Build A Motorized Mountain




ERE'S the going-est buggy a fellow could want. It's wilderness transportation to delight the heart of the amateur geologist, weekend prospector or straightout sportsman who's looking for rugged wheels for rugged terrain. It can be built for about $300 more or less—depending on how many used parts can be substituted for new ones—and a few weekends of work. Your First Step will be to draw a fullsize cardboard pattern for the Goat's frame. In doing so certain dimensions, especially regarding clearances, should be borne in mind. These include the size of the tires, wheels and engine; the space the drive chains and sprockets will require to clear the frame; and your own individual requirements for space and comfort. The tires will be your biggest expense, running roughly $120, with wheels, for three complete ready-to-go units. The three tires used on the Goat are Goodyear Terra-Tires with bolt-on flanges (Fig. 1). These are tubeless jobs that operate at air pressures of from 1 to about 15 psi, depending on the terrain. They enable the Goat to claw its way
MARCH, 1963



FIG. 5: Jack-shaft is section of 1" kart axle keyed to accept sprockets. Note self-aligning bearings on the bearing hangers.

FIG. 7: Split-axle power train permits more ground clearance under frame. Also, the Goat will keep going if one jack-shaft-to-wheel chain breaks.

FIG. 6: Bearing hangers for jackshaft bolt to slotted braces so hangers can be moved up or down by loosening four 1/2" bolts.

over sand, mud, snow, rocks and other obstacles that would stop other vehicles dead. Tire size for the Goat: 16x12—6R. When you have made your engine-compartment measurements on your pattern you can estimate the Goat's overall length by sitting down on the pattern at the point where the seat will FIG. 8: Clamp piece of floor steel to frame to check 45° turning angle. be situated and drawing up your legs to a comfortable position. Then mark the spot behind your local kart shop or through a mail-order house heels and add 2 in. to allow room for the and you'll save money. seat-back cushion. Overall length of the Goat, Frame. The frame is made of 1015-grade including the front wheel, probably will be cold-rolled steel tubing having a wall thick75 to 85 in., which is average. ness of .083 to .120 in. with an outside diamKart parts can be used almost exclusively eter of 1-1/2-in. Instead of being all-welded it to make this type buggy. Standard-size parts is bent to shape following the full-size are quite cheap. Buy your materials from a pattern.

extend the front radius a little. The jack-shaft (Fig. (2) a 60-tooth sprocket on each rear axle. (3) a 48-tooth sprocket on the jackshaft. The engineclutch drive chains can be #35s. Do the same with the jack-shaft-to-axle sprockets. then welded in place. The cost for the frame-bending job will range from $15 to $25. as: 3:1x5:1 equals a 15:1 ratio—the same as was installed on my own Goat. Gear Ratios. nut. 2). The jack-shaft-to-wheel drive chains should be #40s. If the sitting position seems cramped. seat back and wheels (Fig. Such axles are already keyed to accept standard sprockets and brake systems. 3). The latter can be made adjustable using the simple sliding-bracket arrangement shown in Fig. I recommend a gear reduction of at least 20:1. This would require the following six sprockets: (1) a MARCH. The recommended method for bending the frame is to have it bent up in two sections. then joining the sections with a welded joint at the front of the frame and another at the rear (Fig. Jack-Shaft. Split-Axle Power Train. kart axle. 1963 CONNECTOR PLATES LEAD CONTROL POD TO BRAKE 12-tooth sprocket on each end of the jackshaft. The parts needed for one rear-axle assembly include axle. Don't worry if the dimensions are not precise (you can allow for some error in both length and width). And make sure two persons can sit within the sides of your pattern. such as 1-in. After bending. Drive Chains. Now multiply the clutch ratio by the axle ratio. To calculate your gear ratios divide the number of teeth of the clutch sprocket into the number of teeth on the jack-shaft sprocket. Then take the pattern to a tube bender.FIG. flangettes with self-aligning bearings. This can be bent from smaller tubing. and (4) a 12-tooth sprocket on the engine clutch. for example: 12 into 60 equals a 5:1 ratio. Check out your sketch by sitting down on the pattern and trying to visualize the locations of steering tiller. FIG. However. The important thing is to make sure the frame is aligned correctly fore and aft so that the Goat will steer and track properly. cold-rolled steel. 4) for any variations that may have resulted. By using a pair of stubby axles instead of one long one the Goat will have greater ground clearance and fewer projections (Fig. 7). locking collar and chain sprocket. for example: 12 into 36 equals a ratio of 3:1. 10: Brake and throttle control rods are 1/4" steel. Use standard selfaligning axle bearings to support the jackshaft. The axles are suspended in the self-aligning bearings which (Continued on page 120) 83 . Install crosswise so that scrap pieces can be used. Superstructure. 9: Weld 16-gauge-steel floor to frame bottom. Connector plates permit offsetting these controls. and bolt the flangettes onto standard bearing hangers. 6. check your frame against the original pattern (Fig. 5) is simply a section of old 1-in. Any Goat you build will require a superstructure to support the seats and arm rests.

Both rear wheels have 1/4" x 1/4" keys cut inside the flanges to permit keying to the axles. sheet steel). floor pan (16-ga. This piece of axle stock will ride in the neck of the steering sleeve. a 3/4-in. steel-disk brake assembly. since additions. ($19. with an inside diameter of 1 in. 10 is activated by a foot pedal. 6) under the hanger allows the jack-shaft to be moved forward or back by loosening four 1/2-in. 120 . Now slap on a coat of primer paint and take your Goat out for a test run through the country. hardware CONTROLS 1 brake control. Size & Description FRAME 30' (approx. The sleeve can be of any heavy metal having a minimum wall thickness of .Build a Motorized Mountain Goat .. say. Weld 2-in. For that reason this Materials List need not be considered mandatory. This adjustment is necessary for the fitting.. The front wheel. The tiller handle can be bent of 1-in. adjustment and removal of the drive chains. the latter bolted through steel bearing hangers welded to the underside of the frame. 152 Huntington Dr. steel rod. . Run the strips across the bottom of the frame (Fig. steel connector plates onto the ends of the rods to allow offset connections to be led to the desired control. Now chop off a length of kart axle (with keyway) and weld this onto the top of the center block welded to the yoke. ($38. etc. You will find that your Terra-Tires will take you over the sandiest terrain without bogging down. 4-cycle power unit SPROCKETS 2 12-tooth for each end of jack-shaft 2 60-tooth for each rear axle 1 48-tooth for jack-shaft 1 12-tooth for engine clutch kart shops. chromoloy tubing (steering handle) kart shops. . Both rear axles are "live". clutch-to-jack-shaft kart shops. may want to be made by individual builders.. 1" dia. bolts. that is. Monrovia Calif. The brake-rod installation shown in Fig. clutch. short section of 3/4" kart axle 1 front-wheel yoke. And you will discover that your little 7-hp plant has all the spirit you could desire. turns freely in 3/4-in. preferably the latter. To determine your ground-clearance requirements place the frame atop some boxes at the desired height to see where the front wheel will go (Fig. * Design of the Mountain Goat is such that considerable leeway is afforded the builder in making innovations. Use set screws to tighten it on. When positioning this wheel. with two people aboard. axle.. 16" long steel rod 1 throttle control.69 per unit) GP Enterprises.125 in. 3/8" dia. 3/8" dia.. The rear-axle sprockets are also keyed to the axles so that when the jack-shaft rotates. pipe suppliers TIRE-WHEEL UNITS 3 Terra-Tires (with wheels) size 16x12—6R Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. The Connectors to brake and throttle controls can be lengths of 1/4-in. 7-hp. mail order houses REAR AXLES 2 split-axle power train DRIVE CHAINS 2 #40s for lower-end installation 2 #35s. a drive chain turns the power sprocket. 8). (Continued from page 83) in turn are supported by flangettes. Flatten out the end of the yoke's U and drill holes through each to take.) 1" cold-roll steel tubing (superstructure) hardware. steel plates forward of the engine mounting plate..95) ENGINE 1 Briggs & Stratton. l-1/2" cold-roll steel tubing 1 tiller. weld the seams and weld the edges to the bottom of the frame's tubing. Geneva. Make the U-shaped front-wheel yoke from the same l-1/2-in. l ' / 2 " od cold-roll steel tubing 25' (approx. A slotted brace (Fig. Engine. Geared down to 20:1. Also be sure the rods turn freely inside predrilled holes. Weld a 2-in. piece of steering-sleeve tubing to the base of the tiller so that it can be slipped over the yoke shaft. It is welded into position on the forward end. hardware JACK-SHAFT 1 used kart axle with keyway. they rotate with the wheels. flangettes. bumpers. up anything short of a 45° grade. . such as transmission. clamp a piece of floor-pan steel temporarily to the underside of the frame to be sure there will be enough clearance to permit the wheel a 45° turning angle in both directions. • SCIENCE and MECHANICS V" MATERIALS L I S T MOTORIZED MOUNTAIN GOAT* Amount . a 7-hp Briggs & Stratton mill will drive the Goat. of the frame. on the other hand. or extension. Other parts incl. At this ratio you'll get about 10 mph on hard flatlands and roads. 0. controls and pedals ($10). self-aligning bearings (8—with hangers). 9). The front-wheel steering should give you excellent control with light arm pressure. 0. 3-4' long kart shops STEERING 1 front axle. Jack-Shaft Bearing Hangers are welded to the 1/8-in. coldrolled or chromoly tubing. Simple gussets welded to the frame serve to anchor the rods. tube stock used for the frame. Fabricate the floor pan from standard-width 16-gauge steel. and frame bending and welding charges. By running the floor pan across instead of lengthwise you can get away with using narrower scrap pieces and avoid having to buy extra-wide sheet steel. Steering. pressed-in bearings. hardware MISC. gussets. Four-cycle engines provide the best power in the low-gear ranges.) 1015-grade. Geneva Wheel Co. 1" dia. 16" long steel rod kart shops. Floor Pan.. Akron.

Gelling ready to roll. Los Angeles. threaded and slotted for the keys that lock the wheels in place. Wheels are available from Hadco Engineering Co. When the load ends. The two rear wheels are keyed to a 1" axle. Where you need greatest traction. or from Geneva Wheel Co.. swamps and bogs. The three wheels stay in contact with the most uneven ground. fill them with water to add weight. 60" long. engine. cow pastures. The single front wheel simplifies construction and handling. or deep into the desert. 16" in diameter. Calif. New fat tires are the secret of its goanywhereness.How to build a vehicle that will let you ride in comfort where even walking would be difficult— The ThreeWheeled Desert Scout By V. Ohio. to provide a wide tread for stability on hills.. eliminating any tendency for the frame to twist. and sit down where you've drawn the seat. and it'll carry you just about anywhere you want to go—through country lanes. Unload its 200 pounds from station wagon or trailer. flat footing gives the buggy a sure grip wherever you go. 4-1/2-hp. The front wheel is mounted on a yoke —as on a tricycle. If the dimensions given . crank up the geared-down. Goodyear dealers can order the TerraTires for you at about $35 each. This broad. over out-of-the-way beaches. For sand or soft earth. it comes into its own. Chalk the outline of the frame on a smooth floor. Price is expected to drop. They're a full 12" wide across the tread. you carry only two pounds of air in each tire.. Geneva. Lee Oertle T HE one place it makes no sense to drive this handy little vehicle is on the road. The ends of the axle are shouldered to 3/4".

I had the floor pan. don't suit your leg length.LOAD THE BUGGY into a station wagon to carry it over the road. motor-mounting plate. It cost me only $18 to have the frame expertly heliarced together. tailor the buggy to your size by making the side members shorter or longer. On a second visit. engine's torque. armrests. Cut the frame pieces from rectangular steel tubing. A sprocket-and-chain drive (below) steps up the 4-1/2-hp. mark them. and bushings for the brake and throttle arm welded to the frame. These had been cut and fitted between visits to the shop. The seat back. steering sleeve. Fit them together on the floor. I also had the welder bend the front- . enabling it to haul two people with ease. rear-axle bearings. Starting the buggy. and jackshaft supports were also welded in place at this time. A couple of two-by-fours serve as an unloading ramp at road's end. and take them to a welder.

It is mounted on a 1" axle bolted across the open end of the yoke. wheel yoke from a length of husky 3/8"by-2" hot-rolled . engine for $50. . I found a good used 4-1/2-hp. Short linkage actuated by a hand lever at side of buggy operates the calipers. Bearings were setscrewed to the rod at each end of the sleeve. Rectangular steel tubing was chosen for maximum rigidity. SPLIT-AXLE SPROCKETS speed CALIPER BRAKE. effectively braking both rear wheels. shops. stops disk on jackshaft.steel. Sleeve is ILR welded in vertical position to front of frame. The 1" tiller rod turns in a sleeve welded through a hole in the front of the frame. I held the 1" tiller rod in position while he butt-welded it to the center of the yoke. A steering arm of l"-i. Telescoping steering arm fits over tiller shaft. Adding the horses. JACKSHAFT between the engine and rear axle allows fast changing of sprockets to suit a variety of operating conditions. The front wheel rolls on sealed bearings pressed into the hub. SIMPLE TL E steers front 7-horsepower class will drive the buggy efficiently. steel tubing is pinned to the tiller with a bolt and wingnut.MOUNT R A WHEELS on axle and check inside ER clearance before cutting frame parts. Disk for the caliper brake is also mounted on this shaft. but round tubing could be used. Any four-cycle engine in the 4. Segments of various diameters bolt on hub keyed to axle. sold in kart drive-ratio change-over. braced securely with steel gussets. Two sprockets can be mounted on hub for use with double chain. Bolt holes spaced at intervals along the tiller permit adjustment of steering-arm length.


35 chain were used on the jackshaft and axle. A guard mounted over the sprockets and chain is good insurance against accidental injury. When the brake is applied.F E I L C B E connects throttle control to carL XB E A L buretor. Irwindale. Riding soft. Calif. The fluid clutch automatically engages and disengages the engine from the drive train. To achieve this ratio. To absorb the shocks of driving in rough country. TO CUSHION ANY JOLTS that aren't absorbed by the pillow-like tires. double sprockets and a double-row No. For flat terrain or beach sand. Pacoima. By varying the number of teeth on the axle and jackshaft sprockets. Even though speed is reduced. I chose the mechanical type for simplicity—a narrow disk about 5" in diameter that is mounted on the jackshaft. These I obtained from Bug Engineering.h.p. and 72-tooth on the axle. Some work mechanically and some are hydraulically assisted. Controls are simple and can be operated with one hand. FOR ROUGH GOING. Use a tractor's valve fitting attached to a garden hose.p. but this isn't advisable.h. thick foam rubber pads the seat and back rest. You feel that no obstacle can impede your progress. Making it go. For climbing and rough-country use. • • . A fluid clutch can be bought from Bowlus Engineering. tires can be filled with water. Kart shops stock a variety of calipertype brakes. A shoe-type clutch could be used but might overheat when pulling over loose turf and sand. Compression spring slipped on cable between housing and linkage returns carburetor to idle when throttle is released. Twist a motorcycle-type throttle on the end of the lever to gun the engine. a 10:1 ratio will push the buggy along at about 18 m. Single sprockets and chain were used between the engine and jackshaft. I used this combination of sprockets: 13-tooth on the engine. 36tooth on the jackshaft. Cover foam with plastic or other durable upholstery material. The use of a jackshaft provides more flexibility in setting up drive ratios and lets you mount the brake clear of sand and water. you can get a wide range of drive ratios. especially over rough ground. 10-tooth on the output end of the jackshaft. but top speed will be between 8 and 14 m. Calif. the extra power allows more fun. This could be quickly shaped from thin plywood or hardboard. Push down on the lever—or pull it up—to apply the brakes. It's like driving a bulldozer. a caliper squeezes against the disk. The extra weight provides greater traction and reduces bounce. since the fluid clutch smooths out much of the impact. a 20:1 ratio will provide all the power you need. You can run drive chains direct from the clutch to the rear axle.


bent and welded together. Two \\rood cleats screwed to the underside of the bottom give rigidity SHEET XLE FASTENED and a t t h e same time provide good solid surfaces for attaching the body to the frame with conduit straps screwed in place. . Bicycle Handlebar Has Reflectors One boy who used his bicycle a t night put red reflectors in rear ends of the handlebar grips in addition to a large one on the 'ear fender. the sidecar is handy on a newspaper route or for delivery of packages. b u t does not have the equipment. rear ends of grips are cut out. .Midget Sidecar for Junior's Sidewalk Bicycle TO SEAT BOLT CONSTRUCTION O F Here's a simple bicycle sidecar that is bolted to the bicycle at three points and can be attached o r detached in a few moments. Besides carrying a passenger. In it can be held a small block for truing the wheel. Jig Aids in Truing Bicycle Wheel When Tools Are Limited The cyclist or owner of a small shop who wants to true or stripe a bicycle wheel occasionally. leaving enough m b b e r at the outside to serve a s a retaining edge. or a brush for striping it. while the body is assembled by screwing a piece of sheet metal onto duplicate wood sides. To install the rcflcc- tors. and the jig is attached to the edge of the bench. . the wheel is clamped in a vise by the spindle. In use. conduit. The simple frame is made of 3/1-in. will find this little jig the solution to his problem.

