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# GATE EC 2012

**Q. 1 - Q. 25 carry one mark each.
**

MCQ 1.1

The current ib through the base of a silicon npn transistor is 1 + 0.1 cos (10000πt) mA At 300 K, the rπ in the small signal model of the transistor is

(A) 250 Ω (C) 25 Ω

SOL 1.1

(B) 27.5 Ω (D) 22.5 Ω

Option (C) is correct. Given ib = 1 + 0.1 cos (1000πt) mA So, IB = DC component of ib = 1 mA In small signal model of the transistor βVT rπ = IC = VT = VT IB IC /β = VT IB

VT " Thermal voltage IC = I B β

MCQ 1.2

rπ = 25 mV = 25 Ω VT = 25 mV, IB = 1 mA 1 mA The power spectral density of a real process X (t) for positive frequencies is shown below. The values of E [X 2 (t)] and E [X (t)] , respectively, are So,

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(A) 6000/π, 0 (C) 6400/π, 20/ (π 2 )

SOL 1.2

(B) 6400/π, 0 (D) 6000/π, 20/ (π 2 )

Option (A) is correct. The mean square value of a stationary process equals the total area under the graph of power spectral density, that is E [X 2 (t)] = or, or,

#S

3 −3

X

(f ) df

3 X

E [X 2 (t)] = 1 2π

#S

−3

(ω) dω

3 (Since the PSD is even) E [X 2 (t)] = 2 # 1 SX (ω) dω 2π 0 = 1 [area under the triangle + integration of delta function] π = 1 ;2 b 1 # 1 # 103 # 6 l + 400E π 2 = 1 66000 + 400@ π = 6400 π

#

**E [X (t)] is the absolute value of mean of signal X (t) which is also equal to value of X (ω) at (ω = 0). From given PSD SX (ω) ω = 0 = 0 SX (ω) = X (ω) 2 = 0 X (ω) 2 = 0 = 0 ω X (ω) ω = 0 = 0
**

MCQ 1.3

In a baseband communications link, frequencies upto 3500 Hz are used for signaling. Using a raised cosine pulse with 75% excess bandwidth and for no inter-symbol interference, the maximum possible signaling rate in symbols per second is (A) 1750 (B) 2625 (C) 4000 (D) 5250 Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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Option (C) is correct. For raised cosine spectrum transmission bandwidth is given as BT = W (1 + α) α " Roll of factor BT = Rb (1 + α) Rb " Maximum signaling rate 2 3500 = Rb (1 + 0.75) 2 Rb = 3500 # 2 = 4000 1.75 A plane wave propagating in air with E = (8ax + 6ay + 5az ) e j (ωt + 3x − 4y) V/m is incident on a perfectly conducting slab positioned at x # 0 . The E field of the reflected wave is (A) (− 8ax − 6ay − 5az ) e j (ωt + 3x + 4y) V/m (B) (− 8ax + 6ay − 5az ) e j (ωt + 3x + 4y) V/m

−

MCQ 1.4

**(C) (− 8ax − 6ay − 5az ) e j (ωt − 3x − 4y) V/m
**

SOL 1.4

(D) (− 8ax + 6ay − 5az ) e j (ωt − 3x − 4y) V/m

Option (C) is correct. Electric field of the propagating wave in free space is given as Ei = (8ax + 6ay + 5az ) e j (ωt + 3x − 4y) V/m So, it is clear that wave is propagating in the direction (− 3ax + 4ay). Since, the wave is incident on a perfectly conducting slab at x = 0 . So, the reflection coefficient will be equal to − 1. i.e. Er = (− 1) Ei =− 8ax − 6ay − 5az Again, the reflected wave will be as shown in figure.

0 0

i.e. the reflected wave will be in direction 3ax + 4ay . Thus, the electric field of the reflected wave will be. Ex = (− 8ax − 6ay − 5az ) e j (ωt − 3x − 4y) V/m

MCQ 1.5

The electric field of a uniform plane electromagnetic wave in free space, along the positive x direction is given by E = 10 (ay + jaz ) e−j 25x . The frequency and polarization of the wave, respectively, are (A) 1.2 GHz and left circular (B) 4 Hz and left circular (C) 1.2 GHz and right circular (D) 4 Hz and right circular

SOL 1.5

Option (A) is correct. Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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The field in circular polarization is found to be Es = E 0 (ay ! jaz ) e−jβx propagating in + ve x -direction. where, plus sign is used for left circular polarization and minus sign for right circular polarization. So, the given problem has left circular polarization. β = 25 = ω c 2πf 25 = c

8 f = 25 # c = 25 # 3 # 10 2π 2 # 3.14

= 1.2 GHz

MCQ 1.6

Consider the given circuit

In this circuit, the race around (A) does not occur (B) occur when CLK = 0 (C) occur when CLK = 1 and A = B = 1 (D) occur when CLK = 1 and A = B = 0

SOL 1.6

Option (A) is correct. The given circuit is

Condition for the race-around It occurs when the output of the circuit (Y1, Y2) oscillates between ‘0’ and ‘1’ checking it from the options. 1. Option (A): When CLK = 0 Output of the NAND gate will be A1 = B1 = 0 = 1. Due to these input to the next NAND gate, Y2 = Y1 : 1 = Y1 and Y1 = Y2 : 1 = Y2 . If Y1 = 0 , Y2 = Y1 = 1 and it will remain the same and doesn’t oscillate. If Y2 = 0 , Y1 = Y2 = 1 and it will also remain the same for the clock period. So, Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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it won’t oscillate for CLK = 0 . So, here race around doesn’t occur for the condition CLK = 0 . 2. Option (C): When CLK = 1, A = B = 1 A1 = B1 = 0 and so Y1 = Y2 = 1 And it will remain same for the clock period. So race around doesn’t occur for the condition. 3. Option (D): When CLK = 1, A = B = 0 So, A1 = B1 = 1 And again as described for Option (B) race around doesn’t occur for the condition. So, Option (A) will be correct.

MCQ 1.7

The output Y of a 2-bit comparator is logic 1 whenever the 2-bit input A is greater than the 2-bit input B . The number of combinations for which the output is logic 1, is (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 10

SOL 1.7

Option (B) is correct.

Y = 1, when A > B A = a1 a 0, B = b1 b 0 a1 0 1 1 1 1 1 a0 1 0 0 1 1 1 b1 0 0 0 0 0 1 b0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1

Total combination = 6

MCQ 1.8

The i -v characteristics of the diode in the circuit given below are v − 0.7 A, v $ 0.7 V i = * 500 0A v < 0. 7 V

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2 mA 500 500 In the following figure.7 = 6.4 = 3. i = v − 0. The s -domain equivalent circuit is shown as below.8 V > 0.67 mA SOL 1.7 V and diode is forward biased. vc (0) /s v (0) = c 1 + 1 1 + 1 C1 C 2 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company C1 s C2 s PUBLISHING FOR GATE I (s) = Visit us at: www.co.Page 6 GATE EC 2012 www.gatehelp. C1 and C2 are ideal capacitors. C1 has been charged to 12 V before the ideal switch S is closed at t = 0.7 = 3.2 mA Option (D) is correct.com The current in the circuit is (A) 10 mA (C) 6.3 mA (D) 6.7 3 So.7 D (1000) − v = 0 500 10 − (v − 0. Let v > 0.7) # 2 − v = 0 10 − 3v + 1. The current i (t) for all t is MCQ 1.in .9 Option (D) is correct. By applying Kirchoff’s voltage law 10 − i # 1k − v = 0 10 − :v − 0.9 (A) zero (B) a step function (C) an exponentially decaying function (D) an impulse function SOL 1.8 (B) 9.4 = 0 (Assumption is true) v = 11.nodia.8 − 0.

