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Experiment 1: To study the effect of high pressure steam treatment on OPEFB as pretreatment method Methodology:

Type of samples used: Fresh fruit bunch (FFB), Empty fruit bunch (EFB) and Shredded EFB Duration times: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 hours (Replicate) Temperature: 140oC Pressure: 40 psi EFB will be cut manually, oven dried, ground, sieved & keep at 4oC before use The chemical compositions will be determined & viewing the OPEFB structure under SEM

Figure 1: Pressure vs. time curve for double peak sterilization cycle for pretreatment

Chemical composition in FFB, EFB and shredded EFB Chemical composition (%)
Untreated FFB Treated FFB 0.25 hours 0.50 hours

Cellulose

Hemicellulose

Lignin

Ash

SEM

0.75 hours

1.00 hours

1.25 hours

Untreated EFB Treated EFB 0.25 hours 0.50 hours

0.75 hours 1.00 hours 1.25 hours Untreated Shredded EFB

Shredded EFB 0.25 hours 0.50 hours

0.75 hours 1.00 hours 1.25 hours

*FFB: Fresh fruit bunch *EFB: Empty fruit bunch (90 minutes sterillized) *Shredded EFB: 90 minutes sterilized bunch + shredded process

Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis SEM


Surface of OPEFB strand (100x Magnfication) Surface of OPEFB strand (500x Magnfication)

Horizontal crosssectional view


(2000x Magnification)

Longitudinal view (1000x Magnification)

Untreated FFB Treated FFB 0.25 hours 0.50 hours

0.75 hours 1.00 hours 1.25 hours Untreated EFB Treated EFB 0.25 hours 0.50 hours

0.75 hours 1.00 hours

1.25 hours Untreated Shredded EFB

Treated Shredded EFB 0.25 hours 0.50 hours

0.75 hours

1.00 hours

1.25 hours