It was on Aug. The incensed purchaser returned to the factory to complain about his lemon and Alexander Winton told him. Ohio. son) there's a modern two-hp gasoline engine with chain drive direct to the axle. some 50 miles from the Winton factory in Cleveland. Speeds up to 15 mph are possible. a foot brake and hand accelerator at your fingertips make operation of the vehicle a breeze. 13. Our half-size version 1901 Packard roadster purred its way down America's should bring a twinge of nostalgia to MI's senior readers—and delight the younger set. On his trip home to Warren. Righthand steering (as in the early days). 1898. Packard. why don't you build a Mechanix Illustrated 120 . "If you're so smart. the car broke down. the car also is sturdy enough to haul two adults.HALF-SIZE PACKARD BY GEORGE JONES Recapture the romance of the horseless carriage era! Be the man who owns one! has been 63 since the great-granddaddy of ITthis bright-redyearsroadways. Mr. that James Ward Packard purchased the 12th car built by Alexander Winton. an automatic centrifugal clutch. Designed to carry two youngsters in comfort. Under the tonneau (that's the rear-deck lid.

121 .

Magnolia Park Station.5x1. brake rod. [For a price list of parts and information as to where they are available. 122 car yourself?" History has recorded the results. the frame of angle iron. The other parts. The yokes for the spindles are made from flat. then finish the welding. Lay the side rails upside down on a flat concrete surface or welding bench and butt the cross members against them. for the running gear. pitman arm. "Ask the man who owns one" became a household phrase. note that the right-hand spindle arm has two 5/16" holes drilled in it and the left only one. pedal-return spring. Burbank.5"angle iron. With all corners square. Cut them to length and bend to shape in a metal vise. self-addressed envelope to George E. We hope the building of this replica 1901 Packard roadster will recapture for you some of the romance and excitement of the horseless-carriage era.r. hot-rolled steel. The body is made of plywood. Drill the half-inch king-bolt holes in the yoke ends. Almost immediately the reputation of Packard was secure. RIGHT front wheel detail shows steering assembly—shaft.'] Construction begins with the frame. pillow blocks (one-inch Fafnir). The first Packard was sold in January 1900.75 with semi-pneumatic tires) and hub caps. tack-weld the joints and check the lineup. of course.) to the axle. have a welding shop do the job for you. steering wheel. cap screws ) to the spindle bodies at Mechanix Illustrated . Weld the wheel spindles (5/8x2-1/2 in. tie rod and ball joints. engine and drive assembly in place. COMPLETED chassis and running gear with the brake pedal. Otherwise. require but a small amount of machining. Have your steel supplier cut the two side rails and three cross members to length from 1/8x1. You can purchase such hardto-make parts as wheels (aluminum cast—16x1. with a minimum of welding. Weld the perch detail 3/16 x 1-1/2 x 2-1/2" h. Box 1243.HALF-SIZE PACKARD FRAME is cut from angle iron and welded together upside down. drag link.s.If you have a home welding outfit. send a stamped. Make the front axle and appendages next. Calif. Most of the construction can be accomplished in the home workshop. perch welded to axle. In making the spindle assemblies. Weld the yokes to the axle tubing. ball joints and brake (Mercury strap). do all the welding yourself. centering the yokes on the axle ends and parallel to each other. you can. Jones. Front and rear axle and spring assemblies are bolted in place.

October. 1964 123 .

These can be purchased at most hardware stores. Weld the drive plate to the right-hand end of the axle to drive the right rear wheel. Insert the studs in each end of the steering shaft and lock them in place with roll pins. Cut the rear axle from one-inch steel tubing and pin the 5/8" threaded stub axles in the ends of the tube with 1/4" roll pins. brake rod and brake support. This work can be facilitated by clamping a steel bar or a 2x4 to the end of each piece for more leverage. Bend the parts for the spring assemblies in a metal vise. Mechanix Illustrated . SEATS are plywood upholstered with oneinch foam-rubber covered with black Naugahyde and trimmed with half-inch edging. Weld the pitman arm to the steering shaft. STRIPING of the body and fenders can be done neatly by masking off 1/8" stripes with tape and then brushing in white enamel. also the two oneinch Fafnir pillow blocks. Now would be a good time to paint the running gear—a flat black finish. Slip a 36-tooth sprocket onto the axle. too—either gold or bronze. Cut and thread the drag link. Mount the front axle to the front spring with one-inch U bolts and shackles. Note steering-shaft support. Install the tie rod and one end of the drag link.HALF-SIZE PACKARD right angles to the spindle arms. Drill mounting holes in the top sections where the springs will mount to the frame. Assemble the brake adapter and slip it onto the rear axle. Drill the necessary mounting holes in the front spring assembly and bolt the two front spring sections together with 3/8" bolts. 1901 PLATE. The rear springs are made in two pieces and welded together at the ends. Mount the rear springs to the pillow blocks and lock them in place. 124 BODY for half-size 1901 Packard is made from half-inch plywood. Make sure the spindle arms are lined up parallel to the frame before you tighten the U bolts. taillights and headlights are optional with builder. Drill mounting holes in the frame and attach the front and rear springs. Paint the wheels at this time. glued and screwed at all joints and then clamped overnight. tie rod. Drill two more holes in the bottom halves of the springs for mounting the pillow blocks later. which is mounted to the dashboard. Bolt the ball joints to the spindle arms and assemble the spindles to the yokes with 1/2 x 4" hex-head bolts and lock nuts.

telescopes and other projects are offered by the MI Plans Service. The engine mounting plate is made from 1/8". The eight fender brackets are bent in a metal vise. models. Cut all panels for the body from halfinch plywood. 10-64. The right rear wheel is the drive wheel and will require two 1/4x20 tapped holes in it to correspond to the hole pattern in the drive plate. four-cycle) on the mounting plate but don't tighten the bolts yet. Paint the fenders glossy black. Mount the clutch on the engine shaft and position the engine (two-hp. cinching them on the spindles with lock nuts. Cut the foot-pedal slot and drill the steeringshaft clearance hole in the floorboard. Greenwich. The other end of the brake rod will be hooked to the brake pedal after the body has been installed.Mount the front wheels. furniture. Fit the drive chains so there is about half an inch of slack. All joints are held fast by wood screws and waterproof glue. hot-rolled steel. Fawcett Bldg. then insert the jack shaft through the bores and install the sprocket on the end of the shaft. Mount the brake support on the underside of the right rear spring and secure it through the eye of the brake strap. 125 . Bolt the wheel to the drive plate. mount the brake rod itself to the strap of the brake. The left rear wheel. Adjust the ball joints on the tie rod to give about 1/16" toe-in to the front wheels. Mask them with tape and stripe them with white enamel paint. 15. then tighten the engine-mounting bolts and the pillow-block bolts. The jack shaft is a length of 5/8"diameter cold-rolled steel keyed for a 3/16" square key. 1964 MI PLANS SERVICE More than 140 tested plans {or boats. The fenders can be molded from fiberglass or rolled from 22-gauge coldrolled steel. Conn. send a dime to MI Plans Service. Tap on the hub caps. which is the free wheel. Snug the wheel with a jam nut as described. Back the nuts off one-quarter turn from the snug position so the wheels revolve freely. Make the cutouts and elongated bolt holes and drill the corner hanger holes. The Half-Size 1901 Packard plans are offered by the Plans Service at $3 per set as Plan No.. The four hangers can be formed in a vise and then bolted to the frame and the plate. For a copy of Plans Catalog No. Attach the [Continued on page 143] October. Roebuck) onto the engine mounting plate. Next. Mount the pillow blocks (these can be purchased from Sears. photo equipment. is put on next. 06830.

Upholster the seat and backrest with one-inch foam rubber and cover with black Naugahyde. The seat cushion is removable. Paint the back braces and the arm rests with glossy black enamel and set them [Continued on page 144] I . but the backrest is attached permanently by the two back braces and the arm rests. Add trunk-type latches to secure the lid when shut.Half-Size 1901 Packard [Continued from page 125] seat top and hinge the tonneau lid to it with brass hinges.

Be the man who owns one! • 1901 Packard. Install the steering wheel and secure it with a half-inch acorn nut.Half-Size 1901 Packard [Continued from page 143] aside to be attached after the body is painted. Attach the fender brackets and the fenders. Drill through the slot in the cast aluminum steering wheel to allow for insertion of a roll pin to secure it to the steering shaft and prevent it from slipping. attach the tube-and-wire throttle control (purchased from your engine dealer). sanding and dusting between coats. Attach the free end of the drag link to the pitman arm. Attach the body to the frame with quarter-inch carriage bolts. according to the instructions packed with each engine. let it dry. Next. Make sure all nuts and bolts are tight. attaching the wire to the carburetor. Bend the steering shaft support to shape and drill the one-inch clearance hole. Attach a return spring to the pedal and the other end of the frame crossmember. 1964 . filling the countersunk screw holes with plastic wood. gas up and start the engine. allowing the shaft to turn freely. And away you go! You and the kids will have years of enjoyment with your 1901 Packard. Now for the official trial run of your de-clutch when you release the hand throttle. allowing about a four-inch clearance above the wheels. adjusting the tension to get a positive return action. Attach the brake clevis to the brake rod and then to the brake pedal. The other end is attached to the throttle-control handle (similar to lawn-mower control handles) mounted on the seat side near the driver. Sand all surfaces smooth and coat with a filler. then mount it to the dashboard panel. Then paint the body with an undercoat and finally with bright red enamel—two coats. Adjust for idling speed so it will 144 October. Go over the entire body. Insert the foot pedal through the slot in the floorboard and mount it to the brake spacer attached to the frame. Headlamps and other accessories may be attached as you desire. is slipped from the underside of the floorboard through the clearance hole and secured to the perch with a lock nut. The steering shaft. Secure the conduit to the underside of the body with conduit clips. which is painted gold. Paint the piece. Fill the engine crankcase to the proper oil level.

ball joints and fenders can be purchased (see Materials List at end of article). View of engine in place with drive leading to left rear wheel. radiator.Build it to scale: T HE SCIENCE & MECHANICS half-size antique truck with its 2-hp. The over-all outside dimension of the frame will be 18 x 54 inches. the body is plywood. APRIL. steering wheel. The frame is welded steel-angle stock. engine mount and steering unit. brake drum. E. 1). cab. The frame consists of two side rails of 1/8-inch steel angle measuring 1-1/4 x 1-1/4x 54 inches. Note old-fashioned hand brake. hand brake and accelerator. fenders. Close-up of ball-point steering. Chassis with brake handle. It will carry Junior around the lot at a brisk 13 mph. pillow blocks. And there's enough room for Sis to tuck into the seat beside him too. hub caps. To give the truck a more professional appearance. and three cross members each 17-1/2 inches long. C. B. have all the other steel cut that will be required for the truck. 1965 63 . A small amount of machining is required to make some of the chassis parts. Basic units: chassis. stake body. 4-cycle gasoline engine makes a really sensational toy for a youngster. seat. (Turn page) A. the wheels. D. then clamp and weld. Construction begins with the frame (Fig. Masonite and white pine. Use a framing square to lay the frame rails and end pieces square with each other. A boy's dream come true. Frame. While ordering the steel angle for the frame. yet will come to a safe and sure stop when he pulls back on the old-fashioned hand brake.


1965 65 .APRIL.

1) are made of hot-rolled steel stock that can be bent cold in a vise. They extend 2-1/2 inches outside the tubing to make an over-all axle length of 29 inches. Adjustment is by clevis attached to handle and brake rod. G. Clamp and weld this assembly. Drill the 1/2 -inch king bolt holes in the yoke ends. Make the rear axle of a 24-inch-long piece of 1 -inch-diameter steel tubing and pin the 5/8 -inch-diameter stub axles in the ends of the tubing with 1/4 -inch pins. Engine is a 2-hp Briggs & Stratton. 10-tooth sprocket on clutch to 36-tooth sprocket on jack shaft. The front axle is 1-inch-diameter steel tubing 20-1/2 inches long. sprockets. H. Axles. The spindles are identical except that the right-hand spindle arm has two 5/16-inch holes for mounting the drag link. 1) from a {Continued on page 92) SCIENCE & MECHANICS . 12-toofh sprocket on jack shaft to 36-tooth sprocket on rear axle.S&M's Antique Truck F. The spindle yokes for the front axle are made of 1/4x1-1/4-inch hot-rolled steel bent to shape in a vise. Machine the drive plate (Fig. The four axle hangers (Fig. The stub axles are simply 5/8-inch-11 hex-head bolts 5 inches long with their heads sawed off. Weld the wheel spindles (5/8 x 2-1/2-inch-long hex head bolts) to the spindle bodies at a 90° angle to the spindle arms. Top view showing the clutch and chain arrangement. The rear hangers are shorter in height than the front hangers to compensate for the pillow blocks. then place it in the center of the axle at a 27° angle from the 66 horizontal plane and weld it. Weld the yokes to the tubing so they are centered on the tube ends and parallel. Mercury strap brake and brake band in position on the right rear wheel. Drill the 1/2 -inch hole in the perch. jack shaft and pillow blocks. Mount the hangers to the frame with 1/4-inch roundhead stove bolts.

1965 67 .APRIL.