11 The unilateral Laplace transform of f (t) is 2 1 .co. i (t) = 12Ceq δ (t) MCQ 1.2 W (B) 50 W (C) 62.com I (s) = b C1 C2 l (12 V) C1 + C 2 I (s) = 12Ceq Taking inverse Laplace transform for the current in time domain.86cΩ I = 5 100c A Average power delivered. 2 = 1 # Re "(5) 2 # (4 − j3). = 1 I 2 Z cos θ 2 = 1 # 25 # 5 cos 36.nodia.10 Option (B) is correct. 2 = 1 # 100 = 50 W 2 MCQ 1.in SOL 1. In phasor form Z = 4 − j3 Z = 5 − 36.86c 2 = 50 W Alternate method: Z = (4 − j3) Ω I = 5 cos (100πt + 100) A 2 Pavg = 1 Re $ I Z . The unilateral Laplace s +s+1 transform of tf (t) is (B) − 2 2s + 1 2 (A) − 2 s (s + s + 1) 2 (s + s + 1) s (D) 2 2s + 1 2 (s2 + s + 1) 2 (s + s + 1) Option (D) is correct.Page 7 GATE EC 2012 www. Using s -domain differentiation property of Laplace transform.11 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .gatehelp. Pavg.5 W (D) 125 W SOL 1.10 vC (0) = 12 V (Impulse) The average power delivered to an impedance (4 − j3) Ω by a current 5 cos (100πt + 100) A is (A) 44. (C) Visit us at: www.

The voltage v (t) across the diode D1 is So.12 2s + 1 (s2 + s + 1) 2 With initial condition x (1) = 0. 2 1 ds s + s + 1E L MCQ 1.5 0. dF (s) ds L [tf (t)] = − d .nodia. Solution has the form IF = e # = e = e lnt = t Pdt 1 # dt t x # IF = x#t = # ^Q # IF hdt + C # (1) (t) dt + C 2 xt = t + C 2 Taking the initial condition x (1) = 0. the solution of the differential equation t dx + x = t . t dx + x = t dt dx + x = 1 t dt dx + Px = Q (General form) dt SOL 1.13 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.5 = 1 + C 2 C =0 xt = t & x = t 2 2 The diodes and capacitors in the circuit shown are ideal.com If f (t) tf (t) F (s) − So.in .5 . is dt (B) x = t 2 − 1 (A) x = t − 1 2 2 = 2 (C) x = t (D) x = t 2 2 Option (D) is correct.gatehelp.co.Page 8 GATE EC 2012 L www.12 Integrating factor. 2 MCQ 1.

so overall peak voltage lowers down by − 1 volt. as shown The peak rectifier adds + 1 V to peak voltage.13 (B) sin (ωt) (D) 1 − sin (ωt) Option (A) is correct. The circuit composed of a clamper and a peak rectifier as shown.co.gatehelp.Page 9 GATE EC 2012 www.com (A) cos (ωt) − 1 (C) 1 − cos (ωt) SOL 1. Clamper clamps the voltage to zero voltage.nodia. So. vo = cos ωt − 1 MCQ 1.in .14 In the circuit shown Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.

A source encoder increases the probability of the first symbol by a small amount ε and decreases that of the second by ε.nodia.14 (B) Y = (A + B) C (D) Y = AB + C Option (A) is correct.in . the entropy of the source (A) increases (B) remains the same (C) increases only if N = 2 (D) decreases MCQ 1.15 Option (D) is correct.gatehelp. Parallel connection of MOS & OR operation Series connection of MOS & AND operation The pull-up network acts as an inverter. From pull down network we write Y = (A + B) C Y = (A + B) + C = A B+C A source alphabet consists of N symbols with the probability of the first two symbols being the same.15 SOL 1. Entropy function of a discrete memory less system is given as N−1 H = Pk log b 1 l Pk k=0 / where Pk is probability of symbol Sk . After encoding. For first two symbols probability is same. so N−1 H = P1 log b 1 l + P2 log b 1 l + Pk log b 1 l P1 P2 Pk k=3 / =−e P1 log P1 + P2 log P2 + =−e 2P log P + N−1 k=3 k N−1 k=3 / P log P o k k / P log P o k (P1 = P2 = P) Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.com (A) Y = A B + C (C) Y = (A + B ) C SOL 1.Page 10 GATE EC 2012 www.co.

Hl < H Entropy of source decreases. P1 = P + ε. Characteristic impedance.4 b 1 l 10−9 # 10. Given μ0 = 4π # 10−7 H/m.5 dB (D) 18 dB SOL 1.nodia.16 μ ln b ε ba l b " outer diameter a " inner diameter μ0 Z0 = ln b ε0 εr b a l = 4π # 10−7 # 36π ln 2. 0 # θ # π/2 The directivity of the antenna is (B) 12.co. the characteristic impedance of the cable is 36π (A) 330 Ω (C) 143.16 A coaxial-cable with an inner diameter of 1 mm and outer diameter of 2.in .4 Ω SOL 1.Page 11 GATE EC 2012 www. 4π 0 = 1 .89 = 100 Ω MCQ 1. 4π 0 # # 0 2π π/2 cos 4 θ sin θdθdφE Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. P2 = P − ε Hl =−=(P + ε) log (P + ε) + (P − ε) log (P − ε) + N−1 k=3 / P log P G k k By comparing.com Now.gatehelp. So.3 Ω Option (B) is correct.17 The radiation pattern of an antenna in spherical co-ordinates is given by F (θ) = cos 4 θ . −9 ε0 = 10 F/m .6 dB (A) 10 dB (C) 11. Z0 = (B) 100 Ω (D) 43. MCQ 1. φ) dΩ # # F (θ. φ) sin θdθ dφE 0 2π 2π = 1 .17 Option (A) is correct. The directivity is defined as D = Fmax Favg Fmax = 1 Favg = 1 4π # F (θ.4 mm is filled with a dielectric of relative permittivity 10.89.

then the region of convergence (ROC) of its z -transform in the z -plane will be (B) 1 < z < 1 (A) 1 < z < 3 3 3 2 (C) 1 < z < 3 2 Option (C) is correct. n n x [n] = b 1 l − b 1 l u [n] 3 2 n −n n x [n] = b 1 l u [n] + b 1 l u [− n − 1] − b 1 l u (n) 3 3 2 (D) 1 < z 3 SOL 1.Page 12 GATE EC 2012 π/2 5 = 1 . ROC : 1 < z < 3 2 In the sum of products function f (X.co. the prime implicants are (A) XY.18 Taking z -transform X 6z @ = / n =− 3 3 1 n −n b 3 l z u [ n] + / n =− 3 3 1 −n −n b 3 l z u [ − n − 1] − / n =− 3 3 1 n −n b 2 l z u [ n] 1 n −n 1 −n −n 1 n −n = b3l z + b3l z − b2l z n=0 n =− 3 n=0 / 3 3 / −1 / 3 = n=0 14 24 3 4 I 4 / b 31z l + / b 1 z l 3 n m=1 3 m − 14 24 3 4 II 4 n=0 14 24 3 4 III 4 / b 21z l 3 n Taking m =− n Series I converges if 1 < 1 or z > 1 3z 3 Series II converges if 1 z < 1 or z < 3 3 Series III converges if 1 < 1 or z > 1 2z 2 Region of convergence of X (z) will be intersection of above three So. Z) = (2. 3. XY (B) XY. XY Z MCQ 1.nodia. 4. Y.2π b− cos θ lE 5 4π 0 1 1 = 2π − 0 + D 5 4π # : = 1 # 2π = 1 5 10 4π D = 1 = 10 10 www.18 D (in dB) = 10 log 10 = 10 dB If x [n] = (1/3) n − (1/2) n u [n].gatehelp. 5).in .19 / Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. MCQ 1.com or. X Y Z .

