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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID AND SOLID MECHANICS
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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID AND SOLID MECHANICS
Proceedings First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics June 1215,2001
Editor: K.J. Bathe Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
VOLUME 1
2001 ELSEVIER
Amsterdam  London  New York  Oxford  Paris  Shannon  Tokyo
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Preface
Mathematical modeling and numerical solution is today firmly established in science and engineering. Research conducted in almost all branches of scientific investigations and the design of systems in practically all disciplines of engineering can not be pursued effectively without, frequently, intensive analysis based on numerical computations. The world we live in has been classified by the human mind, for descriptive and analysis purposes, to consist of fluids and solids, continua and molecules; and the analyses of fluids and solids at the continuum and molecular scales have traditionally been pursued separately. Fundamentally, however, there are only molecules and particles for any material that interact on the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Therefore, to unify the analysis of physical systems and to reach a deeper understanding of the behavior of nature in scientific investigations, and of the behavior of designs in engineering endeavors, a new level of analysis is necessary. This new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution does not merely involve the analysis of a single medium but must encompass the solution of multiphysics problems involving fluids, solids, and their interactions, involving multiscale phenomena from the molecular to the macroscopic scales, and must include uncertainties in the given data and the solution results. Nature does not distinguish between fluids and solids and does not ever exactly repeat itself. This new level of analysis must also include, in engineering, the effective optimization of systems, and the modeling and analysis of complete life spans of engineering products, from design to fabrication, to possibly multiple repairs, to end of service. The objective of the M.I.T. Conferences ^ on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics is to bring together researchers and practitioners of mathematical modeling and numerical solution in order to focus on the current state of analysis of fluids, soUds, and multiphysics phenomena and
to lead towards the new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution that we envisage. However, there is also a most valuable related objective indeed a "mission"  for the M.I.T. Conferences. When contemplating the future and carving a vision thereof, two needs stand clearly out. The first is the need to foster young researchers in computational mechanics, because they will revitaUze the field with new ideas and increased energy. The second need is to bring Industry and Academia together for a greater synthesis of efforts in research and developments. This mission expressed in 'To bring together Industry and Academia and To nurture the next generation in computational mechanics'' is of great importance in order to reach, already in the near future, the new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution, and in order to provide an exciting research environment for the next generation in computational mechanics. We are very grateful for the support of the sponsors of the Conference, for providing the financial and intellectual support to attract speakers and bring together Industry and Academia. In the spirit of helping young researchers, fellowships have been awarded to about one hundred young researchers for travel, lodging and Conference expenses, and in addition. Conference fees have been waived for all students. The papers presented at the Conference and published in this book represent, in various areas, the stateoftheart in the field. The papers have been largely attracted by the session organizers. We are very grateful for their efforts. Finally, we would like to thank JeanFrangois Hiller, a student at M.I.T, for his help with the Conference, and also Elsevier Science, in particular James Milne, for the efforts and help provided to publish this book in excellent format and in due time for the Conference.
K.J. BATHE, M.I.T.
^ A series of Conferences is planned.
Session Organizers
We would like to thank the Session Organizers for their help with the Conference. G. Astfalk, HewlettPackard Company, U.S.A. N. Bellomo, Politecnico di Torino, Italy Z. Bittnar, Prague Technical University, Czech Republic D. Boffi, University of Pavia, Italy S. Borgersen, SciMed, U.S.A. M. Borri, Politecnico di Milano, Italy M.A. Bradford, University of New South Wales, Australia M.L. Bucalem, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil J. Bull, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. S.W. Chae, Korea University, South Korea D. Chapelle, INRIA, France C.N. Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan G. Cheng, Dalian University of Technology, PR. China H.Y. Choi, HongIk University, South Korea K. Christensen, HewlettPackard Company, U.S.A. M.A. Christon, Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A. R. Cosner, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. S. De, Massachusetts Institute of Technology., U.S.A. Y.C. Deng, General Motors, U.S.A. R.A. Dietrich, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Germany J. Dolbow, Duke University, U.S.A. E.H. Dowell, Duke University, U.S.A. R. Dreisbach, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. E.N. Dvorkin, SIDERCA, Argentina N. ElAbbasi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. C. Felippa, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. D. Ferguson, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. D. M. Frangopol, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. L. Gastaldi, University of Pavia, Italy P. Gaudenzi, University of Rome, Italy A. Ghoniem, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. R. Glowinski, University of Houston, U.S.A. P. Gresho, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S.A. N. Hadjiconstantinou, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M. Hafez, University of California, Davis, U.S.A. K. Hall, Duke University, U.S.A. 0. Hassan, University of Wales, U.K. A. Ibrahimbegovic, ENSCachan, France S. Idelsohn, INTEC, Argentina A. Jameson, Stanford University, U.S.A. 1. Janajreh, Michelin, U.S.A. R.D. Kamm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. S. Key, Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A. W. Kirchhoff, Department of Energy, U.S.A. W.B. Kratzig, RuhrUniversitat Bochum, Germany A. Krimotat, SC Solutions, Inc., U.S.A. C.S. Krishnamoorthy, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India (deceased) Y. Kuznetsov, University of Houston, U.S.A. L. Martinelli, Princeton University, U.S.A. H. Matthies, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany S.A. Meguid, University of Toronto, Canada K. Meintjes, General Motors, U.S.A. C. Meyer, Columbia University, U.S.A. R. Ohayon, CNAM, France M. Papadrakakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece K.C. Park, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. J. Periaux, Dassault Aviation, France O. Pironneau, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France E. Rank, Technical University of Munich, Germany A. Rezgui, Michelin, France C.Y Sa, General Motors, U.S.A. G. Schueller, University of Innsbruck, Austria T. Siegmund, Purdue University, U.S.A. J. Sladek, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovak Republic S. Sloan, University of Newcastle, Australia G. Steven, University of Sydney, Australia R. Sun, DaimlerChrysler, U.S.A. S. Sutton, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S.A. B. Szabo, Washington University, St. Louis, U.S.A. J. Tedesco, University of Florida, U.S.A. T. Tezduyar, Rice University, U.S.A. B.H.V. Topping, HeriotWatt University, U.K. F.J. Ulm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. J.M. Vacherand, Michelin, France L. Wang, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong X. Wang, Polytechnic University of New York, U.S.A. N. Weatherill, University of Wales, U.K. J. White, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. P. Wriggers, University of Hannover, Germany S. Xu, General Motors, U.S.A. T. Zohdi, University of Hannover, Germany
Fellowship Awardees
M. AlDojayli, University of Toronto, Canada B.N. Alemdar, Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.A. Alves, Universidade do Porto, Portugal R. Angst, Technical University of Berlin, Germany D. Antoniak, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland S. J. Antony, University of Surrey, U.K. A. Badeau, West Virginia University, U.S.A. W. Bao, The National University of Singapore, Singapore M. Bathe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. A.C. Bauer, University of New York, Buffalo, U.S.A. C. Bisagni, Politecnico di Milano, Italy S. Butkewitsch, Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil S. Cen, Tsinghua University, China G. Chaidron, CNAM, France M. Council, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden A. Czekanski, University of Toronto, Canada C. E. Dalhuysen, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa D. Dall'Acqua, Noetic Engineering Inc., Canada S. De, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. D. Demarco, SIDERCA, Argentina J. Dolbow, Duke University, U.S.A. J.E. Drews, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany J.L. Drury, University of Michigan, U.S.A. C.A. Duarte, Altair Engineering, U.S.A. F. Dufour, CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Australia A. Ferent, INRIA, France M.A. Fernandez, INRIA, France Y. Fragakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece A. Frangi, PoUtecnico di Milano, Italy T. Fujisawa, University of Tokyo, Japan J.R. Fernandez Garcia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain J.F. Gerbeau, INRIA, France M. Gliick, FriedrichAlexander University, Erlangen, Germany C. Gonzalez, Politecnica de Madrid, Spain K. Goto, University of Tokyo, Japan S. Govender, University of Natal, South Africa T. Gratsch, University of Kassel, Germany B. Gu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. Y. T. Gu, National University of Singapore, Singapore S. Gupta, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India M. Handrik, University of Zilina, Slovakia
L. Haubelt, Rice University, U.S.A. V. Havu, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland N. Impollonia, University of Messina, Italy R. lozzi. University of Rome, "La Sapienza", Italy H. Karaouni, Ecole Polytechnique, France R. Keck, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany C.W. Keierleber, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, U.S.A. K. Kolanek, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland L. Ktibler, University of ErlangenNiimberg, Erlangen, Germany D. Kuzmin, University of Dortmund, Germany N.D. Lagaros, National Technical University of Athens, Greece R. Garcia Lage, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Portugal P.D. Ledger, University of Swansea, Wales, U.K. J. Li, Courant Institute, New York, U.S.A. J. Li, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. G. Limbert, University of Southampton, U.K. K. Liu, Polytechnic University of New York, U.S.A. M.B. Liu, National University of Singapore, Singapore J. Long, University of New York, Buffalo, U.S.A. I. Lubowiecka, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland A.A. Mailybaev, Moscow State Lomonosov University, Russia M. Malinen, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland E.A. Malsch, Columbia University, U.S.A. Y. Marzouk, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M. Meyer, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany B. Miller, Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland D.P. Mok, University of Stuttgart, Germany G. Morgenthal, University of Cambridge, U.K. M. Moubachir, Laboratoire Central des Fonts et Chaussees, France S.K. Nadarajah, Stanford University, U.S.A. J. Nemecek, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic T.S. Ng, Imperial College, U.K. N. Nuno, Universita di Parma, Italy M. Palacz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland H. Pan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore G. Pedro, University of Victoria, Canada X. Peng, Northwestern University, U.S.A. R.C. Penmetsa, Wright State University, U.S.A. R. Premkumar, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India
Fellowship Awardees C. Prud'homme, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. K. Roe, Purdue University, U.S.A. S. Rugonyi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.L. Munoz Ruiz, Universidad de Malaga, Spain N. Ruse, University of Stuttgart, Germany S. Sarkar, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India C.A. Schenk, University of Innsbruck, Austria S. Shankaran, Stanford University, U.S.A. D. Slinchenko, University of Natal, South Africa D.O. Snyder, Utah State University, U.S.A. K.A. S0rensen, University of Swansea, Wales, U.K. A. Takahashi, University of Tokyo, Japan S. Ubal, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina U.V. Unnithan, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, India F. Valentin, National Laboratory of Brazil for Scientific Computing, Brazil R. Vodicka, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia V.M. Wasekar, University of Cincinnati, U.S.A. S. Wijesinghe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.W. Wilson, Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S.A. W. Witkowski, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland A.M. Yommi, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina Y. Zhang, Dalian University of Technology, China K. Zhao, General Motors Corp., U.S.A.
Sponsors
The following organizations are gratefully acknowledged for their generous sponsorship of the Conference:
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Contents Volume 1
Preface Session Organizers Fellowship Awardees Sponsors
•
v vi vii ix
Plenary Papers
Alum, N., Ye, W., Ramaswamy, D., Wang, X., White, J., Efficient simulation techniques for complicated micromachined devices Brezzi, R, Subgrid scales, augmented problems, and stabilizations Dreisbach, R.L., Cosner, R.R., Trends in the design analysis of aerospace vehicles Ingham, T.J., Issues in the seismic analysis of bridges Lions, J.L., Virtual control algorithms Makinouchi, A., Teodosiu, C, Numerical methods for prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming McQueen, DM., Peskin, C.S., Zhu, L., The Immersed Boundary Method for incompressible fluidstructure interaction Ottolini, R.M., Rohde, S.M., GMs journey to math: the virtual vehicle 2 8 11 16 20 21 26 31
Solids & Structures
Antony, SJ., Ghadiri, M., Shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions: DEM simulations Araya, R., Le Tallec, R, Hierarchical a posteriori error estimates for heterogeneous incompressible elasticity Augusti, G., Mariano, P.M., Stazi, F.L., Localization phenomena in randomly microcracked bodies Austrell, P.E., Olsson, A.K., Jonsson, M., A method to analyse the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of rubber components using standard FE codes Ba§ar, Y., Hanskotter, U., Kintzel, O., Schwab, C, Simulation of large deformations in shell structures by the pversion of the finite element method Bardenhagen, S.G., Byutner, O., Bedrov, D., Smith, G.D., Simulation of frictional contact in threedimensions using the Material Point Method 36 39 43 47 50 54
xii Bauchau, O.A., Bottasso, C.L., On the modeling of shells in multibody dynamics
Contents Volume 1
58 61 65 68 72 74 78 82 85 88 91 95 99 104 107 HI 114
Bay lot, J.T., Papados, P.P., Fragment impact pattern effect on momentum transferred to concrete targets Becache, E., Joly, P., Scarella, G., A fictitious domain method for unilateral contact problems in nondestructive testing Belforte, G., Franco, W., Sorli, M., Timefrequency pneumatic transmission line analysis Bohm, R, Duda, A., Wille, R., On some relevant technical aspects of tire modelling in general Borri, M., Bottasso, C.L., Trainelli, L, An index reduction method in nonholonomic system dynamics Boucard, PA., Application of the LATIN method to the calculation of response surfaces Brunet, M., Morestin, R, Walter, H., A unified failure approach for sheetmetals formability analysis Bull, J. W., Underground explosions: their effect on runway fatigue life and how to mitigate their effects Cacciola, P., Impollonia, N., Muscolino, G., Stochastic seismic analysis of RFBI isolation system Carter, J.P, Wang, C.X., Geometric softening in geotechnical problems Cen, S., Long, Y., Yao, Z., A new hybridenhanced displacementbased element for the analysis of laminated composite plates Chakraborty, S., Brown, D.A., Simulating static and dynamic lateral load testing of bridge foundations using nonlinear finite element models . . Chapelle, D., Rerent, A., Asymptotic analysis of the coupled model shells3D solids Chapelle, D., Oliveira, D.L., Bucalem, M.L., Some experiments with the MITC9 element for Naghdis shell model Chen, X., Hisada, T, Frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces Choi, H.Y., Lee, S.H., Lee, LH., Haug, E., Finite element modeling of human headneck complex for crashworthiness simulation Chun, B.K., Jinn, J.T., Lee, J.K., A constitutive model associated with permanent softening under multiple bendunbending cycles in sheet metal forming and springback analysis Crouch, R.S., RemandezVega, J., Nonlinear wave propagation in softening media through use of the scaled boundary finite element method . . . . Czekanski, A., Meguid, S.A., Time integration for dynamic contact problems: generalizedof scheme Dai, L., Semianalytical solution to a mechanical system with friction Davi, G., Milazzo, A., A novel displacement variational boundary formulation David, S.A., Rosdrio, J.M., Investigation about nonlinearities in a robot with elastic members
120 125 128 132 134 137
Contents Volume 1 De, S., Kim, /., Srinivasan, M.A., Virtual surgery simulation using a collocationbased method of finite spheres Deeks,AJ.,WollJ.R, Efficient analysis of stress singularities using the scaled boundary finiteelement method Djoudi, M.S., Bahai, K, Relocation of natural frequencies using physical parameter modifications Duddeck, F.M.E., Fourier transformed boundary integral equations for transient problems of elasticity and thermoelasticity Dufour, E, Moresi, L., Muhlhaus, H., A fluidlike formulation for viscoelastic geological modeling stabilized for the elastic limit Dvorkin, E.N., Demarco, D., An Eulerian formulation for modehng stationary finite strain elastoplastic metal forming processes Dvorkin, E.N., Toscano, R.G., Effects of internal/external pressure on the global buckling of pipelines ElAbbasU N., Bathe, K.J., On a new segmenttosegment contact algorithm ElAbbasi, N., Meguid, S.A., Modehng 2D contact surfaces using cubic splines Eelippa, C.A., Optimal triangular membrane elements with drilling freedoms FemdndeZ'Garcia, J.R., Sofonea, M., Viaho, J.M., Numerical analysis of a sliding viscoelastic contact problem with wear Frangi, A., Novati, G., Springhetti, R., Rovizzi, M., Numerical fracture mechanics in 3D by the symmetric boundary element method Galbraith, P.C., Thomas, D.N., Finn, M.J., Spring back of automotive assembhes Gambarotta, L., Massabd, R., Morbiducci, R., Constitutive and finite element modehng of human scalp skin for the simulation of cutaneous surgical procedures Gebbeken, N., Greulich, S., Pietzsch, A., Landmann, F, Material modelling in the dynamic regime: a discussion Gendron, G., Fortin, M., Goulet, R, Error estimation and edgebased mesh adaptation for solid mechanics problems Gharaibeh, E.S., McCartney, J.S., Erangopol, D.M., Reliabilitybased importance assessment of structural members Ghiocel, D.M., Mao, H., ProbabiUstic life prediction for mechanical components including HCF/LCF/creep interactions Giner, E., Fuenmayor, J., Besa, A., Tur, M., A discretization error estimator associated with the energy domain integral method in linear elastic fracture mechanics Gonzalez, C, Llorca, J., Micromechanical analysis of twophase materials including plasticity and damage Goto, K., Yagawa, G, Miyamura, T, Accurate analysis of shell structures by a virtually meshless method Guilkey, J.E., Weiss, J.A., An implicit time integration strategy for use with the material point method Gupta, S., Manohar, C.S., Computation of reliabihty of stochastic structural dynamic systems using stochastic FEM and adaptive importance sampling with nonGaussian sampling functions
xiii
140 142 146 150 153 156 159 165 168 171 173 177 180 184 186 192 198 201
206 211 214 216
220
xiv
Contents Volume 1
Guz, LA., Soutis, C., Accuracy of analytical approaches to compressive fracture of layered solids under large deformations Hadjesfandiari, A.R., Dargush, G.F., Computational elasticity based on boundary eigensolutions Haldar, A., Lee, 5.K, Huh, / , Stochastic response of nonlinear structures Han, S., Xiao, M., A continuum mechanics based model for simulation of radiation wave from a crack Handrik, M., Kompis, V., Novak, P., Large strain, large rotation boundary integral multidomain formulation using the Trefftz polynomial functions . . Hamau, M., Schweizerhof, K., About linear and quadratic 'SolidShell elements at large deformations Hartmann, U., Kruggel, R, Hierl, T., Lonsdale, G., Kloppel, R., Skull mechanic simulations with the prototype SimBio environment Havu,V,Hakula,H, An analysis of a bilinear reduced strain element in the case of an elliptic shell in a membrane dominated state of deformation Ibrahimbegovic, A., Recent developments in nonlinear analysis of shell problem and its finite element solution Ingham, T.J., Modeling of friction pendulum bearings for the seismic analysis of bridges lozzi, R., Gaudenzi, P., MITC finite elements for adaptive laminated composite shells Janajreh, L, Rezgui, A., Estenne, V., Tire tread pattern analysis for ultimate performance of hydroplaning Kanapady, R., Tamma, K.K., Design and framework of reduced instruction set codes for scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics Kang,M.S.,Youn,S,K., Dof splitting padaptive meshless method Kapinski, S., Modelling of friction in metalforming processes Kashtalyan, M., Soutis, C., Modelling of intra and interlaminar fracture in composite laminates loaded in tension Kawka, M., Bathe, K.J., Implicit integration for the solution of metal forming processes Kim, H.S., Tim, HJ., Kim, C.B., Computation of stress time history using FEM and flexible multibody dynamics Kong, J.S., Akgul, K, Frangopol, DM., Xi, Y., Probabilistic models for predicting the failure time of deteriorating structural systems Koteras, J.R., Gullemd, A.S., Porter, V.L., Scherzinger, W.M., Brown, K.H., PRESTO: impact dynamics with scalable contact using the SIERRA framework Kratzig,W.B.,Jun,D., Layered higher order concepts for Dadaptivity in shell theory Krishnamoorthy, C.S.,Annamalai, V, Vmu Unnithan, U., Superelement based adaptive finite element analysis for linear and nonlinear continua under distributed computing environment KUbler, L, Eberhard, P., Multibody system/finite element contact simulation with an energybased switching criterion
224 227 232 235 238 240 243
247 251 255 259 264
268 272 276 279 283 287 290 294 297
302 306
. Okstad.M. K. Gakwaya...H. . A fictitious domain method for linear elasticity problems Massin.R. Berger.. Bittnar.. Energy estimates for linear elastic shells Lubowiecka. N. . A.. G.A.. Mdkinen. An objectoriented finite element implementation of large deformation frictional contact problems and applications Nemecek.. Yazdani. L.. B. Application of ALEEFGM to analysis of membrane with sliding cable Nuno. Z. Nonlocal numerical modelling of the deformation and failure behavior of hydrostaticstressdependent ductile metals Olson.. R..M.. Scherzinger. VM.. R. S. T. A. J. H. M.. Kawashima. Rossi. Modeling residual stresses at the stemcement interface of an idealized cemented hip stem Obrecht. Tu. MFree2D®: an adaptive stress analysis package based on meshfree technology Lovadina. M.. K. M. G.C. R.L. Porter. Lam.. Patzdk. Okayama. H.. W. SJ. A. Pitkdranta.E. M . A numerical investigation of chaotic motions in the stochastic layer of a parametrically excited. Liu. S. J. L. S. Adagio: nonhnear quasistatic structural response using the SIERRA framework Toukourou. Estimation of tool/chip interface temperatures for online tool monitoring: an inverse problem approach . K.H. Adaptive ultimate load analysis of shell structures Matsumoto..S. G.. Al Mikdad. Parallel simulation of reinforced concrete column on a PC cluster Noguchi. Sloan..V. Tiller. Toivanen.. A. WadiaFascetti. T..M. T.. On the finite element analysis of flexible shell structures undergoing large overall motion Luo.. M. Simulation of the explosive detonation process using SPH methodology Liu. Z. Taylor...J.A.. Thick shell elements with large displacements and rotations Mathisen. .W.Y.. M. A.. Zong.A. R.. Boundary stress calculation for twodimensional thermoelastic problems using displacement gradient boundary integral identity Mitchell.M. Consistency of damage mechanics modeling of ductile material failure in reference to attribute transferability .. A model of deteriorating bridge structures Leitdo. J. An explicit threedimensional finite element model of an incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material: application to the study of the human anterior cruciate ligament Liu.. Chroscielewski.Contents Volume 1 Laukkanen.. Limit analysis using finite elements and nonlinear programming Malinen. Lyamin.B. Throne. Tanaka.. •• xv 310 314 317 319 323 327 330 332 336 338 342 346 351 355 359 361 365 369 372 374 378 381 . K... J... On degenerated shell finite elements and classical shell models Martikainen. J.... Koteras.. M. Analysis of 2D elastostatic problems using radial basis functions Limbert. Ricci. L. Z.. Briinig. LeBeau. J. Avanzolini. C.R. Gullerud. A. buckled beam . S.. G. V.
M.C.TY.. K. Schueller.. Eriksson.H.. C.versus pversion finite element analysis for J2 flow theory Roe.. Rank.T. A. A note on symmetric Galerkin BEM for multiconnected bodies Pradhan. Fragakis. Bittnar. K. h..A. C. Aliabadi.. M. A geometricalgebraic method for semidefinite problems in structural mechanics PatzdK B.A. M. E. S. Improved direct time integration method for impact analysis Rucker. R. Boundary and internal layers in thin elastic shells Sanchez Palencia. M. G.. J.. E.. H. PDFs of the stochastic nonlinear response of MDOFsystems by local statistical linearization Proppe.. A. Krawczuk.F. M ....X. S. Computational synthesis on vehicle rollover protection Peng.. E.. Simulation of interface fatigue crack growth via a fracture process zone model Rosson. Rheological effects and bone remodelling phenomenon in the hip joint implantation PeiLu.L. Z . R..xvi Contents Volume 1 Pacoste. Uncertainty analysis of largescale structures using high fidelity models PerezGavildn... Instability problems in shell structures: some computational aspects Palacz.J.V.I. M.J.. Bergman.. G.. Pandolfi. General properties of thin shell solutions. Keierleber. Bossak. Genetic algorithm for crack detection in beams Papadrakakis. Simulation of cupcone fracture in round bars using the cohesive zone model Schenk. C.. M ..X. Skalski. Ng.. CM.. General traction BE formulation and implementation for 2D anisotropic media SanchezHubert.. Computational and physical modelling of penetration resistance Rank. J. Cao. A. Lam..N.Y. Grandhi. Parallel algorithm for explicit dynamics with support for nonlocal constitutive models Pawlikowski. M. Ortiz. Schueller. Duster. RypU D. T. Finiteelement simulation of complex dynamic fracture processes in concrete Sdez. A. Reddy. Vibration suppression of laminated composite plates using magnetostrictive inserts Pradlwarter. M.. propagation of singularities and their numerical incidence Savoia. Siegmund.. The /7version PEA: high performance with and without parallelization Ruiz.. L.. Sensitivity study on material characterization of textile composites Penmetsa. M... B... K. J. Dominguez. Response of a continuous system with stochastically varying surface roughness to a moving load 385 389 393 396 399 403 406 410 413 416 420 425 429 431 435 438 441 445 449 452 454 456 460 463 . Effects of uncertainties on lifetime prediction of aircraft components Randolph.J. Piszczatowski. I.C.. J. G. K. Reliability analysis of structures against buckling according to fuzzy number theory Scheider.
VE. Tonkovic. N. Ruse. Numerical aspects of analytical solutions of elastodynamic problems Vidrascu.. CM.. J. B.Contents Volume 1 Schroder.. Bloomquist. Davis. M.J. The firstkind and the secondkind boundary integral equation systems for some kinds of contact problems with friction Wagner. I. V. Verijenko..A... E. C.L.. N.. Klinkel... L. Crouch. Impact stresses in AJacks concrete armor units Thompson.. E...E. G. D.. J. E. Bathe. G.. J. Computer techniques for simulation of nonisothermal elastoplastic shell responses Stander. Application of numerical conformal mapping to micromechanical modeling of elastic solids with holes of irregular shapes TylerStreet... Techniques to ensure convergence of the closest point projection method in pressure dependent elastoplasticity models Takahashi. A stress integration algorithm for /sdependent elastoplasticity models Whittle.A. BA.. Sluys.... D.S. Finite element modeling for surgery simulation Vlachoutsis. S. J.. Impact simulation of structural adhesive joints Vermeer. H. R.J.. Yagawa. Elastic stability problems in micromacro transitions Semedo Gargdo.. J.E.. R. J. Hierarchic modeling strategies for the control of the errors of idealization in FEA Tahar.R. Modeling of adaptive composite structures using a layerwise theory Sladek. Y.. Z. Liu. C. Van Keer. T. N. R. A. Clinckemaillie... S.L. J. The successive response surface method applied to sheetmetal forming Szabo. W. van der Giessen. L. J. J. Reddy.. Radial point interpolation method for noyielding surface models Wang. On the computation of finite strain plasticity problems with a 3Dshell element Wang. Novak... X.N.. On the stability of the tunnel excavation front Verruijt.. P.R.. The local boundary integral equation and its meshless implementation for elastodynamic problems Slinchenko. N.G. Structural analysis of composite lattice structures on the basis of smearing stiffness Soric.. Miehe.. K.. Francis. /.. Walczak.. A stabilized MITC finite element for accurate wave response in ReissnerMindlin plates Tijssens... Mota Soares... Modeling quasistatic fracture of heterogeneous materials with the cohesive surface methodology Tsukrov.G. S. M. Delingette. Gruttmann. Latta. ¥. Sladek.. Numerical and analytical modeling of ground deformations due to shallow tunneling in soft soils xvii 468 471 473 475 478 481 486 490 496 499 502 509 513 517 521 524 527 530 533 536 538 542 546 .....M. Kapp. Mota Soares. Molecular dynamics calculation of 2 billion atoms on massively parallel processors Tedesco.Actis. A. AJ. J... Pinto. Chatzigiannelis.A. M.W. Distributed memory parallel computing for crash and stamp simulations Vodicka. Hsieh. R. R. Ayache. Thangavelu.
F.W. Identification of chaotic responses in a stable Duffing system by artificial neural network Yang. C. Wriggers. On singular topologies and related optimization algorithm Connell. D. A. X. M.. Lin. Interactive design and investigation of physical bridges using virtual models Consolazio. L. A 3D contactfriction model for pounding at bridges during earthquakes Zohdi. Computational testing of microheterogeneous materials 550 554 559 562 566 568 571 575 579 Optimization & Design AlDojayli.H. Part 3: Steps toward multifunctional optimization .. J. Gurley.. Peak.E.G. S. Meguid.S. Faulkner.M. X...K. Simulation of nongaussian wind pressures and estimation of design loads Bisagni.. T. Optimization of helicopter subfloor components under crashworthiness requirements Bull. Sha.. Paiar. Wiberg. L.R. Guo. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. S. N... On simulation of a forming process to minimize springback Zhou.. Using Pro/MECHANICA for nonlinear problems in engineering design Dreisbach. T... An efficient thermomechanical modeling strategy for progressing cavity pumps and positive displacement motors Doxsee Jr.... O.. K.Y. Kaiser.L. A. . Tullberg.. P... J... Ghiocel. C. R.. /.W.. K. M. Some results from the SelfDesigning Structures research programme Butkewitsch.A. G. Design of an inertial safety barrier using explicit finite element simulation DalVAcqua. Stochastic process/field models for turbomachinery applications 584 588 591 595 599 603 606 608 612 616 620 624 628 ..xviii Contents Volume 1 Witkowski. Abe. On the use of 'metamodels to account for multidisciplinarity and uncertainty in design analysis and optimization Cardona. A. K.R. P. Facchini.. M. W. C.... DM. 7.. A. Fatigue analysis during oneparametered loadings Zdunek. Kamouni. M. G. R. Nonlinear stability analysis of stiffened shells using solid elements and the pversion FEmethod Zhang. Shape optimization of frictional contact problems using genetic algorithm Bartoli. Linear multistep and optimal dissipative singlestep algorithms for structural dynamics Zhu.. Lipsett. P. //. D.E. Special membrane elements with internal defects Zarka. Tamma. K. Random vibration of structures under multisupport seismic excitations Zhao. Soh.J. Chung. Fujino. Lubowiecka.. K. G. Design of cams using a general purpose mechanism analysis program Cheng.. Kettil. Borri.L. K.
. Q.J.a new wave in engineering Hollowell. E.F. L. Chen... Topping... K. Baitsch. Zhao. Montag. S.. L.Z.. Di Mascio. M. Genetic algorithms and high performance computing for engineering design optimization Launis.. Effects of diaphragms on seismic response of skewed bridges Matsuho. A.M. Nikbay.. Z.. MM. Stocki.. Z .K. C. Development of CFDbased design optimization architecture Peterson.. Farhat. M. Updating of a plane frame using neural networks Ogawa... C. Part 2: A high diversity example Peri. Weber. Lagaros. R. Wilson. N.. Towards a CAD design of cablemembrane structures on parallel platforms James..V. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability..K. M. M..S. C. M. Keskinen.. Schaaf. Wemcke. Zheng.. Optimum design and sensitivity analysis of piezoelectric trusses Hagiwara. DM.. S.D. B. D. S. Campana. N. Vehicle crashworthiness design using a most probable optimal design method Harte. Cotsaftis. Dynamics of wearing contact in groundwood manufacturing system Liu. Wang.. E. Ziemiahski. Shape optimization problem based on optimal control theory by using speed method Papadrakakis. K. An efficiency of numerical algorithms for discrete reliabilitybased structural optimization Krishnamoorthy. DM. S. Parallel computational strategies for structural optimization Peak. Kleiber. Summers.. R..Contents Volume 1 Gu. D... R.. NHTSAs supporting role in the partnership for a new generation of vehicles Ivdnyi. G..S.A. Applications of artificiallife techniques to reliability engineering Maute.. C.S. Kawahara. R. L. M... H. Muylle. Fragakis. M. The functional virtual prototype: an innovation framework for a zero prototype design process Prasad Varma Thampan. A.S.H.. Z..L.S. U. Shahawy.. HPC for the optimization of aeroelastic systems Miller. Load lateral distribution for multigirder bridges Maleki. W.. M. Design optimization of materials with microstructure Liu. Reliability based optimization using neural networks Papadrakakis.. Computer simulations and crackdamage evaluation for the durability design of the worldlargest cooling tower shell at Niederaussem power station Hartmann.T. Shi. P. D. Jendo.. X.D... Lian. Frangopol. G.... An HPC model for GA methodologies applied to reliabilitybased structural optimization xix 633 637 641 645 649 652 655 660 663 668 672 676 681 685 688 692 696 698 701 704 708 711 714 . T. T.M. J. The effect of hydrodynamic loading on the structural reliability of culvert valves in lock systems Kolanek. Structural optimization in consideration of stochastic phenomena . Krishnamoorthy. Y. Y.. C. Lagaros. B... Zhang. Ochiai. S..
D. Burger. Optimum design of frame structures undergoing large deflections against system instability Senecal. H.T. Leurent.R. Fulton. MM. Part 1: Constrained objects Wolfe. R. Y. Retrofit design and strategy of the San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge continuous truss spans support towers based on ADINA Wu. M. R. B. R. K. D. Suleman. C. Multicriteria evolutionary structural optimization involving inertia Wilson. Jameson. Patera. J. Zhang.. Radons... Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability.. A.. 5. Xie. Prud'homme. M. Analysis and design of twodimensional sails Sheikh.. Proos... Sun.. Vibration transmissibility of printed circuit boards by calibrated PEA modeling 718 721 725 729 733 737 739 743 747 750 755 758 . R.. Reitz..... G.R.S.. T. Reducedbasis output bound methods for heat transfer problems Schramm.P..M. MultidiscipUnary optimization for NVH and crashworthiness Sedaghati. S. U. Hamdani..E.Heninger. Difficulties and characteristics of structural topology optimization Shankaran.XX Contents Volume 1 Rovas. R. C . Shape optimization for crashworthiness featuring adaptive mesh topology Steven.... Peak. Tabarrok..R.. S. PK. R.V. CFD modeling applied to internal combustion engine optimization and design Shan.W. Existence of a lift plateau for airfoils pitching at rapid pitching rates Stander. A. N. A.
Plenary Papers .
primarily due to the development of fast 3D solvers which are much more efficient in this setting. CAD. be computed using finitedifference or finiteelement methods. the fluid forces are reasonably well described by the linear Stoke's equation. All rights reserved. we present computational results on real micromachined devices both to make clear the problem scale and to demonstrate the efficiency of these new techniques. Simulation. USA ^ Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Several micromachined device examples are used to demonstrate these recently developed methods.x)—^ \ ^ 9n M(x)dfl. Georgia Institute of Technology. 2. Fast Stokes. we briefly describe techniques currently used for simulating micromachined devices. USA ^Department of Mechanical Engineering. Fast 3D solvers The exterior fluid and electrostatic force on a surfacemicromachined device can. only on the surface. the geometrically complicated nature of micromachined devices makes generating such an exterior volume grid difficult.J. (2) the geometries are innately 3D and extremely complicated. Since forces are not needed in the volume of the exterior. We first survey the recently developed fast 3D solvers that make possible the fluid and field analysis of entire micromachined devices. In each section. the exterior volumefilling grid for finiteelement and finite difference methods seems inefficient. (3) the exterior fields usually satisfy linear spaceinvariant partial differential equations. Cambridge. In particular. MA 02139. we briefly describe techniques currently used for simulating micromachined devices. The electrostatic problem is linear and space invariant. We first survey the fast 3D solvers that make possible fluid and field analysis of entire micromachined devices and then describe efficient techniques for coupleddomain simulation. In addition. Ramaswamy^ X. Bathe (Editor) devices: (1) exterior forces need only be evaluated on poly silicon surfaces. for surfacemicromachined * Corresponding author. as they have made it possible to efficiently simulate devices whose operation involves several physical domains. Such methods are becoming less popular.mit. and so an integral formulation involving only surface quantities can be used to determine fluid traction forces. University of Illinois. Email: white@rlevlsi. GA.Efficient simulation techniques for complicated micromachined devices N. White'='* ^ Department of General Engineering. Keywords: M E M S . Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Research Laboratory of Electronics. Precorrected FFT. in principle. assuming Stoke's flow. Alu^u^ W.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. In many cases. Introduction In this short paper. USA Abstract In this short paper. Urbana. both satisfy an integral equation over the poly silicon surface given by Green's theorem: u(x) / G{x. Mixed regime 1. The electrostatic potential and the fluid velocity. and we describe a mixedregime approach to improve the individual solver's efficiencies. (1) 9n . IL 618012996. Atlanta. Then. Wang^ J. we discuss the recently developed techniques for efficient coupled domain and mixed regime analysis. and so the Laplace's equation that describes the exterior electrostatics can be replaced with an integral equation which relates the surface potentials to the surface normal electric fields. We describe the matriximplicit multilevelNewton method for coupling solvers which use different techniques. Ye^ D.
such as the precorrectFFT schemes [3. yet still the number of unknowns in the system exceeds 50. If direct factorization is used to solve (2). 4n. . like many of the combdrive based structures fabricated using micromachining.10]. Alum et al.!.3]. Discretization of the above integral equation leads to a dense system of equations which becomes prohibitively expensive to form and solve for complicated problems. In addition. and fast matrixvector . it is necessary to determine the drag force on the comb. Several researchers simultaneously observed the powerful combination of integral equation approaches. rather than by solving the compressible NavierStokes equation. ^ is the wlength vector of known collocation point potentials. consider Fig. fluid compression can be ignored for devices which use lateral actuation.000. Krylovsubspace matrix solution algorithms.5]. In Fig. the discretization of a comb is shown. The many different physical domains involved in micromachined devices has focussed attention on fast techniques which are Green's function independent. 1 shows. one can exploit the fact that Krylovsubspace methods for solving systems of equations only require matrixvector products and not an explicit representation of the matrix. and then the multipole expansion can be used to evaluate distant potentials. That the fluid can be treated as Stokes flow. Note the surprisingly high contribution to the force from the structure sides. Higherorder elements and improved efficiency for higher accuracy have been the recent developments [8. and therefore convection can often be ignored. An accelerated Stoke's flow solver completed the simulation in under 20 min. Instead.13]. consider the electrostatics problem of determining the surface charge given the potential on conductors. note that for P in (2). but the interaction between the cluster of panels and distant panels can be approximated. every entry in P is nonzero. consider determining the quality factor of a combdrive resonator packaged in air. To see how to perform such a reduction in cost. The result of these two simpUfications is that fluid damping forces on laterally actuated microdevices can be accurately analyzed by solving the incompressible Stokes equation.1.9]. where q is the nlength vector of panel charges. A simple discretization for the electrostatics problem is to divide the polysilicon surfaces into n flat panels over which the charge density is assumed constant. but the memory requirement will not decrease. For example. The simulated traction force in the motion direction is shown in Fig. A cluster of collocation points separated from a cluster of panels. Since the integral in (3) is nonzero for every panelcollocationpoint pair. then it is possible to reduce the solve time to order n^. In particular.c is a point on the surface. 2. X^ ' ^' (3> where xt is the iih collocation point. Perhaps the first practical use of such methods combined the fast multipole algorithms for charged particle computations with the above simple discretization scheme to compute 3D capacitance and electrostatic forces [6]. Since the Green's function for electrostatics is the reciprocal of the separation distance between x and x\ '••' = f panel. and that the quantity of interest is the surface traction force. products [4. 2. The discretized system is then Pq = ^ (2) Shortrange stiiiimed direct!J Fig. or collocation. To see this. To compute the quality factor. as Fig. makes it possible to use a surface integral formulation to compute comb drag [11]. If instead. it is essential not to form the matrix explicitly. 1. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics where u is either the electrostatic potential or the fluid velocity. computing Pq is equivalent to computing n potentials due to n charged panels and this can be accomplished approximately in nearly order n operations [2. The shortrange interaction between closeby panels must be computed directly. a preconditioned Krylovsubspace method like GMRES [1] is used to solve (2). The small spatial scale of micromachined combs implies that flow in these devices typically have very low Reynolds numbers. In order to develop algorithms that use memory and time that grows more slowly with problem size. Then. Notice that only the surface is discretized. Example fluid simulation As an example of using a fast solver. It should be noted that the quality factor computed from the numerical drag force analysis matched measure quahty factor for this structure to better than 10% [14]. and d/dn is the derivative in the direction normal to the polysilicon surface. the distant interaction can be computed by summing the clustered panel charges into a single multipole expansion (denoted by M in the figure). 3. A system of equations for the panel charges is then derived by insisting that the correct potential be generated at a set of n test. 1. points. direct methods would have taken weeks and required over 16 gigabytes of memory. the methods described above can be used to rapidly solve a discretization of the integral equation [12. then the memory required to store the dense matrix will grow like n^ and the matrix solve time will increase like n^.N.
8 23034. 3. 2. Alum et al.96 4937.q)=0 (4) where w is a vector of finiteelement node displacements.6 30789. F relates node displacements to stresses. Note that as the structure deforms. bottom (substrateside) view. the pressure changes direction. The technique of choice for determining elastic forces in the polysilicon is to use finiteelement methods to generate a nonlinear system equations of the form Fiu)P{u.N. 3.3 28204.1 35960.4 38545.7 12693 ^ 15278. Drag force distribution on the resonator. A discretized comb drive resonator over a substrate.0001 5E05 Fig. and P is the force produced by the vector representing the discretized surface charge q. Coupleddomain mixedregime simulation Selfconsistent electromechanical analysis of micromachined polysilicon devices typically involves determining mechanical displacements which balance elastic forces in the polysilicon with electrostatic pressure forces on polysilicon surface.49 •10107.00015 0. so P is also a function of u.5 20448.1 I—I 25619.22 7522. R Fx 1 2351.8 33375.5 Fig.5 2. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.3 17863. One can .6 ' ~ ^ E05 0.
An important advantage of matrixfree multilevelNewton methods is that it is not necessary to modify either the mechanical or electrostatic analysis programs. The black box solvers are called once in the outer Newton loop to compute the right hand side in (8) and then called once per each GMRES itera . The u in (4) is then ^elastic U Mrigid. typically using Newton's method [15]. one can apply a Krylovsubspace iterative method such as GMRES. and produces an output u as in HMiq) (5) 150 200 h In order to determine the charge density on the polysilicon surface due to a set of appHed voltages. ^. 5). V^. One can view the electrostatic analysis as a 'black box' which takes. Mixed regime simulation q u HE(U) HM{q)_ = 0 0 (7) in which case the updates to charge and displacement are given by solving / L dHE\ _ du I Aq Au \HE U — HAA (8) ^q The above method is referred to as a multilevel Newton method [16. as described above. 3. 4. this matrixfree multilevelNewton method [18] can treat the individual solvers as black boxes. MultilevelNewton 50 h A simple relaxation approach to determining a selfconsistent solution to (5) and (6) is to successively use (5) to update displacements and then using (6) to update charge. it often does not converge. only the ability to perform matrixvector products. though improvements can be made [19]. These products can be approximated by finite differences as in ^HM ^ dq ^ Huiq+aAq) a Huiq) (9) In many micromachined devices.1. Computing Huiq + oid\) means using an inner loop Newton method to solve (4).3. as in q= HE{U) 100 (6) Selfconsistent analysis is then to find a u and q which satisfies both (5) and (6). ^R^ jR.1 xm SiN hinges (Young's Modulus = 243. as output. Poisson's Ratio = 0. 6 and 7) [20] with 12 x 50 x 1.2 MPa. Tilting mirror example A coupled domain mixed regime solver was tested against the experimental data of a scanning mirror (see Figs. Aluru et al. Therefore. which is expensive. to compute these products one need only compute (dHM/dq)Aq and (dHE/du)Au. Applying (5) implies solving the nonlinear equation. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics view this mechanical analysis as a 'black box' which takes an input. The rigid/elastic mechanical solver greatly reduces the size of the stiffness matrix with the bulk shrinking to a dense 6 x 6 block (see Fig. a vector of discretized surface charges. many finiteelement degrees of freedom can be eliminated and replaced with a rigid body with only 6 degrees of freedom i/rigid = {^. 4. geometric displacements. Instead. and produces. Therefore. q. The important aspect of GMRES is that an explicit representation of the matrix is not required. because forming the righthand side in (8) involves using an inner Newton's method to apply HM.N. The surface of the rigid body still has to be discretized finely to properly resolve the electrostatic forces.17]. In order to solve (8). tion. The rigid/elastic interface should be intruded into the rigid block for a small area around the tetherblock mass interface in order to avoid sharp singularities in stress across the tetherblock interface. such as the mechanical structure in Fig. w. Comb drive accelerometer.2. 3. one can use a fast solver. (4). 0.28) where is a very small number. one can apply Newton's method to the system of equations 100 50 0 50 Fig. zR). 3. much of the structure acts as a rigid body. as input. As is clear from examining (8). Although the relaxation method is simple.
Mirror tilt with differential voltage v. multilevelNewton methods 0 "^ 200 Fig.5 ± v volts. and 500 x 600 x 25 [xm SiN on Si central plate kept at 0 v. 4.13 v as opposed to 13. On an average each load step took 80 min (Digital Alpha 433 MHz).4 v of the experimental data. fully elastic (8x10x2 block 2x2x3 hinges) Ov 12 500 251 . Elastic/rigid matrix reduction. Alum et al. 2 4 6 8 10 12 Differential voltage in v for scanning mirror Fig. 8) shows a close match of the simulation in the linear regime and convergence failure corresponding to pullin is obtained at 12.simulation (30x30x3 block 3x4x3 hinges) 5 10 15 differential voltage in volts 20 Fig. Crosssection of scanning mirror.22 37. The ground electrodes are kept at 37. The plot (Fig. It is now possible to simulate the coupleddomain behavior of an entire micromachined design in under an hour on a workstation rather than days or weeks on a supercomputer. The CPU time for 10 load steps for the fully elastic case was 16. 5) to show a very close match. and mixedregime techniques. For a coarse mesh the elastic/rigid simulation is compared with the fully elastic simulation (Fig.8 h as opposed to 58 min for the rigid/elastic case. . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Rigid/elastic . o experiment . The next step is to use these tools to automatically generate macromodels of micromachined devices. 5. 7. 6. Conclusions Simulation of entire microdevices is becoming more routine in engineering design thanks to a combination of fast integral equation solvers. 8. for coupleddomain analysis.5 +v 37.5 V All dim in microns Fig. Scanning mirror (coarse mesh).N. and make possible accurate simulation of systems which use micromachined devices. .
Kino GS. 229269.Micromachined Scanning Confocal Optical Microscope. [7] Nabors K. April 1999. Proc. A hierarchical 0{N\ogN) forcecalculation algorithm. Ye W. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1990. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the many students who have developed codes described above including Keith Nabors. HiltonHead Island.60:187207. pp. Proc. Sept. A fast integral equation technique for analysis of micro flow sensors based on drag force calculations.54:463491. November 1991. International Conference on ModeHng and Simulation of Microsystems.A^. [10] Greengard L. CAD for MEMS. microfluidics and muri programs. Cambridge. pp. Semiconductors.11: 450481. 314317. Fastcap: a multipole accelerated 3D capacitance extraction program. Nature 1986. Hemmert W. Acta Numer 1997. [11] pole method for the Laplace equation in three dimensions. SC. [9] Phillips JR. June 1999. Rabbat NB. April 1998. Ramaswamy D. Wang X. multipoleaccelerated iterative methods for threedimensional firstkind integral equations of potential theory. pp. Aluru NR. Schultz MH. IEEE Transactions on ComputerAided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. Korsmeyer FT. Rapid solution of integral equation of classical potential theory J Comput Phys 1985. Aluru et al. Silicon . Dickensheets DL.7(3): 105126. White JK. International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems. 7. Kanapka J. [3] Hockney RW. Wang X. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Joel Phillips. Hut P. Zurich. pp. 16(10): 10591072. MultipoleAccelerated BEM for the Computation of Electrostatic Forces. A precorrectedFFT method for electrostatic analysis of complicated 3D structures. 1988. [6] Nabors K. International Conference on SolidState Sensors and Actuators (Transducers '99). SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1994. IEEE SolidState Sensor and Actuator Workshop. IEEE Trans. Santa Clara. Sendai Japan.10:14471459. Pozrikidis C. Saad Y Hybrid Krylov Methods for Nonlinear Systems of Equations. [4] Rokhlin V. New York: Adam Hilger. PrenticeHall. adaptive. Sensors and Actuators.15(3):713735. Eastwood JW. Hsieh HY. a precorrectedFFT accelerated 3D Stokes Solver. [12] [13] References [1] Youcef Saad. Computer simulation using particles. Aluru NR. 14. and Joe Kanapka. White J. 1997. Finite Element Procedures. Preconditioned. Boundary integral and singularity methods for linearized viscous flow. Nowak ZP. 1. CAS26(9):733741. Sensors and Actuators. San Juan. Korvink JO. On the fast matrix multiplication in the boundary element method by panel clustering. The Adaptive. 1992.324:446449. Leighton FT. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control (DSC) Series. Ye W. June. March 1998. as well as grants from the Semiconductor Research Corporation and the National Science Foundation. [2] Barnes J. 1996. mixedregime electromechanical simulation. White J. Freeman DM. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1986. Englewood Chffs. New York 1996. Fast coupleddomain. 1979. on ComputerAided Design. White J. 283286. Aluru N. on Circuits and Systems. White J. Viscous drag on a lateral microresonator: fast 3D fluid simulation and measured data. This work was supported by the DARPA composite CAD. [8] Bachtold M. RokhUn V. Bakes H. October 1997. SangiovanniVincenteUi A. IEEE Trans. Efficiency and accuracy improvements for FastStokes. A MultilevelNewton algorithm with macromodeling and latency for the analysis of large scale nonlinear circuits in the time domain. Bathe KJ.59: 275280. Brown PN. Numer Math 1989. White J. 1999. A coupled numerical technique for selfconsistent analysis of microelectromechanical systems. NJ. Cambridge University Press. White J. J Microelectromech Syst Vol. GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. No. White J. Semiconductors. A new version of the fast multi [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] . [5] Hackbusch W.
J. Q is.4) The first example corresponds to problems where an unsuited numerical scheme can generate spurious oscillations in the numerical solution.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. and represents. The numerical approximation of (1. 2: Linear elliptic problems with composite materials: find M in V := H^(^) such that: Lu := . in a typical mathematical fashion.V . one for each category: the case of advection diffusion problems and the case of composite materials.C. x = (xi. The numerical approximation of the problem becomes nontrivial when the product of s times a characteristic length of the problem (for instance. In particular. somehow. we shall choose very simple toy problems that will. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.X2). Via Ferrata 1 27100 Pavia. it was discovered that some mathematical tricks to deal with these problems can help in both situations. Sometimes.ian. we consider: 1: Advectiondominated scalar equations: find umV:= H^(Q) such that Lu:= sAu{cS/u = f in ^ . they are just a spurious byproduct of a discretized scheme that lacks the necessary stability properties. they are related to physical phenomena that actually take place on a very small scale. subgrid scales cannot be neglected. Introduction In a number of applications. The variational formulation of (1. the characteristics of a composite material. (a{x)Vu) = / in ^ . c a given vectorvalued smooth function (convective term). we are going to discuss its application. but having better numerical properties. / a given smooth forcing term. V) := / a(jc)Vw • Vvdx I fvdx VUG V (1. Keywords: Residual free bubble. M = 0 on dQ. which are not present in the exact solution (that in general. but still have an important effect on the solution. (1..1) Here Q is. v) := I eVu Vvdx \. w = 0 on dQ. and / a given smooth forcing term. Bathe (Editor) diameter of Q) is much smaller than c in a nonnegligible part of the domain.3) is find M e V such that £(M. and s a positive scalar (diffusion coefficient). augmented problems. and finally solve a problem with the same number of unknowns as the one we started with. Italy Abstract We present an overview of some recent approaches to deal with instabiUties of numerical schemes and/or subgrid phenomena.2) doc Vi. by considering two typical examples.3) becomes nontrivial when a has a fine structure. All rights reserved. The basic idea is that of enlarging (as much as one can) the finite element space. say.Subgrid scales. and stabilizations Franco Brezzi * Dipartimento di Matematica and I. In other cases. The variational formulation of (1.N./ i" /• CVUV&K (1.1) is find u e V such that C(u. Clearly. a convex polygon. € V. a convex polygon.3) As before. then to do an elementbyelement preprocessing. Stabilization 1. For dealing with these problems. One of these tricks is based on the socalled Residual Free Bubbles (RFB).A. In what follows.cnr. (1. exhibiting sharp changes on a scale that is much smaller than the diameter of ^ . will just exhibit a boundary layer . the * Email: brezzi@dragon. however. In recent times.R. still retain some of the basic difficulties of their bigger industrial counterparts.N. say.pv. The (given) scalar function a{x) is assumed to be greater than a given positive constant ao in the whole domain Q.
4) Notice that (2. It is also possible to check that.3). In our two examples. V) + (/. it is sufficient to compute the quantities Sl:j:=(SK(vi). for both types of problems. Still we can consider it. We then notice that.7) 2. in order to compute the terms depending on SK appearing in (2. (2.10].14]. For the sake of simplicity we assume that we start with finite element spaces Vh made of piecewise linear continuous functions vanishing on 9^. For the second example. Brezzi/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics near the part of the boundary where c • n > 0. in the end.7 WKeTh. this would correspond to a twolevel method of the type of the ones studied. i.7).v) yveH^(K) (2. in each K e % ^Q can take where the v^ are the usual nodal basis for Vh. Clearly.8) = (/. considering for instance the first example.2) We consider now the augmented space VA:=VheBh. V e Bh(K) and obtain.9]).^A) ^Vh^Vh. looking at (2. VA) (2. Vh) = (/. we can introduce the solution operator SK. Under these assumptions (that is given these rules) we can proceed as follows.4) that the restriction wf of UB to K is the unique solution of the following local bubble equation: find UB ^ Bh(K) such that C(u^s.= L%SK(f). and L* = L for the second one (where L is selfadjoint). in practice.Vu for the first one. e V. if solvable. However. V) = C(UH. for the first example. (2. Vh) that. ( . when we solve the final system of linear equations. v) = (/. we have L*v = —sAu — c . that we might think of to exploit. in the end. all over the domain. ) denotes the inner product in L^(^).g. V) Wv e Bh(K).5) could still be acceptable.7). However. [24. VA) ^VA e VA (2. the implementation could also follow a path that is apparently quite different. Vh) . V := HQ(Q) and. at the level of an abstract speculation.vi) and V/. we assume now that we are given a decomposition 7^ of ^ into triangles.g. that the two problems presented in the Section 1 have variational formulations sharing the same structure: I find u ^V such that I C{u. would allow to express each wf in terms of Uh.6) to obtain C{uh. In its turn. The difference is just in the type of biUnear form C(u. we are ready to afford some extra work.) Vi. However. where SKig) will be integrated against a term depending on a(x). Indeed. We also play the game that the dimension of Vh is the biggest one we are ready to afford. in turn. (2. we have to evaluate only terms of the type C(SK(g).4) is infinite dimensional. take v = Vh.5) Equation (2.^/. this corresponds to classical stabilized methods like SUPG (see e. with the usual nondegeneracy requirements.v) = {g. in [13. present difficulties that look similar to solving the original problems.8) have to be computed in some approximate way. the major difficulty is in the actual solution of the local problems (2. possibly in different ways. for the moment. according to (2. will have a very definite structure. It can be seen (see e.6) and write the solution i/f of (2. [8. in both cases. we are going to solve. where L* is the adjoint operator of L. to start with.3) This is the linear system that.Luh). we are going to give the basic idea of a general strategy that can prove useful. and substitute in UA = Uh + UB its expression as given by (2.5) and (2. and in particular elementbyelement. The residual free bubbles approach We notice. where n is the outward unit vector normal to 9 ^ . we can split UA as UA = UU + UB.5). for instance.7. see for instance [5.)X!>^(<5i^(/). L*Vh). (2. Bh(K):=H^(K) V^ € 7^. This term. only the mean value of SK(g) is needed. in principle.4). Clearly the terms appearing in (2. as a preprocessor before building the stiffness matrix. to every basis .L''vi) Fr.7]) that. An important observation is now that. and needs to be captured by the numerical scheme. Hence. from (2. At the formal level. from now on.5) that. This implies that a rough approximate solution of (2. We start by considering the space of bubbles BnTlKBhiK). can be written as (SKig). the second example corresponds to problems where a fine structure is already present. that is: UB = J2K "f • Therefore. at an affordable cost. Fixing our ideas on either one of the abstract formulations (2.Y^C{SK{Luh). We are now ready to go back to (2. On the contrary. This will not be the case for our second example. (2. UB will be a sum of local bubble functions wf.1) where.v) to be used for each problem. In the sequel. provided that such work could be done in parallel.6. that associates to every function g (for instance in L^(K)) the solution SK(g) e H^{K) of C{SK{g). L*Vh will be constant in each element. and therefore unsolvable. however.1).F. and the corresponding augmented problem Ifindu e VA such that C(UA. we notice that.5) as wf = SK^/ .
Roge G. to appear. (2.10) [6] Clearly wt = w* whenever L is selfadjoint. Brezzi F. . 1977. . this corresponds to the use of suitable basis functions (adapted to the operator) in the PetrovGalerkin formulation. J Comput Phys 1997. Berlin: Springer. 166:5163. function v'^ G VH we can associate two other functions wi and If* that. O V/ = 1 .145:329339. Russo A. in [15]. A [12] [13] [14] [15] . Russo A.4:571587. (2. Numer Math. SIAM JNumer Anal 1999. For applications of these concepts to different problems see for instance [1. Hughes TJR.630:90104. A twolevel finite element method and its application to the Helmholtz equation. [2] Brezzi F. the computation of the solution in the form (2. Brooks AN. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997. Brezzi F. Math Comp 1999.9:8388. in each K. Shi ZC (Eds). w*) = (/.96:117129. Convergence of a multiscale finite element method for elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating coefficients.36:19331948. Brezzi F.32:199259. Bristeau MO. EastWest J Numer Math 1996. Residualfree bubbles for advectiondiffusion problems: the general error analysis. Russo A. Applications of pseudo residualfree bubbles to the stabilization of convectiondiffusion problems.11) requires essentially the same amount of work as the computation in the form (2. Franca LP. Mulfiphase Flows and Transport in Porous Media: State of the Art. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992. Mitchell AR. Cai Z. Russo A. Marini D. Franca LP. Frey SL. Hughes TJR. Ewing RE.11) [7] [8] On the other hand. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998.134:169189.95:253276. Stabilized finite element methods: I. (2. Wu XH. mass lumping and selective reduced integration by residualfree bubbles. Mallet M.10 F. . b = f g. Conf. A multiscale finite element method for elliptic problems in composite materials and porous media. [9] [10] [11] References [ 1 ] Arbogast T. Hughes TJR. Lecture Notes in Physics. are solutions of the problems Lwi =Q and L*K. Hou TY. In: Proc. A relationship between stabilized finite element methods and the Galerkin method with bubble functions. Applications to advectivediffusive model. Russo A. Appl Math Lett 1996. Hughes TJR. such that C(wh.11) is actually the original formulation of [13]. Franca LP. for the first example.4:265278. 1982. Marini D. Bienn. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992. Streamline Upwind/PetrovGalerkin formulations for convection dominated flows with particular emphasis on the incompressible NavierStokes equations. Franca LP. Approximation of the Stokes problem by residualfree macro bubbles. Dundee. In: Chen Z. Macedo AP. Franca LP.68:913943. . Wu XH. Suli E. for instance.9) [5] ondK. Numerical subgrid upscaling of twophase flow in porous media. SUli E. as discussed.43:2332.4) coincide with the nodal values of the solution of the problem: find Wh. linear combination of the wj/s. Brezzi / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics priori error analysis of a finite element method with residualfree bubbles for advecfiondominated equations.* = 0 in ^ mK Wi = v[ on dK. [3] Brezzi F. It is also interesting to notice that. Griffiths DF. For the second example. Russo A. Generalised Galerkin methods for second order equations with significant first derivative terms. Marini LD.. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. (2. 2000. dim(V.). Choosing bubbles for advectiondiffusion problems. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998. Lect Notes Math 1978. Math Mod Methods Appl Sci 1994. Hou TY. Deriving upwinding.1012]. [4] Brezzi F. Franca LP. It can be checked that the nodal values of the solution M^ of (2.7).
St.l. Computational Fluid Dynamics. Mail Code 67MW. faster and larger computers were best. Specific engineering technologies. Dreisbach^*. These methods rely heavily on the wellestablished FEA (finite element analysis) and finite volume techniques initially developed for industrial applications during the late 1950s. the tightly coupled system integration of different disciplines. 1. Finally. Beginning with a 'real' single design office that relied on drawing boards. Cosner^ ^ Senior Technical Fellow. The Boeing Company. The finite element method for structural analysis Whereas the FEA method was used only for structural verification purposes during the 1960s. 3. however. Ongoing trends are presented. Bathe (Editor) operating environments in which the vehicles must perform. analysis. As the 21st century is entered. WA 98055. information. and because of the complex structural arrangements required within the vehicles. the primary objective is to perform product lifecycle simulation with a design office that is virtually collocated using geographically distributed. Tel. As we moved into the 1970s. extensive use of analytical and computational methods are currently used during the design. RaymondR. but specialized engineering applications and data had to be interfaced from one computer code to another. were advanced by independent organizations. especially that of the finite element method and the computing architecture that supports these tools.J. using examples of typical structural and aerodynamic applications.: +1 (425) 2343407. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Louis. and computing technologies are enumerated. To obviate exhaustive static and dynamic physical laboratory and flights tests for optimally designing the aerodynamic vehicle and sizing the various structural components for all flight regimes. is iterative because of the complex * Corresponding author. Mail Code SI067126. 535 Garden Avenue North.11 Trends in the design analysis of aerospace vehicles Rodney L. Current thrusts and overall integration strategies for product simulation integration (PSI) in Boeing are highlighted relative to the objectives of reducing costs and cycle time in the design. MO 61366. collaborative computing. it is currently used in the design development of all primary aerospace structure beginning with the configuration development phase. Keywords: Computational structures technology (CST). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 1. Computational Structures Technology. Renton. USA Abstract Evolution of the airframe design analysis process during the past seven (7) decades is summarized from engineering technology. opportunities for advancing certain engineering. P.dreisbach@boeing. Box 516.O. by identifying selected problem areas being addressed by today's industries. Background A highlevel overview is presented of how the designanalysis process for airframe vehicles has evolved from 1930 to the present time. The aeroelastic design process The aeroelastic design process for aerospace vehicles. The Boeing Company. All rights reserved. as shown in Fig. 2. Aeroelastic analysis. computing and process viewpoints. manufacturing and support of conmiercial airplanes. The mainframe computing capabilities during the 1960s limited the maximum size of the mathematical system of equations to less than 6000. this process changed dramatically during the 1960s when computers were introduced into the technical workplace. This constraint provided the impetus . Email: rodney. USA Senior Technical Fellow.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. development and certification of flight vehicles. through certification activities and customer support. Fax: +1 (425) 2348539.
typical airplane FEA model sizes have exceeded 300. R.12 R. computational grids of 5. sequential 'designthenanalyze' process allows early computerbased analyses performed by designers to be shared with the analysts. The iterative aeroelastic design process for aerospace vehicles.000 degrees of freedom (equations). crossfunctional interactions between aeroelastics. Frontloading the design process by having designers perform rudimentary analyses is a step toward true con current engineering. Another recent trend is use of the FEA method much earlier in the product definition process. including tool design and manufacturing process improvements.. Today. there is a clear desire for steadily improving the geometric fidelity of the CFD models. and for increasing the sophistication and detailed resolution of the fluid physics models (e. 1. the FEA tools have become very easy to use by designers interested in earlylooks at how their structural design will perform in its operating environment. Today's use of the FEA method is extremely diverse.L. Aerodynamic analysis characteristics The general trends in aerodynamic analysis are the same as previously discussed for structural analysis. That is. with the ongoing revolutionary advancements in computing power. propulsion and acoustics. shape optimization of structural parts using designgeometry parameters having automated associativity can be performed just as easily. FEA models of total transport airplanes typically represent fairly detailed structural arrangements when the analysis objectives are to predict internal loads and stresses in the airframes.000 points are very common. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Sttffness Balaiioed toads Presses Fig. . This approach has resulted in early FEA models of complex single parts that exceed 300. where its use for structural analysis spans static. and more stringent convergence criteria to attain high accuracy. for 3D multiblock analyses on structured grids. With everincreasing computing power and more capable tools. solution of this type of large problem for a single load case can be performed in less than 30 minutes! Furthermore. This change from the previously used. to develop the substructured FEA analysis method that is published widely and is provided as an optional solution technique in many vendorsupplied codes. flutter. This is quite a contrast to being limited to 6000 equations during the 1960s. As a result. These factors lead to larger computational grids.000. Dreisbach. These techniques have allowed flow times for selected design/analysis processes to be reduced by orders of magnitude! 4. turbulence models). dynamic and weight computations. linear and nonlinear geometry and material characteristics.g.R. more solution variables per grid point.000 degrees of freedom! However.
R. The PSI (product simulation integration) project A strategic initiative at BCAG. to that of using a single computing workstation userinterface to perform all of the necessary computing functions. associating lifecycle information to the product definition data for easy. computing times of a few hundred CPUhours are fairly common. Computing architecture The trend in computing hardware architecture for aerospace vehicle design and analysis processes have been moving away from mainframe computing campuses to that of clientserver distributed networked configurations. and grids of up to 20. For more complex problems involving chemical reactions. is underway to reduce costs and cycle time in the design. manufacturing and support processes with the associated product information. Another significant trend in computing is tighter vertical integration of functionalities within single computing systems. Fundamental to the success of the PSI project in meeting its goals are establishing standard processes.Analysis ^ r ^ s Ar^lyas Ftepc^itwy liliiliBiiiii ^ructurari T ^ Data Ftediwtbn FJI J h Flight Test IMM F M I ^ I I C M I "'^ Automated Airplano SIsdng ^ f%oduet Inforrtmtlon R0trl#val CuMomw Airline Ef^ii^re ManyfoetUiing Fig. Product simulation integration (PSI) technology and data relationships for aerospace vehicle design. 2. where data translators are passe and commonality in the manmachine interfaces is unified. (2) improve the suite of engineering methods and tools. 'Simulation' is the analytical and test processes performed to predict inservice behavior of the airplane structure in support of design requirements and objectives. and adopting industry standards for sharing of these data to facilitate longterm data access. 5. and the services we provide to customers for their airplane operations. The 'Product' is the airplanes we design and build. with the problem sizes steadily increasing. reliable. Current trends are away from using multiple computers in support of different technological functions. known as the PSI for Structures project.Si Jug . The overall technologies and data relationships associated with the PSI project are shown in Fig. analysis. R. Typical solution files can range from a few hundred megabytes up to nearly a gigabyte today. and consistent retrieval. Parallel computing has been widely adopted for these types of analyses. In perfect gas analyses. and migrate legacy applications and data. For the larger problems. 6. The primary objectives of PSI are: (1) establish and enhance preferred engineering and business processes. there can be several dozens of solution variables per point. 'Integration' is the close binding of our design.000. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 13 A#m@lastle Finite Elmmtt Analysis DstaiM Analysis . and support of commercial airplanes.R. 2.L Dreisbach. as it supports reduced costs and cycle time. . and (3) integrate structural analysis and test with product definition information and manufacturing to reduce cycle time and costs. analysis. there are five to seven solution variables per point.000 points are fairly common. This allows data to be reused and shared by multiple technologies.
Focus has been on optimizing the mathematical models and not the product itself (e. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tion is difficult. • An integrated.1. and service history of the airplane parts and assemblies are made available for derivative airplane design and analysis. analyze. shape vs. . with little integration. process support. need standards for data modeling and information sharing. in a realistic manner.2. Tie to digital product definition By linking analyses to the product definition data. durability. Simulation of lifecycle systems using a common. topology vs. and support our airplane products. R.2]. Standard processes and computing systems Standard processes reduce variability in the way we design. Product data redundancy is prevalent. are noted below. Current efforts are underway to extend the definition of SSPD (single source product definition) to include analysis and test data that may not necessarily be physically linked. Dreisbach. • Free exchange of accurate product definition informa 8. damage tolerance analyses. are needed to attain higher levels of product functional prototyping in a virtual environment.L. Opportunities that currendy exist for advancing numerous areas of computational mechanics to virtually simulate. in satisfying the multifunctional operational specifications of an aerospace vehicle. Standard computing systems reduce training due to a common look and feel of the system. need smart techniques for product definition information representation. but an integrated data environment is preferred. Summary Incredible advances have been made in multiple areas of computational mechanics technologies and in process implementations within industry for developing new aerospace vehicles during the past seven (7) decades. and sustaining costs. 6. Then. thus lowering training. records that substantiate the design decisions. mapping and integration in support of the continuous design evolution process. these data must be available for the life of the airplane products. Solutions to multiphysics problems are overly compromised by expansive assumptions (decoupling of analysis fields such as combustion simulation from structural response simulation). as well as provide easy access to multiple computing operating systems and environments. Out best opportunity to preserve the data we generate today and minimize regeneration tomorrow is through the adoption of standards for information exchange. computing. Transfer of new technologies into practice takes many years. the lifecycle of an aerospace vehicle before physical prototyping. Costing tools and methods in support of product design are inadequate.. 6. Increased demands on the operational requirements of products have provoked interactions between multiple technology domains. need concurrent engineering solutions of multiphysicsbased problems based on knowledge sharing. more advanced computational engineering techniques for performing designanalysisoptimizationsynthesis activities concurrently. but at a minimum will be logically linked. strength optimization of structural gages vs. combustion simulation on structural response). as well as sustaining.3..g. Data exchange standards • Evolving computing software and hardware systems have made the task of information retrieval increasingly difficult with time.14 R. need stronger university/industry internships and innovative facilitated educational (advisory) techniques for 'justintime' learning. the lifecycle of an aerospace vehicle before physical prototyping. need fully coupled solution techniques (e. proprietary data representations are used. most tools operate in a local environment. These needs are being driven by increased demands for efficiency. comprehensive computing architecture for a global design/analysis system does not exist. Opportunities for advancement In developing future aerospace vehicles during the 21st century. safety and multifunctional operational requirements placed on future aerospace systems [1. Major advances are required in numerous areas of computational mechanics to virtually simulate. we can unplug the old analysis or information management tool and plug in a new one without extensive conversion and disruption to the engineers and customers. in principal. in a realistic manner. many different data models are created by translations to specific technology application codes. where required. strength. challenges abound for more innovative technologies and products than ever before.R. However. The current throughput of computational mechanics solutions is marginally acceptable for singledisciplined engineering problems. singlesource. • • • • • • • • 7. 6. • Current design/analysis tools are mostly standalone.g. To be successful. Design constraints with different fidelities across multidisciplines are different. topography). product information management system is essentially nonexistent. focus has been on a federated data environment.
Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Dreisbach RL. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. Hopkins MA.R. Dreisbach.74(5):507519.L. R. Cambridge. June 1215. Paul DB. Peak RS. Part 3: Steps toward multifunctional optimization. [2] Noor AK. MA. .R. Comput Struct 2000. Venneri SL. 2001. In: First MIT Conference on Compu 15 tational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. Structures technology for future aerospace systems.
1. 2. including the overall demands on the tower. the pile behavior is simple and readily understood. 2. The global model is used to compute the total response of the bridge. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.16 Issues in the seismic analysis of bridges Tim J. . Associate. and rocking of the base.J..B.com 1 Ph. Bathe (Editor) finite elements with an elastoplastic material. Each pile is modeled with a beam element and the surrounding soil is modeled with nonlinear py springs (perpendicular to each pile) and nonlinear tz springs (parallel to each pile). All rights reserved. and superstructure.Y.7]. This model uses a 6 x 6 stiffness matrix to represent each pile below the mudline. The local model of the tower base. Email: tingham@tylin. 3. including the foundations. USA Abstract The use of local and global models and the tradeoffs between simple and detailed models are discussed in the context of the seismic analysis of bridges. Fax: + \ (415) 4330807. with nonlinear geometry and an elastoplastic material. Ingham*'^ T. An example of a simple model is the model of the pile foundation supporting a typical pier of the new East Bay Bridge. only the piles are shown. made for the seismic retrofit of that bridge [5. was used to analyze the stability of the plates making up the individual cells of the tower. the tradeoffs between simple and detailed models. S. San Francisco. used for detailed evaluation and the design of retrofit measures. 2. This shell element model. The relationship between the two models is that the simple model is a linearization of the direct one. The modeling of the base of the tower is the minimum able to capture the important nonlinear response of the tower.: +1 (415) 2913781. A more 'direct' model of the same foundation is shown on the right in Fig. from abutment to abutment. shown on the left in Fig. piers. examples are presented from various projects. Bridge. Lin International.D. Local and global modeling It is often impractical to include every detail of a large bridge in a comprehensive 'global' seismic analysis. The local buckling predicted by the analysis will be prevented by installation of stiffeners inside the cells. is shown on the right in Fig. A commonly used strategy to deal with this issue is to conduct detailed 'local' analyses to supplement the 'global' analysis. Simple versus direct modeling Another issue related to the level of detail used in a global model is the use of 'simple' models versus 'direct' models. The management of time history analysis using a database is also presented. This includes yielding of the extreme fibers of the base. A global model is a complete model of a bridge. which is modeled by *Tel. The size of this model is limited by the demanding requirements of a time history analysis. CA 94111. near one of the towers. the figure only shows a portion of the model. and the management of analysis using a database. with a minimum number of parameters. Introduction Three issues related to the complexity of modeling bridges for seismic analysis are discussed in this paper: the use of local and global models. which is modeled by gap elements supporting the finite element mesh. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Keywords: Seismic analysis. This issue is illustrated by the analysis of the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge. 825 Battery Street. A simple model is one that is easily constructed and understood. The global model of the bridge is shown on the left in Fig. 1. Database 1. which may include 20003000 time steps.
the analysis of the model shown in Fig. but underlying its simplicity is the linearization of the behavior. In any case. the level of detail to include in a model is the analyst's choice. balancing the effort required to generate the model and to process the results against the clarity of the assumptions involved. Superstructure Pile above mudline Foundation Fig. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 17 Fig. in the case of the pile) are at a more fundamental level and more easily appreciated. hence the term 'direct'. If automated methods are used to generate the more detailed model and to process the results (see below) the direct model only has the disadvantage of needing more CPU time for its solution. 3 for 60 s of an earthquake (3000 time steps at 0. using ADINA [1]. The management of this data is an important issue in the design process. like the replacement spans of the East Bay Bridge [6].02 s) produces a result filethe porthole filethat is over three gigabytes in size.T.J. For instance. This file must be searched for the critical . This depends on the level of deformation of the pile. and the volume of results to be handled is less. 4. and the initial work of linearization and the tedious job of constantly checking it are eliminated. produces a large volume of data. so the analyst must constantly verify that the linearization is compatible with the results obtained. The virtue of the direct model is that the assumptions (about soil behavior. Data management The time history analysis of a large bridge. 1. The simple model has the virtue of running more quickly. Local and global models for analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge. With the direct model the computer solves the equations of motion of the pile and soil at each time step. 2. Simple and direct models for analysis of the East Bay Bridge. Other examples of this tradeoff may be found in references [24].
the process is managed by a compiled Microsoft Access database that contains the forms used to define the structure. Also.rnde File  '• Fig.. 4. 5. which shows the different files involved. and to specify the pile type. 6. For the chosen portion of the structure the elements and nodal connectivity describing the resulting model are written to the model data file at the same time that the ADINA input files are produced. model of main span. Finally. combinations of axial force. the database is ideally suited to summarizing the results for a large number of members and for several ground motions. . file structure. the main span. the code needed to generate models — and input files — for analysis.g. On the East Bay Bridge project. to generate input files for analysis. standard pile types. Access Database. and to summarize analysis results for design. 5. shear. the compiled database produces the reports needed for design. Po'^trcle ~^^ File 1 Fig. The structure file contains the data describing the complete structure. . and in Fig. East Bay Bridge. 3. Ingham/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics t^^ h^ K k Fig.g. The ground motions and the data defining the structure are kept in separate Access data files.rf — J A D I M A >— . East Bay Bridge analysis. which is a binary file with a complex structure. the maintenance of the model to reflect design changes is a significant problem. Analysts working on different parts of the structure can generate models from this single file and they have ready access to common data — e. and the reports used to present results. This particular form is used to describe the layout of the piles at each pier. A typical form in the database system is shown in Fig. which shows the process of analysis and interpretation of results.nde File Forns Code Reports / Model and / / Result Data / f Reports Eesigr Process ^. As shown in Fig. using the database system an analyst may choose to analyze the complete structure or just a part of it — e.T. and moment for each member and the results summarized for easy interpretation and design. Access Database. East Bay Bridge analysis. This approach is shown schematically in Fig. The structure data file provides a central location for the storage of design data. combining the model and result data. process. both of these issues were addressed by using a database to store structure and model data. And. Automating and standardizing the production of input files eliminates tedious work and minimizes errors. or a single pier.J. The ADINA program stores results in a 'porthole' file. 4. The advantages of the database are several. Forms Code Reports . 4. This program may be contained in a dynamic link library integrated with the compiled database or it may be a standalone program [8]. and passes the data onto specialty design programs. A 'porthole reader' program is used to scan this file and transfer the maximum and minimum forces for each member to the result data file.
1999. PA. June 1215. Proceedings of the Structural Engineers World Congress. Transportation Research Record No. . ModeUng of friction pendulum bearings for [7] [8] the seismic analysis of bridges. Ingham T. Transportation Research Board. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 19 _ W» W^ Im Vi^^ ffietmn.i v The ctef)K:t«ai and dampBig facfty ^e onKf used "]> fix piie ir»¥«d^ce matriK aid hytrid models aid 0. 1998. 1624. Cambridge. Nader M. Ingham TJ. Pittsburgh. Ingham TJ. Heathcote D.72:4962. pile modeling and layout form. Access database for model generation. Nader M. CA. Conclusions The seismic analysis of large bridges presents many choices regarding the level of detail to include in a global model and the analysis of critical components. MA. and the manipulation of results is an important factor in the complexity of the models that can be practicably handled. Rodriguez S. 6. Donikian R. San Francisco. ADINA R&D. Seismic analysis of bridges with pile foundations. Ingham T. Seismic Protective Systems for the Stiffening Trusses of the Golden Gate Bridge. CA. Rodriguez S. 1995. Chan J. [4] [5] [6] References [1] ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. Proceedings of the National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways. 5. Proceedings of the 16th International Bridge Conference. MA. Seismic retrofit of Vincent Thomas suspension bridge. i^eot^ kin ^ B Deflection Damping Factor Re Lajfout Sdtrfamr ^rMod^io yge Cap" to tem aph cap mpedegxem^k^ o. SCPorthole7 Program. Ingham TJ. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. 2001. 1998. Baker G. Seismic modeling and analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge. San Diego. Rodriguez S. [2] Baker G. 1999. model generation. Comput Struct 1999. The use of automated methods for data storage. [3] Ingham TJ. Manzanarez R.015915 X for pfe cap Irrf)edarc8 matrix mocteis u u Fig.TJ. CA. SC Solutions. Seismic Design Strategy for the New San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Suspension Span. Santa Clara. Cambridge.
Barcelona.329(I):445452. approximate) controllability. Domain decomposition. All rights reserved. where A is an elliptic operator (linear or not. Hebrew Univ. the socalled virtual control algorithms. Bathe (Editor) References [1] Lions JL. Email: jacqueslouis. Algorithmes paralleles pour la solution de problemes aux limites. It is to be chosen in such a way that y allows to recover the solution u of (1). where y is subject to adequate boundary conditions on 9 ^ . *Tel. France Abstract Some recent advances in the development of virtual control algorithms for the approximate solution of boundary value problems are presented. C.S. and where u is subject to boundary conditions.327(I):947952.: +33 (1) 44271708. Paris 1998. (6) Time decomposition: [7]. of Jerusalem 2000. Decomposition of energy spaces and applications. Controllability. approximately). Pironneau O. or not). [2] Lions JL.328(I):7380. [8]. We embed the problem in a family of relaxed problems By = g + k (2) (4) Heterogeneous decompositions: follows a paper by Gervasio et al. Fax: +33 (1) 44271704.R. The lecture will try to present the main ideas of the following ones. 75006 Paris. Eccomass.80:257297. (5) High precision with low order finite elements: [6]. Cf. to appear in Numerische Mathematik.20 Virtual control algorithms J. [3] Lions JL. (7) Towards meshless methods: paper in preparation. Keywords: Virtual control algorithms. C. (1) Domain decomposition methods: see [1] above and [2].J. Lions JL. Heterogeneous decomposition Let us consider an equation A(u) = f (1) in a domain ^ c R'^. Pironneau O. [5] Gervasio P. 23 quai de Conti. In (2) the RHS contains two terms. Remarks on the control of everything.lions@collegedefrance.A. Paris 1999. replicas and decomposition of operators. Pironneau O. [5]. [6] Lions JL. Paris 2000. related to A but 'simpler' than A. The function g is constructed depending on / and the function X (scalar or vectorial) is a virtual control. where B is an elliptic operator.R.A. in a domain Q (which can coincide with Q. to appear. September 2000. it corresponds to exact (resp. J Anal Math. (2) Decomposition of operators: [3].S.330(I):4754.S. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.R. [4] Glowinski R.A. Virtual control.S. (3) Decomposition of energy spaces: [4]. Numer Math.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. In control theory terminology.A. to appear. Virtual and effective control for distributed systems and the decomposition of everything. [8] Lions JL. Maday. of course made precise.L. not specified here. to appear. C. scalar or vectorial). Quarteroni A. . also a paper in preparation with Y. exacdy (resp. Pironneau O. Pironneau O. Lions * Institut de France. Lions JL. [7] Lions JL. allows a lot of flexibility in the construction of algorithms for the approximation of the solution of (1). Domain decomposition methods for CAD. This type of idea. Paris 1999. The idea was introduced in a note by JL Lions and O Pironneau [1] and since then it has been applied to a number of situations. C. Heterogeneous coupling by virtual control methods.R.
Fig. 2. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Geometrical defects. 1). University Paris Nord. most engineers working in automakers and sheet suppliers are software users. Villetaneuse . The visited companies were Daimler Benz. Nissan Motor. and springback (see Fig. as the cumulative geometrical inaccuracy of the stamped parts may lead to serious trouble during assembling of various parts. and their opinion does rarely appear in publications. these codes may be divided into five categories based on the formulation and solution . The main types of defects occurring in sheet metal forming are tearing.go. US Steel and National Steel in the United States. All rights reserved. * Corresponding author. and on the attempt to define numerical measures for quantitatively evaluating various geometrical defects. Materials Fabrication Laboratory. the authors considered that a direct contact with the technical staff involved in sheet metal forming simulations was a highly necessary prerequisite for learning the actual evaluation of the software used for industrial applications. sheet metal parts producers and stamping tool makers. because the very trend of sheet forming simulation had undergone significant changes during the last ten years. wrinkling. surface deflection. Japan and the United States. the information obtained from these sources was not considered sufficient to address the above issues.: +81 (48) 4679314. focusing on recent advances in the finite element (FE) simulation. in order to replace the actual tryout of stamping dies by a computer tryout. The last three types are also called geometrical defects. on the benchmark tests organized to obtain reference experimental data for appraising ability of simulation codes. A quite interesting bulk of information has been obtained in this way. Indeed. and an extensive literature has been published on this topic throughout the last two decades. Makinouchi^'*. Renault Automobiles. Volvo Car Corporation and SOLLAC in Europe. 21 Hirosawa. aiming at predicting forming defects by using finite element software. Mazda. However. this difficulty tends to increase with the recent use of aluminum alloys and highstrength steels by the car manufacturers. Springback. Fax: +81 (48) 4624657. Tel. Toyota Motor and Nippon Steel in Japan. France Abstract This paper presents a short overview of the stateoftheart prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming. Keywords: Sheet metal forming. and Ford Motor.J. Among the three geometrical defects springback is a very sensitive forming defect. Japa ^ LPMTM — CNRS.21 Numerical methods for prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming A. A large number of international conferences have been devoted to the sheet metal forming simulation. The reason of this visit was to prepare our keynote paper on the advance in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet metal forming for the CIRP Annual Meeting [2]. C.jp © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Requirement from industries In 1998. Benchmark test 1. Therefore. Moreover. Chrysler Corporation. 2 illustrates the main types of geometrical defects produced by springback (edited by Yoshida [1]). Teodosiu^ ^ The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research — RIKEN. the authors visited automotive industries and sheet steel suppliers in Europe. Bathe (Editor) to discuss with engineers and researchers working at die shops and in sheet stamping sections.riken. Introduction Sheet forming simulation is becoming a key technology for automotive manufacturers. Wako 3510199. Although a wide variety of FE codes are employed in the industries. Email: akitake@postman.
while prediction of the springback is very poor. C. Inspection of this table reveals that the tearing and wrinkling are rather satisfactorily predicted. . X A. x = impossible to simulate. 1. while the surface deflection is not simulated. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Tearing Surface deflection Wrinkling Springback Fig. Main types of defects encountered in sheet metal forming. strategy used.22 A. A = possible to simulate but poor results. Table 1 Assessment of FE codes by industrial researchers and engineers for each category classified by formulation and solution strategy Solution strategy Formulation FE codes Dynamic explicit Incremental method LSDYNA3D PAMSTAMP OPTRIS All the companies Static explicit ITAS3D Static implicit Large step method MTLFRM AUTO FORM One step method SIMEX ISOPUNCH A F ONE STEP FAST FORM3D Renault Benz Volvo Sollac National Steel Company employing codes Nissan Nippon Steel Ford Benz Volvo Ford Chrysler Nissan Sollac Defects predicted: wrinkling thickness/tearing surface defects geometrical defects after springback A. X X X : satisfactorily predicted. Most of the engineers strongly emphasized the importance of an accurate springback prediction. X o. A X A. The assessment of the codes by industrial researchers and engineers is summarized for each category in Table 1. Makinouchi.
[4]). or even lack of convergence. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Rail Panel 23 Springback angle Side wall curl Twisting Warping Shape fixing defect at punch bottom Fig. Thus. Makinouchi. in practice. since the equilibrium equations are solved iteratively. dynamic explicit codes have also some intrinsic drawbacks.g. and the static explicit codes. The staticimplicit approach may seem ideally suited for metal forming problems. In the staticexplicit approach. Lumped mass matrices are used. several numerical artifacts have to be employed. the results obtained when simulating the springback depend on the type and dimensions of the finite elements and even of the number of integration points [3]. complex nonlinear problems involving many contacts. e. The central difference expUcit scheme is used to integrate the equations of motion. C. The dynamicexplicit codes are very robust and efficient for largescale problems. velocity and damping (see. Thus. e. However. Moreover. In spite of its success for industrial applications.g. in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to simulate the almost quasistatic deformation processes. thus ensuring that the equilibrium conditions are fulfilled at every step. 3. and hence no system of equations has to be solved.A. namely the dynamic explicit. 2. FE approach to simulate geometrical defects We shall recall here briefly some of the merits and drawbacks of three main types of FE approaches employed in the simulation of sheet metal forming. Geometrical defects produced by springback. may result in slow. the increase of the mass density and of the punch velocity by at least one order of magnitude and the introduction of artificial damping in order to limit the inertial effects. the simulation of forming defects requires a considerable experience on the user side for adequately designing the finite element mesh and choosing the scaling parameters for mass. the rate forms of the . whereas the nonequilibrated forces are transformed into inertial forces at each step. the static implicit.
J Mater Process Technol 1995. 6. and to represent the global features by the aggregate normal vectors to the surface [11]. Yang DY. FE Simula . the final goal of simulations is to quantitatively evaluate the geometry of stamped parts and. Simulation of springback in sheet metal forming. NUMISHEET'96 at Dearborn. Handbook of Ease or Difficulty in Press Forming. In order to reduce the errors involved by linearizing the incremental analysis.47(2):641649. Sunaga H. Fourteen industrial partners and seven academic and research institutes participate to the project from Canada. References [1] Yoshida K (Ed). by the very existence of intrinsic deviations from perfect equilibrium. Makinouchi A. Japan in 1993 [8]. Nakagawa T. The experimental benchmark tests have been concurrently performed by several teams over the world. Advances in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet metal forming.50: 105115. it is essential to have clear definitions of forming defects and of the intrinsic values used to evaluate each geometrical defect. J. 4. Such carefully performed and comprehensively documented experimental tests are expected to become a worldwide recognized database for the validation of numerical methods and codes dealing with the simulation of sheet metal forming processes. Inc. [5]). benchmark tests were organized in order to appraise the capability of FE codes to predict forming defects. most of the benchmark experimental results obtained by different participants disagreed greatly with each other and thus provided rather poor reference data for evaluating the codes. like the VDI International Conference held at Zurich. Thilderkvist P. 115124. There are many ways of defining such measures. Makinouchi A. e. France in 1999 [10]. the staticexplicit algorithm is able to simulate defects arising from local instabilities. involving no iterations (see. Ann Arbor. Rotterdam: Balkema. Proceedings of AEPA'98. a threeyear international research project named Digital Die Design System (3DS) started its activity in 2(XX). which describe the overall distortions. such as the surface being 'bent' or 'twisted'. [3] Mattiasson K. It is eventually possible to find out a posteriori the reasons for this scattering of experimental data. e. like wrinkling (see. Intelligent Manufacturing System (IMS). Ann CIRP 1998. This problem is also a major concern in the 3DS Project. Rosochowski A. which dissolves after the event. 1987. [5] Kawka M. Samuelsson A. Strange A. Furthermore.. The obtaining of reliable experimental data. Dawson PR (Eds). because the benchmark results are evaluated by the conference organizing committee. constitutive and equilibrium equations are integrated by a simple forward Euler scheme. with a controlled and minimized scatter. Numerical representation of geometrical defects Assuming that a powerful FE code could accurately predict all geometrical defects illustrated in Fig. Modeling wrinkling phenomena in sheet metal forming. 2. pp.24 A. This implies that equilibrium equations are satisfied only in rate form. Conclusions A short overview of recent activity in numerical methods to predict and evaluate geometrical defects in sheet metal forming is presented. In: Shen S.) [2] Makinouchi A. USA in 1996 [9]. For the purpose of solving this problem. Indeed. Makinouchi. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. which describe local distortions and their locations. However. kinematic. [4] Lee SW. C. European Union and Japan. which require a considerable computational effort. and local features. while the static implicit codes are hardly able to treat such situations. to find the optimized die shapes that are able to produce parts of the exactly designed shape. a relatively large number of small incremental steps have to be used. further intensive research effort is necessary to approach to the final goal: designing the optimum tool geometry directly by simulation. However. Switzerland in 1991 [7]. this will be still not enough for the present requirements of the stamping industry. unless such instabilities are allowed for by special numerical techniques. An assessment of numerical parameters influencing springback in explicit finite element analysis of sheet metal forming processes. Olejnik L. in order to obtain reference data. 1998. (English translation. The main advantage of this approach is its robustness. and NUMISHEET'99 at Besangon. Shellelement formulation in the static explicit FEM code for the simulation of sheet stamping.g. Although FE codes were introduced into many industries. [6] Kawka M. 1995. it has been practically impossible to further analyze the discrepancies noticed during the conference. and thus the obtained solution can gradually drift away from the true one. under the framework of the international collaborative program. [6]). on this basis. the present authors being deeply involved with the technical management of this project. Mater Process Technol 1998:8081:6067. One of the most promising way is to describe the local intrinsic character of the surface by the Gaussian curvature. [7] Proceedings of VDI International Conference. To meet such requirements. NUMIFORM'95. since it requires no iterative processes. Benchmark tests to evaluate ability of FE codes for prediction of geometrical defects At several international conferences. 1993.g. Teodosiu C. Tokyo. NUMISHEET'93 at Isehara. is one of main targets of the project. Proc. MI: National Center for Manufacturing Science. The surface of each defect model possesses some global features.
Besan9on. 1996. 25 [10] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'99. 1993. [9] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'96. 1999. Kimura F. [8] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'93. Teodosiu/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tion of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes in Automotive Industry. Zurich. Isehara. France. Makinouchi. Suzuki H. . Makinouchi A. C. Switzerland.A. Dearborn. [11] Kase K. Shape error evaluation method of freeform surfaces. ComputAided Design 1999. 1991.31(8):495505. Nakagawa T. Japan. USA.
To keep things as simple as possible. Moreover. but the structure is allowed to have a nonuniform mass density which may be greater or lower than that of the fluid. Equations of motion As described in Section 1. we need to supplement the NavierStokes equations by a Lagrangian description of the elastic material.: +1 (212) 9983126.r. nevertheless apply finite forces to the fluid in which they are immersed. th^ mass density p{x.t). The method is used to analyze fluidstructure interaction problems.26 The Immersed Boundary Method for incompressible fluidstructure interaction David M. all of which may be idealized as surfaces which. Fluidstructure interaction. we use the incompressible NavierStokes equations.t). New York. Incompressible elasticity. t) and the Eulerian elastic force density/(jc. This restriction can certainly be removed. r).nyu.r. to describe the coupled motion of the hydroelastic system in a unified way. despite having zero volume. but also immersed elastic boundaries like heart valve leaflets (for which the method was originally designed). McQueen. USA Abstract In this paper the Immersed Boundary Method is presented. Heart valves 1. the hydrostatic pressure field p(x. 251 Mercer Street. Instead of separating the system into its two components coupled by boundary conditions. it is useful to think of the structure as a part of the fluid where additional forces are applied. with a nonuniform mass density and an applied elastic force density. we use an Eulerian description of the system as a whole (fluid h structure) supplemented by a Lagrangian description of the structure. its Lagrangian . The Eulerian description of the system as a whole involves the velocity field w(jc. New York University. the Dirac delta function is particularly well suited to this situation. Computational fluid dynamics. Flapping filament. NY 10012. Charles S. sails. however. we consider the case of a viscous incompressible fluid that interacts with an immersed structure that is made of an incompressible viscoelastic material. The equations of motion that result from this point of view directly motivate a numerical method known as the "Immersed Boundary Method" [15]. with some recent developments. Fax: Hi (212) 9954121. Flag in wind. This apparatus is conveniently provided by the Dirac delta function. and where additional mass may be localized. as is conventionally done. The independent variables of the Eulerian description are the Cartesian coordinates x and the time t. we need a mathematical apparatus to translate in either direction between Lagrangian quantities * Corresponding author. In order to do this. In this paper. Introduction In the study of fluidstructure interaction.s. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 2. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method. Bathe (Editor) and the corresponding Eulerian quantities. 0The Lagrangian description of the immersed elastic material involves its configuration X{q. and parachutes. Different aspects of the method are illustrated by applying it to blood flow in the heart and a flapping filament (flaginwind) problem.s and again the time t. Peskin *. Clearly.J. Luoding Zhu Coumnt Institute of Mathematical Sciences. but we shall not address that complication here. Tel. The mass density of the ambient fluid is also assumed to be uniform. Cardiac fluid dynamics. Email: peskin@cims. insect wings. from which the elastic force density and the nonuniform mass density that appear in the NavierStokes equations may be calculated. This name emphasizes an important feature of the method: that it can handle not only immersed elastic structures that displace a finite volume. and the independent variables of the Lagrangian description are curvilinear material coordinates q. we assume that the viscosity is Newtonian and uniform throughout the system. All rights reserved.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
s. Eq. Since the fluid and the structure are both incompressible. i. This constraint is implicit in Eqs. with a variable mass density p(x. we need only drop one of the three Lagrangian coordinates q. respectively. r.t)) F = dE "dx (6) These equations (without the viscous term) can be formally derived from the principle of least action.t))drds (8) .t) at any given time. since we require that u be continuous.. (5) states that the velocity of any material point of the structure may be found by evaluating the Eulerian velocity field u{x. t). In the case of such a structure (like a sail or parachute canopy). t) and p(x.r. it does not have to be imposed separately. With this notation.r. t)8(x X(r. t)) dr ds (7) Tt (q. . t). M is independent of time. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics elastic force density F{q. Eq. r).X(q. we need to specify the elastic potential energy functional. that Dp/Dr = 0. s.t) = Po + dx (5) = I u(x.e. provided that appropriate allowance is made for the particular stresstensor of the material. s.s). r. it must be the case that p{x. s. (3) and (4) provide conversions from the Lagrangian force and mass densities F{q. t)) dq dr ds (4) Note that Eq. The second form of Eq. but it also enforces the noslip condition at the interface between the fluid and the structure./ F • dZd^ dr d^. McQueen et al. but rather that their integrals over corresponding regions are equal. the integral off(x. I M(r. In Eq. the integral is over the fixed Cartesian coordinates x. and that M will be negative at any material point for which the mass density of the immersed elastic material is less than that of the ambient fluid. (3) and (4) still make sense in the special case that the immersed elastic structure takes the form of a surface instead of displacing any volume. t) I F(r. Although it may be unconventional to use these equations in the case of an elastic material. (4) over some arbitrary region of space. and a particular form of the stress tensor. t) (1) (2) 27 (3) p{x. Again.t). changing the order of the integrals on the righthand side. E[X].t). (5). (4) and (5). Note that M = 0 in the case of a neutrally buoyant structure. All of these conversions involve integral operators in which the Dirac delta function appears as a kernel. d^" = .r./(x. and its Lagrangian additional mass density M(q. which may. t) or p(x. one should recall that in the derivation of the incompressible NavierStokes equations the only ingredients are Newton's laws of motion. (5). s. (3) and (4) the integrals are over the moving curvilinear material coordinates q. where D/Dr is the material derivative: 9/9f I. One can confirm that this is satisfied in our case by integrating Eq.t) and an applied force density/(jc. t)) dq dr ds = ixV^u +f{x. It is important to note that Eqs./ M(q. Eqs. r. the Dirac delta function is still threedimensional. In each of these equations. our equations of motion read as follows: p{x. the integral of which over any chunk of the material gives the mass of that chunk minus the mass of the fluid displaced.s)S{xX(r. Here. (1) and (2) are the famihar NavierStokes equations of a viscous incompressible fluid.t) (^JrU'Vu\+Vp W u=0 fix.s. be different from that of a fluid. This is essentially the definition of the Eulerian velocity field.X(q. r. t). Here we just give an informal discussion of their meaning. and noting that the integral of the Dirac delta function yields 1 or 0 depending on whether or not the domain of integration includes the point x = X(q. r. r. which is used in the calculation of the elastic forces from the configuration X(. t)8(xX(q.t) =u {X(q. whereas in Eqs. s.s. r.s so that Eqs. (6) is shorthand for the statement that F is minus the Frechet derivative of E.D.r. in which the Dirac delta function appears. shows that the conversion from Eulerian to Lagrangian velocity can be expressed in a manner that resembles the conversions from Lagrangian to Eulerian force and mass densities. r. the divergence of the elastic stress tensor. . It follows that the incompressible NavierStokes equations are applicable to any incompressible material. s) to the corresponding Eulerian force and mass densities. That is. Since both the mass and volume of any such chunk of the immersed elastic material are conserved. Eqs. Eqs. plays that role. t)= F{q. the applied force density/(jc. The relationship between corresponding densities is not that their values are the same at corresponding points. t) = po\. t) over any finite threedimensional region gives a finite result. The mass density po of the ambient fluid and the viscosity /x of the system as a whole are constant parameters. incompressibility.t) at the current location of that material point. r. see [6] for details. t) 8 (x . t) at any given material point is independent of time. r.s.s.M. t) p(x.t) and M(q. t). (1) also involves the nonuniform mass density p{x. To complete the Lagrangian description of the elastic material. s. s.a • V. of course.s. but there are only two integrations to perform so the result is singular like a onedimensional delta function. however. (3) and (4) become fix. (3) or Eq. s) 8 (x . (3) and (4).
see [25]. 2 the model heart has been turned so that the right ventricle faces the viewer. elastic material that is neutrally buoyant in blood. illustrating different aspects of the method. the aortic valve. The elastic parameters of the heart muscle are timedependent. The second computation presented here is a simulation of a laboratory experiment involving a flexible filament suspended in a flowing soap film with the upstream end of the filament held fixed. except that the NavierStokes solver involves the solution of difference equations with nonconstant coefficients at each time step. and the left atrium (with open mitral valve). the whole problem is inherently twodimensional. These great vessels of the model have blind ends but are equipped with sources and sinks that provide appropriate loads for the model heart. 1 and 2 show cutaway views of the heart in diastole from different perspectives. we present results of two different immersed boundary computations. Thus. This is essentially the principle of virtual work. 4. In Fig. A large swirling vortex with an interesting 3D structure fills the relaxing right ventricular chamber. and we report on another such example here. Fluidflowis shown in terms of streaklines: dots mark the current positions of blood particles. Filament mass. Parameters. and the open aortic valve that allows the left ventricle to eject blood into the aorta. supported by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae. The case of nonuniform mass density is similar. An example of such a computation can be found in [7]. we have found. An external source/sink allows for changes in cardiac volume and also provides a convenient reference pressure. The heart is viewed from the front. The specific form of the Immersed Boundary Method used for these computations is described in [5]. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics for any perturbation dX. In particular. The heart model [2. 3 shows the flow pattern of blood on the left side of the heart during ejection. that prevents backflow into the left atrium.M. Fourier transform methods are no longer applicable. Figs. so the left ventricle is on the right side of the figure and the right ventricle is on the left. which is what makes it possible for the model heart to beat. Because the fluid is in the form of a soap film. For details in the uniform density case. Numerical method The Immersed Boundary Method is obtained by discretization of the above equations of motion.8] is shown in Figs. incompressible. Therefore.28 D. are those of the human heart. Fig. 13. McQueen et al. Fig. Cutaway view of the threedimensional heart model during ventricular filling. and some iterative method such as multigrid must be used. It is made entirely of elastic and contractile fibers immersed in viscous incompressible fluid. the ascending aorta (with closed aortic valve). Note the prominent vortex that was shed from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and has migrated down towards the apex of the left ventricle. The first is a computer simulation of the heart. and the immersed boundary (the flexible filament) is onedimensional. it also includes the great vessels to which the heart is connected. Structures that appear above the ventricles are (from left to right in the figure) the main pulmonary artery (with closed pulmonic valve). In Fig. The model includes the four cardiac chambers and all four valves. 3. up to terms of higher order in 6X. 1 the clipping plane cuts through the mitral valve. is an essential feature of the problem. Results In this section. Note the closed mitral valve. . this computation illustrates those aspects of the Immersed Boundary Method that are concerned with nonuniform density. It involves all aspects of the mathematical formulation mentioned above except that the density of the system is considered uniform. and the heart valve leaflets are modeled as massless fiberreinforced elastic membranes. and tails attached to these dots show the trajectories of these particles over the recent past. 1. and the apex of the heart. heart muscle is modeled as an anisotropic. Two pulmonary veins are visible behind and connecting to the left atrium. see also [4]. Note the prominent vortex that was shed primarily from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and has then been convected towards the apex of the heart by the jet of left ventricular filling. including the Reynolds number.
is anchored at its upper end in a soap film which flows downwards under the influence of gravity. It can handle immersed elastic structures which displace finite volumes (like muscle). the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava join to form the right atrium. Our principal finding is that the flapping state requires filament mass. (For early studies of this kind in a twodimensional left heart model. 4. There is a hint of 3D structure in the way that the flow comes down through the tricuspid valve in the foreground but swirls around the vortex core into the background behind that inflow jet. Fig. the extra mass being explained by a bulge in the soap film that forms around the thread as a consequence of surface tension. Fig. see [911]. a flexible thread. or (2) a sustained oscillation in which the filament flaps like a flag in the wind and alternately sheds vortices of opposite sign creating a wake that resembles the Karman vortex street behind a cylinder. Its two stable states are: (1) a steady state in which the filament points straight downstream. Air resistance flattens the velocity profile of the flowing soap film. It is our hope that this model will prove useful as a computer test chamber for the design of prosthetic cardiac valves. Although the Reynolds number of the computation (Re = 210) is lower than that of the laboratory experiment by two orders of magnitude. The open tricuspid valve is visible at the atrioventricular junction. Note the tension in the closed mitral valve and the jet of blood entering the ascending aorta through the open aortic valve. 2. McQueen et al. Conclusions The Immersed Boundary Method is a practical way to simulate fluidstructure interaction in the incompressible case. thus raising the effective filament mass.The heart model has been turned so that the free wall of the right ventricle is in front. Note the flow pattern of the prominent vortex that seems to fill the entire right ventricle. 5.DM. Transparent view of the predicted flow pattern of right ventricularfilUng. Zhang's key discovery is that under a range of conditions the filament exhibits bistable behavior. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 29 Fig. The filament. constrained by two vertical wires at the edges of the film. At the upper left in the figure. 4 shows a simulation in which the filament mass per unit length is twice that of the experimental filament (saturated with water). Other structures seen above the ventricle are (from left to right in the figure) the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery. the results of the simulation are in good agreement with those of the experiment.) Computer simulation of a flapping filament in a flowing soap film is shown in Fig. including the observed flapping frequency of about 50 Hz. the steady state in which the filament points straight downstream is globally stable. The computed flow pattern of left ventricular ejection. Either state is stable against small perturbations (hence the term 'bistable') but can be converted to the other state by a sufficiently large perturbation. and also immersed . This simulation is based on an experiment performed in the Courant Institute WetLab by Jun Zhang [12]. 3. With a massless filament.
math. Physiology. The right panel of the figure shows the corresponding vorticity contours. July. [3] McQueen DM. working against air resistance) at an inflow velocity of 280 cm/s. In both panels flow is from top to bottom (driven by gravity.141:161186. New York: Kluwer (in press). 309337. Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to the National Science Foundation (USA) for support of this work under KDI research grant DMS9980069. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Fluid dynamics of the heart and its valves. [4] Lai MC.5 cm. 1996.utah. Peskin CS.html. Dallon JC (Eds). Contemp Math 1993.34:5660. http:/www. The Reynolds number of the computation (based on inflow velocity and filament length) is Re = 210. elastic membranes (like sails. Two different visualization techniques are used. [8] McQueen DM. Computational biofluid dynamics.com/hp/ Products/DisExpress. McQueen DM. Nature 2000. [12] Zhang J. Shelley M. [7] Fogelson AL. Computerassisted design of butterfly bileaflet valves for the mitral position. Peskin CS. Zhu J. Peskin CS. and heart valve leaflets). Flexible filaments in a flowing soap film as a model for onedimensional flags in a twodimensional wind. 1991. McQueen DM.30 D. Englewood Cliffs NJ: PrenticeHaU. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Center under an allocation of resources MCA93S004P from the National Resource Allocation Committee. order number: 7230378) [2] Peskin CS. Computer simulation of a flapping filament in a flowing soap film. J Comput Phys 2000. 211 pp. Flow Patterns Around Heart Valves: A Digital Computer Method for Solving the Equations of Motion. US Patent Number 5. Computerassisted design of pivotingdisc prosthetic mitral valves. [10] McQueen DM. parachutes. Lewis MA. Case Studies in Mathematical Modeling: Ecology.umi. Curved Butterfly Bileaflet Prosthetic Cardiac Valve.160:705719. Fig.026. In: Othmer HG. pp.19:139148. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1983. [5] McQueen DM. The left panel of the figure shows the instantaneous positions of fluid markers created in bursts along the upper (inflow) boundary. Recent developments have extended the range of Reynolds numbers that the method can handle (up to and including that of the human heart). ICTAM 2000 Proceedings. and Cell Biology. McQueen et al. The flapping filament sheds vortices of alternate sign which then form the sinuous wake seen in the figures. Comput Graph 2000. Computation was performed in part on the Cray T90 computer at the San Diego Supercomputer . and have also made possible the simulation of immersed elastic structures which are not neutrally buoyant in the ambient fluid. Heart Simulation by an Immersed Boundary Method with Formal SecondOrder Accuracy and Reduced Numerical Viscosity. Adler FR. as in a hydrogen bubble flow visualization. Sharedmemory parallel vector implementation of the immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow in the beating mammalian heart. Peskin CS. The filament length is 3 cm. 1972. Libchaber A. Peskin CS. A threedimensional computer model of the human heart for studying cardiac fluid dynamics. (available at http://www. [6] Peskin CS. J Supercomput 1997. Ph. Selected time step from a simulation showing sustained oscillation at about 50 Hz. Scand J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1985.391.M. Implementation of a variabledensity Immersed Boundary Method. Thesis. Childress S.ll(3):213236. 4.D.edu/~fogelson. and the width of the channel is 8.86:126135. An immersed boundary method with formal second order accuracy and reduced numerical viscosity. Peskin CS. June 25. Unpublished. [11] McQueen DM.408:835. Peskin CS. [9] McQueen DM. \ References [1] Peskin CS.
and to provide superior functionality and quality to the customer at affordable prices.com ^ Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmapping Project: Modeling and Simulation.. mathmodels .e. and improved quality product for the customer.gov © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.rohde@gm. 6440 East 12 Mile Road. Indeed. mathematical models have been used extensively to create and evaluate product designs via CAD and CAE tools. http://imtr. termed 'MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process'. Synthesis Driven'. Ottolini *. That strategy. With this approach. Vehicle development times have decreased from 60 months to less than 18. differs from traditional simulationbased design in the use of mathbased synthesis.31 GM's journey to math: the virtual vehicle Robert M. a 'virtual environment' including a superior IT infrastructure is required. Systems engineering. Virtual vehicle. and other technologies have been integrated into vehicles. simulation technology. Historically. Keywords: Mathbased. yields the 'Virtual Vehicle. together with the exphcit definition of discrete virtual 'build events'. Safety. To help achieve these goals computers and electronics. i. vehicle designs to meet both the physical and functional requirements." General Motors has understood this potential for many years and has developed a mathbased strategy to implement it. Computeraided engineering. spans all facets of the vehicle creation process including the use of mathematical models to: optimally position products in the marketplace... modehng and simulation are emerging as key technologies to support manufacturing in the 21st century. More recently.J. This involves the utilization of a multitude of different types of mathematical models and computerbased methods at different levels of detail. In General Motors a processdriven approach based on a systems engineering paradigm using mathematical models has been developed to define. Vehicle development process 1. there has been a very rapid growth in the ability to design and engineer vehicles using computerbased methods. The approach presented leads to shorter product development cycles at reduced cost. design. i. Bathe (Editor) level associated with 'mechatronics'. the virtual vehicle is defined. The logical integration of these models into the GM Vehicle Development Process (VDP). and reducing product realization costs. fewer prototype hardware builds.. Introduction A major driver in the automotive industry today is the competitive pressure to shorten the product development cycle. new materials. and energy efficiency are additional paramount customer requirements. In addition. and synthesize robust physical reahzations. termed 'MathBased. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. More specifically. increasing the complexity and required degree of integration of vehicle subsystems. i. reducing designtomanufacturing cycle time.. in tandem with the increasing sophistication and complexity of automotive vehicles..e. Warren.m. Email: steve.e.ornl. MI 480909000.' a key component of the GM strategy and the subject of this paper. particularly to do so in a timely fashion. and examples of its use and associated benefits throughout the VDP are shown.. to effectively create virtual vehicles consistent with the timing requirements of a 'fast' VDP. perfecting processes. Rohde General Motors Corporation. mathematical models were used to 'troubleshoot' designs. Synthesis/analysis. translate the customers' voice into product functional characteristics. a posteriori. To design such vehicles requires a considerably more sophisticated approach than that which had been used in the past. environmental friendUness. as well as producibility requirements. Steve M. and will continue to decrease. and no other technology offers more potential than modeling and simulation for improving products. Fortunately. modem automotive vehicles are at an integration * Corresponding author. and engineer vehicles. USA Abstract A recent study sponsored by the United States Government^ concluded that enterprisewide ". That process. All rights reserved.
