft to have an impediment first sort in one's speech.g. radical. b. 3 or ^. the hemza . always elided : ^jj\. In the second E. * J [§177 S3 (like is The .3 it>3 elided. J 3 . ^h> ij?> ^h> <^3> *£***J . . 0>l. B 177. Pass. there are two sorts radical. sort. is c.3 to be near. Pass. whatever. as (a) those in which 3 or ^j the first and third (of ^Sj and to (/?) guard. -^ (for gjl). ^^j) or. ^3 0^3 5 ^ ^ ^3-. a). L5^ ' E.g. when si it signifies to show.3 ^j 03 tjj. just as in the voice. The follows in its inflection the verbs of the two C classes primae and tertiae rad. Of the second : class. i . those in which 3 or ^ the second and third (for >**») to live. 179.g. Active z^Jj*. 178. ^j^-3 is to be sorefooted a horse) . . ^3 ^3.

(b) as j^^j.. 178). which letter hardly ever used j viz. We pass over the second class. Doubly Weak Verbs. and rem. e -ge. 95 ^fc. Verbs of the is 181. the first radical. >.»..ou into forms .). ^jt to is betake oneself to. B Rem.a*J. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes namely (a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. first class are of two sorts. are inflected like j-^t and . -i-. for La»l»>t..§ 181] for I.. — ^c. £>t**!. . (c) in the A nomen actionis IT. LL> to ivrite the ^. namely (a) those in as which the hemza repair to . also admits of being contracted into .g.-£. and l. j^**. <J3^ °jt> ^j'> *A the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ Perfect.**£**>. I. 180.). in the Imperf. and — The § 153. . rem. * t a*3 for 4****J. C as (^lj to promise.. . .wt. The Verb. ^j^> (§ 179).. 123.-ft are said to occur (compare § ^au. (2) of the elision of the second ^ in the Perf. as . rem. ^a+j. as is it seems to consist of only one verb. (§§ 80 and 20'2. to and (/?) those in which the hemza the second radical. when 2 * it sig- nines to feel shame. X. The former l£jW. and Imperf.

Paet Second. [§ 182 .— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

is w>>* ^or Vj^' >°^ x J x x © x forj^aS. its x x x If the second radical be guttural. and U ^oju or. Appendix A. ^^Jbi for ^Jb$. x" latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 13 w. as: a dependent lit. vowel. b. fern. ' X ft xx Hence ^ju for^^. it is said. jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc x x x • for^U. and ^^j. xj x (1) Every C x Ox . the dual U*J.» and x JLy£. ^i>j © x for x x J x x x x J x x x ix x ^-i>j. juJj becomes Ju£ by XX assimilation of the vowels. according Comp. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. . U ^^Jj or ^U. If followed by l«. U-Jb.^^*3. juj ^^a-LsJI j^. x J —a contraction which x © . though the c-o*> and si*~Jj (and. 166. to fo 6ad. and the plur. wi uj A Ox 0^ J * 1 X5 x* £ 183. or x x else the indefinite accusative must be used juj L^-lo^s^ a. to be good. may be xx transferred to the x first x radical. ^>~». x x write Rem. article or O-**5 ) occur.] Rem. and are generally indeclinable. 97 II. as xx for j^ " for j^. excellent as a companion is Zeid. The Verb. and the p. They are used as exclamations. These forms are to be explained as follows. and^^so. X © The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t X J **') are j**j. as Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). which x last is obviously the original form. which has been thus attained. jjj for jjj. s^&y X Hence ^*j. as j^JSj. and ^-£4. J) ^^ ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i. . v»^» for^cjib.for ^>~»»«.J*$ / may x also be x x A x pronounced Jjti x 4/ x x x x x Ox x x x © x x x x as *-Ju for »-Ju.§183] I. I^ju. In like manner ^Jj admits we may of the forms ^JJ. Gr. S>**J. jt^ for jl^w x . Arabic verb of the form Jas or . J*2J to [or rather. [The following noun must be denned by the genitive. instead of being elided.» sometimes extended * J XX XX Hence ^ai and to the passive Ja9. U«ju. Instead oij^su we may say ^3. L5 x x xOx" xSx (2) x © ^-^ become j^d and ^1^. Zeid is an excellent companion. by contraction. B excellent is the C»/ x companion ZUd. may take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii). Verbs of Praise & Blame.

98

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

184

A

These observations cast light on the peculiar form of to j^i]. intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (compare J*i), and,

when

the second radical

is

guttural,

mehra ("to
^or

have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****)
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr.
I.e.

Rem.
,

c.

Other verbs of this

class are

^^^

or w"*"> t0 oe

Phasing

" J *

* i *

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into
J

f

' J '

B

»>****' io oe

g°od or excellent ;
to be

eU», to be

bad or

evil ;

jju,

commonly
quick

contracted into jju,
(contracted from

far

off;

and cj~> or
these
is

cj~t,

to be

cj~>).

The
!i (§

first of

frequently combined
!Ju».,

with the demonstrative
lovely,

340),

and forms the indeclinable
.

charming, or

excellent, is

III.

The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder.
possesses
w*,&..tI) 1

184.

The Arabic language

two forms of expression,

C

by the native grammarians The one is the 3d or wonder.
called

J Us

I

or verbs of surprise

pers.

sing.

masc. Perf. Act. IV.,

preceded by
2

U
'

*

j
(

a
»

ut

*

Ci

o

d

..^.^.7) 1

U

*

the

ma

expressive

of surprise), and
surprise
;

followed by the accusative of the object that causes
, * , Ot

as

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with
0*
o

oi

^

the genitive

;

as ju>j J-oit, with the

same

signification as before.
:

excellent ?

D

The first formula literally means what has made Zeid can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The second make Z. excellent (if you can, you cannot make him more excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making
Rem.
:

a.

excellent
o *

upon
o t

(w>) Zeid.

o

They 0,0*

are, of course, indeclinable.

[For
rem.

JJU-4
c.

j^^t a poet says
Verbs

jlt.»>.»

jj\£o,

Hamasa

p.

670; comp.

§ 43,

D. G.]

of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may
b.

Rem.

from

triliteral

<•

*

0*

9

*

St

«»

/t/

,

Z.

.,

[You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj
!

*r*»*>

how

beloved Zeid is to us

D. G.l

§

184]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix A.

Verbs of Surprise.

99

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are

A

defective in inflection, like^jcJ and

Km

^,
juj

or in meaning, like the
,j\£=>,

substantive verb
up,

^j\£=> to be

(from

O^l

Zeid was standing

we cannot
like

say

CjU

ljuj

{j^>\

U or

\^j(J j5j*>

O>^0;

n <>r

from verbs
state in

Olo

to die

and

^i3

to perish,
;

expressing an act or

which one agent cannot excel another

nor from negatived

verbs (as gtjjJb
j

*-U U,
* *

he did not heed the medicine); nor from

verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives

B

at

j * o p

^
;

,

j + o £

of the

form

Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black,

*y*\

J>».

to squint, J>»-t).

The grammarians add that verbs

of surprise cannot be
;

the derived forms of the triliteral verb

formed from but neither this limitation,
observed (comaJliLwl

nor that with respect to the passive
pare
§

voice, is strictly

235).

We find,
busied
!
'
'

for example,

from the Passive
busy
;

U, Iww
'

much
7

he

is is !

from JjLw
7

to be
7

dlAjl

U, how proud or

•"

'

vain he

from

^bj
!

to be

proud or vain ; ^j jut

42m
from
to,

0i

U, how

hateful he is to

me

from

0-.iLo to be

hated ; and from derived forms,
liberal he is I

Q

especially the fourth, dUatl
give,

U, how

k

fct

to

IV. of Ike

to take

in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl
!

how

liberal
to be

he is in bestowing gratuities

from

^j

I

to bestow,

IV. of .Jj

near ; a$y**\

I*,

or

<suL».t

U, /tow

ttftfy

Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U,

an

artifice or toi£e,
s/ior^,

VIII. of Jl*.
it is !

£o oe shifted
'

J • J

Aow

or shortened,

from j-cu£.l

2o be

shortened or abridged,

D

passive of VIII.

from the rad.^oiiw.
is

The

rule with regard to verbs

expressing colours or defects

violated, for example,

by AJL+^1 U,
'***

how stupid he

is !

from Ji*^.

to be

stupid, J^o^-t

,

v>^'

cAs^

^°>

how

white this piece of cloth

is !

from ^ouj\

to be white,

^oj^l.

Rem.

^

et
j

^,
*t

When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. c. the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ;

a *i

as dbt jtwl

U or
oLfct

*

toot

j

* o t

*

4-ob

jjiwl,

how

strong his father

is I

**%+.\

U, Iww

sweet

it is !

U, how rich he

is !

But

if

formed from verba med.

100

Part Second.— Etymology
o

or the Parts of Speech.

185

A

rad. ^ et ^£, j^/op ,

they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as
ai

dJ^St

U or

J** oi

<u Jy>l,

how

well he speaks

!

O^.!

U

*

oi o or aj j^a.1,

how

excellent or generous he is I

Rem.
from a
§

d.

When

root, recourse

a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly must be had to a circumlocution (compare

235)

;

as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U,

how red

it is !

4-oto iJo\
it is !
, *

t«,

how pure

white

it is I

ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown

<Cl5ll
i

j&\
j// oi

U,

Jsssssbi*
how
often he takes
.

a

siesta

!

<sutj**.
* J

>y+\
,

U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good
o oi JssOi j**»t, aJLsl *

i<* oi

,*oi

*

B

his reply is!
I.

and not

oj^a^S

U, acujI U, <u

U, <u$e-t

*•

Rem.

e.

To form the past tense
*0
*
* * Oi

of such verbs,
, ,

(jl^

is

prefixed
!

s

to the Perfect form

;

as

t

juj J*ist ,jl£> U,
*

kw excellent Zeid was

00 ^

s

juj <jl^ excellent that which Zeid was ?
lence of Zeid
?).

But we may

also say

U

s

s

y Oi

J-oit (literally, what has made What has produced the past excelj * *

U

<

Jx

x

i

*

oi

,

Rem.

/.

dJ~~&*.\

U, how good, or goodly, he
Z

is I
s

AaJUt U, how
it
*

handsome he

is !

and

less frequently

o*}H».t

U, how sweet
^ J

is !

admit of the diminutive forms

(see § 269)

is y I <U. »..,& I

6^2

U, AaJL^t U, and

0%o*l U.

APPENDIX
The Verbal
Suffixes,

B.

which express the Accusative.
verbal suffixes, which express the

D

185.
accusative

The
:

following are the

Singular.

Masc.
3. p.

Common.
him.
thee.

Fern.

©

...

U
J

her.

2. p.

J

...

1. p.

^y

me.

§

185]

I.

The Verb.

Appendix B.

Accusative Suffixes.

101

A
Fern.

102

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

186

A

186.

Some forms

of the verb are slightly altered by the addition

of the accusative suffixes.

Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was
(a)

added only to prevent the

possibility of the termination

j-

being in
they

some
helped,

cases mistaken

for

the conjunction 3,

and)

;

as

t^j-oj

^3j«aJ
The

they helped me.

B

(b)

final

consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains

before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long
in

damma which
seen,

it

had
ye

an older stage of the language

;

as^jt; ye have

^><w(j

have seen me.

The same thing takes

place with the accusative suffix
it is

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>,
(see § 187)
;

when

followed by another suffix

as^A^o^jj-i he shews them

to you.

(c)

The 2d and 3d

pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject
suffixes

C

the termination

£

before the

^y and U

;

as

^yjj-*^ for

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for

^yjjj^,
sing. fern.
;

they will find me.

The same thing happens

to the

2d

pers.

as

^^S^uJ, thou makest me

long, for ^^-uJj-SJ.

(d)

The vowel -

in the termination of the

2d
;

pers. fern. sing.

Perf.
* *

is

sometimes lengthened before the suffixes
it.

as

<Vj-^£> for

<uj~£*, thou hast broken

D

(e)

The

^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba
is

tertise rad.

^,

may

be retained before the suffixes, or (which
t
;

far

more usual) be

changed into

as

a^j

(§ 7,

rem.

c)

or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him.

[*

In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading

is

recorded,

viz.

.y^ctf, and

there are similar variations in other passages.
third
(Sur.

So

also with verbs

^

we

occasionally find such contractions as
94),

jJ&i

for

,<-Xo

xviii.

tuU

for

UuU

(Sur. xii.

11).]

§

188]

I.

The Verb. Appendix B.
In case of the
suffixes
,*),

Accusative Suffixes.

103

[Rem.
loses its

j^s
,*)

etc.

Jussive of a verb tertise

£),

the two

are assimilated

being affixed to the the latter
;

A

gezma, the

„*)

of the suffix takes tesdid,

as^S^jju.]

187.

A verbal

form

may

take two suffixes, provided they do not

indicate one

and the same person.

These two may both be appended
,
Of.

to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the

2d or 3d, and the
4-JUa.ct, he

suffix of

the 2d pers. that of the 3d.
to

E.g. ^JLJlkct,

gave

thee,

it,

me; a£lJ*gI, I gave

it to thee ;

^SLjSji

,

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee

B

against them)

;

UytXtpJt,

shall

we compel you
dlfcUacI, he

(to receive) it?
to her,

[Rem.

Combinations like

gave him

(Aytlk&t,

he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare.
in the latter case.)

(Note the orthography
;

But AAUact

is

not used

see § 189, rem. «.]

188.

pressed, not

Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object exby the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs
alone).

The

following are the

compound pronouns thus formed

:

C
Fem.

Ubt

i)

a. 22.104 Part Second. is Rem. instead of AAlkct. 1 1 in the other Semitic languages. Gr. or Substantive. for the sake of emphasis. Rem. a. Q Rem. . from d-JlLct he gave him to me . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a 2 seq. when two suffixes B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb. J s 0* designated vo-^t. 189. When . to distinguish it him must be worded ^bt oLLct. Jerem. as abl ^ylkc-t. more 1 especially is. it to instead of 4-JUast. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) p. Rem. See rem. either for the sake of precision or of * a j * oi euphony. instead § 317. because all nouns ending in t— take that form. he gave (b) me. THE NOUN. (a) The Noun. Thus. as ^j^£>li ^bt^. is [§ 189 A The suffix of the 1st p. placed before * o * jjo* * a 3 f s * as jj-^C-J ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we ^1j and to Thee we cry for v. sing. if appended to the verb. but it is euphony lie gave me to which requires obt dlLct. and also vJ ^o^ or Ojx-^Jt. the verb worship. Me therefore. VOX?! *HWr*&. that a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet (adjective). in this case ^. In certain cases this form alone is used. ^-»^l. but not always (see § 187). nomen. Compare in Heb. he gave it to him. help. see Oomp. The nomen substantivum. A very strong emphasis expressed by prefixing the D pronoun with suffix to bt. sO* Jt. and at the same time appending the pronominal the verb. (a) These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. J«/»/ J J of six kinds. qualificabile. II. fear Me. b. a. is 190. the pronoun is. b. a The suffix attached to bt is always that which would occupy the second place. of i^_. Very frequently.

* as opposed to &La)l.)l. or Personal Pronoun. they are identical in almost every respect. The nouns substantive and adjective we shall treat of together. 3 * tt noun that united {with a relative clause). the noun of indication.. >o or Relative Pronoun.gv as the above translation shows. (c) The nomen numerate. descriptive epithet. the relative clause itself J * JO* (f) The pronomen. of by. * the noun of number. aa-oJI. is * C 'At* » §§ Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in some further remarks regarding them will be given in § 317. j^S SjU^t. . 3 Jit * ^^1. by which some object is pointed (e) (2 The nomen conjunctivum. The names of the pronoun. is. A quality. or Demonstrative Pronoun. are Rem.§ 190] II. avTaiVVfiia. The Noun. word by which something the concealed or kept in. J * (d) * o* The nomen demonstrativum. D * elliptical expressions. b. is j jt^bi\ or j+mxJ\. \Juo^\. or cJtdf. that out. 14 . — ui regard to form. because. w. in Rem. 84 —89 and 185 — 189. after the nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 353). a * j * o and so conceived jo* mind. as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI.. the substantive to which the pronoun refers. 3 vi jn+*b*\ and 3*0 30* . called 3u\jm\. or Numeral Adjective. is 3 30* bio jj^/ J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B & 3 ) 3 *0* £/*0 or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M. or Adjective. that which is apparent or It is also manifested. and a. 3 * 3*03* j+*a+)\. The numeral adjectives and the demonstrative and relative pronouns will be handled separately.-0. »J 105 . for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j.- (6) The nomas J * * JO adjectivum.

.^5*^ qualitative. in the language (or rather jargon) of the philosophical schools. but a denominative Rem. b..jUJI « human being). formed from *U nor 9" from it. 9 a key (from *J3 to open). |Lo water. primitive and . water. At a later period. is not derived from oU.. in respect of their origin. The horse. as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7). to be skilled in horsemanship. the root of ^ji. a horse. its root. ^-> how ?). and are either » deverbal. nor derived from act. y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to the etymological principle. and their different Forms. derived from nouns. A. ^ji. Nouns are divisible. and a comparison of the meaning word. is a noun a that is stationary or incapable of growth.\Zjlo . that is. ^j* may . u^ij^ sick (from v°j* . The s . full of water. a.106 Part Second. nouns were formed.£ 3 s division (from ^ ^~*9 * * to divide). and &*&+£=> quality (from ^ . act. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. derived from verbs.. follows. and which does not give birth to a nom. into two derivative. is «U a denominative verb.. Rem. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as (1) jL«lcfc. or denominative. of the two shows that the former is is in fact the derivative to be Thus «U. not itself nomen actionis or infinitive. ^l^JI human .. conversely.^wt. primitive nouns are all sub»>-$-£ eye. to fo m'c£) 9 '0 *. . as . derivative nouns T> be substantives or adjectives. ^ 9 0* . . classes. a verb is frequently given as the etymon of what are really primitive nouns. from pronouns and particles (we might call them departiculative). The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. or verb. stantives as J*y man. [§ 191 A 1. D which is given in the Dictionaries as but. 191. that is. as SjwU (from a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion). The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective. one that a nom.

• a noun J denoting a concrete 20 x object.o-L j^£>. a noun that is A derived from a nom. ^J&S 55 x J S i- -- x w fO . .jjl. x * 3 * (2) &*%«• v*^'' X e - Wlpl XX O* X O Ai^* ' rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any accessory or increment. 5 J x The Noun. . mother as ill J 5 x v&^Jl^^ot. fox) . as ^-»». opposed to 4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t.l^ and ^t^JJt. riding. 4«~ot. a noun denoting aw abstract ignorance. the female hyama 3 X tt (like "Puss" "Renard" to for the ©xx or (b) ^. jo JxO or 4-Jt or CU*J.^a. as jj-o*. JxxOx JxOxl ©Ox ©Ox the name of a camel. as o£ ^Jl£» a writer. J^**- C The same terms may be applied OxjO OJOx x x 0«» J to adjectives xO x J j ^>£>tj. or verbal root. (5) is 50 x 50 idea. as 0x00 man. 3 x x The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^. juw. J 107 as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck opposed to JU»t%o j^\. dx . as ^LxJt ^jt. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. as ^^ft knowledge. or xO rawie./***> of. an ^Ji^^wl.§ 191] II. ^J^jJui a quince. w>jj/5. names of horses. names of men. x x 0*> J (6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may 50x 0x0 also be either (a) x JxOxJ an ^*1. but^aj^JLo. a proper name J X X| applicable to every individual of a whole kind. in its strictest sense. designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos. as i«L»l for the cat. x **A J > or (*) a *« ^ J i * . « man.^U. father o/. or (6)^*1 ^y*o. smi as ^L». daughter of. x x x io^kfr a very learned j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B a mass. which comprises merely the letters of the 9 x Ox x root 5x00 6/2/ and no more. 2lJju.e - a name of. or^at. the distinctive mark * J ° tt of an individual opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j generic or 1 common noun. an ^>*£^o~>t. or v»^ft vo-'' ° proper name. ( ^ji a horse . roottra that is augmented by additional letters. jU». a as^oJLft knowledge. Ox x 5 (3) ^o^vo-A . as ^J***. names of women. tfAe £ion. 02 / A. ^ x x Ox ILm^JI. understood.^t. compounded with JO i ^jI. or . act. 5 a proper name applicable x only one J D VxOxOx Jx individual of a kind. 0-» |flO «) JO Ox J (4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be J x either (a) ©xx ^j^c j^S. sJ^*.

a substantive governing another in O/O/O *3* Of 3 it 3 0s il J. « x J Ma'di-karib. OxOx OJdx j3x O^o ^>ft Jy^c. as w>^»t ^jt.a*J^o. transferred from some other use. c. as o!/**' x ^x J xO x x ^•jMi. ^--jiM _$j-«t. jb^SXZs j»\. ^jt j «Ae father of the little fort. . the fox ^U (a) il ^&t. OjAfJ Jjjj (his /«/ 2i \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his . The «e«s> is also employed in reference x to animals. (excellence). which 5 x &*> may be 30Z Oxx nickname (j-J).. \a\Jj3 w>l£ x (Aer fooo locks became gray) vt or (/?) x 3 a mixed 3d x x 3 compound. or (b) %^^»^o. 9 x xOx JO x 5 jwt (a &ow) . * . ^e tortoise. ^b*. or proposition. latter class is of six kinds. as io (see above. x J x ^jtjSJj^c. x 3 consisting of a single word. the "patient" camel. aj^^. C^o-ot X £ X fixJ Ox (e) J*d ^>c J>*^. i the sun of virtues. c) (8) X.Ad as 2l+j x x 108 Part Second. [§191 either a JUA CvU or (c) a ^Jtt. J>*b ws-U. ^-^ x J ^JU*Jt. &n^oy&^ ->0 ~t\ may be either (a) J. or an honourable epithet. ft 2ro30 x U -p. as t^itu jus. tfAe weasel. w*jj$ &\. Bebba (imitation of a sound). gift)'. ZjZ£- . B (7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either Oi 3s xO x }jJu>. as j^w. 6. j**). £&e female hycena. Job's father. aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose. existing only as a proper name.}* \^*>j+) which 5 xxOx J x x is not a proposition Oxx (4-Loo. as *0*> J Ox • J x ^>jjuU)I t^Hjy x x OtO ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God). x x arm). as x x Cit X xxx / throat shone). ^^ JOxJ wA*5. (y) Aic x Ox as ^«jI»> i3 ^>fr J>5-^ ex J* x 3 x J j x (judging). &15U (bestowing). predicative. a surname. amir pounded. impromptu. The w^>j»o may be it ui either (a) ^£>Uwl. x j when the words that compose 33 x constitute a £A«a. —Etymology xx j or the Parts of Speech. x 0*» x joica/. as ^3 1. . 3 . as 2J*j Duck or Bottle.O J genitive. jX^j.^0*-. Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U. 3 x extemporised. 0*3 It. JOx ( and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ see abo ve J 7. The 9*x as j^> (a bull). Siba-weih . d simple. viz. 6). (/?) ^^w ^^t x ^>ft x Jja-^. xDx . improvised. as C iUju. (a) ^J^t x ^t/ 0"» © x£ j^S ^>fr J^a^o. ^ijs- ^t. (y) aJI JIcmj the " xx J <i x x4 J (8) Finally. as J*oi <> Ox ^*bt J x (giving. or wilcu*. Ox BaJal-bek.

J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). *Uyt ^S. (b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis. (d) Nomen relativum. a jectives. A. namely : — Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis. the noun that denotes the individual. J^UJt ll+*\.\\ ll^wt. particular class of derivative ad- . are by their nature adjectives. The Noun. A Nomina verbi or nomina (b) J O ..»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. >. is c>J&\ ^wt. The nomina come verbi are to be used also as adjectives by their nature substantives. action once.§ 194] II. but have substantives. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following S* *«• «" •{ S^JI *U^t. the referred noun. *W*l. (participles). Nomen vasts. the noun that expresses the vessel which contains anything. the noun D that denotes the place where anything (c) found in abundance. pyi\ ilo-^t. nouns denoting the strument. namely (a) : — Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes o o-» ~ * o £ actionis. Nomina bo agentis. nouns of kind or manner. nouns of. nouns that express the doing of an classes of deverbal nouns. llo-wt JjjtfcoJt. the reference or relation). \Jj&. come to be used also as B 193. 194. (b) Nomina Nomina speciei. (a) Nomina vicis. . £3^1 £l©-/t. om3 *s a (c) loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' and time. also called nomina (d) vasis. and nomina patientis.^1 ^^1. Sj^. place C in- Nomina instrument i. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 109 192. but have the nomina agentis et patientis . w^ » . (a) Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes .

the rarest forms being included 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* J*».Ju. oc 195. • . ^o-lafr. 9/ 9/ 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 9/ J J 9/ 9/. as i*A». J / /O/ (lit. J£>. the lessening). ibuo. ^J*p. B which express the action. subject. the lessened noun. JUi. 9/ J ? J 2 J w^. 196. .110 Part Second. or time. <". Greek Infinitive used with the article We may compare with -as it the a substantive. SlXw. v5j^> wJJU*. J*». which may be derived from the ground- C form is of the ordinary triliteral verb. 8. -*j^. o e>M3 (a) „ . as w>jm£. 9 of them.Q\ ^~/\. J>5. are very numerous. Z. or state indicated by the corresponding verbs. £j 6. /0«» J [§ 195 A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis. as <U*^s *j^> fat. 40 90 90 90 90 Jaj. the diminutive. >j. JaaJI *U^I. passion. as w>*^> ^a^. The nomina verbi. 9 J 9/ j ? 5. / 3. D 4. 3j£. (/) Nomen deminutivum. without any reference to object. . The Nomina Verbi. >a-c. as *Jl£.mj. j£w. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. are abstract substantives. as»£>. *yj.*.. / / 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ aX*s. 9. j*o. ^j.. j-w. 9// J"k>> voj-^. ^i. J*». 9// 9// 9/' Ja3. t^j~». j^>3. 9// JaaLw. list The following a nearly complete within brackets. as w~U». The Deverbal Nouns. The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) the place whence anything goes forth. %**•> 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 i ' 9/// 4Jl*S. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of this substantive. the abstract noun of quality (see § 191). jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. as ^**A. Rem. as 0*4*> Jaw. M*-* j> 7. CO/ 1. 9«« / 2.. where it originates). 9 J ^j*ej• i 9 5»J J . a. J**. O***. J*3. ^U. The nomina verbi. wJjA 9// V~**?-> 9// 9// J-o-C-.

A. as as iW-] ^>^. fb> ^^*i 9^1 9 ->»C5 ' J . JU3. 4^. cA&. al^Ui.. as *£*>] o^. Nouns Subst. iCLj. as iol.^f&] illi. «''» as i*Aafc». 0!/c^> Ol^> Ol^*£>>**. j) . [30. ^3>iif. lS**3 - L5£**. 0^i © •J J[Jl. 31. as ^J-o*-. SjuLi. [19. Sjlij.§196] 10. 53UaJ. %>^=>y . JUi. £J£ (also written <uU). o^o^. 4JL0. aJUs. as eg^y B 17. 28. OlH>> Q s j »J 9 * j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 23. liUL^. rial. as Ujl*. v 9*1 l*3. II. 12. [13. 26.> 0^>^> O^J^ O^Jb. . JUi. Ill ILJ. 22. iip. ^-U*. The Noun. as Ait^i.<& Adj.] O^iii. 4>^-»-. —Nomina Verbi. as < V »a-. as cA*«»g. SjUi. JU-.. as O^*^. [24* 25. JU*.jtjl. as *jU£». 9 * i 9 £ J w> *> jI. ^^Uj. io-«ac. as Oj^^xj. 29. i3Ui. J 27. 9 as oy.] [19* [20. as [18.J [13*. 0^0 9 s O'jlP* O^C "' 0*^> « ' as 0^^»> oW~J. [24. iUi. as TClj. ^J^. iitjjL. as ajUj. ^l^j. as ^-^o. Kr&z.] ilJUi. O^***.] Sul. SjLs. as £jl*i.Lai. oUrj] G s s s 9 * * * ' ' ' 9 ** ' 5 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 21.] ^**. as ^jA». 11. 14. [15. 5JU3.. *1^> *^> 3&. SUU. 3)U~>.. £Ui. ^5**^^^Ui. as ^IK Jl>w. ^lU (or J&). o^**> O • © ^ as CA**»*> © ^ . aX*5. 16. ^»>i. JU». as ilAt^>. ^i**.

rem. and the remarks to 222—225. few of more than two or three. 33. Urn** . as 3 ji»a*.] ^ 5//»/ O / * * vt* * GSl* * G 4A«£*o. r* * O * % * ?>**»»•«. J * [§ 197 A * Gi*Gl*G3* Ojj gjlj.0* tS$y°. as v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * J-jv-«. 0. ?-s*-j«c. the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 8 0/ and Jji* as * jtf to understand.] [Rem.> t a> -e. : Jli. 2. Sj^j^o. / • • d «. cAs [41.. as Jj**. IV <5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* C [44. J»***. very 197. as *J££. Slo^o.J 0/ JJ O^JJ 5 / <*Jj*i. insight. J>*> 3 J J j J ** 14 I iJ Ojj j J [33*. be formed from every The majority of verbs admit of but one form. * ** ibUi. . are 28. J***** asj*£«.» / i^x S s 39. G * 40... which are most frequently used. JmA '.] 37. Sy^. 33. — 44. 198. J**s.. j*a. «»/ JJ£ to kill. i2 J J G* Jj as *)yr*t. (a) ** * . Ij^ii.— Etymology \ ' ' or the Parts of Speech. diksuLc. however. 1. a-wo^-cJ. ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) s . SjJtLc. 39 c. as ^SU^. d->j*o. jyd. 43.Jjfc3 * J** * is * . • 3>5j. as i^jJI. Gvi J ajjJ^ J * J s * d [35. to snatch. the so-called j^-w* §§ jjufluo. O* O^Ox * C * Ox 0*0* G * * ZXxAA. 34. 3 x For the forms with x prefix ma-. must be learned D from the Lexicon. 3ijAo. What these are. I 32. ' «• . £T / d . GO* 00s u . v**i»i<jtj Je*3.o £^~«. GO* as J^-Jl*. as oj^a^o. J>*i.. J**j. J*^-> B 38. as Ag^ci*. G * G ***>•> ><«"•» j-** ^*. 42. A*a»^e.] All these nouns cannot. . 34.' 9 * 0* . J*£*. 221. J-oa-c. jrf understanding.112 Part Second. The 9 0* five forms. 5 Syii. Ji*. as ib^e. triliteral verb. £J>*i. aJLai. see further §§ 208. a^-*.

J^-tf J>yj to bray. (c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form . J*3 9 " ' (§§ 38 and 92) as »-^i fo fa glad. x xx to to run. . run away with . as 9 x . p-U«o xx . xx ^Ua^ * ** Jjuj x x to cough. i^ij-i x u^3 * sj&#*3 5 x sound. j\y* xxx . 27. to be rough. s Those that express sickness or ailment of any C x x x 9 9 ' 1 9 x J kind have 27. U^ fj to flas 9 xx x K 0^**3 xxx x JU*. his 9 9 * . as ^Jslc to sneeze. to ft* ^'c£ and t large. *-L3 ^Xj to weep. to to flee. as j\h x x to fly. 9 x xx > ^Ja*. xxx Jj^j £0 9 J>~o gleam. u°j*° to be sick. 9 x 37. J***. *-U-»^->\ to refuse. to brandish.§198] (b) xxx IT. xx ^ys> 15 to w. y^x3 and J J ^yU. AJtjjh.sitting . - wju wjbu and ^~x.> X j JJ^ 9 XJ to sob. x *-*»£ 9 x '. BjyL±. 21. shun with horror. Ci s jjliUi. as J*~j 9 to travel. 6x xx 6/ j) (d) x 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the jx . *bt. 7»5j±> going out. . to be x j x of sound judgment. ^)Sj^ » x x x x // / ^ja*. # xJ 37. B aJ^^w smoothness. w~oj ^o-O 9 ' . to bray. xx to croa&. 9 x x x I x x x Jyj 9 gleam. 9 x J j\i to flee from. firmness or soundness of judgment . palpitate. Sjl^ ^ jx roughness. Olyi and O-^J Oxxx «-Lo . cry out 9xx for help. . Sx x x to be generous. to 9 palpitate.— Nomina Verbi. go out. 9 The Noun. 9 X . 9x9x0xxxx j\j3. ^° gallop (of a camel). change of place. ^A*^ x x x .. refusal. }\jJli . jj-w " | * 2X ^ * generosity. { j*L±. jJu. ^©-w) • • J*«3 • £0 £ro£ (of " " ' camel). ^o 9xjxxx . ' . Jjlyj and J^yj f-j<0 to cry ow£. as juiS and ^J^.. jtiu. A. vJu»>j 9 xJ TV D xx i0 flash. ^JUi and xxx . Nouns Subslti Adj. to sit. ^J^Jt9. 9 9 x . £)\jlx±.jb^. J**3. * * . to be agitated. J 9 Us. usually take the form 26. /j • form J*i 9 x x x as J>». 9xJ Jo roar. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight. u°j* sickness. ^ *-jjL. r> JU* as ji. J^-* to fo smooth. ^xj l\SJ . *-ji joy . 113 J J J>*i x is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx to Jjt5 9 . rider (of a horse). «J xxx 9xJ to bark. to xxx lash the tail. pcfc to * become refractory. Jlxw 9 x xx VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION. f-\r>e . * * * J+**j wO a " > to creep. x run quickly. Si* * xx xxx }j£. Rem. or 9 x . xx X XXX XXX C*yj J^w J^-o to neigh. * .

to fa C ^^ «X X t Ox X or prominent. for accordingly. to fo plain.. E. to find.. 4j*^5. open or public. to judge. Ox£jU£» . jjtS to o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&. sense x x . or more generally used 9 6 J has j£*-> but when 5 O x .. but j^»».s*J to trade. <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor xxx j. [§ 199 A howl. 5 x it signifies curb {a horse). B 199. divide. ^ZS** to write. X X X U>j£>. to surpass or raw& or XJ X has vi>w. but x Jx when means Ox* to sound rushing D water. have a hud Ox© usually has voice. xx traffic. to part. . Sj^. to succeed. *liu . and xx x have several abstract nouns.) or caliph.j. has ^.g. j£j*-. <bto xxx deputy ship . to be exalted or noble. to ^ OX XX . that verb mayeach form and meaning of the r. Afclij O'^J* Du * when O x it 9 means X to fo wealthy. . Jjji . 3 J in. be chief of. but »*i^w. fl x . ly». 3jU*j 2mofe. but in the sense of Ox xx . one of which peculiar to.114 Part Second. gUj xxx x x . If a verb has only one form. office. or jjj^-. as t^il*. <?#&?£ tn jt4»> an(^ JV?-> to nobility. and to 60 moved by love. or jl-^.Jj to be in charge or command o . xxx ju*. „ or tmir. grief or anger. tfAe 29. act as deputy. j£&it j** like t to fall x prostrate. x xx Thus. The nomina his OC0-5 verbi are used both in an active (another) J and a passive as aX3> xOx killing or his being killed himself. %\^\ U3 to —Etymology bleat. but Jji. has £*Jj. governorship. w>U to take one's place. 201. 3)lyj>x x <*J>2». one Perfect. *UUs. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two its signification varies or three vowels.to Ox x sew. XJX 0& x to fo xxx unable to see in the sunlight. or the Parts of Speech. u^P or Aitjw. SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir Ox x s . it but several different is significa- often has different abstract nouns. trade or handicraft. tions. J^i. loud. and wi^w be exalted. j-ij** to £*j. noble or eminent. each of to its meanings. j-v*-. U> to Ox x grumble (of a camel). the caliphate . has OXX ' j^j*. the office of secretary . to be afraid. Ai^Li. 200. Ox X i»ti.^Lot juo ui^l ^ J X Ij juJU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after . has jj*. .

XWJ Txuil fivl L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 **?' **2*J ^ [8. of the strong 202. C JtaXJ. D. ibuu. ?^h^. Nouns Subst. JUA3.] signification . The Noun. S^J. doctrine of the Koran's having been Rem. existence. to Bibl. x JUjJU. x S^-cuS. a^v>. 65 x as 95 S^JJ. aXxaj. a g x x 5 *» I having been well ordered . 9 J'^a^>. £3ja3. u^Uy. 5^a5. J**&.] 9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 4. oi jUfe.] 9 -> Oj 9 J OJ To these may be added Jyw. as jjjj-w Joy. J£«*. $50^5 from j^j to be found. JU] x BJ 9 5 xxxxxx X W 2 2liU. il^io. triliteral II. Jt ji. as Jl^cu. x/0 fl£J. v!/A »x xO 9x0 [5. see the Gloss. gladness. iGX>. employed in the active and Lane. 2^. 9x0x Sx Ox JUv. G. from j~» £o glad. Geogr. JUA5.] [6. *$%PX X x-> x 95 J x 95 J x [3. 1. JuU. X as 1>\S£>. jW~3x^O x 5 x> 9x0 oWj. iSCJ^. A. as lUu-I*k.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 o x x o *o*o j ji . x V&£>. 25}s!*3. SwiJ. Here the vowel of the * [>£4£*5 is also viii. The nouns formed from the derived forms verb are as follows. as ^>^. a^Xj. as ££1^3. . S>~J. »LJ. X X 9 x J x XX 9 Ox Ox 9/ 9/ 0^ a^J^. «^'>^>. JStc. first. . i*> . O^V> JftJ^ 9 x x 9xOx >^P> Jj&. Of these examples some allow only the two 9 xOx pointing the others as examples of JUA5. 9 x x B 9x Ox 5/ »/ 6/ 9 x 0/ J/ Ox »/ 9 x x 9x Ox 2.§202] its II. to exist (see §200)*. 9 x as JU^j. t>Xa»o J>*M x x ew £Ais 0>*^ jv^l the *i»JI x x »J^ iJ ^^x A jjl^iJI pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted created. 9 There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive J J Sj 6e 9 j j signification.

( absol. JU*. JUiXwt. JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. [4. J&. J&. 0-00 X. and are represented in the .116 Part Second.. >«£. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 7$}£&?. J!jU5t. as >*£. J%*lt. ii&fo c xv. the infinitives. to excess energy or intensity. only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. the form JJUi is the original infinitive. V. JUil. as j&. used in verba rad. hemz. /^P). alxsu tert. 1. 1.] 5-0 IX. Jtjait. J**a3. infin. 7fc$p /L3p /LDp) infin. 1. XL XIII. JbLait. strictly speaking. Jaw. J>**5 an d dXziu not of J*5. JUllt. A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second JO* «JOj Jyt*j for JywX i. [§ 202 . latter the form are J*sa3 excessively rare.] B VI.] VIII. akin to /SJ&fi. JLxi and i^JLoid usually ascribed to but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ. Jilil [2. yjjuu. JUtf . to Heb. ?5uJt. as OjUj. XII. autli. as JUS. OjUl] [3. J^U5. as v£*-*> cfe. These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. in. [2. JcUf.]. substantives like I Dm?^ 0" an d to the Eastern JOJ 6 '0* 0-J0- Aramaic *7ifc3p. [3. •£«. Jajuu tert. a. [2. j3U?. jSL. 2. Rem. but of an obsolete are. whereas JUaj. 3 et ^ (in which . is In II. VII. as jjy-3 from tp) I.] they seem as deserving of a D place here as of I.] IV. as JU-*->.. is and rad. . but is chiefly by far the most common. XIV. [or frequency. Jt***. JUA3I.

]Llb& 9 s lAllcnZ. § 180 disapproves of this theory. into <Jmu. JUJU. J'iUJ. as p.] . Rem. 0x0 JUX3. Oj^e*. 00 J^JLxit. fUU. I. Hv^in. and Imperf. The nouns formed from the iLUi.. who shorten the Jji5. The most pass. whilst some compensated the long vowel by doubling the following consonant.& Adj. as — The form JUaj L5 is sometimes ascribed to gUp. 117 /^JUH. J&Jl. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see § 227. which has however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. x « &AAj~i. —In VIII.). G. 6.j3.— Nomina Verbi. The Noun.j*.*— In III. 0x0 2. as *-tj«o. cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft.UJ). Nominalbildung. and Lii to VI. x WShft.§203] II. Nouns Subst. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. x x 0x0 9 x x x ^xO 0x0 JljJj. as ^Jj^j^ i (ljj*.t.] J-***?. Perf. 3p*s^.] 203.. rem.. {Jj*** 9 * s 0i>*V)> ^ : ( ! >*Ih)- [Rem. [3. as Jig. Jbt^i is the original infinitive. iujUi rather to be considered as a substantive.. etc. jj*a* ^o-A] I. A Wan. C 1. JU$. whilst the employment < of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III.^). those B Arabs alone use JUJ. * [Barth. which the great majority of the loss of the Arabs shortened into Jlx*. — In ([in form identical with the] V. D. <U. the original form is JUaj. JUu^. UjLoJL etc. JjtAj. Zlsy>. common form particip. J^Jj*. is as jli*^> oUloit. • < • In XUal is the common form. JLiutf . III. 9 xOx JUj-. II. A. as quadriliteral verbs are — 3liL». of all is aJUULo fern. D [The irregular form IV. or Jjti. as>l*j£». /J » x ___ III.

like JjJj. —A variation of the fourth form is presented to us in the word jjUxk. drop it also in the verbal noun. undergo no contraction x x as jju>. Those verba primse rad. Hence %x« for jjco. that reject the ^ in the Imperf. ^*jUJ or w>L*J. x xxx j . mj 204. The nouns of the third SxxxJ §124. abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. radicals x x 5 x x are pronounced with fetha. and Imperat. yJAfr. —Etymology xxOx or the Parts of Speech. js> Ox xxx xx J" S . >j* fix fix Ox *x Oxdx 0& x for Mj* (from }j)t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). 205. mutual thrusting and stabbing . (§§ 142 and 144). Imperat. Imperfect julj. o Sjcfr from js-2. j. of which the first and second . The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to reduplicated verbs. x x a. Those nouns. E. Rem. as 3»lo»« or olo-«. b.118 Part Second.» x x with lances = j^UsJ. The B Rem. to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. [§ 204 A of the triliteral verb). and sixth forms may 5 x J J x x either Sxx See be contracted or not.g. which comes from ^yMo = i/»' 5 x x ^yijih\. geminatse are * 0* iv/ formed according to the rules given in § 120. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place C according 206.

bt* . pronounced with fetha. Initial ^. >Uut and **X X *ti. Nouns Subst.§ 209] e -gfl II. j-w. 0lj9lj9l'J9lj xxx Jji3. ^om nb\ .9 J x xx d x £**> J-«y» £°3 x anc* *** *. A . prh (&)i HEh X V V fO# V V ' njn. A. Nouns derived from verba mediae (§ rad. from ^©13. J^j**. 9 c. rad. x The Noun.). Corresponding forms in Syriac are Ua (rad. fr° m YW. changed into w^Ufc-jl 5x0 In nouns from verba primse rad. of the form & 9 ' 6 ' Jjuu 9 (see § 157). Compare > .xx d for w>Ufc. * * ma T •• (&*).' ' J ' ' ' 9 0s <»x xx OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj *Mt5» ***J. rf. if P pronounced with J £ damma - or kesra. x x x . . ^o). ' nsr. x > 11. rem. it is If the letter j. « x J the ^ * may be changed 9 into 3.Jj. 9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x converted into ^.jl*x&. >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M. and kesra precede as . if it be without a vowel. Rem. etc. . or ^j be of the form x 208. rem. as Jy>.-> _T « x eh\ T *l$ s .T' -T' \&*' my T« r ( ^). as^oLS for^ftly>.). frequently take kesra in the 0' * ' ^^j* jJ*»-*.. where it remains . 9 J may be x » ^ J S changed into I (see § 145. ^ -B (&).j and Sj^. for ^»»j 0'**^> Rem. the ^ or ^ remains unchanged 3. l\j*~* like.' rOfc? (*^). 207. in Hebrew. x Rem. . be preceded by kesra. In the form Jyi* 9 IJ r. this radical is ^.ijjfc. x j£. l j from verba med. . from olo .1. and the [See D 209. 5JLo for aJl^o. ^ .» See § 145. Jj>»». -Jfc*).^f. 3i. 3 x ~ ' / \ ^« (for C~~©). from the fourth form of w*»-3 xx tUyU+l for ^x* x « *liywt. . x x J & Adj. . Imperf. .] ••!• 5 x ^M). *«*. from the seventh XX "x X XX and eighth forms of Except in the third form. (or § by assimilation 223. as . 90 x 3 9C Ox 9 J J Jjti. j. as w>j>>.—Nomina J ' Verbi. - J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> &x or *r>3>*> etc verba med. ^ et ^j are subject to C the same irregularities as those verbs 150. from the tenth of . )L±* (rad. b. 5 If the noun from a verb mediae .l.

from is 210. ~' J ° Peculiar to verba media3 rad. and then altered. rad. pb. shortened JL**s. and the analogy of the D Aramaic verbal form (as 77^3 (as 55^2). ^ x the cognate •* -» * J" « J "»x ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ. all combine DDte. jMj) fromjy'J). x hj*J from *> *13 (^1).— Etymology . first ^ et ^5.*• (jj~>). SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and. from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll. is and then x ) .^ Ox JxOx Ox j5'x ^ 2)jj--«. aJ^JUi as the original form.^w. and >U*^t. Ox J J Rem. £0 6e chief or ruler.5. Oli^ I5U.. jtj— 1I3J from jjL*. aJ>LJ from JlS ( J-i). x by assimilation O m» Slc^^j^. rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>. ^yo^ 0x ^-i^y Ox ^ x and ^lo^c^i. and JaJs^c from h\z x to desire the *» male J 3 x *x t x Jdx x forms x . In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? radical is elided. in which «x «x JO* ->ax ^ always takes the place of the second radical Ox as x x JO* ox ja«- x x «x JO x x x x a*>o-»J from>b . (->>>). they say.g. ^ et ^ x the nominal form . E. the second after throwing back its is vowel upon the vowelless radical . aJ^JLx.Jtlilwt . . ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. on account of the discord Ox J x fix J © x between Ox J*x and u Others look upon iLcj+j} in successive syllables.*>. first changed into rtffcj)^ m*. [§210 A unchanged as j\±> from jjti. J Some grammarians regard Ox j6j"5^ . ^-^j-j*. *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£). were.^u. S x J The OxfcJ xx (of a she-camel) x Jx . S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©). j a j The impossible A±y* Ox J Sjjj-^o. confusion. > xx > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" («£). 0&&aff and llcu. &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> j o * $ s x x B. tjjjyfa+i 2. so that was originally OxJOx 4*0^0^.from ^U-. a*^jj (like C*** for C*f but there no verbal form with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. into <la. x 3jjju~> from jL> Ox *. or the Parts of Speech. 77^*3 to prove that pi3. OxJftx Ox J x&x as a contraction for Aj^Jbui.120 Part Second.4. 211. and the termination 5— appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). mixture.— X U^Ui x»x comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui. i 5J^Ui. Dtfll) . j|>».

e. whilst. ft and 214. the j productionis of the second . 73 (for^»U5t. the third radical (which in this case always root be of the latter. ^ be of the form syllable jj j j D or £)>*$. L5^ § or t U for -f] L5-^ 6. 3bj*o for 2-o^o. and Jj«i. for * * for for (*V). •* Jjj for j>\>. Nouns Substdk Adj. 0*0 0*0 vowelless radical be 0* S . . ^. etc. 5 La... tertise rad. 213. [if B * J J*5. a. if is with the radical j into j as 3J3. combines But. these forms come from verba tertiae rad. 212. xxi. e?). We often find. the ^5. A. 3l£>j for S^»j. %\j\ or j*\i\) 6 . J. for S^a. ^1. into combines with it into J$. SlXw for 3j£i. second radical. \ however. * * $ of the form al*5. the . Sj£>j (§ 7. 215. y^. J^xi If the noun from a verb Jjj . as jjs-. at the same time. rem. The Noun. for 00* 00* ^^a. an * 2> * t 5 * J**. and becomes quiescent. sj^ 2 . the third when the second immediately precedes it and is 0* yfcj.. after the elision of for S>L«. ^^J*. to show (§ 176. a. ^. S^a.. ^jj. 16 . as w. is O * * In nouns from verba * * * * * * * * tertise rad. its fetha. 6. as L5a*. ^cj. tjj L5J*.i\ 5 A occur. £). I * • * « I correct) orthography S3JL0. Sur. (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see. the (etymologically more x Rem.... and damma of the c5>5> second radical becomes a kesra. In nouns formed from verba 0* 0* radical is retained. j C as changed. 00* assimilation takes place in the form ^y. through the influence of the third radical. the j productionis changed. 5 * 0^y°j> uW*^00* If the second ^ and the third ^. we find Slo^* for 0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z.» U*>. * * 9** * 0*0* Rem. ^ et ^. c).'£* ' Ajm^ (o^o^o). GO* (j£>i.^eUM in the Kor'an. j>»^. often if it the be of the former assumes the fetha L *Aa» form of ^j) rejects of the its damma. —Nomina 5 6 Verbi. 121 Rem. *}£a. throws back the ten win upon the Eg. (>*-*)' L&-* L&A ^jjb for ^jJb (compare 167.] 5 " •• forms J*s. tertiae rad. Nouns o * g of the fourth form without the very rarely o^ootoo^e j>\\.§215] II. In the same way as SLa. 9 * In nouns from verba <• ^ et ^ of the class.g. tertise rad. rem. ^c^ y for (J^jt. into Slif productionis * * * O * * * * * V%o for S^a.

In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs. fe. the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the Ml B radical ^ into ^ Ox xx . from ^yb.122 Part Second. J£. and combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into xx Ox x J 217. For this . J/ (§ ^ «xGx«xOx 202. as ^>A for ^jA. ^o. seventh. find ^3. as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding long fetha. b. as 2J<~3. (ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing of an Action once. g^a»Jt. rem. Uxp. tertise rad. ££j. XX has the . is In the same form from verba tertise rad. and xx in that of the third. as ^1 for ^y\. as gUact. If the noun from a verb (^ be of the form J***. tertise y> rad. ^jt. the influence of the third radical D (always ^$. P). ^5. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns ^x o «•> x a »» x o of the fourth. JU3. {\yt^>\ x . 219. ^ 3 x from ^>3. ^ et ^ is changed into hemza . ^. [§ 216 A l$5<aa (compare first § 170). kesra. 218. e.. the Arabs indicate by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. rad. further assimilation of the vowel of the S 3 13 ll for syllable s j . ^jt s ^Zz for for i^ just as in the plural of substantives L5-ot. t x X f\^*j\. et The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. J# for jfi (J&). —Etymology A or the Parts of Speech. 216. sometimes takes place. Hence J^J {JLJ (JL*?). and JUi.). gU^t. and following forms. the third radical converted into J?. when it ^x form Jt*3. 3. the third radical of verba as £U±. we is. That an act has taken place once i}j+). 169) converts the syllables damma of the penult syllable into and the ^— for are contracted into - (according to § 167. ajJaI j In always take the form ZXxJu fifth § those of the and sixth forms.Uju~>t. « .

* * V*i 0*0* **«. ^\. be appended to it. AJLJt. 123 purpose the form Jx* 0* always selected in the * form of the A triliteral verb. is —Nomina first Vicis. D as rti*. once. S*a*S. turning round. ac£ of going on a pilgrimage. and 0* * J^a* <> in the first form of the 5 quadriliterals. meeting. 0*10** <Lc*. Rem. or . * * *j*. * * * pi. J**aj in the second. ** J*J»>1*.lj one. sitting down. £)\3j*a£. him once. coming. 0*9 The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind. 0**0 A^tj^o. 0*0* «/» r. once. a**1*. 6 a^ao. Rem. of course. (y) The Nomina OvtiOiO Speciei or Nouns of Kind.. shuddering. *b>o. fleeing. he had pity or compassion upon * * * .*0* 3ja3. o o?. aj>w. 5$ j&. ^. Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in e- this S o* j o i** o**o £/ie way . *J 0*0* oZ* O* 0* ** 0**0 4iUX>t.* being rolled. iolSt. honouring.> ***> f r o b. 0**0 du>\j£=>\. 3u^j. * 0**0* * 2d3\JLo. manner. nomina vicis. The Noun. ***JL£>> 0**0 33\£j*Z*\ i * * dL^^j^jj. a^-jJ.j3. \X> J 0***3 0**0 4jUlwl. A-U-5. do not 0/0/. derived from weak verbs. _ a. 3 jc». . giving rest. V 0**0 dJ1j. ij^.0/0/ 0/0/ . snuffing.§220] II. and the singleness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective * * I t * *l*0*i** 0*0* r. *&** SlSaj.g-». These nouns are called S^oJI iU-wt. 0* * tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping. inhaling or B rolling.oJ. seeing. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL the feminine termination IL cannot. £ £ ^-oJ.. and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb 0*0 * * 0*0 0*0 as A--U-. o From these nouns a dual and a plural may to express the doing of the act twice or oftener. as du.g. 9**0 Zj[s£)\. * o t being uncovered. * 3J3\Ju. Rem. «< E.ja. has always the form aX*j. rolling over. m * * * * * *$. differ in o*o£ 0*0 form from those * of the strong verbs * * as Sj^cj. vexing. . rejoicing. turning over. feUU. mode. as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j * * . be formed * * * Rem. 220. \j*. 3j.e^. Nouns of this sort. Otj-o-». c. drinking. striking. a **>o neglecting. . ^j. A. * * a»^. Nouns Subst. 4*y>. or nouns that express the doing of an action once.<& Adj. and so with *+*£>.

we must have recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom.g. speciei . If the *S*> ** J J - * as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» **** Coo * * * I ' made him observe it a regimen like a sick li t // man. b. first are formed after the analogy of the Imperfect Active of the the syllable j* for the prefixes. or iU^I jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis).124 Part Second. a place for drinking. J-^ the time or place far watering . 10* a Ujj ajjJlj. if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma. A way of *0 c»o 1 sitting. sitting. 't is JZ$ he was killed in a wretched death ! Rem. like the 0*0 5 * nom. ^j^i . imperf. eating. ^j*o j*e* j}U*+Z* *)\ £j~». ac^cJI &~»». So too with * * * o t j j o* the derived forms of the verb.g. Rem. to sit B badly is better than to be thrown easily. Z+s. he writes a^j. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis). from v>^ t° drink. by substituting and giving the second radical fetha. a miserable way. The nom. verbi has the form dJUi. 5*0 C nom. as 4£j«a. if form of the verb. e. from ^ Jus * * excuse oneself. SjuLUt ^0 a 0>e as for something precious . a 1*0* 5*0 * reservoir or water-trough. speciei may. a. a good hand. the Imperfect has 0*0* kesra. ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for to* j jo* * * o* >o * or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^». way of putting on a turban.. verbi and nom. /« «i way of being thrown * iO i« J * J horseback). or j*\j£>*$\ ^* aZcj£a\. (from fast vicis. be used in a passive sense.g. dying. J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ * * I honoured £ 10* \s>^> i 30* him as a friend is honoured. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as Zj jk£ manner of ** I 5*0 to excusing oneself. [§ 220 E. killing. w^-u*o . or yashmak . 4*23 £****' $*> he is good as to his %$~t 2dZ» manner of writing. but kesra. * E. riding. S^<*&» mode of veiling 5 * o 5 oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. sleeping. oSt to r» * it <- * oi 221. from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. Sometimes too <-> it takes the * meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb * .

Twelve of these nouns. B and Rem. notwithstanding. k thrown down or from cj-o is throw down. ingress. w**£* a place where writing taught. whereon one rests. where tlie hair divides in different directions. from j»-j^ 9 to 0. a. to drink. 9. ^~C> . 0. one imperf.§221] II. school. a mosque. the vessels in which the act or state con- tained.- where anything falls. party. the elbow. of ascent or rising. habitation. several persons 5 sit. £j-*a* the time when. . or w^w. as it were. where the sun sets. . £Ae place where animals are slaughtered. f*j±-i. 0. 1. slaughterhouse or shambles. 5. imperf. The Noun. Q 9 0. £j><ai . the west.> to go ftflM imperf. kesra. These nouns are called OjJsJt because 2irae is p^cice are. assembly. #0 out. room. where the sun rises. imperf. Rem. J^J slain. Oj^ of division. where a plant grows. where one dwells. the crown of the head. b. J**&* the place JO. of prostration in prayer. A. 9*jj*~6 and J^ jco. imperf. and J^. from juaS aim make for. 10. to aimed at or made for.* £fa place where.o-» u-^Xa*. & Adj.6 . J^. il+~*\. —Nomina Loci. imperf. though derived from verbs in which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma. 125 J . viz. from Jyj is imperf. ' . from v~^ ' to sit. (camels). in particular. 4. J~a3u. the east. 0. a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and in. L £)S mA 6. take. a from ^Sb J 1 to write. fcut 9 mo . v~^*~i at. or-* p 7. Nouns Subst. . or to A place where. 9 .

2J3fib (3X3DV DipD 222. jjLo. ct first syllable is o/* variable in cjd. as a < general rule. also makes B « a> o or . languages. (dij?b). it'* J^sw-c.•g. M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0). 7. promise. MntfA worn (by a woman) O'O * \J^*a* a book. cjd». rem.s ^>N?a>. nomina verbi or infinitives whilst loci. are >j0sO0sO0s<i0s2.and _. ji* i«*. Nouns and place.o. w>^>-«. and 12. %* * * Thus 0*0* ( ^Ja^. are of nomina temporis or Rem. . 5. a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment next the skin. This class nouns exists in the other Semitic D In Hebrew. a small room or 0. (§§ Imperfect of the verb even though it be rejected in the 142. ^Jla^o. and have invariably kesra in the to second syllable.o . . >ji S*^ the time or place of a promise or to from ***j appointment. fixed time or place. ij^o watering-place.o and closet. go down (to draw water). 12. be pronounced with some grammarians to all by may J ». nos. which has /Ma in the imperf.«. * —Etymology nostril.«*->«o jjtcu*. J 0303 jtL jri> U. ^L».a>. meeting or assembling..g. Q Rem.». takes fetha in the second syllable. and vj^kuo a ro&e ornamental borders. a pfoce o/* collecting. jt?2oce hiding or concealment. E. cases the c. imperf. fetha. 144). license is extended 0* Instead of j£*J*a some say to collect.03 See § 228.o. and the same the rest. 0' et loci from the . [§ 222 the A 11. 9.126 Part Second. J-**. a copy of the Kor'an. The vowel of the cjoL. which. o?. as m&fc.. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many -• nomina temp.0^^0.. ^^mje.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose. retain the first radical. from >)$ . The verb * «. or the Parts of Speech. formed from verba primse ^ et {J. 11. imperf. wJj-^U. where a sacrifice is offered during a religious Of these.. J..o... and even jj)-* also »o. .&».<». the vowel of the first syllable has frequently been weakened into . rata of time (U^>> rad.

s (t or t ^). Subst. ^j-—x© or ^JL~«. Nouns where anything %*eu . ^ ^ undergo Imperfect of the verb that is to say. from j-~> Ox . J-Xo or JtC*. . J***o or Jl©*o. place. J-Jb J <»x (Ja). x x r. imperf. J-»->*et 223.**** jjueu* should. for they always take fttha in the second syllable. (vJ^a*-©) and ' wily-© (w-w^-o). according to § 221. £0 ^ x -x x x x mwrf. as w>U. j>lL* Jx J (»£•) 6 \ OJ d x from jAS x to stand. but Cx-j^o or Oxmany0L-0 9 9 ^ ^ 9 x take in preference the form with x x as x 9 x • « x . wjI^j (w**yj) J-X© (J***) place of resting at mid-day. from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day. Those formed from verba mediae rad. imperf. D w^t. imperf. from J^j to be afraid. . strictly speaking. sta'c& mi- J^>j J>»-$-« J a slough or quagmire.. %^^ to 127 -A- f-03-0 the place is put. j-~u 3 x * Here the . 9' x x «xx«x <* x x <I x .§224] II. syllable.» a jofec^ £to X X X X XX dreaded. X S C x x Rem. to place. ^^uak^o or ^^law. as *«^>o. ^ et ^ violate the rule laid down in § 221. JXXJXOX ' <*JU^> (»J^fcj).» to x dive.^. <ix § 208. xxP The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with jU*o. imperf. return (from w>t for a in the second Oxx etc.*--wo « or cL*. J»»>> J j-~~« a game at hazard. after the second radical has taken fetha or (§ 150) kesra. a place. and the ^ or changes analogous to those suffered . imperf. u°^H is t (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© x x xx . from is put down. x x >< u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place. imperf. JU. imperf. ^xxxx S. E. J^. or ^iUto. — Nomina Loci.). "("'' r. £0 fear. \ J^U 224. #0 jpfay a£ hazard. imperf. A. have the same form as the nomina loci et temp. x x . . and w>U f ^ / 7 '" to fear. cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) verba med.g. dreaded. x # >j*4 (j*3*i) J x place of standing. J-JU or JliU. some examples with fetha in the second syllable. from J^-j x . The Noun. s from 9 ^oU x . this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless is changed into the homogeneous letter first radical. from ^JU. a .3-0 a place that . & Adj. by the ^ J x x Gx a x of prolongation . but the grammarians give B Rem. C J J 2 x . imperf. . See Those formed from verba tertise rad.

^j-> stops. 9 The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations. imperf. a desert. jai^) place of refuge. Some nouns have even three £ D x forms fixxOx j . . In regard to their contraction. aJj-U a halting-place. jSOx as ^j**~* from tj^^. business .128 Part Second. from . SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x SjUU (Sj^U) a cave . imperf. imperf. . tejjL* watering-place. SbjJi* place for drinking. from ^j. imperf. the second rad. SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. Ox . iJJ/a*-! xx Ox ? x i£j~~« from tj^"*. UJ xx ' ' to to Ox 9 xO x escape. ^^4*. imperf. 225. Ax ^>tu j^yJU (^U) a bend. L5 »~U J xOxSxOxOxOx (^aw-u. from ^j #0 bend. o/* occupation. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. xx j they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs (§ 213). a station. 4£j-£*o the C.jJ» to think. from £Ox . imperf. W <5 x x Rem. . • ££1^ a jofoctf jo/ac^ w&?r# a ^ 2 w^r^ Peculiar X is •£*»* Z Jx o « M0 w supposed to be..g.*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form. the edge. imperf. of time x and place not unfrequently take the feminine * x x x C form 5— jpfoctf as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ cattle. sits in the sunshine. x . x Nouns «xx . i^j^ (^3^*) * O . « ^jW ^$3^ Ox 5 x x (^jJx*) a fold. >a^» ^j** x (l/>j+) pasture-ground. O^i9 x x Rem. xO x (l£3~c ) the place do. [§ 225 A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. where one from ^£^\ from ^^j to to stop. ban- queting-room. w^r# tifo x Ox are watered . imperf. as S/*&© cemetery. : though xx x SxxOx SxxOx For example ilxi^o is the normal form. *t> * pasture or graze.. #o or wsort xx a place. ZujJx* the part of a sword with Sx x wfo'cA blow is struck. frequently has in this case damma SxxOx j j fix x x instead of fMa «xx ? . as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or people perish. «: B l£^* to fold. xx The . suppose. E. x . etc. imperf. to \^y^ ^>t» t.. If derived from a strong verb. from xx x . as i^k*** hunger. tJ^'—J.

3 x of prayer (^j^a to pray) ./?rs£ x J 0^ 0/ Ata month x 0/0 3 J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# xxOx *•* W00W appeared) to roll) . ft? 60 collected) .a5wu*« but j x in iEthiopic it is the usual form from x all verbs. The Noun. Nouns Subst. 5 x J 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ = <^jjj^j or aj^J ^juU £Ae e.g. ^5 — Op ©t.§227] II. me'rdb = w^Jt*.g. to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning fjfo fa'wztf x x J^»jco. or x x 0* w^w. o x o B Rem. of time and place from the derived forms of quadriliteral. 3 X X Rem. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested # > : w. rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon ^ morning or evening) . £~Xo.g.«**»© jJ^cuo from the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral . A OssO s O /t/ or SU^o (AjjJj*) J Ox 8/ *»•*»* «x J J x . Sjjio. ibu* appointed time x [or jt?Zace] x for xx fulfilment of a promise.\ gathered together in a crowd). from jJj to foar. g Ox x Oj #0 ewtf) . f& x . Sjjut* «//f £x xOx AjjU. O x as mesrdk = £j***. —Nomina Loci. A^JJa^.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# OxOxOJ ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are to be ro//s anything (j»j^> x x Ox crowded together (^s*Jja. g ^a ^ . &c*Lo . from jccj to 'promise. <So Adj. JujJL* X X From ii// very rare. as Ji^A* or . take the form Jbu-« of time xx x x Some nouns from verba primae Ox E. rad. OxxOj a place where things are or ^'?W0 J ( t" ° J t collected (**!». J ^^ a place C ^j— **. S^Aa^o. 226. ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D xxO o/* 5xx £0 flMtff) J meeting J J (^^SJJI J^*»-« . with the nomina patientis or passive participles. x x Og or evening (»<«). [or jt?foc0 for the Oliu« appointed time to performance of some action]. from C-sS^ the strong verb this form is fix a time. derived (see § 228). y^»~o *t#w of the foWA. place.jA. -f. 17 . . ^4 x QxOJ 2 . triliteral or from the are identical in form E. 129 5 5 x x 0$2// i«Jt«. \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" xxxO returning (^j^-cut x x x ^~ to return) . in preference to Sju»a»-o. ft-j*~* the place through which. the The nouns verb. The same form is also used as a . **->« OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox. A. x £ mer'ay = i^j<*> 227. 3 et and 0x0 ^.

J. jyU. OxO 5x6 • * * > 0. . *-«**. >3j*. ' * 3^0. Jb»U»JU x pressing heavily on.aj juj 5x J '. — 6*s*»<i*J . a cupping-glass. w/}UJt — OJxxOxOxJ . a needle . . x x and <Uy»«. a 6We?/0 or halter. . . x x j Ox x J 4-J3J J3U* fighting . u°\r**. wdJU* turning or x x J fl'x and fro = wJLaJ. and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced. the 228. aL**«.0 0x0 0x0 or snare. JUa*. mronging iz x© x Jw«U*J . » 3 x J.»£xJ0x»x .0 »-/*»-« 3xx6 SL>jX». a staircase or ladder . xO XX r.0 to xxOjo. Ox x and aJUa*. j-oj. Co and a Oxft <5'Jx a broom. a strainer . nomina instrumenti. hj*** and 6x0 y\j£~4. a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****. a******. a small > O x Ox 2?rofo for applying OxxO 3ju-flu«. E. 3>2U. a jwwr 0/ scissors. J^aa and . B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate Instrument. in s*1*> . to file . God is (our) complaint of this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance.Jt. [§ 228 A letting (camels) graze in the interval Ox 05 x J in pieces JtJj-oJ > Jjj*-e the rending # of their being watered . When derived 6+ from verba med.a. ^J*y* ^ guarding £/ie tfAe carefully = or JUS x or aDIa* jU* ajIoJ . rad.>uu Oxx (for . They have the forms Jaa*. D packing-needle . X a w^tf kohl to the eyes kch^. are called in Arabic y !i/> xO 2iy\ *lo~>t. a branding-iron or cautery. a branding-iron (from ^^3) xxx 0x0 \ x x 0)3) flJ* an(i **AHi o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 0x0 0x0 & fan.>mJU).130 Part Second. from >jj. making a raid foray — SjUt tossing to w^lcc* affliction £x x — wJJUU. xxx a t a ^0. a comb. X XXX X . —Etymology = Ox or the Parts of Speech. lancet. a key. .g. XXX Ptw of « x x a lancet. aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot xx x Ox 5 xx xx2 (from jjI) S^JL*. e. St^x*. Sl5^» (for £*$>*). a scissors 9^slc or *-ua*.- The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses i performing the act expressed by a verb. . 6x0 they remain uncontracted.oJL. j et xx x ^. t from . A a». .» xO make a i clashing or ringing to sound = *» aJLcJLo J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI . xO #0 cut .

from^oj^ jbjj^e to served. a madman. The Noun. oi 229. i. to be found. verbal in C adjectives. A .Q. 131 9 J J Rem. a censer.j. mm*** = hA ^ . Jj juo = J> jco. an instrument for introducing medicine a jMrtfe or into tlie nose . e. 6. to be mad. from^oj^. derived from the 9 J s first form of the triliteral verb. a. *->y&* written. (£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. nomina patientis. substantives. a sword. existing. as well as _. Jmo^o. < * * to be possessed. Wo?e on. from &*. D ' ' ' j**{±> serving. and J^ai^JI l\+~*\. The form JjJU also used. a judge. ^Jl^ 9 J writing. and the nomen patientis. ^>5l^ being. *o*> * . from 9 * ^Jgr to write. JijJ^c 5 J J 9. > Jyduo. to " ^jj^~c mad. A. are X ?<4 ~ s £ agentis. a master. Dnpk&. Rem. 9 s The verbal adjectives. ^Tfc. • >5+y* found. 230. w-Jfcj a. * from w*l£> . E. ^Aft to know. namely.e. 5 J from *x». {J^c to touch). B mats. judging. the nomen agentis.§230] II. as in other languages. 9 i A J very few have the form 9<0 J Jju^ # or Jju^ as Jji~U.. j^\+. a to serve. 9 ' J*l3. nomina The nouns which the Arab Grammarians J call J^UJI i^\.o. . iTTftb. from^x»\ judge . in the syllable.g. a servant. O^ 9 J s s 9 J * t° be .».— Verbal 4/0J 9J J .0 9 <!> = J>**j « spindle. Rem. Nouns Subst & Adj. a scribe or secretary.J*s (as to fear. a sieve . Wl». These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic. indicating nomina agentis are not only a temporary. letter. these real participles. > %* =j. * * Rem.a». have two principal forms..g. and nearly correspond nature and signification to what we call participles. adjectives derived from verbs. is raato . When yj>j formed from to ^Jjji and the transitive . The corresponding Hebrew nouns have first — and — . + J from exist . Adj.

g. the nomen actionis is sometimes used the nomen agentis and patientis. ^>j»o = 3j.] X bountiful. Ox J X Z^yo ft a3j jucu* = x &/in<? . Thus ^ x »-jli > or < J^W liberal.**. as in the phrase W>15^$. and J>*o narrow. o^Jo^-o = back. opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>. e.oj O J to ft 2ro£ x Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw. § ^^)J^>.). O x [Comp. ^j\£z. Ox . is 3 .. proft J x ft J mising. Imrdiness. or a x permanent quality Ox (see above). a hax Ox bitual state of being. 6e£?i<7 cowardly. ft Ox x J jco. being glad. La^j a^>'. >tj^. [§ 230 A transitory or accidental action or state of being. however is 232. as te^Xa—*. ^ ij-v-a*-* = x effort. 5. x J 3x ft swearing. as ili^la^o. O J ft x 00 x understanding. T' | Jt/ jy** =j*-i f l< affluence.or J x ft x Oxx gladsome. # ^^Ad**© = ^aAa. and tfAe telling of the truth. ft p^j* = *ij. or as an adjective.» ft >y>s»~c> x e* 0*i)^. GO JOj UU^ . . l\jyt£*. j£s\». Sx x x SJJ easity (do. but also serve as adjectives or substantives. generous.. J ft x fo £ro2 x j) *.132 Part Second. 6. %^-JbU X X J X an ascetic. < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' . jl^*.. rem. are participles the adjectives which indicate x the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ Ox and JJa. X a XX scholar. 6em<7 Jplo being narrow or confined. distress . 4^iU^ aIo-^.xx JJ in place of the x x ft nomen verbi or actionis. Sj 00 y J J J / x . sturdiness. ^jU*. The nomen agentis J^U X said to be used occasionally 2 .g. =j-*»£. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. one's utmost . rem. labour. Ox J 4)^xio ft likeft x wise occasionally so used. jul&» . ->Jftx£ E. =j*£>. J a x x * intelligence .g..) Jjju^. g OJftxSftx quickly (of a camel) fo c^-o^c ^ = #o gently (do. 5 #x x B rejoicing. < «jOx is J o<n?2# ^?^ existence. j^xm . Conversely. 5/ J ft The Ox fern. x ft c. / came to /wm riding hard. the adjectival being expressed by one or other 5 x of the x nominal forms enumerated in x § 231. endurance. ^X J ft tJ. C for ULS j£ but this more frequently the case with the nomen . But if from the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii. . cheery. 5 Ml Oxx cowardly. a promise penury. they have only the participial . perception J 1 x b^Zyc = J J£-$.. sense. ^Jjla.). knowledge. j£\sX Ox . ^ opposed to jy»ju* . an oath . being got or acquired .> ft x J ft x Oft x patientis (compare § 227. expressing a continuous action. j^>^. = Lct-btj. instead of x form I^jjm^. Rem. X ^X ft <*X J ft X also a cognate Rem.. giving or sending 9 J rejection = Jjyi** JJU . J ft E.

= \jj~aa Jj^ J*». Jfe J*i J*5 p 10. that he could not or escape). c). the Heb. J jcc . 16. ^Jb. = i>0 j <i&l Ji^JLaLo. a jwstf maw. or assimilated the in respect of their inflection. they are * B of God. from the j 7^p = J*^ (see § 232. J^** J y Ja* J*3 15. =jj\e. 231. Adj. and partly. 5.j. just men. JU. eye to eye). a o for a). a just woman. rem. 14. lip = ly$liLo . Jj*. Olio C par- *0*o* J^xa^JIj. . o^** Jjl5t 8. 3. Sl^t. confined or . 12. Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs. (lit. Rem. express. a quality inherent and permanent in a person or . 11. J** 9. = UjU^. JU5 JU3 J**i 2.— Verbal to lip).§ 232] II. = J^U. and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* to. 7 . 7fth (with in either of The form Jj*a* does not occur these languages. held. viz. made like.j. Besides these. A. j~o*$\ 4&t j b w^o dirham struck by the creatures (lit. 4. Nouns Subst. Of these the following are the principal. I slew cold blood bound. =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo the creation) . there are other verbal adjectives derived first form of the verb. The Noun. Jcli is the Aram. 1. 133 / spoke to him face to to face (lit. so \j~o aZX3. & Adj. 232. Jjjtft jj£ £U. 13. J^ j ^ ©x D J*s Jj* * »» ^L*3 6. the emir. using instead of 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the Aram. adjectives which are ticiples. UUt aLa). 7. ^oAo. 7ftp ^-&A it and Heb. a water winch sinks into the ground. 4J3U. J^i. A I met him face him in resist face (lit.

x x from (^:>j x oi». ^ #n'^> x from U&>*-> 15*"* ?>) (for ^. betray.^ov* strong. from t>~». untaught. cautious. acute. jx jj£. JJ*a- >wt. X XX abandon. J* .. Jo*g. X x J x awake. £*•** fr° om from 3U. i^h^. 5 x x 5 xx JJsu brave. from j£w x.j . from cfoW#. § x J x OxOJx ^h^v. crushing. young. from from j-wt »-ji. j*U from proud. from <>£*• 50 j^J* c/Ieaw. 5x Ja. harsh. from xxx ^o-***-. . —and. difficult. S x xjx j*xS. from ^^x*. J^c. from j-o£ 5x J # w^«*. *». bruising. jJJ. g^'c£. B self-conceited and insolent. x J x from ^Aax 9-3 do. P^-^ Jmw. x ^ C from Cl^ intelligent. iaij XX G ./w^. rugged. S . is their signification (see § 38). from o J^ ' -> * . c^rse. oJ X X remaining in one place. 10. from j*o . from **J.J. sw<?0£. X x 0^3 x j Jiij. # 6 and 7. clever. x L5^) X . J*** treacherous. Examples 6' : 1 . clever. xx 5xJ O^** «^^. abundant.breaking. jtwr^. from ^^a-j « . ' J fromj^. xx J^& . JJ^-. yA« from vJ^-j easy. from J*»^ ^»U«o /ar^. liberal.*. m* teto. jl£ rough. 8. 5 xJx ^»V^» J ^>/ww/. ma//. ^ xj x vJ^* tender. « ft fargg. xx x from /^*OxJ xJ Dy^>. *xJ xx O^Jg^x >!>». x J x from 5 J JJj. J***-* J****. x J . 0-k*> L>k*> x x J x x <i Jx 0^3.» jJJ unclean. —which x . 00' ^»a*-o Zar^. 5 x x x . from # * { ** t J*aj. and jJau . JAJ». jJJ> from jjc5 xjx 0© 5. /<#. having his foot or ^oo/ chafed. 5 Jj^. m »xjx5xx J^ ' > ^*» . —Etymology most usual x J x or the Parts of Speech. 4. fidious. from x^x ^f8W» "* cowardly. 5 |a. #M. (for ^>o-.) perishing. timid. from o^e- xx liberal. from x . x ^ x . x J x .»-3 m pain.134 Part Second. from JJu* . v»v^. from j**£ to forsake. . j-«4>. y> J J bitter. laA£. having a swollen stomach. * from ^ov^. ^j from » t^Jj. x . 9-ji. w>*xc sweet. from Jx*a- . from . 9 - OW xjx Oxx xJxOxx 5 O-^J knowing. ^m. 3 and xxxx©£ox . from f 5x3 . J 5x ^Jmo J ^arc?. Jxjo. from ^A. ' 5 -» from x OJ"**> x 0>^> . from ^ju. polluted. *. J J from yXc jA*. X J . Oxx . J^b to 60 tender. [§ 232 A thing. ^>*^ rough. sorry. J x J x from J**. partly. . x degree of intensity. hardy. j-**> x J x inexperienced. intelligent. j-**. x x «5 wary. 0*x x x .. from o * ^JJsu o * ^>%%»ft- handsome. from J^-w . a certain xjx from^o^-^ from 2. ^Ja». from .

*iwt unseemly. slender. from xx j£w <jW-«£ angry. . burn. xJxOx u5^w ^j^ x J x . from 0^*^ repentant. ugly. ^//. daring. w-o&fe.. from ^ji. Nouns Subst. [Jja* r^ad^ from x x x . from x . from J^». £ JxOx 0^>**> from *. Jj>b 'l^ sa/0. humpbacked. drunk. J^Sj ma//. from ^**S. xx jj. from Jja. xxxJxJx»f ^A^l white.w Jx9x ^jUJac. j . x J The Noun. Vmoc XX . from ^w . from ^3* . . . straight nose. 135 x o O xJ j ^ot^£» ^06/0.jl~». stupid.— Verbal Adj. from Jib [jtj^5 O . x J x stingy. Ox from ^£» Us>fe* weak. from j>j£a & Adj. xJxOx to//.t foolish. . from Ja«j . . from JaJU compassionate. open.to 11. A. J^»t . s/c&.> ^ talkative [or to speak]. Ox Jty» /^r. dnwA. « «»*. Jj^. to /ymgr. coarse. from JUa*.» . J-J^. niggardly. from £i£ . J*aj tev#. cheerful in countenance. J ''&'' from Jv^ X jj-**. " <7ras£. foul. C JJ 3^*. LsS\ having JxOfi D clear space between the eyebrows. from X tf X o!/^ xxOxJ^-POx 13. J«o*j xJ x . from p ' «jJ6 razefo/ Z OJx gluttonous. foolish.^ot ^«/. stupid. numerous. . Jj*-' unskilful. from JiJ from JU» . x . thrusting or kicking violently.. from ^o-o xjx J/}{ ^ J**. from ^ J^t xxx . . »«J^kc j$~*a*.t squinting. oWj* waW. from ^oXw ogriT?. t/o. J x . 12. from cU. hungry. ignorant. from J 13 . ^iil having a long chin djii) . from ^o*^ m' . i^il 6/ac&. from affection or t mov^c? % j»%. glorious. *^aj^ W06/0. from J«*. from ca*»j-«> j**** t Jhf * X 1 light. » maft^. O^-*^.. from (j^ oW>»» ashamed. 16.. r. *>' . xxQx ^^^ ' * isuXi M/c#. . from jJS^ x-> x . j^ct one-eyed.» . .. thirsty. satisfied with food. impotent. Olji A sweet (of water). from C^i x x .. Jn>*- . from Jju© Jj>3 to «i. . w>jJ^» addicted Ojx olx or Jj>3. jl^-t ?W. x J x x x from to Jfj». * I x x £ paltry. 15. ^->i-». ^iw B ^ O \ ^^uj*. «£^£ <jUlw •77. from uU . W2£A a n xxJxOx . ^j*^ ?m^A. from j-~». . j^^oJi 0^^> .. merciful. from Jo. clumsy. /•/> "* XXXX . from x x UUc 5 5 XXXOJX x X . from px a^ fow^.232] J II. handsome. from x J x .s&/£ (of water). t from J^. . J*^] / 5 ^» ?5** pushing.>». . Jjjlo veracious.. from « h-i». «*^Jbl having w>»*»*' a slender waist. X X . bright. XX j-a»-. J|>». XX0X .continent. from <>~». ^>bj satisfied OxO„ 14. ^\ yellow. fifomjjJ x erf]. from w>ju». I XJ from *Jj # 5 x ^^1 having a high. <J!>».

tJt*&j. often indicate. ~D. but more especially the latter. As is . ^tfuola. the forms . from ^^1 . and so also in substantives.. and Jjti. ^>ct *a/e. j when derived from a passive sense as Ox Ox J^3 afoin = J>&* J OJ&xOx . j x Jx sometimes from Jjii.. Rem. C a victim. j*j£=>. or an act which is done with frequency or violence xxxJft. if 5 1 • 1_« The form Ox called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\. sowr. =^U.» ft s . x or ^>*l. Ox o?. j Sxx x J x x xx J x f£ JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans. J4^ O Ox rubbed with kohl— r> > «-^j Jc* J ^. Latin nuntius. X ft X XX . as shown by some of the above examples. c. ^Jjji xJ x x . 9 or the Parts of Speech. J**$. Jx Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas. [§ 232 x A and a. as w>>&) ridden upon. e. The same J x is sometimes the case with Jy*i. f-lj**' 6 x wounded . = x . f*+£> slaughtered. as j^j..»-jja»a . Rem. trpmjJLa j. milked*. it meaning message. Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji JUi and 6J/ ^J** come is respectively from Jjid intrans. as j-aw. ftx * J x [0y*J does not belong to this class . according to the native scholars. OOOO s }m. = ^j^\ 5. jux»>. sound.SU barren.*>Jxft£ v V -pv 1 by their subject. X «o/e. secure.» not always observed ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. J j*ij^ '. has usually J ft x . —^L^t. is B rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s ~ i o o intrans. a prisoner. shown by the above examples. rem. J^li jx x £ x £ x Ox x x . though the distinction J .g. and hence they are forms. w>^l». acid. ". j->«->. transitive verbs.] . a) .136 Part Second. intensive J-jai is dialectically pronounced the second radical be a guttural. especially jit**-). .. as in the case of nomen actionis like jfjls. it is originally a Hence. or Jjti (see § 230. x from ^apr* or X Rem. either a very high degree of the quality which their subject possesses. J-jA».^L». from O^ifr . j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ Ojlx I Jjj^fc »„ £ J ^o >**»>t bound. G.— Etymology Rem. got the signification of bearer of a message.

. common than JUi. j^=> very forye. the J noun of intensiveness. J^as. Jj*i.— Verbal Adj. JU~» importunate. learned. 0C3j^>wix Jj*i or J^si.§233] II. which approaches very nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***. wry handsome. e. J*i. gULw a water-carrier. WX wry learned. and 5. 0*<i2x 6 ft x . ^-jU fearing. repelling. jla»J . JU3. some From is verbal adjectives of the form J^ti.& baker. For of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. 5 x x i 5 o#x x Ix-Lsi. J£*\ Jl^t J a • glutton. architect. J5L> asking. f1^6. E. = Jj3~» O Ox w^^* drinking. = J>^t P wot^ . drunken. xx x Ji/O jo t Of Hence eating. cli^ pushing. • 1. a tailor. 18 . derived an adjective Jl*s. . it is o a e- called ixJUoJt ^o-^l. s^+jjJZt. |loj. ijx adjectives. Rem.i)b weeping. w>t J x Wx # = ejij pushing. JjiS. i/ 5 x x ^ w*tj^> drinking much. • as ^H?| (6 for a). a beggar. as TBDK. The Noun. «t. J 0t3j ^L%»a-. fi J 113*3. T9*. « * *ib • _•**• a (habitual) liar.g. w. j»\j£z very noble. J>*b. T T ' r. etc. as £H)"| = w> j^. in Hebrew and Aram. cli. J*s. addicted wine. cSj ij one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings). A. as well as from 5x others. J^JLo gwrcy astray. ot^o a money-changer or o 2 x banker. .. a 2 x gardener. a porter. D Ax 6. a carpenter. * a great rush to (of water or of people) wl . 191 Rem. s y^Ua*. violently. Other intensive H 3. J***. 137 Hem. x 233. 5 x »x3 x jU». T • WJW.> l\j$ 1. KOfi.U» « coo&. i3 Jjii. addicted to wine. Compare etc. as ^^=^3. #* x C x v&^U.j • . a. as * J*. T 7 TDK. ^y*Mj a xi5/ seller of sheeps' heads. Nouns Subst. S3D. thrusting. |Uj a builder or JU^. # < . since it adds to the signification B of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit. jflt^j j*£~». x 0xx O x x example. l\& weeping much. a strong propeller or 0UI0U^0UJ repeller. J^ 5 x x . k5/ - J x wJjj-w . . The nouns which indicate Sflx j professions and trades have fix w x usually this form ut as jllxt & druggist. . as |£7Tj = Many A Jr>>. = w>jJ^ lying. 2. ^^ knowing. B0J 9 J are as x JUs. & Adj. 2. less j J 4. in the former.

5 BJ j 6 i3x A* 5 • i2/ ^o^aS everlasting.^1-U. . but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing something like a machine. brave warrior. w^$. J^jco esc- ceedingly veracious. .138 Part Second. and actionis. T> . w^UJLj. deceitful.. which are abstract substantives (nomina § 6x0x5x0 202) d used concretely.] . mendacious. given play or sport. a —On yia. spy. J^UJj fickle. pitable. D. 4. J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money). too.j*»j~>lft. imn</ perfumes. except J>jj-©) . or tj*>jjJ» raos* ° 'i 7w%. eating much or giving to eat.>LU stinking.t. X X # 6x06x0 much ^jl*la^. Jj*. u^tj^ fond of opposition. all-glorious. 6x0 6xx0 6x0x the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj. docile. 6 turning.k'go. 3. **x X ^UJU X bearing female 6x0 "» children. x uJ e." E. *->*-* or 9-$+»> all(i jtmre. 6x0 advancing > 5x0 > 6x0 %\£sj** bearing liberal. and therefore invariably 0x0 6x0 (habitually). is Similar. . poor (JSD&.Ro. to ^SL^ — Jbuu. 6x06x0 ^l*^. w^a^o.>&ljJU X X 6x0 •JLXo XX 6x0 p-\j*A cheerful. swallowing big morsels. w>La*-o. very talkative. 228). strictly speaking. 6 *»x0 6x060 jUCo. ^\jJs3 covered by the X 5 6 __ i«( XXX stallion (of a she-camel). tractable. are. Jijji timid.. flkn* very X Ak. a wrestler . daring. slothful. ' jtJk-*> X X talking hos- nonsense. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9+*JA pushing _ t 6x0 or pressing much. ^ » ^ffiV>\*. J .g. 6x0 6 jtuU?. 0x0 talkative. SJ^Ju 9 Oj 9 J 3 J [To this class belongs also t>£«U. &UA3. x timid. w>UAj. ^aJxo. ft pUJJ 6xx0 talking much and foolishly. *»>j-o one often or violently. ' X D ji. substantives Jjii^. 6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx the only instance of the form ^J-ofci. greedy. 6x0 thrusting with the spear. j*J*a* a X 6x0 t 6x0 * 6x0 ^. ° ~ S 1 -D shifting. Jxj-b* very liberal. w>tj£3 fi 6x0 loquacious. Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£. cunning. w>UJ3. G. j*a*i wl g boastful..v. >#&*.g. 6 uj —Etymology S ill or the Parts of Speech. and A^jUl*. do. # 6x0 ^jUJc* boldly. mechanically. . J knowing. XX 6x0 JJ>**. who throws down 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>. 6 «3 mean. Jt^iL©. OxO 6x0 Jjjjti the other hand. 5. ^jjJi . ^oUJJ. 6x0 jJ^o. o ui [§ ui 233 A o wandering . JUi-o. eloquent. § (nomina instrumenti. B^Xsu very learned. x male children.c.

0x0 Ox x Ox x & from JbuLo. dijjls x x timid. from JUi. idea jlj to signify intensiveness. 4JUiJ loquacious. as <l$jj^. <L5lrk treacherous. <UAb j cb calling or summoning. from J>«i. iLJLt. B & v o?eep investigator (compare in as iL+ia». The Noun.>laJU very unjust. t*" J 2" J Z' ' * f <U>y3 given to sleep. bold in attacking. *3j>*> timid. AtlSj ill-natured. from J^li comes as one d who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition. X x f *•«• x x © aJUaj. dj^A. disgusted with. AtlJU talking |f * o x «i much and rashly or foolishly . very contrarious . ^U^li. For example. from o ij-oii. Aft. xx as /JW the grammarians say. a^Ua. " « j x sx j x 5"f t" Jt Si m iLai. of intensiveness. from ^j-jai. <Lc\j^ very generous 9 ul Sj or noble. no&£e.— Verbal Adj. Heb. 2x AiJL^JJ. *' '* Ziy* asking often. "C 4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him). from JUaj. as io*^ very learned. to strengthen the aJlfrli. faithless . sillily. as . > 0/* comprehension. . crafty. greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs. 4L05J abusive. SjjJl£» lying. 139 Rem. ^ul^i 5/ 5x very # ?. <Ujti. aJj**. from Jj**. dJt^i excellent player o x i7ery talkative. Nouns Subst. as 4jUAj addicted 5/ x play or spor^.ti Adj. 9x x & x x x SjtJ^ X § talking to much and 9x x . £xa». an emissary or missionary. which // /il here used. crushing ' bits. begging. dJyi loquacious.§233] II. &>**. as dijji very or cautious. dJU»j a x 5x x x o x £x <?rea£ traveller. S3 J axXjo always on the watch. or AiJL^JI ju^UJ. fl Ox 5 x slanderous. <u^o throwing down 2z> " * . <ul~J a great genealogist. .3G Aaib clever. a </rea£ collector. as very timid . c. excellent. <Ltb Sj. Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing x down very often. of Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the is termination £_.o prone to laughter. from Jj^li. ioliU lowing big morsels. A. 9" 5^3 1*. dJbuU. 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel. as . as 5. . jx o 5x Sx j x Ox 1/ J/ 7 iUjXo ^reo 0/*. 2'* .Lo aw dJUi.mcA. ( C p S/ * & * g* 9* <»x a x 4JU5. breaking in pieces. ^i3^j) b crafty. $' > or prostrating often. as on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) w j from 0"3j a J 1x3. very wary D 2lc\jJLc very "° . as 44-Ja. H /Hp from Sip) to j from O x Jj«i. <Lo*ksu « x /{ szva^- very learned. <L*£ finding fault . ~x x u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x <tLx$.

glorious. * j^sXs- [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer. as derived from anything bitter..140 Part Second.-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ ft the greatest city. iTTO. tw of (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> for which may be viewed as an intensive Jsi (^ftp StSp. WlTl. J) S *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier. j xft£ t <>***• oeauti/ul. these adjectives x must always ft J ft/" J s sOs article. R. d these intensive adjectives Besides the forms incidentally noticed above. ^js-. which have the signification of our comparative and supercalled lative. joXl Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 (=L^»). t . 6. as . very mwA addicted to play or greedy. however (xii. 16 seq. the colocynth. from JUaj. 1. or else be in the construct state. Jytf. *])$$ ( =j-t&~>. In the Lisan. w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier '°» ox > sweetest. Rem.] it is differently explained. ugliest . Rem. have the In the superlative J JO/O X J sense. J^.>~ft-i more or mos£ beautiful. T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 B *Q-»A. radicals From and a verbal adjectives with three radicals*. much —Etymology to sportf. as f*W . [§ 234 A dUfjtXJ addicted play or sport) . others of occur in Hebrew and Aramaic. for the purer vowel example. S.great.\ more or mos£ glorious. 98. Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic. but with a in the first syllable (jjd). and are therefore J>»st. f ft Kg. J-j^a. are derived adjectives of the form Jjtft. as <uUA5 morsels. spec. 53. or with three letter of prolongation. 7t3p = J**)- 234. as *fjaa = jui. jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. . WO (coming nearest to J*jj3). according to 'Ibn Dureid. &. the J ' ftC J~*asu)\ ^ ~*\. Kitab U-istikak. ITs^ = Aram. and J**5. 142). the noun of preeminence.». sw<?0£. or the Parts of Speech. or 00 J»&*31 J form afalu denoting preeminence. •/*7 J * • #• «> 3JU-. aJUaj. as pHTl. 1. *UUJl3 talking a*UAj swallowing huge much and foolishly.

false (of a : A stream that dries up in summer).$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ os- (more quick as to departing) zs* i s d&parting more quickly. A.) (more excellent as t - to teaching and training) s *o j s o i a better teacher and trainer. after that. ' J si j£> worse. the strict rules laid (a) down by the grammarians 3 are constantly violated by usage. and the like. we ought to prefix to the corre& . ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK . where S^»5 jlw! a matter of fact. 9-*it is more deformed by blindness of one This form of expression sometimes employed where a simple . No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can. i i- i especially from IV. o s j s soi J s Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb. rem. If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the ties. s j s from j^y Sf * oi to cleanse or purify. < s o s J si- like stones. ul j *oi ^ «*~JM uglier. comparative might have been used i^s as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j J) ^ Zy~»s i si Oi j>Z>\ s s 0* * s s } jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ then. II. The Noun. or even harder ii. 141 Rem. Wj^» *** 3>»-t (more excellent than he as to answering) more ready than he in answering. qualities expressed oi by such adjectives. <Sc Adj.i go * sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger. * * j/ tc tj~»». from cro*e£. or giving better a answer than he . according to strict rule. however.— Verbal Adj.>**». j*£. \. —As stronger as to hardness). (for JJ^X) = t>^'j J an(^ even these have lost their adjectives. nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformibecause they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184. * : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\). of j^o to be clean or pure . better. b).§ 235] II. = ^j^SI (el-Kor'an 69). JJVX lasting. Of this Hebrew./zerce. (lit. perennial.g. Nouns Subst b. be formed B from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms of the verb. \j^c eye. your hearts became hard. t >£*>\ more £ <» excellent. J { ^**o\ . ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder. none in Aramaic. perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces. original signification. and are used as simple i Ovi lO 235. form there remain only a very few traces in Such are ^T^X lying.t it more beautiful. E. C Uj^Uj 1©-Axj .

noble. ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 0#s27y /^e?. # IV. to clarify or clear. IV.\ ' causing me greater alarm about. of j*^-** to be safe. IV. J ^*^t giving more freely. 'bZ away . sOZ x£ j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better. from ^^t ^^. J c~jI making more firm or x x j x a p sure. . IV. ^>»»'. of >13 to &a<#. D showing greater honour O to. of X X ft Jl»- xx«->xg£ wzorg t>* j$it (/?) XX Examples of more feared . b Z J C Jjist causing to last longer. J ttt ^yo\ causing to last longer. bZ or flabby . x J s L5"**"' preserving alive better. from ^Ut IV. from JU»-I. quickly.*"„' IV. ^s> ^Jb\ more -> merciful from ^o\. of >l». of jaI x0£ ^a ' ^^Jit /»( xxx to fo Z poorer than. of uuu to to£0 x ^ x £ x ftp Aa//. IV. J £yt> X jAdl more efer£ Maw.bz wAa to fear . n C 6i /. . of $±. Maw. fow^. from Ji»t to Jx 6 P IV. of to <jU go J wJbM making depart more B from wJb^t. of . jsbZ . £ bestowing more liberally. j^6 JJit giving more shade than. of x fi [§ 235 A making clear. x ^^U \J^\ j * oZ giving more help towards. IV. x IV. of wJbi relaxes.t causing to be better. * from £l»»t. from JU*t. respect. . ' bZ J U-aU-jI that of the two which x J x from ^*-j\. from ^^Jit * x jwor. II.to live grtiw s^acfe. stand xx „ x*£ upright . . 3 J^O preserving j o£ ^^o U*s to be x x x better. * * t J* 9 1 J *0t Jj*it formed from the passive voice ^5-^-t. VIII. or loosens. more. IV.>U3t. of **tt ^j^ J x to fo . from^-Lw. -. or ' Z <*JUJ. of C*o . from ' wi^. from . ^s. last x x p x x x ftp . IV. x . JU. excellent . from ^©j^l. x£ or IV. VII. be firm. of Uaft J ^Jjl J X xftg XX to bestow. of ^©13 *ot t to . . IV. middle. IV. xxx jj-o ^i-cut more just than. to 5 . .^*$±. from^UH. r^acA the j . J w*aI * inspiring more fear or j x as from w>Ut. from C-*Sl. s-*«At. to 60 crafty. of ^aj to remain. xx j x bZ to fear . of ^j J ^oj^l . to 60 good. of ^J* . IV. . x II. from i^a-cul to be just. from «-*»-).142 Part Second. of JJ» . of x © P m . from ^J^l IV. bZ to ' x bZ xOg . II. . from ja$\ x *'%* xxx to be desert. of to help. : or more docile. x x p x J >>». from j * or the Parts of Speech. Jib to fo xx IV. than. . of t*-**.j or x x x ^ x x to be flaccid to.— Etymology clearer or purer.

j*+o-\ 143 or formidable j . *£*t) j»<a*U shorter (from (y) J Examples of J*sl from words denoting J s O S- colours or defects o j |>* cA^' whiter than . B 236.^ Adj. j .ot j * l.§236] II. A.— Verbal Adj. literal verb. Nouns Subst. j more glad of or pleased by. O : (^^ * Of- or VIII. oi 1 wor^ i . J \*$j£>\ better A . are and from the quadri- the following. The Noun. o i . ^>o %y*\ blacker than . j * /»? to be oi oi jj&\ more excused. J^jl more readily found .i j-wt # known . of VIII. CJU . j *oi pied . s .). o ^^t ^t. &ztee? or hateful . s o i O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. j>^\ more deserving of blame . JjL£>I more occu. ^^jl prouder (^^j 'Oi *?> to be * 3 proud) . The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb. waor^ occupied with pass. more praiseworthy or commendable . .

— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.£j for^. jj^wt. J«>a* etc. *3J** 17 > &> rem. j * be- 237. admits of assimilaSee § tion. a 's. . a. and Aram.^Ethiopic seems have retained the original : vowel in its prefix B (DftH. I JjC for JtU G (§ 133). in which the second and third radicals have — instead of L. heretic (J3U»o) .CJ^ mafrI ) fruitful . In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse G J t^. b. the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed. sceptic. 6. I preceded by kesra becomes £$ 1 > as ^l* f° r ^l*- Rem. the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed .^. " TjTttD)j ( °11 Q.) . "nnfi)* Du * ^he _ (e. geminatse. j3yc for jfc (§ 131). ^0. >>t>o for j. b.. (JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9t. (see § 13. Rem. 2 J 2' G • OJ3J or Ojij for wijt. preceded by and w. fjfcgOTD* to .g. 239. CTO C0. as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or or Xl-**<£)>. o o j .144 Part Second. (manafek) tremble. [§ 237 A quadriliteral. ma. p G s- s G e- * D Rem. j&\ JJ-cn. G p • Hence we write jjf G ^ for jjtt (§ 135). rhC : mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) 0^ -> OD"|-(*"|ttyii (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ C In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae Hence rad.^) 5. rem. rad. the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be observed.P". as j~>y* for . >^U becomes >U 238. in ' Heb.jtU # » <J (§ 133). ftih)l iTOQiju^ (ma'ammez) oppressor OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» OTfQ/l*"J OD. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hemzata.(mar'ed) causing : ( to dreadful (JsjJ. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L. as S**rt = S^pHD. Final hemza.

% a. after letter . to say UjU UpL.] 19 . Jj>*>>v©j>>. ^L X Or-'' (q/* sight). Rem. in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU. for ^51U*. [A poet even allows himself Zeid. £~-«. for J^y. Js^o^y. for <J>j^a»-o. &j. and. D. G. j In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae et ^. as ». from 9>x+a. t ^x x . »"x c ^ clA 1 fa'raid or greedy. In the form Jyt* the medial ^ J x «|x «»lx «lx OJx c. in consequence. rad. x 5 x jjL* (for jtL>). j\& feeble. for <}"'<>' a51a . j. >t^t ^^j jl*> is P^j JW-> ^-*> ot£.j*s) oU> s/mrp (of a tooth). Nouns Subst. The form ^13 admits x in certain words of being conx tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. the In the nomina patientis of the form of verba media) its middle radical is elided. as cby. Rem. as^jU. Ox »»x i £ j0*» »-^ x Jj»«> J / olo for <suU. clb obedient. that (to indicate the elision of the radical x ^. usually changed into Jx J . 5. throwing back J x damma D J X upon the preceding vowelless J • X as ^J^i^c. for *5lb m X viU» ^oin^ afo^. with the ^) damma is changed into kesra.— Verbal Adj. x A ^ with hemza (arising. bristling with weapons . water-hearted. for oiMJs is ijib clayey. J X Rem. wi Sometimes the second radical C £ ->0X» /» X X X X X transposed . *. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in % + % * 160.^LJI (^5^^. the place of the middle radical is occupied by a § 133. forjjlfc. first 241. j->l~». place in verba mediae rad. which retain their middle radical unchanged. rad. from »J>3^&**. 145 240. 26 infra. cowardly. k. 9 * . for *5lw ^Li 5 #*x corroded or decayed £ . * <tl Qp It <0 for x D1p)> as "|t «^^ ^x for JLSlw. & Adj.§241] II The Noun. * see xJx xj»»x for XX (from j£*). the > Oxx j productions J« x into a t^ . x B rO J * * x wl J in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>. as instead of e>~». instead of JjlS. as JbLS (for JH-3). JuU?. stupid . Abu w. for 9 »xx Ox . Naw&dir. The same thing takes this difference. according to »- out of I).

O^jJ-o. in that of having charge of. as / ££**•«. e. [§ 242 A / JO The forms cij^J^o. 2/ captive. for *•**«.g. 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ ^^o a boy. § 170). an enemy. 5/ fotgrA* 6 / »•/ . D 244. ^w ^. of verba med. ^j. 6 / 242. become by transposition Jju*. JO/ JO* 6 J * 6 JO / more common. and Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated S j/ (§ 1 according to the same rules as the nomina patientis Si 70) . ** b^+a***. JI^^Co. C~>* 50/ 6 Ml/ 5 / // (*^ C^*. Rem. The nomina agentis et patientis of the 9 first (§ 6 form of verba 167. j+j. E. vo^s-o. ^*J j-« 60/ W 6ul/ OnJ/ . 6 «-/ J e. C and ^^3 243. The learner should observe that the participles are written and pronounced with and VI. p.). exceeding (±*jy). / 6 uJ The verb^elS has^>$£ / / in the sense of straight. ^LZo. 01 60/ Ji** (Jl*)j. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned Jy b. £)£iJ*c. of III. <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? * / and not t>5U«. / ultima? rad. 3 et ^ Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? follow the same rules as their Imperfects. Rem. for 33^. managing. contemptible (^jj^b). ^ and /// 6 / J 6 «» // J J *J J / on no account with hemza. 6 »"" J ^->U«. rad. Ixo^o. ULJ / 6/6ul/ or *-»<o. j jjz / 5 / 2" hostile. which 6 0/ or for is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. ^£j~t generous. and then pass into O wl y 6 »l / B J*3. —Etymology O J or the Parts of Speech. 60/ OW ^ / / / 6 */ (O^)j O** or 0**> easy. ^jk* a 6 J <• harlot. for oW. In 3 et . 035^*1 \jj 6 used dialectically. etc. From verba med. 245. g. all l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived «(/ from verba media? rad. clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good " / / / (j-wj£. ^ et ^£. right.146 Part Second. Ok*/ 6/60/ (jiy) ^i***. for O^**. noble. tall. still an(^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be the uncontracted forms are r. but 6 J / 6 J / 6/6 rare. [ J^ dependent for sustenance. / wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti.g. 6&ae?. O^ # o r 0**> 50 60/ 6/ 5 A 0/ easy.