(− ω2 + 9) (jω + 2) G (jω) = (jω + 1) (jω + 3) (jω + 4) The steady state output will be zero if G (jω) = 0 −ω 2 + 9 = 0 ω = 3 rad/s MCQ 1.gatehelp.19 (D) XY Z .20 A system with transfer function G (s) = (s2 + 9) (s + 2) (s + 1) (s + 3) (s + 4) is excited by sin (ωt). XYZ. The steady-state output of the system is zero at (B) ω = 2 rad/s (A) ω = 1 rad/s (C) ω = 3 rad/s SOL 1.Page 13 GATE EC 2012 www.nodia.co. XY Z . XYZ.com (C) XY Z .1 kΩ Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. XY SOL 1.21 The impedance looking into nodes 1 and 2 in the given circuit is (A) 50 Ω (C) 5 kΩ (B) 100 Ω (D) 10. Prime implicants are the terms that we get by solving K-map F = XY + XY 14 24 3 4 4 prime implicants MCQ 1. XY Z Option (A) is correct.in .20 (D) ω = 4 rad/s G (s) = (s2 + 9) (s + 2) (s + 1) (s + 3) (s + 4) Option (C) is correct.

2 to obtain equivalent impedance ZTh = Vtest Itest By applying KCL at top right node Vtest + Vtest − 99I = I b test 9 k + 1k 100 Vtest + Vtest − 99I = I b test 10 k 100 But Ib =− Vtest =−Vtest 9k + 1k 10k . the current through the inductor is MCQ 1..gatehelp.com Option (A) is correct..(i) Substituting Ib into equation (i). we have Vtest + Vtest + 99Vtest = I test 10 k 100 10 k 100Vtest + Vtest = I test 10 # 103 100 2Vtest = I test 100 ZTh = Vtest = 50 Ω Itest In the circuit shown below.co.Page 14 SOL 1. We put a test source between terminal 1.nodia.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .21 GATE EC 2012 www.22 (A) 2 A 1+j (B) − 1 A 1+j Visit us at: www.

gatehelp.nodia. V1 + 1 0c V1 + 1 0c = 1 0c + 1 j1 V1 (j 1 + 1) + j 1 + 1 0c = j1 V1 = − 1 1 + j1 Current 1 V1 + 1 0c − 1 + j + 1 = I1 = j1 j1 j = = 1 A (1 + j) j 1 + j 1 − 2 .23 Given f (z) = If C is a counter clockwise path in the z -plane such that z + 1 = 1. the value of 1 f (z) dz is 2π j C # (A) − 2 (C) 1 SOL 1.23 (B) − 1 (D) 2 f (z) = 1 2π j 1 − 2 z+1 z+3 Option (C) is correct.com SOL 1. C & z+1 = 1 Visit us at: www. z+1 z+3 MCQ 1.Page 15 GATE EC 2012 www. # f (z) dz C = sum of the residues of the poles which lie inside the given closed region. (C) (D) 0 A Applying nodal analysis at top node.22 1 A 1+j Option (C) is correct.co.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .

y)] < 1 0 = 3 # 3 = 9 2 4 4 16 Alternate method: Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. The probability that max 6X. Probability density function of uniformly distributed variables X and Y is shown as P &[max (x.com Only pole z =− 1 inside the circle. Y @ is less than 1/2 is (B) 9/16 (A) 3/4 (C) 1/4 (D) 2/3 # SOL 1.Page 16 GATE EC 2012 www.in . −z + 1 f (z) = (z + 1) (z + 3) = lim So MCQ 1. 1@. y)] < 1 0 2 Since X and Y are independent. y)] < 1 0 = P b X < 1 l P bY < 1 l 2 2 2 P b X < 1 l = shaded area = 3 2 4 Similarly for Y : P bY < 1 l = 3 2 4 So P &[max (x.co. P &[max (x.gatehelp.24 Option (B) is correct.nodia. so residue at z =− 1 is.24 z "− 1 (z + 1) (− z + 1) 2 = =1 2 (z + 1) (z + 3) 1 f (z) dz = 1 2π j C Two independent random variables X and Y are uniformly distributed in the interval 6− 1.

Y @ < 1/2 : The points for max 6X.co.com From the given data since random variables X and Y lies in the interval [− 1. Probability for max 6X. If the dopant density in the source is 1019 /cm3 .gatehelp.26 The source of a silicon (ni = 1010 per cm3) n -channel MOS transistor has an area of 1 sq μm and a depth of 1 μm . Y @ < 1 0 = Area of 4AEFG 2 Area of square ABCD 3 3 2#2 = 9 = 2#2 16 x If x = − 1. (C) x SOL 1. 55 carry two marks each. MCQ 1. x = ei 2 π π i = e− 2 π Q. 26 to Q. Y lies in the region of the square ABCD . the number of holes in the source region with the above volume is approximately (A) 107 (B) 100 (C) 10 (D) 0 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia. then the value of x is (A) e− π/2 (B) e π/2 So.25 (D) 1 x= − 1 = i = cos π + i sin π 2 2 xx = ^ei 2 h & ^ei 2 h π x Option (A) is correct.Page 17 GATE EC 2012 www. Y @ < 1/2 will be inside the region of square AEFG . So. 1] as from the figure X .in . P &max 6X.25 MCQ 1.

V = Area # depth = 1 μm 2 # 1 μm = 10−8 cm2 # 10−4 cm = 10−12 cm3 So total no. s1 (t) = 2E sin ωc t T s2 (t) =− 2E sin ω t c T SOL 1. E is the transmitted energy per bit.co. 2 sin (ω t + 45c) φ1 (t) = c T The coordinates of message points are s11 = Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE # s (t) φ (t) dt 1 1 0 T Visit us at: www.27 A BPSK scheme operating over an AWGN channel with noise power spectral density of N 0 /2. T).27 where 0 # t # T . MCQ 1.Page 18 SOL 1.in . the pair of signals s1 (t) and s2 (t) used to represent binary system 1 and 0 respectively.gatehelp. so. uses equiprobable signals s1 (t) = 2E sin (ωc t) and s2 (t) =− 2E sin (ωc t) T T over the symbol interval (0. For the semiconductor n 0 p 0 = n i2 2 20 p 0 = n i = 1019 = 10 per cm3 n 0 10 Volume of given device. p = p0 # V = 10 # 10−12 = 10−11 Which is approximately equal to zero.26 GATE EC 2012 www.com Option (D) is correct.nodia. the probability of error in the resulting system is (A) Q c 2E m (B) Q c E m N0 N0 (C) Q c E E (D) Q c 2N 0 m 4N 0 m Option (B) is correct. General function of local oscillator 2 sin (ω t). 0 # t < T φ1 (t) = c T But here local oscillator is ahead with 45c. In a coherent binary PSK system. If the local oscillator in a coherent receiver is ahead in phase by 45c with respect to the received signal. of holes is.

com = = = # 0 T 2E sin ω t c T T c 0 2 sin (ω t + 45c) dt c T c 2E T 2E T E E 2 E 2 # sin (ω t) sin (ω t + 45c) dt 2 T # 0 T 1 [sin 45c + sin (2ω t + 45c)] dt c 2 = 1 T = Similarly.in . When : (i) s11 is transmitted and s21 received (ii) s21 is transmitted and s11 received So. probability for the 1st case will be as : P b s21 received l = P (X < 0) (as shown in diagram) s11 transmitted = P _ E/2 + N < 0i = P _N < − E/2 i Taking the Gaussian distribution as shown below : Mean of the Gaussian distribution = E/2 Variance = N 0 2 Putting it in the probability function : Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. The error at the receiver will be considered.co.gatehelp. Signal space diagram s21 =− # 0 T 1 dt + 1 E T (2ω t + 45c) dt sin c T 0 2 1 444444 2 444444 3 4 0 4 # Now here the two message points are s11 and s21 .Page 19 GATE EC 2012 www.nodia.