Perform Analytical Validation to Minimize the Use of Hardware Based Techniques DEVELOP & ALLOCATE REQUIREMENTS ASSEMBLE & DEVELOP SYSTEM 3. S. synthesis is creation driven by requirements whereas analysis is evaluation to those requirements. It requires the explicit determination of functional requirements from the operational needs. & component levels MANUFACTURING 2. . is the use of mathematical models to assess the performance of a given system. debugging/tuning. or to better understand its behavior. Analysis. Ottolini. Systems engineeringbased vehicle development process showing the role of synthesis and analysis. Subsystems. Vehicles. 2. On the bottom of the trapezoid we show the detailed design of the individual parts and components. and then to the components. subsystem. Subsystem and Component Designs That Meet Customer Requirements iiNlMlliiiii PROCESS Fig. The flow is from the customer to the vehicle. These requirements 'flow' directly from. These virtual vehicles are used to ensure that the vehicle will meet its specific requirement set. and vehicle levels as well as hardware development. The process is driven by the customers' wants and needs from the top. Support the Requirements Definition Process*: • Define Specific Requirements • Allocate & Balance Functional Requirements • Optimize & Integrate Requirements i * At vehicle. then to the subsystems. Perform Synthesis and Analysis to Achieve Optimal Balanced Vehicle.g. which are assembled and developed to form the vehicle as shown on the right leg of the trapezoid. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics quirements engineering. The logically configured mathematical representations of the vehicle as it evolves through the VDP are termed 'virtual vehicles'. synthesis forms the basis for requirements engineering and for design — a synthesis process by definition. It includes developing and allocating the requirements for the vehicle. In the middle of the trapezoid is the validation process which includes both validation of the requirements and of the design to meet those requirements. and then using welldefined procedures. and vehicle levels in that order. GM's MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process GM's MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process is based upon systems engineering. to build the vehicle. physical. Analytical models typically are used extensively in the systems engineering process. During this translation. e. 1. and are thus traceable to the customers' wants and needs. interactions among components are treated explicitly to ensure compatibility of all functional. Use S/A & Simulation to Support the Development of Components. More simply put. The left leg represents re CUSTOMER 4. subsystem. and program interfaces. and Manufacturing & Assembly ^ Processes 1. are used in all phases of the vehicle development process: from quantifying the needs of the customer to validating the product using detailed.. Validation of the design is done at the component. subsystem. on the other hand.32 R. General Motors. and for the manufacturing and assembly processes. to translate those requirements into a physical realization that meets the needs in an optimal manner. lefthand comer of the trapezoid. computationally intensive simulations. Analysis is used for validation at the component. Synthesis is a process for designing a system in which multiple and competing requirements are balanced and allocated to the subsystems and components through a systematic analytical process. 1. Synthesis and analysis are key to the effective implementation of systems engineeringbased vehicle development. Thus. has converged on a systems engineeringbased vehicle engineering process as depicted by the icon in Fig.M. beginning in the mideighties.M. which may be simply defined as an orderly process for the design of manmade systems to satisfy operational needs.
Continuous. some prototype hardware will still be built to correlate and confirm the math models and to ensure that the customers' needs are indeed met.Consecutive. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 33 MATH BASED VISION 2436+ Month VDP . Styling Design CAD Form Marketing Pmc&ss^^. Of course. A key point here is the use of math models with an appropriate level of detail. Conversely.Math Basic for Analysis ('Check & Fix') 1836 Month VDP . for validation. It involves moving from a 'bottoms up' VDP paradigm in which hardware is built and tested to determine what was 'done wrong' to a 'top down' VDP paradigm in which hardware is built to confirm the math modeHng. Hardware Based Learning . and. This simple statement has a profound influence on how vehicles are engineered. analysissupported VDP to a synthesisdriven. 3. Manufacturing/ ] Assembly ] &Fit Virtual Velilcle \ Correiation/ I Feedback PhysmMGbMrmati&m: Lab/PG ]• CAT:: :^ Fig. Compressed Hardware Based Learning . 2. hardwaresupported VDP as shown in Fig.Hardware to Confirm Synthesis and Validate Integrated Vehicle Fig. . Viewing the VDP as a 'learning process'. ultimately. conceptual models based upon regressions or algebraic equations are often used.Math Basis for Synthesis (Virtual Builds) and Analysis <18 Month VDP .M.M. GM's mathstrategy. Ottolini. to a continuous learning process via the mathematical representations as also shown in Fig. For example. 2. 3. finiteelement models containing hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom are often used. Synthesis Based Learning .Concurrent. The virtual vehicle concept.R. GM's mathbased strategy can be simply stated as moving from a hardwaredriven. S. The virtual vehicle Given the process described above. the learnings transit from a sequential set of hardwarebased learnings to a more overlapping set using mathbased synthesis and analysis. the virtual vehicle concept can be viewed as the extensive use of coordinated math models to guide decisions regarding the definition. early in the development process. Having introduced the concepts of a systems engineeringbased vehicle development process that is implemented through the use of synthesis and analysis. 2.
M. Scope of applications used in GM.21430 1 I VeWde Synthesis. That growth is mandatory and enables the development of higher fidelity math models in areas such as structures and CFD as shown in Fig. 3 shows this conceptually. GMNA high performance computing growth since 1995. 4. function.34 R. and sales and service of a vehicle through the VDP. 4. To implement the virtual vehicle concept requires the integration of math capabilities that span the vehicle's functionality as shown schematically in Fig. significantly outpacing Moore's law. 4. i.—~r fN ^ O OI^S ^HBBBftl^ structures . 5. Ottolini..^^•^^H ^^^HV^^HD Noise & H ^ ^ L ^ S n B ^ P .. The growth rate is almost 100% per year. to support the virtual vehicle. form. 6. fit. Examples drawn from actual product development were presented to illustrate the approach. 6. . 250 I 200 I 150 • •5 100 50 1980 1985 1990 1996 2000 2005 Year Fig. Fig. The concepts of mathbased synthesis and analysis were introduced. 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Y T D Jan 2001 Jul 2001 Fig. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1 V S A S CAPABILITY Energy Management Powertrain Harmony & Optimization & Human Factors Robust Engineering j  : . Fig. and Simulatiai j Fig. assembly. 5 shows GM's recent rapid growth in high performance computing ^ 350 i 300 i . marketing.^ ^ _ Vibration  I 1 1   1 1 1 1 1 Aerodynamics 4^ 0 (^^^HUHH^B^B^SBM • fljWK^jKi1 ^ 9 ^ ^ ^Bl^^\ QRD Bectricai/ \ Bectronlcs Vehicle Dynamics Crash/Safety ^^^^I^^^^^^^^^HH^PT 1 Manufacturing CAE & Dimensional integration ^^ ^ t \ Control Systems \ 1 1 6VSAS Process & Integration/ADV. Analysis. S. GM has been developing this capability since the 1960s. but only in the recent past has the computing infrastructure and application software been at the point of making 'virtual test labs and proving grounds' a reality. manufacturing. Closure In this paper we have attempted to give the reader a flavor for the benefits and the potential of using modem computational methods in a systems engineering processdriven framework to define and engineer automotive vehicles. CAE Infrastructure 1 PaP^ 1 •sSUassr 1 =W»^ o t I 8.M. Growth in the number of finite elements in a typical crash worthiness simulafion.
Solids & Structures .
Shear resistance. Their experimental and analytical studies have shown no influence of large inclusions on the global stiffness for the size ratio of the inclusion equal to 2 as considered by them. the intruder undergoes an intermittent ascent. All rights reserved. Keywords: Granular material. which has enabled an insight to be gained of the complex and often mysterious behaviour of granular materials using numerical simulations. For smaller size ratio (less than about 3).36 Shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions: DEM simulations S. no ascent of the large particle (intruder) was observed. also known as 'brazilnut effect' has been the subject of several investigations [4]. Discrete element analysis.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. and for size ratio greater than ca. for size ratio 5. Guildford. In this paper. Bathe (Editor) ample vertically. Size effects. the vibration induced size segregation problem. Particle interactions 1. Slow shear flow. Fax: f44 (1483) 876581. 10. M.ac. Introduction Granular materials are an important part of several engineering and industrial processes. for ex* Corresponding author. twodimensional studies have indicated that [5] there exists a threshold size ratio (diameter ratio of large particle to the surrounding monodispersed particle). the overall shear resistance of the granular system decreases. 1) using DEA. GU2 7XH.Ghadiri Department of Chemical and Process Engineering. [6] have studied the effect of presence of hard inclusions (glass) in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix on compaction in a triaxial cell. Recent studies on the size effects in compacted beds based on experiments and micromechanical modelling have shown interesting characteristics. University of Surrey. These findings help us to understand the fundamental flow characteristics of granular media under slow shear regime. When a container having larger particles embedded in smaller granular particles is vibrated.3. This has been facilitated greatly by the rapid growth of computer power. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. We present how the structural orientations of the contacts are influenced by the size ratio of large inclusions.J. Bonnenfant et al. as the size of submerged particle in the periodic granular cell increases. Studies on the influence of inclusion on the behaviour particulate medium has been of recent interest.antony@surrey. Tel. the bigger particles tend to move toward the top of the container. UK Abstract In this paper we present the effect of size ratio on the shear resistance of dense granular media containing large inclusions. The properties of the constituent particles strongly influence the deformation characteristics of the particulate medium.: +44 (1483) 789477. we carry out threedimensional simulations in a periodic cell for the shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions (Fig. Conflicting reasons have been attached to this phenomena. An estimate of the shear resistance of the particulate medium is of great importance to facilitate better process control. This could be attributed to the weak fabric anisotropy of the system develops for an increase in size of large inclusion. Antony*. For example. We also present the microscopic evolution of contact orientations in terms of fabric anisotropy tensor. It has been shown that. Fabric anisotropy. To control the behaviour of granular materials needs understanding of the physical processes that control the behaviour and interactions of their constituent particles. Nevertheless. The interaction between contiguous particles are modelled as a . above which. It is often necessary to specify the mechanical conditions required for such an operation. Email: s. the intruder ascents continuously and hence the fluidity (movement) of the large particles becomes higher. the movement of larger particle increases.
an entirely monodispersed system of particles. Schematic diagram (front/top view) showing the periodic cell with inclusion. The interactions between contiguous particles are modelled as a dynamic process and the time evolution of the particles is advanced using an explicit finite difference scheme. Vital information on the influence of inclusion on the macroscopic shear resistance and internal contact orientations of the granular assembly are obtained during shearing. The simulations are performed in a periodic cell in which a large size particle (submerged particle) is created at the centre of the cell and surrounded by monodispersed spherical particles (generated randomly). The random assembly created were isotropically compressed to a stress level of 100 kPa.S. the readers could refer to Cundall and Strack [1]. the solid fraction and mechanical coordination number (average number of load bearing contacts) of the samples considered in this study were 0.a2 \.83 ± 0. the granular system tends to develop maximum shear resistance at an early stage of shearing.10 deviator strain 0.J. the shear strength of the system depends on the ability of the system to build strongly anisotropic fabric network of contacts carrying greater than average (strong) normal force. the microstmcture of the samples was isotropic.20 Fig. 2 shows the variation of macroscopic shear resistance of the granular systems during shearing (deviator strain = Si —S3). 5 and 10. The fabric anisotropy in the granular assembly is defined by the distribution of contact orientations.3. viz. a strain rate of 10~^ s~^ was employed in the simulations. The shear resistance has been presented in terms of the shear stress ratio q/p. 'hard' particles (Young's modulus E = 10 GPa Poisson's ratio V = 0.650 ± 0. For a granular system undergoing slow shearing. The boundaries of the periodic cell from the centre of the cell were at a distance of more than ca. Simulations The simulations were carried out using Discrete Element Method (DEM). For detailed information about the numerical methodology. coefficient of interparticle friction fi = 0. At this stage. (ii) System with a large inclusion. Antony. . and interface energy F = 0. For shearing.03)73 was maintained constant at 100 kPa using the servocontrol algorithm.3. 1. Different values of size ratio (ratio of the diameter of submerged particle to that of surrounding particles) were considered. Variation of shear stress ratio during shearing. The interactions between the neighbouring particles are modelled by algorithms based on theoretical contact mechanics provided by Thornton and Yin [2] and Thornton [3]. During shearing. the mean stress p = (ai \. 3. All the samples considered here were having elastic properties corresponding to 0. The samples were subjected to the axisymmetric compression test (ai > a2 = 03). Earlier numerical investigations on the quasistatic behaviour of granular systems have revealed [79] new insights into the physics of granular media. defined as the ratio of deviator stress q (= ai — as) to the mean stress p. At the end of the isotropic compression.26. a servocontrol algorithm was used to isotropically compress until a mean stress p = 100 kPa was achieved.017 and 5. It is shown that the mobilised shear resistance of the granular system (at steady state) reduces for an increase in the size of the submerged particle. Results and discussion Fig. After the particles were initially generated. 2.. The following periodic systems were considered: (i) For comparison. 4 times radius of the submerged particle.6 J m~^). which was originally developed by Cundal and Strack [1]. D<4I 37 M\ Size ratio=D/d Fig. This allows us to get an insight into what happens inside the granular media during shearing. respectively. defined 2. Ghadiri /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics I T^ . otherwise all other particles in the periodic cell are monodispersed. For an increase in size ratio. dynamic process. M.
suggested by Satake [10] as 1 ^ (1) where M is the number of contacts in the representative volume element and rij define the components of the unit normal vector at a contact between two particles. by a 'fabric tensor' 0. Evolution of force distribution in three dimensional granular media.356:27632782. M. Impact of elastic spheres with and without adhesion. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 1998.J.. A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies.38 S.65:153166 [3] Thornton C. Phys Rev E 1994. It may be observed that there is a strong anisotropic structure for contacts carrying strong forces within the overall system. Variation of fabric anisotropy during shearing.10 deviator strain 0. [6] Bonnenfant D. Mazozi T. 3. It may be recalled that (Fig.109:179191.50(6):51385141.64:383386 [4] Huntley JM. GR/M33907). Wilton. Ghadiri /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics submerged particle increases. Coefficient of restitution for collinear collisions of elasticperfectly plastic spheres. 3(b). U. Antony. However. [5] Duran J. (b) due to strong contacts only. Powder Technol 2000.05 0. The variation of deviator fabric (0i — (ps) of the entire assembly is presented in Fig. [9] Thornton C.00 0. pp. Antony SJ. Geotechnique 1979. Strack ODL. the granular system developed less shear resistance for an increase in the size of inclusion and this could be attributed to the fact that the system is unable to build up strong anisotropic fabric net work as the size of inclusion increases. References [1] Cundal PA. segregation and stress propagation in granular materials. Mech Mater 1998. Quasistatic deformation of particulate media. 2). Powder Technol 1991. [10] Satake M.15 0. [7] Antony SJ.75 0. Fluidization.00 0.29:4765. 3(a) while in Fig. 0. this trend could change if the size of the periodic cell reduces (boundaries are at a distance of more than ca. 4 times radius of the inclusion in this study) and this is yet to be investigated.5 (strong contacts) "Size ratio 10 (strong contacts) Monodispersed (weak contacts) Size ratio . 1982.00 0.10 deviator strain 0. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 1998. 6368. Antony SJ. [2] Thornton C. Clement E. Compaction of powders containing hard inclusions: experiments and micromechanical modelling.y. (a) Entire system. In: Vermeer PA.55 o Monodispersed (strong contacts) . Suquet P. Rajchenbach J.15 0.051^ 0. Mazerolle F. 0. Quasistatic deformation of a soft particulate system. Phys Rev E 2001.5 (weak contacts) Size ratio 10 (weak contacts) Acknowledgements This work has been supported by EPSRC and ICI Strategic Technology Group Technology Ltd. Luger HJ (Eds).356:25692590. The weak contacts for all the systems are nearly isotropic at all stages of shearing.K (Grant No. J Appl Mech 1997. the deviator fabric of contacts carrying strong and weak force are bifurcated. [8] Thornton C.29:93109. Size segregation in a two dimensional sample: Convection and arching effects.20 (a) 0. Deformation and Failure of Granular Materials. Rotterdam: Balkema. the granular system develops a less anisotropic fabric structure of strong forces as the size of . 011302. Yin KK. However.65 a 0.Size ratio .20 (b) Fig.
where f e L^(^)^ and g e l?{Tj^)^ are the given external forces and a is the stress tensor. and University of Conception. Reliability. and Ecole Poly technique. this estimate can be proved to be correctly adimensionalized with respect to the physical data. The resulting estimate uses easy to compute element and interface residuals. such as in tire industry. for which the theoretical tools are harder to implement and to derive. and bulk modulus. this problem can apparently be solved either by using consistent residual estimates or by solving local auxiliary equilibrium problem at the element level. even at the limit of incompressible or almost incompressible materials. with A(x) the elasticity tensor of the constitutive material and Sij(u) := \(uij \Ujj) the components of the linearized strain tensor e(u) associated to u. To overcome these difficulties. with meas{Tj)) ^ 0. Introduction Recent accidents have clearly demonstrated that reliable a posteriori error estimates and mesh adaption techniques were imperatively needed at an industrial level when computing large scale structures. and subjected to applied loads on its remaining part F^^.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. a • n = g on Fjv. Keywords: Error estimates. u = 0 onFz). and inverts them locally by solving local tangent elasticity problems. Heterogeneity. Araya%P. Tel. It is completely parameter free. • most engineering codes use second order or higher order elements. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. we consider the following elasticity problem I —diva = f (P) I [ in ^. . France. Insight on the industrial relevance. we have developed a parameter free optimal a posteriori error estimator. this tensor satisfies the constitutive law <r = {Gij) = A(x)e(u). All rights reserved. When used on real industrial problems. and have proposed different choices of local spaces. France Abstract In this work we present a recent a posteriori parameter free error estimate of hierarchical type that we apply to the finite element solution of elasticity problems involving heterogeneous and piecewise incompressible materials. The body is supposed to be fixed on a part TB of its boundary F := 9^. 91 128 Palaiseau Cedex. Email: patrick. From the theoretical point of view.: +33 1 69 33 40 02. anisotropic and strongly heterogeneous. we have extended the general theory developed by Bank and Weiser (cf. and to be uniformly valid with respect to material heterogeneities. these theoretical strategies are faced with two main difficulties: • the constitutive materials are complex.letallec@polytechnique. For this purpose.J. independently of the material heterogeneities or Poisson ratio. By adding a weighted estimate of the error on the pressure term.39 Hierarchical a posteriori error estimates for heterogeneous incompressible elasticity R. 2. This estimate is proved to be optimal.LeTallec'''* ^ INRIA. numerical implementation and various numerical examples will also be presented. On the theoretical side. [3]). The continuous problem Let ^ be a bounded domain of R^ occupied by an elastic body. and as such is easy to implement within an industrial code. Bathe (Editor) ible materials. For compressible materials. it can be extended to handle the case of incompress* Corresponding author. Elasticity 1. In this framework. Fax: +33 1 69 33 30 31. Chili ^ Universite de ParisDauphine.
v>= ^ ( P r . partially incompressible materials are governed by the mixed formulation Find u G H and p in P such that a(u. Zh) = «(V. v ) o T + Yl (^^'^)o. p = div u on Qjnc. where the local element and face components Rj and RE are given by RT = (div<Th+f)\T.. such that a{ei.. P/e) ( M .n] n if FeShrWo. v + / ^ ^ g . For the compressible case. Araya. w/) = fl(v.\) .\i) = {Rh. meaning that there exist M subspaces H.40 R. Vv/ G H / . P^^V G W/. Le Tallec/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics that this finer space can be easily split into small local finite element subspaces.1/2 . defined by fl(PwV. such that H/j c W/j C H and we denote by W/. 3. with Ho = H. we can introduce the global projection operator Pw : H ^ W. of W/.1. Vv G H .v> : = ^ f . VVGH. satisfies the variational equation a(e.v).. A W. v) / A(x)ei\) : e{\) Vv G H. =HO + X]H„ (5) where A{x) denotes a bounded compressible like elasticity tensor. Similarly. and in particular.yi). the residual Rh is given as a sum of local components (P. Similarly. (4) RF = fO gcTh [a. and where the very large value of volume change stiffness is transformed into a very large value of the coefficient X{x). easy to solve.F . VVGH. w/).F (8) / A "iq e P. (11) where each local displacement P/C is solution of the local equilibrium subproblem: Find e. compressible equilibrium problem fl(P/V.v>:=(F.Y) = (F.. c H. Under this notation. Nonlinear elastic laws can be handled in a similar way. P/V G H/.. .y). (7) Using the Green's theorem.\) = {Rh. This solution is not to be computed explicitly. the corresponding unique solution of problem (1) in this finer space W/. such that For incompressible or almost incompressible materials with locally very large Lame coefficients X. v>. we assume that we can construct a finer finite element space W/. Zh) VZ. "iy/i G H/.1. the error e = u — u/j in the finite element approximation of the displacement solution of (1) by elements of H/. we obviously have W/j = P^u. (2) (3) where the residual} Rh is the element of H' given by the abstract form (P. (F. and T eTh (9) We finally define the (bounded) elastic energy norm by: := a{y. v .. if F G ^ . the stress tensor involves in addition a pressure like term.. := f^A{x)e(u) : e(v).v)«(u. G W. We only assume With the above definitions our hierarchical a posteriori error estimate rjn in the compressible case is simply defined by the local additive decomposition ^/^ = r^«(/'/e. with finite element solution Uh. (12) ... In a compressible framework. and can be split into a = (aij) = A(x)e{vL) + pX.\) : = { v € H n ^ ) ^ I v^OonFz)}. P. v) + / pdiw\= (divu p)q =0. such formulations characterize the pressure in terms of the stored energy gradient by W\p) = d e t ( / + V u ) .VVGH.. G H. (6) (F. Abstract construction and fundamental example Let us approximate this basic elasticity problem by an initial finite element space H/. the standard weak formulation of problem (P) is then: Find u € H such that a{u. (10) if F G^'/JOFA^. In order to estimate the quality of the numerical solution obtained on this finite element mesh. given by the solution of the local. Associated with each subspace H/ there is a projection operator P/ : H > H. Hierarchical intrinsic error estimator 3.. (1) where H aiu.
/?^^. • n • b^ 1 ^ ^ [ ~ ^  a(hF. C/.b/7 0^7.bF)i/2 E + f+divcT/.hF) _ fl(b^.1 .pH)y. nlb^ «(bF.= A1A2A3 are the usual element and face polynomial bubble functions with support strictly included in the corresponding element or face.F' with weights automatically obtained from the local elasticity tensor at considered point.). and therefore. the full a posteriori error estimate must add an energy error term associated to this volume change.b/. and motivates the introduction of an auxiliary pressure space to approximate the extra stress term p = A div M.ri + V ^2 ei^^p) 0J2 where b^ = A1A2A3A4 and b*p. vY \2 (saturation lemma) (calculation of dual energy norm) Then.Ti Wh ' n] o.hFy/^ f/^^. we restrict our attention to the choice of the finite dimensional subspaces H/.RF}.W/{C. The introduction of locally very large values of Lame coefficients X changes the definition of the local (bounded) elasticity tensor A..bF] a(hF. P.\i) We can then show the relationship between the weighted residual error estimate proposed by Araya and Le Tallec [2] and the above hierarchical error estimate. HB. our hierarchical error estimate has only been introduced for compressible materials. and FT ' sup {Res.R. M). let rinj be the error estimator given by Up to now. yielding {Rh. our error estimate Y)H can be written as the following weighted sum of element and face residuals ( 11/2 rjH V^l + F2 3.1. F e EH. ^(^eVR. T eTh. Le Tallec/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics This error estimate can be formally justified by the abstract calculation outlined below: {Res.hF)a(Uh. Thus.2. V^ e(hF) o. «(^^^' P^e) + \\ep '.(f+div(T..)i/2 ~ _ {F. We define the subspace W/^ by W/^ = Hh + E ^ i H/ where the one dimensional subspaces H/ are spanned by the functions b^ = l]. Pre) + Y.7.i/. respectively. Incompressible extension Whn]\\ \\Q. = span{b*j. .hF) ^(b/.)i/2 L^'^Ff^(r(Uh):e{hF) fl(bF.b^)i/2 + ^fl(A.b/.f^j. A particular case In the particular case where the local subspaces Hj are one dimensional (H/ = span{\i}. 0. T A^I'j^Res) A'llRes) Proof outline. As a basic example we will use local face (one per face F e Sh) and element (one per finite element T) subspaces given by HBT = span{bjRT].. Araya. For isotropic heterogeneous materials. i = 1. Lemma 3. T nn Z ! ^^Rj I (16) PTVR) + 22. This constitutive law is no longer exactly satisfied at the finite element level. T ^ The total error estimate is then given by = J2 ''(Pre. TeTh F^^h (17) . and given by II^PII' = Yl f\\A\\{det(I^VuH) . Pwv) ^ Y^aiPrVR. we have = a{P^^v.=i ^F^y with F e Sh.hFy/^ j"^ J /^[g. e Instead of detailing the above proof. (13) (14) v^ f ITI (f + diva/.3.F E\ e(bF) o. vf e ^^= A ^Res j = sup UGH 41 where Ej is the restriction of Young's modulus to the element T..) • bF . The idea is to choose these subspaces as local as possible and thus to compute the projections P/e in a cheap way.F b/7 o. it is easy to prove that we have simply ^H =E 1/2 a{\i. PCVR) e (partition lemma) ^ ^a{A:^^VjRes. for a proper1/2 choice of subspaces Hi. 3.
T'CWT ^ 1/2 (18) EG£(T)nSM ^ Experimental results to be presented at the conference indicate the relevance of the proposed estimate. [1] Ainsworth M. Rougeot PH. Pelle JP. and to be asymptotically correct for heterogeneous isotropic materials independently of coefficients jumps. In other words. we can prove that there exists constants independent of mesh parameters h and of elasticity constants A and X such that •Uh as it would be the case by using more sophisticated balanced residuals as advocated by Ainsworth and Oden [1]. It can be implemented in a fully automatic and local way in any industrial finite element code. Acknowledgements The work of RA was partially supported by FIRTECH Calcul Scientifique. A posteriori error estimation in finite element analysis. the practical calculations do not permit a locally accurate stress reconstruction. [4] Ladevze P. Some aposteriori error estimators for elliptical partial differential equations. Weiser A. It turns out to be both practical and theoretically sound.42 The above formula can be proved to be scale invariant.7:635655.44:283301. Its present limitations are twofold: On one hand. Error estimation and mesh optimization for classical finite elements.142:188. .8:6980. or Ladeveze and Pelle [4].uA hi. the theory cannot handle strong anisotropic effects. Math Comput 1985. Eng Comput 1991. [3] Bank RE. Le Tallec R Adaptive finite element analysis for strongly heterogeneous elasticity. References \ln<Cri\ nr < C_\ \\u . Oden JT. and of the local values of the Poisson coefficients. Rev Eur Elem Finis 1998. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997. On the other hand. [2] Araya R.
thus balanced interactions are associated to them and their gradients. 2. via Eudossiana 18. Interactions pertaining to the field d and its gradient Vd (called sub structural) provide extra power and satisfy appropriate balances besides Cauchy's. and velocity fields by x and d. In particular.3] : c(0 + q(0 X (x . with t the time. In the present paper the attention is focused on the case in which the distribution of microcracks is stochastic within the body. the relevant region B of the three dimensional Euclidean space can be described by two fields: the placement field x and an order parameter field d [1].J. Finite elements already obtained in the deterministic case in [6] may show random features. Continuum model Let B be the regular connected region of the threedimensional Euclidean space 8^ occupied by the body in its reference configuration. t). Motions are indicated by x(X. This may be accounted for by considering random the number of microcracks and their position [4.L. The order parameter d is not affected by translational velocity because it is a relative displacement.: +39 06 44585276.F = Vx.43 Localization phenomena in randomly microcracked bodies G. Keywords: Strain localization. Introduction To analyze a microcracked body as a continuum. Stazi Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica.M. d = d X q(t) (1) with c(0 representing translational velocity and XQ some fixed point. if q(0 is the characteristic vector of a time parameterized family of rotations. 00184 Rome.3]: they were obtained from a discrete model by means of an identification procedure based on power equivalence with the continuum model. We consider B as free of discontinuities due to microcracks but define on it two fields: x() and d('). Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Bathe (Editor) degree of coupling. Tel. Random finite elements 1. x(X) is the actual placement of the point X. Microcracks. If we indicate with the term part any regular connected subset of B and indicate it with B*. Strain localization effects appear even if the constitutive relations are linear and microcracks are elastic and do not grow. then the overall power V(B*) developed by interactions on B* is given by V{B*) = / (Tn • 11 + <Sn . Italy Abstract Stochastic finite elements are obtained within the setting of multifield theories of soHds for randomly microcracked bodies. J) . d() accounts for the presence of microcracks. velocity fields are called 'rigid' if [1.5] in the discrete model or by introducing some random stiffness in the links connecting the two lattices and determining the * Corresponding author.ln particular.xo). Email: paolo. P. The discrete model is made by two lattices connected each other by elastic links: the former (macrolattice) describes the body at the molecular level and is constituted by rigid spheres connected by elastic links.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The problem of finding coupled constitutive relations for the stress measures has been tackled in [2. Mariano*.mariano@uniromal.MX . while the latter (mesolattice) represents the mesolevel of the microcrack distribution and is made by empty shells connected by elastic links. F. F + z . Multifield theories. Both fields are considered as observable variables. At each X. t) and d(X. then u = x — X is the displacement field and d its perturbation induced by microcracks so that (u f d)(X) is the overall displacement. Universitd di Roma 'La Sapienza'. Fax: +39 06 4884852. Points in B are labeled by X. J + SVd) 35* I (2) where n is the outward unit normal to dB*. Substructural interactions are represented through a tensor S (microstress) and a vector z (selfforce). All rights reserved. Augusti. T the .
tensors T. In the following.t (11) O^r 9 Be / d^ = dix)\Vd(x)(hx). /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Stress tensor.)VvcD^ I ^ f CO^ + (VO^f GVd)^ / ^f.u^ where d^ is the displacement between the margins of the shell at h and u^ the displacement of the sphere at a.3]. DiwSz = 0 inB (3) The balance of 'torques' is assured by requiring that the internal power /^^ (T • F + z • ^ + 5 • V j ) vanishes for any choice of 'rigid' velocity fields and of B*: it follows that SkwCTF^ + z 0 J + (VdfS) (4) where Skw() extracts the symmetric part of its argument.0(hk). If this number is a random variable we can expand K(M) by Taylor expansion as follows: K = K + dMK\^dM + i9^^K^dMdM .Q are fourth order tensors. It is just the analytical structure implied by equation (3) (a partial differential equation) and the constitutive dependence on Vd that assure the possibility of obtaining localization phenomena. The balance of 'forces' is assured by assuming that V(B*) vanishes for any choice of the velocity fields and of B*.x) + VJ(x)(h . .b) + ^ z/ (g) (a . d^d^ = Vd(x)(h~k) u ^ . t.x) (5) where t and r are boundary data. Cauchy stress TF^ is not symmetric in this treatment unless the microcrack distribution is such that the second order tensor z ^ d ~\. Zj the force in the 7 th link of the microlattice. h!.^z/0(hx)j j=\ (9) /=i / When appropriate constitutive equations are chosen for the interactions in the lattices. <S = A^Vu + GVJ (10) 3. . M could be also considered as a random field: in each cell we could have random geometry of the microlattice and hypothesis of lattice periodicity would result weakened. represents the force exerted by the /th link in the macrolattice. Z/ the force in the /th interlattice link. In the simplest case one may write T = AVu + A'VJ. This . However. d^ . Discrete model. a and h. Vd. Measures of deformation in the discrete model are d^. then deformation measures in the RVE are expressed in terms of the measures in the continuum [2. a and b: they carry only axial forces.d^. This implies Div T = 0. constitutive equations and finite element The topology of the discrete model has been described in the introduction.0 (a . Body forces are here neglected for simplicity. There are links between h and k. ZQ the force due to the relative displacement d^ of the margins of the hih shell. (12) (6) At the end of calculations one obtains the measures of interaction in the continuum in terms of the forces in the links of the RVE [3]: 1 L LN ^ t.44 G. In particular.u ^ ^ Vu(x)(ab). The element displacements u^ and d^ are related to u^ and d^ by matrices of shape functions: u^ = O^u^ d^ = OJ J^ Different discretized problems can be obtained: the simplest one is given by K j{V<t>lYAV<^l Be (VcD^)VvcI>^. Finite elements can be built up by selecting any regular tessellation less of B and indicating nodal displacements for each element B^ e tess with u^ and d^. we choose a point x in the RVE such that where k. The identification procedure of the constitutive equations in the continuum model goes as follows: first one equalizes the power developed in the RVE with the density of the internal power in the continuum. the choice of an expansion about the mean value of M need be matched by some rule establishing the topology of links between shells: many lattices correspond to any given number of shells.{Wd)^S be symmetric.x) (7) where the superposed line indicates mean value and dM the first variation of M about M. Be (VO^.d^. u^ . The extended stiffness matrix K in (11) depends on the number M of the shells in the RVE. u^ . z = Cd. C is second order and all of them have major symmetries (see [3] for explicit expressions). S and vector z can be expressed in terms of Vu. J. Augusti et al.. we assume additionally that the discrete model is periodic and focus our attention on its characteristic cell (RVE). u^d^ = Vu(x)(a . VR •E^s ^zS(8)(hx) (8) VR + £]z.
(8) (h . la. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 45 MSPLACEMENT1 3. one could fix a microlattice and assume that interlattice links.G. expansion (12) becomes: Fig. have all the same random stiffness H. c) Horizontal component (Displacement 1). 1 (taken from [3]) is an example of inplane displacements calculated for a square membrane of stiffness K.X) \ ^•=1 ^=1 /graph (16) Of course. Augusti et al. lb. S associated to K need be considered as averaged quantities on some class of admissible geometries for the microlattice. Under these assumptions.S2E03 2. Fig.d show the vertical component (Displacement 2).c show.k) . . Alternatively. (a.b) + ^ z / (8) (a . in the sense of (13) ( )graph must be interpreted as the average with respect to H at a fixed graph. to account for the influence of randomly distributed microcracks on the gross mechanical behavior of the body.0 (a .J2zi (8) (h . Inplane overall displacements of a membrane in tension. Fig. z. which govern the degree of coupling in the mechanical problem. the horizontal component (Displacement 1) of the overall displacement while Fig. S as 1 VR c d ^ t . z. The constitutive equations have been derived considering a discrete model with square symmetry (4 spheres. 1): interaction measures T. we may interpret T. by two different representations. By indicating with ()graph the average on some class of admissible graphs. 1. 4 shells).47E03 2. K can be taken as the average value K (see E^ (15) graph s= ^zS(8)(hx) + ^ z . If the relevant quantities are random in the sense explained above.08E^2 CMSPLACEMENT2 S 2. (b._  nil— """• Fig.• :::::: :::rf :ti*:t:H. (13) VR Even M could be considered a random field and procedures in [7] appHed. procedure could introduce great difficulties in developing calculation. b) and by the magnitude of the nodal overall displacement vector (c. "til II i*»fcJvlS!ll*lk«*»"''"». d): vertical component (Displacement 2).82E03 . . d)... shown in a normalized intensity color scale (a. fixed on the lefthand side and loaded by a concentrated force in the middle of the righthand side.x )  graph (14) K = K + anKlj^de + a2jjKjdMde.
Stazi FL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Strain localization in elastic microcracked bodies. Stazi FL. [1] Mariano PM. [3] Mariano PM. Lezioni Lincee. Int J Damage Mech 1999. Introduction to Geometric Probability. Random Graphs. Mech Mater. Rota GC. Augusti G. 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trovalusci P. in print.23:18311845. [2] Mariano PM. Finite element simulations of strain localization induced by microcracks. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [4] Klain DA. Int J Nonlinear Mech 1999. Augusti et al.46 References G. Belytschko T. in print.34:633642. Constitutive relations for elastic microcracked bodies: from a lattice model to a multifield continuum description. [7] Liu WK. 1977. . Some remarks on the variational description of microcracked bodies. Random field finite elements. Mani A. [5] Kolchin VF.8:153173. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. [6] Mariano PM. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng.
P. Constitutive models for rubber used in standard FE codes are usually either hyperelastic or viscoelastic. Damping. Fax: +46 (46) 2224420. Email: pea@byggmek. 1. Finite element method. 1 can be generalized by adding more viscous and frictional elements in parallel.lth. The frictional damping is attributed to the filler structure and the breaking and reforming of the structure which take place during loading and unloading. Combining the viscoelastic and the elastoplastic models in parallel yields a material model which sums the elastic. Lund University. The behaviour of the material model in Fig. All rights reserved. resulting in viscous (rate dependent) and frictional (amplitude dependent) damping respectively [1.lth. Reorganization of the rubber network during periodic loading results in a viscous type of damping. 1. a large phase angle yields a large difference between the loading and unloading curves. The stresses obtained in a filled rubber material can thus be divided into a dominant elastic part. viscous and frictional stresses. In Section 2 this model is Fig. needed to model the frictional damping. The phase angle is a measure of the damping and thus also a measure of the hysteresis. The onedimensional model shown in Fig. Filled rubber materials subjected to harmonic loading show combined frequency and amplitude dependence of * Corresponding author. Viscoelastic. The model can then be given a quantitative better fit to experimental data. URL: http://byggmek. Tel: +46 (46) 2224798. SE221 00 Lund. 1. are also normally supplied in order to model the plastic behaviour of highly stressed metal.se.In the onedimensional case this can be modelled with a rheological model consisting of a viscoelastic component coupled in parallel with an elastoplastic component according to Fig.e. The overlay method offers a method to obtain such a model using only the already implemented constitutive models in standard FE codes. Box 118. for which the amplitude and frequency results in a power output which exceeds a certain limit have been excluded from the figure. A simple fiveparameter model of this viscoplastic type is shown in Fig.O. but also a viscous and a frictional part. Elastoplastic models. Mechanical analogy illustrating a simple viscoplastic material model resulting in a frequency and amplitude dependent dynamic modulus and damping. . The model simulates the rate and amplitude dependence in a physically correct manner. Introduction Carbon black filled rubber consists of long polymer chains and a structure of microscopical carbon particles connected by weak crosslinks. Values of the modulus and phase angle.J. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.47 A method to analyse the nonhnear dynamic behaviour of rubber components using standard FE codes PerErik Austrell *. Keywords: Filled rubber. The result is an FE model corresponding to the onedimensional generalized rheological viscoplastic model discussed in Section 1. Olsson. Elastoplastic. i.3]. Bathe (Editor) the dynamic modulus and phase angle. Anders K.se/ © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Amplitude dependence 1. Sweden Abstract For filled elastomers damping is caused by two different mechanisms at material level. The aim of this work is to propose an FE procedure that is able to represent the dynamic behaviour of rubber materials including both rate and amplitude dependence as well as nonlinear elastic behaviour. Division of Structural Mechanics. 1 in harmonic loading is illustrated in Fig.. 2. Martin Jonsson Department of Mechanics and Materials.
The different basic FE models are assembled into one model containing both frequency and amplitude dependent properties as well as nonlinear elastic characteristics. A direct generalization for a three dimensional stress state would be to add the elastic. all with identical element meshes. without having to program a new constitutive model. The hyperelastic contribution is in this paper according to a model by Yeoh [5]. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Dynamic shear modulus: Gdyn(A. the viscous. The viscoelastic stress contribution is also given by a summation according to E<^ k=\ N (3) where the terms are obtained from a viscohyperelastic model. Implementation of the overlay method An easy way to obtain a model according to Section 2 using standard FE codes. 2. The basic approach using the overlay method. Onedimensional viscoplastic material model. 3. is to use an overlay of FE meshes.f) 100 Shear strain amplitude 100 Shear strain amplitude Fig. The elastoplastic part of the stress tensor is given by a summation M (2) Rheological model ^r ^ FEmodel containing: Nonlinear elasticity Frequency dependence Amplitude dependence Viscoelastic FEmodel Elastoplastic FEmodel Fig. 3. 2. suitable for large strains. . a elastoplastic and a viscoelastic material model.f) Equivalent phase angle: Arg(A. the total stress is obtained by adding the elastic stress. is to create one hyperelastic. implemented for large strains. 2. In order to create a model corresponding Hyperelastic FEmodel where the different stress tensors are obtained from a hyperelastic. Amplitude and frequency dependence of the dynamic modulus and phase angle. plastic and viscous stress tensors.1. 1. and the plastic stress. The overlay method According to the onedimensional viscoplastic model shown in Fig.48 RE. Assembling the nodes of these models according to Fig. one viscoelastic and one elastoplastic FE model. generalized into three dimensions for the purpose of finite element calculations. The model used in this paper uses three terms in the summation above. The total stress tensor a is then given by a ^a' +G'P + G' (1) where the terms are obtained from a nonhardening plasticity model. yields a finite element model that corresponds to the fiveparameter model discussed earlier. Basic idea of the overlay method. Austrell et al. according to von Mises.
If only the viscous damping was modelled the shape of the hysteretic response would be almost elliptic. The graph shows the relation between the radial force F. Rothert H. Modeling of elasticity and damping for filled elastomers. 1997. The load case is displacement controlled . Division of Structural Mechanics. Only the radial load case is presented in this abstract.66:754772. Lund Institute of Technology. Cylindric rubber bushing A cylindric component according to Fig.60:153173. Preliminary investigations indicate that the material parameters needed for the finite elements models can simply be copied from the onedimensional model which has been fitted to experimental data. Constitutive approach to rate independent properties of filled elastomers. Report TVSM1009 [2] Austrell PE. Fig. 4 shows the cylindric component submitted to a radial loading. Analys av nagra axialsymmetriska gummikomponenter. and cyclic. The reason why the onedimensional rheological model seems to be easily generalized into threedimensions has not been thoroughly investigated. one reasonable explanation for this behaviour is that the isotropic and incompressible characteristics of rubber provides a constraint that reduces the degrees of freedom in the threedimensional model. Analysis of the cylindric component submitted to a radial cyclic load. obtained from the finite element analysis. with gradually increasing amplitude. Jonsson M.35(17):20572071. Int J Solids Struct 1998. Rubber Chem Technol 1993.E. a suitable number of viscoelastic or elastoplastic FE models are added in parallel. Hence. Characterization of elastic properties of carbonblackfilled rubber vulcanizates. Lund Institute of Technology. Report TVSM99/7129SE (142) [3] Kaliske M. the material model used in this paper contains only the hyperelastic and the elastoplastic stress contributions. The graph also shows the influence of the nonlinear elastic stress contribution on the hysteretic response. Sweden. Amplitude dependent dynamic stiffness. [5] Yeoh OH. The component has been submitted to a variety of different load cases.P. Lund University. 4 has been studied in [2]. and the radial displacement. to the generalized viscoplastic rheological model. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1987. Lund University. Division of Structural Mechanics. Sweden 1999. References [1] Austrell PE. The component is submitted to large amplitudes at low frequencies. On a fully threedimensionalfinitestrainviscoelastic damage model: formulation and computational aspects. However. The very slow load rate makes it possible to neglect the viscous contribution. 4. Austrell et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5r 49 0 2 4 6 Displacement [mm] Fig. [4] Simo JC. The sharp corners of the hysteretic response is characteristic for the behaviour of highly filled rubber materials. 3.
3 and the greek ones the numbers 1. Ch. Shell equations Upper case letters denote geometrical elements of the reference state and lower case ones their counterparts in the actual configuration.2 (3) with the 2D quantities x presenting the primary unknowns of the finite element procedure. KintzeP*. within the present concept.t') = X ( r ) + §'X(r). Finite rotations. The vector X is described by the following linear expression in thickness coordinate with 0 1 X = . The above quadratic polynomial provides the consideration of transversal strains de1 2 X = X(X. geometry intersections. Note that.^^) of the deformed configuration (actual state) is approximated by X = X (X.1 (1) pending on x and x. The actual shell configuration is described by nonhierarchical as well as hierarchical higherorder polynomials. We consider the reference state of a finite element continuum with a variable thickness H measured in the direction of the unit normal vector N of the midsurface. (2) where X is the position vector of the midsurface.de . The essential idea of the development is to construct all the partial derivatives of the finite element procedure.kintzel @ sd. ?^) = x ( r ) + ? ' x(r) + (?')' x(r). Ba§a^^ U. Germany ^ Seminar for Applied Mathematics.g. 1 X = i (Xr Xfl). Schwab'' " Institute for Structural Mechanics. The effectivity of the formulation particularly concerning the application of the hierarchical pextension will be demonstrated by adequate numerical examples. The reference configuration is considered exactly by means of algorithms applicable to various practically relevant cases e. with respect to the strains via the analytical tool of MATHEMATICA. All rights reserved. The notations used are essentially adopted from [3]. Keywords: Finite shell elements. The possibility to compute an entire shell which may be additionally bounded by arbitrary curves turns out to be a further significant advantage.50 Simulation of large deformations in shell structures by the pversion of the finite element method Y. Zurich. e.' = 0. p = 0.^^) be the position vector of an arbitrary point. Large strains. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Hyperelasticity 1. the polynomial (3) may be enriched by further higherorder © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. 2.2. The position vector x = xi^"^. For single 0 shells the director X is selected as X = y N.g.(Xr + Xs). * Corresponding author.ruhrunibochum. The use of higherorder interpolation polynomials substantially reduces the wellknown locking phenomena connected with lowerorder finite element formulations.3) are curvilinear coordinates selected such that the values ?' = dzl determine the curved boundaries of the finite element. RuhrUniversity Bochum.1. Bathe (Editor) . 2. Let X = Xi^"".J. Switzerland Abstract For the analysis of shell structures with large strains finite elements are developed ensuring an optional selection of the kinematic assumption. Hanskotter% O. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical interpolations. Email: o. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. where f' (/ = 1. Latin indices represent the numbers 1. Bochum. while in the case of geometry intersections it can be advantageously determined according to (2) in terms of the position vectors XT and X^ of the top and bottom faces of the finite element continuum. interpolation polynomials and particularly hyperelastic constitutive models.
if more accuracy is required. However.G. (6) The symbol A used above defines an operation to be performed similar to the variation 8.. 6].1. they have to be completely reconstructed. This aspect will be enlighted here by two practically relevant cases. This model is appHcable to incompressible rubberlike materials./ with respect to §' is to be carried out through MATHEMATICA. They are built in this contribution by means of the Legendre polynomials. Starting from (1) and (3) the geometrical elements of the reference and actual states can be derived by the standard procedure [3]. a^) depending on the covariant components of E. The classical shape functions are closely related to the nodal points and are constructed here by means of Lagrange and Serendipity polynomials. For the finite element procedure the nonlinear shell equations are to be linearized. 1. Note that in the case of a hierarchical approach the x^^ are not only nodal values. As deformation (strain) measures the right CauchyGreen tensor C and the GreenLagrange strain tensor E are utilized subjected to the following kinematic constraints: E := Eij G' (g) G^' = i (C . G'J. the contravariant metric tensor components G'^ and a number of material parameters a^. The advantage of Fig.3) + €2(1 Ic — 3) given in terms of the invariants /c. A8E = {A 8gi • g.. The first problem to be solved in this context is the definition of a finite element volume being convenient for the requirements of the given shell structure. especially concerning problems with geometry intersections we refer to [1]. Ba§ar et al. An example is the MooneyRivlin model W = Ci(/c . Both operations 8 and A imply partial differentiations with respect to the kinematic unknowns v to be built systematically through MATHEMATICA. The construction of the shape functions are described in [2. ^N"". / / c of C and including two material constants Ci. In the latter work explanations are also given concerning the numerical implementation. This explains clearly the significance of the hierarchical shape functions for the application of adaptive hierarchical pextension [5]. Once a special function is selected for W the associated stress tensor can be obtained by partial differentiation with respect to E as S = W.Y. Discretization. the new shape functions are obtainable from the foregoing ones simply through an additional extension.C2. if higherorder approximation is required by adaptive strategies. The linearization of the variation of the strain energy function 8W = 8W(\) and the kinematic constraint (4) with respect to the column vector v^ = [x x x] at the state x delivers: L8W = AS: 8E\S: A8EhS:8E (5) 3. with increasing of the polynomial order. Thus. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 51 terms in ^^. Reference shell geometry A crucial point in developing higherorder shell models is the consideration of the reference configuration with an adequate accuracy.+ Ag. the classical shape functions is their direct applicability for the interpolation.G) (g/g. For more on this.• 8gj + 8gi • Agj + giA8gj)G'^GJ. The wellknown orthogonality property of these polynomials provides the significant advantage that. the interpolation of the unknown parameter x' can be presented in a unified form by X Pi J:'< Ij^m (7) where the indices mn are used to define a sum over the chosen 2D shape functions ^^N"^^. X = xJ ij (p = 0. the covariant base vectors G/ = X. whereas in other cases the partial differentiation ( ). But. The hierarchical shape functions do not use solely nodal values.2) involved in (3) are interpolated by nonhierarchical (classical) as well as hierarchical shape functions.g. 2. e. the combined application of (3) with the multilayer concept [4] has been proved to be decisively more efficient./ and g/ = x. In both cited cases the 2D shape functions ^^Ar'"«(§«) = ^N'^(^^)^N''(^^) are constructed starting from the ID ones ^N"^. . which saves considerably the computational efforts./.E. Finite element formulation For more flexibility the primary kinematic parameters p p .Gy)G^'0G^ (4) Any hyperelastic material can be modelled by a strain energy function W = W(Eij. which is again to be formed through MATHEMATICA.
1 . 1. If the transformation Fig.( l .25 200 400 600 800 Degrees of Freedom Fig. then a finite element area AAQ on AQ is determined whose boundaries are described by the discrete values ^'^ = ± 1 . By using the corresponding result vectors X and X so that the problem is reduced to the one discussed above. the 0 1 with ^" G (—1. of point P.g.0010^ V = 0. e. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Geometry and material data Geometry: A = 1. 2.50. 1) is considered in the midsurface equation X = X [ 0 " (^^)] = X ( ^ ^ ) . has to correspond to a given curve C given by the relations 0 " = 0 J (t). Boundary conditions. we suppose that one of the boundaries of the finite element area A A Q . 1).20 We first assume that the shell is determined by its thickness H and its midsurface AQ described through the equation X = X ( 0 " ) in terms of arbitrary parameters @".75.20 0.00. .25. the finite element faces on A^ and AT can be determined by the same procedure as described above. Vertical displacement np^. 0. more strictly.15 0.00 B= 1.01 Material data: E= 1. Now. Then. To define a finite element area we first select four arbitrary nodal points A' ( ^ = 1 to 4) with the coordinates 0^^^ on AQ. A wellknown failure of this approach is that the rigid body motion criterion is not satisfied exactly. 0.f ^1) 0« (^2) 0 ^ (?^) the transformation (8) is then (9) 4 4 ?')(i + r)e^ (8) = E^^(?")®5^ 0 0 0 In some cases it may be suitable to determine the finite element volume through the bottom Ag and top faces AT. 0 1 The vectors X and X entering in (1) can be considered in an exact form (classical formulation) or alternatively 0 approximated in the same form as their counterparts x and X in the actual state (isoparametric approach). The consideration of the corresponding results in (1) and (2) finally defines the finite element volume. To save computation efforts the classical formulation is used in the present development. 0« = 0« [t (?2)] replaced by V 0« = AT.00 7 d = 0.05 0. 3. 0.52 Y.00 Z = 0. In this case the first step is to replace the parameter t = r (^^) by the dimensionless coordinate ^^ e ( . 0« + T ^ 0« + . the boundary passing through the nodes 2 and 4. But it has been proved that this is only 0. Ba§ar et al.
2001. Schwab Ch.5(5):485499. Babuska I. [4] Ba§ar Y. [6] Szabo B.172:79107. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the insensitivity of highorder FEdiscretization to element distortion and irregular element shapes. Hierarchic models for laminated plates and shells. which will be distorted with a varying factor b: 0 means no distortion and 1 means distortion to a triangle. in prep. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. [2] Ba§ar Y. Ding Y Interlaminar stress analysis of composites. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 100. The convergence behaviour of the vertical displacement can be seen in Fig. It is discretized with two elements. [51 Szabo BA. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics of SoHds. Actis R. A general highorder finite element formulation for shells at large strains and finite rotations. [3] Ba§ar Y. 4. 2000. Linear elastic material properties are taken into account (Table 1) and furthermore all boundaries in horizontal direction are fixed (Fig. 2). Hanskotter U. Composites Eng 1995. Schwab Ch. acting in negative Xadirection (Fig. 2001. From polynomial order 4 all curves converge to the exact solution. Omurtag MH.0 r ^ f e r — = = = r : # ^ ^ ^ 53 10. Hanskotter U.0 ^ 1000 Degrees of Freedom Fig.Y. Example The example is a thin plate under constant dead load P = 1. Weichert D. New York: Wiley. in prep. 4 the asymptotic convergence of the relative error of the total potential energy in double logarithmic scale is to be seen. 4. 1). Each displacement curve mirrors a different mesh distortion and each point of the curve characterises a polynomial order. . Finite Element Analysis. Relative error e of the total potential energy jr. 3. Layerwise shell finite elements including transverse strains.00. Ba§ar et al. References [1] Ba§ar Y. On the exact geometry description in the pfinite element formulation for hyperelastic shells withfiniterotations. In Fig. which has been applied on the face of the plate. Berlin: Springer. Schwab Ch. a minor weakness having no particular influence on the numerical response. 1991.
g. The majority of these papers describe numerical modeling approaches and/or applications using the finite element method.utah. Introduction During the performance of engineering systems. large deformation or failure of one component may result in unanticipated contact with other components. surface normals constructed. Email: bard@golden. under the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (CSAFE). The classic example is a car crash. the majority of the loading applied to components is by contact with other components. where these interactions are tightly controlled (e. Byutne^^ D. In addition. Approach Inherent in the MPM algorithm is a no slip contact condition between adjacent materials [3]. massively parallel computations. G.mech.J. The algorithm is computationally efficient. However. Material and Engineering Science Department. Keywords: Frictional contact. and will ultimately couple with a fluid dynamics (fire) code. An MPM code has been implemented in the UCF to model the mechanical response of the container and explosives. the performance of a system outside of normal operating conditions may be equally important. Material point method. All rights reserved. Smith'' " University' of Utah. Salt Lake City. Arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian. Performance is assessed via a simple test problem involving large material deformations. and interaction forces imposed to prevent interpenetration without making the system of equations to be solved illconditioned. which can be difficult to select. as contact must be sensed. UT.G. which lists nearly 500 papers. Granular material 1. Under severe loading.54 Simulation of frictional contact in threedimensions using the Material Point Method S. by using bearings. Contact and impact have received substantial attention over the past several decades. Finite deformations. the MPM algorithm provides a convenient framework for applying more general contact conditions. O. and fragmentation are needed. robust. The problem is a very difficult one. Mechanical Engineering Department. Component contact loading can often be idealized in simulations of systems operating under design conditions.D. the Material Point Method (MPM) [2]. Bardenhagen'''*. Simulation of the compaction of granular material provides a test of the mechanics code and an opportunity to model the response of a complex system only practical using large scale numerical simulations.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Salt Lake City. Tel: +1 (801) 5879819. including frictional contact and debonding. Here we briefly describe an alternate approach using an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) particleincell numerical technique for solid mechanics. This framework avoids the use of an interface stiffness parameter (as for a penalty formulation). * Corresponding author. and avoids the use of an interface stiffness parameter. lubrication or joints). USA Abstract An algorithm for applying frictional contact conditions in threedimensions using the Material Point Method is described. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The algorithm takes advantage of the overlying Eulerian grid to define . chemical decomposition. UT. Bathe (Editor) The numerical simulations described here are performed using the University of Utah's Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) in support of large scale. Algorithms designed to handle contact between container and explosive during initial heating. as witnessed by a review of the subject by Zhong [1]. Bedrov''. Preliminary results on the dynamic compaction of granular material are presented. 2. The simulation scenario ultimately of interest to the Center is the thermo/mechanical/chemical response of a container filled with plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) in a fire. Fax: +1 (801) 5859826. USA ^ University of Utah. Dynamic compaction.
To demonstrate the algorithm's ability to easily handle large deformations and the corresponding variation in the contact area. An addition to the algorithm was made to check for violation of the stability criterion and rescale the contact impulse as necessary. The algorithm is computationally efficient. Note that the rubber case has larger total energy in part because it free falls for a fraction of a cell length before contacting the plane. where D is the sphere's initial diameter. Because of the rich behavior granular material has been found to exhibit. calculate frictional forces and surface normals. and inspection reveals the trade off between kinetic and strain energy as the sphere slumps down the plane. Specific energies for rigid and deformable sphere on inclined plane test problems. The strain energy reflects the regular occurrence of mild collisions. and is plotted with a thick black line. 1. 1. For this case. there is variation in interface velocity over the contact area resulting in some sliding during rolling.5 1. 2. One of the test problems investigated was that of a sphere on an inclined plane under gravity. For the rigid case.S. 1) are shown in Fig. the total energy is the sum of the sphere's kinetic and strain energies. initially at rest. which can be reduced by decreasing the explicit time step. extensive testing revealed a shortcoming. and a solution is achieved with one sweep through the computational mesh. The majority of the energy is kinetic for the rubber case.0 Fig. 2. For the deformable cases. A separate contact detection step is unnecessary. deformability plays a small role and a reasonable resolution of the geometry results in a total energy very similar to the rigid case. The first case is shown in gray and corresponds to both sphere and plane having stiffnesses approximately that of natural rubber. For the (elastic) deformable cases the computational cell size is Z)/8.0 1. plus greatly increased robustness.8s intervals (indicated with dotted vertical lines in Fig. However. These qualities make calculations involving large numbers of contacting materials tractable. Snapshots displaying the initial configuration and deformed configurations at approximately 0. Eight material points per cell are used. For rigid bodies an analytic solution exists corresponding to rolling without slipping. 1. Initial and deformed configurations for the 'Jell0' sphere. There is also some error accumulated during the simulation. The Jell0 case is plotted in black. Bardenhagen et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 120 Rigid Splnere Total Energy J e l l . Energies developed during rolling are plotted for the rigid sphere and two deformable sphere simulations in Fig. the cost is linear in the number of contacting materials. the contact algorithm results in the sphere skipping slightly. depicted by plotting material points. The formulation was found to violate the explicit stability condition on rare occasions when material point registration on the overlying computational grid met specific conditions.0 Sphere Total Energy J e l l . Fig. and corresponding dissipation of kinetic energy.5 Time (sec) 2. The modified algorithm retains the efficient qualities of the original. Application The behavior of granular material has received a fair amount of attention within the scientific community recently [5]. and the ability to collect data . and apply Coulomb frictional contact conditions [4]. Simulation times for the deformed configurations are indicated by dotted lines in Fig.G.0 Sphere Strain Energy Rubber Sphere Total Energy Rubber Sphere Kinetic Energy Rubber Sphere Strain Energy 55 ' /V // // // // — // // // / // ^ 80  en ^ 60 40 /y/ /// / / ' ^^•r y^!^^^y 0. interfaces. resulting in a material approximating 'Jell0'.0 Sphere Kinetic Energy J e l l . The algorithm reduces to the no slip condition inherent in the MPM algorithm when interfaces stick. 3. Although natural rubber is fairly soft. the sphere's elastic properties were reduced by a factor of 1000. the total energy is equal to the kinetic energy.
with maximum stresses in white. both on the scale of the individual grains and en masse. These capabilities are precisely the strengths of the current state of the MPM code. There are 1000 spheres in a 1 mm cube with an 80% packing fraction.G. The packing has been impacted from above by a piston with velocity 100 m / s . Only stressed grains are shown. or 'force chains'. 3. This resolution provides for five cells across the diameter of the smallest grains. 3. The large grain in the middle of the slice carries large stresses. as also seen in the diagonal slice inset. The grains are shaded differently only to distinguish one from another. 4. Depiction of a stress wave propagating through the granular bed. displaying the nonuniform structure of the stress wave 0. Only stressed grains are shown. Stress propagates more slowly in areas rich in smaller grains. Conclusions MPM is found to provide a convenient environment for the implementation of frictional contact. It propagates more slowly through the smaller grains because grains must be brought into contact. and a meandering path must be traversed to reach a given depth. The inhomogeneous stress state resulting from the development of force chains may play a role in energy localization by promoting frictional sliding.e. Work to incorporate fracture in these simulations is ongoing. Bardenhagen et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Fig. 4. It has been found that a prevalent load carrying mechanism in granular material is provided by a small subset of the grains forming highly loaded connected paths of contacting grains. The longer term objective is to include an interstitial material and simulate initiation mechanisms in PBXs and . Initial configuration consisting of 1000 spheres in a 1mm cube. [7]. Preliminary results on granular compaction are encouraging. Dry granular material provides a relatively simple starting point and data for validation. Sewell et al. The sample size is too small to determine the effects on the stress wave structure of the interplay between large and small grains.12 JJLS after impact. The size distribution is representative of that for the energetic grains in the PBX ultimately of interest within CSAFE. 4 Fig. (with the stress rescaled to emphasize stress paths) indicates the development of force chains among the smaller grains. The grains are modeled using a compressible NeoHookean plasticity formulation [6] with elastic material properties determined by molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation of the dynamic compaction of dense granular material further requires accurate modeling of grain deformation. Stress propagates most quickly through the large grains. with simulations indicating preferential load paths developing during dynamic compaction. there is a large database available for validation. Two large grains are prominent in approximately opposite comers. Much larger simulations will be performed to provide a better representation of the measured grain size distribution. Ultimately of interest is a fundamental understanding the load carrying mechanisms and connections with continuum constitutive models via state statistics at the microscale. as do chains of small grains on either side. 4. but requires accurate modeling of many contacting grains. The stress wave structure from a preliminary calculation with 10^ cells and 6 x 10^ material points is shown in Fig. plastic deformation and/or fracture. A tool to generate dense packings of spheres with given size distribution using MonteCarlo techniques was developed and used to create the initial configuration depicted in Fig.56 S. A closer look at an interior slice in the inset of Fig. and to determine the sample size required for statistics representative of an essentially infinite number of grains (i. statistical information representative of the continuum scale).
New York: Springer. 1998. under Grant W7405ENG48. there is evidence that force chains occur in PBXs as well [8]. The material point method for granular materials. [3] Sulsky D. Gunger M. [6] Simo JC. Comput Phys Commun 1995. Shock Compression of Condensed Matter1999. Comput Methods Appl Mechan Eng 2000. submitted. Hovi JP. Contactimpact problems: a review with bibhography.268:219229. Brackbill JU. [8] Foster JC Jr. Computational inelasticity. Physics of Granular Media.S. Sulsky D. Hughes TJR. The particleincell method as a natural impact algorithm. Mackerie J.G. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics support the development of constitutive models.S.47(2):5576. already difficult and expensive to obtain for bulk energetic materials. Hixson RS (Eds). [4] Bardenhagen SG. Chabildas LD. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of initiation in energetic materials will likely yield only to multidisciplinary expertise and a closely coupled combination of numerical simulation and experimental validation. Schreyer HL. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. J Appl Phys. Bedrov D. Composed of >90% by volume energetic grains in a weak matrix. Appl Mechan Rev 1994. Adv Comput Methods Mater Model 1993. [2] Sulsky D. 1998. Zhou SJ. In: Furnish MD. is decidedly more difficult to obtain on the microscale. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions. [7] Sewell TD.187:529541. 57 Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U. Elastic coefficients and sound speeds for HMX polymorphs from molecular dynamics simulations. It is generally agreed upon that nonshock initiation of PBXs is due to energy localization at the microscale and the development of 'hot spots'.87:236252. [5] Herrmann HJ. References [1] Zhong ZH. Schreyer HL. Bardenhagen et al. . Smith GD. Mesoscale origins of the low pressure equation of state and high rate mechanical properties of plastic bonded explosives. Menikoff R. 2000. Glenn G. Experimental information. Ayyagari C. Woodbury: AIP Press. Application of a particleincell method to solid mechanics. Luding S.
their numerical treatment is still the subject of active research. In all cases. GA 303320150 USA ^ Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale. Italy Abstract Energy preserving/decaying schemes are presented for the simulation of the nonlinear multibody systems involving shell components. or hyperbolic conservation laws.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. In fact. Indeed. numerical analysis tools for partial differential equations have significantly changed in recent years. the idea was to design algorithms that ensure the discrete preservation of the total mechanical energy of the system. While these schemes perform well for problem with a small number of degrees of freedom featuring a "smooth" dynamic response. Energy preserving schemes 1. All rights reserved. This new paradigm has resulted in the development of a new mathematical discipline. exact satisfaction of the constraints. to obtain robust integration schemes. the differential equations that govern many problems in mathematical physics possess qualitative and structural characteristics that can be determined by studying their geometry. They analyzed the problem of the dynamics of nonlinear elastodynamics [1].gatech. increasing evidence points toward the fact that geometric integration is not sufficient. the symplectic structure of the governing equations. Simo and his coworkers were among the first to develop special integration procedures for nonlinear structural dynamics. performance. geometrically exact shells and beams [2]. Milan. Multibody dynamics. applied and computational mathematicians. general purpose discretization methods were developed. and the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation. they tend to be quite unsatisfactory when applied to the complex simulations encountered in many engineering applications [3]. Carlo L. with emphasis on robustness. the presence of these high frequency oscillations hinders the convergence process for the solution of the nonlinear equations of motion. Bauchau^*. While the partial differential equations that govern shell problems are well known. the predicted time histories of internal forces and velocities can present a significant high frequency content. Furthermore. and accuracy. while the nonlinearities of . Introduction and motivation This work is concerned with the numerical simulation of geometrically exact shell models within the context of multibody system dynamics. These oscillations are particularly violent in multibody dynamics simulations because these systems are rather stiff due to the presence of numerous algebraic constraints. Indeed. Bottasso^ " Georgia Institute of Technology. Classical examples of such characteristics are the invariants associated with Hamiltonian systems. Bathe (Editor) putational performance. therefore obtaining unconditionally stable schemes in the nonlinear regime. There is increasing evidence that numerical methods that correctly recover the qualitative features of the underlying differential equations are often endowed with superior com* Corresponding author. School of Aerospace Engineering. The proposed schemes are designed to meet four specific requirements: unconditional nonlinear stability of the scheme. In the past.58 On the modeling of shells in multibody dynamics Olivier A.J. differential/algebraic equations. Politecnico di Milano.bauchau@aerospace. Atlanta. These methods aimed at solving vast classes of problems such as ordinary differential equations. and the material nonlinearities can be handled when the constitutive laws stem from the existence of a strain energy density function. However. The kinematic nonlinearities associated with arbitrarily large displacements and rotations of shells are treated in a rigorous manner. a rigorous treatment of both geometric and material nonlinearities. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. per se. Email: olivier. Keywords: Shell analysis. This approach is now changing. called geometric integration: a bridge that links the work of pure. or symmetries and attractors. greater robustness and improved accuracy.
0. the system provide a mechanism to transfer energy from the low to the high frequency modes.A.0) Revolute joints Crank Fig.265sec / t= 0. the presence of joints imposes different types of kinematic constraints between the various bodies of the system. Fourth.0) (0. the equations are nonlinear because of large displacements and finite rotations (geometric nonlinearities). First. L Bottasso /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 59 Shell (0. the governing equations are characterized by linear and rotational tensorial fields describing kinematic (displacements.156sec t=0.0. Consequently. the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation appears to be an indispensable feature of robust time integrators for multibody systems. Schematic of tlie snapthrough problem of a cyhndrical shell activated by a crank and link mechanism. Second. velocities) and cokinematic (forces. Third. momenta) quantities. 2. This paper focuses on the development a geometric integrator for shell structures that preserves important qualitative features of the underlying equations. and the total linear and angular momenta. the equations of motion imply the preservation of a number of dynamic invariants.O.291 sec I Fig. giving the governing equations a differential/algebraic nature.086 sec t=0. the Lagrange multipliers technique is used to enforce the constraints. in particular the total mechanical energy. The proposed geometric integration procedure is designed to satisfy specific requirements. and is equipped with high frequency numerical dissipation. In order to achieve these goals. In this work. First. . the specific features of the equations governing nonlinear flexible multibody systems with shells are reviewed. System configurations at various time instants during the simulation. and possibly because of nonlinear constitutive laws (material nonlinearities). C. Bauchau. 1. a discretiza t= 0.
In the resulting Energy Decaying (ED) scheme. This process is independent of the spatial discretization procedure that is left arbitrary.2:169225. A new energy and momentum conserving algorithm for the nonlinear dynamics of shells. The crank length is Lc = 1. L. 2 shows the response of the shell. Consequently.36:37293754. its displacement along x and its rotations about the y and z directions are constrained to zero. the finite element method is used. The two elements are connected by a revolute joint. Damilano G.nonlinear mulfibody systems. it is possible to derive a new discretization that implies a discrete energy decay statement. The resulting Energy Preserving (EP) scheme is a geometric integrator for multibody systems with shells that provides nonlinear unconditional stability. The two straight edges of the shell are simply supported. Numerical integration of nonlinear elasfic mulfibody systems. Bauchau. Fig. . while the simulation is continued until t = 0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995. [4] Bucalem ML. In the present implementation. but is allowed to drift away from it in a controlled manner. The last edge is connected at its midpoint to a link by means of a revolute joint. [3] Bauchau OA. On the design of energy preserving and decaying schemes forflexible. Tamow N. while the link is represented by a beam of rectangular cross section of side s = 0. and stops at time ^ = TT 10~^ s. Tamow N. The crank rotates at constant angular velocity ^ = 0. Next. i. Furthermore. [5] Bauchau OA. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. tion process is developed that preserves the total mechanical energy of the system at the discrete solution level. while the system evolves on the constraint manifold without drifts. 1. the constraint condition will not drift. Snapthrough of a cylindrical shell A crank and link mechanism is used to drive a cylindrical shell through an unstable. The system geometry is depicted in Fig. ZAMP 1992.4 s.169:6179. ED schemes satisfy all the requirements set forth earlier. snapthrough configuration.5 m and its axis of rotation is located 5 m below the connection point with the shell. Multibody Syst Dyn 1998.43:757792. Bottasso CL. Poisson ratio y = 0.1 m. At the same time. Using a simple procedure [5. The discretization process for the forces of constraint is left unchanged: the work they perform vanishes exactly. Computational schemes forflexible.5 m.60 OA. and one of the curved edges is free. Material properties are: Young's modulus E = 210 GPa.38:27272751.25 and density p = 10"* kg/m^. the discretization implies the vanishing of the work performed by the forces of constraint at the discrete solution level. References [1] Simo JC. Bathe KJ. Bottasso /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics radius r = 5 m and thickness t = 0.6] based on the EP scheme. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. [2] Simo JC. the reaction forces associated with the holonomic and nonholonomic constraints imposed on the system are discretized in a manner that guarantees the satisfaction of the nonlinear constraint manifold. [6] Bauchau OA.37:25272549. The shell consists of a 60° sector of a cylinder of height h = 2. The crank is modeled as a rigid body.e. Higherorder mite general shell elements. The discrete energymomentum method conserving algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. C. and the mixed interpolation of tensorial components [4] is implemented to avoid the shear locking problem. the system no longer evolves on the constant energy level set.2 m.nonlinear multibody systems. 2. Theron NJ.1 rad/s for half a revolution. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. with the same material properties as the shell. the discrete energy conservation laws proved for the flexible members of the system are not upset by the introduction of the constraints.
Damage to the concrete targets in some of these experiments has been successfully predicted using FE models and applying the loads as a pressuretime history on the surface of the slab. Analyses performed Finiteelement analyses were performed to assess the effect of the fragment impact pattern on the impulse transferred from 150grain steel fragments impacting a 9in. The constitutive model is a threeinvariant. and residual capacity of the concrete. Introduction In this paper. Finiteelement analyses 1.army. excess impulse is defined as the percent difference between the impulse applied to the slab and the total momentum of all fragments striking the slab. Thirty similar experiments were conducted for multiple fragment impacts. On average. two. 2. Tel. ParaDyn [3]. Papados'' ^ U.mil © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Analyses were performed for one.: +1 (601) 6342137. DYNA3DLLNL [4]. Impact loads. Dallriva [1]. In the first set of experiments. Bathe (Editor) . The excess impulse has been attributed to the ejection of this concrete. Once the material has reached the residual surface. USA ^ U.thick concrete target at about 4. Keywords: Reinforced concrete. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Vicksburg.T. MS 39180. The concrete on the front face of the slab near the impact point was ejected towards the direction of the fragment launcher at a reasonably high velocity.S. These experiments indicate that the amount of the excess impulse is a function of the pattern of impact of the fragments on the slab. In these experiments. Adelphi.S. The momentum transferred to reinforced concrete slabs by steel fragments impacting the slabs has been studied in two recent series of experiments.61 Fragment impact pattern effect on momentum transferred to concrete targets J. threefailure surface model as suggested by Willam and Warnke [5]. Baylot^'*. Details of the constitutive model are discussed in [2]. it cannot support tension and cannot support shear in the absence of pressure. * Corresponding author.J. MD 20783. which is the scalable version of the code.element (FE) analyses have been used successfully to predict damage to concrete targets from multiple fragment impacts. Papados [2]. maximum. a single steel fragment was fired at a reinforcedconcrete target. these same analysis techniques are used to investigate the effect of fragment impact pattern on momentum transferred to the concrete target. explicitdynamic FE code.200 fps. Failure in tension is based on fracture energy.P. Email: baylotj@wes. The experiments indicated that the reinforcing steel does not have a large effect on the momentum transferred to the slab. Fax: +1 (601) 6342309. USA Abstract Impulses resulting from metal fragment impacts on concrete targets are needed to predict the structural response of those targets. Papados used the largedeformation. Finite. Momentum transfer. and three fragments. The excess impulse ranged from 24 to 54%. Recent experiments indicate that the momentum transferred to the target exceeds the momentum of the fragments impacting the slab. P. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Army Research Laboratory. All rights reserved. In this paper. the excess impulse was approximately 70%. The surfaces represent the yield. 24 fragments were fired at the concrete target. Dynamic loads. indicating a loss in effectiveness as compared to a single fragment impact. Maximum concrete ejecta velocity and damaged surface area were used as a measure of excess impulse applied to the target.
The peak pressure and pulse duration were 224. The mass of the element was maintained upon element deletion. The area of failed elements on the surface of the slab is shown in Fig. The fragment size is consistent with the surface area of four of the 1/4in. Since the bulk viscosity forces are only active in compression.457 ips. The pulse duration was selected to match the expected fragment penetration. The maximum and average magnitudes of the ejecta velocity were 11.456 ips and 1. the concrete did not actually eject in the simulation.by 9in.12 0.11 ms.000 psi and 0.400 1/4in. The nodes not loaded by the fragment impact immediately moved opposite to the fragment velocity. Since 75% of the simulated excess impulse was due to the ejection of the first layer of elements.000 rz< \ ^"' j^ 1 0 0. but reversed at a high velocity at the end of the pulse duration. A rise time of l/4th of the pulse duration gives a good estimate of the damage for the multiple fragment experiments. The externally applied forces were zero after 0.000 9. The nodes at 0 and 0. In. i 0 0 25 0. 3. Since the recovery of the ejecta material could not be prevented. and was used for these simulations.000 15. Based on the first three layers. the ejecta velocities before the recovery were used to evaluate the excess impulse. / /" u Dlst. slab was discretized into 518.P. Analysis results were examined to determine the source of the force that caused these 'ejected' nodes to be pulled back into the remainder of the slab. P. Because of this behavior. Positive displacements (shown as white) are displacements in the direction of the initial fragment velocity. respectively.75 1 1 o 0 3.2 Time. the excess impulse applied to the target would be about 41%.000 A 30.T. Attempts were made to adjust the hourglass control and to delete the failed elements on the exposed surface. Reinforcing steel was not modeled.5 0. and the momentum initially gained was lost. Baylot. were loaded by the pressure boundary condition representing the fragment impact. Later in time. Each of the elements connected to this node has failed and all stress histories for these elements remained at zero. Velocity histories of nodes totally surrounded by failed elements were examined to determine.1 ms. all of the nodes reversed direction and moved away from the fragment source. Single fragment impact A simulation for a single fragment impacting the center of the target was performed (4 elements are loaded).1 ms. respectively. The fragment impacts were represented using pressure boundary conditions that preserve the momentum of the fragment. The constitutive model and rate effects curves used were identical to those used by Papados. the forces must have been due to hourglass control. 2. These nodes initially moved in the direction of the fragment velocity.04 0.25 in.000 12. ms Fig. 2. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 18. 1. This figure shows that the FE model initially captures the ejection of the concrete off of the front surface of the model. the mass and average velocity of concrete that would be ejected. Neither of these efforts was successful in overcoming the problem of the reversal of direction of the failed concrete. the firstlayer impulse was selected as a measure of excess impulse applied to the target. 1. . Fig. The only other forces that could have been acting on this node are the hourglass control and the bulk viscosity. the node at the fragment impact location accelerated with the velocity very quickly becoming positive. cube elements. Velocity histories near impact point. 3.08 0. from impact.16 0.000 6. Velocity histories of the nodes near the fragment impact are shown as Fig.62 J.by 30. Average velocities and damage volumes for the next two layers were also computed. At 0.000 (0 9.000 6. cube constant stress continuum elements. Displacements near impact point.000 12. and apparently so were the hourglass forces. The impact location (displacements scaled by 5) at the end of the fragment pulse duration is shown in Fig.000 3.
25 0. LSin. This results as an excess impulse of 40%.T. however.25 0.5 0. apart e) Tliree Fig. The limit on the growth of damaged area of twice the single fragment area would be reached in the case when the two fragments are so far apart that their areas of influence would not overlap. Therefore. .0 y' (in. Front surface damage. At a spacing of 3 in. Excess impulses were estimated for the multiple fragment runs by dividing the damaged area for that run by the damaged area in the single fragment run and by the number of fragments. and the excess impulse is reduced to 47%.25 32.0 0.J. total area of surface damage is a relative measure of excess impulse. In this case. The damaged area further increases with the addition of a third fragment close to these two. Up and to the right are positive. the damaged area increases by a factor of two when two fragments are placed very close together. 0.19 Excess impulse (%) Single 0.5in. the Table 1 Multiple fragment simulations Simulation ^ Fragment no. but less than for two fragments hitting close to each other. ^ The origin of the coordinate system is at the center of the slab.25 0. 4. 3.0 0.5in.) 0. P.0in.25 Damaged area (in. 3.25 0.0 0.^) 16. apart d) Two. the damaged area is greater than for the single fragment.75 42.25 0.0 0.) 0. As seen in Fig. 3. 3.75 1. 3 and in Table 1. Exposed surface concrete damages for the four multiplefragment simulations are compared with the single fragment analysis in Fig. The maximum and average magnitudes of the ejecta velocity did not vary significantly in the five simulations performed.0 0. 1.75 0.. respectively.25 0.5 1. This results in an excess impulse equivalent to the single fragment result. When the two fragments are moved further apart.7 in order to adjust the excess impulse to match the single fragment experiments.0 0. The damaged area then grows as the fragments are moved further apart. Horizontal and vertical coordinates are represented by x and y. Bay lot. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 63 a) Single b) Two.P.75 29.5 26. That number was multiplied by 1. Multiple fragment impact Simulations were performed for the four multiple fragment impact cases listed in Table 1. the excess impulse grows to 55%. 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 x^ (in. the increase in area does not offset the addition of the third fragment.0 0.5m. Three 70 70 40 55 47 ^ Fragment spacing is listed for two fragment impacts.0 0.0in. apart c) Two.
Vicksburg. [2] Papados PP. 1. Engelmann BE. DeGroot AJ. DYNA3D — a nonlinear explicit. The analyses did indicate the importance of fragment impact pattern on the impulse applied to the target. threedimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics — users manual. [3] Hoover CO. The addition of an option allowing the user to effectively delete a failed element. Paradyn: DYNA3D for massively parallel computers. New York: McGraw Hill. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. [5] Chen WF. The authors gratefully acknowledge permission from the Chief of Engineers to present and publish this paper. rev.P. Wessex Institute of Technology: WIT Press. Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete. 2000. UCRL 5383894. Pocassini RJ. Acknowledgements This research was conducted at the U. UCRLMA107254. Structures under Shock and Impact Loads VI. Conclusions The analyses initially captured the frontface ejection of concrete that leads to the excess impulse applied to concrete targets by steel fragment impacts.S. U. Frank D. The excess momentum could not be maintained because the ejected elements could not be effectively removed from the simulation. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. In Jones N. Brebbia CA (Eds).64 J. . Dallriva. [4] Whirley RG. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. A reinforced concrete structure under impact: response to high rate loads. MS.S. 2000.T. 1982. on Aug 16. P. 1995. 5. Bay lot. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Personal Communication with Mr. and the associated mass would allow the problem to be computed more accurately. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1993.
65
A fictitious domain method for unilateral contact problems in nondestructive testing
E. Becache*, P. Joly, G. Scarella
INRIA, Domaine de VoluceauRocquencourt, BP 105, F78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France
Abstract In this work, we present a numerical method for solving the diffraction of transient elastic waves by cracks of arbitrary shapes in complex media, with Signorini's boundary conditions on the crack. We use a fictitious domain method based on a mixed displacementstress formulation for elastodynamics. We propose an offcentered time discretisation scheme for enforcing the stability. Keywords: Elastodynamics; Unilateral contact; Fictitious domain method; Nondestructive testing; Crack
1. Introduction In this paper, we are interested in solving the diffraction of transient elastic waves by cracks of arbitrary shapes in complex media, with Signorini's boundary conditions on the crack. This is the continuation of a previous work [1] done on the linear problem, that is when the boundary condition on the crack is a free surface boundary condition. To get an efficient method, we want to use regular meshes and at the same time respect the geometry of the crack. This is possible thanks to the fictitious domain method, which takes into account the boundary condition via a Lagrange multiplier defined on the crack, which can be interpreted as the jump of the displacement through the crack. This allows to work with a uniform mesh in the whole domain and an independent mesh on the crack. In order to consider the unilateral contact boundary condition as a constraint, we are led to use the mixed displacementstress formulation for elastodynamics. We will present a fictitious domain formulation of this problem in which the boundary conditions are taken into account by a variational inequality for the Lagrange multiplier. For the space discretisation of this problem, we propose to use the mixed finite element using spaces of symmetric tensors for the stress [1]. This choice was shown to allow the obtention of an explicit time discretization scheme (masslumping) in the linear case. In the nonlinear case, we cannot use a centered difference scheme for the time discretisation which would lead to an
* Corresponding author. Email: eliane.becache@inria.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
unconditionally unstable scheme. That is why we propose an offcentered scheme that we show to be stable. This scheme is explicit in the volume unknowns (displacement and stress), but impHcit in the Lagrange multiplier: one has to solve an optimisation problem with bound constraints at each time step.
2. Presentation of the dynamic unilateral contact problem We want to solve the displacementstress formulation of elastodynamics in a domain ^ = C \ F G R^ (see Fig. 1): p——diver ^ dt^ Aa =/" ^ =s(u) i n ^ x ] 0 , r[, (1) in Qx]0,Tl
Fig. 1. The geometry of the problem.
66
E. Becache et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Discretisation 4.1. Semidiscretisation in space
where u is the displacement field, a the stress tensor, and s{u) the strain tensor defined as £,;(«) == (9/Wy + djUi)/2. We add to (1) Dirichlet boundary conditions on the exterior boundary: u = 0 on dCx]0,T[ \ Signorini boundary conditions without friction on the crack F, [3]:
[UN]T Oyv
>0
< 0
on r , on r , on r , on r , on r . (2)
a^[w/v]r = 0
[an]r
GT
=0
=0
We now introduce some finite dimensional spaces Xh C X, Mh C M, QH C Q of dimensions, respectively, Nx, NM, Ng. We define, respectively, (LM)H = GH (^ L^ and {LT)H = {{^T)H ^ (^r)// ^ GH) where t is the unit tangent vector to F. The semidiscretisation in space can then be written in a matricial form as: finding ll^ X R^G such that (f/, E, AA.,Ar) €
Mai:\D*U \B*AT
where, if n denotes the unit normal to F, we set: MA^ = M •«, a^ — on • n, oj — an — a^n and prescribed initial data that we will systematically omit.
BTI:
+ B*AA.
= 0, = F, = 0,
(i)
(ii) (iii)
V/XAT e E+^.
(4)
3. A fictitious domain formulation The fictitious domain method consists in extending the two unknowns (w, a ) in the whole domain C and introducing Lagrange multipliers to take into account Signorini's boundary conditions (2). Setting Q = H^^iV), we introduce
{BNH,
P^M
— Ayv)
< 0,
(iv)
M
X ={Te
={uelLHC)Y},
[LHC)]\divT e [L\C)f/Tij = r,,},
In practice, and this is the interesting point in the fictitious domain method, we introduce two meshes: the volumic unknowns U and E are defined on a regular grid, Th made of squares Kj of size h while the surfacic unknowns A/v and A^ are computed on a nonuniform mesh on V, TH made of segments Sj of size / / / , H = sxxpjHj (see Fig. 2). Remark 1. The inequality (4)(iv) can be reinterpreted as Ayv = n(Ayv + fiA.E) (5)
LN = ^ J o + ( r ) = {fiM ^ G/l^N > 0 a.e. on F j , LT = [/foo^^(F)]2 =. {^r e S V ^ r n = O] The fictitious domain formulation consists in finding (a, u, Ayv, XT) : ]0, T[> X x M x L/^ x Lj
a{a, r)  d(T, u) + ^/(T,
where Y\ is the orthogonal projection on R^^. Choice of the finite elements. We intend to use the same discretisation than for the linear problem (see [1]). For the lowest order element, this choice corresponds to:
XH = {cJh e X/WK e %, e %, (JHIK e {QdK)) VHIK € }
Ar)
>^N)
+ /?yv(r
)  d{G, v)
= 0
Vr € X, (3)
= iL v) Wv e M,
= 0 < 0
^f^T VjUyv
Mh = {vh e M/WK
{Qo{K)f}
Z?r(o, Mr)
[Z?yv(a,/XA^ ^N)
eLr,
GH = {M// e G/^S e TH, ^H\S e
Pi(S)}
e
LN
with
fl(a, r ) d(T, w) = 1 Aa : T dx,
Its main interest is that it leads to block diagonal mass matrices (even diagonal for My) so that My and M^ are very easy to invert.
I
w ' div r djc,
^ ... 11
14 
To
Z?Ar(T,/x/v) = {TN, lJ^N)g'.g
^
>
/f
*
^1
y
iT "
The Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted SLS X^ = [MTV] and Xj = [uj], with uj = u — u^n.
J f^ i2 yC
4^
— [1  
^T ~ '
H
Fig. 2. The two meshes.
E. Becache et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4.2. The fully discretised scheme It would be tempting to discretize (4) using centered finite difference operators, for instance:
A n+l I A n1
67
This quantity is an energy under the CFL condition (7), and one has the identity
E;^+I  E \ =
At
which shows that ^"+^ < E^ thanks to 6(iv). which would give an explicit scheme. However, one can show that this choice leads to an unconditionally unstable scheme! That is why we propose the following offcentered scheme: M,E"f Z)*f/" + 5*A"^ + 5;^A^ M„
A^2
5. Numerical aspects The implementation of the method amounts to combine an explicit scheme for the unknowns U and S with an optimisation problem (quadratic functional with bounds constraints) to be solved at each time step for the unknown A. The algorithm has been tested in ID (comparison with analytic solutions). We are currently developing a 2D code, the optimisation procedure being handled by an algorithm combining the active set method with gradient projection method [2]. Numerical results will be presented at the conference.
=0, = F\  0,
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (6)
—
DTP IT + S^+^ ^
A
r = n (A/+ Bj
Note that if the mass matrices are block diagonal, this scheme is only impHcit in A^^ and is explicit in the other unknowns. We can show a stabiUty result: Theorem 1. Scheme (6) is stable under the usual CFL stability condition   D*D < 1, with D*D =sup^^ (7) 4 ~ E (M.E,!:) For proving this result, we show the decay of an energy. The precise result is the following. We set
yn+l/2 _ Ijn+l _ jjn
References [1] Becache E, Joly P, Tsogka C. Fictitious domains, mixed finite elements and perfectiy matched layers for 2d elastic wave propagation. J Comp Acous (Tech. Report INRIA 3889, 2000), to appear. [2] Nocedal J, Wright SJ. Numerical Optimization. Springer, 1999. [3] Willis JR, Smyshlyaev VR Effective relations for nonlinear dynamics of cracked solids. J Mech Phys SoUds 1996;44(l):4975.
At £^1+' = ^((M^s^+i, E"+^) + (M,y'^+3/2^ y"+i/2))_
(8)
68
Timefrequency pneumatic transmission line analysis
G. Belforte, W. Franco*, M. Sorli
Department of Mechanics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Abstract This paper presents a theoretical and experimental method for analyzing pneumatic transmission lines in both the time and frequency domains. The test bench developed for this purpose is described together with the experimental analysis method. The theoretical analysis models implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment are then briefly illustrated. The paper concludes with a comparison of some of the theoretical and experimental results obtained in the investigation. Keywords: Pneumatic transmission line; Pneumatic transient; Pneumatic servosystem; Impedance method; Characteristics method; Fluid borne noise
1. Introduction Transmission line dynamic behavior affects the dynamic performance and noise of pneumatic servosystems. A line having a length of 1 m, for example, introduces a delay of several ms [1]. In addition, the flow and pressure pulses generated by the compressor propagate towards the user through the lines, generating noise [2]. The dynamic performance of transmission lines must thus be considered in designing a pneumatic servosystem. Experimental studies in this field, though indispensable, are timeconsuming and must be backed up by a preliminary theoretical analysis. In particular, they call for easily used computer codes capable of predicting the dynamic behavior of a line in both the time and frequency domains on the basis of the line's geometry and mechanical properties and of the properties of the air. In addition, the models' parameters must be readily identifiable. This paper describes a theoretical and experimental method for dynamic analysis of pneumatic lines. A test bench developed for this purpose is illustrated. The use of the characteristics method and the impedance method in theoretical analyses of pneumatic lines is then discussed. Finally, a number of theoretical and experimental results are presented, compared and discussed.
2. Experimental setup Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the test bench developed for investigating the dynamic behavior of pneumatic lines in the time and frequency domains [3]. The bench can accommodate lines of different geometry and material, which may feature pressure pulsereducing devices such as accumulators, T filters, and Helmholtz resonators. Two resistive transducers (TRl) and (TR2) (ENTRAN EPNMIO, F S . 10 bar, Unearity 0 . 1 % FS.) for measuring mean pressure and two piezoelectric transducers (TPl) and ^^^WB
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 (Oil) 5646939; Fax: +39 (Oil) 5646999; Email: francow@polito.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics KJ. Bathe (Editor)
Fig. 1. Experimental test bench.
G. Belforte et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
69
(TP2) (Kistler 701a, FS 2.5 bar, linearity 0.5% FS, risetime 6 xs) for measuring pressure pulses are installed upstream and downstream of the line under test (TL) by means of appropriate adapters. The line includes a resistive load (ZL). In the present configuration, the hne is excited by switching valve (V) which connects it in alternation to two reservoirs which are maintained at different constant pressures by means of reducers (Rl) and (R2). Valve switchover is controlled by the signal generator (SG). Pressure signals from transducers (TPl) and (TP2) are acquired over time at a frequency of 10 kHz, after which the line's frequency response function (FRF) is calculated in terms of the modulus of the ratio of upstream to downstream pressure, expressed in dB.
where Zc is the line's characteristic impedance:
Z  —
z. 
^
(3)
3. Time domain analysis Line modehng in the time domain was carried out using the characteristics method [4] implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment. The equations of motion, assuming onedimensional viscous motion with propagation of small isoentropic oscillations, have the following solutions for the internal points of the grid (Fig. 2): Pi(t + ^t) _ 1 Pi^iit) + P,+i(0 + Ze • (G/_i(0  Qi+i(t)) ~ 2 2 AD
Zc • (Qii(t)\Qidt)\ Qi+i(t)\Qi+i(t)\)
The investigation was carried out for a line with known upstream pressure. The downstream boundary conditions were calculated by combining the characteristics equations with the equation for flow through a nozzle, expressed by means of conductance C and critical ratio b as per ISO 6358 [5]. The characteristics method makes it possible to investigate line behavior in the time domain for different input pressure laws after identifying the following parameters: line geometry and characteristics (length, inside radius, friction coefficient), air characteristics (mean pressure, mean temperature, dynamic viscosity, specific heat ratio) and exhaust nozzle conductance and critical pressure ratio. The results of time simulation carried out on a line excited with a pressure step can then be postprocessed to determine the FRF of the line under test. 4. Frequency domain analysis Line modeling in the frequency domain was carried out using the impedance method [6,7] implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment. Upstream pressure and flow rate (Pi and Q\) and downstream pressure and flow rate (P2 and G2) are linked by a four pole equation:
Pi Qi
(1)
cosh r l/Z^sinhr
Zc sinh F coshr
P2 Qi
(4)
Qiit + At) _ 1 ~ 2 e/i(o + a+i(o _fAt_ IAD
+
p,_i(0P.+i(0
(G/i(Oiai(OI + G/+i(OIG/+i(OI)
(2)
where Zc is the characteristic impedance of the line, and F is the propagation operator of the line. On the basis of the assumptions made, the expressions for both Zc and F can be calculated in relation to frequency. Once load impedance Zi is known:
ZL =
time > <
02
(5)
the line's FRF can be calculated:
t+2At t+At
Pii(t)
t
i1
yu
Pi(t+At) Qi(t+At,
4
P Z — = cosh r + — sinh F
Pi
ZL
(6)
Pi^l(t) Qi.i(t)
>
pipe axial position
i
i+l
Fig. 2. xjt grid of the characteristic method.
Simulating the line's dynamic behavior in the frequency domain calls for defining the following parameters: line geometry (length, inside radius, thickness), mechanical properties of the Hne (complex Young's modulus), air characteristics (mean pressure, dynamic viscosity, mean density, specific heat ratio) and load impedance.
70
G. Belforte et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics culated by postprocessing the time simulation performed with the characteristics method. As can be seen, the resonance peaks on both the experimental curve and that produced with the impedance method become smaller as frequency increases. This phenomenon was not modeled with the simplified characteristics method adopted for the investigation.
5. Results A number of graphs of line dynamic behavior are presented by way of example. The graphs refer to a poly amide line with length of 1 m, inside diameter of 4 mm and thickness of 1 mm connected downstream to a 0.5 mm diameter nozzle. Fig. 3 shows downstream pressure as measured experimentally and as calculated using the characteristics method with the line excited by an upstream pressure step. The values for the downstream nozzle's conductance C and critical pressure ratio h measured as per ISO 6358 are 3.5 x 10~'^ m^/(sPa) ANR and 0.4, respectively. The line's friction coefficient was considered to be independent of frequency and equal to 0.06. Despite the extensive simplifications introduced in modeling, there is a good degree of agreement between the experimental and calculated curves. The experimental step response curve shown in Fig. 3 was used to evaluate the line's FRF. In Fig. 4, this curve is compared with the curve calculated using the impedance method {ZL = 1/C = 2.8 x 10^ Pas/m^^) and with that cal
6. Conclusions The theoretical and experimental method presented herein provides a simple means of analyzing line dynamic behavior in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Only the following parameters need be known in order to identify a line's dynamic behavior: the length, inside diameter, thickness, complex Young's modulus and friction coefficient of the line; the mean pressure, mean temperature, dynamic viscosity and specific heat ratio of the gas; and the conductance and critical pressure ratio or impedance of the exhaust nozzle. In particular, the load conductance and critical pressure ratio can be measured in accordance with ISO 6358, while load impedance as a function of excitation frequency can be measured on the same bench or estimated in subsequent simulations.
3.4 3.3 experimental CM model
:\
h:
\l I \
h^2.6 2.5 0 0.02 0.04
/V/V''^^
7. Notation A b c C D line cross section area critical pressure ratio of the load propagation velocity conductance of the load line inside diameter friction coefficient specific heat ratio pressure volume flow rate time characteristic impedance load impedance time step propagation operator mean density
m2
w
m/s
mV(s Pa)
m
0.06
0.08
0.1 0.12 time [s]
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Fig. 3. Time response of the line to a step pressure.
k P Q t
Zc
ZL
f
f %.
:AT
At Po \ /:
Pa m^/s s Pas/m^ Pas/m^ s kg/m^
\\. . . /
r
References
+ — Experimental CM model IM model
200
300 Frequency [Hz]
400
Fig. 4. Comparison between experimental characteristics method (CM), and impedance method (IM) FRF of the line.
[1] Romifi A, Raparelli T. A simulation program for analysis of any type of fluid mechanical systems 'FLOWSIM'. Proceeding of 12th World Congress International Federation of Automatic Control, Sydney, 1993, pp. 523530. [2] Edge K. Designing quieter hydraulic systems — some recent developments and contributions. Fluid Power, Forth JHPS International Symposium, Tokyo, 1999, pp. 327.