The Denominative Nouns. with the O< *< article. /'a^.^i\ oZ I # ^wt is its use for a dish or dish of fish (el- portion of any food. j^jt b. 147 and ^ (which the second radical be pronounced with fetha. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t. They are formed. Noam Sabst. as (b) ^y* - for ^y*. A. !£+* a Mubarrad etc. the Individual. or nouns of individuality. 417. 4). head of cattle {bull or cow). Unit. and b. the tenwin is transferred to the second radical. . Gloss. SlLolj an onion. The Noun. ^^jlc for J . Add. /?. from j^j efotes . 4ul*». B (a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote 246. and assume the converted into ^) reject their vowel elif ^ A nature of the maksura (§ 7. * . If the form be one that admits of complete declension. the genus pigeon or the w/iole Jiu the C number of pigeons spoken of.— Norn. the or tenwin.* (jkwt). j^jXa-t for ^X*. the genus or whole. <7<?&// from J-oj #fo <5/-& Ox/* onion. or one part of a whole that consists of several similar parts. vicis (§ 219). 323. Sj+j a fruit. to created things or natural objects. from v»W». S>aj owe j-«j ifcu a duck or drake. b). D. Comp. This 5 is called Ufv «yfc rlt *U)t (Zamahsari. 2ub$ a bit of gold. from S^oJ /*• # /rm£ .0i J /Of e Oi oi ^pcjl for (3. as ^cj\ /Of J ^jt. a nugget.t). 129. as the above examples show. g. from ^>*j straw*. 0/ a date. a. v&U&J t. a pigeon {male or female). designate one individual out of a genus. fc+ji a portion of cheese. Fragm. § 167. from jJb cattle. unit. G. from ^Jki *L*3 a straw.] . 1.pigeons. Rem. ii. from Sxx G* * { duck . 173.! (jJUU). (>o. rem. A+jL a ) portion of meat. as ojj\ a dish of t Oss* rice. J s for ^kig. 331. According to this rule are formed (a) the nomina patientis : of the derived forms. like the analogous nomina by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express E. & Adj.§246] if is II. a. i. The use of the nom. a.0*> J D [A peculiar application of the oj^. for adjectives of the form J*»t. is almost entirely restricted. ^j&t Compare j^&t.

scorpions. fern. a. I They have the form x £ SlxLo. SjurU. is rare. with or without 3 x participle of the fourth form is °*£ J 05 J Ox as <LJx*. From quadriliterals this formation . Similar forms in Heb. >. from ^iw X shipping. x J Ox J abounding in lizards (y^). rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many Oxx x Rem. SLa^o or 3t^&**. 5U£*. 2uJut a ship or boat. /iares. cucumbers (ILLS). SffiU (a spot) Ox Ox J Ox x J D producing cucumbers. a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj. E. a - a place abounding in lions (ju»t).o jjyt children are a cause . scorpions 6. as dX^^c <U .. designate the place where the object signified by the noun from which they are formed. Oft ax*. Ox x Ox Oxx only a tropical application of Ox JxxOx their ordinary meaning .a. 0x0 X &U) or dUJ a brick. a mere variety of the nouns of place x x 2x Ox x x x x (§ 221). ^J XX or # Ox X x ^J bricks . aJbuwo. black beetles (Jju*. a fat! H Ox xO melons (4-Jxj). r» 4a*Jsu*. The SjJLxJt iU-^t. i B 247. Also from XII. [§ 247 e. 6. as JJuu^ x x x . Oxx x «" abundantly.g. boats. —Etymology Ox from or the Parts of Speech. Rem. *.. and are.g. iJj3^ . (a place) abounding in foxes. chamaileons x x J (^bj^). (w^ift). 7^^). c. a place where pomegranates C (o^j) 0WW0 Rem. jt?to? o/* 05x *» snakes (£*»).. A Examples 5/ X / of artificial or ^ manufactured objects are very rare. *JtJ*c.»». Sometimes the . 4-U^-«. Ox OP J ^jowo. Oxx « x is found in large numbers or quantities.148 Part Second. Rem. SUA*. consequently. are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- (/?) 7%# /t Nomina Abundantly x OiO vel Multitudinis. 3JU1». used in this sense.o (v"£)> foosfe J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx of prey (***). (a pfoce) ^joj\ . or nouns of abundance. Ox "' ° x J Similarly from quadriliterals. Ox > . The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the is cause of a certain state or feeling. O »l jJOfc x xOx 0?/4/ W|w» (^^1). Ajjijto.).

t/ie ^-ojt & vi earthly.. The nomina (§ vasis.».6. Nouns Sabst. joy or happiness. * * from ^-^w descended sun. from nomina instrument ft t B t>J m*7&. £.e.g. or simply oL~JI formed by adding the termination to the words and denote that a person or thing from which they are derived. ' trade. the Vessel which 248.§ 249] II. » + + from . (relationes). 0^0 SxJ 9 J^j wtfM . or w~jX». A & came ^J-a*. from Rem.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to and the (y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting contains anything.• a)>*-o a urinal. the mil instrument with which applied to the eye. 6/ J ft the plants from which alkali eye-salve S ( J*o) or or potash 5 ft is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or O • ft C J (Jjfc. J 0* J J 9 . e. ft rem.>. from Sjj! a needle. aSj^o a spittoon.. from d-U a brick.* * <.J. (8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative relative adjectives. #/^ a/r.«. it sect. O**-* ct milk-pail. .iT>). from w-A».*?ja*«o = 3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-. el- v5^» aerial. or a brick-mould. sfy. family. rt. — Rel. The Noun. • *>. £/*# \ < j^^q/" from . etc. 149 of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) &La». . ft .). as jjJkjuo or du»ju # an S » J J oil-jar. A.* j**. Adjectives.-o a milk-pail. <i E. evil or ill-feeling .). have the same form as the Oxft 228). »U>)I 0^0 il^t. to be carefully distinguished it is from Jo*£o. q/* ^ooc? health. from JjlJJ saliva. $ . j*£o a needle-case.g.. cawse « jdx o/* bringing on or producing annoyance . ft A O J J 0* G J J J very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see J J § 228. Adjectives. .a». . belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin. >©U~JJ •itto a j . the j^^o-^ belonging to <r*W Temlm (^9t+3) i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o). from ^Aj otf.mtfl . dl 6 s f rj-+* S» solar. i.& Adj. are 2 ft£ ^7 D QftS birth. 249. The a^»Jw»J t 2l©~>^t. like.k. ^3^1 jJJ 3. ' from ^ajS the earth. Hasan \&mmJ\) *>%. &.*. " ^ * 0*0 3 « wJ>a>. disease.

gwc? .j\±." ^ [However. «S '4* tives Rem. a. ^jwt. (m. also from the other kinds of nouns. .tl t^yi' f ^ (krSstlyanawi) Christian. science. —Etymology $0 or the Parts of Speech. tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) 90/ Sw 3ft/ f from J*}>k fc»# . The nomina relativa derived belonging to the class designated from adjectives properly by such and such an q adjective. usual £HPl) and **Urh£:. has the *T>ffi last of these forms. & a from j«aa Egypt .] is 2 intensifying force (djJL^JU). the law . L5^^° belonging to. YlC. but in more modern Arabic.b* . . and even from Rem. from Ji* the intellect to from ^j£j£i legal. ^3 * strange. as iEthiopic. PvJ. from^Xfr knowledge. ft^^: i .. I is ^7X1^ L Israelite. (kJjfi). the language of the schools. ('aiyawi) or ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: of what kind? which?). viz.|"l. from the obsolete rh£-ft : (= £>\j-*. scientific. In generally used to form certain adjectives which are derived from other adjectives. ij>*»* from j*±. whilst awl and ay are the relative r terminations. a corroborative or D.. ^5^*> * * belonging & J or ora^ t £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers « <- . express " b. This termination common in Heb. Aram. and especially in particles (see § 191).: (harrasl) a ploughman. f as Egyptian. perceptible by one of the senses . Rem. in general use The . or 0^<? o/". B (cr*j) ^" o ^ ) " 3 j^jAj^I* verily. ^1 from <j\ truly.150 Part Second. ^^ o/*. H*— and JV— ). legitimate.«**»• relating . to ^j* according analogy common a»< -» use and wont to. *_. according to some.(medrawl) terrestrial. ^*£> cj£ intellectual. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substanand adjectives. in such words as . . according (^y). J) OUrfr|£ 5 / : (mahharl) . as ch<5. 1*]^$ Hebrew. \_ •' % f. compassionate.*!^. 3/0*5/5/* ^c*. wjuj^JjId eastern. [§ 249 A (J>-tf^ Egyptian. ( in) to sense ie*Xz (i^e*-). c. ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw). *' C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has. jj^"*».t. as : 9° 'ay. . G.

ZSU Mekka. measure. [^y«3 S St * * o * or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and The forms j-^wj also the very [or .Basra. (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns that have four or more letters. Sj-oJI s * el. j^jXJ* . Adjectives.ti Adj. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. have lost their first Q Rem. L5*U. and 2UUJI £/^ common people. Jj & * * .-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians.] . In the case of nouns which. j a * an- from ioUJI distin- guished persons. and to the vocalisation. as J s The feminine terminations 3_ 3u— and . only a single instance has been mentioned in the T. 251. ^-^^- refined. ^gste vulgar. ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa. to which the Muslim turns in praying.*£j). have only three letters besides the * [Lane has ^*w . foil. are rejected .). however. 252. 4-i-JI ^j^Xc aJJLo Sicily. G. the higher classes. ^J&.a promise. if the third radical the first ought to be restored and the second to take fetha S £5 as £*£ (from . the primitive nouns undergo A various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants. A. like ojs-. (Hammad in j) 'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. <J>oj ulul .— Rel. In forming the nomina relativa. the vulgar . [and j^^-w from 4-w D. letter. J s £ ^^>'. the nouns ending in ^— fern. ^yuj*\ c B ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways the and habits ofMuhamJs Os mad. (&) S^-* But the name of two months. j ^). 151 250. a. of this form. and ' Ox 9/ ulx Jj irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr.] &L£Jt tfa kibla or ofMekka. to the final radicals ^ and ^. ^U»». aiyjt el-Kufa. [fa J LM direction party of All. G. Nouns Subst. ^^ . besides the L^jW»if S"jxxjx_ L£*^" Gumadd. as ^£)W»- « bustard. J sul £ . 1. D.§252] It The Noun. . tjs. j^ycw*. J ^ .JxL« Malatya. 3u—.]. 3>£» a window. &j weight. be a weak radical. ^5-w. I. A.

j^^b ^Sb. 3 o . pregnant. either be changed as ^ (which 3 ^ o * is preferable). of relative adjectives fall 253. the ^ is rejected as ^j»*»(/3) a swift ass. *L-. But if it to »J . 3 a 0* seat. —Etymology . belonging 3 * MekM. admissible.Sb. (^>»j'. (b) such ^ nouns have only into three letters besides the ^£. a vulgarism. world. ^lbj. ^Sb or ^y. ^j$jjJjL~>\ t a native of Alexandria J) 0* J (Jb)ju£**>)1). Baradd.* - In 3 b. stout camel. the into 5 ^ may either be <** . \^>j*>. but what the Arab grammarians call JUJ'nJI ^t it j i or the is 4 appended (i. ^sj+*. belongs neither to the root nor to the feminine termination. ij>>©j*-. ^5***-. from substantives like bullrush. in ^j* belonging Almeria H " .- (2ljj**)\) Spain . £by> to assimilate 3 . 3 . If the second letter has a \£>j4 vowel. (a) [§ 253 A ^. D 3 •»* as ^4%*-. as . O / ^ji> J to give it the form of^*Ap. rejected (which So J S /»J preferable). L&V/3 is C^W 3 1^3^' L^S^' 92 but L5? * with hemza. elif if it is e. s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// a third form 5 is £r*?0. & a * names 3 * of men) a j^xilir to J a Sdfi'ite.152 Pakt Second. ^5***. one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI). the bean. or a bug or tick. or *0J j changed . the two cases are to be distinguished. j. (a) or ^5>J>5 letter 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) ^j-*j> or t^^x — 3 --oj The ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four or more * o o*> letters besides the ^. \j-lj* 3 relationship.. The plural terminations ^— and O!— and the dual termi- . ^j£u5 a l£>a*3 .3 2.5) as ^j£sj+&. 0/ and ^j* 254. ^>iU Rem.**. which serves to give to the word "0 m>* to which appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral J word. /sj . a ^j£* . 3 Similarly. * J to \J$U. ^L^ or ^j-U*. «// Os* . or the Parts of Speech. viz. and 2 *oi ' 6. The terminations ^£— and J away when new " ii relative adjectives are to be ' ui vi formed from them it . or rejected altogether ftf ^j*^ a ut sort * oi of heath. 3 J 3 2 3 -oj /»/ 3 < o£ ^L. as 3 *L». and ^£>j->.. it may . e. x * j ^i^t & /3. - or ^iU 1. the relative adjectives are ^y*j& a 3 j chair. Gufi (^J&c. o j /•oi ^ »j ^-jj. 2*0** big. name of a river.g. If the second letter is is without a vowel.

jl_. ' jjO' j^xj. Adjectives. but ^j~U3. t^J^J -" waw*? of Hind. *• > 1 j5' 1 • * ^t^j-jJ. for {£y** 3 '< i**+£l dualistie.g. 3 3 '0£ r' ^£j$t or 3"0'3'0 ^L: w. ^jJ^ 3 iy*£«.Jtf!. are very irregular Some proper names. — Ol>*- " makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*. (^jj-». 5^ i_ . as — Rel.j^a*-JI. The Noun. Ji'' i . '0' 3 ^y\j^j 3 ' j . Nouns Subst. A. instead of \^£y3 or . from *' '->? . plur. O'O'O' .jU^aJt 3 ' ' . 3 QjJ-^ twenty. In the former case the termination 'jOui 3 is OJ— is £>^ at °ther times retain £ q rejected. o^ ^5-oj*3 » » jL*3 <- to> ?w^w named Kais. in their formations 3 ' e. A . J' 0' ^'jb 2/sa^t.jjj^~. j0'3 L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' chiefly foreign. in the latter it j >.l. We may. ^V^. ^jJ 3 '£ J'O" 3'' . « '0 name of Zeid. Foreign names of towns. of aJU a hundred. ) . Rem. O^J-**>> *0->* Tiberias. > OJJ*^ 3o' Rem. 20 . c. ' j > change this termination in Arabic into it. ^^^Jaudl. 3' ^j-^3. ^j/*** 3 3 ' J'O'O'P O^-sO*'. L^J Ji >-^ ***><. i-xpcti. £/& £w0 harams ' (or sacred territories of 3 o Mekka and j l el-Medina). J# J ' 3 '' -5' lSP 1 ' < l£>*->. use ^j^j^. the Muslims. a. It need hardly be remarked that J this rule does not J . ( ^ o jo' J I ^-^3 5 jj . instead of 3 ' . 3'0' L& ** 1 J"0'0' 3" # S'0'0 lS^-^J m i J'O 9 »*"£ . 0' °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » fl . 3 o . Nisibis. D ^jLx^. 0?. l^jJ^Jj. from f A 0'* ^jjX*. j Rem. as .3 Kinnesrin. are rejected ' ' * <v . to two. B Rem. *&*» of the o ^ .. as { 3o It is only in later times that such forms are possible JJjJUc.§254] II.>. / j j«/ Fcftriin. 'j' (J|3^a-aj preserved # . <fc. ' ' J s y 3 ' J JO' § 3 JO' L^Lf*^ O*^^** Haitian. . 6. JO' 3 0' . u'' bjb.& Adj. ^j^a. J'O^J 3wj ^UwjJ. j 3 '' . ' J J ' l apply to proper names ending in irf ^t_ and (j^— ' .»>. Oli^ 'Arafat. the name L5^"*** 5 O^J^J OljUA women of the 5 ^ ' o of a place. 153 nation . O^ iwo # > ^s^^ relating dwdistic. C)3*H) Zeidun. ^jit. j '3 ^^j-^ / * . as ^jlj-^ft Imrcln. ^J^UX**. ending in ^-j— sometimes . however. from '/ 3 » jjUjI fwo. .

e. an iron ^ju **»» ^L^S « m«// Ox J J*Vi L5^** —n ^ Sx ^ ne f° rms 0x-> J*** an(i J***> the is ^ . ^yj** 3 x j *Uj J u # » S^' i*~' lip5- a s^/p. ^3-^. and XX <* ^-^. art.] . 3 vel ^£.-jl^Jt). is rejected only S x when D the third consonant of the radical SxxSxxSxSxJ i^jj^fc.a piece of iron. O —Etymology 3 x x x or the Parts of Speech. 2 5 ul <LjI*j. xx s x rjt« Manes makes Rem. ***y»*. geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^).154 Part Second. 7 and Slbaweih 66. i' 0xJ . Tiliama . j\tt (with the from^otuJI Syria. ^<^U». Faik of the i.] art. [§ 255 AJ + + * i b ' " 3 }je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation xx 5 . # unchanged. . 3 Sju jc». ^>o-Jt el-Yemen. ^yot from £*>ii&. when is not derived from verba mediae rad. as in ^tw 1. S j/ 5 ul 5 xx from -.. § island. A**U>. O^J 5 ul (with the art. j^^-o-^ J**£ »xJ . gemiX X natae or mediae 3 x . ^5*^. 5xx C as A-iuji a SxxOxx statute. 160 the same thing happens to \^+Zt) 3 form AJ$*i. reality. ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. «*Jtu. from S^ii». ^>i*« and . ^*ej*. also Mufassal 90. D. The letter ^ Sx in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**. 5 tool. Otherwise 5 remains <" > . But. The forms ^^V>.*3t©. A^lyj. D.*luJt). or Sj-j^JI x Mesopotamia. instead of ^^lyJ. ^a*a». as <ULa*. which occur. 3 (a town). from ^ul^J. **fr»"g i'*' J > 3 (tribes). ^5-^5 (men). fern. x ^o->^> x (a tribe). Comp. fern. . ^y^. and ^U*! likewise s Comp. 3 or ^ as ^J^. ^5*^. ^^^-v*-. ii. t^JWj J**£. (a man).^(^i\).. SxxSxJ 5 - ^yt it (tribes). they < remain unchanged. .1^). x x xOxdxJ . X rejected. § 319. " x « X&X J 255. 3 » ' » ^^a* jujJ OOxJ OOxJ j->«-> (tribes). the kesra of 1X&& being at the same time changed into fetha* J x . L Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the . Sxx ^SjJ^" i Jx A Sxx x j A*JJ^t el-Medina. 1 fern. if they come from verba mediae rad. *j4j*f ' P' x <*x an Ox . X XX -t> are also used. and j „o. the words jJUj. l5^>a c t£jf*- * the [According to Zamahsarl. as 5 SxOx . G. Ox . cb> and ~-L£ (=^^. G.

reject the second ^ along with V vowel kesra. § 242) its from radicals j et ^. exceptions to these { E. and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra . [But <i ju~>l as Jot S dimin. 155 rules. <&JJ*6 a city. a.Mesopotamian) . . ^3*^. however.g. JJj<* (to distinguish to from j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina). . the tertiae ^ (§ 3 productionis in the form 244). so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the I) nomen patientis. — Rel. The Noun. 257.~J. Many.**J». ^jjj**. »x J an ass. of jl*»-. The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae ^ may radical be rejected. Adjectives. uSyej*. ^^o-U. ^ju~» . .-o-Jlw. *$js-. ^j-j^ft.§257] II. ^4* •A***'* ^ooc?. Ji*>jS. But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. g makes ^£yo. ^j*j-*. jtnX^. belonging . Algeziras in Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**.-auJa . < There are. «'2 _ a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 256.' . g ~ 1^5**^ " J *-H>*» autumn. Words of the form J*j (for J**s. from i*J~>.& Adj. mediae 6. verba Lastly.. wlx 9 s Rem. a female enemy. A Ufr»l» nature. it Rem. is rejected.' ^JUk. 9 * J <>*«*£ O •J (tribes) OJ/J 2 (tribes). 3 (a place) *J . or in other words follow the shorter form J-J . ^Ju (tribes). j^o-*-. of j^wt. ^j+ij±£ J •J #» f from ijjj^. and the second 9 5 J + vt . Uu*3 ^j&fc. A. ^^is ^Llc. derived from radical takes fetha ' ' instead of damma as $$**£. Nouns Svbsb. But many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the ^. as ju~> a lord or master. Jj M. however. of the second radical becomes fetha as i^j-* thrown. ^A**> *. —The C same remark applies (\S) > to every penultimate double (J?*****! > ^ with kesra as 5 dimin. <5 '> 2 9 ' - ^j3 . — ^t^^j a prophet. £)>»». from the assimilated form . jJ^a^a. W«s&. . form ^jJ^ from both j**c and .

^3J^5. —The falls same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals «x tertise 3 et it ^. b. x X Such forms as J ^Ijj for ^33. changed into . rem. xO J owe wAo carries an inkhorn. b). ^^-oc . j«yJ-« play. 3 ' xdx ^3-u*t X ?Ox ^^ia-o . w x x ox x or d-J l». ^^Jl^. Sld^e a ladder. the final ^£ does not occur in such words in good Arabic) is may . ^J^j-c vintner. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. or ir^o ^^ ^^ y. as ^j£ a youth. \J$$*-j to* a staff. ^j. which away is to be counted as one of the letters in mind that the missing C of the word. if it be changed into 3. Jju. or 258. that the kesra always in some nouns after kesra (see § 167. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. as ^aJa^o chosen. but must be borne ^ becomes fetha. Jxx Slo^. The addition of the feminine termination 5tj. or i*^^ « x ^^x 5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x Rem.-lx£«*^. [§ 258 II.156 Part Second. The Uif maksura is (t ^. the (^ ^^ju is ^y**. 2 6. . a § 7. ^£Jux*. ^ .X£»o. ^jj-^ . /?). SxOOxx SUl». 3 ^15 xx 3 (for x J ^5-^^) a judge.3. <m inkhorn or 3xx ^3j > Jx5x Sl^uJt. {Jy* J a district in Palestine.0} letters. X 3 x x '3 - a wine-shop. P affect the rule of formation. which x Oi 20x 3 the better form. . and also. Rem.> IL does not writing-case. (H^Pl). are modern and corrupt. or be rejected 10 as ^*&\ 5 purblind. S X J and ^ako. E. ^J^3 « mo^. noun contains five or ^ -» more 1.g.^ for ^tu^uo. e£>**. 3 x x Hama Sxx . a. a musical instrument. ij?>^i ^j^-j mill. x S^x x Ox (for ^o^) blind. If the ^y^o XX S " or LS ^^X ^c X . \jys*£i.» »o 3 (for ^k&*~c). either be changed B into ^. j before adding the termination . as . But if the noun has four letters. # SxOx 3<>x or meaning. *-* (f° r L5^) 6x0j sorrowful. ^^AJxcuo. ^jUx*© for t^^y**. jJu^o (for ' ? J ^jZLc). always rejected. as the third radical of a triliteral noun. ^(I . is the pre^^-olS (which OxOj 5 *' * -» xOJ OxO J ferable form) or *x « J ^Jya 15 xOJ jufct (for t^ju**).

as tyy**. or i^jtf ~'0 (^jb. dual Ol*>') 2 /^ 6 / a brother.^». —as w>t. Ol*^') £. ^jbj^-. either be re- better) or be changed into 3 as |U the letter B fb.— Rel. rem.. IjJ). i^jbj^j. *WXfc 3 a far^w ttfMW ^^* + mot. ^S^jJ^-'. a garment. »" > .i... the third radical may be omitted in the relative adjective.. a). ^ or not. if ^yb/*-. J^Stf. j . 3 - . 5-*' (places). i. ?^3b £& focm. ti*~> the heaven. 2b/». axJ. "-•» . ^tp.* Zachariah. du. 260. is The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif § 23. -» j^jUU. ^yb^. ^ '. a or ma& 3 "'* 3 _r chameleon. 3j^ — \£jjj^> In hemza . 157 259. A. jjgjW* * . *t-«*^' x^oj so* k//«j 3 ~8 + * 3 i' » . *byJ a tribe).e. ~.. w>' (for y>\. ±$y++> . ^^b.§260] II. ^\j^ iU^o (a city in el-Yemen). (a town in Persia). a). in the * ^jl^w. »-t. Nouns Subst.. * . reappearance be not necessary. ^b. the hemza be an •*•« 3 -r original I. ^>»*t \j**> (for a father. *tjjj*is ^3-U. i^y^Sb. & Adj. .. £bj£>j " ^jUu . . etc. may . On the contrary. whether the hemza be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^. £3. ^jy\ (for ^i. it always remains unaltered as l\jS (rad. whether it was originally . 2. C Rem. ^jUUi . names. — necessarily recover it reappears in the dual and plural. memduda. ^ji-A. The termination ~* * 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper . ^y^U.^ £fa 6/a^ beetle.g.1 9/^ 3^" >©*•) a husband\s father or brother. as l\jjs> a virgin. it appears as ^. <l~£» a robe.1. E. But ** in the termination 1 1— . The Noun. is § 252. or be not a radical but it merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see taiDed unaltered (which £d. their third Primitive defective substantives. Adjectives. In all cases where the third radical it only in cases where but if this is restored. a few cases too the letter ^j 3 * • <* substituted for the 3 »• as l\^jj (a ^ ( » »»«»•* place). those which have lost D weak radical. A always changed into j. 3 ^^jj ^bu^ with 'O . J J *3 which compare the Hebrew forms *J?%£ 7^ from nW riW.

j^^o. as {J* (for l$£>) a fold.or ^ay*. as {£$j£. ^J Me . ^ot) a female slaw. ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) (rad. ^Jyc\ « iw 3 «. >w) a 00 year. combining with tho third radical into ^. a —Etymology ^$*) O x* . x vw(w. £3 (rad.). o £ 00 sister. ^3^. Ox as 3**J x grammar. 2 x .158 Part Second. ^3^. L5^» or du. or ^3^ 5 00 C-wt ox ju» ^~>t (rad. x . ^^iw.— SU Rem. ^$y^> a grammarian . {£*2>j. a 3 So ^j^U. ^3^ 3oj SoxOxOJ ^j-* . ^yj\ OJ . x J oW) x go a «w. [§ 261 A a*j (rad. a 'z 3 5 ** or ~x (gU. ^^3 #* . The third radical or ^J of the forms 3 * x J** and 4JU* is OOx retained unchanged 3 Ox . y£}£ . ^j£ ct.S 3 3 lip. or the Parts of Speech. (from . 3 du. 4j>* a village. ^ (for \£Jo. § A . D if the final 3 ^ xx is of 3 £U$ '-> be changed into 3. (rad. >*~>) a name. ^y** 2 £*t (rad. Cukl. 9x0 . . {$5)* 5 ' °£ . L5 ~»» Ox 5 «j>* a foray. l£5^' fr° m 5J>J^> e ^ c If the a rule which SxxSx is - — second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£. 5 * . 0x0^ j £<wo an image. J^ (for J^l) J?^-! lj a . ^£^j Soj 3^ But . ' ^3a£. xx oxx make ^^a-l and Sol as well as ^3*.. this ^ resolved into its original consonants. t^U) a hundred. >i)) J dialect. 3 L$>«-?> LST^' j j r. and ^ is converted into living. ^£>0. as 1^3/*. a SO r-xOJ . fetha. ^Ao 8. O'*^) a 5 3 * * »< **'* 3 0* M or o . °' 6 „ extended by some to words in which the third radical Ox Ox 5x-> was originally 3. U> *^ or 3 x ^ L^^ and 3 ->•* M^> ^> xx 3 or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ B morrow. a daughter. x 261. ^3-0. 00 « ^yL* j^.jj| (for v) ^J. and 2u£ a possession. xx . Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ 4-*©. *3~>. handle. <0) ox podex. 3 has t^jU. as ^jjo.* ^m. 6. (rad.4 .. CO/ j Where •' 3 the original form was Jjti. the second radical takes i^^**. Rem. some retain the ox 3 3 • j C gezm.>. ^>w 3 .) ^ 3-o . 3 -£ C-Uj. the final second radical takes fetha. has the three forms 3- v». bribe. makes ^£^. ^U ox 3 3 and ^U». . . from ajji. a a gazelle. — x 4&2>. 3 .! and ^£y^.^5^ (from 3 ^ alw) or 3 ^ ' ^ ^^ (from 3 <su»). xx .

is j Ox Ox . (the ancient . etc. etc. of the forms J-ati. rest at night. a x o^-ait. 3 x x Rem. The Noun. (JV>I). as J5oJt (a tribe). j j-o-JI (tribes). « s . 159 . though x Og 5 *x ^JJu x and a nd . Changes in the Vocalisation. 262. name of Si-Medina) the forms 5 ox JiSiS . C III. or j^jt. final ^ retained. a desert. J Ox OUji! makes ^^31 x-f*.dk Adj. s x x . — Rel. {£3+* <H>^ a town). ^J^**-. etc. Nouns Subst. Nouns ^ . ^£j+j £-» . i . — In words of the form A <UUi.§262] - II. twist or turn. . ^^U jufb /twr. the kesra of the middle radical 3 x x . x 5 ftfo 2> x x . 5 *•» Ox x of the form *ut a sign. 3 x* ^3^! (rarely i***!. ajUxc ^ 2 sor£ "' x 0/ lizard. makes desert. See §§ 255-6... j ^ 3**x3xxjxx j~o. ^ ji productionis and change a x ( radical ^ . as <uU~> « drinking-vessel. In nouns that consist vowel of the penultimate letter tribe) 3 not altered. «x x . i^j-o l^5 ^3-ciS a**t (a man's name). et ^£. reject the 5 x aJL^Jti. J^ai. ^^^ 5 xOx ^yU^JI. 5 ^ 5 ajU a - jt?fec<? wfore *x x 5 ^ cattle. ^jj\ or ^^J. the kesra may be retained. ^51. irregularly j^ju (instead of B l^jju) aw inhabitant of the a Bedawi. \^^ is **» # snake. Rem. 5 x x \ 5 x x » 5 ^ j ' into 3 as ^is. of D more than three consonants. but final ^ * ^ is 5 <" «' changed into hemza. a. the is Rem. ^SULw. make m ^jI. ^Uic. - ^jlA S>£w (a tribe). though very incorrectly. as J-»l camels. —"Words . oo* ^ju. and. from tertise rad. changed into fetha a x j as *ilU a king. x x In the forms Jjii and &Us. as S^ULw misery. and ^jj£j are admissible. as well as . Adjectives. . So also in & * t 3 J*j.*Jj£> are preferred 5 x x0£ 5 xOg . ^jlii . A. t/j «/«/j aJlaii. . ^jx But in Jjti. *j\j a banner. verba 6. {Jj3&. From WA*3 (a and '%' w^JL.

a man's name. status constructus still (a) If the idea of definiteness through the exists in the consciousness of the speaker. 264. VJyiS. or in . x o If the 9 * two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or £ x Si o y * x ££. is [§263 changed A 263. B J*± time. \^£j^> from ««' . daughter. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name which is compounded of two words.* lOUwt w. —as * Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas.»£ ^— "» appended to the governed word xx x as jSL> y>\. . ^>ol . Archibald Bell-the-cat. xx x and . 3 ^\ 3 son. 2c second in the genitive. as zjj>j^j\. governing the arise. x X mixed compound) 3 as w^£jjuio. omitted.— Etymology Kesra or or the Parts of Speech. the following points must be attended to. 3 rejected. ' ^M*^.^p). Of rare and arbitrary changes. dj-aJI. the towns is of Ba'albek and KdUJcald. —B. \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> ^ylS. ox jg it is ox .from^opJt 3 • • of Mekka. termination 3 - ^— appended to the first . two secondary cases arise. a grammar can take no account. damma of the penultimate consonant into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected. •**£. two cases 9 I 9 (1) If the governing word be « j) one of the nouns ^father. the warrior). ^JjSJ 3 '•£ 3 <* j£ *••»» x £ 0«> J f/i/" JO 3 ** kSjHJ- (2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor(l °e an y other than these four. as ^*-j&. and the 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. or CUj .160 Part Second. j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday. such as ^Jj*aj from the sacred territory t>t ^j^a.. which a 3 final ^ has been changed into j §§).jt\ mother. — then is in the second word 3 ct. 2 —A. 5 x X as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm. nickname of a celebrated poet and o^J <2xxO X q —or shone)* Jj-> 3 (At* o x ££roa£ • A ' j are contracted into one J compound word (^j^-j-© XX X wi=>©. . (see the preceding ^>i£ Rem. If the first word the status constructus.

. and A 'I the second takes is ^— .& Adj. iJJ*** iSUt x # O^UI^o-o. 3 o . ^$j*~> *^£jt J . j — the But first word is rejected. belong such words as . \ . ^^^ 3 • « . and the termination added to the second * £ j o x "" '-» " oi o-» rx 3 x x 3 3 «* x x Sjla^a^JI.<£>t^.g. Oi x x S x J Rem. is i«/ \£tS}[ '. ^-^iJt »*t. then (a) in cases 5 where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended. 2> * " 0' .. - S^w (a tribe) makes x x /ulj / t^Uw or ^3*w a. Adjectives. from JOx '''Ox J x 3 OJ x x JULoJt jufr. <JCJju fall Ox and was extended to innumerable J : names which »/ under 3 xxx the class B.>tj. hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing. For example from \y* C-wO. j^^Ujuc from JULoJI ^UJ. attached to the vt ^— wl is first word. Ml xr W X O J Off* J x *> VJ . as 0-iJ>M } ~s J O X . u^IU|tf>. To this stage of the language.^tf. \JIS±J CH**M ^jK.«J>o from w. The Noun. nisba from the whole this license compound word. from j^o. xxOx ^jO** x x . In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o. ^jiil x * '*** »• 0" O/'-J p J» 3 5 ' « 3 « x l>~*aM J^. A. .. L5^*5. allow a J J Q J x x double formation. 161 J * J 6 x J in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein. b xOx i * J x 3 from ^j-jJ^yJ. Nouns Subst. j0/<» . J 5 x x Guadalajara 1 it 3" in Spain. (from the assimilated form 3^w). (b) if the idea of definiteness : no longer present to the mind of the speaker. ^yj-^t or i^y-o 6j^Lsd\ jutw. B x0/« *" .x from oJa&t jb. from both parts of the word 3 e. 0>^' ji ( a 21 . x x as ^JJ^j-^^j. ^J^ . (CameVs-nose.-Jl^C^o. ij5& jUoJt ^oUau. nickname of a man). too. with the s . ^tki aXlt j^c. /J0*» x 3 «• [(j>£Jt ^tj.§264] II. # x J x jo£ j>jl ^U*^. and the second XX . J J JOx Uj>*j^j ' ^1 x ixOx <£*3j3J*> x 0<» fr° 3 m 3 ^ u*' . as * the ' first j^ o*« omitted. l£*'> Guadix in Spain.— Rel. from 3 JyUJI jJ3. from J-*/v-*b' j« j 3 - L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 5 j oj . J from xO-ajOx ^^j 3 -» v >*c. x. as ^^^. is £ omitted s . ^^j^U^U. some . .

^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ . 3 . plur.. > b .. ^^JIjl^ °S . 2. script. jLcu^l Helpers (of Muhammad. or the combination into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 5 ' o . Hadramaut . really proper s o£ names. strange forms arise by the rejection of some consonants. from jt^^i plur. 6 * 3 << o ' two nouns. iJ?jiU*.)] . e. ^j.g. Z jo E. ^*\j XJOJJ name s O Ras. at el-Medina). ~ ' s Such plurals. are excepted * t 3 *bi . ^%^> name 3 . ^j^^^j an first ignoramus (Fr. however. 265. in classical Arabic. i-ijjuo). ^£jj^ 3 JJ/ '0' 6*0-0 jo * B from tribe) l jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) jk*c s s . .g. (j^UaJt v!/*^ the Arabs of . abecedaire). it. o .ain ..g. [§ 265 A family in Spain) the j from ^UU ' ' ±>S * . Ojlfr* (a tribe). ^ ^V 3 Ci from ^^^w (a tribe) 3 3 ^-ia-^ 3 from ^j^s. of wi^ ( CO* ( 3 ' . a and /?. or the Parts of Speech. j*a»- ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading sheet. the of a poet. also a learner or student.o - epithet of the tribes of el-Aus. manuletter. the (§ 32). ^hj^I. even where the sense might seem to demand but C always from institutions. properly the plur. ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj i - ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) 3 . four letters of the alphabet Rem. LS'iil**' J'***' a tribe). [ajjjJ«L a j woman of 3 Benu 'Adi (§21. A relative adjective is never formed. the tribe of Kilab.o a written a a book. (J^U->t *->*$•& (plur.jj-a^Jt. s 3 and his father from^&jjt^i. Os - ' ' tjy^jJaJt.-°j* acquainted with the divine i from d-iuji. Ctesiphon. 5. from Ju»yl 'abuged. plur. o^!/* . from the plural. (a . jU»Jt (plur. Ui***o « 3 3 3 or ^U-o. —Etymology <^£)U^j c. fib " . 3 b ' whose mother was from ^Z^jJa. 3 s s « efo^). 5 l^* ° IW a se er ^ of mats.. 3 - and U-Hazrag. In many cases falling under B. as are either . 6. from dU*a». bs j / ot»/ ij. of ^jt^l Si (the - of a city. the singular. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr. or approximate to them in sense.162 Part Second. the desert. - D e.ojcirw from O^o^-a*. footn. bib.

forms in Syriac. A. ^jUjt. J^-Lu X sieves. of VI Ox ^U£>) J 3 -> -> a maker or se^er 9 J J q/* rw<?s. this latter form x alone admissible. .J^.'^t # the confederate tribes. & surgeon. — Rel. of 9 x 266. as 3 XX ^ I 3 Ot. as ^jV- In the case of ^£. o x x 3 " f£ in his trade. Biliteral particles it may double their second consonant or x D 5 W X not. ** aid* iUj'nJI the 'St.) mats. ^%e*\.Aj|. 5 w*^* X °0°^> 15^* seller a of i bookseller J .^t*. (plur. if be a strong letter. Adjectives. a host of are formed from the plurals of nouns that indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself relative Rem. from • V plur. x x of Zj^Jd) glass 9 x J (J^Jjt^S x x a dealer in B 3 bottles. el- as 'Omar S is called in a A tradition .) ' ~ x ~X X 6aa/s.Uo ^^ X X Ox x I (plur.§ 266] * Oi II. 3«" not. j-ateJtjrffc. ^_ 3x or ^^oJ. O'x^xJ^xx 3 ^JUL a watchmaker. G. &Lo) qualities. 3 x OUL x x x (plur.g. if ^5} or else a fetha inserted between the two is waws. 5 x 163 | j* io. the simple doubling is permitted. ^j. x x mats. are I I belonging women. D. ^=&\j* - i^f0j* |» ^a^-o = 3 XX to ^to. at pleasure. J^UJl (plur. attributes. 3 x X . the opinions of grammarians o< differ. # £ ^l/^l. {£&£* ^ in. of Jji»*U) sieves. j->jty> x (plur.UULo a pouclves or ia*-»j^fc. [o^a. The Noun.] In more modern Arabic. of |2. on the contrary. etc. JsuI^a. of ikuj^. orae w/io makes or seZfo them . Persian colonists in Yemen. j*om* (plur. Olio God 3 > (pi. Nouns Subst. E. and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^. ^J»lio one w/to recognises in 3 "XX 3 attributes distinct -» -» from C XX i/w essential nature .) bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c. Oxx X ^. as ^^* that. a maker or xx 9' J x 3 bottles. as^o^ how much? ^^ is 3x *x . /Jsl©Jt S JJ (plur. ^-5t/»» of (pi. a maker or se^er x o/* x of acL>) watches. In the case of $. adjectives «• * oi. . a woman.-butj^. of j**au*. of JxoJ) rugs. ^^o^ or j^ 5-oJ But if the second consonant be weak. studies. o & Adj. plur. of wounds. the second ^ being changed into j . ^ — Similar . . of early date.

^ 2xj«j Oxxdx ^yU^AJt >a»-*~4 £a# or straightJ x x .jUao J-l or ^j\2suo. 2 ^^Uwt x taw or long-bearded. perhaps. . strong. G. e. mendacious. G ' . 2 xx Ox is x x O s'tO J C . Ox q[*SXo vile.g. 267. have seen above (§§ 231. i^W^i ^ -» corpulent. We . there [§ 267 A ^3-^. ^y^ju*© or 3 x xO x ^ua-j-o a 2xxOx drugseller (from original i. o 'vi t o £ o is * as jlyJ daring. reckless. or . 245. I e • ^U^*. Fleischer. robust. wAo 07^ w&? sells sesame. jJLo—^w 2^0 e. haired. ju£»U) Z*~»d\. appearance. JK.-y^U. as *j not. from jisu*. 2 So : i«3t)Aw having * o x o or /owgr &*tr (j*w). instead of %'&«'%•"' /USU.jt— in adjectives is one of those E of intensity • x *x which imply a certain degree and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given.» a 2 x " •£ /ow^r beard {l^J).JLJu D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^).» J straight-haired.(. [. oo 2 large in the body (J*-*. letter be a quiescent 2 Slif. t ->* S * The pronoun U what x 2 ? ' forms ^yU and JjAU. under the influence 5 * .). Hence we may form from many nouns a relative adjective ending in ^1-. ^i^koj. <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' x x x 2-jLjj£a. ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood. both in common speech and in scientific writings (in the latter. large head of hair (**»).— Etymology If the second it or the Parts of Speech.y LoJ having ^^x x o i 5 j 5 .] In later times this ter- mination was more extensively employed. which may be changed * 3 .g. sordid. .164 Part Second.having a 2 *• « j bull-necked (&£j the neck).*. ox xx ^U*. vociferous . 2 is t O x the ordinary nisba ^Jj^c. <jla^aJI corpulent. but . n. is inserted between into a and the termination ^£— a hemza.). ^^ or ^^. 232) that the termination ^L. aspect.>****• x o $w<#- 2^* x looking. s^/s foarcs. 2 x x of the Aramaic) . ^yly^li a fruiterer. j'^a*-wt or x x • ^j^U*—« x tall or x x x x J .Jl^ki* x ^^x much = JaA«J1 o o x x x . having a large crop or craw (aJIoja. to strengthen the relation. D. #cAr. G < oW^»» J s J ol O x i clamorous. ^^SU 0^0 . j^S^SU or . 1). as the grammarians say. .

^>'-^j having a large or font? nose. i^jlA Another rare form j/»« jxo£ and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t. J v> ty. S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood. 5©5fi. ^j^JLSU. i (til nO?). i**'oi. A.§268] 3 - II. & Adj. xj clusively to the members ^2 of the body. i^te'. 165 outward. as distinguished from the concrete thing itself. public.j manhood. interior. particularity] substantivity. 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' *i£> 0&+Z*) ** * * 9 £> r* * of nouns water) poetic . 2l*J>1^*$\ D. intelligibility A aAo>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite. is arms. or Z~&yA±. B 5 *J large head . 9 vt 4-*o~»t. \jSji A ^LSy ^JU-a^J lower . Nouns Subst. the mind or temperament.j is ^JUi as a ^. 2 * 4J3*.». aw JxO^Sirfxxj adjective . A-JbU substance. upper. A*vJ*9l [and sol 0* 9**0 God) . .. ^'^ wr. the school of .-fcUw. 9*0* exemplified by^ijiw (c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality. and ^«. schaft. ^jlju-*.] the divine nature. .g. ears. G. etc. (U wlwt ?) . as a The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing. ^iL^AJ relating 1 a 1 ). [^uoj-oi. quiddity totality . I s+ . . 0* D adjectivity.. - The Noun. 8 .. * Oi from j*-~»\. and also to represent the thing or the primitive noun as a whole or totality. S (flSH). 9 aJLoj. dom.—Abstr. J o ( Godhead Jit (<fd*^t t i-*jLj| i 5 * > 9*0 humanity 95 J i * (&\>~J\ a human 9 2 » * being) OS . . ^yWj learned and devout expressing intensiveness. private.wljj having So. corporeal. to the soul. £ a^-J *> * ot 3uslSH\ il+~>\. A 3 form and applicable ex. keit. 268. . Nouns. ^JU-jj spiritual (. Rem. and oL^j. a substantive. ^j^jy relating to light. It things signified by therefore to German substantives in heit.» external. Godhead (v>^0 J J ( OH . j\ * E. and to English ones in head. corresponds * a i o* thum. *L5U wateriness (|U ^HW^ 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet. <Lu^Jt Lordship.

] B 269. Jk. omnipotence. See however § 283. t . ^ J . not usual to back upon the root-consonants. etc. JxO£ J 0x2 \ the form ^Jjua* as Jjjjl blue. 03x J OOx J 9* x J ^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth. 9. the fourth letter * wa^ the diminutive 5 x J is J***** as^^i-ac a sparrow. and j Sal-o. a severe it is trial].lt ^-^l j 5x ii/jv jo/ j o •' x or j-jiafcJJt. J*o*j 50 x J ' w-A£» a gt/ j w~Jl^ x . pride. j^o-c is . the servile letters are generally taken into account. 5 -2 8.166 Part Second.o. [§ 269 A the Hanefites. . the noun 9 quinqueliteral. an<^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ. j*Ju*aC ^ hey.. as J*?.wi. scorpion. [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity. when formed from a xj c * . as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune. < « &'#. ' x 1 x <fo<7. The diminutive used.:xo. 'J. [These nouns are. In forming a diminutive.a*n) divinity. .j a man..»w (a man's name). as Oj. is Rem. as long as the word does not exceed 5 Ox J .xxOxi best.>* J©. When x the 9 x noun 5 x quadriliteral. in Arabic. 6. triliteral noun ' (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI). 9 J Rem.. a.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech.! a 0x2 fx2 kind of tree. When .> . but 5 J J »/J . (|Z.Q-mS\).. Jijijl UUfH** Ox 9 Ox J a mantle. In a few cases the termination Jl^l-j is Oj_ borrowed from the Aramaic <Z>y*l> similarly employed . oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^). dirham. The diminutive. not merely in its literal sense. JJj jlo a special friend).>. takes the form J**$ J/ j^o-c- .» a mosque. jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM. S ^^t. the Christian religion... Jxjjl (for j^ujt).-ij) or Cx J contempt (as D i^J^). du^y^S Judaism. J***. 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom. J****. 5x0 *-Ui-c a. On the contrary. fall Rem. . is jia» *. S Ox J . x J . . of the masculine gender.001_£\). »/J . 9 . haughtiness. a. the very . j&d)* 5 ^a». j***. 9 x . * J 5 *j but also to express endearment S x J (as ^»\. 5 x x J Oi q w^it ^oAp . j o (£) 2%0 Diminutive. humanity (\l. xO t it takes the form Jju** 5 as w>*fc 5 a .

of which the fourth five. ^Z^^> a bay horse. J and x 1 Ox 1 m*d$ " (from J^pX.. w** t i ^ rom ***•!» JH£i V^)' Rem. like T JV "/H T T This view derives some confirmation from the modern for t pronunciation of North Africa. for c^u. is When the noun contains Jive letters.§ 270] II. biblical Hebrew Hfi&p — in post- Rem. f). an(* w--wJ. little before. obviously x Ox J substantives in the accusative. and (L»1Q-L a fawn x x JjJ^. a sort of snake («Ju*>). however. Ox > ^w. as well as jj£jJl . from Jt>£). when the second radical of the primitive xj is ^ . nffSff T . P Traces of this diminutive O-x x form in > x « Aramaic are 7 o x SD^'iy 9»*x J ( |V) N.J-ai5 is 167 Rem. d. ?^*£. they cannot be formed from nouns 9 " J) x J which have already the measure of a diminutive. a basket. the J diminutive of <U5. and (3) little above. but also be formed not only from nouns (1) from the demonstrative the relative pronoun Q pronoun fix 1$ and its derivatives. a little nearer than. a kind of small bird. is sounded A^/|/e or gfife. and the as Jj*^*-* a quince. which x Ox J are.— Diminutives. is commonly formed % ft* * from the first four. <Uua5. ^ may perhaps consider as such. or more than the diminutive Jjuatf rest are rejected . . The Noun. syllable of the form occasionally A pronounced with kdsra instead of damma. : cerastes. . Diminutives may (substantive or adjective). 270. as O x J ^J-j-o^. e. In Hebrew we (j*juo). a little Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives. an d HS^D. the . a 2/o^A ' C*J^. where. as C**«j. the *_). : vowel *_ must be ]Y?il f° r T regarded as a weakening of \_ (IT/JO* t : (orig. /i«fe.. (2) from certain prepositions. from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184. siH3> a little below.1.. xx OOxJ «£~wJt». Nouns Subst. from^U). (i (/J 5 ' Ox *L5^' i^x Ox w»^ (^or fj^w. 4 if' example. as J*a5 a after. strong. On the other hand. Yjfl . ^. c. rem. If so.. The first & Adj. like J/'**. . juju a little J>j>J a etc. a con B temptuous diminutive. A.

as aS%£. is Q In A+KLm+t for example.3 6. J^. J) c. and in § 269). nouns of four 9 . sarily b. The termination ^1— when appended . which is 0. r. indicates the participial form. rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in rem.. If there be off.jJut is not a fat.3 2*x>j£ and therefore a servile con- word which consists of four radical and one or more sonants. five Rem. 0. exceed the form Jju*5 O'„. . t tr r J 0. we may 4 select But if all the consonants which we please. 6.3 (for 0.3 0. rejected. 3 .r-.3^ 6.0. 3 0^. 2 6. *-j**-> . 3 9 0. The rule as to quinqueliterals like always strictly observed.36. to Rem. these are .3 either juJLc or juX& 0. Nouns containing 9 >> or more «. Rem.63 J^X* jUaL-« chosen. 3 6e. .j* a 0. or more letters.03 . make either j^on*. Jjj-ol . 0..3 JjuJcS. in front. ^juXfr) of ty ill. ^^xJU . and not jZ**~» ymJjtfU having a hump a. 0. [§270 0. a nightingale. Jb» & .1 saffron. o o . But if there be or among the consonants several servile letters.3 . or jZj^a***. B Rem. but remains attached to the diminu\j\jtei . 0.3 . : of h .0 . tick.».3 d. Jju^ft O^Xifc a spider. j~**~o (for j^U). . b. . a sort of cap. more servile consonants than must neces- be cut the word their relative importance for the signification of is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained. 0. £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a 0. . consonants do not . . 6. 3>JJ* a ourn t cake. 3 3 . old woman. and therefore is 0. J ^3ujS. formed out of the preceding consonants. little.3 >j->j*. as <\ . le snake. is not rejected. 3 short and big-bellied. In place of the rejected consonants.j£a rolling oneself. however.j^.3 . 3 6. j* because it preserved in preference to ^ or O. <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS 6. lazy. ma.3 .0. ^Lauil. Jfej*.168 Part Second. J ^^ . a sort of thorn.« trying to render perfect. 6.3 0. . are of equal value. the diminutive of ^julc. and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a are said to ugly woman.. 6. 3 some of them as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade. wXwic. £.. m*&* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^).^ . Thus 6 . . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. tive. 3 00. . Out .

^i**.0 oJlai. . . JU^I... el. ZxXS a S^Xb *. of the class called j j j aJlSJt r. ^_ is rejected. w>la*->. as SjJj children. Other (see § plurals. C J^O^J >j\j+.3-.0. mighty. .Basra. 3 Oi 9. . 0. in adjectives of which the feminine . the third of which »/J /}'j . the third letter be a . . .». is when the noun 0. ^jJL**. 0* 3 as ^W»- a bustard. and Ol_ .3 .ot Rem. <bUJI. . queliteral noun. w. . \^+*.0.03 ^jU-L^o two Muslims. 3. either ^Jj-***- or the Oot. . <U*»»-« /»/j ~. i. Muslims. ^+X~j (a woman's naine). .3 .pregnant. ". and these terminations added « . 3 . -kUJt words. the relative termination is ^_ .0 . 3 if. & Adj. . The Noun.0 3 V 3 . are /«/ all disregarded. iU^Xm .0. 169 0/J ^ may t/ j i. . Nouns Subst. and in proper names the dual and plural terminations <j'— syllable of the plural form 0. name). 3 .o . OS- oWA-~o Muslim women. and the second JUil . a o*> £>. The feminine terminations 3— ^£— and . . . JjJusi. . . . may be omitted. 3 i /0* • ©£ JU-^t . perfect. 3 . (fern. B preceding consonants. The fern. A (/J like. 3 ^.0. *l/«^»- ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z. . in the quinit. . 3 weak servile. 3 .§ 271] II.-. c camels. A. . slaves. a+X~~c (a man's . jj^L-* . S . ^$j£~>) drunken. SjuJj diminutives regularly. 5 . to them.$ 3 .Os i^+L* i|>o^» ra#. Olgt. be inserted immediately before the last letter 9 as ^jj^suj. " of the E. But . ^A***2.S~*4 . Rem. {Jj*aj belonging to {Jj-+*aj .5 jj£j->*J a riddle. 5 o L»L. 3 .jUA-$~»* . or of more than five as D (Jk"5/5 the back. 3 . jj!/^ . e- oLj^t . (a man's name). besides their JUil. supposed 0^ 3 to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal. . 22 . 3.». J^d^ ^jloX* (a man's name). 4**A£ J**'' as 0. and the 271..3 castle.3 consists of . w>la*~ot companions. (for ^)o . Pj*+ O 307) form . 3 3 < . the ending ^1— . . J^o-X«.g. jJUj. The diminutives must be formed out 3 .t- 5 W^£ verses.0.3 .3 4*A£ boys. 4*A.ol. ) j ^»L . a. . viz. 0. five letters. . . pL- . J jlo-L 3 ) .0 . strong.« r. —Diminutives. or j**».

. <" 5 ju^a « ^^^w £ii sim.g.t ** * x . jjUauL> power. <UJI JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J ju*£ 'Obeidu llah . to its diminutive the x appropriate plural termination G 3 e. Otj-jjj. 3 f> —Etymology 3 . 03/J such exist. g. jjW** youths. S_ diminutive. l\jj& xO x J poets. ft—fr+A ^xOxJOx a . (see § 307). wJ^»t « x dogs. from lij? -» J*te. $j>++£\ . or the Parts of Speech.» children. G We may fall back ' G s 3 on the singular. x c [§ a £ 272 A t x I t>£ Ox Ot r. x E. 246). 272. £ x Jui^J or <L-2*. x Or we may have recourse x (3xj o^a «xuj j to the ?x 3 "» iUJI i^. £Lol 'xOxJ ^^ <•/»/ Oxx 0/ sheep or o). 0>***> from ^ZJ. x I Aj««j». which has not however a feminine termination. C*^ an eV e or fountain. of which the femiis Ox C nine is not not proper names. «* from the plural (for 10|1). x x ^ a K *l»> .^-0*^3^.170 Part Second. OxO xp . from j^lw. and which are J/J regarded as Ox 3 . ^. Ox 5/VJ 3j-jj^ if j*-i$2> (see § 277) . O . radical. 5 o-» j o x (see § 274). J ^j&jac. . w>jijjux*.\ bags.g. or <LJ$ r^t &#se fellows. as <Ltjx*. ll . *»L-£l J and 3JUJI. . 9*0*3 St j x x J . JJJ* (a woman's name). groate.jt— in triliteral nouns. . x and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s G . as x 3 * x J x . jj-Ja-j-w O^^tj sweet basil. the second remaining unchanged 273./foc& jh a house. r ' «/ »( 6 . ^jsuyZt. two courses may be J x J adopted. B from yj. rem. i**^ . O 3 x D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 3 ix> 'llah. provided that the primitive has no GO J x Ox-> is added to the (§ nomen unitatis . slaves. ilssSsJ Oxx Ox OxxO x J 274. consisting of two words (see § 264). x JJ3 x ilJL^t (for lib*?). e. ^^JLJ3. S^tel Joys.jlo^ a Ox g wo//". ^^**.» . Proper names. <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. %LJ>\ ribs. adding . The termination x . from the plural (see § 278). ^-o^jj-^ jjUa-w t/j J a e?m7. sultan. form their diminutives from the first word. jjj houses.^3. ru^gt ~ ~x ^ x x** - wJL^t <i x « x x I x x 0«> j . I S x Ox x Ofxl SjL^ftt pillars. O a . <U>*£ or fc#t* (see § 269. 4*JL£l . ?K5> O^ OxOxJ fl fo0#» OOx dUww J^t camels. If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun.