S&M's Antique Truck
(Continued from page 67)

I. Sheet metal or Fiberglass fenders should clear top of the tires by about 1-1/2 inches.
J. Rear view of the completed truck points

up faithful reproduction of original design.

piece of 3/16-inch hot-rolled steel turned to a 3-inch diameter and with a 1-inch hole bored in the center which will provide a slip-fit for the rear axle. Drill the two 1/4-inch holes in the plate 180° apart, then weld the plate to the left side of the axle and flush with the end of the tubing. Weld inboard on the axle, because the outside face of the plate must bolt flush to the drive wheel. Fabricate the brake adapter and drill the two 1/4-inch set-screw holes, then transfer the hole pattern in the brake drum to the brake-adapter plate and mount it to the plate with four 1/4-inch hex-head bolts. Now proceed with the following sequence on the rear axle (Fig. 1): (1) slip a locking collar and then a 1-inch pillow block onto the axle and slide it toward the drive plate; (2) slip on the 36-tooth sprocket (1-inch bore); (3) slip on the other 1-inch pillow block and locking collar; and (4) slide the brake drum assembly onto the axle with the adapter tubing pointing toward the center of the axle. Position the rear axle assembly so that the pillow blocks are in line with the rear axle hangers. Mount the pillow blocks to the hangers with 3/8-inch hex-head bolts and nuts, centering the axle for length. The brake drum and 36-tooth sprocket are positioned later. Mount the front axle to its axle hangers with 1 -inch U-bolts and shackles. Center the axle for length with the yokes at 90° angles to the frame. With the two axles thus mount92

ed, the wheelbase of the car should measure 38 inches. Complete the front axle assembly by threading the tie rod and drag link ends with 1 inch of thread on the ends. Screw the ball joints to the ends. The spindle bodies are held in place in the yokes with 1/2 x 4-inchlong hex-head bolts (king bolts) and lock nuts. Attach the tie rod to the holes in the spindle arms, and the drag link to the remaining hole in the right-hand spindle. Paint the frame before putting the wheels on the axles. Spread on a coat of metal primer, finishing with a coat of flat black enamel. Paint the wheels with bright red enamel. When the paint has dried put on the front wheels and lock nuts, with the lock nuts backed off 1/4 turn from the snug position so the wheels revolve freely. Tap the hub caps into place. The front wheels should have about 1/16-inch toe-in when properly mounted. The right rear wheel is the free wheel and is put on next. The left rear wheel is the drive wheel. Slip this wheel onto the axle, then transfer the screw-hole pattern from the drive plate to the wheel. Remove the wheel and drill and tap it for two 1/4-inch -20 tapped holes. Put the wheel back on and secure it to the drive plate with two 1/4-inch -20 hex-head bolts. Tighten the lock nut into place, then tap on the hub cap. Brake assembly. Make the brake band arm (Fig. 1) and mount it to the right rear

axle hanger. Thread the ends of the brake rod, then put a 2-inch-long, 90° bend in one end. The brake handle is a piece of 3/16-inch hot-rolled steel bent to shape in a vise. Place the brake band (Fig. 1 & Photo G) over the outside diameter of the brake drum, slipping the top loop hole of the band over the brake arm stud, and secure it with a nut. Slip the 90° bent end of the brake rod through the bottom loop hole of the brake band and secure it with a nut, then attach the clevis to the other end of the brake rod. With the brake handle attached to the frame, position the brake drum and snug it up with bolt and nut to assure firm action. Tighten the two set screws in the brake adapter on the axle. Engine mounting plate assembly. The engine mounting (Fig. 1 & Photo E) is made of 1/8-inch hot-rolled steel plate. Make the cutout for the jack-shaft sprockets (the elongated holes) and drill the four 1/4-inch corner hanger-mounting holes. Bend the four strap hangers in a vise. The two front hangers are both 9-3/4 inches long; the two rear hangers are 4-3/8 inches long. The rear hangers mount to the underside of the axle hangers in the forward hole of the pillow-block mounting holes. The two front hangers mount to the steel-angle frame cross member. The jack shaft (Fig. 1) is a piece of 5/8inch-diameter cold-rolled steel cut to a 6inch length. Mount the 36-tooth sprocket (5/8-inch bore) and the 12-tooth sprocket (Photo F) on the jack shaft, then slip the two 5/8-inch pillow blocks on the ends of the shaft with the locking collars outward. Mount this assembly to the engine plate in the elongated holes, snugging up the bolts. When you buy the engine, also get a throttle-control cable (Photo G) and four conduit clips for securing the cable to the frame. Lead the cable to the accelerator footpedal. Mount the centrifugal clutch onto the engine shaft and position the engine on the mounting plate, but don't tighten the bolts and nuts yet. Line up and tighten the sprockets (Photo H) so that the 36-tooth jack-shaft sprocket is in line with the clutch sprocket, and the smaller sprocket on the jack shaft lines up with the axle sprocket. Fit the chains so there is about 1/2 inch of slack halfway between the sprockets. Then tighten all mounting bolts in the engine holes and pillow-block holes. Steering unit. The steering shaft (Photo C) is 1/2-inch-diameter cold-rolled steel with 1 inch of thread on both ends. Drill the
APRIL, 1965

1/4-inch pin hole near the top of the shaft as indicated in Fig. 1. Later a pin is inserted here which prevents the wheel spinning on the shaft. Drill the 1/2-inch hole and the 5/16-inch hole in the pitman arm, then weld the pitman arm to the steering shaft as shown. Mount the steering shaft through the 1/2-inch hole in the axle perch and secure it with a lock nut. Attach the drag link (Photo C) to the 5/16-inch hole in the pitman arm. Make the steering-shaft support from a piece of 1/8-inch hot-rolled steel and weld the bushing to the underside in line with the 1/2-inch hole drilled in the support to receive the steering shaft. The accelerator (Photo G) is of welded construction, with holes drilled to accommodate the return spring, the swivel screw for the control cable and the hole for the spacer bushing which mounts to the frame. The crank (Photo C) is for appearance only. It is made of 1/2-inch diameter hotrolled steel heated and bent to shape. Drill a 1/2-inch hole in the center of the front cross member of the frame and weld a 1/2-inch I.D. bushing behind the hole to support the crank end. Use a cotter pin to hold the crank in the bushing. Bend the eight fender brackets of 1/8 x 3/4-inch hot-rolled steel in a vise. You can purchase a set of fiberglass fenders or make the fenders yourself of 22-gage sheet metal. If you make your own, have them sheared to the exact dimensions at the tin shop where you buy the metal. The tinsmith will also run the metal through his slip-roll sheet-metal former to produce the desired 10-inch radius. Note that the fenders all have a 1/2 -inch edge flange bent under for rigidity. Paint the fenders with a primer coat, then with glossy black enamel. You can stripe them with a striping tool or by using masking tape (use a fine brush). Mount the fender brackets (Photo I) to the frame so there will be approximately Wi inch clearance between the fenders and the top of the tires. Body. The floorboard is cut from Vi -inch plywood. Remember to mark and cut the elongated hole for the foot pedal, and drill the ^-inch clearance hole for the steering shaft. Give the floorboard a coat of shellac, followed by a coat of varnish. v Make the pedal wear plate (Fig. 1) of hot-rolled steel. After elongating the %0-inch hole in it, mount it over the elongated hole in the floorboard. The radiator (Fig. 2) is made of wood, the (Continued on next page)

S&M's Antique Truck
(Continued from page 93) top curved portion being cut from a piece of 4x4-inch lumber; the front and sides are plywood. It is assembled with Weldwood glue and flathead screws. The dashboard is cut from 1/2-irich plywood and screwed and glued to the radiator assembly. Paint the radiator assembly with bright red enamel, the radiator itself flat black trimmed with brass paint. The seat is made of plywood and assem-

bled with Weldwood glue and flathead screws. Upholster the backrest and seat cushion (Fig. 2) with 1-inch foam rubber and Naugahyde covering. Give the seat a primer coat, then one coat of bright red enamel. The seat cushion is left unattached, but is fitted snugly in place later. Cab. Clamp and bandsaw the stock for the two sides of the cab at the same time, after marking the contours of the cut as shown in Fig. 2. Cut the roof sections and back panel from 1/8-inch Masonite. Cut the back window opening for the Plexiglas and the two strips of molding that hold the Plexiglas in place. Assemble the cab with Weldwood glue and 3/4 -inch brads spaced at 2-inch intervals. Paint the roof of the cab glossy black and the sides bright red enamel. Then place the cab around the seat and fasten it to the sides of the seat with four 1/4 -inch carriage bolts. Mount the radiator and cab assembly to the floorboard; the radiator unit (Fig. 2) is



WILLIAM F. The cab mounts flush with the rear edge of the floorboard. Box 927. P. Hop in. • The incomparable lubricity of the dolphin oils has led to over 100 years use as superb lubricants for timepieces. Mount the accelerator foot pedal through the elongated hole in the floorboard and attach it to the frame with spacer bushing. put on the pedalreturn spring and adjust the cable for proper return action to the carburetor.mounted 1/2i inch behind the front edge of the floorboard. gumming. Resists oxidation.Mass. and away you go. Mount the complete assembly to the frame by the four side straps secured to the base and frame with 1/4-inch roundhead screws. micrometers. Slide the steering shaft support over the steering shaft and attach it to the dashboard with two round-head screws. Add a radiator cap cut from the end of a file handle.O. 2 & 3) is made of 1/4 x 2-1/2-inch finished white pine. The headlights and taillights are optional. guiding the steering shaft through the clearance hole in the floorboard. Now pick up the whole floorboard assembly and fit it onto the frame. Attach the throttle control cable (Photo D) to the pedal. using a shellac sealer and a varnish finish. Adjust it for idling speed so that it will de-clutch automatically when you release the foot pedal. Use flathead wood screws turned in from the underside of the floorboard. The stake body (Figs. INC. Leave the stake sides their natural color. 2. The body is held to the frame with four 1/4-inch carriage bolts. fine instruments. Go over the truck thoroughly now. Stake body. PORPOISE JAW OIL APRIL. Insert the 1/4-inch pin in the steering shaft.NYE. The base for the stake body is of 1 x 4-inch white pine mounted to the bed of the stake body with flathead screws turned in from the top. electrical contacts and all delicate mechanisms. For a removable section make the two brackets shown in Fig. evaporation. The rear stake section may be a permanent or removable installation. 1965 95 .New Bedford. round bottle. then mount the steering wheel and cap it with an acorn nut. Remains fluid at —20°F. Precision Lubricants tor Delicate Mechanisms Since 1644. Then fill the tank with gas and the crankcase with oil and start the engine (which is readily accessible from beneath the stake body). making sure all nuts and bolts are tight.. MAIL $1 for the multipurpose oil formulation in the famous 1/4-oz. bolt and nut.

with a 42-in. For these reasons certain dimensions have been purposely omitted and adaptation or substitution of parts has been left to the discretion of the builder. Before gluing the strips together. the members are built up to the rough shape by gluing together strips of ¾-in. and pipe spacers as shown on the blueprint on a following page. or draw bolts. which looks and drives like a real automobile except that it's scaled down to sidewalk-coaster size and travels at slow. tread. pneumatic tires and a conventional steering gear. As pictured above. the original car measures 58 in. Apply a coat of shellac to prevent absorption of moisture. The side frames are joined near the ends with long studs. in order to avoid waste in forming the curved ends. but allowable variations in dimensions and the necessity of adapting certain parts according to availability. may change these dimensions slightly. After the glue is dry. overall length. An example is the length and type of the springs specified in the construction details. Note that the front and rear-spring shackles are mounted on the draw bolts and that these must be left loose so that the shackles can move freely. stock. In this case two spacers are used to serve only as collars to position the pedal. The side frames are of 2 x 2-in. or even slightly shorter than the lengths given.SIDEWALK PLAY CAR By Elmer V. these can be longer. oak and. lever-operated clutch. or lifts. be sure that there is ample allow174 ance for bandsawing the curved sections at both ends of each piece. Use waterproof glue in the joints. Note especially the construction and POPULAR MECHANICS . Obviously. safe speeds. wheelbase and 20in. Note also that the brake pedal is pivoted on the same draw bolt as the front-spring shackles. bandsaw the curved ends and plane and sand the parts to the finished size. Exact sizes of the draw bolts and spacers are not important. It's driven by an auto starter motor of the type having a built-in reduction gear and is fitted with a foot brake. Clark youngsters faL IVELYalike will get and craftsman this thers a thrill out of tiny play car.


bent. The drag link and tie rod can be taken from Ford Model-A steering linkage. flat steel are placed between the spring and the bearings. the original being taken from a discarded toy. The steering wheel is 8 in. the principal parts being made from pipe and flat steel. A Crosley or Austin steering gear can be used. is used. The front axle is of the conventional autotype construction. which passes through a hole drilled in the flange of the reduction-gear housing to which it is welded.mounting of the front and rear axles on the springs. one shim being longer and having a drilled lug welded near the forward end to provide a bearing for the brake shaft when the band-type brake is used. long and ½ in. in diameter and is mounted on a generator bearing at the top end. The steering shaft is approximately 22 in. the brake-shaft bearing is attached to the car frame. for best results weld a bracket to the gear housing and then weld . Although details on the blueprint show the starter motor welded to a rocker shaft. Rods with ball joints also can be improvised. The lower end of the shaft is fitted into an adapter sleeve. the size and length of the sleeve depending on the type of steering gear used. The front axle is fitted with drilled pads to which the underslung springs are bolted. the gear being mounted on a bracket under the hood. welded and bolted together as in the blueprint. but at the rear it will be noted that the axle bearings serve as spring pads. When the shoe-type brake. in diameter. shown in the detail above. Crosley or American Austin parts may be substituted. Shims of 1/8-in.

construction of the battery bracket and the position of the controls. The clutch shaft. The motor cannot be started until the clutch lever is pulled part way back. . with its tension spring. This arrangement prevents undue idling of the starter motor.the free end of the bracket to the rocker shaft. pulley on the rear axle. plywood. dummy lights and other fittings are optional with the builder. battery will give about eight hours of service on one charge. single-groove pulleys will serve the purpose quite satisfactorily. The left rear wheel turns free. With the pulley sizes given and with the gear ratios of the average reductiongear starter motor. This construction will give a somewhat better clutch action when tightening and slackening the double V-belts with the clutch lever. Sides of the cockpit and the hood are attached to the side frames with screws uniformly spaced. Although double V-pulleys are shown. is mounted in the same manner. Details on pages 174 and 175 give the wiring diagram. Construction of the sheet-metal body is quite simple. It is made in three sections which consist of the hinged rear deck. the clutch lever is pushed forward and the brake pedal depressed. squares and then cut to the form shown. the car travels at a speed of approximately five miles per hour. The pattern for the grille is first laid out on 2-in. Use a 2-in. A 6-volt. before bending and soldering. Note the arrangement of the brake switch and how it works in the motor circuit. When it is desired to stop. The seat can be upholstered if desired. which includes the separate false grille. V-pulley on the reduction gear and a 5-in. floor boards and dash are cut from ½-in. The rocker shaft turns in bearings bolted to the side frames. Bumpers. The seat bottom. A small lug welded to the inner end of the clutch-lever shaft opens the brake switch and stops the starter motor. Only the rightrear ground wheel is fixed on the axle and serves as a driver. This arrangement gives the necessary differential when turning. the driver's compartment and the hood. 130-amp.


35c ICD 1962 MARCH APRIL Make This Antique Auto for Your Children (Battery-Powered) .

6. Fig. 7. can be purchased. brakes. with three chums aboard.h. 1 9 6 2 > II . ball joints. this assembly to the frame rails. hole in it and weld it to the front axle. Hacksaw the spindle yokes to length and bend them to shape in a vise. Closeup shows arm welded to bottom of steering cloumn.A P R I L . 5. Parts that are difficult to make. 3. Fig. Start construct ion with the frame.. Position the axle on the frame side members and weld it in place. 3. Brake is visible on far wheel M A R C H . Half-scale replica of 1901 touring car will delight youngsters. will let the younger drivers of the family whiz around the neighborhood at a sizzling 5 m. Fig. support. tubing to length and file curved notches in the ends to receive the axles. sprockets and chain. Home-shop electric welder will handle necessary welding.1. Wheels available from supplier can be fitted with 3-1/2-in. JONES THIS DELIGHTFUL LITTLE CAR of the horseless-carriage age. bracket welded to front axle to support end of column. 2.-sq. and the cover.p. Cut the steering-column perch. Cut the front axle and weld the yokes to the ends. Construction is simple and can be handled in any home workshop. Shown in this photo are positions of electric motor. If you have decided to make the axles. used on rear only. centering them on the axle parallel to each other. rather than buy them. Fig. Brake handle is fitted on spacer to position it outside of body to it projects up through running board. Cut the l-in. bring a touch of nostalgia to Dad and the older folks. Drill the 1/2-in holes for the king bolts after the yokes are bent. ANTIQUE AUTO Half-Scale Replica of 1901 Touring Car GEORGE E. Morse internalexpanding brakes. 4. or welding shop will do the work for just a few dollars. drill a 1/2-in. Cut the rear axle and butt-weld the cap screws to the ends. and do it all day on one battery charge. etc. such as wheels. 1. Weld. 2. do them next.

motor-adjusting rod and steering column. 4. Weld the pit- 12 < WORKBENCH . cut all rods to length and thread them: Drag link. Make the brake-handle bracket and attach it to the left side of the frame. 7. Now. Drill 5/16-in. motor-hanger rod. brake rod. Fig. Fabricate the front-wheel spindle assemblies. tie rod. Fig. and weld them to the underside of the frame at the corners. 7. Cut the floor pan and make notches in it for the bulkhead legs. 7. steering column and brake handle.Make the four gussets. Fig. Fig. holes in the arms first.

rust and weld spatter from the frame and paint it with metal primer. Clean off all grease. When the paint has dried. from the end. backing off the castelated nuts 1/4 turn from snug so the wheels spin freely. put on the front wheels. Pin the nuts with a cotter pin. Bolt the ball joints to the spindle arm to the steering column 1-1/2-in. Adjust the ball MARCH APRIl. then one coat of flat-black enamel. Assemble the ball Joints on the tie rod and drag link. Make the sprocket coupling next. 1 9 6 2 > 13 .