28 MCQ 1.28 (D) 1.58 cm SOL 1. P _N < − E/2 i = Qc # 3 E/N 0 1 e− t2 dt 2π 2 E N0 m where Q is error function.P b s21 received l + P b s11 received lE 2 s11 transmitted s21 transmitted = 1 =Q c E m + Q c E mG = Q c E m 2 N0 N0 N0 A transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 100 Ω is used to match a 50 Ω section to a 200 Ω section. the length of the transmission line can be approximately (b) 1. P b s11 received l = Q c E m N0 s21 transmitted So the average probability of error = 1 . x + E/2 =t N 0 /2 dx = N 0 dt 2 So.co. Since symbols are equiprobable in the 2 nd case So.in . The length would be odd multiple of λ/4 .5 cm (C) 1.58 = 9 l1 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. l = (2m + 1) λ 4 f1 = 429 MHz.com P bN < − E = 2l = # # 0 1 2π N 0 2 −3 e − 2N 0 /2 dx 0 −3 1 e− `x + NE/2 j dx πN 0 2 0 Taking. Since Only option (C) is odd multiple of both l1 and l2 .Page 20 GATE EC 2012 `x + E/2 j 2 www.075 m f2 # 4 1 # 109 # 4 l1 = Option (C) is correct.nodia. (2m + 1) = 1. If the matching is to be done both at 429 MHz and 1 GHz.05 m (A) 82. f2 = 1 GHz . c = 3 # 108 = 0.174 m f1 # 4 429 # 106 # 4 8 l2 = c = 3 # 10 = 0.75 m Z 0 = Z1 Z 2 100 = 50 # 200 This is quarter wave matching.gatehelp.

29 Option (D) is correct.58 . MCQ 1. y (t) = Time invariance : Let. t 0) ! y (t − t 0) System is not time invariant.co. y (t) " 3 (unbounded) System is not stable. # x (τ) cos (3τ) dτ t −3 x (t) = δ (t) y (t) = # δ (t) cos (3τ) dτ t −3 = u (t) cos (0) = u (t) For a delayed input (t − t 0) output is y (t.gatehelp.21 l2 MCQ 1.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .nodia. t 0) = Delayed output y (t − t 0) = u (t − t 0) y (t.75 (C) K = 4 and a = 0.5 SOL 1.30 The feedback system shown below oscillates at 2 rad/s when (A) K = 2 and a = 0. Stability : Consider a bounded input x (t) = cos 3t y (t) = # δ (t − t ) cos (3τ) dτ t −3 0 = u (t) cos (3t 0) # t −3 cos2 3t = t # t t −3 1 − cos 6t 2 =1 2 # 1dt − 1 # cos 6t dt 2 −3 −3 As t " 3. Visit us at: www.com (2m + 1) = 1.75 (D) K = 2 and a = 0.29 The input x (t) and output y (t) of a system are related as y (t) = x (τ) cos (3τ) dτ −3 . The system is (A) time-invariant and stable (B) stable and not time-invariant (C) time-invariant and not stable (D) not time-invariant and not stable # t SOL 1.5 Option (A) is correct.30 (B) K = 3 and a = 0.Page 21 GATE EC 2012 www.

co.in .Page 22 GATE EC 2012 www.31 (D) 2 (2 cos ω) (sin 2ω) ω Option (C) is correct. The value of h (0) is (B) 1/2 (A) 1/4 s2 s jω ω k (C) 1 SOL 1.com K (s + 1) [R (s) − Y (s)] s3 + as2 + 2s + 1 K (s + 1) K (s + 1) Y (s) .75 2+2 4 The Fourier transform of a signal h (t) is H (jω) = (2 cos ω) (sin 2ω) /ω . a (2 + K) − (1 + K) =0 a a = K+1 K+2 Auxiliary equation A (s) = as2 + (k + 1) = 0 s2 =− k + 1 a s2 = − k + 1 (k + 2) (k + 1) =− (k + 2) = j k+2 = j k+2 (Oscillation frequency) = k+2 = 2 =2 and a = 2 + 1 = 3 = 0.gatehelp.1 + 3 E = s3 + as2 + 2s + 1 R (s) 2 s + as + 2s + 1 3 2 Y (s) [s + as + s (2 + k) + (1 + k)] = K (s + 1) R (s) Transfer Function K (s + 1) Y (s) H (s) = = 3 2 R (s) s + as + s (2 + k) + (1 + k) Routh Table : Y (s) = For oscillation.31 MCQ 1.nodia. H (jω) = Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.

a 3 ! 0. MCQ 1. inverse Fourier transform of H (jω) h (t) = h1 (t) + h2 (t) h (0) = h1 (0) + h2 (0) =1+1 =1 2 2 The state variable description of an LTI system is given by Jx1N J 0 a1 0NJx1N J0N o K O K OK O K O o Kx2O = K 0 0 a2OKx2O + K0O u Kx O Ka o3 0 0OKx 3O K 1O 3 L P L PL P L P Jx1N K O y = _1 0 0iKx2O Kx 3O L P where y is the output and u is the input.com = sin 3ω + sin ω ω ω We know that inverse Fourier transform of sin c function is a rectangular function. B = S0W Sa S1W S 3 0 0W W S W T X T X Visit us at: www. a 3 = 0 (D) a1 ! 0.Page 23 GATE EC 2012 www.gatehelp. a 3 ! 0 (B) a1 = 0. The system is controllable for (A) a1 ! 0. a2 = 0. a2 ! 0. a 3 ! 0 (C) a1 = 0.in SOL 1. a 3 = 0 Option (D) is correct. General form of state equations are given as o x = Ax + Bu o y = Cx + Du For the given problem R 0 a 0V R0V 1 S W S W A = S 0 0 a2W.co. a2 ! 0.32 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .nodia.32 So.

33 Assuming both the voltage sources are in phase. MCQ 1.co. We obtain Thevenin equivalent of circuit B .in .8 Ω (C) 2 Ω SOL 1.4 Ω (D) 2. Thevenin Impedance : Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.33 (B) 1. a 3 may be zero or not.nodia.8 Ω Option (A) is correct.com R 0 a 0VR0V R 0V 1 S WS W S W AB = S 0 0 a2WS0W = Sa2W Sa S 3 0 0WS1W S 0W WS W S W T XT X T X R 0 0 a1 a2VR0V Ra1 a2V W WS W S S A2 B = Sa2 a 3 0 0WS0W = S 0W S 0 a a W WS W S S 0WS1W S 0W 3 1 T that followingXT X T has a tank of n = 3 .gatehelp. For controllability it is necessary matrix X U = 6B : AB : A2 B@ R0 0 a a V 1 2W S = S0 a2 0W S1 0 S W 0W T X a2 ! 0 a1 a 2 ! 0 & a1 ! 0 So.Page 24 GATE EC 2012 www. the value of R for which maximum power is transferred from circuit A to circuit B is (A) 0.