276. 90* J *->j&-. u°y* 9 a young she-camel. 7 9*0*3 have 2i^jjj>j. J3 a J-^>.. but *^w S^a^w jX» . If the noun contains more than three consonants. the primitive has a nomen t unitatis. 9 For example. 9 0*39 . Tfie Noun. makes Zj*t 275. is usually masculine. j**J* • " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** *" .§ 276] if II. cardinal numbers. Rem. b. *t* 3 . 3 f rad. though also of both genders. w>G (v>^ a door.. ^/tfuXS. pj> a coat of 9 90*3 9** w*/^ Arabs. u~^ a cup (Fr.. but S^aj cm o«r or cow. rem. j*a>. The double consonants &* 9 5 3 ( nouns formed from verba mediae 0*3 kill. which <i masc. A^ijj 9 * **** (*-*>*) i?Wc#. do not take 3_ for the yive (fem. J-oti [yj*3j£9 Si a 3 bride. .g.g. M/J ones people or 2W6e.»»1> 2j*o time. E. £ x d *• . There are a few exceptions to the rules of this 9 0* § and 9 0* 3 . rem.3. 9*0*3 U m. J* 9 frij* A^3. is b. which in is masc. the front. . same reason.$>... But see § 319. Rem. O^ij-iy^- . 3* 9 0*3 . Juj3 * j . «. Nouns Subst. 9 9 (?-3j) tw«J. value. a. D. c. j**J a sea. in order to avoid ambiguity. ^ not appended to the * * C A * 3 trees.g. makes s^j^88/J . i-o-i>5 j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich. w*>j£- . 0*9** J 5 forming the diminutive. u - ^ fl but Su*^ five (masc). a bow. E. O a herd of she-camels. a tree. geminatae are resolved. tasse). 5— is O 171 But diminutive. 00* w-^ * J r. 90 # w>^ (^r^) aw 9/ ^ 5 eye-tooth or canine tooth. seem to make only 9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 isuAj and j*Ju. **+&.— Diminutives. u-jy> Jjo a 9 s/*oe. and 9*0 * i therefore has ^s-ijG. «5^9^J e>j*su. a wedding feast. S_ B not added to the diminutive. <Sc Adj. has^jji or 0* 9* * but JaAj and j*j. and 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* (for and ^Jj^ ^Uj^). G.—^e»y> f/t/J 2»©-}y> . 3 /(^ «* * 3 . t w~«j 3 s»-J. and have been j) changed by the influence of the vowels into another. j*aj. the rear or back. j>~*~r* 5^0 9*3 Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales. *3 .. 1* ma*h 0* ^ftyi. and fem.**^*. 90*390* sj^. If the second radical be a weak letter. war. The diminutives of the fem. A. * from 5 • * 3 to 10 inclusive. the original letter is restored in 90*3 *-*iy. as 9 0*3 .] 7 f" l\j2. Rem.). Sju jc«. 9 0*3 . j^. is whilst j*\j3. cattle. e..

Ju~>t. fri^. as js. juc. a-suj x . £>*£> an eye or fountain.^^-a signetx J 5 x x J x x J Ox x x ^jja. Z+jj* (for &«*»5>). o iSo x j form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 5 x J OixJ to lighten the pronunciation. If the second letter be either a servile Ox ' or an elif. elif. and <5ju. x a slave. certain bitter tree. or the Parts of Speech. from <blw a young woman. in which the e. If the third letter be coalesces with the preceding (^ of the diphthong ^j. J *£j£-. an egg. rem.c> « farm.\jj x J a poet. e. The forms J^jj^. [§ 277 and thing. 4jb aw animal. (***». In words of which the second and third radicals are contracted into ^. youth. Words 5 x of the <Lj^w. * x i^*b a calamity. « the " • B origin of 9' ' which t is unknown. £~i$Z>.— Etymology Rem. C « ^UJ» Ox ^od» J>£>t a glutton. this JLolj.g. instead of f^w. but the regular forms are preferable. though derived Ju*fc. djj^ 9 s J a handle. a festival. 277. ^5^-j a ?m7/. 3. .> x J be formed C-sJ^J. Ox ^_.jt.into <j x x as « ul jf$£ a x p . Ox cHj^ a horseman. i^>. and treated 5 x r a 9 . commonly makes 6 s j e ^3^ s (for ?^>fc). the latter for 6. Conversely. it § 13. and Ml >y*~i\ are also used.). Rem. x J x Rem. as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j. b. ajU? a Rem. £ x _ SxJ j^ xp a youth. £$»-). D Jb***' a ^^. £*>>o. ^J^cu^!.. A>*1 &/ac£. -i^w an old man. ***i&. makes following the plural ^Lt'. Rem. O 5x J ^. a. from the radical ^^. J*£>t OwfxJ ^r*^ a male xx ostrich. «l not vJ-^uj^. weak. as in fjj for C l*U5> fomied according to 283 from SAO Ji. £ x x 3 5 it is changed into 3 . ^«H3> O x J \j*jij£ .] 278. . it Words • of the form J^li. an ^ **^>-£. In other cases § change is optional. ^lu OWxJ . x J . OwxJ ybtfd. a. /"Lb a fold (i£j£). x x these letters § must be separated. a o 5 x j . <^ xx a O 5 x J O5 x i Ox J sfa^ 4*-aft. [Oomp. according to this rule and Oi x JS 276 . may « x x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ &i}£.172 Part Second.g. ?r^ w»ry. (J?>k x J a snake. JxOc JwJxp J^^»-. initial letter is x &xl change into t in forming the diminutive. ^S^> . From C-*u a fcm*e. o x vulgarly 2u^t.

6. 05 x Sjufih. x x I Rem. which the - 173 two 279. . 280. for . etc. ^jac x wl ^x x x (for ^^j-Jacc) *U~> tfc 5% (a or heaven. a). £ * I ^^pA. of . . ( . £U*c a ^/£. J still. the 9 x j x J in their diminutives x . 9 J Ox Oxx Rem. A lost first or second radical is not restored. ^^. & Adj. like 5x1 and others x . rem. x J . {y>\). ^JJ^) 0i x J f . duyo and jjy» ju x x J «* * 5/D/J «^ 5^j9 or <7<?a£. x J »x x «S/J 5/ O^xJ 3 x J a hand. § 278). as ^jo^-j J wl Yakya x {John). radical The infinitives fern. of which the radical <su^i. *U water. —whether 3 . & s J .1 (for u*»»t) (for 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r ^5***) I j*^ a» enemy. but irregularly. if the . 281. r. which reject the first and take the termination 3— in exchange « x x (§ 206). iy-j^w £*w & »p. ajju j^. pa#. —Diminutives. 4-0U 3-w a JWW.-*»-t. it in the diminutive. others ^j**\ ^j*-\. is dji or d$i. A5JA. affluence.g. iwte. of verba primse j. rejects one of them x . the form They are distinguished by the 60/ 3 from the diminutives 9 x of 9»/J in the jjjji same verbs . mouth. j) w>' ^3*0 9 x 3U> Ow si a .> ju~>l. Nouns Subst. Ay-*w and a~w *Ua a a father ^\ . L5 r ^£. i**-!.l). itj^A. they termination 3_ or not. x xJ OxOxJ Wx J Ay-UA. # . a*«o~> . a £-t . lost their third radical.\ (accus. ^js. and a. last * A '•* 3 5 weak. Sj^j J 3ji». x resume ^ x J . some at 0^1 say ^^. j* x£ § 278. Nouns which have fern. — From Jx x J 4jjU*o xO J xirfx J the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use.§ 281] II. forms its diminutive accordingly. 3 ' J * J P & x I x i ^^ ' » (for L5tp*-») 1^3^-t black. A. 5^-jAw £*! a xJ Ox Ox J Six J Ox x Si/J *xx 4jU a dialect. Rem. letters are J vl A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral. j Instead of 3x1 ^^t. The Noun. (accus. A^al ' brother (>±. —recover . ^i. such as Jucj from j^j. as 3 j^c & promise. Rem. 2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** man s name). Awj.1 j>* blood. <**a* (for *«x#). x ui like B x I x i xI >^wl. v-tj^. spots. have the E. Sjljl a sma// water-skin. . .^ 4-Jt> fomgr spotted.

" " 3 * " » i u~**5 s [i^***-«. djj-** (a name). and ^La. C* i Jam < (see § 269. 242) dead. rem. noun ends in S_. Those nouns which. having lost their third radical. take a prosthetic E. as ^-^j^. diminutives would have been J^\. [Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination — . as u^i$* from ^13 a judge. *"***»- *!/©»•. %i$) from ctj a pastor.'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 is 9 0. b) feeble.i j) ^ M^ U . nouns in . E. C-w*j* . ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons). « name. after elif.] B 282. j^J^a-o]. . e.) good. r. (for ^-Ul) people. consists of 9 —Etymology 9 > i .^*-^ reject the .0 J ' ^— . the diminutive 9** 0*J .l sister. feminine [§ 282 as A word • * three letters. ^-jy jIa (for jjIa. their original letter. w-->j^-. 0*J J*j& 9 . j*^ Otherwise the ^**r*> and j-Ja*. <u£. ^t. rem. s J U^W " 9 9 90 y i % ' 3 3 * Ot- 9 8 * J «« C-0. exclusive of the •• 3 j /f X 0^-^ § 240. Uutdu. &-i^. This sort of diminutive called Od x» J ^a^XJI j^JuaJ. 283. 3 . and recover .174 Part Second. <uiA (see C § 281). . a The diminutives formed of Cs». b). ^f O^t a son. if of four.t. . With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules are to be observed. this consists 9 of three consonants. 9 0* J 9 o * J . ^hU j-}>* .-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9. >£oyj § C^« (for C^wo. elif. (b) Fern. the softened or curtailed diminutive. (for j->». ^j^> Cwl M# C-O 0^ anus. and *. .**0 ' and take S_ . or the Parts of Speech. r Another way of forming diminutives If is to fall back 9' upon is J . this termination away . are like those of fern.g. j-*£. in the first two by the termination. D. and distinguished <u^».t. J C^A thing. It— reject these terminations s * i . G.g. daughter. j^t^A.g. ^. the root. and ^ Rem. falls (a) If a masc. 284.

*. a*a). from 0s J jU> and ->. O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« Further. aj^> a draught (of water).M. X a-a»J a portion. a mouthful. II. rem. Ox OxJ JUi denotes diseases. b) ^jtj* (see § 305. . — The form (6) a wooden pin. . as Ox Oj S/o* brown. *$>£. '> JU for ^3U) tj^Z sons £ (plur. 23j) a light blue.a milk-pail. O-i^ij}. if B a collection 5 of poems. ^jL-^Jl . Ox certain garments. OxJ tjl^O smoke. fix J*ili» X *U~» x a water-skin. piece of 285. vi anything. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small . as^»l*». a live coal. jUjj n dinar. from ej-by (17) Some other Nominal Fwms. <i. redness. and j L. such as can be contained in a place at once **» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj handful. ^Ua garment. dJU a night. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small t+» *+* OxO # C 5x0 0x0 SjJl». O Rem.^t g . A. x x |Ut. an allotment.Q. as r. iL^I. a pelisse. »xx ilfcj. 8 a firebrand. 2*b. OxJ ciUJ a OxJ coverlet. tj ltLJL g. a« cl «. aJ-wJ (compare the plur. and tjt^Jj a register. irregular diminutives are d^j . of J-wol ^e evening). O^t^ 0*&°* OxOxl'xOxt an (derived 5 xt from the plur. a public •'u office or bureau. SlLJl*. 0x0 l^Js a fragment. *$j* a sect.. A ' iJjL-jj} «j/w sunset. »-x 1^3. 3u<LJlz.j a man. x * i" A J . ^x Ox a vessel. ika. -**& . acj**-. a rag. . a piece. w**^». of <>>1). as " . a piece of land. Ox J It also denotes colour Ox J . »»x (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements. as if or * p-L*-** brocade. a gulp.jUJI a human being. Zjsuo yellowness. OxJ JU-/ a . &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal. account-book. iakS. a fever.§ 286] II. j»\£*j a cold.jUic. a morsel.. J**->3j * A . 0x0 J a sup or «"xOj sip . as 3-cu5 a quantity. .M. J x 175 Ox J .->»>. as SJJi. j~*>*. Very <i & Adj. x (Juj-ji* x J ^^^ or . ~ 5 a *" c nightfall.— Diminutives. 2l&* a blackish D 5 X 286. Nouns Subst. *->!/»• V x Ox a &a#. jljt. : J^. The Noun.

176

Part Second.

—Etymology
*W^>

or the Parts of Speech. [§287

A

elj^o a headache, JU*-b,

disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the

/^r

(juib)*

287.

(a)

The form aJUs
(

indicates
aj^Jj, the

a post or

o$?ce?;

as

ajU^

the

post of secretary

v»7l£>)

;

£31^,

post of governor (J*oU, Jtj);
caliphate; ajLJ deputyship
iiljx.

SjUl

^
;

o^c^
S^US

q/*

l»wr (>**t); as^£.
postf
s

^
;

B

(w*5U)

£/&?
<i

of general (jull)
(b)

^

post of inspector,

centurion, etc.

— (^k^).

0/ /J

The form aJUs denotes
;

swc*// portions

which

are broken off or

thrown away

as

S,>tjj,

4-otj.S,

filings

;

ajIjj c^jps,
;

shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£»,
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments;
cuttings
;

i».U^,

4*1*3, sweepings

d>L*£»

broken pieces; AtUai

4JU»x a

fttffe

/bod

#ctf

raz%
when

tn Aaste;
it is

SjUc «

sw?«// quantity

C of broth

(left in

a borrowed pot,

returned).

Some

of these

words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5,

^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a».,

Jlij,

oUs.

288.
employed
thing, or

The form

ailii (the

feminine of JUi,

§

233)

is

frequently

to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing someis

by means of which something
is

done, regularly and constantly

;

or (b) the place where something

constantly obtained or prepared.
;

D

E.g.

6*\jJ

a

vessel or

stand for cooling water

4.31^.

a

fire-ship,

a

galley;

h^j, Wj*,
aSt^j

*->^*, engines

of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion,
;

« fishing-net ;

a

s^or£ javelin

Wjb

a spear, a

bolt

;

2l£\j&~

a

*

[According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark,

p.

26

se^g.)

the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as
'J
spittle
^J
*
J
r,

or phlegm JJLoj,

w^>

ff^~*>
>

^W*

,

,

j
*

S

xJ

5

x J

t

*>J

<---J

J!3>

-*l*j (^»^;),
the nose

^»U3

;

swea^

^U^

^wj-o-^v

?*$•*> 7-^3*°
*}*}*»>
;

bl°od issuing

from

JUj

;

excrements 9~%~>

;

sperma

drippings SjUai.

D. G.]

§290]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

& Adj.— Gender.

177
J

place where potash

is

made

(by burning the plants called u°j*-)
or plaster \\jtin)
9 x

',

A

ioUa». a

^?/«6^

w^T0 gypsum

is

made; *J^£s a
>

5 x

00
;

chalk-pit or quarry

(^—o)

;

4^Lo
;

a salt-pan

or salt-mine (*-)**)
is

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS)

A~>Lrfc.

a

jp/ac^

w/^r£ gypsum

found

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. of this form to persons, as an intensive

Hence the

tropical application
c).

233, rem.

Rem.

As

<Ulx$ has

been transferred from things to persons, as
-

x

r x

x

an intensive

adjective, so also aJlcli

233, rem. c)

;

for

^LdU

is

B

a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel;
4*Jlw,

a water-wheel and
that carries or

the

camel that works

it ;

djjji,

a water-skin,

a camel

draws water;
etc.

2uz\},

a

call or invitation;

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury;

2.

The Gender of Nouns.

289.
classes
;

In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three

q

j

x J
;

(a) those

which are only masculine {j£sj*c)
o

(b)

those which
fern.,

52

j
;

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•)
or, as it is

(0)

those which are both masc. and

usually phrased, of the
a.

common

gender.

Rem.

None

of the Semitic languages

have what we
5
'

call

the

neuter gender.
at j

Rem.
Ofx

b.

Feminines
'

may

be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34),
JO x

x x

as Sl^ot

a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural
0.

(j+c-

^a*a»-),

or tropical

(^JJjla***),

as y»»»£JI

^e

smw, Jjlj a shoe or

D

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news.

290.

That a noun

is

of the fern,
&

gender

may

be ascertained

either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form.
* * ->o
j He- j 0*

a.

Feminine by
All

signification

(^y*<J\
J x

W-J3-0JI) are

:


Ox

(a)
2i

common nouns and
J x
#

proper names which denote females,

l

as j>\

a mother,
w.

^^j* a

bride,

j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female
23

178

Part Second.
J s

—Etymology
J
(

or the Parts of Speech.
* J J

290

*

**

A

servant]

;

^*ij*o

Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\
w>ja£ Death,
0,0,

or that

are represented as females, as
(/?)

ll£»i

^

$m»],

Proper names of countries and towns, because the common
r-bi

******
Mocha.

*

r.**,

J

nouns u&j\, ***^>
Egypt,
U>L«

i'*£J**,

SjJj,

and

2->j.S,

are

feminine*; as

Those names, however, which belong to the
J
*

z '

J

"

*c

triptote declension,
x

are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria,

J>!/«Jt

el-

Irdk, ^y**,

Jau^t^, <£>b,

*Ji, jaJ*

;

but they
x
j

may

also be inflected

"

B

as diptotes,

and are then feminine, as

^U,

Jkwlj, etc.

Rem.
tfAe

The names

of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS,

front, \JJdd-, lljj,

^e

rear,

may

also be treated as feminine,

Os

following the gender of
(y)

Ay**..

The names

of the winds
*-ij,

and the

different

kinds of

fire,

* *

because the
«
-ȣ

common nouns
J *

wind, and j6,
- s

fire, are feminine

;

as
J •

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-*
£^0

£fo north wind, w>>^*>.
j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire.

som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing
I

fire,

[^y».J

Except j Loft a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which
(8)

is

masc.

The names
0*
;

of

many

parts of the body, especially those that
0'
Of.

are double

as ju

a hand, J**j a
shoulder,

leg or foot,

^s- an

eye, ^j$\

an

ear,

&~> a

tooth,

wfcfe a
ois

<JL»

a shank, ^e^j

the

womb, Ciwl

the anus.

00*

oos-

D

Rem.
0' jJlo

the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 00' Si the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the

0^

^\j

blood,

muscles, sinews,
y

and bones, are masc; as
*+

also,
is

in

most

instances,

^^j, when

t

it

means

(

relationship.

\j*jk*

sometimes

masc. and so
*

Je.]
also the use of the masculine gender, because the

[Some admit
6//
is

word

masc, jJj masc. or fem.

See MukaddasI,

p. 7,

1.

16

seq.

D. G.]

§

291]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst
* 6>0 3

<Ss

Adj.— Gender.
the plural),

179
which

(c)

Collective

nouns

(f-o-^t

xw, resembling

A

denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a

nomen

unitatis

;

as J^t camels, *y*

a herd of

she-camels,

J&&

sheep

or goats.
. .

b.

Feminine by form

0'' *> & j Cie- J0s are (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI)

:


2^+XSo

(a)

Nouns ending

in S_; as <Ua»

a garden,

darkness,

*'«»•,

1^ or *>*»•, /(#,
(/?)

Nouns ending
, ,

in

^~
,0,

or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b),

when B

*

that termination does not belong to the root
,,l

:

as {£$£>
,

a claim, a

demand, t^j*^ a
*

secret,
,

^^^

blame,

^j\

misfortune, jj£^»i memory,
x

^*>

the oleander, {£/*> the

prominent bone behind
* e-s

the ear,

ijy*« goats,
*>

'0 J so & * LJjJt the world, ^2+ir* barley-grass,

o j

b^j a vision or dream,

(j£j-*W

good

news, ic**- a fever.
>v

> a

z>

o

5 o J

Rem.

But those who say ^jM*,
masculine,

\Jj£), ^JD**,

and

^o^,

regard

C

them

as

the

^

being considered as an JjlaJt oUt

[§252].
(y)

Nouns ending
;

in l\—,

when that termination does not belong
a plain or
**
hole,

to the root
'

as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j,
~*

desert, iS^a

harm, mischief,

Os

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's

Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of

man) £%±;

vainglory, arrogance,

i\j*~i

a

sort of striped cloth.

Rem.
to which

A

3.1 is

few nouns ending in 5_1 and those verbal adjectives added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c),
,

D

are masc, because they apply to males
deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian
4jjtj
il

;

e.g.

4aJI». a successor,
'
"•>

*

podesta), 2u%e- very learned,

a traditionary.

291.
form or

The

following

is

a

list

of nouns which are feminine, not

by

signification,

but merely by usage.

180

Part Second.

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

292

t^xpjl

the earth, the ground, the floor.

w>ac a
j*s>

scorpion.

a caravan,

00

jXj

a

well.
\j*\*
3

an

axe.

war.
wine.

0x0

0*

u*3*jjd\
i

Paradise.

ot

j^jait

a

viper.

pp
0,
x

a coat of mail.
bucket.
house.
mill.

i ,

y> a
B
j\*

\j*3*& 0%,
*

an

adze.]

^»\£s a cup.

a
a

[v*j^

or u*j^* the

maw.]

^j*-j
9

a water-wheel, a catapult.

£-j>j
J

wind.
the sun.

S
J

x

u-^uJt
x

%~& a
J

^w^o a
hyarna.

razor.

x

jO
<-.

fire.

Ox

[0^£U»
J x

idol.]

Jju a
Ox

shoe or sandal.
soul.

u^3j^
O
x J

metre.
staff.

u~aj the

La* a

^y

a

traveller s

destina-

w>Us an
Rem.

eaqle.

tion.

Of these £l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, Ox and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a woman s 0, 00,S shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are
^

masculine.

Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the

word

of course as masculine.

D

292.
(a)

Masculine or feminine are :—
o

«*x

Collective

nouns (^^aJI

iLo-^1), chiefly
x x

denoting animals and
*»x

which form a nomen unitatis xx Oxx gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers,
plants,

;

e.g.

v»U-»- pigeons, |U>

OOx

Oxx

s^p

or

OOx OOx J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ;

Ox

locusts,

Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w

Oxx

£r06#,

[j**-* barley (gen. masc.)]

;

w>U»~» clouds,
fern,

Ox
O-jJ

Oxx
or

C*J

bricks,
J x

w*Aj

gw/e?.

These are masc. by form,

by

x x Ox

signification

(a^U&JI

totality).

§

292]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.
o

<fc

Adj.— Gender.
»

181

x o«>

*si£

/»-«

j

/»f

[(b)

Collective

nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-"

d W*t)>

denoting
<5

A

J/
ora^'*

rational

beings and not forming a
cfo.,

nomen

unitatis

;

e.g.
7),

>©$£

people or info?, lubj
x

jiJ a «»««// number of
5
»

men
*

(3

— ^0

ra^w

(gen.

masc), jo^> a company of merchants,

>~&j a company
D. G.]

of way-

farers, etc.
(c)

But

JJbl

and Jt

one's family, are masc.

The names
;

of the letters of the alphabet, which are
IjJb,

more

usually feminine

as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t
verbi (masdar).

£/«s

^/.
x

JO

x

x x

OP
.j
t

[(<#)

The nomina
x

One may

say ^Xj^o D. G.]

^n^

g

xJO

ox

x o£
\

and Mj*a ^Zxe».$ your striking caused me pain*.
(e)

Words regarded merely
Ox
lii),

as such.

These may be masculine,
5 x
x

following the gender of
«/i ££J.

or feminine, following that of ioJib or
m

A

5
;

noun may

also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ IX
. ; .

a verb,

5 *.

00

x

taking that of Jj«i
particle is
X X

and a

particle, taking that

of

o^-.
s x£

But a

more usually feminine, following the gender of
*° oe seems
>

Sbl.

The C

verb
)

0^>
/

by common
x

consent to be taken as feminine
like proper

i irf

x

J x

5

"^

x

(d»oU)l

(J^> 4„oiUt O^)-

Such mere words are treated
article, as IjJb

names, and therefore do not take the
this

EU

or ajjb *U,

word *U

(water).

number of nouns, of which the following are (/) most frequently occur. those that
considerable
[Ssl>\
x

A

the.

armpit (gen. masc.).]
article

ijJbj the belly (gen.
5
x

masc).

D

j\j\

an

of

dress.

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).]

0x0

Jt the mirage.
Ox
x

jt^l
being,

the

thumb or ^raȣ

toe

jJ^j

a human

human

(gen. fern.).
x

l^jo a breast (mamma).
*

[This seems to be the explanation of

noun,

Hamdsa

78, vs.

1,

* O^-oJt djjb
J
Si
\

O^ being used

as a fern.

this cry my,

Comp. Lane.

D. G.]

w**l3 a 0* well. fern.).] * V cL. p-*^~> < 6 J a weapon. etc. .182 Part Second.- C o of wood. . <» tj»o J a way.]. a knife 0-a^> s (gen. fumed] jjS a pot. J O^. *• (gen.L».] ^h^S a bow » (gen. 5 [cr*i^ [ftlji cwfoY (gen. £. tion [gen. a phantom. t3>w « market.] 00 j J \Jix~> * J a path.). weapons. masc). ?-*-o peace. fern.—Etymology or the Parts of Speech. s OjJla. JU< - state. 0>jJ» a road.). p\*o a measure for the forenoon.). condition (gen. [j^c. a marriage. fern. fern. a shop.ambergris. soul [when signi£-3j spirit. fern. masc). [JUa. i^ji a horse [gen. masc). fern. > JUs the neck. 0^0 [§ 292 £*°\ • //?^r « wmgr (gen. j**~t peace. the rump [gen. a road (via strata). 90 j ^o^w a ladder. hence] [ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- power. corn. J US the the nape of the neck. masc). a o o m kettle (gen. a sovereign. Ij3~> a wall (gen. natural disposi- V>^ J a large bucket. fern. ySis> OJ a spider (gen.). rain. used in producing fire (gen.b nature. fern. juf» the liver. clouds.l a Aar# ' (gen. a road.jUaiw authority. IU-w the sky or heaven. [prop. <Sj~> journeying by night.* « B shop. street or lane.]. fern. a booth. I) . - J~~£ /toney.] jJj the upper of the two pieces ^hj^ a wedding.] a tooth.). J s fying a celestial being always masc] [{3^j 00 * <*> j^fr the hinder part.]. \ o <oi ij*^ 6 v^. fern.).

fo'to or shin-bone. Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther and jti have forms distinct form of the word . cannot lay claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy. as S^l^w from ^l-o-w. are mas- culine. A.- great. aj^jJxa . A u LJ 9 0^ 0' ftfo tongue. [Rem.§ 294] II. CO . ^— . Nouns Subst. i-jjLo mi #> . affecting the ^— 294. since the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. x w>jj~cu© j^. are later times ^i. 183 clj^ M0 ^j3la 9 masc). before 3. *+Jk* 9 • x . fitgrAt *~l* sa^ (gen.] and jJj a well. & Adj. feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_. [*zXLc dominion. radius or ulna) of the fore-arm.] [j^jdfc ffl^l. ^ grandfather. a^3) a yotmg woman. the mouth. b). and s-^ja. masc). from the masculine. of Adj.] Rem. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived from verbs tertise $ or may be replaced. the upper arm. *»'*jJ w>ilo striking. 9 J ' . a boat or \ used as feminine 9 ' whilst juac. or CC (§ 290. . a roof or and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast. ajUL» from *Uuw. j£&>. (for 3 j^ a grandmother . and that contained in § 291. masc). in ship. %\+~t a.). by the radical ^ letter. and some substantives of the mascu- line gender. u^m 9 . « y 9 " ' For example. The most usual termination. the right direction. fern. become masculine. 9^0^ 9^x0^ «*-ji 9 J glad. j) 9 x • . a water-carrier. ^Xs (for SUd ^^3) a young man. The above list. 9 ^ 3_. (gen. 9 * The ' masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 9 in words which were anciently of both genders. Jjj the bone (either ceiling. which must be learned by practice. 9 x Rem. an intestine (gen. - 2^i <jl©ju repentant. a. The Noun. 9^J0^3" struck. JJ M# (gen. as jU fire. s the shoulder. Rem. [^j£s.— Fern.. the maw. by the mere addition is of which to the masculine feminines are formed. B b. jui» the liver. but the . C From most adjectives 293.

another. a. without any corresponding masculines. The latter word can be used indefinitely. 3* oio* * 3 * it Oi 0* \^£j^\ 3 . in which last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. in which case the feminine "0 largest. and below b. as O^**' ta ^ an d slender. 30* . feminine by adding S_ 5/ *0 3 . O— * the old pausal form d_ ah. gCA 3 *0i form J^t. io* . . " ° J 3* . This view is . * 0*03 Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an(^ O*^** form their 0*0* 0**0*0*03 . &UL*w O^j* naked. as . not in signification. cities. ^£jJuaA\ jjtety\ 30* 30* ^ yoJAaU ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the a.] 10—15. . fearing. ^** 3 * as y£s!^\ the the greatest. has ^j^t. feminine. e. with hemza. o io* lowing genitive. c. Gr. angry.— Etymology * * * ' or the Parts of Speech. 0^**> the feminine of which * 3*0* * 3*0* . because it is superlative only in o * £ * o form. ^J*%c. 7 supra). § 301. i^WJ* * &*%ofidl. Rem. do\jj£. The numeral jt»»t. iO * 3 3 *0 * 3*0*3*0* * I o!/*-* drunk. 87. i jsuc^S the smallest. is ^jk** *0* .\ (forjjktl) other. i*JL». § 299.-Jt *0 3 Zt 3 female. and are defined by the article or by a foladjectives From . *03 Rem. O***** sated. are preferable c. ^j~a£ *0 * ^j*** 3 i*0 * o^ hungry. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original " * . as SAJLj. at. . (b) O^A±- timid. . . when they have the superlative signification. and the modern d_. Kamil. B 295. rem. * b.pregnant. (a) * * . rem. * O is * . " iJy^S that of j±. ^UUa*. Feminines in (^— are formed : — > * 3 From as adjectives of the form * 3*0* oW"*^ * .184 Part Second. of the n yj . ijj/^t. 1. £)^+^> * ^^as-. . te\j£. see Comp. {£j£~> thirsty. 3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* D is Rem. one. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5. comp. 133—137. ^Jiji* . . The feminine 3 * of 3 * Jj^l if- (for J2j^)t or * Jjt^t) the i first. *>» [§ 295 A forms p. . confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages. •&\ not superlatives. *0 * (-0* . 0*0* Rem.-jj which has recently yeaned (of a ewe or she-goat).

where Ox J x x . 24 .. i\j*<*»- * r>J^\ hump- bached. tSyuo j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect. which have not the comparative and superlative signification J x £ *sb x J x .» Ogx meaning of Jjaa* as S»*«o Jx a patient (woman) Ox J x 2j>U. an enemy. amazed. rough new i w^aH the Arabs of pure race. Ojdx Ox J x .. OxO*> x J x Sjjifc . a. Rem. *bjjdt */» / (rain).j a patient and grateful man. [w>>^ ojsj a full grown J x :Tx . 8 O Exceptions are rare < . Stw a sAorw sAeep. \jy**e ^rt)j J x I saw that Ox x x s^0 was.— Fern.^ a lying man. x t ** ^ x x he has not a Ox D she-camel to ride. " J 5 x /0 x x0 x e -&- O^**^ 3°yfu ^ »*W*h O!/**" perplexed. when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- and is as OJxxOJxOjx predicate to attached to a substantive in the singular. as }j& x hostile. fern. OJxOx Umm Ma 'bad. w>J*^ £ J Jj*. nor one for milking. A JajI. Many *x O x of these adjectives are not in actual use in the masculine i\£s^t> . i x The form x 2*}JL»i *»x sometimes serves as feminine to &%**. Nouns Subst. and also if it has the Ox J x . of Adj.-3 [and again. ^£j-t^ an d 297.] no milch-ewe in xx Ox x the >t»^a aSU or yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. *->_$*& 2 Sl^et x » x x xJOCx a JyiVfcj woman . G. 185 296. .^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^. The following forms are of both genders. ° -» " . C-wjJt ^^ X w>j-^X ^ ^Aere is ten*. .§297] II The Noun. . J x . Jj**. Ox J ^ xx Ox J x xx XX w^tj /saw aJ>o^Ox J ^3 *W^^. i\^~*** beautiful. & Adj. Rem. as we Oxx read in the tradition of Jx w. whilst &>*»2 j x = JjLLet*. J x £ as yua\ yellow. Jj>*3 makes a feminine Jx aJj*5. as J x x J x C OCx j^£wj j5~e patient J**.. J x jy&j jj*o J x Z\j*c\ OCx a O J x | J x and grateful woman. patient . as p"}UaA heavy to the feel (a and continuous dress). or / thought her. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form . \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient . nor one 'x J to x carry loads. db^£>j and 5->>^». £ r<0 s . • " (a) sitive). . But Ox if no substantive or pronoun be expressed. D. or serves a substantive or a pronoun in the singular. A. antelope].. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. ibj^.

J-^5 oUi a murdered woman. $$^=> a D. 0^**° speaking 0£x Ox ». = iLo^Jco x J 0«» Ox x and. j^J^o. Hence the difficult nouns >yt. when it ->x has the meaning of Jy***. <1 D. 3 ju^». . £/te Exceptions are rare Ox . x 5 x t jlj <aa. 233.o # OxjOxOxxOxOx . For example : Ox dJLai d-*~o aJjo^.and p a declivity. b. fa^C. . which were afterwards originally nomina instrumenti (§ . it If J~*s has the meaning of .o an l^-Jfe O acclivity. (§ 6). and under the G . 0x0 « and J**a*. x JJ/ (b) J**s.J1 . J UJLd. 228). Ox x self-willed woman.] . G. rem. '£x 6 under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i x ( e. mercy (c) is C>xru>a». Oex d\j*t>\ 9->j>e*.. Zj~a-> + + . chaste. 4jli*^ [.J mountain-road « of ascent. 0x0 II ^ . but (t ^. x . blameworthy habit. aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's nigh unto them who do 0x6 J*a*.<« x x x W a new wrapper. **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w (a sheep) which has been (partly) B eaten by a beast of prey. a praiseworthy way of acting. as ^yJL^c poor. docile 0x0 ?rawcA 'xx young woman who uses x J OCx she-camel. tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate. x x Exceptions in either case are i rare.186 Pakt Second. aa^ac t/ojj* Rem. x 2ri^A. but X J t^/ W J X 0/« XX ajjjj^JI iLjs j x C-otj j x i / saw i (the zs x woman) whom the HarRris had murdered. [§ 297 A [Rem. G. or intransitive). = 5^^=>. ._ but became intensive Jx Ox x adjectives . ' * same conditions as J>ai x e. but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much perfume.g. or j-Ja.j^ w^j-5 well. or the Parts of Speech. <jUju» isU a <* «. a x ~ x J x . on the other hand.< Sl^ot is allowed.g. ^U * x (transitive forms a feminine in 3— x Ox as ^^-oJ « helper.j-*£ xx a» ^ adorned with kohl.** *oW>> 2x perfume. fern. <Ua>JU . a wounded woman. ZjuslZ oLag temperate. —Etymology fern. Ox Rem. J*o*^» x .C>». <"• • % * 2-J& an intercessor. jlkfc* ajjU*.

] menstruating. like verbs. at any rate. J B ^U. JXJ every * woman who J pregnant s * *0i d s * J & i .g. last 9 1.jX^i £Lcl». 15. j-wl». ^J-a**.ti Adj. 6e divorced lias £/&e ^A she is menstruating to-day . . 9 m* s # 9 ' barren. by their signification. jJbl).witfA ^eao? awe? Obi suck. . The Numbers of Nouns. jj-^t^o Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried if and of middle age] and likewise JJpa^.. G. w^olk.. dsuo). R. c J Those adjectives that are properly 9 0* O J 9 3 .— The Numbers. I ji£ iiUUs .0 ** her time or term. applicable do not form a feminine in 5_1 when they designate . ' j-ojto.j&3 and some others as jU. to females only. / 60/ v~*>-> ' J u~o. as C ^oaJI i-tful». bust naked. jy>. pregnant. her. ^Zo bearing twins. s * 9s. three numbers. J**** D. n.. *->*>*>-. Rem. O x 0*0' «r. A. Adjectives which are. § 136. as ^J-ol*.] ^. an action or state as natural and permanent. of course. JLac etc. 187 infinitives (§ 230. 96* *r^> *. the singular. dual. (see § 81). a) e.§299] [(d) II.tlib. w-. chaste. or about to begin (£ol». p-*&j*o OOJ^ giving her. 0s . JJ»U without ornaments. The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting. But they designate the said action or state as beginning. 298. Jako having a c/uW or a young one with having a whelp with ^jjuL© having a fawn with her. CUa-ojl U. The Noun. 299. every woman who is suckling (in the act of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been suckling.-A sAe will is to-morrow .c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ day when ye shall see it. [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam . Nouns Subst. oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn. the ten win) as w>L^ a book. s S. 00^*' A and yj am M Vol. . and plural Nouns have. rem. O^j or . actually in progress. having swelling breasts. J) 3. js*-c [^jLa». £/&e J JkJlk divorced. lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) O^ - or. as iU. they form a feminine in 3_. ^aui*.

§ 167. l£>** legal opinion. which was originally a 3.. it 5 or l£—)' ^ becomes a so again in the dual . for 16 3 3^). oW^ a 15*:. m Hl-> OW*-j l L5**" > interdicted ground. b. sbl ' or the Parts of Speech. when sprung from a radical $ or ^. CT ^L^». the j is restored the dual . —Etymology a nation. for . t.) as <Lc\ ^j\Zc). two buttocks. the j x o£ . \j\}\jjua. the singular of which. x x x . {\J>— a). of the termination «x 2 1_ denoting the femi.-3j $7*e oW"^*the A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* if upper parts of \j}j Jco . would be Rem. jjt^-ot US the nape of the neck. J) c. J . as j*v^* a musical instrument x x (from l^J for >yJ). But <Ut a J and testicle. [§ 299 A a If the singular ends in . r*' x w*s b x x x X . Rem. —In and even ^jbl^a^o. a. usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. The hemza . O (see rt^ ^rni. as Lac a for $*a£.« ^^ rendered contented (from x x ^. x x however.. but Q becomes xx a ^ mobile. 3 5 x x s s v£ ' x -» OW^* ^^ct purblind 00 J (from x < j^^c J . a. %\^ a mantle (for £}W*J or Oh^J Some. x © x nine X (§ X 296). . jl. —If the singular of a quadriliteral is noun ends in a quiescent ^£. O^J^ l^*" P re9 nan (\1 or OW*^ is 1 jj^l^.red. \j\5sid. ^j\i\j*~a. jjljt^^o *" x i\j^». admit the forms oWUl .*. Rem. ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» k£\>j)- .a bustard. said by some to be admissible.188 Part Second. 3 is changed into buttock. a. xxxxxxOJ for 3-oj).-XS. SI . If the singular ends in a quiescent which was originally mobile (compare § 167. though the former preferable. not restored in the dual. Forms like ^jtzl/*.>0. § 294. ft. which was ill originally $ mobile (compare staff. the hemza is may retained or changed into 3. <jW* c ^•©~~« 3 x named (from^wt for^^w). ^ fi. r*' X tjljU*Jsu> i\j^~a a x desert. x are. a). rem. >**>ja butt for shooting. oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. B OW occur. as ^J3 a youth. «L»£> a dress (for jdJb). x the termination either be as *T_. <*x jjtjl/*^- t\j&«o x x x x x x yellow. used. I said to If the singular ends in a quiescent t_l). becomes 3 x . as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom.»>. . however.

§

299]

II.

The Noun.

A. Nouns Subst.
294, rem. a).
is
x*

& Adj.— The

Dual.

189

and jjbL*£3 (comp.
(see § 259),
x

§

In the case
to

of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb

A

the better course
^,
;

change
*s0

it

into

$

;

as ^ULfc,

xO

*'0

x

tjljLU or ^teLU.
f
x

?yj*>,

£)h^J^

or

O^Wj^--

If the
^5j

hemza

of

£x x

—In words or more jjUt^5 ?loj (fromj-oj), the rejection of the terminations ^ and *L.is admissible; as .Jj>». to,
;

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into £ j x ~-*3 ^ 5j c2i
(jteloj.

j

;

as

*\j3

(from

j^.5),

of five

letters,
xx
x

~'

,,o

x

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&x

;

{Jj*Jj having a hairy face,
x

Ox
;

t x

xx

t

sO xx
;

*»x

x

jjljjuj
"
t

{JjZ*-+$

a

big, stout camel,

^\jZsu$
x x
J

^U-elS a jerboa's hole,
_

B

'
;

^btoll
xxOx

"' "° J fliJUii

xxx

x

a black
x

beetle,
x

jjLJUi.
x x ^0

;

instead
3

of

oMj>»»>

xxxOxx

x

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,.

Rem. d. If a has been elided in the singular after a kesra and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in
* x
x

^

x
5

x

x

x
J

x

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L>
x x x
'

f° r
u«fl>>

^^j
^».

OW-^b

««A
*

for
is

^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare

§

166, a).

— In
;
!

like

manner, an elided j
(for y>\, *».t,

C

restored in the dual of

some words

as w>l,

ȣ.!,

>^)> Ol>A X
and
Ox
«x

Ol**-* (rarely X «»J x» x ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; x x x x x
Ox
xx
,j1jlj,

0^)> O >o*-.
X

C*'X

and^tX
/A

.Ui (for ^^
//»

5^0

^-wx
xx

or **f1 makes x xx

<J^
x

or

x

O^'x x
*

xxx
x

xxx
x
;

^,v©.>,

and^i, have

0^>> an ^
xxx

0^»
xx x

rarely

cAn^> 0^*0>
O-**

xxx
Ol**-*, still more rarely XX xxx

<Jls^ an d

OW-

j-»-

makes o!>*-

,jUa or O'y^X X

Rem.

e.

If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the
;

D

singular, it is not restored //J 0x 0x0 xx ^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3
xxx
^O^x
;

;

as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), x x x x xxx Oxx x6 x aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w,

Oxxx

xxx

^juLj

^Ua, for

o^A, ^jUua.
is

Rem.

/.

The dual
S X

commonly employed

in Arabic to signify

two individuals
XXX
as
(JjUfrXa-,

of a class, as

O^^J

t,wo

nwn, or a pair of anything,

or

^Lai*, a pair of

scissors.

When

two objects are

190

Part Second.

— Etymology

or

tlie

Parts of Speech.

299

A

constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other

GO,

is

termed w^JLxj,
- *i

the

making
s - ^ *x

it

prevail over the other.
<h

For example

:

i

* - i

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father
Of

;

^jI^a-I brother
3 s sbs

and
£/<€

sister,

from
*

»-t
sb'

brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww

erne?
J

moon, from

j-oJUl

moon;
Basra

0*6*

yj[9jJi^i\ the east

and

west,

from

Jjj*L©JI

£ * bs the east; [jjU>l^*J!

B

and Kufa ;
Tigris*
;]

^)U5^Jt
s s * 0*

Rakka and Rafika ;
and

^\3\jsA\ the
3

Euphrates and
* * bs
,M

^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan 'All);

el-Hosein,

from ^...^

tl-Hasan

(the elder son of
3 " J

(Jlh**^

''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab

and 'Abu

Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar.

and "heaven and " " earth," ahanl, day and night," usasau, morning and evening," " Mitra and etc. Mitra, Varuna,"

Compare

in Sanskrit pitarau, "father
sister,"

mother," bhratarau,

"brother and

rodasi,

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a
s,oio*

quality that the
(of things) for

two have

in

common,
;

as

\jlis^i*j\

the

two

coolest

morning and evening
* * b

jUs^l

the two best ones for

ibs

eating
**

and

coitus ;

^\j*^ty\

the
*

two red ones for meat and wine;
,
,

bib*

*bib*

b,

£)\>y>*$\ dates
Ci

and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl
s * b i b*

or

' i by

^tjw*.*^)l the

two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the
' '

heart

and

the

tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and

-U

'

<' • * '

D

dung or

sleeplessness

and disquietude of mind ;

&\jJ\j)\ the Tigris

and Euphrates.
Rem.

D. G.]
is

h.

The dual
or from

sometimes formed from broken plurals
ill\
or

300,

b),

£^ajf

290,
°^

a,

e),

to designate

two

bodies or troops
«»

(O^U-»-

O^h*)
(^)*>\),

^ ne objects in question.
* *+

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels

<jl»o*i£

two flocks of sheep or

*

two

sides of the

[The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.]

§

300]

II.

The Noun.
9//
x x

A. Nouns Subst

& Adj.— The
(from

Plural 191

Ox
JUj*.,
pi. pix

goats (^t>),
x x

O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels
x

of

A

x

Ox

J*©**.),

xOxxxOxxx'x

\jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ,

of 4&*JtJ)

;

JJLjJj JJUU
of)

^Uj

^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes

Ox
pi.

O

Oj
;

x
t

->2<«x

Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;,

of

<^)

^>o^t we
o/*

fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md

?w
b

j

j |

OJC
J>ot,
pi.

£

.

(aaaJI

J>-^l), from

of J-©l

a

rootf;

[comp. in

Hebrew

D^nbh].
3
O x

O

5 x

J

Rem.
in their

i.

Proper names of the

class

^^j-* w*^=>«

264) vary

mode

of forming the dual.

pound be indeclinable and

If the first part of the comthe second declinable, the latter takes

x J x Ox the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto,

xx

Ox

^jbj^^j***.

But

if

both

Oxx

parts be indeclinable, as in du^****,
5x
J

or,

when taken

together, form

x

5px

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU,

—recourse must be had to a periphrasis
x x

Oxx
<ju^**~>

5

x

x

££x

XX
tji,

with j3 possessor of; as

l^i,

\j£>

hu\j

too

men

called

C

Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran.
constructus,
x x

If the first part

be in the status
xx
xO X

it is
J

simply put in the dual, as i^iU*
Ox

Ijl*c
Ox

two
jg

men

x

xx £

'

called

i^J
Ox

U* jue
il

'.4fo2

Menaf

*5

x

juj \^\ two Oy3l-OjO

men

called joj ^j\ 'Abu

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too

men

called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir.
o £

But

in

oo
etc., it is
x

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\>

allowable to put the

Ox

xx£

second part in the dual likewise, as

^juj

U^L

300.
(a)
J

There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic.
»

D
J

x Ox

The

one,
J

which has only a single form,
xJ0*>
J x x

is

called

^^j»JI

5^»

£

^,.o>.

^J t, or 9-*~A+n
J

a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis
x Ox

£

>o

J

x

x

£

*>

jOx

sanus),

and ^JLJI

f-o^J',

or <u^LJ!

* *a.,

ftfa

complete or entire

plural, because all the vowels and consonants

of the singular are

retained in
(6)

it.
J 5 x J>/» J x Ox
ft,

The

other,

which has various forms,

is

called j~X«Jt

* «^

192

Part Second.
o

—Etymology

or the Parts of Speech.

301

A

a&

j o *

orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken

plural (pluralis fractus), because

it is

more

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels.

301.

The

pluralis sanus of masculine
;

nouns

is

formed by adding

the termination \J3— to the singular
pluralis

as Jj;L>

a

thief,
x

£jijW
is

The

sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_,
Ox
Ox

Ox

formed by

9/

/

9

/

/
;

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>,
x
f

oISjLj
M

of those which do not
J

xO

x

5

//»

/

B' end in S_, by adding

Ol_

to the sing.,

as^j-* Mary,

oU-jj-o.

Rem.

a.

If

the singular ends in

elif

maksura, with or without

ten win (^£— or

i<—),

—or in

kesra with ten win (_), arising out of
),

^_
and

x

167, b,

arising out of
§ 167, a,

— or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— down in 166, a and ^— — then the rules
/?),
,

laid

§

b,

/3, J

t x

J

xx

/?,

c,
x

are to be observed.
x x J

E.g. .JLkucu*, for
J

.Jua^u
J
5

x

J x x

245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*,
xx

and
X J

in the oblique cases
X
J X

x

x x

J
;

X

J

X

x

C

^^jiJautfuo, for

Ox

^^JLkutfU
x

^*»>^o Moses,
x
J

Oy^y*
x

^or

03t^3-°

U*^S

J x

for

v

XX ^ol3,
J

^.olS,

« judge, £)yc\S, for
X

<J|$*olS,

and

in the oblique cases
X J

X

X0X

Jx0X
for

X 0X

Xj
£

for jJ-ja-oIS;

^UJt,
cw
#

^£la*JI,
'i

^e
J

barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt,
x
i2

XX
;

X0J
^-l.>
xx
x J

x x

>

x

for ^^-jJU^Jt
xx x
;

pregnant, oULj>.;

^a.^JI

£Ae

smallest,

xxJ

OL>^.«.cJt

^U~>

a quail,

OtJt^w.

Rem.
tives of
I)

J.

of the middle radical in feminine substanx0 x0x J X0J the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$,
0x

The gezma

derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which

may

either be the
x

same as that

QxxxS0P
;

of the first syllable, or in all cases
x x£

fetha.

Kg.
;
g

J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,>
^

(nlV)X)
Ox0x
00
^

a^

Jx

x

Oxxx
Ox

s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt
x

'-4Mb, xxx

O^JLt
;

;

0x0 x aauai, A.i».,
x

OxxxSxxx

a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**.

;

x

Oxxx
a coming in
0x0
the

4jj3 a village,

OxxOb^i0-*

03 j£
;

jUA
0x0

Hind, Ol jUA or
ZAe
lotus-tree,

Oxx

morning,

OtjUA

Oxx

ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or J Ox J OxJJ /
;

Otjj^ Ox Ot

;

Sjjurf

Oljju* or Oljju*

J****.

™,

O^Loa. or

§301]

II.

The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.

<&

Adj.

—Pluralis Sanus.
x*

193

9 j£ + » sl*y*&o*.
si J

;

x xJ /JJ 5 t + fi <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU*

;

43j&>
x * J

an upper chamber,

A

xx J

J

Oli^ft or Oli>£.

In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma

may

also

Ox*

x *J

<5

x * J
;

-

x t/

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^]
x
-

but in dJUi this can
x
<*x

x

be done only by poetic license, as
x Sx

OLo$j from
x "x

JLcJj looseness or

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from a sigh. Names of men of Zj3j J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^»..
x-> J

marriage, has
x

0*}l»i

is

Ox
Otjji). X X

not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not

OLj^. ##

—In

x

SAai, if the third radical be ^, the x ^ Ox* 0x#

form

B

A

Ox
rare exception
is
x

Ox*
[If the

Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. XX X
is

third radical be

^,

the form 0*}Hxs

likewise disapproved.

One

Ox*
may
uses
x

Ox*
S.]

Ox
oUaJ,
instead of which one
X * J

say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not
j^jatoJ.
^

R.

—In
x
_>J

iUi,

if

the third radical be
0x*J

^,

the form
xxj
i

xJJ

Ox* J

0>*i
xx J

is

inadmissible, as
x

2u3j

a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j,
middle radical be 3 or ^, 0x*x 0x*x retained as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*.
If the
;

C

J

OUl£»
f

(but not OUSj, OlJl£»).

the gezma of these three forms
x * x

is

— ##
ea^,
§

QsOsGsa*
;

<Lojj a garden,

Otojj
0x0
9x
;

a-cuj

aw

0x*x9x*x
;

;

a helmet, Olcuo;

OLc

Q

*0 *
;

G s

Ox

*+-i> (for *-o-!i)

a

lasting, still rain,
Ox* J

OloJ)

A**ft a fault, Ox Ox* £s-o (for 4jco)

a church,

OlxJ

Ox

J

dUj> (for 5Jj>)
is,

a turn of fortune, a

vicissitude,

0*9^.
especially

The vowel fetha
in

however, admitted dialectically *,

x*x

Oxxx
j x *x

xxx

xx

the form aX*5, as Otj^.,
<

OUj,
^

Oxx
r

Ol^>>, ObuJ,

D

O^y —Substantives
rad. gemin.

OxxJ

of the

forms ilsi, derived from verbs med.
OSx
fix

9 5 x
;

always retain the gezma; as
8
x
;

Sji

a mote, Olj3

Sjlw
£

d

a charge or

attack,

fl

Ot Jw
x

oj^c
X

Mj

a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; X
the case with
S'***
;

j

5^> a navel, Ot^-w.

The same

Oxdx
*

x *
g

Oxxx

is

all
»

adjectives, as
« x *
;

x * x

<L»sL-o

/>?'//,

Ol.Q.t* .o (not

Ol^aL .0)

dAy~> easy,

O^IL^

rta>

Ac /a2

[Yiz. in the dialect of

Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik,

i.

43.

D. G.]

w.

25

194

Part Second.
9
* 6

—Etymology
9* 6 3
;

or the Parts of Speech.
9
e>


r,

302

A

.

3

, a,

and

strong, Ola.Jlc-

S^JL»- sweet,
* 0'*

Ot^^*..

Exceptions

are,

<bu^ of

***

o * o *

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having
9
*

little

milk (of

**

a sheep or goat),

OUaJ.
as third radicals, reject their fetha in the
t

Rem.

c.