G. Belforte et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [3] Sorli M, Franco W. Gas line pulse analysis. Flucome 2000, Sixth International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization, Sherbrooke, 2000. [4] Streeter VL, Wylie EB. Fluid Transients. New York: McGrawHill, 1978. [5] Romiti A, Raparelli T. Rigorous analysis of transients in gas and liquid circuits and comparison with experimental data. J Fluid Control 1993;21(4):727.
71
[6] Stecki JS, Davis DC. Fluid transmission linesdistributed parameter models Part 1: a review of the state of the art. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1986;100:215228. [7] Krus P, Weddfelt K, Palmberg JO. Fast pipehne models for simulation of hydraulic systems. Trans ASME J Dyn Syst Meas Cont 1994;116:132136.
72
On some relevant technical aspects of tire modelling in general
F. Bohm, A. Duda*, R. Wille
Technical University of Berlin, Institute of Mechanics, Sekretariat MS 4, Einsteinufer 5/7, D10587 Berlin, Germany
Abstract The study of pneumatic tire mechanics is divided into external tire mechanics that deals w^ith the effect of tires on the vehicle dynamics and internal tire mechanics that focus on the computation of stressstrain and heat states in tires. Internal tire mechanics employs models founded on physical understanding, but not on empirically obtained curves. The objective of this paper is to use the results of internal tire mechanics for improving the external tire models in vehicle model systems. These tire models are applied to rolling contact also on deformable ground. Keywords: Tire models; Rolling contact; Tire mechanics; Terramechanics
1. Comparison of different tire models Deriving from the paper [1] presented on the 2nd International Colloquium Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis different tire models (Timoshenko type ringbeam, layered shell model, space continuum, multimasspoint model) and their transitions one to another are investigated. The main focus was directed to composite shell models and to the application of the Bohm multimasspoint approach on the rolling tire [24]. In order to treat the dynamic contact problems the pneumatic tire is described geometrically nonlinear as a multilayered anisotropic torus shell with low transfer shear stiffness. The membrane and bending deformations were assumed small and the crosssection will exhibit moderate rotation angles. The possibilities of describing the tire composite by different layer models are discussed. For practical tire calculations, which take into account the significant transfer shear deformation, the Timoshenko type shell model and 3 or 5layer sandwich models with weak rubber layers are adequate. In order to reflect energy losses the viscoelastic behavior of rubbercordcomposite is taken into account. The investigations are based on results of Bohm [5], Duda and Wille [6], INTASRFBR [7], Kulikov et al. [8], and Belkin et al. [9].
2. Stationary and transient rolling of tires The stationary rolling problem, quasistatic with friction, is investigated in a coordinate axis rotating simultaneously with the tire. The real dynamic behavior of the rolling tire is nonconservative and selfexcited. Appropriate damping of cords and rubber is to be taken into account in order to stabilize the dynamic system. The static equilibrium and the equations of motion of a membrane/shell model are treated. This model is modified for the real structure of an agricultural tire with ribs. Data of 3D models are fitted from given design parameters. The parameters used for 2D masspoint models are extracted from measurements of tire section for variable inner pressure loads and from the eigenvalues of the tire. The nonlinear and hysteretic system of Newton equations of this method is solved by explicit predictorcorrector integration with respect to time. The numerical integration procedure needs short time steps. The highest eigenvalue of masspoint model and the shortest relaxation time of the rheological models for tire material and for soil needs to be in correlation with Shannon criterion in order to achieve numerical stable solutions. New theoretical and numerical results and comparison with FEMresults, e.g. [10], will be discussed.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (30) 31472411; Fax: +49 (30) 31472433; Email: dudahdg3@linux.zrz.tuberlin.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
F. Bohm et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Rolling contact on deformable ground Tire models described above can be used for vehicle dynamics analysis. It can adequately be used for computing the tireground interaction in accordance to the technical demand for tire durability, road cover resistance and soil protection in agriculture and forestry. A new mechanical multipoint measurement technique for displacements in the inner of a rolling tire was developed [11]. For high frequency tire deformation and quick driving manoeuvres an acoustic measurement system is in development. The slip between tire ribs and ground cannot be assumed as constant because of the elastodynamical tire motions. At present only the 2D masspoint model has an acceptable amount of computational time on PC and is suitable for application in vehicle dynamics. The soil under the tire is described by different rheological laws of the ground surface behavior in the normal and tangential direction [12]. The soil models are tested for simple rigid and elastic tire models in rolling contact. Frohlich/Sohne approach is used for describing the soil compaction. The apphcability of this method is tested by a finite element computation on the basis of a critical state soil model. References
73
4. Conclusion Analytical and numerical analysis of different level tire models is an important precondition for suitable choosing of practical calculation schemes for tires and for better understanding of the rolling tire behavior. Investigations are aimed at applications in vehicle dynamics and in tire design. The Bohm multimasspoint model was used for determining the rolling contact forces on a rigid and deformable ground. The later simulation is meant to avoid the negative effects of soil compaction in agriculture and road damage by truck tires.
[I] Belkin AE, Bukhin BL, Mukhin ON, Narskaya NL. Some models and methods of pneumatic tire mechanics. 2nd International Colloquium on Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis, 1997, pp. 250271. [2] Bohm F. Dynamic rolling process of tires as layered structures. Mech Composite Mater 1996;32(6):824834. [3] Tang T. Geometrisch nichtlineare Berechnung von rotationssymmetrischen faserverstarkten Strukturen. Dissertation, TU Berlin 1985. [4] Feng K. Statische Berechnung des Giirtelreifens unter besonderer Beriiksichtigung der kordverstarkten Lagen. Dissertation, TU Berlin 1995. [5] Bohm F Reifenmodelle und ihre experimentelle Uberpriifung. In: F. Bohm, K. Knothe (Eds.), Hochfrequenter Rollkontakt der Fahrzeugrader, Ergebnisse aus dem DFG Sonderforschungsbereich 181. WileyVCH 1998, pp. 80115. [6] Duda A, Wille R. Mechanische Grundlagen des umweltvertraglichen RadBodenKontaktes. Zwischenbericht zum Projekt DFG  Bo 648/61, June 1999, 144 p. [7] INTAS Final Report: Mathematical models and solving methods of the static and dynamic stressstrain state in composite shell structures. INTASRFBR 950525, 18.04.2000. [8] Kulikov GM, Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R. Zur inneren Mechanik des Radialreifens. Teil 1 und Teil 2. Technische Mechanik 2000;20(1): 112,8190. [9] Belkin AE, Narskaya NL, Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R. Dynamischer Kontakt des Radialreifens als viskoelastische Schale mit einer starren Stiitzflache bei stationarem Rollen. Technische Mechanik 2000;20(4):355372. [10] Gleu U. Berechnung des nichtlinearen dynamischen Verhaltens des Luftreifens beim instationaren Rollkontakt mit einer Vielteilchenmethode und der Methode der Finiten Elemente. Dissertation, TU Berlin 2001. [II] Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R, Zachow D. Investigation of the nonstationary rolling contact of a tire on natural soils. Proc. 13th International Conference of the ISTVS, Munich, Sept. 1417, 1999, pp. 353360. [12] Wille R, Bohm F, Duda A. Rheologie und Hysterese beim dynamischen ReifenBodenKontakt. Annual Scientific Conference GAMM 27 April 2000, Gottingen.
74
An index reduction method in nonholonomic system dynamics
Marco Borri *, Carlo L. Bottasso, Lorenzo Trainelli
Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Via La Masa 34, 20158, Milan, Italy
Abstract We present a general methodology for nonholonomically constrained mechanical systems where the governing equations are reformulated employing differentiated multipliers and modified momenta. This procedure allows the algebraic and differential parts of the problem to be completely uncoupled, so that the two subproblems can be solved separately. Any suitable ordinary differential equation integration algorithm can be applied to solve the differential part, bypassing the need for a specialized differentialalgebraic equation solver. The approach may be interpreted as a consistent index reduction from 2 to 1 that simplifies the numerical solution of the problem. Keywords: Differentialalgebraic equations; Embedded projection; Index reduction; Constraint stabilization; Multibody dynamics; Nonholonomic systems; Constrained systems
1. Introduction A considerable effort within the scientific community has been devoted in the past years towards the development of efficient and reliable numerical methods for the simulation of constrained dynamical systems. These systems are usually cast in terms of sets of differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs). Solving general DAE systems still represents an open field of research, since their intrinsic numerical difficulty has prevented to date from reaching the same degree of maturity achieved in the numerical treatment of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems. This difficulty is usually measured by the differential index of the DAE problem, a concept discussed in [7,9,10]. While index 1 DAEs may be dealt with by using a variety of available numerical methods, for DAEs of index greater than 1 obtaining a good numerical solution may still prove to be a difficult task. In the present work, we are concerned with systems governed by index2 DAEs, or systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints. It must be pointed out that these systems cannot, in general, be directly solved by applying a standard offtheshelf ODE integrator, because of its inability to exactly solve algebraic equations. Here we seek a complete uncoupling of the DAE system into separate * Corresponding author. Tel: +39 (2) 23998399; Fax: +39 (2) 23998334; Email: borri@aero.polimi.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
algebraic and differential parts. To this end, we introduce differentiated Lagrange multipliers and define a new variable, the 'modified momentum'. While the 'standard' momentum must obey the nonholonomic constraints imposed on the system, the modified momentum must not, and in this sense it represents a completely free (unconstrained) variable. This way, we obtain an ODE for this quantity that can be integrated using any suitable ODE solver. The original momentum is then recovered by means of an 'embedded projection' onto the constraint space. In general, this procedure allows the same order of accuracy to be attained for all the fields of a DAE problem (and, in particular, for the algebraic variables) that is provided by the chosen solver when applied to a purely ODE problem. This framework was presented originally for both holonomic and nonholonomic problems in [3,4] and its successful application to the parallel computation of the dynamics of general topology rigid multibody systems was reported in [11]. Apart from minor developments, the main novel contributions of this work are to be found in the interpretation of the procedure as a consistent index reduction and in the recovery of the reaction forces by a second 'embedded projection' onto the space defined by the constraint derivative. This process, which recovers even the multiplier derivatives with the same order of accuracy of the primary variables, indeed completes the whole picture, in close analogy to the methodology recently presented in [5,6]
M. Borri et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics in the context of index3, i.e. holonomically constrained, dynamical systems.
75
2. Lagrangian framework Let a generic dynamical system with n degrees of freedom, be characterized by a Lagrangian function £(q, q, 0 , where q G R" represents the vector of Lagrangian coordinates describing the system configuration, and let the system be subjected to m < n linearly independent nonholonomic constraints through a constraint function j/r, ^(q,q,O = 0^ (1)
We note that the classical Lagrange multipliers k are related to our multipliers fi by /i = X. Furthermore, note that, with the substitution X = ft, the first equation of set (6) is exactly equivalent to Eq. (3), while the second simply expresses Eq. (1), being £* = 0^ and C^ = f. Remarkably, in the case of integrable constraints f =^, i.e. those velocity constraints which correspond to the total time derivative of position constraints 0(q, 0» we get Q* = Q, since (d^q/d/ — ^q) vanishes identically. Therefore, the additional force Qnh := Q*  Q is peculiar to proper nonholonomic constraints. The gyroscopic nature of this quantity was analyzed in [4], where it was shown that it may be cast in the following form Qn/.(q, q, /^, 0 = B(q, iij)q + b(q, ti, t), (7)
We require that this function be linear in the Lagrangian velocities q, or f (q, q, t) = A(q, t)^q + a(q, t). (2)
where B is a skewsymmetric matrix linearly depending on fi, while b := (aq — dA/dt) fi. From the preceding we infer that the power Wnh •= q • Qnh of this additional force on the Lagrangian velocities reads Wnh = qh, Vq. (8)
where the constraint matrix A := f^ e W''"' has fullrow rank. In passing, we remark that, under suitable smoothness assumptions, f vanishes together with all its time derivatives. This obvious feature is not inherited by the numerical solution obtained via conventional methods, which, due to time discretization, satisfies only the velocitylevel constraint (1). In the following, we show how a more consistent numerical solution can be obtained, exactly satisfying both Eq. (1) and its first time derivative, i.e. the accelerationlevel constraint. It is well known that the governing equations for this system are given by the following augmented Lagrange equations  £ q  £ q = Q + A)., (3)
This power clearly vanishes identically whenever b = 0^. In particular, when A is timeindependent and a does not depend on the coordinates q.
3. Hamiltonian framework As shown, the introduction of new multipliers ft (the reaction impulses) instead of the classical X (the reaction forces) leads to an important theoretical result: the extension of Hamilton's variational principle to nonholonomic mechanical systems through the definition of a modified Lagrangian £* and a modified force Q*. In the following, we show that this procedure inspires analogous extensions in the Hamiltonian framework, where a modified Hamiltonian 1L* can be defined accordingly. In this case, however, the interest of the proposed methodology is not limited to theoretical issues, but also possesses algorithmic implications on the numerical solution that shall become clear in the following. We switch to the Hamiltonian formulation by means of a standard Legendre transformation, defining the momentum p := £q, inverting this relation to find q as a function of p, or q = VH(P, q, 0 . and obtaining the Hamiltonian function H(p, q, t) as n = pyHjCH, (9)
together with Eq. (1). Clearly, X G E'" represent the vector of Lagrange multipliers, while Q G M" denotes the vector of Lagrangian external forces conjugated to q. The term AX accounts for the reaction forces associated to the constraints (1). It has been shown in [4] that equations equivalent to the set formed by Eqs. (1) and (3) may be derived from a variational statement by defining a modified Lagrangian function C*(q, q, fi,t) and a modified Lagrangian external force Q* as (4) (5) where fi e W^ is a. new multiplier vector. The EulerLagrange equations of the system are found as A/2* — /2* — O* (6)
where >Cif(p, q, 0 •= >^(v//(p, q, 0 , q. 0 ^^^ following 'mixed form' canonical equations P + ' H q ^ Q + AX, (10)
govern the system together with Eq. (1). However, a critical
76
M. Borri et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Consistent index reduction The differential system (17), explicitly cast in terms of (q, p*), may be directly integrated by means of any suitable ODE solver from consistent initial data q\tQ and p\f^ — p*^Q. As an example, take a generic onestep integrator, such as a 5stage RungeKutta method: the procedure calls for solving the problem composed of Eqs. (13) and (11) at each of the s internal stages. This, when a general quadratic form in q is assumed for the original Lagrangian £, turns out to be a linear problem for (p, fi). When (p//, fif^) are known, one solves the equations corresponding to the discretized ODEs (16) or (17) at that internal stage and moves on to the next. This shows the profound difference existing between this methodology and a conventional projection method, where the projection is performed only at the end of the time step. Such an approach, referred to as the (imethod or the modified phase space method, has been presented in [3,4]. Experience has shown that this formulation positively impacts the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution [11]. In fact, comparison with the widely adopted Baumgarte stabilization technique [2] has shown much lower constraint violations (for holonomic constraints imposed at velocity level) and a considerable robustness. However, we presently do not favor the treatment of holonomically constrained mechanical systems by imposing velocitylevel constraints, since the 'drift' phenomenon cannot be completely eliminated. We presently recommend the approach presented in [5,6] for holonomic problems, and the present one for proper nonholonomic problems. It may be proved that the method oudined here is strictly equivalent to a process of reduction of the differential index of the problem. In fact, the original DAE problem corresponding to Eqs. (10) and (11) has index 2, while in the proposed framework the DAE problem given by Eqs. (16) or (17), (13), and (11) has index 1. It is worth noting that, in index 1 problems, the algebraic equation may always be interpreted as a definition of the algebraic variables rather than as a constraint acting on the state variables.
point in this process lies in the fact that the momentum p is intrinsically constrained by the algebraic equation ^//=0,,, where f ^(p, q, t) := ^(v//(p, q, r), q, r), or ^ ^ ( p , q, 0 = A(q, 0 V ( P , q, 0 + a(q, 0(12) (11)
At this point, we introduce the modified momentum p* := £*. Since £* = £q  fl ft, we get p* = p  A / i . (13)
Now, coupling this equation with the algebraic constraint (11) we can solve for p and fi as functions of (p*, q, r), obtaining P =P//*(p*,q,0, (14)
This enables us to get q = V//*(p*, q, t) and, performing a Legendre transformation on £*, to obtain a modified Hamiltonian 1L*(p*, q, t) as ^ * = P* • v//* CH*
(15)
where £//*(p*,q, r) := £(v//*(p*, q, r), q, r). Now, the canonical equations governing the system can be found as P*+H; = Q*, qn;.=On. (16)
Note that, in contrast to the Lagrangian framework, in the Hamiltonian case, there is no appended constraint equation to the system (16), since the modified momentum p* adopted as the independent variable together with the vector of Lagrangian coordinates q, is an unconstrained quantity under all respects: it yields, by construction, a solution for the original momentum p which exactly satisfies the constraint equation (11). Therefore, the set of canonical equations (16) may be directly integrated in terms of (qp*) It is worth looking at an alternative form assumed by the governing ODEs (16), in view of its numerical implementation. In fact, the canonical equations are formally equivalent to the following set (17)
5. Preservation of accuracy In the approach followed in [3,4,11], recovering of the reaction forces (essentially, (i) was performed by numerical differentiation, thus loosing the chance of retaining the same order of accuracy for these quantities as that obtained for the primary variables (q, p*) and, consequently, for (P, l^) The following developments are carried out for the explicit purpose of overcoming such a limitation in accuracy and are closely related to the ideas presented in [5,6] in the context of holonomically constrained systems, with the
qn^ =o„,
provided that Eqs. (14) are understood in the dependencies of the terms (Tiq, Tip, Q, A, JJL) on (q, p*). However, these equations are much simpler than Eqs. (16) to implement and evaluate in the context of numerical integration since all the quantities involved are easily retrieved, the only additional burden being the knowledge of A when compared to a conventional integration method.
77
procedure termed the Embedded Projection Method. We consider the original equiUbrium equation (10a) and the time derivative of Eq. (11), both viewed as linear algebraic equations in the variables (p, //.): p + 'Hq^Q + A ^ , (18) By using eqs. (14), we can evaluate each term in the previous equations as a function of (p*, q, t) and solve for p and /t, giving P = ^i/*(p*,q,0, (19)
vides the reaction forces. The outcome of the method is a substantially enhanced accuracy, in particular with respect to reactions, plus an intrinsical gain in robustness due to the exact preservation of both the constraint and its time derivative. The methodology is closely related to the Embedded Projection Method recently presented in the context of holonomically constrained systems. Preliminary applications, not detailed in this work, have been implemented and tested, confirming the properties predicted in the analysis.
References [1] Ascher U, Chin H, Petzold LR, Reich S. Stabihsation of constrained mechanical systems with daes and invariant manifolds. J Mech Struct Mach 1995;23:135158. [2] Baumgarte J. Stabilization of constraints and integrals of motion in dynamical systems. Comput Math Appl Mech Eng 1972;1:116. [3] Borri M, Mantegazza R Finite time element approximation of dynamics of nonholonomic systems. AMSE Congress, WiUiamsburg, VA, 1986. [4] Borri M, Bottasso CL, Mantegazza P. A modified phase space formulation for constrained mechanical systems differential approach. Eur J Mech, A/Solids 1992;11:701727. [5] Borri M, Bottasso CL, Trainelli L. An embedded projection method for constrained dynamics. NATOARW on Computational Aspects of Nonlinear Structural Systems with Large Rigid Body Motions, Pultusk, Poland, 2000. [6] Borri M, Trainelli L. A new formulation of constrained dynamical systems. 16th IMACS World Congress, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2000. [7] Brenan KE, Campbell SL, Petzold LR. Numerical solution of initialvalue problems in differentialalgebraic equations. New York: Elsevier Science, 1989. [8] Eich E. Convergence results for a coordinate projection method applied to constrained mechanical systems with algebraic constraints. SIAM J Numer Anal 1993;30:14671482. [9] Gear CW. Differentialalgebraic equation index transformations. SIAM J Sci Stat Comput 1988;9(l):4047. [10] Petzold LR. Order results for implicit RungeKutta methods applied to differential/algebraic systems. SIAM J Numer Anal 1986;23(4):837852. [11] Sika Z, Valasek M. ParalleHzation of multibody formalism for rigid bodies using natural coordinates and modified state space. Eur J Mech, A/Solids 1997;16(2):325339. [12] Yen J, Petzold LR. Convergence of the iterative methods for coordinate splitting formulation in multibody dynamics, TR 95052, Tech Report, Dept of Comput Sci, University of Minnesota, July 1995.
In summary, these quantities are recovered by using the equilibrium equation and the accelerationlevel constraint as an algebraic problem, just as (p, JLC) are obtained by using the modified momentum definition and the velocitylevel constraint. This process has been termed the 'embedded projection'. It is clear that, within the context of exact mathematics, JT//* = Pif* and XH* = /i,^*. However, when dealing with time discretization processes, the present procedure allows to compute {KH*,XH*) independently from (Pi/*»/^H*) This improves the consistency of the solution, and also allows the same accuracy for the algebraic variables (p, p, /t, (i) to be retained as for the independent variables (q, p*). In other words, the outcome of the methodology may be described as the retrieval of both the augmented state (p, q, /t) and its time derivative (p, q, /t) fully satisfying the constraints in the original and differentiated forms.
6. Concluding remarks In this work, we presented a general methodology for the consistent index reduction of the equations governing the dynamics of mechanical systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints. We showed how the governing equations may be split into uncoupled algebraic and differential parts. This process, which involves the definition of a modified, unconstrained momentum, leads to the formulation of an ODE which can be solved by any suitable standard numerical integrator, bypassing the need for specialized DAE solvers. The solution of a first algebraic subproblem allows to recover the original momentum, while a second one pro
78
Application of the LATIN method to the calculation of response surfaces
p.A. Boucard *
LMT Cachan, ENS Cachan, CNRS, University Paris 6, 94235 Cachan Cedex, France
Abstract The aim of the present work is to develop an apphcation of the LArge Time INcrement (LATIN) approach [6] to the calculation of response surfaces used for parametric analysis. The scheme followed was previously introduced to solve multiplesolution problems [2,3]. Here, applications concern elastic buckling and viscoelastic structures. Keywords: Nonincremental method; Multiple solutions; Response surface methodology; Parametric uncertainty
1. Introduction The solutions to deterministic problems are often calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). Incorporating system parametric uncertainties into the problem represents a challenge for structural engineers; yet, without this information, the structural response could not be analyzed accurately. These system parametric uncertainties include mechanical properties of the material (modulus and strength, etc.), geometric properties (crosssectional properties and dimensions), boundary conditions, magnitude and distribution of loads, etc. Assessing the stability or the calculation of the limit states of structures taking these parametric uncertainties into consideration is much more difficult than the general parametric field problem because highly nonlinear structural behavior must be considered. To obtain such responses of structures, the perturbation method [1,7] is one of the important approaches. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the stochastic finite element method, in which the system parametric uncertainties mentioned above can be included. The response surface methodology (RSM) was developed initially by Veneziano et al. [9]. The RSM is already a widely accepted procedure in structural reliability analysis [5]. Schueller et al. [8] used the RSM to model the actual limit state function of large structures subject to static *Tel.: +33 (1) 47402186; Fax: +33 (1) 47402185; Email: boucard@lmt.enscachen.fr © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
and dynamic loading. The calculation of response surfaces and, further, of the response of the structure along the whole loading path involves multiple solutions. Each set of data considered necessitates a separate, fullscale calculation. Consequently, a significant number of problems of the same type must be solved. The goal of the work presented here is to develop a strategy wellsuited to multiplesolution problems. Thus, the choice of an appropriate and efficient computational method is of vital importance. The LATIN method [6] is nonincremental in nature and, consequently, would appear to be a promising approach, considering that its inherent principles tend to be more applicable than most conventional incremental algorithms. The strategy proposed is based on the LATIN method and, more specifically, on its capacity to reuse the solution to a given problem in order to solve similar problems [2,3]. It allows total computing costs to be minimized with respect to the determination of response surfaces.
2. Review of the LATIN method The principles of this method can be found in [6]. The method uses quantities (displacement, strain, stress and internal variables) defined over the spacetime domain Q. X [0, r ] , where [0, T] is the time interval studied and Q is the domain occupied by the structure (assuming small displacements). It takes advantage of the remarkable properties of the equations. The procedure is iterative and
PA. Boucard /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
FC/FCQ ratio
79
0.95
0.85
""'m,
Cer/J^e
•'W'^'"'
Fig. 1. Response surface.
10 rrX^i^o') 10 Htttba»°^ t^e^et^^
Number of space runctioos
^^*^^le^e^^^°^ Fig. 2. Number of space functions generated.
creates at each iteration an approximation of the displacement, strain, stress and internal variables over the spacetime domain Q x [0, T]. Each iteration consists of two stages. For simplicity's sake, one can say that in the first stage the constitutive relations are integrated; therefore, this is a local stage with respect to the space variable. In the second stage, a global, linear problem on ^ x [0, T] is solved. The direct solution of the global linear problems with time as a parameter required at the global linear stage can
lead to considerable computing times. Mechanicsbased approximations of unknowns are introduced as a means of reducing these computing times. The separation of the functional dependencies both in time and in space yields satisfactory results for quasistatic loadings. Corrections are then sought by superimposing solutions of the radial loading type. Such solutions are recognized as good approximations of nonlinear, quasistatic problem solutions.
[4]. no new space function is generated and. In the bestcase scenario where the basis is sufficient. In this sense. Therefore. The results are presented on Fig. The multiplesolution method uses the fact that the LATIN algorithm can be initialized with any solution which verifies the admissibility conditions (usually an elastic solution). 1. thus. Fig. In this case. new space functions are generated in order to enhance the initial basis. 3. to reuse this special basis in order to find the solution to a problem similar to the one for which it was built in the first place. Boucard/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Number of draws 400 300 200 Amplitude of the perturbation Number of draws 700 600 500 400 0. Probability of collapse and distribution of perturbations. 3. given that this phase is the most costly stage of the algorithm. Otherwise. Additional details on the formulation used can be found in Boucard et al. If the solutions to the 'initial' and 'perturbed' problems are close enough.80 PA. a basis of space functions with a strong mechanical content is immediately available at the onset. Multiplesolution method The LATIN method leads to an approximation of the problem's solution in the form of a sum of products of both time and space functions. Example The example presented here is the buckling of a cantilever beam.5 Probability of collapse Position of the perturbation (element n°) 123456789101112131415 max/Fco ratio Fig. In this manner. the solution to the problem is obtained at low cost. The first example considers a straight beam builtin at one end and subject to a prescribed displacement at the other. 2 shows the number of space functions added at the initial basis level during the calculations (six groups of timespace functions). the idea here is to initialize the process associated with the similar problem (the 'perturbed' structure) using the results of the calculation carried out on the 'initial' structure. The idea is. the solution to the latter problem can still be derived at a significantly lower cost than using fullscale calculation. The influence of a particular perturbation on the value of the critical buckling load (Fc/Fco ratio) is examined. It can be observed that no more than one space function is added in the majority of . The structural perturbation introduced consists of variations of the Young's modulus in different elements (15 in all) ranging from —50% to +50%. the preliminary stage plays a vital role: it enables one both to verify that the basis of the space functions is wellsuited to the target problem and to search for new time functions leading to the solution of the 'perturbed' problem. therefore. the LATIN method builds an optimal basis for representing the solution. This number provides an indicator of the total computing cost. 4.5 0 0.
the basis of initial functions enables us to conduct many 'perturbed' calculations at a much lower cost than that of a fullscale calculation: in the cases presented here. 81 References [1] Benaroya H. Ladeveze P.41(5):201213. Rougee P. Therefore. Elements Finis stochastiques et Fiabilite Application en mecanique de la rupture. [2] Boucard PA. CA. Rehak M. pp. Faravelli L. [4] Boucard PA. Finite element methods in probabilistic structural analysis: a selective review. Bucher CG. [6] Ladeveze P. 1999. Responsesurface approach for reliabiUty analysis.64(l4):449508. Proceedings of the 2nd Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Specialistic Meeting on Probabilistic Methods in Seismic Risk Assessment for NPP. In this case. Springer. Mech Eng 1999. Rev Fr Gen Civil 1997. Ladeveze R Une application de la methode LATIN au calcul multiresolution de structures non lineaires.PA. Comput Struct 1997.50(5):317328. Fig. Pradlwarter HJ. 247251. an efficient tool to determine the failure probability of large structural systems. 2426 April 1991. Nonlinear Computational Structural Mechanics — New Approaches and NonIncremental Methods of Calculation. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. Ladeveze R A multiple solution method for nonlinear structural mechanics.1(2). [5] Faravelh L. Using these results.115(12). 1983. [3] Boucard R\. [7] Macias OF. Poss M. [9] Veneziano D. The position of the perturbation is randomized on all 15 elements. Appl Mech Rev 1998. A nonincremental approach for large displacement problems. [8] Schueller Gl. we assume a normal distribution for the Young's modulus perturbation. Noordwijk.8(8):903920. one can carry out a MonteCarlo simulation using the response surface to determine the probability of collapse of the beam. The response surface method. Lemaire M. Livermore. Boucard /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the cases processed. . ESA SP321. Casciati F. Method of seismic fragility for complicated systems. The Netherlands. Rev Eur Elem Finis 1999. the computing time necessary to obtain the solution on the 'perturbed' bar is between 10 and 20% of that of a fullscale calculation. 3 shows the results. Ten thousand draws were carried out to obtain the probability of collapse as a function of the ratio of the maximum loading force F^ax to the buckling force obtained on the initial beam Fco. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spacecraft Structures and Mechanical Testing. ASCE J Eng Mech 1989.
Coupling the incremental theory of plasticity with damage and a plastic instability criterion. France Abstract A macroscopic yield criterion for anisotropic porous sheet metals is first proposed to investigate failure of sheet metals under arbitrary strain paths. an extension of the Gurson's model for anisotropic sheetmetals is used where an analytical formulation for planestress has been found by Liao et al. the macroscopic effective stress q in Eq. and / * the effective void volume fraction. namely. As fracture in sheetmetals forming processes is mainly due to the development of ductile damage and to * Corresponding author. Plastichardening. Einstein. Bmnet*. Failure. All rights reserved. Tel.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.a ^ j j .v ay 1 (3) [Oxy . Based on Hill quadratic yield function. Bathe (Editor) M h 0 where the relative macroscopic stress tensor with respect to the center of the current yield surface is defined as: f Ox Olx \a a] = 1 ^. (1) is defined as [3]: q = {a aj'^lMUa g + /i h f\h 0 a] 0 0 2n (2b) (2a) 2. 69621. An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bendingunbending experiments on anisotropic sheetmetal strips. localized necking and final failure. For all possible planestress conditions. Fax: +33 472 43 85 28. which may cause microdefects including microvoids and microcracks. [1].A. including precipitates and inclusions. Finally.: +33 472 43 81 46. Necking 1. the anisotropic yield function is approximate as: C = ^+2^1/*cosh ( D (l+^3/n=0 r*2. The last three phases are commonly known as nonuniform deformation. The hardening behavior of the matrix material combines isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening. Email: brunet@insalyon. Introduction Plastic deformation in sheet metal consists of four distinct phases. The void coalescence failure mechanism by internal necking is also considered by using a modified Thomason's plastic limitload model. H. R Morestin.82 A unified failure approach for sheetmetals formability analysis M.S. Sheetmetal forming. Keywords: Damage. the new criterion can be used to predict not only the forming limit but also the fracture limit under proportional or nonproportional loading and then is suitable for sheetmetal forming simulation by finiteelement analysis. l + 2 r 3p 6(1+F)^ (1) where 7 is the mean normal anisotropy parameter of the matrix material. Villeurbanne. titanium alloys and Nibased superalloys. Walter Laboratoire de Mecanique des Solides LN. New sheetmetals such as aluminum alloys. 20 Avenue A. a plastic instability criterion coupled with damage is used here to predict failure in a sheetmetal forming analysis by finite element. Consider x. diffuse necking. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Plastic instability of these sheetmetals has been found to suffer material degradation which confirmed the need to properly characterize their forming limit using a theory of damage mechanics. z is the thickness direction. uniform deformation. represent the damage of anisotropic sheetmetals.y to be the 'rolling' and 'cross' directions in the plane of the sheet. present from experimental evidence neckingfailure behavior where the localized thinning is hardly visible. Yield criterion Most metallic materials contain different sizes and degrees of particles.
y = 4. ^ Rx. Fig.8 mm. [3]: [da] = C^{G a} y{a}dF (5) where C and y are additional material parameters to be calibrated.71 and Rgo = 0. 1 depicts the moment versus curvature for one loading and reverse loading. Constitutive parameters identification The initial anisotropy parameters (the rvalues) are first determined independently with our Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) [2] by mean of uniaxial tests and to obtain the test data for the kinematichardening parameters identification.4. stress triaxiality and initial void spacing. displacement curve in a tensile test.20 Curvature (mm"^) Fig. The evolution of the kinematic components of the model is defined as. that very substantial agreement of experimental and simulated data is obtained with the converged values: C = 740. It can be seen. and goo and b are material parameters that must be calibrated from cyclic test data. [4]: Rz + XRx t)l f ^n — (6) e 0^10 ^. moreover this effect is more pronounced at low stress triaxiality [4]. (1). the void coalescence starts to occur and the void volume fraction at this point is the critical value fc provided that the stress triaxiality is greater than 0. Fig. 2. 1. The damage model can take into account the three main phases of damage evolution: nucleation. 2 compares the theoretical stressstrain curves to the experimental data for the case of the uniaxial monotonic tensile tests. the anisotropic nature of rolled sheet is better account for in the coalescence micromechanism. growth and coalescence.04 OLOE I 0. the critical void volume fraction is not unique due to the fact that the void nucleation parameters are difficult to monitor in experiments and are usually arbitrarily chosen. Very good agreement for the stressstrain curves has been obtained due to the fact that the optimization is carried out both on the uniaxial monotonic curve and on the momentcurvature curve. where F and G are constants. (6) is satisfied. the void coalescence failure micromechanism by internal necking is considered by using a modified Thomason's plastic limitload model. = ao + Goo(le^^') (4) 83 where (TQ is the yield surface size at zero plastic strain. Rz are the radii of the ellipsoidal void and X denotes half the current length of the cell. The material is an aluminum alloy of strip thickness 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Eq. Once the equality Eq. However. Damage parameters identification 3.167. Fig. Brunei et al.33 (1/3) which is always the case just after necking.74. The modified Gurson's model is used to characterize the macroscopic behavior assuming that the void grows spherically and to calculate the void and matrix geometry changes using the current strain and void volume fraction. (3) and the size of the elastic range Oy is defined as a function of the equivalent plastic strain £^ : or. G = 111. 4.06 0. Theoretical versus experimental momentcurvature curves. An optimization procedure could be also performed to match the experimental and numerical finite element results as regards the loads vs. As an example. a bendingunbending apparatus has been built [3]. RQ = 0. A and M are exponents. Theoretical versus experimental stressstrain tensiletest curves. Go = 137 Mpa. /? represents the hydrostatic stress of the relative stress tensor of Eq. To overcome this shortcoming. . What is interesting in the plastic limitload criterion is that void coalescence is not only related to void volume fraction but also to voidmatrix geometry.6 and ^ = 13.56 for the mixed hardening model. E = 69000 Mpa. By mean of a void spacing ratio parameter.M.CB ^.
J Eng Mater Technol 1999. . Mech Mater 1997. Brunet et al. 6. Godereaux S. Conclusion In this work. [2] Brunet M. Tang SC. At the same level of deformation. Moresdn F. J Mater Proc Technol 1998. Moresdn F. 2000. (y\ (7) where an analytical form of the lefthand side has been formulated and implemented in our implicit and explicit FE codes suitable for sheet metal forming simulation. this fact leads to propose a unified instability criterion for localized necking and rupture. a unified failure approach has been presented based on the theory of damage mechanics including the nonlinear kinematic hardening of the matrix material and void coalescence by internal necking of the intervoid ligament. In: ASME MED12A Symp. The formulation follows our previous work [2]. developing of damage makes the strain state gradually drift to plane strain. Analytical and experimental studies of necking in sheet metal forming processes. 3) is determined by using the failure prediction methodology describe above. Pineau A.The deepdrawing of a square box has been conducted experimentally and numerically. Approximate criteria for anisotropic porous ductile sheet metals. IMECE 2000 Congress. [4] Benzerga AA. which requires a drift to the plane strain state and then an additional hardening. References [1] Liao KL. Pan J. MguilTouchal S. USA. In sheetmetals. FL. on Advances in Metal Forming. Coalescencecontrolled anisotropic ductile fracture.121: 221229. it is generally noted that the damage increment is the greatest at plane strain such that Asji = 0 when the localized necking occurs. [31 Brunet M. Neckingfailure criterion The strain ratio ^ = Aez/Asi has an evident influence on the internal damage of sheet metals. the material is the previous analysed aluminum alloy. Orlando.84 M. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. the unified neckingfailure criterion is formulated in terms of the principal stresses and their orientation with respect to the orthotropic axes leading to an intrinsic formulation including damage: q [dG\ dq dcFy ds Gy \_ dq day d'e ds\ dai dp' dp ds\ '. The failure of a critical point of the aluminum alloy in an FEM forming simulation (Fig. Nov 510. Nonlinear kinematic hardening identification for anisotropic sheetmetals with bendingunbending tests. Besson J. 26:213226.80/81:4046.
333 j ^ ^ 2. For the third condition. with the disturbed subgrade above the void forming a cone. Keywords: Underground explosion. 1. The vertex of the cone is the detonation point. and the material in the collapse path forms a stable dome. in metres.: +44 (191) 2227924.ac. once the void has been detected. it can be filled. that extended to the underside of the runway. is the mass of the explosive charge [7]. 2. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Bull* Department of Civil Engineering. When a camouflet is formed. Email: john. Half section of the camouflet showing zones 18.85 Underground explosions: their effect on runway fatigue life and how to mitigate their effects John W. Bathe (Editor) Fig.J.bull@ncl. Runway repair. repaired and the fatigue life of the runway determined. the walls of the void will collapse. *Tel. Camouflet location Experimental work shows that for no surface disturbance. Detonations at these and greater depths present considerable repair difficulties. The first condition will cause immediate loss of runway support.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The factors determining crater size and shape are W. Laboratory tests have shown that a saturated clay subgrade subjected to superimposed cyclic loads has an initial set . with the base of the cone being on the underside of the runway. in kg. UK Abstract The detonation of an explosive device underneath a runway causes an underground void (a camouflet) to be formed.78 W^^^^ m [7]. statistical reasoning and scahng laws [16]. 1. can be related to L/W^^^ where W. Fatigue life. zones 25 of Fig. X^ and the subgrade. The size of the void is linked to dimensional analysis. Fax: +44 (191) 2616059. the void is completely filled but the collapsed subgrade does not extend to the surface. Finite element 1. Any linear dimension L. All rights reserved. Introduction This present paper assumes a detonation has formed an underground void as shown in the half section of Fig. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Loss of subgrade support due to the second condition will take time to develop. Ac is the detonation depth (in metres) divided by W^^^ The resulting crater being a camouflet if Ac < 1. in time. Newcastle upon Tyne NEl 7RU. the detonation depth requires a minimum of L39 Q ^0. Around the void is a shell of highly compacted subgrade. Collapse is complete when one of three following conditions is satisfied: the height of the collapsed cone extends to the underside of the runway.388. This paper describes how such a void can be detected. 1.
The Young's modulus of the polystyrene void filler was 10 MPa. where A c is the aflowable number of ^ overruns. the interface between zones 4 and 5 and 6 and 7 was 3.183 m. The fatigue life of the runway is found from Ac = ^ 225. That is a 213kg explosive charge has created a camouflet in a previously homogenous. Where a reduction in fatigue 3 95 95 95 190 4 7 95 95 190 5 7 7 95 190 6 7 7 7 190 7 7 95 190 190 8 95 190 190 190 9 190 190 190 190 10 95 95 95 95 2 3 4 5 . the Young's modulus of the runway. Bull/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tlement of between 60 and 80% of the total permanent settlement and is attained within the first 10 cycles of the loading [8]. The loosened subgrade on the underside of the runway having a diameter of 16.000 MPa.601 m. 0. material set 1 of Table 1. Camouflet size and material requirements Bull and Woodford [16] describe the dimensions and material properties of the camouflet and the subgrade. Zone 7 was 95 MPa and zone 6. Fig. 950 MPa with the exception of material set 10 where zone 6 was 95 MPa. with the void having a horizontal diameter of 6. The introduction of a void changes the settlement conditions. isotropic 9.128 m. but zones 2. The Poisson's ratio for zones 1 and 8 was 0.246 m and a vertical diameter of 6. 3. This is followed by slower secondary settlement that continues for up to 20. Elastic analysis was used as it gives sufficiently accurate results [16]. equally spaced between the boundary and the centre of the upper surface of the runway. MR the modulus of rupture of the concrete and Gc the principal tensile stress induced by the load [16]. Table 1 gives the Young's modulus for the zones that are changed.01 mm. The detonation depth was 8. inclusive 0. with the radius of the interface between zones 2 and 3 being 6. Filled and empty camouflets Material set 10.112 m.776 m. Four thousand and eighty threedimensional isoparametric finite elements were used in the model of the camouflet with the polystyrene infill and 2940 for the camouflet without the infill. it is possible to obtain deflection and settlement measurements along the length of the undamaged runway to determine the runway's settlement stage. until equilibrium is reached. The effect of an aircraft was modelled by a single downward point load of 100 kN at a succession of 15 nodes.86 J. zones 1 and 8 did not change. The outer radius of the compacted zone. The radius of the interface between zones 3 and 4 was 5. 4. A s = ^ [[280 X CBR(%)]/crs]'^ [16]. 5 and 6 were introduced.1 and for zones 27. stresses and fatigue life for the undisturbed subgrade and runway. The axial length of the cylinder was 16. 5. showed that for all material sets.000[MR/ac]'^. The numerical model Following detonation. The Young's modulus of subgrade zones were calculated using £ = 10 CBR(%) MPa [16]. 1 shows the eight zones. For runways. In all cases.128 m.354 m. The second is where significant changes have been made in the subgrade.5% California Bearing Ratio (CBR) subgrade. provided the benchmark displacements. the CBR and the equation. The number of load repetitions A^s the subgrade can sustain is predicted using as the maximum downward vertical stress in the subgrade. The first is when the detonation is contained within the outer diameter of the compacted shell. 4.149 m. material sets 29 of Table 1. ouflet was modeled by setting the cyUnder radius to 14.2.W. the change in the corresponding displacements was no more than 0. zones 1 and 8 had a Young's modulus of 36.3. A number of subgrade strengths between two extremes are considered. for the polystyrene. The deflection results for the filled camouflet and for the unfilled camouflet. The finite element model The finite element model was idealized within a circular cylinder with its axis lying vertically in the ground.000 load cycles. Overrunning of the camouflet will show altered settlement readings enabling the repair team to identify the location and extent of the camouflet. 3. Deflection data and cone penetration test results allow the repair team to determine the type of camouflet to be repaired [16]. The notional infinite nature of the ground surrounding the camTable 1 Young's modulus (MPa) for the 10 material sets Zone number Material set 1 95 95 95 950 2 95 95 95 95 6.
04 I I 8. 2000. both the filled and the unfilled camouflet are recorded as having the same fatigue life. Computer simulation of explosion effects under concrete runways.5 I I NC 2 NC NC NC I 24. Woodford CH. Das BM.0 8 I NC 89. this is indicated by NC or I. 1999. although it does prevent the runway from collapsing completely. [2] [3] 7. Conclusions The major cause of the large surface deflections is the weakening of zone 2. Cox AD. Bull/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 2 Fatigue life of the filled and the unfilled camouflet Zone number 1 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 Material set 1 NC NC NC 87. 369376. In: Seventh International Conference on Civil and Structural Engineering Computing. 1998. B. Computational Civil and Structural Engineering. Mechanics of deep underground explosions.1%. Advances in Civil and Structural Engineering Computing and Practice. B. 265274. Woodford CH. Computer Techniques for Civil and Structural Engineering. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] References [1] Bull JW. The effect of camouflets on subgrade surface support. UK.69(6):695706. it should be excavated and refilled with the runway surface being cut back beyond the zone 18 interface.9 I I I life occurred. Topping BHV (Eds). Bull JW. the difference between the corresponding filled and unfilled void was no more than 1. pp.2 55.5 7 38. Bull JW. The remaining fatigue life is given as a percentage of the fatigue life of material set 10. Cyclic loadinduced settlement of foundations on clay. Woodford CH. 1997. All nine material sets have a reduced fatigue life in the subgrade.2 0. The prevention of runway collapse following an underground explosion. respectively.235300. Hopkins HO.2 I 54.0 0.1 I I I 8. 165174. Bull JW. The extent of the surface deflection indicates inversely the fatigue life remaining in the pavement. The filling of the camouflet has little effect on reducing the runway deflections or on increasing fatigue life.0 0.J. Comput Struct 1998. pp. Belgium. Thus. Edinburgh: CivilComp Press. Chadwick P. Mouchel Centenary Conference on Innovation in Civil and Structural Engineering. The effect on the fatigue life of an airfield runway when a large void beneath a runway is left unfilled or is filled.0 5 26. Where there was no change or an increase in the fatigue life. Bull JW. Once a camouflet has been identified.73:315325. Camouflets and their effect on runway support.6 6 31.9 I NC I I 79.8 1.W.5(4):279288.9 8. Edinburgh: CivilComp Press. Shin EC.8 I I NC 4 38. In: Fifth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology.7 72. Woodford CH. Woodford CH. 4th International Conference on Computational Structures Technology. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Sci. Woodford CH. 241246. Comput Struct 1999. Oxford. pp.7 I I NC 9 87 8.3 I I NC 3 NC NC NC 95. A. pp. 196364:256. In: Teeming MB. Leuven. Bull JW.4 1. Eng Failure Anal 1998.3 I 1. In: Topping BHV (Ed). as shown in Table 2. .5 I 1. The effect of the tensile stress in the subgrades on the fatigue life of an airfield runway.
The results are compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The resilientfriction base isolator (RFBI) system. the stick phases do not occur so that the equation of motion is given as X h l^cox f o/x 4.unime. As no closed form solution are available. Keywords: RFBI isolation system. A nonGaussian closure technique is required due to non normality of the response process. Introduction In recent years considerable attention has been focused on the use of base isolation systems to protect structures against earthquake effects. /x is the friction coefficient and Xg(t) is the ground acceleration assumed to be a Gaussian. Agata. Messina 98166. so that Xg{t) = W(t). Vill. Moreover. S. proposed by Mostaghel and Kelly [2]. Impollonia.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Dipartimento di Costruzioni e Tecnologie Avanzate. and they are reviewed by Kelly [1]. stationary white noise process. Cacciola. Under the assumption of high intensity base excitation. To this aim Eq. * Corresponding author. G. Generally it is assumed that the friction characteristics observe the Coulomb friction law. Several base isolation systems have been proposed and developed for various type of structures. All rights reserved. Bathe (Editor) In order to evaluate the stochastic response. (1) is converted into an equivalent firstorder system and the Ito's differential rule [5] is utilized so that . the statistical moments of the response have to be evaluated. The moment equation approach is applied and the probability density function of the nonGaussian response is evaluated adopting a Ctype GramCharlier expansion. Mathematical formulation The rigid structure on friction devices is mathematically represented by a SDOF with viscous and Coulomb damping [2]. g is the gravity acceleration.Stochastic seismic analysis of RFBI isolation system p. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. is considered herein. the structure shding on a RFBI system posses non linear behavior and equivalent linearization technique or stochastic averaging [3] can be resorted to determine the response with short computational time. Consequently. Tel. the use of the Ctype GramCharlier expansion is proposed for the evaluation of the response probability density function which requires the knowledge of the statistical moments obtained solving a set of linear equations. The isolator combines rubber bearing and friction element in parallel and belongs to friction type systems. The simple structural model considered refers to a rigid structure with a resilientfriction base isolator system under white noise excitation. oj is the natural frequency of the base isolator. Salita Sperone 31. in the numerical application the stationary response obtained with the proposed formulation will be compared with Monte Carlo simulation. Closure technique 1. an alternative method [4] evaluating the response by applying the moment differential equations approach is considered.J. The isolation system decouples the structure from the horizontal components of the ground motion by interposing a mechanism between the structure and the foundations. Italy Abstract The response of a structure isolated by a ResilientFriction Base Isolator (RFBI) subjected to a ground motion modeled as a stochastic process is studied. Email: nicola@ingegneria.: f39 (90) 6765618.Mg sgn(i) = —Xg(t) (1) where x is the displacement of the rigid structure relative to its foundation. Friction damping. Muscolino * University of Messina. ^ is the damping ratio. sgn() is the signum function. Fax: +39 (90) 395022. NonGaussian response. The simplest base isolators of this kind are pure friction base isolators. N. In the present paper. 2.
For these reason a Ctype G r a m Charlier expansion is adopted p(x.x] are related to the statistical moments of order equal or lower than (/ h j) [4]. if the variances a^ and a  are first obtained with enough accuracy. Stationary marginal probability density function of the displacement (a) and the velocity (b) by Ctype GramCharlier expansion (CGC) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). 6 tj"'i^A) yj[x. 00 +00 where q = ITCSQ is the strength of the white noise. +00 .R Cacciola et al.l^comEWk"^] + \m{m   co^mEW+'x"^^] sgn(i)] r]Q= 00 x^po(x)dx.=4._L = 4 A j + .. (2) gives a set of nonlinear differential equation where only statistical moments up to rth order appear. In what follows an evaluation of these averages is performed in approximate form. The latter equations are not closed.iigmEWi"^^ l)E[x^x^^]q (2) X'S = f x"^ sgn (x)po(x)dx. i—A.X'S+ E . x assumed as Gaussian ones PoM = 1 V27ro. po(x) are the probability density functions of jc. in particular the Atype GramCharlier expansion can lead to negative values around the tails.12 I 0. 1 exp (S?)' /x^' Poix) = (4) can be easily evaluated in closed form and the coefficients Cij[x. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 0. (5) into Eq. 1..04 i \ ^W^.x) = A/'exp Then. However. fj is the multidimensional Hermite polynomial vector and yj[x. 10 20 10 20 20 10 0 10 20 (a) (b) Fig.i] 'J ' (5) where A/" is a normalization constant. (2).x] (7) rl/i^'JCij[x. the averages with signum functions become E[x'x'"sgn(i)] = n'. the sought moment equations read where the coefficients +00 EWi"^] :: lEix^^x"^^^] . The approximate response probability density function resulting from Eq. Hj l^. by adopting a closure technique of the probability density function expressed by a Atype GramCharlier expansion and observing that all odd order moments vanish p(x. xj = {ly sgn(x) dJpoix) dxJ dx (6) dJpo(x) dxJ djc' (3) where r is the closure order and po(x).. for example by means of Monte Carlo Simulation. (3) posses some inconsistency. as the averages with the signum functions appear which have to be evaluated starting from the knowledge of all moments.12 p(x) 0. Substitution of Eq.6 'J ' r^\ = {iy I X +00 i&poix) dx' dx. in Eq. than the system become a linear one and the evaluation of statistical moments up to order r is straightforward. x] .„.08 1 ! </ 0 <fo \ O 0 O MCS CGC (N=4) 0.x) = po(x)po(x) &Po(x) iJi—A 6 /+.
[2] Mostaghel N. On a formula concerning stochastic differential. NagoyaMathJ 1951.116:18811901. Probability density function of MDOF structural systems under nonnormal deltacorrelated inputs.90 P. On the other hand. Design procedure for RFBI bearings. friction coefficient /x = 0. la). where the left side is set equal to zero. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. damping coefficient ^ = 0 .04. Ricciardi G. [5] Ito K.44 cm^/s\ The stationary marginal probability density functions of the displacement and the velocity have been evaluated through Eq. [4] Muscolino G. both of order 2^ [6]. J Struct Control 1997. Ricciardi G. The coefficient vector are linearly related to the coefficients appearing in the Atype expansion and can be evaluated by an efficient procedure [6]. The figure reveals that a low closure order (A^ = 4) produces satisfac[1] Kelly JM. is the yth coefficient vector linear function of the statistical moments of the response. Report UCB/EERC87/18. 168:121133. 1 along with those resulting from Monte Carlo simulation. 1996. Note that for the evaluation of the stationary characteristics the algebraic system arising from Eq. 1 . Numerical application An RFBI isolator system with the following parameters has been considered: natural period 7 = 4 s. Non Gaussian closure techniques for the analysis of RFBI isolation system. EarthquakeResistant Design with Rubber. . The ground acceleration is assumed to be a white noise with spectral density SQ = 55. Ahmadi G. Kelly JM. [6] Muscolino G. [3] Fan FG. References 3. (2).3:5565. a higher order closure is needed to approximate the stationary marginal probability density function of the velocity (Fig. (7) is utilized a closure of order r = 2A^ — 2 is needed. has to be solved. Note that if Eq. London: Springer. Cacciola et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tory accuracy for the displacement (Fig. J Eng Mech 1990. 1987. Pirrotta A.4(l):2346. Random response analysis of frictional base isolation system. lb) which is strongly nonGaussian. (7) and reported in Fig.
followed by perfectly plastic behaviour. Finite strain. Comments are also made on the type of large deformation analysis likely to produce the most accurate results for footing penetration and plate uplift problems. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a number of applications where a large deformation analysis is essential to capture some subtle but important aspect of soil behaviour.g. All rights reserved. [13].91 Geometric softening in geotechnical problems J. 1. Wang University of Sydney. NSW 2006.: +61 (2) 93512299. e.1. such as footings. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Fax: +6\ (2) 93513343. [1] and the remeshing technique proposed by Hu and Randolph [3] are described in the following sections. Australia Abstract An investigation is made of some of the circumstances under which softening of overall system response can occur in geotechnical boundary value problems. These curves indicate that at larger penetrations of the footing the mobilised penetration force is a function of the rigidity index of the soil {G/c). Homogeneous clay The normalised loadpenetration curves for this case. Anchor uplift 1. particularly in problems involving penetration of relatively rigid bodies.usyd. Department of Civil Engineering.J. and in situ test probes. Boundary value problems involving footing penetration and anchor uplift are discussed.carter@civil. Penetration of a strip footing The problem of penetration of a smooth rigid strip footing of width B into purely cohesive soil has been analysed for both a homogeneous and a twolayered soil deposit. the stiffer the elastic response the greater the force required to cause a given penetration of the footing. Undrained conditions have been simulated. A number of formulations for large deformation problems in geotechnical engineering have been published in the literature. Although methods have been proposed for the numerical solution of this type of problem. 2. Sydney. * Corresponding author. Bathe (Editor) . detailed assessments of their capabilities and limitations are also rare in the literature. 2. obtained using the remeshing technique of Hu and Randolph [3]. Detailed discussion of similarities and key differences between these methods are given by Chen and Mizuno [2] and Wang [4]. spudcan foundations. e x . even when no material softening is permitted. even after the behaviour becomes dominated by plastic yielding. softening of the overall system response is identified as a possibility in some circumstances. are presented in Fig. Tel. so that shearing occurs at constant volume. In all cases the material behaviour is characterised by an initial linear elastic response at small strains. In particular. Comments on the suitability of these published finite element formulations are also provided.P. Email: j. For these homogeneous soils. Keywords: Large deformations. Footing penetration. It is demonstrated that a finite deformation formulation is required in order to capture this phenomenon in finite element computations. Yield is determined by the Tresca criterion and an associated flow rule.Carter*.edu. the curves continue to rise monotonically until an ultimate value is reached. into much softer soil deposits. in order to demonstrate particular features that cannot be captured using conventional infinitesimal strain analysis. Example problems solved using an updated Lagrangian approach published by Carter et al. Introduction Large deformation analyses of boundary value problems are not common in geotechnical engineering despite the fact that finite deformations may be important. Generally.au © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Carter. Various cases corresponding to H/B = 1. 3. C. and C2/C1 = 0. 0. where y $ is the unit weight of the soil.8 0. Large deformation Cg/Cisl 2+2n 0. .. the curve given by the small deformation analysis reaches an ultimate value after a relatively small footing penetration. 2 / 3 and 1 (homogeneous soil) were investigated. or Gs/Bcg Fig. so that these results are strictly relevant in practice whenever yB <C c i . the relative advantage of the remeshing technique can be clearly seen.a i 100. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics MESH "(a)" 1950. 3. Normalised loaddisplacement curves for a weightless soil are shown in Fig.0 n5o. and a comparison is made between the results given by the small and large deformation analyses.1.0 20 Gs/Bc 30 (b) Fig. Typically. 0. ' ^C AFENA * Strip Footing on Layered Soil Fig.5.0 ^^X^^x^>'^^~>^t^X^ "'*">< \ \ V'^ :50. Finite element meshes for penetration of homogeneous clay by a strip footing.P.2(2+2K) 150 200 Gs/Bc. Large deformation analyses were also conducted using an updated Lagrangian (UL) approach [1]. Deformed mesh plots from each analysis are shown in Fig.D REMESH* Slnp tooting on the surlace of elasticMmple plastic soil 1200. i.8(2+2)t) 2/3 2^3{2+2K)\ " ^ 2/3 0.e.92 J. In the UL approach elements near the edge of the footing have become highly distorted at this footing displacement.2.2.X. (b) Mesh configuration using the updated Lagrangian method. 2. for cases where H/B = 1. and generally the loaddisplacement curve given by the large deformation analyses is quite different from that given by the small displacement analysis. For these particular analyses the effect of soil selfweight has been ignored. Normalised loadsettlement curves for a strip footing on layered clay (H/B = 1). corresponding to the solution for a footing deeply buried in a halfspace. 2. and ultimately unfavourable element configurations will affect the accuracy of the numerical results. By comparing these plots. 1. for a footing displacement equal to 40% of the footing width. for relatively narrow footings or strong soils.5(2+2rt) Q2 Meyerhof(1951) anaiyticai solution lor deep footing 0. Twolayered clay The bearing response of strip footings on a stronger clay layer of thickness H overlying a weaker clay deposit was also examined. 2. Normalised loadsettlement curves for a strip footing on homogeneous clay {H/B = 1). (a) Mesh configuration using the remeshing method. 1/3.
These theoretical limits for a deeply buried smooth footing are also indicated in Fig. Small and large deformation solutions for this important case are presented in Fig. It was assumed that separation will occur and a gap under the plate will form once the initial total overburden pressure is offset by the uplift load applied to the plate.e... For these cases.5). it appears that the loaddisplacement curve approaches an asymptotic value. Clearly this trend is to be expected. 4b reveals that bonding of the soil has a very significant influence on the mobilised uplift capacity. ci and C2. . and when ci/ci is greater than about 2/3.. For all cases shown in this figure perfect bonding was assumed between the underside of the rigid anchor plate and the underlying soil. It is clear from this figure that a softening response occurs for cases where the strength of the soil.. 2. the overall response is characterised by some brittleness (softening). 3. Loaddeflection curves for fully bonded anchors. Softening tends to become suppressed as the depth of burial and the selfweight effects increase. is relatively large compared to the overburden pressure at the plate level. i.X. where C2 is the strength of the lower layer. purely cohesive halfspace and pulled vertically upward has been investigated. This aspect of penetration behaviour has also been demonstrated previously in the numerical solutions obtained by Hu and Randolph [5] for spudcan footing penetration into inhomogeneous soil. H/B = 1. 5. which is a reasonable idealisation for 93 •Small deformation analysis " Large deformation analysis • Rowe & Booker (1979) elastic solution __ ^ 16 z i 1 / .2.^S^met^' ' '' •'••^*^*^^^^^^' ••• r.JUi. .e.. With further penetration of the footing into the clay. .. 4. Uplift of a rigid strip anchor The problem of a horizontal strip anchor embedded beneath the surface of a homogeneous. C2/C1 = 0. 4. From a practical perspective it is also of interest to examine the case where separation of the rigid anchor from the soil immediately beneath it is allowed to occur. . Fig. Indeed for the case where yHjc = 0. c. For these cases the ultimate values are reached only when the footing has penetrated into the bottom layer and the top layer has separated into two distinct parts. because with increasing penetration the surcharge effect of the soil to the sides of the footing becomes more significant.1. •r.. . where H is the depth of embedment and B is the width of the strip anchor." • 16 ^ 7H/c=0 Small deformation analysis Large deformation analysis Rowe & Boolter (1979) elastic solution (c) H/B=2 2 \ n 15 Gs/8c 20 Fig. i. Wang [4] has demonstrated that brittle behaviour of the footing tends to be suppressed as the selfweight effects become more significant. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics For cases where a stronger top layer overlies a much weaker bottom layer (e. and soils with significant selfweight are included in Fig. In addition. so that the ultimate value of the average bearing pressure should then be approximately (2 h 2n)c2. the loadpenetration curves given by the large deformation analysis rise to a peak. It is reasonable to expect that even footings exhibiting a brittle response should ultimately behave much like a deep strip footing buried in the lower clay layer. Solutions for both a weightless soil. at which point the average bearing pressure is generally lower than the ultimate bearing capacity predicted by the small deformation analysis. elastoplastic.5. at depths given by H/B = 0.. 4 indicates predictions of the loaddisplacement behaviour of anchors at relatively shallow depths of embedment.v» . C. . yH. as yB increases relative to the strengths of the clay layers. (2 + 7t)c.J. 3. the large deformation curves appear to rise monotonically to their asymptotic ultimate values. Carter.. the difference between the ultimate capacities in these two cases is approximately the same as the reverse bearing capacity of a strip footing on a purely cohesive half space. It is also interesting to note that for this geometry. .p. 1. Comparison of Fig.. no limit has been placed on the tensile capacity of the soil. cases of relatively shallow burial in relatively strong soils. Curves obtained from the large deformation analysis appear to approach these limiting values at deep penetrations. i.g. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " 2 TH/C=O sii^aji cjeformatlon analysis Large deformation analysis Rowe & Booker (1979) elastic solution (b) H/B=l to 10 8 6 1 4 1 GSi^c .e. even though the behaviour of both component materials is perfectly plastic and thus characterised by an absence of softening. 5 with Fig. 0. and 0.
More reliable solutions at large displacement were obtained using the remeshing technique. [2] Chen WF. 5. Mizuno E. Geotechnique 1951. Furthermore. In each case it was discovered that softening of the overall system response occurs under certain conditions. The ultimate bearing capacity of foundations. 4.^^ ^^•''>^f^r=m ' ^S^x""' ' •/H/c=6 1 YH/C=4 1 yH/c=2 Smalt deformation Large deformation Rowe & Booker(1979) elastic solution O X Breakaway (large deformation) Breakaway (smal! deformation) Acknowledgements The work described in this paper has been supported by grants from the Australian Research Council.2(4):301332. [61 Meyerhof GG. 10 / )——*—x^. C. Amsterdam: Elsevier.94 12 J.38(l):241246. Randolph MP.. Randolph MP. University of Sydney. 2000. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1979. PhD Thesis. Booker JR. [5] Hu Y. Theory and Implementation. . Carter. Fig. Deep penetration of shallow foundations on nonhomogeneous soil.. 1/^ "~7H7C^O 10 15 Gs/Bc 20 25 30 35 References [1] Carter JP.l(l):2543. Applications of Large Deformation Analysis in Soil Mechanics.3:187203. [7] Rowe RK. the small strain analysis could not capture this type of response. As for the footing problem. Nonlinear Analysis in Soil Mechanics. Booker JR. A practical numerical approach for large deformation problems in soil. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the softening behaviour could only be predicted using an appropriate large deformation analysis. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1977.X. For the footing and anchor problems it was also found that selfweight of the soil medium tends to suppress the tendency for a brittle system response. Loaddeflection curves for strip anchors with separation (H/B = 1). Finite deformation of an elastoplastic soil. ultimately unfavourable element configurations in the UL formulation will affect the accuracy of the numerical predictions. Davis EH. A method of analysis for horizontally embedded anchors in an elastic soil. [3] Hu Y.22:327350. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1998. [4] Wang e x . Soils Pound 1998. Conclusions Two boundary value problems have been examined using both small and large deformation analyses.. 1990.P.
2. Laminated composite plates.28)F3 (2a) (2b) (2c) F = l^^i + ^ y ) ~ ^^i ~ ^^J ^Ir.r) + Wjr + {f. China ^ Tsinghua University. Hybridenhanced procedure 1. a simple hybrid method is also presented to improve the stress solutions.i ^ . Furthermore. shear strain and inplane displacement fields in the domain of the element are then determined using the technique of improved interpolation. Thus. Fax: +86 (10) 62781824. 1): 8= where k = F2 = 6X 1 + 12A A (3) * Corresponding author.jr + 3(1 . Yuqiu Long ^.95 A new hybridenhanced displacementbased element for the analysis of laminated composite plates Song Cen ^. Lockingfree Timoshenko's beam element The formulas of deflection ic. The stress solutions are improved by a simple hybrid procedure. good results can be obtained for both displacements and stresses.i{l . Introduction In the past 40 years. Beijing 100084. All rights reserved. Timoshenko's beam theory.cn © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. a new similar method is proposed to construct bending element for analysis of laminated composite plates. as shown in Fig. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.1. especially for the transverse shear stresses. very excellent solutions for both displacements and stresses.: h86 (10) 62772913. denoted as CTMQ. Firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT). Department of Engineering Mechanics. 100084. Keywords: Finite element. One of the best approaches is the mixed interpolation method. rotation f and shear strain y for the Timoshenko's laminated composite beam element. quadrilateral 20 DOF (5 DOF per node) bending element based on the firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT) for analysis of arbitrary laminated composite plate is presented in this paper. Beijing. In this paper. {UY = [Ui Vi Wi \ll^i ifyi : U2 V2 W2 fx2 fy2 2. can be obtained. possesses advantages of both displacement element and hybrid element.F d . in which the displacement fields and the shear strain field are interpolated independently [1].J. Tel.r ) ( l .xlf.edu. This element is constructed by the following procedure: (i) the variation functions of the rotation and shear strain along each side of the element are determined using Timoshenko's beam theory. Department of Civil Engineering.r) + ir. and (ii) the rotation. Thus. The proposed element. = f. and no shear locking will happen even the thickness of plate approaches zero. China Abstract A simple displacementbased.28)rF2 Y =8T 2. the formulation of robust plate bending elements based on FSDT (ReissnerMindlin plate theory) has attracted the attention of many researchers.2 r ) . Formulation of the new quadrilateral element The nodal displacement vector for the quadrilateral 4node element is (as shown in Fig. Bathe (Editor) r(lr) F3 = r ( l .j)F2 . Zhenhan Yao ^* ' ^ Tsinghua University. Email: demyzh@tsinghua. are as follow: w = Wi(l ..
4. b2. 8): ^x = T^^ii^x.][uY (4) ^0 ^0] (5) i=\ bi Since the rotations of the midside nodes can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacement vector by using Eq. 3. (10) [A^?][xj[r*] [A^?][Fj[r] [A^?] = [ < A^o 0 {uY = [B.j. 2. Cen et al.3. (3). 4) are the bilinear shape functions. It can be proved that when the thickness r ^. (/ = 1. Finally. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Wx3 4< ^.C4 — ^4C3 2. Interpolation formulas for the rotation fields The rotation fields can be obtained using 8node isoparametric nodal shape functions A^.k=\.• ' • • • — r=— / bi = yjyk Ci=XkXj (i. 1. The Timoshenko laminated beam element. 2. — byC2 0 0 0 C4 bT.C2 b^cx (6) {V'} = [N]{u} (11) 0 b2 b2CT. 5/ are given by Eq. the rotation fields can be rewritten as follows: b\C4 [^. 2. H' ^x\ ¥x2 Fig. . r={) V2 til ^ . [Ys} = Z?4Ci biC4 b4Ci bxC4 blC2 — b2C\ b\C2 — b2C\ ^3 0 0 blC^ — b2.] b^ci — biC4 bi biC2 — bjci b\C2 — bjci b3 bjcj. (2).0.4) (8) 11 i ITT /=1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^3^3 ^4^4 0 0 25i 0 0 0 ci(5i 0 bi8i 0 0 ^454 1 ^6 t "^1 [r*] = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 253 254 0 0 0 0 0 254 C353 C454 0 C454 0 0 28i 2^2 0 ciSi C252 0 bi8x ^2^2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2^2 253 0 C282 C3(53 0 b2h b^h Fig. the stiffness matrix can be obtained by the standard procedure. respectively.2.C4 — b^CT. Interpolation formulas for the shear strain fields From Eq. . (3) are the bending and shear stiffness of the beam. Di and C/ in Eq.3. 5 ^.96 S. 2 . Interpolation formulas for inplane displacement fields of the midplane (7) The inplane displacement fields are expressed by the bilinear shape functions. (Ic) and some simple geometrical relations. 2. . Quadrilateral plate element. .2. the shear strain fields can be obtained as follows: 0 0 0 0 (9) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 where A^^ (/ = 1.0. No shear locking will happen. — bi.C2 ^ 2 ^ 3 — Z73C2 . 7.
^4) (18) as = \(xi . Numerical examples Several numerical examples are presented to evaluate the performance of the new element. . on DA: v=H?=^y^ LQADINe (doubly sinusoidal) . . 2. is free of shear locking and insensitive to mesh distortion..100. 3 and Table 1. 2. Cen et al. Gif^^S.yf = [PM]{aM} 0 0 0 0 0 0 (12) {M = [Pi ft ft ft ft] ri ^T] 0 0 0 0 0 I ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y] ^7] 0 0 0 0 I ^ (13) 0 0 0 T) ^T] Q^IQ ft (/ = 1. nv Fig.25 STl: 0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0 symmeMc BOUNDARY CQNDmONS (simplygupported: SS2) on AB: tt=w=\r/=0. .S. It possesses advantages of both displacement element and hybrid element: Relatively simple formulation. 3 . .10. r. {T] = [r. the shear field {T] can be obtained: 4. Note this procedure doesn't influence the element stiffness matrix. I ^ [PM] = 97 ai . oa EC: 1^^^^ on CD: v=%=0 . ^=250. Conclusions The presented element. One of them is showed in Fig. . ^ dM^y dx dy dM^y dx dMy dy (15) = [PrUaM] 5. 5) are 5 unknown parameters. The hybridenhanced procedure for element stresses The bending moment field {M} and the shear force field {J} are only required to satisfy C~^continuity between two elements based on FSDT [2].20. The membrane force field {A^} can be assumed as follows [3]: {A^} = [N. pi2=^. nx . Er'U Git^S. .X2 + ^3 + X4) h = \(yi yi + ys + yd (19) My M. 3. Then the stresses of the element can be obtained by using HellingerReissner variational principle and hybrid element method.1. Gw^l. Ny N^yf = [PNMPN (16) 1 [PN] = 0 1 0 0 0 1 air] a\^ 0 0 t^ (17) aibiY] a^b^^ STl GKOMHrRY 1=1000. From the equilibrium equation of a plate. high accuracy for both displacements and stresses.1 MATERIAL (orthotropic) Skins: Er^25.\(xi + X2 + ^3 . Square plates with 9 layers. it is only for improving stress solutions. . 12) are 12 unknown parameters.. . [M] can be assumed as follows: [M] = [M.r 9 M . Thus. can pass all the patch tests. {(XM) — [Ofi 0^2 0^3 0^4 Qf5 a^ OCl Qfg Otg Otn a^^ (14) at (/ = 1.0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. . CTMQ.
0214 10 IFO.487 ±0.20:16851695.021 1.249 0.438 ±0.526 ±0. .491 ±0.218 0.0214 TO.005 1.27:343359.246 0.259 0.0217 =F0. Batoz JL.455 ±0.0210 TO.529 1.283 4.256 0.259 0.437 ±0.519 ±0.228 0.210 0.005 1.218 0.190 0.219 ±0.454 ±0.249 0.547 ±0.226 0.219 0.0212 TO.21:367383.210 0.456 ±0.237 0.551 ±0.0209 TO.539 ±0.242 4. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1985.231 0.000 1.0212 =F0.461 ±0.245 0.250 0.540 ±0.512 1.258 0.0213 =F0. [2] Ayad R.0213 TO.0217 ixz (Q^JQ) 0.219 0.0213 100 100000 References [1] Bathe KJ.538 ±0.247 0.433 ±0.493 ±0.219 0.521 ±0.0215 =F0.519 ±0.231 0.230 0.526 1.539 ±0.431 ±0. Rational approach for assumed stress finite element.0210 TO.522 1.539 ±0.539 ±0.419 ±0.425 ±0. Cen et al.494 ±0.545 ±0.250 0.539 ±0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989.021 1.0213 =F0.0213 TO.252 4. Dhatt G.219 0.0233 TO.524 1.000 1.242 1.000 ^x (L L ±lL) V2 ' 2 ' ^ 2 / Oy (L L __2/i\ l 2 ' 2' ^ 5 > > "^xy (Q^Q^I) =F0.258 0. [3] Pian THH.021 1.538 ±0.254 0.436 ±0.257 0.238 0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998.249 0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1984.433 ±0.432 ±0.431 ±0.247 0.257 0.540 ±0.541 ±0.237 0.259 '^yz (f^Q^Q) 0.98 S.545 ±0.259 0.005 1.005 1. Batoz JL.539 ±0.433 ±0.432 ±0. Sumihara K.000 1.219 0.257 0.021 1. Dvorkin EN.431 ±0.447 ±0.0213 50 TO.492 ±0.020 1.431 IFO. A new hybridmixed variational approach for ReissnerMindlin plates: The Misp Model.245 0.477 ±0.42:11491179.263 0.213 0.489 ±0. Short communication: A fournode plate bending element based on Mindlin/Reissner plate theory and a mixed interpolation.219 0.0213 =F0.545 ±0.250 0. Composite plate analysis using a new discrete shear triangular finite element.207 0.0213 =F0.215 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Maximum deflection and stresses in 9ply laminate L/h 4 Mesh and model 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 DST 10 X 10^ FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 x 16 DST 10 X 10^ 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 DST 10 X 10^ 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 FSDT CPT w (iJQ) 4.210 0.0214 =F0.230 0.234 0.021 1.251 0.0212 TO.244 4.523 1.000 1.220 0.498 ±0.539 ±0.225 0.005 1.0214 :T0.538 ±0.0217 TO.522 ±0.487 ±0.243 0. [4] Lardeur P.434 ±0.431 ±0.432 ±0.246 0.0212 IFO.
USA ^ Auburn University. Displacements. and difficult to define mathematically. Bathe (Editor) The program SeaStar/CAP (PMB Engineering. Brown^ ^ Wilbur Smith Associates. The measured response was used to develop and calibrate nonlinear finite element models for a detailed analysis of the parameters that govern the lateral behavior of such systems.J.0 m. The fundamental soil properties used in the model were established using the static load data.com © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. 2.76 m square prestressed concrete piles. Finite element analysis. As part of the study. 1. D. A series of five dynamic lateral load pulses at increasing amplitude were then applied to each foundation using a . Keywords: Bridge foundations. The second group consisted of a pair of 2. The models were designed to account for the nonlinear behavior of the system under static and dynamic loads.A. were monitored and recorded for further analysis. static and dynamic load tests were carried out on two fullscale instrumented test foundations on the Pascagoula River at Pascagoula. PY Nonlinear dynamic analysis curves. 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. and bending and axial forces). not much data are available to assess the reliability of existing modeUng techniques. The results of this study have been summarized in this paper. P. Lateral load testing. Both foundations were instrumented with displacement transducers. accelerometers. The foundation on the east side consisted of six driven 0. four of which were driven on a 1:4 batter. Introduction and background Bridge foundations are subject to dynamic lateral loads in the form of earthquakes and ship impact. Columbia. and the parameters governing dynamic response were studied using the measured dynamic response (displacements.O. which usually involve the transfer of large amounts of energy to the foundation in short periods of time. Tel +1 (803) 7584643.Simulating static and dynamic lateral load testing of bridge foundations using nonlinear finite element models S. SC 292020092. along with appUed load.13 m diameter reinforced concrete drilled shafts. Mississippi. AL 36849 USA Abstract The response of bridge foundations to large amplitude lateral loads was the subject of a study conducted at Auburn University. 1). * Corresponding author. Each shaft had a permanent steel casing extending from the bottom of the shaft for a length of 11. Box 92. strains and accelerations. In addition to extensive insitu and laboratory testing to determine soil properties. Civil Engineering Department. Load test program The foundations along with the applied loads are shown in Fig. The testing was conducted to provide guidelines for the design of a new bridge over the river at Pascagoula. [2]) was used to develop finite element models of both groups. The tests were designed to induce significant nonlinearities in the structural elements (piles and shafts) and the soil in which they were embedded. Chakraborty ^'*. Auburn. All rights reserved. Soilstructure interaction. A static lateral load test was conducted by pushing the foundations apart with a hydraulic jack (*S in Fig. lateral static and dynamic load tests were carried out on two test foundations. and strain gauge pairs placed at selected elevations down the length of the piles and shafts. The response of the foundationsoil system under such conditions is usually highly nonlinear. which would replace an existing bridge. Since dynamic load testing on instrumented foundation groups can be extremely expensive. Email: sanjoy_chak@hotmail. This paper provides a brief description of a load test program carried out on the Pascagoula River in Mississippi [1].
with section and material properties simulating the rigidity and mass of the concrete block. The PY model for the soil reactions combined with a finite element formulation of the foundation structure provides an effective solution to the problem of laterally loaded deep foundations. Mississippi. The structural components (piles/shafts/cap) are usually modeled using linear or nonlinear beam elements. and outofplane displacements and rotations were eliminated in order to reduce problem 3. Lateral and axial soilsprings were attached at the pile nodes as shown in Fig. [5].4 MN. The pilecap was modeled using seven linear beam elements. 2.67 All dimensions in meters Not to scale 4. [8].219 m each in length. 4. PY curves can be used to model short term static. Each pile was represented by twenty six beam elements. The topmost element (where significant cracking was observed at the larger loads) was modeled as nonlinear. Most of the energy delivered to the foundation lies between 1 and 10 Hz. Details on the formulation of PY curves in different soil types may be found in Matlock [4]. 2.13m diameter drilled shafts Six 0. DA. A detailed analysis of the measured data is available in Chakraborty [3]. along with axial springs at the pile toes to simulate resistance in end bearing. Structural models The finite element model for each group was setup using a combination of linear and nonlinear beam elements. along with dashpots attached at the node points. Statnamic device (*P). and based on the results of load test programs conducted in the 1970's and the 1980's. along with appropriate soilsprings and dashpots. and Reese et al.13 s. which have been described in Dobry et al.25 to 0. The formulation of these curves are empirical. cyclic (including degradation effects). axial springs {TZ curves). amongst others.52 Two 2.applied statnamic load *S .100 S. and tip springs (QZ curves).44 1:4 Batter Fig. Pilesoil interaction: the PY approach The lateral load displacement relationship between the foundation and soil is usually defined using the so called PY curves. The Statnamic device is a loading mechanism that uses rapid bum fuel to generate gas pressure and accelerate a large mass away from the test foundation. Load test setup at Pascagoula. . and dynamic loading conditions. 1. and the test simulates extreme event loads such as seismic. with the ramp time (zero to peak load) decreasing from 0. P represents soil resistance per unit length of pile. The effects of soil (internal) damping are accounted for during hysteretic cycling through the curve.76m square prestressed concrete piles k 2. The loads were applied at the center of the pilecap in the plane depicted by the front view.57 N 1. expressed as a nonlinear function of its lateral deflection. transient wind loading. and its flexural rigidity was computed as a function of the applied moment (M vs. Matlock et al.3 MN to 7. and vessel impact. Brown / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics *P . 1. EI) at the prestress load using the program STIFF 1 [9].45 ^ I 1. Chakraborty. The data were recorded using a Megadac data acquisition system at a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz.applied static load PLAN 10. The peak dynamic loads recorded at Pascagoula ranged from 1. The model for the pile group is shown in Fig. while the effects of radiation damping are modeled through use of mechanical dashpots. [6. and the complex soil reactions are modeled using nonlinear lateral springs (PY curves).7]. thereby imparting an impulsive load to it. F.
a time step ranging from 0.006 to 0.015 s appeared to produce acceptable results.44 m thick . Summary and conclusions The program SeaStar incorporates a dynamic soilstructure interaction model.37 kPa (top) to 82. For the pile group. 6. and agree with the predicted axial load distribution for the piles in uplift and in compression.001 s from the first Statnamic load case to the last. Figs. 4. to the effective pile diameter (default/recommended = 0. 5.02 to 0. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 101 Lateral and Axial Soil Springs Front View Side View Total number of groups = 8 1 linear group representing the cap 1 nonlinear group . 3 and 4 are representative of the nature of the results obtained for the other load cases. decreasing from 0. The models were verified and calibrated by comparing the computed response to the measured static and dynamic response (load test data). Finite element model of pile group. 3. the soil profile was described using four layers (top to bottom): . Fig. The forcing function used as input for each dynamic load case was derived by resampling the corresponding measured load vector at 400 Hz.58 kPa.topmost element of each pile 6 linear groups . TZ and QZ curves. DA.57 m thick . 4a plots the measured and computed static lateral load displacement response of the pilecap. For both groups. varying hnearly. Fig.Shear Modulus of Soil (Gmod) . 2.Clay: undrained shear strength. 2. the following parameters (amongst others) were used to control soil response (PMB Engineering. a much smaller time step was required to get the solver to converge. .Clay: c = 41. It is believed however. 0 = 30°. and was able to simulate the nonlinear response of the test foundations to lateral loading through the use of P .0 m thick In addition to the fundamental properties (c. 28.Sand: angle of friction. The recommended value of the Maximum Displacement Factor. a large proportion of the compressive axial load in the piles and shafts was carried by the toe. The results of the static load test were used quite effectively to establish the fundamental soil strength parameters and verify the model. [2]): . . The measured axial forces were derived from the strain readings at each load level. Inc. Verification and analysis Based on the soiltest data.F . 0). as well as for the shaft group. Ai appeared to be too conservative 5. The profiles have been plotted at two levels of lateral load. The shaft group exhibited a significantly higher degree of nonlinearity than the pile group.18 m thick .Rate Effect Parameter (P) A scaling factor for the Pordinates (^ < I for creep effects. For the shaft group. 4b shows the measured and computed lateral displacement time history of the pilecap for the largest dynamic loading event (Statnamic load case 5).each pile from second to bottom element Top View Used to define the radiation damping coefficient under dynamic loading. A detailed discussion of the results has been presented in Chakraborty [3]. The response of the pile in end bearing appeared to have a significant influence on the lateral stiffness of the foundations.S. size. Fig. The following response parameters were used in the comparison: • lateral displacement/rotation of the cap • lateral/axial deformation profiles along selected piles/shafts • lateral/axial force profiles along selected piles/shafts The measured and computed static axial force profiles for the batter piles in tension and compression are shown in Fig. The absence of damping and inertial forces reduced the complexity of the problem and the number of parameters that needed to be established initially. Chakraborty.1).Sand: 0 = 38°.Maximum Displacement Factor (A i) Ratio of the displacement at which the maximum spring resistance is mobilized.74 kPa (bottom). c = 27. that the performance of the program can be improved through the incorporation of a nonlinear material model for reinforced concrete. ^ > 1 for dynamic loading).
Axial force distribution in batter piles. but did not affect the amplitude of the response.04 0.035 0. D. 1998.20: Offshore analysis and . East Pascagoula river bridge test program. SeaStar P3.01 0.I lOOOh Measured Computedl 0. I and II. References [1] Crapps DK. Brown DA.03 0. * Computed 30 h o Measured * Computed 0 200 400 600 800 1000 35 1000 800 600 400 200 Compressive Load (KN) Tensile Load (KN) Fig.02 0. The inclusion of cyclic degradation and gap formation in the soil model caused the free vibration time period to elongate significantly. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Batter Pile in Compression Batter Pile in Tension 10 E '' ^ 15 E 20 20 25 o Measured .06r Fig. of Transportation. Vol. and resulted in an underprediction of the lateral stiffness. Project report prepared for Mississippi Dept. [2] PMB Engineering.025 Displacement (m) 0.015 0.005 0. (a) Static lateral load displacement response — pile group. Chakraborty. 4.102 5.A. Inc. (b) Dynamic lateral displacement history — pile group. 3. 4000r 3000H S 2000 .
Analysis of laterally loaded piles in sand. Vicente MJ. Auburn University. II.S. Field tests of the lateral load behavior of pile groups in soft clay. 1994. Koop FD. Paper No. 2000. Texas. Bogard D. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics design software. . 1974. 2080. [5] Matlock H. 1204. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 1975. Houston. User's manual. Paper No. Cox WR. Vol. Roesset JM. Texas. In: Offshore Technology Conference.108(GT3). [3] Chakraborty S. 1980. Lateral loading of deep foundations in stiff clay. Inc. Austin. In: Offshore Technology Conference. Paper No. Texas. In: Offshore Technology Conference. Ingram WB. OTC 3871. Horizontal stiffness and damping of single piles. San Francisco. 1970. May. [4] Matlock H. 1. Dynamic lateral load testing of deep foundation groups. DA. [8] Dobry RE. Kelley AE. [9] Wang ST. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 1992. STIFFl: Computation of nonhnear stiffnesses and ultimate bending moment of reinforcedconcrete and pipe sections. California. Chakraborty. 103 [6] Reese LC. Vol. [7] Reese LC. 1987.101(GT7). Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay. Welch RC. Houston. Reese LC. For Ensoft. Doctoral Dissertation.
56. = {(u. The variational formulation of the coupled problem is given by: {Vt) : Find (w^. A shell coupled with a soft elastic material. BP 105. Bathe (Editor) Fig. Chapelle *. All rights reserved. 1). respectively. v\ ^^ v'j) e V^ (1) and H\a))\ co = Qs(^^i Let us introduce the following spaces: ^•a3=0. the model with free rotations being the limit problem of the model with coupled rotations. We also present some numerical results. ^\ v]) e V{Qs) xV. W&s.82. u\e\u\) e V such that tEsDiU^ e\ u^ ^0 + t^EsA{u\ 0\ v\ ^0 = F&s^ v\ ^^ v]). Asymptotic analysis.39. We have the choice of using or neglecting the rotations in the coupling conditions.39. Singularly perturbed problem 1.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Ferent INRIA Rocquencourt. Hence: ^ ' .=0].1. Email: Dominique. when the thickness goes to zero. One of the main issues involved pertains to the treatment of interfaces.J. Penalized problem.x with which satisfies (C. (C. ^) G H\OJ)^ X and where z represents the distance to the midsurface o) counted positively in ^ 5 and negatively in Q/.57. by Q' the shell domain and by co the middle surface of the shell (Fig.) and rj' • ^3 = 0 ) . We justify the use of one or the other strategy by an asymptotic analysis.1. Variational formulation of the coupled problem We denote by Q^^ and Q^j the elastic body domains. V(Q. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. V{Qi) = [v e H\Q. 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex.) on Q5 \ ^\ on Qf \ Q'j * Corresponding author. 1.63. V(Qs) = v\r^ = rj\r^ = 6 } . Keywords: Shell.)\v^^i^ {veH\Qs)\v\ri. Projet MACS. Fax: +33. We also introduce ^5 and Qi as the domains occupied by one of the elastic bodies together with the superior and the inferior part of the shell. 63. Tel: +33. France Abstract The purpose of this paper is to find a mathematical model for coupling a thin shell with a softer 3D elastic material. .58. =0]. v'.= (^s \ ^ s ) U ( Q / \ ^ ) V.Chapelle@inria.) V = {(u^. Linear elasticity.104 Asymptotic analysis of the coupled model shells3D solids D. A.
namely the case of an elUptic shell clamped along the whole boundary. v^j) which satisfies (Co) and rp a^. u\0\ u\) of (Vt) converges strongly with respect to the norm of H^(Qs)^ x H\cof X H\Qj)\ as t goes to zero. as in: Assumption 2 EQ = Est ^ E^oLsD The asymptotic behaviour of the shell is enced by whether or not this pure bending nonzero displacements. ^(vl v\ ri\ S?) G V ^ (2) Note that. Then (Vt) becomes a penalized problem and the constraint that we tend to impose is that membrane and shear energies vanish. we have V. ri)eVs\ D(v. This nature depends on the boundary conditions and the shell geometry. ')^^^. = {(0. defined so that the shear strains are in L^(co). Of course. (3) = F(vl v\ ri\ 5^). Inhibited pure bending Unlike in the previous case.1 Under Assumption 1. As an example. ^. D('. ^^ a3= 0. Finally. respectively. in the specific case of the clamped elliptic shell. a shell with inhibited pure bending has a membranedominated behaviour and the bending energy can be neglected if the shell thickness is small. With this definition. .iPj).1 VF G L^(Qs)^ X L^(co)^ X L^(Qi)^ there exists a unique (u's. we define V^ as its completion with respect to this norm. 3. V. this is also crucial. to (u^^lP J^. the coupling conditions (Co) can be understood as holding in L^(a)). In order to obtain a model with a real coupling. These conditions. The global space V that takes into account the 3D parts is the following space: V = {(vl v\ ri\ 5?) G V(Qs) X V. The contributions of the elastic bodies are given by the bilinear forms 5 ^ and B\ corresponding to a tridimensional linear elastic model defined on the volumes Q^^ and ^ . In this case. for the lem. Under this additional assumption the solution of (Vt) remains uniformly bounded. the solution of the following problem: (V^^"") EQA(U\ the corresponding norm on V^ As Vs is not a complete space for D('. the tridimensional elastic body must have an energy with the same order of magnitude as the shell membrane energy to obtain a coupled 3Dmembrane problem. Like in the asymptotic analysis of a shell alone. . u\ e\ u^j) G V ^ such that e \ v\ 7P) + Bs(u% C^) + fi/(w?. ^ 0 represents the contribution of the shell to the internal virtual work. V^ is less regular than Vs and the difficulty consists in establishing its exact nature. Theorem 2.. we need to assume that the dominant energies are of the same order of magnitude in the shell and in the elastic body. X V(Qi) : Find (ul. (1). Noninhibited pure bending A shell with noninhibited pure bending has a bendingdominated behaviour.HH^I) ' 1/2 = Est where L^D represents a characteristic dimension of the 3D body. This leads to the following assumption: Assumption 1 EQ Under this assumption.) + . where the perturbation corresponds to the shell bending energy. Then. strongly influspace contains coupled probthe two cases. ^) = 0}.v\ with (Co) ri^) = 0}. where yo = [(vl v\ ri\ v1) G V(Qs) X V. Chapelle. where IZs is the regularity space of the rotations.0)}. the space of pure bending displacements plays an important role. ^^. Ferent/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Eq.d\ u\) G V solution of Problem (Vt). D(v^. = H^(o)) X H^(co) X LHCO) X 7^. (Vt) becomes a singularly perturbed problem. the linear form F represents the virtual work of external forces.D.. however. can also be . X V(^i) 105 which satisfies (Co). as t goes to 0. =0}. A. It is defined by: Vpb = {{V. We then distinguish 2. namely the membrane and shear energies tend to 0 with t [3]. We then have the following result [4]: Proposition 1. we consider a situation where we can characterize the space V^. Since Vp. the solution (u^^. provided by the Naghdi linear shell model. tEsD{u\ 0\ v\ ^ 0 + t^EsA{u\ 0\ v'. u'. y^^ provides a norm on Vs and we can introduce aer ^ ^ HH^S) ' + D ( . We denote by t the shell thickness and by Es Young's modulus for the shell material.
We obtained the solutions for several values of t. Series in Applied Mathematics..(i?5. KJ. 2. [4] Chapelle. [6] Lions. if F e V. i/^) the solution of the following problem: (p^^D^ EoD{u\ : Find (M^. [2] Bemadou. Chapelle. the solution (w^. (4) 4. [3] Chapelle. to (M^. The convergence of the transverse displacements as / ^^ 0. using the asymptotic assumption t^E. Numerical results Finite element simulations were performed in the case of a beam coupled with 2D plane stress linear elasticity. D. References e\ v\ f) h Bsiu'^s^ u?) + 5. Introduction to Linear Shell Theory. D. in preparation. GauthierVillars and NorthHolland. as shown in Fig. indeed. A. 5^. ^^^ ^ goes to 0. Englewood Cliffs. In this respect. u\6\ u)) of (Vt) converges strongly with respect to the norm • v. 1998. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. [5] Ciarlet.66(l):1936. Comput Struct 1998. A. u«) [1] Bathe. we point out that we used a lockingfree finite element procedure for beam analysis [1]. 1996. Theorem 3. L3DE3 Note. We thus observe how neglecting the thickness in the kinematical constraints on interfaces can introduce significant errors with respect to the limit model unless the thickness is very small. Perturbations Singulieres dans les Problemes aux Limites et en Controle Optimal. JL.1 Under Assumption 2. used in the more general case where V. Ferent/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 20 40 60 number of elements 100 Fig. Bathe. Finite Element Procedures. John Wiley. Ferent. PG. M. We compared these solutions with the solution of the asymptotic problem (characterized in Theorem 2. NJ: Prentice Hall. Finite Element Methods for Thin Shell Problems. w^. 1973. 1996. U\ e\ w?) e V such that inated asymptotic behaviour. Springer. that a beam necessarily has a bendingdom . 2.1). KJ. we can show the following result [4]. is a distribution space.106 D. New York. In this general framework.
All rights reserved.L. V) + tD(Ut. Fax: +55 (11) 38185181. ve [H\Q. Brazil Abstract A ninenode mixedinterpolated shell element based on Naghdi's theory is presented and analyzed in the Hght of some fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shells. f55 (11) 38185246. The element is based on the Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Components (MITC) approach. The objective of this paper is to summarize the formulation of a ninenode mixed element constructed for Naghdi's shell theory and report upon some numerical ex* Corresponding author. Tel. has been made and there is a family of quadrilateral elements (MITC) [13] that has shown a good behavior both in membrane. Bathe (Editor) periments performed with this element. r) lists rota .r]). However. The linear model of Naghdi The basic assumptions of the Naghdi model are that the material line normal to the midsurface in the original configuration remains straight and also unstretched during deformation and that the stresses in the direction normal to the midsurface are zero. since it is formulated based on the same strain interpolation assumptions used for the MITC9 of the degenerated solid approach. v is the displacement vector of the shell midsurface. France ^ Laboratorio de Mecdnica Computacional. This approach is widely accepted as being the most attractive for engineering appUcations. One could mention that the interpolation of the geometry is inherent to the degenerated solid approach. Email: dlpik@usp. however. Departamento de Engennharia de Estruturas e Fundagdes. The MITC elements have been constructed from their displacementbased counterparts which are formulated using the degenerated solid approach. r]_ e [H\Q)f . the structural problem may be formulated in the form: Find Ut eU such that: (1) PA(Ut.107 Some experiments with the MITC9 element for Naghdi's shell model D. 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex. Also. the way these elements are constructed — the shell behavior is introduced together with the degeneration process (see [4]) — does not provide the best setting for a mathematical analysis with respect to locking. Oliveira*''*.3]. 05508900 Sao Paulo. Much progress. which is referred to as MITC9N element. Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo. Keywords: Locking. but the assumed covariant strain fields are applied only for the membrane and shear components. Naghdi's model 1. } n BC (2) is the space of admissible displacements. Chapelle^ D. the bending energy is combined with the membrane energy. We also assume that the material of the shell is elastic. as discussed in [2. homogeneous and isotropic. Introduction A topic that continues to challenge researchers is the development of lockingfree shell finite element. Using the Naghdi shell theory. BP 105.)f yy eU.br © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.and bendingdominated shell problems [5]. Bucalem'' ^ INRIARocquencourt. SP.J. V) = F(V) where U=[V = {v.L. Mixed interpolation of tensorial components elements. M. We follow the numerical evaluation strategy suggested in [6]. Mixed interpolation. The proposed element is used in the analysis of judiciously selected test problems to evaluate to what extent its behavior satisfies the ideal requirements for general shell analysis. Shell element. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 2.
where some wellposed test problems are also given. radial displacement Ml and the rotations of the normal ^i about the tangent vector and ^2 about the longitudinal axis as the displacement variables. where Er = r^ def fl(t/Q^f.e. the solution using the above approach is effective only when considering shell problems in which pure bending is inhibited. Chapelle et al. We take. We refer to the work of Bemadou [7] for the detailed expressions of A(.) + /)'(•.). • Full cylinder with clamped ends (a membranedominated case). •) = /)'"(•. Furthermore. The aim of such a selection of problems is to determine whether a finite element discretization is equally well applicable to both categories of shell behaviors (membrane. We consider here uniform NxN meshes. Z)(. 16 and 32. the material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic with Young's modulus E = 200x 10^ and Poisson's ratio v = 1/3. We use here two of such problems for the convergence studies: for the inhibited case. 3. with element sides aligned with the principal directions of curvature. = P\ = PI = 0 on the clamped ends. the scalings applied to the loading were chosen accordingly. •) and F(. the bending and membrane/shear strain energies. These problems were also analyzed in detail in [9]. a finite element solution obtained with a very refined mesh. Let us denote by f/J' the finite element solution. 8. The displacementbased finite element problem corresponding to Eq. V'') = F{V^) V y'' € UK (3) As proved in [6]. For the noninhibited case.•) are. these requirements mean that locking must not occur (in bendingdominated cases) and consistency must not be lost in all terms (in particular. Based on the results presented in [9]. (6) for the noninhibited case and Po = t Po (7) where D* is obtained by considering mixedinterpolated membrane and shear strain fields. where po = 2 x 10^ is a constant independent of t.and bendingdominated) and whether its convergence properties are independent of the shell thickness. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics • Full cylinder with free ends (a bendingdominated case). The sequence of proposed meshes is solved and we use E^ as the error measure. p((p) = Pocos(2(p) (5) tions of the sections (originally normal to the midsurface) and EC symbolically represents the essential boundary conditions imposed. Numerical experiments Since a mathematical analysis is at present out of reach. with h denoting a representative mesh size. a suitable numerical evaluation strategy is presented in [6]. We ^ use in ours tests A = 4. when a membranecase is analyzed). the formulation presented lead to the selection of the axial displacement Ml. We take L = R = I. i. circumferential displacement W2. ^ Since locking corresponds to a deterioration of convergence behavior as the shell thickness decreases. •). since the solution of the mathematical model is not available. The actual form of the membrane and shear strain fields and the details of D* can be found in [8]. the sequence of meshes is repeated for each problem considered for values of dimensionless thickness parameter t/R ranging from 1/10 to 1/1000. it is crucial to compare the results of the same discretization for different values of t. we consider a boundary layer width of 2^/t in which A layers of elements are also placed. 4. (1) is: Find r/J' G U^' such that: t^AiU^l V^) + rD(^f. we also impose the essential boundary conditions MI = U2 = UT. In other words. •) and D(. Finally. we must resort to judiciously selected numerical tests in order to assess the convergence behavior of shell elements.108 D. An effective approach to formulate reliable and quite efficient loworder shell elements is the use of mixed interpolation on strains and displacements. With due regard to these considerations. A mesh grading scheme must be considered to appropriately capture the effect of stress gradients in the boundary layer region. Hence. length 2L and radius R loaded by an axiallyconstant pressure distribution p{(p) acting on the outer surface of the shell. We consider a cylindrical shell of uniform thickness t. At any point on the cylinder's midsurface. respectively.. This mixed formulation can be written as the following discrete variational problem: Find U^l e W' such that: (4) where (p denotes the circumferential angle.t/°t/f) a{Ul f/?) (8) . The finite element formulation A conforming displacementbased approximation is obtained if we consider a space of admissible discrete displacements U^' c U. The bilinear forms A(. as the reference solution. where A^ is the ^ number of subdivisions per side in the angular direction of the discretized domain.
Convergence for the free cyhnder problem. 2.Q2 Element 109 t / R = 1 / 1 0 9— t / R = 1/100 +• t / R = 1/1000 E3ITHK) Fig. the number of elements per side N in the logarithmic scale. •) is a norm [6]. using the Q2 displacement^ based element for membranedominated cases or using the MITC9N element for bendingdominated cases.. • a lack of consistency of the mixed element solution. membrane. we recall that D(. we must have no shift of the error curves as the thickness t changes. (1) Considering noninhibited cases.. (3) All curves must approach the direction parallel to the dashed line. to render the error indicator Er independent of the thickness t. k should approach its optimal value 2. 1 shows the results obtained for both the Q2 and the MITC9N elements when t/R = 1/100. Let us consider first the inhibited case. corresponding to ^ = 2. In Figs. 3. 0. •) is a casedependent symmetric bilinear form defined below. and Fig. Fig.e. (10) The reference solutions U^ were calculated using the finest mesh (with A = 32). In addition.•)'^d' A(. "••Q 0. NONINHIBITED CASE: FREE CYLINDRICAL SHELL . (2) The curves obtained for the MITC9N element must be close to those of the Q2 element when inhibited cases are analyzed. •) = /)(•.„ Fig. if (3) is not verified. For membranedominated problems.V). We translate these requirements to the convergence methodology assessment considered here. considering that the loading is sufficiently smooth and the meshes were designed to reflect the exact solution [9].001 where J is a characteristic geometric dimension of the problem other than the shell thickness t.. The aim is to estimate the magnitude of the constant c and the order of convergence k defined in \Er\=ch' (11) and how these constants behave as we change the dimensionless thickness parameter t/R.) + Z)(. As expected. if (2) is not observed or • that a reasonable convergence behavior is not attained.e. Convergence for the clamped cylinder problem.D.^^^'""".: . any deviations from what is prescribed above will imply: • locking. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics INHIBITED CASE : CLAMPED CYLINDRICAL SHELL .Ml TC9N Element t/R =1/10 «— t/R =1/100 .Q .+ . 13 we plot the Er values vs.• h'Hk) • " • • • • • • .1 \. the little shift of MITC9N error curve (when compared to the corresponding Q2 curve) provides an evidence of the better performance of the displacementbased element in this ^(•. Chapelle et al.. Therefore we use ""•••.01 ^^^ ^^:^ "^f^^^©^ \ 'V.J t/R =1/1000 . Convergence for the free cyhnder problem. ). if (1) is violated. In the bendingdominated case. The error is then measured on an energy norm V \ = a(V.or bendingdominated). MITC9N element. an element should have both constants c and k independent of the shell thickness t regardless of the nature of the problem (i. . \ : U^ is the reference solution and «(•. i. Ideally. 1. Q2 element.. Hence.) (9) 0.t = 1/100 NONINHIBITED CASE: FREE CYLINDRICAL SHELL . we define a(.
References [1] Dvorkin EN.e. 2nd edn. we must not expect the same performance for the MITC9N element when either distorted or not graded meshes are used [8]. Again. [9] Malinen M.36:37293754. due to the consistency errors deriving from the use of the modified biUnear form /)*(. Bathe KJ. 1996. New York: John Wiley and Sons. [3] Bathe KJ. in particular. its performance is strongly affected by locking effects. Int J Num Methods Eng 2000. for each one of the three values considered for the relation t/R. We chose t/R = 100. however. 5. since the proposed element represents a connection between the easytouse general shell elements and a consistent 2D shell theory. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. The mathemafical shell model underlying general shell elements.no D. To appear. We note. consistency errors are kept in a reasonable magnitude for realistic small values of the ratio t/R. Higherorder MITC general shell elements. Finally. [4] Chapelle D.66:1936. An evaluation of the MITC shell elements. [7] Bemadou M. Comput Struct 1998. because this represents a rather realistic value in practical applications and neither the influence of other energy terms than membrane (as for r//? = 1/10) nor of roundoff errors (as a result of a very fine mesh refinement for the boundary layer region when t/R = 1/1000) may significantly affect the results obtained. On the reliability of MITC elements based on Naghdi's model. Chapelle et al. We recall that a better convergence behavior of the MITC9N element than that for the Q2 element should not be expected in this case. Bathe KJ. A Benchmark Study of ReducedStrain Shell Finite Elements: Quadratic Schemes.. we consider that a valuable step was taken towards providing a mathematically oriented guidance to obtain reliable and improved finite shell elements for general use. Bathe KJ. . On the other hand. Comput Struct 2000. Finite Element Procedures. In this case. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. Eng Comput 1984. as it becomes clear from the shift of the curves as t decreases. Chapelle D. 2 and 3 show the results obtained for the Q2 and the MITC9N elements. Pitkaranta J.).75:130. 1996. [2] Bucalem ML. In addition. the MITC9N element shows an excellent performance: the error indicator E^ is essentially of the same order regardless of the case being solved (although we may observe a slight deviation in the convergence behavior for t/R = 1/10). there is no surprise in the displacementbased element behavior. [8] Chapelle D. A confinuum mechanics based fournode shell element for general nonlinear analysis. respectively. Oliveira DL. We may also observe the deterioration of the order of convergence h accordingly. the distance between the error curves) becomes more and more clear as the ratio t/R decreases. To appear. Concluding remarks A ninenode mixedinterpolated finite shell element based on Naghdi's theory was formulated using the MITC approach. Finite Element Methods for Thin Shell Problems. [5] Bathe KJ. Bucalem ML. [6] Chapelle D. Bathe KJ.1:7788. Let us consider now the noninhibited case. that both elements present an excellent convergence behavior: the convergence is very close to the asymptotic rate ~ /z^. The numerical tests suggest that a relatively lockingfree behavior in the analysis of bendingdominated problems is achieved when the remarks concerning mesh properties are observed. Even though these results are very encouraging. A similar behavior is obtained for the other values of t/R and of course the superiority of the displacementbased element (i. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The evaluation of this element has shown that we may expect an efficient and sufficiendy reliable performance in shell analysis. NJ: Prenfice Hall. losilevich A. Englewood Cliffs.48(2):289313. as expected. Figs. case.