flip the dash switch to forward and step down on the accelerator. 6 and 7. Wire the motor to the battery and floor accelerator. Fig. primer. Most auto shops can make the conversion. dash and bulkhead as one unit. Fig. Fasten all components with rivets or sheet metal screws. Mount the motor rod to the motor and to the frame and adjust it's length so there is 1/2-in slack in the chain between sprockets. 10. Shown are all sheet-metal components ready for assembly on the chassis. 9. Black is the color of the original. You are under way for years of fun. joints on the tie rod to produce 1/16-in. Next bend the brake handle to suit a r m length. The battery is located under the front seat. Fig. Burbank. 5. The wire from the other brush goes to on outside terminal. of courw. lock with cotter pin. then a coat of glossy black enamel. Calif. Cut all parts of the body. be purchased from: Ma-Jo Lektri-Kars. 9.8. Write for a parts list. Paint all body subassemblies with a coat of met. P. Here fender is being cut to shape. Fit the brake handle through the running-board slot and adjust it to the brake rod. Wheels can be gold or red Now. It will tun on 6 or 12 volts and is fully reversible. 8. rear wheel. Put on all hub caps. To convert the generator. 14 < W O R K B E N C H . Align the two sprockets and install the chain. Nebraskka. Position the motor on the hanger rod inserted through holes in the frame.c o n n e c t e d and wires from the two fields are led to an outside terminal. GlenOaks Station. remove the third brush if it has one and leave the grounded brush as is. Bolt the brake drum to the left. Your power plant also can be a regular 2. and mount the brake-shoe assembly on the axle. 7. The fields are s o l d e r . The right rear wheel is the drive wheel on which is bolted the 60 tooth sprocket. toe-in for the front wheels. Burden Sales Co 900 West " O " St. a government surplus item selling for about $16 to $20. together.. the final assembly: Position the floor pan. O. Snug up the wheel with a castelated nut and lock with a cotter pin.or 3-brush auto generator. and drill the rod and pivot holes Do not install the handle. all rt- 10. Two. held by brackets fabricated to suit the battery size. Fig. the fender assemblies and steering column. Bolt the wheel to the axle. Twenty-four parts and accessories f'or the car can. One template ii uicd to make tour Irndrrt. install the hood assembly. Parts for the car body are easily cut and formed with ordinary hand tools. then use a couple of lengths of 2 x 4 clamped together t o make all bends Put all sub-assemblies. hood. Figs. Assemble radiator. Arr terved in betiding to produce pairt. has many types of these motors in store. The power plant for the car can Be a converted electric gear motor. Box 3134. FIG. Hop in the car.

this bright red replica of its prototype—the open roadster of the early years of this century—will bring a twinge of nostalgia to grownups and a shriek of delight from the younger set. You can buy nearly all of the parts at your hardware store or at an automotive-parts store. The dimensions of some of the parts you have to make. bolt sizes and other im501 . It's great for everyday fun on the sidewalk and sensational in the local Fourth of July parade. has a 12-volt electrical system driving a 12-volt automobile generator which serves as the motor. It does a safe. quiet 5 miles per hour. leather dashboard straps and gas headlamps. and carries its own built-in battery charger. This will give you a good idea of what goes where on the plywood frame. particularly if you follow the pull-apart drawings carefully. run over the list of keyed parts and carefully check each one on the pull-apart drawings.Put your small fry in the driver's seat of this great little buggy and watch him grin Build your kids the sidewalk classic Designed by ROBERT WOOLSON ITS BLACK FABRIC TOP. Assembly is not difficult. Before you buy or cut any materials.

except the holes F. 8 F. Begin construction with the frame which is cut from a piece of 1/2-in. No. A metal angle serves as the top bearing SEAT BACK TAKE BOLTS HOLDING CENTER TOP BOW COUNTERSINK FOR CORNERIRON BOLTS END PIECE. SEAT. Cut the piece slightly oversize. Hole diameters are taken directly from the bolt sizes given in the parts list. 27 and 31. Drill hole A slightly undersize and at the approximate angle and then work it to size and the correct angle later on with a round 502 . parts No.FRONT PIECE. The seven countersunk holes (indicated by concentric circles) are drilled and countersunk for l. to allow for finishing the edges.H. One hole. plywood. part No. D. 59. as it takes the screw holding the lower end of the steering-column brace. portant information are in the keyed list along with parts nomenclature. about 1/8 in. there must be no splinters. all around. wood screws. BODY OPENING FOR DRIVE-BELT ADJUSTMENT (IN ONE PANEL ONLY) The steering column is held in position by a plywood support and metal brace to the frame. 2 REQD. Then lay out the hole pattern and drill all the holes which are located by dimension. is not countersunk. hole A for the steering post and B for the brake cable.5-in. These hold the brakeshaft supports and the front-fender support. which passes through the frame and turns into the front-fender support. Holes A and B in the frame must be drilled at an angle.

I I ' DOTTED LINES INDICATE POSITION OF RUBBER FLOOR MAT CHASSIS FRAME. 1/2" PLYWOOD SHAFT COLLARS BRAKE-BAND TIGHTENER BRAKE ASSEMBLY GROUND-WHEEL DRIVE file when you fit the steering post. E. screws (with nuts) and hold two 3-in. corner irons which serve as motor-mounting brackets. Holes C. Also you'll have to do some work with the round file to bring hole B to the correct angle to take the brake cable without binding. as it may vary from that given. G and H are for the passage of wiring through the frame and only the approximate location is indicated. Note in the pull-apart BRAKE ECCENTRIC ASSEMBLY 503 .H. The front axle consists of a length of hardwood and two steel straps. It's a good idea to have your motor on hand so that you can determine the distance between the pairs of holes. Be sure of the over-all dimensions of the battery case before you cut the well and make the support. The four holes F take 10-24 F.



Battery-powered headlights snap onto metal brackets attached to the dashboard. The brackets come with the lamps. Note also the construction of the front axle and the steering-knuckle assembly


The brake band is a 1/2-in. V-belt anchored to a stationary lug and a tightener, and passes around a V-pulley on the axle. Note the two studs which engage the wheel

view that there are three pairs of bolts that pass through the axle, the two kingbolts, the pair of carriage bolts holding the frame to the axle, and a pair of machine bolts that hold the three parts of the axle together. The wheel spindles swing on the kingbolts, which pivot 1/4-in. pipe tees. Threads in the body of the latter are reamed out to take the kingbolts in a close fit. A hex nut, lock washer and a steering arm are placed on each spindle before turning the latter into the threaded stem of each tee. You'll see the order of assembly in the pull-apart view. A shaft collar with setscrews holds each wheel. Assemble the rear axle in its bearings on the frame. Then make the brake-shaft supports and screw them in place on the underside of the frame, noting that the one that is grooved for the brake-band lug goes on the right side of the frame, viewed from the front. The complete brake assembly is shown pulled apart. There are two points to note especially in this assembly. First, the brake-band lug, part No. 38, drops into the groove in the brake-shaft support. The wood screw holding it in the groove passes through the frame from the top. side, through the lug and is turned into the brake-shaft support. The inner end of the lug is held by a 10-24 screw (with nut) which passes through a hole in the frame. This hole must be drilled through the

frame after the parts are located. Second, the screw holding the forward end of the brake band in the groove in the brake-band tightener, part No. 36, passes through the band and a hole in the tightener and shaft. Parts of the brake-eccentric assembly are shown on page 503. A 5/16 x 1 3/8-in. stud is crossdrilled near the unthreaded end to take the end of the brake cable. A nut and washer are run down on the stud and the cross-drilled end inserted in a hole drilled through one side of the pulley (eccentric) rim. The free end of the cable is passed through the hole near the end of the stud and the nut tightened, clamping the end of the cable securely in place. This arrangement provides adjustment of the brakecable length when the assembly is complete. The return spring is attached to the stud with a second nut and washer and the opposite end of the spring attaches to an anchor on the bottom of the frame. Note now the similarity between the groundwheel drive, and the brake assembly. Both make use of short studs, the unthreaded ends of which enter holes drilled through the inner half of the wheel webs. Two studs are required for the brake but only one for the drive. The steering gear is of simple construction and consists of the tie rod, steering-rod, crank,


Swivel snaps riveted to the ends of straps hook into screweyes in the top edge of the dash

the column, column support, brace and wheel. The latter is a 10.25-in.-diameter V-pulley, the V-groove being filled with a 5/8-in.-diameter rubber hose and then wrapped with electrician's plastic tape. This makes a neat, realistic wheel rim. When assembling the steering gear you may need to make some adjustment in the "geometry" by bending the arms so that the front wheels toe correctly. The body also is of the simplest construction, made entirely of 3/8-in. plywood and joined with 1-in. corner irons, each held in place with two 10-24 screws and square nuts. Parts for the seat are assembled in the same manner, using the same size irons and screws. The one exception 508

in this procedure is the method of joining one leg of each corner iron holding the body to the frame. Here a No. 8 or 10 sheet-metal screw 1/2 in. long (part No. 62) is used instead of a 10-24 screw and nut to join the leg of the iron to the frame. Dimensions of the seat bottom, fenders and hinged rear deck, or cover, will be found in the parts list. Rear fenders are joined to the body with corner irons (parts No. 75) and 10-24 screws and nuts. Front fenders are attached to dashboard and fender support with 1.5-in. No. 8 screws. Next step is to add the top and install the wiring. The top, authentic in appearance, consists of a metal frame covered with an artificial-


110-V. A. DC.D. building supply. 110-V.+ 12-V DC.O. 30-AMP. and hobby stores CHARGER WIRING SCHEMATIC X TERMINAL N O T USED BRAKE-LIGHT SWITCH ACCELERATOR 12-V. and braces. A.T. OUT 110-V.Assemble the top before placing it on the car. (BOTTOM VIEW) # 10 ACCELERATOR SWITCH D. D. CHARGE-OFF-GO SWITCH. # 10 12-V.S. BATTERY CHARGER COMPLETE ELECTRICAL WIRING SCHEMATIC FOR SIDEWALK CLASSIC CENTER-OFF TOGGLE SWITCH STANDARD SURFACEMOUNTED UTILITY BOX CHARGE OFF GO AUTO GENERATOR # 16 WIRE BRAKE-LIGHT SWITCH S. CHARGER .P.P. back and center bows.T.C. is made from aluminum rod and tubing that is available in all hardware.P.O.T.C.+ 12-V. 110-V. The metal frame. BATTERY SWITCH CHARGE OFF GO SWITCH GEN.S. consisting of front. PUSH BUTTON # 16 WIRE # 16 # 10 WIRE # 16 12-V. IN STOP LIGHT X SWITCH TERMINAL NOT USED 510 .-N. STORAGE BATTERY N.

You can bend the center bow by hand. Overall measurements before hemming are shown with the exception of one dimension. which tilt forward. Don't cut the fabric until after you have made and assembled the bows and braces. motor. The seat is held down with a hook leather fabric. flatten the ends slightly. Lay the fabric over the bows and determine the location of the pleats. but you run the risk of getting an uneven bend and spoiling the contour of the roof as a result. and also drill the holes for the bolts. Drill these holes and mount the assembled bows temporarily so that you can more easily fit the fabric top. borrow an electrician's conduit bender for this job. and the amount to be turned under for the hems. or tucks. flatten at the points indicated and drill holes for the bolts. Instead.Ready access to all electrical equipment—battery. the pattern for which is given on page 509. switch and charger—is made possible by the hinged seat. After bending. Note the position of the charger and the "off-go-charge" switch. from the rear window opening to the bottom of the back flap. The holes in the front bow for the bolts that hold the upper end of the braces are located and drilled after a trial assembly. This done. Then bend the front and back bows. which is given after hemming. sew The electricals are housed in the body. Note also the use of snap-on terminal clamps on the battery 511 . top and deck. with the battery in a well under the seat. Now refer to the drawing on page 509 for the location of the holes for the bolts holding the center bow to the ends of the seat.

larger all around than the opening and sew in place. foot-controlled switch and to the stoplight switch are stapled to the underside of the frame. The disk wheels were sprayed with silver paint. When wiring. making the pleats as you go. colors are optional the hems all around. charger and the off-run-charge switch. The same material you used to make the top would serve very well as a covering fabric if you chose to upholster the seats. if you shop around. battery. The exact location of the switch and charger is of no importance. unicycle. After pleating and hemming. so much the better. or spare. stage coach. Wires from the startstop. clear plastic about 1/2 in. between nails. place them so there is access to each. Note that when everything is assembled the hinged seat. See also: bicycles. The rear window is fitted with a sheet of clear plastic swivel snap to the free end of each strap. fold the forward end of the fabric around the front bow and fasten with split rivets. an attractive combination. cover with the fabric. children's. If you can find one with a shiny brass bell.5-in. Brackets for the headlights (the brackets come with the units) are screwed to the dashboard as shown. or flap. fastening with split rivets. Cut thin. The top of the plywood frame was finished in natural color. Note that the leather straps are attached to the top with split rivets at the pleats and at the front edge of the fabric. be sure you have the correct tension on the driving V-belt and that all nuts and screws have been properly tightened. For a final touch of authenticity. you should b. There are some interesting decorative touches that you can add which will increase the authentic look and at the same time make the car more fun to own. cars. then tack to the edges of the seat. stud and shaft collar installed on the back body panel. Cut the opening for the rear window. The fifth. Before making the test run. motor. midget. drive some of these nails into the back and the seat in a grid pattern. 512 .e able to find one of those old rubber-bulb operated auto horns. or flap. The back drop. The carrier is simply a threaded 1/2-in. of the fabric top is attached to the back of the seat with storm-sash hangers. to imitate the old upholstery buttons. Note that the sash half of the hanger is riveted to the lower edge of the fabric. You wouldn't have to be fancy. Use large-headed colored upholstery nails. follow the wiring diagram which gives the wire sizes to use. of the top attaches to the back of the seat with three storm-sash hangers. The original pictured was painted a bright red with a silver striping. Wire sizes are indicated on the schematic Paint colors are optional. of foam rubber. Just cover the wooden seat and back with 1 or 1.The back drop. Attach a The wiring from the foot-operated switch and the stoplight switch is stapled to the underside of the frame. with about 6 in. train. deck and top tip forward to give access to the electricals. while the other half of each hanger is attached to the back of the seat with 10-24 screws and hex nuts. For example. wheel pictured is optional.

bags — entirely supported on a cushion of air. load — four 504b. Tip the handles slightly and you have to brace yourself to keep this wheel-less Flying Cart from skittering down the drive faster than you want CONTINUED That's a 200-lb.HOW I BUILT THE Flying Cart By Hubert Luckett OU'RE almost ready to believe in flying carpets when you open the throttle and see a 200-lb. load float eerily off the ground. .


The building itch came with the first story I read about air sleds. Plywood clamp at bottom is held by wood screws. send $1 to: FLYING CART.75. load across a soft. New. PLASTIC FILM is folded double under the clamps. N. using sawed-to-shape plywood covered with a skin of sheet aluminum and plastic film. The cart didn't start out as a search for an improved wheelbarrow—it happened the other way around. Note floor flange that anchors leg of the platform covering engine. • Adaptable to continuing changes and experiWrite for fuller drawings Want to build the Flying Cart? The drawing at left shows enough for you to proceed on your own. The Flying Cart is a true ground-effect machine (GEM). I built the "airframe" of ordinary lumberyard materials for $59. soggy lawn with this machine and never leave a mark. Engine and props are from an outboard air-drive unit sold by Airboats. (3323 N. and intensified with each story thereafter. It glides on a cushion of compressed air supplied by a modified chainsaw engine and a four-bladed wooden prop. If you're well supplied with plywood scraps you can cut that figure in half. CROSS-LAPPED STRUTS are clamped between main frames. and aluminum make the airframe FINISHED "HULL" showing how fan shroud and rounded contours in the plenum chamber are obtained. More—you can easily trundle a 100-lb. For larger scale drawings. glued and screwed to the spacer block. Aluminum is slit every 1-1/2" to make a smooth bend.Plywood. ALUMINUM IS FASTENED to inner curve of struts by bending a flange over flat against the plywood. Sheet-metal screws hold the two aluminum clamping strips. and securing with stapling gun. Florissant Ave. It was a challenge to build a totally new kind of vehicle before all the development problems were trampled to death—and all the unanswered questions were answered—by multimillion-dollar research programs. to follow. CONTINUED . It would have to be: • Reasonably easy to build with ordinary home-workshop tools. Louis 7). Y... plastic. It has no wheels. New York 17. Popular Science. I doodled the requirements. they cost $130. Inc. 355 Lexington Ave. St. How it got that way.