If

3 and ^,

fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into (§ 214, and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with
9
\

*

9 *

*

9**

*

%

* * *
;

°

t'~

the vowel.

E.g.

S^Xo or

3*>Lo,

prayer
;

(for S^Lo),

B

or,

cane,

spear, tube
«»**

(for 3^;$),

Otj^S
9* ,$
j

3Ui,
o

Oty«o a young woman
(compare

3U5,
(for

«xxx


;

*6 J

* *6 3

A*Ii),
(3,

OLX9
with

olcj«c,

thrown

(for

^u^o),

OU^«

§ 167, a,

a,

§ 166, a).

Rem.
3_I
,

c?.

If the third radical has

been elided in the

sing, before

may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. * * 9 * * 5/ i 0x0 9 9 * E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc
it

;

9**
2u~j

Oxfix

9*6*

9

- x x

9

xxx
;

u

~

(for

9*6* or SjAw) a
9 * *£

Syw

or

A^w) a
9
* * *

?/ear,
9

Ot^-w and Olyiw
9 *i
;

2^"
£a^> (for

5"

° "

d^Aw
slave, 9* J
;

* * *

9 *


9

9*** Ox? ** ' Sua (for 3^;*), a Ol^-ot or OUI 8/tj (for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon,
;

lip,

OlyAw

or

Ot$Aw

A*l
t

(for
9

Sj^t) a female

xxx

* *

OLb
9
*

thing, Ot^-iA or x J 9*6* 9*3
;

OUa
«w

^UB

SjJ (for 3«^j)
9
* 3
;

armlet,
9*0

9

*3
;

*3

9*

J

* *

a ring, Ot^j
O
x

2uj (for 3^*j)
9*

a troop or
Ol5«
*

9*6

6awc?, 9*
;

OUj
9

3&

(for 4*3)

9*0

the
9

gum,
*

OU)*
6

;

OU*.

— C-*o

&5j (for <L5j) a lung, * * 9*6 9***
<3UjI

ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, * x
**
;

9

6%

or
t

9 *

(for 4^), 9 * *£

a daughter, makes C>Uj

and C*£.t

(for S^&J),

a

sister,

OtjA»t.
*<

x

»»

x

D

Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§
i**

gl_

6

*

r*

H *
9

f**6 *

r*

* *

9**6*
or

is subject 299, rem. c).
9 *
Si

*

Hence from
9
*

l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ.
9 *
I

t\~*~>,

are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j,
five

*6 *

*

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf.
sometimes reject
*
* J

9

**

* J

—Words of the terminations ^ and *l—
* * *

more
9 *

letters
c)
*
;

(see §

299, rem.

9

*

' 3

*>
J

'

*

as

^U»., Ob^LaThe

or

OtjU^

^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols.

302.
(a)

pluralis sanus masc. is

formed from

:

Proper names of

men

(excepting those which end in S_, as

* * in the 9 commentary on the Diw.— Plur. vs. * J 9 * ^j^Lfe^j jJv^Z (dimin. which have the comparative and 3 j t j * i j ^ i superlative signification. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and adjectives that have the plur. p. of J**g a man). sanus masc. a. etc. G. San. § 304. OJJ^&y*' 9 * . £)yJb^ from ib J o^j. «. Adjectives. Nouns Substti Adj..] (d) The relative adjectives in O ^— 9* ' 3 9 * o (e) The words &\ 9 6* (for ^o) a son. sanus masc. The Noun. § 296. Masc.^\& • Ot one of the four classes 3' of created beings. s lOiO + d Or* * wi OtO . have the plur. 5) we find o>*^ 120. masc. etc. only to substantives denoting rational beings. (e) may be added of the and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form * In a o Zj poem and J of en-Nabiga (Ahlw.0> which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^. see § 340. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. 90s ( as jOs J t>«oJk 9 I 'Othman. We *iO>o ought to mention also the expressions . J) Rem. fern. 13. App. when joined Rem. c)*. * J m O^U^s . D. rem. II. £-*»»t. of j^ti) an inferior poet.*?. they might seem belong rather to the class of plur. £^t> A***. from last < 1. J***J (dimin. To the words enumerated under highest heavens. jjt the goose. 195 AaJ-b). Rem. A. adjectives exemplified by j**o\. For the see 2. and the diminutives of J I common nouns * J A J sO J * J . ±jbj\ the earth. Jjbt . < . however. » of Hudeil. have also the s plur. (b) Verbal adjectives which form their by adding 5— (c) Adjectives of the form J»»it. ones family. of jus Abd). their diminutives. b. jj the possessor (of a thing) (rarely O>*^. san. \JyJ&. which denote rational beings. fern. etc. B f ' lLauL£». sing. 03>*#i* 'JOsjOOsJ . c.§302] II. though by their to fern. Oy°j\ in the construct C 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only state jjj. but more especially from adjectives when used substantively. rem. j 90s J Ju*fc * 'Obeid (dimin.

x 3 x in x . Rem. j>~L*>. Rem. a privy. 4 ^. but of animals 5 or other objects (see § 191. have a plur. « xx wholly indeclinable. which the third radical (j. rem. s i Further.— Etymology J l or the Parts of Speech. (§ 323). volcanic x 5 the termination o_ disappearing entirely x x ( x i x£ B district. rem. has been elided. sanus masc. x . In proper names of the is class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264).U ^J^. $>\. stars in of XX ^ytj£- OUj. J ^t. is rem. a sphere. when they are the names. c). . e. d. Some x fern. [cas. Comp. 6).196 Part Second. from 20 up to 90 x J x '. i 'z-Zubeir . D but in the case of compounds with to say . especially those of Od x . > *^* a stick ?/ear. jx which are called j 0.g. JL». ^t J any one of etc. J^J and 'Ibnu »W^> an d men Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid. x x x \jjj hu\j $£. vulva. men x Construct compounds. very J irregularly. it is also allowable added that compounds XX with ^\. it \Jy^ j^ OlJ^ an(^ the rarer forms \Jy>\. d) nouns in S_l . as Zj&. si)3J^ *jj an d. ^JA x O J > JP a . a stony. Great Bear. £)£j 3j£» a ball. 03J^ . and called j*4j)\ l O^t. rem. arises a. (§ C the formation of the plural analogous to that of the dual 299. ^j^k* obliq. form <u^^w jj3 and Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. form ol. § viz. Thus w>j£jjui«©. 5/0 take the feminine plural C>Uj »»x J 6 (from jjlau OUj or &ut) . makes £)$tj£-i ****© but <su^*w and ** a x \jjj x ££x isuD. thing. which have no singular. o i Oj^> from w>l and «U. used by children at play.j-|juj £bt w>t. 325.. not of persons. also § 108]. like x x J it 0s& 10 j Ox fsr* otu. [like &+Lc ii. J>^5] 41w a x Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word. ^*j^ the ^1 « weasel. £)yc& ^ j j \ a lung. <J}L*. a secondary formation ^>*iw. — It may be b. [§ 302 A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short. see § 340. OjJ^) ***^ a thorny tree. and the like. as also the numerals denoting the tens. juj j-ojJt H-^t. h). e. %\* the tail ^jj\ the a water-fowl. x etc. possessors. which the second member only x x 9 x ' &' declinable.

9 a village. o£ J *0£ . x i x may be formed from any word ending in 3_. x 3s. as xx . [Rem. Nouns Subst. The pluralis sanus fern. the masculine gender of which has the C pluralis sanus. of the letters. 00 9 x ( xx .0*3 3 . plur. x i 3 x Ox j^jjJ\ w>U-ot.—Plur. 33 j Jl^Jt C^o 303. 3 b/O 33 j>jJt xx . The names # # (§ 292. J xOx t 9 xxtfx . According to ©x x 9 some grammarians the x ' ' ' .] j^Jt ^JU JUM c-^j.Lp. rem. the derived forms 5 x x 202) x x x . . as j*j 5 . is formed from : — men as end in 9 B Wx .lt S ^ »-*}Uxot a technical term. Obji <Lc^Xe- a very learned man. Proper names of women.*sjjl oL£t P>*aJI 'O-O J j $ wJUJI 3 . Oljlj-o 301. e) . b). w**. The nomina verbi * " used in a concrete sense. Otj* x iaJJa Talka man's name). as *Jj>j*3 _ a definition. o * bio word in the status constructus A the following genitive of possession as *<*aJI 3 3b'0 duJj *0i pi. x Z (§ ^£^3 x x J memory. Fern. O^t^w. admit also of a pluralis fractus. xx and fourth forms. If a jo <& Adj. Obj£^ xx l\j«a distress. wJ^UJt JUit or *0*O J w*UJt JU*t x 3 t>*o jujJt w)U^ol or . and such names of 3 ^x 5.§303] II. (a OL-UJ juA Hind. f. of the second oW^LLot. •*» / » M fife 9 Moharram. of the months x .z2a. G. OljUA xx Sj^ 'J. (c) s Feminine nouns in 9 ^~ r*St and x l\— . duj. sanus fern. The feminine nomina (§ 5 . 3* * as 0" w*^j Zeiridb. verbi 9 Jt^w Sauwal. A. 6^/ a gazelle.. ObjL*. . x j) 9 x»3 * 3 * <' x xx 5 x w x OUp^c (/) O^*-*) Ramadan. a (<#) 9 £ bustard. Feminine adjectives.. OUiJa. when r ' Rem. as ^ +&» OLJa (b) xxx 9 ' vi * . be put also in the plural. which are usually feminine « . 196). o . may 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ dlwt or % . Jas. as uL^-cu. » The names 3 . The Noun. oL©*}Lfc. OUJLli (§ 301. 5 x £ x as oUt (e) «?& |^/J oUJt ^o-j^ #w m. OUUa^o. San. 197 is put in the plural. 9 ^+»-x pregnant. (a) etc. o*> . Rem. rem.. b) . x o £ O/o 3 a-juo^t 4AJ has D. 5 x x oUjjju pUail a feof. x J ^Ufc. (§ tf and all nomina verbi of x 9x0x5x0 .

§ U w^a£ happened or *• occurred). (jlj^U* a jet deau. . however. J J . w-j^Uj wonders. masc.^ J 6 beings (from >>**->« x OxJOx found. loaded * 9 s < * camels. OtS^l^-w . or the Parts of Speech. ^aj\ the earth or ground. Obj. 9 oU L^a.U Op 9 Jjbl ones family or relations. C/^ t» . Many fern. d s * ^l q» an '. o '* *£: .. rem. a tent. ol***. which have no plur. 6) from f" . jLL~ijl+. uLoLeJ. ^U~/ £^e oi s% 9 * or heavens. ObU^. 9 s * s . a chronicle. J [§ 303 A ' ' i - ' o^b. an animal. which are used in the plural as substantives.- 136) f~ijti a date.tjl q/* jlwt a ckm or series authorities. 9 < Olw^. jtJlwt. c-aJI^j J (compare . b) jy^U 9 9 J ' * 90 J 9J J a waterwheel. classified) . Ol^ or Otj^c also masc. difficulties. Ob^. § a literary composition. O^Jbt or C^aI. Olojt (see J * * . a 9 %<• j book.) . oUtj*». £>WJ*aa . Jbtj-* awning. a fountain. marvels. 9*0' stout camel. or occurrence OOP jUc landed ^j^- property. works (from ui . which have not a fern. (i) Verbal adjectives. ji U^ .. "Oi From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions formed oUjujt. Ob^a*^o * ^j^ or ^jt a wedding is . d * a warm 9 ' bath. 9 c-s —Etymology an era. and * some nouns.6t or marriage. as * 9 .198 Part Second.«gv . j*wlo annunciations. existing) literary . fractus O . J ***** * a 9 . even ff» when they denote persons i . 9 *Zi s i OlS^AsL-a creatures (from 9 J^U^ .t § word is . substantives. prognostics. which some. D rem. irj a OUU^U^o o * . * C inanimate or inorganic thing. Otj^b IXwt (for jU*»>l) teacher. s * * oi 9 s ol al Otj£l (A) U>b a Pasha.^. termination 9 * .c arranged. (lit. ou». Ox Op derive (according to 9 ' 9 § <' 301. j created) . Ot^Iwt. .« living thing. a * compositions. Ul aw ^4##. Otjl©~> (though this 9 . . oU-jt a /afoe rumour. -m^l^j p-^jW* distresses. 301. iUt j*£ a caravan of . ' s j S . OUtj^U> a .> . Oljlit * si (j^^U aw #y0w£ . B as (#) Substantives of foreign origin. J ' x . entities asOU>l^ (from ^>>v£b being) .

9. rem. Rem.— Plur. 5/JJ 1. another (fern. w-£>j white spot. volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin.§304] * u> II. s J The Noun. 9 x J . are twenty-nine in number.^ 5x as <Haj a present. <L*J a foard. t J 9 jya ' J . ^^IsuUt . UU»J 0' . of Jy^t). 199 uJ ^ J bound books. except those specified in § 302. k. a trinket. 9' J 6 ' J h$*° a form. of J*$l as a superlative .. (J^t o^er. J 9 * J ilas ^ j. j^\. j±\. *jj& a J3^ ^JJ^ « V fire-brand. ^ali JSJ 9. ^a\ 6 ' J .6. as Ja». and examples. 3. Fract.. i*3 [a leather tent. . . 9. a)j> a tan& o/ fortune. Fr actus.3 (for . Nouns Subst. . . a . (for ^5^) [**-v^ courageous. SlLxJ 5/»/ (especially from verba mediae rad. . . Hj <>£ i^j a knee.0 j^aJ) . 234 and § 295. § Similarly b). 0*}L**r*.3 rare . and The more common forms J ' of the plur.)t {Jj+>J\ tlw largest. The following is a list of these forms. w*J> s J 5 . § 213) 9 *J . i^j** (for ^J^- or >**. j). with the principal corresponding singulars. (§ j^^U*. b) . Bldsse). without tenwin. <j?Ji Su^j a turn. ^j^t . or &&&&? (Germ. and Adj. OLJS. a dynasty. as 9. § 213) . adjectives. j*£)\ <j>**aJt fyfe smallest. w**^* « &'£#& fotf£. ^^. 304. 9 * . 9 * OJ ^Aib 2. which are derived from and in none of T> B a which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical. 9. ^jlx)\. A (i) All diminutives.3 L J*5.^»-). . on a horse's forehead. as J-*»- a hillock. Jj* village.3. 4Jl*5. 4*1 J a nation. J 9 ' J . fern. jJuaJt L5 x lo* jx j«x jS£o* j/(«/ ^0 y^stf (fern.39. AjjX». fractus of substantives triliteral roots. Jy^t »te greatest. Plur. see D 295. all£> « kidney.] district (Gr. of j^t. w>jJ Zjj3 a (for (for ^j. x^P a )> a dome. LUJt M<? highest.

make *»*<»». JUi. They may. J***. 9 3 II. 9** r *9*3 either from verba mediae rad. I 9 J J j$\. 3 s tit Bt*s l%x*. JUi. C a middle-aged married woman. A*-^^ ^-^J.jt^j 9 * 3 I M0 joo/e #/ a 3 tent. J-*it. § *£*. .. [§ 304 A Plur. b^e j) \ " (for ij*) young for some years. had young. &$£ . as 9 3 i 9 3 3 j)\f~t a tooth-stick. 5. D. j J . ptjuj fern. ^©-ot <&«/. JUi. w>**-*-' humpbacked. [Rem. c*a-o (for o o j u^f) '. III. Jtf. § 137 and rem. without tenwin [§ all together.g. derived from verba med. ^o ^ . farrow. of *«*». & 3 J x 3 J /J corroboratives of J£» 309. SJ 6ftJ (for 9s* jl$-> 9* Oj^) 9 (of a table. s WSfWJ. as Ol$* ft»fd| 9 3 . j * o£ & <£ as j**»-\ red. as ' JuU having newly not bearing 90 3 . 9 . and superlative 9 6 3 . and 3. i\*Z£>.] be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. retiring 9 * 9 3 . i\x+*. cAsrft tfliwfe. J3J 9 3 . ^-O^. e. rad. as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. 9 * [They may be contractions from original J*i. c. ii. 9 * Isufc. not comparative 3 . 1. however. jy*> jljl heat. . «*-j^ etc.. 3 s 3 3 s 3 Rem. c] 9 * s 9s* 9* 9*3 JUi. (§§ o o 232 and 235) j . [Accordingly a efawrt has J^. R S. G. has certainly both £$~t and £yi.). a. w>jla. ot Sing. rad. J*j* 90 3 9 * 939 [or 90 3 1*5 U ' r [and JjU.200 Part Second—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. JUi.l.. derived from verba med. 1. JUi. etc.>j~> (for >^-») *£ ^O^l *" 2. iU-oJ. [Also in some other cases. woman). 302. not derived . 8].] 93 J>»-]. (§ 296) . J^fcli. rem. jJua lU^ fawe.J in.l and i[x2j (fem. 4dU a she-camel has Jjy. ^j^j sj\^ a 9 a plate. * s * as £jjio yellow. 9 3 j 5 . 3>-»l 6/ac&.] 4. O^ t *£ jty* a bracelet. . a#). j * not comparative and superlative bi o o j . vol. [Comp. Fract. *- of J*it. j**.

9 3 3 w^j ' 3 et ^ 9339' . J**i. j^o 933 9 . 2Ae 6on<? over 9 jI tfAe eye. The Noun. rough. %~o.jjj 9''' 933 *f&± a piece of wood. & Adj. as jj Ju one 9 3' 93 3 . not derived from verba as w*-^ 5 a #W# seat. it £y&. the heavens. J^i ^0^/0. * .—Plur. a stallion. iUi. 9 ' 3 Saturday. a 9 throne. 933 . tertiae rad. 2. J*** JL~» a mimosa J**~> . a thin. O^^ 26 933 %++b a hywna. 9 3 3 . j j J>w. }j. J*w>. 3 3 . 'Oi jjUft a rein. f>J 9 ' 5 J I**-* «M 9 fMcifc. 9 ' . ajj*> • a victim a brake 9 J J \ 9 ' ' i a*a. a 9 ' messenger. white piece of sphere. 93' who warns. ^ j yet. j^J . J>**.>£».jUa». Ju a 9'' ^^ c^fy. " a large bowl or tree. *• cloth. 93393' JU^i j^s . 91 3 .$. 9s w~J£» a t > sandhill. a message. J*+~> 93 3 9 f' juJ a juJ 9 ' ' ' . ^>i^ a-ijjt* « C 933 a pillar.La*»&. verbal adjectives not having a passive signification. as *-b> 9 3 3 9 ' . J***. 9 JjtS continued. jealous. jjJ j±~e patient. Exceptions 9 <- are 9 j j -*. J>*s. w. 9 3 ' 3. rare 9b' as w. &**£. jj~* 9' ' £ . 3 3 .'] 9 JJ 3' 9 3s JJ5 9b 4. » 3 . Nouns Subst. [A rare case is s^ot from . j-*w p|^» *& shinbone of an animal. 933 > a 7-00/*. t ^)y»> fi i jt*_£ | /J . ju*c . J*$.§ 304] II. 9 3 3 . qj*> J 2 . \j*o»- &\$-~i % a tooth-stick. Fract. J*3. ^^»-t j-o^ a leopard. a dromedary. ' thicket. and not derived from verba 9 3 3 . bier. as though 9 were formed from ^>Ut. 9 j j .I Ojj 9 . 9 ' 91 » 9 . . ^Xi v>jj an idol. J*3. . 201 Plur. Jas. 90' Ja^w D ^Ui a 9 3 9 'Z lion. for or 9 sacrifice. 9J * A Sing. 9 ' ' j+e> ' u&f+J laying many 9 eggs. geminatse or verba tertiae rad. Rem. tj£* jtji -t) a tick. '9s 9 ' '91' 9 3 3 . s^jo. j et ^ [ . fjj^c j ^ SJua^o a leaf or page. j et ^j .] tertiae rad. w *>*»» . 3' . or ra/. 93 w~o£ 3 . A. T III. u°*>- 9' ' ' 9 3' . uUL* 9 J I .JL>! female. Fractus.4a.

X X Sing. oox 1.] J is j*£ x (for j+%).] u . Some- times the darama of words med. rare r. J J III. C il*9. Ox %~6 r. ^o^J Ox *^^ f»#w 2f walking. [§ 304 A Plur. Jul. j&*-'. instead of which u°y! O OJ sometimes used). ^^auJ (for 6 B cAs^. [j-4^. or :>j^- IV. . Ox x J J changed into x J fetha.j*3 4*15 a fathom. £«J living. JUi. \£). * [Again. »tew. 1.13 a time. . rare Ox dx a to£. rad. wo. JjJ.Jj . x JJ. Jjtf. w>b3 ^e common fly. i. e. j*^ Gs [»>&j a &r$0. OxOxx . 1. % J » Jifcti. as j**& a merchant. as A*Ja. ojlw Persian curved bows »»x 6 x (TabarT. unless O * J . a building. OxOx as <Ug*> ^ Ox &U$. *JaS . * S^J aw example . as j-ij~>. xJ JuJJ pleasant. dL»£ft. o«x asj^*-> Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. . O 0J-. aX*5. J For. ^*xa. J Forms rare. 1) is said to J be the plural of ilijw. Fract. 05x [&tf Ox j) 3. ^^\ (for t^t) .5 a £M0tf. ^ « foc£ o/* tar. ^o-j»* . v J J I J J SO J y >2r» w^a5. jaJ JjU a full-grown camel. j+~» a^l> Gs 2. gemin. < oooej . OxOx fo*^ « farm. J** continued. milk. character. The form Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*. It may be J J a poetical license for Jju. a maxim. 5. f . J—j. . V. Jjii * J J a sea. S. jUfe. l£) or i«&}]. s* . R. the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae.g. xx ^^j fulllike grown % she-camels (for w~J). from 5-> w>U (for Si w~o). O O J Rem. JAj]. Sjj*> Ox x a skin for # g Q . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. jj~* ju **». manner of 2 Ox . 957. so Jjti may be replaced by yj**. jwt.202 Part Second. just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 x 6 x x x 6* /" 9»J OJJ ( eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr). or pattern. ^o*3 a flock of sheep. ^~*Jk Ox . are is J '. Gs . as a rule. jj*> i*-oA a shower of rain.

J**. Stj-«t. J*i. * as ^J*** a hill. J*3 as J«*) 9 " a man. *1>L». The Noun. not superlatives X . district.. iUi.. £-j£ . J Ox v*o - difficult. J^». 0x0 as 4*-aS 2. Fract. 9**9*** 3. B Ox a foW. ^Ut a hermaphrodite. ^o. JJ* # a shadow.*-£ a hywna. v^rj £0 an early born Ox cLa. Fractus.a 9 * he-camel. 90/ 5. Ox iojj ^ garden.§304] II. <5x Ox <5x a 9* i . w*tfi a wind. 9 * @ 3 et ^ 9 9 * * . 9 * . # 9 . £U£ (rare). * w>^) 5 b^ J x a fru t A . a woman. fern.ai . <>* cm occasion. A. *'£' duij the neck. a scrap of level 9 * J cloth or paper. JU-j . 9 * * JIoa. ^J» a ~-jj gazelle. &J a o£^o Rem. an arrow. wolf. a dress. <z sp^arr. & Adj. D w>Jls «m^. x # Ox w>U*© . 9 * * * . geminatse or tertise rad. u^^ij 9 x Ox **#& a farm. w>IJ^ ° s^J^o hard. 9 * . rVP e x J r 5 5 'J dates. 9*90 . as ^^1 female. has a plural of this form.—Plur. cU § * OJx . *. <LUi. Nouns Subst. ° £ 9*** JL». Ox Ox . «x . *-UJ 9 * . J Us 9 * continued. 0»x oxj iUi. cbj fern. t -* j?L»J. 9 * it> jU-» O-*^ fern. oLj *-t*x3 ^y a 9*9 . O - 9 . ^Uj . A Sing. 203 Plur. J. cUj . w»^c> ° { 6. • <• 4. *W-£. colt. /JJ milch-camel. handsome. s^aefe. 0* jla^j wJtjj a piece of f. 5*5. **~> a beast of prey. p{~6 * . not derived from verba medise rad. camel's xOJ 7.aA a late born camel's colt. o^~*-J x 9 J x . *0l L5J*J. «. iw>. lM» 9-\jj • • . 9 * 9* J f\$j a*aj a low-lying. jtj-» . 9 * . cloth. verbal adjectives as Ox j 9 . pt«i 9*0 \ . . J^U» . as v*~> x A*8* . V. aX*s Ox # dish. 0x0 4^ jU a a note.

oLa^fr from 9 s »*'**. as j+*£* large. few words and Hafagi's comm. o 9 s feeble. V.) good. ^Jbto] ut s Jj^b 9 s long. is C Rem. 9 x tertise rad. An O example s of the passive signi- fication is ^J-Moi 9 s t a weanling. verbal adjectives. Fract. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. s s £-Usuj from fern. [§ 304 A Plur. jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and [Rem.(for #00<^.204 Part Second. UU^fr l " IV s . w>U^o 9 s 9 . thirsty. i\ -* s k s . . 9 s J Si s ^nlkft ^jUo£ angry. J. 9 . 9 s 9 s signification 9 s .*-«-* . ed. J 8. 9. as ^LuJauc 2/ t thirsty. JUs 9 continued. 6. Jl^b 9 s 5 ju^». iLai. [wi^g. Thorb. j et ^ this form rarely as % Ia3. s s - Sing. Dorrat. sick. 9 s « 9 s s [Rem. js\% 9 s ju». 97 seq. w>La£ oW> £ H> satisfied with 10. j*\>£*. j-h^) (rarely vt base. $/ / »/ &*$***. fern. j^Ls . 9 9 s . tfAe channel of a torrent . jU£» . %. old. From words ^su pure. Jlyj ^15 ^jU sleeping. 9 s ^J\j-Zt sjAij-A 9 s u«!/*o 9 s . ^W»- jy») j*~$ s s 90s 9 9 j**> (for j«£>. 0*^**> fem 9 s 9 s verbal . s 9 s . 9 s . 9 s 9 s . O ^*^^ 1 ^eni J . jL^. as 9 9s ^^-^ s a companion. 9 s a. 9 a courser . The plural JUi is said to occur in a (see Hariri. JUai.- ># adjectives 9 s . used . j*Lj c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd. Rare cases are r* >l n» from }\y-e*. ~s yaJo a merchant. J«^Lj. . 11. - i^^-*-** s s verbal adjectives 9 s . j^J JjbU drinking. 9 s 9 . verbal adjectives. . ^*ij£>> noble.c 9 s rs s J aa> £eaw. standing. not having a passive 9 s 9 s . ^*£j£*. 9 s b s as C)lcjJ repentant.

90' 9 i/fo JJ . u*>*»- *>*»• the neck. ^»^j^ a J^. Nouns Subst. 9 3 3 . jjjj 90' c£*»Si 9 an army. as 5JJ 3 5J 5 . g. that it is another form for JO really a collective (a^. 50- 5JJ or 0J 0>*^ (comp. ^M. J*5. J*9 as *xwt a # 5 Jfr .3 JU* continued. 5 -£ Ja3. j>U. D. # military force. tor. 9 . others g vi. The Noun. From words med. 50 - 50 90J . Jy^ 5 ( cHj-* J . 9 0^ 9 J J . 3 J^j (for of the vowels. fLcj from c. J) as if from y~$. Jl^j from Jjj mean. 9 3 3 O^j 9 or O5-0 tt71 ^*w an e 2/ e > old man. Fract. q 903 33 . rad.. a chief.3 Jui. f»5+wi c). >3-j»5 jj ^+& a j gazelle. 50 { a. a ewe lamb. 5 3 933 5 i 3 50- Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)0- cH>3 a ^ ow.J calf. u-^i soul.^*!). 5 3 141 #~J seq. rad. 0*£ 0>^ 5 rem.] Some J bid. assimilation j^x-k) 3J3 a 3 bucket. 5 J J . own 5 .\j *»- J 9 * a shepherd. 1. *y~>\ w>ju a scar. A Sing.) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her 3 . ju*. G. gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or 5 9 <?oa£ in the second year. # molar 3 tooth or SO J 90 grinder.3 or ^^3. Fractus. J 933 (for 90' . r^^yi Jy^ a year. Rem. Jas # as j^*j a sea. l£^>) § 215).—Plur. 9 . or f-y**. -- 5 JJ . and m 0' 90' j Ja9 this plural is rare 9 e. V. 3 of the forms Jj*i 9 3 3 .§ 304] II. ^£ the vowel of the first sometimes assimilated to the second radical. 3 J 9 0' . A. a 9 Mtn.ji a troop. JA 90^ Jjji.. to Tabari). a doc§ 269. ^yu J^ 9 3 90 a middle-aged man. 0- C-wO a house. an ^> Dv ^£ . *3-^ 9 3 3 >jj robe. Jfa*j from 90' ' 9 'J ~ . ^J> (comp. 9-2.j or Jl*-. 0- syllable is In words med. 5 0- Rem. 5 - lion. 205 Plur. gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian say that it is (see the Gloss. 9 . w>J*^ ju& . 3 . 9 J jys^j J . «j. b.> usually makes ^~. & Adj.

OU S j proud. a j9wrs# of money. 9 <xx 5J j-«u» conversing at night.* this J 9 x x rare. . verbal adjectives. ^yL> or ^iu. sitting. rare 9 J J . VI. J3** continued. wiytw 5t^> Q •4. 5 ^* (for jx {£$&) or ^^ Ox weeping. wicked. 0x0 J *4j±. j*y and jtg^o fasting. 5 ^^ ox * x a «&*#. OJx time. j>yo and j^e . D vii. 3 of the form J-a-i . 9 x rad. 3 J i OxO j^jo Owij <ua». 1. ^ as ^5)3 OJJOx . Sing. ^53 or ^j3. -»i Rare — cases are £ £3X0 from 9 J J 0x00 «. 9 d J . or med. 6 s J^X* I * w>U • (for w~o) « canine or 2 w>*H 2 . a %? or summit. Fract. «i)b ^y^» . # O3S3 J J . iUi. tooth.o or ^j. . J>3j~> (or cut**)Ox Ox 3. . [§ 304 A Plur. 3-0).] X J3. witness. aa». vel verbal adjectives. u**>U-> x 33*3 jjblw s a . . j-©~> j*>v sleeping. t^JU. a M#. not derived from verba tertise rad. aw inkhorn. as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk. J J' '? . OJJ [Rem. gemin. rad.206 Part Second.. J^j a xx j mountain-goat. V3xH** J J OJJOxxx JUbtft xx . 3 et Ox ^ (with rare exceptions) t t as j^-L» prostrating oneself. > ^^-At (for ^3-ac). . *->>** . a period of Jj>*». Ox ^b. -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set X UP i ^3J^ ^ rom Ox **-*<P» elegant. plural is From words med.JU> («JLo) a W6. 9 * * B Rem. Ox J^U. not mediae rad. Ox Ox £UJ. £fc fcwr. ^. J>c$ o JJ . J^Z and J*£ . 3 ojj 5 -» standing.0. as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. #^ by assimilation ^^-oc j>* blood (for oxx 3 -» ^. ^JUU a #m<7. jcclS. a casket. O^x OJJCxOx .>>*=> 9 J J . JjU> pregnant.

gem. 9 * 65 J . verbal adjectives. 9 from^lo Jjx from fasting KJj£>\ b.— Plur. ^u» conjuror. 1. fern. R. [Rem. etc. 5^^ [^tfula. ^U^ JaU. ^ . dutiful. § 213). . unbeliever. (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£. [jlo avoiding. x 9 5 J . d J 9 . cUo j-*L^ aw C .Fractus. 5p*w ^ b . * [ J^ defeated. ^^a. as AaJU mourning.ajudge. aiiJ. The Noun. JUJ»] w*-Six 5i J 9 Swj a soldier. 207 Plur.S. djztie (for **>&) .] (with rare exceptions) as^»^». St x 5 j fU». verbal adjectives. properly pi. menstruating. aw offender. JUli» perfect. is by usage pi.js[£*~ * 9>» 9 fi# 9 9 x 9 «l J*ju a follower. fugitives. ignorant. Anomalous is having no weapon. 9 x J. %\}b- .>lju©]*. VIII. -» absent. of 9-y>. x as J^U a workman. 3 i D *£** . jU JiJLb repudiated. SjjJ (for . A. v'>> -i"3 > sleeping.] . *5lb obedient. not derived from verba 9 tertise rad. ^ et ^. 0>£. of the preceding a. and not derived from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^ 9 . <jU. as Ujk for U^*.& Adj. &**). from oi5U» fearing . cLi «Jlo aw artisan. 9 5 j . icb j5U s^'wa. of Jli. Jj«i continued. J *-*-»- ^U 9 #». is Rem. . j^^ a «^ unbeliever. . js\y o . jU a soldier. in which into B case the j must be changed ^ .. **+*£ 2. IX.xLj. i J VII.§304] II. x Jxli. Ox 9 3 J . [or med.» a deputy. . of ji. denoting rational beings.] JU5. 9 Si A Sing. - . jwows. SjiJa . fd j . u^u*- fi iUU. in the The substitution 9 &m* for damm allowable a j first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. Fract. Nouns Subst. *• j 9 et fl ^ J .

ZJuca ^. JaJ. not derived from verba Gxx J . with the same restriction. 6 xx J x . Stjj (for x J ajj^) . a nickname given to the Muslims. $]}£• (for Ox SjJ^) . iUi continued.. &oo*. « i-4*«. as jjU*. acting wrongly.] X. 3U». Ja3. j sometimes remains uncon• *» * Ox x x Oxx x x x tracted in the plural. 0' 9 2.or ±> -p » < Ox rare. J*9. 9 ^ x J et ^ .] [Rem. Oxx branch. 1. SLaS (for a~a$) x J x x jl^ x reciter. du^*. <L*jJ. verbal adjectives. [2.208 Part Second.w Oxx generous. \j*" *ibl».treacherous. R S. 0«J i^^ j>^ # a Sj^^ . ^ &J«o ^^j a shield. fU cv fc £k>ji *»jj a £«S0 or Oxx 9 . casket. Sj^** or Sjl*.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. tertiae rad. O x CO J^ti. Oxx wO Oxx SOJ a . yX« Oxx a rugged 9 place. i [And so in the dialect of Hijaz Jxix SL<cJ| xxfix first (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt. jU x « a soldier. [§ 304 A Plur. <k£s^ or 3s»l»- f "" ' °t"" 0->l». Rem. Ox Ox . An xj x exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon. olxw. and derived from verba Ox x J rad. foar. 9 x xx IX. x X x 3 .>L». an ox. as *r> Sx . (for «*«*. a weaver.) cLj a manager. Ox x 9 x x . rehearser. J~*$ as £*»$*» 0»)x . rare Oxx 9* * 9 6* .o feeble. * x . 3 et ^j Oxx As*j> /figf. .* jj a husband or ^2/0. as j^j x . 4*»^j -**w aw o/d . J^U from verba med. J OOJi^S Q s a . tertiae ^ denoting rational beings.» . l\j~* x jlw a dttig^ S. oW* a sinner.] D XL £&. 9 x Sing. x J or traditionary. aw earring. Oxx tjy> or Sjaj . Oxx x ££*». Fract. yo 13 ^ judge. as x J .

as jJj a cMc?. B °*i . Oji Jai.—Plur. . ajuS 9 xx It (for 'yLX) a 3^*. 9 x x 9x x 5 . *>*-©) X a boy. & Adj. A Sing. <UaJa. w. ^^Jil . as jaw J Oi 9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ a sea. Slj««t X a woman. not derived from verba mediae rad. &kk3. . X S x 9x0 [The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi.. J*** x fo'a. s^~o\ (for v****0 9 J Op 90x Aa*3 9 Ox ^e /ace. a brave. . (for j>«») a neighbour. *^~b a J t «J Of . &L». /a#. as j^A-d (for *"x 5 3 . J*i cl3 . dijt ^6*^U a youth. jawt u~*J W* sow/. has a plural of this form. 9x0 JU$ .. 9x0 ^ C (for j^) a 9xJ #e>w£A. J*i as jjj a bull. S. SjJj .] XIII. 5x0 2. 0£ 5 x # 5 Ot j£ JOC 9 J Of lizard. Fractus. o . j et ^.ork. 5xJ claw Ji^ a 2 X * gazelle. A. XL iUi continued. ia^w 90 j>>3 >j^ a 9xx 1 . aJUsj 9. aw p ape. Nouns Subst. 6x0 aJU*. £n#e. J-J** ^'c&. 1. . Fract. . s^Jo\ 9 J i (for L5 J »') | JO t I 9x «*! (for v^i) hand jut (for ^jul). x g „ . Sjjjb ^L> a cocjfc. 9x0 9 . R. **^ XII. S^-J. ' S Cj. jA a tom-cat. X OxO rt. The Noun. 5^». brother. x J JU*. J . as a^U 4. Jiil. Ox 6" 9 j x «? x 1. ^U. £s>> . 9 D § t Ox 9 x J*i. 90 x . a**o X . u~su\ ^-Ji a copper coin. 9xx 3. 90 9 x x f [j. Jjl 9 (for 9 ^bl x or y. flaccid. a eunuch. # . iUfc.>t) *** ^Jo an OS antelope. old man. «xx . coarse. Ao^jt ^Jj £ a bucket.. few J ground.^aa* a gelding. jJa~>\]. Rem.Ja~» a /me of writing.»£>. hj£ - JJ>j ag#. 27 . 209 Plur.§ 304] II. • waw. <7rea£. AjjXi. 9 cM ow& elephant. S^J «^w aw .

oi~ gjoI o o .210 Part Second. not ending in *—. uaz\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) o j o£ o o J^j a o Io£ % o o -> or foot. . JUfct . JOi xxx . %^~Jt.t oi &*) o » oi time. a^l i «J»f ^>*fcl. •• ' Rem. 4. . she-camel. Ox j«o^ J t>£ ^JjcjI occurs Jd£ now and then J x in a few other forms J C . ^tt) i5U a . JjUc « female kid. aw oath. <} . j^l * o xx > JJL» the shank. for example. by transposition. jly3 c^ay. o joi o x ) $y*l £> x xx fre j^ V^ x x £ (f° r v*-*) J a wriine •* tooth. for example. o£ J^t 5// 3. j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey.t o joi oo 5* «i t£ J~ j->\. jj}\. oibi JfjJl. JU^t and. and. w>jj a piece of ibi lit a garment. 1. O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ aj«©| . <3>*t. Rem. has j>jI and. ^3j\ . hill.] . a staff. 6' cloth. rare o x£ . G. ^ left J hand. xj eagle. • Jff ojd2s^ t>*^ JU^ • . not derived from verba mediae rad. . for if masc. Exceptions are. Feminine quadriliterals. 1). 5 seq. x C Rem. 2. according to "El- Mubarrad 50. j^Jt . xx JOi £ x . ' j^\ (for a*! a maidservant. ^ et x x J ^. . as p\j$ the arm. ^b a house. whence.jLJ •* the tongue*. and OJOii JJjJt. Ja3. Jj«it continued. &«J\ wA** an ^s-S. iUs. the x x neck. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. o£ '} ^ occur. et From o i radicals mediae $ o gjoZ oloi jj}\. Fract. ^>o. JpjI. J*w. by transposition. B O**^ G J o£ *** ngrAtf * ^m^. . cji! . ^^ 60 C a bow.^l o x *i - nJ 3u»j . j-*j. • m 3^*t). as J+*. which have a a quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third -><5f S // Ox 9i^ radicals s x . a fountain. .t La* (for yos>) o j oi J go . by o J oi transposition. w>$jI or J w^t - . o*-^ a sword. o j J*». a well. Sing. « jrf Gtot Jijjt. 84J J**. x x rare . Ja3. at a § di . D. j ^^c an eye. * [If fern. ^*y*\ or ^ySS # ° J i^ °^J?^ '. *JL© a rib. TV D • dialectically. J oi XIII. w*^ a raven. w^t Ox 0? %+~>\ etc. as 2l&\ a (for GJOi hillock. [§ 304 A Plur. as x a leopard. it has <U»»JI (XV.

|U^t .§304] II. jjUil ^ 9xj o^l . J or tjjl x/tp lU-'t . <jt$t fjto .— Plur. J_>l a ^rc? 9x0? 9 x 9x0? . * 9x0? . JU5I . 211 Plur. jbt 9 x 9 . and not ^xO? naturally expect) ?Lwl. £ . >Uct # Jx>J ^ 5 armpit. ^lj tdftv. JU^t foc&. J«*i a Mz'aA. w. Jbt 9 x j^> a leopard. X 4. 1. 9x0? S// S/j 9 x x and J*5 as ^jJ> a footstep.j>t 9x0? 90 90x 3 J j^ free.«£. 3 et 90x ^yjy a ^S5. not buying a passive signification. son.\ . j*\j$\ JJi» a vestige or 9 xx 9x0? °f ' S x 9x0? 9 xO? J^Lbt jixo ra/w.» festival. w>^ (for 0~Ci 9 xx xO? o o . jZ> a well. jl*JI xO? . 9x0? w>Ll&I 9 .U~ol jj\* tepid. 5 0?" J»bl Ji.^£».xxO? tooth. a mistake. w>lJt m>. /r#sA C Wpg 9 dates. makes *Lwl. (f° r 3^0 a father. from verba mediae rad. J***. & Adj. . Fract. . ^ 9x0? OOx U*t* a sword. dutiful. . jUsl. verbal adjectives. 9 xO? 9x0? j-j jmVws. 9 x . Ox . 0U3I . v' o ? . by transposition.f old she-camel.a judgment. (for 9 w~J) a canine . w>lP' 90x 9x0? (for jsS^t I) . 9 %\j\ or B 90 xo£ . Jliil xx <!»/ Triliterals of all forms. . rare 9 x as j-ob a helper. *. 9 j| 9»J 9 x 0? 9x0? . A. jbafrt 9 x v*^fc grapes. jlcul jJblw t a witness. jUxot w>b (for *->#) a door. ^^L© a companion. and primse rad. Nouns Subst. js\x*. especially . 9 . jbt f V>t . . $>-t/il x a thousand. fo^y. w^J*- Ox x x 0? . 9 x~> . $U*st 9 xp» 9«? o*-JI «^3 3 x ftfc young of a # bird. ^. one would D 9x 3. 9x0? jl^l 9 xO? 9 . Ju^ « 9 . 9 XIV.^©A3 a fancy. The Noun. jJblb 9 x j3wr<?. 9 '-» . opinion. Rem. 9 £ an f. J*». Fr'actus. J*». *->\yi\ • £rac#. 9x0? Ox ^x 0? (as a thing. 9 x 9x0? J^ti. a friend. JLwl j*y> a day. 2. 9 « Jlo*> a foad. as 9 w? j*\j\ 0x0? 90x wU3^ time. rarely J*» (see no.* t>Jt xx ^>) a or. 2) . jly^l .3 9 a x>« aw ^ar.^l (for >o~>) a warn^. x . j\jj\ 9x0?' ^>-J a branch. J x aft 9x0? arm. A Sing. yj+*\ . t %l>\ . . 0/ camels. 9x0? . a notion.

^JLfr temperate. stuttering. Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) Ox uL 2 ^ x . JUi. [If masc. and xx JUi as Ox £-k»» $£ ./bo^. 2.] .» 9. . t 9 xx 4s*u*fc. 9 . X derived 2. r* 4-Ujt x Op" ftjj physic. [§ 304 A Plur. 9 xO£ 5 /»f as UvjJS* noble. from verba X mediae rad. 9 s f}Hil £ . x U*3 a certain measure. ^jLaJ. 5^». &>J^I O^ ** . Quadriliterals. a XX 1^* a cowr x x J %£ Ox *£ O J x Ox Ox OS .t X 0? . d.^-j-^ ^^ X x 3 ^^^J a confidant. S-» ** as jjLft «x a yp> cm enemy.a>. %\j&\ # ^X3 a weaned foal. 9 ' <L^jU»I b£ . »t rare . 9 * &* ** tongue*. an oath. as Jjj& mighty. *a*-wt X . 3 et 93 t Ox Of. 05 £ *L». O x J Us. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives. 9 £) Ox X d£ . chaste.t ^obtb * .) ' • 2 p <0I g a god. especially nouns of the forms 9 x x x G £ . D geminatae or ultimse rad. o^-*i <*wi| *y. C*~o or wwo (for Cu^. O xj 05 £ 4«A£I JlSj a fowie. Fract. <L2£r> XX . a wing. y^^* o X c^ar. *•** a pillar. 4~aSI X Ox o£ . glorious. &Jf.s>j\ v***1* a branch. sJ)j£\ XIV. XX 6 . JU*t continued. 2Ls*J\ ^^ stammering. § 242). 9* OS. A«-ot .212 Part Second. Aiijt Ox P \ »—**££> O x a sand-hill. . . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . * £ . x x right hand. 3 » x JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms — x oi \ . ' o£ Rem. Ox »--£*£. a strait. see the footnote to XIII. (for stingy. a o ""*? colt. x . 3ui^\. . 1. aJI (for a-Jtt) ' 9 * j>\*\ owe 1 C a/i 'imam Oi or priest. of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 9 xx 9 x 9 'J . Sju*fcl o£ x rod.^ a fo# niggardly. 9* bi . OxOxO£"3x j c»*). 9\ 9* * 9* %Z * 6 5-LJt * . A*-»t or 4*3 x x 9 x 0g x (for io-otl) x . vowel). xo£ '. Aj^it x |tji£ /ooo?. B xv. Ha3\. ^-:. jU»* can ass. S t 3JLfr t J . X Ox Og Ox X a 6*a^ 0/ bread. ^Uvjt O^**!* ^ie heart.

9* oi 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms which a ..§304] II. jt?o£. Fract. rare as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a . J^U . £JU» a s^/.g. 9 . <5 4**J»t jtj (for jj>j) * * s provisions. xvi. j\js*. l^^s^S. 213 Plur. a»^J >»-»• WW note oj a Oi reptile.G. Ci^b a motive J * * . 9 Sjj\ (for 9* Sjjjjl) »-j-j « tower. S «* B I >i . . 3. Nouns Subst. substantives . cP^-i. in vulgar pro- nunciation. J**. ' J^.>t^ a watercourse. >u an assembly. female slaves. vi^l^ 5 . £ . 9 is* 9 . Oi . di^\ US $/ (for ^3 stx or ja$) ^ back of the neck. crucible. J**. v^J-*or cawsg. j*ty*. A. mothers 9 ' t>i " side). rare 9* Oi . as JJjt^J* Touareg. passes into damma.« «&* J * * v^!>*** * J^*^ of a JaIj^ * vj^ wli fop [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often. . 9 * 4. a cover or &d. & Adj. as ^5U» a a signet-ring.vm/wz. 9* i hjj\ * s . £Jl>» . Oj 9 ' *i . Ajjjj . 9 0* . 65 i AJLaut Oi . Fractus. 9 (for ** J$»-) «w 9 wrcc/<? (% WW 9' . J*3.— Plur. J^U» a 2. it In the old language there are some instances of e. ^JIS a mould. as <>J» 9 . a £wc£- «x hare. The Noun. ji|>»» v^W. [L». Sj^l 9 J jj a button. bird. Z+teS 9' oi » . 1. jca»J 3 a Ai#A /owd. 9 0* 9 Sing. Jii. J^1>» . jiU9 * j) a hoof (of a horse or ass). in proper names. »£ . iJbet continued. *dyi\ Jju a s^. letter is bound). 4**»»t] «5 £ ^ju oi moisture.J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D. 6 r" as &la»~> Q or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with >! . XV. Rem. JU. 9. ^>\y*- . 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). dew. Ja».] . u*j\£. djj^j\. *iJo\ jj^i.

tr^^ Ox hanging remaining behind. J x x 5 9 x a wave. *-\y (for ^^y). x x . a X X X . J . J j^^t^j X X *iuU perishing. B *to A«*a*. x£ Ox^ x XX J XX a guard. earners hump. >^^\^o «( .) XX J **»-U a quarter XX o/*^ 5%. menstruating. J*l>* continued. J^U. verbal adjectives. C 5. ^U. see no. Ox 4-&l^i 3-S-slo a thunderbolt.53. and fern. profit. x Initial j is changed into J St I as ilotj joining or xx /? ^ adding. etc.U? a female companion. X? . a proximate cause. verbal adjectives J . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. . . ^x x . u^j^ J (for ^a-otj*. as x tr*j^ xx . substantives Ox x JxxOxx . rem. x Ox aJLcU. )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^). a girl. of J Sing. ^-Jljt 4*». xx . P Ox . s * . j*\y <x~J\ cheerful. a district. [§ 304 A Plur. Jtflb *J)I•* x J» jJblj ^ XX having swelling breasts. X X J XX . 5 S a horseman. J w>j^ J^-U» tifo seashore. Fract. s x x Ja-Ij^i jjblw aw example. A-JM3 custody. a 7 . ajjU.sU J a rarity. sociable. *f\y> i x x . as J-«L». Jxx <£l)tyb . Ox divorced. jJbljJ. as X 4y£bU yfowtf.214 Part Second. 5»xx verbal adjectives. j) j&$* x x (for ^o-*!^) x x **^ gram. ^Hjly J £jtf x a follower. XXIII. jJbtjw. a Rem. pregnant.) 5 J 4*U common juty Ox x . a joke.. .^^. region. (for ij^tj*. O X ^ Ox witticism.. 2 ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of <L5I^ = 05^ A*5jt an ounce. i^li. X Ox 4. XVI. J applicable x to J men.. vulgar. X ^oSU*.) J i* ^oSl*. ^Ijxi. J^ti. Juotj^. applicable to females (§ 297. . Ox by their signification only J x •» rem. «x x JJtjl (for JJI. rare. 5 x wp^r classes. 3. J XX * s . J &>\yo 5j.