34 =0 =0 = 70R = 0. circuit becomes as Current in the circuit.in .gatehelp.co.Page 25 GATE EC 2012 www.com ZTh = R Thevenin Voltage : VTh = 3 0c V Now.8 Ω =0 Consider the differential equation d 2 y (t) dy (t) dy +2 + y (t) = δ (t) with y (t) t = 0 =− 2 and 2 dt dt dt − t = 0− Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. I1 = 10 − 3 2+R Power transfer from circuit A to B 2 P = (I 1 ) 2 R + 3I1 2 P = :10 − 3D R + 3 :10 − 3D 2+R 2+R P = P = 49R + 21 (2 + R) 2 (2 + R) 49R + 21 (2 + R) (2 + R) 2 P = 42 + 70R (2 + R) 2 2 dP = (2 + R) 70 − (42 + 70R) 2 (2 + R) = 0 dR (2 + R) 4 (2 + R) [(2 + R) 70 − (42 + 70R) 2] 140 + 70R − 84 − 140R 56 R MCQ 1.nodia.

nodia.s Y (s) − sy (0) − dt E + 2 [sy (s) − y (0)] + Y (s) = 1 t=0 & 2 6s Y (s) + 2s − 0@ + 2 6sY (s) + 2@ + Y (s) = 1 Y (s) [s2 + 2s + 1] = 1 − 2s − 4 − Y (s) = 2 2s − 3 s + 2s + 1 We know that. d 2 y (t) 2dy (t) + + y (t) = δ (t) dt dt 2 By taking Laplace transform with initial conditions dy 2 . The value of n for which d A = 0 is : (A) − 2 (B) 2 + (C) 1 SOL 1. = e0 + 0 = 1 dt t = 0 The direction of vector A is radially outward from the origin.co.gatehelp. y (t) dy (t) dt sY (s) − y (0) = L Y (s) sY (s) − y (0) L (− 2s − 3) s +2 (s2 + 2s + 1) 2 2 = − 2s − 3s + 2s + 4s + 2 2 (s + 2s + 1) 1 sY (s) − y (0) = s + 2 2 = s + 1 2 + (s + 1) (s + 1) (s + 1) 2 = 1 + 1 s + 1 (s + 1) 2 MCQ 1. where r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 and k is a constant.Page 26 GATE EC 2012 www.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . with A = krn . So. then. Divergence of A in spherical coordinates is given as d A = 12 2 (r 2 Ar ) : r 2r Visit us at: www.34 is t = 0+ (B) − 1 (D) 1 Option (D) is correct.35 By taking inverse Laplace transform dy (t) = e−t u (t) + te−t u (t) dt dy At t = 0+ .35 (D) 0 Option (A) is correct.com dy The numerical value of dt (A) − 2 (C) 0 SOL 1. If.

3 5 Probability P = 1 + b 1 l + b 1 l + . .36 (given) A fair coin is tossed till a head appears for the first time... electron and hole mobilities are equal. TTTTH.in . we have following sequence of events. H. The device M1 is in the linear region if (A) Vin < 1. If the number of required tosses is odd..125 V SOL 1.36 MCQ 1.37 (B) 1.125 V (D) 0 < Vin < 5 V Option (A) is correct...co. Given the circuit as below : Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia...gatehelp. is (B) 1/2 (A) 1/3 (C) 2/3 (D) 3/4 SOL 1.. and M1 and M2 are equally sized. 2 2 2 1 P = 2 =2 3 1− 1 4 In the CMOS circuit shown.. The probability that the number of required tosses is odd....Page 27 GATE EC 2012 www.com = 12 2 (krn + 2) r 2r = k2 (n + 2) rn + 1 r = k (n + 2) rn − 1 = 0 n+2 = 0 n =− 2 MCQ 1..875 V < Vin < 3. TTH.875 V (C) Vin > 3.37 Option (C) is correct.. Probability of appearing a head is 1/2.

gatehelp. VD = 5 V So. Vin = 5 + 3 = 4 V 2 So for the NMOS VGS = Vin − 0 = 4 − 0 = 4 V and VGS > VTn So it can’t be in cutoff region.com Since all the parameters of PMOS and NMOS are equal. I1 = I 2 μp COX W μ C 2 2 (VSG − VTp) VSD − V SD@ = n OX W (VGS − VTn) 2 2 L 2 L6 & & & 2 2 (VSG − VTp) VSD − V SD = (VGS − VTn) 2 2 (5 − Vin − 1) (5 − VD) − (5 − VD) 2 = (Vin − 0 − 1) 2 2 (4 − Vin) (5 − VD) − (5 − VD) 2 = (Vin − 1) 2 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. μn = μp W COX b l = COX bW l = COX bW l L M1 L M2 L Given that M1 is in linear region.co.nodia. So. Case 1 : M2 is in cut off So. we assume that M2 is either in cutoff or saturation.in . 2 ^VSG − VTp h = VSD & 2 ^5 − Vin − 1h = 5 − VD & Vin = VD + 3 2 For I1 = 0 . So.Page 28 GATE EC 2012 www. I1 = p OX bW l82VSD ^VSG − VTp h − V SDB 2 L & 0= μp COX W 2 [2V V − VTp h − V SD] 2 b L l SD ^ SG Solving it we get. μ C 2 Since. I 2 = I1 = 0 Where I1 is drain current in M1 and I2 is drain current in M2 . Case 2 : M2 must be in saturation region. So.

com Substituting VD = VDS = VGS − VTn and for N -MOS & VD = Vin − 1 & 2 (4 − Vin) (6 − Vin) − (6 − Vin) 2 = (Vin − 1) 2 & 48 − 36 − 8Vin =− 2Vin + 1 & 6Vin = 11 & Vin = 11 = 1.38 A binary symmetric channel (BSC) has a transition probability of 1/8. m (τ) dτE 0 max # t Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.Page 29 GATE EC 2012 www. If the binary symbol X is such that P (X = 0) = 9/10.nodia. The ratio k p /k f (in rad/Hz) for the same maximum phase deviation is (B) 4π (A) 8π (C) 2π SOL 1.39 (D) π Option (B) is correct.co. General equation of FM and PM waves are given by φFM (t) = Ac cos .in .38 MCQ 1.833 V or Vin < 1. then the probability of error for an optimum receiver will be (A) 7/80 (B) 63/80 (C) 9/10 (D) 1/10 SOL 1.gatehelp.833 V 6 So for M2 to be in saturation Vin < 1.875 V MCQ 1.39 The signal m (t) as shown is applied to both a phase modulator (with k p as the phase constant) and a frequency modulator (with k f as the frequency constant) having the same carrier frequency. k p [m (t)] max = 2πk f .ωc t + 2πk f # m (τ) dτE t 0 φPM (t) = Ac cos [ωc t + k p m (t)] For same maximum phase deviation.