Side rails are notched to engage upper corners of the struts and rabbeted to receive 1/4"-plywood deck cover. hub after the engine is in place. Vanes were added after the first trials to counteract torque effect and improve the air flow. The one that didn't work. Backwash through the fan was greatly reduced. yet functional in its most elementary form. three-bladed cast-aluminum exhaust-fan prop supplied the air. So when someone suggested an air barrow. and prop DECK IS SEPARATE ASSEMBLY held by bolts securing the motor mount. This time it teetered on the brink of floating. nail one-by-fours to the edge to form an open box. the shop filled with a wild roar and a dense cloud of dust. The air stream was hitting the floor and bouncing right back through the fan blades. I rigged up a crude equalarm balance and found that the machine required [Continued on page 226] . I wanted to see if the crudest possible rig would provide any encouragement to go ahead with the project. cut a hole 24-1/2" in diameter in the center of the plywood sheet.Add the deck. it seemed like a happy choice. • Large enough to carry a practical load—not a toy. Wiremesh blade guard is clamped between deck and hull. All of these points apparently ruled out a riding vehicle. I extended the sides to 16" to get the fan farther from the floor. M T R MOUNT is bolted through OO the deck and upper main frame. It almost didn't. and you have the body of my first "feasibility-study" model. motor mount. Hardwood blocks clamping ends of each pair of angles add rigidity to the mounting assembly. 164 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY 1960 PROPELLER MUST BE BOLTED to the mental modifications. When I switched it on. • Cheap enough for a modest budget. but there were no signs of levitation. electric motor driving a 24". • Small enough for one man to handle and not pose an awkward storage problem. Take one leftover sheet of plywood that happened to be 34" by 48". A 1/2-hp.

A LIGHTWEIGHT with keen balance may be able to ride it as is. AN OVERSIZE SKIRT with a drawstring in the bottom edge may improve stability and performance as an air barrow over rough terrain. -A INVERTING THE ENGINE would lower center of gravity and allow use of standard prop with an engine rotating in conventional direction. Two carts joined together (with engines turning in opposite directions) offers exciting riding possibilities.Author's sketchbook shows future plans CONVERSION TO AN ANNULAR JET will be easy. with the throttle relocated on a reversed set of handles—but only on a smooth surface. 165 . then tackle the problem of making a properly shaped core like this. According to theory. it should ride higher off the ground. Ill try a flat plywood bottom first. BIG DREAM awaits a cooperative neighbor.

Problem: How do you make a close-fitting duct for the fan and a smoothly contoured bowl for the plenum chamber with ordinary woodworking tools? Fiber-glass laminate would give the needed shapes. It's the simplest of the proven GEM configurations. I could think of was a chain-saw engine. Within limits you can trade one for the other and carry the same load. For a given area. The tentative design promised to lift about 30 to 35 pounds per horsepower. Poring over all the research papers I could find. It uses a fivehp. A skilled tinsmith could do it with sheet alumi226 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY 1960 CONTINUED . A reasonable payload would require five hp. A square is the closest practical approach to the optimum circular shape. as nearly as I could estimate. Power Products chain-saw engine with reversed rotation and has a properly matched prop. • Design—plenum chamber. • Power—chain-saw engine. A larger vehicle would operate higher off the ground. The most significant factor in GEM performance is the "height-diameter" ratio ( h / d ) . But a half-dozen problems were solved at once when the Airboats unit was suggested to me. and also would be too heavy in the required strength. This is like an inverted saucer with the air cushion retained inside the bowl. but would be complex to mold. and operating height. I was getting discouraged about finding one that would fit the shaft. Building the air frame. • Size—5' by 5'. • Propeller— ??? This turned out to be a shopping problem. The lightest five hp.How I Built the Flying Cart [Continued from page 164] 68 pounds to balance with the motor not running—only four pounds when it was turned on. blow the right way for engine rotation. the shape with the shortest perimeter gives the most lift. Scarcely a resounding success. but it becomes clumsy to use and a problem to store. fan inefficiency. I came up with these rough specs: • Shape—square. and high weight-to-power ratio— I was getting 64 pounds of lift. turbulence. power. and provide optimum load for the engine. and gives good hovering efficiency close to the ground. The one that worked. But in spite of air leaks. It wasn't hard to think up reasons for going ahead.

First I cut out the two 32" squares of 1/2" plywood and the eight 3/8" plywood struts. it was reassembled. The fan shroud went on next. Building the Flying Cart. It rose about three inches from the ground and hovered there.How I Built the Flying Cart num. I made a trial assembly of these parts. All other dimensions were taken directly from this framework. blade guard. using 5" bolts and TeeNuts to clamp it together. with the top and bottom edges fastened in a similar fashion. the Flying Cart was first airborne at dusk one Sunday afternoon. The final design proved to be easy to build and turned out surprisingly strong and rigid for its weight. I bolted a pair of angles directly to the frame to support the motor. with glue and screws. The sheet was then pushed in tight against the inner curve of the struts and the bottom edge screwed to the one-by-two bottom frame. With the major structure finished.1/2 "plywood first. but that was beyond me. weighs only 80 pounds. throttle control. The inner edge was screwed to the . The deck was assembled dry. Plywood frames sawed to shape and covered with a skin of aluminum and plastic were the answer. including the engine. The engine took hold on the third pull of the starter rope. After the notches were cut. Enclosure of the plenum chamber was completed by clamping six-mil polyethylene across the corners. After all the wood framing members of the "hull" were nicely fitted. First tryout. they were taken apart and reassembled. Startled faces popped up in neighboring windows 2 2 8 POPULAR SCIENCE JULY 1960 . I didn't wait for such niceties as handles. using the two l/8"-by-l" aluminum strips and the sawedto-shape l/4"-plywood bottom piece. using aircraft-type construction. and proper motor support. The 1/2" overhang at each end of the aluminum sheet was snipped every 1-1/2". to see if it would work. The completed machine. placed in position and the notches for the struts marked. with waterproof glue and wood screws for all joints. With a roar from the unmuffled exhaust and a cloud of dust from my driveway as it was swept clean by the air blast. the lip hammered flat against the strut and stapled with a stapling gun. which form the backbone of the vehicle. The sheet aluminum was fastened on next.

The plastic corners are a considerable aid to the experimenter. Back in the shop.How I Built the Flying Cart and a horde of small fry materialized from nowhere. after a bit of fussing to get the correct pitch. Some curious things have shown up. Supporting legs went through 1" holes in the deck and top main frame and were anchored with slip-in floor flanges screwed to the bottom main frame. The skirt easily conforms to uneven surfaces and retains the air seal. Handles and flexible-cable throttle control came next. m . "Can I ride?" I soon paid for my impatience. It may actually be creating a suction that is limiting the operating height of the vehicle. Early trials of the finished vehicle quickly led to the first two modifications. An unexpected bonus resulted: The vanes seemed to smooth the air flow in the plenum chamber and gave a measurable improvement in lift. By holding the machine level on a slope. Cries of "What is it?" were soon replaced by. part of the air flow seems to want to give a negative lift. Remembering the demand for rides. thus providing thrust to push the cart uphill. The motor support proved to be too limber and vibration broke the straps holding the gas tank. Under certain operating conditions. It would carry a load nicely on smooth pavement. I made a removable platform to cover the engine. reaction to the prop torque made the whole cart spin around. Vanes set in the air stream counteracted this. but got into trouble on rough ground or going over a curb. all the air escapes on the downhill side. With cloth ribbons stuck to various surfaces inside the chamber. a light shining through one corner •will let you observe air-flow patterns through the other three. The machine may yet prove to be large enough to ride successfully. the motor support was stiffened by clamping the ends of the angles tightly between hardwood blocks and adding a second pair perpendicular to the first. This also eliminated most of the pushing in climbing hills. A flexible skirt at the bottom caused the rigid part of the craft to ride high enough to clear obstacles. Next step: modification of the air flow to eliminate this apparent negative lift. If you let go of the handles.

as they are all of about the same size and general arrangement. Unfortunately the supply of these vehicles is limited.5 H. An advertisement in the local newspaper will usually bring results. and used ones scarce and prohibitively priced. This was carefully reconditioned. but any engine of from 3/4 to 2 H.GAS RATION SPECIAL Go to market. it behooves those of us who are able. McEntee W ITH gasoline and oil getting scarcer all the time. and worn parts replaced.P. by Howard G. or so is satisfactory. The prospective builder will probably be unable to secure a new engine. with new ones unobtainable.P. The answer seems to be ''build your own. A small motor scooter is one of the most economical forms of powered transportation. to arrange our transportation in such a manner that a little of these commodities will go a long way. but the second hand field is very large. You can cover 100 miles or better on one gallon of precious fuel.. rated at 1. This engine is a Lauson RSC." The scooter to be described was evolved after the writer secured a second hand engine 90 in fair shape. beach or visit friends on one of these babies and forget your gas worries. since the construction will Mechanix Illustrated . whereupon it was found to be very reliable in operation. Only general dimensions will be given as a building guide.

First. as was the case here. together with the center motor support piece. 1943 91 . Below: Side view shows principal construction points. they are about ready for welding. of course. however. and the three cross pieces are cut to size.naturally be governed largely by what parts the builder can gather together. Those for the engine must be positioned Left: Completed scooter with lights. Check with your Motor Vehicle Bureau. Construction starts. Some states require twin headlights and tail light for these vehicles. Motor is at right angles to chassis. to the apex of the angle. four for mounting the engine and two for the rear axle. then with a hacksaw. in other words. up to but not through the horizontal side. The pieces may then be bent easily in a vise. First the side pieces are cut to length. horn and rear vision mirror. six slots should be cut. August. with the frame. or. Beds are a fine source of this material. After each side member is bent at the two points. which is made of 1-1/8"x3/16" soft angle iron. slots are cut at points A and B (see drawing) on the vertical side.

It was made for heavy commercial delivery bicycle use. The tube should slant to the rear at an angle of about 20 degrees. The welding can be handled by any well equipped auto repair shop. The stem of the fork is also cut from a bicycle so as to make available the threaded upper end. This piece is held between the upward and inward bent front ends of the frame with a single bolt. according to the particular unit to be used. The seat is mounted over the motor and is held on a cut-down bike seat post brazed to Mechanix Illustrated . Most materials can be obtained from junk. The lower ends. The bearings and cones from a bicycle fork assembly. 92 The front fork will have to be built up as there is no bicycle part of the correct size. The neck is much longer than those used on bicycles and must be built up from one of the latter plus a piece of tubing that will fit inside the stem of the fork. Bicycle handlebars and lubber grips are used. The prong pieces should be fitted through oblong holes cut in the lower side of the tubing and curved to butt snugly against the inside of the upper portion. but should be measured so that the motor pulley comes at about the point shown. or prongs.Parts details. of the fork are cut from an old bike frame and are brazed to a piece of 1-5/8" diameter tubing which is 5" long. but a bearing tube from an ordinary adult bike will do very well. complete this part of the machine. the side members must be cut once more at points C so that they may be bent inward at the front. The bracing pieces running from points C on the frame up to the top of the bearing tube are of 1"x1/8" angle iron bolted at top and bottom and also welded at the latter point. At points A on the frame a 5/16" bolt is run from side to side with a spacer of small diameter gas pipe between the side members. The same tightening arrangement as used in standard bike practice is satisfactory. together with the nuts and washer that hold them in place. This piece is brazed into the 1-5/8" tubing which is first bored or filed out for a snug fit. The bearing for the front wheel fork on this scooter is a cast iron piece about 7-1/2" tall and with a tubular stub at top and bottom. After these initial welds are made. Frame is made from old bed rails.

and two pressed steel discs to fit in the tire. Wheel itself (with sprocket) is in turn driven by chain from sprocket on pulley shaft. where lie most of the procurement and construction headaches. The seat itself is of a large. The wheels are heavy duty type with ball bearings. consisting of a hub carrying the ball bearings. These ridges or lugs prevent the tire from slipping around the wheel under power. may be used on the front wheel. Right: Clutching arrangement is operated by idler pulley (center) which raises and lowers to engage or disengage driver pulleys. These tires are usually of single tube construction with no inner tube. carrying husky 4 ply tires of 10x3 size. 1943 93 . We come now to the power and drive mechanism. Wheels for these small tires are usually made in three pieces. Either style of tire. which fit into slots pressed in the steel wheels. the three sections held together by [Continued on page 132] Above: Gas tank feeds motor by gravity. however. Dome shaped gadget near wheel is generator. This tubing is braced by two pieces of 3/4"x1/8" angle iron which run back to the main frame. Do not try to use a smoothtype tire as it is wasted time. Closeup of sturdy front fork construction. August. a fact ascertained by sad experience. meaning that the tire has moulded ridges running crosswise around the inner circumference. The rear tire must be of the so-called "lug base" style. All joints of the seat support are brazed and the whole tripod may be removed from the frame by taking out three bolts. well sprung type that makes for comfortable riding. Cut slots for hold-down bolts to fit your particular motor. Licenses are required by some states a curved piece of 1" diameter tubing.Here is bare frame with seat support and engine mount shown.

then allowing them to cool slowly. the idea being to get a 2-1 ratio between the two. The countershaft is cut flush with the bearing on the right end but projects 2-1/4" beyond the left bearing. The two V-belts are left in place at all times but are too loose to provide any power transfer from motor to countershaft. of course. A spring coupling is provided between the lever and rod as may be seen in the illustration. most bicycle dealers can supply one with the proper number of teeth. The sprockets must be of the same type. The long bolts are inserted in place of three of the short ones that hold the wheel parts together. The holes for the idler pulley boits should not be drilled until the motor and countershaft are mounted and the pulley and belts put temporarily in place to be sure the idlers will be in the proper location. The countershaft sprocket is a 9-tooth size. For high "gear" the lever is then raised upwards past the center position where both belts are loose." Most of these ratchets are designed to hold in only one direction and slip the other way. a length of 1/2" diameter rod. and 3-1/4" steps. The rod must be held out about 7/8" from the frame so that one idler can be placed on each side. only the first and third of -which are utilized. A spring keeps the pawl tightly against the ratchet except when the push rod button is depressed. Some means must be provided to hold the shift arrangement in the desired position. The ratchet piece was drilled large enough to fit over the bearing of the shift lever and is braced by a piece of 1"x3/16" steel running down to the frame. The rear axle is simply a 7" length of 3/8" diameter rod threaded at both ends and fitting snugly through the center of the bearing on each end of the hub. Plain bearing types are not advisable here as the pulleys turn at high speed and are under considerable load. After trying vainlv to make the sprocket stay put. On this end are fastened two 5-1/2" diameter pulleys. also a standard bike part. held in place oh the wheel by three 3/16" bolts and pipe spacers. which tightens it and again drives the counter shaft. and each is held to the shift rod by a single 1/4" diameter bolt. be of similar description. Both of the bolts are provided with bronze bushings to reduce wear. 132 tightening it so that the countershaft is driven. The sprocket on the rear wheel is an 18 tooth unit of the disc type. The pieces are usually case-hardened but can be softened for drilling and filing by bringing them to a red heat for a few minutes. Set-screws . The shift rod which carries the two idlers is held to the lever by a single 1/4" diameter bolt and another bolt of the same size keeps the lower end of the rod in place. While on the subject. so the teeth must be filed to such a shape that they will hold in either direction. until another idler pulley is forced up against the underside of the other belt.simply will not hold here for any length of time unless used with a keyway of some sort. whether up or down. and while the make is unknown. The chain is standard bicycle variety of 1" pitch and 3/16" width. with no radial or side wobble. The sprocket hub should be pinned to the countershaft with a taper pin or plain 1/8" diameter rod. The sprocket is held out from the wheel far enough so that it clears the tire by about 3/8". and has not budged since being so fastened. The two idler pulleys are of ball bearing construction. When the shift lever is pushed downward. the builder can probably find something satisfactory at his local supply store or "junkie. and must be adjusted to rotate absolutely true.Gas Ration Special [Continued from page 93] bolts. a much tetter drive may be had from the s»-called No. The shaft is 5/8" diameter and is carried in a self-aligning ball bearing pillow block at each end. inside which is the shaft itself. turned down to 3/8" at each end and threaded. Ordinary bronze-bushed bearings are quite usable. it was finally pinned. The motor pulley is the type with 1-3/4". The "gear shift" is very simple but highly satisfactory. but at a higher speed. and which can be drilled for the three bolts. and the two sprockets must. The shift lever is bolted onto its shaft with the pawl on the overhanging rear and actuated by a 3/16" rod run forward through the wooden handle. keyed and held by two set screws. if flanged pulleys are obtained they must have a width inside the flanges of at least 1/2". This is 1/2" pitch and 3/16" wide and is used on many racing bicycles as it is more suited to high speed work. with an added steel hub. The rod is bent out at right angles at the top and an [Continued on page 142] . The tubing is brazed to the angle iron seat braces. The slot is 3-1/2" long which allows the rod a vertical movement of about the same distance. An auto brake lever ratchet and pawl have been adapted for this use. a pulley is lowered onto the top of the inner belt. It is quite possible to use V-belt drive from the counter-shaft to the rear wheel. The bearing is a piece of brass tubing 5/8" in diameter with 1/32" wall thickness. Although the sprocket shown is a special unit. Spacers between the outside of the bearing and the frame sides position the wheel securely. it might be said that while the chain mentioned has proved quite satisfactory and will give good service if cleaned and oiled occasionally. The chain is about 30" in length. 41 N chain. 2-1/4" 2-3/4". Roller skate wheels are good for this use. but must be oiled more often. If this is done the wheel pulley should be about 5-1/2" dia meter with a 3" countershaft pulley.