In the finite element method. The relative velocity of contact points is given by (tt • tj)^H\ It is noted that the lefthand side of Eq. Chen*. (1) becomes Ptk{i+\)t (^i^i^ = Ptk(i)t(i+i) Pt_k{im+i) •''«'^sn. f (1) + s (tk r^Oo'+DC^o'+i) . Email: xchen@sml. the increment of the convected coordinate appears as the result of incremental decomposition. Finite sliding. School of Frontier Sciences. a difficulty arises in dealing with finite sliding that occurs over the element boundary where local coordinates are discontinuous. the incremental form of Eq. Frictional contact problem. (2). an attempt is made for frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces by introducing convected coordinates and redefining the sliding term as a spatial vector in the reference configuration to deal with finite sliding.k. Diarthrodial joints generally undergo considerable motion and finite sliding between contact surfaces during cyclical loading. However. In this method.t ( o ) • AX 1 ^k t{i+\)\\ (2) * Corresponding author. (1) and the first term on the righthand side are in the form of the Oldroyd rate of a vector.J. Hisada The University of Tokyo.utokyo.T. Ateshian and Wang [1] indicated that the interstitial fluid pressurized articular cartilage supports most of the load and thus significantly reduces the friction coefficient of the articular surface. Formulation for frictional contact problems with finite sliding In the formulation of Laursen and Simo [2].jp © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Keywords: Finite element method. Considering Eq. In this work. Japan Abstract Finite sliding between articular surfaces occurs during the motion of loaded diarthrodial joint. it is clear that the friction equation satisfies the objectivity requirement. Taking into account the friction effect is considered to be necessary for revealing the factors causing and advancing osteoarthritis. 2. Using the backward Euler integration for incremental analysis. Laursen and Simo [2] developed a finite element method based on the convected coordinate system for analyzing frictional contact problems. Additionally. Tel/Fax: F81 (3) 58416321. In this work. s is the penalty parameter for the stick state. Thus. Bathe (Editor) where subscripts (/) and (/ + 1) indicate the incremental steps. [3] proposed a procedure to overcome this difficulty by redefining the sliding term as a spatial vector in the reference configuration. the increment of a convected coordinate cannot be com . we attempt to apply the procedure of Chen et al. Articular surface 1. the second term on the righthand side includes a scalar and a product of the friction force vector with its norm. Thus. Chen et al. respectively. the protection due to interstitial fluid pressurization may become less effective in degenerative cartilage. [3] to the frictional contact in articular surfaces.ac.Ill Frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces X. the friction force is derived as Par = £ (ti where ptt denotes the covariant component of the friction force vector p ^ and tt and t' indicate covariant and contravariant base vectors at the contact point with convected coordinate §'. Tokyo 1138656. All rights reserved. the contact surface is divided into elements and the local coordinate of every element is used practically as a convected coordinate. Introduction Force transmission by contact between articular surfaces plays an important role in mechanically initiated osteoarthritis. based on the convected coordinates. To preserve the objectivity of the friction law.
30mm is the relative displacement increment mapped to the reference configuration and can be calculated as AV ^ X' .+o(?^.(.^.^j^?^^. Chen. because of movement due to deformation. Let ^y(/+i) be the covariant base vector at the contact point x\^^^ in the current configuration (increment / + 1). where (5) E = 5GPa. 2. (2) results Pr/:(/+l)^(. To overcome this difficulty. Numerical example Although the mechanical property of articular cartilage exhibits viscoelasticity and the friction coefficient between articular surfaces depends generally on load./?rA:(/)^(/+i) + e (^^•^. r. Defining incremental relative displacement as Ar^(^. The distribution of contact stress is computed for a twodimensional simplified finite element model shown in Fig.^^^ gives Ar . puted if the contact point slides over the boundary of the element.r. whereas x\^ is the position vector. a numerical example is carried out focusing on the treatment of frictional contact problems with finite sliding. Now a mapping of the contact point to the reference configuration.(^. respectively. and °f JC+D and °ff. as shown in Fig. 1.^...^. Hisada /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Current configuration Reference configuration Fig. Because this movement affects the tangent stiffness due to friction. at increment / + 1 . (3) and (5) with Eq.^„ (6) t. Motion of contact surface.^^.+1) . time and relative velocity.)rf.o+i))(^4+i^ • ^'r)t{^^y. 1. A hexahedral type of element with eight nodes is 66mm where x[^^^^ is the position vector of the contact point at increment / + 1. is considered.112 X.j in the reference configuration. the following approach is proposed. 3. However.x\^ (7) Finally.§^. Use of the dyadic expression of the deformation gradient based on ^yo+i) and ^t\. the use of Eqs.j the covariant and contravariant base vectors.. Ar can be approximated using ^^<i+l)~<iy (4) The mapped contact point can be obtained from its element local coordinate in the current configuration and the node coordinate before deformation.3 50mm A°r^(t. + l) . T.).)%.^ (3) and referring to the discretized contact surfaces shown in Fig.. 2. (4) directly. it is not convenient to use Eq. of the material point where the contact point has been located at increment /. Finite element model.)(/+i)('4+i)A'r)AX (8) Fig. v = 0. 1. .. x\^ is unknown at increment / + 1. at the mapped point X[.
The distributions of contact stress with different values of friction coefficient fi are shown in Fig. Hisada/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 30 113 OH '^ Vi 25 20 S ju= 0. time and relative velocity. Conclusions A finite element approach that enables the analysis of frictional contact problems with finite sliding was introduced in an attempt to perform frictional contact analysis . used and the degree of freedom in the direction leading out of the plane is constrained to simulate plane strain condition. The applicability of the proposed procedure was investigated by using a simplified twodimensional model. Deformation of two contact bodies. Hisada T. High contact stress occurs near the center of the contact area and is clearly affected by the friction coefficient. Chen. the large amount of sliding of the contact node over the element boundary is successfully simulated. A 1999. Nakamura K.28(11): 13411355. Finite shding of the contact node over the boundary of the element is treated by redefining the relative movement in the reference configuration. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. T.36:34513485.05 I 10 u 5 0 Coordinate X (mm) • U = 20 mm Fig. 3 shows the deformation of two bodies. By defining the relative movement of the contact points as a spatial vector in the reference configuration. to reveal the relevance between the friction phenomenon and the cause of mechanically initiated osteoarthritis. JSME Int J Ser. [2] Laursen TA.42(2):201208. \ F = 400N Fig. J Biomech 1995. 3. 4.X. Finite element analysis for large deformation frictional contact problems with finite shding. References [1] Ateshian GA. Simo JC. A continuumbased finite element formulation for the implicit solution of multibody. [3] Chen X. 4. large deformation frictional contact problems. of articular surfaces. Distributions of contact stress. Mori M. In further threedimensional analysis. A theoretical solution for the frictionless rolling contact of cylindrical biphasic articular cartilage layers. Wang H. 4. Fig. Threedimensional analyses for real diarthrodial joints are currently under way. it is necessary to consider viscoelastic behavior of the articular cartilage and the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load.
Bathe (Editor) tally [16] and analytically [712]. Haug^ ^ HongIk University. are known to be closely related to the damages of soft tissues located between the adjacent vertebrae that experience extraordinary movements in relation to each other.). Tel. Fax: +82 (2) 3260368. mainly caused by its inertia. is quite limited and many studies have been carried out. could cause vascular injury on the connecting vessels and also may induce a negative pressure in subarachnoidal space. In this paper. S. In practice. Recently. Email: hychoi@wow. Lee^ I. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. South Korea ^ Hankook ESI. numerical simulations.H. Finite element model 1.: +82 (2) 3201699. The HModel consists of articulated rigid skins with flexible joints (HARB). Lee^ E. which result in axonal injuries. both experimen* Corresponding author. The one with the distinguishing feature of the headneck model in this study would be the precise modeling of the fluidsolid interactions. The model is constructed based on the precise anatomical geometry and currently under validation process.H.kr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Some of the simulation results are also chosen to present major features of the model. pelvis. for example. etc. Mechanical Engineering Department. Rungis Cedex. Seoul. especially using the finite element method. South Korea ^ ESI Software. neck.g.Y. The incompressible behavior of CSF in the head.ac. and detailed local models for important internal body components (e. Keywords: Human headneck. These kinds of movements often cause serious injuries of the headneck complex even without direct contact with foreign objects. France Abstract A finite element human headneck model is under development for the car occupant safety simulation. which has a closed volume. Quite many numbers of finite element human head and neck models have been developed for this purpose and the evolution of computational models has been remarkable thanks to the advance of computational powers and the FE codes. The understanding of the basic injury mechanisms of the human headneck complex. the HModel is an assembly of the HARB model and the local modules that are selected depending upon the purpose of the investigation of the moment. Relative movement of brain inside the skull. All rights reserved. . The Mumaghan equation of state for a solid element has been employed to model the CSF layers in the head and dura sec of the cervical spinal foramen. The finite element model of the human headneck complex to be introduced in this paper is one of the submodules for the HModel family [12]. structural and physiologic explanations of the human headneck complex will be introduced as well as the modeling methodology. have been utilized to investigate the hypothetical theories based on experiments and clinical findings.114 Finite element modeling of human headneck complex for crashworthiness simulation H. Choi^'*.hongik. ankle.J. The causes of whiplash injury. Seoul. The structural role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occupying the subarachnoidal space in the brain is a cushioning and buffering role between the skull and the brain as well as for transmitting forces. however. head. Introduction A finite element model of the human headneck complex has been developed in order to study the basic injury mechanisms due to the dynamics loading such as a car crash. These local modules can be selectively added to the HARB model when needed. thorax. Soft tissues such as ligaments and muscles in the human cervical spine are easily injured when their connected bony parts undergo excessive motions in relation to each other. The human headneck complex is well exposed to the abrupt translational and rotational movement compared to the rest of the body parts during a crash accident.
Onedimensional Hill type bar elements recently became available in PamCrash^^ [13] and were used to simulate neck muscle forces. 4 shows the FE model of the headneck complex. MR and CT images of (a) hypointense lesion inside corpus callosum (hemorrhagic type of DAI) and (b) hypointense left frontal lesion (non hemorrhagic type of DAI). Material properties assigned to bony components (Table 1). Fig.Y. Case studies: selected simulation results 4. Since the neck was excluded in this simulation. apphed in order to simulate this cavitational phenomenon. a freeboundary condition was applied to the headneck joint. [1] was used to vaUdate the head model for the case of Hnear acceleration loading. Active muscle forces according to the various activation times and level. 2. restrict neck motions and therefore have an important function in the injuries. These new attempts in the head model produce more realistic results than the previous head models do. Cervical vertebrae subluxation and burst fracture. 3).1. . Multiply segmented twentythree neck muscles are included in the model. thus. 115 ation with interconnecting ligamental rupture and vertebral burst fractures are typical injury patterns in the neck due to dynamic loading on the human neck (Fig. Fig. FE modeling of the human headneck complex Data from Visible human projects and View point datalab^^ are used to construct the geometry of the finite element model (Fig. brain damage. (c) frontal extradural haematoma. 3.H. Sublux 4. [10] Fig. This constraint is justified by the findings of Willinger et al. (e) parietal contusion with midline shift. 2. Most of the skull fractures result from direct impact of a foreign object on the head. 1. is caused by secondary impact within the cranial space and/or relative motions between skull and brain. (d) acute subdural haematoma shift. The ideal gas equation is.^" ! 1^ Fig. 1 shows typical MR and CT images of brain injuries. 2). Frontal pendulum impact on the head The experimental study using the cadavers performed by Nahum et al. Choi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics also induces a 'cavitation' when the brain has sufficient relative motions inside the skull. Brain injury is often classified into diffuse and focal injuries according to their causes and symptoms. on the other hand. [9] and Ruan et al. Injury of the human headneck complex due to dynamic loading Major head injuries are skull fractures and brain damages. brain matter and soft tissues in the model are acquired from the Uterature [512]. .
Y. B = Bulk modulus (kPa). p = mass density (kg/m^). The pressure gradients changed smoothly from the frontal to the posterior regions and a higher negative pressure.116 H. We could observe the relative motion between the brain and the dura. Finite element headneck model (left: skeleton with neck muscles. Process of building thefiniteelement model of the human head. respectively.27 1X 1.27 X 10^ 1.Poisson's ratio. head acceleration (CG).22 0.15 X 10* 3.499 0. = . v .499 E = Young's modulus (kPa). 3. Fig. 5b shows the movement of head components and the pressure contour of the brain surface. was the area opposite the impact site.22 0. which representing Fig. High positive peak pressures appeared beneath the impact site in the frontal region and the greatest negative pressures were generated at the posterior fossa which. who showed that the neck does not influence the kinematic head response during the pulse duration. and epidural pressures.96 X 10^ 1. posterior cavity.02 X 10^ 7.15 X IC* 3.15 X 10* 1. Choi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ I \ * /t ^ni Fig. due to the inclination of the skull. The head model predicted a maximum pressure of 250 kPa in the frontal region and a minimum pressure of —40 kPa in the contrecoup region. Model responses were compared with the measured cadaver test data in terms of impact force.96 1. 5a).45 0.15 X 10* 1 X 10^ 1 X 10^ 3.3 X 10^ 7. The overall trends of pressure histories from the calculation and test correlate quite well considering the possible geometric discrepancies between model and specific cadaver specimen.3 X 10^ 7.499 0. and flow of the CSF layer.3 X 10^ 3. The coupcontrecoup pressures were considerably asymmetric. about 45° to the Frankfort plane in the midsagittal plane (Fig.22 0.45 0. 4.45 Gray matter White matter Ventricle Cerebellum and brain stem 7. The impact was delivered by a pendulum along the axis inclined at Table 1 Material properties of the Hmodel Component Skull Outer table Inner table Diploe E 7. The mass and initial velocity of the pendulum were 6 kg and 5.39 X 10^ Facial bone Mandible Dura mater Venous sinus CSF Falx Pia Tentorium Brain 0.3 X 10^ B G V P 3000 3000 1410 2700 2700 1133 1000 1000 1133 1133 1133 1040 1040 1000 1040 2.9 m/s.27 X 10^ X 10^ 10^ X 10^ 7. right: quarter sectional view of head).27 X 10^ 0.22 0.45 0.22 0.
constructed finite element model(s) could simulate the deformational behavior of the human body similar to the real event.5 ms Frankfort plane (a) t = 5.WfZi^ 0. 6 shows the extension of the headneck model due to the rear impact.^^ • 1 _ _ 6. By applying the precise anatomic structures and material properties of each body component. which is a typical condition for the real accident.2fe00S 3.2. 5.34703 in SOLID ^201837 «asc 0.75e00S •IF ^'"^^ STftTE 3.0 ms Stress_press(«*e <GPa> B. Conclusion The objective of the finite element human model including the headneck model presented in this paper for car occupant safety simulation is to understand the basic injury mechanism and quantitatively assess the injury levels due to the dynamic loading.0203417 in SOLID 21200067 (b) Fig. Choi et al. Lowvelocity rear impact on the headneck complex Fig.0 ms t = 2.50004 « Z _ ^ ^ „ M 0:000125 0. (a) Impact condition. In order to utilize these FE models and simulation results to predict .Y.000189 a. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 111 Impact pendulum t = 0.000258 t = 7.5 ms mn 0. 5.H. occurred at the occipital and posterior areas. 4. and (b) coup and contrecoup pressure distribution on the brain due to the frontal pendulum impact. a probability of cavitation.50004 STftTE 3. Horizontal linear acceleration with maximum 5 g for 100 ms was applied at the thoracic level. Responses of head and each cervical vertebra were verified with cadaver and live human volunteer test results and showed a good correlation.
/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics . Extension of headneck due to the lowspeed rear impact. .^MM«ii^ J ^ ^  i STATEe:60i)(M)7 1 STATE6:e0j0007 •'^ 1 dw^mm^m mmm^^^^^tmet wmmmm wmm^^e^^^t ^^^mumm ^ « I I M I N . ^ l i f p ^ fW^%timmi^ IHJim^y^ll^ JIM)4<mC^MRg 1 1 1 i STATE 18:180.VV : n«M!^:lMw»^ 11K«N$yi18ll J i^<M^ii^^.118 H.^ . Choi et al.001 STATE 18:180. Y. j ~^^^^H 1 STATE1:G STATE1:0 .001 Fig. 6.
In: Proceedings of the 41st Stapp Car Conference. Threedimensional human finiteelement model validation against two experimental impacts. Biomechanics of impact traumatic brain injury. 1997. 1994. King AL Finite element modeUng of direct head impact. Eppinger RH. version 2000. 1999. Diaw B. pp. pp. Wismans J. 149164. 119 References [1] Nahum M. Sances A Jr. pp. PamSafe. [3] Donnelly R. Finiteelement models of the human head. Relationship between Localized Spine Deformation and Cervical Vertebral Motions for Low Speed Rear Impacts Using Human Volunteers. [4] Koshiro Ono et al. ESI Software. [2] Bandak FA. Advanced Finite Element Modeling of the Human Body for Occupant Safety. Choi et al. 1993.27:403410. Human Subject Kinematics and Electromyographic Activity During Low Speed Rear Impacts. In: Proceedings of the NATOASI on Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems. . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the detailed injury levels. [8] Claessens M. Kumaresan S. [13] PamCrash. SAE 962432. 6981. 1977. 375381. Shear properties of human brain tissue. Smith R. SAE 973346. J Biomech Eng 1997. In: Proceedings of the 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference. a further validation procedure is needed. [12] HyungYun Choi. [10] Ruan JS. Sauren F. Walcher JB. pp. Pintar FA. 315328. Med Biol Eng Comput 1996. pp. Intracranial pressure dynamics during head impact. Ann Biomed Eng 1999. [6] Szabo TJ. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Khahl TB.H. IRCOBI Conference. 1996. [11] Voo L. The Influence of Muscle Activity on HeadNeck Response During Impact. Spain. [5] Van der Horst MJ et al. InHyeok Lee. 339366. 1999. pp. A threedimensional finite element analysis of the human brain under combined rotational and translational accelerations. Proceedings of 5th HanPam. HModel for the next Millennium. Modeling of the human head under impact conditions: a parametric study.119:423432. Ward CC. In: Proceedings of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference. [9] Willinger R. [7] Bandak FA. Eberhard Haug. 213253. Kang HS. Yoganandan N. Medige J.Y. Theory Notes Manuals.
Comparisons with the affordable tests. A material point in a blank may experience 13 cycles (tensioncompressiontension) during the forming processes. which allows the bounding yield surface to grow at different rates for loading and reverse loading. Columbus.10]. Email: chun. Cyclic bending. most cyclic plasticity models are designed so that the reverse flow stress always converges to the initial loading curve. Therefore the material model in the simulation of sheet metal forming should represent the proper behavior under multiple bendingunbending cycles. • reduced elastic limit at reversal staining. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. such as high strength steel and aluminum alloys.31@osu. USA. Tel/Fax: +1 (614) 2923566.K. Permanent softening. However. Springback 1. These models cannot represent permanent softening which occurs in certain materials. USA Abstract It is essential to model the Bauschinger effect correctly under cyclic bending for simulation of the sheet metal forming process and springback prediction. OH 43220. Columbus. Lee Department of Mechanical Engineering. including the Chaboche model [35. It is generally believed that three basic requirements for the material model to incorporate the Bauschinger effects in sheet metal forming are: • correct nonlinearity of stressstrain loop. 5038 Reed Rd.120 A constitutive model associated with permanent softening under multiple bendunbending cycles in sheet metal forming and springback analysis B.2. bendingunbending on the die shoulder and rebendingunbending at the punch can be expected during a typical deep drawing process. J.. tensioncompression test and drawbead test. By allowing the bounding surface evolve differently during the reversal straining in the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule. are designed so that the reverse flow stress always converges to the monotonic tensile stress curve. Nonlinear kinematic hardening. [1. In this way. offset of reversal flow * Corresponding author.J. Bathe (Editor) curves have been reported in various references (see.8]. The Ohio State University. OH 43210. [17] with different approaches. for example. An anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening model (ANK model) has been proposed to represent the Bauschinger effect including permanent softening [9. Sheet metal forming. which will influence springback.edu ^ Present address: Scientific Forming Technology Company. Anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening rule is proposed to represent the Bauschinger effect including permanent softening under multiple bendingunbending cycles. Jinn \ J. permanent softening can be expressed consistently over multiple bending cycles. Most material models for cyclic plasticity. All rights reserved. It has been also observed that the Bauschinger curves (or reversal stressstrain curve) asymptotically approach or run parallel to the initial loading curve. • permanent softening for some materials. Chun *. The same issue has been investigated by Geng and Wagoner [12] and Wagoner et al. the nonlinear evolution rule for the total back stress can be represented consistently during the whole deformation as in .17]). For example. Keywords: Bauschinger effect. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. A reduction of yield stress due to reversal staining is known as the Bauschinger effect. For some high strength steels and aluminum alloys.T.K. Introduction Cyclic behavior of metal sheet plays a very important role in the sheet metal forming processes. Therefore these models cannot represent permanent softening. show that this model can predict cyclic bending behavior of sheet metal more accurately.
Simulation of tensioncompression test To evaluate the effects of material models on the stress calculation of a tensioncompression test with AL6022T4 and EGDQ. Strain history is input and the corresponding stress and backstress are output.K. the model reduces to an isotropic hardening model. n are material parameters. Eqs. Nonlinear kinematic hardening model A material model for cyclic plasticity in simulation of sheet metal forming has been developed by Chaboche and colleagues [38. term determines the rate at which the saturation value of kinematic hardening decreases with increasing plastic deformation. (1). When Q and Yi are zero. Eq. has different evolution of yield surface size compared with Chaboche model. (2) and (5). The material parameters associated with the material models are shown in Table 1. and (3). (2).18]. The expansion of yield surface size is governed as below: ••Go + R (7) where oii and a 2 evolve differently during initial loading and subsequent reversal loading. Numerical examples 3. Anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening model By superposing several backstress vectors which evolve individually. Aa = f{sPrs^ ) (6) a = J2^. This evolution rule can be modified to utilize the uniaxial tensile data directly through a simple curve fit with the following equation: G=Go^K{lQ'''') (4) If tension data is introduced. a = Oil + oi2 where Ct and yt represent material parameters that can be obtained from a cyclic test.15]. The combined case. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the Chaboche model.Yiats (2) where s^ is a current equivalent plastic strain and s^* is a prestrain at initial loading. Hence the parameters to be determined are Ct and yt after the tensile data fit. (1). k. 2. Details can be seen in references [9. This feature always produces correct nonlinearity of the stressstrain loop at reversal straining. Nk 121 (5c) R= KNc'^''s' ai = CiS • YiOiiS 2. where K and N represent material parameters obtained by curve fitting the tensile data and overhead bar is used to signify scalar quantities for the uniaxial tension data. the identification of the proper material model is another issue on the application in FEA of sheet metal forming processes.a)s . From the observation of experimental results [1. (1) Each component of back stress is assumed to evolve independently as. Thus this modification is referred to as Modified Chaboche model. The back stress vector is assumed to be a sum of Nk vector components. The lack of compression information is a common problem with flat metal sheets because compressive loads are difficult to apply in the sheet plane [19]. where Go represents the initial yield stress. This model has been recently implemented into most commercial finite element packages. Qi. (3c) can be modified. Material models for sheet metal forming with multiple bending 2.10. Eqs.2. di = —(a . Therefore. bt. it is assumed that the amount of permanent softening can be expressed as the following.a)s yx{ax)s^ (8) (3a) (3b) Ri)^' (3c) for initial loading (9) for reversal loading Oil = \ G^ 0 R=J:R^ Ri = bi(Qi ~ where Ci. including the evolution of kinematic hardening as follows: G"" =Go^R (5a) R= K(lQ ^)E^^ (5b) .1922].1. G^ •ays' — (a . y\ and C2 are material parameters.1.2. 3. one element is tested. PamStamp and LSDYNA 3D. (6) can be extracted from the evolution equation by introducing the anisotropic kinematic hardening term. The y.B. then Eq. such as ABAQUS.
8 mm.6mm gap. Modified Chaboche and ANK models are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard through UMAT and compared with conventional isotropic hardening model. One element is used for half of width with plane strain assumption.12 0. Even the Modified Chaboche model cannot predict 0 0. drawing the blank with fixed gap.K. 3. Comparison of Bauschinger curves for AL6022T4.08 Equivalent plastic strain 0. The final deformed shapes after springback are highly dependent on the material models as shown in Fig. Total analysis is composed of four steps.29 1. Die shapes and dimension are shown in Fig.138. 1 and 2. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Associated material parameters Material AL6022T4 Material models Modified Chaboche ANK Tensile data by OSU Modified Chaboche ANK Tensile data by OSU C (Mpa) Ci C2 R values RO 74.63 C^o (MPa) 171 171 175 175 E (GPa) 68 68 180 180 3500 3000 N/A 10600 8000 N/A 200 150 EGDQ reduced yield stress at reversal loading.04 0. For more accurate calculation of internal stress. Considering the three features of Bauschinger effects as described before. 1 ^ 0.2 200 N/A 300 310 N/A 0. These two lines are marked as points in Fig. Isotropic hardening model requires higher forces both clamping and drawing with fixed 1. The same test is employed to observe the effects of the material models on springback prediction in this study.6 mm fixed gap condition.44 1. 2. ^ 2 S (D 200 2 1 ^ H i K \ 1 1 l 0 . 4. but the reversal flow curves always converged to initial loading.16 Fig.73 0.29 R90 0.122 B. The blank was drawn to a maximum of 165 mm in the rolling direction with 1. The corresponding clamping force and drawing force are compared with measured ones by Jiang [14] in Table 2. Normal anisotropic yield criterion is used for all materials models of EGDQ. Modified Chaboche model showed the .73 R45 0. 400 O 1 ! 1 . [14] used this test for the predictability of springback. Both Modified Chaboche and ANK models always produce a smooth transient stressstrain relation at the beginning of reverse loading. pseudo step for remove dies. Along the length direction.16 Fig. 3. While ANK model showed the permanent softening as well as the reduced reversal yield stress. and springback. 1 Measured compression data [1 ] ANK i tension curve . 25 integration points through thickness are used for a fournode shell element (S4R). The generated stresses of Modified Chaboche and ANK models are obtained and compared with the measured tensioncompress data by Balakrishnan [1] in Figs.08 Equivalent plastic strain 0. Two reference lines separated by a distance of 102 mm are used for the calculation of radius as described in [14].63 0. Friction coefficient between the specimen and dies are assigned as 0.2. Drawbead test A drawbead simulator has been popularly used for evaluating the drawing forces during sheet metal forming process. 1.44 0. move die for bead formation with displacement control. The specimen thickness is 0.04 —1 1 1 0. Comparison of Bauschinger curves for EGDQ. Recently Jiang et al.12 0. Two material models. 100 elements are used for smooth change of contact history. which makes a larger curvature. 4.
Pressure Vessel Technol 1983. Ms.2(2):149. [3] Chaboche JL. [5] Chaboche JL. 4. 4.604 123 Measured [14] 300 2. 3.048 5. DangVan K.480 ^ Approximate radius between two reference points in Fig. It is shown that the ANK model can present permanent softening correctly. References Fig. Allen for providing tensile data and proofreading the manuscript. Bull Acad Polonaaise Sci Sevie Sc Techn 1977. Acknowledgements Isotropic hardening d Chaboche The authors would like to express sincere gratitude to the following: SPP committee for financial support. Modified Chaboche model and ANK model. On the plastic and viscoplastic constitutive equations. From comparison.294 2. the fundamental multiple bending behaviors are compared.. Paris.25(1):33.114 2. [7] Chaboche JL. are proposed.736 Modified Chaboche model 150 3. Therefore. 1999. Berlin. The generated forces of these models can be overestimated due to no permanent softening during multiple bending actions. To incorporate the Bauschinger effects of metal sheet under multiple bending.B. error between ANK model predictions and measured ones still exist.1 ^R=6. models. Assumptions for plane strain condition through width direction and normal anisotropic yield function may be possible sources of error. 1981. Modelization of the strain memory effect on the cyclic hardening of 316 stainless steel. RousseUer G. Mr.602 4. Division L. Wagoner and Mr.K. ActaMetall 1986. the accurate considering of the Bauschinger effects through the material model is essential for better springback prediction in the sheet metal forming processes.105:153164. the measured curvature properly. [6] Chaboche JL. Time independent constitutive theories for cycUc plasticity. Int J Plast 1986. The Ohio State University. springback prediction of the proposed model is evaluated by using a drawbead test. Ohio supercomputer Center for providing generous computing services. Balakrishnan for providing the experimental data of the tensioncompression test. RousseUer G. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 2 Comparison of modified Chaboche model and ANK model for drawbead test: EGDQ Isotropic hardening Radius ^ (mm) Clamping force (kN) Drawing force (kN) 70 5. J. Comparison of deformed shapes after springback: EGDQ. [4] Chaboche JL.34(6): 10971105. [2] Bate PS. Master thesis. Professor R. Concluding remarks The effect of material models on springback prediction is discussed in this paper. [1] Balakrishnan V. Die shape and dimension for drawbead forming and springback. Based on comparisons with tensioncompression tests. Wilson DV. On the Plastic and Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations Based on the internal variables concept. Analysis of the Bauschinger effect. Jiang for drawbead test results. 4. SMIRT5. SMIRT6 Post Conf. the ANK model is very effective in calculating cyclic bending behavior. TP ONERA no.H. while the Modified Chaboche model does not.5 Specimen Unitimm Fig. Finally. Measurement of inplane Bauschinger Effect in metal sheets. Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations for the Description of Cyclic and Anisotropic Behavior of Metals. However. Only the ANK model can give us closer values compared to measured values. 1979. two material . C l a m p i n g Force t A 99 D r a w i n g Force 1 ^^ Die T Gap 1 Jf4 1 R=65 \ 162 . Cordier G. 811.256 ANK model 250 2.
Material properties for accurate simulation of springback. 1990. ASME Trans J Eng Mat Technol. Proceedings of Plasticity. Wagoner RH. 2000. Balakrishnan V.34(6): 10971105.5:247302. [11] Crisfield MA. [8] Chaboche JL. Int J Plast. 10. Springback analysis with a modified nonlinear hardening model. Modeling the Bauschinger Effect for sheet metals. in press. Ph. Role of hardening law in springback. Lee JK. SAE2000010410. Lee JK.124 B. Analysis of the Bauschinger effect. [10] Chun BK. 1997. Commun Num Methods Eng. 2000. Modeling the Bauschinger Effect for sheet metals. Geng L. 161241.7:199217. Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Acta Metall 1983. 2000. Inverse estimation of material properties for sheet metals. Lee JK. ASME. part H: Applications.2000. [12] Geng L. Backlash model for large deformation behavior of aluminum under torsional cyclic loading. On simulation of bending/reverse bending of sheet metals. 1999.K. Kim HY. Int J Plastic 1991. [15] Lemaitre J. to appear. [21] Zhao K. [14] Jiang S. [19] Zhao K. Ph. Int J Plast. pp. Constitutive equations for cyclic plasticty and cyclic viscoplasticity. . The Ohio State University. [13] Geng L. Lee JK. Chun et al. submitted. SAE 2000011112. Liu SD. Lee JK. Int J Plast 1989. 2. [9] Chun BK.D dissertation. Shiono I. to appear. Mechanics of Solid Materials. [20] Zhao K. Cambridge University Press. [18] Wilson DV. pp. Cyclic stressstrain curve and springback simulation. Garnett M. part I: Theory. John Wiley and Sons. NonLinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. 929933. 1999. The Ohio State University. [22] Zhao K. [17] Wagoner RH. Springback of sheet metal subjected to multiple bendingunbending cycles. Chaboche JL. Vol. MEDVol.D dissertation. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [16] Takahashi H. Jinn JT. Bate PS. Application of plastic anisotropy and nonisotropic hardening to springback prediction.
All rights reserved.125 Nonlinear wave propagation in softening media through use of the scaled boundary finite element method Roger S. some comments are given on the value of monitoring the evolution in the determinant of the acoustic tensor. Fax: ^44 (114) 2225700. 2. nonsymmetric. The use of an elementbyelement. This paper briefly describes the method in Section 2. The work presented here forms part of a larger study into ratedependent regularisation techniques which are designed to recover objectivity in fracture simulations using an equivalent continuum (smeared crack) approach. The additional degrees of freedom lead to high CPUtimes. Section 3 identifies the form of the hardeningsoftening elastoplasticity model adopted and subsequently reports on a Mode I localisation study. The scaled boundary finite element method The Scaled Boundary Finite Element (SBFE) Method is constructed from an assumption of geometric similarity in the unbounded medium [2]. Jens FernandezVega Department of Civil and Structural Engineering.uk © 2001 PubHshed by Elsevier Science Ltd. presenting the FE dynamic equilibrium equation. Keywords: Strainsoftening. the need to cope with arbitrarily oriented stress waves arriving at an interaction horizon is recognised.crouch@sheffield. The method converges to the solution in the Finite Element sense in the . generalised elastoplasticity constitutive model for concrete. The requirement for accurate yet efficient representations of an elastic domain extending to infinity in wave propagation studies is discussed. Generalised elastoplasticity model for concrete 1. Dynamic farfield. Elementbyelement iterative solver. Sheffield SI 3JD. when simulating the splitHopkinson bar experiments) is that of extending the mesh sufficiently far away from the region of interest to prevent stress wave reflections corrupting the results. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Such a measure expresses the state of the material during softening and may be used to drive automatic remeshing strategies. UK Abstract This paper reports on the use of a novel Finite Elementbased substructure method to model the dynamic farfield in Mode I localisation analyses. Email: r. Tel. Use of local transmitting boundary methods can introduce errors when the wave strikes the boundary nonorthogonally. One difficulty in modelling dynamic fracture propagation (for example. * Corresponding author. Crouch*.: F44 (114) 2225716. Todate most localisation investigations (which are designed to explore the sensitivity of the solutions to the FE mesh density and mesh orientation) have been based on the use of simplified constitutive models.ac. Introduction Considerable interest currently exists in identifying robust. While findings from these preliminary studies are valuable. A scaling centre is identified and the unit response impulse matrices obtained by forming a relationship between two nested regions. After briefly describing the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method. Bathe (Editor) Recently. there is a strong need to undertake further analyses using more advanced constitutive models which are able to account for the brittleductile transition under increasing confinement. Wave propagation. efficient equivalent continuum methods of simulating fracture in concrete structures. After presenting these FE results. iterative solver is discussed and an example given of strain localisation using an advanced. a highly innovative global (that is.J. In particular. the paper shows how this attractive scheme may be incorporated into a nonlinear implicit dynamic FE code. spatially and temporally coupled) technique has emerged which mimics the response of unbounded domains in a rigorous manner. University of Sheffield.
[K] and [M] are the familiar system matrices [7] and {/im} and {/ext} are the internal and external forces. Considerable care has been taken to provide a robust. Two scaling centres are used in this novel analysis (each placed 10^ m away from the SBFEFE interfaces. Dynamic localisation analysis A prism comprising sixteen 20noded isoparametric elements is used to represent a 0. A ramped tensile load (in the form of a uniformly distributed pressure) is applied at the upper SBFEFE interface (Fig.] + (1 . In the work reported here. An advanced. The multiaxial hardening and softening surface is de s^' . see [6]). diagonally preconditioned. This solver routine can treat nonsymmetric systems (which arise through a lack of normality in the plastic flow rule). The technique (similar to the Boundary Integral Method) reduces the number of dimensions by one on the structureunbounded domain interface but operates with fullypopulated symmetric substructure matrices [ModThe dynamic forces at the structureunbounded medium interface (representing the presence of the farfield) are discretised as {V*} =  1 i^(AO :[M] PAt I'd) 'M^ 'Ad' + ^[M]+^[>M.Moc]{!k. (a) 16element mesh with 8 SBFE interface elements. biconjugate gradient algorithm is used [8]. la). FernandezVega/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tangential direction and is exact in the radial direction (satisfying the radiation condition at infinity). Crouch.S. Here an inviscid simulation is given. (b) Equivalent extended mesh. Full details of how these are constructed is given by [2]. 3. Note that the use of simple transmitting boundaries (local in space and time [1]) rather than the SBFE approach would have resulted in runtime savings. pressuredependent hardening and fractureenergycontrolled softening [3]. but errors would be introduced as the stress waves do not strike the interface normally. once localisation initiates.005 m concrete specimen under dynamic tensile loading.126 R. The velocity and acceleration approximations are taken as identical to those used in the Newmark algorithm (for example. a GMRES stabilised. P and y represent the Newmark parameters and [d] identifies the nodal displacements (overdots refer to time derivatives thereof). one below and one above). J. 1.05 x 0. Incremental nonlinear equilibrium is expressed as [K*]l'+'''8d''^'} = {8f*] [K'] = ^K' (2) where the superscript k refers to the (NewtonRaphson) iteration number. The second equation in (2) and equation (3) may be assembled in an elementbyelement approach allowing the first equation in (2) to be solved efficiently using an iterative scheme. lb shows a portion of an equivalent extended mesh analysis. respectively. This formulation includes nonlinear. Fig. generalised elastoplasticity constitutive model is used to represent the concrete.2p) [M] 2p Af ( l .05 x 0. accurate stress return algorithm in this model [4]. Extensions to include a form of DuvautLions viscosity are reported elsewhere [5].^} f tAt ^11 (1) where [M^] represents a piecewise constant acceleration unit impulse matrix with units the same as those of a damping matrix. ] ^Ar(y2^) 0 V'd] 2yS (3) '^11 convolution El ?+i. Four SBFE elements are attached to the top face of the structure and four to the bottom.c^^^ (a) scaled boundary f i n i t e elements Fig. .^ ) [ ^ M .
PhD Thesis. The contoured spheres at the top of Fig. C2 Continuous Hardening/Softening ElastoPlasticity Model for Concrete.j^ini (5) 0 50 100 150 200 2S0 300 axialstress(MPa)strain Fig. Durham. [6] Bathe KJ. The mesh to the front of Fig.5 MPa is realised. Department of Civil Engineering. II. Kuhlemeyer RL. avoiding spurious wave reflections. 7th Annual Conference of the Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering. PhD Thesis. thereby creating nonnormal stress waves striking the SBFE interfaces. whereafter softening occurs. [3] Tahar B. rear) cohesion contour (left. and r provides a Lode angle dependent function. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. rear) strain profile (left. prepeak. NJ: Prentice Hall. Note that a softer element at the lower lefthand comer of the specimen was introduced to provide nonsymmetry in the problem. 2 gives the corresponding strain profile at the end of the run. p and ^ are the HaigWestergaard deviatoric and hydrostatic stress invariants. whereas the red region at the base suggests almost no degradation). The acoustic tensor is calculated (using a hierarchical search algorithm) at each sampling point. 2124. MA. stressstrain response at point A (right. 2001. The plot References [1] Lysmer J. front) minimum determinant of acoustic tensor at point A (right. The black lines show the true axial directions. pp. The latter leads to a loss of wellpossedness in the problem. J Eng Mech ASCE 1969. 2 illustrate the directional variation of the determinant of the acoustic tensor at the three different stages in the analysis (I. Note that the onset of localisation has been used by Pearce [9] as a monitoring device to trigger realignment of the element boundaries and refinement of the local mesh density. Note that the spheres have been plotted in a skewed orientation. Acoustic tensor determinant maps (top). UK. The three circles on this stressstrain diagram refer to three stages in the analysis. [2] Wolf JP.R. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. PhD Thesis. New York: John Wiley and Sons. identified by the white circle) is given in Fig. [8] Smith IM. respectively. University of Sheffield. 1996. The Finite Element Method. 1996. The rear mesh illustrates the degree of softening achieved at the end of the analysis (the blue zone at the top indicates almost a complete loss of cohesion. UK. Finite Element Procedures. Finite dynamic model for infinite media. June 1215. Dark red regions indicate that the nonlinear acoustic tensor has changed little from the corresponding elastic tensor. the lower portion unloads elastically. and III. 5th Edn. New York: McGrawHill. J. On the Use of DuvautLions Viscosity as a Regularisation Technique in Softening Media. 2 shows two contour plots of the structure. [4] Tahar B. creating inobjective results as mesh densities change (not shown here). 2000. Fig. Crouch RS. Cambridge.95:859877. Once localisation occurs (in a single row of Gauss points at the top of the structure) and axial stretching continues. 1996. FiniteElement Modelling of Unbounded Media. UK. 1999. Techniques to ensure convergence of the closest point projection method in pressure dependent elastoplasticity models. Crouch. at the end of each timestep. scribed by i" + + ——^cky mky  2 V3 =0 (4) where n is the search direction. [7] Zienkiewicz OC. where c represents a measure of cohesion (which degrades under increasing fracture strain) and k represents a measure of material hardening. Swansea. Preliminary use of the SBFE has illustrated its potential to produce useful dynamic strain softening simulations. at the end of the run). 2000. UK. Englewood Cliffs. A representative axial stressstrain plot from the analysis (at the point A. [5] Mesmar S. The introduction of an effective material length into the constitutive formulation can recover objectivity. whereas blue zones show where the determinant has become negative. FernandezVega /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stagel stagell stagelll 4'" determinantof acoustictensor 111 H>j of the minimum determinant of the acoustic tensor versus the timestep number (for point A) shows a steady drop followed by a slight recovery in the final stages of the analysis despite continued softening. 2. 2000. General Purpose Parallel Finite Element Programming. [9] Pearce CJ. as indicated by the blue zone. using Qjk=niD\. Computational Plasticity in Concrete Failure Mechanics. just postpeak. . University of Wales. The determinants resulting from the nonlinear constitutive tangent tensors (Z)y^/) have been normalised with respect to the linear elastic constitutive tensor (£>fy^/). University of Sheffield. Song C.S. front). In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. Taylor RL. 2. A tensile strength of approximately 3.
Czekanski.128 Time integration for dynamic contact problems: generalizedof scheme A. Toronto. Introduction The time integration scheme establishes a relationship between the acceleration. Modified Newmark 1. The criteria invoked for the selection of the time integration parameters are motivated by our desire to ensure that the solution is unconditionally stable. two numerical examples are examined.yyt f y^+^^tJ]A^ ^+^^U] (la) (lb) '+^'U = ^U + ^UAr + [(0.utoronto. S. Introduction Dynamic finite element analyses usually employ time integration methods.J. In order to demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the proposed time integration scheme. Impact.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The selected parameters help in avoiding the spurious high frequency modes.5) result in excessive numerical oscillations and is therefore unsuitable for contact problems.25) with a fully implicit treatment of the contact constraints produces oscillations. but leads to a loss of second order accuracy.7.5 is recommended [1]. The dynamic contact problem is formulated in terms of the variational inequalities approach and solved using quadratic programming. 2. Time integration scheme 2. The results show a significant improvement compared to existing solution techniques. Introduction of numerical dissipation in the Newmark scheme reduces these oscillations. Keywords: Contact. provides optimal high frequency dissipation and preserves energy and momentum transfer in dynamic rigid impact problems. The generalizedQf scheme is used for time marching. which can be significant as the time steps and spatial discretizations are refined. the . they also result in spurious high frequency modes for small time steps.: hi (416) 9785741. which are present in the traditional Newmark method. The implicit schemes are unconditionally stable and involve larger time steps. Recently.A. Generalizeda scheme. second order accuracy. The four * Corresponding author. Canada Abstract In this paper. Bathe (Editor) time integration parameters are selected to satisfy unconditional stability. velocity and displacement fields at time t and r 4. New closedform expressions for the time integration parameters are determined in terms of a userspecified high frequency spectral radius. provide optimal high frequency dissipation and preserve energy and momentum transfer in dynamic rigid impact problems. Email: meguid@mie. Although the Newmark method is the most popular implicit scheme. we employ the generalizeda time integration scheme for treating elastodynamic contact problems. its commonly used values {y = ip = 0. In this paper. M5S 3G8. Fax: Hi (416) 9787753. ON. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.Ar as follows: '+^'U = 'U + [(1 . For such problems. Meguid* Engineering Mechanics and Design Laboratory. second order accurate. University of Toronto. The resulting values avoid numerical oscillations often present in impact and dynamic frictional problems. Time integration. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.5 P)'t^p The use of the trapezoidal rule (y = ip = 0. the variational inequalities expressions representing the contact problems are solved through a sequence of mathematical programming problems. These parameters result in second order accuracy and satisfy energy and momentum conservation during rigid impact. However. 5 King's College Road. Tel. All rights reserved. the use of }/ = ^ = 0.
a„) '+""¥ +ttH' F . .Eq.a^) for . (7)): otH = Poo/(poo .5 + Of// . Optimal time integration parameters for contact problems The values of the time integration parameters can now be selected based on the following criteria: second order accuracy (Eq.5 (8b) (8c) (8d) a+Aoa^U = (1 .5 and ^ > 0.A. and energymomentum conservation criterion (Eq.^+A^AU''+IT^+A. and (ii) solve the current timeinstant iteratively to obtain the displacement. the matrix T extracts the discretized tangential displacement components from the global displacement vector.^U) where K = {\ ' aH)K + {\ . The time integration scheme should ensure that the rebound velocities of the two point masses satisfy energy and momentum conservation. The . SA. the equation of motion is modified by introducing two new parameters ag and an'.3 ^ 5 + 2^ / ( I . (10a)) represents the assembly of the kinematic contact conditions of the nodes on the candidate contact surface Fc.25 + 0. the following inequalities must be satisfied: . This condition is satisfied when [2]: y = 0. velocity and acceleration fields as well as the current contact surface and contact forces. In this method. Note that Eq. jYI (f+Aoas^ + C (^+^^)«wu + K (^+^oa//u _ a+Aoan jr (2) where (r+AOa//u = (1 _ an) '+^'U + au 'U a+AOanu ={\an) ^+^'U + an 't (3) P = 0.^P+I ?+ A?ATT + ^+^^AU''+^ TS'+^'Fy. This criterion is formulated based on the generic problem of two dissimilar stiffnessfree masses in contact. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics generalizedQf method was developed for solving structural dynamics problems with second order accuracy even if numerical dissipation is presented [2].6Af2 fiM \2fi )i (lib) The first constraint (Eq.i n t For elastic problems. the solution algorithm can be summarized as follows: (i) evaluate the equivalent stiffness matrix and load vector using the generalizedof time integration scheme. (4)). Criteria for selecting time integration parameters A second order accurate solution is obtained for the generalizeda method when [2]: / = 0 .2) /{aB .0. the reduced variational inequalities formulation is equivalent to solving the following minimization problem [4]: minfi^+^^AU^'+^'^K^+^^AU'+i .1 + ^ 2 ^ 1 . (10b) represents the assembly of the nondifferentiable frictional constraint for the nodes on the candidate contact surface. 2.auK'U + (lQf5)M *.+A. (5b) is not used. 5 +Of// as 3. 2.5(aB\)(l + 2y)/{aB2) (7) (9) subject to: (10a) and §jr+Ar^U/+i < ST('+^'U^' . Czekanski.asM'U . Finite element implementation For each time increment. the contact should last for only one time step.} V'+^^AUi + l (4) In order to maintain unconditional stability. optimal high frequency damping (Eq. In conjunction with the generaUzedof method.1) (8a) an = (2al + of^ .3. In this expression.1 < c^5 < «// < 0.5(0?^ .2)/{aB . a small amount of energy is lost during impact.1) K = 0. This amount depends on the selected time integration parameters as well as the mesh size.p ^ ^ ^ fp where poo is a userspecified high frequency spectral radius. The analytical solution is satisfied when ^ is given by [3]: P = 0.1) subject to: P<0.25(1^5+Of/.25 {2al + a^O + 2^^) .5 <aB< 0.)' S (6) For frictionless contact problems another criterion can be derived based on conservation of momentum and energy during rigid impact.2. Furthermore.ae) '+^'U + aB 'U (r+AO«//p ^ (1 _ ^ ^ ) .aB 129 (6)).as) (5) It is also desirable to filter the high frequency components of the response.25 {2al f 0^5(3 + 2aH) .aB) —^M (11a) (10b) ^'Ar+^ = (1 .
. Superior results (displacement. p =0.s 2 ^ Fig.130 A. v.5x10' 4. 3).= 0. which allows to switch between two complementary frictional subproblems. The results show that the time increment strongly affects the contact force when using the classical Newmark approach. and (b) generalizeda {y =2^ = an = OCB = 0. Impact of two identical bars In bars.= 10'. Czekanski. we examine the springmass system.01 Fig. The spring and mass are modeled using 4noded elements (Fig.02 Time ^ 0. SA.5 2. 2.5 Fig. the material properties satisfied the 10 — 1 At=5xlO' At=8xlO' (b) c o o o 4 V 2 . 0.001 Fig.s 2 llllli imiiyii E2 0. 3. p.5). for two time integration schemes and two time increments.02 4< • [nn 10 E=1000. 1. 'rMiiiiiiiiiiiiinnii I h 1 1 10 10. p.1. acceleration and contact forces) are obtained using the generalizeda scheme with the newly selected parameters. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.03 0. In order to model a nearly rigid mass and a flexible weightless spring.5 'J 1 Time.= 10\ v.5 0. This scheme also fails to represent contact for the smaller time step. and (b) generalizedo? (y = 2^ = an = as = 0. A E2 ^ 0.5). this example.5). Both bars were given initial opposing unit velocFig.01 Rigid block: E. (Fig. and is part of solution.5 1 Time.1. Numerical examples 4. ities. 0.04 ^ 0. Total friction force for springmass system using: (a) Newmark scheme (y = ^ = 0. v = 0 . = 2. is unknown a priori. we consider the impact of two identical These bars were modeled using fournoded elements 1). velocity. = 0.i: H^O. 4. 2 shows the time history of the contact force Beam:E. 3. Impact of two identical bars. Total contact force for colliding bars for two selected time increments using: (a) Newmark scheme {y = ^ = 0. Springmass system 'Y Y 77TTyT?!T7T7TT77T!? Y ^IB^IIIII 1^.5). FE model of springmass system investigated. In this example.5 (a) (b) E2 0.4* t sign matrix S.0o. = 0.04 0..
Commun Numer Methods Eng 2000. Czekanski. Meguid SA.24:855873. SA. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics following conditions: pi < p2 and Ei ^ E2. Meguid SA. when the system experiences transition from slip to stick. [4] Czekanski A. [3] Czekanski A. Solution of dynamic frictional contact problems using nondifferentiable optimization. [2] Chung J.A. a generalized^ scheme. The newly proposed method experienced smaller numerical oscillations in contact forces compared to the classical Newmark scheme. Hulbert GM. The proposed technique leads to a significant reduction in numerical oscil . Bathe KJ. submitted. submitted. 4(a) and Fig. The mass was subjected to a constant prescribed vertical displacement 8. was employed for the time integration of the dynamic frictional contact problem.60:371375. Conclusions In this work. Optimal time integration parameters for elastodynamic contact problems. Comput Struct 1986. A solution method for static and dynamic analysis of threedimensional contact problems with friction. A horizontal step load F was then applied. Int J Mech Sci 2000. The time histories of the total friction force shown in Fig. J Appl Mech 1993. ElAbbasi N. References [1] Chaudhary AB. 131 lations in impact and dynamic frictional contact problems and is less sensitive to variations in the time increment. 5. with optimal contact parameters. A time integration algorithm for structural dynamics with improved numerical dissipation: the generalizeda method. 4(b) were obtained using Newmark and generalizedQf schemes.
Brushspring system 1. A steady friction force excites the system. University of Regina. Fax: +1 (306) 5854855. to obtain a continuous . Keywords: Friction interaction. Piecewiseconstant argument. F. S4S 0A2. The solution developed is in a closed form and continuous everywhere. the motion of a highly nonlinear dynamical system with frictional interactions is investigated. ^. the prime ( )' represents the derivative with respect to a nondimensional time r. Nonlinear dynamics. By the piecewiseconstant technique.y cos x// —l^x//' cos xj/ — It. Bathe (Editor) In the above equations.(1 . yxjf'sin xj/— xf. Governing equation and the corresponding semianalytical solution Swayze and Akay recently investigated the behavior of a brushspring system from a window lift electric motor [3]. xj. A piecewiseconstant procedure is employed in developing the solutions which are continuous everywhere in terms of displacement and velocity. Oscillation.132 Semianalytical solution to a mechanical system with friction L. The oscillatory motion of the brush of the system is governed by the following equations of motion for the two conditions of positive and negative values of the angular displacement of the brush x//. Approximate analysis. Regina. Sask. The numerical results based on the semianalytical solution provide convergence with sufficient accuracy.2] can be employed. the piecewiseconstant technique presented by Dai and Singh [1.\xjf''cos xfr — xl^' sini//yxlf" sin xj. — yxjr' cos xjr (2) The corresponding motion is governed by the following equation if ^ < 0. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. y. x//" f IQ^xJ/' + ^ V = ^ [ ( K + M) sin lA .: +1 (306) 5854498./i) sin x// + (I \. To approximately or numerically solve the governing equations (1) and (3). A semianalytical solution of a nonlinear system is produced by a piecewiseconstant technique reported by Dai and Singh [1. the governing equation is *Tel. ^IQ^xj/' where F = F — sinxlf — y \.J. Dai * Industrial Systems Engineering. All rights reserved. The friction and nonlinear damping forces produce nonlinearity in mechanical systems. a nonlinear dynamical system is converted into a linear oscillatory system on an arbitrary time interval. = F[{y \. and the interactions of friction and the overall system lead to the possibility of unstable and complex dynamic behavior. Email: liming.dai@uregina. Uncertainties are always presented in modeling the motions involving contacts and interfaces.fiy) cos xj/] (3) 2. [Nz]/N < r < ([A^r] ± 1)/A^. expressible in the following form." cos^\xjr' sinxjr — yxl/" sin xjr — yx//' sini/r (4) + Q^xl. Canada Abstract This investigation is devoted to the development of a novel semianalytical solution for a nonlinear dynamical system involving frictional interaction. For positive x//. IJL and ^ are parameters related to physical and geometrical measurements of the system.2].fjiy) cos ir] (1) where F = F\sin xj/ — y\y cos x// \2^xl/' cos x// — 2^ yxj/'sin xl. In this paper.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Introduction Friction is the primary source of oscillations in many mechanical systems.
The recurrence relations can be directly derived from Eq. continuous closedform approximate solution for the nonlinear dynamical system is derived allowing further theoretical analysis. f'. [2] Dai L. When N is large enough. the solutions developed through the recurrence relations provide results with sufficient accuracy in comparing with the fourthorder RangeKutta method. Akay A. ^ theoretically. Singh MC. the motions of the nonlinear dynamical system involving frictional interaction are complex. A JA^r]\ 1 . + 2Qi^lf[ + Q^^lft=Ai (5) 133 and the square matrix R = For the case xjr > 0. except that the solution produced by RangeKutta method is discrete. (7). As can be seen from the discussion above. The matrix G in equation (7) is expressible as [Nr] Q ^ ^^^([Nr]/N)^Nr] 7=1 [1] Dai L. As A approaches infinity. It can be seen from Eq.sm — ? A^ cos \^x — i References N (7) where ^ = y/Q^ . Int J Solids Struct 1997.sin ? ^i Q^(r[Nr]/N) C S ( §r — ^O NT]\ (9) cos — A ^ ^ N Eq. J Sound Vibrat 1994.173(2):217232. the approximate solution is continuous everywhere in the time range r > 0. (6) is considered as a constant Ai = Fi[(y + /x) sindi — (1 — /xy) cos J/] (6) and the iih interval is random.34:27092713. (7) for numerically solving for governing equation (1). the approximate solution produced by piecewiseconstant technique becomes the accurate solution. [3] Swayze JL. In numerically calculating for the motion governed by equations (1) and (3). A^ Kf)' 1 'OK" cos A^ • + ^ sm — A^ 1 . for r > 0.L.? — j J s m(^^r r . general solution of the problem can thus be obtained in the following form on the entire time range considered. the terms on the righthandside of the equal sign in equations (1) and (3) are considered as constants in a tiny time interval. On oscillatory motion of springmass systems subjected to piecewise constant forces. N J . At in Eq. With the help of the piecewiseconstant technique. and a numerical simulation for the motion of the system can be conveniently carried out on the basis of the solutions. Singh MC. such that the nonlinear differential equations are converted to linear ordinary differential equations in the following form. Effects of system dynamics on frictioninduced oscillations. M/N cos sm — ^2 (8) . [A^r]/A^ < T < ([A^r] ± \)/N.173:599609. / [iVr]\ s m ( ^ ? r .? — j . For solving the nonlinear differential equations (1) and (3) by the piecewiseconstant technique. ? . (7) is an approximate solution to Eq. A is a parameter controlling accuracy of the ^ solution. (1) in a closed form. the corresponding solution can be sufficiently accurate.( ^ O ^ and ^ < 1. An analytical and numerical method for solving linear and nonlinear vibration problems. J Sound Vibrat 1994. Dai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics solution.
The functions u.: +39 (91) 6657110. the mathematical model involves nodal displacements only and its matrix operators preserve the symmetry and definiteness properties of the continuum. ment and traction vectors. Italy Abstract This paper deals with a novel displacement variational formulation for elasticity. Fax: +39 (91) 485439. In this paper. Modified variational principle The formulation proposed in this paper is based on a modified variational principle previously presented by the authors [25]. A. play a crucial role from both theoretical and numerical point of view. All rights reserved. The mathematical model is obtained from the stationarity condition of a modified hybrid functional expressed in terms of displacements and tractions. u and t are assumed as independent variables. Assuming that the compatibility and constitutive equations and the kinematical boundary conditions are satisfied. ii is the acceleration. Milazzo Department of Mechanics and Aeronautics. The domain displacement field is approximated by suitable trial functions. Viale delle Scienze. whereas the boundary variables are expressed by using their nodal values. Email: davi@unipa. Introduction Fundamental properties of selfadjoint problems. the conventional BEM destroys the continuum properties. The final system is expressed in terms of nodal displacements only and it is symmetric and positive definite. Davi*. these operators are computed running boundary integrations of regular kernels only with the consequent computational advantages.J. a novel displacement variational formulation is derived basing on a hybrid variational formulation of BEM [14]. Moreover. Additionally. Bathe (Editor) Let us consider the boundary of the body F discretized by boundary elements and some additional nodes within the domain Q. Boundary methods 1. let us introduce the following modified functional d^ . University of Palermo. Discrete model 2. Tel. The FEM possesses the abovementioned requisites of the energy based domain discretization methods.134 A novel displacement variational boundary formulation G. With such a formulation. 90128 Palermo. The domain displacement field is approximated by means of a superposition of trial functions u* u = J2^*s :U*S (2) . the domain integrals can be directly transformed into boundary ones to recover the boundary nature of the method.f {uuYidr. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. but leads to accurate results with some computational advantages compared to field methods.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. the solution of the elasticity problem is given in terms of the functions u. 3. f are the domain forces and t are the prescribed tractions on the free boundary r2. On the other hand. Numerical methods. as the symmetry and definiteness of discrete operators. p is the mass density.fu^lc r r2 (1) where e is the strain vector. Quadrature methods. Let u be the vector of displacements in the domain Q and let again u and t be the boundary displace* Corresponding author. Keywords: Variational approaches. other than those introduced by the boundary discretization [5]. According to references [46]. u and t which make U stationary [35].
after some manipulations. because at least we obtain a domain integral involving the Dirac function. let us consider a set of auxiliary functions W* (/ = 1. A. as required by the formulation.. ^2 and p. Further relationships between s and the domain nodal displacements can be established collocating Eq. subjected to given body forces. By substituting the expressions of u. which satisfy the following equation (5) / ^ N j ^ d r p . Applying recursively Eq. Premultiplying Eq. one obtains the dynamic model which can be written as M8' + K 5 2 ./ N ^t d r = : 0 (6) r>w* = w* f ^ ^ u M r s . respectively.). symmetry and definiteness of the structural operators. these two fundamental properties of the continuum. u. which are associated with particular points.f ^^^Ndr^ = 0 (7) (14) where WQ — U*. For this .. Davi.l^dQ (10) 4. and t in Eq. where ^ is the inverse of the collocation matrix U*. (15). Milazzo /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The trial functions are elasticity solutions in an infinite domain.Po) (13) where c*(5 (P — PQ) denote the Dirac function of amplitude c*. by virtue of the properties of the shape functions. Therefore. in the proposed approach. By so doing. Eq. since they can be generated using the same nodes as those defined for the model. symmetric and positive definite [25].2. (2) at the internal nodes. the class of trial functions presented. (2) and (9). (5) by ^ 2 ' t>y using Eqs.w f p„/:u*] dr (©W*+i) P£U*dn (15) The relations between the unknown parameters s and the nodal displacements 8 can be established according to [5]. are preserved. (1). applied at PQ. i. the idea is to associate the trial functions with the point load solutions. yield j j V^^VnWdT + j W^VV"" d^ j s + p /" U*TU*d ^ s Notice that the model involves nodal displacements only and the matrices K and M are frequency independent. Additionally. The stationarity conditions of n with regard to s. N and ^ are matrices of shape functions and the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to constrained and free nodal displacements. (8) at the boundary nodal points. the discretized form of the functional n is obtained. The boundary displacement and traction variables are expressed as u = m = [Ni N2] (3) M = p^l f u*Tu^ d ^ ^ 2 (4) 135 where the stiffness matrix K and the mass matrix M are given by K D„U*dr + // « U*^2^U*d^ ^2 (11) (12) t = ^p where 5 and p are the nodal displacements and tractions. Numerical application To check the soundness of the proposed method the membrane vibration problem [7] has been solved. If the number of trial functions is equal to the number of nodal displacements and these functions are regular and linearly independent. Indeed. the domain integrals of the stiffness and mass matrices are transformed into boundary integrals. Now. and they enable us to transform the domain integrals that appear in the definition of the stiffness and mass matrix into boundary integrals./ N ^ t d r [N. the computation of the stiffness and mass matrix requires only boundary integrations of regular kernels and the pure boundary nature of the formulation is recovered. (7) is satisfied for every choice of ^ if it results U*s = N8 on r (8) = f Upnyv*Y cv* .e. In conclusion.G. The reciprocity theorem for the auxiliary functions and the trial functions provides CV*dQ where V is the static equilibrium differential operator and Vn is the boundary tractions operator. the trial functions are regular. one obtains s = U* ^8 = ^8 = [^1 ^2] (9) / where C is any operator. we directly obtain some relationships between s and the boundary nodal displacements. are well suited for computer implementation. so that it results V (Pu*) = c*5 (P . Evaluating Eq.
2249 0.3160 0. [6] Washizu K. By virtue of the operator properties. Brebbia CA. [5] Davi G. Moreover.8248 1. A symmetric and positive definite variational BEM for 2D free vibration analysis. Eng Anal Bound Elem 1992. The model exhibits the same nature of the more popular finite element models and the standard numerical procedures available for FEM resolving systems can be used in the present approach. Davi. Eng Anal Bound Elem 1994. Milazzo A. The results obtained .6006 4.0067 6.0023 0.4393 0. 1976. J Sound Vibr 1997.0022 1.2993 3.0042 5. T is the surface tension and a is the membrane dimension.8661 0. Table 1 Errors of the dimensionless frequency parameter for a simply supported square membrane Nodes 21 32 45 60 77 96 Error (%) Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 Mode 6 0.0056 0.0083 0.1547 0.0677 1.0072 0. A. Theory of Sound. A hybrid displacement variational formulation of BEM for elastostatics. 1989.9346 11.2684 0. = r.0025 0.0378 1.0443 0.0248 8. A new hybrid displacement variational formulafion of BEM for elastostatics.7752 4.1691 5. [3] Davi G. Milazzo /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics show the accuracy and the good convergence properties of the method.8858 9. A symmetric and positive definite BEM for 2D forced vibrations.1260 0. PQ) is the distance between the generic point and the /th source point.7734 0.3398 0.7489 0.4429 7. (P. the resolving model becomes a linear algebraic eigenvalue problem. Milazzo A. Conclusion A novel variational formulation for elasticity problems has been presented. the static equilibrium operator T> coincides with the Laplacian operator and one has the following trial and auxiliary functions ' In r.(17) References [1] De Figueiredo TGB. New York: Dover PubHcations. [7] Rayleigh JSW. 10(3): 219224.1949 0. A new symmetric and positive definite boundary element formulation for lateral vibration of plates.0168 0.0247 0. The model obtained involves nodal displacements only and it preserves the fundamental properties of symmetry and definiteness of the continuum.is the kih column of W^ and r.9531 problem.1729 0. 1968. Oxford: Pergamon Press.14(4):343348.0284 0. Advances in Boundary Elements.0335 13. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. which can be solved by standard routines. Berlin: Springer. The results obtained show that the method is efficient and accurate. [4] Davi G.0112 0.206(4):507521. <^iA where w^.0953 0. Exact A/ 4.206(4):611617.136 G.0040 8. Milazzo A. pp. the present method has significant computational advantages due to the reduction in dimensionality typical of boundary element formulation. In: Brebbia CA (Ed). [2] Davi G.3272 12.1651 0. Results are presented for a simply supported square membrane in terms of the dimensionless frequency parameter Xi = cOiy/p/Ta^ wA'D (18) (19) where coi is the /th mode angular frequency. (16) Inn . J Sound Vibr 1997. 4758. Table 1 lists the error of the dimensionless frequency parameter with respect to the exact value [7].
needs the usage of manipulators with flexible links.137 Investigation about nonlinearities in a robot with elastic members Sergio A. Dynamic modeUng. as shown in Fig. need smaller drivers and usually are easier to be transported. are lighter. Introduction Most of the industrial applications that involve a manipulator robot use rigid links. one notes that the flexibility of the system is related to the two degrees of freedom related to the movement of the two links of the manipulator.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Nonlinear dynamics. which leads to remarkable structural changes. The main goal of this work is to model the dynamic behavior of flexible manipulators. All rights reserved. This terminal element has the function of handling tools suitable to the work to be performed. Fig. Two main parts are to be considered in the design of a manipulator structure. Not considering the deformation of the joints. Keywords: Robotics. the development of manipulators with structural flexibility and its automatic control has become an important research area [1.: M9 4661172.1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. they need less material for their fabrication. the degree of freedom related to the movement of the base of the robot can be treated as rigid. Therefore. aeronautic applications demand the usage of long and thin arms. capable of attending the productivity and quality demands and that allow a high volume of work. as well as the three degrees of freedom related to the orientation. State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). For this reason the manipulators are designed with overdimensioned crosssections in order not to degrade the control accuracy. Problem description A robotics manipulator is a mechanical device that has the function of positioning and orienting its terminal element. Because of those reasons.6. When flexible link manipulators are compared to rigid link ones. Email: sergiodavid@scientist. 1. Thus. . show less power consumption. It is normally constituted of three rotational degrees of freedom and has the function of orienting the terminal referential. can handle larger loads. faster. Industrial robots 1. 1. Joao M. 1. Brazil Abstract The need for fast and precise robots in the industrial environment. Bathe (Editor) of the concentration point and also for the orientation of the referential. David *. It is possible to use the model for computer simulations to aid the development of efficient control.4. Besides this.9]. Cidade Universitdria Zeferino Vaz. The second part is the wrist. Campinas. the usage of manipulators with flexible links is directly related to the optimization of the elements that comprise a robotics system.J. The increase in the rigidity of the links has the main objective of avoiding structural vibration. The first part is the arm that comprises at least three degrees of freedom and is used for the positioning *Tel. Rosario Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. It is also presented a comparative study with rigid robots. Links 2 and 3 (possible flexibility).
A convenient parameterization of the terms of the motion equations. the flexible system is simulated with all its contributions taken into account.M. without the usage of any simplifying linearization procedure. one of the tasks of this work is to treat the motion equations according to a general approach. which makes it easier to compare the simulation results for the rigid and for the flexible system is also developed.R i g d System ReMble System reduced lo a rigid one 1j6 SIstemaR^pdo SstemaRBduzidoaoR^do^F^rdoReBJvel V t8 ^ ^1 1 CM 06 I 04 h «^ 001 02 041 t9 ^. It is well known that in general a control problem consists of the manipulator dynamic model formulation [1]. 2. In this work the dynamic modeling is performed for a system that contains two flexible links and two rotational joints. Simulation and results This flexible system may be mathematically reduced to the rigid one by vanishing the terms related to system flexibility. (2) following.O Q •OBI 02 04 Tfme(s) 06 08 to 00 02 04 06 Fig. For the sake of comparison. For this reason. and to assess the system behavior through controlled simulations. mathematical simulations are performed according to the following methodology: (1) initially the rigid system is simulated in a separate manner. without simplifying linearizations. 2. In this case two degrees of freedom are defined.Rigid S ^ t e m Re^ibie System (subtractedfleMbilltyIn t B term J^ t6 ^ 47 s 13 t9i %O Q 02 04 T!me(s) 06 O B to . a rigid structure with two links and two rotational joints is also analyzed. With this fact in mind. . as found in most of the works present in the literature. J. We outline the fact that the motion equations are treated with all nonlinearities taken into account. Simulations. Rosdrio /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics . David. This model is further used to establish the control laws that provide the desired performance. For a flexible manipulator the structure presents a considerable flexibility and therefore an efficient control system must be developed. which characterizes the possibility of finding a frontier between both systems.138 SA. This linearization procedure may not to consider small contributions of physical effects that are sunmied or superimposed and that may significandy influence the system behavior.
Nonlinear Oscillations. [5] Farid M. A systematic method of dynamics for flexible robot manipulators. MSc Thesis.3:255264. The same procedure may be extended to the simulations. 1999.c. Nonlinear ultimate boundedness control and stabilization of aflexiblerobotic arm. Comput Methods Exp Meas 1997.M.3(3):87101. The flexible manipulator may be mathematically reduced to a rigid one by means of vanishing the flexibility related terms. [9] Rosario JM. [3] David SA. 2). Some results are presented in this article correspond to simulations realized for the angular position Oi and 02 (Fig. Rosario JM. References 139 [1] Book WJ. Modelisation Dynamique Dun Robot Industriel. 1987. J.p. Modelagem. Institut Superieur des Materiaux et de la Constmction Mecanique. Sankar TS. Simula9ao e Controle de Robos Flexiveis. Proceedings of Sixth Pan American Congress of Applied Mechanics. It is also possible to consider the development of controllers that compensate the physical effects — which in accordance to dynamic simulations results is relevant for the system flexibility — in order to correct the response of the terminal element of the manipulator with respect to the signals from the control system. 1996.. Dynamic modeling and simulation of robot manipulator with twoflexiblelinks. Lukasiewicz SA. Int J Robot Res 1984. Addison Wesley. the effects are individually and cumulatively subtracted and the system behavior is analyzed.l.9(7):861891. Technische Dynamik. [8] Nayfeh AH.d. Rosdrio /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (3) after that.9(3):301326. s. 1986. [10] Schielen IW. The other simulations may be found in [4]. s. [2] Craig JJ. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control. . [7] Nathan PJ. New York: John Wiley. (4) the effects are subtracted until the limit condition in which the flexible system is reduced to a rigid one and the system response converges — as expected — for the case of the rigid system modeled separately.A. Mook DJ.S. 3. [4] David SA. 106 pp. Singh SN. [6] Li CJ. Dynamic modeling of spatial flexible manipulators. Conclusion The way in which the motion equations are treated in this paper may allow the monitoring of each contributing factor for the system flexibility. State University of Campinas (in Portuguese). France. s.p. Ministere de I'Education Nationale. J Robot Syst 1992. Recursive Lagrangian dynamics of flexible manipulator arms. David. which makes it possible to find a frontier between both systems..p. J Robot Syst 1992. 1979.
using both visual and haptic sensory modalities. 1). Haptics. J. Cambridge. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Kim. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Inc. The main challenge in real time virtual surgery is computational speed. De*. MA 02139.. Srinivasan Laboratory for Human and Machine Haptics. As minimally invasive surgery is gaining popularity.. To enable the user to interact with the computer models using the sense of touch we use a three degreeoffreedom haptic interface device called Phantom ^. USA Abstract The method of finite spheres using moving least squares interpolants and point collocation as the weighted residual scheme is applied to the development of a virtual reality based training system for laparoscopic surgical procedures. are found in the literature (see reference [2] for a summary of the existing techniques). ranging from purely geometrical procedures without any physical basis to springmassdashpotbased models.J. 2. All rights reserved. Introduction The objective of this paper is to illustrate how the method of finite spheres [1] may be applied to develop a laparoscopic surgical simulator which will enable the user to interact with threedimensional computer models of biological tissues and organs in real time. M.edu ^ Developed by SensAble Technologies. Tel. Email: suvranu@mit. ^he vector P(x) contains polynomials ensuring consistency up to a desired order (in our implementation we have ensured consistency up to degree one).A. Moving least squares interpolants hj(x) = Wj{x)F(xfA\x)F(xj) J = l.N (1) are used to generate the local finite dimensional approximation spaces. without having to use cadavers or animals.: +1 (617) 2538503.. In this paper we develop a specialized version of the method of finite spheres based on moving least squares interpolants and point collocation for the purpose of real time surgical simulations. In Eq. Meshless technique. Medical simulation 1.140 Virtual surgery simulation using a collocationbased method of finite spheres S. (1) A(x) = J]f=i W/(X)P(X/)P(X/)T. Although the finite element technique [3] is a * Corresponding author. For real time visual display an update rate of about 30 Hz is sufficient.. Keywords: Method of finite spheres. it is computationally very slow since the entire domain needs to be meshed and numerical integration has to be performed. Bathe (Editor) physically based procedure. The localization of approximation and the lack of numerical integration results in very high computational speeds required for real time simulation with graphical and haptic feedback. We assume linear elastic tissue behavior. The numerical scheme In our technique. A variety of simulation techniques. A point collocation technique is used to generate the discrete equations KU (2) where K is the stiffness matrix and f is the vector con . A nodal points are sprinkled around ^ the surgical tool tip (see Fig. the need to train medical students and also to provide surgeons with appropriate computer tools to experiment with new surgical techniques. the haptic loop requires to be updated at a rate of about 1 kHz. Wj is a compactly supported radial weighting function at node J (which we have chosen as a quartic spline function). Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. For stable real time simulation. is becoming increasingly important.
Kim J. The node at the tool tip bears the applied displacement. We note here the stiffness matrix K is nonsymmetric. Linear elastic tissue behavior was assumed. Comput Mech 2000. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 141 rameters as U = [Utooitip U/. A schematic showing the distribution of nodal points around a surgical tool tip. A node is placed at the tool tip and all other nodes are placed such that their spheres do not intersect the node at the tool tip (or do so only minimally to ensure the invertibility of A(jt:)). The undeformed surface and the deformation field obtained using afiniteelement discretization are also shown. The undeformed surface as also the deformation obtained using ADINA with a finite element discretization of the object are presented for reference.25:329345. 1996. Bathe KJ. Undeformed Surface corresponding to a partitioning of the vector of nodal pa MFS solution with 34 spheres Fig.«U i'a^toooltip The reaction force to be delivered to the haptic interface device is obtained as ftooitip = K^aUtooitip + ^ab^b 3. 2. Finite Element Procedures. Simulation demonstration Fig. [2] De S. The deformation field obtained when MFS is used for the simulation of a surgical tool tip interacting with a hemispherical object is shown. The point collocation based method of finite spheres provides reasonable deformation fields near the tool tip but the errors are quite high further away. Real time rendering rates of about 1 kHz is obtained using a force extrapolation technique (refer to [2] for details). Utooi tip at the tool tip.] where U^ is the vector of nodal unknowns which maybe obtained as Vt = —^hh K/. De et al. the tool tip may be modeled as having point interaction with the tissue (see Fig. To appear. taining nodal loads. The method of finite spheres in real time multimodal medical simulations. 1). 2 when 34 spheres are used for discretization. . 2 shows the deformation field computed using the technique described in the previous section when a tool interacts with a hemispherical object. 1. For the purpose of surgical simulation. but banded. Computational rate of about 100 Hz is obtainable for the example shown in Fig. The method offinitespheres. NJ: Prentice Hall. Srinivasan MA. [3] Bathe KJ. Fig.S. The stiffness matrix in Eq. This technique is however very fast. Englewood Cfiffs. (1) may be partitioned as K (3) References [1] De S.
Decks ^'*. Tel: +61 (8) 93803093. and these have allowed adaptive techniques to be implemented.edu. CH1015 Lausanne. Wolf"' " Department of Civil Engineering. WA 6907. 1. y)] = [D][L]{u{x. This is the first time a direct comparison of computational efficiency between the two methods is presented. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. y)} are related to the strains {s{x. Scaled boundary domain with sidefaces. Email: deeks@civiLuwa. Keywords: Scaled boundary finiteelement method. The normalised radial coordinate ^ has zero value at the scaling centre. such as the ability to model certain free and fixed boundaries without spatial discretisation. Introduction The scaled boundary finiteelement method is a semianalytical method that combines the advantages of the numerical and analytical approaches to solve linear partial differential equations. Switzerland Abstract The scaled boundary finiteelement method is reviewed.J. Adaptivity 1. All rights reserved. y)} by the elasticity matrix [/)].au © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. . and the stresses {o{x. As an analytical solution is obtained in the 'radial' direction. The University of Western Australia. Australia ^Department of Civil Engineering. in terms of both computational time and memory requirements. The method will be discussed in the context * Corresponding author. and an adaptive implementation is applied to the classical elastostatic problem of an Lshaped domain. Institute of Hydraulics and Energy. This paper applies these techniques to a classical problem containing a stress singularity. Singularities. and compares the efficiency of an adaptive scaled boundary finiteelement procedure with the efficiency of a similar adaptive finiteelement procedure. Bathe (Editor) ^^ = 0. y)] = [D][e{x. John P. Omitting body loads. a brief summary of the method will be given here. y)} (2) The differential equation is subject to certain boundary conditions on displacements and surface tractions. It also has appealing features of its own. Stress recovery and error estimation techniques have recently been developed for the method.^)}{0} (1) where [L] is the linear operator. yo) Fig. The scaled boundary finiteelement method Since the scaled boundary finiteelement method [13] is not widely known. 1. Fax: +61 (8) 93801018. the method is particularly useful in situations involving stress singularities. of twodimensional plane stress elastostatics. y)} {a(x. and unit value at the boundary. Nedlands.142 Efficient analysis of stress singularities using the scaled boundary finiteelement method Andrew J. and in turn to the displacements {u{x. The circumferential coordinate s measures the distance around 2. The method defines a new coordinate system based on a scaling centre O within the domain. The method is shown to outperform a similar adaptive finiteelement implementation. the governing differential equation can be represented as [L]V(x. as illustrated in Fig.5 Scaling centre (XQ. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne.
5)} = Y.[£']{«*(?)) = {0) This is the scaled boundary finiteelement equation displacement. and the displacement field is recovered as . 0 .jj + [[£0] + [£l]T . as indicated in Fig.P. (7c) [K]{uh} .[£l]] X §{«.{P} = {0} (17) (8) (9) Boundary conditions place constraints on subsets of {uh} and { P } . The unknown vector {uh{^)} is a set of n functions of §. The method proceeds by first seeking the stiffness matrix of the scaled boundary domain with respect to the degrees of freedom on the boundary (without applying boundary conditions around the i'boundary). Virtual displacement fields of the Galerkin form {8u{^. where {5w(§)} contains n functions describing the variation of the virtual displacements in the radial direction.X[[E']^ .^ .s)] = [N{s)]r^{cl>} (10) in (11) where [b^{s)] and [/?^(5)] are dependent only on the boundary definition. For a bounded domain only the modes with nonpositive real components of X lead to finite displacements at the scaling centre.[E^]] {0} = {0} (12) are used. the surface integrals cancel out and the work statement becomes 1 This equation can b e solved using standard techniques. unlike that method. (10) yields the quadratic eigenproblem [X\E'] . The scaled boundary finiteelement method seeks a solution to the differential equation in the form [Uh (§. yielding 2n modes. For any set of boundary node displacements {uh}.s)} = [N{s)]{8u{^)] (5) Substituting this solution into Eq. This subset of n modes will be designated by [<I>i]. The linear operator can be mapped to the scaled boundary coordinate system using standard methods. and the solution proceeds in the same manner as in standard finiteelement analysis. where the vectors in the set form the columns of the matrix. Any particular solution of the differential equation will b e a weighted s u m of these modes.A. For each mode the approximate stresses on the boundary are determined.(?)}. and so [E°]t2{„. the modal participation factors required are {c} = {^xT'iuh} (14) 1 [uHm. After transformation to surface tractions and integration with the shape functions along the boundary. where n is the number of nodal degrees of freedom on the boundary. The stiffness of the domain is obtained by applying the virtual work equation. The boundary may include two 'sidefaces'.Ni{s)uhi{^) = [N{s)][uh{^)} (4) This represents a discretisation of the boundary with the n shape functions contained in [^(5)]. solutions are of the form {u{^.^[E\{uh(^)]]d^=Q where [E''] = j[B\s)f[D][B\s)]\J\As (6) The equivalent nodal forces required to cause these displacements are [P] = [QiMc] = [QI][^I]'{UH} (15) (7a) The stiffness matrix of the domain is therefore [£> = j{B\s)V [D][B'(5)]7di (7b) [K] = [Qi]mr' and the equilibrium requirement is reduced to (16) [B\s)Y[D][B\sW\ds [^^] = / [ in which [B'(^)] = [Z)'W][iV(i)] [B\s)] = [b\s)][N{s)l. and then solving for the nodal displacements on the boundary in the usual finiteelement manner. 1.J. B y inspection. However. and integrating terms in the internal virtual work integral by parts with respect to ^. J. The governing equation will be satisfied exactly in the I direction when this equation is satisfied for any set of functions {8u(^)}. The [E] matrices can be assembled element by element on the boundary. Substituting into the virtual work equation. the equivalent nodal forces for the modes follow as {q} = [[E']^k[E'i\{(t>} (13) The subset of these modal force vectors corresponding to the n modes in [OJ is denoted as [Q\\. The modal participation coefficients are then obtained using Eq. of 5 OS (3) 143 and  7  is the Jacobian at the boundary. only boundary degrees of freedom are present.(^)}. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the boundary from some origin.[E'i\ . Deeks.P i and OP2. (14).
The results are presented in Table 1. — — ^ ^ v/ 0. At the present time a generalpurpose eigenvalue extraction procedure has been used in the scaled boundary finiteelement implementation. 2. where the scaled boundary finiteelement method results are clearly superior. and is only 5%). Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics = [yv(5)]^c.5 p 5 ^ 1.r''{<^.5% error. In contrast. Model of square plate with square hole under uniaxial tension. Stresses along the line BB at the 5% target error level. but the scaled boundary finiteelement method still takes only about 50% of the time of the finiteelement method to achieve a 0. as illustrated in Fig. where the variation of all the stress components along the line designated BB in Fig. This procedure can be compared directly with an /zhierarchical adaptive finiteelement implementation [7]. No spatial discretisation is required on the sidefaces 0Pi and OP2.4 0.5 h ^ 1 5 ^ 2. The number of degrees of freedom. 2. Considerable improvement in efficiency may be expected when the solution routines are optimised.5 V 0 1 . A recoverybased estimator compatible with the widely used ZienkiewiczZhu [6] estimator has also been developed by the same authors [4].j)} A.g. 2 were recorded for each target error.3. The scaled boundary finiteelement method yields a solution with a singular point at the interior comer. Deeks.114 X 105 2.113 X 105 2. representing a considerable saving. This advantage reduces as the target error is decreased. as indicated by the displacements. Scaled boundary finiteelement — Finite element ^ x x ^ 3. and Young's modulus as 1000. In the scaled boundary finiteelement analysis the scaling centre is selected at O. The number of degrees of freedom (and hence the memory requirement) of the scaled boundary finiteelement solution is significantly less than the equivalent finiteelement solution at each error level.6 0. Scaled boundaryf finiteelement DOF 20 38 74 Time 398 2565 18524 Displacement 2. finiteelement solution.2 0. 10 7.0 HZTTT" 1 .113 X 105 2.113e X 105 .144 {Uh (§.8 0. [5]). 2% and 0. the finiteelement method returns finite stresses at the interior comer.5%.109 X 105 2. Advantage is taken of the biaxial symmetry.0 Fig. the solution time in milliseconds. The problem was analysed using both the adaptive scaled boundary finiteelement procedure and the adaptive finiteelement procedure with target error levels of 5%. Poisson's ratio is taken as 0. This is illustrated in Fig.} (18) w^^^^^ i ^ \^ A stress recovery technique has been developed by Deeks and Wolf [4].P. and the displacement at point A in Fig. The true stress field contains a singularity at the interior comer O. J.5% 670 1774 4986 Time 1805 6775 37136 Displacement 2. Example The example represents a quarter of a square plate with a square hole under uniaxial tension. and the power of the singularity follows directly. A fast active column solver with profile optimisation is used in the finiteelement implementation. 3. p'M—' ^ 1^ L_! ^< ^ > Fig.J. 3. 2 calculated by the two methods for the 5% analysis is plotted. The time taken for the scaled boundary finiteelement solution at the 5% error level is about 20% of the time taken for the Table 1 Superior performance of the scaled boundaryfiniteelementmethod Error target Finite element DOF 5% 2% 0. There is excellent agreement between the methods (which is expected since the error level is the same. allowing implementation of an /zhierarchical adaptive procedure [5].113 X 105 2. except in the vicinity of the singular point. The scaled boundary finiteelement solutions and the finiteelement solutions are in close agreement. This example has been used extensively in the adaptive finiteelement literature (e.
the stresses near the singularity are more accurately modelled.24:337357. Deeks. Zienkiewicz OC. in press. Conclusions This paper shows that problems containing stress singularities can be solved accurately and efficiently using the scaled boundary finiteelement method.147:329355. These results were achieved using generalpurpose eigenvalue extraction routines. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng 1997. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987. J. Deeks AJ. Deeks AJ. Song Ch. Submitted for publication. 1996. The example shows that the cost in both computing time and memory usage is lower for the scaled boundary finiteelement method than for the finiteelement method at all target error levels. Computational Structures Technology. 4th Int. Edinburgh 1998. The scaled boundary finiteelement method — a semianalytical fundamentalsolutionless boundaryelement method. Wolf JP. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. The scaled boundary finiteelement method — alias consistent infinitesimal finiteelement cell method — for elastodynamics. Conf. Wolf JP. Wolf JP. pp. Deeks AJ. An adaptive /?hierarchical finite element system. Song Ch.A J. and considerable improvement in the scaled boundary finiteelement results can be expected when the solution routines are optimised. Zhu JZ. Chichester: Wiley. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng. An /zhierarchical adaptive procedure for the scaled boundary finiteelement method. Wolf JP. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. In addition. FiniteElement Modelling of Unbounded Media. In: Advances in Finite Element Techniques and Procedures. . 115124. Wolf JP. [2] 145 [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] References [1] Song Ch. Stress recovery and error estimation for the scaled boundary finiteelement method. P. Submitted for publication.
dynamic analysis is necessary to determine the vibration response of these structures. aerospace structures and ship structures are frequently subjected to dynamic loads and thus. Bahai Department of Systems Engineering. Middlesex UBS 3PH. The formulation allows the shifting of the natural frequencies and solves for the required modification on chosen geometric and material properties.uk © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Bathe (Editor) is based on Rayleigh's work. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. All rights reserved. In the last few years the work on the inverse problem done by Gladwell [13] started to be taken seriously by engineers and researchers interested in this field of engineering. Tel. Further research on structural modification was carried out by Tsuei and Yee [57] who presented a method of shifting the desired eigenfrequencies using the forced response of the system. The modification can either be global or local. In addition to the modification of the existing structural elements the formulation can also be used to add new structural elements to achieve the desired natural frequencies. Email: emsrmsd@brunel. Early work in this direction done by Wilkinson [1]. Van Belle [2] and Vanhonacker [3] utilised the 1st order terms of Taylor's series expansion and * Corresponding author. Uxbridge. To eliminate the need to reanalyse the whole structure. Sivan and Ram [911] extended further the research on structural modification by studying the construction of mass spring system with prescribed natural frequencies. Desired frequencies. Structural vibration.J. . Pinjointed structures. This complete reanalysis of the structure is often very expensive and a time consuming task. Eigenvalues. More recently Kim [8] investigated the use of mass matrix modification to achieve desired natural frequencies.146 Relocation of natural frequencies using physical parameter modifications M.ac. Chen and Garba [4] used the iterative method to modify structural systems. they obtained stiffness and mass matrices using the orthogonality principles. Crosssectional area 1. The calculations involved do not include any iteration or convergence and therefore it is computationally efficient. the resulting stiffness or mass matrix may not be physically implemented. Structural modifications. The common industrial practise for optimising the design is to subject the proposed structure to a series of structural modifications based on the engineer's experience. Djoudi*. Fax: +44 (1895) 812556. In reference [9] Sivan and Ram developed a new algorithm based on Joseph's work [12] which involves the solution of the inverse eigenvalue problem. Keywords: Inverse problem. The formulation allows the determination of the necessary modifications on the structural members to achieve the specified frequency. which is usually slightly different from a structure previously analysed. more research effort was conducted towards developing new concept with sufficient information to find the exact modified parameters. It is a common design requirement to ensure that all the natural frequencies are far away from the frequency caused by the exciting forces. In this paper an efficient formulation between the geometric and material properties of structures and their eigenvalues is established. However. UK Abstract An efficient relationship between physical properties of pinjointed structures and their eigenvalues is established. Brunei University. H.S. Introduction Many engineering constructions such as highway bridges. which yield the required natural frequencies. The work is applied to both discrete and continuous systems. Although in the present paper only simple structures are considered the formulation can be applied to large and more complex structures.: +44 (1895) 274000. Each series requires the analysis of modified structure.
Xdl)'^^^.Xdl . Eq.Xd^M)^u .n R2. For the new system to be constructed. 8 is the displacement vector and ko is the eigenvalue of the original system.Af A M O ) M = 0 r If we premultiply the above equation by O^ and use the orthogonality characteristic of O with respect to K and M we obtain the following equation: iSl + ^^ AK^ .n AA1 + R2 = 0 (12) • • . The characteristic equation of the modified system for the eigenvalue Xd is given by: ^1.2 • Rl.Xdiy^^^(K' This can be written as {8} = AA[F][G]8 = AA[R]{8} (10) .Xd^^AM^)u (7) By premultiplying both sides by O and rearranging the equation. which accounts for such relationship is easily obtained and hence the change of stiffness or mass required for shifting the eigenvalues can easily be evaluated. ^K = AA[K'] AM = AA[M'] (1) equation of motion becomes: (K\AKXdM . Theoretical consideration To construct a system with desired eigenfrequencies it is necessary to find a relationship between the structural parameters of the system and its eigenfrequencies.M. a modification in the area parameter would result in both stiffness as well as mass modification. AA is the change in the area of the modified member and [K'] and [ M ' ] are the stiffness and mass matrices of the modified member where the area is taken as unity. (K]AK(/TO + AK^ XdM . [G] = [K' .n .XdM'] and [R] = [F][Gl Eq. In the following section a formulation giving the crosssectional area modification as function of the required eigenfrequency is first developed.1 ^1. H. the modification carried out on the structural properties of the system must have a physical meaning (realisable). (3) can be transformed to modal coordinates by putting 8 = ^u where 0 is the mass normalised modal matrix.XdAM)^u (8) By substituting for AK. However.S. this would result in modifications in both stiffness and mass matrices of the structure and hence the Rl. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.0 ( ^ .2 • • • AA1 + Rn.n Rl. For a pinjointed truss structure both the stiffness and mass modifications can be given as functions of the area modification of any member in the structure. Djoudi. however the resulting stiffness of the modified system cannot be physically implemented. AM and Ow by AA [K']. This formulation can then be used to obtain the elastic modulus variation as function of the desired eigenfrequency. For example in the case of truss structures both the elastic modulus and the crosssectional area of the bars can be modified to shift the eigenfrequencies. (6) can be written as: u = (QXdir\^^AK^ . A A . Whereas. we obtain ^u = . M is the mass matrix.XoM)8 = 0 (2) Rn. The equation of motion for the free vibration of a dynamic system is given by: (K . For a discrete system such as mass spring systems.Xdiy^<^^{AK .2 A A .2 where K is the stiffness matrix of the system.i /?2.XdM^ =0 (4) (5) .n where AK and AM are the variations or modifications on the system stiffness and mass matrices respectively. Any modification on the elastic modulus would cause only stiffness modification of the structures. and when only one or two degrees of freedom are involved. A A [M'] and 8 respectively we obtain: 8 = AAcD(^ . for systems with a large number of degrees of freedom and continuous systems special algorithms have to be developed.n (11) where the terms Rij are function of the eigenvalue Xd.XdM')8 (9) where [F] = <^(Q .l + R2. If a modification A A is carried out on any member of the structure. The formulation.Xd^'^AM^)u =0 (6) where Q is the diagonal eigenvalue matrix and / is the unity matrix. Hence. (10) can be written in matrix form as: AA^ + /?i. The formulation is very simple. Eq. A contribution in this direction was made by Esat and Akbar [14].1 Ri.XdAM)8 = 0 141 (3) where Xd is the new eigenvalue of the modified structure.1 + Rn. They presented the stiffness of the system as a function of the desired eigenvalues and showed that the stiffness varies linearly with the eigenvalues.
However. The addition of new bars is also considered in this example. is necessary to achieve the desired frequency. Plane truss structure. Fig. E=2. It is seen that the first frequency is most sensitive to bars Ci and C2. 4 shows the percentage variation of the first natural frequency with the required percentage variation on the crosssectional area of the bars.1. for example in this case. for example 1. This example is used to illustrate the modification required on the cross sectional area of the bars to shift the lowest frequency.8 X 10"'^ m^ for B2 bars (horizontal members in top level) • A = 0. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics bar1 bar9 • bar2 bar3 • bar 11 • bar? bar 12 bar 10  Eqs. 2. A solution for the above problem can be obtained by solving the characteristic equation (12) and obtaining A A. Plane truss The first example is a twelve bar truss cantilever as shown in Fig. 3 and 9 only.1xlO"N/m2 p=7860kg/m3 Fig. 1. It can be seen that while an increase in the cross sectional area of some bars. Space truss structure The second example consists of the tower shown in Fig. Numerical examples: 3.3 and 7.S. a shift in the frequency by 2% cannot be obtained by modifying the cross sectional area of bars 1.4 X 10"'* m^ for T2 bars (diagonal members in top level) The sensitivity of the lowest natural frequency to any modification on the crosssectional area of the different bars is first investigated.8 X 10""^ m^ for Ti bars (diagonal members in bottom level) • A = 0. The cross sectional areas for each bar is given by: • A = 3 X 10""^ m^ for Ci and C2 bars (comer columns in bottom and top levels respectively) • A = 1. 1.2. 3. Fig. The dimensions and material properties are shown E=2xlO"N/m2 p=7860kg/m^ A=5xl0^m^for all bars 200 g 150 4 V. . 1. These are shown in Fig. in the same figure. 2. Space truss structure. H. 3. It is also noticed that the fixed frequency may not be achieved by varying the area of some bars. (12) are for global modification where all the bars are to be modified at the same time and in this case n is equal to the total number of unconstrained degrees of freedom. The material properties and the cross sectional area of the bars are shown on Fig. This is due to the fact that the cross sectional area affects both the mass and stiffness matrices of the structure. 3.148 M. 100 o S •5 50 0 > ^ 50 100 % Variation of first frequency Fig. if this is not the case then only the terms corresponding to the nodes associated with the modified bars are retained. Djoudi. 3. the designer can compare the set of results and choose the structural member to be modified. Therefore.5 X 10""^ m^ for Bi bars (horizontal members in bottom level) • A = 0. other bars require their areas to be decreased. The lowest natural frequency of the structure has been increased by A / = 5% through steps of 0. Variafion of first frequency with required modification on bars area.5% and for each step the required change in the cross sectional area of each bar is obtained.2. if no restriction is made on which bar is to be modified to shift the frequency.
Optimal construction of massspring system with prescribed model and spectral data. [8] Kim KiooK. AIAA J 1980. Higher order sensitivities in structural design. Inverse vibration problems for finite element models. [6] Yee E. [2] Van Belle H.S. Modelling. Modal Analysis. J Comput Struct 1993.176(2):225234. Inverse eigenvalue problem in structural design. [10] Ram YM. [3] Vanhonacker P. Garba JA. The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. Modification of stiffness for shifting natural frequencies of damped mechanical systems.• — C 2 bars . Diagnostics and Control Analytical and Experimental ASME 1991. This approach provides the structural designers with efficient algorithm. Mass and stiffness modification to achieve desired natural frequencies. Synthesis of multibody systems for desired eigenfrequencies. Singapore. 4.30(12):28902896. . Yee E. Differential and difference sensitivities of natural frequencies and mode shapes of natural structures.46:10411048. Congress and exhibition. J Sound Vib 1994. Inverse Probl 1997. J Sound Vib 1997. Djoudi. [9] Sivan D. Tsuei YG. ASME. AIAA J 1991 . AIAA J 1982. 1963. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics !•—C1 bars .201(3):323334. Variation of first frequency with the required modification in the crosssectional area of bars. A method for modifying dynamic properties of undamped mechanical systems. 101106. Ram YM. [7] Yee E. [11] Sivan D. AIAA J 1980. [12] Joseph KT. DEVol. 62109. A review of mass matrices for eigenproblems. Oxford University Press. Enlarging a spectral gap by structural modification.» ^ B 2 bars Ud—T1 bars —H—T2 bars 149 References [1] Wilkinson JH.18:15111514.20:286288. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 1989. H. which is formulated in such a way that no iterations or convergence are involved in the process and only few calculations are required to obtain the necessary modifications.> ^ • i '—m 100 % Variation of first frequency Fig. [14] Esat II.29( 11): 19731977. 4. [5] Tsuei YG. 38.M. Tsuei YG. Commun Numer Methods Eng 1996. Akbar S. Conclusion In this paper a method for determining the required structural modification to achieve desired frequencies for pinjointed structure is established. AIAA J 1992. ASIA976. The formulation allows the determination of the necessary modifications on the material and geometric structural properties to shift any of the frequencies to desired positions.111:403408.B 1 bars .12:531542.18:684690. [13] Gladwell GML. pp.29(4):421434. and the structural modifications can also include the addition of new structural members. Analytical model improvement using modal test results. pp. [4] Chen JA.A . Method for shifting natural frequencies of damped mechanical systems. The approach can be used to increase as well as decrease the natural frequencies. 100 60 20 •I 20 r^\ ^ 4 60 . Ram YM.
tum.150 Fourier transformed boundary integral equations for transient problems of elasticity and thermoelasticity F. This approach is based on new boundary integral equations (BIE) for the computation of the entries of the standard BEM matrices which are obtained by a spatial and temporal Fourier transform of the traditional BIE. Lehrstuhl fiir Baumechanik. Barbier [1].p as the stiffness and the mass density respectively. The insights gained from this prototype are transferred later to isotropic and anisotropic elasticity and thermoelasticity.t r) dQy dr dF^ dt + X ! / / ^k{t)(pi{x) I i qij(Pi{y)(pj(T) '•J R+ r.y.q are approximated by spatial (Pi{x) and temporal trial functions (j)j{t) u(x.r) R+ r V R+ ^ X U(x . The boundary quantities u.E. '•J q(x. K(x)u{x.duddeck@bv. R+ Fy *Tel. the fundamental solution U.co) with EA. Prototypic example: FourierBIE for the bar To illustrate the general principle of the new approach we start with the simple example of an elastic bar. K is the free term. (pi leads to the GalerkinBIE. we only need the transform of the fundamental solution and not the fundamental solution itself.tT)dr. (1) xU(x y.T)Q(xy.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.dT.: +49 (89) 26025472. Arcisstrasse 21.t . The differential equation and its Fourier transform are {—EAd^.r) dVy dr dF. Fundamental solution. Fax: +49 (89) 26025474. Transient problem. Keywords: Boundary element method. dt are differentiations according space and time. Email: fabian. dt ~ X ! / / ^kiO(piM / / iiij(Pi(y)(pj(r) ^'j R+ r . Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.t) f> (EAP — pa)^)ii{x.\pd^) u{x.v R+ Tv + 11 qiy.t . Here. and the fundamental traction Q = EAd^U.Duddeck* Technical University of Munich. t) dF^ dt = = JlMt)(Piix)fjf(y. an alternative BEMapproach was presented in Duddeck and Pomp [6] and Duddeck and Geisenhofer [5]. JC are the circular frequency and the wave number. All rights reserved. t) ^^qij(Pi{x)(l)j{t). D80333 Munich. a. The displacement boundary integral equations (BIE) are for vanishing initial conditions.M. e. Bonnet [2].. Thermoelasticity 1. In these equations. t) ^ ^Uij(pi{x)(t)j{t).J. Bathe (Editor) X Q(x y.g. Transient problems can be tackled by a Galerkin timestep scheme.r) dF^ dr dF.. (?) denotes a Fourier transformed quantity and 9^. Fourier transform. cf. Galerkinboundary integral equations.t .T)d^vdr •y. '^J (2) Temporal and spatial weighting with 0^:. (3) .T)U(x . u is the displacement and / the volume force.t) = fix.t) = / f(y. this method is extended to dynamic problems. Germany Abstract To overcome the restriction of actual boundary element methods (BEM) to cases where fundamental solutions are known.t T)drvdT with the traction ^ = £A9yM on the boundary F^ with outer normal y. dr. R+Tv Jf (t)(piix)K(x)uix. The former is always available as long as the underlying differential operator is linear and has constant coefficients.co) = f{x. Elasticity.T)Uix 7/ R+Tv R+Tv u(y. respectively.y..
i. As spatial trial and Fig. cf. Ku) = {4.JYfA [m/s].1/2)] _ f(x.t) = 0. q. the 0 0 •• 2dtco^ ' processus after construction of the boundary element methWith homogeneous initial conditions and with boundary ods (BEM) matrices can directly be taken from standard conditions u(0. we give only the crucial point of constructing the Fourier transformed fundamental solution (0[^f. 0)) we get the equivalent FourierBIE. cf. fQ) . t) = 8(x .• • 1 + J2{^Iv!. .t) and boundary traction ^(0. .(7) We regard as an example a transient volume force. 2.^.Y^[(t)m.E. 1. We abbreviate by defining the convolution a ^ b = /RXE^(>'' '^)^(^ ~ y.H(0] + — ^ [ H ( 0 . ^(0. fix. U(x. t) dx df.[^lcpJ. Geometry and loading of the bar. Fig.H(^ . The Fourier transform of (6) leads to the Fourier traction BIE: (6) In the full paper. Kq) = (0j^f.t . Boundary displacement u(L. fu) + jy>lvj.{^I$!^^ij^i4>jQ)^ (5) where the factor {2ny^ was cancelled.^. Duddeck/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics All quantities are extended formally to M x M to apply spatial and temporal Fourier transform. 0 . (\im(pj^Q) + Yl{^k(Ph yxij(pi(t)j^S). cf.jV'ihs). p L=2 • ^ ~ Yl^^^^^ ^ij^i(t>i * 2> (4) ^ Fig. Kq) = {(Pkcpi.t) = 0 we get the displaceBEM algorithms.4>jQ) u(L.H(/ . 1.dr and the scalar product {a. %UjU) ~T. The double integrations in the original domain are replaced by single intet ]dt t dt Po = —7—[Ha + dO .li. co) = [EAppa)^]K The traction BIE needed for symmetric BEM is es2.t) I • • • . t). Fig.t) The wave velocity is Cp = s/EA/p = .L/4)[H(0 . {4>lvJ..co) = e ^ixL/4_ i(oL/A 100 4 t '^ ' 8 ^0 (8) \\ q(0. f^Q) .h) = {2n)^[a^. The Fourier transformed fundamental soments and tractions at w(L. t)b(x. The transformed BIE lead d^ dt to the same matrices as the conventional BIE.q(L. for example 1 — C S (o. we present the dynamic FourierBIE for arbitrary anisotropic elastic and thermoelastic media. Extension to elasticity and thermoelasticity tablished by derivation dy of the BIE.dO grations in the Fourier domain. KU) = {(pkCPl.b) with a^ = a{x. Due to the limited space here. {(pk(pi. Due to the convolution theorem a * Z ^ a^ and ? Parseval's theorem {a.0 for the bar. Therefore. do O {(l>k(ph qij(Pi(l)j^U) = ^[$T^T^ qij(pi$jU). f^U)\Y^{(pk(Ph C\ij(Pi(l)j * U) 151 L/4 f(x. Duddeck and Pomp [6]. 2. we get with The linear temporal trial and test functions (pj for the yth time step were constructed by translations t ^ t — j dt in the original domain and by modulation with e''^^^"^ in the transformed domain of the reference element S = dyQ^S = ivxQ: {(l>k(pi.J.j0. lution U as the response to / = 8(x)8(t) ^ / = 1 is obtained by simple inversion.T)d}. test functions we have for w(L): forg(O): (pi{x) = 8(x — L) (P2(x) = 8{x) ^f> ^ <^i(^) = e"'^^ (^2(^) = 1.e. I • • . and the length of of the bar is L = 2 [m].FM.t) EA. h) = f^^^ a(x.Y.