5 " &a/. Fern. <JI^». . 215 Plur. SfjJ**. law. *~5ULo x W0W0. *5l©-o. w*xU~~> ajL^ aw embassy. The Noun.— Plur. ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* J x jj>>»» x »» for slaughter*. &?&s 0/ X X J x x J XVI. JU-£» J #»x x ^ 8 ."" 5 «" x x «Jx X v^b* " . J! x x x xx J xx . quadriliterals. &->\ 00/ XXX c I 3/-^. x «x 3j-£ x a second wife. ^J^^ X ««X X . x ^^Oi.. Nouns Subst. j-j^o a pronoun. *4>^ a «Jx milch-camel. JjU^ w>>^ ^xx a /ar#0 bucket.l». x x x j$\j-*~ [«-SA a daughter in 05 x . j->\j*o < x x . ^o->|/-& t £a»-o3 slaughtered. [Also applied to the male. A Sing. whether they have the fern. 85 x x ^x x J affair or business. as 4uU*w a c/owa*. J^l*». but nevertheless fern. ' x x . gen. «^U—a a^i g n 9 X X a foard ^9 a Sxx io-»j^» Sx . x x s/a£>. JUKC which the third letter is servile or quiescent . a »XX »xxx J x J X . £a*»~o a written or plank. H*£ X . <So Adj. J ^ x x . »»x x (for ^Jt^*-). J^Lit .> X X a joroo/*.or »» XX «X X J $/ X X not. « X X victim. J *»x x . [J*J. J*>\~>j J £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>. x X x»xxx9x J^j jumcj . *' i* * a treatise. ~»\ <» >%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees. G.] . 5x x # *. a letter. ^ti^. from 5^«] jJJ the night. i . 6. D x x . x juLej] «x 4«. £))*?. j->!>»X X . >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X (for f^W d^>> *U^L> a caw/. J wages. aw J »X t*" island. y£XVII. igt>^). a &£ter. JU-w X X f£* w<?r£w C x^xx JjU-* . 600/. Fract. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases J as Juil >xx£ 9 ** X J ^X X X a young camel. of B (a long vowel). Ft actus. A. J J>^ aw 7 a she-camel xx Jx . f-5bi ttrcwa*. *UsU. a wawtf or weed. lU\y X £ x x 4b >r6oa. *)!** or <ULx^. x >"' . o/a woman. a _ thing. l&uotf.. * f Rem. 9 x x a cowrtf. D. termination 5. a J *»x x . ^xx . J*fcty continued. 9 5 a x /ree fl woman. as iDu.§304] II.

xj O^*^ « ^%. o!>** 5 J«*». —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. and more x » J rarely JUi and JU* x$ > as _>o^ a tfagrfe. x >*** one °f iw0 or more 9 x . a worm. a waW. 0* 5 O^h^ WJ 5 jl* mouse. v«*^ « ^^^ . O >0 root. 5/J bird.» Ja3 x as >^-o a kind of 9 t t OxO sj\*yo Ox J > . J 9*9* . 0\fv°90* 5 D 9*6 5. '0 5 % * * B 2. JU$. 9 x 6 O^j*!- jj*. 6 a I oxj O fl . Ox neighbour. *0 Olr* #re^s Jb a 9 y°un9 ostrich. OW« oW ^ - «x 6. 0'***^ * . O^/* x x w>^ » 6 ' * a^ 9 s . s/aw0. 9 Ox j door.' *>*3 a <* xd 5 OOx Ocx 5 9 O'**^ J>* a ^*% OlhH 9 A 5 °* " ^-**-^ 5 a x£ guest. [§ 304 A Plur. * ^)U*-J . a fish. 603/.» 4. growing from a single /« 5 \j\y*o j+& a bunch of 0*^ 9 9 dates. Ox x J 5 . lj 0*$}* 5 V V* x a firebrand. \)j3 a lizard. uW^ ^0 x £ i brother. from radicals mediae 3 x J . oW* jl*-° a ^her° °f w ^ Guttle. J . Ox /» 5 oS £-1 L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf. a branch. o*^**^/j xx Ox . 9 * 0^°3 9 . d 5 meteor. Ja9 as 9 w>^ x \ a male bustard. Ol***ixJ 3. as > Oj*-. x* yu a nightingale. O x . 1. Sx»^*x . oW«^ xx jW- <j!w* (for J*-* oW . Ox . v**M « branch. J J*». jtH a yoke.a buck-hare. Sx as J-^. Ox 0^*"> 9 * J 9 . o****9 Oj M t Sing.x J j>j> Ox 0^>9 x x . XVIII. % ^j^j."2 OW*^ x G vWi a oW3 *• J!>* # S x gazelle. 9 rare . OW* >}* a P iece °f wood. a black beetle. 9 Si C Ol^ O x J 9 %** a field-rat. Fract. 5 v!** a raven. as juft ' a s/aw. J*i and J*5. Ol*^ rare .jUJ j3~> 9 . w>b a *.jtju* O .216 Part Second./Sre. 0*$j3 I ?r <^ ^ (f° r ar^) a crown. ok^*{// xd f-^J x a ^ S nQl> °f small xx bird.

a woman. J-*-**. wing-feather. o/" d^afe. 9 x J . ol*** 9 Jj a **•* J I Ar water. 9 O^***X «jV a spiritual being Ox £ of the class called o**$\. Nouns Subst & Adj. 3 ' XVIII. x x etc. A.. { g § 8. Ox J a 9x0 9^0 xx x ZX+^j a sor# tpftj cat. 0^> 6raw. 9 . J x 9x0 a /<wra&. O^j9x0j 9xx 2. oW* J . J-j-©^. a to»i6.^ *» a wood-pigeon. o^. 217 Plur. 90 50x .jU£* .. xO J . 3-i5 d^oj. 9xx 9 x-> O^^f x J JiH> J**-. as o'**** 5 a ma^e 9x0 chamceleon. a strait. has ^lj-«t . 1. A continued. 5 Cx <Lc\ (for 3>-©l). rare xJ . JUi. 9x 10. rare XX 9 .* >i wjl^w a firebrand. 9x0 diminutives. 9x0 o^** 9x0 gelding. as x Jl5j a lane. ^L-a*. 9x0x9 Ox roof. # a bustard. The Noun. [7. \J\j5*• oW* jl*** aw un ~ weaned foal of a camel. O^ J^ jir^ 9 9*0* the back. rare J . &\3j 9 pW^ 9 x J . x 5x x Ja3 9 x as J jX> a town. 28 . X0J J oW»2 *!•*>$ a wolf. dates. not nightingale. <jW^3 • fij D a bunch of 9xx . and C 5x0 Sl^-ot. more rarely J** 90x juft as UUL< a 90x 5 . Fractus. 9 xJ 9 £j . 9 x x 3.—Plur. 9 ->x Sing. Ot^**-] 5«x J xJ J/J/J **g**.§ 304] II.. 0>**> rar e . O^fa maidservant. Fract. as 5x0 <jU*£» . a meteor. &%+•* B 9. xix. an irregular plural ^jtj**J. the short side of a *%» . J>»J. jtfrj a slave. C^j3J x ^SaZ* 9x0 Ohj^9 Ox a 3 . 50x Jjt*. the long side t of a wing9 9 H J . rare 9 as »J>jj^. 6 . as Ja5l»ii mW. j Uai w. 5x0 9xxx x Obj^ O^. OxOJ ^jt jii^ a sfew.] 9 feather. 5 . J^li. 9 x ' 9x0 5 x a eunuch. '•> 5x O^i 9 the belly. j%<^. [v*** grain. 5 x 9 . Sx£ 5x x£ Rem.

et ^. < Sing. even in cases where we should hardly expect it. from 9 * j 3 j^\. ^^^9 * a sand-hill. 9 •» [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^. l\js* ilwjj . oW^j1* s s . * J Ol)^ c***^ white. 9 . a friend. w^Jbtj a Christian . Fract. and 9 ^j\jy»*. 1. . 4. 9 i f /* commander . ulJ 9 we Cii find ^)tj—<-£S and UJ" D XX. . jLc. instead of Oxj Ob^' # j * oi 9 * 9 - j blind of one eye. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. which have not the passive and are not derived from 9 * verba mediae rad. o^** 9 continued. 9 ' as j-j*3 f J . ctj « shepherd. o!/-**- £***1 £^> O^*^ \ C deaf. ^'^Ui as j^»-t ml. j$*\ blind of one j 5 eye. B 5. For example. 3 et w-s»-lo ^ . ^jIa^o ascetic ^HjLi a horseman. as sJu^j 1 j a cake of bread. from jt^-». poor. 3 . a youth.] J-j«i. J * £ 9 ' J 5 J * oi 9 ' J i J**t. 1\ja\ Utt'tfy. oW^j 5 a companion. geminate or r" «» tertise rad. are. v~&j a chief . Oi 9 (for 0***tt) lt*-^ blind. [§ 304 A Plur. V^ . O !/**• tffcui. J n L&** a channel for irrigation. J^ti. 9 '6 3 \ * J-oii rod. j~*\ a or chief. XIX. J-J*. or recluse. applicable to signification. cM^j v**** a tw W or ijUc * 9 .. l%sL^ ob^J* iUp* j&Si** wise. The forms and ^tiUi some of the above examples show. as w^b oW*> a n<for. jtgtoS 9 ' fern.3 . . . O^*- oW*^ sr#J° a male ostrich. as Rem. J-oLj stingy. O^ .jLs> JxdS 6. oU-^ 9 < . ^L*>J. £)*$*** oW«*. used as substantives and not derived from verba mediae rad. I s b J 8 / 5 jjloXb ^)L»j. rational beings. verbal adjectives. unweaned foals of 9 - camels. ^*o a fo# or child. verbal adjectives. used conjointly or interchangeable.218 Part Second.

2.j-J -» (for ot 0#J) 5 * smooth. ^x 0£ .. ^?/<xm. a philosopher or sage. v*^* a relative. *Ujl <~x 3 " wretched. HjJX. Fractus. ^ for x i\Jo\ Oi and 3 x similarly. easy. 5 x x ^ Examples of rarer cases are i : m~> «xxxx liberal. with the r* same restrictions *»xx J S . adjectives of the same kind as XX.l. geminatae or mediae or tertiae rad.a. above . *U*a. in the last. r£iU . - x »/ X «f *Lj^t X . 9 X learned. iL». ^ (from x" a*a»w) J*~$ J x//J s£am. « /r^wc?. w««*». ila^^w 9 . It^xw JSU r*" «*&. U . « prophet. X i<^ ^^x stuttering.1) . XX. 9 x *s * j . eloquent. . 9 ^xx l\^\\ [j>$>j loving. 219 Plur. 3 x stammering. iSCu. iUX»- f. adjectives. x x J . et ^J . l\}>j]. iLa^wl j^jJL? jmows. .j^o 3 x cfear. 9 ' xx J . a physician. for £\ejj.d Adj. l\*y*.j-Jb (for r" Oi . I^aX*. i oW-*^ cowardly. A Sing. j . i^JU5 9 x x £ j^wt a c//l prisoner. J*^. l\~J. exempt from. ^^ X ^^ X *W- . a deputy. iZj>\ 4-*^-. usually makes \J&%±. right. and XXI..xx lUol X . (from . ws^J* a physician. Jjli good.» Rem. *UJI ~' ot . ^^). i%^ j^li a jtKxtf. ignorant. llSjusl . i^Lu (for iUall.— Plur. — JUg> o». but mostly- derived from verba mediae rad..-i£ A~i£l ^^X ncA. Ol**) Wx D 9 <*> * light.x B x x . o£ . masc. «£ . as J^J^d a friend. i\^SJ>. easy. a successor. (j^ 2\^j*>. C J-oi5. . A. lUybt . some masc.> sj+i clear. . as * as ^U . x .§304] II The Noun. . i^t^\ 3x j^^iw ^j 0£ . Oi . Fract. J^U. quit of. * . lLa». lu&wl ~ ~. 9 *IjlwI . il©Ac JJbU. eloquent.> noble. liberal. *L»I #xx jujlw strong. . a friend. 1. i*k*j continued. a wUi 3 x *»x or sam£. a caliph. 9 x x x iS'^f. j-J. 9 j cU*Jrf 6rave. plain. in the former senses. ^y*-* 5 x liberal. Nouns Subst.

itja*-o a jt?/am or desert. ^y*t*3 . . ^~& . etc. Ot . vt * ^jj B (for j*~>\ * a prisoner. 1. ^Ia. ^jA * . &*j paralytic. u&ij** sick. £*}Ia9 .. as D 2. denoting injuries. 9 * + + . l\su9 a oL3. or J^»-t. ^5j£ &\& perishing. C-^o O 9 ' c*£y*) dead. j\j^ 4£j*£ the u-^jj^ clever has ^. l£>^ a ctok. ^Us . wounded. i£>£ a judicial opinion..j in J * 6 £ ^<Uj j*jA decrepit through . 1- J& 9+9'9'J'0£ J***> J**> Sing. < viz.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 0^***> verbal adjectives . '0 * . as ^J%~£a lazy. ^5^*5 . ^>y* . . \J=>y>. ^jl*. mangy. xxiii. S'^Ui. jUy goblin. as lljJ^ desert. *f« a fool. Q angry. as 3*}U~/ *ijj>*> a female gul (J^z) or . ^a>.J . jis^a . Jbu* . J*»»^ a partridge. (J>*3 WW prominent SjJjis . bone behind the ear. . pain. . 9 s »f silly. oW*** {J!j£~*. 9 . j^j 3. Fracf. \j*-j**£ £4 *d bitten by ' a snake. J / ^l+z. »> A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) its contrary . an * [ old hag. a virgin. . or *->j**\. Ob*** drunken. i^**.JLo^. verbal adjectives. ^£j*~£a ' . J^> s . Sij-* drowned. ^y0j*° J5{e> poor. 9 * * The ^JUJ ' is said to occur in only 9 * * two words.rw. b s 9 . ^^3 * s *~>ja. * * JU*-. age. ^j**^ 0^^ plural hungry. {£j~>\ 9 j*~£* " broken. %c*. Rem. and jjWj-k a polecat. of ' body or mind 9 ' . 9 . ^iL»*-* w^w. J**^ 9 y defects. AjjAas. rough ground. u4j*f 2. XXII. [§ 304 A Plur.220 Part Second. scabby. ^j^ '. stung by a 9 scorpion. juS. )\j&- . as J^3 y slain.

Ud. 221 Plur. K/ 4/ . the earth. ^«i. jj^ULo xOx 2. ^^-» /I tj>*»- xxx XXX a . ij>*3 . is ' x x x x x xOx always night. ^ prominent xOl Q XXX 6<m0 behind the ear. opinion. Rem. ^W*. x —In the 9 0s same way JyJ. ^Jl x fc . JJtp *£jG- a bucket. the forms JUi XXX and .jl^-fc. verbal adjectives J . B xx . XXX ^jU&. J . 'A*** x .. ^Jj^h x»J 3. ^>3 x . Nouns Subslti Adj. 4. f* 9' it . i JU . feminine adjectives. j^l^ 0^^* x X x xxx J ^[f* J x . J x x fem - v^**j and J**». JU* Sing. 1. JxOx 0^**> x Ox 9 x . desert. ^yUl ^jX**. . x l^Ui as i\jjs> . . jj^L^b * xxx . ^JtJ) Jjfct one's people or family. *»x x xxx a a as virgin. (ace.^5^*. i£jl£* x x xxx . . JJt/s. JUt XXIV. XX Rem. The Noun. Fract. xx XXIII. ^W*.a hermaphro^^. In nos. x ^**. as o!/*-* xxx drunken. and 4. dite. r. J xO x XXX hungry. t l£>^ a complaint. ^** sweetmeat.row^A ground.. »xx . JxOx ^^L»^ jealous. JUi stands in the nom. for iJlxs and x x Ox . 1. 0/J(/ . however. xxP xOJ XXX xdj feminine. The accus. 0x ft as ajjJ**. 9x0 . . 2. 9 £ xf . 9x0 a*U3 X X cock. ^tJ^ l\j**~o a plain or desert.. ^jj\ X J^ *ij*£ XX ftfo hackles of a ^Ufr. ^}%*- j^>ft> dfa»V».JUAJI. "it"' ^^3 # . x x x . t v^)W*» Olh*-* xx .— Plur. x tey. ±£jL*\ j a 11 ^ broken. jUfc the cross-handle of 2y>p the collar-bone. (ace. x&x xxx a judicial x xO . u±\j\ (ace." ^JUj (both with the art. not superlatives as ^Jul female. J&. perplexed. . ^Ut) and u6j\. ^U^. ^UiJI). . $ * (J^W* >*-»t a prisoner. *. A continued. xxx . ^»o\j\).§304] II. A. <jL-o£ angry. 5. Fractus.JUi are D interchangeable.pregnant. makes with the xx art. * hackles of a cock. and genit.

^j*\^> 0% 3 . btu 4*fc) subjects. SjUl a ta#.cautious^ wary.222 Part Second. bt jJk a-mU . / x xx C *j!**a # present.).) a sm. (for 4~Ja£. covered with shame. Fract. * bl£c *]. . \J>S}+: * Rem. . 9 * 8. in nos. J as {Jj^L.^ en j)«m. x b^b . bljJb instead of . jJU3 1 and even j ^U*. iL*s. iJjC*-. 5 t*i substantives from verba tertiae rad. bt jca. Rem. i^jtft S^bt ^ a small water-skin. for sake conformity haS (£ j$5jJ) *>** ^] . "[§ 304 A Plwr. for {J\ juk (§Ui).. jtx+l an orphan. [Luc evening. 9 . *5 t*J ^ et ^ . something over and the above. *». fern. j^Us 9 continued.-jtjJb.sad. ^gjbt * 9 . etc. 0t 00% .tJ^ B o>». We write 000 etc. ^J^z of Sjt/A * r [In conjunction with tf 1 LjULfc. 90 ^JW*. rem. Sing. XXIV. ^W-j 000 jJ^. ^AZ-t 9 I . —Many D grammarians regard these words as being (see 9' of the form ./afe. as ^btj^- a yowT^ % gazelle. bU»w . et 9 .]. blfcuo io^ bliftA. to prevent the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179. verbal adjectives as ix*». 9 t 9v)t . j^Lfc. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. a).J5Us XVII. we find.. W x m* x nature. L£^> lS^ /j 9 ' L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U only 7. Ja3. (JJ. 90 * ^ ^£ . aJsuo ** aw animal for ** riding. [^b>*. aJj # x x ^m/ <$ or calamity. bUj . 000 . SJ$*z the upper part. 5J/ 9 6. j*t^> a boon-companion. Instead of ^Ui 00 . btj^. a)Ui. Ja*. 5 and 6. a swollen belly. «/ x . from verba tertise rad. x x x .having 9 J . ^bl . *Ja». ^Uis. disposition. x ^ ^ . j*iS b a (for^o-ol) 9 / unmarried. as x ^ x x x (Jul .

^tj-tfu a Christian. AJ0y>±> 9 x x j*J a panther. 90 * . bt^j. as « caw2^/ wstfd in p drawing water. a 9x J thread. Nouns Subst. S. ^ and ^ . Jjti . y*£- a wild ass. Ox *J used for washing anything. The Noun. * .L 9 * a pilgrim. 1. as 9. * XXIV. Rem. Ox 2. a ^U* Sing. * 2J^*» (comp. Jjis fttfo). A. *r£a**m 9 * 9 * j^ 9 (f° r * J»J^) a 9 soldier. Zj^+J J J jio 9x a Aaw£. JLoJ(rare). J**3 a 9' J J stallion. an intestine.] C XXV. bljj for Here . Fract. ' [Rem. ^UL5 ZAsu the pick and choice of Rem. aiyU(rare). clothes. 0> tjljj . . Ziyi* .„ mill. j-jif 1^*5 a . A continued.1 (&**. .ti Adj. 9* *3 . yi£» a (fogr. J\*.JUs is thought to stand for JjUs . 9 .— Plur. x c) . 4> * * * aj^I*. t ** . ^•y.yLo otU fodder.an uncle (by the 9 x 9x I J mothers 9' J J side). as Jjo a husband. * * XXVI. X - Ox . thought to stand for ^J^l^i. CtSJ. the father s 9 x J J 0* x &«>»& 9 . as ^l^j b. ***». from ijjlj Ox X verba mediae rad.^c> 9x J . etc. Jjtf.). ii>U]. § J J %&* 9 . . 3J^a*J [h^. B ^ et 9. {£}\j* ^\Ju plants of x the 9 0* kind called cA*^.§304]- II. . JtftU 3 x . 3u^\j is a corner. bi>»a. &UU. etc. stout stick. 240. Ox . J»*J. > # 9 x 5 x 9 x 3. as juft ^" . for Here too .» an uncle (by 9 . 9' J . a s/a«0. Fractus. 223 Plur. \S\jJf.JUi (|Tjj).. as ^U. a large water-skin. JU3 9 x as iU»3 «w x Ox ass. j£j * „- cattle. ju*fc 2 - . tertise rad. rem. Anomalous " I * * * is ^jLaJ from . w~J^» .

Rem. aJUa. XXIX. j*j>a. ^^U. a n'w^. aXxi. XXV. °" «xx Jjii. 3.l£»$ j^-». a)U*i x J^c*. && Sftx (rare). watching. 5 x w*)^ SftxSx x j-oU a . Oftx . Ox J*3 . Q . ajULo (also [the more common] B JbULi). a %' " . # 3j& a pulley. SftxSx w>£> . x x OxOx *. Fract. J*5 as ^^j x a t" * .' ". u»j*- v^W. [§ 304 A Plur. j&. Ox j.». aAai * x . a %p . . as w*». (also 5JU^-)] j^»3 wafc. G' ' ' 6xx Oxx . 1. circle. mM£.a+3 6 5 J^li as ## drinking. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. «^U a *i # follower. jcotj 0/ /3^'wgr . SftxSx . J^li .224 Part Second. JiX».# sfowe. (rare). J*\~* a traveller. m'° ' as a£X».« an # ^ri^ Oxx importer.. v^J a. ftx fracta. helper. j&~* [jj\j a t t visitor. j*aJ a merchant. J^J ^Jlb seeking. fix S x . The above rules regarding the correspondence of D certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular. keeper. 6 ft x .xx Oi making a distinction Sftx between them and the collectives collectives (il©~>t ^x 2 ft jt^aJt). x a caw^Z. XXVIII. as ^U*J..» SjLj [Ja*j a x stallion. . and ft x J xft£ XXIX. 2. Sing. ^Juii and Jjii are . <i b ' «x x 5 x x . 5 ft w^-L^ a companion. 1. J^ti. Jii(rare)..U w*»*-o w^tj Oftx a x / n<&r. jjj]. which Sftx x form a nomen unitatis. * * * an attendant. ^w x > . XXVII. are subject The dictionaries also give various forms to many exceptions* * [Many as scholars do not admit the forms plur. The forms J-j*i. 2.. but call them quasi-plurals real ft (**jjJ1 alwl). j.«aJI x S x x *lo-*t).lo # companion. j*oj driver. bull. XXVIII. and the generic rft ( u . Sftx 6 . as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels). wnU. wJJa xx . a - servant. as j*}* etc. a guardian. Ox x . Ox x .

£tjj-oc*.) from an obsolete J*** 0**w). .xx JJu a x . •> 2L/3-JU. Ox x x . a O x x a Ox doctor. see rem. wim^. sing. <Uyq* »»->~Jj <•* ju£ a x» x . O and I^^juLo. A. w>U>. fracti Or one may have jdblw one several plurales to/to is and a pluralis sanus besides e.) also from an obsolete J-o*i table it is (^iXJUb). ii x 0£ <} Ox 0^ x or S . x w^-lo a companion. no^ x te»3yfiU . « and are : £&»»>. OOx and aXxslc (as t Jt^-o a hycena. The Noun. 9 5J$*$ and XXVII. 29 . ib^oto. a). lU$3l* . v x x a>^3. jLct. see rem. jl^». XX Ox OlUi. <U£^o oW man. masculine by form. « x .§304] II.Jl*i. x oW' OJ«f JhA x J tc jue a J x s/awe. 6. OOx ufcy* o and SUfc »& >. (as JJUU perishing. may have several forms of the pluralis fractus J e. w>la» -o. juftl. J Oc \ 9 0' bull. llo^-bt*. ul jLc. O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£. SjuA* chief. . OOx ^>Ut a she-ass. g.o». O x . it <& Adj. a). From the preceding i obvious that one sing. ^jLa^o (besides a. . Sjufel. OOx J J )\£\. ilj^at*. 225 which we have not thought Oxxdx d-buL© . a he-ass.. of ^« which the principal examples in use OOx ^x J x£ x x . ju*£. c. j^U. j^fc a t j» wt£o? ass. o x sfow.xx a s&we. and J^U. o . J»x Rem. x J ^^ x Jfcx . Fractus. OxOfOxxxOxOJ A->U». Ox x The forms XXVI.>j. S^j. x JJ dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 5 JUJ with the termination x to reinforce the collective meaning * x 0*> 2x »»x w.o. jus.«). ^J&*. Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived. Rem. Nouns Subst. SjUj. A Ox Ox rarely <UbuLo o x OxJOx x »// * " .o l. but from others.JL ^ D (besides jut. a poet. s^ow^. (as j^l* x pi. Sjujco. HA*. °° " T" * t ' l man. jufc B J x 0« o£/i<sr . X 9^9' E. necessary to notice . /»jP ^ar^e.» for instance. 9 9 xOP j^* A*^* J^' jy a Cxx. ^xxJ lUxw. Ox x are obsolete or of rare occurrence. which 0* x J pi. il^^sw. ^^ ^ _.—Plur. J^j a * x x « x i^x 2f x J mountain-goat.« a sword. Ox j*~> a sea. .o »»x ^xJdxOx J OOx l^i** ofoZ -i«w an ^--J a he-goat. <U> ^>>>-o. %—^. feminine by signification.& a Christian (or V "•' Muhammadan) x x x x Odx captive or sfowe. present. g. 9 X not from the singular forms in actual use.g. jj*£.

x ' jj^jJfcl*. CHJ/J 9 * . 305. X X Sing. xx . t [§ Oi . *^*&y» a ta&& 2.gems. or ^Lftl 9 9 . 305 % A + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * * an a witness.. bridge. O^W- The forms of the plur. v>^ * . In such cases. £#£> signifies (1) an eye. * 0>tu. worshipping. or 9 9 J Ot *0 J Q ^ULj. X j*U3. (4) a distinguished man. ^Alp j JO J J) t>?^ o c j ^w ** xOx j 9 * of a lion. to take another instance. it often happens that each of them has one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it. in the second. Again. which consist of four or more consonants. 9 x or used in preference to the rest. of substantives and adjectives. (J*lil. w*J^ a fish. (2) 9 J J a valley. 4 ** + j^. 9 * * . *Aot [4X0JI Mg #wg? . in 9 J J the 9 * first Oi sense « is J ^ 0>^> 0-k^> or # xO 9JJ O^j 9*0 3 . fract. ^sS^s a streamlet. 3^*1 J^^ . >U^. jJ»L5 X S dju&j X X J a Jin of a xx . (2) 9 a verse of poetry . or ^0 .226 Part Second. star. Or. as f-t-o}. Plur. (5) tJte inner or wider side of a wing -feather . 6x * if prefixing !. O. jJA^ap X x x 6/0/ J^J^fc. JJ 9 ISC. as wJju j *' . in the latter almost always : Owl. fract. *oi \ The word £**j means 9 sit '90* : tent or house. J*UU). along with the corresponding singulars. fract. formed from triliteral roots * by 0x0 J x f . v>-^t. in the sense of (I) an a evidential example. j j has jdbtyw. (3) a tribe. . J^tjc». ** . £)&£• or &t&\ in /»f 9b* the third and fourth. s jl^. obUj X jJt^*. (4) the interior. Quadriliterals (5 not included). a column or (in a book). 9*0 a fox. (3) peculiar nature or essence. in the second. ^J^J^. 3ju£. JJUi X 1. as a letter).» x x »xx Ox 5 *j^* a * * . x jdbl£. eye-witness. (jL^l. Fract. I. &>cms£. a finger. is O^o or OLot. ^Jbu 9 c jJua • a J frog. the consonants of which are all radical j . —Etymology ?y J or the Parts of Speech. in the first sense is 13 9 3 Oi 9 9 "Oi &$*£'. in the following table. its plur. if the has several meanings. Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives j (3 not being counted 9 '*' ** . >y^>. ^jJaj means: (1) the belly. fract. j For example. are exhibited. sing. in the third. 0>^ or O-^'j n the fourth and fifth. (2) a fountain. 9 J Oi its plur. c^U-o S ^*Aj> a dirham. 9 in the former sense the B plur.-. + • 3* serving. iifcut.

Adjectives of the form Jjt^t. *^JlaL* . ^. »£>!>* (for ^yt^ft) a. ^ojik* but in one or Jxx J . or in it nomen 9 x x agentis 9 x (J^li. Rem.) 2uj**3 trial.o a claw or J talon. often taking the form JjtJI. 0/ a finger. a minaret. make. aw open XX x »-U-o.« a cwr/ (from «. £m<7. I. J Jxx into (. in that case. ^jULo 9 X x x cj\Jlc (from jli for X X Jxx »xx J^i) a desert. [and. J^OI] J ^jt Adam. x x 9 x ?»-. and usually ^^Ltfuo. *Ag»i means of J i.> ». C xxx ^ is whereas -iJL** is the plural of £a» .— Plur. viper. J The changing the^ ^ XX is vulgar. as^jtu. XX Rem. and X X usually j^U*. j-»Uu«. the 9x .§305] II. J i* x x remains unchanged. rad. Jjlii (Jwrf. ^jXJI . y]. e. Fractus. XXX J XX space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>).g. J*U5. 227 Plur.»>. *~b\j*c]. as XXX ^nyU J a bowcase. £Jj-U a x x .. w^lcc*.g. In the same form from verba mediae 9 x ft usually J x x x x xx retained. <sLo*}Lo a reproof. cont. The Noun. ^olio (from xxx xx i^U for u°^) a place for diving. [f^j-o suckling. >jtjt no. Jclli) . § —but 240). compare perience. . i<i«^ meaning. t* « . Jxft* see § 309.o & a x jp/ac# x wAer^ owe stops 9 x x a quarter of a town. .L^«.»). w>3-d) a misfortune. ^. of the form J^U^ X from elif verba mediae rad. Ua». J »»xx form XVII. in the e. AcwL. J jU*o .X^. as J Jj^. In the plur. Fract. A. O^*-* (f° r iV***) ^^ *^X J x x . XXIIL. rem. x x clil (for x* ^lit. a station. a r.>). ex- w^U^ . 9 < ul x halting -place.g. when used as substantives 9 x Of 9 x I .1 xf . ^— is not converted after the as happens.c.& Adj. ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter. a plur. especially with the superlative meaning. Ji iJ^Aa* X xx . J^lit e. 9x xx two instances into hemza xxx candlestick. Nouns Subst. fract. . the productionis into hemza (5). ^.. of ^tu. for instance. of the 9 x triliterals (^JjIxj). J Jxx J *&-• B X em e%#. 6. jjU-« x or dwells. § 304. j»yk* . ^.ao XX J (from w>lo for J ^ xx 9x X X SjUo a J D ^X X a lighthouse. b.

jU3 3 J # XXX ti bubble. as 3 -> ^w! x x a human x x being.> a Bactrian camel. J x x . J*»»!. B which the penultimate o x * x letter is s * . ^£m«* a camel from Mahrah.j-**Uo x . 0x0 JU«j # chronicle. O*^lo a . (jU3 s&?r£ drawers. J § j o oj devil. ^jltf J (for x x .£ . Je^tji).« a #03/.*. > x x i^-jft^L* jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds. flowers. /. inauspicious. x£ . S x xx . xx . J J-oU-3 xx XX xx J j-i^oj a picture. [§ 305 A Plur. [This it may be xc lightened also to v*\j£*. i^fbtfL* X xx . ^Ia>. O j-j-oUl v^W^J x f . xx . I. >i$\+> X a^U* & x 00 J^juS a /amp. nobles. ^t>> J Sx 5j * xx . six [»£)j£o j^wj^a a cMr. . & J ij^jfbU** t jtjyfu* unlucky. grandees. l l. (5 Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives not included). JJlii (J*tft. J**uJ.JUi-j and Ols*j. ^£jly* an<^ jV 0. as O^*** a sultan. x£ J xO £ jx £ Ox j / »»/ vo^bt . w*^ X J #»x 5 x x x x . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. ^Ut |S [4*». . XXX also the irregular plurals ^ ne ^ w0 XXX latter words have ^ULj and ^ly*. J x ^o-JU** x ^3-0-^ lucky. J statue. II. ^jt/j) C x . an ^ ostrich's nest. o3 »J ^».>*£-> X X fe/tf.] . Ox x Op a garland or crown. auspicious. ^*>\ ox (for j op i^>»oO or J ^5»o{. 'J #> Z jJjaLo accursed. j JU65. jjI£»*n)I. ^3\j\ j+£s*$\ the greatest. a litera productions x o j x x j. D 2 o c o ra<7^. j**u5. JWu)4oat j Sing. J x£ . x x 9Mjli« J o" > x>».) x .j-Jslw X . Jjtil (J-^Ut. . Jj.t . w^>S» a ^tf## J shower of rain. £ . i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) a x a measure. rem.^o$j\ a mottled snake.228 Part Second. £ x A- ii has l<-»U! and ^01. *Ujj . of (I. xg . Fract.t a tent-rope.t & .bt * 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA. jjj\*a3 § *»Jjl3 „ 0x6 ^ « f~lj\y* 6 1 (compare 303. . £>*a*\j~t X . J*ftlii. C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] J . jjUalw wA?'te a sj*j0%~i xx . ^>U»w a X J wolf.o jooor.. JP J **3Ui W X . desert. ». J*)l^t j 3j>»gt j o£ a joom zw o M# m^r^ . o ^) x .

J xxOxO ^^^Uj and ^^waLo jt/££ xx and jijlr* if . J x£ . J Ox x «. plur. of J Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed x£ x a closet. 229 Plur.§305] II.l. J vestibule or apartment. x x having a young one with clever. J^JUaW. ^I^ai. jtL>3 « dinar. ^»-tjl J 2uj\ a stall. * ^^Uj «" ^^oU. u-^wol^ a. The plur. ^jULo and ^>j>UL« . from a form \Jy£\) JjLai. b\j«3 a carat. Sing. chiefly XX by poetical Ox instead of J*JUs as j-olio =j^clio.ajU> w>j~ju J £fo queen-bee (rex 9 . jy^^J hemorrhoids. . from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) bridges. x g Ox « Ox register. i>£$t>>. J^jlw. curds. 6. . cont. J**£?. xxj g g x hojSj. a public xx x£ ( an account-book. xx OxO Ox x Ox J . The Noun. and O^b' Ox as ^ from singular J a 05 anc^ Obi'* xx forms jlo.) J . j**U3. Oy'» a furnace. a collection Ox J office or bureau. a sacred claim. used. B as^^Jt^a. t^tjl] J p>^ "«* . II. o o£ - jo.l>w and !j~obj J u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov). in modern Arabic. t><JOI and perhaps JO? also jJ-JUt (as OxJ j fl J Jxx § 284. k.—Plur. has ?»-^W.» JjUxo 9 ' . « J xx . x x J x x J ^jjJL« having a fawn with her. O x '£ '£ J***** =j-»U5 ' • from SjJsui jitJu one who breaks his fast. j+^l^c. J § § i** j jJbU^ . of V jtaftt a dust-storm. a dungeon. ^j\yi> a of poems. Nouns Subst. JJU3 ( j-^lit. a x x 3 x buffalo. J J^tji. xx JxxJ off. a spring. J-J. and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico. =^i[±.> D xx 5 Ox Ox Ox ->x J Ox J x x or jl/*w. her. 9'0 J " J » ^Jfctp dirhams. J JJU* . C plur. f fi r. JJUs sing. from^oUl*. & Adj.0 and ^JyJUx* is f »t * j j£w« cunning. has J^Jl^aW and. xg J OxO >oUt =j-Mtf?Ut. Fract. A J^V') i x£ . is sometimes found in cases is where a quinqueliteral exist J . ^Jilia.. Fractus. j x x j*~*\y}. signet-rings. ot^ 7?"W>' brocade. a bath. Compare rem. xx make j-Jlo. J^lii. apum). J x Conversely. Rem. Rem. (v?^*) quinsy. license. form either rare or does not (pi.

relative adjectives. liHis. Bagdad _0xxxSj»x S^Ulj ^*y+*AA f . iUwl) a master. Fract. Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters (principally foreign words). xx J Sxxx and SijUaj X . w^Sa). T&Sfi. Chosroes) the king of . ' S^X* X iJ X X (WIS) J^x OjUo Sxxx and AijUo . Aiftly w^-«o and ^V**«. of the Berber tribe of Sxxx — . StJj T» J (Heb.—J^ ^^ X a descendant of el-Muhalleb. x »x ^^-euS x (Cossar.« . Sing. J i>j. S x . Ju**iU and SJl-oj 5^ x x . aajLj S x ^^S a nobleman Sx (comes. angel. of which the penultimate letter is a *0J 5 x«| litera productionis . a£5*}L* Zj ft^J ( J&<*e a polisher of swords. C when they £* x J)*$~c S are words of foreign origin. I^ali!) a / xx B disciple. SxxxSJ^Gx±Jy~X+9 S x « x (<£iAoo-o<£os) a philosopher. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. 03-*^-* Pharaoh. 1. xx Sxxx Sxxx 5 (irarptdpx'rj's). S Sxxx « Moor. « money-changer.Uxo and 4jjUa-o XX « metropolitan bishop SxJftx ^U^-p <m interpreter. (ixryrpoTroXiTrjs). which have not a litera productionis before the last radical. SxxxJixJ lju»l a « X . JJj^Usu X jjlpauo «» xx Sxxx . jLjU and IjjCf. tJiU-s and J^xx Sxxx aJLS'^-o Sxxx el- 5J a king of Yemen.A J Jxx 4 »J Sxxx Sj^%c . — especially many E. J xx . D %J0i Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a J^ xP bishop. 6 x ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu w^>». a great letters. x <L«~«UJi «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop x & x . Syr. consisting of 8 «"»x more than four t x x x an . —and S . XX « X 2. [§ 305 A Plw. jj—»•». J 4i-**iU J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius. ^jJ^ ^tj^ £x0x a native of man Masmuda.« S stocking or &?£& < . a pupil. Ko/xrjs). a teaclwr. (Pers. w^l**?* anc* *Ol**" •**•** « heretic.230 Part Second.g. oUK**t and Sx Sx_ x£ 4*5L>t J . TraTpiKio?). ajjUu* a . . J . . S^-oL*J XX . Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters. III. Kato-ap) £fo Sx xx Byzantine emperor. a-jJLy-*. as iUwt (Pers. Ox * J xO From \£j~£s (Pers.

2j6 a x£ . are formed irregularly j««»Ubt. £)&* a £Xol. in quadriwhich have a litera productionis before the last radical B . plur. and XIX. besides . ^*l>U>t JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus. or secondary plural).-w^llS). 4-^>l 2ri6e. . ^bL* x x J ^nj-^a^a. * ajJUi continued. she- 5 Ox J 0x camel. of quadriliterals and quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals of x 0*3 Rem. jut (for t^ju. and ^l^-* OxxxOxxx j^. £>yfii* x .« tyrant^ a giant. of the plur.§ 305] II. rem. fract. ^&\ « X JO* JaJbjt. J5U3. J_«-l£L»).—Plur. 0X . rejected. jilt and XV. 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ 6 c # xx x J i**^* *^ X iiU^urft a pillar. O-Jlii. fowwf. has. OxOpjxfsxx bracelet. and XVIII. the plur. one of the radicals xx . j£~*\ '. «S x » P p 7 ^U-i a deacon (Syr. j»ola»^ «x J Ox. This form is also found.>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu (compare c. more rarely V. xx A Sing.1). * X i Ox xx . and the J letters of prolongation). ca^o. 0X XX JU>Uo. * £ r* * t 5^ x x . x as jU». ca&e. Kg. Jpbl JaJbj ones people or 5J0fJxtOx « W6. x£ t^jbl) XV. x£ . Jlii. <LJlku oo/acotikos). XX five or Rem. ljA*a*.g. 4*-*!^/. i Jjjtji x . and XIV. & Adj. D JliS. J*frUt . 0JO* J XX . Sjyi\. 6. oZc? yi»U^ w*J jUft J a nightingale. Zazy xx . of nouns which contain JxOx E. 3i»wl£»l. Ox a 9 xx x spider. ^jlii. XIII. letters (exclusive of 5 is x fract.. 264. The forms J x 2/ie («^aJt ^HfrCb.^ AiaJ Ptolemy. In particular. and 5j*>L*£» Jlj-^l. generally the last. J J but &jj* a burnt ^^ x (for . and # gt^-rf or xx irregular ij^t^«#. Lr>ft. though rarely. iJUif make Jclil. Fract. . 3UI (for 6x0$ pfoce. J>-Jt. Fractus. 9/ III. 4J& « <%.» the x x (for ^^l^w). more J In forming the plur. J^JU< J v> a quince. a like. x XX woman. I Here *5 J ^ „ may 'llah also be mentioned such plurals as § 4j. XXX r~^*-~* j^-J^JLS. The Noun. literals 5 «S Rem. A. forms XIII. 231 Plur. . J JaAljt JO* *JLo x£ *J«ot. C x 2 x . b). a. c™ § x J jl^-rf Of ' *^ a a a benefit. a XX jfatf. or 2 ' " » . an equal. Persia. Nouns Subst.

a» . dUUt.\.tfu* jjl»o x» j « garden (of palm j owjjxxoxj trees). JjUj. ^UiM. [^u». J "1 £ x x 4. families OJ J - xJJ a Ox jUa' ' roaeZ. she-camels having x £ Oxx J V. A x J Ox also be derived from V. &£>>).. Cxt^^»».> OJOxJOx jj>. . Oxx a she-camel.1^0] diU • x JO? OUiot) 5/J etc. ^Ut *Z . J Ot^ji Cxfc . JUi.j w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' x * s XX Ob^ Oxx j j . O^U*. a speech. jj-c*. jutj^.»x O*^^- Again. ^su oox camels. x £ XV.xxx Ox . t 6 J x £ J Jl^il. j**\)\ x? . ^tjit. J »»x x £$*a*. §+0JJ+ ^ w>Ufc an ° •: + J intestine. fix xxOxxx jb « house. O'NjUfc. —by adding the termination s^c^ dL j as g J^tJli W a follower of es-§afi% -> (J^x5l£)f). J^j a man. Rem. il*i\Jj\ the sect of Jii li x ^e Sqfi'ites .>^Ut... Oxx . as ^k**. especially those that indicate the — relations of sect. Such secondary D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at least nine in number. family.. oZ *Uj a building. pi. Ox CwJ « OJJOxJx x < house.Ou». J^lSt jJite a nail.. houses. Olf"6 0<. VI. many Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a relative adjectives. anything woven or plaited. » [§ 305 x oc A Am* *UI <i * *> x£ +% . j^i. JU-. XIX. j —Etymology *> or the Parts of Speech. ? x x ox £ j B OW*^j as . Ob^wl ~s . rt Ol5p* OxJOxJJOx x j^J-** a she-camel for 3jujc»# he-ass. O3-0. smoke. og Oxx jJa. . j**U*t x £ neither young ones nor milk.'-.». foe>£. <L>j£\. JuJU*-t x £ j . 9+9 . \^yo a Sufi. AjJtjjj^l. j a vessel. Ox < JjtJ. Sometimes there Ox even a treble formation x OC J j as x£ a5^3 a o«n<i. or clientship. . a * J3l*». ^Ua. j»\xj\.xxx . j J^xxOx^xxOx OIa»jL»J . J>ai. Oxx w*!/-*' Oxx O^** a x d£ x S j a drink. J . X pluralis sanus in 9JJ Ol— may Ox XX o * oZ s OUot ^Uafc a ai/fc. J^Jj^t.*. joay. J|y> « saying. • ea#-£e. Jjiij-XVII. x (for . is °» J ^ OU. . great d. J>jJ».. jUjt.. XX !*£ o x ftj OLUpI.lo a female companion. x OU^J. j-o^. j-j-<a* Ox an ^jlL». OtjJ^k. or when their number is indefinite. OJx Ox * x Ox Ox Oxx Oxx JU*. XVIII. ^Li^aJI ^e J«Sx0 xOx 0/ the $ufls.t^o. '. w*». Oxx j^xx III. a he-camel. and JUjI.ytjt) /«« J x£ XIV. a party or sec£. t aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait x £ . "x OlSLJ. Ox JUjfc. and a few other forms. a he-camel. 4-Jatt. OUUjI (with the dimin. t an iron -y»jL»J.. # E| OJJOxJJ slaughter. J^a. £ijje ..>l «x q . *LJt. Otjulj^. ^o-jfcUt O x 6£ jJbj J a (yellow) flower.232 Part Second.

See § 233 268. 1/ S<i Ox £ x S)l©^». the partisans 5. asses. A. X the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed.. i. C the rad. 30 . < fil « P - «P« o .. whence #*« fWX. mules . The Noun. (k)|. 306. Rem. of Marwan. = w>W-^ plurales fracti are ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) xx OxxOx . IZ.e. strictly speaking. 4JL». the former a number of individuals viewed . and can be used as masc. * . dji or oji) x x ^ *U Ox «U) x . of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir.jjl. X*. ^UJ. oUw . as^ot 0i x s a t>£ motJier. dl^ot (from a sing. a oxi x 4jj-ojJt. 1 x x especially of the forms the J^li and JUi as 5jjU» those *x x .306] j II.— Plur.. OUtj^s x <5 a mouth. a caravan dJU*) pedestrians. Fr actus. <• x *«x aa^ 2 <x i£>w Heb. (men) drawing water or 5/ 5 / drinking. for x . x O x 6£ . XgOtf l#-*)). together. singulars with a collective signification. B e. only by a constructio ad sensum. the plurales fracti differ entirely from the sound plurals for the latter denote several distinct individuals of a genus. collectively. several individuals 6 . a jii. aJlxJ. S)U~» a company of persons journeying (Syr. who SJ slaves. J0 X For are D example. The consequently. instead and poetic JLut (Heb. they are all of the feminine gender. dU«. persons who own or &eep camels. The plural of some nouns is anomalous.-xOxOOx* a woman. [ajI^ j^w- cferers]. o Oly-ot (Syr. Hence. SjUsu spectators. l\y>\ XXX Sa*»J. or derived SI from other forms or roots than the • ( sing. in use. ' anus. *U>. .Ui (from . water. XX ' %>. S x « i5 A Sometimes is added with the same x \ effect to other adjectives. a mole. yottfA (juvenilis). dUw. As regards their meaning.1 & Adj. horses.*). who live %* jj on * bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) (cattle) Ojt^ [and otjj] £)Ioa». ^^Jt. 03**** are sto^s Ox (servi). h£^K for J^K P^U^)> has usually of the older ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI]. and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. atyl (from a x »»x £ sing.jl^~J (from the rad.Olk)|). too. O^J» human being (Heb. dUwt 5U» a s/iee/? or goat. oW^ 3f0*»0 fr***** oW mm in general. Nouns Subst. w. |Z. aJULw travellers. J^J). Cwl tfAe «£/» . rarely J x x . a spring. $)}$ Aram. w^w. 5 #}« n^X).

plurals of paucity. Jill. for one of the forms alone be used.). it is necessarily employed without any 4. _ (Gen. which are indeclinable. substantives 308. rem. 2/ie JS& sheep]..) and 1 2 " (2) The dual number has only two * J case-endings. This observation applies. 1 D (Norn. only to such nouns as have also other plurals. a established in. plurals of abundance.234 Part Second. those which have only two terminations — Ace. people or tribe. I. if C of course.. A noun may be w^**. named lj5£* £>*»». or simply o »» ^jSioZc. 1 (Nom.*aJl § l\+~i\ a. either triptotes or diptotes. the latter concrete collectives. o j declined with tenwln. and jj-X-oJL© > o * j-*-£ with . fracti those [§ 307 A We § must distinguish from the plurales nouns which are called which see (generic nouns). and from the j^aJI (§ l[+~»\ in not admitting of the B formation of nomina unitatis 246). These are called *.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e differ plural). Rem.. The Declension of Undefined Nouns. • • J or possessed is of.. limitation as to number. and \1 or 1 (Ace. or . A third class of collectives is formed by those nouns. the nominal character or nature. Ij&. XIII. (1) Undefined and adjectives are.£ o^uU j*s. noun may be declinable. Triptotes are those . on 246 and 292.. * viz. in the singular number. Ixfcj. The term ^u^-j^t w < C^o^c. Hi declined without tenwln. Diptotes are (Gen.. [yjjl camels. fracti 307. and XV. which have three terminations to indicate the different cases viz. jSL*s> an army . and whilst the rest are fy***. « 3 j o x synonymous with i^^ju. A declinable J^. . .)*. or ^y**c. as^o^i.-L^-* whilst . Juil.). to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness attaches. The former may be styled abstract. as Jo*J bees. are used only of persons and things which do not exceed ten in are therefore called aX$ number (3 to 10). 2jJ\. or the Parts of Speech. XIV. a). see § 8. The Declension of Nouns. The pluralis sanus and the plurales of the forms XII. —Etymology u .

j o /-o^ j x ^ uplifting or elevation (of and is oJjaa^JI^U. —The tenwin may be that (a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac 0^3^') ^i6 nunation which shows S/4 j *<• a noun is fully declinable.)*. 4ifA«JI. in the singular v>jj-3. at eve (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). x and the pluralis fractus. as ajj***^ ^JJ** ~ s * * jj*. 235 * * common (3) to both genders. This last may be of three kinds (a) of "330* compensation for the omission of an entire proposition. J — * 6* lid/ raising (of the voice). found in the plural feminine. (c) j*££)\ * CH>^> ** 3 iae C nunation which distinguishes.<& Adj. t 3* 5 0** and the indefinite.— Beclen. viz. . in 3*0*0* between the definite.\. J j 3 - * *& 5 ** * 3 £yLc\ &£+£*. I passed s 0*3 } by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih. as in the hemistich ^jkc it j^j^^. Nouns 8ubst. tJie a * the vowel a voice). Ace. *3 where J&*». jjt— (Nom. as CA+JL**. 0*03 / /»? J»/ j*s. at the on.. as in jj^Ja-J £+#* ^r-^3 30 3 0*3 3 ii * 03 Oi* and ye are then looking 31 ^>*»-. and 3 o is Ail^^t^-U. .) and <>j_ (Gen. or 5 x ^ j^Jt.§308] II. as J^-j. also called . is a designated w*cudl. of Nouns. as ^o->13 ^J£s 3 . A. (6) £bliL©JI ^e J nunation of correspondence. tfAe of annexation .\ duy^j. the : nunation of compensation. plural of 4Jjl»>. for ^£j\^. jlaJI). (/?) of compensation for a governed ii D 3 3 0* S • 0-• * 2 J word. cjSLti\.. 3 Ow *3 j 0* because it corresponds to the ±j of the t ^^X^c. in the nominative or \£j\ft* genitive.. — A The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each to the fullest extent. as 9 *>* when *0 the genitive it is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj. possessed of (the nominal character) is equivalent to J^U. case . 3 « «»/ 03 & for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ * o * (y) of compensation for a letter. as in the in jlj*. stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb time when the spirit lias reached the throat.j-£«Jt * * O^y^i an d found ^ Jl»g * . ^e JtjJt si</w of objectivity. the sign of agency the vowel being * 0*3 termed ^^iaJI attracted £Ae depression (of the voice). I al//j and jjXol ^jSi^Zc £/*e to t^-o-U ^s. i is The vowel w H of the nominative is called *ipt. * * ta*o&**o><>*oZ*ot I { * The form v>j— I t # is used dialectically. * * of an indeclinable noun. The Noun. *OiO 3 * * and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc. 0* and (d) uayd\ ^jj^XJ. i £/ks * drawn along or the sign B 3 * * (by a governing word. .

236 Part Second. Ol— Ot- (Gen. B .).j->_ (Gen. viz.) and . — substantives and adjectives. [§ 308 A gender. for the masculine. Ace. exactly like the singular (see The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined § 309. Substantives.. a). for the feminine. Ace. Triptote or First Declension.) and or the Parts of Speech. — Etymology Oi— (Nom.. — (4) Theplurales fracti are either diptotes or triptotes. (Nom.)*.

— Declen. A .& Adj. Nouns Subst. The Noun. 237 Triptote or First Declension. A. Substantives. of Nouns.§308] II.

238 Part Second. [§ 308 B .—Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

] Rem.. fract. . . 139 seqq. (of AaJU mourning) ^jy> r-^y N. Ace. ^i. ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined. 239 Diptote or Second Declension. Nouns Subst. G. A. JJU* of nouns which have causes. L*-5.. Lane and Fleischer. Gen. of Nouns. j-bU5 bridges. & Adj. D. Loijt [According to i. C J J J Nom.—Declen. that is to say. J3U* (XVII. and JJU* etc. w*5U^ wonders. for t^«ot and^ul. as quoted by Zamahsari.. p. ^jJa*^^ sultans.§ 309] II. 180. G. also used (see § 19. as £*&\y. which are Sing. Adjectives. ^oi. Ac. Gr.. <t*i j^-o <suLJ I. The following nouns are diptote. flexional a. (/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda .. (of jJte poor) Fern. 309. iSjii . and ^o*Ut. Schr. b. Kl. a man. Comp. For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. and II. « son.). as J '' A*i C^tj. Aja* Rem. J ^i Op. viz. a. The Noun. Several forms of the pluralis fractus (a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti. There are two words in Arabic. more than three radical letters) . in which the final vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical o P J « JO B P^ « part of the substantive . d). Sn-Nadr ibn Someil. Faik C 524.). . jj*«t * O or fj+\t ^Jj\ ^o-^^ {£j**\ or or 5j"*ti I|j-«l £p*t. the first and second syllables of which have fetha and the third kesra. f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb. the forms etc. jj-«t. (I. j) viz. A Masc. Plur. Jstji (XVI.

2. /?.1.t a green woodpecker.) and b. s without a husband. /?. . e). and 234—5). iU-cu. is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295. (XXIV. as \£^> memory.' first . b. C Compare and Rem. /? (*1— ) c. and ^Us fract. Jj^t a hawk.1. ^Xati (XXII. (3 wounded /?). and 296) . si j - w£ . W plnr. a widow. is This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza as %\js from \j3 radical. (y) Adjectives of the form jilt x J (§§ 232. the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. ij>*>'. ^Ct j prisoners. £^>. its and of fern. of J r*s - x Op which the fern. —But adjectives of the form —Substantives i J . other. viz.1. XIV. without O x a wife.g. of *U***. are as J*ojt poor. Ji'j pl ur fract. J*ojl « humming .g. Various common nouns and adjectives . as [§ 309 A (. triptote . (compare § 299. a).] b. «// together.virgins. Excepting those in which the § 213).) .). 16. as D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb. Jj^-t. ^^S. iUZj. fern. — Etymology c. ^^-j*?b. of this form are usually t regarded as triptote.11). J ' i men.. &*i\ (XXL) . needy. viz. as j\js. c..> white (§ 296). of Jjt. its fern. f. btjUfc presents (compare . ii > at . ). Compare elif y and c. Rem. \SjZ~* drunken 295. is ^ar<?. maksura radical . £*a». as v**i^ more f. ••11 T« admissible {. by elif as a virgin.240 Part Second. another . needy. or the Parts of Speech. l\sC£=>. is . JU3 (XXIII. /?).). but the diptote form in such as were originally adjectives. dX*j\ poor. *-©**. rem. w-Jjt (l e. j^. £-aj. Ju«U. &&L viz. and 'I c. J s bi e. j*>*-\ red. wonderful . of j^. J*it. Hii (XX. adjectives which end in l\jjs> hemza preceded . iUil. [(e) iUwt. B £^. . and of fract. and § 301. of etc. (/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif (§ maksura ({£-) a. rem. J*». wise men. (a) Common nouns and memduda a. plur. rem. &p\ friends (compare (y) a and Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_.

fljUdL* Ao£ 3 . (&) (§ Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the J fern.g.angry I O^*"^ x stiflingly hot to . Rem. O*^**.-a»-cJI) . 9>j+\ a tract without herbage. Some J x x > of these.^o ^Ij^S. rem.^o. The Noun. vile. are rare. of land >j-*/l a serpent (prop. —Adjectives a. & Adj. »£OU and wJJlo.^o may Ox J perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or . ^Jflui a wide. 9 x x ^jS^La thin.—Diptotes. Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of irregular. ^jLa*-o * 2 x x o x o exposed 5 the sun. Nouns Subst. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3. however. okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. Mtm % three. Rem. j * oS e. Q x jU*w stupid. x J x o x Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) . dun). one. 9 3u*$j&. Adjectives of the form J*£l. 241 J -it Rem. a) are triptote of the form (§ o^*^> t # to companion. slender. JjjS stony j * o p mottled). A which would be very b. gravelly water-course. ^oA>t a fitter (properly land (prop. when used as sub. [because takes the place of a proper name (c) x x /)£ The masculine numerals JO jx as mere abstract numbers x x x x . mean.jl». black). . 6. as J uW x 9 xx£ an(* CW O ^ J xOS * f + - J "'? S x 5 x x jjUaw-w. A. is x x f- x x '' 295. 31 .jl». such it and such a makes irregularly j) in the feminine &*}Hi. ^U^-o stupid. a. or jjUa^w .^o o O x x ' dry. a) SxOxSxxOx f.§300] II. their fern. as 0\j£~>> (§ l£^m drunken. 0^**> J x or x O^** J . x ^^£ ignorant. have also % x J the form x J ^^*s. eating in the 5 x ( x o x forenoon (. tofi (mo? slender .g. stolid. ^^o. a) . ***"' x x 4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W t £/^ double of 4 J^-t^J 3L»^ ** • £ jd yj** j**^' 6 ^s more than 5 (£) % o/^. as being formed by adding 3_ 295. « x xx S x . ^0 6y New. . stantives. rem. iLojl. ^jtoju a boon companion. —But as ^-1*3 B those of which the *->L<>J^ fern. a * withered. jjt^cu Christian. Rem. The principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail xO x x x < # 5 x x (of 5 a sheep) xO x . is &%x3 295. • o j Q%*i . o x ^la^o x o and <jl». retain the diptote inflection blackish. as iUj and w. 5 x The word ^l». are all triptote. ^J^auo sucking (sheep or # S x cows) out of greed. ^*^i Jx so x J and so. e.

with the exception of the softened diminutives 283) and of those that are derived from the distributive numerals of the form I. when (rj) used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. declined without tenwm (e. Jj^-t a hawk) 'isba' is . 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' <Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al.g. a. [(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns. we must employ the word nunation. memduda (compare John. l5 Jjl> Ya'ld. Jka*~>t Isaac. 5 J Joseph. those that were originally ijlyj*. requires an indefinite and so in other cases.£> Noah. viz. as A#] Many proper names . because J^». as O J *.>U Adiyd. as . whether Arabic or foreign (a tribe). j^yJ LUla. c. in the sense of each. (a) Foreign names of men. is declined without tenwm. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. as ^*At/jt Abraham. every. l ^U*** Hittan. y and p and b.jUl*£ Gatafan ^>©->Xw o-o-^ 'Othman. letters. (y) Proper names in jjt_. a). as common nouns JUi and (ju* and O^^hl- . l^ij^j Zachariah. o!/** Imran ('Amram). <bjJ Lot. oW*-* Sufydn. which is an adjective. ^^ Sulma. [with the exception of of the forms Solomon.242 Part Second. jjib David. (used) as an adjective.g. j-**-\ red) . after it in the genitive . . as (§ ju^t. 4a*JJ» ^jjj Jj«itj the measure of Talha and fa 1 la and But if we B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al. excepting such as consist of three the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis. [§ 309 A The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s. JUi (§ 333). J&\ tremor. is declined with j* t> tenwm * (e. *Xx* *~e\p 'if'al. maksura (compare a. whether Arabic or ( D foreign as ^^^ CjU or 2b. when it is an indefinite noun. e'lif (/?) Proper names which end in elif b. For example is : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al. /?) and .