j261 β is imaginary so mode of operation is non-propagating.094 # 102 x) cos (2. Hz = 3 cos (2.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .094 # 102 x) cos (2.6182) # 10 4 3 # 108 .283 # 10 m − (2.283 # 1010 t − βz) βx = 2.nodia. x (t) = # m (τ) dτ t 0 MCQ 1.618 # 102 y) cos (6.40 (D) v p = 0 Option (D) is correct. vp = 0 Visit us at: www. The phase velocity v p of the wave inside the waveguide satisfies (B) v p = c (A) v p > c (C) 0 < v p < c SOL 1.0942 + 2.Page 30 GATE EC 2012 www.gatehelp. ω 2 − (β 2 + β 2) β = x y c2 Substituting above values.094 # 102 βy = 2.618 # 102 ω = 6.283 # 1010 t − βz) So.40 [x (t)] max = 4 k p # 2 = 2π k f # 4 kp = 4π kf The magnetic field among the propagation direction inside a rectangular waveguide with the cross-section shown in the figure is Hz = 3 cos (2. 10 2 β = c 6.283 # 1010 rad/s For the wave propagation.co.com k p # 2 = 2πk f [x (t)] max where.618 # 102 y) cos (6.

gatehelp. so V (jω) =− R2 V (jω) o R1 i ωC Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.Page 31 MCQ 1.in . First we obtain the transfer function.nodia. so V = 0 o ωC At ω " 3 (higher frequencies) 1 " 0.com The circuit shown is a (A) low pass filter with f3dB = 1 rad/s (R1 + R2) C 1 rad/s R1 C (B) high pass filter with f3dB = (C) low pass filter with f3dB = 1 rad/s R1 C 1 rad/s (R1 + R2) C (D) high pass filter with f3dB = SOL 1.co. 0 − Vi (jω) 0 − Vo (jω) =0 + 1 +R R2 1 jω C Vo (jω) − Vi (jω) = 1 +R R2 1 jω C Vo (jω) =− Vi (jω) R2 R1 − j 1 ωC At ω " 0 (Low frequencies) 1 " 3.41 GATE EC 2012 www.41 Option (B) is correct.

.. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. For n = 0 . y [0] = h [0] g [0] g [− 1] = g [− 2] = . H (jω) = Vo = − R2 Vi R1 − j 1 ωC H (3) = − R2 = R2 R1 R1 At 3 dB frequency.co.... Convolution sum is defined as y [n] = h [n] * g [n] = For causal sequence.. gain will be 2 times of maximum gain 6H (3)@ H ^ jω0h = 1 H (3) 2 R2 = 1 b R2 l 1 2 2 R1 R1 + 2 2 ω0 C 2 2 2R 1 = R 1 + So..gatehelp. where h [n] = (1/2) n u [n] and g [n] is a causal sequence..0 ..... y [1] = h [1] g [1] + h [1] g [0] 1 = 1 g [1] + 1 g [0] 2 2 2 1 = g [1] + g [0] g [1] = 1 − g [0] From equation (i)..in 1 h [1] = b 1 l = 1 2 2 For n = 1..42 1 R1 C Let y [n] denote the convolution of h [n] and g [n]. If y [0] = 1 and y [1] = 1/2..(i) y [0] = h [0] g [0] y [1] = h [1] g [1] + h [1] g [0] + h [1] g [− 1] + .. . y [0] = h [0] g [0] + h [1] g [− 1] + . 1 ω C2 2 0 2 R1 = 1 ω 2C 2 MCQ 1.. then g [1] equals (A) 0 (B) 1/2 ω0 = (C) 1 (D) 3/2 SOL 1..com The filter passes high frequencies so it is a high pass filter... y [n] = 3 k =− 3 / h [n] g [n − k] 3 k=0 / h [n] g [n − k] y [n] = h [n] g [n] + h [n] g [n − 1] + h [n] g [n − 2] + ..42 Option (A) id correct.Page 32 GATE EC 2012 www..nodia.

43 y [0] 1 = =1 h [0] 1 g [1] = 1 − 1 = 0 The state transition diagram for the logic circuit shown is SOL 1.nodia. D = Y = AX 0 + AX1 Qn + 1 = D = AX 0 + AX1 Qn + 1 = A Qn + AQn X 0 = Q . Let Qn + 1 is next state and Qn is the present state.in . From the given below figure.Page 33 GATE EC 2012 www.43 Option (D) is correct.gatehelp.44 The voltage gain Av of the circuit shown below is Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.com g [0] = So.co. MCQ 1. (toggle of previous state) Qn + 1 = Qn If A = 1. X1 = Q If A = 0. Qn + 1 = Qn So state diagram is MCQ 1.

100 (D) Av . .7 − VC = (β + 1) IB 12k 13.. 20 SOL 1..com (A) Av ..(i) . 200 (C) Av .01 mA Small Signal Analysis : Transforming given input voltage source into equivalent current source.7 = 0 VC = 100IB + 0. 10 Option (D) is correct. IB = 0.in .44 (B) Av .7 − VC = 100I B 12 # 103 Solving equation (i) and (ii). VC − 100IB − 0.gatehelp.co.Page 34 GATE EC 2012 www.(ii) Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. DC Analysis : Using KVL in input loop..7 IC .IE = 13.nodia.

45 (A) − 5 V (C) 3 V Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE (B) 2 V (D) 6 V Visit us at: www. RF = 100 kΩ.16 # 10−6 v 0 − 1 # 10−5 v 0 10 # 103 vi −5 3 =− 1.116 # 10 10 # 10 1 Av = v 0 = . rπ = VT = 25 mV = 2..01 mA β 100 = 0.1 10−4) − v 0 # π Rs RF Substituting Vπ from equation (i) vi = − 5.72 Rs RF vi Rs = 10 kΩ (source resistance) =− 1.1 # 10−4 v − v 0 0 428.gatehelp.5 kΩ IB 0..co.116 # 10−5 If VA − VB = 6 V then VC − VD is . Given parameters.5 # 1000 Writing KCL at output node v0 + g v + v0 − vπ = 0 m π RC RF v 0 : 1 + 1 D + v π :gm − 1 D = 0 RC RF RF Substituting RC = 12 kΩ.04 s v 0 (9.(i) MCQ 1.com This is a shunt-shunt feedback amplifier.nodia.96 vi 10 # 103 # 1.72Vπ Writing KCL at input node vi = v π + v π + v π − vo Rs Rs rπ RF vi = v 1 + 1 + 1 − v 0 π: Rs Rs rπ RF D RF vi = v (5. gm = 0.Page 35 GATE EC 2012 www.04) = 0 v 0 =− 428.8.in .33 # 10−5) + v π (0.04 s gm = = rπ 2.

nodia.com Option (A) is correct.Page 36 SOL 1. that the circuit is a one port circuit looking from terminal BD as shown below For a one port network current entering one terminal. VCD = 1 # (− I1) =− 5 V MCQ 1.e.in . IDC = IAB = 3 A The total current in the resistor 1 Ω will be I1 = 2 + IDC = 2+3 = 5A So. equals the current leaving the second terminal.gatehelp. In the given circuit VA − VB = 6 V So current in the branch will be IAB = 6 = 3 A 2 We can see.co. Thus the outgoing current from A to B will be equal to the incoming current from D to C as shown i.46 Option (B) is correct.46 (By writing KCL at node D ) The maximum value of f (x) = x3 − 9x2 + 24x + 5 in the interval [1. f (x) = x3 − 9x2 + 24x + 5 df (x) = 3x2 − 18x + 24 = 0 dx Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. 6] is (A) 21 (B) 25 (C) 41 (D) 46 SOL 1.45 GATE EC 2012 www.