Front and rear fenders are bent from No. To this are bolted two strips of brass 1/8"x5/8"x2" long. 20 gauge sheet steel. The small tubing has about 20-1/4" dia. A simple toggle arrangement tightens the band around the V-belt and is actuated by a foot pedal on the floor board. the generator is now being belt driven from the countershaft. They prevent the belts from wrapping around the pulley when loose. As this does not produce quite high enough voltage.p. Persons under 19 years of age comprise 45% of the Soviet Union's population. the one in front is braced by strips of 16 gauge sheet riveted in place. but many other details remain. Although the photos show different size pulleys on the countershaft (they were 5" diameter for "high" and 6-1/2" for "low") these have been replaced by two of 5-1/2" dia. A great deal of experimentation has been done to ascertain the proper drive ratios. the end projecting outwards just in front of and below the motor pulley.bent so they just clear each belt when it is tightened to the running position. Construction details are shown on the drawings. but it works!' far each way for best results. when the machine is being lifted over curbs and other obstacles. 142 The carburetor controls of choke and throttle are on the handlebars. The two are connected by a piece of auto choke wire. The brake band.3 to 1 respectively.h. A bolt over the upper end keeps the whole assembly in place and is turned tight enough to place the springs under considerable pressure. This "It has no practical guard projects about 1" lower than the muffler and protects the brake mechanism. a natural tendency even though they are quite loose. Both fenders are the flat crownless type. The motor is fitted with a simple muffler and a long tail pipe and is surprisingly quiet in operation. holes in each piece which appear to be ample. This slides through two holes in a U-shaped metal piece. the ratios were 3. Some States (such as New Jersey) require two headlights and a tail light before a license will be granted. The lights used here are all bicycle products operated by a small bike generator driven by the rear tire. but these were thought to be a bit too value. Because eating spoiled food may cause animals to become ill. runs rearward about on the centerline of the frame. in high and makes for easy starting and plenty of power for hill climbing in low. cut from 20 gauge steel. has a lining of heavy leather. This completes the heavy construction work. The floor boards are of 9/16" plywood held on with bolts. compared with 32% in Great Britain. This provides a top speed of about 25 m. which seems about right for the motor used. 30% in France. . The rear end is supported by the angle p i e c e which guides the after end of the brake cable. Using the p u l l e y s shown in the photos. bent upward at the front and bolted to the floor board.8 to 1 and 8. with a spring at top and bottom. On one side a cut-down bike kick-stand is fastened. All the belts and pulleys are ordinary 1/2" wide home workshop equipment. A guard piece of 3/4" x 1/8" strap iron. The ratio from motor to rear wheel (using pitch diameters of the pulleys which average 1/4" less than outside diameter) and including the 2 to 1 afforded by the chain drive is thus about 4. A simple device was developed to prevent the V-belts from pulling when the shift is in neutral.Gas Ration Special [Continued from page 132] extension made from a 3/8" diameter bicycle rear wheel shaft bolted on.2 to 1 for high and 7 to 1 for low. bolted both to the floor and the frame for strength.—all that can be made without extensive sheet metal working equipment.. An angle bracket is mounted on the motor crankcase. home economists advise burying any spoiled canned food with a tablespoonful of lye to each quart. operated by bicycle-type flexible wire cables. and the countershaft pulleys as well. The brake is external contracting and works on an ordinary 3-1/2" V-pulley keyed to the countershaft. The muffler body tubing and the exhaust pipe ends are closed with discs of 1/16" steel sheet brazed in place. Such a device prevents overstretching the belts and makes the drive smoother. This frame is extended over the tank to form a handle that is very convenient when lifting the vehicle. The sheet metal gas tank is fastened to the seat support in front and the vear is held up on a frame of 3/4"x1/8" strap iron.

Open you're off. When the going is easy. McEntee simply get on YOUthe throttle and this homemade scooter and go. it shifts up again. Though it looks like .This Scooter MECHANICS and HANDICRAFT If you can fix a bike. you can build a put-put that's almost as convenient as a second car and costs far less to run. no gearshift. Hard to build? No. There's no clutch. By Howard G. Tackling a grade? It shifts down automatically.

* If you have a suitable engine or can rebuild a used one (see PS. 1/2" and 3/8" pipe. What's it got? A lot. an efficient brake. for these members are not identical. The machine is light enough to carry if necessary. bent. June '51 p. You'll find most welders cooperative. pneumatic tires. The cost includes $6 for welding the frame. Watch yourself. Scooters are taking thousands to work. and a welded frame is much easier to make. lock washers. Cutting the frame. something off a sweet-running assembly line. an automatic clutch with variable drive ratio. Here's what your $75 buys: An easy-starting. and can be licensed at bargain rates. Although it would bust before making Pikes Peak. The engine is the most expensive item. But welding service is available everywhere. and welded at two points. especially if you cut and fit frame members correctly and clamp them in proper alignment. And no wonder. cut through one flange of each piece 12 1/2" from an end. and one man can put it into an auto luggage compartment. What'll it do? You won't beat even a Model A from the light in this little job. Although you could bolt or rivet the frame together. and stronger. These are closed up by bending. it will take you up easy grades and can be walked up stiff ones POPULAR SCIENCE under its own power. If you can take a bike apart and get it together again. this figure can drop to the vanishing point. and need no reinforcing. you'd have to overlap members or provide gussets at all joints. 187). school. too. The second bends are in the other flanges. lights. sheet metal for fenders. But the take-off is smooth. and it's money well spent. Welding does it. starting is a cinch. too. spreading open the cut. The front of the frame is filed to fit around the head. The brake is effective. Try to make the two parts a reasonably close . Then have 1/8" reinforcing plates welded across the breaks. neater looking. and a spring-mounted foam-rubber seat. lightweight two-cycle engine. Two 45" lengths of angle iron must be cut. play. just careful welding. in view of today's high prices. For the 30° upward bend. They park on a grease spot. and require narrow notches. and brake and idler springs. and roadability is good. you can handle this. you need a right and a left. chain drive. and you'll get where you're going at something like 20 miles an hour. but you'll need such extras as bolts and nuts. but fortunately there are reliable two-cycle engines available for $25 or less. and the corner drugstore for just pennies a day. Bend the uncut flange. wheel dust seals. These little puddle jumpers are a cinch to handle. This one's a bargain in other ways. Electric welding is preferable.These are the main parts. it isn't a tough job. It's less likely to warp the stock.

The 1" pipe for the head can be bored out in a lathe to fit the bearings. or your wheel will be askew. for a close fit. This Diagonal frame brace is welded between the head and first crosspiece. Be sure to make one right. Note that. . ready for welding. but made for a 3/8" axle. Second bend closes these notches. Assembling the frame. before welding. which don't carry much of the load. All other holes go in the top flanges. for which you must file the hole square. Make sure the head is vertical to the frame. no holes are made in the vertical flanges of the long frame members. since the outer race does not turn. Head (in hand) will be welded to rounded frame ends. match. This and center one are angle stock. but don't fret about it. and drill fork crosspieces for kingbolt. Cut the angle brace. or drill the frame members for a clamping bolt and have the holes welded up later. Weld across them inside the angle also. Then wire it and the head in place for welding. cut through one flange.Measuring 12 1/2i" from ends of main frame members. First bend (at right) has been welded in both members and a 3/8"-wide V notch cut 2" above it. The scooter shown was assembled mostly with square-shoulder carriage bolts. Bore ends of head for bearings. and bend the other up about 30°. Clamps hold a crosspiece in place. or filed by hand. one left. Round off corners that touch fillets inside frame sides. Cut 1/8"-thick braces to be welded across the breaks. as viewed from the front. except for the axle slots. The fork turns in ball bearings like those in the wheels. the rear one flat iron. for welding will close up small gaps.

Makings of a wheel hub. At least the rear wheel must be the lugbase type. If too long. To prevent the bearings from turning directly on the axle. Wheels. use a square-head machine bolt or a 1/2" shaft threaded at both ends. . Countershaft. All mounts are cut from 1/2" pipe. because it isn't necessary to fumble underneath with wrenches to hold a bolt while cinching up the nut. Chain drive. inflatable through a valve. Each wheel must turn freely when clamped with axle nuts with the center spacer in. Bolts and nuts clamp hub together. a must if you want the scooter to be roadworthy. with the rear axle parallel to it. 41. which make assembly easier than rigid bearings. If you can't get one 8" long for the rear axle. ream with a No. The roller chain shown is No. in which the mounting holes are 3 1/4" apart. and shorten it a little at a time. Similar chain 1/8" wide is stocked by bicycle stores and will serve as well. and therefore are 1/8" shorter. Make certain you have this kind. The small sprocket (13-tooth) must be pinned to the shaft. it won't allow the hub to be assembled.75" tubeless pneumatics. cut from 3/8" pipe. it will bind the bearings. for quiet chain operation. Don't under any circumstances omit them. Felt seals prolong bearing life. and drive in a taper pin. the inner races must be clamped against a center spacer. The rear ones sit on the bearing hangers. The sprockets should give a ratio of about 2 1/2 to 1. Drill a hole through hub and shaft. takes only a few seconds and saves time in assembly. of course. but inner ends are filed to contour of hub shells. and rider stay put. Spacer ends against sprocket are square. Valveless (semi-pneumatic or zero pressure) tires give a harder ride. Center spacer must clamp between inner races without binding the bearings. scooter. Sprocket is set off by four spacers 1 9/16" long. 1/2" pitch and 1/4" wide. This is stronger than necessary. 3 taper reamer. Be sure to get the heavy-duty grade. or you may find the hub going around while tire. if too short. The front axle is simply a 1/2" hex bolt 5 1/2" long. Start with this spacer a trifle long. Iron straps across them provide an inboard support for the engine base. Each center spacer must be carefully fitted. Industrial type sprocket used here was bored out to clear the axle spacer. Lock washers under all nuts are. The 1/2" countershaft must be at 90° to the frame. A lathe is ideal for facing spacers squarely to length. Setscrews will not hold. since light-service tires of both types aren't recommended for much more than wheelbarrow speeds. The holes in the shells must be opened out to clear 1/4"-20 bolts. Front engine mounts rest directly over the center frame crosspiece. Mount the wheel and spin it to help you true up the sprocket. having molded protuberances on the tire that fit indentations in the hub. Ball bearings are in place in the shells. The large (32-tooth) sprocket is fastened to the rear hub with 1/4"-20 bolts on spacers cut from 3/8" pipe. These are 10" by 2. Bearings are the selfaligning type. This and outside spacers can be cut from ordinary 1/2" pipe drilled out a bit. .

To remedy this. Bolt the lower end of the band to the frame crosspiece and form the other into a clevis as shown. grind out one of the two keys cast into the bore of the pulley. Extra holes in the brake lever allow for adjustment. Before mounting the engine. The one I used. which is narrower than the frame. A shaft collar goes between this sprocket and the nearer bearing. These give an inboard support for the engine base. put lock washers under the three screws that hold the crankcase to its base. Brake. Pointed end of brake lever strikes frame crosspiece as a stop. Take it off. Engine. It's the centrifugally controlled pulley. The keyway on the engine crankshaft may not be long enough to let the pulley slide close in. So does the idler bracket on the drive side and the kick stand on the other. Adjust the pull of the idler spring so that it holds the belt taut over the entire shift range. The scooter shown has an iron V pulley with the sharp ridge turned off the flanges. The engine comes with a governor. but offer little or no ratio change. which makes the brake very responsive. [Continued on next page] . The brake band is a flexible strip of 1/16" by 3/4" steel. a V-Plex clutch model 18T9*. Engine will rest directly on straps. leaving the original cylinder port as the exhaust. using the mounting holes and port in one as a template. Plug unneeded holes with bolts and gasket cement. mark new ones on the other. It pivots on the crossbar. and notched to form clevis as at right. Belt drive. shifts from a drive-belt diameter of 3/4." at rest to one of 2 1/4" at high speed. for they are difficult to reach with the engine in place. Brake lever is welded of 1/2" pipe and 1" strap as at left. For the engine shown. and a spring normally holds the band off the drum. Some pulleys of this type will serve as a clutch. Leave just a little end play. An idler keeps the belt taut. Bend the band around the drum before riveting on some 1/8"-thick woven brake lining. The brake drum takes the side thrust at the other bearing. Lower end of brake band is bolted to frame crosspiece. that makes the 1-hp. and bolted on. Drill and file them out. Pin the drum fast. Attach a spring to hold the throttle closed unless the button on the handlebars is pushed. The muffler on this engine interferes with the drive pulley. Tighten the screws hard. and. You don't want them to loosen under vibration. Clevis pin is unthreaded portion of a bolt. cut four mounts from 1/2" pipe and two straps of 1/8" by 1" stock. engine perform as well as it does. which should be removed.A crossbar of 1/2" shafting is filed flat where it crosses the frame. Use a 3 1/2" steel or cast-iron flat pulley for the drum if possible—a die-cast one will wear rapidly. Braking action tends to wrap the band around the drum. or use two setscrews tightened against flat spots on the shaft. acting as both clutch and variable-ratio drive. separate the two aluminum castings. Brake band is looped over. An auto choke cable 72" long is connected to the throttle. riveted. not on nuts shown. yet leaves the belt loose when the engine is idling.

and 32-tooth sprockets. and attach them with 1/4" carriage bolts. Remember to insert Seat frames are fastened with 1/4" bolts. and horn before the scooter can be licensed. Make certain the brace in rear frame clears the carburetor amply. with 13. a 4" pulley on the countershaft may suffice. Battery lights sold for bicycles will serve. In flat country. and muffler by at least 1/4" all around. The seat must hinge to give access to gas tank. Trial run. gas tank. In hilly territory. as shown in the photos. but if you want to use a magnetotype (battery-less) lighting outfit that is powered from a wheel. If you can't buy them. or you may want a smaller drive sprocket. although in an |34 POPULAR SCIENCE The best over-all drive ratio will depend on the kind of roads you travel. Short spacer raises nut above top crosspiece for access. Muffler has been reversed to clear drive pulley. Always close the fuel petcock and if possible run the carburetor dry (which takes several minutes) when leaving the scooter overnight. a 5" pulley may be necessary.Ends of frame head receive ball bearings like those in the wheels. rest in shallow holes in plywood seat. The trimmings. Kick stand goes on this end of crossbar. . Its cylinder-mounting boss is now the exhaust opening. you can improvise them from felt rings and 1/2" washers. changing ratio and also acting as a clutch. Here the lower bearing is on the king bolt over lower fork crosspiece. Be sure to carry your starting rope at all times. turned over a pair of nuts on each rear frame bolt. Fork assembly. Spacer held in the hand goes between the bearings inside the head. with a smaller washer inside the felt ring. better check its legality in your state. Otherwise the carburetor jets are likely to clog with oil. those in the head should be clamped against a center spacer. Follow instructions on the engine name plate for mixing oil with gasoline. Idler takes up belt slack. Be sure to use lock washer. Like the wheel bearings. head lamp. Some states require a tail light. In fitting the seat support. It consists of two ball bearings bolted to straps that pivot on the crossbar. Valve springs. Cut the floor boards from 3/8" or 3/8" plywood. make certain it clears the carburetor. Motor pulley changes flange spacing as engine revs up. A scooter with a centrifugal clutch can't be started by pushing. but with 3/8" hole. making starting difficult. felt washers and dust caps to keep grease in and dirt out.