Calculation of BEM matrices by Fourier transform. [6] Duddeck F. lyxi +pap— CX2X\ CX3X2 IJLX"\poJ'' r]X\co .152 for linearized thermoelasticity. Anisotropic elasticity and thermoelasticity problems can be treated in two or three dimensions. TU Munich. A general boundary element method for homogeneous differential operators — linear or nonlinear. submitted for publication.0. The fourdimensional Fourier transform of these equations is P{x.u^.r + Wjjt = PI^. Boundary Integral Equation Methods for Solids and Fluids. Dynamic Problems of Thermoelasticity. p sue the increment of the temperature and the heat sources./3. iyx\ +pa)^ CX2X\ /xx — c. Pomp A. [7] Nowinski W./2. Leyden: Noordhoff. submitted for publication. PhD thesis. ^. i. U = [P]"'.a)) = —f(x. CX2X3. [5] Duddeck F. y. Geisenhofer M. The transformed fundamental solution is obtained by simple matrix inversion. [3] Duddeck F Funktional Analysis in Solid Mechanics — Spatial and Temporal Fourier Transform of Energy Methods (in German).(A h /ji)ujji + yOj + pt^ijt = fi and —Ojj + ^^. [2] Bonnet M. 1997. ECCOMAS 2000. Barcelona. Math Comput. . p/x]. 1975.co)u(x. References [1] Barbier D.f = [/i. PhD thesis.9].r] are constants of heat conduction. The four differential equations are (cf. 1999. Comput Mech. A general boundary element method for anisotropic plates. . co) with the symbol —/xx" ex1^2 — CX\XT. Methode des potentiels retardes pour la simulation de la diffraction d'onde elastodynamique par une fissure tridimensionnelle. Nowinski [7]): fiUijj . ^T r]X2C0 ^ ^ r]X3(o ^ ^ ^ ^ iyx3 (9) ^ and the vectors u = [uuU2. Ecole Polytechnique. 1999.e. [4] Duddeck F. New York: Wiley. This approach can be transferred to all linear and homogeneous differential operators.
J. Perth 6009. and accurately represents the physics of the problem. As with other strainrate based formulations for viscoelasticity. Stability in the elastic limit We need to choose a timestep which is both stable. a its Jaumann derivative. Stabihzation. Strains are typically very high. We study the relative values of the relaxation time a. There are two related 2. such as geological folding.csiro. Bathe (Editor) . Keywords: Viscoelasticity. Folding. we are able to study problems where the relaxation time is longer than any characteristic timescale of the deformation. All rights reserved. W is the material spin tensor.dem. Fax: +61 (8) 93891906. (1) * Corresponding author. center). Email: frederic@ned. Eq. Mathematical model We use a Maxwell viscoelastic constitutive relationship ao\a = 2r]D. It uses an Eulerian mesh to solve modified viscoplastic equations of motion. tr(D) \. The extent to which a Maxwell viscoelastic system behaves elastically depends greatly on the timescale of observation (see [2. Louis Moresi. D is the stretching. there is evidence of numerous occasions where creeping flow of sohd crustal rocks dominates deformation. Problems in the elastic range correspond to very soft effective viscosity. X is a penalty parameter. Hans Miihlhaus CSIRO Exploration and Mining.p = 0 A. and so may depend subjectively upon what we consider worth resolving in the time evolution of a problem. respectively. we refer to cases where the timescale of interest is small relative to the time over which stresses relax. strainrates are low (10"^"* s~0.3]).: f61 (8) 92848463. 1 (top) shows folds in Archean migmatitic gneiss). However. The particleincell finite element scheme [1] was designed to deal with very large deformation geological problems including folding (Fig. the representation of the material as a viscous fluid with additional stored stresses becomes less appropriate. through a simple stabilization procedure. 1. elastic and brittle effects influence the observed structures (for example. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.1. a = r]//! is the relaxation time and y/eff is an effective viscosity defined by ^^£7^2. As elasticity becomes more important. Introduction Within the geological record. Viscoelastic equations are solved for an increment of observation time At^ different from the advection timestep A^ An averaging procedure for the stresses is needed over a number of advection timesteps. the elastic timestep At^ and the advection timestep required to prevent any numerical instabilities and to obtain accurate results. and a Lagrangian set of particles which carry material history including stresses. Fig. Australia Abstract We present and discuss a new stabilization procedure for viscoelastic flow models of large deformation. Deborah number 1. (1) can be written in a finite difference form: ^t+At^ _ = '/eff 2Z) /x \At' orW (2) where At^ is the elastic timestep.153 A fluidlike formulation for viscoelastic geological modeling stabilized for the elastic limit Frederic Dufour*. Tel. viscous. where cr is the Cauchy stress tensor.3]. /x and r] are the elastic shear modulus and the shear viscosity. p = . Large deformation. Elastic displacements are calculated by integrating comparitively large velocities over short times. By "elastic" problems.au Crown Copyright © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. and a more explicit character to the solution strategy. the method is optimized for the viscous rather than the elastic limit [2. t r ( a ) .
154 F.Af^ = 10. the smaller the elastic timestep the more accurate the result. requiring a maximum value of 0). The stresses are then relaxed without further shortening. a given advection timestep (Ar = 0. 3) T o Theoretical solution . First we consider that the timescale over which we differentiate the stress rate. A^ In the update of internal stresses we now write: • 0»?eff I •(i(ip + Wa' . As expected from Eq. In order to determine the value of this fraction. impose a very short timestep then we may be forced to consider an unstable.0037) and different observation times {At'). and (2) if other physical processes. An instablity occurs if the advection timestep is larger than a certain fraction of the observation time.1 — At*^ = 0. 0 = ^ (4) This amounts to a running average of the stress over a time Af. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics times between the calculation of new velocity solutions. 1.. Quartzofeldspathic layers (light colors) defining asymmetric folds in Archean migmatitic gneiss. difficulties which may arise: (1) in the limit of elastic behaviour. northern Finland (top). mesh dependencies etc. At^. we repeated this study for a range of materials with different relaxation times.0095 t= 0.0). We compress a viscoelastic compressible unit square block on one edge with a constant velocity (V = 0. This procedure allows the choice of a physically relevant time to model elastic effects. Stability and accuracy of the solution for different observation timesteps (Ar^) and for fixed relaxation time and advection timestep. porous flow or chemical reaction. Simo. Dufour et al.M"" = 1. the averaging is strongly stabilizing for elasticity dominated problems. 3..05 Dimensionless time Fig..0098 ' 1 A* = 0. Stress measured at a point with the folding layer as a function of time (bottom). if we require that Ar is always less than Ar^ (in other words. We plot (Fig.0 .(T^W (3) f(l0V^^ where A^ . Application The choice of At' and 0 is illustrated by the following example.1) to 90% shortening. may be larger than the 4 6 Dimensionless time Fig. We address both these problems by the following stabilization. such as thermal diffusion. 2. (2). The pressure is benchmarked (Fig. Secondly. A numerical simulation of a viscoelastic layer with a yield stress (centre). and may be numerically unstable. this system is not well conditioned. quasielastic solution when there is little physical reason to do so.0 '•M" = 0. 0 . 2) against the analytical solution for a given material {a — 1. independent of that required by other physical processes.
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Localization.55 155 20 10 15 Relaxation time Fig. Dufour F. Jin H. 5 the less competent. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech 1988.35 to a folding problem (Fig. Crochet MJ. 3. 2000. 1 (bottom)). the more competent layer embedded into [1] Moresi L. The doublescale integration scheme presented solves accurately and effectively the model equations for Maxwell materials undergoing very large deformation. WA. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 0.41:171196. this scheme is able to solve any problems even in the elastic limit for large a. then the buckling occurs and leads to a drop in the stress (Fig. for all computations we keep the ratio Ar^ = or/100 (constant Deborah number). Linear regression on numerical values of the stability factor for different materials. This result also holds for other values of the ratio between Ar^ and a. Dufour et al.29:119146. Empirically established stability criteria for the two timesteps are t^f < a/100 and A^ < Ar''.F. [3] Debbaut B. [2] Tanner RI. Numerical simulation of highly viscoelastic flows through an abrupt contraction. Perth. The layer is broken by yielding concomitant with folding and the different parts of the beam straighten due to the elastic effect. 1) with two incompressible viscoelastic layers. References the stability factor 0 as a function of the relaxation time. Particleincell solution for creeping viscous flows with internal interfaces. Although the code was initially designed for viscous fluids. A study of some numerical viscoelastic schemes. We apply the stabilization procedure with (p — 0. In the limit of short observation times we find that the value of 0 required to stabilize the method is greater than 0. Miihlhaus HB. . Balkema. Marchal JM.35. Initially the competent layer is straight and axial stress increases with a constant shortening velocity. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech 1991.
hence we can write the following material derivatives ^' F Dt dt vV'F='l (2a) . In the present paper we outline a new solid mechanics Eulerian formulation that properly describes a finite strain elastoplastic deformation process and therefore seems to be specially suited for modeling stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes. Buenos Aires. Fax: h54 3489435312. * Corresponding author. Argentina Abstract Lagrangian formulations are suitable for modeling a material behavior that incorporates elasticity but are not specially appropriate for modeling stationary processes. Using the standard multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient we can write [1115]. 'F(1) For the strain rates we define in the spatial configuration the velocity gradient (^/) and the elastic velocity gradient (7 ). 1 that evolves from its reference configuration (/ = 0) to its spatial one {t). on the other hand. 2. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. also. In the present paper we outline a new solid mechanics Eulerian formulation that properly describes a finite strain elastoplastic deformation process and therefore seems to be specially suited for modeling stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes. when modeling the cold rolling of thin steel plates. The Eulerian solid mechanics formulation Let us consider the solid in Fig. on the other hand. 1054. Finite strain.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Dvorkin *. Elastoplasticity 1. When modeling certain metal forming processes it is not realistic to neglect the elastic deformations. for example.156 An Eulerian formulation for modeling stationary finite strain elastoplastic metal forming processes Eduardo N. Email: dvk@siderca. in some cases the model objective is to investigate phenomena that are governed by the elastic deformations such as spring back effects or the build up of residual stresses. the available Eulerian formulations are very appropriate for modeling stationary processes but fail to properly incorporate the elastic material behavior.10]. The resulting numerical model is equivalent to the one that describes the flow of an incompressible nonlinear fluid (at every point the viscosity is a function of the strain rate). Eulerian formulation. All rights reserved. the available Eulerian formulations are very appropriate for modeling stationary processes but fail to properly incorporate the elastic material behavior. Av. in all of the above mentioned cases it is necessary to use an elasticviscoplastic model rather than a rigidviscoplastic one. Tel: h54 3489435302. Finite elements. Those models were based on the flow formulation [8] and were implemented using an Eulerian description of motion via the pseudoconcentrations technique [9. Introduction In previous publications [17] we presented the development of finite element models for simulating stationary metal forming processes under the assumption of rigidviscoplastic material behavior. Stationary problems. Keywords: Metal forming. Bathe (Editor) Lagrangian formulations are suitable for modeling a material behavior that incorporates elasticity but are not specially appropriate for modeling stationary processes. Dolores Demarco Center for Industrial Research. FUDETEC.J. in our formulation the free surfaces are described using the pseudoconcentrations procedure which does not incorporate the complications of the standard free surface algorithms that require shifting nodes and the use of remeshing procedures. Cordoba 320.
(5) where ^T^ are the Cartesian components of the deviatoric Kirchhoff stress tensor. t r ^ + v_(. we get. ^dtj are the Cartesian components of the spatial strain rate tensor.E. at time t. = l n ( / l f ^ ) ) [ 1 8 ] .p'c'v) = o. A new ^cdistribution is determined using Eq. (10) u =n • d =vp (4) Using Perzyna's viscoplastic constitutive relation we can write in the spatial configuration [19]. At each point of the spatial configuration the stress tensor has to fulfil the relations (5). 'v'V'c = 0.. for isotropic elasticity we assume cOyp = 0 [18]. Dt dt + 'v'YLL ='L 'iK (2b) where ^y_ is the material velocity field. Demarco /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Reference Configuration Spatial Configuration 157 where ^a/y are the Cartesian components of the Cauchy stress tensor. (10) and afterwards the velocity field is updated. In the intermediate configuration we define the viscoplastic velocity gradient CL ).)(5„. If we assume a trial distribution of ^c we can use Eqs. within prescribed tolerances. using the elastic Hencky strain tensor ('^. / ^aij 8dij ^ dv 'RiSvi (7) . (9) We can decompose lyp into a symmetric component (dyp) and an antisymmetric one (coyp). as compared with the points where actual material is present). ^Rt are the Cartesian components of the external loads and ^ V is the volume of the body in the spatial configuration.=t^L CM'. its pushforward to the spatial configuration is [17].N. we define a variable ^c such that the spatial configuration of the body is the locus of the set of points that have ^c > 0.). (6a) and (6b). (3) d'p'c dt (^r. 'r. and considering also mass conservation. 3.and ^i. The new formulation is based on: • An Eulerian description of motion implemented via the pseudoconcentrations technique. Dvorkin. based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and on a hyperelastic constitutive equation for the elastic part.distributions are coincident. TAB = [!. incompressibility was not invoked for deriving the above equation.^c*('^a(>)]^g T =a : 'H (6a) (6b) Please notice that being the material elastoplastic. vp — hp'cdv DtJ "^ =0 (8) and using Reynolds transport theorem [16] we get. (17) to determine the velocity field ^i. D.f = 2/x(?„. the flow is not incompressible and therefore. The pseudoconcentrations technique In 9^^. Multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Defining ^c as "pseudoconcentration per unit mass" we can postulate the conservation of ^c in a control volume V Intermediate Configuration Fig. In a forthcoming paper we will discuss the finite element implementation of the proposed Eulerian formulation. (for the points with ^c < 0 we consider "small" elasticity constants and a "small" viscosity. Calling ^r_ the tensor we get by pullingback the components Tij from the spatial configuration to the intermediate one we can write the following hyperelastic constitutive relation. Hence [18]. 1. The iteration loop is followed until at two successive iterations the ^c. also the velocity field has to fulfil the Principle of Virtual Work [20]. For a stationary process. 4. • A sound description of finite strain elastoplastic deformation processes. Conclusions A new soUd mechanics formulation was developed for the modeling of stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes.
Part I: Continuum formulation. 1997. Marsden JE. Cavaliere MA. Int J Forming Process (ESAFORM) 1998. Zielonka MG. [9] Thompson E. Smelser RE. Int J Solid Struct 1977. Advances in Applied Mechanics. NJ: PrenticeHall. Goldschmit MB.36:16. In: Wunderlich W et al.14:1528. Englewood Cliffs. Perzyna P. Repetto EA. CIMNE. Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity. Finite Element Procedures.6:749761. Academic Press. Dvorkin EN.66:199219. Goldschmit MB. (Eds). 1966. Dvorkin.25:177189. Pantuso D. A three field element via augmented Lagrangian for modelling bulk metal forming processes. Englewood Cliffs. Second ECCOMAS (European Community on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences) Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering.N. [5] Cavaliere MA. Cavaliere MA. NJ: PrenticeHall. Goldschmit MB. Cavaliere MA. Liu DT. 1969. Goldschmit MB. Part II: Computational aspects. vol 9. In: Owen DRJ et al (Eds). Flow of solids during forming and extrusion: some aspects of numerical solutions. [4] Dvorkin EN. Use of the pseudoconcentrations to follow [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] . J Appl Mech 1969. Amenta PM. Malvern LE. Englewood Cliffs. [8] Zienkiewicz OC. Cavaliere MA. Goldschmit MB. In: Proc. [6] Dvorkin EN. Demarco /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics creeping viscous flows during transient analysis. A Finite element formulation for finite strain elastoplastic analysis based on mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Lee EH. A framework for finite strain elasto plasticity based on maximum plastic dissipation and the multiplicative decomposition. Petocz EG. Simo JC.158 References E. Bathe KJ. Amenta PM. Thompson E. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 1986. Munich. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1988. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1988. J Appl Phys 1967. Elastic plastic deformation at finite strain. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1985. Conf.68:99107.68:131. Proceedings Fifth Int.114:3554. On the modelling of bulk metal forming processes. Wiley 1996. Proceedings European Conference on Computational Mechanics. Simo JC. [1] Dvorkin EN. Comput Mech 1995.17. An effective technique for modelling 2D metal forming processes using an Eulerian formulation. Cavaliere MA. On the modeling of steel product rolling processes. [7] Dvorkin EN. 1999. Amenta MP. 3D modeling of bulk metal forming processes via the flow formulation and the pseudoconcentrations technique. Eng Comput 1993.49:221245. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994.10:323336. 2D finite element parametric studies of the flat rolling process. Lee EH.29. 1:211242. Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium. Dvorkin EN. Marini O. Ortiz M. [2] Dvorkin EN. New developments for the modeling of metal rolling processes. Jain PC. D. Stroppiana W. Transient analysis of forging operations by the pseudoconcentrations method. Onate E. Simo JC. J Mater Process Technol 1997. A framework for finite strain elastoplasticity based on maximum plastic dissipation and the multiplicative decomposition. [3] Dvorkin EN.38:1727. Fundamental problems in viscoplasticity. Finite strain elasticplastic theory with application to planewave analysis. Goldschmit MB. NJ: Prentice Hall. A unified approach to finite deformation elastoplastic analysis based on the use of hyperelastic constitutive equations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1988. 1996. on Computational Plasticity. 1983. Hughes JR.
there is a destabilizing effect due to the resultant pressure load and therefore. Argentina Abstract The global buckling (Euler buckling) of slender cylindrical pipes under internal/external pressure and axial compression is analyzed. In Fig. for the cases in which the bifurcation limit loads are inside the elastic range. It is demonstrated that the limit loads evaluated via the nonlinear paths tend to the approximate analytical bifurcation loads when these limit loads are inside the elastic range and the imperfections size tends to zero. for which the axial compressive load (T) has a constant part (C) and a part proportional to the internal pressure (p/). For perfectly straight elastic pipes an approximate analytical expression for the bifurcation load is developed. Tel. we show via numerical examples that. coming from the net internal (external) pressure. Euler buckling. Pipeline 1. Toscano * Center for Industrial Research. let us assume that we perturb the straight equilibrium configuration getting an infinitely close * Corresponding author. Introduction When a straight pipe under axial compression and internal (external) pressure is slightly perturbed from its straight configuration there is a resultant force. In the second section of this paper we develop an approximate analytical expression for calculating the Euler buckhng load for elastic perfectly straight cylindrical pipes (bifurcation limit load) and in the third section we develop a finite element model to determine the equilibrium paths of imperfect (non straight) elastoplastic cylindrical pipes. 2. The analysis of the buckling load of slender cylindrical pipes under the above described loading is important in many technological applications. For constructing the nonlinear paths of imperfect (non straight) elastoplastic pipes a finite element model is developed. the design of pipelines. if the internal pressure is higher than the external one. Dvorkin.J. FUDETEC. for example. 1 we present a simple case. 1054.: +54 (3489) 435302. 1 we represent a perfectly straight slender cylindrical pipe. Hence. Cordoba 320. Axial compression. Buenos Aires. in equihbrium under an axial compressive load and internal pressure. however. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. that tends to enlarge (diminish) the curvature of the pipe axis. Rita G. T = C + kpi (1) where ^ is a constant depending on the particular application. Av. External pressure. That is to say. Email: sidrto@siderca. Elastic buckling of perfect cylindrical pipes 2. for a straight pipe under axial compression. Of course. Internal pressure In Fig. From the analysis of the nonlinear equilibrium paths it is possible to determine the limit loads of pipes under axial compression and internal/external pressure. the pipe limit loads tend to the bifurcation limit loads when the imperfections size tends to zero.159 Effects of internal/external pressure on the global buckling of pipelines Eduardo N. Keywords: Internal pressure. All rights reserved. Fax: F54 (3489) 435310. on the other hand when the external pressure is higher than the internal one the resultant pressure load has a stabilizing effect and therefore the pipe Euler buckling load is higher than the Euler buckling load for the same pipe but under equilibrated internal/external pressures. this limit loads depend on the pipe imperfections.1. Bathe (Editor) .com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. the pipe Euler buckling load is lower than the Euler buckling load for the same pipe but under equilibrated internal/external pressures.
If for some loading level. a«sm^. Due to the polar symmetry of the problem we consider that all the displacements v{x) are parallel to a plane.. (1). in the loadsdisplacements space. defined by /?.2./ qh^v (jc) djc = 0 (9) and [1].160 E.G.Using Eqs. introducing the above in Eq. For a longitudinal fiber defined by the polar coordinates ix. /: inertia of the pipe section with respect to a diametral axis..2]. for the case of small strains.. qv(x)=0. is the pipe inner radius. qh{x) = q{x) cos [v'{x)]. (x) (11) where r. we get: qh(x) = pi7Trfv\x). On a differential pipe length. nnx ^_^ E n=l. (2) and (3) we get. being this an elastic problem. (9) we get for the fulfillment of equilibrium. qy{x) = q(x) sin [v\x)] . q(x)dx = 2 C S 0(1 +£. Hence.)^/d0djc O (3) E: Young's modulus of the pipe material. R. £xx = v'\x)rcosO (2) V) . Cylindrical pipe under internal pressure and axial compression.N. Toscano /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics I T=c + k Pj 1^^^ p^^ ^j^^ length has horizontal and vertical components that in our case {v'{x) <^\) are. When only conservative loads are acting on the pipe. sn = 0 where 77 is the potential energy. in the perturbed configuration. This We search for an approximate solution of the above equation using the Ritz Method [1].r. v{x). . configuration defined by the transversal displacement. of the points on the pipe axis. equilibrium is fulfilled if.. (5) Using a series expansion of the trigonometric functions and neglecting higher order terms. (12) . Dvorkin. this perturbed configuration is in equilibrium we say that the load level is critical (buckling load) because a bifurcation of the equilibrium path. 0 L (10a) (10b) 0 L I qh8v{x)dx= 0 j 0 —pi7Trfv"(x)8v{x)dx (10c) where e^^ is the axial strain and v"{x) = ^^^. V: potential of the external conservative loads. is possible. the resultant pressure force due to the pipe bending is normal to the bent axis direction (follower load) and its value is. (6) To analyze the equilibrium of the perturbed configuration. EI f [v'\x)f dx. therefore [3]: L 8{U Fig. (6). (7) n = u V (8) U: elastic energy stored in the pipe material. q{x) = piTtrfv'Xx) (4) which is the resulting force per unit length produced by the internal pressure acting on the deformed configuration. 1. we use the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy [1. therefore we try as an approximate solution. L L &]^^j[v"(x)f<^x'^j[v'(x)]'Ax + PiTzrf j v"(x)8v djc = 0.0) (see Fig. and by Eq. In our case we have to consider the displacement dependent loads (nonconservative) given by Eq. 1) we have..
o = n^EIic^ L2 (18a) n^ElTt^ (18b) C c r H~ K^Pecr Pecr^^i — n^ElTT^ L2 (14a) (14b) Ccr ^kpicr \ PicrT^rf It is interesting to realize that the above equations predict that there is a critical (buckling) pressure also if there is no axial compression {T = 0) and even if there is axial tension on the pipe (T < 0).2.Pin an=0 n = l.. open on both ends. The second solution gives the location of the bifurcation point (critical loading). we finally get. qhM = Pe7rrfv'\x). 2. In this case. n^EIn L^r] 2. (17) therefore. hence. if there are {n — I) intermediate supports we have.. C = 0 and k = —Jtrf. under internal pressure. closed on both ends.2. PecrTtr. (12). qy(x) = 0. Simply supported pipe open on both ends under internal pressure. 0 0 L dx Introducing the proposed approximate solution in Eq. under internal pressure (Fig. Dvorkin.G. • [^T^ .. closed on both ends.N. under external pressure. _ Pier — Eljt J.. (13) using as an approximation for the equilibrium configuration the one written in Eq. £ / n 4^4 V 2^ Tn^Tt 2 — PeTtrf j v'\x) 8v(x)dx = 0 (16) . from Eq. Peer — TT7~7 2\"* . Tcr + PicrTCrf = ^2^3 + Perf 0 n = l. which corresponds to an equilibrium configuration different from the straight one.rf) n^EIn and if the pipe has (n ~ I) intermediate supports. Peer — EiTt LHrj .. (15) Hence. L Fig. 2). using Eq. • Simply supported pipe. In this case: C = 0. that is to say.2. Let us consider the following case: • Simply supported pipe. which corresponds to the unperturbed straight configuration. k = TT (r^ — rf). (11) and taking into account that the an are arbitrary constants we get for equilibrium. R. (6) as. after some algebra we get for the equilibrium of the perturbed configuration. For this case C = 0 and k = nr^ therefore from Eq. From the above equations it is obvious that the external pressure has a stabilizing effect on the pipe.2 2' F cL" Obviously. Let us consider the following cases: • Simply supported pipe.Pi^f^] = 0. Eln'^Tt'^ 2^ Tn^Tt 2 The above equations have two possible solution sets: • Un = 0 . Hence. (18b) we get. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 161 "P T" rr An example of this case is the hydraulic testing of a pipe. External pressure H tl i For the cases in which the pipe is submitted to external pressure we rewrite Eq.E. for the nontrivial solution. the axial compressive load that makes the pipe buckle is higher than the Euler load of the pipe under equilibrated internal/external pressures.^ . (14b) we get. (14b) it is obvious that the only possible solution is the straight configuration and no bifurcation is possible.
Lateral displacement at the tube center [mm] Fig. 3. Nonlinear equilibrium paths for nonstraight elastoplastic cylindrical pipes An actual pipe is not perfectly straight. Grips with no clearance. L . C = 0. (12)). that for the case of internal pressure is (see Eq. (6)). 3 we plot the loaddisplacement equilibrium path for various values of a and in the same graph we plot the bifurcation limit load obtained using Eq. The load level of this limit point shall depend on the pipe imperfections.the second derivatives using a finite differences scheme.9 mm 12. and its random imperfections will have a projection on the buckling mode of the perfect pipe. We simply calculate. To provide a numerical example. Dvorkin. R. . 2 looo^'U . No clearance between the pipe and the grip We consider the following initial imperfection for the pipe axis. In order to analyze the nonlinear equilibrium paths of imperfect pipes we developed a finite element model using the general purpose finite element code ADINA [5]. • The pipe model is developed using an Updated Lagrangian formulation with an elastoplastic (associated von Mises) material model (finite displacements and rotations but infinitesimal strains) [6]. hence. (14b). Toscano /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the pipe axis. in our finite element implementation. will be lower than the bifurcation load of the perfect pipe and will tend to this value when the imperfections size tends to zero. it is obvious the stabilizing effect of the external pressure.1. In Fig.k = n{rlr}). Some basic features of the developed finite element model are: • The pipe behavior is modelled using Hermitian (Bernoulli) beam elements [6]. when analyzing the equilibrium path of a nonperfect pipe we shall encounter a limit point rather than a bifurcation point [4]. 3.N. 11 /57Tx\ I (19) which is obviously zero at the grips and is coincident with the first buckling mode predicted using the Ritz method (Eq. qh = piiTr^[v"{x)+^\x)] Comparing this result with the one corresponding to the pipe under internal pressure it is obvious that the pipe under external pressure can withstand a higher pressure without reaching the bifurcation load. 3. ^{x) = a 0 .G. • Acting on the beam elements we consider a conservative load ( r ) and a deformation dependent load normal to where f (x) is the initial imperfection of the pipe axis.200 mm 4 38.70 kg/mm^ 0. we use the finite element model to analyze the following case: Pipe outside diameter Pipe wall thickness Pipe length Intermediate grips Pipe yield strength Hardening modulus 60. hence.162 E.3 mm 3. Loaddisplacement curves.0 under the loading defined by an internal pressure and.
Loaddisplacement curves. Argentina). We analyze the same case that was considered in the previous subsection but allowing for a clearance between the grip and the pipe body of 5 mm. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from SIDERCA (Campana.2^ .0). the pipe limit loads tend to the bifurcation limit loads when the imperfections size tends to zero. ^W = 0. 4 it is obvious that the only imperfection that has an influence on the pipe critical load is the imperfection that is coincident with the first pipe buckling mode.G. we showed via numerical examples that.N. ( 5nx\ 1000 + I 0. R. 4 we plot the nonlinear equilibrium paths corresponding to the cases: • Clearance between grips and pipe body (initial imperfection as per Eq. NY: Pergamon Press. there is usually some clearance between the pipe and the grips. these limit loads depend on the pipe imperfections. The Analysis of Structures. unless the grips are welded to the pipe body. We constructed a finite element model to determine the nonlinear equilibrium paths. (20)). however. John Wiley and Sons.2. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity.2 4. Dvorkin.E. References [1] Hoff NJ.^ Case with no clearance at the grips V Lateral displacement at the tube center [mm] Fig. . From the results plotted in Fig. in the loadsdisplacements space. Clearance between grips and pipe body. of imperfect (nonstraight) elastoplastic pipes. 1982. 4. This expression incorporates the destabilizing/stabilizing effect of the internal/external pressure. for the cases in which the bifurcation limit loads are inside the elastic range. From the analysis of the nonlinear equilibrium paths it is possible to determine the limit loads of pipes under axial compression and internal/external pressure.0 . New York. 3. In Fig. We consider the following initial imperfection for the pipe axis. Of course. (19) with a = 1. Clearance between pipe and grips This is a more realistic case because. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 163 ] Bifurcation limit load : 3. [2] Washizu K. 2 — 100 1000 )"(T) (20) and between the rigid grip and the pipe we introduce a contact condition.37 kg/mm2 I f7 E •. and that it tends to the bifurcation limit load when a ^ 0. We can verify from this figure that the limit load increases when the size of the imperfection (a) diminishes. Conclusions We derived an approximate analytical expression for calculating the Euler buckling load of a pipe under axial compression and internal/external pressure. • No clearance between grips and pipe body (initial imperfection as per Eq. New York.Case with clearance at the grips . NY: 1956.
NY. NJ: Prentice Hall. R. Dvorkin. USA. PridmoreBrown DC.164 E. McGrawHill. Dynamics of Mechanical and Electromechanical Systems.N. 1975. McGrawHill. New York. [6] Bathe KJ.G. MA. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [5] ADINA R&D. Finite Element Procedures. 1996. Englewood CUffs. Plates and Shells. [4] Brush DO. NY: 1968. Kurtz EF. Watertown. [3] Crandall SH. Buckhng of Bars. Kamopp DC. New York. The ADINA System. Almroth BO. .
like other mixed formulations. the contact algorithm should satisfy a contact patch condition. In this paper. We classify the algorithm as a segmenttosegment procedure since it involves an accurate integration of the contact constraints over the surfaces of the contacting bodies. and assuming contact. the minimization problem is Body A 2.165 On a new segmenttosegment contact algorithm Nagi ElAbbasi. which satisfies both requirements. KlausJiirgen Bathe * Department of Mechanical Engineering. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Hi denotes the total potential of body I not accounting for contact effects. Fax: +1 (617) 2532275. Cambridge. not just using values at the nodes. Introduction To guarantee stability and optimal convergence. . Furthermore. The segmenttosegment algorithm involves a contact pressure interpolation and an accurate integration of the contact constraints over the surfaces of the contacting bodies. Stability. Numerical integration is carried out over subsegments based on the element topologies of both contacting surfaces. we present a new contact algorithm. contact formulations. Tel: +1 (617) 2536645. Contact formulation Consider a system consisting of two bodies in contact (Fig. Bathe (Editor) Fig. We describe the solution approach using 2D conditions but the theory is directly applicable to 3D conditions as well. Email: kjb@mit. The algorithm is applicable to both linear and quadratic element surface interpolations. which describes its ability to represent a state of constant normal traction between two flexible contacting bodies. Finite element solution. a review of the literature indicates that current contact algorithms do not satisfy both. Two bodies in contact. should satisfy an ellipticity and an infsup condition [1. mization problem min[nA(v) + n5(v)] (1) where v represents any admissible displacement. All rights reserved.2]. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. and K represents the set of functions satisfying the nopenetration contact constraint K = {\\\eV.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. a linear elastic material and frictionless conditions. USA Abstract A new contact algorithm is presented which satisfies both stability and the contact patch test. 77 Massachusetts Avenue. the stabiHty and contact patch conditions [3]. V = {\\\eH\ v^OonFz)} (3) and H^ is the usual Sobolev space. g(\) > 0 on F d (2) where g is the gap. 1. Using a Lagrange multiplier to enforce the contact constraint. However. Assuming infinitesimally small displacements. MA 02139. Keywords: Contact algorithm. the contact problem can be expressed as a constrained miniBodyB * Corresponding author. 1). Patch test 1.J.
New contact algorithm The algorithm involves a masterslave approach. all given at integration point /. with Ocontinuity between elements. the displacement v'^ can be interpolated from the nodal displacements on Fc as follows: where the A^ are the independent (usually nodal) multipliers on Fc and the interpolation function values /f^^ depend on the polynomial degree and interelement continuity of the contact pressure field. Accordingly. ElAbbasi. Note that the constraint function method can be used to solve the contact problem without the need for distinguishing between active and inactive contact constraints [1]. 2. The variational form of the contact problem can be obtained by extremizing Eq.V. Schematic of new contact algorithm.166 N. Fc. The polynomial degree j must be less than or equal to that of the element interpolation. Thus. It is important that we select a numerical quadrature rule that accurately evaluates the contact integral. 2. the integration intervals are based on 'subsegments' corresponding to any two neighboring nodes regardless of their surface of origin.A) = y ^ g W d F c (4) Qh = [x. For a point with coordinates x'^^^. is assumed to be the contactor. however.J. and the segments K are defined on Fc . The contact integral of Eq. x) where nc(v. The contact constraint is evaluated at the integration points (not necessarily the nodes) along Fc. where P/ denotes a polynomial of degree j . K. (5) is then converted to a summation over the integration points (see Fig. . converted to an unconstrained saddle point problem involving the following functional We then assume that the discretized Lagrange multiplier space Q/j is nz. the Lagrange multiplier value at integration point / is obtained as follows: A^^ = ^ / f ^ X (9) 3. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics r ('+!)* Target / surface T T I sCV Contactor surface F^ f • \ X> 1 • Target node o Contactornode X Integration point D Target point Contact pressure distribution Fig. (4) with respect to the field variables v and X. any integration scheme involving integration points that are dictated by only one of the two surfaces cannot exactly evaluate Eq. This accurate integration feature enables the algorithm to pass the patch test for both linear and quadratic elements. (5) regardless of the number of integration points used. For each integration point on the contactor surface Fc the displacement of the target point on Fr is interpolated as follows: y^ = J2hH (7) where w' is the integration weight factor. One of the surfaces. is the target as shown in Fig.\i^eP/{k)] (8) (5) and X is the contact pressure which can only be zero or positive. 2) n c = J2^c^'^(^c . and g^^ is the initial gap width. \ h e H'^\ X. This expression is piecewise continuous with possible discontinuities occurring at the nodes of either contact surfaces. Let the superscript / denote an integration point. X) = n^Cv) + OfiCv) + nc(v. N' is the unit normal vector to measure the gap. F j . an exact evaluation is possible. and ^ is a reference contact segment. and the other. If.(v.) • N' + g'o'] (10) =j:h'^< (6) where h'^ is the interpolation function (evaluated at point /) relating the displacement of the contactor point to the displacements of the contactor nodes.
Bathe KJ. the subsegment boundaries are determined by projecting the nodes of the target surface onto the contactor surface (only the edge nodes need to be projected for quadratic and higher order elements). 3. In the second step. Stability and patch test performance of contact discretizations. Satisfying the ellipticity condition depends on the use of appropriate finite elements and boundary conditions. Finite Element Procedures. KJ. >P>0 (11) The infsup condition is satisfied if the constant P is independent of the element size. Englewood Cliffs. the contact expression on each subsegment is integrated using Gaussian or NewtonCotes integration rules as shown in Fig. and it was found that with linear elements it is best to use a Hnear continuous pressure interpolation. The algorithm provides optimal performance by satisfying both the stability and the contact patch conditions. NJ: Prentice Hall. 5. the patch test is also passed by the algorithm [3]. elements the quadratic continuous pressure interpolation is optimal [3].j< 4 A. whereas with quadratic . the algorithm involves two main steps. In the first. Stability and patch conditions for contact algorithms Contact algorithms should satisfy the stability and patch conditions.A . [3] ElAbbasi N. Bathe KJ. the actual detailed solution algorithm needs still to be developed.J' 4 ® ^—^ (a) (b) Fig.'p 4 A. and (b) trapezoidal rule. submitted. Comput Struct. not on the contact formulation. As mentioned above. Location of integration points based on: (a) Gaussian quadrature. 4. 3. Conclusions A new segmenttosegment contact algorithm was developed which accurately evaluates the contact constraints between the contacting bodies. 1996. Hence. The stability of the new contact algorithm has been assessed numerically. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990. The infsup condition for contact problems can be represented as follows [3] inf sup frc^hg(yh)drc i/2. ElAbhasi. using linear or quadratic element displacement interpolations. [2] Brezzi F. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ O Contactor node • Target node x Integration point 167 4 4 ^eO^< 4—^ i ><—r^—KO 4 \. While the theory given here is directly applicable to 3D contact problems. A discourse on the stability conditions for mixed finite element formulations. Stability is represented by an ellipticity and an infsup condition.82:2757.r V/j References [1] Bathe KJ.
The contact surfaces * Corresponding author. In cases involving contact with a rigid target. The interpolation function passes through the end points po and p3. Canada Abstract A new algorithm for representing 2D contact surfaces is developed and implemented. and possesses a local support characteristic. M5S 3G8. Tel/Fax: +1 (416) 9785741. The results show a significant improvement in accuracy compared to traditional piecewise elementbased surface interpolation. The predicted contact stresses are also less sensitive to the mismatch in the meshes of the different contacting bodies. 1. 1). ON. All rights reserved. Introduction Most finite element based contact formulations rely on the element interpolation functions to describe the contact surface and to impose the kinematic contact conditions. Spline based surface interpolation and normal vectors .A. Email: meguid@mie. Splines. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Lagrange multipliers. Even when higher order elements. The new surface interpolation does not influence the element calculations.168 Modeling 2D contact surfaces using cubic splines N. 5 King's College Road.ElAbbasi. Smooth surfaces 1. Spline interpolation Fig. the normal vector is not uniquely defined at the nodes.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. the contact surface is defined as a sequence of lines (or curves) connecting the FE nodes with only C°continuity. it has not been used to describe the surfaces involved in contact between flexible bodies since the analytical surface profiles that describe the initial geometry cannot be used to describe the deformed one. In this paper. This approach has resulted in significant improvement in the solution accuracy. are used the contact surface is still nonsmooth at the exterior nodes. based on C^continous cubic splines. 2. University of Toronto.and 9noded elements. Ring compression.S. we develop an algorithm for smooth contact surface interpolation (Fig.J. analytical surface profiles and spline interpolation functions have been used to describe the rigid surface and its normal vector [1].Normal to element a Spline surface Element surface Fig. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Cubic splines. Keywords: Contact. A numerical example is used to illustrate the advantages of smooth representation of contact surfaces.Meguid* Engineering Mechanics and Design Laboratory. especially in metal forming applications [2]. The normal vector associated with the resulting surface profile is uniquely defined at all points. Consequently. However. The end Ns Normal to spline surface N. while the intermediate points pi and p2 dictate the shape of the curve. Toronto. Bathe (Editor) are described using cubic splines passing through the FE nodes and possessing C^continuity. Surface approximation. it can be easily implemented in standard FE codes. such as the 8. This interpolation is applicable to both rigid and flexible bodies and it can be easily implemented in finite element codes. In this case.utoronto. 1 shows a parametric cubic spline segment connecting two FE nodes. which simplifies the representation of the contact constraints. Consequently.
5. these vectors are generally not available in standard FE meshes. Interpolation functions can be constructed to satisfy a prescribed tangential vector. 2 was applied to the symmetry surface of the ring. The spUne curve can be expressed directly in terms of the coordinates of the two nodal points defining the segment and their two adjacent surface nodes: — ^w' \. The contact stresses were normahzed by the bending stiffness of the beam. the spline curve can be considered as a linear blend of two parabolas q"~^ and q"'. It involves a ring compressed between two beams. an accurate iterative contact check is performed in the second stage of the search. In this work. The overhead associated with this process does not offset the advantages of second order continuity.N. If the master node is inside the search region. Overhauser splines offer an alternative approach that ensures C^continuity without requiring prescribed tangential or normal vectors [4]. The solution to the saddlepoint problem can be expressed in matrix form as: K C^ C 0 (3) where the C matrix is the assembled constraint matrix. even when N — 60. while the intermediate points dictate the smoothness of the curve. A higher number of elements results in more uniform contact stress profiles. the contact search is divided into two stages. 2(a)): L = Vd. Numerical example One numerical example was selected to assess the accuracy of the newly developed smooth surface interpolation technique. Solution strategy The contact can generally be expressed in the form of a variational inequaUty [5]. 2(b)). They can be obtained by solving a predominantly tridiagonal matrix expressing the continuity equations [3]. By employing C^continuity. the active contact constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. the exact target point and gap/penetration are determined. The following dimensions were selected (Fig. Fig. simple and fast interpolation functions can be constructed where the intermediate control points can be obtained without resorting to matrix solution. the matrix must be solved again for the new location of the intermediate points. In this case. interference is checked between the master node and the control polygon of the spline segment. S.u^ — \u x«(„) = [p« pf lu^ . these oscillations lead to ^ intermediate regions of noncontact between the beam and the ring. Lagrange multipliers satisfy the contact constraints exactly without any interpenetration between the contacting bodies. In this stage. while a variable mesh of A^ x 5 elements was / used for the ring. More details on the solution algorithm are provided in Ref. The results reveal that using splines (A^ = 20 and 'N = 40) leads to a uniform contact stress distribution. h = t — \ and /? = 8. the location of the intermediate control points is governed by a few nodes adjacent to the segment. The purpose of the first stage is to obtain a quick estimate of the proximity of a master node to a specific spline segment. however. According to the convex hull property. An incremental vertical displacement da = 0 .A. However. the spline curve cannot exceed the geometric bounds of the control polygon [3]. For each segment a. To overcome this. ElAbbasi.8. [6]. For A = 20. The element interpolation results in unrealistic numerical stress oscillations. In view of the symmetry condition. only one quarter of the model was discretized (Fig. The beam was modeled using 40 x 5 fournoded elements as shown in Fig. UnUke penaltybased methods. the location of the intermediate control points for all the spline segments are coupled. 3. This property is known as local support. 4. 2(b). they are the most suitable interpolation form for finite element contact problem involving flexible bodies.fw^ + l \u' \u^ (2) 0< w < 1 Two modified interpolation function are applied for spline segment at sharp comers and for those that intersect a lines of symmetry. and G is the gap vector. Contact search The use of high order polynomial functions to represent the contact surface can slow down the contact search pro . When the location of the FE nodes changes. C^ is the highest degree of continuity that is achievable using cubic splines. 0 < M < 1 (1) 169 cedure. Their location is selected based on the specific spline form adopted. However. Accordingly. In this stage. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics control points po and ps are located at the finite element nodes. In this case. The active constraint set is modified after each iteration step and a full contact search is performed. where each parabola passes through the two surface nodes pg and p" as well as a neighboring surface node (one from each side) x'^ (w) = {\u) q"^ {u + \) + uct{u). a prescribed tangential direction or a prescribed normal direction [3]. 3 shows the contact stress distribution when the applied displacement is da = 2.
[3] Farin G. The results reveal a significant improvement in the prediction of contact stresses and contact area. [6] ElAbbasi N. these stresses are still less accurate than those obtained using splines. Toronto: Academic Press. Other numerical examples provided in Ref. Conclusions A new technique for interpolating the contact surface in 2D finite element problems was developed and implemented. On the treatment of frictional contact in shell structures using variational inequalities. [2] Santos A. Meguid SA. [6] show that the predicted contact stresses are less sensitive to the mismatch in the meshes of the different contacting bodies.11:132137. J Mater Proc Technol 1995. Contact strategies to deal with different tool descriptions in static explicit FEM for 3D sheetmetal forming simulation. 6. Contact length (x/L) Fig. Curves and Surfaces for Computeraided Geometric Design — A Practical Guide.15 0.2 o 0. Czekanski A.05 0. 5. The selected splines were shown to possess a local support characteristic. [4] Brewer JA. Visual interaction with Overhauser curves and surfaces.170 N. Cubic splines with C^continuity were interpolated . 3.50:277291. Klarbring A.46:275295. Makinouchi A.2 References [1] Hansson E. and (b) FE mesh through the finite element nodes to provide an accurate description of the contact surfaces.1 0. The selected numerical example illustrates the advantages of the newly developed representation of contact surfaces. Spline (N=20) Element (N=20) « 0. Contact stress distribution along ring for different ring mesh densities. accepted.0 0. Rigid contact modelled by CAD surface. which simplifies the representation of the contact constraints. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999. Eng Comput 1990. ElAbbasi.A. Comput Graphics 1977. Compression of a ring between two beams: (a) schematic. On the modelling of smooth contact surfaces using cubic splines. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000. Anderson DC. 2. [5] ElAbbasi N. Meguid / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics PI B PI (a) (b) Fig.7:344348. Meguid SA.3 Element (N=60) Spline (N=40) Element (N=40) "S 0. 1997.
Summary The idea of including normalrotation degrees of freedom at comer points of planestress finite elements — the socalled drilling freedoms — is an old one. Membrane. as well as the treatment of junctures in shells and folded plates. Tel: +1 (303) 4926547. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Plane stress. A similar study isconducted for an optimal quadrilateral macroelement formed with four triangles. All rights reserved.J.colorado. where it is observed that Irons and Ahmadin in their 1980 book [2] had dismissed the task as hopeless. (3) To simplify the modeling of connections between plates. . Email: carlos@titan. Both formulations involved free parameters.38] that appeared in the mid and late 1980s. A summary of this early work is given in the Introduction of an article by Bergan and Felippa [1]. Keywords: Finite element method. Fax: +1 (303) 4924990. Optimal element 1. and the Assumed Natural Deviatoric Strain formulation. do not fit the data stmctures of standard commercial FEM codes. The present paper studies the results from the point of view of finite element templates [12] and confirms that the 1992 optimal element is indeed unique for an individual triangle. Boulder. University of Colorado. 9degrees of freedom triangular membrane elements with comer drilling freedoms is studied in some generahty.171 Optimal triangular membrane elements with drilling freedoms C. The present study goes beyond that point in leaving tangential hierarchical midpoint freedoms in the triangle template. The selection of optimal parameters that optimize inplane bending behavior for arbitrary aspect ratios is shown to coincide with a triangle element published in 1991. Midpoint nodes have lower valency than corner nodes.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. demand extra effort in mesh definition and generation. Bathe (Editor) Many efforts to develop membrane elements with drilling freedoms were made during the period 19641975 with inconclusive results. however. It was revived in various publications [1.A. (2) To solve the 'normal rotation problem' of smooth shells analyzed with finite element programs that carry six degrees of freedom per node. These freedoms are troublesome for individual triangles since they conflict with data structures of most generalpurpose FEM codes. shells and beams. Triangular element. This is done by using the triangular element with drilling degrees of freedom as the membrane component of a facet triangular shell element with 18 degrees if freedom. They are useful. In fact. A threepart paper pubhshed in 1992 [911] presented a triangle that performs optimally as regards inplane bending for rectangular mesh units of arbitrary aspect ratio. elements was derived with two different techniques: the Extended Free Formulation. and which present several solutions to this challenge. In those papers. and can cause modeling difficulties in nonlinear analysis and dynamics. USA Abstract The construction of optimal 3node. Normal rotational freedom. Comer drilling degrees of freedom. The optimal elements provided by both formulations coalesced. * Corresponding author. CO 803090429. Template. The main motivations behind this idea are: (1) To improve the element performance while avoiding the use of midpoint degrees of freedom. the subject laid largely dormant throughout the 1970s. The macroelement assembly may possess internal degrees of freedom represented as the tangential displacement deviation at midpoints to further improve performance. Free parameter. Shell element. Felippa * Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and Center for Aerospace Structures. It is shown that all elements of this geometry and freedom configuration that pass the patch test can be generated through a template with six free parameters: one basic and five of higher order. Macroelement. Quadrilateral element.
Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms: III. [3] Allman DJ.12:163187. Ahmad S. Felippa /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms.A. Felippa CA. Felippa CA. pp. Chichester: Ellis Horwood. Harder RL. de la Fuente HM. A compatible triangular element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1988. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992.24:14991508. MacNeal RF. Haugen B. [4] Cook RD. Alexander S. 1986. Allman DJ. Hinton E (Eds). Efficient implementation of a [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] .F. A compatible triangular element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis. Militello C. where tangential freedoms on internal edges can be eliminated by static condensation. Comput Struct 1986. 7198. [7] References [1] Bergan PG. Alvin K. 1980.O. A triangular membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom. In: Hughes TJR.12:203239. Finite Element Handbook series. Implementation and performance evaluation. pp. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992. 139152. and adjustable stiffness.50:2569. In: Topping BHV (Ed). Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1985. The ANDES element. Comput Struct 1988.22:10651067. The EFF element. A plane hybrid element with rotational D. Recent advances in finite element templates. [2] Irons BM.28:7588. in the construction of quadrilateral macroelements. Comput Struct 1984. Swansea: Pineridge Press.172 C.12:189201. Felippa CA. Techniques of Finite Elements. Membrane triangles with comer drilling freedoms: I. Felippa CA. Computational Mechanics for the TwentyFirst Century. Felippa CA.26:26452655. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987.19:18. [6] Bergan PG. [5] Cook RD. A refined fournoded membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom. Saxe Cobum Publications: 2000. Felippa CA. Membrane triangles with comer drilling freedoms: II. On the Allman triangle and a related quadrilateral element. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992.
J. using finite elements with implicit discretization in time. 2. we analyze a fully discrete scheme. T] be the time interval of interest. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. A general model of quasistatic frictional contact with wear between deformable bodies was derived in Stromberg et al. a mathematical theory of friction and wear should be a generalization of experimental facts and it must be in agreement with the laws of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Sofonea^. for example. We also derive error estimates and. T) the body is in contact with a moving rigid foundation. Finally. A viscoelastic body occupies the domain ^ C M^ (^ = 1. Wear arises when a hard rough surface slides against a softer surface. F2 and F3. Numerical simulations 1. This model was used in various papers (see. FernandezGarcia^'*. The problem of sliding frictional contact with wear The physical setting is as follows. in Section 4 we present numerical results. which results in the wear of the contacting surface. under appropriate regularity assumptions on the exact solution. T). Facultade de Matemdticas. In Section 2. Fax: +34 (981) 597054. 3) with outer Lip" schitz boundary F. T). France Abstract We consider a mathematical model which describes the sliding frictional contact with wear between a viscoelastic body and a rigid moving foundation. [3]. 52 Avenue de Villeneuve. we present the variational formulation of the mechanical problem and state an existence and uniqueness result. The process is quasistatic and the wear is modeled with a version of Archard's law.5]). Archard's law. SUding contact. All rights reserved. surface tractions act on r2 x (0. Bathe (Editor) numerical simulation in the study of a onedimensional test problem. [6] from thermodynamic considerations. We suppose that the body is clamped on Fi x (0. Here. The wear is modeled with a simplified version of . and its asperities plough a series of grooves. It represents the unwanted removal of materials from surfaces of contacting bodies occurring in relative motion. 15706 Santiago de Compostela. Finite elements.es © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Keywords: Viscoelasticity. Rochdi et al. [1]. Finally. M. The variational analysis of the model was provided in Ciulcu et al. we obtain optimal order error estimates. we summarize our main results and provide * Corresponding author. J ) . On F3 x (0. We model the process as in Stromberg et al.173 Numerical analysis of a sliding viscoelastic contact problem with wear J. such that measTi > 0. Tel. Error estimates.: ^34 (981) 563100. which shows that under a smallness assumption on the given data. Introduction Wear is one of the plagues which reduce the lifetime of modem machine elements. Universite de Perpignan. The present paper is devoted to the study of a quasistatic problem of sliding contact with wear.R. Spain ^ Lahoratoire de Theorie des Systemes. Let [0.M. the mechanical problem has a unique weak solution. Viano^ ^ Departamento de Matemdtica Aplicada. In Section 3. We present a summary of our recent results on the variational and numerical analysis of the model. The paper is organized as follows. 66860 Perpignan. Email: jramon@usc. divided into three disjoint measurable parts Fi. where existence and uniqueness results of weak solutions have been proved. and a volume force acts in ^ x (0. we provide numerical results in the study of a onedimensional test problem. Generally. Campus Sur. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. [6] by introducing the wear function which measures the wear of the contact surface and which satisfies Archard's law. Wear. while the numerical analysis was performed in FernandezGarcia et al. J. 2. [4. which is always maintained. digs into it. We assume that there is only sliding contact.
ln this section no summation is considered over the repeated index n and. Q = [a = (Oij) \ aij = ajj e = L^(Q) i. 0 e ( M f ) (erf. For a sequence {^n]n=o^ we denote 8wn = (Wn — Wni)/kn. Under the assumptions of Theorem 1. . Finally. eiw'))^ a. ')Y denotes the inner product on V given by (u. w') = ( / „ w'h Here «Q G V^ is an appropiate approximation of MQWe have the following existence and uniqueness result. V).?„i for n = 1. we now consider a fully discrete approximation of problem P.7].^ e V\ where ^ is a given function related to the velocity of the foundation and u^. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the normal depth of the material that is lost. then problem P^^ has a unique solution. To solve the semilinear equality obtained. Fully discrete approximation Following FemandezGarcia et al. v^ denote the normal traces of the elements u and v. {f(t). a} if I^IL^CFJ) < Po + j ( 5 " f . [3]. (2) allows us to obtain the wear of the contact surface. 7. let V^ c V and Q^ C Q be finite element spaces to approximate the spaces V and Q. Now. are defined on Q with the range in 2 .v)^ Vr € V.R. The wellposedness of this problem is given by the following result. {•. . x e Vj.e(v))Q where e : V ^ Q is the deformation operator. equivalently. A and let k = max„ kn be the maximal step size.d]. V) x C([0. it follows that / G C([0. there exists S Po > 0 which depends only on Q. Assume that p e L^CFs) and there exists P^ such that P(x) > y * > 0 a. (xf l^^Lo C V^ x g^ denote the solution of fully discrete problem P^^. Under reasonable assumptions on the constitutive functions it follows that 21 is a Lipschitz continuous strongly monotone operator on Q and 0 is a Lipschitz continuous operator on Q. 2 . the process is quasistatic and we use a KelvinVoigt viscoelastic constitutive law. j denotes the functional j( u. 7 ] . To this end. q'e Q\ {a(t). FernandezGarcia et al. Fi. and let {wf. 3. In practice. 7]. Q). when the displacement field u is known. a penaltyduality algorithm is suggested (see FemandezCara et al. r e [0. Theorem 3. j = l. 7]. Problem P. 7). under appropriate regularity assumptions on the body forces and tractions.v) To discretize in time. t e (0. Moreover.T]^ Q such that cf{t) = ^e{u(t)) + (5e{u(t)) = Wt e [0. T]. Theorem 2. Let ^QH : G ^ G^ be the orthogonal projection operator defined through the relation ("^Q^q.T]. if (1) holds. and the dot above represents the derivative with respect to the time variable.2le(5Mf) + ^ g / . (1) a e Moreover. [2]). v) = P\Hv\Vv dfl VM. [1]). = 0 on r3}. the variational formulation of the mechanical problem of sliding frictional contact with wear is the following one (see Ciulcu et al. Vu. T] ^ V. V). Here /? > 0 is a discretization parameter. we have the following result.)Q represents the inner product on Q and (•. C([0. 7). r. Let {u. The fully discrete approximation method is based on the backward Euler scheme. Since the body is in bilateral contact with the foundation it follows that w f wov on F^ X (0. F3 and 21 such that problem P has a unique solution {«. a) e C^([0. q')Q V^ e Q. the fixed point algorithm used in the proof of Theorem 2 is directly applied. we assume that the tangential displacements on the contact surface vanish. Theorem 1. respectively. q')Q = (q. Moreover. In the study of the discrete problems.V). Assume the conditions stated in Theorem 2 and ii e L~(0. 7]. V £ V. everywhere in the sequel. w(0) = MoHere V and Q denote the spaces V = {v e H\Q. It has the following form: Problem P*^ Find u^'' = {wf }lo ^ ^^ and a^^ = {af }„% C Q' such that: a f = q3^. Q) be the solution of problem P. Then.174 J. and a stress field a \[0. The element / : [0. as . (2) Archard's law. 7] ^ V represents the body forces and tractions and UQ e V is the initial displacement. related to the constitutive law.Y \ v = 0 on Ti. With these assumptions..e(v))Q + j{u{t). 7]: 0 = ro < fi < • • • < r/v = 7. The operators 21 and 0 .e.v)v = {e{u). we consider a partition of the time interval [0.e. Eq. the wear function is identified as an increase in gap in the normal direction between the body and the foundation or. we recall that in our model. Find a displacement field u : [0. . the solution satisfies u e C\[0. we denote ^ the step size kn = tn . c will denote positive constants which are independent on the parameters of discretization h and k.
In this section.^ 0. that the initial value UQ is chosen in such a way that wo UQ\V 9900 . A 0. u(x. max {\(jn .e.0. we have implemented the numerical method in a standard workstation.uf\v) < c( \uo . the difference with exact solution (4) at these time values is shown. and there exists c > 0 such that inf \vw^\v<ch (/^eO(r)lG<c/z Wv eVnH^(QY. Numerical results In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical method described in the above section. r 2 = 0. 1.5 0. 1 provided by the algorithm and the corresponding error with the exact solution. t) o{xj) (4+^)^"' 99 = . moreover. ] J Then the following error estimate is obtained: m^ax^(a„ .r. 99Ae'vdx. we resume the numerical results obtained. some numerical experiments have been done in the study of onedimensional test problems.UQ\V > 0 as /? .— {Ax + l)e\ < ch. 2. Ti = {0}. 1). 0.25. The test problem P has been considered for the following data: Q = (0. 6 e = e. are drawn. (3) By using the discrete method described in the above section.a f Ig + \Un .a f Ig + M„ . which exhibit the performance of the algorithm. A ^ : 0. VTGg. 8 s). M„ . ^e = lOOe. UQ{X) Then the fully discrete method converges. i.8 0.6 0.5. The following error estimate is obtained as in Corollary 4. Corollary 4.5. 1. in Fig. and there exist c.01 .4 0.R.^eO(T)le > 0 as /^ ^ 0.a > 0 such that inf \vw^\v P = 104 N .<rf le + l<n<N VT G e. FemdndezGarcia et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Then we have the following error estimate: m^a^x^((r„ .J. we derive the convergence of the fully discrete method. Assume.dh'' "iv e H^{QY r\V.9900 1(7 . the displacement fields for several time values {t = 0. Also.w f v) ^ 0 as /z.01. 1).M^IV w^\v)]. In Fig. Problem TID: displacement field and exact error for different time values. y 175 4. . calculated with parameters h = 0.01 and k = 0.9 Fig.uf\y) < c(h + k). is given by = A — \x Wx e (0. Assume moreover that the initial value UQ is chosen in such a way that \UQ T = lOs. Assume the conditions stated in Theorem 3. Corollary 5.v) + max ( inf \Un l<n<N^w>'eVh From Theorem 3. 1 + ^l«lL~(o. r 3 = {i}. Moreover. s/m. 4. Let the assumption in the above corollary hold. called problem n Z ) .005 The exact solution of the above problem. we show the evolution in time of the displacement of the points x = 0.7 0. . <c\v\H2r^. Exact error Displacement field 0. 1. 2.
003392 0.51:105126.5 0. (2). ^ " "• ^ ^\.5 0. Int J Solid Struct 1996. . Evolution of the wear function through the time.6 0. Viano JM.4 ^^^ ^ ~^^^.014363 0.4 ^ ^ 0. [4] Rochdi M.45 " " s ~ ^ — x=0.007145 0. Evolution of the wear function through the time In Table 1. from Eq.000715 0.013411 0.0025 0.002858 0. Shillor M.01421 0.. From here.8 0.01 0.9 1 0. 2.6 Fig.50:139153.028809 0.9 i _ 0.014421 0. Numerical analysis of a quasistatic viscoelastic sliding frictional contact problem with wear.3 0.2  ^ ^ . 3. [2] FemandezCara E. Submitted. Appl Anal 1998. Sofonea M.05 0.007181 0.002883 0.001439 0.001593 0.2 0.001436 0.007199 0.4 0. Sofonea M. Sofonea M.007041 0.000721 0. [5] Rochdi M. Moreno C.001 0. 0.25 . Sofonea M.25 . Shillor M. [6] Stromberg N.028738 0._ 0.~ x=0. Table 1 Exact error values for several discretization parameters Fig. Klarbring A. 1 and corresponding scaled exact error. Math Comput 1988.007209 0.2 0._ ^^. A Quasistatic contact problem with directional friction and damped response.001061 0. asymptotic behaviour (3) is obtained with c = 0.176 J.R. ^ .^ ^~^—^_ 0.014079 0. Finally.003198 0..01 0.014399 0.028594 0. Submitted. References [1] Ciulcu C. HoarauMantel TH.005 0. Derivation and analysis of a generalized standard model for contact friction and wear.05 0..026276 0. independent of h and k.025 0.15 " • ^ ^ .3.000287 0.001 h ^ 01 .33:18171836.. ki 01 .000855 0.002822 0.000287 0. 3 0.^ ^ ^ 0.001442 0..014291 0. _ .1 0.35f 0.000718 0. FerndndezGarcia et al. 0.003142 0.000719 0.000703 0.005 0.027474 0. ^ " ~ " _ ^ n ~ ^ . A quasistatic viscoelastic contact problem with normal compliance and friction. [3] FemandezGarcia JR. ^ ^ ' ~ ^ ^^ "^ ". the wear function can be obtained.1on?i_— ^ 0. ^ .5.5 k 0. Johansson L.004078 0.000287 0.025 0.028167 0.002872 0.5 „ x=1 .68:409422. ~^^^.7 0. 0.002879 0.^ ^ ~  " • " . J Elast 1998. the exact error values for several discretization parameters k and h are shown.006910 0. L i ^ ^ x=1 1 0.7 0. 0. Problem 7 I D : evolution of displacements of points x = 0. Its evolution through the time is shown in Fig.3 0.007236 0.001422 0.13874157. Critical Point Approximation through exact regularization.0025 0. Viscoelastic sliding frictional contact problems with wear. 3.002862 0.000349 0.013749 0.1 0.028853 0.8 0.000288 . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Displacement field x 10* Exact error 25 1 x0 5 XKO 0.25.
Novati''. 112 and 240 elements on the spherical surface. Keywords: 3D linear fracture mechanics. Frangi'^'*.J. a is the radius of the spherical surface and 2a is the subtended angle. thus entaiUng double integrations. Results in terms of SIFs are presented in Table 1 (quarterpoints elements are used along the crack front and the SIFs are evaluated through extrapolation from the displacement discontinuity field). 2. Politecnico of Milan. using three meshes with 40. 45°) and v = 0. leads to a symmetric linear equation system. 1).177 Numerical fracture mechanics in 3D by the symmetric boundary element method A. in order to explore the potentialities of the SGBEM in this domain. University ofTrento.3. especially when cracks are directly represented as displacement discontinuity loci and the traction integral equation is employed to enforce static conditions on the crack itself. M. Bathe (Editor) . [2]. Italy ^Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering. The evaluation of the double surface integrals in the singular cases represents probably the main obstacle which has hampered the application of the method in the 3D context. Email: attilio. through the adoption of a Galerkin discretization scheme. Boundary element method 1. The displacement discontinuity method. 30°. Compared with the finite element method. The approach is here extended to deal with a simple example of fracture propagation. Fracture propagation.1. At difference from the other two techniques. Rovizzi'' ^Department of Structural Engineering. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.frangi@ponmi. Springhetti^. All rights reserved. The analysis has been carried out for three values of a (a = 15°. 1 gives a planar representation of the actual meshes adopted for the sphericalcap crack. numerical results in terms of SIFs are given in [4] for a given range of a. obtained by prescribing that the polar coordinate p equals a(j). the dual BEM and the symmetric Galerkin BEM (SGBEM) share the above features and permit single domain formulations for problems with single or multiple cracks embedded in finite bodies or in the infinite medium. Introduction In the numerical modelling of linear elastic fracture mechanics problems. Sphericalcap crack Let us consider a sphericalcap crack bounded by a circular front and subjected to a remote stress 033 (see ^ Fig. the SGBEM (see the review paper by Bonnet et al. Trento. [1]) is based on a variational (weak) version of the integral equations. the SGBEM appears to be a very attractive tool to carry out incremental crack extension analysis for two reasons: (1) the required remeshing work is greatly reduced. For this problem. recent results obtained by applied mathematicians have led to innovative algorithms which are now being adopted by the engineering BE community and have served as a basis for the fractureoriented implementation of the SGBEM in 3D recently presented by Frangi et al. Fig. Numerical examples 2. However.it © 2001 PubHshed by Elsevier Science Ltd. Italy Abstract Threedimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics problems are addressed by means of the symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method (SGBEM). * Corresponding author. R. boundary element methods have distinct advantages over domain approaches. subsequently it is utiUzed to simulate a propagation process for an elliptical crack within a finite body. G. and (2) SIFs can be accurately evaluated through extrapolation from the displacement discontinuity field even for rather coarse meshes. Milan. The technique is first shown to be efficient and accurate with reference to the stress intensity factors evaluations for a nonplanar crack. and.
000 MPa. 2).525 0. Maier G.665 (45°) 0.769 0. R/a = 10.849 0. Appl Mech Rev 1998.267 (30°) 0.774 0. = CK:.. 1.851 (30°) 0. Polizzotto C. propagation occurs in the plane perpendicular to the crack front itself.266 0. Table 1 Sphericalcap crack: computed SIFs {K ^ = {llTi)\l7ta sin a ) for different values of the subtended angle 20?} Mesh 1 2 3 Ki/K^ (15°) 0.263 0. Fig.178 A. Frangi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics mesh A A A A A A mesh 2 meshZ Fig. v = 0. at each step..520 0. B = 1.51:669704. Material parameters are chosen as follows: E = 100. Fatiguegrowth of an ellipticalshaped crack point along the front. Symmetric Galerkin boundary element method.655 0. Elliptical crack: initial geometry and crack front propagation.966 0.845 0. 2 illustrates the configuration of the crack after the first propagation steps which compares well with the results presented by Mi [3]. .5. positioned in the middle and inclined at an angle y = 45° with respect to the horizontal plane (Fig. the maximum value Aa^ax is equal to a prescribed value. Fig.88.776 2. h/R = 6).B\Kiji\ The crack front extension a{l) (l being a curvilinear coordinate running along the front) is described by means of the generalized Paris law: Aa AN and Aa{i) is scaled so that.964 0.5463 X 10^^ m = 3. C = 1. Sphericalcap crack: loading conditions and meshes adopted. along the polar angle ^o^ ^0 tan — = 2 2Kij (1) Let us now consider a cylinder of length h and radius R containing an elliptical shaped crack of major semiaxis a and minor semiaxis b {b/a = 0.527 (45°) 0. The fatigue crack growth of the crack is analyzed by adopting the same criteria for incremental propagation as in [3]. 2. For each Kieff = Kj {.3.2. (2) References [1] Bonnet M. ^33 min = 0 MPa).662 0. a cyclic loading (J^^i^) is applied to the cylinder bases (03^3 ^^ax = 100 MPa.966 (15°) 0.
36:36753701. [3] Mi Y. Tech Science Press. In: Atluri SN. Novati G. 8186. Advances in Computational Engineering Sciences. . Brust FW (Eds). 179 [4] Xu G. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [2] Frangi A. Vol. Cazzani A. On the numerical implementation of the symmetric Galerkin BEM in 3D fracture analysis. Ortiz M. 1. ThreeDimensional Analysis of Crack Growth. Springhetti R. Southampton 1996. Frangi et al.A. 2000. Computational Mechanics Pubhcations. A variational boundary integral method for the analysis of 3D cracks of arbitrary geometry modelled as continuous distributions of dislocation loops. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. pp.
1 mm. Experimental An inner and outer panel were each stamped on an experimental press using tooling shown in Fig. In accordance with the concept of the functional build [8]. An inner panel (1. After trimming and assembly by spotwelding. Kingston. * Corresponding author. spring back analyses were conducted on panels that underwent subsequent forming operations such as restriking. a 470 mm square blank made of AA5754 aluminum sheet was first stamped into a square pan with a dome in the bottom. Spring back analysis is undertaken largely to determine the final shape of a component.O. This panel was then trimmed to create a channel 200 mm wide with a dome in the bottom (Fig. All rights reserved. Spring back of the assembly is shown to be a function of the spring back of its components and the method by which they are connected. Kingston. their shape will change due to spring back. lb). ON K7L 4V1. Box 8400.05 mm deep and did not have a dome. Keywords: Spring back. 200 mm. as the inner panel (Fig. Introduction Many authors have examined spring back of automotive panels with the finite element method [17]. Approach 2. The manufacturing process (including forming. but these may be corrected after assembly with the inner panel. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The shape of the new assembly was determined after it was removed from the spot welding fixture.93 mm AA6111T4 aluminum sheet) are stamped from tooling to produce a square pan. le). assembly. trimming. For example. Tel: +1 (613) 5475395. Fax: Hi (613) 5475397. emphasis should be placed on tuning the shape of the assembly and not on the shapes of the unassembled components. the component is allowed to spring back. ON K7L 5L9. Canada ^ Centre for Automotive Materials and Manufacturing P. la. Kingston. Email: mfac@post.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. and flanging [6. Bathe (Editor) . The outer was formed from 0. The analysis may reveal the tendency for low spots to appear. 2. the outer panel was trimmed to the same width. the inner and outer panels were attached with spot welds. Assembly. ON K7L 5L9. After trimming. Canada ^ Alcan International Ltd.6 mm AA5754 aluminum sheet) and an outer panel (0. The methods outlined in this paper allow computer simulations to assume a role in constructing a functional build.kosone. In later years. The outer panel (Fig. P. Id) was 19. Finn^ ^ Metal Forming Analysis Corporation. Sheet metal forming. Finite element analysis.1.O.N. After forming. and spring back) is simulated using LSDYNA software. hood panels are often the subject of spring back analyses because hoods are highly visible products and prone to low spots. Galbraith^'*. trimming.J. When the panels are removed from the tooling.93 mm thick AA6111T4 aluminum sheet. For the inner panel (Fig. The 'sprung' shape of the panels was determined after forming and after trimming. Hemming 1. Ic). Box 8400. Results show that including contact between the inner and outer panel during spring back is important for obtaining realistic spring back predictions. Earlier papers focused on the spring back of the first draw panel [ 1 5]. Thomas ^ M.180 Spring back of automotive assemblies P. The channel height and dome heights were each 38.C. Canada Abstract This paper presents results from a forming simulation of an experimental component that is representative of an automotive assembly. as the technology for conducting finite element simulations increased. 2579 Highway #2 E.7].J. D.
the excess material was removed. (b) The inner panel. Tool elements were considered to be rigid. 2. Nodal rigid bodies were created a) b) Fig. Spring back predictions were obtained for the inner and outer panels after trimming. The spring back analysis was conducted for each part individually as it came out of the forming tooling. (c) The inner panel after trimming. the tools are inverted.401 elements for the outer panel and 13.2. containing only those nodes and elements inside the trim line. Seven integration points were selected for the blank elements in order to accurately map the through thickness stress distribution for the spring back calculation. (b) After forming the inner. Galbraith et al.377 elements. the dynain file was read into DYNAFORM [9]. 2. (d) The outer panel. In order to trim the excess material from the inner and outer panels.333 elements. Only one quarter of the geometry was modelled due to symmetry conditions. (e) The outer panel after trimming. element connectivity. LSDYNA wrote out a file named 'dynain' that contained the final nodal locations. A forming model was run for each of the inner and outer panels. Also within DYNAFORM. Within DYNAFORM. 2). (a) Initially the blank was made up of 400 elements. The blank.401 elements. For forming the outer. but due to adaptive meshing this increased to 11. and a new dynain file was created for each of the inner and outer panel. 1.EC. the blank in each model contained only 400 'type 16' fully integrated shell elements. and adaptive constraints. As well. this file contained the effective plastic strain and the stress tensor for each integration point of each element.333 for the inner panel (Fig. . Modelling The experimental approach outlined above was simulated using LSDYNA version 950d running on a COMPAQ XPIOOO workstation. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a) b) 181 d) Fig. the nodes in the region of the spot welds were identified. After simulating the first draw process. the blank had 13. The blank material was modelled as an isotropic material with a Von Mises yield criterion. and the backup is not used. (c) the formed outer had 11. The tools were constructed from 4. Coulomb friction was implemented between the blank and the tooling. Initially. (a) Tooling for forming the inner panel.
35 T  0. A BFGS solver. the assembled component is shown prior to spring back.02 0. the spring back prediction would differ for the two cases. 3. The outer panel (b) springs more than the inner panel (a) because it has higher yield strength. tool engineers attempt to make dimensionally accurate parts that can then be assembled with mating parts. and determining if the assembly meets its function. was used with automatic time step control and artificial stabilization.64 0. The contours in Fig. Spring back of the unassembled inner and outer panels. thus simulating the assembly process. the effect of the assembly operation on the outer panel is shown. Obviously. . 4. at 4 locations to simulate the effect of the spot welds.68 1. Note the low spot in the centre of the outer panel. The spring back predictions were obtained by using the implicit solver built into LSDYNA. The dynain file output by DYNAFORM was used for the spring back calculation of the assembly. In Fig. indicating that contact between inner and outer panels should be enforced if a proper shape prediction is to be obtained. The low spot at the centre of the outer panel is 0. if the analysis shows Effective Plastic Strain 0. in a functional build. Results 4.182 P. LSDYNA model predictions of effective plastic strain after forming.07 ^ a) 0. thinner gauge and lower strains. 3 with contours of effective plastic strain calculated by LSDYNA plotted on the deformed geometry. 6. The techniques outlined here allow the benefits of sheet forming simulations (particularly the evaluation of tooling designs prior to manufacturing a forming tool) to be applied to the functional build process. which is a modified Newton's method.C. The inner panel (a) has higher strains because it is drawn deeper than the outer panel (b) and has a dome stretched in the bottom. Zdisplacements are relative to the displacement of the nodes pointed to by the arrows. 4 represent the amount of displacement in the zdirection that occurs during spring back. the zdisplacement at the location of one of the spot welds was set to zero.25 mm higher after assembly. The addition of contact between inner and outer panels prevented the flanges from passing through each other. 3.30 0.34 2. parts are evaluated by assembling them with their mating parts. 5. Zdisp acen (mm) 1.00 3 1 ' zconstraints Fig. Spring back predictions for the full assembly were obtained at either two or three intermediate time steps based on convergence rates and the automatic time step controls. 5b) the flange of the outer panel has passed through the inner panel. In order to remove rigid body translations in the zdirection.a 0. so all zdisplacements shown are relative to this point. Galbraith et al. Currently.14 ^"^ 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Fig. 4.28 ^ 0. After spring back (Fig. For example.21 . In Fig. automakers can save time and cost on die tryout. Conversely. the panels are shown after trimming and spring back. With a functional build. Discussion and conclusions The 'as formed' inner and outer panels are shown in Fig.00 i Hi Fig. These nodes were selected because they are the sites of the spot welds to be used during assembly. The zdirection corresponds to the direction of the normal to the blank prior to forming.
The 4th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3d Sheet Forming Processes. Kinzel L. (a) The spring back shown in Fig. [3] Various Authors. 1996. In: Lee JK. pp. Hallquist JO. . Zhang. Wahl SM. Galbraith et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 183 a) b) !!• Fig. Concurr Eng Res Appl 1999. Galbraith PC. [6] Valente F. Zdisplacement (mm) Fig. Wagoner RH (Eds). After spring back (b). it will be necessary to have a computerbased analogue to the inspection rooms commonly used for evaluating surface appearance of automotive assemblies. Picart P (Eds). Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory. 2000. The 4th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3d Sheet Forming Processes. Wu L. J Mater Pro Tech 1995. Springback calculation of sheet metal parts after trimming and flanging. the flanges have passed through each other because contact between the inner and outer panel was not modelled. 637641. Engineering. Proceedings of Numisheet '93. 499522. Nakamachi E. pp. Proceedings of Numisheet '99. Assembly before and after spring back. The effect of assembly on the outer. Use of a coupled exphcitimplicit solver for calculating springback in automotive body panels. bright lights are used to search for any surface defects such as low spots or teddy bear ears. Proceedings of Numisheet '96. 4b is repeated here. Wagoner RH editors. showing the spring back of the outer prior to assembly. 5. Benchmark B2. indicating that the spring back is less problematic in the assembly than in the outer panel alone for this example. Methods and Applications. Lin TL. High Performance Computing in Automotive Design. Du C. 2nd International Conference: Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Process. Presumably ray tracing techniques could be implemented in postprocessors to achieve on the computer screen what is obtained from these inspection rooms. 1999.50:395409. 6. For these techniques to be widely applicable. Picart P (Eds). In: Sheh M (Ed). Benchmark B3. 1996. In: Makinouchi A. References [1] Finn MJ. Forming of a front door panel. further work need not be done to correct the shape of the outer.RC. L. Iterative FEM die surface design to compensate for springback. 3rd International Conference: Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Process. [8] Hammett PC. Dawson PR (Eds). [9] Eta/DYNAFORM User's Manual. Proceedings of Numisheet '99.1. 1995. Engineering Technology Associates. In: Shen SF. that the low spots in a hood outer are corrected by the assembly with the inner panel. Version 3. and Manufacturing. Rotterdam: Balkema. (b) The outer panel after assembly shows a reduced low spot in the centre of the panel. Inc. [4] Suh YS. In: Gelin JC. 5964. Virtual manufacturing applications to stamping and structural analyses. [2] Various Authors. Using flexible criteria to improve manufacturing validation during product development. In: Gelin JC.7(4):309318. In these rooms. [7] Various Authors. 1999. Onate E. Traversa D. 1993. 2D draw bending. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on High Performance Computing in the Automotive Industry. Lum L. pp. Benchmark A. Srail benchmark problem. Baron JS. [5] Wu LW.
. The present analysis is based on a phenomenological constitutive model. On the other hand. Massabo. Italy Abstract A constitutive and finite element model of human scalp skin is formulated for the simulation of reconstructive surgical procedures. Morbiducci Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. in reconstructive surgery procedures.184 Constitutive and finite element modeling of human scalp skin for the simulation of cutaneous surgical procedures L. the skin can approach stressstrain configurations which are close to the 'locking' condition. The typical stress state of the skin under normal working conditions falls into the first region. bums or tumor resection. Geneva. 2. Human skin. Finally.g. Different large deformation hyperelastic models are considered which are able to reproduce the stiffening phenomenon characterizing the behavior of the skin at large deformations. Parameter estimation 1. in this phase of the work. [3].unige. Fax: +39 (010) 3532534. Constitutive modeling. Large deformation analysis. The model will be used inside a virtual reality environment for computerassisted reconstructive and aesthetic surgery simulation. The model proposed here refers to both the low stiffness and the high stiffness ranges. 16145. the constitutive equations of the human skin are firstly defined.: h39 (010) 3532517. The experimental measurements are load versus displacement curves on in vivo skin flaps obtained through the nondestructive technique designed by Raposio and Nordstrom [1. on increasing the strain. To formulate the theoretical model. Other important features of the mechanical behavior of the skin are the time dependency. which includes also a campaign of experimental tests on human skin. The model proposed here is restricted to shortterm and monotonic loading processes. The other possible choice. The software allows preoperative planning of surgery procedures concerning the reconstruction of skin defects resulting from trauma. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. would imply a micromechanical interpretation of the in vivo skin response based on assumptions that. such as those which are typically applied to the skin during reconstructive surgery. Keywords: Biomechanics. The model is calibrated using experimental results of tests on in vivo scalp flaps. This choice requires only the identification of the empirical parameters of a response function chosen in order to satisfy the main features of the observed macromechanical behavior of the skin. Constitutive and finite element modeling of human skin It is generally accepted that the stress versus strain curve of the skin in uniaxial or biaxial tension is characterized by an initial lowstiffness region followed. The constitutive model is then implemented into a finite element code.J. * Corresponding author. The theoretical work is part of a broad research program. Introduction The paper deals with the formulation of a numerical model for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of human skin. [4]). Tel.2]. Email: gambarotta@diseg. by a dramatic increase in stiffness. would put undesired restrictions on the range of solutions. where the requirement of maximum skin extension needs to be satisfied. Via Montallegro 1. that of a mechanicsbased model (e. University ofGenova. the parameters of the model are identified from indirect experimental measurements using an inverse procedure. a moderate hysteretic behavior and a more or less marked anisotropy [3]. R. Bathe (Editor) . 'locking'. All rights reserved. R. Gambarotta*.
.2] seem to indicate that the scalp skin has no preferred material directions. J Biomech 2000. [6]). LevenbergMarquadt method).2] which can be applied. nonUnear elastic constitutive model. A simplified approach is proposed here which requires the evaluation of the parameters of the model and the in vivo isotropic initial stress (before the incision). 1984. Biomechanics. The search of the unknown quantities will be facilitated by the utilization of more than one load versus displacement curve in the minimization problem. [6] Tong P. [3] Fung YC. pp. undermined within a predefined region and loaded tangentially to the hull surface. the in vivo initial stresses.undermining coincide with the results of the fictitious process undermining \incision. This can be done by simultaneously satisfying two conditions. Elastic deformations of rubberlike solids. The proposed numerical model focuses in this initial phase on the simulation of surgery procedures concerning the reconstruction of scalp skin defects. Fung YC. a large deformation hyperelastic model is considered. are still active. lung tissue. . Mechanics of Solids. measurements of the relaxed configuration of the undermined skin. . Finite element modeling of human skin using an isotropic. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Sohds and Structures..g. on the basis of the experimental measurements previously described. The finite element procedure examines incremental loading processes in terms of prescribed displacements or applied forces. The identification procedure is based on the minimization of the norm of the residuals between the experimental measurements and the theoretical predictions. which supports the skin during the test. Ann Plast Surg 1997.9498. 1984. 3.9:649657. undermining of a predefined portion of the skin. Grosh K. NonLinear Elastic Deformations. The models. . This stress field must be evaluated together with the model parameters.9] coupled with the NewtonRaphson iterative technique. Gambarotta et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Following the above observations. 499537. [8] McMeeking RM. The simplified approach assumes that the results of the process incision j. Skin Res Technol 1998. are able to capture the different aspects of the stress versus strain response observed in the experiments. cat skin.11:611616. ) . [5] Ogden RW. London: Pergamon Press. J Biomech 1976. Nordstrom REA. [9] Crisfield MA. Rice JR. Sewell (Eds).g. The minimization problem is solved using classical algorithms (e. also during surgery. Several isotropic constitutive models have been formulated and calibrated for different soft biological tissues (e. The second condition is that the numerical model must reproduce the experimental load versus displacement curves. In the calibration of the model the reference configuration is geometrically known and it corresponds to the 185 configuration of the undermined skin after the incision. References [1] Raposio E. [7] Ogden RW. Taking into account the weak curvature of the hull. [4] Bischoff JE.g. The first is that the initial isotropic stress uniformly applied along the incision in the reference configuration must restore the virgin configuration. Int J Solids Struct 1975. NY: Dover Publications. Biomechanical properties of scalp flaps and their correlations to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery procedures. Mineola. rabbit mesentery.L. Calibration of the model The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results of a testing methodology designed by Raposio and Nordstrom [1. arterial walls. which assume strain energy functions having different mathematical expressions.5]. The testing methodology consists of: incision of the scalp skin. 1982. New York: Springer. . only a few models have been formulated which account for the anisotropy of some soft tissues (e. Experimental observations by Raposio and Nordstrom [1. In: Hopkins. Tension and flap advancement in the human scalp. due to its simplicity. 1997. 2. The finite element model is assumed to be totally constrained at the boundaries between the undermined region and the surrounding skin. On the other hand. extension of the undermined region of the skin and repetition of the previous steps. This can be done using load versus displacement curves corresponding to undermined regions of different sizes. The stressstrain relationships for the skin.39:2023..33:645465. Armda EM. Chichester: Wiley. Nordstrom REA. The solution is obtained at each loading step using an 'eulerian — updated lagrangian' formulation [8. [2] Raposio E. This configuration is only partially relaxed and some of the stresses that are present in the skin in normal conditions. such as skin and rubber [3.. Finite element formulations for problems of large elasticplastic deformation. In the surgical procedures to be simulated the scalp skin is cut. application of two concentrated forces along the incision at a distance of a few centimeters by means of a suture fixed by a full thickness bite. 4. Different hyperelastic models have been proposed in the past for materials exhibiting stiffening under large deformations. Consequently the compressible forms of the isotropic model formulated by Ogden [7] and the isotropic version of the model formulated by Tong and Fung [6] are considered. the domain of the model is approximated as twodimensional and discretized in finite elements. measurements of the displacements at different points along the incision for different values of the applied loads.
Even though the numerical modeling of structures subjected to shock waves leads to element sizes in the millimeter regime. Hydrocode 1. This causes high pressures in the kilobar range (1 kbar = 100 MPa) and high strain rates up to 10^ s~' in the affected bodies. the conservation equations of mass. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. POPl. Elastic material behavior In the elastic response (Figs. whereas the EoS is a functional correlation of two unknown variables in the conservation equations. Landmann'' ^ Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Structural Mechanics. a homogenization hypothesis is adopted which enables the formulation of the constitutive equations on the level of macromechanics (see Fig. it is too complicated and computing time too consuming to approach on the micromechanical level. Introduction High dynamic loadings like explosions have the capability to release large amounts of energy within microseconds. 2. Bathe (Editor) . 83466 Schneizlreuth. Physics. Therefore. Damage property. They are based on Finite Difference Methods [1]. Germany Abstract Wherever the mechanical behavior of materials is of interest. Germany ^ Federal Testing Center {WrD52).gebbeken@unibwmuenchen. The material modeling of concrete is based on the macromechanical constitutive law of Ruppert and Gebbeken [2. Furthermore. the current stress state is depicted in the threedimensional stress space. The physical properties. the material behavior can only be postulated in the high dynamic regime. 2. Email: norbert. material modelling and numerical algorithms In order to model the microscopic mixture of materials like concrete. And. Experiment. University of the Federal Armed Forces. whereas the hydrostatic tensor can be separated from the stress tensor resulting in the deviatoric stress tensor. High dynamic loading. the mathematical description and the numerical application are discussed critically in the example of the inhomogeneous.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Greulich% A. 85577 Neubiberg. the incremental form of Hooke's law has been adopted.3]. Keywords: Macroscopic material modelling. Fax: 449 (89) 60044549. 2 and 3. Gebbeken^'*. whereas the stress state is divided into a hydrostatic and deviatoric part. brittle material concrete. Rate effect. the current material state will be explained by means of a loading. Oberjettenberg. mathematical material models are needed to describe the physical phenomena. nonelastic and damage behavior. the less known and validated from experiments are the material properties. momentum and energy in addition to an equation of state (EoS) are solved simultaneously in time. Characterizing the physical material behavior properly. compressible. The higher and/or shorter the dynamic loading.: H49 (89) 60043414.1. All rights reserved. material models are required characterizing the elastic. S. P3P4). loading. Its mathematical correlation gives an additional constitutive law and its data has to be determined from expensive experiments. Tel. The bulk modulus and the * Corresponding author.186 Material modelling in the dynamic regime: a discussion N. hydrocodes have been successfully applied. 2 and 3. Munich. unloading. Illustrating the material behavior of concrete.J. 1). For the numerical simulation of high frequent stress wave propagations. Pietzsch% F. unloading and reloading path. strainrate effects have to be taken into account. As a result of the high dynamic loadings. Equation of state. see Figs.
A . Since the data are coming from largescale experiments. Homogenization of a microscopic material to a macroscopic scale. The nonlinearity occurring in compressible materials is taken into account with the bulk modulus. the energy is considered implicitly. Equation of state The full EoS giving a complete material characterization is a threedimensional function of a surface in space. the MieGrueneisen surface. 4 in a yCPl "^oct P 7P P Fig. 2. which is responsible for the volume change. is projected in the two dimensional plane of the remaining variables. The basis are any of the two unknown variables of the equation of state and the energy. called . experimental results of different authors are depicted in Fig. P =. Considering the energy explicitly would be problematic because it is not possible to distinguish between different energy contributions in the tests. Gebbeken et ah /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ 187 real microscopic material homogeneous microstructure simplify the microstructure classical continuum mechanics ^ ^ ^ ^ •i material formulation on the level of micromechanics microplane formulation macroscopic models theory of elasticity theory of plasticity X damage and fracture application to structural behaviour Fig. For concrete. called the Hugoniot curve. Loading and unloading path in a 3D stress space and in a porous Hugoniot EoS. 1.2. shear modulus are the only parameters. 2.^oct t U P 'S \ 1 PO. The three dimensional curve of the EoS.P4 P2 crush •eloadin2=unloading lock P4 ref Fig. Loading and unloading path in a 3D stress space and in a porous Hugoniot EoS. 3.
I (tanhlilogi* . and ductile under high pressure.Ockert[1997] • exp. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics P.5 2. Experimental strain data to obtain an equation of state. experimental data from explosive field tests.8 2. where (To = (Toct/fc'' and To = Tocr///^". 5. Experimental as well as numerical simulations of high explosive loadings revealed that relative hydrostatic . For metals. a reasonable enhancement function has to be postulated. 2 and 3. 2 and 3. provide assured data up to 40 kbar. But in order to develop a complete Hugoniot curve. pressuredensity plot. a multilinear approximation of the test results has been adopted. Bischoff and Perry [4] have assembled experimental results from different authors using different concrete mixtures and no consistent testing devices (see Fig. . roct are octahedral stresses and fc is the characteristic strength (see Fig. carried out at the WTD 52. 4. 2. Fig. w^ # Grady [1996] • HJC [1993] A Eibl. which is an advantageous form for porous media. it is brittle in tension as well as in shear. concrete converts into a granular kind of material (Figs.7 2. It was fitted to test results in the range of a^ < 10.1 3.4]) W^ + iyw^ Fig.2 3. Strainrate effects: enhancement of strength Experimental data for various materials have shown that their strength enhance by increasing strainrates.3. it can be shown that there is a linear correlation between strength and strainrate in a logarithmic scale. which can be easily adapted to experimental results. This is more complex for porous materials like concrete.9 3. POPl). concrete is an anisotropic composite. 5). e.3 p[g/cm]3 Fig.0 3.4. Invariant yield surface H— . The more complex the material the more difficult is the derivation of the yield surface in the threedimensional stress state. experimental data are only available up to e < 10^ s~^ High dynamic loadings lead to strainrates over £ > 10^ s~^ Therefore. / • • ^ # ^ • A ^ 2. aoct. P1P3).N. yielding of materials can be determined from experimental data. uniaxial tension tests for metals. It should be mentioned that own Commonly. 6 shows the essential features of the yield surface.data (Adiment) j^^W^ . Furthermore. Densities greater than Pcrush cause compaction and gradually. 2 and 3. It contains an elastic path from tensile limit T to the Hugoniot elastic limit at Pcrush (Figs.4 2. Enhancement for extreme strainrates (based on Bischoff and Ferry [4]). Unloading and reloading are following the same path. 7) [5]. It is obvious that measurements in the high pressure regime are widespread. which is interpolated between the slopes c^ and c]^^^ (Figs. 2. Here.^ Raverage 1 [\ Yieldsuiface 1 ill EoS . P3P4).6 2. Here.g. a sufficient set of measurement data is needed for a wide range. Herein.2) • 0.
the von Mises (J2) flow theory is adopted.5.60°(fc:variiert) •*s^ : Ausgleichskurven Vers. 7. : Ausgleichskurve 7 0 ~B 4 a 2 1 O 1 Fig. Gebbeken et al.0 + Cc{sinl. Hanchak & Forrestal1992 V : q=60Xfc=48MPa) *•••. 9=60°CQinpressive meridian ^0 Fig. 2. In high pressure region.A^. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 189 To = a c(Jo \2. Yield surface for concrete and its experimental results [5]. pressures up to GO = 100 have to be expected. 6. ex .he) deviatoric plane octahedral plane c = CticoslMy^ a . The first part.. Consequently. Versuche Mould & Levine1987 • : q=0°. Yield surface for concrete and its experimental results [5]. this yield surface description has to be refined with data of further experiments. Yield curve shifting Strainrate effects as well as damage cause an isotropic shifting of the strength and stiffness.
increases with respect to the strainrate (Formula in Fig. This is of importance. it is only possible to state air Finite methods are approximate methods. Numerical problems as well as questions regarding the physical interpretation occur by using a cap.Mises ^!:^assoc ^aQ ^ ^ assoc. Up to now. mesh size sensitivity) and in time (timestep) have to be detected in sensitivity investigations and their errors have to be reduced to an acceptable minimum. which is part of the classical theory of plasticity and physically correct. because cyclic loading is not taken into account in this case. The evaluation of targets #0 to #2 in Fig. Conclusion A physical problem can only be simulated satisfyingly within constitutive models if the appearing phenomena are known from experiments. D = 0) and the damaged (D = 1) parameters. whereas the characteristic strength /. and if they are adequately described by mathematical formulations. that in a limited region (target #0) convergence problems concerning pressure near the high pressure zone have occurred.6. 6). As it was shown.190 N.g. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics i^^ decrease in  ^ stiffness and ^^strength ^^v. the yield surface is 'open' (Fig. Therefore. is implemented in the normalization of Go and To. an explosive charge is initiated on a concrete structure (Fig. The second part. unloading and reloading in the uniaxial case (aeplane) and the yield surface in the triaxial case (cap. 9. Essentially problems are: the transition between the standard yield function and the cap is not continuous. Hydrocode inherent problems of discretization in space (e. For certain reasons. whereas a perpendicular (associated) return onto the cap surface would cause a negative dilatation which is nonphysical. explosive charge > o o 1 ^Target#0 ^Target#l L^Tai^et#2 concrete Fig. Fig. gathering data is complicated and reliable results are rare. 2. The yield limit and static tensile limit parameters (see Fig. the physical behavior of a large number of materials is well known from experiments concerning static or dynamic loading up to a strain rate s < 10^ s~K If strain rates exceed this value. Monotonia convergence in hydrocode simulations high dynamic loadings with It should be mentioned that other convergence studies have shown the same material independent problems in a critical range nearby an explosion.. Within the scope of a convergence study [6]. 9). especially if an EoS is not necessarily needed. based on the convergence theorem [7]. plastic flow and shift). radial return vector is overestimated in accordance with a nonassociated flow rule. Physical problem and target points. 5).3. 3. The subscripts 0 and 1 represent the initial (undamaged. Isotropic shifting is assumed. an additional yield surface part (called cap) can be used. 8) starts at QQ. depends on a damage parameter D [3]. The pressure is measured in different targets by scaling down the element size. plained in Section 2. Loading. mm] _30 . 10 show. bo and ends at au b\. 8.
Gebbelcen N. mesh fineness for different targets.5 1 1.^t > 49. Comput IVlethods Appl Ivlech Eng 1992. NJ: Prentice Hall.6 6. high strainrates and high pressures... Pealc pressure vs. Computational methods in Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrocodes.5 6. [6] Gebbeken N.99:235394. Ruppert M. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 6_Euler pressure 1 [mm] 0.3 1 6_Euler pressure H 3 I (30/50) [mm] 0.1 0. [7] Bathe KJ.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [kbar] 7. Material formulations for concrete.0 1 50 30 • 70 V ^ *">rA. . 397405.121(6):685693. are not capable for certain regions of explosive loading.7 7. Ruppert M.1 5. the numerical tools. 1996. Strausberg. [5] Guo Z.0 79.70:463478. A new concrete material model for high dynamic hydrocode simulations. 6 Euler pressure 1 [mm] 0. DAfStb447.r—V^.3 40. the Lagrangian formulation does not converge asymptotically for [1] Benson DJ.A^.5 74.46:839851. the hydrocodes.3 5. Englewood Cliffs.2 88.8 76. 9. pp..0 80 70 60 50 40 30 X ^\ \ ^< 1 1 \. This paper points out the enormous demand for research in the high dynamics field. pp. 1995. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999. Just then it will be possible to validate postulates and to extend the constitutive models. as is demanded for the numerical algorithms used in finite element formulations. 1999.0 90.8 44. r r J A *'^T'*' Fig. 1 () \ . J Eng Mech 1995. Zhou Y. [2] Ruppert M. Evaluation of the multiaxial strength of concrete tested at Technische Universitat Munchen. Impact behavior of plane concrete loaded in uniaxial compression. [4] Bischoff PH. On the safety and reliability of high dynamic hydrocode simulations. It was shown that for the region adjacent to the explosives. But. Nechvatal D. 591600. postulates extrapolating experimental data. Arch Appl Mech 2000.5 2 4 191 [kbar] 132. Berlin: Beuth. International Symposium on Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ^••(0/30) ^""^^v References [kbar] 80. [3] Gebbeken N.0 51.6 68.3 46. one should avoid the prediction of physical contradictions. Especially the measurement engineering is in charge to provide reliable data.0  [!H(30/5) 150 n 130110 90  \ 43. elasticityplasticitydamage. Perry SH._ ^ 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 decreasing element size.0 57. Finite Element Procedures. Furthermore.9 6. 10.5 a—.9 6.
a weak formulation is used to calculate H.J. Fax: +1 (418) 6562928. Plate bending. To obtain an appropriate mesh. Universite Laval. The procedure is presented here for d^g/dxdy. Mesh adaptation.ulaval. Email: guy. Quebec. two main ingredients are required. It is shown that the procedure automatically generates welladapted meshes for which the error is uniformly distributed and is thus very attractive in the context of complex structural analysis problems. one component of the nodal displacement is * Corresponding author. This difficulty can be circumvented by replacing g by gh. (2) This quadratic function can be interpolated linearly on a triangular mesh using piecewise linear triangular elements. a Taylor series expansion. it is identical for the other components of H. However. to keep the procedure general and make the use of linear interpolation functions possible. the Mach number has been used [1]. chosen.: +1 (418) 6567892. These are an error estimator and a mesh adaptation strategy. its finite element approximation. Finite elements 1. The principles of the method are simple: (1) A local quadratic representation of the function can be built using.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. In fact. Goulet GIREF Research Center. The estimator is used to guide a meshadaptation procedure for solid mechanics problems. Gendron*. our error estimator is based on the use of a metric associated with the second derivatives of some scalar function g computed from the solution. First. Complex stress concentration areas that develop in reallife structural components can only be predicted accurately if appropriate mesh densities and element formulations are selected. Fortin. for example. Introduction It is wellestablished that the accuracy of finite element results strongly depends on the appropriateness of the mesh. one has: 2. For CFD problems. Canada GIK 7P4 Abstract A simple error estimator based on a loworder finite element interpolation is described in details. The choice of g is delicate and problemdependent. Elasticity. In this study. Tel. The problem with the evaluation of the estimate 1 is that the function g is not known and thus its Hessian H cannot be evaluated. and applied to the design of finite element meshes for 2D elasticity and plate bending problems. we write: where Qi represents the domain formed by the elements connected to node /. M. Bathe (Editor) where h is the length of the edge. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. and 0/ is any test function that is 0 . The overall procedure is illustrated and validated on a 2D elasticity and a platebending problem. (3) Taking the absolute value of the Hessian (through its eigenvalue decomposition) the error on the edges can be seen as a length in a Riemannian metric. on an element edge. All rights reserved. The interpolation error. E. the methodology proposed in [1] is reviewed in details. For the procedure to be successful. g must be sensitive to the features of the solution that must be predicted accurately.gendron@gci. Keywords: Error estimator. Error estimator By a now classical procedure [1].192 Error estimation and edgebased mesh adaptation for solid mechanics problems G. and d^g/d^^ is the secondorder derivative of g along the edge. For the structural mechanics problems presented in Section 5. P. then depends on the Hessian matrix.
on 9Qj. a line integral should be added to Eq. Eq. Gendron et al. internal to ^/.00613 0. Problem 1. for a boundary node.G. (2) can be applied to a piecewise linear approximation of g since the righthand side involves only firstorder derivatives. Also. Prismatic bar subjected to a uniform body force. Unfortunately.100 elements (c) Error (d) Estimator Fig. Mesh adaptation strategies We define an optimal mesh as a mesh for which the error is approximately uniform on all edges. the secondorder derivative d^g/dxdy at node Xj.00525 body force 100 XM 20 (a) Problem Definition 10 10 (b) Initial Grid . Consequently.i — dg d(pi dx dy / •dA 0/dA (3) 3. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 193 ^ Material Properties E = 200000 z/ = 0. the piecewise linear . (3). is approximated by: basis function (pi does not vanish on the boundary of the domain. Based on the fact that an edge be Each node is successively processed to finally obtain a linear approximation of the secondorder derivatives. For a boundary node. we start with an initial mesh and then tend to improve it by iteratively performing the following operations: OPl Refinement and coarsening (Amethod). OP2 Reconnection. the boundary of ^/. we replace d'^g/dxdy by a constant on ^/. D^yt. f ^xy. this integral is difficult to evaluate. we choose to extrapolate the values of the secondorder derivatives from neighboring internal nodes. Instead.3 0. With this assumption. An approximation to the Hessian matrix is thus defined at the nodes and it is easy to take its absolute value or interpolate it where needed. To obtain such a mesh. 1.