gatehelp.47 Common Data Questions Common Data for Questions 48 and 49 : With 10 V dc connected at port A in the linear nonreciprocal two-port network shown below.Page 37 GATE EC 2012 www.in . the following were observed : Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. Characteristic equation.nodia.47 Given that −5 −3 1 0 A=> H and I = >0 1H. A − λI = 0 −5 − λ −3 =0 2 −λ 5λ + λ2 + 6 = 0 λ2 + 5λ + 6 = 0 Since characteristic equation satisfies its own matrix. the value of A3 is 2 0 (A) 15A + 12I (C) 17A + 15I Option (B) is correct.com & df (x) = x2 − 6x + 8 = 0 dx x = 4. = 12 − 18 =− 6 < 0 dx2 So at x = 2. x = 2 d 2 f (x) = 6x − 18 dx 2 d 2 f (x) For x = 2.co. so A2 + 5A + 6 = 0 & A2 =− 5A − 6I Multiplying with A A3 + 5A2 + 6A = 0 A3 + 5 (− 5A − 6I) + 6A = 0 A3 = 19A + 30I (B) 19A + 30I (D) 17A + 21I SOL 1. f (x) will be maximum f (x) max = (2) 3 − 9 (2) 2 + 24 (2) + 5 = 8 − 36 + 48 + 5 = 25 MCQ 1.

nodia.Page 38 GATE EC 2012 www. IL = 2 A = Dividing above two Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.com (i) 1 Ω connected at port B draws a current of 3 A (ii) 2. IL = 3 A 3= VTh.5 Ω connected at port B draws a current of 2 A MCQ 1.. let Thevenin voltage is VTh.(ii) . the current drawn by 7 Ω connected at port B is (B) 5/7 A (A) 3/7 A (C) 1 A (D) 9/7 A SOL 1.in .48 With 10 V dc connected at port A. When 10 V is connected at port A the network is Now. we obtain Thevenin equivalent for the circuit seen at load terminal.5 .co. IL = For RL = 1 Ω .48 Option (C) is correct.10 V RTh + 1 VTh..10 V RTh + RL VTh.10 V RTh + 2.gatehelp.5 Ω . 10 V with 10 V applied at port A and Thevenin resistance is RTh .(i) For RL = 2...

com 3 = RTh + 2. If the voltage connected to port A is different.10 V = 3 (2 + 1) = 9 V Note that it is a non reciprocal two port network.49 VTh.in .10 V . This is Thevenin voltage only when 10 V source is connected at input port A. 6 V = RTh # 7 + 1 # 7 3 3 = 2#7 +7 = 7V 3 3 This is a linear network. 1 Ω connected at port B draws 7/3 A.6 V . so VTh at port B can be written as Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. the open circuit voltage at port B is (B) 7 V (A) 6 V (C) 8 V (D) 9 V SOL 1. Now.10 V = 9 = 1A 2 + RL 2 + 7 For the same network. when 6 V connected at port A let Thevenin voltage seen at port B is VTh.gatehelp. If 8 V dc is connected to port A. Here RL = 1 Ω and IL = 7 A 3 VTh. the circuit is For RL = 7 Ω IL = MCQ 1. Thevenin’s resistance remains same. Therefore we took subscript VTh. with 6 V dc connected at port A.nodia. Thevenin voltage seen at port B depends on the voltage connected at port A.Page 39 GATE EC 2012 www. Now.co. then Thevenin voltage will be different.49 Option (B) is correct. However.5 2 RTh + 1 3RTh + 3 = 2RTh + 5 RTh = 2 Ω Substituting RTh into equation (i) VTh.

with any voltage V1 applied at port A..50 Option (B) is correct.8 V = 0.9.5 # 8 + 4 = 8 = Voc 1 Common Data for Question 50 and 51 : In the three dimensional view of a silicon n -channel MOS transistor shown below..24 pF SOL 1. The transistor is of width 1 μm .7 fF (B) 0. are 11. and ε0 = 8. Co = δWεox ε0 (medium Sio 2 ) tox Visit us at: www.(ii) ` 7 = 6α + β Solving (i) and (ii) α = 0..(i) ` 9 = 10α + β When V1 = 6 V . MCQ 1.35 fF (D) 0. VTh. The depletion width formed at every p-n junction is 10 nm.7 pF (C) 0.10 V = 9 V .5 .nodia. We have V1 = 10 V . respectively. δ = 20 nm .co. β = 4 Thus. 6 V = 9 V .com VTh = V1 α + β where V1 is the input applied at port A.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Thevenin voltage or open circuit voltage at port B will be So.50 The gate source overlap capacitance is approximately (A) 0.7 and 3.5V1 + 4 For V1 = 8 V (open circuit voltage) VTh. VTh. The relative permittivity of Si and SiO 2 .. Gate source overlap capacitance.9 # 10−12 F/m .gatehelp.Page 40 GATE EC 2012 www. VTh. V = 0.

co.52 # H : dl = Ienclosed Io = (πa2) J H # 2πr = (πa2) J H = Io 2πr H \ 1 .2 μm + 0.51 The source-body junction capacitance is approximately (A) 2 fF (B) 7 fF (C) 2 pF (D) 7 pF SOL 1.2 μm + 0.52 The magnetic field at a distance r from the center of the wire is proportional to (A) r for r < a and 1/r 2 for r > a (B) 0 for r < a and 1/r for r > a (C) r for r < a and 1/r for r > a (D) 0 for r < a and 1/r 2 for r > a Option (C) is correct.2 μm # 0. Ienclosed = (πa2) J SOL 1.gatehelp.51 Option (B) is correct.in . for r > a r For r < a .9 # 8.9 # 10 10 # 10 −15 = 7 # 10 F Linked Answer Questions Statement for Linked Answer Question 52 and 53 : An infinitely long uniform solid wire of radius a carries a uniform dc current of density J MCQ 1.9 # 10 1 # 10− = 0.69 # 10−15 F MCQ 1. For r > a .2 μm) = 0.7 −9 8.68 μm2 d = 10 nm (depletion width of all junction) −12 −12 # Cs = 0.nodia. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.2 μm) # 1 μm + 2 (0.68 # 10 # 11.com −9 −6 −12 3 = 20 # 10 # 1 # 10 # 9 . Source body junction capacitance. Cs = Aεr ε0 d A = (0.Page 41 GATE EC 2012 www.

nodia. J (πr 2) Jr 2 = 2 a πa 2 = Ienclosed 2 H # 2πr = Jr2 a H = Jr 2 2πa H \ r. The magnetic field inside the hole is (A) uniform and depends only on d (B) uniform and depends only on b (C) uniform and depends on both b and d (D) non uniform SOL 1.in .co.53 A hole of radius b (b < a) is now drilled along the length of the wire at a distance d from the center of the wire as shown below.com Ienclosed = So.Page 42 GATE EC 2012 www.53 Option (B) is correct. for r < a # H : dl MCQ 1. Assuming the cross section of the wire on x -y plane as shown in figure.gatehelp. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.

H2 = − J [(x − d) ax + yay] 2 So. (Hφ2) (2πr) =− J (πr 2) Hφ2 = − Jr 2 Again.in . total magnetic field intensity = H1 + H2 = J dax 2 So. So. the hole is drilled along the length of wire. Now. in vector form H1 = J (xax + yay) 2 Again only due to the hole magnetic field intensity will be given as.gatehelp. magnetic field intensity at point P will be given as Hφ1 (2πR) = J (πR2) Hφ1 (2πR) = JR 2 Since. Statement for Linked Answer Question 54 and 55 : Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. for the wire without hole. Now the relation between two co-ordinate system will be. it can be assumed that the drilled portion carriers current density of − J .com Since.nodia.Page 43 GATE EC 2012 www. if we take Ol at origin then in vector form H2 = − J (xlax + ylay) 2 where xl and yl denotes point ‘P ’ in the new co-ordinate system. x = xl + d y = yl So.co. point o is at origin. magnetic field inside the hole will depend only on ‘d ’. So.