Up. . failure to "take hold" may be due to too large a belt or insufficient idler tension. Fit a stop to the idler bracket if necessary. Get your license. On the other hand. If the scooter tries to get away from you at low engine speeds. lower the idling speed. so it's well to start with a slightly tight one. or jets may clog with oil. so you may want to experiment with this.emergency you can probably start the engine with a handkerchief. practice on some lonely road until you get the feel of the thing. END A quick yank starts the engine. knotted at one end and twisted into a short starting rope.and down-shifting will be governed in part by the tension of the idler spring. Also.check the belt idler tension. Run carburetor dry when you slop. and you're set for happy scootering. Remember that most belts will stretch after short use.

J. you teel as if you're doing 80 mph when you're doing 20. The low center of gravity and a width two-thirds the length make it almost impossible to flip a kart in a tight turn. you get a bonus in building the MI Highway Kart. Seated on a low-slung frame only inches from the ground. it is not necessary to register them.MI's HIGHWAY KART You don't need a trailer or a station wagon to haul this kart to a track-you can drive it there on public roads! By R. transporting a 90 CLAMPS and a piece of angle-iron hold kingpin brackets in position for welding. However. Since karts are generally driven on special tracks. Mechanix Illustrated . Yet it's surprisingly safe. Capotosto RIVING a kart is a real thrill. Just about everyone who tries a kart gets the urge to own one—and if you've got that urge.

then spot-welded beneath the sissy rails. BUMPERS AND SEAT RAILS ARE ANGLE IRON WITH JOINTS WELDED. OF REAR AXLE ROD AND PLATE ARE OF COLD-ROLLED STEEL FRONT AXLE BRACKETS ARE OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL. . ENGINE MOUNTING plate is tack-welded at first since it may require shifting later.SHEET STEEL is cut and bent to shape. NOTES: FRAMING MEMBERS.

Two are needed for kart used on highways. 92 BOTTOM view with the belly pan welded in place. Note bends in the control rods.BRAKES are the internal expanding type. Mechanix Illustrated .

Use a slotted nut and a cotter pin. DON'T overtighten the nut on the kingpin.THROTTLE control linkage is simple but foolproof. . Return spring is on the right.

EVER READY 12V FOG LAMP (2) BRACKETS are adjustable so that headlights may be lowered when not required. RETURN spring connected to brake linkage is strong enough to pull pedal back. Latex paint was used to give tires white sidewalls.CUSHIONS are foam rubber. READY for the road. 94 HEADLIGHT ASSEMBLY . Headlights 24 inches above ground comply with the law for night driving. A Boltaflex cover is stapled to the plywood backing.

the head- GROUND SEE NOTE BRAKE LIGHT STOP SWITCH RED LEAD RED LEAD 12-VOLT GENERATOR BUILT INTO ENGINE LIGHT SWITCH BLINKER SHORTING SWITCH BLACK LEAD DPDT TURN SWITCH TURN LIGHT SINGLE CONTACT 4 C.P. a rear license plate and a horn. First we had to supply three things: proof of ownership (a bill of sale for the engine). the linkage must be set so that both will be applied at once. However.TAIL LIGHT LICENSE PLATE LIGHT SINGLE CONTACT 4 C. TURN LIGHT DOUBLE CONTACT LAMP 4 C. With this in mind. In use. It can be hauled in a station wagon—if you own a wagon—or it can be towed on a trailer. Our plates were obtained in New York. (2) kart is often a problem. taillights. HAND CRANK for engine's impact starter folds up out of the way when not in use.P. (2) FOR HEADLIGHT USE CLEAR FOG LAMP (2) NOTE: IF TWO STOP LIGHTS ARE REQUIRED USE ANOTHER SWITCH WIRING DIAGRAM FOR 12-VOLT SYSTEM WITH TWO BRAKES. 95 . the lugging can be quite a nuisance. headlights. To make the kart legally roadworthy it had to have front and rear bumpers. a brake on each r e a r wheel. and a list of the parts used. turn signals. our model was designed so that registration could be obtained. Either way. regulations vary and the requirements would have to be checked in other states. an affidavit stating that the kart was built by ourselves.P. making it possible to drive the kart to its destination on public roads.

File all cuts clean to remove burrs prior to welding.76 cubic inch displacement. For simple and sturdy construction. If you do not plan to register the kart. lights are required to be 24 inches above the ground. one brake will be sufficient as a Class A rig. Start construction by cutting all the angle-iron to size and forming it as shown in the drawings.. When cutting notches. Cut the notches with a hack saw and save the triangular waste pieces. Electrifying the kart was simplified by using a Clinton E-65-1100 series engine with a built-in. relay and external generator. so we mounted the lights on adjustable brackets which allow them to be lowered. and specify Plan WB-4. something which is rather difficult unless you're an experienced welder. The 3/8-inch holes for the brake and [Continued on page 112] Mechanix Illustrated . Welding angle-iron is very easy by comparison. Greenwich. Conn. Fawcett Bldg. Send $3 to MI Plans Service. This eliminates welding of fish-mouth joints on tubing. releasing a spring which starts the engine.LARGE-SCALE PLANS are available with complete text and photos. These can be used to fill in the spaces formed where the slits open up on reverse bends. drill a 3/16-in hole at the base of the V to allow proper bending clearance.2 hp and it has a 5. MICRO MUFFLER is shown being bolted over exhaust port of Clinton E-65 engine. The engine delivers 5. Brakes are the six-inch internal expanding type. CRANK is pressed after four turns.. putting it in the Class A category. A permanent arrangement of this sort would not be desirable. 12-volt flywheel generator. It is fitted with an impact starter and four turns of the crank followed by a press to release the spring are sufficient to start the engine. It's also easy to shape the angle-iron by cutting slits or notches in one side and bending it in a vise. A Mercury centrifugal clutch permits no-load starting and load-free idling and it automatically applies the load to the engine at its most efficient speed. Mi's Highway Eart. LIGHT switches and a switch for shorting out engine are on panel below wheel. This eliminates the need for a heavy battery. angle-iron is used throughout.

The rear axle and brake flange are also attached at this time. the units can be assembled to the frame. Use a keyhole saw or. clamp the pieces together and tack-weld them first. clamping them at the stop guide brackets. a jig saw with a finetoothed blade and a slow speed. Then check the positioning to see if it's all right to complete the welds. Wax the blade and feed the work slowly. The 1-1/4x1/2-in. To simplify the welding. kingpin brackets should be clamped in perfect alignment before they are welded in place. better still. If your welder is equipped with a carbonarc torch. The throttle and brake linkages are assembled as shown in the drawings. Note that the rear axle is offset to allow for the sprocket on the left side. Drill and tap the tubing to accept a grease fit[Continued on page 116] May. you will find it excellent for heating the metal. The engine mounting plate is made from quarter-inch steel plate. The firewall. The rods should not bind when the pedals are operated. 1962 . tack-weld it into place. The steering knuckles are made by welding 3/4x4-inch cap screws to steel tubing of half-inch inside diameter. We used a Lincwelder 100 and obtained excellent results. The return springs should also be in place at this time so that proper tensioning and positioning is obtained. A simple way to make the slots is to drill the two end holes and cut out the material between. Since this plate may have to be moved slightly on final assembly. It has elongated slots to allow for proper alignment of the engine. Temporarily attach the rod assemblies to the frame. belly pan. Attach all these plates by spot-welding every inch.Highway Kaxt [Continued from page 96] throttle studs should also be drilled at this time. These brackets are made by heating the metal to a cherry red and then bending them in a vise. Make the control rods from quarter-inch coldrolled steel. When all checks out. threaded at each end. dash and side pieces under the sissy rails are cut from 20-gauge sheet steel with heavy-duty shears. Bending is required to fit the side pieces into place.

Law[Continued on page 118] May. a two-inch foam rubber filler and a covering of Boltaflex. The wheels. The stop light switch must be positioned so that it closes the circuit when the brake pedal is depressed one half of its travel. As an added safety feature. noting the exact location of the hole. are available from the Indus Corp. Lock the nut in place with a second nut and then drill through the flat side of the nut. The carburetor throttle lever is connected directly to the throttle linkage through a length of throttle cable. The taillights and turn lights are screwed directly to the frame by drilling small holes at the rear of the fixtures.. The steering tie rods are threaded at each end for a distance of one inch so that there will be sufficient adjustment for toe-in. Ind. Determine the location of the hole by placing the wheel with bearings on the axle.Highway Kart [Continued from page 112] ting. The 3/8-inch bronze bushings are pressed into the top and bottom of the steering rod tube. A plastic mallet is good for driving them in. Then remove the wheel and thread a nut onto the axle. the wheel and arm are welded to the steering rod after assembly. again using 20-gauge steel for straps. The electrical system is next added by following the wiring diagram. The steering rod and wheel are made of 3/8-inch cold-rolled steel. Make sure that the arm is in alignment with the steering wheel before welding. The large bend in the wheel may be made cold but the sharp bends will have to be heated. 1815 Madison Ave. Naturally. Division of The General Tire and Rubber Co. 1962 . the engine must be running to provide current for this test. incidentally. Attach the cable to the body of the engine with a bracket made from a scrap of 20-gauge steel. The separate gas tank is mounted directly behind the driver's seat. The cotter pin hole in the axle also may be made at this time.. a product of Bolta Products.. Use stranded wire and tape all the leads in a neat bunch so that none will dangle. taking care to remove any burrs that may form on the inside. The upholstery consists of a quarterinch plywood backing. Indianapolis 25.

you can build the kart for considerably less if you don't want to include the features necessary for highway use. Box 7031. Jersey City 7. To add to the looks of the kart. MI has made arrangements with the Finecrafts Products Co. Naturally.Highway Kart [Continued from page 116] rence.. Due to the space limitations where the engine is positioned. control rods. Write to them for a price list. However. We used a latex paint for this. are sprayed with aluminum paint. Mass. bringing the total cost to $201. to supply readers with the parts for this kart.74. All metal parts of the kart should be given a coat of metal primer before painting them with enamel. Pull the material tight over the foam and staple it to the rear of the plywood. • . etc.74.2-hp engine with built-in 12-volt generator was $85. The Indus wheels do not come with white walls as shown. including everything but the engine.. it is not possible to make full turns of the impact starter crank. Our kart. a ribbed rubber floor mat is used. J. the crank is connected through a ratchet and full turns are not necessary. N. was built for $116.. The lamp brackets. Be sure to clean the rubber thoroughly before painting. The 5.

Coil springs used in the rear suspension are kept aligned by 3/4-in. coil-spring suspension. that will give a width of 41-1/2 in. four speeds forward and reverse. Strips of inner-tube rubber then are wrapped on the pipe under the brackets to provide a "snubbing" pivot. But it's also a heart-saver for the aged. Figs. It features twin-motor drive. The next step after the main frame is assembled is to assemble the drive-unit frame. Grandmother. and a "school bus" or shopping "car" for Mom.Versatile is the word for this golfcart-runabout. "legs" for an invalid. First step in the construction is to make the main frame. Figs. 7 through 11. of steel channels and angles. POPULAR MECHANICS . 7 and 10. The drive-unit frame is made narrow enough to clear the brake drums on the wheels. between the tires and the outer edges of the cart's main frame. The rear cross member of this frame is a length of 3/4-in. both to assure stability on any terrain and to provide ample room for any of several combinations of motors and batteries. Dad and the kids all find use for it GOLF CART-OR FAMILY RUNABOUT First.h. Arc welding is required in this assembly. pipe that pivots in two U-shaped brackets bolted to plates that are welded to the rear cross member of the main frame. Mother. between the outer sides of the tires. farm or business. The brackets are a loose fit on the pipe. The cart is wide and low. Stub axles for the rear wheels are welded to a length of pipe to produce a complete axle. it's a golf cart powerful enough to carry two adults and equipment up steep slopes. This leaves a clearance of 3/4 in. 2-wheel brakes and tricycle steering. plus a built-in battery charger PART I By Tom Riley SPEEDS UP TO 20 m.p. and 30 to 40 miles on a single charging of the batteries make this cart an ideal utility vehicle for any home.

balloon aircraft tire or a 16-in. The fork assembly is made as shown in the left-hand detail. electric motors can be used for the cart. the wheels should have 4. Fig. plywood is bolted to the drive-unit frame to support the motors. The latter then is welded over a hole drilled in the 3-in.pipe caps bolted to spring plates at the front of the drive-unit frame and to the 2in. 6 and 10. frame channel. standard industrial tire should be used. Aircraft starter motors. Also available are 6in. Wheels. which should be purchased before assembling the drive-unit frame because of the need for measurements. A long 3/8-in. Slotted holes in the plywood permit the motors to be moved to allow adjustment of chain tension. Heavy turnbuckles are attached to the frame and to the motors near the shaft ends to "hold" this adjustment. A 14-1/2-in.m. and are complete with bearings. Three types of d. pressed into a counterbored length of pipe or tubing.c. Spend your time improving your game. can be of several types. bolt with fuller balls at each end is used to "snub" the frames together and to prevent sidesway of the drive-unit frame. Either turned brass bushings or ball bearings can be used. to the rear wheels. A piece of 3/4-in. For the rear.50 x 8 turf-type tires. Sprockets and chains from light motorcycles are used with each to deliver a speed of from 350 to 400 r.80 or 5. brake drums and sprockets drilled to fit the wheels. The lower right-hand detail in Fig. 7. which are available as war surplus. A less ex- pensive substitute are wheels torn light aircraft.p. such as used on most golf carts. cross member of the main frame. For the front wheel of the cart a rounded tire is best. hubs. 7 shows the snubber bolt. and spindles. These have tires with a channel tread. springs and pivot-bracket setups. The cart gets you around in half the time . instead of walking. Figs.

extreme turning angle possible Fig. they are designed for intermittent service and should be run with four batteries producing 12 volts.m. rating of any type motor before obtaining sprockets... Fig. 8. Most of these motors turn only about 100 r. A second type aircraft motor.p. 9. can be used if only moderate power is required. Although rated at 24 volts.p. foot and hand brakes. A third type motor. also available as surplus. which makes it necessary to use a gear reducer of from 5-to-l or 10-to-l to reduce the speed to a point where chains and sprockets can handle it. so a large sprocket is fitted on the motor and a smaller one on the wheel. is a propulsion or traction motor. the most expensive. or three batteries that will provide 18 volts.m.Photo of frame front end shows location of fork.m. Check the r.p. is a high-speed unit that rotates at about 5000 r. available as war surplus. such 168 POPULAR MECHANICS .

such as used tor golf carts and industrial lifts 2" CHANNEL APRIL 1958 169 .Drive-unit frame with aircraft starter motors installed. Note turnbuckles from the frame to motors Here drive unit is fitted with propulsion motors.