This element is convenient for the modeling of moderately thick to thin plates. the stiffness of which is proportional to the value of the estimator on that edge. z) plane.00175 10. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics )0i ^/^J % 0. and in the {y.00613 0. 2. 4. )6^. The element has nine degrees of freedom only: the displacements w and rotation of the normal in the (x. OP3 Node relocation (rmethod). Fixed values of L„pt will be used in Section 5.00263 0.007 0.000875 10 10 (a) Adapted Grid 19 elements (b) Error (c) Estimator Fig. (5) If necessary. tween two triangles is actually the diagonal of a quadrilateral.00613 0. the orientation of the diagonal is such that the minimum internal angle of a triangle is maximized. Each edge is replaced by a spring.000875 0. The second problem corresponds to a plate bending problem which is studied using the DST element [2].007 0.194 G.00263 0. . (3) Iteratively use OPl through OPS to define an adapted mesh.00438 0. Gendron et al.0035 10.00175 0. Model problems Two model problems are considered. The complete algorithm is as follows: (1) Select a scalar function g and an optimal edge length {Lopt) in the space of the Riemannian metric.00438 ^m 0. The value of Lopt allows the calculation of more or less refined meshes.00525 0. calculate the error estimator based on the new solution and return to step 3. The first one corresponds to twodimensional elasticity which is discretized using the wellknown Constant Strain Triangular (CST) element. Results. Shear locking is avoided through the use of appropriate approximation fields. Py.0035 m 0. Problem 1. (4) Calculate a new solution on the adapted mesh.00525 0. z) plane. (2) Define an initial mesh and calculate a solution and the error estimator on this mesh.
02 ' \W \ kww KWW 1 W\ .04 0. Numerical studies In this section. Problem 2. 3. these quantities are calculated at the center of every edge. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics w = Px =0 \EX = EY = 13800 MPa GxY =Gxz — GYZ = 1870 MPa WxY = 0. the results of two numerical tests are reported in order to validate the error estimator and demonstrate that it is suited to the design of meshes for which the error is reduced and uniform over every element edge. w = /3Y =0 100 TTim X w = /3x = 0 (a) Problem Definition (b) Initial Grid .06 0.08 0.03 0. . Gendron et al. J '''^^^^^^^^H ^m^'^i 1 ^ '^^^^H ' J ' ^^"^^^^Hl^^^^K. These problems have been selected because closedform solutions are known.200 elements j%.^ 1 ^ ^^ S' wwx *v . 5.07 0. This will allow the direct comparison of the exact error with the predicted estimator.12 ^ = 10 MPa \t— 12 mm 195 w= PY =Q 100 mm.05 0. ' . Simplysupported square plate.09 0.G. C ^ ^ 0. In all cases.: W\\'''J i (c) Error (d) Estimator Fig.
The function gh used to estimate the error corresponds to the finite element approximation of the vertical displacement. For the adapted mesh. 2 shows the adapted mesh along with the distributions of the exact error and the estimator.0016. for which both the average error and its standard deviation have been reduced. Vh. lc. la shows a prismatic bar made of isotropic material subjected to a downward constant body force.196 G. . Gendron et al. 5. the average error is 0.0029 and its standard deviation is 0. This result could be expected since the Hessian of the exact solution is constant.0041 and its standard deviation is 0. Fig. The initial mesh is shown in Fig. Problem 2. Symmetry boundary conditions are applied along the jc = 0 line.d. It is seen that the estimator and the exact error both calculated at the center of each element edge present the same distribution. The exact error calculated on this mesh along with the error estimator are (c) Estimator compared in Fig.7. The procedure has thus allowed the design of a mesh with significantly less elements. Problem 1: prismatic bar subjected to a uniform body force Fig. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics )0i (a) Adapted Grid . Results. Elements of identical size are obtained throughout the domain. lb. and consequently only half of the bar is modeled using 2D elasticity elements.0010.263 elements (b) Error Fig. The average error is 0. The exact solution for the vertical displacement is a quadratic function of x and y [3]. 4.
Any scalar function that relates to the solution can be used.021.d. The plate thickness t is 12 mm which corresponds to a sidetothickness ratio of 8. New York: McGrawHill. CRC Press. The average error is 0. The results presented herein confirm that the error estimator correctly predicts the value of the error. The function gh used to estimate the error corresponds to the finite element approximation of the transverse displacement Wh. The estimator and the exact error. The estimator drives the adaptation process in such a way that the final adapted mesh presents a uniform distribution of the error. both calculated at the center of each element edge. It could be reduced further by decreasing the value of Lopt. an infiniteseries solution based on a firstorder shear deformation theory has been derived by Reddy [4]. a nodal displacement component is proposed. For this problem. 1961. The plate is simply supported (hard conditions) on all four sides. Boivin S. 2nd edition. The pressure value q is 10. 199606. Lardeur R A discrete shear triangular 9dof element for the analysis of thick to very thin plates. present the same distribution. VKI Lecture Series.007. The initial mesh is shown in Fig. 3c. Theory and Analysis. In this work. Conclusion 197 An error estimator based on a metric derived from the Hessian of a scalar function has been presented. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989. Fortin M. [3] Timoshenko S. Goodier JN.0 MPa. The procedure has thus allowed the design of a mesh for which the error is reduced and quite uniformly distributed over every edge. . the average error is 0. For this mesh. The exact error calculated on this mesh along with the error estimator are compared in Fig. 3b. Problem 2: simplysupported square plate A simplysupported square plate 100 mm x 100 mm under a uniform lateral pressure is shown in Fig. 1997. [2] Batoz JL. Bourgault Y. The main differences are at the center of the domain where the estimator slightly underestimates the error.040 and its standard deviation is 0. 4 gives the adapted grid along with the distributions of the exact error and the estimator. Anisotropic Mesh Optimization: Towards a SolverTndependent and MeshIndependent CFD. References [1] Habashi WG. 6. Vallet MG. AitAliYahia D.G. The plate is made of an orthotropic material with the property values indicated. Tarn A. Gendron et al.2. 3a. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates. the error and the estimator are in good agreement.28:533560. Theory of Elasticity. Dompierre J. More work needs to be done to verify the applicability of the strategy to other structural problems.018 and its standard deviation is 0. As it was the case for the initial mesh. [4] Reddy JN. Fig. The choice of a displacement component to estimate the error also needs to be assessed. Robichaud MP.
This leads to either overconservatism in the assessment of structural systems which are able to continue to carry loads after one member becomes damaged.e. To account for the system effect in structural assessment and design. Mutah. Department of Civil. The use of structural reliability methods for design can lead to structures that have a more consistent level of risk [2].colorado. Environmental. design and maintenance of structural systems. Each of the above factors has its area of application and may be of great significance in analysis. Sensitivity analysis. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The system can be represented by a series of equivalent subsystems. 3.e. Department of Civil Engineering. Tel. each of which represents a combination of either series or parallel components. Reliability assessment. Jordan ^ University of Colorado. 2. CO 803090428. Fax: \\ (303) 4927317. In fact. The data used to describe the seriesparallel system can be found in Gharaibeh [4]. r]i = 0) to perfectly ductile (i. Model A simple idealized threemember seriesparallel system model comprised of two subsystems in series (i. McCartney^. members * Corresponding author.198 Reliabilitybased importance assessment of structural members Emhaidy S. Frangopol^* ^ University of Mutah.e. several aspects have to be examined.8]. Member importance. the member reliability importance factor and the member postfailure importance factor. System reliability 1. However. The system is subjected to a random load P with a mean of 0. Box 7. Introduction In recent years. 1 and 2 in parallel connected in series with member 3) is used to exemplify the proposed approach [35]. and the RELSYS software [7. USA Abstract When analyzing a structural system. design codes have been continuously revised to include limit states based on probabilistic methods. or underconservatism in the design of structural systems which are not able to redistribute loads [3]. System performance.15. John S. These subsystems are broken down into simpler equivalent subsystems until the system is reduced to a single equivalent component [7. Boulder. the safety level of each member. The failure path approach [6] is used to formulate the Umit state of the multimember system. Dan M. Keywords: Critical members.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Email: frangopo@spot. P. Two types of importance factors are formulated in this paper. The reliabiUty of the actual system can be assumed to be the same as the reliability of the single equivalent component. The process of finding the reliability of a complex structure made out of a combination of series and parallel subsystems can be simplified by introducing the concept of an equivalent system. All rights reserved. These factors measure the impact of each individual member on the performance of the overall system. safety importance of structural members must be quantified.8] is used to compute system failure probabilities for postfailure member behaviors ranging from perfectly britde (i. Gharaibeh^. Member ranking. systems exist in any combinations of series and parallel subsystems. including but not limited to the location of each member in the system.5 and a coefficient of variation of 0. System reliability analysis In reality.J. the limit states design approach has been used in nearly all of the recent advances in codified design [1].O. In this process. and Architectural Engineering. AlKarak. Bathe (Editor) . and the material behavior and stiffness sharing of each member. it is often useful to identify critical members by quantifying the safety importance of individual members. most of the current assessment and design codes require safety checks at the member level only. rit = 1).: +1 (303) 4927165.
The most important member with respect to its postfailure behavior is the member that has the maximum effect on the system reliability index. io = rehability index of the system given that member / has a perfectlybrittle postfailure behavior (i. Cj Fig. of its members. 1 against the stiffness sharing factor of member 1. In general. is defined as follows [4]: /.0 I 4. respectively.i^ as follows: 9^s. 4 shows the postfailure importance factors of the Ti = O.0 A .0. Effect of member reliability level on system reliability. 3 shows the variation of the default reliability index of the seriesparallel system described above with the stiffness sharing factor of member 1. il). Prn. ySsystem.e.0.25 S 2.3 0. p^nA [35]. r = 0.5 0. OPm. ^system. p2 = 300 . p2= 3. = 3. Normalized reliability importance factors for each member of a seriesparallel system. Reliability importance factor Member reliability importance factors can be derived from the sensitivity of the system reliability to changes in the reliability levels of its members.50 A : p. The reliability of one member was changed to 4. 1 shows the reliability importance factor implementation for the default case of P]^ = ^2 = h = ^0 and postfailure behavior factor r]i = r]2 = r]3 = 0. p3=4. and the position of each member in the system (i.9 STIFFNESS SHARING FACTOR OF MEMBER 1. Fig.0. p3=3. This measure can be defined as the gradient of the system reliability.0.H I : p. y^system.0./ = importance factor with respect to the postfailure behavior of member /.75 O. and 3 are assumed and the system reliabilities associated with each of these combinations are investigated. Example Based on the threemember seriesparallel model described in Section 2. 1. In calculating the importance factors a small change in member reliability level is imposed and the corresponding system reliability is evaluated. P3 = 3. and ^^system.0. Gharaibeh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. the member postfailure behavior.00 . Fig.i 4. 2. .0. P2= 3 0 ' P3=3. /^system = / ( P . 5. ii = reliability index of the system given that member / has a perfectlyductile postfailure behavior (i.0.0 while the other members retained their default reliability indices. the stiffness sharing factor of each member.00 The associated normaUzed member importance factor is: /».=3. This figure shows that ySsystem is maximum and minimum for r]i = ri2 = r]3 = 100 and r]i = r]2 = r]3 = 0. system topology).25 199 P.7 0. This impact depends on many factors such as the correlation between resistances of individual members.• = . Fig. ^^= 3. The differences in the associated system reliability of these cases compared to the default case show the impact of each member on the overall system performance. Each member has its own impact on the system reliability level.0.=3.50 3 3.. 6. (2).Emhaidy S. It can be seen that y^system is not sensitive to rj^ due to its series system effect.. P3=3. called the postfailure importance factor. to changes in rehability of member /. P. system reliability is a function of its individual members. where P and r] are vectors of member reliabilities and postfailure behavior factors.0 A . p2= 4.00 S Q 3. The reliability importance factor of member / is derived from the sensitivity of system rehability index. = N (2) ^ where A = number of members in the system. The system reliability index ^system associated with each case considered is plotted in Fig. while the postfailure behaviors of members 1 and 2 affect the system reliability.e. with respect to the member reliability.50.l 0. the member reliability level.=3. Postfailure importance factor System reliabihty is usually very sensitive to the postfailure behavior factor 77. p3=3.SO . Finally. respectively. Fig.e.I : Pi=4. Fig. 2. rji = 1).=3.''system 5 ' 1 ^system? ^0 (3) where 7^. In order to quantify this sensitivity. P2= 3. r]i = 0). 2 shows the normalized reliability importance factors obtained for the default case according to Eq.0 A . the system failure criterion model adopted.I I : p. Different combinations of extreme values of the postfailure behavior factors of members 1.0 . another importance factor.0.
pp. A System Reliability Approach to the Lifetime Optimization of Inspection and Repair of Highway Bridges. [8] Estes AC. This support is gratefully acknowledged.5 0. and Architectural Engineering. 3 = l n. Corotis RB. CMS9522166. the importance of a member is defined as the impact of that member on the overall system reliability. Thesis.14(6):371378. Opinions expressed in this paper are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect those of the sponsoring organizations. Boulder. r/ = 0 . No. 1998. Environmental. Gharaibeh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics O < T. Department of Civil. 1987. System reliability and redundancy in codified bridge evaluation and design. Eng Struct 1992. Ti^=i  r  .3 0.00 w 3.3 0. Along these lines. C. Structural system reliability considerations with frame instability. Elsevier: Amsterdam. CO. 12211233 (also on CD Rom). [4] Gharaibeh ES. 3. Reliability and Redundancy of Structural Systems with Application to Highway Bridges.6(8):901919. CO. Structural system reliability analysis methods.5 0.l 0.75 3.D. 1998. Shing PB. 83. C . Blume Earthquake Engineering Center. Effect of member postfailure behavior on system reliability. [21 Zimmerman JJ. Department of Civil. Paper Reference T1212. University of Colorado.9 STIFFNESS S H A R I N G F A C T O R O F M E M B E R 1 . Struct Eng Mech 1998. 18(23):6780.25 4.25 3. The proposed approach takes into account the system reliability as a whole and identifies the contribution of individual members to the overall system performance. Frangopol DM. Fig. Thesis. 1997. Ellis JH. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to assess the reliability importance of members in any structural system modeled as a seriesparallel combination of failure modes. 2. Jordan.9 S T I F F N E S S S H A R I N G F A C T O R O F M E M B E R 1. The results are useful for assessment.l 0. 9 pp. In: Dunaszegi L (Ed). AlKarak.= l . The John A. P^ = 3 OO ' Ps = 3 OO References [11 Ellingwood BR. 5 . Developments in Short and Medium Span Bridge Engineering'98. [6] Karamchandani A. Stanford University. Postfailure importance factors for each member of a seriesparallel system. design and maintenance of structures in an overall system reliability perspective. CA. Department of Civil Engineering. In: Srivastava NK (Ed). University of Colorado.7 0. Rep. Boulder. = 3. Ti2=0 O. S ^ O. Struct Safety 1996. 7. 4. Montreal. Ph. Stanford. seriesparallel system for the default case. on CDROM.50 3.75 Emhaidy S. Environmental.00 . T . RELSYS: A computer program for structural system reliability analysis.00 2. Gharaibeh ES. T i 2 = 0 ^ ^ r. [5] Gharaibeh ES. Canadian Society of Civil Engineering.  This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants CMS9506435.D. The postfailure importance factor is derived from the contribution of member postfailure factor to the overall system performance. [7] Estes AC. Shing PB. = 0 . Structural Engineering World Wide 1998. 1999. CMS9912525 and the University of Mutah. P. Reliabilitybased condition assessment and LRFD for exisfing structures. [3] Frangopol DM.=o. Structural importance assessment of bridge members: A reliabilitybased approach.200 4. Fig. Frangopol DM. < 1 Acknowledgements s r. and Architectural Engineering.= l .7 0. Heam G. . Ph.
J. Keywords: Life prediction. Advanced Engineering Applications. LCF. stress component (pulse process with holding times) due to pilot's maneuvers with a fastvarying stress component (intermittent continuous narrowband process) due to vibration under unsteady aeroforcing. NY 14623. 1 for each critical location. Tel. The vibratory stresses occur when the excitation frequency is sufficiently close to blade natural frequencies a shown in Fig. while the randomly occurring vibration stress cycle with lower amplitude produce the highcycle fatigue (HCF) damage. Flight stress profile. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.: +1 (716) 4242010. Introduction A typical illustration of a jet engine life prediction problem is shown in Fig. Crack initiation. Creep 1. Ghiocel *. Fatigue. All rights reserved. The random slowvarying stress cycles produce the lowcycle fatigue (LCF) damage and creep damage in the component.) Extreme Events (Accidental impact. The paper also discusses critical modeling issues that drastically impact on the component fife prediction. The paper presents a simulationbased stochastic approach for mechanical component life prediction under normal operating and accidental conditions. Creep. Herein. Operational (HCF. USA Abstract Stochastic life prediction of mechanical system components represents a difficult engineering problem involving modeling of multiple complex random phenomena. 1. Bathe (Editor) . the stochastic HCF/LCF and creep damaging interactive effects are studied using simulated stress histories in >• Time scale Damage Accumulation J)amage Larger Initial Defect : Impact damage ^^ Time scale Fig. Stochastic modehng. Hongyin Mao STI Technologies. Specifically. * Corresponding author. etc. 1. As shown in Fig. etc.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Email: dghiocel@stitech. 1800 BrightonHenrietta. The paper addresses key aspects of stochastic modeling of component life prediction.201 Probabilistic life prediction for mechanical components including HCF/LCF/creep interactions Dan M. Stochastic environment and damage.2]. the operational stress profiles and local damage accumulation are modeled as nonstationary stochastic processes [1. results computed for a generic aircraft jet engine blade are shown. Fax: +1 (716) 2727201.) Impact Occurence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TIME (Minutes) Blade Vibration Mode 2 Blade Vibration Mode 1 Fig. 2. Stochastic stress variation in a blade location is obtained by the superposition of a slowvarying Loading History t Stress Amplitude Resonances . Rochester. Damage accumulation. 2.
cr^). ^max) with cycle counting distribution where the quantities a^. etc. However. D(r. the paper focuses on crack initiation modeling aspects. The mean stress effect (including temperature.5)=:g(X(r. or more specifically as a function of stressstrain closed cycle sequence. static. s) = h{X{t.M.N. creep. The total cumulated damage due to cyclic loading can be directly computed by the convolution of damage function.5). However. are fully coupled.1.5).Nf{Sa.5)) For evaluating the stochastic crack initiation life. H. A key modeling aspect is to reduce the spatial stress/strain state problem to a uniaxial tensile stress/strain state problem similar to the lab test conditions. U) . This issue is not further addressed in this paper. residual stresses from previous damages or processing. 2. stochastic stress/strain tensor in a blade location can be expressed by the equation of motion: X(r. Crack initiation models Generally. currently in engineering practice the influence of damage on stresses and strains is not considered. The modeling uncertainty associated with mean stress correction is extremely large even for simple uniaxial lab tests. Such an approach includes both changes in strength and constitutive model using damage parameter as an internal variable in the material constitutive model. modified Morrow and SmithWatsonTopper (SWT) correction procedures. This modeling uncertainty should be reduced in the future through the development of more accurate physicsbased straindamage models based on stochastic micromechanics. etc. the equivalent (Von Mises) stress is used to define the alternating stress component and the hydrostatic stress (in fact the first stress invariant) to define the mean stress component [3]. s). The damage accumulation models describe the damage evolution as a function of loading stressstrain history. with an alternating stress component and a mean stress component.3. (3) as shown below: (a) Morrow correction include mean stress effects for both the elastic and plastic strain terms: l(5) E G r c/b {2Nff + E'^ 1 _ ^ (2Nf) (4) (b) Modified Morrow correction removes the mean stress effect in plastic strain term: (5) (c) SmithsWatsonTopper approach strainlife curve expression as follows: \^a — changes the {a'f? {INff+a'e'AlNf) (6) An approximately inverse function of strainlife equations (36) can be used to get the cycle life for a given pair of alternating strain and mean stress. After stress/strain state reduction to a simple uniaxial lab test case.s).) is included using a randomized Morrow. fretting effects. Strainlife approach engine blades.202 D. temperature effects. Stochastic life prediction models 2.£(r. the input environmental/material vector process. The stochastic stressstrain vector process. X(t. The damage growth depends on stress amplitude and reciprocally the stress amplitude depends on damage level. An important aspect of using the strainlife curve is that it is possible to handle the random effects coming from surface finish.p) (7) NT {V.2. a local strainlife approach with a randomized strainlife curve parameters is used. There is a significant modeling uncertainty associated with the idealization of the multiaxial stress/strain case by a simple uniaxial stress/strain case. b. e'^ and c are considered to be random material parameters. typically the rainflow counting procedure is used to determine the closed stressstrain cycle sequence. 5). 2. 2. Stochastic strainlife curve SaNf is described by s. There is a high need in industry to set these mean correction procedures on a more adequate physical basis including key stochastic micromechanics aspects.s). Most often.s). D(t. E(t. any cumulative damage process is defined by its firstorder differential kinetic equation dD = dN f{D. The mean stress correction procedures adjust Eq. = ^i2Nf)' + 8'fi2Nfy (3) Z)(r. and the scalar damage parameter.D(/. s)) (1) where t is time and s is space coordinate. Both the crack initiation and crack propagation evolution stages are considered. Cumulative damage mechanics models DT = I d(t)dt= J2 ^i^i^^i) dv dw dvdu (2) If Theoretically. The local notch plasticity is introduced using Neuber's rule [3]. Ghiocel. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The total damage being defined by the sum of damages of all closed hysteresis loops. DiX^m. the E(t.
holding time.80 — 10**8 10**9 LOF CYCLES y\ //J HCF CYCLES // — — 203 Nc. 3. three stochastic fracture mechanics models derived using (i) Forman. as illustrated by the big three steps in the damage evolution.e. impact loading. 5 there is a significant Hfe reduction due to creep. This last remark is due to the fact that the creep damage effects are drastic during the crack initiation stage reducing severely the statistical spread between the short and long LCF simulated lives. appropriate stochastic adjustments of damage curves have to be used in addition to the randomization of the model parameters. These stressdependent damage models or nonlinear damage rulebased models capture adequately the complex HCF/LCF/creep damage interactions. 5 indicates the effect of creep damage (at 700°C) on Ufe prediction. Fig. It is interesting to note two modeling aspects: (i) the probability density of predicted life has a skewed shape for pure LCF damage and relatively symmetric shape for LCF/creep damage and (ii) the coefficient of variation is smaller for the LCF/creep damage. Computed results 3. 3. Stochastic HCF/LCF interaction Fig. HCF. can be accurately constructed based only on two experiments for extreme amplitude levels.10 0. Ghiocel.20 0.20 0. it has been shown that a damage curve.60 0.40 0. Sa"25ksi LOF+HCF . Double Damage Curve Approach [4] and LemaitreChaboche and modified RabotnovKatchanov [5] models were comparatively used. 31 and 38 of the flight. maximum and minimum life levels.00 0. Nf Fig. The letter p denotes the parameters of damage model. Om). the more severe damage interaction is and the more deviation from linear damage rule is noted [4]. Stochastic damage models were obtained by randomizing the deterministic ones shown in Fig. Thus. Stochastic LCF/creep interaction Fig.1. 2. where constant amplitude cycle life is a function are alternating strain and mean stress.D. The greater the ratio between the (two) extreme life levels is. H. Experimentally. Crack propagation models For crack propagation.80 0. About 90% of the damage produced is due vibratory stresses.2. Both crack initiation and propagation stages are included. are not directly additive.50 0. creep. 2. Results were computed for pure LCF damage and LCF/creep damage. It should be noted that for this severe flight profile the vibratory stresses are highly damaging. stress ratio. and temperature are incorporated in these crack propagation models.f 10**4 10**5 10**6 10**7 3. As shown in Fig. Damage evolution per flight.00 LIFE CYCLES. 1. etc. . The random effects of cyclic loading frequency. UJ 9 0.M.60 (5 Ii 0 J 1 . Large vibratory stresses occur randomly at the minutes 9. 3. i. 3. stress/strain amplitudedependent cumulative damage mechanics models.30 0. The damage curve parameters are determined so that for any arbitrary life. (ii) SINH and (iii) MSE models. such as Damage Curve Approach.70 0. Herein. \ HCF 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TIME (Minutes) Fig.60 0. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1.90 0. Damage curves for different life levels.3. A key stochastic modeling aspect is that the damages produced by cumulative damage mechanisms of different nature such as LCF. Eq. Nf{Sa.40 0. (7) can be applied. 6 shows a simulated histogram of the fatigue damage cumulated after 1000 flights (crack initiation stage).4. Critical modeling issues Only two critical modeling issues are investigated in this paper: (i) the modeling uncertainty induced the selection of probability density function of cumulative damage and (ii) the modehng uncertainty introduced by mean stress correction procedures in crack initiation life prediction. 4 shows the HCF/LCF interactive damage for the simulated stress profile given in Fig. 4.
It can be observed that the largest damaging flight sequence is a clear outlier for lognormal and Weibull probability density function. Computed results show that the stateoftheart of engineering tools for evaluating fatigue and creep effects did not reach yet the level of highly accurate fife estimates. Ghiocel. The predicted life is 5000 flights for Morrow and SWT and 15. An early damaging flight condition in the component life may have a great impact on the life length.02 n I • 0. A typical analytical distribution type does not fit accurately the histogram on the entire damage value range.12 r '' 1 1 1' 1 1 1"" I > i (b) s 0. The results are computed for deterministic flight conditions and material. (b) LCF/creep damage. H.000 flights for modified Morrow. I 30 20 10 0 o o o I/) O 05 O t Morrow Modified Morrow • • CO T en CM r^ CN en 5000 10000 15000 20000 o d Damage Index Number of FlighAs Fig.08 1 /tu^fs^^^^^suuilft III f // ^111 100QO i 1 an / 1 1 ^ I aoel 0. it needs further research attention. Fig. Thus. Mean stress correction effects. This result indicates that there is more uncertainty in the predicted life due to modeling assumptions than due to randomness in the loading and material behavior. the stochastic life prediction a typical aircraft jet engine blade is studied. Specifically.04 ^J^^^^^m^y Jy SQOO Number of Flights ^ 1SQ00 aQ2 1 ^ 1 1^ 1 1 1 1Q0O2QQD3QOO4OQOSQOOeQOO?O0OaQ0O9ODO Number of Rights Fig. This result is a consequence of the highly nonlinear relationship between alternating strain and the incremental and cumulated damage. (a) LCF damage. Simulated stochastic life. This modeling aspect has a great influence on component failure risks.204 DM. 5. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (a) 0. 6. Simulated histogram of damage. The research need for going in depth in the microscale physics of fatigue phenomena is obvious. 7. 70 60 50 Mean Stress Effect I 40 u. The probability density function appears to have a skewed shape with an extreme long tail. it appears that the most rational approach to component life prediction is to compute stochastic lowerbounds and bestestimates of lives which include the mostconservative and the experimentallybestfitted engineering .06 m S o o 0. Fig.1 1 1 ' 1 0. 4. 7 indicates the effect of using different mean correction procedures. Concluding remarks The paper presents a simulationbased stochastic approach for component life prediction. Thus.04 0.
[4] Halford GA. MA. 1999. September. 1114. The 1st International Conference on Fatigue Damage in Structural Materials. 205 References [1] Ghiocel DM. [3] Dowhng NE. NJ: PrenticeHall. . pp. Factorable stochastic field models for jet engine vibration response. The 13th ASCE Speciahty Conference. 1316. Fracture. [5] Lemaitre C.DM. [2] Ghiocel DM. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics models. 2000. A key role of reducing the modeling uncertainty and increasing the accuracy of life estimates is played by the ongoing micromechanics research developments. 1998. Ghiocel. Barcelona. and Fatigue. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. ECOMASS 2000. respectively. H. September. Mechanics of Sohds. pp. ProbabiHstic fatigue life prediction for jet engine components: stochastic modehng issues. 1996. Englewood Cliffs. 1993. Hyannis. Baltimore. Caboche F. Cumulative fatigue damage modeling — crack nucleation and early growth. 2227. Mechanical Behavior of Materials — Engineering Methods for Deformation. June.
46022Valencia.10]. Both are directly related and have been shown to be equivalent as can be found in any text on fracture mechanics (e. Closedform solutions for K have been derived for a small number of simple geometries and load configurations. J. which is greatly due to the socalled discretization error. M. In this work we will make use of an extension of the ZienkiewiczZhu discretization error estimator [11] in order to study the influence of the global discretization error on the calculation of G when the wellknown Energy Domain Integral Method is employed. Fuenmayor. EDI method. when the FEM is applied to the calculation of K or G. Giner*. EDI [58] or the modified crack closure integral [9.g. As explained below. In this work. Those techniques related to the global approach are called indirect methods and they yield a value for G or / (both refer to the same concept in LEFM) by means * Corresponding author. e. /integral. which is based on shape design sensitivity analysis. Besa. To obtain an efficient error estimator for G. Tur Departamento de Ingenieria Mecdnica y de Materiales. Fracture mechanics. The other is the socalled global or energetic approach and takes the strain energy release rate G (SERR) as the characterizing parameter of the problem. such as K. All rights reserved. Some computationally efficient estimators for the FE discretization error are currently available. [1]). specially the Finite Element Method (FEM). Spain Abstract The implementation of the EDI method through the FEM introduces a discretization error that is inherent in the mesh and type of element employed.3]. this approach is given by the shape design sensitivity analysis as applied to a crack problem. Error estimation. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The reliability of the estimator is then analyzed solving a numerical problem using an /zadaptive process. This kind of error is inherent in the nature of the FEM and basically depends on the mesh and type of element used. the postprocessing technique chosen may be another source of errors. Fax: H34 (96) 3877629. an alternative approach to the EDI method is needed. G or the more general 7integral can be done through a great variety of postprocessing techniques. The application of the FEM in order to obtain fracture mechanics parameters. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. the discretization error introduces an error in the results for K or G. The indirect (or energetic) methods can be applied to the whole domain of the problem and therefore they lend themselves to an estimation of the global discretization error. Tel: h34 (96) 3877626. Obviously. Adaptive refinement 1. A. which is based on the wellknown concept of stress intensity factor K (SIF) as a single characterizing parameter of the state of stress in the vicinity of a crack tip. Besides. contour integrals like the /integral [4]. an error estimator for the evaluation of G or / in linear elastic problems in fracture mechanics is proposed.upv. Introduction In the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) there are two distinct approaches to the analysis of crack problems: one is the local approach. their equivalent domain integrals.J. numerical methods have become customary. One major consideration in applying the finite element method to fracture mechanics is the order of magnitude of the error made in the calculation.g. Email: eginerm@mcm.es © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Sensitivity analysis.206 A discretization error estimator associated with the energy domain integral method in Hnear elastic fracture mechanics E. Bathe (Editor) of virtual crack extension and stiffness derivative methods [2. Keywords: Finite element method. In those real cases where complex geometries are involved. The effectivity .
Error estimation The error estimator proposed here is based on the underlying principle behind the ZienkiewiczZhu estimator [11]. 7 = 1. Virtual extension 8a of the points enclosed by F3. the unknown exact fields for discontinuous magnitudes of the FE solution are replaced with improved fields. Gij and Ui are the stress and displacement fields. (ff.fffe) : [(Vii). The key assumption in the appUcation of SDSA to a crack problem is to interpret the crack length a as a design variable. (4) where Q^e is the local domain of the reference element. Thus. whose change of length impUes a modification of the boundaries (shape). . derived from the same FE solution. .2 and where ^* is a portion of the domain of the problem which completely surrounds the crack tip. In Saliba et al.(Tfe) Fig. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics of the proposed error estimator is then checked by means of a numerical verification. which induces a virtual extension 8x1 of points in Q*. (3) equals exactly 2G and therefore Eq. 1. then the sensitivity of the external work done by T (denoted here by V) equals the first integral in Eq. Giner et al. If V satisfies the above conditions. (1). In this work. Assume that the prescribed tractions T on the problem are held constant and that crack faces are traction free. </ is the Kronecker's delta and qi 5 y is a sufficiently smooth function which must take values between 0 and 1. subject to the conditions (see Fig. which can be defined for a FE discretization with ne isoparametric elements as ne ^es(G) p {a. (3) for any kinematically admissible field li.e. it has been shown [12. i.. The improved fields in Eq. . It is essentially a domain integral which results of applying the divergence theorem under certain assumptions to the J contour integral [58]. the qi function may be interpreted as a weight function which scales the virtual extension 8x1 of any point in Q* between 0 and 8a through the expression 8x1 = qi8a. 1) q\{xx. .(Vu)fe]T (<r. [12] and Taroco [13] a continuum approach is used to show that the sensitivity of the total strain energy t/ of a cracked component in LEFM is given by U = — = fa:VudQo+ da J / [WI .13] that where ^0 is the domain of the problem. Recently.( V u ) V l : Vvd^o J •n\ '^/(^^^•£S£'^ (1) with /.fffe) (e«  Sfe) I [(Vu).(Vu)fe] UI dQ. Several procedures are available to carry out a SDSA [14]. : VvlJI dfi. (3) forms the basis of the proposed estimator in G.c2) e Ti if (xi. a is the stress tensor. (3) and the Eq. 3. I is the identity matrix and v is the socalled velocity field. the first integral in Eq. Physically. for a 2D elastic problem. X2) e Fs (2) The outer contour Fi and inner contour F3 are arbitrary: Fi can be the external boundary of the body (excluding the crack faces) and F3 is often reduced to a point (the crack tip). Moreover. J is the Jacobian matrix and e is the infinitesimal strain tensor. Eq. (3) is also a way of calculating G and it will be employed in this work. To do so. The EDI method as a shape design sensitivity analysis The Energy Domain Integral method is one of the most efficient methods for obtaining / in an elastic (not necessarily linear) problem. 207 2. the change in sign must be taken into account since G = fl = tl . deLorenzi [5] established a relationship between this method and the concept of material derivative of Continuum Mechanics. in absence of body forces and tractions on crack faces and assuming that the crack propagates in a selfsimilar manner. .V in LEFM (where 77 denotes the sensitivity of the total potential energy). This permits to establish an equivalence between the second integral in Eq.X2) = 0 1 if (jci. (4) are denoted by ( )* .E. which exactly corresponds to the qi function described above. (1) can be obtained under the more general approach of shape design sensitivity analysis as applied to LEFM. Vii is the gradient of the sensitivity of the displacement field. V^ is the strain energy density. / can be calculated as: Eq.
Giner et al. the improved fields were obtained through nodal averaging whereas a SPR technique [15] was employed for quadratic elements. For linear elements. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  F O L^ E ^ ^ V c v: ^^^^^^^"^"^"^•'•^^^ E < ^ m ^^^^\^ ^^'^^^^^. The specific problem discussed here is an infinite array of collinear cracks of the same length 2a in Mode I. Sequence of deformed meshes (quadratic elements).. Exact and estimated relative errors in G (%) for the sequences of /zadapted meshes: linear and quadratic elements.. being C/gx — G f e — <^ex '?ex(G) = (8) 4. ^^^^^^<. an /iadaptive procedure was used._ 1 D.^^^ E > P p F 100 " ^ '^r rex( G ) (linear elements) " ^ ' %^es{G) " ' 9c X] 1 (linear elements) (quadratic elements) 1 1 1 1 1 ^c T]^^^ ^ ^ (quadratic elements) ^^^'^<<.. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Mesh 1 Mesh 2 Mesh 4 Mesh 6 Mesh 10 Fig. (3).. whose exact solution for plane strain is [1] where Gfe is obtained either through Eq.. 3.1 1 1 1 . Using this error estimator an improved solution for G is given by G^es = G f e + ees(G) (5) which should be close to unity. Note that a sensitivity problem must be solved to getu. 2.F. The relative error can be estimated as ^es(G) = ^es(G) Gfe + ^es(G) (6) An effectivity index to validate the error estimator when the exact solution is known is defined as follows ^(G) '7es(G) ^ex(G) (7) E v \ Kiex = O^jTta [ 2b /7za\ 1/2 (9) . Numerical verification In order to check the validity of the error estimator and its convergence with refined meshes.= : J 310 LU 0.208 E. (1) or Eq. in contrast to the FE solution ( )fe. Model for periodic array of collinear cracks (Mode I).O. Fig.
Moran B. [9] Rybicki EF.9 c / . as it is emphasized by the Fig. [5] deLorenzi HG. [16. where the effectivity index given by another error estimator in G [16. since actually the FE model converges to a slightly different exact solution (which is unknown) due to its finite height. Jr. Giner et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics n—\—I I I 209 . Int J Fracture 1982.333 and a = 100. of the first mesh is larger than for the second mesh due to the adaptive procedure. [6] deLorenzi HG. On the energy release rate and the /integral for 3D crack configurations.17]. J \ \ l_i D. Int J Fracture 1986.9:931938. v = 0. Shih CF. Other numerical examples yielded similar results and therefore this estimator can be regarded as acceptable. Eng Fract Mech 1977. Acknowledgements This work was financially supported by CICyT in the framework of research project PB970696C0202. Eng Fract Mech 1985. Fig. A comparison of methods for calculating energy release rates. b = 1 (half distance between similar points of two consecutive cracks). Kanninen MF. Energy release rate along a threedimensional crack front in a thermally stressed body. . The height of the FE model was taken large enough {h = 6) to assume this exact solution as valid for comparison purposes. J Appl Mech 1968.) .\ (linear elements) G.21(2):405421. Through a numerical example. Further refinement would not be appropriate in this example. its high reliability has been checked.21(1): 129143. A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks.E. Nakamura T. an error estimator for G based on a SDSA for linear elastic crack problems when solved through a FE analysis has been proposed. References [1] Kanninen MF. 4.30:79102. 2 shows the discretized model after deformation and some of the adapted meshes.a .17] are included for comparison.19:183193. 4. Conclusions In this work. On the method of virtual crack extensions. The results for the estimated relative error r/es(G) are given in Fig. The reliability of the proposed estimator seems to be fairly high.Q(^. 3 compared to the exact relative error r^ex(G). Advanced Fracture Mechanics. both for linear and quadratic triangular elements.10:487502. [2] Parks DM. Newman JC. Tan PW. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1975. Int J Fracture 1974. [8] Shih CF. A finite element calculation of stress intensity factors by a modified crack closure integral. having used a = \. Energy release rate calculations by the finite element method. Oxford Engineering Science Series. E = 10'^.17] is included for comparison. [4] Rice JR. A stiffness derivative finite element technique for determination of crack tip stress intensity factors. (quadratic elements) •^^9 (ref. linear elem.O. Needleman A.F. A virtual crack closure technique for calculating stress intensity fac 5. 1985. This estimator implies solving a sensitivity problem as well as computing improved fields for the FE solution. Effectivity indexes calculated according to [16. It has also been shown that this error estimator improves notably other estimators available in the literature.35:379386. [3] Hellen TK. New York: Oxford University Press.9:187207. Reliability of the error estimator: effectivity index for the sequences of /zadapted meshes: linear and quadratic elements. [10] Shivakumar KN. [7] Li FZ. Eng Fract Mech 1985. Popelar CH. Fig. Note that the number of dof.
Ofiate E. Dominguez J. Part I: The recovery technique. The superconvergent patch recovery and a posteriori error estimates. Design Sensitivity Analysis of Structural Systems. Zhu JZ. Taroco E. Computational Mechanics: New Trends and Applications. Dvorkin E (Eds). Giner E. [13] Taroco E. In: Idelsohn S. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [14] Haug EJ. Rodenas JJ. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 1997. Proceedings Congreso Buenos Aires. Extension of the ZienkiewiczZhu error estimator to shape sensitivity analysis. tors for cracked three dimensional bodies. [11] Zienkiewicz OC. 1998. Proceedings Congreso Buenos Aires. Giner et al. Shape sensitivity analysis and energy release rate of planar cracks embedded in threedimensional bodies. First and second order shape sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics. Dvorkin E (Eds). Florida: Academic Press Inc. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. Padra C.36:R43R50.210 E.24:337357. [17] Fuenmayor FJ. Komkov V. Oliver JL. Computational Mechanics: New Trends and Applications. Int J Fracture 1988. Choi KK. Feijoo RA. [12] Saliba R. Ofiate E.20(5):813828.. Barcelona: CIMNE. 1986.33:13311364. [15] Zienkiewicz OC. In: Idelsohn S. Volume 177 of Mathematics in Science and Engineering. Venere MJ. Oliver JL. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987. Barcelona: CIMNE. Orlando. [16] Fuenmayor FJ. 1998. .40:14131433. Zhu JZ. Calculation of the stress intensity factor and estimation of its error by a shape sensitivity analysis.
L. This is the case. 2. while the second phase (identified by the subindex d) represents the damaged phase. Damage. Bathe (Editor) where Au. respectively. The second term introduces the stress redistribution due to the damage of dp material when the prescribed boundary conditions are held constant. Email: cgonzalez@mater. It is assumed that one of the phases (identified by the * Corresponding author. Classical models assume that the volume fraction of each phase is constant. 28040. Department of Materials Science. and Ad stand. The incremental selfconsistent method is used to compute the effective response of the material as well as the elastic stress redistribution due to damage. Tel. Keywords: Selfconsistent method. All rights reserved. Model description and application The material is made up of two spherical phases forming an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres [2].J. Llorca Polytechnic University of Madrid. Particlereinforced composite 1. Gonzalez *. for instance. which can be computed as L = (lp)L. This paper presents an extension of the classical selfconsistent model to analyze the mechanical behaviour of a twophase material. Plasticity. which presented damage by reinforcement fracture during deformation. The volume fraction of the damaged phase is given by p. of progressive damage in metalmatrix composites by either reinforcement fracture or interface decohesion.S.: +34 (91) 3366419. which are assumed to behave as isotropic elastoplastic solids. J. which is given by da dF dW a? + where the first term in (1) stands for the hardening contribution without any phase transformation. Madrid. The model assumes that the behaviour of each phase in the material is adequately represented by an isotropic. The following two sections are devoted to calculate these terms. Spain Abstract A model is developed to compute the mechanical behaviour of twophase materials including the effects of damage. where a phase change (due to damage. E. The material is represented by an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres.Au+pLdAd (2) mi (1) 2. Deformation without damage The strain hardening rate for the twophase material without damage is given by the effective tangent stiffness tensor. the model predictions are compared with experimental results — previously reported — for a particlereinforced metalmatrix composite. the evolution of volume fraction of each phase is one critical factor to simulate with accuracy the mechanical behaviour. Effective property. As an example. In all these situations.upm. subindex u) stands for the behaviour of the undamaged phase. or any other physical process) may occur during deformation. Fax: +34 (91) 3366680.T.1.es © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. for the fourth or . Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. While this is often true. The effective response of the twophase material can then be computed by integrating along the loading path the effective strain hardening rate.211 Micromechanical analysis of twophase materials including plasticity and damage C. there are materials which exhibit phase changes triggered by the inhomogeneous stress and strain fields generated during deformation. de Ingenieros de Caminos. Introduction Structural materials are usually made up of two or more phases which exhibit a nonlinear mechanical behaviour. which is known to play a critical role in their ductihty and strength [1]. elastoplastic soHd following the incremental (J2) theory of plasticity.
Secondly. the composite was represented as an interpenetrating network of two spherical phases.2. The broken SiC particles contained a pennyshaped crack perpendicular to the loading axis. Model application The model developed in the previous section was used to compute the tensile stressstrain curve for a 2618 Al alloy (a) Peakaged condition 500 a. . S L/i 300  on dJ UN r/i 7. which depend on the material properties as well as on the volume fraction. This problem was solved by Hill [3] within the framework of elastoplastic deformation for an isolated ellipsoidal inclusion of phase / [4]. Firsdy. 2(a) and (b). The simulations of the tensile stressstrain curves were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. the damage leads to an elastic stress relaxation in the effective material. The right expression in (3) is a set of equations in which the terms of da/dp and d?^//dp corresponding to prescribed boundary conditions are zero. (3) dp dp dp where a and ?^/ stand for the effective stress and elastic strain prior to damage. Stress redistribution due to damage The stresses and strains in the undamaged phase change after each strain increment and.400 300 Selfconsistent simulation Experimental 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain (%) Fig. The constitutive equation for each region (intact or damaged) in the composite was determined through the finite element analysis. The fraction of broken particles was assumed to be governed by a Weibull statistic. Llorca/ First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 600 der strain rate concentration tensors corresponding to the untransformed and transformed phases. it is assumed that the damage occurs very rapidly (as compared to the strain rate) and thus that the prescribed boundary conditions remain constant.3.. (a) Model (dashed) and composite (solid) curves for the tensile stressstrain behaviour of the peakaged metalmatrix composite. . shape and spatial distribution of each phase. 1. as a result. r COMPOSITE INTACT DAMAGED Fig. SiC particles [5]. (b) Idem for the naturally aged composite. which can be calculated derivating its elastic constitutive equation given by a = L"€ei and thus — = U'—^\€. 1). as shown in Fig. 2. both formed by the metallic matrix surrounding either an intact or broken SiC particle (Fig. I reinforced with 15 vol. To compute L is just necessary to determine the strain rate concentration tensors. According to the model. J..00 100 Selfconsistent simulation Experimental f . 2. The derivative of the overall elastic stiffness tensor is also computed using the same self consistent method. . ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 2 3 Strain (%) 600 (b) Naturally aged condition x 500 . J a . 2.%. Geometric representation of a particlereinforced metalmatrix composite as an interpenetrating network of intact and damaged regions. the SiC particles being broken by cracks perpendicular to the loading axis.212 C Gonzalez. It was found that the dominant damage mechanism during deformation was reinforcement fracture. a dp volume fraction of material is transformed. Two hypotheses are necessary to compute the associated stress redistribution.
J Mech Phys Solids 1998. Gonzalez.13:89101. Elices A. Microstructural factors controlling the strength and ductility of particlereinforced metalmatrix composites. A selfconsistent approach to the elastoplastic behaviour of twophase materials including damage. It was assumed that damage occurs instantaneously and leads to an elastic stress relaxation. Llorca J. Ruiz J. J Mech Phys Solids 1965.A24:15751588.A241:376396. . Gonzalez C. Continuum micromechanics of elastoplastic polycrystals. [3] Hill R.C. Llorca/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Particulate fracture during deformation of a spray formed metal matrix composite. Martin A. References 213 [1] Llorca J. [4] Eshelby JD. J Mech Phys Solids 2000. Conclusions A model to compute the effective response of a twophase material including the effect of damage was developed.46:128. Proc Roy Soc London 1957.48:675692. [5] LLorca J. [2] Gonzalez C. J. The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems. Metall Trans 1993. The stress redistribution was computed by solving the nonlinear set of equations obtained by derivating the equations of the selfconsistent method. where the elastic values of the stiffness and strain concentration tensors are used.
• Central node ® Satellite nodes © Candidate nodes o Othernodes * Corresponding author. This distance is usually decided from the prescribed density of the distribution of nodes. 21 Hirosawa.ac. Materials Fabrication Laboratory.214 Accurate analysis of shell structures by a virtually meshless method K. Wako. Concept of FMM. a node is selected as a central node and nodes within a certain distance from the central node are selected as candidate nodes. Mixed method 1. it is important to employ an accurate threenode triangular shell element. .t. the FMM can be easily implemented on parallel environments [2]. and then a conventional nodebynode finite element analysis is conducted with those elements. Keywords: Finite element method.: h81 (3) 58417005. Fig. Free mesh method In the FMM. Goto^'*. and its membrane behavior is improved by using mixed method [4]. 1. the discrete Kirchhoff triangular element is improved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness. desirable as a local element used in the FMM. Hence it is important to develop the threenode triangular element that is accurate enough in membrane deformations to apply the FMM to the analyses of general shell structures. Miyamura'' " University of Tokyo. Japan ^ The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. It is known that the accuracy of membrane behavior of threenode triangular elements is poor in comparison with that of fournode quadrilateral elements. however. In this research. which form the local elements around the central node. Tokyo 1138656.jp © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Yagawa% T. All rights reserved. 1 shows the conceptual figure of the FMM. First.utokyo. 2. elements are automatically created around each node in a local manner.J. an illustrative example is presented. Then satellite nodes are selected from the candidate nodes. [1]) is a virtually meshless method. Finally. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. G. Fax: hSl (3) 58416994. global mesh is not necessary as input data. Threenode triangular element. 731 Hongo. Tel. A threenode triangular element is. For this purpose. In the FMM. Email: goto@qs. Bathe (Editor) Lx)cal area Temporary local elements Fig. Japan Abstract A threenode triangular shell element is developed for the Free Mesh Method (FMM). which is a virtually meshless method modified from the nodebynode finite element method. Introduction The Free Mesh Method (FMM. To apply the FMM to the analysis of general shell structures. the threenode discrete Kirchhoff triangular element [3] is used with the FMM. Meshless method. Because the processes from the local mesh generation to the construction of equations are seamless and independent in every node. For each local element. which is a kind of the nodebynode finite element method. Saitama 3510198. Shell structures. Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science. Bunkyoku. Free mesh method. but only the nodes distributed in the analysis domain and the boundary conditions are used as input data.
the threenode discrete Kirchhoff triangular (DKT) element is adopted in this study. It is loaded vertically by its uniformly distributed dead weight of intensity of References [1] Yagawa G. [5] MacNeal RH. It is observed that almost the same accuracy is achieved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness with the same node distribution. In this point of view.18:383386. Comput Struct 1980. The DKT element is suitable for thin shell analysis and has six degrees of freedom per each node. it is preferable that the element is triangular without midnodes. respectively. Recent developments of free mesh method.838 mm [5]. 2 is analyzed to demonstrate the present element.030 0. Dynamic transient analysis by a mixed. almost the same accuracy as the fournode quadrilateral element was attained with the present 'meshless' scheme. Table 1 Normalized displacement of ScordelisLo roof Model 2x2 4x4 6x6 8x8 16 X 16 3Node DKT with mixed formulation (FMM) 1. Yamada T. In this problem most part of the strain energy is due to membrane deformation. Because of the symmetry of the geometry and the load.186 0.635 m. arc AB = 40°. length L = 1.K. Harder RL. The above procedures are carried out for all nodes. The models are labeled as / X j where the integers / and j indicate numbers of nodal spacing along arcs AB and DC. the DKT element was improved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness. When the displacement formulation is used for threenode element.231 1. 4. the stress and the strain that are the function of the differential of the displacement are constant within an element. which is a commercial FEA code. Comput Mech 1996. As a result.941 0. Ho LW. It is compared with the result obtained with a fournode quadrilateral element using MARC. The membrane stiffness is the constant strain plane stress stiffness of a threenode element.2055 X lO^Pa. In this study. Then. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the element stiffness matrix is constructed in the same way as the FEM. rigid diaphragm Fig. Table 1 shows the vertical displacement at point C normalized by the exact value. Finite Elements Anal Des 1985.47:14191443. 5. For this purpose.985 215 4Node quadrilateral (MARC) 1. iterative method. [2] Yagawa G.925 0. only the displacement is treated as the problem variable that will be independently approximated. 6. Goto et al. a bending stiffness and an inplane rotational stiffness. only one quarter of the roof is analyzed. the stress and the strain are approximated continuously in the analysis domain.1:320. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000. [3] Bathe KJ. Nakazawa S. Threenode triangular shell element To make the procedures in FMM independent. and sides BC and AD. Kui LX.953 0. The geometrical and material data of the problem are: radius R = 0. Concluding remarks To apply the FMM to the analysis of shell structures. In this case. and are approximated discontinuously in the analysis domain. [4] Zienkiewicz OC.13:673682. it is possible to approximate independently not only the displacement but also the stress and the strain.23:13431353. Free mesh method: a new Meshless finite element method. In the conventional displacement formulation. Young's modulus E = 2.983 0. 2. the stiffness concerned with the central node is evaluated.35 mm.27 m.993 0. Fumkawa T. the membrane behavior of the threenode DKT element is improved by using the mixed formulation. The total element stiffness matrix is formulated by superimposing a plane stress membrane stiffness.971 3. Thus. The exact value of vertical displacement at point C in a steady state is 7. thickness h = 6. Illustrative example The ScordelisLo roof shown in Fig. it is important to develop an accurate threenode triangular shell element. A simple and effective element for analysis of general shell structures. ScordelisLo roof .979 x lO^^Pa and Poisson's ratio V = 0. When the mixed formulation is used. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. the rows of the matrix concerned with the central node are stored in memory. A proposed standard set of problems to test finite element accuracy.
mech.g.2] is a particle method for structural mechanics simulations. Fax: +1 (801) 5859826.M . Implicit time integration algorithm 2.A.Fint^"^ (t + dr) * Corresponding author. The many similarities between these two methods will allow improvements to the algorithm described herein based on the large amount of work which has been done with implicit FEM codes. Additionally. The use of the regular grid has also been exploited for doing fluidstructure interaction problems [4]. University of Utah. du„ is new estimate of the . Bathe (Editor) . One limitation of this approach has been that the stable timestep sizes for explicit time integration for the solid and fluid are often disparate by several orders of magnitude. Introduction The Material Point Method (MPM) as described by Sulsky et al. the method avoids the mesh entanglement problems frequently encountered with large deformation finite element calculations. An implicit integration strategy was implemented to alleviate the small timestep required by the explicit integration strategy for the solid phase. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. as well as with integration methods used with the Finite Element Method. while each phase still enjoys the benefits of its traditionally preferred frame of reference. Email: guilkey@humpback. Material point method 1.216 An implicit time integration strategy for use with the material point method J. moving with the particles during advection. An example problem was used to compare the implicit integration scheme to the traditional explicit integration scheme used with MPM. contact algorithms do not require searches for contact surfaces [3]. In addition to avoiding Eulerian diffusion. By sharing the grid with a multimaterial CFD code.J. University of Utah. All rights reserved. . UT 84112. 2.E. [5]). Salt Lake City. Tel. The approach borrowed heavily from the strategies traditionally used in implicit Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations. This strategy uses an incrementaliterative solution strategy based on a Newton method to solve the equations of motion and Newmark integration to update the kinematic variables. then being reset to its original position at the end of a timestep.1. with the solid phase requiring the smaller timestep to maintain the conditional stabiUty of the explicit integration scheme. The grid also functions as an updated Lagrangian reference frame. USA Abstract An implicit integration strategy for use with the Material Point Method (MPM) is described. Salt Lake City. Weiss'' ^ Department of Mechanical Engineering.H r + dr). Incrementaliterative solution of the linearized equations of motion A derivation of the linearized equations of motion in matrix form can be found in any standard finite element textbook (e. (1) Here KK„ is the stiffness matrix.a ^ . UT 84112. Linearization of the matrix form of the equations of motion about the current time t yields KK^^ (r + dr) • du^ = Fext^(t h dO . USA ^ Department of Bioengineering. [1.utah. tight coupling between the two phases can be achieved. Keywords: Implicit integration.. Guilkey^'M. The method uses a regular structured grid as a scratchpad for computing spatial gradients.: +1 (801) 5855145.
the trapezoidal rule was used to find the nodal velocities. invert Eq. On the background grid. deformation gradient ¥p{t) and Cauchy stress cfpit). velocity yp{t). Integrate to get the internal force vector and the material and geometric stiffness on the grid. B [ is the linear strain displacement matrix at x^. Vvi'p(t + dt) = Gpul{t + dt) F'pit + dt) = (Vu^(r + dt) + I) F ^ ( 0 du^ duOQ^ (3) where Q^ is the right hand side of Eq. (1). (4) can be solved for \g{t + dt). Iterative solution of equations of motion on grid: The linearized equations of motion on the grid are solved iteratively using Newton's method.+^'F[).3. Mg is the mass matrix and 2Lg is the acceleration vector. (1).( v . ( 0 + VgCr h d o ) .i a + dO = 0. the first of these corresponds to resetting the grid back to its original undeformed configuration.^ K~'(^ + ^^) + K) . the following particle quantities are known at time t\ mass m^. k is the current iteration number. \i = Mt (7) ¥exti=j:^SipFexip. Fextg is the vector of external forces at the new time t \dt.2.(ag(0 + ag(r + dO) (5) ( / ( r + dO is determined from F^ and any relevant history variablesD^(r h dt) follows from o^ Here. \g{t) and Fextg(r + dr): Mi = ^Sipmp.J. (1) to get the current estimate for the displacement increment. note that u^ {t + dO is not the total displacement. Weiss / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics incremental displacements. stiffness matrix.KKg(Oandag(0. (2) Solve for du^: For iteration k.^ dt. (3) Update kinematics on the grid: Using Eqs. Computational algorithm Fint^(r + dO =J2f Kmsitl(t{dt) = Kgeo*(/ + dt) =J2f ^^p^^ + ^^^ "^^ ^l(t J2j^lK+ dt)Bldv B L < ( ^ + dOBj. where / refers to individual nodes of the grid. Sip is the trilinear shape function of the ith node evaluated at x^. including the initial one. KK'\t^dt) = KKg(t).(0 . the other kinematic variables. position Xp(0. The material points remain in their deformed locations. Eq. 2. and B ^ ^ is the nonlinear strain displacement matrix at . and accelerations. Note that since Ug refers to the displacement of the grid between t and t^dt. and dt the increment in time. Kinematic update via trapezoidal rule Once the nodal displacements u^(f + dt) were determined.xv. (2). (1) for the current estimate of incremental displacements du^. (1) Initialization: For the first iteration ( k = l ) . Iteration continued until convergence is achieved.E.ag(odt^ (6) This value for a^C? h dO is used in Eq. G^ is the gradient of the interpolation functions evaluated at x^. the acceleration for the current iteration k at time t + dt can be approximated in terms of known quantities at time t and estimates at time t hdt from the previous iteration k — 1: <^' + ^^) = . Known quantities: At the beginning of each implicit timestep. when (4) and (5) are combined with Eq.(t + dt) = . A. but is the displacement from t to r + dr. KK^ (t + dO = Kmat^ (t + dO + KgeoJ (t + dt) 4 d^2 ^ Here. (4) dt y^it + dO = v g ( 0 + . a„(r + dt): dt u. By solving Eq. n\{t + dt) = n\\t + dt) + du\ (2) With the new total displacements. as determined the following criteria: du^„ < €d and ¥intl\t]dt)=Finig(t). 2. assume: u ^ . (2) and (4). J. and D^(r \dt) is the spatial elasticity tensor. \g{t + dt). Guilkey. t the current time. Fint^ is the vector of internal forces to to the stress divergence. volume Vp. (4) Update stress divergence and tangent stiffness on the grid: The total deformation gradient PQ^^^ is computed via a recursion relation. The known quantities on the grid are: Fintg(r). and internal forces were updated. solve for u^(f + dt) and v^(r h dt). a new estimate for the displacement was obtained via 217 Interpolate to the grid: Particle data is interpolated to the grid to obtain M^. and. P^^'^' = F. The effects of the total displacement of the material were contained in the positions and total deformation gradient of the particles.
while for the implicit analyses a timestep size of 4 X 10""^ s was used.results for implicit time integration. J2^ represents the standard finite element assembly operation.dt) and ag(r + dr) to the particles: Up(t + dt) = J2^ipUi{t^dt). A onequarter symmetry. . KK^(r + dt). Guilkey. Otherwise.computational grids. Once a converged solution has been reached: Save ¥p{t + dr). timestep size was 1 X 10"^ s. Cylindrical container subject to pressurization at fime r = 0. Fint^Cr + dr). Phase change of the contents results in pressurization of the container. 1.J4iU4444>^ 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 20 25 30 35 6. Weiss/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. subject to pressurization via the load curve F = 71. return to step 2 and continue the iterations. J.A. plane strain model of a long cylindrical container with properties p = 7. Compute Sig{t + dt) using Eq. j 1 i i i ijr: i i i i i MM! j I I M I [1 '•^fji/7%^ !j:W4UT^ j j M M M h j i i 1 M M (8) (9) (10) (11) /jfj^^y^jj 1 j IJlffffi^ i^M^^fflfe. A simplified problem is used here for demonstration. Interpolate Ug{t \. 2720 particles were used for the MPM calculation (Fig.. ap(t ^dt) = J2 S'P^ii^ + dr). and FEM (using NIKE3D and DYNA3D). (6).J .006 s demonstrated that differences between the explicit and implicit time integration schemes were small within a com Xp. Update the particle position and velocity: Xp(t + dr) = Xp(t) + Up{t + dr). Soludons via Material Point Method (top) and Finite Element Method (bottom). while 340 trilinear finite elements were used for the FEM calculations (Fig. (3). 1. bottom left). 1. Numerical example: pressurization of a cylinder One scenario of interest to our research group is the response of a steel container filled with an energetic material (explosive) to a pool fire. performed in this case on the regular grid mesh.1 x 10^ N/cm^ x time.86 x 10"^ kg/cm^ ^ = 1. top left). was modeled with implicit and explicit MPM. \p{t + dr) = \p{t) + 5 (a^(r) + a^(r + dr)) dr.0 X 105 N/cni2 Fig. This provided approximately equivalent resolution since the material points function as integration points and the finite elements had eight integration points per element. Continue to the next timestep. Left column . Contours of von Mises stress at time 0.!1 ji h11!j ih1i Ihi Mf J M 1 1 1 i i WMii^ 555*W^ T T' ^ M MM M i •''(^A^}t^'/Z'(^S4''^U4i! M M i '] 1 j MM MT^^^fgi^m j 'h MlwM^i^ i Ml ^^$S$%F : M m ^ Pmi ^i : n IwS ij 1 1 lill ll^g^P 1 1 ' i j l j M ' . Contours indicate von Mises stress distribution.218 J. Center column . (5) Convergence criteria: Convergence is checked using Eq.E.006 s. For the explicit analyses.66 x 10^ N/cm^ and G = 7.70 x 10^ N/cm^.
Chen Z. the implicit solution strategy approach can be easily modified to accommodate quasiNewtonian solution methods.17 2. The implicit version clearly performed better for this particular situation. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U.87:236252. Schreyer HL.118:179196.1:283295.08 X 10^ 219 FEM von Mises Stress (N/cm^) 1. (cm) Inner Middle Outer 2. LA13255PR 1997. JA. [3] Bardenhagen SG. the limitation is counteracted by the ability to treat extremely large deformations without mesh [1] Sulsky D. The variations decreased with increasing grid resolution.40 X 10^ 8. Timesteps several thousand times larger than the CFL condition have been used successfully. the results for the MPM analyses had larger circumferential and radial variations in von Mises stress than the FEM analyses. [5] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Lewis MW. The algorithm accommodates much larger timesteps than the explicit version of MPM without any apparent loss in accuracy for the problem presented here as well as other test problems. Guilkey. 1). References 4.S. The materialpoint method for granular materials. .J. Solution differences between the MPM and FEM can be attributed to the use of a nonconforming computational grid for the MPM calculations. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. under grant W7405ENG48. [6] Matthies H. Although this may appear to be a disadvantage of the method.96 1.30 2. Weiss /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Quantitative comparisons of displacement and stress at inner. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1979. middle and outer radial locations on the cylinder MPM Disp.13 1. (cm) 2.187:529541. [4] Kashiwa BA. our current implementation requires a rectilinear grid. 1996. However. Strang G. Fluidstructure interaction modeling.61 X 10^ 1. Comp Phys Commun 1995.03 FEM Disp. [2] Sulsky D. Because of the similarities between MPM and FEM. Additionally. entanglement and the ability of the method to be coupled with CFD calculations. The solution of nonlinear finite element equations. Although the algorithm can readily handle nonrectilinear grids. A particle method for history dependent materials. Comput Methods Appl Mech Engrg 1994.E.08 X 10^ putational technique (Fig. The rightmost frames show results from the explicit codes. Brackbill JU. The asymmetry of the stress distribution is more pronounced for the explicit MPM results. Schreyer HL.72 X 10^ 1. Explicit MPM is known to have difficulty in situations involving quasistatic loading. Quantitative comparisons of von Mises stress and radial displacement between the two implicit methods demonstrated generally good agreement (Table 1).34 X 10^ 1. This can be attributed to the use of a rectilinear computational grid for the calculations. being better suited to highly dynamic problems. Sulsky D. Comput Methods Appl Mech Engrg 2000. Application of a particleincell method to solid mechanics. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions. Conclusions An implicit integration strategy was developed and implemented for MPM. Zhou S. The BEGS method introduced by Matthies and Strang [6] is an obvious choice as it has proven to be robust for a wide range of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics.85 MPM von Mises Stress (N/cm^) 1. the implicit method performs far better for quasistatic loading scenarios. 14:16131626.
An adaptive importance sampling scheme that uses nonGaussian sampling functions is developed to evaluate failure probabilities.2]. In this study. which are then combined with the information on the covariance functions to arrive at Nataf's models. Bathe (Editor) 2. The statistical fluctuations in the system properties are modeled as nonGaussian random fields with bounded ranges. mean and covariance functions. The range of these random fields are constrained to ensure the strict positivity of the physical parameters. Tel. Specific nonGaussian sampling distribution functions. Indian Institute of Science.S.3 are determined by solving the following set of equations . This automatically implies that these fields are nonGaussian. A2 and A.iisc. Numerical results illustrative of successful application of methods developed are presented. Subsequently. All rights reserved.in © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Introduction A simulation based method for the computation of reliability of stochastically parametered curved Timoshenko beams under random loadings is developed. The following are the salient features of this study: (a) discretization of the displacement fields using frequency and damping dependent shape functions [3]. that account for the bounded range of system property random fields. Keywords: Stochastic finite element. Monte Carlo simulations are performed for computing the failure probabilities. mass density. The information available on these random fields is taken to be limited to their range. The proposed method is based on evaluation of stochastic dynamic stiffness of the beam elements.ernet.X^ix fif] (1) where.220 Computation of reliability of stochastic structural dynamic systems using stochastic FEM and adaptive importance sampling with nonGaussian sampling functions Sayan Gupta. This leads to marginal density functions of the form f{x) = Aiexp[A. (b) modeling the system properties as nonGaussian random fields with bounded ranges thereby allowing for strict positivity of the physical parameters. damping coefficients and crosssectional dimensions has been studied recently by the present authors [5]. Adaptive importance sampling 1. are constructed by invoking principle of maximum entropy. India Abstract The problem of computation of reliability of randomly excited linear structural dynamical systems with stochastic parameter uncertainties is considered. The displacement fields are discretized using frequency dependent shape functions and the random fields using covariance dependent shape functions. the system properties have been modeled as jointly homogeneous random fields.2X . C. the unknowns Ai. Reliability. Manohar* Department of Civil Engineering. by first invoking the principle of maximum entropy to construct the first order probability density functions (pdf). This study is in keeping with the current research interest in the vibration analysis of structures with parameter uncertainties [1. Bangalore 560012. Dynamic stiffness of stochastic curved beams The problem of evaluation of the dynamic stiffness matrix of curved Timoshenko beams with randomly varying Young's and shear moduli.J. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. (c) use of random field discretization scheme that retains the nonGaussian nature of the random fields [4] and (d) estimation of failure probabilities using a newly developed adaptive importance sampling scheme which employs nonGaussian sampling functions. * Corresponding author. Fax: +91 (80) 3600 404. Email: manohar@civil. The partial information available on these random fields has been complemented. +91 (80) 309 2667. Maximum entropy method. Failure probability.
This normal pdf is chosen to be the importance sampling density function.z(i) = (^^' I ^ ^ sib </x(^)0) (10) Here. Xo)~^/C) (6) Here. hz^. The parameters of this pdf are now estimated by using the conditional mean and variances as given in Eqs.ii)^f{x)dx = a^ (4) (zz')/.. K are standard normal variates obtained by the transformations on Zi...S. The focus of this paper is on evaluating probability of failure with the performance function given by g(X): amax (D(a. we propose to evaluate this probability of failure by using adaptive importance sampling simulation procedures.Vn(^U. . The study further employs frequency and damping dependent shape functions to discretize the displacement fields. (9) and (10). the sampling density function according to Nataf's model is obtained as hz.0 (2) b xfix) dx = fi / a (3) scheme depends on the choice of the sampling function ^z(l). I is an indicator function taking values of unity if ^(1) S 0 and 0 otherwise and IZ spans the range of the random variables.j = l. To circumvent this difficulty. Vi. fn. In our studies.. Gupta.Zn = d/d§/{Hz^. The probability of failure Pf can be computed by evaluating the A^ + 1 dimensional integral (l>Vi(^l)'(t>Vn(in) (11) ^/ g(^)<o S '^ (l)df. 3.. . we first estimate the first order pdfs of samples in failure region by invoking maximum entropy principle. C. . (•) denotes the mathematical expectation..n. ..S. as proposed by Bucher [6]. Xo)YM = F... This difficulty has been attributed to the small variance associated with the sampling density function. Manohar / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 111 f a D fix) Ax = 1... These equations are solved iteratively to obtain py. we propose to use Nataf's model for the sampling density function. F} is the extended vector oi N \\ random variables with joint pdf /x(f). unit standard deviation and unknown correlation coefficient matrix [p] [7]. b denote the range and /x and a^ are. . The system property random fields have been discretized using covariance dependent shape functions. a.y^(^i.. To realize this. ..^nAp]) where X = {Xo. which could be random. Z„ given by ^i = <PviHz. (9) and (10). This is followed by the formulation of N \. Adaptive importance sampling using nonGaussian sampling function For a importance sampling function /iz(f). respectively. This leads to first order pdfs of the form as given in Eq.. (1). The system equilibrium equation in frequency domain has been shown to be of the form \y{(D. (13) . hzih • (^ 11 G g(M) < 0) /x(^) (9) Here.(fj)} is the marginal probability distribution function and ^y^ . These correlation coefficients pij are expressed in terms of the correlation coefficients ^tj of Z through the integral relation = y"%(f)<o]M2/. The efficiency of the importance samphng i.I dimensional normal density with mean and covariances computed from Eqs. Subsequently. n..... (7) where.2(^)d§ hz(^) (8) a a where.zAl)=(t>V.. D((X>..(^i)^ i= h .. the mean and variance. we encountered difficulties in evaluating failure probabilities below a certain level when this sampling density function was used.The procedure for selecting the sampling density function. which are employed to evaluate the conditional moments (Z). (12) In this study. involves the generation of samples according to the original density function /x(f). [/)]) is the multivariate normal probability distribution function with zero mean. the probability of failure is well known to be given by Here. Xo) is the stochastic dynamic stiffness matrix with Xo being the A/^dimensional vector of nonGaussian random variables resulting from discretizing the random fields and F is the vector of amplitudes of harmonic excitations. (5) I b (x .
C. Example 2.07 respectively.S.1 X 10 N / m 160 Ns/m Q10" • — 0. 2.03 m. Marginal probability density function of the random perturbation on mass: (1) parent density.e . (6) with a taken to range from 0. The mutual agreement between the two results is found to be good. . •.Importance Sampling i .4 .'' ^"' Fig. 1. Numerical examples and discussion 4.06 Fig. Example 2. Example 1.07 0. 2 1 ^^r' ^V.012 rad. 42.. Fig. The mass field is modeled as m(0) = m^Ll + 6^/(0)] where t/(0) is a zero mean Nataf random field with samples bounded in the region ± ^ 3 and covariance function of the form R{T) = exp[—yr^] with y = 13. Fig. The fact that this distribution is bounded between dzVs x0. stiffness. The estimates of probability of failure are shown in Fig. This figure also shows results from extensive Monte Carlo simulations (with sample size of 10"^). The procedure described in the previous section is employed to compute probability of failure as a function of the threshold value a. 4. This random field is discretized using optimal linear expansion that leads to six random variables.002 0.008 Threshold a.^ ^ 1 " 2^0.^ .05 0. Failure probability using adaptive importance sampling.1. 3 . The excitation amplitude is assumed to be Gaussian with unit mean and standard deviation of 0. radius of the beam = 82.O / K =100 N / m / /\ A A f(t) = F„e' / _y V M 0 = 2 0 k g / / / / / / / / / / /^/ / / / _u o o ' and 0. The performance function is as per Eq. The initial Monte Carlo simulation run was done for threshold value a = 0.4 0. Single degree of freedom system with random mass. 0 0. [1. (2) a = 0. damping and excitation. Example 2 A harmonically driven curved Timoshenko beam with randomly inhomogeneous mass density is considered next (Fig. rad 0. 0.05. 5 shows the resulting estimates of probability of failure.05 kNm respectively.09 Threshold a.05 must be noted. Gupta. The estimation of probability of failure subsequently employed 500 samples as per density given in Eq.2 n i.012 Fig. 3 as a function of threshold values a. Curved Timoshenko beam with random mass variafion. 1 shows a harmonically driven single degree of freedom system.11 L = 100 m Fig.06 0.05. 3. Estimates of probability of failure using importance sampling and Monte Carlo simulations. Example 1.Direct Simulation  ^.05. I.07 m.01 0.222 S. m = 2850 kg/m^ 0 11 1. the nominal values of stiffness and damping are perturbed by random variables which have a range in ±y/3 x 0. 5.004 0.0017 rad with 1000 samples. Manohar / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Fig. 2 shows the marginal pdf of the perturbation on the mass variable associated with the importance sampling density function for a = 0. 1 . 4. \ .006 0.35 m * ^0.H0" 0 10^ Eo=2. (11).06 m (3) a = 0. m 0. The moment F is modeled as a Gaussian random variable with mean 10 kNm and standard deviation 10 x 0. 4). Example 1 Fig. Here. Example 1.00170.08 0.
[5] Sayan Gupta. [2] Schueller GI (Guest Editor).52(5): 177197. Manohar /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Struct Safety 1988. Progress in structural dynamics with stochastic parameter variations: 19871998. Structural reliability under incomplete probability information. Dynamical analysis of framed structures with statistical uncertainties. J Sound Vib. ASCE J Eng Mech 1993.119(6):11361153. Liu PL. Adaptive sampling — an iterative fast Monte Carlo procedure.5:119126. Manohar CS.S. [3] Adhikari S. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999. Dynamic stiffness method for circular stochastic Timoshenko beams: Response variability and reUability analysis. Conclusions A frequency domain stochastic finite element analysis is combined with an adaptive importance sampling simulation procedure to compute the probability of failure of randomly parametered curved beam structures that are excited by harmonic loads with random amplitudes. The procedure outlined handles successfully the nonGaussian nature of beam property random fields both in stochastic finite element analysis as well as in importance sampling computations. .112(1):85104. C. [7] Der Kiureghian A. [4] Li C. Appl Mech Rev ASME 1999. Probab Eng Mech 1997. Gupta.S. Optimal discretization of random fields.44:11571178. J Eng Mech ASCE 1986. submitted. Der Kiureghian A. Ibrahim RA.12(4):198321. Limited numerical results that are presented show successful application of the proposed method. Manohar CS. 223 References [1] Manohar CS. [6] Bucher CG. A stateofart report on computational stochastic mechanics.
Fax: +44 (20) 75848120. Bathe (Editor) . Investigation of accuracy of the continuum theory This paper is devoted to substantiation of the continuum theory applied to predict compressive fracture of layered solids (composites or rocks) with periodical structure.ac. isotropic and orthotropic layers.224 Accuracy of analytical approaches to compressive fracture of layered solids under large deformations Igor A. This makes the continuum theory more attractive since it involves significant simplifications (Fig. there are not yet Fig _^.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The answer may be given only by comparison of the results delivered by both the continuum theory and the most accurate approach (i. In the past. Costas Soutis Department of Aeronautics. London SW7 2BY. However. Keywords: Composite.e. the continuum theory can be considered as an asymptotically accurate one. Prince Consort Road. Fracture. layer thickness and their stiffness on the continuum theory accuracy is illustrated by several numerical examples for the particular linear and nonlinear models of materials.: +44 (20) 75945117. i. the moment of stability loss in the structure of material (internal instability according to Biot [1]) is treated as the beginning of the fracture process [2]. due to its complexity. Guz *. If this is the case. Homogenization 1. The continuum theory may be applied when the scale of the investigated phenomenon (for example. 2. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 1.e. puts into consideration the question of its accuracy and of its domain of applicability. this method is restricted matrix fibre (layer) to a very small group of problems. the layer thickness h). the approach based on the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium (Fig. Compression. The results obtained by the continuum theory must follow from those derived using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium when hl~^ > 0. for the problems of wave propagation) or for other layer models [25].e. But. Instability. investigations of the continuum theory accuracy in relation to the model of piecewise homogeneous medium were performed only for other physical phenomena (for example. * Corresponding author. lb). Indeed. Introduction The wide usage of the continuum theory in solid mechanics. Email: i. the piecewisehomogeneous medium model). Tel. Imperial College of Science. Technology and Medicine. the most accurate approach). (b) Continuum approximation. All rights reserved. UK Abstract Based on the results obtained within the scope of the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium and 3D stability theory (i. elastic and elastoplastic. For all these cases. The influence of the type of loading. enables the investigation of the mechanical response in the most rigorous way at the microstructural level (exact solution). (a) Model of piecewisehomogeneous medium.guz@ic. Nonlinear. I ^ h. Within the scope of this theory. the accuracy of the continuum theory of compressive fracture is examined for layered solids undergoing large deformations. Large deformation. the asymptotic accuracy of the continuum theory is rigorously proved.J. the wavelength of the mode of stability loss /) is considerably larger than that of a material structure (say. The investigation is carried out for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial compression as applied to compressible and incompressible. la). due to its simplicity.
225 1st (shear) mode. Special attention was given to calculation of the continuum theory accuracy for composites when the layers were assumed to be hyperelastic and the simplified version of Mooney's potential. that they give a significant discrepancy in comparison with the exact approach and with experimental data. namely neoHookean potential. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics investigations of the influence of biaxiality of loading for problems of stability loss in solids under finite (large) deformations.2\ hAm = o.10]. the continuum theory or the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium which are based on the 3D stability theory [6]). by Soutis [8]. . the most accurate approach) for four modes of stability loss. Estimation of accuracy of the continuum theory can be obtained by comparison with the critical values. linear and nonlinear models of layers under finite (large) deformations (Fig. may be chosen for their description in the following form c>2Cio/i(4) (2) 3. This paper attempts to fill the gap. elastic and elastoplastic. The coordinate system and applied loads for the cases of biaxial compression. The influence of the biaxiality of loading. layer thickness and their stiffness on the continuum theory accuracy was studied for several particular linear and nonlinear (including elastoplastic) models of materials. Along with the exact approach (i. calculated using the model of the piecewisehomogeneous medium [4.e.^ 20 25 Fig. To perform the asymptotic analysis. other than the [ / 99 98  97 —^96 h Am = 0. the approximate approaches do not describe the phenomenon under consideration even on the qualitative level. It was rigorously proved that the results of the continuum theory follow as a longwave approximation from those for the 1st mode of stability loss obtained using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium. and l\{s) is the first algebraic invariant of CauchyGreen strain tensor. As a result of such manipulation. 35 for different models of layers (including the abovementioned hyperelastic) and different values of layer thickness ratio. It is proved [25]. the ratio of the results obtained in the context of the most accurate approach and continuum theory expressed in percentage) is given in Figs. 2. characteristic determinants were derived for the plane and for nonaxisymmetrical 3D problems [2. there are also approximate approaches to the considered problems proposed by Rosen [7] and by many other authors. Guz. For all these cases. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of the material constants of layers CIQ/C'I'Q for the case of Treloar's potential (uniaxial compression).9.e. the longwave approximation was obtained and the characteristic equations were reduced to a much simpler form. The accuracy of the continuum theory A (i. This potential is also called Treloar's potential. 2). A detailed review of the approximate models was given.5.10] using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium and 3D stability theory (i.n hAm = 0A2 95  94 93  1 1 1 1 1—— 1 1 1 1 1 1 1— /> ^ . after the author who obtained it from an analysis of model of rubber regarded as a system of long molecular interlinking chains [11]. Asymptotic analysis and numerical results The investigation was carried out for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial compression as applied to compressible and incompressible. isotropic and orthotropic.LA. However. Fig. the condition of applicability of the continuum theory hl0 (1) where Cio is a material constant. 3.e. hrjhyn. for example. cannot be described by the continuum theory. These dependencies have a strongly nonlinear character proving the importance of 001 was applied to all formulae and the limits are calculated analytically under this condition. C. It was also shown that modes of stability loss.
pp. pp. Sov ApplMech 1989. 1990.79(S2):S503S504. One can also see that the larger the ratio hr/h„j. Following the general 3D approach developed in this paper. 0 20 40 60 Fig. biaxial compression uniaxial compression 84 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig. Failure of notched CFRP laminates due to fibre microbuckling: a topical review. In: Fiber Composite Materials. London: Imperial College. [7] Rosen BW. Mechanics of fracture of composite materials in compression (in Russian). Guz lA (Eds). Berlin: Springer. J Mech Behav Mat 1996. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. to appear. Continuum fracture theory for layered materials: investigation of accuracy. 4. 100 References [1] Biot MA.25(12):10801085. [10] Guz I A.26(6):762767. [9] Guz lA. Z Angew Math Mech 1999. of Euromech Colloquium 400. [11] Treloar LRG. [51 Soutis C. Fundamentals of the ThreeDimensional Theory of Stability of Deformable Bodies. isotropic and orthotropic layers.226 100 LA. On analytical approaches to fracture of composites caused by internal instability under finite deformations.6(4):309330. . Mechanics of Incremental Deformations. 1999. 1965. Madrid.5pt taking into account the materials' nonlinearity. Spatial nonaxisymmetric problems of the theory of stability of laminar highly elastic composite materials. New York: Wiley. Guz. Metals Park: American Society of Metals. [8] Soutis C. Mech Comp Mater 1990. 3775. Large elastic deformations in rubberlike materials. 1999. [2] Guz AN. 5. [4] Guz lA. Guz lA.n for the case of linear elastic layers. Impact and damage tolerance modelling of composite materials and structures. Eur J Mech A/Solids. the accuracy of the continuum theory as applied to laminated solids with other properties of layers or other kinds of loads can also be investigated. Soutis C. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of the material constants of layers C\Q/C^Q for the case of Treloar's potential (biaxial compression). elastic and elastoplastic. the higher is the accuracy of the continuum theory. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of Young's moduli of layers Er/E. A 3D stability theory applied to layered rocks undergoing finite deformations in biaxial compression. 5158. In: Proceedings of lUTAM Colloquium. 1965. Mechanics of composite strengthening. [3] Guz lA. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. C. 208217. It means that the increasing volume fraction of the stiffer layers has a strong impact on the application of the continuum theory making it more accurate. [6] Guz AN. Internal instability of laminated composites with a metal matrix. Soutis C. Conclusions The asymptotic accuracy of the continuum theory of compressive fracture is established for composites consisting of compressible and incompressible. 1955. In: Soutis C. pp. Proc. vspacel.
The computational methods based on this theory are completely consistent with the theory of elastostatic boundary value problems.227 Computational elasticity based on boundary eigensolutions A. The eigensolutions of Eqs. Thus. The introduction of a weight function alters the underlying orthogonal basis functions.R Dargush * Department of Civil Engineering. integrable tensorial weight function defined on the boundary S. including all of those problems that are classified as nonsmooth. The major traditional methods of computational mechanics do not have a common means to enforce boundary conditions. (1) have a number of interesting and useful properties. a. Introduction The general theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions is presented in Hadjesfandiari [1]. while X is the eigenparameter. the standard boundary element method uses tractions as primary variables. respectively. State University of New York at Buffalo. Fax: +1 (716) 6453733. G. but as a result generates a symmetric stiffness matrix. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.ij — 0 and on the boundary S ti = X(pij Uj (lb) (la) In Eqs.Uj ^ dS •• (2) . Tel: +1 (716) 6452114/2405. Boundary element method. Hadjesfandiari and Dargush [24]. One finds that the traditional boundary element method and finite element methods are largely consistent with this theory. thus enabling us to solve nonsmooth problems systematically. Bathe (Editor) / (fijU. Email: gdargush@eng. Keywords: Finite element method.buffalo. (1).R. Here we present application of this theory to computational mechanics. traction vector and elastic constitutive tensor. The most important properties include the following: (1) All of the eigenvalues are real. (2) All nonzero eigenvalues are positive. USA Abstract The theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions for elastostatic problems is applied to formulate methods for computational mechanics. and more specifically to the development of boundary element and finite element methods for elastic bodies. Nonsmooth problem. the systematic solution of nonsmooth problems. Theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions The fundamental boundary eigenproblem for elastostatic problem can be defined as follows: Find the nontrivial displacement u such that in the domain V ^ijJ = CijkiUk. Hadjesfandiari. Use of the new theory permits. On the other hand. for example. but generates nonsymmetric matrices. NY 14260. t and C represent the stress tensor. Furthermore ^ is a positive definite. This theory shows that every elastic solution can be written as a linear combination of some boundary orthogonal deformations. The theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions not only gives a new common view to both methods.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. (3) The sequence of eigenmodes are orthogonal on the boundary with respect to 0 . For an elastic boundary value problem. This theory shows that the resulting computational methods are indirectly a general discrete Fourier analysis.J. Notice that this definition permits cpij to be discontinuous and even singular at some points. 2. but do not harness its power. Eigenvalue problem 1. but also directs us in modifying these methods and in understanding the source of some ill behavior. Amherst. the traditional finite element method uses lumped nodal forces to model the tractions in a very approximated manner. (m) (n) 1 c * Corresponding author.
Boundary element methods The boundary integral representation for the elastostatic problem without body force can be written Cij(^)uj(^) + j Fiji^.x)cpjk(x)t.M^"^) which are boundary orthogonal with respect to In terms of u and ^^. We expect boundary orthogonality of the eigenmodes with respect to 0 in closedform from Eq. where G(^. these fundamental eigensolutions provide a basis for solutions to elastostatic boundary value problems in the form of generalized Fourier series or fundamental eigenexpansion and on the boundary OQ = / on 5 (4) f Gij{^. x)(pjk{x)u. Hadjesfandiari. As a result. (7) reduces to Cij(^)uj(^) + j Fij(^. but it now remains bounded everywhere on S.x) and F{^. utilizing loworder polynomial shape functions within the elements and collocating at the nodes.M^"> on 5 (6) 3. By using the fundamental boundary conditions. the boundary integral representation Eq.(x) dS(x) (8) 4. the boundary element version of the fundamental eigenproblem is FU XG U (11) still may have discontinuities. defined by the relation where U and T"^ represent nodal values of displacement and weighted traction. the matrix G for the eigenproblem Eq.F. With the present approach.R.x)tj(x)dS(x) (7) with shape function matrix N(x). x)Uj(x) dS(x) s = xj Giji^. the expansion for f^ is DC /^ = ^A„A. but that t can be piecewise continuous. In discretized form this becomes U(m)^S'^UM : 0 where 'NdS (13) m^ n (12) = / I Giji^. (7). (2). (11) is a square version of G^ due to the continuity requirement inherent in the fundamental boundary condition T"^ = XU. by discretizing the boundary into a finite number NE of elements. G. Since S depends on the boundary discretization and weight function 0 we call it the weighted boundary matrix. and even singularities. (4) The system of eigenfunctions is complete. By substituting the fundamental boundary condition tj(x) — X(pjk{x)uk{x) into Eq.^{x)dS(x) (9) t = ^J2^nKu^"^ with A„= f u 0 i/<"^ dS= f cpijUiU^"^ dS (5) Following [5]. while F and G^ are system matrices formed through an assembly process. Finite element methods The formulation can be derived from the principle of virtual work or weak formulation in the form / ajj hSij dV = j (pijt'J huj dS (14) . respectively. (10) is in general a rectangular matrix to allow for discontinuity in weighted traction T^.x) are the elasticity kernels and c(^) is a tensor that characterizes the local geometry at 5 [5].228 A. Then. we obtain the fundamental eigenproblem in integral form as Cij{^)uj{^) + j Fij{^. Thus f^. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics This problem has an infinite number of eigensolutions (A„. we obtain a system of algebraic equations that can be written FU = G^r^ (10) We assume that in physical problems u is continuous everywhere. x)uj{x) dS(x) While G^ in Eq. This allows t to exhibit discontinuities. we attempt to choose 0 such that the weighted traction ^^ is piecewise regular. x)uj(x) dS(x) (3) by assuming normalized eigenmodes.
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Discretizing the domain and boundary, and interpolating weighted traction on the boundary, we obtain Table 1 Boundary eigenvalues for unit disc
Mode Exact 0.76923
229
s where C represents the elastic constitutive tensor in matrix form and B is the usual matrix of shape function derivatives [6]. Introducing the usual stiffness matrix K and the new matrix 5*^ from Eq. (13), this can be written (16) Finally, since W"^ is arbitrary, we establish KU = 0 (17)
/
W^B^CBUdV
(15)
BE
0.76923 1.2821 2.1376 3.0769 3.4263 5.3853 8.4469 11.532 16.637 27.914 34.581
FE
0.76933 1.2821 2.1370 3.0770 3.4237 5.3867 8.4859 12.084 19.845 47.074 126.47
4 8 15 23 25 40 60 80 100 150 190
3.0769
5.3846 8.4615

Partitioning the lefthand side of Eq. (17) to correspond with the righthand side, we obtain
KB KBI
Kl
Ku
(18)
where V B and U i are the vectors of nodal displacement for boundary and interior nodes, respectively. In terms of boundary nodes, we can write
'KBBUB = S^T^ (19)
where KBB is the boundary stiffness matrix defined by
KBB
= Kt
KBIKJJK^J
(20)
The corresponding generalized fundamental eigenproblem can also be formulated strictly in terms of boundary nodes and written as
KBBUB — ^S UB
on the boundary. Both tractionoriented finite element and boundary element methods are investigated. A FEM mesh with 1345 nodes and 432 quadrilateral elements has been used. The number of nodes on the boundary is 96, thus forming 48 quadratic boundary elements. The eigenvalues for some eigenmodes are listed in Table 1. The modes with exact eigenvalues are completely shear deformations. Closedform expressions were obtained in [4]. It is seen that for lower modes, FEM has reasonably good eigenvalues similar to those of BEM. For higher modes, the eigenvalues in FEM become less accurate. However, increasing the number of internal nodes in FEM improves the eigenvalues and eigenmodes toward those obtained via BEM. This clearly shows why BEM can often solve problems more accurately for a given boundary discretization. In practice for FEM we usually increase internal and external nodes together. In this way with an
(21)
undeformed • deformed60
Because KBB and S are symmetric, the eigenproblem associated with this tractionoriented finite element method has real eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which are orthogonal with respect to KBB and S
U^'^^^KBBU^''^ = 0
for m y^ n formT^n
(22) (23)
f/(m)T5V^"^ = 0
Solutions U of Eq. (19) implicitly utilize the eigenvectors of Eq. (21) as a basis.
5. Numerical examples 5.1. Eigenmodes of unit circular disc Consider an elastic circular disc with radius a = I. Here we generate the fundamental eigenmodes for the plane strain case with E = 1 and v = 0.3, assuming cp = I
Fig. 1. Generalized Eigenproblem for FE.
230
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
I
I
to
I
f
5.2. Plate with edge notch We now apply the new boundary element and finite element methods for plane strain loading of a plate with an edge Vnotch. Here we consider the geometry and boundary conditions shown in Fig. 2. Let h = 5, w = 5, a = 1 and to = I, while 2a = 270° where a is the included halfangle at the notch. Material properties are E = 1 and v = 0.3. For stress analysis at the notch tip we can use a multiregion method, but here we use halfsymmetry and model only the upper portion of the plate. From the asymptotic expansion of Williams [7] we know the singularity of stresses for freefree edges is r^~^ where y = 0.544484. Then the weight function cp = r^~^ is used on the cut line. On the rest of the boundary, we take (p = 1. In all cases, (pij = (p8ij. In the numerical analysis, a mesh with 200 boundary nodes and 100 quadratic boundary elements is used. Meanwhile, the finite element domain model consists of 600 eightnoded quadratic elements. Fig. 3 provides the numerical solutions for the weighted traction t'^ versus horizontal distance from the tip of the notch. Solutions away from the tip are converged. However, Gibbs' phenomenon is clearly visible in the vicinity of the notch. The boundary element solutions show much lower amplitude oscillation. This can be attributed to the improved resolution of the higher fundamental eigenmodes obtained with the BE formulation. Discontinuity induces
E=1, v=0.3
W
^
^
^
^
t t
Fig. 2. Notched plate.
FEM approach we increase the number of eigenmodes and improve the lowest ones. The FEM eigenmode 60 is shown in Fig. 1. This deformation is in good agreement with the closed form solution.
2.00
1.50
^J^
1.00
0.50
0.00 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80
r
Fig. 3. Notched plate. Weighted normal traction.
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.K Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics participation from higher modes, and thus requires better accuracy of those modes to resolve the boundary variable. We should emphasize that in the FE formulation utilized here, the traction, or in this case weighted traction ff, is a primary variable that is interpolated to the same level as the displacement u. The traction component ^J is related to the general stress intensity factor Ki defined for the notch. Recent research has shown that the value of Ki is a controlling parameter for failure analysis of some materials [8,9]. Acknowledgements
231
Support for the work described in this paper was provided in part by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research under a cooperative agreement from the National Science Foundation (Grant EEC970147 1). The authors gratefully acknowledge this support.
References [1] Hadjesfandiari AR. Theoretical and computational concepts in engineering mechanics. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1998. [2] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Theory of boundary eigensolutions in engineering mechanics. J Appl Mech ASME, in press. [3] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Computational mechanics based on the theory of boundary eigensolutions. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2001;50:325346. [4] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Boundary eigensolutions in elasticity. I. Theoretical development. Int J Solids Struct, in press. [5] Banerjee PK. The Boundary Element Methods in Engineering. London: McGrawHill, 1994. [6] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [7] WilHams ML. Stress singularities resulting from various boundary conditions in angular corners of plates in extension. J Appl Mech ASME 1952;19:526528. [8] Carpinteri A. Stress singularity and generalized fracture toughness at the vertex of reentrant corners. Eng Fract Mech 1987;26:143155. [9] Dunn ML, Suwito W, Cunningham S. Stress intensities at notch singularities. Eng Fract Mech 1997;57:417430.
6. Conclusion The theory of fundamental eigensolutions gives a new view to the theory of elastostatic boundary value problems and their numerical solution. The numerical formulations based upon boundary element and finite element methodologies that have been developed here remain valid even for nonsmooth problems associated with notches, cracks and mixed boundary conditions. Most mathematical models of practical engineering problems are nonsmooth. For example, mixed boundary conditions may be specified, reentrant comers may be present or bimaterial interfaces may exist. In nonsmooth problems, using the proper weight function (p to make ^ ^ piecewise regular has several advantages. * Most importantly, calculations are then based on bounded functions. However, t"^ may be discontinuous. This results in oscillations associated with Gibbs' phenomenon. Additionally, the Fourier coefficients decrease faster for higher modes. This means that the participation of higher modes are less important than for the case with cp = I. Consequently we may expect higher quality solutions for a given mesh when cp is chosen properly.
232
Stochastic response of nonlinear structures
A. Haldar'''*, S.Y. Lee^ J. Huh''
" University of Arizona, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA ^ Yonsei University, Department of Civil Engineering, Seoul 120749, Korea
Abstract A finite elementbased reliability evaluation procedure is proposed to evaluate the risk of linear and nonUnear structures subjected to static and shortduration timevarying loading including seismic loading. It is parallel to the deterministic finite element method, except that it can incorporate information on the uncertainty in the variables present in the problem. It is capable of capturing any special features that can be handled by the finite element method, making it a robust reliability evaluation technique. Keywords: Reliability analysis; Finite element analysis; Nonlinear analysis; Stochastic finite element analysis; Seismic loading; Response surface method
1. Introduction The analytical procedures to calculate the nonlinear deterministic response of structures to both static and dynamic loading have matured significantly in recent years. It is not difficult now to track the load path to failure considering complicated geometric arrangements, realistic connection and support conditions, and various sources of nonlinearity. Since it is not possible to avoid the uncertainty in the load and resistance related variables, the focus has shifted to incorporating uncertainty into deterministic computational algorithms. Finite element analysis is a very powerful tool commonly used by many engineering disciplines to analyze simple or complicated structures. The word 'structure' is used in a broad sense to include all systems that can be discretized using finite elements. With this approach, it is easy and straightforward to consider complicated geometric arrangements and constitutive relationships of the material, realistic connection or support conditions, various sources of nonlinearity, and the load path to failure. It gives good results for a set of assumed values of the variables while ignoring the uncertainty in them. On the other hand, many of the available reliability methods are able to account for
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (520) 6212192; Fax: +\ (520) 6212550; Email: haldar@u.arizona.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
the uncertainties, but fail to represent the structural behavior as realistically as possible, and can be computationally challenging when the performance function is not available in an explicit form [1]. If the basic variables are uncertain, every quantity computed during the deterministic analysis is also uncertain, being a function of the basic variables. The currently available reliability methods can still be used if the uncertainty in the response can be tracked in terms of the variation of the basic variables at every step of the deterministic analysis. The finite element method (FEM) provides such an opportunity, and this concept forms the basis of the stochastic finite element method [2]. With the advances in computer technology, it is quite appropriate to develop a finite elementbased reliability analysis technique, parallel to the deterministic analysis procedure. Most engineers will have a tool to estimate the risk or reliability of simple or complicated systems considering all major sources of uncertainty and nonlinearity as realistically as possible. The authors have developed a finite elementbased algorithm to estimate the reliability or probability of failure of structures, capturing the nonlinear behavior just before failure. The authors call it the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) or probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) [2]. It will be of interest to researchers working to advance the deterministic finite element concept. It will also be of interest to the general risk and reliability research community, since it is a powerful and robust reliability method
A. Haldar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics that can be used for both imphcit and explicit performance functions.
233
2. Concept In general, nonlinear complicated structural systems are expected to have implicit performance functions when subjected to static and dynamic loadings. Several computational approaches could be pursued for the reliability analysis of structures with implicit performance functions. They can be broadly divided into three categories, based on their essential philosophy [2], as: (1) Monte Carlo Simulation; (2) response surface approach; and (3) sensitivitybased approach. The sensitivitybased approach can be implemented in the context of the first or secondorder reliability method (FORM or SORM) and the finite element method. In the application of FORM or SORM, only the value and gradient of the performance function at each iteration are required in the search for the design or checking point. The value of the performance function can be estimated from deterministic structural analysis. The gradient can be calculated using sensitivity analysis. In the case of explicit performance function, the gradient is calculated simply by analytical or numerical differentiation. For the implicit performance function, several approximate methods can be used to compute the gradient of the performance function, e.g. finite difference, classical perturbation, and iterative perturbation methods. Combining the iterative perturbation and the finite element approaches, an SFEMbased reliability evaluation procedure is discussed next. The concept is applicable to both linear and nonlinear problems.
sponding gradients at each iteration point. It converges to the most probable failure point (or checking point or design point) and calculates the corresponding reliabihty index p. The following iteration scheme is used to find the checking point: G(y,) y;+i = y;«. + VG(y;) where AG(y) = 9G(y) dyx 9G(y)
(2)
(1)
Oli =

AG(y,) AG(y,) 9G, {^dG •hx + 1 Q
(3)
and \ 9G,D I JD,X + r~ j;.i (4) ) ^^. In Eq. (4), J^y are the Jacobians of transformation and j / ' s are statistically independent random variables in the standard normal space. The evaluation of the quantities in Eq. (4) will depend on the problem under consideration (linear or nonlinear, two or threedimensional, etc.) and the performance functions used. The essential numerical aspect of SEEM is the evaluation of three partial derivatives, namely, 9G/9s, aG/9u and dG/dx, and four Jacobians, namely, J,,;^, J^,^, JD,X, and J3;,;,. These are briefly discussed next. AG = 3.1.1. Performance functions and partial differentials The safety of a structure needs to be evaluated with respect to predetermined performance criteria. The performance criteria are usually expressed in the form of limit state functions, which are functional relationships among all the load effects and resistancerelated parameters. Two types of limit state functions are commonly used in the engineering profession: the Hmit state function of strength (axial load, bending moment, combined axial and bending moment, etc.), which defines safety against extreme loads during the intended life of the structure, and the limit state function of serviceabiHty (lateral deflection, interstory drift, etc.), which defines the functional requirements [1]. 3.1.2. Evaluation of Jacobians and the adjoint variable method To evaluate the gradient VG, the evaluation of the three partial derivatives on the righthand side of Eq. (4) is necessary. They are easy to compute since G(x, u, s) is an exphcit function of x, u and s, as discussed in the previous section. The next task is to evaluate the four Jacobians in Eq. (4). Because of the triangular nature of the transformation, J^^ and its inverse are easy to compute. Since s is not an explicit function of the basic random variables x, J^,;^ = 0. The Jacobians of the transformation Js,D and JD,X, however, are not easy to compute since s.
3. Methodology SFEMbased reliability evaluation procedures for static and dynamic loadings are discussed briefly and separately. 3.1. Static loading The reliability analysis procedure for static loading is based on FORM. The formulation requires an expression for a limit state function G(x, u, s), where vector x denotes the set of basic random variables pertaining to a structure (e.g. loads, material properties and structural geometry), vector u denotes the set of displacements involved in the limit state function, and vector s denotes the set of load effects (except the displacement) involved in the limit state function (e.g. stresses, internal forces). The displacement u can be expressed as u = QD, where D is the global displacement vector and Q is a transformation matrix. In general, x, u and s are related in an algorithmic sense, for example, a finite element code. The algorithm evaluates the performance function deterministically, with the corre
234
A. Haldar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the performance function and FORM is used to calculate the corresponding reliability index, the coordinates of the most probable failure point, and the sensitivity indexes for the random variables involved in the problem. It cannot be presented here due to lack of space, but will be discussed in detail during the presentation with the help of examples.
D and x are implicit functions of each other. The adjoint variable method [3] is used here to compute the product of the second term in Eq. (4) directly, instead of evaluating its constituent parts. It is accurate and computationally efficient when a large number of basic random variables are involved in a problem. An adjoint vector X can be introduced such that du ds The adjoint vector X depends on the limit state function being considered. It is not possible to derive all these equations due to lack of space; however, it will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The reliability of linear and nonlinear two and threedimensional structures can be evaluated using the concept. Special features like partially restrained connections or support conditions are incorporated in the algorithm in addition to geometric and material nonlinearities. It is expected that any features that can be modeled by the finite element algorithm can also be incorporated in the algorithm. The accuracy of the algorithm is established by comparing the information on risk estimated by the algorithm with the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Several examples on trusses, frames, frames with infilled shear walls, etc., will be given during the presentation to show the application potential of the concept to various types of structures. 3.2. Dynamic loading Section 3.1 discusses the SFEMbased reliability analysis procedure for static, timeinvariant loads. Many engineering systems are subjected to both short and long duration timevariant loadings. Short duration loading, particularly seismic loading, is of considerable interest to engineers since it has enormous damage potential. Thus, the SFEMbased algorithm needs to be developed for short duration timevariant loadings. In general, the reliability analysis of nonlinear structures in the time domain is very difficult. Recently, Huh [4] suggested a method. The algorithm intelligently integrates the concept of the response surface method, the finite element method, and FORM. Since the performance function of a nonlinear dynamic structural system is implicit, the response surface method is used to approximately generate
(5)
4. Conclusions A finite elementbased reliability evaluation procedure is proposed to evaluate the risk of linear and nonlinear structures subjected to static and short duration timevarying loads. It is parallel to the deterministic finite element method except that it can incorporate information on the uncertainty in the variables present in the problem. It is capable of capturing any special features that can be handled by the finite element method. The concept appears to be robust and accurate.
Acknowledgements This paper is based on work partly supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMS9526809. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. References [1] Haldar A, Mahadevan, S. Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000. [2] Haldar A, Mahadevan, S. Reliability Assessment Using Stochastic Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000. [3] Ryu YS, Haririan M, Wu CC, Arora JS. Structural design sensitivity analysis of nonlinear response. Comput Struct 1985;21(l/2):245255. [4] Huh J. Dynamic reliability analysis for nonlinear structures using stochastic finite element method, Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, 1999.