3 3 ^Lw 3 3 Jerusalem. jUw _ 3 * * Su'ad. ace. *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). e. ace. S^U5 O Katdda x £ (men). of the feminine gender. / j-a* Egypt. x x x* £a*-U» Talha. or consist of more than three (77) 3 3 but are either of C or.g. B 0|ic 'Akrab (£) (a man's name).^£**.§ 309] II. J^j planet Saturn. . 0* 9 0* js-z or js-} Da'd. 3 * /OJ *i j*c^3 J*°\rt Tadmur (Palmyra). . which are actually or seemingly derived from substantives or adjectives especially masculine names of the . joa or jUA Hind. have . Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. jZZ> Satar. * * 9* ^3 * the 3 male hyarna . ££c M"ekka. Fem. Gur. A+b\* Fdtima J x (a woman). e. owing to their middle radical having a vowel 3 3/33 may as *0* . proper names. juJj Yizid. j»\j^ Haddm. oUpl .—Diptotes. j£Z*£ Yeskur. *-. Proper names which end in 5— whether masculine or femias nine J . j*~> Hell/Ire (as the ticular part of hell). '(c) Common nouns letters. as^oUai Katdm. w-A*j Taglib.. cfc Adj. or any of the persons of the Imperfect 3d* 3 3 as j^> Sammar. — But name fem. ace.\jj the sun. and feminine names of the form * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * JUi (from &Ulf). are trisyllabic. Nouns Subst. though 3 consisting of only three letters. Ols^c. Oli^c and even Oli^. J*U>j Bakas". consisting of as proper more than three J x * when used names . Yurdmil. ^y~j Yubnd. proper names which 3d consist of only 90 three letters. icj Ztogw (a woman). * 3 9 * 3*3 form Ja$ (from J&ty.g. 243 (8) * Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** 3 . D (6) common Proper names. proper names in * Oec. The Noun. Ot keep ** * . These latter. the second of which has gezma. however. >oUj Tumddir. as Ol^pt gen. w^JU a scorpion. letters. jLo*-t 3 3 * 0* AhmM.] 3_. Gu&m. or triptote (though the former 3 be either diptote is preferred) . 3 * * jyo Tyre. their tenwln. * w>o J/ if Dor ib. A. j$*. Oli^c gen. which do not end in foreign origin.j*j Zufar. A 3 d * f and J*$. [Fem. w*«^J of a par- * 3 Zehieb. as > 3*3 ^ * 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 the 'Omar.

Hadar (a star in the Centaur). u^l5j. w>U». l**-J*o (§ 264). x acc. be declined separately. as a. 5). Compare Beladorl 60. JUi.) or w^» . 5 x j In compound proper names of the the first class called all. forms. Words of the form JUS. are » almost invariably indeclinable. ftffl*. ^ J O Jj x xxo/ ii.) or ^jju w»^£» in Ox three cases (like j^j^j). c. jb\j\ a year of famine.. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. J JO O^-oj-o*.death. and Besides being used as proper names. Each word may. e. xwxc j£ A xJ0«3 x CjxJO letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt . word is usually not declined at J xx second follows the diptote declension. foil. D xx gen. jgjOJxxJ C& *s»jU*... Rem. jLo*. xx x nom.^IJ^. G.« £y* (Fdik i. last letter is r.] . cxi. (like JOxxOx xOxxOx O^o^*a». etc. . Oj^o». for we may acc. say w^^ Ox i^ ***-« < (like OxjOx O^e^o*. even in the dialect of those Arabs xx B who in other cases use the form b. gen.. last and Baidawi D. [§ 309 A more usually and correctly the form J Us. J-^-ctj*. ou^Lii. O^-o*-. w^ 1. Rem.C J~J b sceleste ! f. gen.—Proper Oxx names OxxO of men ending OxxOxOxJ in ajj are wholly indeclinable. and are wholly indeclinable . *£*!*» improbe f.). jl»s».^Us the female hyama.244 Part Second. " x x *£Ubo. ^%o^^Se> Zafdr x2 (a city). nom. x O^-a*.g. as ou^^w. however. aj^j-©*. ' . ^aCOvilis! Rem.. *iyl- * [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. of which the jUa- the female hycena. as^&lii. j*\j«o war. in terms of abuse. J Li b o . the forms J*S JUi k are often employed as vocatives. J»^-*t. J^». ! f. J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x J^^-olj. viXJju... *jjj. x s^Ss^ and the j//i/ <^XJju. the second being in the genitive. 10. and ace. ^ juu. Ofrxo^rw. Ox Ox and xx all w^£» ^ J^w xJOJJxOj^o*. The proper name _ w^> Ox \^J*** admits of three J . and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second xj x w x J - x .» * J J x Ox Ox (see § 313. some Kor'an readers read in x jt and well known are wJU» >*l 1.Jt Sur. $j\ tju ^j^ft and O^*** J^ 421.

UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form. J x Ajjjut* from A^blS). the case naturally Proper names.1^ o!/*^ Vj aj^a^wj vetkSj ' * _* jU-jj a^klij. Nouns Subst & Adj. d.g. o j$} * . from j-olc. termination £)\—. a doubt as ''i* to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil. are usually reckoned by the viz. There however. w^^JJI to to s a compound of *i3 the class ^»-^i j w*£bj^Jt o£ 2 o* j a j x j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by c5 *> form x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x J*^ **• or meaning £/te . for there x x x . Hence we say <jU»». . (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI. period has its [|l^»-j >oW <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ / J Ox u^S'^-i.. Hassan. . >*M its being a foreign /»«» J ul W ^ J 0. J 5 it is triptote.jt_. derive it if we derive this name from the . radical u**. 245 Rem. jt».o ^js# JjuOt J# ite x 6ein^ turned from one form iwfo another (as ^c. x o pecidiar j-<rC-3 * Adam and Eve] and is. and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling form a part of the verb. grammarians to be nine in number .g. . when used indefinitely are employed in . 6* *> J x S Rem. J + w-^JBI. (2) ^L^JbUi but if we from £y~»*. J xx Ox x xOx M/ £ JO// x * »/ as siUbu. when they declined [as is always the dual or plural]. which in is Jxx Jjjuco. Any two or more of these causes in combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln . Ox J which x Ox 0/« is xx or^&Uai. -*4jLa4 lamps. so jlo^. The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B debarred from taking the tenwln.jll». as £©i»li. ' * * . J Si d^Jbdl JOx its being a proper *6s name. e. is no singular noun of the form x J ^}s-\slc or I x x xOx J^cU-ft) j^>^t ^t x X x £**. The Noun. which resembles the feminine termination it_ ^ C ^ / x j^U /OxJOxjjOx^ C/->J dJ3\ j-U U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a j form which " " does not occur in the language as a singular (e. (a) . *-*J ™> any an> each a j Z J s J£* and o i . w*«Jl3t * / ^^ l_5aJ'^) x x ^jUsjLa^Jt x x O^b *-^H ^ ending in . viz. i <o x . are x 10 A jJ 5 j with tenwln f* x x as s~ Abraham have I met.—Diptotes. word . D JWxxflx (1) a^oJjJI x J x J J 5 x + the termination . ^Lio^l its being feeing to an > Jx rt adjective.§ 309] II.yixoj UaAJ inform and Jx x £f£xx (/?) meaning.L~o mosques. as ^jUJk. is e. or transformed. A.

. 311. and gen. D >»!. Nouns ending in — . yet is the name of a man). for ^— . for ^y*t. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl. which ^ is ^ . but § 166. ^- or ^— (see the have the same termination in the nom. ^j-uj j^j^o and t^j-^J. to end in All plurals of the second declension. (4) <u*Jjdt OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI. C E. in adjectives of the form (9) ILsuo^S &%s&. 310. retain in the oblique cases the termination of the nominative. . Z+iuo^S + . follow in the nom. « ^ j«Xai. Nouns ending in ^— (§ or t— for ^— . first declension. a. for j_ (§ 167.) for ^5^^. L^tj . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. Except the case of »-$3 and similar names in c.) and Tab. ^ (verbal adj. and those in .1. . 1*^*3 . ^^ ^or for ^5^. 245). as u*j^} a. as 2a (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J wUjjj (which. for and l^-os . [§310 in form but not in meaning. ace. 0— (according to E. or j- (§§ 213 and . acc. ^5*-j> and L»-j . »~w (verbal ^a-w. o* B the termination jjt_. /?). Jjuo for ^>*^. ^J for ^^J (^^3). in the ace. Ww . L**. the first declension instead . ivl * '0* Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*. . which ought regularly ^j— . a). ace. -q. Petrus. Tab.g. acc. ace. ^-« for ^^^o. ace. 6. f$ c.. jl£ for jjl£. not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). y b. (6) At* Xx)\ t - J«/ >jJI. in adjectives of the form 2 2 ^ .g. though feminine in form. XVIII. asjH^. ft and the same Paradigms of the Verb. L>JJt* Cjte . which Jj**** from Oljlfcp is Jjjut* from (8) &U*"'j or r*t . Jjtst.246 as Part Second. which follow the J ' . ^— and t— for l^— which sion follow the second 309. in + J*a)\ J c. for ^>*3 {\£j&\ adj. U^«o j*3 . /«/ fern. ace. and § 218). as j^.. >*o£.) for 1jJa> acc. + JaaJI Oj j. so that their declenis only virtual (^JjtJ&i). 312. toft for 3-ac.

plur. § I 78) . of Def. . unless they be used as generic nouns they (as in^jJbjjt w>j. v. (a) by adding a noun in the genitive. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C (§ in themselves definite 309. and conbut in the ace. the chaste {woman). d). (a) If an undefined noun be defined by the article. therefore. A. plur.. the following D If it belongs to the first declension. c. and gen. II. j\*>~a. j E. vol. . for ^ULo (instead of B ^U^o).] 314.g. w/ J undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined). o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*). . 3 ii. and gen.. ) t JU-pt the men. ace. man. nom. and gen. ACC.. The Noun. Nouns. 4 plur. [Rem. Subst. n^ . j4-j# X * 3 o-^-N al»J^i ' *• tiLaJLj\ * JWif * * *• & * J»-jJI O-^ final t * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* * yt * AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' Rem. become defined : 1. Ox Undefined nouns I . by prefixing the by adding article J 2. they x x 0+ are not originally appellatives (as ^. A according to § same termination sequently follow the first declension in that case too the genii. § 309. 3 J i s 3**0* Jx /»/ 3**030' rt 3 * oi * Nom. of the second. j i&l^ *" . or (b) a pronominal suffix. 313. cases arise. b.—Decl. for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. and have ^-. it loses the tenwin.o properly the beautiful) never have the article. —A an defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju O means defining). Gen. ^jU^o. J^jJt the o-^M El-Hasan. the & Adj. The of the acc. Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. The Declension of Defined Nouns. l\j^~o. acc. ^y**o. J rem. if. disappears along with the tenwin. i^j^l the city.§ 314] II. - (for They moreover in retain. 247 ^-). jt^». nom. and substitute 311. a^U. ^U* . nom.. . they remain true to the second declension.

OlS^Xa^oJ! the v*^^ * x x J^> m< . sanus masc. Nouns ending as in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl C original ^.f^\ ^l0se O^r^-^- w^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' two men. it loses the tenwin. JUg city. i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311. x Gen. (c) *y«<)\ >y~>*$\ gb^-Jt eb^-Jt jJ^>^t jJ^^)t If it be a plur. x J G x 0>o everyday. 3 B Norn. Acc. The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are (a) declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article (§ 314). w>U£> w>U£b x J 6 --»<<» u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU. oU^JI the believing (women). l5-h>^I from 0^5. the black (m. The plur.. 312). b. M <ti)\ w>U£> vej^ the lowest J-i-'t 3ujj^\ earth.j A-UjUoJt x <8i\ U^J^ J . oUJiyjt the darknesses.jU*o. c%JLLoJt the creatures. ^yt from ^& I.* cM-^t ->*. as acc. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun. oCubl a. it [§315 ter- A If it belongs to the second declension. and jbecomes triptote. (b) minations of the first. and the dual undergo no change when the the article is prefixed. ol^JUUJf oUo^jf Rem. D the book of God. Acc. Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> >©3J X Obyo^oJI * ^U^ * J£> . j^^^t the nobles.. ^j+jjJsAS. Gen. Acc.248 Part Second. Norn.» wonders of creation. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ the black (£). 315.). ^yU^Jt from . Gen.*! JU. \J^. sanus fern. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.j x x i . assumes the Norn.> Norn. Acc. gen. Rem. part of the the men of the Gen. the following changes are produced.

Ace. veWfo/ *^x ^eir (the family's) father and their father's first D father have reached in glory their utmost limit. of w>t. La. in the ace.a>. rem. [The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion.— Decl. ft!)3). J X makes Gen.\. ^^o*-. U. etc. k. a. var. \ dialectically. xlix. for etc. with suffix ^Jpfi. cases [bl being. J. HE) constr. and Gen. where we find <aub ' xf and aj\ for a*jb and obt. either X : XX Nom. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt. ^5. Nouns. p. ii. has in the - B «x . Proper names of the declension lose their tenwin. the preceding vowel. x ~-t a ^» brother. f*. or: ^3. M. a].] Comp.I. 5 P & Adj. ^t. J x whilst xxxx UlZjU stands by ^ Ox xxxx poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. *£). X vol. a.-i. bt. j^\ lit. 321. less frequently . in-law. lengthen itit s * j x at Norn. does not do J xg wrong .. as x x OiO «// S " ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl X ^^X X XXX Aas imitated his father in generosity. after £>!. Ci. for yl. Ace. ^a~. b. 6 J 15 whilst ^. where the a is x x£ Ubl x 5 the accus.§315] II. C f. ±j\. and the second Ubl the m t genit. —In Arabic the short vowels arelanguages used xx Jx£ x J is the case in the other Semitic x x x xOA> . ^oi. gen. ^yf. The Noun. the owner or possessor of a thing. first Rem. which is always connected with a following substantive in the genitive..ja a thing. for w>t. o x 249 Rem. as * The same Gr. * z - * when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series . a father- A . as in the verse UJb Ubl btj Ubl XX x xOaO j>. 142 seq. £fa mouth (Aram. Noldeke in Zeitsehr. S\. see Comp..* The word £. G. in all the three dial. § 39. instead of ly«ot. . yiA. etc. ^1. etc. and whoever tries to resemble his in the verse j^o Loi <ut father. t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. i of Def. according to some lexicographers a xxx Ox jJ> xx£ x£x x x£ w jjl Comp. after rejecting the tenwin. which is Oxx used instead of oy or o^i. * X )l UUjU . D. The words w>t 5 a father. J9^. J>. Subst.

^iJULoJI ^j C^»t. C-.ijj. . c) two female slaves of the king (see §§19 and j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1. jJU. [The latter was formerly preferred.250 Part Second. rem. the son of O^t. or warning. j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. j Co possessed of intelligence (see § 302. when a genitive follows. If C-utj §lif I saw the two female slaves of my father. \j*t~m* U jjUt^aJt aDI Gen.) ^jj the /^ learned transmitted {traditions. Instead of OU^.-J1 The form except at the beginning of a sentence. 12) and often in old Mss. jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were kindling the fire.)! 2A0 two mansims are the extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. Muhammad. the sons their swords. 'ibn 'Abu Bekr) Talha and ('Abu Bekr) Kassum (see § 299. —Etymology jAJto. the form djj\.] (b) occurs in The dual ( loses the termination O- B Norn. *£U*Jt yij eU. the final dUL^Jt ^ . rem. b. (viz. of the king came . ^o^iL^I drawing Gen.jj1j AaJJa ^t 'ibn jij ^3^1 . the Ojj* jJujl^J / passed by 20. poems. (c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination Oj:>>a»-« D Nom. h). Ace. ms belong the two holy temples of God. * J tit* St to J Acc. the t son of Halid. ^>~$ . the son of Gafar. for those who are \^3*$ h** c). a daughter. wjU^t *O>0 an example.< >««. [§ 315 A j^m ^ c. lxvi. On the elision of the in Rem. to tffo to? slaves of the sultan came. an conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the as dual. from two 'Abu Bekrs. ^ Muhammad. the Kor'an (Sur. we may use. or the Parts of Speech. takes a kesra instead of a gezma. C Rem.q. see § 21. ^>\ ^^jU. I saw the king's sons.>£ etc.

and into £$. from OU. plur. are elided . . the B following changes take place. as acc. The Noun. oW^» ajuU tow tofo. i)UL£> thy two books. • resumes (<tf) its original of) O *- ft . d*L»J. If the noun ends form in 3. A these terminations become. * j * * If the plur. ly3UJJ» darkness. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun. sanus fern. »-! and . ^U^. and § 317). ^_ # (see Q § 185. j_. see 316. from £Jty. V n §» and the <aM final ^£ kesra. gen. from *->*$&. of *jtf . 251 <• * <• <«ft x > j Rem. before a following gen. &yJ sons. i)yJ thy sons. as ioju a favour or benefit. the dual ' 9 . from J w>U^ ^*$& m# <%s. the genit. rem. nom. Subst. fract. with it o^LJ. a. lose the tenwln. rem. this letter passes before the suffixes into J. sanus fern. and plur. § 7. c).. of Def Nouns. the terminations O and its sj as w>L& a book. his women. as icjU£» fract. a.) . my gardens. But when 3 <» has fetha (Acc).—Decl.). the final vowels of the sing. added to the nominal term. & Adj. ^JH+su. this letter is • changed into (or rather. plur. instead of the gezma 20. Of the words mentioned in § 315. ajLj. j_ and jl. (c) plur. ends in ^15— acc - £H— (^or ft 0>J— * * «* O-srf—)> .§316] II. D If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza. begins with an elif conjunct. * ^ . 9 t 9 t Rem. sing. (§ —Regarding the I otiosum which is often. sanus of 4-i».. plur. ^J^ L5*^>* w# followers. as aOt ^akAo a. the final j takes ^— j i and if damma.. * and plur. OUAI? darkness. suffix when it has kesra (Gen. A. rem. sanus masc. Ajusa Ais book. to its (b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. as |L»J it women. fractus. though incorrectly. (a) Triptotes and the plur. my of book. wjt. when it has damma (Nom.. remains unchanged.

nom. rem. and suffix of not .>o*}L£ ^^c^ xOxxJ OxxJ (^^w©^). A-ot • " ace.*)li. £ IjUa£.g. •^ X . for 6xJ . for L5*«olS (. of ^U^ . x x J of^L**.. for xxxj ^ U^. x ^_. sing.. of j_. —Etymology : or the Parts of Speech. from or . o ray Muslims. APPENDIX. X L-S-*^ "* x x J xOxxOJ genit. «$jt ii i i gen. &»J\. ^UUafcaJaa. suffixes which denote the Genitive.7 i .c) xJOjxOJ * sanus i'i ^JUwo.«>. GZ E. sing. note *. with the single exception of the suffix of the C 1st p. nom. ic^*-. ^bUw*. xxj from <jU^. but X X J more usually. The Pronominal Suffixes. dual of xOxxOJ ^jAisucuo ray eto. for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak. — ^x my mouth. (t *^ AJL*^ XXX £ . a. rem. ray ^0 my slaves. x .L». j^t^A for my Zove. oli and I j3 is not used with in all the three cases. The the 1st X when ^£ attached X to a J Word ending in elif maksura O x (^— ). The pronominal genitive. XX x 5 x x J plur.l>» .. ^Ui.252 Part Second. D from ^>A. when the word ends in ^_ or ^_. X ^-OA X or .£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA.-^i has regularly X J J XX X ->xx X X -oi. <jui |x**x j j . oy X .-iA X j but . j si . Jy. in the long vowels t_. dbt .. dual of jf$& 4j^l5 x j ^^^ «JL»« X judge.-jt. Further. A o . X ace. is ^-. and likewise forms ^. Rem. for ^gt^A. d) being simply elided. ' £)y>\.-£^L~o J y J . i)^Ii or >^JUa. j ray xxxxj sins. p. * js- [§ 31. the 3 is changed XXX into ^£. i * Jbt. the Ox or in the diphthongs original ^j— and 3—. t3 gen. the kesra X ^_ (see § 185.^uo) or ^jAJsua* . x i ^. o I On some dialectical varieties of w>l suffixes. a«i. attached to nouns to denote the 317. " "£ take the suffixes thus J nom. for «*t . _. becomes ^. which a.(§ 185). from fract. and when it WJ ends in j_ XXX or j_. l*±>\.-JL _: — B see § 315. xOxxJ ray taw slaves. 4«i. from &***$£. the final ^ unites with the ^£ vi form J x of the suffix into ^. plur. from ^^JLyO (^^q. —^JA makes J .^Uoli). are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote the accusative . *£U$. in all the three cases. i "g .

] The Numerals. du)o\. from QjkitfOt*.— Cardinal. as U-v*^ and'l^ylS B. is used dialectically w>l. The Cardinal Numbers. ^Jb. attached ! is in as w>j b. his two female slaves. B. plur. ^5. <u\S£s of his book. rem. peojrte [Com p. 13 § 38. into ^j b. ^Jb. of them both. ^j\&. rem. E. or ^_.g. . 1. ' ' S * If is [Rem. U^jU^. <t*Z>jl». i^Ui. 253 ( Ly a ftJft. t>*> J<P> l><5 an ^ >*> see 316. f-\.J is sometimes shortened (§ so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally it is becomes _. Rem.] Rem. ^£_.§ 318] II. The Numerals. like — From words instead of § ^>A. of the change of damma l^A. rem. ^o^jU^ older form] ([before wasl and] in verse etc. suffix . applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. j**-. no ambiguity of meaning can the dual before c a suffix in the dual not unfrequently replaced by the singular or the heart the plural. — On ^>A. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are — . Just as the verbal rem. yj^A^auc. particularly when the noun to which the vocative vol. [which is the or^^U^). has been said in ii § 185. the What in o. d. : 318. the form ^I^A.9 his murderers.>A«). c.] my Lord ! jb^3 b my b. The Noun. into kesra after — . US. — [^> a 185. sanus of j^aJxcl*. little son has both ^Xj and ^. ii. c). arise.

a sixth. c>j£* JU->. for sedsu). masc. or sUJ j-&s. for one in the sing. but the the Heb. seems to lie in the effort to give prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the . for Oju> (compare view is 9 J J 14.g. and a decade of men) J^p gUJ. form. The daghesh in the Heb. sedestu and sessw. the masc. t . men. ten women. }Hfi. a. If we compare it is the above numerals with those of the B easy to perceive their perfect identity. the loss of the t n in o^-— The ' ' Heb. . . a). as in tfiPft. [§ 319 and A For we may a also write £*Xj. n^l) _ . form. £ tWl^l a contraction for Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. according to the § Arab ^juj. The cause of this phenomenon. lexicographers. ^ rwe. which also occurs in the other Semitic languages. — Etymology >L?$3. sole. is istin apparently identical with cognate languages. &}$ (H becoming as in gjf. CH^K) indicates . fern. and v v J I exchanging with ^. c). and. rem. only one or two forms deserve notice here. =pnt)j T or> as others think. ft %f i < for dJloJ. JU-j Zj***.» jw. is ihit is (HPIK) = ITIIK Aram. (for rnnN). b. form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic.— The in -|fety >fijjpi Wy . o* a. Rem. . aj*}U.. or E. T • stand for BHBf. ten men (lit. . a decade. ^jl*. numbered are of the masc. The Assyrian therefore. when the The cardinal objects numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern. = J?£^. HB^. sixth. and the ordinal adj. when the objects numbered are fern. as it were the dual of jjj . — Qft^W. ##. snow. and that for The correctness « * J of this m proved [as they say] by the diminuQ * tive &>». gender and conversely. S-mLoj (§ 6. a. The Jewish Aram. 2£Xj. or the Parts of Speech. . fern. D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced _ . D 319. — C*w stands. derived from the single. Rem.254 Part Second. whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). rem. plBHB> (see T V • • and compare the ^th. the fraction ^ju. Rem.

as JU^. . ii. which follow the gender of their substantives. nom. rem. If the numerals (§ from 3 to 10 take the article. ten days. three men (lit.5*$3 numbered. c. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very . § 99. ^ a part or <- portion)'. — A O t t 5 xftc wJLj.'ft use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times 0» as j^wl <buu some months. for example. Rem. ft as JUfcg Jt*aJ some men.. except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325).0 exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ oU^> ace. The Numerals.jl*j has. o. 255 cardinal numbers.. An J ft undefined number from 3 to 10 literally. LjUj (according to § 311).0 s*0 . and are put in apposition with them. or Jx^lj^t j^jOI. j^-t^J j»^*M. is expressed by 5U£u ([or juoj]. vol. ace. a). a triad of j) men). in the sense of broken plur. Rem. etc. in virtue of which they differ from the dependent That adjectives. in the genit.. *. the implied j>\A). (viz. or as a 5 Hi • evident from the construction of j£s-. in the construct state.] 320. b. a. either as a singular masc. rarely construed with the Rem.jj\. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote. See jj also § 322. yj*+~i %*cJ . is are really masc. — consequently a£Xj.— Cardinal. S^J **su some women. B. We may ft j * oioto j o *t>* say. rem. 6. They either follow the objects d. or they precede them. as JU-j aj^U. J s The 'o. ^Laucj £y* j£x)\ the last ten days of R. of men. in which case the numeral governs the other substantive in the genitive of the plural. a triad) .yOj ^UJ (see § 320). they of course lose the tenwin 314. and has 321.-i in a . aajjI. [Comp.. either ^o h^t^\ j-+±-*$\ JLs&\ ^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan. etc. and gen. fern. Rem. few J years.§ 321] II. with the . —and 5/1^ 9++t& etc... The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. or 0^*3 - — O^ '' stands for n ^jUj. The Noun. of three men (lit. .

0^0 Rem. and then of course drop their (§ 315. %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered. b) . or simply ^jUUsO^. instead of <jU^jt ^JJa-o^JI ^^-o. d. of the objects final j^j numbered. plur. rem. sing. fractus (see § 319. LUj two colocynths.256 Part Second. b). as JJa-ia.. which are in the genitive of the . —Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 322 genit.

20. .

but was inadvertently placed J) before. &w " U5U.258 Part Second.1U. i^w ijl^JLj. B #U 1HS #U ajjt J .] very rarely x The regular construction ^>~U employed [in poetry]. J* ' ' a5U 900. or x ^U. X though the correct form X I a5U ^U-3. as £5loiij. mS) Ox 9«>* . " Assyr. c. the forms ^Jjyc.«© (with the Ox article. P a5U « .. to 900 are :— 600. The numerals from 100 100. Rem. (see § 321). etc. " OP 6/ t Ox IhA we : also find dJU [and sometimes 5U. &U oU5U a5U a5U ill> 200. Ox Rem. scripts [In this case we find often in is is manu- 4jIoJUj i. The O xJOx * D. G. twenty and odd . it in the 4w £jU. and . the j (5). Heb. as £)3J-*»*3 also used. and more recently .. 400. 800." x Rem. a. a5Lo. is [§ 325 The undefined unit in this case uuj (lit.3UJ. but juaj and are 325. The dual <jU5U is q written occasionally ^)IjU. .] i x | J O plur. and hence in poetry ^)UU. 700.e. a5U genit. excess.JU-M) are rare. sing. 300. Ox w*Xj. ^O C T _ asu . O**** (like Ox ^>~w from iUw a The strange year).0 2u*.. 500. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U into one word. as usually takes the objects numbered after * ' XX *++ *\ x Jtx. " " O For xx 5 aLc we find often a**. —Etymology **-*jH or the Parts of Speech.? t": me'e*. is O^**6 Ox x Olio. b. . The was probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable. Rem. 0x6 surplus). of spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece I bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an. «* PlX/!!D> For i5U (^Bth.. ntf£> Aram. instead of after.0't.

. The Numerals. The Noun.— Cardinal. The numerals from 1000 upwards — 1000. are : 259 326. B.§ 327] II.

The Ordinal Numbers.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. :- 328. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are C .260 Part Second. [§ 328 2. Masc.

O^J-^J ^3^*). aj^I». iJlj. 329. both its parts take the article as . ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. X X (ace. etc. compound of this sort be defined. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> ' ' 2 Qui - loU>) and OL ace. in the construct state and with . 261 Rem. ^^X c. x x . and genit.3 *^**- If a . ^^ X iJ&\. . x x x For j^ft x x ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may x Bx say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$tX Some.eleventh. S*£c the ii)U)l j in XXX which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is nom.yU)t in the ace. j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs. twenty-first x x xJOx fern. (formed directly from C-w.].— Ordinal. x Ox C asJJLft *£JUM. 03j**c. x x Ox The L3U. S^c. The Noun. construct state so with the rest and with the art. ^jJju\ the twentieth. and even These numerals are not declined. and the two J x are united by xOx j as 03J**3 x >^ x £ one anc^ twentieth. If joined to the ordinals of the units. admit the inflection of the unit. £rtj***3 >{*». when Ml defined. /jl5.. B. And j ijl5.330] II. Rem. 2 *U~/) are occasionally used. j-&t etc. of course. Rem. ijlif. defined . when they are unif defined by the article. for ^^l*. etc. however. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in x D J x J Ox form with the cardinals . ]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. these latter precede. A jJIj.33UM. as %LsX OX wJUM. also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. the art. b. : — B Masc. ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are Fern. they remain unchanged. ace. as Ojj*^ x twentieth. <jtf makes. x x —Jtf. The Numerals. 9x x (gen. 330.

i. ^ came a third time. by repeating the J ' J J S X cardinal numbers once or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma. ^3^. etc. of the nomen I verbi as sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S. an(i O-a-^W*-'(&) and thou hast given us O-s^^ . should be wanting. life twice. or (i. are D expressed either by adding the accus.262 Part Second. i*0 jj-^iJf *U. or as 5^o once. O-JUS It is ^t j^l^ ^U5 JJlS. adverbs.S wJJ..e. D. twice. A* came third time. Com p. the also permitted to use the simple . O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ ii. ijptiiJf) twenty-first. are capable of (a) The numeral being expressed in two ways.. § 108.e. in the accus. E. etc. (i. The distributive adjectives are expressed . vicis (§ 219). %Aj and with the o/* £/ie \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl. or ibtf 3j-o *U. G. second.e. he fought once or twice. nomen verbi being understood as 0++&\ twot C O***^ U^^Ij./£rs£ Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G article. once. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. the [§ 331 A ^ JO ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. vol. OU3.. or aio sJ^T *W. \^j^3 *jU oweg <m<# 332. Ot^o wJJ. twenties. or j\j*o stJJ. in the accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. etc. By the noun S^». 3. thou hast given us death twice. (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi OS * s is J/ understood) accus. —Etymology CrtJ****h or the Parts of Speech. CHj*** twenty times. if this By the accusative of the nomen . U)U eU. isij. again . by means of one of the words S^.jJS*& 2/*e . the fourth of the twenties. S^£d 0*h* twice. cardinal numbers. and similar words. thrice. he rose up once or twice. 333. . liltf IW* *W»). thrice. tfe i*0 *U.g. or.. [Rem. The numeral adverbs a j^stf. \Jj.). third time. b>o. f-JJpt jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth.. etc.] B 331. of the ordinal adjective to a finite form of a verb .

a third.g. j£s. ' > $ four spans or cubits in height.» Ox up to a fof»tf. lj*U.— Distributive. together exclusively employed for J <5 a fourth pW>* and a J }J with ii. • • . fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three . square. x J x or j~*x. £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a x x party of men. The Noun.§ 336] II. triangular. pleaseth you of women. the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. or A came two by two . etc. £**++ threefold.. 6 E. £Jj. or er*>ju».). J x x . the 'people . or j»^Ai\ sU. which a whole 5 * r made up. words of the forms Jj*3. Single or ^^a^ fivefold. jj. 336. two of the forms J x x . J Us x 0. as ^Uj ^ i • . pentagonal . etc. B AJUU to 10 ^0 x and cbj. A^>* fourfold. nor. 334. ^Lo (for u***) *t>^. . pi. J x £ The most common words 0-*J J x J xO x J x J J l*j J and Jmuo are >UJ. take the form . £y> j£$ w>lb x U x J 6#s S^SjM xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what J x x . ^1*$ . pi. three cubits in length or height ^-^ij quadriliteral. j^yo 2Uj.» — 0x6 is Ox0 tenth. 263 either singly or repeated.O^j'. ^^Vj triliteral. dualized. patient.Ia £ J J X X 0* • • J °|A 7 7 or w^Jj. ^/}U £>*& x x wJJl* tjlU. #w eighth. *U-j. The Numerals. Faik 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification. >uj-«. and ^. ^tjwl. Jx »/ J«// Jx x wJjlo. B. expressing the number . from J a tfttrtti 9 3J as w-Jj. according . a tetrastich. jji* (nom. J*s. and J**$. Numeral is adjectives. {walking) by twos and threes . IV. . \J~£\ >»>^' *W». but the formation is admitted [by some] up [. jILjlc.} a mom. uix The multiplicative adjectives fix are expressed by nomina .g. ^wUfc quinqueliteral. *£Jb. derived from the cardinal numbers J J e. double. ^j£* twofold. ^ju». According to Zamahsari. [The form JUiU I . of parts of biliteral . The fractions. pi. patientis of the second form. 0**^ /«/ etc. 335. C/^Lm. i /t( are expressed by OJ O d JJ jf Ox . 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi. ^ju*. five spans in lieight . and 3 x J three and four Jx © x J x J at a time. simple is triple. x «£ Ox* 0.

year. * [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see Goldziher in Zeitschr.» j (vulg. 1. "rubu. x [§ 337 A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. according to our D terminology.264 Part Second. at the end of which an event usually recurs. uLo J «i . G. The Demonstrative Pronouns and . the former being the demonstrative pronouns. o*o but & 8 j wk J wi Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£. D. or w*U)t. in one chapter. UU.] ^4 1 &*(/* is fi " ** 00 uLaJ. 337. and Aram.*] 00 J jf* Tstj** «-*. ^ fortw C. _ —Etymology x or the Parts of Speech. either with or < x Oirf x without the article . as £0x0* etc. etc. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. the latter the relative. the Article. C as w%X3t j*^*. S x Ujj. 3jlw*^t l\+~*\.fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS. pronouns. same sense in Assyrian. The form Ja9 occurs e. fifth. xlix. The period. or ^° f < ' -S pi- ^itoil. in the third..g. uou). J fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution o/* e. 338. are either simple or compound. less frequently ouaj." Heb. J li^» v>* Slta^ **^> 9IJ/ Mr^ 00 porfc ow£ J twenty.g. B Rem. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the inter- and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina rogativa).. [ J oLaJ 00 OJjOj J J J OOJ 00 etc. every third (day. — The ' OjxOOi-xOfjxIx CHJ** 6. The demonstrative pronouns. or w**JI L5fr*. article).. month. G. £$ J . titih V <* ]A^oZ a Mh> a fourth. because they are both. is expressed by a noun of the form J*$. M. »- x x 0<<» x £ 339. 210 seqqJ] . . in the accus.) . or £JjJt> every fourth.

§

340]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265
is \l, this, that.

340.

The simple demonstrative pronoun
Masc.

A

Fern.

Sing,

li

^(k'**'L5^);

Dual. Norn.

^
gen.

(oti)

O^
o*3

(£0).
(o*3).
~, or
6

Gen. Ace.
Plur.

o-*S (v>£)
.1

^

x l
;

~A
6 *^l

I

comm.

^t,

^t, or ^J$\

^t.
is

B

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun a person or thing which is near to the speaker.

used to indicate

Rem.

a.

The w
In

in

^Jjt

and

s

^l

is

always

short,

3 being merely

scriptio plena.

this

way ^J$\ can be

distinguished in verse from
is

jjjt,

the

fern,

of Jj$1, first, in

which the w

long.

The 3 may
and

have been inserted in order the more
g

easily to distinguish .Jt

^t from ^Jl and ffl

q
of
1$

Rem.
P i.

b.

The diminutive

is L>3,

f.

tJ

;

du. ^Ij3,

f.

^U3

;

u3

t,

,yy.
c.

Rem.

Closely connected in
viz.

its

origin
J

with

1^

is

another

monosyllable,

^$ (= Heb.

fXtt

Phoen.

and JX>
It
is

this)

which

is

commonly used

in the sense of possessor, owner.

thus declined.

266

Part Second.
The u
in jJ$t

—Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.
as in
this

341

A

and O^Jjl

always

sAortf,

^jt and

6 *^l.

The form *lj$t is used as a of the names or surnames

plural of j3,

when
etc

word forms part

of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as

OM

3>>

\j*W 2

3*>
if

O^J
2

3$)

&*$&!
\mr

>£>
_,

-

These are called l\£\

t>*«Jt,

formed as
d.

from a singular \^^>.

[Rem.

\j£* (sometimes written
or many,
is

^j£s)
of
ii.

thus, so
as,
e,

and

so,

so

and

so

much

compounded
Comp. Vol.

i)
§

like

and the
d.]

B

demonstrative pronoun

tj.

44,

rem.

341.
pounds
(a)
:

From the simple demonstrative pronoun

are formed com-

By adding
J

the pronominal suffix of the second person
(/?)

(i),

*i)

;

j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or demonstrative syllable J.
;

U^

y

J

S

J

with the interposition of the

(b)

By

prefixing the particle U.
of the pronominal suffix,

C

342.

The gender and number

appended

to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and
of the persons addressed. to a single to several

number
is

In speaking to a single man, i))S
to two persons, l©i»t$
;

used

;

woman,

ni)\h;

to several
also be

mm,j&\$

;

usually

is

— employed, whatever be the
;

women, ^>£»ly

But the form

^)\$

may

— and

in fact

sex and

number of the persons

spoken to
these

In regard to their signification, so with the rest. forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a compound

and

distant object.

D
Sing.

Masc.
I)t3

Fern.

(MS*)

that.

i)tf, iJLJ (vulg.

k&).

Du. Norn.
Gen. Ace.

iUli
*£U>5

iJUU.

ȣUJ.

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or

i)^,
is

itf^f or iXS^I.

*

[Some say that

»iX5t$

a mispronunciation for

*£)Uy]

§

343]

II.

The Noun,
a.
j

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267
-.

-

I

Rem.

The u
l

is

sAor^ in

~J
rtjl,

jfyy and

il5*^t, just as in .Jjt,

A

and ^jt
b.

340, rem. a,

c).

Rem.

The diminutive

of

Jt*

is

JCy

f.

i)C5, etc.

343.
nominal
§ 6,

By

inserting the demonstrative syllable

J

before the pro»iJU$,

suffix,
a).

we get a longer form
Masc.

^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written

rem.

B
Fern.

Sing.

M
ItflS

that

iLU (iUU).
itfll

Du. Norn.

Gen. Ace. *iU»3

^Uo.

Plur.

comm.
is

gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt.

Rem.

a.

»iUj

a contraction for ^XL3.

In the dual,

*iUt3,

C

Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly

JUUD; and dUji,
lAS^l

^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ.

The

plur. is rare, ir^jl or

342) being generally used in,*)ti,

stead.

Some

authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of

the

second n

being in their opinion merely corroborative.
b.

Rem.

Some grammarians
x x

assert that there is a slight differx
i

ence of meaning between

,*)!$

and

>iX)$,

the former referring in
objects, the latter to the

their opinion to the nearer of

two distant

more remote.
Rem.
c.

D
The
syllable

J x

must not be mistaken

for the preposuffixes of the

sition yj (which,

when united with the pronominal

second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the
relative pronoun.

See

§§

345 and 347.
of

Rem.

d.

The diminutive

^

is

iUUS,

f.

iUlJj.

[A com-

268

Part Second.— Etymology
of j)

or the Parts of Speech.

344

A

pound

and

*iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like

manner*.']

344.

The

particle
is

U

(which has the same demonstrative force as
od
*y

jo

x

the Latin ce in A^ce)
that excites attention.
13,

called

by the Arabs

*•«-£) t wj^»., the particle

It is prefixed

both to the simple demonstrative
to *iU>).

and

to the

compound Jti (but not
;

Before

t£ it is

usually

written defectively, tjJb or IjJb

before Jli in

full, i)!3li.

B

§

345]

II.

The Noun.

C.

1.

The Demonstrative Pronouns.

269

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.]
ox
o

A

a

i&

j

'i

345.

The

article

Jl —called

by the Arabs
the elif

oLj^jCM

i\*\

the

instrument of definition,

j^\^

t*JJ^)t

and lam,

j**$ [or \Jj+*\
is

objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam,
the demonstrative letter
prosthetic
x0/» jx
I,


§

composed of

J

(see § 343, rem.

c,

and

347) and the

which

is

prefixed

only to lighten the pronunciation
[It is
it

B

x

(J^yt

3>*A, §

19 a, and rem./).

always written in conjunction

with the following word.]

Though

has become determinative,

it

was originally demonstrative, as
x ,xOx

still

appears in such words as^e^JI

to-day,

o^t now,

etc.

The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. [Kem. a. any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called
O/tf

0,

J

d x

0/»

J x

/

i

//OP

U m«
J *

Tii

H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply
X>/
J

u,.j;aJt

j»*$,
to

as

^LJt

»iUAl

<M

*

*t

rO

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar
iO xO/O
x x

and dirhem bring men
better

J J & perdition, Ja-jJI

(j

Slj^t

^o

j

x

a.

man m

than

woman ;
Ox
J
fi

if

indicating a particut

0/ lar individual it is called j^sOl

/

Ox

J /

UujjO >o^Ut,

or simply

jl^jJI vo*j).J

Rem.

6.

Some grammarians regard the
and say that
Ox
Ox
it

elif as
oZ

an integral part
o x e»o j I

of the article,

was

originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of
Ox

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl.
x x x
)

But someJ x
f Ox

times the Arabs suppress the
(comp. Vol.
ii.

I,

saying for instance

j-qj*.

for j+***)\

§ 242, footnote).
is

D

sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative xx ^ x x O/O x Jxx pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao
c.

Rem.

It

fix

xOx
x

c?oes ?io£ cease to be

grateful for
J x x
fix
;

what
6J0

is
\

with him (or for what he
tO

has),

where

OxxOx 4**JI =

J

J

H

/O

x0/»

<uu ^JJt X
the Apostle
/

^or^ *&1 xx
x o£

J>^
i

>»>*)' x

t>* x
fi

<>/*

^
fix

j

j

x

x

people of
1

a?

j

J /

whom is xjxjj
;

of God, where

a£M
X

401 J^-»^

<U<3

^.

i

xj

xx 0/0

J^jJt = O-i^' X
not the judge

(^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb

wJl

U

x

tfAow art

270

Part Second.— Etymology
is

or the Parts of Speech.

346

whose sentence

approved, where L5-«>Bl

=

^>y

^JJI.
that for

Compare,

for example, in

German, der = welcher, and our

who and

which.

Rem.

d.

Jt

is

[in all probability (see
.J-|,

Comp. Gr.

p.

114)] identical

with the Hebrew
still is)

art.

for

7H-

In South Arabia Jf was (and even
ex>
wi

a*

,

used for Jt, but without assimilation
is

;

as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y*

^^J

jr*~~*\
<* ».

f^J fasting in journeying

not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i

lm.«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6
stone
;

casts (standing)

behind me with arrow

B

and

for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI,

^^-JU and OtJtj.

2.

77><?

Conjunctive (Relative)
(a)

and

Interrogative Pronouns.

The Conjunctive Pronouns.
are
:

346.

The conjunctive pronouns

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31.

(2)

O-*

^ wfo, she who,

whoever ;

C
(3)
o

U that which,
^t
tit

whatever.

^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever.

(4) tj-^M
'**

£^r#

<w

w&>, whosoever ;

U^t everything which, whatsoever.
o

*

*

Si
^j}\,

Oii
<ul,

Rem.

^a,
foil.).

Lo,

also interrogatives,

which

their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are indeed is their original signification (see

and

t

o

,2ti

*&£

D

§

They ought therefore to be treated of first as and then as conjunctives but it is convenient to interrogatives reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon;

351 and

stratives.

347.

The conjunctive ^Si\

is

compounded of the

article Jl, the

demonstrative letter

J

(see §§

343 and 345), and the demonstrative
c).

pronoun

15,

or ^3

340, rem.

When

used substantively,

it

has

because of their frequent occurrence. j«JI. ^)- B o*UUt (o*£0l). U&1). Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. $* . A whatever. it and refers necessarily to a definite substantive. Plur. ^JJt. Ace. cJt . Comp. which are not retain the double in such constant use. «£)! crfjfii (otflfol) . J*\ (cJI . . ^-^JUt. j^t.] .<fW or Jjj0l+. CHsfi&f Gen. ^£&S (O^ 1 ". ^->JJt being the form which belongs but gradually the latter supplanted the to the oblique cases versally . The other forms. at one time have been uni« a* employed as the nom. Ace. and case. signifies who. of course. JJI . «. 0j&) . [According to as-Sabban. Norn. wlx Fern. . it which. masc. ^JJt. that the same meaning as v>«.JI or jJUt. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l. The Noun. 2. that. f$S\ or . according to the Arab the nom. Gen. It is declined as follows — agrees in Masc. is —The modern. *J .§ 347] II. p. plur. C. 271 he who. whoever. number. D. for numbers and genders. grammarians. . which. ^t J^^l. and ^jjjli\.G. as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 'I" Specimenschrift. [«^M] JF& ^tj&f .. are written defectively. j^JJt (J}\ . with which : gender. vulgar form. generally J of the article all and the demonstrative.]) ^^Jl . rem. and sJJtJM. C Rem.. ^tifif (gfjAf. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus). ut* Sing. ^J>i\ in the gen. Rem. U. viz. Du. when used adjectively. used \jjj>)\ in D and ace. This £)3^ must. . o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). 6. [Cu$$f Nom. § 340. the article sufficing to distinguish it * from the prepos. a. instead of ^JJJt. chJJI (^Jjf .

'^ / suffices me. G. <j\iMS. H. e. Gr. I) / lined (or cased). 117. is -ffith. f^H T _ (= ds J3t). St From ^JJt SisSt are formed the diminutives bJJJt. c. as its derivation shows. has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form sanus. fi B fern. Rem. za). and has precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> p. gen. especially the tribe of Tayyi' (?J£).i*a of which ace. [§ 347 A modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. Rem. Q It is then either wholly indeclinable. x fi * St "St * '. UlWt ^ x * x J w/2 / j i/i / du. ^JJt was originally.272 Part Second. for ^c wi££ am gnawing x (on the satire JJ ' .—-Etymology or the Parts of Speech. and j^^Ut are fix also said to occur. di. !)J*?>n. Aram. just as in j fix ^j« Even the sing. D. which more usual as LjU^ U is x x x ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w a *^ ^ w enough for me of what x that which jSi-o x with them (of their property) x x is OJ x£ (LiU^ se£ £0 in rhyme tf» wor& ^-3U&)..U Ut earnest on the bone which I for fix ^JJt J 6x0 OxxOCx 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*. for ^£Jt and ^i^ [sU~»M xi. former. _ coram. a its demon- strative pron. * JR. Rem. 5 are vulgar and incorrect. the nom. for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) x J Ox x J Oxx J x C-j^l? j$j C^a». and ic2 f ^^^Jt. Oj*W St* OUJUt. employ £ (Heb. Si d. Instead of ^JJI.. ^JJI Jul-' is an oblique form. —The * forms ^j^^Ut. . ^ wo/ by Him whose residence is : else declined as follows — in lieaven.] or . ^ 25. x i. J^&\ pi. ^. ought properly to be x —Si x 3JJI. The /u/ fixuj * forms bJJUt.*. UJJt. See Gomp. H= . ej which I J am meditating). sjj—. some of the Arabs. 'Aganl 18. y$ l£j+43 an d mV J we H 'which I dug and which <*~^ ^>3 1.

The Noun. 2. C. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 273 .§ 349] II.

£ x vii x \^\£s or C>A£>]. etc. exclamatory.g. (§ 351. rem.] . whatsoever. is >ftU». it is better to keep them apart) * 48 <* . part of the ace. It has been already stated 346. with the exception of ^JJt.). G. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- C tions into j*. / —In we pause these words x x *-x ( fi/ £ / are written a*j. and with those with which it is not. enuntiative (jC±. Faik." J x 6 t *x Zamahsari. Hid ma. (b) The Interrogative Pronouns. whence it happens that j^ and j£ is are sometimes shortened in x x x poetry into^j and^J. U. 125]. ^. ^» ^*»-)- In such cases.. and is then united in writing both with those prepositions with which such a union is usual. s^ who. Of ^1 and &*. The grammarians of the school of Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose. of^^a. Heb.*$J) but never conjunctive. . D. i. "is usually shortened. in poetry the elif may be retained. whosoever. a^c. marians. tJie like of what [see the worth of what p. for^o^ or lo^ (lit.274 Part Second. 3 c —Etymology « or the Parts of Speech. Gr. etc. which a indeed their original signification. the accent transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima. e. in the latter case. ^U. x Similarly find a*i for ? l*i wAai 2Am * ? and <t»aif> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose as when one calls it [Rather.. This ? also the origin ?). 0-*i'> \+jS . HJIS^ HIED D Aram. Kl. 364. ^ JJ*. (though. ii. Comp. Ji ^). vi To them may be added jJSs [and are (a) interrogative. according to the Arab gram. x JSp [§ 350 A x x 350. (better ^o ^)l. Rem. are also interrogative. Fleischer. 159 "the commoner" form (»*w^l).) that the conjunctive is pronouns. U->t £to which. are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo. x Jj. Schr. 0^> U^'. xx J^ x (for 8 x J ^. x ^5. ^D3 ££2 (/ x Comp. (b) how much [or many\ which according to our ideas. Ji^t. <l«U». Only the first compound admits of being declined gen. ^o j-U.

Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. to which mig^tf do you A Ox x g 2 rejoin A+gfe and the answer x x »x *Jt x~ v>-»»». Sing. x J 2. of gender. Fern. . number. [The shortening of to takes place also in such senx tences as oJi*. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and wJI v* J^ The what are you like ?] x 352. interrogative pronoun v>o. The Noun. and case. who? has the it distinctions .«£» w> tfAatf 7 Aim a kindness. to (the is and x so. only when stands alone as if one should say Some one is come. Nom. and another should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — B Masc.§ 353] II.l x . or 7" have seen some one. C. 275 house of) so fi says U*^i x JO Ojboi I went x .

which dearer to which example Lo-jt stands for tut.*£ ^1. j^Sl second case. e. for U^->l. 'place? (see Lane. OiJc ^t - or ^j\. G. pronoun.276 Part Second. it 1. nom.— Etymology it or the Parts of Speech. or used like v>o has all the numbers and cases. Oi£ fern. when prefixed to a fern. • £ the suffixes ^1 . ^\^>. From ^t I yt£ from Ml £ . a.6. the latter being the B more common. Hudeil. ll* Lo^-jt. or £&£>. ace. £r. as aJibt »U &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad vs. w>U^ ^t o^£o /D<3 i J ^t Hi to&tcA Ml #« or fountain O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women 1 ? lO ^j\ which of the women . « £ [§ 353 fi A ^ £ % £ 5 w>li^ ^ it j^t tpjfc&A foo# £ (lit. masc. s&e. xjt. and the compound t^j2>. is of rare 17) occurrence.ii£ and indefinite i+j\ is is sometimes used D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt . Rem. as J^u ^t ? wAa£ 2Aow say ? and] the vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 5 * for £. See CWijo. gmV? _ ft&rt) ? gen.£ . {j*£> d). nom. nom. /j«f \j\ the final vowel said to be obscurely sounded or slurred (v&jjJt).] In the fern. may be masc. 2). or] a suffix. With 'J Se- 8 g . it . When standing alone. art. n. Rem. a I ? [The feminine form 86. d. 0^'> S en if acc * wf Plur. nom. gen. ^$\ or ^t.->t " M you. oW> it£ g en - acc 0*iS \ fern. Ji i vt £ wi» it L»1 . rem. 201. pp. . w ivii- D. p. 120—122.ot is ? sometimes shortened into ^t. or d j j££ Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun . which of us? are formed the relative adjective . the more general . the pausal forms being : — o in § 352. b. what or c. 0^> g en acc - - v>rf' is J fem - £>V« C In ^t and Rem. - St Dual masc. § 34. he or I? in Rem. ^1. it m£ Sing. ^l^ O-i^ \£=> (§ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ii. 134c).i£ in the genitive . .£ o£ . masc. \J\£> and 351 and Vol. ? w>U^ ^cf. ? which of the two & £ j ) and so in [the interrogative efostf *o£ j^A what for U - ^t.it£ ^^t 2 £ Lo-*1.* . ace. and ZA which female? (Dlw..

rem. ii. whence the . 172. 3. § 36. if appended to ^>l. The Indefinite Pronouns. § 7) . rem. The Indefinite Pronouns.2 >o jo 5 as &*£*-> jJt U . rem. Vol.>£) it hinders rem. J serves to § strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& 36. . e. de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis. § 88. ^t. p. 136 a. rem. 2. 360 seq. and Vol. it is added to C*J. or § is a qualificative clause. ii. [Prym. e). added to the affirmative ti 8 x xx . ". and is in that case called U >o (Vol. U ii. whens a • tt a t x ever. 100 and 706 seq. as the r\ nouns.. Kl. § 127. (Vol. as or x ^ U something which I have. rem./) and § 84.§ 353*] II. rem. added to certain adverbial signification. reject this theory. ii. - J s complement (aa-o). with the same effect to ^>j (Vol. 1. Schr. considering i. 277 [3. 9x The U x Gr. B an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody x x here. is and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). C. The indefinite U used to introduce a clause equivalent to the 4jjJua^JI masdar or ii. § 6). . but usually a preposition with following genitive.] U x t as the original. a and b) in apposition to is an indefinite noun. but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative interrogative pronouns <>* into indefinites (Comp. ^l£» and . ii. o * ( UJL^ wherever. . Diss. (Vol. pronoun ii. A and Ox 353*. Comp..g. p. or in if reference to time . a. »Ct or ^LJUpt U (Vol. hence its use in conditional clauses as x aJ»^JI x. Uy* whatever . e) U (see an example 361 near the end. 125)*.. § it is often inserted after the * Fleischer. 5 Latin termination cunque. it has a vague intensifying force and § called <L*ly^t it U D ii. This complement very rarely an adjective or participle. J* and JjU (ibid. have passed with the sense of somebody. . it gives them a conditional and general l©*^! wherever. as J 13 ^y» one who says. e) . d) their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. Ox the indefinite meaning of £yo and interrogative has been derived. § 114. infinitive. something. The Noun.

The Prepositions.. like x ^^ xJ J 0*> J Sctta. 0/3. Prepositions. In like manner (Vol. . ii. (§ 3ujb./©Mr sorts of particles (^»». it is also put after w>j (Vol. 3. a5^i (§ 309. as ^/^ii\ thing. Adverbs. Heb. see the Syntax. so and x JJ«» so. and Inter- D jections. [or Sl^t. * ii. Otj.] c/M *> fern. tf* particles They are also X named J J J t /iK of depression. b. rj b). ii. or jt^aJt (from the sing. affecting their regimen.it]) viz." J x ^^. and is x»<« then called 5jl»>oJI U d *> or Sj^lpt U . b. iU. (Vol. xxg There are . may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and Syr. their saying fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so • * . and X «<• SiLi^l «*ijj»». — qa X a and »*x its fem. «0x ff J '» # xg 354. CsA. [§ 354 A prepositions . rem. 4).. —Etymology x } or the Parts of Speech. i • In speaking of animals. § 84./ t and so.278 Part Second.). attractives. a) and in other cases § 90. § 70. rem. pi. rem. 8. stand for names of persons. The prepositions are . xC *n)I 'J JxxJdJxOxxx JI/0 B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos. jfi M0 the . THE PARTICLES. called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-. or xx ^ N. pi. /). — On the use of these words in the vocative. C*a»«£l. Conjunctions.>*. M. i. rem. ^ particles of annexation or connection. 5x«x jUJt x Ox or SjUJI). the particles which govern the genitive. .» tf X / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 iJ^Jd " .e. as LS^C] ^^ x ^ oUU£> x xPO j-^U^I. W X O«0 J J J 355. JOx J/ /J»/ A-i_L\3. vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are j XX J»«» employed. tJjLH*. « fem. A. rem. o. 3. III. rtxxOx particles of attraction. H ^Jt/*-. £>s> j x and w> without . because the . are similarly used for substantives of the class ©*» Oi n jj-iaJI XX lU^t 191.

J passes before the pronominal suffixes into fetha. § 62. The Prepositions. near. for. § 235) to be also remnants of words.] . is changed § after ^ c. by. sing. Aram. is (i). Rem. ii. with. as <J to suffix of sition . Aram.] <uitf (b) O by. 3. See § 185. Vol. ft: of w> with the negative ^). Q Rem. in swearing. -33th. at. following noun. of the suffixed pronouns of the loJb.§ 356] III. b. d. the abbreviation Vol. G. The ancient and first poetic form ^oJb changes either both vowels. by God ! 3d pers. It seems to be the remnant some word. OW- Comp. c. O*^ rem. footnote). those which are always united in writing with the 356. as aDI^ a. Except the the 1st pers. ^) to us. i **" (d) ^ by. peculiar place in that connection which their genitives really represent (see § 358). JEth. him. 279 distinctive vowel of the genitive itself. its many They prepositions with are divided into separable prepositions. rem. through (Heb. i. is a ii. A: * . its The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with are : vowel. A. those which are written as separate words. as (= b. and consequently the genitive and because this case has A called ^^AaUt (see § 308. 7. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol.e. 0^5 ?) and ii. into kesra. without. i. rem. compound Comp. The kesra of the prep.^yj. b.^S3 to you. and inseparable. (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** of aDI ^>©-jt. D. (a) They — B ^* in. as du.e. or the onlyj^yj or^. in swearing. ^b. ba). U D * of [O was especially in use at it is Mekka. on account of (Heb. The damma tjJb. as J to (sign of Ice). which absorbs the vowel of the prepoto me. [^b. rem. by God !* (c) the Dative). and 317. The Particles.. § 56.

[§ 357 " i). as. "79. is really not so. e Ezra and comp. 12). ^1). CM-*. which js commonly reckoned a preposition. consequently end in fetha without tenwin (—). to. but runs in this position through all the relations of case (similitudo. Karer . have different termina- B those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms in the accus. 358. since (compounded of i>* v. 357. 3). with (penes. see 347. The separable which are prepositions are of two sorts. Aram. 0*> Karer forms are : 0*> (W. Itf. on account of. determined by the following genitive. (b) up to. or "K9° : #»)? See § 20. *X9m (i) '(9?»M. ^^al till. O** (&*). about.280 Part Second. dialectic variety is ^^. ^Ol) . after. c. Jp. sing. -*?«). (d) (e) sjefrom. *7B. D#. apud). (c) ^* over. which occurs only as the governing word in the genitive connection. d. /row a § certain time. instar). It is a formally undeveloped noun. rem. > (ft v>* = Q/» ^W> ^-So. Aram. •T'jD. ij? in. iEth.. °^ account of (Heb. j j Ju*. upon. for. iEth. and ji.— Etymology Rem. ^JJ. above. (/) 0^> or lS^ (W). Those of the all biliteral or triliteral. dialectically *-«. notwith- standing (Heb. against. or Jco. O^X (lM*)> Syr. Aram. as g^o. away from. or the Parts of Speech. *>«. which becomes in the wasl **. first class. (a) The separable prepositions of the first class are : — A JUo (Heb. like (Heb. *>> ^. and they tions . <*> D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. "KflYl:). among. as far as (Heb. *>. into.

^s. ^c. *!**». J~3 63/07*0 (of 7M). into Jft £ as JUX*. UJt L5^. and ^jjJ. rem. i*5 ^.§ 359] III. Rem. which is under.] 359. C^ J > . p. ^_ (orig.. ).>o^ or ^ ^. . is doubled in connection etc. preserve before the suffixes their pronunciation ^1. Rem. dimin. The damma of the suffixes of the pers. *b etc. <uXft. Examples of prepositions of the second - class are : ^»UI b* . JJy afow?. according to § 185. J A. for . ^jjj with ^5 B ^y. on this side of dimin.. When 6>o followed by the article. with the suffixes of the 1st pers. dimin. ^jic. rem. b). among 5 (J*3) . s ^^. [li. before (of place) . Caj *UJJ. Jt . b. after ^> below. the prepositions ^a sbiO and C ^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry.. d). J The Particles. The ^) of ^fc. c. sing. Rem. OJ 281 ^ forms are : J-U. assimilated to the j and the two are usually written as one word 0+*> U*» v>**. L©.]. (see § 14. . . c\+Xz for and Jl ^s.j-o between.. *UJ> or dU»J. and ^jJ § into J^JJ. ^y c. beneath (fiTTl !). rem. about. O-ij* jUc (also jUft.<U. •* instead of. . passes after the diphthong into kesra. . Fr. and *x*. JJj^3 .round. in possession of (apud. * . In the wasl S* usually becomes A J* (§ 20. to. original a. under.o. opposite J>». dimin. against. ^— . tj-j jJ. ^JS. jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l). U-«. D orw . * b /» into J^*. the modern and vulgar form. combines with into ^t. .j*o being contracted b . ^Js. o. JU. J. a. penes. for JUJt ±y> . J J The Prepositions. behind. and § 317. 36 w. The suffix of the 1st pers. for . 24. and ^ jj (compare ^tf and 3d ^) j as aJJ. See 317. *Lu.. the ^j is If ^ft and ^^o are prefixed to j^c and j* in pronunciation. note. or JU J-«. rarely jus) with. chez [*]*?)£$?) * • 5 T [«J** ' ^]> u*^ time. ^Jt. "It. and ^jJ. rarely J^ or a^. [Comp. beneath.

partly separable the second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u in the accusative. B. as ^-JUt. the particle of amplification]. The first class consists . (&) an abbreviation of [and is sJ$*». the construct 06 * such as . . among. as C-Jttt. accusatives of nouns . dj3 behind.282 Part Second. etc. an >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW. the particle (num? utrum? an? Heb. surely. There are three sorts of adverbs. as before said. may be (a) w>t^^O) oath. jJU aOt^ by God. converted into ^£ with hemza. end). The Adverbs. partly inseparable.] D prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real J\*e Oxx jj/ It is futurity. C dialectically. of B particles of various origin. When t is followed by another elif with hemza. This (c) J. d]. after. t \2*Q£&. D*7p) . also written C-Jtt. £ The t. These are 0* all. the third class of nouns 361. § 21. [comp. h). affirmative.j-o interval. an t is inserted between the two hemzas.>»tjJ> before (of place. Aram. The form occurs IJJb. jl*£ . *£ii5t. 360. in the JO * end (Heb. . beyond. [§ 360 A dimin. v #0 la that corresponds to. of. —Etymology or the Parts of Speech.] [Rem. for example he in U* ? nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362. as cr»> tj^t. certainly. is this who — [In alternative questions it is followed byj*\ or^t. or is the complement (it) . as aDt ^JUlSL*. ix^j in the middle. God will suffice t/iee against them. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra.circumference. / wi7£ certainly do ». J>». ^lyAlw^t |"l) . ^JJI for ^JJt tjt. but some do not do it is this. &*|D. Out >o called i>~ACJl sJ>^». ^J/*-.j£. inseparable adverbial particles are s 6tO >o : — of questioning d JO - (a) interrogative.

(/ will). better (b) xx jl ft and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu x . or the complement of lau p ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) x x tO jjO/. confirming a previous statement. verily ye would have followed Satan. ii. I 283 xW x J he has certainly gone out . . 9 xxOxx distinguish it from the negative &\].j^-^ ^ 5 x ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in their breasts than God. as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ ^^x • Jj3 aOU x x by God. (he has) X » X X ft . Vol. The Particles.t xx ft ^s. ©x jc5 2/^'<i jjj JDt has come ft to J^i yes. J . B. 0-^^*. j U»ftll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ day of ^j is 0\ verily thy . J The Adverbs. But in reply to an interrogation. (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI the jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A way for the oath. as iail». J^.] 362. to use J**.o x 1h* L$Lj M J® 9 x/ while Zeid was standing. Lord Jx will judge between them on the jx xO-o the resurrection (c) js?§A\ xD«9 aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& © distinguishing i3 la.'vO/ (if) ij/ *xx ^/ not).j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God towards you and His mercy. lyJx. he saw 'Amr. as juj U. . (he did not) .j-° AiAa^Jt ~ .. xx 90x Joj jA3 £Ao?4 wi'ft it is U D go x X £ X Zeid did not stand o x £ up. affirmative la.. certainly. ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C <jlj but verily we were careless of their § 36. Xxx6xx0x£j0x U^ [Comp. which jxAx prefixed to the x 5 «» x jo^tf predicate of ^1. ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c studies. if indeed you show '«/' »/ <£ X X me J X honour. 1©J verily over every soul there is a guardian.§ 362] III.1 yes. o The most common separable x adverbial particles are the i. following. standing for ^jl (aLa3I . OOxxOx while. ft and £ ft W~j Cx and is followed by a verb stating a fact. (y) ^JjJj vl*^ and **$ the lau-la la that corresponds to. I will certainly show you 2*s honour . behold. . . [in xx x order to £ J # . away. or] Jju$f XX J<) the B inchoative or inceptive as <uM prefixed to a ***j jwl < noun or a verb in the imperfect. w-Jbju <*i>w . as ^y^ <#' J^ ty «C^»-. (a) Ot/ x J-^-t xp yes. (8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the x X x X la.jt). as x£ thee.

] °f ^i frequent in the [(k) oi n°t> svn it is Koran and in old poems. a) and or *9 w<?£ (Heb.] XX are^et..lb j>i juj lo. of a following noun or . as oUb x»*J «3©x juj W ^^^» I x x J x x went out.] [It is very often followed by oi ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow C [(/) (#/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. if it be so. as the preceding statement lo. A rare dialectic form (e) *^l &$. U*. called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <UA«L«J o£> § 361. U^.. followed only by a nominal proposition.] certainly. x x jo* prosperity has come round. D In later times corroborative. that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected. wow [(i) ^Ut or in that case. See § 367. B wM# w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place. «). 0<#0 (Heb. Zeid came upon [(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft. literally /o/ *«e/ #w. 448)/] x o 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 1 Oi c. Kl. writy. and Zeid was at w<? the door . surely. b. Schr. .. _. only used in combination with the negative U as a oi ^ noi indeed (comp. Vol.U*Jt 13 1. utrum .. H). then at least. t3t. called by the grammarians 3l». ii.284 Part Second. or 4*5U*a)I is 13]. ^tftt - XX and l^». t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf us. in that case. XX [oi ^ &*«%. N/H)surely. U*U *. an? (h) x£ Ul ^o^w^ ? XX XX Compounded XX of t and U not. [(f) i.-»]). [§ 362 A ^iU j2 ^ Ojb / ja>o 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity. (w) oj JH Hiin Syr. It is joined to the accus. J J t»e — Etymology //J// or the Parts of Speech.] (<#) oM> x£ or W> wg ^ is then.or ^**~. usually without government.] ^ an? j>\ j*\. truly. § 158 and Fleischer.. Dtf . £ nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361. . x i x lo.^a. and refers to the same time .... I (Heb.. 5 x£ Dialectic varieties surely. interrogative.^. of &.

it (o) ^y\ whence t ? [where ?] how ? [when ? it With the is signification of whencesoever. frequently used by commentators. 7ltf Phcen. it**). O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl.] C (p) (q) i^t. The suffix a and anticipates a whole subsequent clause flfo (.] (u) j^jXj yes. explicative. — . always followed by an oath. but in the 1st pers. The Particles. pi. sing.§ 362] III. Compounded of \j\ and U. and is frequently followed by is J with the predicate. wherever. yea. I^jI]. is 285 pronominal suffix. by God ! aDI I. This formula sometimes shortened into is aOt ^1. ^t yes.jl introduces the subject. 0311). whenever a conjunction. in this case often represents Ul as well as U>l]. ^<^y> JX. —From is ^1 comes the vulgar [(r) o^j! [ojjJ. ^>\ used as well as ^j\ A (Heb. but (Heb. verily God great. used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative . inceptive or inchoative la 36#. as aOIj is ^t yes. J^> way not it is so. <£M ^1. only (dumtaxat). [When followed by a single word a conjunction. it is 72. It a conjunction D when it signifies whenever. (§ This the grammarians regard as an c. and <OtM^ The dialectic variety ^yb said to occur. the example given standing for la that j«m£» a&I £f} } whence 18 it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the B pushed away (from its proper place). [verily].jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] pronoun of the fact). — The form J>A is said to occur in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- (n) U3]. 73). that is. 8). rather. however. restrictive. [and in the 1st pers. |$t in if) {$&. as j~£i dttl ^jt. B. on the contrary. The Adverbs.] (s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever (Heb.

there (Heb. o** between. i. certain symptoms or circumstances . awe? enough). D£> T ' TfGX? s Syr. iai. perhaps.oi. iai.—Etymology . and with the Future. that something has happened in agreement as with. 1. o x as iai <xZAj U. among). S. now.l its t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences. solely. really (jam). 4. # [§ J 362 x£ J ' O J** question. * [In poetry jj^l jj> 1. Delectus. jS. (y) Jaii 0#/y. y^s.j4 w%-JI ^k am I not your Lord? They said. It expresses (z) that something uncertain has really taken place. thus its according with l+jj in two acceptations*]. Joj ^sb^i Zeid did (v) not stand up.^. see Fleischer. [but also frequency. 434 seq. iai Ja did you ever him?]f. {Thou art) . 286 Part Second.A. da. or in opposition to. always with the Perfect or Jussive & * . jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£». he is C really come. Kl. o^> he was hale and and now lie dead. or in affirming a negative proposition. as \^i\3 j£j. or the Parts of Speech. an interroga- jsi djt c j^. 98.^=> 1©JL. or iai te I have never seen him see . . for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam. Rarer forms are and in pause iai. in which case it said to be used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity. already. / was hoping that he would come. whilst (connected with the prep.. Schr. may be used 2 . and well. merely (lit. ' ^ T T B (x) sometimes j-j». Yes. as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ is <j! the (habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth. [or in j . tive sentence iai <&\j iai. Ljo [and U~^] while. J&L). (w) JJi [or a^f]. ^Aj yes. It also serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event. o * - j *a* Z Imperfect it means sometimes. with the Perfect. that something expected has been realised. R. (he did).. see Noldeke. «$. D (aa) & * j £J jot* * ever .. in pause j-j*. and a negative. . and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the j j o .] vulgar use . iai. 32. is OU jJte ta.

B.§ 362] III.] {ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ]. rem. [It is also used as a conjunction. X7 is and ^X. b). (gg) O not J>J. (mm) j^o it is agreeable). § 169). a conjunction. not. joined to the Subjunctive. iuj^> (§ 343. affirming any preceding statement or question yes. and as representative of the other negatives after (ne). likewise JO 287 [(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340. *$. C o' that — a contraction for 0& ^ it w^ mi be ). X7 T ]]) ' the significations of the Heb. joined to the Jussive. rem. U^J. VlD. ^yA U# f I yet. negative of the Perfect. it is [When . to. not. rem. (II) ^JU when? Heb. j>\*±. combines the Aram. yet. d).' Zeid stood not). j (and). up? ^xj Other ^> ^ OJ/ J/ he has not stood up. ~ placed only B (if) oA OA °ften with 3 prefixed. not It thus . d) and all. <jt *^ (i.] D yes (abbreviated for^ju.] A OlJ *> (cc) *$& not at . but always joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect.] U. used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present. ii. q.>£) is followed by a single word.e. The Adverbs. . § 367. negative of the definite or absolute present and of the perfect. The Particles. as joj jb\»\ has i . [(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344.] . [(H) (kk) *$ and u£) why not t syn. are used as well as ^^^i. (he has forms are^xi. but in the jS 1 io 1 I 1st pers. by no means. not. of % and & (Vol. j^u and yes. (he has) . by no means. pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of or repelling or averting as *£^ t^^' ^ij mV Lord hath humbled despised (dd) me . and more rarely ^*3. (/?) as a prohibitive particle (like joined to the Jussive. o^ <^uf t before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative.

ilJt decidedly.>*. u0j£ (also c^^ ^ and u^j^) ^ m^ ^i whither. J-i. The accusative the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic. *$a —Etymology ? or the Parts of Speech. J La.] . La). of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais Mo'all R. but always preceded by a negative. 364. demonstrative.>* above*. a <*Jj*il while ago ratf . t jta. ww-m (*n)I) utrum ? of The form Jt also occurs. *il±. \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to £/fo to ^ ^A \j1^j L*^> right. there (compare Heb. also v is **»>a»-*].288 Part Second. \jt^ much. joined to the Jtfjtfl *>). whence are derived L^a. c-sa*J. and ^)UyA. referring to future time. B 363. w^o. La. only . jju . *^J £^ night. S. &Jt ^) / wz7/ do it.b inside. J>i.j*&. ^ri/. usually with a negative decidedly] . ^r^ wwcA. as u*^ else. E. . D after an adjective \*-f**r- together. extremely. ju^]. by day. 41. (pp) (57?) wow^ ? Compounded Ja and ^. placed . in which case J they take the termination u. La (also La and . Imperf Indie. : A few of the most common examples Ij^l. can in general be used as adverbs. The same substantives (§ of which the accusatives serve as °" [yet. and are indeclinable. Jy 0-*> above. beneath. with a negative. demonstrative. Csa»J . afterwards. without. %£**»• where. ever. §§ I)La. UaIa or LyA. j*j mostly in negative phrases. ^-jX3 ?&£&. y>« whence. of two or more W-jU- outside. [§ 363 A (00) interrogative. Ja.^^J. of it are the following . for^.g. nothing only this . whence are derived LaIa or LyA. ' * [w~»•> enough. j->£. / f0t# w^«^r j o * kw 3/0M . never little [Uut ^W^ wow. . in j*£ j a or j**. and iUlIi (see (rr) Jliin) " T 342—344). within. * [On the various forms p. prepositions 359). Js> . cM v>*> before.

. It is etymologically = *7H* but in ( sense = 1$ in HT? DID? may [Here too lit. with the omission of the negative. but. it is seems to be compounded Kl. above especially. X Ut U-j~>. xxxxxx OUw oU£ m my next- D * [On the derivation i. U-J-* and. * 'n). quantity of that x x which— x x ©x (w>j = Heb. (lit.] t {j*j*?. XX X ^) there is not the equal or like of X X — .^ . § 361. ^*j)t wow. 381. . used only in connection with pronominal J x 6 x suffixes.j-« like its x synonym ju x (i) JxOx o **»-j. Kl. during. A \js> tomorrow. The Particles. § 84. 13 ^). . seq. Schr. The Adverbs. xxxxx *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning of and evening . yb fo u Cw oJoor neighbour ..§ 364] III. j>yA\ today (JEth. as J^j A^ afott*?. U^»j. ' of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. b) lit. day. and therefore also construed with . rem. i. UU^o o/rata's (Aram. y\) .] decided (comp.. ^ 449 (also jbjx». [comp. Fleischer.. a£ the time of—). footnote. 13 *^ j**. Rarer forms are U*~> (g) and U-w ^). p-<7°: etc. To the same xOx class belong the following adverbs [(a) (b) juj except.&ry a/o^. B. at present . (c) but more usually] sometimes . uu£» and see a conjecture of Fleischer's. sSJs> howl* 5JlaL« C . xa m f& end. ii. lit.. * £ (/) all. B (d) (e) woj. lit. once.w^ft x5 J lo-ij [often. particularly . «* together. xO X whilst. perhaps. Vol. G. lit. verily. D. 37 .] O**. »J>w. 5 j the c]. [(A) ^ mos£ certainly ^r^ s* wo avoiding of *j). tent to be mentioned the adverbial expressions x Ox xOx X x J tent or house to house in c~o (J^U. Schr. JUft) : . prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see ..]t it.) w. ^a jufc. 289 U^j one yom). truly.

either separable or inseparable. acx xOx 365. etc. as b. Heb. The Conjunctions. X yesterday. 366. viz. which connects words and clauses as a simple co-ordinative. — x x £j xx j^£J would that I— 0-- x Ox Ml xx / (rarely ^^IJ). . they " " * " and become indeclinable.- . but verbs. JO x (a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-). "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t. They are construed with the accusative. G. Quoad connective particles. fc^ftX.. indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are ..) are. Heb. ^J. added to render the oi **> x o£ Ox pronunciation more easy. O-*. The word has several rarer forms. x The inseparable conjunctions are x : — ). x ot o j at o j B Some of the Arabs used x ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^.3x3x3^3 ^&. Ci Ox Rem. a. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians 6 call. lose their tenwin x x x ^ when two nouns x x x made one. seem to X Ox / and C*J.. be. ^JUU). ending in fetha. fl): JO x w.] Rem. and take pronominal suffixes. J sbiO t J J J cording to their different significations. perhaps. .. as &» .290 Part Second.»tk x j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and x Ox x © x bad. { ^»i 3 XX perhaps I — xx 3 XX X 3 XX (rarely . particle of classification gradation). straitness. ^fc.. JjO governs the ^j\. since yesterday. utinam. however. the kesra is not the V mark of the genitive. etc. ' genitive. vcuj t^u». which sometimes unites single words. not nouns in the accusative. or J^-uJt Ojja- [or oLblydl] Q»ju^ conditional particles. D like the prepositions and adverbs.yJUJ). would that ^J* or J^x). x and 6 (iEth. In u~*\. x x JO x (6) Q> (oiLc Q>». Aram. ^jjt) C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and C. — Dialectically. !)). etc. or more exactly or v~?p ^b^. D. The —Etymology rale is that or the Parts of Speech. but merely a light vowel. are [§ 365 A sundry parties.

[Rem. 852. Or it therefore let 3 * u> them hearken unto me. C. The Conjunctions. sing. %36s ^j \y^c^^. When preceded by ^ or 3 o. e. the apodosis is also introduced by wi after O when. to give an imperative sense. as ^J l^^aJ^Ji believe in me. This latter J is identical with the preposition J (§ 356. and very often in later prose. used J^f^ to indicate the done . 10. and consequently. link. Tabarl i. like the German so. as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. for. The Particles. signifying that. but more usually connects two clauses. and it also invariably introduces the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. of past time. of the Jussive. In conditional sentences. may be rendered and and is thereupon. is A showing either that the latter in time. (a) }] The most common when. and 10 j a * may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C Subjunctive of the Imperfect. G. D. thus ^jl means nonne 6$. as dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent. 291 closely behind one another. a thing is and hence the &*) Arab grammarians take or it to stand in all cases for the fuller 367. 9. ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] is 0>o j * (c) J. or that it is immediately subsequent to the former it connected with It by some internal so. such as that of cause and effect. [Compound U $t whenever. separable conjunctions are : — since. in order that. the kesr is usually dropped.] * 1. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command. [Sometimes in old poetry.] . purpose for which. so that. The conjunctions 3 and I »^5 may be preceded by the B interrogative particle . or the reason why. thee. Hamdsa 74.g.§ 367] III. *J is used to separate the apodosis from the protasis. that God may forgive c). 1. which it usually prefixed to the 3d pers. and prefixed either to a nominal or a verbal proposition. although in this last sense (jU more usually employed.

CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ the sea. DN-— ^'. dialectically .292 Part Second. *$> ( a ) if not. Compare Heb. to distinguish i 6 *0>O from oi3 an ^ 361. as UJ^i. compounded with . Ttf in Ju l**... hence called duLoj)\ if indeed. b) . Used twice or oftener.jt 9 . for example. quod a* 'iU) I and *$ (see § 14. in which case stands for a whole clause (fi) £U£*t u^». in order that (ut). if> an(i if. o . the genitive of s which occurs. tO* O^j 0^3 £ • it although * (etsi). as regards .g. time. as if. and on in 3*ui*30/O Gr. * i ^jtj.jt also serves to introduce j direct quotations {f it ykjh f.] B [(c) j*\ or. of jt in alternative questions.. Further: that not (ut non. in order that. it belonged to poor men who worked on it The form corresponds to the Greek (e) ix. o>». even an o£ o 3 a* o * * z Imperative. £>*$ that.t e.. Aram. because. as for. A dialectic C variety <>s. in order that not (ideo —Like and ">2 in Heb. usually denoting future time and implying a conwhich case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition. That is Paradise . conditional £ £ t particle] (hj£> f . [§ 367 A (b) dition. -33th. sometimes written jjtj or 3 . (f) * q\ [and Ut. followed by o. that (quod).: now. as syn. ne. and *TX . o' is that. Compounds g. compounded of ol an d . as well as the obsolete noun » 362.lv — also occurs.] (df) Ul.jt ne).— Etymology \>[ or the Parts of Speech. so that. £>* H. at that time. lit (§ Both of these conjunctions. lo-. 8c. j£*& on that day. <jt 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning ^t Take her. . are connected with $t. of . .. < jtf . J (§ o% a verily Aram. in when. (exceptive particle).) * to if.. it Heb. oq^H. >*o*J : 'ema.. see non). as for the ship.1 JEth. as^»C^ O' h&3 D shall be proclaimed to them. comp. d). JHK. JO OS 3 3* &\ the explicative 'an). * O i : O^ as & *$\ were. when? [Compound Utjt whenever. c). unless. Bibl.

K?~DK.§ 367] III... or or fact). v^jj at 366.. %+£* in order that not. position.g. see Vol. 362.. rem. next . (k) ^5^ * *o till.. A Aram..] w t . y . b.] Connected with the adverb J^j (§362. ?\A= (alia) but.. Utj . c] [(/) UjUfc when (syn. Ut. 0*S.{ o|.. or O' ^^ (quod). or . U3t. I# ' § 52.. . rarely Ujt [or M]. Syr. O^* as ** were. Heb. (i) ^j. with a preceding negative. e. j<£. C. c*«j (C««J.] * 0* j * (m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) : in order that. but in the 1st pers. but*. * • = [o' j] an(* O' J** are very often used in the sense of but D. j-tr^. It is followed «t by a noun or pronominal suffix at a in the accus. (§ c-s^i). Ut . 293 saving. until that. ^th. £^m.—&\. thereupon. Si Ut are used as well as ^j^\. IX. except. . sive). but implying succession [In genealogical statements 3l an interval. only. [On its sense of even. w).. and . connecting words and clauses. a t^?^. $1 . ». until. The suffix 6 in this case often represents 8 0/0 J and anticipates a whole * j« j * subsequent clause (<Lcuti\ j*+*a. § 358. 6). tfW. — Compounds Heb. ^ is often used (like the German und zwar) more special. m.. t B o^ See *t (A) j\ or (vel.0. * * —Compounds ^j£) in order that. to indicate a transition from the general to the * *0*> SJ *0 2t/0 i*0* J & C (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe it is of Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara. e.. of UJ). identical with the preii. compounded ^'£^r (9) of ^jt U . The Particles. ^t. the pronoun of the story it s>t . as if. ^UJt : See § e. because. . so that. . with the Subjunctive. The Conjunctions.

or accus. o\. ! «J «-iO. (tjl. especially after the verbs that signify to beseech. or hip at. . or j>jH\ keep to. since [§ 368 A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after. i .P ! wp) <oj. .* . //) w^ew. [UJ also syn. or / c^t call) w*db (c^Jb) as come Aere / ^^U oome Aere. U (ic^jjJt U.-*. Jv*»» or Jv*»». [olylfc far ^. OA/ oA/ oias/ cowe om / (°£3 woe/ (Aram. at. l^j. Utj. G. Ua. or TiarX ^Uy^. jt. as OkoJt !i^*** w ww . *^***- C^Ly**. * it ' ZZ * — . oi .jj£> \*3*> if not. o *&. 6nw# Aere (Heb. tI u* como/ w .] ji. ojt. 0/ . 1^1. sounds or in use are : Some . D/H) UJt ^Xa come Aere to us. . (p) Perfect. jl (dU). 0I3I (otjl). if (Heb. (D. hypothetical particle.it' rr?n]. !p). tones. ^1. I a 01 before nouns in the nomin. wlien (postquam). oi with ^1 0*0 or ^^U. (o) < * D.* ^j\.— Etymology 9* i S>* or the Parts of Speech. o\j. &\. tj. bl (La). up ! come ! [Heb. lyjt C without the article.j|). or b. [3J3 even though]. from it!]. ft The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot. and also with w> (in the -» J OJ + . Ut^. I0 / b before nouns in the nomin. wAewever. <o£ Ow£ ajl *Z j&£ . 368. sense of pj-*\ make haste. .] with the Perfect. followed by jic. The Interjections. Aram. as long as. *}U. . 0' * —Compounds: ^£. is (quoniam). ma denoting duration).Ujt (•Ujl) jl. at.1 of those most * / commonly ! f or t (6 I juJl vJUl). iEth. UtJ. t.] D.294 Part Second. and U* W* make haste. [as. with the B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362. Ut dli > 3 \ (*jt). with the article fi» U lol seel there o iv> (see § 344) Zil al. jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses .~U or *+ ' » D oofrae to prayer in composition. with y\ unless. HX/H.

. or otjuj tlie tj. wit. ' ° " kneel. in driving sheep or goats. The Interjections. JU» frog). 0A Zeidf j^S If the dUxJ-o^t afos for ends in elif the Commander of Believers I 1. l->jk ." juA or juA. il ml uti dl 3* 131.§ 368] III. . s\*> making camels B . Sit. Instead of 1— grief! ^_. o/* a. 295 well done! bravo! excellent! bravo! *->. etc. ^js- . g U (the bleat of an antelope).g. ^-a -*jb. . noun o * «xJx dU^o maksura (^. as tjuj 1^. " * uil A f * £ mi ol . f-\ ot. the t^. driving horses. O^*. (a) calls to domestic animals e. ^ is changed into xxJx find and a simple ' ' J added. as 401 J>*/4 Apostle X x GA>x GW/ ^»»b my * brother! ^^s> ^>jb is son o/ ?ny uncle! — sin lyjt iZi has a feminine lyL>t. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently 1_. form often used even with feminine nouns. also be used. ^a. etc. ^Us cries . v>*-> . but the masc. Rem. *~} 4-J. in calling a dog. camels. wit. go on proceed ! say on . b. *->. mules. ^»J . ! silence aj! ! \^>\be silent ! ! give up! a*.g. ^u»1 or ^j** t> 0A my . wit. instead of the usual terminations. (the sound of a JU» (the splash of a Rem. in calling camels to water. too may be mentioned *^U . JjU (the croak of a raven). b i\ is often written defectively Wl . ±Jo ^Jo (laughter). — Here in in '. as 0A Moses! though Uwj-o we sometimes t^ or dU*j*o as tj may 1^. The Particles. f-J. *fij capital! f-\. falling stone). w~Ji» (the sound made by or the lips of a camel in drinking). . D. Jjlb (a blow). ! stop ! give up ! let alone ! aj t : . (/?) words imitative of and sounds e. in driving a dog away. ugh! faugh! fie! <*-©. *-j. wit. in pause dt_ tj J) takes. the ending [called 4jjuJI w^Jt] .1). s^ (the stroke of a sword). wit. cl ct C *a *A (vomiting). ?u>t or «»~Jb. .

etc. and is said to form a dual and plur. x f. that they are either originally Imperatives. Rem. *U. Gb. b. d). Jt£»t ^). called therefore by origin or use. x m. rem. sing. dUk. L^^' etc -^ an(* w*i £ ^W*i etc . ^>o^U (compare the Gothic —^yb x takes the suffix of the _ C 2nd 3x l^jjfc. b). as l^U pi. for example. in some cases. as OU give here (§ 45. dual UJUb. $U dual U5U. ^©jU. : <uU& take. Rem. § 35. read * *** ( my u ke Other varieties are f.296 Part Second. plur. suffixes [§ 368] A woe From which may be appended. U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i - e*c - J ^»tj). book. ii. tjl^St x m. or JLa. >&&£3. usually written thus in one word. du. — U may be joined with the pronominal it is suffixes of the : second ' i . 8. rem. The expression a**}) ^j or a**}) is contracted into a^JLj^. take her 1 Or a hemza may be as substituted for the <-« and 'l~ * the word declined follows as 2x : sing. jujJ 9-Z3. ^jkj.g. 5»/ s —Rarer ©Ox interjectional nouns are uO> B and £jj. t^JLA. £)$\*'. * J * e. verbal force JUi^t ^l^wt. say. —Etymology ^j (to or the Parts of Speech. a certain is. f.. person. pi. fern. pers. as ^Ljj to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^. [Many and are interjections have. masc. and. J * J ' j-JUb. hirjith). d. fern. g.. Accordingly] some ni of the Arabs decline JJXfc aJ * like it an Imperative. aJ J*)j. Vol. in which case equivalent to the Imperative of ** x . or equivalent to Imperatives (comp. hirjats. a) ^j. admitting its construction and inflection. hiri. Jjj aJ Jj^JI. JujJ Is*j> whence we can <• Juj ?»-!> *> 6 s »iU*-}> Aa^jj. ^U.

38 .PAEADIGMS OF THE VEBB S w.

3. f. c. cJ& J 0/ /JO/ /j»/ JO* m. c. m. JJO/ I. m. m. Indie. c4^ ^JU3 2. 3. f. cJjtf f. JlS JJ B 2.298 FIRST TABLE Perfect. ul3 Sing. c. J31S IJblS . m. Plur. 3. f. IjJUS f. J^a5 ci3 jjoi if* . OR SIMPLE FORM ACTIVE. o^ S JO// 5 i.joi 1. $3 JO/ &3 C&3 / JO/ / C 2. CJJ> / Dual. Sub}. /JO/ Sing. m. f.

m. D m. m. Subj. X x xOJ XxOj x xftx xxOj Ml xxOj Dual. c.. J . 3..* 9 f. a ) Jussive. PASSIVE. UUUS I JxOJ 5 J x J Plur.. Perf. JlS x . Impf. J X t/»j x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj w y ^ vy o±? OJ J x JxOj OxOx JxOj OxOJ ^ * v* 2. c. J XX Smg. Indie. cJj. Verbi. m. i 0x0 J 5 x xO J xx Oxl J^a5 x x 0^» x J B » 8J v^X:5 L5' XX o| OxOp uJ x x 0£ xxoi 1. C^^i) x J x J x 6w (2. and the N. m. m. jj^JjS? x x x OxOx ul xOxOx 0&3 xO J 1. 3. Sing. m. i x x I. and Imper. 3. II. t^JUS x f. s . CUfe^) . Sing. ^c^US f. ^>Uii Ox J x Norn. TABLE Perfect. 3. xxOJ x x wl xxOJ xx J UJU5 X x JO J x xOJ XxOj !yU£> 0J Ml 2. c. Imperfect.> JxOj J/4J xxOj xxOj Ox© j a x xo j wJUS ' ? 2. J>&* ^J^-S-o Other Forms of the Per/. m. Pat. m. UUI Jj&> J^iu « x J^£3 x f. 'fcs xxOx f. Imperf. x j II. Act.299 OF THE STRONG VERB. u~^- ^ x (2. x J Energ. o f.

Jl3 . in. IV. Active Perf. DERIVED FORMS VI.300 TABLE ir. III.

VII. .301 OF THE STRONG VERB. A IX.

m. F<?r^. © j* 5 jx Sing. Indie. m. ^. COJc« 2 J <» Ml Dual. Jussive. iJL*t ^j^t w j O****' ft x J»J OJ j * j fcU Dual. S 1 s x ft . . m. c. O****' O^^* . Simple. Siihj. lb*** D iV. Energ. ft Ml ->X C Plur. En. Co*** • * * f. ft *M f. 3. 2. i j. m. I. jU 0*3 Sing.^o*x* x J ft- x J ftx mi xft J ftx o>**+> ft J ftx Si Si j s ft 9 . Ojk * S x ft j ft x Si Si j * St 3 x s s o j o* s> a J* Si J- B 2. n. \j** '**«*! O^^o^ mi a j* s i/ Uju> s> j* 2 J* Ml 5 JX 2.» ftx mi xft J Ox o>**-° . m. f. [tjj^t] j j a j o^^' 3 j j ft j o j j oj Plur. f. [Ijjj^t] x ft o^J^' W ft 0>***' • • J ftj J J • i. m. FIRST FORM OF THE Active. ft Ml J X 2. m. c. s> s> I. Ijjlo * * OS**** x J Os . Wo*** i j. 3. Imperfect. X Ml J' Hi J/ w jx S w j/ Ml-> x Cojuo J x - & if A J/ o S> >£ 1. c.302 TABLE V. 2. 3. En. Perfect. m.a. f.»x 1. J OJ Imperative. n. 2. 1 x iV. C. ft d x J ftJ x J ftj Sing. o j o* Energ.

I. Imperf. tjJ^> x x b^NftJ / t* * »J x x OJ OJ hi /0 x OJ CP^^» •'• J x OJ 2 xj Hi XJ 1. f. Perfect. S// or >i j jj3».J x x 2. Act. ((2. Imperat. >i.>£>. Jussive. Jussive. 5 /J Hi S/J tfju> 2 ^j a . Passive.. or J*** JA*!. C. 3. O>juo Ijl* S XJ Dual. m. m. Subj. O^juo ' f.m. Hi /J Ojju> l^*^ Jcot 2 /J c£^ O^ Hi • Hi *J o »xl 1. m. GEMINATJE. 3.m. o f. 3. c. 1) Other forms of the Perf. . >>Xo-«. m. Jj. or •/ J 2 -» > >i 2. Iojl* V J » X f. or and Imperat. J o 2 xj 2.303 VERBUM MEDIJE RAD. Imperf. c. Juo. (/ tc <i // / cM^j. #n. 2 II. Indie Sing.j Hi S/J o 2. x j m.Efo.^jjuo * f. l*OJ^ i ^ - U*3 i. 4" J x Sing.. Jussive. i j 3. 2 j * J OjCO x o J x J 2. J OJ Hi 2 xj Plur. a j Perf Sing. or J* . f. m. \jj*o /» ^ 0J o>^ OJO J „ 4. Imperfect. a x . J^».

Verbi. >.x D The remaining forms present no Perf. »>« Jx xx J^f # xJ „x«j »$-c* Jx xxJ J-^' j/tj J£*t jc»I»»t Imperf. Act. e. JM! SxOJ ^^ 2i-0 iixOJ J^— cixxOJ j or >U-» Ox or 2 x J >UX> Ox xj xxx 1 SxxOJ Ji»I » »» N. GEMINATJE. IV. jjuo x at J >•** V.304 A TABLE Y. S/l ju>t ixo ax »U3 or JJu\ ju*1 iWj £x Ox J*-*} *»j a j jx Imperf.g. ij£ .»)«** 0x0 >lj^l S 0x0 J^UJI X X *^ ^l^ or 0x0 jlju*l X 6 x jIjlo^w! OxxxJ 02xJ or S^l^o 5 2 C OjU^ >U3 jOj fi J J Passive Perf. VI. irregularity . . Imperf. £ xx o Active Perf. Pass. III. VIII. Pat.>l©-© •*** or 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o 3 xx or >U-« )W^ 3 x. VII. Ag. Ox 3jU 2 0? - 0^0 3Ju*t viz t 0x0 jjuat ^ 3jW> JJ&I 3J^-t or a x j or jc*l or ju*1 j N. »Uj • xx »U~> a xx. x. Pass. >>W* 5 J^C or >^U t JJU* JU^O JU»I~« or ^U^o iU^* 5J // Ox N. II. or j »U >U . Act. ^Ui or *1©j J^J 3iU^! or jLoIj B Imperat.b. DERIVED FORMS OF THE VERBUM MEDLE RAD.

*> j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^l At j^^i j^+i Imperat. Active Perf. or B A N.. j~ot y^t jJI A j. VERBUM PRIMJE RAD. jj\ * jj\j jj\3 or j^^-i °r jj\£ £\}*t jjt^J At .. HEMZAT^l. jJU *| *.305 TABLE VI. II. "£ £ ute- j~>\ y\ 6 j3\ *• jj\ •>. V. s VI. III. Imperf. . IV.Ag. i. »* - •>.51 ^0 Al .

J^-i . IV. 1 III. Passive Perf. c o x Imperf. J*?&+i 6 x D Imperat. Ag. J>?&k N. ol J£w J*x J » x fj j£oj Imperf. x£ VIII. J5L. Pat. VI. ^ x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j <^>*! ><Aj >^^ ^x >A{ J? Imperat. Ag. N. j&U li spte* N. HEMZATiE. JtiiJ* j&& o £ x o j . x j .306 TABLE VII. J^tt J2L5 a J$5 J&5 j £ - «i ^al oj o j Imperf. x£ xO xtxx a * * x Active Perf.- x£ ©C Active Perf. JU o £ o ^ Of a o£ B N. x w x . V. Verbi. jH$ S«l// J j>H$ »» ^t 0^0 'A* j£ox 0J x x J N. jf$3 W/// j*%Zj j^i^J J *" xx Imperf. Passive Perf. ^U 10 ^b six Ox S x «»x J g J 9f» JtjX UlJ . Pat. it 6 J C o £ o x i»px j »-x j 9 r>* J •» Ofoeo J N. II. x £ x o J**)"* J*%* X. Verbi. VERBUM MEDLffi RAD. * >* J>%* VII.

307 TABLE VIII. HEMZAT^l. 3 . in. Active Perf. VERBUM TERTLffl RAD.

i. wA^ *-**. Active Perf. v**^>* j-^>* J^« J 1*31 » .308 TABLE IX. JUj « ^ HO f " * 3-> 5 « x Sjoi Passive Per/.$ t iWl j~i$\ j^t x J J x J J jupt j~J\ J x 6x J >• x Ox J Imperf. Pat. xx o* t xOx Active Perf. oi IV. w*». VIII. Pat.0 Ox J N. VERBA PRIM^ RAD. ^-r^yi J-*^ j~»j\ o » **+i 6 0^0 I d > ©x Imperat. 9 J fr*» J X J Imperf. jay js> Imperat. Passive Perf.jt o j Jowt o ^~Jt • js>^ Gx ^wt 0' J a j wj J N. Ag. 3 ET ^.»»<Mii>w ^ D N. js-3 Oj3 4* £*3 J j*?3 J * 6 * A3 & < * * * Imperf. w^>« j~>5* .. w^->J J J-*^ 6 x J ****^ >~^ S / fij S x x J x 1/0 4 jju. j^j js>^j *» •^jy. 5 « x B N. Verbi. J J J J J jM»Jt ^t^«/l j o x o x vis j t/t Imperf. {fa JO O x JG x J x N. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* >3>3* jy**** C x . Verbi.

309 TABLE X. > Active Voice of the First Form. . VERBUM MEDICI RAD. Perfect.

310 TABLE XL VERBUM MEDIiE RAD. m f. Active Voice of the First Form. 3. 3. B 2. tjL> f. m. x ft ft 1. C Plur. c. Sing. IjjC D . m. c. 3. Perfect. jL» f. ^. m. UjL/ U3j~> 2. Dual.

^)Uu / t>JUu x * xJ ^Uj x xJ O-^ vt CP^ • • »/J xO /J • c^5 x L>^*i X J O^J J Ch*^J J 0^**i Z J 2. JU3 o*iUu JUu Ji5 v>JU3 f. 3 ET & Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. Jussive. Dual. U& x x Ml J.m. c. 3. Sing. o^^ X x J x©xx • © x xx 1. /J J X J Plur. Perfect.. I^Ls f./j 1. j>&«. Pat.i » . c. m.>U3 JUL* ^>U5 ^>Uj JiJ » J X f. 2. VERBA MEDLffi! RAD.311 TABLE XII. Energ. i. Subj. Imperfect. Energ.J x j s J © J xj 0>JU5 x I^Uj x © x . ^3 /j . ^Uu J13I jud . Sing. m. %3 UL3 f. J-J JUj J JUj * Jlaj tfxJ v>JISj o-^ Ox /J /J xj £x xj f. 3. 9 x SJyU 9 x x . m. &6 U3 © x x ©xj . cis CJLd m. Indie. m. n. C. 3.» t^JU3 x o-JUu wl ^JUu • • f. cJL3 szS* JU5 J Jx JUD X XJ Ji3 0/j J>JUu 2/ ^j ^>J15J a xj oJ^ © x x j B J 2.** ^la om . JUL ^Ui *x J O-^ iVom.

Jb^J j^^i J>*^ Oxx *J j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 9d// j-*~3 * vl Os * D 0" * J Old// OJ * * OJ / . cJLSt B Imperf. JJU SSlij * I JU-u JLiJt s J12U x Just < a* * J J 61 63 Passive Perf. IV. Kg. J N. 3V3—»l jtj>. Verbi. J^Lj Jil J^J J-uJI J^J Jjtft Imperat. 3. J^S \}$H Ox j~j j**~£ 6 JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli Imperf. Verbi. N. N. %yJS Imperf.312 TABLE XIII. VIII. m. The Derived Forms. J^j*3 Passive Perf. jb>wt XI. JUfl JUJt cJUtJI JUSt cJUSt ^Uwt c^Al^t ^o«*^l jt&~»\ S x 2. Pat. JUL* J^» JU-u III. >jm^ jf>~i N. J^J J12U v. VERBA MEDLffl RAD. Verbi./ J>3 xo *^ &$U* yt SjjL** -- J|>£> svtJJ Jb^ s j^S^ ^Hj-**5 J * J J J J J J j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J 'IX. m. 3 ET & x. s. VII. VI. s. Active Perf. ->* N.J>£~>l . J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' j //«j C Imperf. Active Perf. JUU II. Perf.

VERBUM TERTLE RAD. . Perfect.313 TABLE XIV. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. y MEDICI RAD.

.314 A TABLE XV. MEDI2E RAD. FETHAm Active Voice of the First Form. ^. VERBUM TERTIxE RAD. Perfect.

f. x x Jussive. U*-£) O"*-^'"' x t>*^P xOx Chj^P xOx ^) U <wop 2 x xOx . f. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. m. LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ x Sing. m. U~o> j x x • x L*£p Ox oW^H 3 J • • xOx x xOx x 1 xOx xOx • J xOx Plur. m. Sub}. Imperfect. c. j ET & MEDIAE RAD. xOx xOx xOx 5 xOx x - O-a^J3 ^^ojj ^ojj /jf o-t^y 3 x xo£ o-*°y o x xOp 1. I. u^tj 0x0 . L5*^ iV. c. . f. En. Cwwtfj x LT^ xOx x 1 Dual. \$*oj x /«/ xOx x Ox - hi x 0#?J »j x Chj-^xH x x c>*^hJ x Ox O * ^} O^^H xOx 5 J • • x x J x Ox 2. F«r6*. f. 3.315 TABLE XVI. En. t> /(/ Sing. j*~?bj a j x x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox . Indie. m. O^s-f. m. 3. m. Ox x xOx 1. C. x f. xOx S//»/ a x - x Ox ^y6j L5^ xo x - L5-*x* xo x xox xox o * /«/ *°j o x x ox xox a <f <o " s / /0/ 2. KESRAT^l. Active Voice of the First Form. U»j xOx X W*^ xOx x x x x x O^-^J ui • • • x x x f. k~±j Ox x x Ox w x xOx • 2. 3. n.

316 TABLE XVII. Pe . Passive Voice of the First Form. 3 ET ^. VERBA TERTI^l RAD.

Pass. Verbi. Pass. 5xx xxx Active Perf. III. m.317 TABLE XVIII. Imperf. VIII. ^AA4 9x . m.» ^^Ua4 SxulxxJ xxj iLxoliLo «x Ox N. ^L»3t ^oaj u*i Passive Perf. X. Act. ii. f. VERBA TERTIJE RAD. Act. x o£ V. ^51 J ^oaj ulxxj ^Uj xxj ijoIaLo 0/ B N. The Derived Forms. VI. Pat. . c-A* L5^ X»J »IXXJ LTf** X 1 5 XXJ L5^5 LT* *^ 1 L^ *^ SloU&e G N. *t ^31 x3 ^^xaj a XXX ^Uj x Oj XXX Imperf. Act. 3 ET ^. IV. L5^ 1 L5^*^ Si xx lT* 1*^ xxx Imperat. SLailxd SwAfcU iV/ VII. Ag. f.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. F. AND C. .Camforfoge : PRINTED BY J. CLAY.

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