55 Option (A) is correct. b =− 1 (D) a = 3.com MCQ 1. b = 1 jω + a GC (s) = s + a = s+b jω + b φ = tan−1 a ω k − tan−1 a ω k a b Jω − ωN −1 K a bO φ = tan K ω2O K1 + O ab P L ω (b − a) = tan−1 c ab + ω 2 m Option (A) is correct.nodia. General Aptitude (GA) Question (Compulsory) Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.in .gatehelp.co. b = 2 (C) a =− 3. SOL 1. so option (C) can not be true.54 Phase lead angle For phase-lead compensation φ > 0 b−a > 0 b >a Note: For phase lead compensator zero is nearer to the origin as compared to pole.55 The phase of the above lead compensator is maximum at (B) 3 rad/s (A) 2 rad/s (C) 6 rad/s (D) 1/ 3 rad/s φ = tan−1 a ω k − tan−1 a ω k a b 1/a 1/b dφ = − =0 ω 2 1+ ω 2 dω 1 +a k ab k a 1 + ω2 = 1 + 1 ω2 a ab2 b b a2 1 − 1 = ω2 1 − 1 a b ab b a b l ω = ab = 1#2 = 2 rad/ sec SOL 1. MCQ 1. b = 2 (B) a = 3.54 The transfer function of a compensator is given as Gc (s) = s + a s+b Gc (s) is a lead compensator if (A) a = 1.Page 44 GATE EC 2012 www.

52 # 7....58 Option (C) is correct.56 Option (D) is correct option.52 x2062 = 7. (A) beggary (B) nomenclature (C) jealousy (D) nonchalance SOL 1.was impressive..85. Which one of the following options is the closest in meaning to the word given below ? Latitude (A) Eligibility (B) Freedom (C) Coercion (D) Meticulousness SOL 1..Q..64 SOL 1.001) 1259 = 3.37 (D) 27..56 If (1.52 and (1.57 SOL 1...co. Which one of the following is INCORRECT ? I requested that he should be given the driving test today instead of tomorrow.58 MCQ 1.33 (C) 11.001) 2062 = 7.001 = x So in given data : x1259 = 3..001) 3321 (A) 2.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .. (A) requested that (B) should be given Visit us at: www.85 Again x3321 = x1259 + 2062 = x1259 x2062 = 3.59 Option (D) is correct.. One of the parts (A. D) in the sentence given below contains an ERROR.85 = 27.. Let 1. C.. 56 .nodia..23 (B) 4... MCQ 1. he.com Q. his. Choose the most appropriate word from the options given below to complete the following sentence : Give the seriousness of the situation that he had to face.. then (1.. (A) should take (B) shall take (C) should have taken (D) will have taken MCQ 1. 60 carry one mark each.... B.59 MCQ 1.Page 45 GATE EC 2012 www.57 MCQ 1.60 Option (B) is correct..the mattress out on the balcony.64 Choose the most appropriate alternate from the options given below to complete the following sentence : If the tired soldier wanted to lie down..gatehelp.

intact and fighting. Visit us at: www.20 be x and no.Q.62 Option (A) is correct. (B) The legions were treated inhumanly as if the men were animals (C) Disciplines was the armies inheritance from their seniors (D) The harsh discipline to which the legions were subjected to led to the odds and conditions being against them. the no. Raju has 14 currency notes in his pocket consisting of only Rs. x + y = 14 20x + 10y = 230 Solving the above two equations we get x = 9. y = 5 So. 10 be y . even when the odds and conditions were against them. Let no. of notes of Rs. In the legious. 61 . The total money values of the notes is Rs. SOL 1. of notes of Rs.nodia.63 Option (A) is correct.62 Option (A) is correct. Q. the minimum number of weighings required to identify the heavier bag is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 8 MCQ 1. Then from the given data.63 SOL 1. 20 notes and Rs. Discipline on the battlefield kept units obedient. The weighing balance is of unlimited capacity.Page 46 GATE EC 2012 www. 10 notes. of notes of Rs.gatehelp. MCQ 1.61 One of the legacies of the Roman legions was discipline. The number of Rs. 10 is 5. Using this balance. seven of which have equal weight and one is slightly heavier. 230.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .co.61 MCQ 1. There are eight bags of rice looking alike.60 (D) instead of tomorrow Option (B) is correct. 10 notes that Raju has is (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 9 (D) 10 SOL 1.com (C) the driving test SOL 1. military law prevailed and discipline was brutal. Which one of the following statements best sums up the meaning of the above passage ? (A) Through regimentation was the main reason for the efficiency of the Roman legions even in adverse circumstances. 65 carry two marks each.

(ii) B1 B2 B 3 . So again as the above case weighting will be done. MCQ 1. 2 nd weighting " B1 is kept one side and B2 on the other if B1 = B2 B 3 will be heavier B1 > B 2 B1 will be heavier B1 < B 2 B2 will be heavier So.co.64 (B) 14% (D) 86% Option (D) is correct. if C1 > C2 then C1 is heavier. Case 1 : A1 A 2 A 3 = B1 B 2 B 3 This results out that either C1 or C2 will heavier for which we will have to perform weighting again. as described above.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .gatehelp.Page 47 GATE EC 2012 www.) 4000 1200 2000 1500 1800 The approximate percentages of the monthly budget NOT spent on savings is (A) 10% (C) 81% SOL 1. then C2 is heavier. Category Food Clothing Rent Savings Other expenses Amount (Rs. it means A 3 will be heavier if A1 = A2 then A1 will be heavier A1 > A 2 then A2 will be heavier A1 < A 2 Case 3 : A1 A 2 A 3 < B1 B 2 B 3 This time one of the B1 B2 B 3 will be heavier. of weighting required = 2. in all the three cases weighting is done only two times to give out the result so minimum no. (iii) C1 C2 Weighting will be done as bellow : 1st weighting " A1 A2 A 3 will be on one side of balance and B1 B2 B 3 on the other. C1 < C 2 Case 2 : A1 A 2 A 3 > B1 B 2 B 3 it means one of the A1 A2 A 3 will be heavier So we will perform next weighting as: 2 nd weighting " A1 is kept on one side of the balance and A2 on the other. It may have three results as described in the following cases.64 The data given in the following table summarizes the monthly budget of an average household. Visit us at: www. 2 nd weighting " C1 is kept on the one side and C2 on the other.nodia.com We will categorize the 8 bags in three groups as : (i) A1 A2 A 3 .

the amount not spent on saving = 10. 500 The amount spent on saving = 1500 So. The graphical representation of their arriving time so that they met is given as below in the figure by shaded region.65 A and B are friends.65 Option (C) is correct. the area of shaded region is given by Area of 4PQRS − (Area of TEFQ + Area of TGSH ) = 60 # 60 − 2 b 1 # 45 # 45 l 2 = 1575 So. There is a conditions that whoever arrives first will not wait for the other for more than 15 minutes. So.co.nodia. 500 − 1500 = 9000 So. The probability that they will meet on that days is (A) 1/4 (B) 1/16 (C) 7/16 (D) 9/16 SOL 1. They decide to meet between 1 PM and 2 PM on a given day.Page 48 GATE EC 2012 www.gatehelp.com Total budget = 4000 + 1200 + 2000 + 1500 + 1800 = 10. the required probability = 1575 = 7 3600 16 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.in . percentage of the amount = 9000 # 100% 10500 = 86% MCQ 1.