They are available from the larger motor manufacturers.-dia. electric lifts and the like. These. The parking-brake handle can be one picked up in an auto-wrecking yard. 7. and nine holes in the seat floorboard ventilate the charger and batteries. Ten 2-in. holes in the back are located toward the center so mud from the tires will not spatter through. Arrangement of the cables for both the hand and foot brakes is shown in Fig. exterior-grade plywood.2" CHANNEL EYEBOLT STEEL FLAT TURNBUCKIE CHANNEL ANGLES ANGLE HEAVY SPRING PARKING-BRAKE CABLE as is used for golf carts." The latter brake is efficient. If you purchase wheels with 6-in. 11 and 13. Figs. after being slotted for the reversing switch. parking brakes of the external-contracting type. cut from 1/2-in. Brakes for the rear wheels of the cart can be made in two ways. can be 'modified for use as shown in the right-hand detail. 1 through 5 show just a few of the STEERING HANDLE CHARGER BATTERIES SPEED CHANGER SINGLE WHEEL "ACCELERATOR" SWITCH REVERSING SWITCH 2" VENTHOLES LOCATION OF BASIC PARTS REAR SPRING MOTORS DRIVE-UNIT FRAME 170 POPULAR MECHANICS . 10. Fig. but wears rapidly. A second type of brake is to bolt a double V-pulley to each wheel and use two V-belts as "brake bands. Figs. used on the drive shaft of Plymouth cars.. The seat back and three floorboards now are cut from 3/4-in. plywood also is attached. drums. The seat front.

It is important that this switch be handy for any driver.Springs used to counterbalance the hoods of some automobiles are strong enough for the fork assembly many uses for this versatile golf cart-runabout. If it is to be used by an invalid. battery hook-up and attachment of the body sides. The "accelerator" pedal can be replaced with a lever-controlled switch on the instrument panel or glove shelf. front and seat. as it can be used to brake the cart in an emergency. the cart should be fitted with hand. rather than foot controls. An upward-projecting extension handle also will have to be fitted on the reversing-switch. Note reverse lever at front of the seat APRIL 1958 . Brakes also can be operated by a long lever projecting upward through the floorboard and positioned for the driver to grasp it easily. You may find that your state or city does not permit a vehicle of this type to be driven on the streets or on the highways. Next month will be shown the installation of wiring. This view of cart shows neat appearance of seat and rear deck. If the cart is to be driven on streets or highways. check with city and state officials for types of licenses required before constructing the cart.

place them four in a row across the center of the seat space. Batteries having bolt-on connecting posts are the best for installation in the cart. left-hand detail in Fig. Because the batteries are charged as a unit. as they allow interconnection of the batteries with inexpensive "bus bars" of 1/8 x 3/4-in. If long. steel angles for a hold-down and secure this frame on two ends by means of long 5/16-in.GOLF CART. Batteries shown in Fig. the detail to the right shows a WIRING 24-volt hookup. 15 shows how four 6-volt batteries can be hooked together for 12 volts. narrow batteries are used. ARMATURE SWITCH If the cart is used on the street. it is necessary to 6 VOlTS TO LIGHTS FOR 12 VOLTS ("ACCELERATOR") determine the method to POPULAR MECHANICS . 6-volt batteries rated at 170-amp. drive-unit frame and all other work described in Part I last month.RUNABOUT PART II By Tom Riley A FTER COMPLETING the main frame. the battery from which all the accessories were draining still would not be up to IGNITION SWITCH standard.RELAY one battery is not overtaxed. hours or better should be used to assure maximum performance. tap each unit from a different battery. when the other three RESISTANCE COIL were fully charged. it will require a horn and lights as well as a license. aluminum flats. Heavy-duty. grouped in a rectangle and centered in the cart. Weld a frame of 3/4-in. the next step in construction of the cart is installation of the batteries. This distributes the electrical drain so that . hardwood to the floorboard around the batteries to keep them in place. Note the FIELD REVERSING 6-volt take-off for lights. Fig. When extra accessories are installed. BATTERY HOOKUP FOOT SWITCH Next. 19. This arrangement is similar to that used to hold the battery in an automobile. Screw strips of 3/4 x 3/4-in. bolts passed through the floorboard. 19 are standardsized. The lower.

AT 24-VOLT CAPACITY. Figs. wiring diagram for reversing aircraft starter motors as corrected by builder of original cart. 115-VOLT CAPACITY INDICATOR LIGHT SELENIUM RECTIFIER SINGLE-PHASE BRIDGE CIRCUIT.use for reversing the motors you are going to use. The heavy-duty reversing switch required. or hinge. so no changes are necessary in this type of motor. HOOKUP FOR REVERSING STARTER MOTORS MAIN TERMINAL FIELD INSULATED BRUSH FRAME GROUND REVERSING SWITCH GROUND BRUSH NEG TO BATTERIES ' 12 TO 18 VOLTS FROM SPEED CONTROL Above. double-pole. when they are level. below it. shows installation of four. If necessary. Bolt a block of insulating material between the blades at the center. jaws of the switch about 3/4 in. Wiring diagram is shown at left 115-VOLTPLUG 12-HR. above. It still is best to check with an electrician before connecting your motors.-long copper blades. CAPACITY AT 26 VOLTS 12 TO 24-VOLTS D. is obtained inexpensively by rebuilding an old-style 50 to 100-amp. with a diagram printed on the motor or terminal box. then attach a new handle. Most traction motors have 3 or 4 terminals on the outside.. TIMER SWITCH 20-AMP. Raise the two center. 6-volt batteries. 15 TO 20-AMP. Bolts securing all six jaws to the base should extend about 3/4 in. with hold-down frame.C. Fig. A diagram supplied with motors used on the original cart was incorrect. because these particular motors had grounded armatures. 16. Fig. as shown in Fig. Jt still is best to have electrician check motors INSULATING MATERIAL COPPER OR ALUMINUM STRIPS 17 WIRING (UNDERSIDE) Reversing switch for cart. pivoted at the middle. 16 shows how these were correctly reversed. Charger and timer are in foreground. They can be obtained at some electricians' shops because they are being replaced in homes today with less exposed disconnects. TO BATTERIES MAY 1958 177 . 17 and 21. but it is best to have an electrician check to make sure it is right. on pipe spacers. reposition the four outer jaws on the base plate so they fit under the new blades. resulting in a dead short. Replace the two blades and handle with two 5-in. 17. They sometimes can be obtained at an electrician's shop Photo. Most surplus aircraft motors will require that short leads be run through the brush cover to extra terminals on an insulated base outside the motor. so they CHARGER DIAGRAM 115 VOLT TO 12-24 VOLT TRANSFORMER 25 AMP. Reversing diagrams sometimes are supplied with these surplus motors. double-throw service entrance switch. it recommended reversing the polarity of the brushes. is made by modifying switch used originally in house wiring. below. so the blades will clear the end jaws by 3/16 in.

The switch handle is a 1/4 x 1/2 x 10-in. resulting in low speed. a speed control is assembled from four 6-volt auto-starter relays. such as for a 1946 to 1954 Plymouth. using copper or aluminum strips. Bolt the four relays to a 4 x 12in. If available. steel flat. Use auto relays that have no connection between the relay coil and its main terminals. wiring diagram and layout of speed control shows how resistance coil is offset to keep it well below rear deck. causing either a heavy "short" or chattering of the relays. which will cause the 12 to 24-volt current to feed back through the 6-volt coils. motor type and voltage used.Speed-control unit. On the underside of the switch base. just beyond the insulating block to which it is bolted. 1 causes the current to pass through the full length of the resistance coil. to quiet the click when they operate. above. Figs. is raised on pipe spacers so that wiring can be run in the space beneath it + TO BATTERIES TO REVERSING SWITCH SPEED CONTROL ALUMINUM BUS BAR 2" FRAME A N G L E . for example. piece of 1/4-in. hardboard. aluminum bar and bolt the motor-side terminals of the relays to it. 24-volt aircraft relays. Closing relays 2. which have silver contacts. of POPULAR MECHANICS 178 . consists of four autostarter relays and a rectangular resistance coil Reversing switch. cross-connect the four outer terminals as indicated in Fig. twisted 90 deg. ELECTRIC-CABLE CLAMP RUBBER WASHERS BUS BAR 221 SIDE VIEW -H/B Above. 20 and 22. Making the resistance coil is a cut-and-try matter. In operation—see Fig. Fig. 22—closing relay No. Connect the four relay housings together with a small wire to provide a 6-volt ground. with No. To vary the speed of the cart motors. above. hood is marked for cutting can accommodate two nuts and cable terminals. Most Ford relays. depending on the wire. are best. using rubber washers as indicated in the lower detail. 4 producing full speed because it allows the current to bypass the resistance coil. The end is ground down and threaded to accept a small gear-shift knob from an automobile steering-column lever. which pass the electric current through a varying length of chrome-nickel resistance wire. 17. look the same. Below. Drill holes 3 in. but have the relay coil wired internally to one of the main terminals. 3 and 4 give constantly higher speeds. Try about 10 ft. 22. apart in a 1/8 x 3/4 x 11-in.

19 produces more than 20 amps. and has both a 12 and 24-volt output. 15. than between the others. stranded wire. Fig. 14 and 25 show how the two sides. chrome-nickel resistance wire. mount the coil above the relays. The charger shown in Fig. Figs. 22. wrapped around a 2 x 6 to form a rectangular coil. rather than by looping the wire around the relay terminals. or heavier. reversing switch and motors. Autobattery cable is excellent but expensive. Some heavy-duty surplus radio switches also can be used. add more resistance wire between the first two relays. rear panel and rear deck. and extending out from them as in Fig. 18. if too fast. They are a "shorting type" switch. at 24 volts. Mount the transformer on brackets about 1/2 in. secured to the underside of the floorboards. Connect the clamps so there is more coil between relays 1 and 2. The wiper arm of the switch contacts each following terminals before disconnecting from the preceding terminal. such as used for large fans. above the floorboard.1/8-in. If this produces too slow a first speed. The built-in charger is an optional feature. connect the coil to the relays with electric serviceentrance cable clamps. The wiring diagram is shown in Fig. providing a smooth action. A 12-hour. but is less AUTO-ACCELERATOR PEDAL 24 "ACCELERATOR" SWITCH (SHORTING-TYPE SWITCH) satisfactory because it is difficult to bend at sharp angles. The side rails on the rear of the cart are bent SCREW V PLYWOOD %" PLYWOOD MAY 1958 179 . if that current were used in your cart. so wiring can be located beneath it. On the original cart. cut down on the length. is mounted under the seat. For the same reason. Because the wire gets hot when the cart is running. The heavy wiring from the batteries to the speed control. The 6-volt wire from the batteries and the four wires from the relays to the "accelerator pedal" need be only 18-ga. but it definitely simplifies servicing. spring-wound timer switch.angle crossframe with two pieces of steel angle. the accelerator switch. cut from 1/2-in. House-service cable can be used. 22. 24. The clamps also allow you to tap off anywhere along the coil. The speed control is bolted to the center of the 2-in. was a long-wearing. An 18-volt transformer would have to be used. silver-contact type made especially for this purpose by one of the larger golf-cart manufacturers.-dia. Fig. plywood are attached and trimmed with linoleum trim strips and steel angles. should be 6 ga. Fig.

that has the advantage of producing a tough. The seat cushion is assembled around a sheet of 1/2-in. It is necessary to have the seat cushion removable to permit access to the batteries.from 1/2-in. The seat back is formed in the same manner as the cushion. plywood and screwed to the inside of the hood at a convenient height. or package. with about 5 in. Fig. Remove the hood and cut it with a bandsaw. If the cart is to be used for golfing. The completed cart can be painted with any enamel. The hand-brake lever is fastened to the underside of the glove shelf with a metal bracket. heavy finish in one coat. two-color "spatter" paint. plywood. 23. Install a keyed "ignition" switch and any other accessories desired on the panel. Fig. two lengths of web strapping are screwed to the top edge of the seat back. is used to cover the rear deck. The degree of slant will vary. floorboards and glove shelf. * * * 180 . lacquer or other exterior-type finish. Upholstering of the seat cushion and back may be done by a professional. Push it down until the top end assumes an even curve. Rubber floor matting. 25. An instrument panel is screwed to the glove shelf at about a 10-deg. or at home. depending on the necessary clearance above the batteries being used. Cut this panel after it has been clamped or screwed to the center of the floorboard. if a heavy-duty sewing machine is available. extending below it. angle. or cut it in place with a handsaw. The original cart was finished with a vinyl-lacquer. except that it is assembled on a sheet of 1/4-in. Thin-Wall electrical tubing. The completed back then is screwed permanently to the seat back. Metal enamel should be used on the wheels. plywood. Drill a few holes in the bottom of the seat cushion to provide air escapes for the filling. is cut from 1/2 or 3/4-in. mark the vertical lines of the doorway and any pleasing curve desired for the top and bottom edges of the hood. obtainable at most auto-supply stores. The cover material of the seat should be weather-resistant plastic. The glove. Now. rails and steering column of the cart. The golf bags then can be strapped in place. right-hand detail. hardboard. measuring 24 x 76 in. to provide more comfortable seating. and does not require a spray gun for application. Then bend and clamp the ends of the hardboard to the frame. shelf. The hood of the cart is formed from a single sheet of 1/8-in. Note that the seat cushion is slanted slightly. then screw it to the floorboard every 8 in. the completed cushion resting on hardwood strips. layers of foam rubber cemented together. and the filling should be two 2-in. shown in the photos in Part I of this article.

You will note that there are three blocks set in between the backbone pieces. plank. To simplify driving the screws and to prevent splitting the wood. round the front end. and attach a back- both from the underside of the body. Brackets on each side of the backbone are also advised. these being attached to the backbone pieces before they are fastened down on the body.IMPLE construction and low cost enable any boy to have one of these ice scooters First get a 2 by Y-in. long. 6 ft. and drive them in. you BICYCLL FORK slip a washer on tlxm against the head. The forward two are spaced to provide a mast 171 .

locking each other. For a sail you can use muslin. and a couple of spacers that center the runner between the ends of the fork. The blocks are fastened in place by means of carriage bolts as shown in Fig. which is likely to come off. and the lower edges are filed to a sharp edge as shown in Fig. However. an eye welded to a ring that can be clamped to the mast is preferable because any hole through the mast tends to weaken it. 2. Fig. Be sure that the pivot points work freely. 1 shows how a hook on the bottom fits an eyebolt through the mast. which is cut off. iron connecting rod. threaded at both ends for nuts. Eyelets (grommets) are inserted along the mast and boom edges of the sail for light rope lacing. both extending out toward one side and linked together with a 1/4 or 3/8-in. boiler plate by means of a hacksaw. The spacers may be cut from pipe. The rear runners are pivoted between two lengths of angle iron bolted to the ends of the rear crosswiece.step and the aft one helps to support the steering column. long is attached to the steering fork. A short arm about 6 or 8 in. Waxing Ski Runners A chemical heat pad will be found effective in warming ski runners for the application of a coat of wax. long. This is threaded at both ends. . Ice Marked Off for Hockey Game With Salt and Ochre \ To mark the ice with indelible boundary lines for a game of hockey. 5. 4. mix equal parts of salt and red ochre powder and apply as shown in the drawing at the left. When the wax is put on the warm runners it will flow freely and can be rubbed down to a smooth finish in a few seconds. Two nuts on each end. The steering post is similarly attached with flat-iron straps. flattened and drilled to suit as shown in Fig. 4 ft. The salt will melt the ochre into the ice to leave a line that is easy to see and will last as long as the ice remains frozen. plank. The boom should extend upward at an angle sufficient to clear the rider's head as well as the steering wheel. They are cut out of %-in. and one of similar length is pinned and clamped to the steering column. The corners should be reinforced for strength. are better than only one nut. Runners are all the same size. MIXED . 172 - RED O [ H U POWDt R . these being welded to the fork. It consists of a length of pipe which serves as a bearing for a steel rod. The front runner support is an old bicycle fork. after which the ends are bent over at right angles to fit holes in the arms.. double stitched and hemmed. which is a 2 by 6-in. The fork is clamped to the front end of the backbone with heavy flat-iron straps. One of the runners is attached to the front fork by means of a steel rod. or bolted to it with short machine screws so they will not interfere with the inside piece that turns.

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