235
A continuum mechanics based model for simulation of radiation wave from a crack
Sixiong Han^'*, Mingkui Xiao^
^Research Laboratory of Geomechanics, Etowaru Tokorozawa 301, Kitaakitsu 8853, Tokorozawa 3590038, Japan ^ Department of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jianzhu University, Chongqing, China
Abstract This paper proposes a numerical model for the description of the mechanical phenomenon of radiation wave field due to dynamic crackpropagation. It is shown that the mechanical effect of crackpropagation can be reduced to a set of equilibrating forces acting at the position of cracking if we use the finite element method. In the paper, the formulations for this approximation are derived in displacementcontrolled wave field. Both ModeI and ModeII crackings are considered in this study. Keywords: Dynamic cracking; Equivalent nodal force; Cracking mode; Wave propagation
1. Introduction The properties of waves due to dynamic crackings have been widely applied with success to a variety of engineering problems. However, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the radiating wave phenomena caused by the dynamic cracking are not yet thoroughly understood. In order to make wave information quantitative and to utilize such waves in material research, basic studies to clarify generation mechanisms of radiation waves due to dynamic crackpropagation are required and some more sophisticated analytical methods are expected to be developed to describe the dynamic crackpropagation problem. The aim of this paper is to establish a mathematical model providing a numerical approximation to describe the mechanical phenomenon of dynamic crackpropagation. This model is established based on Betti's reciprocal principle and the discretization technique of the standard finite element method. Instead of modeling the crack directly, the mechanical effects of the radiation waves due to the crackpropagation are formulated by a set of equilibrating nodal forces acting at the positions of cracking based on the rigorous mechanics theory. The methodology of this procedure is midway between the conventional theoretical analyses and numerical models. There are two significant * Corresponding author. Tel/Fax: +81 (42) 9965338; Email: sixionghan@nanet.ornl.gov © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
characteristics of the proposed model that are different from the conventional theoretical and numerical analyses on this type of problem. The first one is that, until now, the dynamic crackpropagation is usually modified as the traction releasing process ahead of the cracktip, and treated in a stresscontrolled wave field. In this study, we consider the cracking as a displacement loading process and treat the crackpropagation in a displacementcontrolled wave field. The second one is that the cracking domain is formulated through a singularity function and this operation could avoid the treatment of the mathematical discontinuity in the Euclidean space. This procedure leads to the advantage of the independence between the mesh division and crack configuration. It is shown that the cracking problem can be treated in the framework of continuum mechanics and the radiation waves due to crackpropagation may be obtained easily by the proposed method. By carrying out a numerical simulation of a dynamic cracking, the radiation waves by ModeI (opening) and ModeII (sliding) crackings are obtained and studied.
2. Modeling for dynamic crackpropagation 2.1. Numerical formulation In a homogeneous linear elastic body D with the domains U^(x, t) which is respected with the crack domain.
236
S. Han, M. Xiao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics X2
'• nC
04 (a)
investigation point
\
<3=>
Fig. 1. Mechanical effect of cracking in element, (a) Cracking state in element, (b) Equivalent nodal forces for ModeII.
o
Xi  cracking domain original crack
we consider the crack as a displacement gap in a continuous medium and describe it through a singular function [2]. By some mathematical operations, and the techniques of the finite element method, it shows that the mechanical effect of the cracking in the material can be evaluated by a set of equivalent nodal forces acting at the position with respect to the cracking domain. One can obtain the wave equation as: MU + KU = P*, in which, U is the nodal displacement vector, M is the mass matrix and K is the stiffness matrix. The vector P* represents the equivalent nodal force vector induced by the crackpropagation, and Vj, dS
^ Te
AZe
^=^1^
Fig. 2. Mesh for numerical calculation.
element with a unit magnitude of the maximal displacement gap. The components of the equivalent nodal forces are calculated as shown in Table 1 in which the parameters A = Cs/Cp, Cp and C^ represent the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves, respectively. One can understand from the results that in ModeI, the mechanical effect of cracking is equivalent to four couples of tensile force acting at the nodes of the element. In ModeII, the mechanical effect of cracking is equivalent to four couples of shear force. The result for ModeII is illustrated in Fig. lb. The properties of those results can be proved to have a generality. 2.2. Numerical example
(1)
where, p is the mass density, N is the shape function and ^1 is a unit vector lying on the crack in the ^th element. Ze and AE^ are the regions with respect to the initial and propagating cracks in the ^th element, respectively. J2e(^e) = Z, E . ( ^ ^ ^ ) = ^ ^ ' and Z U AZ = E\ V in the above equation is a known parameter contains the information of the material properties and crack configuration [2]. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed model, let us consider a simple case of a 4node square isoparametric element with the side length h in a. linearly cracking state as shown in Fig. la, in which the shadow area represents the magnitude of the cracking displacement along ^iaxis for both cracking modes. Without loss of the generality, we only consider the case when cracking crossed the Table 1 Equivalent nodal forces Node 1
(^1,^2)
We simply consider the case that crack propagates along the jciaxis with the velocity of the value of half of the transverse waves. The numerical calculation model for the problem shown in Fig. 2 is a rectangular body with the size 65.0 x 65.0 cm. The origin of the coordinate system is on its gravity center. The elements discretized for calculation are all square with a size of 1.0 x 1.0 cm, and the crack lying on xiaxis is centered at the origin of coordinate system. The material constants are fellows: Young's modulus E = 5.67 x 10^ MPa, mass density p = 2.1 t/m^ and Poisson's ratio v =
Node 2
(^1,^2)
Node 3
(^1,^2)
Node 4
(^1,^2)
^h^C^ Mode1 I ^ h^Cl
(1  2 7 1 ^ 2 / 3 )
{\+2A\4/3) (4/3,1)
(1+2^12,4/3) (4/3,1)
(1  2A^ 2/3) (2/3, 1)
ModeII
(2/3, 1)
S. Han, M. Xiao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
0.000B0.0006 —
237
E
Z3 O.OOCQ
"Q. C TO 0)
0
fin 1/1
i :
k
j « ; :
direction. The radial displacement changes abruptly at the arrival of transverse wave. Furthermore, the response in the circumferential direction changes its phase at ^ = 45°.
jl
5 ,•'
«
MVJ pi^
V
Wf J V
AAn
I
M
ft A in
3. Conclusions A mathematical model to describe the mechanical phenomenon of dynamic crackpropagation is proposed. The conclusions are as follows: the effect of dynamic cracking in material can be evaluated as equivalent nodal forces in a numerical procedure; the formulation to evaluate the equivalent nodal force is presented, and it is shown that the mesh divisions are independent of crack and cracking configurations if the finite element method is used; the mechanical effects of ModeI and ModeII crackings are equivalent to several couples of tensile (or compressive) and shear forces acting on the elements, respectively.
E o i5
I V'
g0.0006
K
0
1 ' ''' ''' '
1
1
I
1
0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003 0.00035
1 '''
' ' '' 1
time (s) Fig. 3, Displacement responses for ModeII.
References 0.25. The initial crack length RQ = 7.0 cm, and the final accumulative length of the crackpropagation ARQ = 2.0 cm. The calculated results are plotted in Fig. 3, in which the black line represents the responses in the radial direction and the broken line represents the responses in the circumferential direction. Due to the limited space of the paper, we only give the responses measured at the point (r = 27.5 cm, 0 = 45°), in which r is the distance and 0 is the angle as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the displacement responses measured for ModeII cracking. It can be seen that the displacement response rapidly increases just after the arrival of the longitudinal waves. The same phenomenon is also observed in the displacement in the circumferential [1] Freund LB. Crack propagation in an elastic solid subjected to general loadingI. Constant rate of extension. J Mech Phys Solids 1972;20:129140. [2] Han S. Evaluation of reservoir crack based on equivalent effect of scattering waves due to crackpropagation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 1997;34(3/4):Paper No. 118. [3] Lo CY, Nakamura T, Kushner A. Computational Analysis of Dynamic Crack Propagation along a Bimaterial Interface. Int J Solids Struct 1994;31(2): 145168. [4] Nishioka T, Atluri SN. Numerical analysis of dynamic crack propagation: generation and prediction studies. Eng Fract Mech 1982;16:303332. [5] Rose LRF. Recent theoretical and experimental results on fast brittle fracture. Int J Fract 1976;12(6):799813.
238
Large strain, large rotation boundary integral multidomain formulation using the Trefftz polynomial functions
M. Handrik*, V. Kompis, P. Novak
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University ofZilina, Velky diel, 010 26 Zilina, Slovakia
Abstract In this paper, a multidomain formulation based on reciprocity relations, which is a combination of the finite element method and the boundary element method is presented [24]. The total Lagrangian formulation for large displacement and large rotation and Hook material law is used. The formulation is the weighting residual form, which leads to a nonlinear equation system. The nonlinear equations system is solved by incremental NewtonRaphson procedure. Keywords: Total Lagrangian formulation; Trefftz function; Large displacements and rotations; Boundary integral multidomain method
1. Introduction In this paper, Trefftz polynomials (Tpolynomials) [1] are used for the development of multidomain (MD) based on the reciprocity relations. Such reciprocity principles are known from the boundary element formulations, however, using the Trefftz polynomials in the reciprocity relations instead of the fundamental solutions yields the nonsingular integral equations for the evaluation of corresponding subdomain (element) relations. A weak form satisfaction of the equilibrium is used for the interdomain connectivity relations. For linear problems, the element stiffness matrices are defined in the boundary integral equation form. In nonlinear problems, the total Lagrangian formulation leads to the evaluation of the boundary integrals over the original (related) domain evaluated only once during the solution and to the volume integrals containing the nonlinear terms. Also, Trefftz polynomials can be used in the postprocessing phase of the MD computations for small strain problems. By using the Trefftz polynomials as local interpolators, smooth yields of the secondary variables (strains, stresses, etc.) can be found in the whole domain (if it is homogeneous). This approach considerably increases the accuracy of the evaluated yields while maintaining the same rate of convergence as that of the primary yields. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +421 (89) 5132974; Fax: +421 (89) 5652940; Email: handrik@mppserv.utc.sk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Now a stress smoothing procedure for large displacements will be presented as well. Considering the examples of simple tension, pure bending and tension of fully clamped rectangular plate (2D stress/strain problems) for large strainlarge rotation problems, the use of the initial stiffness, the NewtonRaphson procedure, and the incremental Newton Raphson procedure will be discussed.
2. The total Lagrangian formulation for finite deformation problems Equilibrium equation for this problem in undeformed (initial) configuration in the integral week form
fl{Sufu),k^b'l\UidQ
=0
(1)
Applying integration by parts, the Gauss' theorem, substituting displacement gradient for deformation gradient to Eq. (1) we obtain f tfUi df + /" b^Ui dQf Sij Uij dQ (2)
 f{SijUu)UidQ
=0
The strain tensor can be split into the elastic and plastic
M. Handrik et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics parts and because of the linear dependence between the elastic part of Green strain tensor and the 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor, the reciprocity relation can be found in the form. [ t^Ui d r + / b^^Ui dQr

239
are evaluated only once (in the zeroth equilibrium iteration step). On the other side, the nonlinear volume integrals are evaluated in the first and further iteration steps only. In the NewtonRaphson procedures, the increments are computed
^(Nl)
( uj Ti d r r
(6)
(7)
^
/ \uk,iUk,jT^ij
and the displacements in the Nth iteration steps are
,(N) ,i(Nl)
dQ  f^ SijUi^kUi dQ
+ Au'
(N)
;.E,,d^ = 0
(3)
The iteration is stopped if the quadratic norm of the last displacement increment related to the quadratic norm of the displacements is less than the specified value e > Au (N)
i(N)
Eq. (3) is applied for the computation of the relation between the boundary displacements u and the tractions t^ for each subdomain (element). The interdomain tractions continuity j dui {ti  u) dr, + / dui (tf"  t^) dVi
(8)
4. Examples The examples of simple tension, pure bending and tension of fully clamped rectangular plate (2D stress/strain problems) for large strainlarge rotation problems, the use of the initial stiffness, the NewtonRaphson procedure, and the incremental NewtonRaphson procedure and the accuracy will be discussed.
= / dui ti dVe  / dui Ti dre=0
Te Fe
(4)
is used to the weak satisfaction of interdomain equilibrium.
3. Linearization of resulting equations for large strain problems The resulting discretized and linearized equations are in the form
(K + K^L)u(N)^p(Ni) ^3^
References [1] Trefftz E. Ein Gegenstuck zum Ritzschen Verfahren. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Applied Mechanics, Zurich, 1926. [2] Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method, vols. III, 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 1989/1991. [3] Bathe KJ. The Finite Element Procedures, Englewood CHffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [4] Balas J, Sladek J, Sladek V. Stress Analysis by Boundary Element Method. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1989. [5] Kompis V, Jakubovieova L. Errors in modelling high order gradient fields using isoparametric and reciprocity based FEM, submitted for publication.
where K corresponds to the linear part of Eq. (3) and K^^ to its nonlinear part, which is linearized for each iteration step and p^^~^^ denotes the configuration dependent load corresponding to the configuration of the previous iteration step. The linear matrix K and thus, the boundary integrals
240
About linear and quadratic 'SolidSheir elements at large deformations
M. Hamau, K. Schweizerhof *
University of Karlsruhe, Institute for Mechanics, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Abstract Efficient computation in sheet metal forming or car crash analysis is obtained only by using shell elements instead of fully threedimensional solid elements. However, many requirements in the investigations, in particular when looking at edges and special situations like large stretching and bending with small radii as strains and stresses in thickness direction and general threedimensional material laws, cannot be provided by shell elements even if they are based on the wellknown degeneration concept. Therefore, in [10] a socalled 'SolidShell' formulation, following similar suggestions in [4,12,14], was proposed. For the biquadraticlinear as well as for the trilinear elements different locking effects appear, see also [3]. Different schemes to overcome the locking problems are used and an almost lockingfree element formulation can finally be presented. However, as a consequence problems occur in the large deformation regime, such that under some types of loading the trilinear elements [7,17] as well as the biquadraticlinear elements show artificial instabilities, indicated by negative eigenvalues of the tangential stiffness matrix. This topic is discussed in detail. Keywords: SolidShell elements; Large deformations; Volumetric locking; Mixed interpolations; Trapezoidal locking; Numerical instabilities
1. Introduction With the 'SolidSheir concept [4,10,12,14] a shell element formulation was proposed, to overcome some limits of the wellknown degeneration concept. Using nodes at upper and lower surface and using only displacement degrees of freedom allows general threedimensional material laws to be implemented, thus strains and stresses in thickness direction can be properly computed. As a consequence also applications for large deformation problems become possible without artificial restrictions, see also [3,11]. In addition, the treatment of rotations can be avoided completely and the transition to full 3Dcontinuum parts is directly possible. The originally developed 'fournode type' elements with bilinear inplane shape functions have been extended to 'ninenode type' elements with biquadratic inplane shape functions [9] expecting a geometrically better approximation for curved and heavily deformed structures. An as* Corresponding author. Tel: +49 (721) 6082070; Fax: +49 (721) 6087990; Email: karl.schweizerhof@bauverm.unikarlsruhe.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
sumed natural strain (ANS) method as proposed in Refs. [5,6] is used for the 'fournode type' (8 node) elements to avoid transverse shear locking, and it is also used for the 'ninenode type' (18 node) elements to avoid, firstly, transverse shear locking and, secondly, the additionally appearing membrane locking for elements with higherorder shape functions. The problem of thickness locking is resolved by enhancing the normal strain in thickness direction with a linear extension using the EASmethod [4,14], or alternatively by increasing the order of interpolation for the displacements in thickness direction over the thickness using an additional degree of freedom [8]. Considering nearly incompressible material behavior, like rubber elasticity or metal plasticity, the problem of volumetric locking appears. A rather efficient possibility to overcome this problem is to use a lower order of integration for the volumetric parts of the stress tensor and the tangent moduli tensor, the socalled selective reduced integration (SRI) [11]. The selective reduced integration of volumetric parts indeed presumes that an isochoricvolumetric material behavior is considered. Another locking effect known for elements with linear and quadratic shape functions is the problem of socalled
M. Harnau, K. Schweizerhof / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics trapezoidal [15] or curvature thickness [3] locking. This effect is only found in structures where the vectors from the lower to the upper nodes at the element edges are not vertical to the midlayer. A method to resolve this problem is using an assumed strain inplane interpolation of the normal strain in thickness direction as proposed in [2].
241
2. Numerical instabilities To investigate the effects of numerical instabilities under certain loading conditions a study with a single 'fournode type' element under a homogeneous compressions/tension state is performed in analogy to [1]. Because large deformations are treated in this example, a material of the Neo Hookean type is used. The geometrical and material data
Fig. 1. Geometry, material data and loading of the investigated element. Geometry: I = 2, t = 2; Neo Hooke material: K = 1.0 • 10^, yit = 20. Uniform displacement v in ydirection.
are shown in Fig. 1. All nodes are fixed in the zdirection, thus a plane strain case is generated. The upper four nodes are linked together in the jdirection and as loading a uniform displacement v is prescribed for these nodes. As a consequence of the loading and the boundary conditions shown in Fig. 1 the number of degrees of freedom for the whole system is reduced to four. Therefore, only four eigenmodes (Fig. 2) are possible for the system, with the fourth eigenmode being the volumetric deformation mode. In this simple example the eigenvalues belonging to the eigenmodes shown in Fig. 2 can be derived analytically as a function depending on the displacement u. The results for these investigations are shown in some diagrams in Fig. 3. There it can be seen that the pure displacement formulation DISP3D remains always stable. The ANS3DL element is the displacement formulation combined with the ANSmethod. It is clearly visible that for this element formulation the eigenmodes 1 and 2 become unstable in the case of very large compressive strains. But it must also be noted that this state of about 90% compression is hardly found in a realistic problem. If the inplane strains are enhanced using the E ASmethod, as it is done for the EAS3DEAS element, the well known hourglass mode [17] appears at a compression of about 45%. Similar observations have been made for the biquadratic elements. As a conclusion it must be noted that all mixedtype enhancements of the loworder interpolated solidshell elements lead to artificial element kinematics under homogeneous loading in the large deformation regime. For plane elements proposals to improve the element behavior are given by Wall et al. [16] for rectangular elements, by Reese [13] and by Armero [1] in a very detailed
Fig. 2. Eigenmodes of 8nodeelement, e.g. mode 1, mode 2, mode 3.
1000
8001
1000 mode 1 • mode 2 mode 3 • mode 1 mode 2 mode 3 800
I 600
14 0 0 1
I 600
1 1400
mode 1 mode 2 mode 3 
200
200
0
21.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Displacement U a)
21.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Displacement u b)
21.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Displeicement u c)
IZ^
Fig. 3. Eigenvalues of eigenmodes 1, 2 and 3 as a function of the deformation v in };direction; (a) D1SP3D element, (b) ANS3DL element, and (c) EAS3DEAS element; \ = tension;  = compression.
242
M. Harnau, K. Schweizerhof / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [7] Glaser S, Armero F. On the formulation of enhanced strain finite elements in finite deformations. Eng Comput 1997;14(7):759791. [8] Gruttmann F. Theorie und Numerik diinnwandiger Faserverbundstrukturen. Bericht Nr. F96/1, Institut fiir Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universitat Hannover, 1996. [9] Hauptmann R, Doll S, Harnau M, Schweizerhof K. 'SolidShell' elements with linear and quadratic shape functions at large deformations with nearly incompressible materials. Submitted for publication, 2000. [10] Hauptmann R, Schweizerhof K. A systematic development of solidshell element formulations for linear and nonlinear analyses employing only displacement degrees of freedom. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998;42:4970. [11] Hauptmann R, Schweizerhof K, Doll S. Extension of the solidshell concept for large elastic and large elastoplastic deformations. Accepted by Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;49:11211141. [12] Parisch H. A continuumbased shell theory for nonlinear applications. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995;38:18551883. [13] Reese S, Wriggers P. A stabilization technique to avoid hourglassing in finite elasticity. Report No. 4/98, Institute of Mechanics, TU Darmstadt, 1998. [14] Seifert B. Zur Theorie und Numerik finiter elastoplastischer Deformationen von Schalenstrukturen. Bericht Nr. F96/2, Institut fiir Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universitat Hannover, 1996. [15] Sze KY, Yao LQ. A hybrid stress ANS solidshell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part I. Solidshell element formulation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;48(4):545564. [16] Wall WA, Bischoff M, Ramm E. A deformation dependent stabilization technique, exemplified by EAS elements at large strains. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998;188:859871. [17] Wriggers P, Reese S. A note on enhanced strain methods for large deformations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1996;135:201209.
Study for arbitrarily shaped elements. A further, rather simple possibility to achieve a stable element formulation is to regain the stiffness matrix of the displacement formulation A^^^p multiplied with a factor (p on the given element stiffness matrix Ke'. ke = (l~<p)K, + cpKl^^^. (1)
The factor (p must be adjusted to a value between one and zero depending on the type and the grade of deformation. The value of (p can even be equal to one for structures under a pure homogeneous stress state, where the displacement formulation delivers proper results without any locking effects. The current investigations are directed towards the proper automatic adjustment for nonrectangular element shapes and not fully homogeneous loading avoiding any overstiff behavior.
References [1] Armero F. On the locking and stability of finite elements in finite deformation plane strain problems. Comput Struct 2000;75. [2] Betsch P, Stein E. An assumed strain approach avoiding artificial thickness straining for a nonlinear 4node shell element. Common Numer Methods Eng 1995; 11:899909. [3] Bischoff M, Ramm E. Shear deformable shell elements for large strains and rotations. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997;40:44274449. [4] Braun M. Nichtlineare Analysen von geschichteten elastischen Flachentragwerken. Bericht Nr. 19, Institut fur Baustatik, Universitat Stuttgart, 1995. [5] Bucalem EN, Bathe KJ. Higherorder MITC general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:37293754. [6] Dvorkin EN, Bathe KJ. A continuum mechanics based fournode shell element for general nonHnear analysis. Eng Comput 1989;1:7778.
243
Skull mechanic simulations with the prototype SimBio environment
U. Hartmann^'*, F. Kniggel^, T. Hierl^ G. Lonsdale % R. Kloppel'*
^ C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Europe Ltd., Rathausallee 10, 53757 St. Augustin, Germany ^ MaxPlanckInstitute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Stephanstrafie 1, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, NUmberger Strafie 57, 04103 Leipzig, Germany '^Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 22, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Abstract The SimBio project will produce a generic simulation environment for advanced clinical practice designed for execution on parallel and distributed computing systems. This paper deals with the specific appHcation of current SimBio software components for the study of a skull mechanics problem relating to maxillofacial surgery. In addition to a demonstration of physical results, performance characteristics of the biomechanical finite element code on parallel platforms is given. Keywords: Finite element model; Computer tomograph; SimBio; Computational biomechanics; Maxillofacial surgery; Head model
1. Introduction The objective of the SimBio project [1,2] financed by the European Commission's Information Societies Technology (1ST) programme is the improvement of clinical and medical practices by the use of numerical simulation. This goal is achieved by developing a generic simulation environment that enables users to develop application specific tools for many medical areas. The potential impact is demonstrated for specific areas through the SimBio evaluation and validation applications. A key feature in the SimBio project is the possibility to use individual patient data as input to the modelling and simulation process — in contrast to simulation based on 'generic' computational models. In order to meet the computational demands of the SimBio applications, the computeintensive environment components are implemented on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This paper presents an initial study for bionumerical support of maxillofacial surgery planning. The medical background to this study is discussed in Section 2. Selected software components under development within the SimBio
project are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 of the paper illustrates preliminary results of numerical simulations and covers performance issues. Finally, steps towards a more accurate modelling are discussed.
2. Biomechanical simulation supporting facialsurgery planning One of the target applications of the SimBio framework deals with presurgical studies in the field of head biomechanics. In particular, this refers to the modelling of the deformations emerging during and/or induced by surgical interventions. Thus, simulation supports the optimisation of operation procedures and the planning of therapeutical strategies. Currently, a study is underway to investigate the mechanical consequences of the forces that occur during the sequence of interventions to remedy inborn deformations of the human face (mainly cleft lip and palate). In order to adjust deformed parts of the midface a metal frame (a socalled halo, see Fig. 1) is tightly fixed to the head using screws. After cutting the midfacial bone along exactly defined lines, this device exerts forces on the bone structure to be relocated. The distraction path length governed by the externally applied forces amounts to a length of 1030
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (2241) 925242; Fax: +49 (2241) 925299; Email: hartmann@ccrlnece.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
This segmentation forms the basis for mesh generation. A fast and high quality mesh generator creates hexahedral or tetrahedral meshes of userdefined spatial resolution [3] (see Fig. A CT slice of the human head showing the halo fixed with screws.2. 2. which is typically in the order of a few weeks.244 U. Overview of the software solutions 3. 3. we first present the results of phase 1. Simulations presented here were carried out using the static version of HEADFEM. A hexahedral FE mesh of the human head divided into 16 partitions. Preprocessing: segmentation and meshing The geometric description of our model is based on 3D medical images of individual patients acquired with a computer tomograph (CT). We divided the finite element (FE) modelling of this surgical intervention into two phases: (1) In a first step. . 3. Software tools used to model the skull response are described in the next section. Fig. Halo frame for maxillofacial surgery mounted to a skull model. Hartmann et al. 3. HEADFEM enables linear static and dynamic FE analyses [5]. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In this paper. 2) are calculated. 1.5 mm. bone and halo. (2) The goal of the second phase of the modelling process is to gain presurgical knowledge about the relation between the magnitude and the direction of the applied distraction forces and the resulting rearrangement of the bone structures and the surrounding soft tissues. Exact knowledge about the mechanical consequences of the surgical device is important for the surgeon mounting the halo. 3).1. Raw data are preprocessed by registering timeseries scans to the first time point and are segmented into background. HEADFEM The finite element (FE) code for biomechanical problems (called HEADFEM) is based on linear solvers provided in the AZTEC library [4] and is parallelised using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. mm (1 mm/day). skull deformations induced by the halo screws (see Fig. depending on the application site and duration. Spiral CT scans achieve a spatial resolution of 0. Input to the FE module is a distributed mesh partitioned by a modified recursive co Fig. soft tissue. Fig.
simulations using reliable material parameters. 4). 4. an outward protrusion of the skull at peripheral concentric areas is observed (see arrows).76 32 84 3. outward deformations to greenblue colours. Kruggel F. Wolters C. 4 depicts the skull deformation produced by the screws of the surgical frame. inevitable for performing clinically valid simulations.g. • additional material models (e. The high spatial resolution guarantees: • a precise FE representation of head anatomy. viscoelastic material behaviour). Postprocessing The nodal displacements for the whole head are calculated and mapped onto a triangular surface mesh of the skull and visualised using the BRIAN software package [7] (see Fig. Inward deformations correspond to yellowred colours. The equation system based on this mesh has about half a million unknowns and is solved by a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver provided by the AZTEC library.61 Fig. addresses the measurement of realistic material parameters. 5. 3).U. Hose DR. matrix Acknowledgements The support of the European Commission (Project 1ST V10378) is gratefully acknowledged. and • a contact algorithm. this FE tool enables simulations based on meshes with a spatial resolution about five times higher than that of previous models. To overcome some of the restrictions imposed by sequential FE codes. That requires the implementation of: • geometrically nonlinear FE techniques. Hartmann et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 245 Table 1 HEADFEM execution times and speedup factors on the NEC Cenju4 for different numbers of processors Processor no. An example input is a distributed hexahedral head mesh whose elements have an edge length of 3 mm (see Fig. Combining highly resolved FE models based on individual scan data. Fig. Penrose JMT. Table 1 lists execution times for a full HEADFEM analysis (data input. Results HEADFEM has been installed on the 64 processor NEC Cenju4 supercomputer (MIPS RIOOOO in a multistage interconnection network). equation solving). Results obtained in phase 1 of our modelling process (see Section 2) are already considered to be clinically relevant. the SimBio project is expected to deliver a software environment that offers the chance to provide safe predictions in clinical routine.46 64 44 6. 33. Another important aspect of the SimBio project. HEADFEM needs to be extended for phase 2 — surgical planning. 3). Bionumerical simulations with SimBio: project aims and objectives. and • a high numerical accuracy of the results obtained in reasonable calculation time. 4. assembly. A specific version of BRIAN will become the visualisation module of the final SimBio environment. Concluding remarks We presented a surgical application of the FE method using initial components of the generic SimBio environment. Besides the expected focal inward deformation at screw positions. ordinate bisection (RGB) algorithm implemented in the DRAMA library [6] (see Fig. These figures demonstrate that the code scales well and that a full FE problem is solved in less than a minute. Proceedings of . Hartmann U. This result is in full agreement with clinical findings. 8 Time (s) Speedup 291 1. such as the NewtonRaphson method. Grebe R. efficient HPCbased solver technology. References [1] Lonsdale G.00 16 165 1. Skull deformation as predicted by the simulation.
BRIAN (Brain Image Analysis) — a Toolkit for the multimodal analysis of brain datasets. 1996.246 U. Tuminaro. RS. Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report SAND951559. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Biomedical Image Analysis 1998.ccrlnece. [4] Hutchinson SA. pp.2(l):4964. http://www.html [7] Kruggel F. 187196. A fast algorithm for generating large tetrahedral 3D finite element meshes from magnetic resonance tomograms.de [3] Hartmann U. Lohmann G. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Eng 1998. pp. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 323328. . Saitama.de/~drama/drama.techno park. Aztec User's Guide: Version 1.1 (1995).simbio. ISBN 0818684607. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [5] Hartmann U. 184192. Transient analysis of the biomechanics of the human head with a high resolution 3D finite element model. Hartmaim et al. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer and Communication Systems for Image Guided Diagnosis and Therapy.gmd. [6] DRAMA Project Website. Shadid JN. the Symposium on Computational Biomechanics 2000 at RIKEN. http://www. Kruggel F. Kruggel F. [2] SimBio Project Website. Japan. pp.
H) = t^Abiu.J. The reducedstrain FE scheme We consider the following numerical approximation to the variational problem (1). Hakula Helsinki University of Technology. v) + Am(u. H) in the xy coordinate space satisfying d~^ < L/H < d for some constant d > 0. H. v) = Q(v) yveUM. k = 0.WQ assume that Q(u) defines a bounded linear functional on [H^{^)f. . L.fi © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. membrane and transverse shear stresses. + 12 J{v(fti + ft2)fe)(Al + k2Xv) + (1 . All rights reserved.havu@hut. We further note that the condition ab . Institute of Mathematics. Ny and a constant mesh spacing * Corresponding author. . (1) where u — (u.v)J2Pij(!i)^ij(y)}^^y (3) 2.y"). . Fax: +358 (9) 4513016. Tel: +358 (9) 4513018. Nx. . Assume that Q is divided into rectangular elements with node points (x^. Finland Abstract We consider a bilinear reducedstrain element formulation for a shallow shell of ReissnerNaghdi type. V)= V(KU\K22)(U)(KU + f<22)(v) where v is the Poisson ratio of the material and y is a shear correction factor. The bilinear forms Ab(u. 0.247 An analysis of a bilinear reduced strain element in the case of an elliptic shell in a membrane dominated state of deformation V. . Kij. Email: ville. depending on w as follows _ du %i = — dx = 9y ^aw h bw du dO ATii = dx dy (4) /<:22 = dy and P\ dw dx \ dx) dv\ \ + cw 1 /96> K\2 df\ •• dw dy (5) 2 + (1 . V^) is the vector of three translations and two rotations and UM is the energy space which we take to be [H\Q)]^ with periodic boundary conditions ai y = 0.V) ^ K i j (u)Kij (v) dx dy and Am(u^V) = 6}/(l ''^' v) / {Pi(M)Pi(lL) + (2) P2(u)P2(v)}dxdy The integration is taken over the midsurface ^ of the shell which we assume to occupy the rectangular region (0. v. . H and with the constraints u = v = w = 0 = \l/ =0 2iix = 0. Keywords: Finite element. Here. Bathe (Editor) . L) X (0. Pij and pi represent the bending. v) and Am(u. . b and c defining the geometry can be taken constants. . Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. v) arising from the bending and membrane energies are given by Ab(u. The shell problem Our study is concentrated on the ReissnerNaghdi shell model where the (scaled) variational formulation of the problem is given by: Find ueUM such that AMin.c^ > 0 makes the shell elliptic. 02015 Hut. n = 0. We are considering the shell to be shallow so that the parameters a. We show that under favorable circumstances the reduced formulation produces convergent solution also in the membrane dominated states of deformation. respectively. w. Reducedstrain. Havu*. Shallow shell 1.
Hakula / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics where Ayv = [X e A\ — Tt < Xhy < 71 when A^^ is odd.1.h • hy in the _ydirection and that the aspect ratios of the elements satisfy d~^ < h'^Jhy < d for some d > 0 where /zj = x^+^ — x^. The main tool of our analysis will be the Fourier transform where we write XeA XeA The transverse shear strains pt (5) together with (10) imply in turn that dw a7 L2 + dw II T<C{ \v \M. . Havu. so that we are in fact considering a discrete Fourier transform of i^ e UM. Consistency error in the membrane dominated case We start by giving a stability result for UMM • Lemma 3.. Pi = R^ pi with suitable reduction operators R'^ and R\ We choose these operators for ^ij and pi to be 3ii=n^)Sn.. f du dv\\ L2 where Ul and Ul are orthogonal L^projections onto spaces VV^. Our main concern is the consistency error component given by ec. The modification introduced in [3] differs slightly from our choice. Thus. ^) e UM.h (13) making use of the periodic boundary conditions at y = 0. and n. the definitions of the membrane strains fitj (4) imply du II II dv II I . our finite element scheme solves the problem: Find Uf^ e UMJX such that 19^11^2 aylL2 W il) < C( \V \M. w.h' We consider the case where the membrane and transverse shear stresses are given by reduced expressions leading to the bilinear form ^milL^y) = 6 / ( 1 V) Q 3.ve so that (10)(12) together with the Poincare's inequality imply V I <Ct ^ \V \M. y) = ^ AeA^r n(y)±^M = ^ XeA]\/ hi^^y) Next it is necessary to consider the lower modes separately. Let ]i e hlM.h./J = ^ / ^ ^ C . (K)A7(v)](^dy (6) Proof. respectively.h + where from again by the Kom inequality V X <C{\V_ \B.M(^u)= sup "'' veUM.^ is the orthogonal L^projection onto elementwise constant functions.h L2\ x/r Li) (12) . 0.V / du dv L2 + b" + 9.H (8) Remark 1.y) ^ A. H. P\ = nipi ^22 — ^hP22 P2 = nlp2 Pn = n^^i2. v.. or — T < Xhy < 71 when A^^ is even}.{y) = e''^\ A=\x=—. and W^' consisting of functions that are constant in X an piecewise linear in y or constant in y and piecewise linear in x. H.h + W il). (11) ^ ' ^ — 1^ \M. On this mesh each field is represented by a piecewise continuous bilinear approximation..h and thus by the Kom inequality ^ 1 + lA 1 < Ct^ \V \M.h + and by [4] we have I du II dy dv I dx 1^2 Vi..iv f 27rv (p.h + (1 . For functions in the FE space we write analogously ^(x. This space will be denoted by UM. •) is the modified energy norm.h A%){U.h(10) Also.^IL2 II du II \dv\\ \ l^yWiJ W il) resulting in dx W1 + + \dv — ay L2 + — du dy j dv \ L2 dx 1 — < C( \V \M. but similar or even little better results can be proved using forthcoming techniques. (7) do — dx L2 + df ay IL2 +I —+ — dy dx 1 ^ 12 <Ct^ \v M.h where ^jj = R'' Ptj. € UM.V) (9) where  • M.h+ 0 dy IIL2 < Ct' \V \M.248 V.h {AM ( l9«i II .Then IP\(U)P\{V) \ P2iu)P2iv)W^y Q 2 y 1 < ct~^ \v \M. Then the FE space is Uh = [Vh]^ where Vh is the standard biUnear space with appropriate constraints. T Here (px{y) is the interpolant of (px{y). By (8) we have that for y_ = (u.
. (18) is the Euclidean norm of vectors in K^ and Theorem 3.. s >0 provided that u_ e [H^{Q>)]^ and Ci(t. [1]) 2/ wx(x'') = j£. ^fn'if.L) L2(O.2.Then.l/2).c = 0. ^ ^ L(0.~ f^^ix') /l^2(^'+^/') = = ^'•^"+^/^^''^(fe(i. The consistency error ec.h' I i where F.h (17) Here ^^^(^^+1/2) ^ ^'•"^^^(y^n(i.3.h. L we may without loss ^ of generality consider only the exponentially decreasing solution of (15) starting from . u) < Ct~^ u_ 2+5 and C2(t.= / ? f\ 2c . H..^(I'^I^ ^^ i2(o..M defined in (9) satisfies ec.L)) Due to the constraints at .^+l/2. When A = 0 we have from (18) and from wo(x^) = If22(x')ih2it (Polio I + (PoVo 1+ (poWo L^ < C \±Q\M.L) < ^ i ^ r ' ^> ^ Also.u) < Ct~^(^Yli IP/(i£)li) are finite. Then the standard theory for Astable difference schemes gives us the bound when \X\hy < c < TT leading to <^A^A L2(0.M <Cu2hh Ci(t.\M. ifb^Owe have for X such that \X\h < c < TT that ^xUx 1+ (pxVx 1+ (fxWx L^ <C \^.))l(.^.))l(.f27 PlXlix'^+^t) Fx(t) e a\X\t dt With the help of the stability estimates given in Lemmas 3.L) (19) = ^TkM + hlF^ (15) where r^ = 2 ^ tan(^A/z^) + Ff (16) from where it follows that ^X L2(0. u)h^..«+l/2) ^''^"+^/'^''^(A2(i.22 V /n . [1]) (x^+i) Vx «A> "I ^k+l Fxity'dt (x') ^^ i2(o.Ox.h (22) ix'^') < e a.+i/2.L) + ^ ^ ^^ L2(0.L) + 2 /22 L2(O.2.))(.«) (21) since Fx L^ < C \d_^ M.L) . Assume that b ^ 0. we can now bound the consistency error.L) < C \d_^ \M. < C\X\'e Proof.L) ^ l ^ l ^ ( ^ ^ L2(0. The translation components iix and Vx of ^^ satisfy the difference equation (cf./.hA Here a > fi > 0 and since iix (0) = vx (0) = 0 we obtain when X ^ 0 2 (14) (x'+') and consequently i^mx\. (15) gives the relation L2(0.f = 0.L) cosi^khy)  ^ (20) Combining (19) and (20) gives ^xux 1 + (pxvx 1 < C \^^ \M.yx. To consider Wx we note that (cf. Hakula/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 249 Lemma 3.L) + "1 L2(0.tan {\Xhy)dx(x^) + f22(^') bcos {^Xhy) bh and thus . u)h^^' + C2(t. ifx) € UM.V Havu.L) M =i and ^x^ = + • u ^ L2(0.1 and 3. s.«.L)+ ^A i2(o. s.. Let d_^ = ^x^^ = (px(ux.Wx.\X\x'^' (0) The claim for A 7^ 0 follows from (21) together with (22).
v)<Ch u 2\v U.veUh. Deformation energy squared 2. + CIX0IE E l^l'(A7(i?. The results shown in Table 1 indicate rapid convergence of total deformation energy confirming our theoretical predictions. 2000. Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Mathematics Research Reports A430.Al. Analysis of a bilinear finite element for shallow shells I: ApproximaUon of inextensional deformations.A(i.x. Numerical example 1+ w^A 1 2 ) ij l><Ao X ( i3x 1 4 WA ij A>AO + cEE(^'(^.AiKu.A'.0062 3. The problem is essentially one dimensional. P/(i.)) As a numerical example on the performance of our reducedstrain formulation (8) we take the Morley hemispherical shell as in [2] with clamped boundaries and uniformly distributed pressure load. 1999. New York: Marcel Dekker.„)(Y^&. [1]) (AM .9800 3.) .^^ .A7(i.T.1 and 3.J2^) 6825 ^Al>Ao M>Xo ' 4./. V) V) = {A^ . H. Hakula/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Numerical results for the Morley shell with the reducedstrain formulation showing the square of the total deformation energy as a function of the degrees of freedom Degrees of freedom 80 225 1425 3625 Proof. . Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance. t = 0. e WM and ^ = Y.. The first lockingfree planeelastic finite element: historia mathemafica. /• A G A by Lemmas 3. Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Mathematics Research Reports A411. the computations were done exploiting less symmetry using one eighth of the shell.2.A\j){u.I.. • Then by the orthogonahty of the discrete and continuous modes (cf.)4(i?x). + Ch'^'t' U 2+s \V\MM \y\M.0107 3.0122 X X X X X 102 102 102 102 102 = = iA^At)(Tl. 1994. [4] Pitkaranta J. to appear.'"'(^A).)li li. Pitkaranta J.)) /• AeA '^^Y.!. <CXo^/!r'E E l^nA7(^.04.8956 2. h e UM. but since we are looking for twodimensional effects. IM7.250 V Havu. y = 1/3 to define the geometry and material. [3] Malinen M.. '7 A>AO by Lemma 3./. [2] MacNeal RH. IA7(i?A)li IIA IM. ^ A i ? .Y.^>) (A„.1 so that summing up (AM . We parameterize the problem by the angles i> and 0 and use a uniform rectangular mesh with respect to these parameters and lei R = \0.H (23) + Ch't'(y2\pi(ii)u] for any s >0. On geometrically incompatible bilinear shell elements and classical shell models. Write u = E .){u. Since X^h < c < TT v/c have that References [1] Havu V.
Laboratoire de Mecanique et Technologie 61. and improved result accuracy. (iii) In recent works several enhanced finite element interpolations for shell elements have been proposed. . One possibility. Another possibility to parameterize finite rotations. avenue du president Wilson. This feature is in sharp contrast with the classical developments on the subject (e.). which is used to construct a nonclassical shell theory with socalled drilling rotations.10]. the case in point is the use of local Cartesian frames. Overview of recent advancements In this review we have chosen to focus on only the very recent achievements in the formulation and numerical implementation of shell theories capable of handling finite rotations. with several competing possibilities being examined [5.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. (ii) Optimal parameterization of finite rotations is addressed in detail. which corresponds to the extension of the classical shell theory.J. Fax: +33 (0) 147 40 22 40. which should be exploited to obtain an optimal result [9. In passing we note that certain aspects of the subsequent numerical approximation can be introduced up front in order to simplify the shell theoretical formulation. What has been shown. In the case of intrinsic parameterization with orthogonal tensor the issues in the consistent linearization become rather subtle for we have to deal with the differential manifold in the shell configuration space [11]. we believe. The orthogonal tensor parameterization of finite rotations can in some cases be replaced by socalled rotation vector parameterization. Bathe (Editor) though some of them. Nonlinear analysis. have met with considerable success. (v) The geometrically exact shell theory provides the enhanced performance in the buckling and postbuckling analysis of shells. such as hybrid and mixed interpolations. assumed strain method. Email: ai@lmt. where rotations are always of restricted size (linear. there is a twoway relationship between the shell theoretical formulation and its numerical implementation.35]. leads to twoparameter representation constructed by exploiting equivalence between the unit sphere and a constrained group of proper orthogonal tensors [42. is that a wellperforming finite element interpolation [7]) can be rendered even more powerful if placed in a proper theoretical framework and when care is taken to preserve the salient features of the theoretical formulation [8]. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Al* Tel. (iv) The consistent linearization procedure in the geometrically exact shell theory is intimately related to the choice of parameters adopted for threedimensional finite rotations. 94235 Cachan.g. Finite elements 1.6]. underintegration with stabilization. Thus. All rights reserved.. France Abstract In this article we review some recent and current research works attributing to a very significant progress on shell problem theoretical foundation and numerical implementation attained over a period of the last several years. however. the particular issue of the optimal interpolation scheme for shells has not been definitely setded yet.: +33 (0) 147 40 22 34. Keywords: Shell problem. see [24]). Several points which. In the opposite case for the rotation parameterization based on the rotation vector. etc. merit especially to be reemphasized are: (i) Classical shell theory is reformulated [1] so that it becomes capable of handling finite (unrestrictedinsize) threedimensional rotations. for it can be performed by the directional derivative [5].enscachan. leads to the intrinsic rotation parameterization in terms of the proper orthogonal tensor. the consistent linearization simplifies with respect to the former case. second order.251 Recent developments in nonlinear analysis of shell problem and its finite element solution Adnan Ibrahimbegovic * Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan.
has already been addressed (e. Even for a fournode shell element. see [18. [43] propose multiplicative decomposition of the director field combined with the exponential update for the throughthethickness stretch. Hence. Belytschko et al. the finite rotation version of the classical shell theory (or onedirector Cosserat surface) and its modification which can account for the third rotation component [38]. (v) Shell dynamic analysis is a natural setting for many nonlinear problems. One area which is certainly yet unsettled is the research into high performance threenode shell element with finite rotations.. Several works have already dealt with this problem. most notably.. several directions appeared worthy of further explorations. [26]. [29] and Bucalem and Bathe [30]..g. however. Some attempts in that directions are the works of Bergan and Nygard [24] which relies on the corotational formulation.252 A. In this case one can no longer justify the assumption of director inextensibility. (iv) The complete mathematical analysis of convergence for different finite element spaces for nonlinear shell problem is not provided yet. but with crucial limitation being that of small elastic strains. Brank et al. and should rather take into account the change in the shell thickness. .g.g. and it is by no means trivial to furnish an extension that accounts for the effects of bending. see [1517]). although it appears that one should be able to benefit from the successful developments on the pertinent subjects such as in Park and Stanley [28]. The major obstacle to tackling that problem. where both elastic and plastic deformations can be finite. This. which appears to be sufficient to alleviate the pertinent locking phenomena in the standard update procedure.g. When combined with the proper choice of finite element interpolations such a linear shell theory leads to the excellent results in all demanding benchmark problems [12]. is to postpone the thickness update to the subsequent iteration. so that the adaptive mesh refinement can be used in a more meaningful manner. (iii) More work is needed on providing robust finite element interpolations. and references therein). Some followup works treating the dynamics for shell theories with finite rotations are given in Simo and Tanrow [35]. which is already rather finetuned and performs quite well as shown in this review. Another important goal of the mathematical analysis is to provide the error estimates for the nonlinear shell problem. which manifests itself as an additional locking phenomenon. has been accomplished only for membrane shell theory. [36].. which simplifies the implementation but increases the number of iterations. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (vi) A very useful byproduct is obtained in terms of a consistently derived linear shell theory. [20] simply add the enhanced strains in throughthethickness direction. (The benefit of the latter is briefly illustrated in this review for the linear shell problem. The higherorder finite element interpolations for finite rotation shell elements have not been much researched. see [25]. Only the simplest linear elastic constitutive model for stress resultants was considered. Buechter et al. see [19]). Some work in that direction is already initiated by Simo and Kenedy [13] and Crisfield and Peng [14] on elastoplastic stress resultant shell model.19]). which is obtained by the consistent linearization of the governing nonlinear theory at the reference configuration. (i) Generalizing the set of stress resultant constitutive equations to other than linear elastic case.) This area of research appears to be strongly related and could certainly benefit from the search for a proper definition of the nonlinear shell problem by means of the asymptotic analysis of threedimensional continuum (e. This limitation is removed in a recent work of Ibrahimbegovic [9] which considers the stress resultant constitutive model for finite deformation elastoplasticity based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. the works of Felippa and coworkers (e. there are still some weak points. [31] and Stenberg [32] for plates and Leino and Pitkaranta [33] for membrane locking of shells. (ii) Other stress resultant model which assumes the large elastic strains has been provided for rubberlike shells (e. One immediate consequence of introducing the throughthethickness stretch is the occurrence of numerical sensitivity in the limit case of thin shells. Summary of current research What has been extensively researched over last several years and presented in this review is. We note in passing that the enhanced shell kinematics which accounts for the throughthethickness stretching is especially well suited for analysis of shells made of composite materials (e. [37]. advocated by Hughes and Camoy [18]. [2123]). orBranketal. Partial results which are very useful in treating the special cases are given in Brezzi et al. multibody dynamics and snapthrough of shells.. Case in point is the oscillation of the computed shear force values clearly identified for 4node assumed shear strain interpolations in somewhat more simplified setting of plates [27]. On the other hand. One strategy. the strategy which is well suited for the limit case of thin shells although it increases the computational effort with respect to the standard update procedure.g. within the framework of nonlinear (geometrically exact) kinematics.g. and references therein) on providing enhanced finite element interpolations for a triangle and recent work of CarriveBedouaniet al. see [34]. in essence. the dynamics of finite rotation group.. Simo et al. Other recent approaches consider the possibility to include threedimensional constitutive equations and perform numerical integration through the shell thickness to provide the corresponding replacement for the stress resultants (e. 2. in current effort of trying to take these considerations a step further.
Stanley G. Linear and nonlinear theory of shells. Nonlinear finite element shell formulation accounting for large membrane strains. Damjanic FB. Pineridge Press. Developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements. 191215. Nygard MK. Carnoy E. Bathe KJ. Bathe KJ. Eur J Finite Elem 1995.40:689726.96:189200.42:409442. [7] Bathe KJ. [25] Felippa CA. Higher order MITC general shell elements. On the membrane locking of h .213:12331267. Finite rotations in dynamics of shells and Newmark implicit timestepping schemes. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995. [14] Crisfield MA. 1989. Englewood Cliffs. Tonello M. Stolarski H.118:265308. In: Finite element method for nonhnear problems. Ibrahimbegovic A. Plates and junctions in elastic multistructures: An asymptotic analysis. Schultz R.28:17871801. Mason. [3] Naghdi PM. Fox DD.). Stenberg R. Finite elastoplastic deformations of spacecurved membranes.. [11] Simo JC. Assumed strain stabilization procedure for the 9node Lagrangian shell element. Ramm E. 1985. [24] Bergan PG. Wagner W. Militello C. Wriggers P. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1993. Ramm E.12:425438. [36] Brank B. In: Analytical and computational models of shells. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997. Notes on nonhnear shell theory.72:267304.37:10531070. Khnkel S. A stable bilinear element for the ReissnerMindhn plate model. Int J Numer Eng 1998. Nonhnear shell analysis using free formulation finite elements. (Eds PG Bergan et al. [27] Lyly M.37:25272549.96:133171. preprint. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. 1972. Berlin. Peng X. Encyclopedia of Physics. On large deformation of thin elastoplastic shells: Implementation of a finite rotation model for quadrilateral shell element.35:393401. [32] Stenberg R. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989. [12] Ibrahimbegovic A.A. [38] Ibrahimbegovic A. Thin Shell Structures: Theory. Refined shear deformation models for composite laminates with finite rotations. CEDvol 3.30:26112638. [34] Ciarlet PhG. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992. Int J Solids Struct 1993. Paris. A finite rotation shell theory with application to composite structures. Threedimensional extension of nonlinear shell formulation based on the enhanced assumed strain concept. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. 15:118. Roehl D.28:385414.36:37293754. Geometrically exact shell theory for . pp. 2000. ASME Publ. Part V: Nonlinear plasticity. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. 317338. J Appl Mech 1988. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994.199:340377. [22] Braun M. Le Tallec P. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1983. [6] Ibrahimbegovic A. In: Owen DRJ et al. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997. [37] Brank B. Pitkaranta J. Bischoff M. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1989. Wong BL. Frey F. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992. [9] Ibrahimbegovic A. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994. [5] Ibrahimbegovic A.119:371394. [15] Brank B. Part VI: Conserving algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. 253 [19] Simo JC. [35] Simo JC.p finite elements in a cylindrical shell problem.38:36533673. The (symmetric) Hessian for Geometrically Nonlinear Models in Solid Mechanics: Intrinsic Definition and Geometric Interpretation. 1991. [20] Buechter N. Stress resultant geometrically nonlinear shell theory with drilling rotations — Part I: A consistent formulation. A curved C° shell element based on assumed naturalcoordinate strain. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Simo JC.37:36593683. Damjanic FB. Fox DD. Eur J Finite Elem 1995. Eng Comput 1995. Fortin M. [23] Gruttmann F. [16] Miehe C. [33] Leino Y. 1993. Finite element concepts for finite elastoplastic strains and isotropic stress response in shells: Theoretical and computational aspects.149:4971. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994. Dvorkin EN.4:633662. In: Flugge S (Ed). Nonhnear shell formulations for complete threedimensional constitutive laws including composites and laminates. A formulation of general shell element — The use of mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Vihinen T. On nonlinear implementation of energymomentum conserving algorithm for a finite rotation shell model. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999.37:25512568. pp. The theory oh shells and plates. Peric D. 20352046. Mixedinterpolated elements for ReissnerMindhn plates. Comp Mech 1994.39:6982. Kozar I. 1992. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989. (Eds AK Noor et al).34:117164. Rifai MS. [31] Brezzi F.22:697722. [17] Eberlein R. Computational aspects of vectorlike parameterization of threedimensional finite rotations. [2] Budiansky B.108:278290. Stress resultant plasticity criterion. Stress resultant geometrically nonlinear shell theory with drilling rotations — Part III: Linearized kinematics. [4] Reissner E. A theoretical and computational model for isotropic elastoplastic stress analysis in shells at large strains. Proceedings COMPLAS III. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992. [13] Simo JC. Computational aspects. [21] Ba§ar Y. [18] Hughes TJR. Part I: Formulation and optimal parameterization. Monro J. Tanrow N. 2944. [29] Belytschko T.4:597632. [10] Ibrahimbegovic A. (Eds). NJ: PrenticeHall. SpringerVerlag. Kenedy JG. Ding Y. pp. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998. Experiment and Design. A new energy and momentum conserving algorithm for the nonlinear dynamics of shells. [8] Ibrahimbegovic A. Mamouri S. [30] Bucalem ML. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. In: Fung YC. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. Berlin: Springer. formulation and integration algorithms. [28] Park KC. 1974. Sechler EE (Eds). pp. On assumed shear strain in finite rotation shell analysis. J Appl Mech 1968. On the choice of finite rotation parameters. Finite element approximation of a geometrically exact shell model. Frey F. [26] CarriveBedouani M. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part IT. submitted. Briseghella L. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model.110:343357. A new finite element formulation for the plate bending problem.
6:263335. [41] Sansour C. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Large strain deformations of elastic shells: Con . Rifai MS. Rifai MS. Stress Resultant Geometrically Exact Form of Classical Shell Model and VectorLike Parameterization of Constrained Finite Rotations. in press.35:18291847. Part IV: Variable thickness shells with throughthethickness stretching. A consistent corotational formulation for shells: Using the constant stress/constant moment triangle. Crisfield MA. Eur J Finite Elem 1997. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stitutive modelling and finite element analysis. Fox DD. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992. Int J Numer Methods Eng. [43] Simo JC. 2001. Fox DD. [39] Ibrahimbegovic A. Brank B. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990. Courtois P. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part III: The computational aspects of the nonlinear theory. [40] Peng X. finite rotations and its finite element implementation.254 A.79:2170.81:91126.161:118. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990. [42] Simo JC.
N is the vertical force acting on the bearing.8]. Email: tingham@tylin. 1.255 Modeling of friction pendulum bearings for the seismic analysis of bridges Tim J. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. They are particularly well suited to bridge applications because they are insensitive to temperature over the range 40°F to 120°F [2]. A friction pendulum bearing isolates a structure from an earthquake through pendulum motion and absorbs earthquake energy through friction. During an earthquake the slider moves back and forth on the concave dish. Washington. Code modeling The lateral response of a friction pendulum bearing can be described by the forcedeformation relationship F = —D + R fiNisgnD) (1) where F is the lateral force. the spherical surfaces of the slider and the dish define a motion similar to that of a pendulum. Seismic analysis. R is the radius of curvature of the bearing A r t i c u l a t e d Slider Deformation Concave Dish ^Conposite Liner Fig. Ingham * Associate T. Bridges 1. using bilinear hysteresis loops. USA Abstract The modeling of friction pendulum bearings using contact surf'aces is compared with the modeling recommended by codes and design guidelines. CA 94111. The advantages of the contact surface model for the seismic analysis of bridges are discussed. Bathe (Editor) . The model is illustrated by the analysis of the Aurora Avenue Bridge in Seattle. 2. 825 Battery Street. Introduction Friction pendulums bearings [5] are intended for the seismic isolation of structures.: +1 (415) 2913781. Lin International. All rights reserved. They have been installed for this purpose in several buildings and they have recently been installed in two bridges [3. The bearing consists of a stainlesssteel concave dish and a stainlesssteel articulated slider surfaced with a composite liner. The composite liner produces a frictional force that is 57% of the vertical force acting on the bearing. Fig. Keywords: Friction pendulum bearings. *Tel. 1 is a schematic drawing of a friction pendulum bearing. Friction pendulum bearing and idealized bilinear hysteresis loop. Fax: +1 (415) 4330807.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.Y. San Francisco.J.
2. The lateral force is then W F = — D + M^(sgnD). For practical reasons. The study assumed replacing each of the twelve pin bearings supporting the bridge with a friction pendulum bearing. Finite element modeling Fig. The first term in Eq. The total response of the building can then be adequately predicted by 'summing over' Eq. Most codes and design guidelines [5. who developed a model with a flat contact surface and restoring springs. this point exists on a contact segment (surface) that lies on one face of a solid finite element. Assuming that the vertical motions are uncorrelated with the horizontal motions. /x is the coefficient of friction. (1) represents the restoring force due to the curvature of the bearing.Contact ajrface fh Fig. of a rigid body on a flat surface.J. the second term represents the frictional force opposing the relative motion of the bearing. because the bearings in a large bridge act independently — it is often necessary to compute the forces in the critical connections of each bearing — and because bridges respond dynamically to vertical motions. Eq. This relationship is equivalent to the bilinear hysteresis loop shown in Fig. Exclusive of its approaches. The model builds upon the work of Mutobe and Cooper [4]. (1). and that the building is vertically rigid. For example. (2) ignores the variation with time of the vertical force acting on the bearing. near active faults. the restoring force acts towards the center of the bearing and the frictional force acts according to Coulomb's law of friction. Washington. These simplifications may not be justified for large bridge structures. the effects of overturning tend to cancel since the lateral force induced in each bearing is proportional to the vertical force acting on it. 3 shows the computed response of a slider on a flat surface with 5% friction subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions representative of a stiff soil site. and interconnected by a horizontal diaphragm. they may be . The dish is modeled with a spherical mesh of contact segments that together constitute a contact surface. The opposing contact surfaces are defined as a contact pair with a coefficient of friction equal to that specified for the bearing. Fig. this cantilever steel truss bridge is 1875 feet long and has a main span of 800 feet. The bearing shown has a radius of 3. The correctness of the modeling was verified by analyzing some special cases. The contact segments may be formed on the surface of shell elements. The simplification of Eq. a typical bearing is shown in Fig. In buildings supported on many bearings. For the Washington State Department of Transportation a study was made of the effectiveness of retrofitting the bridge with friction pendulum bearings. Each of these was modeled using the contact surface model described in this paper. 2 shows a model of a friction pendulum bearing based on contact surfaces with friction. the analysis may be performed with upper and lower bounds [6] N = W(1±0. Both the restoring force and the frictional force are proportional to the instantaneous vertical force acting on the model. or in ADINA. 4. Furthermore the modeling properly reflects the twodimensional behavior of the bearing. however. 4. the period of vibration of a frictionless slider was found to depend on the radius of curvature of the bearing in the same way that the period of vibration of a pendulum depends on its length. 3. Also.Contact Surface aiderContact Fbint surfaces. The slider is effectively modeled with a single contact point.6] recommend that the vertical force acting on the bearing be taken as the structural dead load supported by the bearing. (1) is for motion in a single direction.256 T. can also be analyzed using the sliding block method of Newmark [7]. Ingham/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics aider. The two solutions agree reasonably well. (2) R the sum of a term proportional to the displacement — a stiffness term — and a force constant in magnitude but dependent on the direction of motion. The response computed by the Newmark method (using Mathcad) is also shown in Fig. defined as a rigid surface without any underlying finite element mesh. Application to bridge analysis Fig. where C is a seismic coefficient (sometimes. This case. For bidirectional motion. (1) to Eq. The concrete substructure of the bridge is very lightly reinforced and vulnerable to large earthquakes. (2). It was designed and built between 1929 and 1931.30C) (3) Ce . This modeling faithfully reproduces the forcedeformation relationship given in Eq. W. Contact surface model of a friction pendulum bearing. and D is the velocity of the top half of the bearing relative to the bottom half. D is the lateral deformation. This variation arises from overturning of the structure and from response of the structure to vertical ground motion. 4 shows an ADINA model of the Aurora Avenue Bridge across Lake Union in Seattle. the assumption that the vertical and horizontal motions are uncorrelated may be incorrect. vertical motions are just ignored). 1. The modeling was implemented using the ADINA [1] generalpurpose finite element program.
T. The model has 5 contact segments in the radial direction and 36 segments around its circumference. 400 •Bilinear Model 600 Deformation. The contact surface model predicts a peak force of 592 kips whereas the bilinear model predicts only 424 kips. The results for the contact surface model deviate significantly from the idealized hysteresis loops produced by the bilinear model. Transverse direction bearing response for the Aurora Avenue Bridge. For comparison each bearing was also modeled using the bilinear hysteresis loop recommended by codes. Fig.80 feet predicted .0 H ADINA 257 Time. 4. ft Contact Surface Model Fig.97 feet versus 0. curvature of 20 feet and a coefficient of friction of 5%. 5 for both the contact surface model and the bilinear model. 3.5 n 1. Analysis of a rigid body sliding on a flat surface.J. ADINA model of the Aurora Avenue Bridge. The transverse direction forcedeformation hysteresis loops for one of the main span bearings are shown in Fig. s Fig. The peak radial displacement predicted by the contact surface model is 0. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1. 5.
J. [5] Naeim F. Vancouver. 1999. . [4] Mutobe RM. Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments. 8th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Geotechnique 1965. 1997. Design of Seismic Isolated Structures.. 1999. this model is significantly more accurate than the modeling recommended by codes and design guidelines. Seismic isolation for extreme low temperatures.5 h for the contact surface model. ADINA R&D Inc. Building Seismic Safety Council.14(2):139160. This variation is fully accounted for by the contact surface model. [8] Zayas VA. 1998. For 2000 time steps. Low SS. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Cooper TR. 5. however. 1999. Kelly JM. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Nonlinear analysis of a large bridge with isolation bearings. Highway Innovative Technology Evaluation Center. For a reasonable increase in computational effort.72:279292. Inc.4 h for the bilinear model to 19. the bilinear model usually predicted both smaller forces and smaller displacements than did the contact surface model. the analysis time increased from 10. Comput Struct 1999. [3] Imbsen RA. but ignored by the bilinear model. Friction Pendulum Bearings. Conclusions A contact surface model of friction pendulum bearings has been developed for the seismic analysis of bridges. 1998. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. Seismic modeUng and analysis of the BeniciaMartinez Bridge. Considering all of the bearings in the structure. by the bilinear model. This varies between 3580 and 8620 kips from an initial dead load of 5700 kips. these differences reflect the large variation in axial force acting on the bearing throughout the earthquake. [2] Evaluation Findings for Earthquake Protection Systems. [6] NEHRP Commentary on the Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.258 T. [7] Newmark NM. In: Structural Engineering World Wide. The improved performance of the contact surface model is at some cost. In part.
: +39 (6) 44585304.259 MITC finite elements for adaptive laminated composite shells Riccardo lozzi. 2. Chandrshastra and Agarwal [5]. but also the thermoelastic effect was proposed by Tauchert [2].it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Firstorder shear deformable active plate theories were also proposed and implemented in a finite element model by Han and Lee [3].J. Tel. An analysis based on a CLT theory that included not only the piezoelectric. The procedure is based on a different interpolation of the transverse shear strains with respect to the one used for inplane components. since the studies by Crawley and Lazarus [1]. Bathe (Editor) suffer from the socalled shearlocking problem that should be overcome either by means of a reduced integration or by a mixed interpolation approach as illustrated by Bathe in his textbook [7]. has been recently proposed for developing actuation and sensing capability of structural systems. The MITC fournode element has been selected for the preliminary investigation. Keywords: Composite shell. represents an extension of the MITC4 shell element proposed by Bathe and Dvorkin [8]. in which the classical laminated plate model is extended to include the actuation mechanism produced by active piezoelectric layers. In fact. to the knowledge of the authors. a sound theoretical and numerical basis. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Fax: +39 (6) 44585670. like piezoceramics or shape memory alloys. Introduction The use of active materials. and. The finite element equilibrium equations are derived by first considering the expression of . therefore. but only the last one explicitly mentions the need for a proper integration of the stiffness matrix. Several models have been proposed in the recent literature for the analysis of active laminated plates and shells. to include the presence of active layers. Italy Abstract The formulation of the MITC shell element is extended to active laminated shells. Via Eudossiana 16. Finite element method 1. Dipartimento Aerospaziale. An active layer — made by a piezoelectric material or a similar active medium — is assumed to be included in the stacking sequence of a laminated shell. Piezoelectric material. Email: paolo. 00184 Rome. Paolo Gaudenzi * Universita degli studi di Roma La Sapienza. In this way. The actuation capability of the layer is represented by a given inplane strain field that can be thought of as being produced by the converse piezoelectric effect or other induced strain actuation mechanism. In fact. capable of modeling the transverse shear deformation without the occurrence of the shear locking problem. Several comparisons have been performed to verify the accuracy of the formulation and to check the predicting capability of the element in comparison with both numerical and experimental results of the recent available literature. it is well known that firstorder shear deformable shell theories * Corresponding author. The paper aims at generalizing the finite element modeling produced by Bathe and Dvorkin [8] in their MITC plate and shell models. In this way. In those cases. 1). displacement based approaches were used by the different authors. the actuation mechanism is included in the formulation of shear deformable shell element that has been demonstrated not to suffer of shear locking effects.gaudenzi@uniromal. laminated shells have been selected as a possible candidate typology of structural systems for including such materials at the level of one or more layers of their stacking sequence. Saravanos [4]. the same notation as in those references will be used. only Kirchhoff plate models or displacementbased Mindhn plate models (with shear locking problems) were proposed for active shells in the recent literature. and by Suleman and Venkayya [6]. as previously cited. will be made available for a class of advanced structural elements. In this framework. Finite element formulation The formulation of the fournode active shell element presented here (Fig. All rights reserved.
"d and "a^"*^ are the matrix fiW'fP''dV./ / . (1) the 'piezoelectric equivalent stress'. y{m) Am) Nrr.•/'<' +r .>^fB"> dv + /• H'''"'''fT AS. and n is the index spanning the number of layers A^^. 2. dVW (4) The linear electromechanic coupling law. RTT.^r "^^ TT . Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics C^^^.) ^ /. Definition of the fournode shell element and of the active laminated shell.^^ where K is the stiffness matrix. respectively.. to achieve the expression of the fourthorder contravariant constitutive tensor "C'^^^""* in convected coordinates Vi starting from the known constitutive law in the local Cartesian system of orthonormal base vector e. are known in the local Cartesian system of orthonormal base vector C/. the piezoelectric and the thermoelastic constants of layer n: E ={0 0 0 E]. (5) (6) ..260 R.^(. The appropriate constitutive law must then be used: . The elemental expressions for those quantities are: nc'^^gim) dV. accounting for thermoelastic effects: (9) 5E/( . the total potential energy: (1) where m is an index spanning the total number of elements in which the structure has been subdivided. 0 0 "32 ^r = 0 _ "31 .^(m)T ^ 0 0 "33 0 0 0 0 0 "t d^f 0 0 0 (2) Wr "2 "af^ 0 o (7) where. ^_„^(™). lozzi. of the entire system. (10) . • 1 T • X 1 cu 11 throughthethickness Hybnd Laminated Shell Applied Electric Field Displacements Fig. and the 'thermoelastic equivalent stress'. as well as the thermoelastic one. we finally obtain the finite element equilibrium equation. / = 1.e")(Ve:) (8) Invoking the stationarity of the total potential energy U. A T = r — To is the temperature variation from the reference temperature TQ.)^y. R is the mechanical force vector (due to applied forces) Rj is the 'thermoelastic equivalent force vector' (due to thermal actions) and Rp is the 'piezoelectric equivalent force vector' (due to applied voltages).^ij(m) '"" n P^ijkl^ ~(m) containing.^(. in matrix form: KU RTRV = R (3) The induced strains have been represented introducing into Eq. the following transformation is used: Both the piezoelectric and thermoelastic equivalent stresses are obtained using the following transformation: ^^/'^^«f/(Og^. 2.n. composing the laminated shell at element m.)^ n^^^_n^^. accounting for the presence of some active piezoelectric layers in the laminated shell. where some piezoelectric layers have been included to obtain actuation capability.J I<m)'H=<" where E is the electric field applied in the thickness direction. / = 1. 1. 3. 3: Rm ^ I fj(n. P.
.' " ^^:tr"^.9 Fig.1992] T ^ r.=0. 2.7 0. . „x10'* [0/90/90/0/p] Present FEM [0/90/p/90/0] Present FEM [p/0/90/90/0] Present FEM [0/90/90/0/p] Sarav. .1 0. FEM Case 1: [0/90m/0/p] Fig.292 A— 0. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 261 i 4 5 4 1 ^ 1 0./ ^" 2 D .04 Present FEM o Experiment [Crawley. Comparison of the present analysis to the experimental measurements and to previous FEM.3 0.5 0. P.a' Q"^ 0.6 0. ^ ^_ p . Comparison of the present FE analysis to the Saravanos' solution and deformed configuration for the first case analyzed [0/90/90/0/p]. ' .2 0. .4 0.0083m0.R. lozzi. 3.' ' • 1 .05 0. 1991] FEM[HaetaI.8 0.0025m fit X10* a D /' a /  .' • ' .04S Piezoceramics A D X o II X 0.
(2) [0/90//?/90/0]. J Therm Stresses 1992. lateral twisting and transverse bending: Wi = M2/C. graphiteepoxy.01797. The mechanical properties used for the materials involved are those reported in the work mentioned.35(8):13271333.29(6):944951. symmetric. are nondimensional quantities representing. Agarwal AN. consists of a graphite/epoxy (ASA/3501) cantilevered plate on whose surfaces thirty G1195N piezoceramics are symmetrically bonded.Mi)/C. Gaudenzi / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Results for laminated. 2 shows a fairly good agreement between the present FEM results and those presented in previous works.[ M 2 . "^ " and "f^""' are the arrays containing the f *" components of the thermoelastic and piezoelectric equivaB(m) lent stresses f'^ for the layer n.PF34 and of the MURST cofin. as shown in Fig.00100 0.8:249259. 3.1.00257 0. H^""^ is the displacement interpolation matrix.00258 0. trying to eliminate thermally induced deformation through the addition of a PVDF layer to the original laminate. subjected to a linear temperature variation with 80 and 0°C temperature increases on the upper and lower surfaces respectively. crossply square panel ([079070790°]s) and to a ninelayer hybrid laminate with an additional PVDF layer located at the bottom surface ([(079070790°)s//7]). where p indicates the piezoelectric layer. References [1] Crawley EF. (3) [/7/O/9O/9O/O]. Wi. 3. Saravanos [0/90]^ cylindrical panel Saravanos studied the response of a hybrid graphite/ epoxy simply supported 90° cylindrical panel with a continuous piezoelectric layer (PZT4) subjected to a uniform electric field.0000860 [GE:079070790°]s [GE:079070790°]s/[PVDF:0°] [GE:079070790°]s/[PVDF:0°] 0 3 X 10^ where B^^^ is the straindisplacement matrix obtained from the MITC formulation. AIAA J 1991. y = 0 and y = —C/2. Active damping enhancement of composite plates with electrode designed piezoelectric materials. lozzi. The comparison between the current FE analysis and those by Saravanos. AIAA J 1997. [4] Saravanos DA.00008 Present FEM (mesh: 32 x 32) 0. Lazarus KB. W2 = (M3 . Three stacking sequences have been considered corresponding to a different thickness location of the piezoelectric actuator: (1) [0/90/90/0//?]. [5] Chandrashekhara K. Mx. reported in Fig. [3] Han JH.15:2537. 2.( M 3 . rectangular plate. Both the geometrical and the mechanical properties of each layer are supplied in [2].262 R.00101 0. shows the good prediction capability of the FEM presented here. simply supported. (11) Fig. P. Numerical results 3. respectively. Attention is given to an eightlayer.7109 are gratefully acknowledged. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 1997. applied in the thickness direction. [2] Tauchert TR. simply supported Tauchert's square plate Configuration Electric field (V/m) Center deflection Extended CLT (Tauchert) 0.h M i ) / 2 ] . longitudinal bending.99 cap. Active vibration control of laminated composite plates using piezoelectric devices: . The geometry and the mechanical properties of the materials used are the same mentioned by Saravanos [4]. W2 and WT. E3 = —400 kV/m. 3. in the analysis of adaptive laminated composite shells. Induced strain actuation of isotropic and anisotropic plates. Acknowledgements The financial support of the CNR PFMSTAII Project 99. f and / / are the volume and surface force vectors externally applied. respectively. 3. The transverse displacement at the center point of the plate is reported in Table 1 where the extended CLT solution by Tauchert is compared to the results provided by the current FE analysis. M2 and M3 are the outofplane displacements measured at y = C/2.3.2. Piezothermoelastic behaviour of a laminated plate. H^3 = . Lee I. Mixed laminate theory and finite element for smart piezoelectric composite shell structures. Dimitris A. Crawley and Lazarus cantilever plate The specimen used by Crawley and Lazarus [1] in their experiments. Tauchert piezothermoelastic composite plate Tauchert [2] investigated the piezothermoelastic response of a laminated.
6:776782. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 1995. P.4:496507. [8] Bathe KJ. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. A simple finite element formulation for a laminated composite plate with piezoelectric layers. J Intell Mater System Struct 1993. Dvorkin EN. . Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a finite element approach. lozzi. Englewood Cliffs. [6] Suleman A. A formulation of general shell dements — the use of mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Finite Element Procedure. NJ: PrenticeHall.22:697722.R. 1996. 263 [7] Bathe KJ. Venkayya VB.
and Okano and Koishi [7]. earlier hydroplaning simulation attempts utilized a simpli* Corresponding author. Nowadays. First we perform FEM analysis to obtain a realistic tire contact patch. Glass pit. we have compared the ranking based on the computed indicator. This assurance stems from the available tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finiteelement modeUng (FEM). Grogger and Weiss [4. All rights reserved. Tire designers seek a tread pattern that allows maximum drainage capabilities and deep tread for efficient fluid expulsion to decrease the potential of a progressive hydrostatic pressure build up. Bathe (Editor) fled scheme of the governing physical equations. 2. namely the drag force and the measurements of the loss of tire contact area obtained at Michelin glass pit. The second aspect is the focus of this article by computing the fluid drag force and comparing it to glass pit experimental measurements.. The complexity of tire shape precluded an analytical solution and merged hydroplaning studies into the computation fluid dynamic field as presented in the work by Brown and Whicker [2]. the available horizontal traction force is dramatically reduced.264 Tire tread pattern analysis for ultimate performance of hydroplaning Isam Janajreh ^'*. Tel. France Abstract A brief introduction on the literature in hydroplaning modeling is presented. These conditions hinder the steering and braking capabilities of the driver. Drag force 1.janajreh@us. and we have observed the magnitude of the drag force. . Review of tlie state of the art in hydroplaning Due to the lack of the essential computational resources. elementary and analytical. Thus. We have conducted an external flow study over two sets of tread patterns. They have used the concept of the boundary layer solution in matching the flow in two regions. In this paper. Center de Technologies. The former governs the thick inviscid region denoted as hydroplaning region and the latter governs the thin viscous region denoted as viscoplaning. Daughaday and Tung [1] were amongst the first to conduct analytical treatment of tire hydroplaning. and second we perform CFD on the contact patch and tread patterns.J. Ladoux 63040 ClermontFerrand Cedex 9. Vincent Estenne ^ " Michelin North America R&D Corp. in this paper we utilize the above two simulation tools.: +1 (864) 4224336. Keywords: Hydroplaning. Email: isam. [6].com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The loss of traction is due to an intervening fluid film characterized by high hydrostatic pressure. Local sculptural analysis. Ali Rezgui ^. Fax: +1 (864) 4223508.michelin. namely the inviscid and the viscous regions. Under these conditions the vehicle is said to be experiencing hydroplaning. The solutions of the two equations are then matched at the interface by satisfying the same pressure and velocity components. Greenville SC 29602. we present local sculptural analysis of the tire footprint by computing the tread pattern drag force and comparing the ranking with the glass pit results. which separates part of the tire contact patch from the road surface asperities. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.5]. Introduction At certain wet driving conditions over a road with a given surface texture and with a particular tire tread pattern made of a specific rubber compound. Then. The correlation was found to be in good agreement. USA ^ Michelin France. Sata et al. ranking tires can be targeted with minimum tread design and architectural modifications. Aksenov [3]. They started from the NavierStokes equations and used a perturbation technique that reduced the governing equations to the Euler equation and the Reynolds equation.
During the experiments a free rolling vehicle tire passes over the glass pit prism that is flooded with a fixed water film. This allows the use of a high CFL number essential for steady or slowly unsteady flows. This loss of contact is attributed to a poor fluid expulsion. Results and discussions 5. . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. 1 and 2 where the drag force is inversely proportional to the number of grooves and it follows the expected magnitude V 30: n y T 25: 20: 15: W io: Fig. A BaldwinLomax turbulence model was utilized since it produces a similar result to the classical KE within the grooves during initial testing and because it provides a shorter computation time. The utilized CFD code The code used for our simulation is Euranus of Numeca Inc.7. There has been a good ranking correlation between the glass pit tire hydroplaning and wet skid tire testing that have been verified by tire industry [8]. It is a structured finite volume code based on the Jameson scheme. The upstream flow velocity is 10. We compute the velocity field and the drag forces of three elementary tread patterns including a slick tire. This scheme was initially constructed to handle compressible aerodynamics problems and has been later adapted using preconditioning to handle slightly compressible flows with a very small Mach number. This consequently results in a higher tire drag force. The addition of grooves should delay the onset of hydroplaning and thus should reduce the drag force. Therefore a higher drag level leads to an earlier hydroplaning situation.000 cells and the time step is controlled by a Courant number of 1. Elementary tread patterns Our hypothesis is classical where we utilize the drag force as the indicator of the tread pattern quality in evacuating the encountered fluid. 15 and 25 m/s. These areas are normalized and ranked accordingly amongst each other or against a targeted reference tire. and tires with 3 and 5 longitudinal grooves. one upstream inflow. 265 4. The code uses structured mutiblocks with a bodyfitted mesh (to handle the meshing of complex geometry) and uses a multigrid to speed up the conversions. y along the stream and z perpendicular to the flow stream) built around the tire contact patch that is slightly nonsymmetrical and is calculated by inhouse FEM code. {x in the crossstream. Flow and experimental setup The computation domain consists of a parallelepiped.000 to 68. for the elementary slick (left) and 5grooved (right) tire. The Reynolds number is about 10^ based on the groove depth (10 mm) which indicates a turbulent flow regime. magnitude v 40 f The experimental measurement is conducted at the MicheHn glass pit. The glass pit is a hydroplaning performance measuring tool that evaluates the reduction of tire contact patch with respect to vehicle speed. 5. The domain is set up as follow: two mirror faces (one is the ground and the second is the base of tire treads)./. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s. and three outflows (two at the sides and one at the downstream). 1.5. The Jameson scheme is explicit. The results agree well with our intuition as shown in Figs. The constructed tread pattern meshes have 50. Janajreh et al. The prism is equipped with a highspeed shutter camera underneath that snaps the image of the passing tire contact patch. but it became implicit if we add the residual smoothing of Lerat. The image is postprocessed and the remaining tire contact area is computed. This is due to the intrusion of the water film underneath the tire contact that separates part of the initial contact from the ground.
1 which are confirmed by the glass pit. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 600 500 5. It is worth mentioning that the sol. 2 (right) of analytical tires. for sol. In this work we have conducted drag force sensitivity analysis over elementary sculptures and have observed that the addition of the grooves results magnitude V Fig. The objective is to determine whether solution 1 or 2 will perform better in hydroplaning. Due to the symmetry between the ground and the tread. 2. Fig. The computed drag force over sol. A summary of the magnitude of the drag force and glass pit ranking are given in Table 1. 15 and 25 m/s with their parabolic fit. 2 over sol. 2 sculptures where both have the same void ration of 39%. 3 depicts the flow field on two analytical solutions denoted as sol.266 /.2. except that the analysis are conducted at one speed of 25 m/s. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s. In the first example. 3. 2 will exhibit a better hydroplaning performance than try. 400 1 300 2 200 o a» 100 0 18 Velocity (mfe) Fig. Analytical tread patterns (longitudinal and lateral grooves) Two set of examples are presented where the flow configurations are similar to the elementary tread patterns discussed above. In the second example. 1. Janajreh et al. 6. . 1. 1 and try. 1 and sol. 4 depicts the computation of the flow field and gives the drag force of try. parabolic trend versus the velocity. Fig. The glass pit measurements confirm the drag force ranking since it produces 36% improvement magnitude V of sol. 1 (659 N) is higher than the computed drag force of sol. Drag force evolution with the additions of tire grooves at 10. 1 (left) and sol. 5. and the increase of the void ratio is a classical trend of tire designers in attempting to improve the hydroplaning tire performance. The computations of the drag force suggest that try. Conclusion The emergence of CFD in analysis of tire hydroplaning has become more evident. 2 is a better candidate than sol. 2 (553 N) which suggests that sol. We observe the presence of two pronounced vortices in the front of the slick tread pattern that collapse with the addition of grooves. 1 sculpture has a void ratio of 36% while the sol. 2. 2 sculpture has a void ratio of 39%. we have observed insignificant pressure variation in the z direction that suggests a 2D computation can be sufficient.
and design. [6] Sata et al.l Sol. [5] Grogger. 1974. 1 (left) and try. Calculation of the 3D free surface flow around automobile tire. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s. Whicker D. Tire Sci Technol 1996. 1 versus try./. 130150. Jan. Tung. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. Tire hydroplaning: testing. 4. AG2495Sl. In this work we have shown that the ranking of the sculptures based on the computed drag force and the experimental measured contact area are in agreement for sculptures with a set of sculptures having different void ratio and another set with that have the same void ratio. Technical Report. Tire Sci Technol 1997. Weiss. A new computation procedures to predict transient hydroplaning performance of a tire. in press. New York: Plenum Press. pp. pp. C. analysis. Janajreh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics magnitude V 30: 267 Fig. FEM/FVM. friction interaction of tire and pavement. sol. Table 1 Analytical sculptures drag force and glass pit comparison summary. [7] Okano T.24(JanMar). [2] Brown. (%) Sol.l Try.2 Try. In: Heys Browne (Ed). Hydroplaning analysis by FEM and FVM: effect of tire rolling and tire pattern on hydroplaning. 1969. Numerical Simulation of Car Tire Aquaplaning. 2557.2 (36) (39) (39) (39) (%) 100 116 100 106 in the reduction of the drag force and consequently an improvement in the hydroplaning performance. Tire Sci Technol. A mathematical analysis of hydroplaning phenomena. No. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Tire Sci Technol. 27 (JanMar). 1 versus sol. 2 and try. Weiss. . for try. Theory and Experiment. 2 (right) of analytical tires. Hydroplaning of automobile tire. 1996 [4] Grogger. Two examples w^ere conducted over four analytical sculptures that suggest implementation of the drag force as a criteria to rank a set of sculptures for their hydroplaning performance. Meyer/Walter. 2 Tire 195/65/R15 Void ratio Computed drag force (N) 659 553 496 464 Computed drag force Measured glass pit area loss index (%) 100 136 100 104 References [1] Daughaday H. Koishi M. An interactive tirefluid model for dynamic hydroplaning. The Physics of Tire Traction. [8] Yeager RW. [3] Aksenov A. CFD 96. Cal. in press. ASTM Special Technical PubHcation 793.
the focus is on the scalability analysis conducted via an integrated unified technology for [GInO] with emphasis on the family of optimal nondissipative and dissipative algorithms for structural dynamics in conjunction with large deformation. Whilst the RISC paradigm has a critical impact on the scientific code design and development time and efforts. 125. USA Abstract vspace3ptA general framework and avenues towards the design of a unified integrated computational technology for nonlinear structural dynamics encompassing a wide variety of new and unexplored. reference to the research efforts are not made to the differences between programming languages. Numerical scalability. Computing platforms could be a single processor. the design of computational algorithms accounting for timedependent phenomena plays a . Keywords: Nonhnear structural dynamics. MN 55455.K. The concern is more about the impact of a given parallel hardware architecture on the software design. RISC. For geometric nonlinearity a total Lagrangian formulation. K. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Tel. optimization is performed by restructuring of the code to take advantage of the memory hierarchy and compiler technology and the like. elastic.: Hi (612) 6268102. For scientific computations encompassing transient/dynamic analysis encountered in engineering. Introduction It is being recognized that the pressing need for improved solution times and feasibility to conduct largescale practical analysis accurately for nonlinear structural dynamics on modem computing platforms as the general goal. To handle such a wide variety of situations. the efforts which are both time and development intensive. graph partitioning techniques.edu © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Email: ktamma@tc. mathematical and physical sciences. In the singleprocessor situation. University of Minnesota. Bathe (Editor) eration. Hence. In parallel computing realm. Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition. and Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition methods. nor to differences between the multitudes of parallel extensions to specific programming languages.umn.E. Here.J. many of today's attempts to speed up solution and computational procedures center on optimization of codes for specific computing platforms. will constantly follow the development of new computer hardware having extremely short life cycles both in the serial and parallel computing realms. While these methods do indeed produce significant results in reducing the solution time. Time integration. This is the first time that such a general framework and capability is plausible via a unified technology and the developments further enhance computational structural dynamics areas. a general framework and design encompassing the Reduced Instruction Set Code (RISC) based paradigm is described both for serial and parallel computations. 111 Church Street S. on the solution algorithm itself. Kanapady. and for material nonlinearity elastoplastic formulations are employed. highperformance computers or parallel computers. A unified scalable computational approach towards such a computational technology is desirable for largescale structures and large processor counts employing a messagepassing paradigm (using MPI).268 Design and framework of reduced instruction set codes for scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics R. Tamma * Department of Mechanical Engineering. Here. Minneapolis. and existing time integration operators is now possible employing the socalled Reduced Instruction Set Codes (RISC) via a unified family of generahzed integration operators [GInO] towards scalable computations on massively parallel computing platforms. and sometimes. Fax: +1 (612) 6241398. All rights reserved. Parallel computing. elasticplastic dynamic response. it simultaneously increases the functionality of the scientific codes by many folds by providing a variety of choices to the analyst. restructuring the code is done to take advantage of inherent parallelism in the formulation and the parallel architecture under consid* Corresponding author. MPI 1.
A4 = 1. A2 = 1/2. Then. computational heat transfer applications. Of the various transient algorithms available in the literature for structural dynamics computations. design and implementation of a wide variety of computational structural dynamics algorithms is described in [1] for linear and in [2] for nonlinear situations.R.iin) At^ F =(lWi)f„hWiUi .poo)/(l + Poo). multibody dynamics and the like.2.W3 =0 GInO Optimal energy preserving: Ai = 1. Scalable computations The next generation parallel computers will consist of thousands (computers having processor counts greater than 10. the associated Discrete Numerically Assigned [DNA] algorithmic markers which comprise of both the weighted time fields w{x) and the imposed conditions on the dependent field variable approximations. such features now permit Reduced Instruction Set Codes to incorporate a unified computational technology with a wide variety of choices of new and existing algorithms to the analysts in conjunction with graph partitioning techniques and domain decomposition methods.K. A3 = 1/4. Recently emanating under the umbrella and explained via a generalized timeweighted philosophy. computational fluid dynamics. VI] and only restricted to firstorder accuracy of load) and which also possess minimal dissipation and dispersion for any given Poo value. and possess only zeroorder displacement and velocity overshooting behavior [UO.2]. uniquely lead to the design and characterization of various time discretized operators via: (i) specially assigned marker coefficients for the weighted time fields. and (ii) the corresponding imposed conditions upon the dependent field variable approximations in the semidiscretized system. Tamma/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 269 critical role in a variety of applications. In this research. are indeed an integral part of the present framework. A5 = 1/2. Summarizing. A4 = (3 . Ai = 1. characterization. For the first time. attention is focused towards scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A3 = 2/(1 + Poo)'. Scientific largescale simulations accounting for timedependent phenomena of many industry and DoD relevant applications are encountered in process modeling and manufacturing studies. . via a unified methodology.w\ — — 5 . Kanapady. 1 Wi = At' r ^ 3 . The specific DNA markers (if/. (1) 3.U„) At (2) As such. A4 = l. Ai = \. . Attention is restricted here to computational structural dynamics. At] be the weighted time field approximation employed for enacting the time discretization process of the semidiscretized equations of motion. Let W{T) =Z WQ\.ii„) (5) 2.P o o ) / ( l + A3 = 1/(1 + P o o ) ' ..X2 = 1/2. Poof. r e [0. the socalled direct time integration techniques continue to be popular in commercial codes. A5 = 1/(1 + Poo). A5 = (3 .u„+i) = F where u„+i = u„ + AeWi (Un+i .P o o ) / ( l + Poo). are given as Weighted time field: Wo = \. A4 = 1.U„) u„+i =\Xn+ X^yinAt + XsAt (ii„+i . Computational algorithms Most of the traditional approaches we are familiar with. Computational algorithms and solution techniques for structural dynamics systems of equations have indeed matured over the years.iin) Un Un =Un + A4WiUnAt + A5W2 (U„+i . a formal theory of development/ evolution. .lUn A^ + ^2Un Af^ + X^At'^ (Un+i . respectively. including new computational algorithms which inherit excellent algorithmic attributes in contrast to all existing approaches and which have not been explored and/or exploited todate. where Poo is the spectral radius of the time integration method described as CO At ^ OQ.000) of highperformance processors connected via a =Un\AiWiUnAthA2W2UnAt^ {A3W3 (Un+l .wiT + W2T^ + wsz^. I = 1. A3 = 1/4. computational structural dynamics. for simplicity the socalled generalized integration operator [GInO] for nonlinear dynamic situations can be stated as follows [1. A2 = 2/(1 + Poo)'. W2 = 5. A6 = 1.3 (3) W3.Xs = 1/2 GInO Optimal dissipative methods: Ai = 2/(1 + Poo).2]. X2 = 1/(1 + Poo). .o Wr (4) with the following design updates Un+l =Vin+ >. VO] (in contrast to all other existing dissipative schemes which are at a minimum [UO. Xt) for the [GInO] optimal energy preserving and the family of optimal dissipative algorithms [3] for structural dynamics which are secondorder accurate and unconditionally stable. the resulting family of generalized integration operators [GInO] for nonlinear situations are given by Mu„+i +p(u„+i. The remainder of the [DNA] markers contained in [GInO] for most of the practical and socalled time integration methods are described in [1. K. . A. Ae = 2(2 .
which exploit the new parallel computer architecture. the results pertaining to serial computations. Next. The unique features of the overall framework includes: a unified family of generalized time integration operators [GInO] described previously which encompass both the traditionally advocated explicit and implicit time integration (dissipative and nondissipative) schemes. domain decomposition is employed using MPIbased ParMetis [4]. Note that Tables 13 show the total number of iterations of the PCG algorithm pertaining to the subdomain 'interface' problem to converge for the 'fixedworkperprocessor'. Fig. the calculated predictions of the isoparametric degenerated shell element formulation are compared with experimental results obtained from a cylindrical panel subjected blast load. problem size. with modest to no convergence degradation of numerical algorithms for arbitrary large problem size and processor counts. K. One such robust unified framework for the predictor multicorrector incremental [GInO] representations for nonlinear dynamics has been developed and its corresponding subdomain interface Lagrange multiplier solutions for second. respectively. First. number of processors and HPC platforms. the biggest challenges lie in the substitution of the key selected algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms.000) 1/6 (8.001) 1/100(50. it now permits for the first time the general nonlinear and linear structural dynamics analysis for largescale realistic engineering analysis in a single analysis code via an integrated computational technology.and fourthorder elasto dynamics via preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm (PCG) is Table 2 Numerical scalability results of 'fixedproblemsize' scaling employing dual domain decomposition method for typical implicit [GInO] methods No.820) 1/8 (19. The critical component of effective utihzation of such systems for computational structural dynamics involves design and development of efficient and scalable parallel formulations and computational models on a seamless programming environment. and new computational algorithms which provide optimal algorithmic properties (dissipative and nondissipative) that have not been explored and/or exploited todate in conjunction with Reduced Instruction Set Code enabled coarsegrained parallel computational models which employ the messagepassing paradigm (using MPI). Initial results Initial results and the unique features of the present integrated computational technology employing generalized integration operators. [GInO] in a RISC enabled single analysis code for serial and scalable parallel computations are presented here. of subdomains 16 32 Total iterations/time step Table 3 Numerical scalability results 'fixedstorageperprocessor' scaling employing primaldual domain decomposifion method for typical implicit [GInO] methods No.440) Total iterations/time step 4. To handle the complex finite element meshes on the HPC platforms. subdomain interfacing via Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition techniques are employed.001) Total iterations/time step . Fig. Table 1 Numerical scalability results 'fixedworkperprocessor' scaling employing dual domain decomposition method for typical implicit [GInO] methods Mesh size h (eqns) 1/2(540) 1/4 (3. and (iii) scalability of computer memory utilization with increase in the problem size and the number of processors. And. With the parallel computer architectures evolving continuously and the availability of various HPC platforms. la shows the layout and details of the geometry of the shell. the 'fixedproblemsize' and 'fixedstorageperprocessor' scaling problems.K. The results show that the RISC technology is indeed numerically scalable high bandwidth interconnection network. numerical scalability performance results for nonlinear elastic/elastoplastic implicit computations are presented in Tables 1 and 2 for a secondorder elasticity cantilever beam problem discretized using 8node brick elements and in Table 3 for a fourthorder elasticity cylindrical panel subjected blast problem discretized using 4node shell elements. graph partitioning and Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition techniques. Tamma/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics solved in conjunction with the present unified formulations which provide a wide variety of choices to the analyst. To achieve both numerical and parallel scalability.270 R. (ii) parallel scalability.001) 1/200(200. ability of the parallel algorithm to deliver larger speedups for arbitrary large number of processors. which is independent of program size. lb and c show the simulated results and experimental results are in excellent agreement. of subdomains 4 16 64 Mesh size h (eqns) 1/50(12. The scalability of the formulation can be characterized by three distinguishing properties: (i) numerical scalability. Kanapady.
R. Kanapady, K.K. Tamma /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Conclusions
Blcivf Inpflecf re^ir,
271
The design and analysis of a general framework towards RISC for unified scalable parallel computations for nonlinear structural dynamics was presented. Parallel performance was illustrated on: (i) numerical scalability, (ii) linear speedups, and (iii) parallel scalability.
\ \
Acknowledgements The authors are very pleased to acknowledge in part by Battle/U.S. Army Research Office (ARO) Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, under grant number DAAH0496C0086. The support of the A R L / M S R C and the IMT activities and additional support in the form of computer grants from Minnesota Supercomputer Institute (MSI) are gratefully acknowledged. The support in part, by the Army High Performance Computing Research Center (AHPCRC) under the auspices of the Department of the Army, Army Research Laboratory (ARL) cooperative agreement number DAAH049520003/contract number DAAH0495C0008 is also acknowledged. The content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. Additional thanks are also due to X. Zhou, D. Sha, Dr. A. Mark and Dr. R. Namburu, Prof. G. Karypis and Prof. V. Kumar for relevant technical discussions.
O ^7 ...A0.5
Experimental Newmark (y= 1/2, p1/4) Newmark (7=1/2,3 = 0) Undeformed shape
(b)
1 1.5 X direction (in.)
References [1] Tamma KK, Zhou X, Sha D. A theory of development and design of generalized integration operators for computational structural dynamics. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2001 ;50: 16191664. [2] Kanapady R, Tamma KK. A unified family of generalized integration operators [GInO] for nonlinear structural dynamics: implementation aspects. Adv Eng Software 2000; 31(89): 639647. [3] Zhou X, Tamma KK, Sha, D. Linear multistep and optimal dissipative singlestep algorithms for structural dynamics. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, June 1215, 2001. [4] Karypis G, Kumar V. ParMETIS: parallel graph partitioning and sparse matrix ordering library. University of Minnesota, Department of Computer Science, Version 2.0, 1998. [5] Kanapady R, Tamma KK. Parallel computations via a single analysis code of a unified family of generalized integration operators [GInO] fornonUnear structural dynamics. In: 41st AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Atianta, GA, April 36, 2000. [6] Kanapady R, Tamma KK. A general framework and integrated methodology towards scalable heterogeneous computations for structural dynamics on massively parallel platforms. In: 42nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Seattie, WA, April 1619, 2000.
0.0004
Time (sec)
0.0006
0.0008
Fig. 1. Cylindrical panel subjected to blast loading; geometry, displacement of crosssection of panel, deformation history for various algorithms via a code employing RISC paradigm, (a) Geometry; (b) crosssection displacement; (c) displacement history. for computational structural dynamics via [GInO]. Thus, demonstrating the potential to provide highly scalable parallel computations via an integrated computational technology for both explicit and implicit structural dynamics.
272
Dof splitting padaptive meshless method
M.S. Kang,S.K.Youn*
KAIST, Mechanical Engineering Department, 3731, Gusung, Yusung, Taejon, 305701, Korea
Abstract In this paper, error estimator and padaptive refinement scheme for hpclouds method called dof splitting meshless method (DSPMM) are proposed. The error estimator detects the difference of computed stress and projected stress. The essence of the DSPMM is to construct the prefined equations with newly appended higher order nodal dof s. The prefined equations are solved to minimize the residual of the unrefined solution. In refinement procedure, higher order dof's are appended only on the selected nodes determined in the error estimation procedure. Therefore the size of the prefined equations is considerably smaller than that of unrefined equations. The DSPMM improves the solution with minor additional computational costs especially for large problems. Keywords: hpClouds method; Error estimator; pAdaptive refinement; Dof splitting meshless method; DSPMM; Meshless method
1. Introduction Meshless methods such as elementfree Galerkin (EFG) method [1] and hpclouds method [2] are attractive for hadaptive analysis because they do not need mesh structure that restricts the position of nodes in the formulation. Thus nodes can be easily added and deleted without consideration of the mesh structure. Hpclouds method also has good features to adopt padaptive scheme since the method allows the addition of nodal dof's. Several error estimators for meshless method have been developed. Liu et al. [3] developed adaptive scheme using edge detection technique for reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). Duarte and Oden [4] presented the error estimator derived in terms of residuals. Chung and Belytschko [5] estimated the error denoted by the difference of computed stress and projected stress. This paper presents an error estimator and dof splitting meshless method (DSPMM). The error estimator is based on the work of Chung and Belytschko [5]. In hpclouds method, the projected stress cannot be directly obtained as in the Chung's method for EFG method because the number of shape functions is generally greater than that of nodes. Thus the projected stress in hpclouds method * Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 (42) 8693034; Fax: +82 (42) 8693201; Email: skyoun@sorak.kaist.ac.kr © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
is obtained by additional formulation and matrix solution procedure. DSPMM uses the shape functions of hpclouds method however the formulation is modified. In DSPMM, the adaptive procedure is formulated only with additional nodal dof's. The solution of DSPMM is used to update the solution of unrefined problem. This procedure allows the solution to be enhanced with minor additional computational costs. The error estimator and DSPMM are verified through numerical examples.
2. Error estimation Chung et al.'s error criterion is defined by the difference of projected stress and approximated stress. The projected stress is obtained by the linear combination of nodal stress and shape functions. The radius of influence used for the projection of stresses is smaller than that of shape functions in approximation. In hpclouds method, the number of shape functions is greater than that of nodes. Thus the projection of nodal stress cannot be directly achieved. The stress error e^(x) in hpclouds method can be defined as follows:
e^(x) = a'(x)  aP(x) = cj'{x)  J ^ E ^ / W o ^ ;
(1)
where a'^ix) the computed stress, a^(x) the projected
M.S. Rang, S.K. Youn/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stress, (j)\ /th shape function at node /, and a\{x) /th the expanded stress for node /. To obtain the expanded stress cf\{x) we introduce weak formulation and the resulting equations are as follow:
KYJ= f BfDB'jdQ
273
(10)
C I ] / ^/(•^)^/(^) d^^i = I <P\Mcr\x) dQ
The pointwise estimated error is calculated by substituting the obtained expanded stress aj(x) from Eq. (2) into the Eq. (1).
(2)
(11)
(12)
F ; = f (P'jtdr^ f (p'jbdQ 3. Dof splitting padaptive hpclouds method Consider the trial function space U and the test function space V.
U = {uG H\Q),U = U on Fu}
(13)
F ; = j (j)]~tdT+ f (p'jbdQ
(14)
(3) (4)
Now, we can write the equation Eq. (8) as the two coupled equations.
^oo^o ^fO_ f.or^r
V = {veH^(Q),v
= 0 onT,}
(15) (16)
A prefinement procedure in hpclouds method adds higher order shape functions to the selected nodes determined by error estimator. We can write the prefined solution uP{x) as the sum of the solution of unrefined problem u'^ix) and the correction of the solution u''(x) obtained by the adaptive analysis. uP(x) = 8vP(x) = u%x)\u'(x) 8v'(x)\8v'(x)
(5)
K''u'
F' 
K''u'
(6)
In Eq. (5), essential boundary conditions are already satisfied by the unrefined solution u'^ix). Thus the unrefined solution u'^ix) is in the space U, but the correction of the solution u''(x) is in the space V. The function space V is easily obtained by adopting the kinematically admissible meshless shape functions [6]. The variational formulation for the prefined problem using the expressions of Eqs. (5) and (6) is 8n= fv,(v'' + v'f:((j'\a')dQ :tdrf 8(v' + v'f : b dQ
Higher order shape functions in hpclouds method are generated by the multiplication of partition of unity functions and proper basis functions. That is, the shape functions used in unrefined analysis are not affected by the generation of higher order shape functions in prefinement procedure. Thus, the matrix K'''' and the vector F"" in Eq. (15) is the same as those in unrefined analysis. Furthermore, the errors in analysis are localized in some critical region. In refinement process, error estimator detects the critical regions, and the solution on the critical regions is mainly improved. The changes of solution on the critical regions have an important role for improving the solution. DSPMM improves the solution only on the critical regions. The unrefined solution u^ is fixed in the refinement process. Therefore Eq. (15) is not needed because the solution u^ is already determined, only Eq. (16) is solved with the unrefined solution u"". In most adaptive analysis added dof's are not many, thus we can improve the solution with minor computational cost increments.
 f 8{v' f v'f
4. Numerical examples Vw^ G U, Vu' e V, Vu^ e V, Wv' G V. (7) In the numerical examples, error estimator and DSPMM have been verified for the problem of infinite plate with a hole under uniform lateral tension. The infinite plate is modeled as a finite quarter plate and analytical stress values are imposed as boundary conditions as denoted in Fig. 1. The dimensions of the plate are the length of square quarter plate L = 5, the radius of a hole d = \, uniform lateral tension G = 10, Young's modulus E = 1000, and Poisson's ratio V = 0.3. The matrix form of the discretized prefined equations is (8)
DB'^jdQ
(9)
274
M.S. Kang, S.K. Youn/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Fig. 2 compares the exact error and the estimated error for the stress component a^^ • Fig. 3 shows the computational costs and pconvergence of general hpclouds method and DSPMM. The both padaptive analysis incorporate the presented error estimator to detect the analysis error, and modified weight functions [6] are used to impose essential boundary conditions. The first points that have the same number of dofs in Fig. 3(a) denote the same result since two methods are the same since that is the results of unrefined problem. The equations of DSPMM for the second, third and fourth points are solved only for the newly appended dofs and the unrefined solution is modified with these solutions. As shown in the prefined results, the solution time is minor but the accuracy is comparable with hpclouds method. In general, the accuracy of usual hpclouds method is slightly better than that of DSPMM since DSPMM restrict the unrefined solution to be fixed. However, DSPMM requires lesser increase of computational cost.
14 4^ 4* 4* 4* 4^fT 14
Fig. 1. Modeling of infinite plate with a hole
li^^B
(b)
(a)
\
Fig. 2. Contour plot of error in Oxx stress, (a) Exact error, (b) estimated error.
n hpClouds
'""q DSPMM
1000
3.5x10^
».,
f
[=
3x10^100
o *— o •—
Solving ByisihpOouds Solving Bcins:DSPMM Fomning Eqns:hpClouds Fomning Ecjns:DSPMM
25x10*
\ • — —
(b)
"~ ' ~— •
' —1
'
1000
1500
2000 No. Of dofs
2500
3000
3600
1000
1
^
1
1
1500
2000
1
'
2500
T
3000
3500
1
No. Of dofs
Fig. 3. Numerical results of general hpclouds method and dof splitting padapdve meshless method, (a) Computation time, (b) pconvergence.
M.S. Rang, S.K. Youn/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Conclusions The error estimator for hpclouds method and dof splitting meshless method (DSPMM) are presented. The numerical example shows that the error estimator is a good measure for the approximation of errors in hpclouds method. This error criterion is used for padaptive hpclouds method and DSPMM. DSPMM incorporates the results of unrefined solution in the formulation of prefined analysis. The resulting equations are solved only for newly added nodal dof's. Thus, the solution can be improved with minor increase of computational costs. References
275
[1] Belytschko T, Lu YY, Gu L. Elementfree Galerkin methods. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:229256. [2] Duarte CA, Oden JT. Hp clouds — a meshless method to solve boundaryvalue problems. Technical Report 9505, TICAM. University of Texas at Austin, 1995. [3] Liu WK, Hao W, Chen Y, Jun S, Gosz J. Multiresolution reproducing kernel particle methods. Comput Mech 1997;20:295309. [4] Duarte CA, Oden JT. An hp adaptive method using clouds. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng 1996;139:237262. [5] Chung HJ, Belytschko T. An error estimate in the EFG method. Comput Mech 1988;21:91100. [6] Kang MS, Youn SK. Kinematically admissible meshless approximation using modified weight function. Int J Numer Methods Eng, in press.
276
Modelling of friction in metalforming processes
Stefan Kapinski *
Institute of Machine Design Fundamentals, Warsaw Technical University, Narbutta 84, 02524 Warsaw, Poland
Abstract The predetermination of friction forces in metalforming processes is essential. Investigations have been carried with this aspect in mind. This has resulted in the elaboration of a new graphics model of friction and modernization of instruments for the forming of materials. The friction model estimates the physical phenomena for contact conditions, such as: variable states of contact and friction; the difference in the quality of friction surfaces; and the velocity of friction. The results will help optimize such metalforming processes as: the deep drawing process and the extrusion process [ 1  6 ] . Keywords: Friction; Graphic model; Metal forming; Instrument; Surface; Velocity
1. Introduction The predetermination of the rising frictional forces as well as of the forces required for metal forming is of utmost importance for the prejudgement of failures. Only then is a specific optimisation of the metalforming process possible, for instance by tests of the frictional forces in the region of contact of the forming material with the surface of the tool. In this way, the final frictional forces, which are of very great significance for tool abrasion, can be determined, whereby the influence of different lubricants, forming material and tool metals on frictional behaviour can be taken into consideration. The predetermination of the frictional forces by a mathematical and graphical model is very useful for metalforming processes.
2. Investigation of friction in metalforming processes Friction depends on the quality of the surfaces, the types of materials, the direction of movement, and the velocity and pressure of materials. Fig. 1 is an exemplary scheme of real contact materials and mechanics of friction. A variety of macroscopic phenomena are associated with frictional contacts between microscopically rough surfaces. Properties such as the apparent dependence of the frictional forces on relative velocities, quality of surfaces, adhesive *Tel.: +48 (22) 6608682; Email: ska@simr.pw.edu.pl © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
forces and stickslip oscillations are consequences of the combined influence of the largescale mechanical makeup of the system and the microscopic interaction at the surface interface. The surface structure (Fig. 1) is created by technological processes and, for this reason, friction depends on direction of movement. Of fundamental importance to the properties of frictionally interacting surfaces is the tendency of microscopic localized slip to occur on macroscopic global relative sliding between the surfaces. More specifically, if a tangential shear force is applied to two bodies compressed against each other, there will be small relative displacements of elastic character, i.e. such that no residual displacement remains after unloading. However, experimental observations indicate that some plastic deformation occurs with a resulting residual displacement and consequent energy dissipation. If balance is not attained between the vertical forces, the surface separation will evolve with time. In particular, for sufficiently large separations and zero initial velocity, the pressure force will be outweighed by the remaining forces and thus the separation will tend to decrease. Similarly, when the separation is initially small, the normal force will act to separate the surfaces leading to an increase in friction. The geometrical interpretation of friction stresses is presented in Fig. 2. The parameters c, A. are connected with geometrical parameters of contact surface and value k is the material parameter.
S. Kapinski /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a) Pressure b)
111
yy^<>v
Fig. 1. Exemplary surface structure (a) and dependence of friction forces on the direction of movement (b).
"5
T
°
Fig. 2. Graphical interpretation of the friction stresses. The tangential stress may be obtained from the formula (Fig. 2) (1) The value r^ may be expressed as r^ = tanAicr^ and
O^ — 0rC0sA2
(2)
Fig. 3. Graphical interpretation of the surface friction. • for a situation when microstructures of local friction surfaces are cutting (surface C): Tc = FlX^im, v), N]. For a situation when the movement of friction surfaces V does not exist, the tangential stress is equal to the force of reaction with reference to the contact area. For any part of the geometrical model, the shape of the model surface of friction is dependent on the quality of the material, structure of the surface friction, direction of friction (Fig. 4) and the velocity of friction. Friction creates temperature and this fact must be taken into consideration when modifying the model. The influence of temperature is presented in Fig. 5. From this model, it can be seen that temperature changes the force of friction. A high temperature decreases the force of friction and friction depends on velocity (vi < V2 < vs). This situation has been experimentally demonstrated.
(3)
Substituting in Eq. (1) the values which are expressed by formulas (2) and (3), the tangential stress may be written as follows t = c + a sin A2 (4)
The parameters c, Xi are connected with geometrical parameters of contact surface and value k is material parameter. The values of friction forces T for different situation of movement direction (p, quality of surfaces (parameters of surface and materials m) and pressures N may be described as functions (Fig. 3): • for a situation when movement of friction surfaces v does not exist (surface A): T^ = F[Ai(m, (^), A/']; • for a situation when displacement of friction surfaces is really (surface B): % = F[X2(m, cp, v), N]\
278
S. Kapinski / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics for predicting frictional behaviour in the deep drawing process. In this way, the frictional forces at the die radius and in the flange alongside the forces for bending and lossfree forming can be determined. Even at the construction stage of a deep drawing part, assessments can be made about the behaviour of different lubricants, sheet materials and tool metals. The deepdrawing process of cylindrical elements is an optimal model for the prediction of the distribution of stress and strain or frictional behaviour and frictional forces for stamping drawpieces. The frictional forces at the die radius, type of lubricate used and the forces for bending should also be exactly determined. Therefore, a new concept model of friction is presented. The model of friction may also be useful for the predetermination of friction forces for other metalforming processes.
Fig. 4. Dependence of the force friction reference on the direction of friction {(p) (crosssection of surface B in Fig. 3).
References [1] Doege E, Schulte S. Design of deep drawn components with elementary calculation methods. J Mater Process Technol 1992;34:439447. [2] Kapinski S. Influence of the punch velocity on deformation of the material in deepdrawn flange. J Mater Process Technol 1992;34:419424. [3] Kapinski S. The forming of autobody panels. WKi£, Warszawa 1996 (in Polish). [4] Kapinski S. The analysis of forming process for bimetal materials. Third International Conference on Contact Mechanics — Contact Mechanics III. Madrid 30 June3 July, 1997, pp. 217226. [5] Kapinski S. Analysis and modelling of friction in deep drawing process. 4th International Conference on Advances in Materials processing and Technologies. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2428 August, 1998, pp. 569576. [6] Kapinski, S. Model of friction for sheet metal forming processes. 4th International Conference on Contact Mechanics — Contact Mechanics IV. Stuttgart, Germany, 35 August, 1999, 1524.
Fig. 5. The space model of friction demonstrating influence of temperature.
3. Conclusions The predetermination of parameters and realisation of sheet forming is an essential aspect for the optimisation of the deep drawing process for the shaping of automobile chassis. Investigations have been carried out to demonstrate this. This has resulted in the proposition of a friction model
279
Modelling of intra and interlaminar fracture in composite laminates loaded in tension
Maria Kashtalyan*, Costas Soutis
Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BY, UK
Abstract Fracture process of multidirectional fibrereinforced composite laminates under tensile loading involves sequential accumulation of intra and interlaminar damage in the form of matrix cracks and delaminations. In this paper, local delaminations growing from matrix crack tips in angleply laminates are analysed using fracture mechanics concepts. Closed form expression representing strain energy release rate associated with crack tip delaminations as a linear function of the first partial derivatives of the effective elastic properties of the damaged layer with respect to the delamination area is derived. Parameters controlling the value of the strain energy release rate are established. Keywords: Crack tip delamination; Local delamination; Matrix crack; Strain energy release rate; Angleply laminate
1. Introduction Fracture process in multidirectional fibrereinforced composite laminates subjected to inplane static or fatigue tensile loading involves sequential accumulation of intra and interlaminar damage in the form of matrix cracks that appear parallel to the fibres in the offaxis plies and matrix cracking induced edge and/or local delaminations. Formation and growth of crack induced local delaminations in angleply [O2/O2/ — ^2]^ carbon/epoxy laminates under quasistatic and fatigue tensile loading has been reported by O'Brien and Hooper [1] and O'Brien [2]. The present paper is concerned with analysis of local delaminations in angleply symmetric [0i/02]^ laminates using the approach suggested by Zhang et al. [3], earlier applied to modelling transverse crack tip delaminations in [±^^/90„]^ laminates.
xyz and local x[^^X2^'x^^^ coordinate systems, with the jc{^^ axis directed along the fibres in the (^2) layer. Matrix cracks are assumed to span the whole width of the laminate and be spaced uniformly at a distance 2s^. Local delaminations are assumed to be stripshaped, with a strip width 21^. Since delamination growth occurs in a selfsimilar manner, it can be analysed using fracture mechanics concepts. The total strain energy release rate G^"^ associated with local delaminations is equal to the first partial derivative of the total strain energy U stored in the damaged laminate with respect to the total delamination area A^"^ provided the applied strains {s} are fixed and the matrix crack density C = (25^)~^ remains unchanged G'^ = dU
aA^^
(1)
[e},C
2. Fracture analysis Fig. 1 shows a schematic of an angleply symmetric [0i/02L laminate subjected to inplane tensile loading and damaged by matrix cracking in the (02) layer and delaminations growing from the tips of matrix cracks at the (01/02) interface. The laminate is referred to the global * Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 (20) 75945117; Fax: +44 (20) 75848120; Email: m.kashtalyan@ic.ac.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
The strain energy release rate can be effectively calculated if instead of the damaged laminate one considers the 'equivalent' laminate, in which the damaged layer is replaced with an 'equivalent' homogeneous one with degraded stiffness properties, Zhang et al. [3]. The residual stiffness matrix [Q] of the 'equivalent' layer is a function of the relative delamination area Z)^ = ^^l/Sf^ and the relative crack density Dll"^ = h2/s^. The total strain energy stored in the laminate element with a finite gauge length L and width w is U = ^wL{s}^[A]{s} (2)
280
M. Kashtalyan, C. Soutis/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
(p
matrix cracks
delamir^ations
(^,)
(p
 i<t>2)
I
2/i,

^
Fig. 1. Front and edge views of a [(t)\/(t>2]s laminate subjected to inplane tensile loading and damaged by matrix cracks in the inner (02) ply and local delaminations growing from crack tips at the (0i/(/>2) interface. where [A] = X^,[2]/^/ is the residual extension stiffness matrix of the 'equivalent' laminate. Noting that the area of a single crack tip delamination is a^^ = 2i^w/\ sin021, Fig. 1, the total delamination area is equal to A ' ^ = la'^CL = 2LWD'^/\ sin021. Then the strain energy release rate, calculated from Eqs. (1) and (2), is Calculation of the residual inplane axial stiffness Q^x using Eq. (5) and transformation formulae [4] yields the strain energy release rate associated with local delamination in terms of IDEFs and Qjf ^ as
l(M)2
G"(£.
(3)
Under uniaxial strain, Eq. (3) simplifies to G^'is. I sin 021
2
5^22
+ 2e;^^ sin' 02 cos' 02 + Gl^^ sin^ 02 dA in) dD\^
\ 3 ^
7 9^;f
(6)
(4)
+ 4066'sin'02 cos'02
I sin 021
The residual inplane stiffness matrix [Q] of the 'equivalent' layer in the global coordinates is related to the residual inplane stiffness matrix [Q^^^] in the local coordinates by the wellknown transformation formulae, Jones [4]. The residual inplane stiffness matrix [Q^^^] of the 'equivalent' layer in the local coordinates is related to the inplane stiffness matrix [Q^^^] of the undamaged material via the introduced in Zhang et al. [5] Insitu Damage Effective Functions (IDEFs) Af/ = A^J'/iD';;', Djf), J = 2, 6 as ^Qi,)] = [g^^)]
3. Stiffness analysis Substituting the residual stiffness matrix [2^^^], Eq. (5), into the constitutive equations for the 'equivalent' layer in) /i(/^) {a^'^} = [Q^^^W^} gives the IDEFs A'^^, A'^^' :in terms of the lamina macrostresses {a^^^} and macrostrains {£^^^} as vl^^^  1 yi22 — 1
VM)
^ + a22 ^22
(7)
Qtl^'^
Q'^2^'^2
0 Q^JA
(5)
0
0
At' = 1 
r(2)
G^^^n?
M. Kashtalyan, C. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics are
281
deiamination
(2)
/ v ^ A cosh A^ (4^^ '^z^) , r^ I coshXkiSf, if,)
k=l
•
10 (10)
(01)
M)
matrix crack
^ii
^M
Fig. 2. A quarter of the representative segment of the damaged laminate. To determine the IDEFs as functions of the damage parameters Z)^^ Z)Jf, micromechanical analysis of the damaged laminate has to be performed. Since cracks and delaminations are spaced uniformly, a representative segment of the laminate, containing one matrix crack and two crack tip delaminations, may be considered. The representative segment can be segregated into the laminated and delaminated portions. Due to the symmetry, the analysis can be confined to its quarter. Fig. 2. Let alj denote the inplane microstresses in the damaged layer (i.e. stresses averaged across the layer thickness). In the delaminated portion, we have 022^ = G[^ = 0. In the laminated portion, the inplane microstresses may be determined by means of a 2D shear lag analysis. The equilibrium equations in terms of microstresses take the form dx (n)
Here dx is the applied stress, X^ are the roots of the characteristic equation, and Akj and Cj are constants depending on the inplane stiffness properties of the intact material [Q^^^], shear lag parameters Ku, K22 and K12 and angles 01 and 02The lamina macrostresses {a^^^}, involved in Eq. (7), are obtained by averaging the microstresses, Eqs. (10), across the length of the representative segment as explicit functions of the relative crack density D^^ and relative deiamination area D^f
aj2

E ,,£r,^hhlzlSl^c,>^^>,,. J^m Xkh2
Uj
(11)
The macrostrains in the 'equivalent' layer [s^^^} are calculated from the constitutive equations for both layers and equations of the global equilibrium of the laminate, assuming {^(^>} = {8^'^} (12)
Thus, the lamina macrostresses, Eq. (11), and macrostrains, Eq. (12), are determined as explicit functions of the damage parameters D^^, Djf. Consequently, first partial derivatives of IDEFs, Eq. (7), involved into the expressions for the strain energy release rate, Eq. (6), can be calculated analytically.
^^
4. Results and discussion
1^=0,
J = h2
(8) As an example, predictions of strain energy release rate G^^ associated with matrix crack induced local delaminations in angleply [02/^21^ laminates are presented. Properties of the AS4/35061 graphite/epoxy material system used in calculations are as follows [1]: £"11 = 135 GPa, £22 = 11 GPa, Gn = 5.8 GPa, vn = 0.301, single ply thickness t = 0.124 mm. Fig. 3 shows the normalised strain energy release rate G^'^/sl^ for [O2/252], laminate, calculated from Eq. (7) and plotted as a function of relative deiamination area D^"^ for two matrix crack densities C = I crack/cm and C = 2 cracks/cm. These crack densities are equivalent to crack spacing of approximately 80 and 40 ply thicknesses (s = 40r, s = 20t). It may be seen that the present approach gives the strain energy release rate for local deiamination that depends both on the crack density and deiamination length. The value of G'^^/e^^ decreases with increasing deiamination length and increasing crack density. It is worth noting that closedform expression, suggested by O'Brien [2], gives strain energy release rate for
By averaging the outofplane constitutive equations, the interface shear stresses Xj in Eqs. (8) are expressed in terms of the inplane displacements u\j^ and u\f, averaged across the thickness of, respectively, (0i) and (^2) layers, so that Tj = Kjiiu (2) • u^^^) + Kj2(uf^
..f)
(9)
The shear lag parameters Ku, K22 and Ki2(= K21) are determined on the assumption that the outofplane shear stresses in the damaged layer and outer sublaminate vary linearly with x^^^. Substitution of Eqs. (9) into Eqs. (8) and subsequent differentiation with respect to ^2^^ lead to the equilibrium equations in terms of microstresses and microstrains (i.e. strains averaged across the layer thickness). To exclude the latter, constitutive equations for both layers, equations of the global equilibrium of the laminate as well as generalised plane strain conditions are employed. Finally, a system of coupled secondorder nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equations is obtained, solutions to which
282
M. Kashtalyan, C. Soutis/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
1 crack/cm 2 cracks/cm
0.32 2 4 6 8 10 Relative delamination area, %
15
30
45
60
75
Ply orientation angle, degrees
Id I Fig. 4. Normalised strain energy release rate G'^/eJ^ associated with local delamination in a cracked [02/^2]5 AS4/35061 laminate as a function of ply orientation angle 0\ matrix crack density C = 1 crack/cm.
Fig. 3. Normalised strain energy release rate G'"^ /s^^ associated with local delamination in a cracked [02/252]5 AS4/35061 laminate as a function of relative delamination area D'^ . local delaminations in [O2/O2/  ^2]. laminates that does not account for matrix cracking and is independent from delamination length. Dependence of the normalised strain energy release rate G^"^ l^lx ^^ the ply orientation angle 0 is shown in Fig. 4 for two relative delamination areas: D^"^ = 0 (delamination onset) and D'"^ == 0.1. Matrix crack density in both cases is equal to 1 crack/cm. For the given layup [02/^2]^, normalised strain energy release rate reaches the maximum value at approximately 0 = 68°.
References [1] O'Brien TK, Hooper, SJ. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks: Part I Tension tests and stress analysis. NASA Technical Memorandum 104055, 1991. [2] O'Brien TK. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks: Part II Delamination fracture analysis and fatigue characterisation. NASA Technical Memorandum 104076, 1991. [3] Zhang J, Soutis C, Fan J. Strain energy release rate associated with local delamination in cracked composite laminates. Composites 1994;25(9):851862. [4] Jones RM. Mechanics of Composite Materials: 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1999. [5] Zhang J, Fan J, Soutis C. Analysis of multiple matrix cracking in [ib^;;,/90„]5 composite laminates Part 1: Inplane stiffness properties. Composites 1992;23(5):291298.
Acknowledgements Financial support of this work by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC/GR/L51348) and Ministry of Defence, UK, is gratefully acknowledged.
283
Implicit integration for the solution of metal forming processes
Marek Kawka^'*, KlausJiirgen Bathe ^
""ADINA R&D, Inc., 71 Elton Avenue, Watertown, MA 02472, USA ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Abstract The simulation of metal forming processes is performed using implicit integration analysis procedures. The approach is based on reliable and efficient solution procedures, uses the actual physical simulation parameters (that is, no adjustment of the tool velocity or work piece density is employed) and enables to achieve accurate results of the loading and springback processes in a single solution run. In the analyses performed, the solution times were not far from (and frequently less than) those required in explicit time integration analyses. Keywords: Metal forming; Implicit integration; Static and dynamic analysis; Springback
1. Introduction The finite element analysis of forming processes continues to represent significant challenges [1]. The problems are highly nonlinear, because, in general, large strains, contact and highly nonlinear material conditions are encountered. To simulate sheet metal forming processes, in addition, the metal piece to be formed is thin, which introduces also the difficulties encountered in the analysis of shells [2,3]. For the analysis of metal forming processes, effective finite element procedures are needed, and as more efficient procedures become available, increasingly more complex problems can be realistically simulated. At present, metal forming analyses are usually conducted using explicit analysis procedures. With an expHcit code, the solution is performed using an incremental dynamic analysis approach without forming a stiffness matrix and without iterating for equilibrium at the time step solutions. Hence, the solution effort per time step is relatively small. However, for the solution to be stable, the time step size has to be smaller than a critical time step, which requires many solution steps for the complete simulation. To obtain efficiency, usually finite elements are used that in a 'fast' dynamic analysis (such as a crash simulation) are tuned to obtain a good response prediction, but these ele* Corresponding author. Tel: \l (617) 9265199; Fax: +1 (617) 0238; Email: marek@adina.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
ments are unstable in a 'slow' dynamic or static analysis. Hence, for overall stability of the solution, the time step has to be sufficiently small and the inertia forces need to be sufficiently large. For an analysis demonstrating these requirements (see [4]). It has long been recognized that an implicit dynamic solution based on equilibrium iterations in each solution step and reliable 'nontuned' solution procedures would be preferable for many forming analyses provided the solution is computationally effective. The physical process is then more accurately modeled, in particular also the springback process in sheet metal forming problems. The objective of this paper is to present the effective implicit solution procedures available in ADINA to solve metal forming processes. We briefly summarize the solution approach and procedures used, and present some solution results.
2. Implicit integration solution The basic equations solved in an implicit integration are wellknown, see for example [2],
and
t+At^(i) ^ t+At^{il) _^ ^ u ( 0 (2)
284
M. Kawka, K.J. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics • Effective finite elements; we use the u/p elements for fully 2D and 3D solid element models and the MITC4 shell element for shell models [2,5]. These elements have a strong physical and mathematical basis. • An efficient large strain inelastic analysis algorithm; we use the effectivestress function procedure [2,5]. • A robust and efficient contact solution technique; we use the constraintfunction method [2,5] • An efficient equation solver; we use a sparse solver developed specifically for the program ADINA; the solver includes parallelprocessing capabilities [5]. The individual advantages of the abovementioned procedures were discussed in earlier publications, see references, but of course, for an overall effective analysis, these procedures need to work efficiently together and this has been achieved in the ADINA program. 3. Sample solutions The objective in this section is to present the results of some sample analyses. We consider cases that indicate some important features of the analysis capabilities available. All results were obtained using the implicit solution approach described above. 3.1. 2D draw bending problem A very simple 2D draw bending benchmark problem from the Numisheet '93 Conference (see Fig. 1) tests the
initial blank
where M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix, K is the tangent stiffness matrix, R is the load vector, F is the nodal force vector corresponding to the internal element stresses, U is the displacement vector, the superscript r +Ar denotes the time at which the equations are formulated, and the superscripts (/) and (/ — 1) denote the current and previous iterations. An unconditionally stable implicit time integration scheme, for example, the trapezoidal rule, is used to discretize Eq. (1) in time. The equations given above do not explicitly show the contact conditions, but these can be imposed as described in [2]. We note that with Eqs. (1) and (2) iterations are performed until the equilibrium is satisfied at each time step (to a reasonable convergence tolerance). Of course, if a static analysis is pursued, simply the inertia and damping effects are not included in the solution. An effective implicit integration solution provides several advantages over explicit integration. Most importantly, there is no need to manipulate the metal forming technological parameters (such as the tool velocity or material density) in order to achieve the solution. Therefore, the calculated results are much more reliable than obtained in explicit integration. This situation is easily observed in the analyses of processes in which the springback must also be simulated: the implicit integration solution provides good results in a single run simulating the loading and springback conditions. An effective solution of Eq. (1), including contact conditions, must be based on reliable and efficient solution procedures. We list here briefly the techniques used in ADINA.
after stamping
after springback
110 105 ^ ® ® ^ 100 95 90 85 80 02
Fig. 1. Numisheet '93 draw bending test for high tensile steel and high blank holding force [6]. (a) Shape of metal sheet at subsequent stages of deformations, (b) Measurement of spring back angles 0i and 02. (c) Comparison of experimental data (circles) and simulation results (dashed lines).
M. Kawka, K.J. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ability of the software to predict accurately the springback after stamping [6]. Surprisingly, at the time of the Numisheet '93 Conference (of course, about eight years ago) most of the commercial software could not be used to produce reliable results. In our simulation, 105 ninenoded u/p elements were used (with only one layer through the thickness), and results very close to the experimental data were obtained (see Fig. 1; for brevity, the results for the high tensile steel are presented only). 5.2. Hemming problem The solution of this problem tests the stability and efficiency of contact algorithms. The simulation software has to deal with two types of contact conditions: the 'deformable body to deformable body' condition and the 'deformable body to rigid surface' condition. In the hemming problem (see Fig. 2), large strain conditions need also be modeled, and therefore the problem is an excellent test for finite element software. In our simulation, 90 ninenoded u/p elements were used for the outer panel and 54 elements were employed for the inner panel. A total of 1800 incremental solution steps were used in the simulation. Despite the large deformations in the bent section of the outer panel (up to 100% strains were measured) and the continuously changing contact conditions between the inner and outer panels, excellent convergence with an average of only four iterations per step in the incremental solution was observed. 3.3. Deep drawing of an oil pan This industrial problem of a deep drawing of an oil pan [7] requires a powerful simulation code and versatile shell elements able to deal with the complex deformation path. In our simulation 16,922 MITC4 shell elements were used to represent the metal sheet and 16,500 rigid elements were employed to define the tool surfaces. The simulation was performed on a UNIX workstation using parallelprocessing, a HPJ5000 workstation was employed. The results of the simulation compare very well with experimental measurements (see Fig. 3).
285
Panel outer inner
Material mild steel, 0.8 mm high strength steel, 0.8 mm
Elements 90 u/p 54 u/p
i j . I j,j,„i:i "ij„ I, i'''i:jj...iJi..jjj..:i'''i:..i:..iJ.:i:''r:i:::i:ri::n'"i::i'''iTTT'i,i 11 ri'i 11 \i
I I I I I I I I I I .1
Fig. 2. Plane strain deformation of outer and inner panels during successive stages of hemming process, (a) Prehemming, outer panel is bent 90°. (be) Hemming, outer and inner panels are attached.
References [1] Numisheet '99. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Workshop, Besan9on, France, September 1317, 1999. [2] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff, NJ, 1996. [3] Chapelle D, Bathe KJ. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. Comput Struct 1998;66(l):1936. [4] Bathe KJ, Guillermin O, Walczak J, Chen HY. Advances in nonlinear finite element analysis of automobiles. Comput Struct 1997;64(5/6):881891. [5] ADINA R&D. Theory and Modeling Guide, Report No. ARD0007, Watertown, MA, 2000.
4. Conclusions The objective of this paper was to briefly present some solution capabilities for the simulation of metal forming processes. The implicit dynamic (including static) analysis capabilities developed in ADINA for metal forming processes and specifically sheet metal forming processes were summarized and some solution results given. The procedures are computationally effective when compared to explicit techniques now in wide use and allow the more realistic modeling of many metal forming processes.
J. Deep drawing of an oil pan [7]. 1993. BadenBaden. 3. . Japan. 1994. September 2830. [6] Numisheet '93.286 M. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference and Workshop. and comparison of experimental data and simulation results for various commercial finite element codes. K. blank holder and die. [7] Metal Forming Process Simulation in Industry. August 31September 2. Kawka. (c) Definition of assessment line AB. (a) Tool geometry: punch. (b) Shape after deformation (simulation results) and initial flat blank. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Assessment line AB Fig. Germany. Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop. Isehara.
Kyounggi.J. Fatigue life prediction 1. This motivates an efficient method. Kim^ HJ.kr © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Seoul. Component mode. Keywords: Dynamic stress. the hybrid superposition method [2] is developed with the use of the superelement method. Fax: ^82 (2) 9104839.B. Deformation modes such as Ritz modes. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. it is apparent that the large model is often inefficient for flexible body dynamic analysis and stress time history calculation. or CraigBampton modes may be used. The reduced model may have modal and static characteristics correlated with that of the original model. Incheon. Korea ^ Graduate School of Automotive Engineering. C. Flexible multibody dynamics. Kookmin University. constrained mechanical systems that undergo nonsteady gross motion and small elastic deformation.ac. computational methods for dynamic stress time history have been developed to speed design cycle [1. the hybrid superposition method obtained from the mode acceleration method is briefly described. utilizing flexible dynamic analysis connected with the superelement method. and the 'Flexible Multibody Dynamic Simulation and Quasistatic Method' are combined to form a hybrid method that improves the accuracy of dynamic stress prediction. Dynamic stress (7(0 with the assumption of infinitesimal elastic deformation can be written y ^ (sikPikiO + ^ckPckiO) . CraigChang modes. In this paper. Introduction Recently. By use of the superelement method connected with the component mode synthesis * Corresponding author. Bathe (Editor) technique. Aerospace and Automotive Engineering. The method efficiently recovers the dynamic stress time histories by applying the principle of linear superposition of the mode acceleration method or static correction method.S.Y] ( — ^ I k=l ^nqnit) E4 Nk SKmqKmit) (1) .287 Computation of stress time history using FEM and flexible multibody dynamics H. 2.2].kookmin. The two conventional methods — 'Modal Stress Superposition Method'. Korea Abstract Dynamic stress time history calculation deals with spatial. Kim'^ ^ Commercial Vehicle Test and Research Team. Mode superposition. Yim'''*. Tel. Hyundai Motor Company. Korea ^Division of Mechanical. In the case of using the finite element model of a largescaled structural component. Dynamic stress analysis In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of conventional methods for stress recovery. Inha University. The hybrid method is defined as a computational dynamic stress analysis method that employs stress superposition as a function of constraint forces and component accelerations that are predicted in terms of the assumed deformation modes from flexible multibody dynamic analysis. A hybrid method that employs stress superposition as a function of constraint loads and component accelerations that are predicted by flexible body dynamic simulations is presented. the deformation modes for the reduced model of the structural component are used to implement the hybrid method. Email: hjyim@kmu. A numerical example is given for stress time history evaluation of the vehicle structural component.: h82 (2) 9104688.
respectively. stress time history is obtained for the prototype vehicle. Static stress coefficients and modal stress coefficients are timeindependent terms. . . . SKI and SKm Q and m = 1 . 2. Fig. 7 th component of gravity force. Dynamic loads and modal coordinates are timedependent terms. . such as the Belgian mode. . . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Finite Element Model of si flexible body Reduced Model Detail Model Finite Element Eigenvalue Analysis Finite Element Static Analys is Component Mode Synthesis Flexible Multibody Dynamic Analysis Time histories of Modal coordinates. S5. Numerical example and conclusions The durability of a prototype vehicle has been traditionally estimated in accelerated test environments. where Ns and Nk are the number of components of surface loads and vibration modes. flexible multibody dynamic Fig. respectively. . which is shown in Fig. . . respectively. . 3 shows the displacement time histories that were measured from the durability test of the Belgian road. In this paper.S. which are obtained from flexible multibody dynamic simulation. FE model for the example. qKiiO and qKmit) are the velocity of /th modal coordinates and acceleration of mth modal coordinates. (/ = 1 . and ^KI and COKI (/ or m = l . . PikiO and pckiO are /th component of surface force. Dynamic loads and Gross body motion Vibration normal modes Static correction modes Modal stress coefficients Static stress coefficients Superposition I Dynamic Stress Time History Faligue Life Fig. 1 shows the conceptual data flow for the proposed method. .288 H. .and Sck (k = 1 . respectively. On the other hand. PGjiO. . . PGjiO. which are obtained from FE static stress analysis. kih component of D'Alembert inertia and Coriolis force. PI kit) and pckiO. . Using the displacement information. Nk) are the modal stress coefficients due to a unit displacement of modal coordinates qKi(t) or qKmit). respectively. . . Su. 6) are static stress coefficients that are the contribution to the stress vector cr due to a unity of psi{t). Fig. 3. . 2. psi(t). . SGJ U = 1 . Nk) are the modal damping factor and the natural frequency. Kim et al. Conceptual procedure and data flow. 3 ) .Nh). 1. .
An efficient and accurate dynamic stress computation by flexible multibody dynamic system simulation and reanalysis. Dynamic Stress Analysis of a Flexible Body in Multibody System for Fatigue Life Prediction. [2] Kim HS.0321 e Fig.DAe 0.H.0 Time (sec) Fig. 4. 3.03S00 0.0 60. References [1] Ryu JH. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics O.S. Displacement time histories. Dynamic stress time history at the roof measured at the axle spindle for the Belgian mode. . KSME Int J 1997. Kim et al. simulation for the prototype vehicle is implemented and stress time history is obtained as in Fig. Korea.Q320Z 289 Magnitude(m) CH1_RS_DIS_FIL DAC 0.DAC 0. 40. 4.03©3« Magnltude(m) CH2_RS_DIS_FIL. The University of Inha. Thesis. Kim HS.D.ll(4):386396. Yim HJ. Ph. 0 3 0 0 0 Magnitude(m) CH4 RS_DIS_FIL. Accuracy of the stress time history has been validated in the durability evaluation for the vehicle with the test result. 1999.03«»© Magnitude(rn) CH3 RS DIS FIL DAC 0 .03©32 0.
Probabilistic models are proposed to take into account the uncertainties involved in this prediction. essential and preventive maintenances are the most fundamental ones [8. In order to consider the lifetime performance of an individual structure or a group of similar structures. This paper presents some of the work that has been performed on the probabilistic models used to predict the time to failure of deteriorating structural systems considering both no maintenance and maintenance options.and postprocessing capabilities is introduced.e. and the time [i. Fax: Hi (303) 4927317.290 Probabilistic models for predicting the failure time of deteriorating structural systems Jung S. the annual rate of reliability loss. Yunping Xi Department of Civil. Tel. Structures. The time to failure is defined as the time at which the reliability of the system downcrosses a prescribed target reliability level. design. different methods may be used in analysis. «' and ti are random variables representing the reliability index of the structural system or group of similar structural systems as constructed (i. Boulder. Deterioration 1. The time to failure is defined as the time at which the reliability of the system downcrosses a prescribed target reliability level. 1 shows the program implementation and pre. respectively. initial rehability index). lifetime system performance has to be considered [13].. USA Abstract This paper presents some of the work that has been performed on the probabiUstic models used to predict the time to failure of deteriorating structural systems considering both no maintenance and maintenance options.and postprocessing phases of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems without { Po for 0 < r < ti . CO 803090428. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. A computer program being developed for probabilistic modeling of structural systems with pre.and postprocessing capabilities is introduced.. these models may be appHed to failure time prediction of any deteriorating structural system or group of similar structures. A computer program being devel* Corresponding author. Ferhat Akgul. Maintenance. Email: frangopo@colorado. Kong. However.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The use of reliability based methods in predicting the lifetime performance of deteriorating structures is generally recognized [7]. The type of maintenance interventions can have a significant effect on the lifetime performance of deteriorating structural systems. (A)S(Oioss/year). however. Frangopol*. Introduction In modem management of deteriorating structural systems. The timevariant reliability index profile function P(t) of a system is modeled as follows: (1) Poitti)a for t > ti where ^o. All rights reserved. Probabilistic models The probabilistic models developed originated as a result of research related to bridge reliabilitybased maintenance analysis. Implementation of the proposed models in computer programs is discussed. Implementation of the proposed models in computer programs is discussed. and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado. age (years)] at which deterioration is expected to start. Reliability.: +1 (303) 4927165. Fig. The model for no maintenance option uses a bilinear function for the timevariant reliability index profile of the deteriorating system. Environmental. and maintenance [36].J. Probabilistic models are proposed to take into account the uncertainties involved in this prediction. Bathe (Editor) oped for probabilistic modeling of structural systems with pre.9]. 2.e. Keywords: Probability. These interventions can be classified into several types. Dan M.
maintenance. This figure also shows the program implementation and pre. The assumed PDFs of y^o. ie.6 . DEV = 26. 2. and improvement in reliability index (if any) immediately after the application of preventive maintenance y. h.i h^ 0.015 STD. = 4.5 YRS A 0.010 < o C D C Q \ /' " ' ^ " " ^.DEV = 43. the reliability index of the system ^{t) is less than the target reliability index y3target. as follows: the time of first application of preventive maintenance fpi. 0. is the time at which the reliability index starts falling below the target reliability index.. the PDF of the failure time.Time to failure. fpR.4 YRS W u_ O m • W ^ Q O 0. duration of preventive maintenance effect on reliability /pD. ^R. Computer implementation of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems with maintenance. Also shown is the first time to failure (also referred as the rehabilitation time (rate)). Kong et al.rge. yStargetThe second option includes preventive maintenances performed during the lifetime of the deteriorating structural system or group of similar structures. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the three basic input variables are shown. at a specified time t. based on a given target value target.005 Monte Carlo Simulation Routine / J .4 YRS P.The probability of this event P{P(t) < Aarget) cau bc cvaluatcd using Monte Carlo simulation or it can be approximated using the assumption that the distribution of ^(t) is normal. J ^\^ J \ 9 0. If the normal distribution 1^1^ First Time to Failure Program MEAN = 82. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 291 U. Computer implementation of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems without maintenance. fpi. fp. 1.010 0.S.J. First T i m e to Failure) Program Program O u. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 TIME (YRS) f iia Function Selection Routine i Fig. 50 100 TIME (YRS) ISO cc CL Function Selection Routine Fig. The maintenance action is referred as preventive maintenance due to the fact that it is applied during the period at which ^{t) > target. = 4. ^R. based on a given target value Aarget. .. P{t) < target. ^PD. Consider the event that. annual reliability loss during preventive maintenance effect 0.9 YRS K. y^target.020 •^ I M LI I U ». time of reapplication of preventive maintenance fp. after preventive maintenance is applied. This option includes five additional basic random variables in addition to the three random variables described earlier.UCJU LU hhQC U.. 2.and postprocessing phases of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems with maintenance. This is the time at which reliability index starts falling below the target reliability index. / \ STD. is displayed.Similar to the earlier case. oi..6 Monte Carlo Simulation Routine I t^= ! C O LU z < UJ LL Q o >. MEAN = 51. and y are shown in Fig.
a[y6(0]. 3 shows a sample preprocessing input screen and Fig. 3.^?. simulation and normal approximation are used in the computation of the first time to failure of deteriorating structural systems with or without maintenance. 1. respectively. The main program interacts with a separate routine that performs the Monte Carlo simulation for function calls are made to five additional timevariant functions of random variables at different points in time within the lifetime of the deteriorating structural system.ifSI.'. The program guides the user through successive input screens to ease the pre. etc. standard deviation of jS(r). A sample preprocessing input screen. 4 displays the output through the postprocessor. to establish integration and linkage between separate reliability software applications. the necessary information related to the basic random variables such as probabilistic distributions. Fig.292 J.'•/] .^) «it«&4Lognormal3 \ . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics approximation is used.(„„<^. (1). For no maintenance case. this probability is: . and 0 ( ) are the mean value of ^(0. Both. a program has been developed to perform the above mentioned tasks in a graphical user interface platform. to obtain the capability for performing quick and reliable computations. The program follows the same algorithm except the Fig.. .10 • ^:. Kong et al.00 1 0. Computer implementation As shown in Fig. The program loops over time at specified intervals and computes the probability distribution of ^(r) at each time interval.)=*(^=^.50  15.0  120 5. Fig.^ifift Pit). 4. The algorithm used for the preventive maintenance case has the same structure as that used for the no maintenance case. are entered into the program at the initial stage. 1 1o"l 40.: l i ^ (uniform ' ^ j 0 .S. and the standard normal probability. The probability distribution of ^(r) is simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation method..and postprocessing phases.. . p{t) is equated to the function shown in Eq.0 1 . To accelerate the research in reliability based maintenance studies. main descriptors. p{t) is equated to a multilinear equation. Postprocessing output screen. I J JLognormagj  7. .uiu.0 0 2 0  5ao 1 1 "M I I ""I 0. 3. •^jgixi Efe fyp^fm jjgwiKw. and last but not least.J' UJi.10 1 1 j 1 where E[p{t)].'.
Corotis RB. De Leon D. Repair optimization of highway bridges using a system reliability approach. 7183. Reliabilitybased condition assessment of deteriorating reinforced concrete bridges considering load redistribution. Struct Safety 1999. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4.J. 1999.125(7):766775. Management of Highway Structures. Vassie P. pp. In: Das PC. New York: ASCE. Frangopol DM. pp. London: Thomas Telford. [3] Wen YK. Thesis. [4] Estes AC. New developments in bridge management methodology. University of Colorado. Highways Agency is gratefully acknowledged. Tailor P. Cheng FY (Eds). 2000. in progress. pp. In: Frangopol DM. 1999. The opinions and conclusions presented in this paper are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring organizations. [5] Enright MP. New York: Pergamon. Frangopol DM. In: Frangopol DM (Ed). Conclusions This paper proposes a reliabilityoriented simulationbased modeling for failure time prediction of deteriorating structural systems or groups of similar structures with or without maintenance. Current and Future Trends in Bridge Design. Target reliability for structural design based on minimum expected lifecycle cost. References [1] Frangopol DM. Reston. CMS9522166. London: Thomas Telford. Struct Eng Int 1998. Strategic planning of future maintenance needs. [8] Wallbank EJ. National Science Foundation through grants CMS9506435. Kong et al. Design based on minimum expected lifecycle cost. [2] Ang AHS. 192203. 4558. In: Das PC (Ed). CO. . pp. Boulder. 1999. 210236. Das P C Management of bridge stocks based on future reUability and maintenance costs. [7] Das PC. 1997. Nowak AS (Eds). Kang YJ. and CMS9912525. 293 Acknowledgements The partial financial support of the U. Reliability and Optimization of Structural Systems. 1997. Much work still remains to be done in this area but the procedure provides a first step toward developing such management systems. Lifecycle cost analysis for bridges. [9] Frangopol DM. VA: ASCE.D. The probabilistic modeling described can be adopted for reliabilitybased management of structural systems.K. pp.S. CMS9872379. Ph. Construction. Optimum Planning for Maintaining Reliability of Deteriorating Structures. Bridge Safety and Reliability. Advances in Structural Optimization. In: Frangopol DM. Department of Civil Engineering. 163172. [6] Kong JS.8(4):299302. J Struct Eng 2000.21(2):159195.S. Rackwitz R (Eds). Frangopol DM. and Maintenance. and of the U.
USA ^ Sandia National Laboratories./r^)/M. The code is implemented within the SIERRA framework [1].H. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. respectively. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Problems of interest often include significant nonlinear behavior such as complicated material response.O. PRESTO.J. Albuquerque. Scalable contact 1. P.M. P. NM 871850847. the body are S/Tpu + pf^=0 (1) where T is the 'true' stress in the deformed configuration. The solution to Eq. Albuquerque. (1) must satisfy u = d(t) on the boundary Su where kinematic boundary conditions are prescribed and T • n = s(t) onthe boundary Sj where the traction boundary conditions are applied. Albuquerque. The equations of motion for * Corresponding author. Parallel computing. which provides a data management framework in a parallel computing environment that allows addition of capabilities in a modular fashion. Brown' " Sandia National Laboratories ^ Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics.O. NM 871850847. Introduction Resolving the effect of dynamic loading events on engineering components represents a vital part of modem design. Keywords: Transient dynamics. which provides support for massively parallel computation and a modular approach to adding new capabilities. With the central difference method as implemented in PRESTO. Scherzinger\ K.S.L.O.294 PRESTO: impact dynamics with scalable contact using the SIERRA framework J. and M is the nodal point lumped mass. Box 5800. p is the mass density per unit volume. Computational Physics Research and Development. Extensive capabilities have already been added to PRESTO and more are forthcoming. For the discretized set of equations. USA Abstract PRESTO is a threedimensional transient dynamics code with a versatile element library. P. u is the acceleration of the material point. Material Mechanics. nonlinear material models. Fax: \\ (505) 8449297. Koteras^'*. Porter % W. All rights reserved. the displacements u are related to the accelerations by {UtArpid • M. large deformation. the quantity ii at any time t is computed with ii. For surfaces 5c in contact.R. has been designed to provide a computational tool to solve such problems. and scalable contact. Gullerud% V. Tel. Box 5800. It is built upon the SIERRA framework. Box 5800. (3) where /f^^ and f^^ are the external and internal nodal forces. NM 871850819. USA ^ Sandia National Laboratories. a threedimensional transient dynamics code. = (/f^^ . Bathe (Editor) where the superscripts h and — denote different sides of the contact surface. large deformation capabiUties.(Wr  Wr+Arnew)/(^^new) (A^old + A^new)/2 (4) . and complex interaction of components in contact. Computational procedures PRESTO discretizes the equations of motion for a body and solves the resulting system of equations using a central difference time integrator [2]. and / g is a specific (force per unit mass) body force vector.gov ^ Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation. A. the jump conditions at the contact discontinuities must approximately satisfy (T+{T)n=0 (2) 2.)/(Afold) .: \l (505) 8448624. for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DEAC0494AL85000. a Lockheed Martin Company. Email: jrkoter@sandia.
All of the material models return a sound speed for each element. The isolation of code pieces into mechanics permits dynamic addition or removal of features as needed in an analysis. A large number of kinematic and traction boundary conditions have already been implemented in PRESTO. 1. four. PRESTO accesses ACME through a separate SIERRA interface which maps data structures in the SIERRA framework to the ACME library and back again. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics and the velocities u are related to the displacements u by {Ut . Contact detection and enforcement are also part of the region mechanics. This material library will be expanded to meet demands from various analyses. boundary conditions.g. An analysis using a TEMPO procedure can use ADAGIO to compute prestress conditions for a part. parallel contact in the explicit dynamics code PR0NT03D [6]. which provides a uniform approach to handling both equation of state models and some of the more typical engineering models (e. has been used as a basis for ACME._A. Code structure Codes which use the SIERRA framework are organized into a series of modules called 'mechanics'. executing the region(s). Koteras et al. Within c I 2000 w U o '% 1000 H § 1500 2000 elements per processor w 500 • • 0 100 1000 Number of Processors Fig. The SIERRA framework allows for the straightforward implementation of most elements. which is equivalent to the GreenNagdhi stress rate [3]. 3. To drive the solution of a problem over time. in which known quantities at time t are stored as the 'old' state and quantities obtained by projecting ahead A^new to time t H. the PRESTO region is nested within a procedure mechanics. respectively. Mechanics can be nested inside each other to create a rational structure for computation.^jJ/(A^old) + iUt• Ut)/(Atnc^) 295 (5) ^2500 where At in general denotes a time step increment. a TEMPO procedure has also been created which couples PRESTO with the quasistatic structural code ADAGIO [7].At^x^/l and t + Arnew/2. This convention makes it easy to update velocities and displacements. All of the current elements have both a midpointincremental and strongly objective formulation to compute strain rates.W. Smallstrain formulations for the material models can then be used within a large deformation environment. This module is responsible for the solution of the discretized equations of motion for a single time increment. Included in the boundary condition set are some specialized boundary conditions such as silent boundary. beam and spring elements. The core level of PRESTO is the region mechanics. which may contain multiple regions for a multiphysics coupling. Material models are mechanics which nest inside the elements. PRESTO uses the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) package [5]. The PRESTO region incorporates a two state architecture. A procedure mechanics.. The processing of elements occurs within element mechanics.R. as well as fully integrated formulations. Boundary conditions also exist as mechanics nested within the region. Currently. as well as other values. The region contains a number of nested mechanics which conduct computations for elements. Velocities are computed at times t . To provide objective stresses/strains under large deformation. by copying all data of state 'new' to state 'old'. is responsible for advancing time. However. Element mechanics are responsible for computing the response of a set of elements by taking the corresponding nodal displacements and returning nodal forces. cavity expansion. Much of the work used to develop scalable. and underintegrated fournode KeyHoff shell and membrane elements [4]. the element formulations utilize polar decompositions of the current deformation gradient to evaluate the material models in an unrotated configuration. elasticplastic model with hardening). for both contact detection and enforcement. the SIERRA framework. implementation of the boundary conditions has been an easy process even for the specialized conditions. Scaling for increasing mesh size.A^new are stored as the 'new' state. six material models have been implemented.and eightnode tetrahedral elements. The PRESTO procedure provides analyses which only include transient dynamic response. and are stored in states old and new. and transferring data between regions as needed. The current implementation contains a PRESTO procedure which only holds one PRESTO region. . The procedure is also responsible for updating state variables after executing the region(s).J. The current element library includes an underintegrated eightnode hexahedral element. to the new state. and current plans for PRESTO include wedge. and then pass the prestress data as initial conditions into PRESTO. which are nested inside the region as needed. etc. The SIERRA framework provides extensive capabilities for transferring data between regions. and periodic boundary conditions.
[2] Bathe KJ. The largest model in the studies had four million elements.Perfect SpeedUp 10000 ^ '% 1. ACME: a parallel library of algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment. Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis. 5. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. Bammann DJ. MA. On the analysis of rotation and stress rate in deforming bodies. hence. the same time step.20(8):725737. 1976. Example problem The scalability of PRESTO on a massively parallel machine has been studied by using a simple impact problem. 1 and 2. Adagio: nonlinear quasistatic structural response using the SIERRA framework. [4] Key SW. Koteras JR. Hoff CC. [6] Taylor LM. MA. Scherzinger WM. Future development Experience to date indicates that new capabilities — elements.• ASCI Red Times . and. thin walled tube. This should make code maintenance easier.124(l2):3347. hadaptivity. Scaling for fixed mesh size. respectively. 100 1000 10000 Number of Processors Fig. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. 4. Albuquerque. Jones RE. [5] Brown KH. [7] Mitchell JA. An impact load (a time varying pressure load) is applied to one end of a finite length. Gullerud AS. Future developments include the addition of crack growth capabilities. 2001. Analytic results for this problem can be obtained from simple onedimensional wave propagation problems. By modeling sectors of various sizes.R. Cambridge. 1989. Porter VL. Summers RM. • . Results for increasing mesh size and fixed mesh size scalability are shown in Figs. June 1215. boundary conditions. Koteras et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ized functions — can be added to PRESTO in a modular manner.296 100000 J. June 1215. Glass MW. 2001. NM: Sandia National Laboratories. 2048 processors were used in this analysis. An improved constant membrane and bending stress shell element for explicit transient dynamics.024 million elements References [1] Edwards HC. and a number of new elements and material models. material models. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. 2001. Int J Solids Struct 1984. Heinstein MW. June 1215. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. 2. The results of this study show excellent scalability in PRESTO. Flanagan DP PR0NT03D: A ThreeDimensional Transient Dynamics Program.. Cambridge. SIERRA: a software environment for developing complex multiphysics applications. special . and it should be able to incorporate new capabilities in a timely manner when the need arises. Stewart JR. Cambridge. [3] Johnson GC. models with different number of elements are created with the same element size. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1995. MA. Gullerud AS.
All rights reserved. describe parameter lines of the later reference surface of the shell. these infinite sets of equations are the mass conservation (3). dS is its free surface element. the special choice of 0 = 0^. and 0^ denotes the transverse coordinate. and then transformed into the weak integral form again. this transformation will be combined with a layered representation. . the set of equations of motions (4). Ruhr University Bochum. . Next. it is localized by assumption of integrand continuity. / = 0 . We start with a global statement of energy conservation. . Fax: +49 (234) 3214149. In (1).de © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. and for the sake of easier error control. a = 1. (50 (2) V (1) valid for the complete shell continuum at time r. Since modem surfacelike structures often have a layered structure or are computed — in case of inelastic materials — by use of such an idealization. . f* abbreviates the vector field of body forces per unit mass in dV. By such Fourierintegraltransformation of the original conservation of energy statement (1).2. described in 3dimensional representation by a set of convected curvilinear coordinates 0 ' .297 Layered higher order concepts for Dadaptivity in shell theory Wilfried B.. the socalled rateofenergy equation Du* denotes the velocity field of the shell surfaces.and linelike geometries. the following abbreviations are used: dV represents a material volume element of the continuum considered. 3Dadaptivity 1.. 44780 Bochum. Keywords: Higherorder shell theory. always related to the reference surface [1. But engineering praxis favors — as far as possible — reduced dimensional representations. Basic transformations The derivations thus will start from an arbitrary 3dimensional body in the E3. 1 . Such models admit the simulation of rather arbitrary shell responses including all kinds of perturbations like thickness jumps. based on the reference surface 0^ = 0.oo. ^ = 0. sets of central moments (0 < n < oo) of all force variables are formed.2. Bathe (Editor) is selected. material cracking and crushing as well as internal damage phenomena. still representing as a whole the original continuum in its multidirector representation.2. Email: w.kraetzig@sd. Universitdtsstr 150.J.2. (3) . and t* the vector field of tractions on the * Corresponding author.: 449 (234) 3229064.00 [3]: Q{Q(p'^^=0 for / = 0.ruhrumbochum. In order to transform the basic statement (1) into that one of a multidirector continuum (d„. Germany Abstract Problems of solid mechanics are basically formulated in tensor notation in the 3dimensional Euclidean space.b. mainly in order to describe deformation processes in its most natural way by surface. Daniel Jun Institute for Statics and Dynamics. . Laminated shells. / = 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. all valid for / = 0. v* shell continuum. and U* the internal energy density per unit mass Q*. Herein 0". 3. 0 < w < oo). Tel. In detail. 1.. )(:^ = 0 for / = 1. multiplied by an arbitrary but complete set of scalar functions O. The present paper will systematically transform the set of basic mechanical conditions of a 3dimensional soHd of arbitrary material into corresponding 2dimensional sets of socalled higher order shell equations. Kratzig *. some set of symmetry conditions (5) and finally the transformed residual energy statements (6)..2]. Spatial invariance requirements in connection again with a localization concept of the transformed weak statements finally lead to infinite sets of interior dynamic equations.
/ = 1. the derived equations can be reduced to low order classical shell theory and then applied to a single layer. in which all tensor components of an arbitrarily deformed state are — as a next step — decomposed with respect to the base vectors of this actual state. W12). valid for arbitrary. In detail we find the following vectordecomposed sets of equations: The equations of motion (7) and (8) in the directions of the base vectors a^. This consequently leads to discontinuities of the stress fields a"^. the transverse stresses and the loading variables. (6) as well as all moments of the sets of internal as well as external force variables: P^ = / a .^«^i 3. (7) (8) m'"3 L + m'^^Kp Im'' n=l.) . 5). Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics m^'^U/m'+p^=0. also the kinematic equations of the original 3d continuum have to be transformed likewise into infinite 2dimensional sets of equations. m^ and p^ are moments of the inplane stresses. . anisotropic and layered shells of elastic or inelastic material behavior.2) of the above given infinite sets of variables and equations. the corresponding component forms (9) and (10) of the symmetry conditions and again the set of energy expressions (11). 2. W13). a step which not will be repeated here.0. Y^ {n m'+" X d. then 6parameter theories appear (MOI » "02. D. 3). in detail the directors and their derivatives: d « — "Ai/3 5 ^n. W03. wii.„) = 0. To decouple physics from all kinematic considerations. even large deformation processes. We do not intend to elaborate in detail on this classical context. as of the actual reference surface at time t. k^ are moments of the mass distribution in thickness direction. a^^ on all layer boundaries. +p^ = 0. In correspondence to the dynamic conditions (4. This starting point delivers an intrinsic rateformulation of the shell equations. oo (10) Uo always represents a 3dimensional vector field (UQI . the energy conservation has been used in the form of the rateofwork statement. Krdtzig. Ui generally is assumed as a field of surface vectors tangential to the reference surface. Such classical shell theories are widely used in order to derive models for laminated shell structures in layered formulation [6. since such classical theories are at best capable to achieve .1 = 0. v„ + m'+"'^ • v. we end up with 3parameter shell theories (MQI. and the v„ abbreviate terms in the Fourier series of the velocity field.B. a series of transformations skipped here for reasons of shortness.5]. However. Thus the derived equations are completely free of all kinematic transformations. the displacement field u* generally will be represented by 2 vector fields on the reference surface. In its present form. (13) In these equations. "03. + m^+"'' x d„. they form a comprehensive linear set.n = 1. in the case of independence of Ui with 5parameter theories (woi. m^". the derived equations are applicable for the analysis of isotropic. will describe the classical shell theory..298 W. since the transverse strains and the transverse shear strains are approximated only by constant terms.7]. Ui possess 3 components each. Uo and Ui respectively: U* = Uo + 0Ui (14) 3^^_/^/^+^^^0.a — ^nia^ > (12) QU^ Y^(n m'+" .. We again remind the reader that also the kinematic relations have to be decomposed in the same manner.2 CX) (1=0. where the order of the moments is given by the letter /. Classical shell theories and corresponding sandwich concepts The 0th and 1st order variables and equations Q. and rather point the interested reader to a variety of adequate literature [4. (7' represents moments of the internal energy. . which can be gained by mapping of these complete sets on a Cosserat surface. J^oi. (4) (5) As remarked earlier. 2. If by application of the KirchhoffLove hypothesis Ui depends on UQ. Exceptionally both vector fields Uo. Wll. W02. In this context. all vector and tensor fields are decomposed with respect to the basis of the actual reference surface at time f. For the latter purpose. ^03). such models are principally unable to correctly map arbitrary 3dimensional responses even in a very dense package. or remained as higher order theories to approximate a package of layers. Component decomposition with respect to the actual reference surface Up to this point the question treated is of purely physical nature. Uu.
0 m hi = h2 = 10. In these 9 conditions (a = 1. as far as loads on and deformations of a surface are concerned. all their classical variables and equations describe loadinduced states of stresses and deformations.1. 299 Finally.:. all sets of higher order variables and equations (l.0(a. In order to cure these deficiencies. Obviously and as will be shown in detail in the conference lecture. In this context we are able to draw an interesting comparison to classical shell theories {l.0 = m'"^ + m ^1«/ 2(aA)7^ ^2(a^)^^2a^^^2(a^)^ ^Uc. for layered shell theories these selfequilibrating states play an important role in a more correct modeling of response properties. From the point of view of Cosserat surface mechanics. Numerical example 5. On the other hand and beyond classical shell theory. at least quadratic terms have to be considered in the displacement field representation for u*.n = 2) represent selfequilibrating states of stresses and deformations as constraints to classical shell theory. the transverse normal force.1 m t2 = 0. the transverse moment vector.B. the transverse normal moment. the bimoment tensor. The cylindrical shell has been analysed with an automatic adaptive computation procedure using an error n'^"^^b.0 m ti = 0. 1 shows the dimensions and loading as well as the material parameters. 2) we find the following force variables of this theory: ^0«. 4. . we now use a quadratic displacement field approximation as follows: : Uo + 0 U i + 0 ^ U 2 .. 1.^2m''^p''=0. in order to overcome its deficiencies and to match 3dimensional mechanical processes with Qcontinuity also in 3dimensional direction.2 m q = 1. the moment tensor. The symmetry conditions (9) and (10) deliver the following results: n^(^)=m'"^^m'^'bl •A(a^) _ (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) R^ = R2 = 5. (20) (21) 5. Tensioned cylindrical shell with geometrical discontinuity. the transverse shear stress resultant vector. we now evaluate from equations (7) and (8) the pertinent set of equations of motion with 0th. (15) In order to derive the corresponding higher order shell theory from the basic general sets (7) to (11) of the multidirector continuum. the rate of energy expression (11) reads as follows: QU' •Vo . 1st and 2nd moments: (16) (17) (18) (19) ^2(a^) All further equations and functionals of this (higher order) quadratic shell theory will be presented in the conference lecture.W. 1).3^^1a_^^U3^a which have been considered already in the above given equations of motion. that means classical shell mechanics. Tensioned cylindrical shell with discontinuity This example deals with a thin tensioned cylindrical shell with a geometrical thickness discontinuity. Krdtzig. Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Cocontinuity for their stress fields a^^.0 kN/m2 E = lO^kN/m^ V = 0.8) oiiaf}) + m^^'^dia + m^^dis + m^''^ki^ai '^ (27) + m'''\2d2a + i i s J + 2m^^ 4 + m'^^^^X2^. . l^2m'^' + p^^=0. compared to packages of classical shell models. Higher order shell theories and corresponding sandwich theories For this purpose. Fig.S AaP ^2aP m^^ the membrane stress resultant tensor.n = 0. Fig. D.
estimator according to Zienkiewicz/Zhu in 0 " as well as in 0^direction [8.6201 Steps §921.1742 1691.343O Step 4 Fig.4513 1577. hRefined meshes with error distribution in L2norm in circumferential direction. .6900 y 4S.9873 [227.2378 32.8972 1317. Fig. 3. hRefined meshes with error distribution in L2norm in thickness direction.8314 16. Due to symmetry of the shell only a quarter of the structure is shown. 2 shows the first four refined Finite Element meshes with the error distributions in the Linorm.4963 2C. Fig.5144 35596 U l 182825 1233.4603 362. 3.2825 2330054 14.300 0S4O9 4.3387 138.9139 18.7547 W.3430 Step 4 Fig.6360 1317.8117 272.0054 347.6201 93. and thus one can expect a required refinement also in thickness direction at the discontinuity.4101 243240 28. 2. Krdtzig.2847 Step I92I. 3 shows the corresponding error distributions of the 3dimensional adaptive refinement steps — zoomed at the discontinuity — with the expected refinement steps in thickness direction.2169 •577.1630 182. D.4603 362. Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.1742 •691. At the geometrical discontinuity the pure shell theory is no longer valid because of a dominating 3dimensional state.1516 30.7284 •462.B. The hrefinement procedure obviously took place towards the geometrical discontinuity.9].2847 1806.1144 36900 485144 35596 18.8972 1806.
301 [3] Kratzig WB. From these examples. Crete. Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 6. Theory of Shell Structures. [8] Ba§ar Y. Ding Y. pp. J Appl Mech 1984. from which a quadratic approximation has been truncated. Krdtzig.64:895913. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg and Sohn. In the lecture. 1985. Number 258 in 18. [7] Reddy JN.30:26112638. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Colloquium on Computation of Shell and Spatial Structures (lASSIACM 2000). Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1993. Jun D.W. [5] Ba§ar Y. volume VI. Int J SoHds Struct 1993. WB Kratzig. Naghdi PM.51:745752. several examples will demonstrate the general concept of applying such truncated sets of equations for the analysis of 3dimensional problems.B. simplifications of the derived sets of variables and equations can be filtered out by tensor norm estimates. The gained equations have been discretized and used for a sandwich concept in the finite element software FEMAS. 1972. References [1] Green AE. 2000. Friedr. A simple highorder theory for laminated composite plates. "Best" transverse shearing and stretching shell theory for nonlinear finite element simulations. Outlook Higher order shell theories have been derived by Fourier transformation of a 3dimensional solid. Adaptive strategies for the nonfinear simulation of shell structures. Greece. 425640. Kratzig WB. Refined shear deformation models for composite laminates with finite rotations. 2000. Proc Camb Philos Soc 1968. [4] Ba§ar Y. Hanskotter U. In: Fliigge S (Ed).103:135160. [2] Naghdi PM. Handbuch der Physik. A2. Mechanik der Flachentragwerke. Hanskotter U. [9] Jun D. WB Kratzig. Laws N. In: Proceedings of European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (Eccomas 2000). . 2000. Rods plates and shells. [6] Ba§ar Y. Errorcontrolled nonUnear simulation of shell structures. BerUn: Springer Verlag. D. Spain. The theory of plates and shells. Barcelona. Dusseldorf: VDI Verlag. Schultz R.
The paper emphasises the need for further developmental work for industrial application of AFEA on NoWs. the issues and needs of AFEA for industrial application are examined. The error estimators coupled with adaptive mesh refinement strategies serve to control the quality of the finite element solution and provides the engineer. the most important issue to be addressed is the efficient partitioning of a given unstructured mesh into A^^ subdomains. Bathe (Editor) reanalysis. The MSD is highly suited for parallel implementation as the decomposition is done only once for the whole adaptive analysis. The paper presents superelementbased domain decomposition suited for parallel implementation. The essential ingredients of an adaptive scheme are: • Error estimator.in © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. It is in this context that adaptive FEA has gained importance. The paper presents superelement based domain partitioning and AFEA in distributed computing environment. Keywords: Adaptive Finite Element Analysis. In the present work. • Refinement strategy. In addition. the superelements are generated using Approximate Skeletal Method (ASM) and meshes are generated by transfinite interpolation [3].iitm. In MSD. it is possible to provide accurate and rehable solutions to complex problems of engineering industry through Adaptive FEA (AFEA).: +91 (44) 4458286. In an adaptive FEA environment based on error estimation and refinement strategy. a posteriori error estimation. • Subdomain mesh generation. a very large number of papers have been published and research is in progress on many areas of application. there is a need for complete automation of the mesh generation process for * Corresponding author. Nonlinear analysis. Chennai.302 Superelement based adaptive finite element analysis for linear and nonlinear continua under distributed computing environment C. • Refinement or repartitioning of subdomains. Vr. Email: moorthy@cfead.J. Krishnamoorthy *. . India Abstract With the availabiUty of cost effective high performance computing on Network of Workstations (NoWs). Tel. Automated meshing. 600 036. the domain is divided using a medial axis decomposition and it is called Meshing by Successive Decomposition (MSD). Domain decomposition 1. Annamalai. The process can be divided into: • Domain decomposition (superelement generation) and partition to form subdomains. The advances in parallel computing technology offer the opportunity to provide accurate solutions in a costeffective computing environment. • Mesh generator. Fax: +91 (44) 2545/445 8281. Superelement based adaptive meshing Parallel mesh generation can be divided into the following stages: • Creation of Np number of subdomains. A computational framework is presented for nonlinear stress analysis. All rights reserved. Since then. 2. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. In a parallelcomputing environment to meet the computational demands of AFEA of real world problems. solutions within a prescribed tolerance. Vinu Unnithan Department of Civil Engineering. The initial decomposition is done by various techniques [2].emet. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.S. Distributed and high performance computing. U. The publication of paper by Zienkiewicz and Zhu [1] gave the much needed practical and computer implementable approach to error estimates and refinement strategies. Introduction The developments in the last 10 years in a posteriori error estimation techniques in FEA provide valuable tools for quality assurance and quality control in engineering analysis and design.
In order to help the developer a library PAVE (Parallel Virtual Environment) has been developed which can be used as a layer over PVM and MPI to take care of all message passing and communication tasks [4]. dV (2) KLD is the large displacement matrix. 5. The Zienkiewicz and Zhu and other Super KL / BlCB^^dV + f BLCB. As a typical example. 303 Convergent Error Estimators [1] have been used. . (1) 3. (b) FE mesh. Linear finite element analysis Using the explicit decomposition based on MSD. K. 2. was analyzed. As the process of 'Mesh generation' and FEA are two separate tasks with different computational complexities.dV Q o (a) (b) Fig. connecting a cluster of workstations and PCs and it has been shown that this NoWs form a costeffective highperformance computing environment needed for AFEA. (a) Domain partitioning. 4. (b) Butt strap: superelements. These types of analyses require consideration of both kinematic and material nonlinearities.dV (3) j Bl.S. Nonlinear finite element analysis Nonlinear analysis becomes important in the FE simulation of manufacturing processes like forging.C. 1.CB^. (a) Butt strap: problem definition. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics • Parallel smoothing for well formed meshes. The most computationally intensive process in a geometricallly nonlinear process is the computation of the tangent stiffness matrix KT as K T = K L + KLD + K . Krishnamoorthy et al. Fig. AFEA program has been developed under distributed computing environment. = j BlCB. 1 reported in [5]. A detailed investigation has been carried out for load balancing using six algorithms and spectral bisection with KemighanLin Heuristic. Distributed high performance computing (HFC) environment Almost all organisations have highspeed local area networks. metal casting and in the safety analysis such as crash worthiness of vehicles. The domain partitioning and FE mesh are shown in Fig. In parallel implementation. KL is the linear stiffness matrix. • Parallel attribute generation and repartition. 3 for performance evaluation. which has been found to be efficient in distributing the superelements to form as subdomains in different processors and also repartition them after mesh generation to form substructures for AFEA [4]. two plots are presented in Fig. the Butt Strap problem Fig. the problem of evenly distributing the load to all the processors is complex since the number of elements in a 'superelement' is not known a priori. 2.
With the inclusion of adaptive techniques in nonlinear FEA. the additional task of checking errors locally and globally and remeshing for every load step.S.2. the constitutive matrix C is not constant. the FE mesh is refined based on the computed elemental error indicators.• • ' / . at every load step.•" Iso n ^0 4 s 60 ^^^ .. (5) However if the error tolerance is violated at a certain load step. 4... 1 // f • —— " • • • 4 5 6 No of processors Fig. the material may yield and elastoplastic analysis has to be performed. Krishnamoorthy et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics BUTT: SpeedupFEA Linear Speedup Prob Size: 8004 Nodes Prob Size: 4735 Nodes 80 70 BUTT ^\ ^ ^ ' ^ ' . • " • ^ . In the case of material nonlinearity. 5. The subdomain distribution to various processors is carried out using spectral bisection algorithm. error estimation for nonlinear problems is still an active area of research. ^4 Cn ^ / i 30 f2 / / r / / .304 C. llZ. is executed by the master and the error is indicated to the different processors for every load step.• * ' ' GreedyKL GraphKL SpectralKL ^  20 10.7. the pointwise error in accumulated plastic strain '/?' may be approximated by [6]. In addition. distributed computing on an existing Local Area . Mesh refinement is done on the superelement by the corresponding processor. like FEM coupled with adaptivity. K(j is the geometric stiffness matrix. Computational framework The assemblage of the stiffness matrix utilizes over 70% [7] of the computational time and since stiffness components have to be updated for every iteration and increment. More recently. Performance evaluation.•' p . many investigators have used ZZ type estimators in nonlinear analysis [6]. the structure is checked for global error. points to the severity of the computation involved. Adopting the ZZapproach. However. Though considerable amount of research has been carried out in the linear analysis. GNLMNL Kernel.2 2 3 4 No of processors = (^f{p*p^y6vY (7) K„ = / G ^SGdV (4) where S is the Second PiolaKirchhoff stress matrix. The whole process is repeated until a globally converged solution has been obtained satisfying the specified error percentage. . a typical step for error in elastoplastic analysis is described here briefly. The yield stress analysis and stress update are carried out by iterative procedures like Backward Euler Integration schemes." " '" " / X'^. The L2 norm in accumulated plastic strain: 6.•. a SuperConvergent Path Recovery (SPR) is found to be more efficient and gives more accurate results [6]..# / * • • • . The L2norm error in stresses can be written as (6) 2. Conclusion For highly numerical techniques. 3. For nonlinear analysis a number of solution techniques are available for tracing full load deflection path. 5. 1. Thus the need for its implementation in a parallel environment becomes essential. Superelement based domain decomposition described in the earlier section is very well suited and the frame work being developed for the Nonlinear AFEA under the distributed computing environment is shown in Fig. phenomenally increases the computational process. for large deformation problems. To highlight the computational intensive process.• . Error estimation Once convergence has been reached in a load step.
andrew. 1999.a new approach to quadrilateral mesh generation.16:4552.edu/user/sowen/survey/softref. Stein E. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987. WitNn Fig. http://www.S. A survey of parallel nonlinear dynamic analysis methodologies. the adaptive processes need to be integrated with the Finite Element packages on HPC platform for providing the much needed reliability to analysis and design in engineering industry. Okstad KM. Niekamp R. 4. Error estimation and adaptivity in explicit nonlinear finite element simulation of quasistatic problems.53:10331043. India. IIT Madras.72:627644. Meshing of the problem domain by successive Superelement decomposition techniques has an inherent parallelism and is ideally suited for parallel implementation of AFEA.C.cmu. Raphael B. Mesh Re^nemantj b^ed on MSD cr olh@f algorithms. [3] [4] [5] [6] References [1] Zienkiewicz OC. Next Lpaei Step to tie mas^r Ibf /s^sem^ Msemi^c^the $iffr>ass mafeix and kimr^ Force Sector. Klaas C. To make all these development processes serve the industrial needs. MS thesis submitted in the Department of Civil Engineering.24:337357.20:137. ComputMech 1995. To solve real life practical problems.html Krishnamoorthy CS.D. Gangaraj SK. Berstad T. Parallel mesh generation and adaptive twodimensional finite element analysis on distributed computing environment. Hopperstad OS. Fahmt MW. Framework of nonlinear AFEA in distributed computing environment. Comput Struct 1999. A posteriori estimation of the error in the finite element solution by computation of the guaranteed upper and lower bounds. Parallel adaptive finite element computations with hierarchical preconditioning. Annamalai Vr. A framework is also proposed in distributed computing environment for its efficient implementation. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. nology. areas like Superelement based mesh generation for surfaces and 3D solid elements need further development. available on the Internet at World Wide Web \JB1. Mathisen KM. Hamini AH.^ f Traisf^fjg D ^ f mm the Slava^ Viaribies from mesh Not WitNn limits. A survey of unstructured mesh generation tech [7] [8] . 1999. Krishnamoorthy et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 305 Ev^yationof stiffness components like Ki + KLO •• K0 and Residual Force Vectcsr ^ Evaluation c^stfUhess ^ componerts like Kl + KLDf Key and Reskfeial Force I Vector / ^ *_^ ^^ . Ph. However. [2] Owens S. Zhu JZ. Nonhnear AFEA provides the ultimate key. C&S 1994. Finite Elem Anal Des 1995. of Workstations and PCs is the most economically viable solution. Dissertation submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University. Mukherjee S. Meshing by successive superelement decomposition (MSD) .
Bathe (Editor) to propose an appropriate mesh deletion time after contact separation. Furthermore. see e. University of ErlangenNuremberg. All rights reserved. Multibody system. Especially the transition from FE to MBS modeling requires great care. Kinematical relations and balance laws for momentum and angular momentum are utilized for this purpose. the efficiency of the multibody system approach and the possibility to describe and compute deformations correctly with the nonlinear finite element method. Egerlandstr. In this paper. This paper focuses additionally on the determination of a sound switching time. Nonlinear finite element method. the text book by Pfeiffer and Glocker [1]. Keywords: Contact. An energybased criterion to automatically propose the appropriate switching time is presented.e. Introduction The analysis of contact problems is an important technical problem which unfortunately always involves great computational effort. the review paper by Wriggers [2].g. 2. Finally. This makes it possible to combine the advantages of both methods. the problem arises. The transition from rigid to discretized deformable bodies is illustrated in Fig.g. 2. sophisticated administration schemes have been developed.unierlangen. While for the contact of rigid bodies a lot of work has been done during the last decade. Germany Abstract The analysis of contact problems using hybrid multibody system (MBS)/finite element (FE) simulation is presented. Transition from rigid bodies to discretized bodies After contacts between bodies are detected they are discretized for the finite element computations using onthefly created highquality meshes with quads or triangles [3]. Transition 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.306 Multibody system/finite element contact simulation with an energybased switching criterion Lars Kubler *.J. 5. 91058 Erlangen. Email: kuebler@ltm. An important problem within the hybrid simulation approach is the computation of the required mechanical information for the transitions between the two approaches. Several aspects have to be considered to enable a reliable hybrid contact simulation. Energybased switching criterion. If several potentially colliding bodies are under consideration. there seems to be few material in literature concerning mixed or hybrid multibody system/finite element contacts. it has been shown to be efficient to compute the motion of noncolliding bodies by the multibody system (MBS) method and the motion and deformation of colliding bodies with the nonlinear finite element (FE) method. the nontrivial problem when and how to switch back and forth between the different modeling approaches is investigated. as here the intrinsic information of the discretized body has to be reduced to the smaller amount of rigid body information. For the example of three moving bodies which are colliding successively and the corresponding MBS/FEM transitions see Fig. see e. i. Since it is not known in advance which bodies collide and how long they remain in contact. and also finite element contact has gained great maturity. Hybrid simulation. 1. It will be shown how the required quantities are computed based on kinematical relations and balance laws for momentum and angular momentum. a criterion is discussed * Corresponding author. Peter Eberhard Institute of Applied Mechanics. The motion of rigid bodies during planar multibody system simulation is defined by . The relevant algorithms which are required as well as a detailed description of the mechanical transitions are included in Eberhard [3]. when to switch back to the multibody system method after contact separation.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
the position rocit) and angular rotation a{t) of a coordinate system Kc in an arbitrary body fixed point C. 2.re Pi of the boundary polygon points Pi with respect to the inertial coordinate system Kj are given to the meshing algorithm. Eberhard / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 307 (d) Fig. where some approximations are necessary. Kiibler.rcKj X 0 (0 (1) These nodal velocities complete the determination of kine . and its angular rotation and velocity a 0 = Vc\. t T T 7 T T T T T T T T 1 4 • 1 rJk^ i^j I 4 Fig. the positions roPi =roc \. Transition from rigid to discretized bodies. Discretized bodies possess much more degrees of freedom than rigid bodies. In order to create the finite element mesh. that computes the mesh [4]. With the position roKj of the nodes Kj of the finite element mesh the node velocities VK can be calculated 0 VKJ = Vc + {roKj roc)^ 0 CO matic quantities of the discretized body. see Fig. Transition from discretized bodies to rigid bodies A more complicated topic within the hybrid MBS/FEM simulation is the transition from the finite element description to the multibody system. as well as the respective velocity Vc and angular velocity co. 1. 1. a reduction of the available information is necessary for the transition FEM to MBS. Example for a hybrid MBS/FEM simulation. P. The position roc and the velocity re of the rigid body. Therefore. used then as initial conditions for the further dynamic simulation.L. 3.
The conservative approach to overcome this problem is.] e 1^2/1 xi j ^ follows after some transformations [5]. (6) with V := [v\y Vlx V2y . _ DFE. After their separation the bodies remain meshed. Mesh creation and deletion. The kinetic energy of the discretized bodies after the separation slightly varies because of their eigenvibrations. A more advanced and efficient approach to deal with this aspect uses estimates for the ratio of the internal elastic energy before mesh deletion and the kinetic energy of the rigid body after mesh deletion. \ Eqs. is investigated.V2x ••] and (7) allow the determination of the angular velocity (8) JfE.s = jNRNRpdn = R MR. P. The kinetic energy does not reach exactly zero as some of the nodes are still in motion because of wave effects within the elastic bodies. . 4 shows computed curves for the kinetic energy of the bodies for different material damping coefficients at. even if the efficiency suffers.s ~ R M R Finally ros and Vs are converted to the body fixed reference point C [5]. It is desirable to delete the mesh as soon as possible after the separation in order to switch back to the more efficient multibody system simulation.. However.. a body moves freely with its center of mass being on a parabola. which is based on the 'EarCutting' algorithm by O'Rourke [6]. for 100 time steps. a simple system of two elastic bodies. (7) and CO must be determined appropriately from the positions ToKj and velocities VKJ of the n nodes of the finite element mesh of this body.. whereas for a discretized body the momentum follows as = / pNdQV = A'M 'V. As an example for this approach. After separation. Fig. After the collision the discretized bodies decelerate almost to rest.Xs md Xs := [xs ys Xs ys . The basic idea for determining the velocity Vs is the conservation of linear momentum before and after mesh deletion.g. density p. frequent (nonphysical) contact/separation transitions occur and the total simulation efficiency decreases. for the moment of momentum of the discretized body Dp = R M V. The position ros of the center of mass for a homogeneous planar body with finite element displacement shape functions A^. Then the bodies expand again and their velocity increases. Determination of the switching time m 1 0 0 1 0 1 . Both bodies approach with same velocity. node reference positions X and nodal displacements U is ros = . mass m. This also requires the determination of rc5. where it is almost fully transformed into potential or strain energy... Kiibler. 1 0 0 1 (3) 1 0 The angular rotation of the rigid body is determined approximately by averaging of appropriate edge rotations or by an suitably formulated Least Squares problem.308 L. (5) The angular velocity co of the rigid body is determined similarly by conservation of angular momentum. A favorable reference point is given by the center of mass 5. (6) Another problem that arises for the hybrid simulation is how long bodies should be computed by the finite element method after separation.S _ R M V E. The kinetic energy decreases to a minimum when the maximum deformation is reached. (4) With Js = JFE the velocity follows 1 Vs = —A. The momentum of a rigid body can be calculated by 75 = mvs. The moment of inertia of a discretized body with reference to its center of mass can be determined as follows JpE. mass matrix M. The center of mass of the body should remain at the same position before and after the deletion of the mesh and the transition to the rigid body.M m V. M. 3. as shown in Fig. (2) or with the auxiliary matrix A 4. e. to keep the mesh for many time steps after the separation.f pNdQ'iX m J + U). Whereas CO is the same for each point of a rigid body. Eberhard / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics with R := X \U . if the mesh is deleted too early. see Eberhard [3] or Kubler [5]. the calculation of the angular momentum requires a reference point... 3. . Fig.
[4] Nowottny D. of the total energy of the bodies oscillates between kinetic and strain energy. The strain energy decreases because of material damping in a nonconservative system. Multibody Dynamics with Unilateral Contacts. 1999. Quadriliteral mesh generation via geometrically optimized domain decomposition. New York: Wiley. [3] Eberhard P. [6] O'Rourke J.25 Fig. Aachen: Shaker. Habilitation. Kinetic energy for different damping coefficients. A certain amount. 1996. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [2] Wriggers P. Arch Comput Methods Eng 1995 . Special care is required if the center of gravity of a body remains at rest after separation. it may contribute to the simulation of largescale systems with many moving bodies and multiple simultaneous contacts. 1997. Zur hybriden Simulation von Kontaktvorgangen mit Mehrkorpersystemen undfinitenElementen (in German). Hopefully.2(4): 149. This part corresponds to the kinetic energy of the rigid body after mesh deletion. docker C. References [1] Pfeiffer F. which is quite low in this example. 5. Kubler. the computation of the position and orientation of the rigid bodies from the node positions requires a lot of care and approximations cannot be avoided. [5] Kubler L. Special attention is further required after the contact . 309320.L. 4. Institute B of Mechanics. Conclusions An important topic within the mixed MBS/FEM contact simulation is given by the transitions between the two modeling approaches.1 time 0. While the transition from multibody systems to finite elements is usually not problematic and also during the reverse transition the computation of the velocities and angular velocities from balance of momentum and angular momentum requires no approximations. P. Proceedings of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable. 1998.15 0. The proposed procedure allows efficient simulations of contact problems without neglecting mechanical soundness during contacts. pp. Eberhard/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 14 12 10 c 309 I 0. Kontaktuntersuchungen durch hybride Mehrkorpersystem/Finite Elemente Simulationen (in German). separation to decide when to switch from the discretized bodies in the FE model back to the rigid bodies of the multibody system. One idea described in this paper is to use a threshold of the ratio of the internal elastic energy before mesh deletion and the kinetic energy of the rigid body after mesh deletion. Computational Geometry in C. 2000. For the automatic determination of the mesh deletion time a certain ratio p of the strain energy to the kinetic energy ^ E^^ ^ UKU ^ Ekin V M V ^^ can be used as a threshold criterion. Stud173. The remaining amount of the total energy is the kinetic energy resulting from the free motion of the body. University of Stuttgart. Finite element algorithms for contact problems.
Technical Research Centre of Finland. which are in some cases implemented with void nucleation and coalescence properties. Bathe (Editor) In Eqs. Different calibration procedures for the constants of the GTN model were ap . how ample is the margin of applicability and the level of precision they can produce with minimal investment to the various intrinsic material parameters. Keywords: Damage mechanics. Particularly since the most common solution method of the governing field equations is the finite element method (FEM). Introduction Ductile fracture and crack propagation in local approach are modeled by void growth models. strain hardening exponent = 1 0 . Espoo.b) a^ = ^/3siJsi~/2. Damage evolution 1. CQ the flow stress and A the normal distribution parameter for void nucleation as given in [2]. Stj = dtj . Ductile failure. and the scaling of the damage evolution description is found to be principally different to those commonly applied in fracture mechanics preeminently in reference to experimental results. (la. Sij the logarithmic strain tensor. Email: anssi. / is the scalar valued damage variable. The issues that have arisen concerning the modeling have been especially the parameters and the generality of the GTN approach. a/y T the Cauchy stress tensor. All rights reserved. computational cell size = 100 iim). 2. 02044VTT.laukkanen @ vtt. Gtj are the components of the metric tensor in a Cartesian frame. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. when the investigation is carried out over a range of specimen sizes of single edge notched bend type and the results are interpreted in coincidence to experimental and fracture mechanical assessment procedures of the related micromechanical fracture phenomena. The associative flow potential and the damage evolution equation of the used implementation of the GTN model were [13]: 0 f = ~ \2qif cosh (\f)s. Transferability. The applicability and limitations of the model are considered by assessing the constraint description of the GTN model in the investigated cases.fi © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The model predictions and the overall response are inferred by a comparison with experimental trends and fracture mechanics scaling estimates. sf' = Jlkfjefj /2i is the effective plastic strain rate. Fax: +358 (9) 4567002.310 Consistency of damage mechanics modeling of ductile material failure in reference to attribute transferability A.akkGij/3. the numerical works in relation to ductile crack propagation have adapted the computational cell approach. Current work addresses the behavior of the GursonTvergaardNeedleman (GTN) model when subjected to assessment of damage formation in different dimension fracture mechanics test specimens. (la) (lb) *TeL +358 (9) 4565538. The used numerical formulation was Lagrangian with isotropic incremental plasticity description (A533B steel: yield strength = 400 MPa. Methods and theory Numerical simulations were performed incorporating the computational cell approach for ductile crack propagation with finite strains and the GTN model utilizing the WARP3D research code. qt are the constants introduced in [1]. Laukkanen * VTT Manufacturing Technology.J. The micromechanical interpretations and the quantitative predictive properties of the GTN model are still under debate.e. i. Finland Abstract Damage mechanics formulations of fracture phenomena are qualified on the basis of transferability. Constraint. Current study focuses on the quality and nature of the computational estimates for ductile crack propagation.jGij 'q2crkk\ K 2oro / (1+^3/').
There is also a moderate scale effect. the predicted process zone of fracture is larger the larger the specimen. Included are standard validity bounds following ASTM E1737. NCi >>^cro 3.£^=0.02. scaling predictions for overall toughness effects were performed following a smallscale yielding type of a correction for fracture toughness given in form (for similar references. D the size of the computational cell. specimen size and crack propagation. 3 rely on the properties of the near cracktip conditions as presented in Fig. of which the specimen dependent results are given for the 101055 mm^ calibration. Results and discussion The computational fracture resistance curves for bend specimens of different size are presented in Fig. as can be seen by comparing the results to those of Fig.5.•*^ 3427 mm 101055 mm^ 10201 G mm^ O 2550225 mm^ 1010 mm^ 2 Aa 3 4 5 Aa [mm] Fig. Simulated fracture resistance curves for bend specimens of different size.2). This is given in Fig. The parameter introduced as abscissa in Fig.A. The results of Fig. The results of Fig. 1.25 fQ=0. 2 present clear specimen dependent differences as a function of applied loading. The . overall following a principle of unified stressed volume. the criterion . q^=1. (2) / is the Jintegral. 2. f^=0. This fracture mechanics prediction is in very limited agreement with the outcome of the GTN model. /' (P\^ 0r (2) d(Afl + ^. (p) the complete and specific mappings of oi over the criterion specified volume. 5. To illustrate specimen size related effects to crack tip constraint. It is seen that the differences between specimen sizes start to become significant quite early on when compared to the fracture resistance curves. 2. The results of Fig. 4 can be in approximate sense understood as the equivalent deformation rate of different specimens. q3=2. Values of the damage variable / were transformed to crack propagation by defining the crack tip to be located at a point within the cell elements where the damage was 3/4 of that required for element extinction (which was taken as / ^ = 0. i. results pertaining the sensitivity of damage rate on geometric size are presented in Fig. To describe the local response within the process zone.=1. the GTN model predictions can be presented as dependent on the levels attained by the field variables. Laukkanen /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics fg = initial void volume fraction f^ = fraction of nucleating voids e^ = average void nucleation strain 311 140012001000r^ Jii^ 800 H 600 400 200 H 11020 mm^ T T" H—« A T«rq. 1.0015.•^ IF* 2550 mm . the relationships in the scaling treatment of field variables and the response provided by the constitutive equations of the GTN model differ. As such. 1 demonstrate the overly conservative nature of standard set validity bounds in relation to the predictions of the GTN model. 4. To illustrate this effect. 1.e. (2) is given in Fig. In addition to the GTN model. The fracture toughness prediction according to the scaUng criterion of Eq.) where the integration domain carries over the near crack tip region satisfying the specified condition for the first principal stress with the value of A = 1. plied and evaluated and some of these observations are given in the course of current work. In Eq. 3. Afl the crack growth and (0.3 2D Plane Strain A^ 1J J" / . the local hoop stress field ahead of a propagating crack is presented in Fig. see [4]): GTN model was calibrated for 101055 mm^ 1020100 mm^ and 2550225 mm^ specimens.
Since the damage evolution equation is basically straincontrolled. The results of the study can be concluded as follows.100 0.02. 5 illustrates that the near crack tip cells exhibiting the highest states of dilatational deformation do not contribute to the overall damage formation rate with such a difference that the results would pertain size dependencies particularly when the scale effects are noted.3 3427 mm 101055 mm' 1020100 mm' 2550225 mm' ^ ^ ^ ^ T l r * * * * 0. Dependency of near crack tip hoop stressfieldon loading level. 4.q3=2.25 f =0. (2) Overall. 2. .025 0.q^=1.050 0.075 0. 3.6 mm r = distance from crack tip b = initial specimen ligament Fig.1 =0. the standard specified validity restrictions to fracture resistance determination appear overly conservative.25 f =0. Laukkanen /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics q^=1. (1) According to damage mechanics based analyses. and even though the material outside the immediate damage zone experiences higher loading conditions in larger specimens. (3) The predictions of fracture mechanical analysis methods for domainrelated effects can be greatly different to those of local approach particularly for ductile rupture. the predictions between damage and fracture mechanics have a scale difference due to the differences in parameters and the locality of the applied formulations. Fig. q^=1. H e A Aq. but the generality of the material model parameters poses restrictions.02.6=0.=1. As such.5. crack propagation and specimen size. f =0. £^=0. Scaling fracture resistance criterion for toughness differences between specimens. q3=2. leading to overshoot in constraint corrections.0015.150 Fig. the GTN model provides a characteristic description to experimental results.0015.5. Conclusions Numerical and analytical studies were carried out to evaluate the characteristics and properties of the GTN model in relation to consistency and behavior when subjected to different constraint conditions.125 0.312 A. this does not affect the fracture toughness development due to the range of void growth and since the voids grow several orders of magnitude before final failure.3 J = constant lAa approx 0.
Void nucleation effects in biaxially stretched sheets.2 0 .A. 4. Material failure by void growth to coalescence. the GTN model predicts a mild ligamentcontrolled effect for resistance and a greater applicability of miniature specimen testing techniques in harmony with experimental results. 1995. [3] Tvergaard V. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials. the GTN model focusing on the immediate near tip damage conditions leading to relative insensitivity to boundary conditions.A . (4) The scale of the interpretation in toughness transferability is greatly different.6x10" over cells 313 ~«—3427 mm . J Eng Mater Technol 1980. . (Aa+3D) —©—101055 mm^ (Aa+3D) . Scaledependent damage rate of the GTN model results as dependent on crack propagation and level of crack driving force.1 0 0 mm^ (Aa+3D) 2550225 mm'. [2] Chu CC. Numerical modeling of ductile tearing effects on cleavage fracture toughness. Adv Appl Mech 1990. Dependency of damage rate of the GTN model on state of stresstriaxiality and damage. In: Kirk Mark. Constraint Effects in Fracture Theory and Applications: Second Volume.102:249256. References [1] Tvergaard V.all 10 15 20 J/(CT„D) Fig. I D . (Aa+3D) 3427 mm'. (5) The straincontrolled formulation of the damage evolution equation in the GTN model makes it more independent of near crack tip region stress fields and also connects to the range of damage formation all the way to element extinction. . Anderson TL. Fig. Bakker Ad (Eds). Tang M. Int J Fract 1981. [4] Dodds RH. x a . ASTM STP 1244.17:389407. Needleman A. ZDjall 2550225 mm'. I D . Influence of voids on shear band instabilities under plane strain conditions.27:83151.all 101055mm'.a l l 1020100 mm'. Laukkanen /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics over domain 1. (6) Considering the fracture resistance predictions. 5.1 0 .
Current bridge management options The inevitable deterioration of a structure can be controlled through the monitoring of its system performance. a steel girder is susceptible to corrosion causing section loss and compromising its strength. All rights reserved. a bridge has three main components as shown in Fig. Keywords: Fault tree.314 A model of deteriorating bridge structures K. For example. A steel girder is also vulnerable to fatigue which may lead to sudden brittle fracture. and (3) substructure. This paper presents a fault tree model of a bridge structure that is useful in the area of bridge management.H. \ ^aiarins IV. (2) superstructure. A fault tree model of a structure appropriately represents the element and component interrelationships. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. In the case of bridges owned by states and municipalities. . 2). Although attempts are made to incorporate the interrelationships of f DECK " D«ck MatttHil " JoJntB s«»ERsmucrryi?E *Gk4mik • Braringd D«Ndk SS^STHUCTtmE *MmmmrM • P'mr ^ «/ V. Prediction models that are Markovian in nature and implemented by these tools. Tel. Each element deteriorates in a unique manner. which in turn increases the overall deterioration of the bridge.neu.6].J. A superstructure has girders. This phenomenon of element interaction accelerates the deterioration of the component. The numerical inspection data along with expert elicitation serve as input data for bridge management software packages that act as decisionmaking tools in the prioritizing of maintenance.J. Boston. 1: (1) deck. WadiaFascetti Northeastern University. are applied on an elementbyelement basis at the population level (see Fig. Introduction A structure is an assemblage of loadbearing and connective components and elements. The interaction of the degenerating elements influences the system performance. each having a unique deterioration pattern. Gk49t AlHtlnMM«t * Corresponding author. which upholds the superstructure. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. On the other hand. which supports the deck. Bathe (Editor) C 1 Fig. S. repair and rehabilitative projects [5. Bridge deterioration. 2. System performance 1. The leaky joints of a bridge introduce corrosion to the girders and bearings. Element interaction. LeBeau*. 1. This modeling approach offers a qualitative disassembling of the deterioration of the structure revealing the critical failure paths and significant elements. USA Abstract A structure is a system comprised of components and elements. Bridge management.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.: +1 (617) 3733987. Email: klebeau@coe. which transmit loads from the superstructure to the substructure. For example. Each component is comprised of a number of elements. Components and elements of a bridge system. and bearings. MA 02115. the main structural members. which carries traffic. The malfunctioning of bearings induces stress on the beams and deck. a reinforced concrete deck deteriorates through cracking which allows chloride contamination that leads to delamination of the reinforcement and spalling of the concrete. biannual inspections are conducted that are primarily visual. The interconnectedness of the elements into a system relates the deterioration of one element to the deterioration of another.
3. Girders with extensive corrosion and section loss are unable to support the loads of the deck and accelerate its deterioration. (3): 0 C2 = ^4 u (B4 n Bi) u (B4 n B2) u (^3 n B4) u (B2 n 53) u (^3 n B5) (3) . and girders (^4). Poor deck material condition (Bi) directly contributes to the deterioration of a deck. These interrelationships are reflected in Eq. rendering the interactions of the bearings. WadiaFascetti/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 315 Asstssmtnt of Bridgts at Population Ltv^l PopirtaM^n 09 hM^mi Sutrlnfisl c. [1]) Symbol Name Event Basic Event OR Gate AND Gate Usage Top and intermediate positions of tree Bottom positions of the tree Representing the union of two or more events Representing the intersection of two or more events 1 n 0 The laws of Boolean algebra reduce the probability of the deterioration of the deck to the probability of the condition of the deck material itself.7]. also have an influence over the condition of the deck. 2. Deterioration of Bridge Performance (F). The top event is the consequence of deterioration of the three components: deck (Ci). SJ. element to each of the three components described in Eq. 8^ B^anclBj 84anaB. (1). It identifies failure paths and critical elements with the advantage of unveiling logical interrelationships of a system through graphical depiction and Boolean algebra. Malfunctioning bearings that are 'frozen' induce stress on the deck. A fault tree model of bridge deterioration. 8 81 B2 Bj B4 8. Bearings that are badly decayed no longer function properly placing undue stress on the girders. (1). Also. Fig. for example a pier cap that is cracked and spalled to the degree that the bearing is undermined. Leaky joints (B2) are culprits of rust and section loss of girders and corrosion of bearings (B3). The element interactions pertaining to the superstructure are shown in Eq. F = Ci U C2 U C3 (1) Further disassembly relates the deterioration of each Table 1 Symbolic notation used in fault trees (Ang et al. the joints (^2). Superstructure deterioration can be directly attributed to the condition of the girders (primary structural members). this methodology fails to realistically represent element interaction. Current bridge management systems. water and other agents that induce corrosion and fatigue. poor deck material (Bi) that is cracked and spalled introduces debris. A leaky joint allows intrusion of water and deicing salts into the concrete promoting decay. See Table 1 for explanation of the symbols used in a fault tree. However. which are combinations of condition states of different elements (See Fig.H. Fault tree model of element interaction A fault tree is a viable approach to modeling a structure and provides a mechanism that evaluates the failure probability of the system [8. B^m4B^ 84 e^aridBs 8^ e^andS^ e^amlB^ B^m^B^ B^andB.2]. An abutment or pier that is in poor condition (B5). bearings (^3). The fault tree presented in this paper takes the failure event. compromises the structural integrity of the superstructure. 3). (2): Ci = BiU (Bi n B2) U (Bi n B3) U (Bi n B4) = Bi (2) 3. elements through the declaration of environmental effects categories or the linking of element deterioration models with the respective protection systems. superstructure (C2) or substructure (C3) as described in Eq. LeBeau.K. and qualitatively explains the different failure paths. joints and girders with the deck inconsequential [4. B^ B4 84 Bg Bj B3 B§ Bj B tefend: Oetefioratioii of bridge peffwmance Deterioration of deck componwt Deterioration of syp^strudure a^mpcment Det^oratiort of sybstmdure component Deterioration of deck material Oet^oratiofl of Joints Deterioration of tjearings Oet^loratkjn of girders Oet^oratloii of abutments/f^ers Fig.
WadiaFascetti/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics quantitative fault tree provides an objective tool to compare maintenance alternatives based on the probabilities of the basic events reflecting the condition of the elements. Also contributing are bearings that have allowed excessive movement of the superstructure resulting in stress on the substructure from the unbalanced load. No. 1984. Faulttree model of bridge element deterioration due to interaction. A References [1] Ang AHS. FHWAPD91015.316 K. [5] Golabi K. London: Elsevier. FHWASA94031. [6] Hawk H. Small E. 1993.: Federal Highway Administration. [4] Dai SH. girders and abutment/piers. In addition. While the interaction between the joints and the substructure is a significant contributor when considering the deterioration of the superstructure.J.3(3): 103110. MA: Optima Inc. Once the probabilities of the basic events are acquired. the deterioration of bridge performance is directly attributed to the condition of the deck material. These interactions are represented by Eq. The BRIDGIT bridge management system. the failure event. The logic of the fault tree following the laws of Boolean algebra reveals the critical failure paths and significant elements. Inc. A numerical fault tree also suggests element weight factors that a bridge inspector could utilize in determining a component or overall bridge rating. Cambridge. CMS9702656 is appreciated. Reliability analysis in engineering applicafions. LeBeau. r = fi. Hyman WA. Pontis technical manual. New York: Wiley. Tang WH. and Cambridge Systematics.5(1):3541. [7] Johnson P.8:309314. 1992. (6) can be simplified to Eq. abutments/piers and the interaction between the joints and bearings enhances the existing software through the suggestion of links between the element deterioration models to evaluate an overall assessment of the structure. Tech. The deterioration of one element affects other elements. Struct Eng Int 1998. it is redundant information when the structure is considered as a whole. A fault tree can properly model the structure as a system including the various element interactions. Thompson PD. A fault tree also has the advantage of being used in a quantitative aspect to obtain the probabilities of the failure events. This acknowledgement of critical elements is beneficial in the arena of bridge management. Fault tree analysis of bridge failure due to scour and channel instability. ASCE J Infrastruct Syst 1999. Fault trees applied to bridge structures enhance current techniques in bridge management. 1991. the joints and the bearings together are also significant contributors. (7). ASCE J Infrastruct Syst 1997. Wang M0. 1992. Information on the importance of elements is helpful to field inspectors when evaluating the condition of bridges. Rep. C3 = ^5 u (^3 n Bs) u {B2 n B5) = Bs Combining the expressions for the three components. [8] Sianipar P. S. The laws of Boolean algebra reduce Eq. the Boolean algebra of the tree can be executed resulting in the probabilities of the intermediate events and ultimately. or obtained from analytical reliability models. D. Washington. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. However. (3) to the following: C2 = ^4 u {B2 n 53) u (^3 n Bs) (4) The deterioration of the substructure is determined by the condition of the abutments and piers (B5).H. Acknowledgements Support from NSF Award No. Rep. u ^4 u ^5 u (^2 n ^3) (7) Therefore. water from leaky joints initiates decay of the abutments and piers. (5): 4. [3] Bridge inspector's training manual/90. No. [2] Aven T Reliability and Risk Analysis. Conclusions Structures are systems made up of components and elements. Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design: Vol II. calculated from existing inspection data.C. the failure event in terms of basic events takes the form: (5) r = 5i u ^4 u ^5 u (^2 n 53) u (^3 n B^) (6) Eq. The probabilities of the basic events of the fault tree demonstrated in this paper could be elicited from experts. . This demonstration that the deterioration of bridge performance is the union of the conditions of the deck material. girders. Adams T..
j = 1 . 0 ( Xi . fj. This form of collocation gives rise to an asymmetric system of equations and is therefore known as the asymmetric collocation method or Kansa's approach. Fax: +351 (21) 8497650. . N. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. (4) at N selected points. Keywords: Collocation technique. Av. Assume an approximation Uh(X) to the PDF in the form. This equation is solved for the aj unknowns from the system of A linear equations of the type: ^ N s(Xi) = f{Xi) = ^ a .Xj ) . The unknown coefficients aj are determined by solving the system of N linear equations formed by applying (that is. An RBF interpolant is assumed in the form of: s{x) = 22^J^^ 7=1 Consider an elliptic PDF (hyperbolic and parabolic PDEs are formulated similarly. that is. All rights reserved. Depending on the type of collocation chosen.pt © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.J. Radial basis functions 1. . Instituto Superior Tecnico. Rovisco Pais. presented a method to obtain an approximate PDE solution which leads to inherently symmetric and nonsingular systems of linear equations. The basic characteristic of the formulation is the definition of a global approximation for the variables of interest in each problem (the deflection for the plate bending problem and the stress function for the stretching plates) from a set of radial basis functions conveniently placed (but not necessarily in a regular manner) at the boundary and in the domain. Interpolation using RBFs Radial basis functions have initially been used by mathematicians working on scattered data fitting and general multidimensional data interpolation problems. by using radial basis functions: N ^ ~ ^j ) (1) i^hM = y^aj(p( 7=1 X• ) (4) where 0( x . Hermite collocation. motivated by previous works on scattered Hermite interpolation. Fasshauer [4]. . nonsymmetric or symmetric systems of linear equations are obtained. PDEs solution using RBFs The application of the interpolation technique described above to the analysis of PDEs arising in computational mechanics was first presented by Kansa [3]. Lisboa.Xj ) = J(x — Xj)^ ^cj (the multiquadric RBF for example) and Cj 7^ 0 is an adjustable parameter. Email: vitor@civil. The basic idea of scattered data interpolation is described in detail in the works of Kansa [1] and Fasshauer [2]. Leitao * Departamento de Engenharia Civil. see Kansa [1]) with interior LI and boundary LB operators domain: Cu = T (3) where C^ = [LI LB] and T^ = [FI FB] is the righthand side vector.utl.=i (2) where the field to approximate is known at A points. define a data set.A.317 Analysis of 2D elastostatic problems using radial basis functions Vitor M. by collocating) the operators LI and LB to the approximation defined in Eq. 1049001. for example. The basic characteristic of this method is that the operators are applied twice for each pair of collocation pointRBF center that is being evaluated. Portugal Abstract The work presented here concerns the use of radial basis functions for the analysis of stretching and bending plates. Meshless.: +351 (21) 8418234. ^ 2. *Tel. Bathe (Editor) where Xj.ist.
1999. Conclusions The results obtained so far show good agreement with reference solutions.A. References [1] Kansa EJ. Rabut C.4:389396. 4. [2] Fasshauer GE. Solving partial differential equations by collocation with radial basis functions. Surface Fitting and Multiresolution M