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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions. The addition of other materials such as soil may further alter the appearance. Ice appears in nature in forms of snowflakes, hail, icicles, ice spikes and candles, glaciers, pack ice, frost, and entire polar ice caps. It is an important component of the global climate, and plays an important role in the water cycle. Furthermore, ice has numerous cultural applications, from ice cooling of drinks to winter sports and the art of ice sculpting. The molecules in solid ice may be arranged in different ways, called phases, depending on the temperature and pressure. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It can also deposit from vapour with no intervening liquid phase, such as in the formation of frost. The word is derived from Old English īs, which in turn stems from Proto-Germanic isaz.
A natural block of (water) ice
1 Characteristics 1.1 Slipperiness 2 Formation 2.1 Ice pellets 2.2 Hail 2.3 Snowflakes 2.4 Diamond dust 3 Production 3.1 Ice harvesting 3.2 Commercial production 4 Uses 4.1 Sports 4.2 Other uses 5 Ice and transportation 6 Phases 7 Other ices 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
Snowflakes (ice crystals) by Wilson Bentley, 1902
As a naturally occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral. It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms, or H-O-H. However, many of the physical properties of water and ice are controlled by the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent oxygen and hydrogen atoms. It is a weak bond, but is critical in controlling the structure of both water and ice. An unusual property of ice frozen at atmospheric pressure is that the solid is approximately 8.3% less dense than liquid water. The density of ice is 0.9167 g/cm³ at 0 °C , whereas water has a density of 0.9998 g/cm³ at the same temperature. Liquid water is densest, essentially 1.00 g/cm³, at 4 °C and becomes less dense as the water molecules begin to form the hexagonal crystals of ice as the freezing point is reached. This is due to hydrogen bonding dominating the intermolecular forces, which results in a packing of molecules less compact in the solid. Density of ice increases slightly with decreasing temperature and has a value of 0.9340 g/cm³ at −180 °C (93 K).
Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. Grey dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds.
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Compared with water. The amount of energy consumed in breaking hydrogen bonds in the transition from ice to water is known as the heat of fusion. blocks normal groundwater discharge. This explanation. this absorption is shifted toward slightly lower energies. Energy becomes available to increase the thermal energy (temperature) only after enough hydrogen bonds are broken that the ice can be considered liquid water. frozen in the stream bed. The term that collectively describes all of the parts of the Earth's surface where water is in frozen form is the cryosphere. over time. and giving it a density about one quarter of that of pure ice. neither explanation explained why ice is slippery when standing still even at below-zero temperatures. where the impurity is dictating the color rather than the ice itself. The crystals form at temperatures below −30 °C (i. This can be observed in foggy weather. While melting. It is also a common cause of the flooding of houses when water pipes burst due to the pressure of expanding water when it freezes. grey or green. the blade of an ice skate. algae.Ice . which is an important feature in Earth's biosphere. in some cases permanently. similar to stalactites in appearance. making it appear white rather than transparent. with a slightly greener tint than for liquid water. The result is a stratified ice deposit.org/wiki/Ice The effect of expansion during freezing can be dramatic. Ice. Slipperiness It has long been believed that ice is slippery because the pressure of an object in contact with it causes a thin layer to melt. This explanation has come into doubt with the proposal that ice molecules in contact with air cannot properly bond with the molecules of the mass of ice beneath (and thus are free to move like molecules of liquid water). Soft rime contains a high proportion of trapped air. Ice can also form icicles. this theory also failed to explain skating at low temperature. ice absorbs light at the red end of the spectrum preferentially as the result of an overtone of an oxygen-hydrogen (O-H) bond stretch. called "friction heating" was proposed. For instance. resulting in a loss of bottom-dependent animal and plant life in fresh and sea water. When sea water freezes. from the bottom up. resulting in water discharge on top of the frozen layer. the temperature remains constant at 0 °C. For example. the ice is riddled with brine-filled channels which sustain sympagic organisms such as bacteria. air bubbles) can appear brown. This however did not account for skating on ice temperatures lower than −3. Since absorption is cumulative. Sufficiently thin ice sheets allow light to pass through while protecting the underside from short-term weather extremes such as wind chill. it absorbs as much energy as it would take to heat an equivalent mass of water by 80 °C. icebergs containing impurities (e. During the melting process. the free encyclopedia http://en. Frozen waterfall in southeast New York Formation Ice that is found at sea may be in the form of sea ice. Glaciers and snowpacks are an important storage mechanism for fresh water. In fact. 2 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . algae. Ice is an important component of the global climate. Thus. copepods and annelids. These molecules remain in a semiliquid state. fed upon in turn by larger animals such as Emperor penguins and Minke whales. Rime is a type of ice formed on cold objects when drops of water crystallize on them. melts a thin layer. Norway. Clathrate hydrates are forms of ice that contain gas molecules trapped within its crystal lattice. or icebergs. In 20th century an alternative explanation. The result of this process is that ice (in its most common form) floats on liquid water. and is a basic cause of freeze-thaw weathering of rock in nature. exerting pressure on the ice. any energy added breaks the hydrogen bonds between ice (water) molecules. then leak water after thawing. ice appears blue. Hard rime is comparatively denser.. Snowmelt is often an important source of seasonal fresh water.e. originated in 19th century. when the temperature drops during the night. Aufeis is layered ice that forms in Arctic and subarctic stream valleys. −22 °F). causing the water table to rise further and repeat the cycle. often several meters thick. whereas skaters often skate on lower temperature ice. providing lubrication regardless of pressure against the ice exerted by any object.wikipedia. sediments. and causes the local water table to rise. whereby friction of the material was causing the ice layer melting. the color effect intensifies with increasing thickness or if internal reflections cause the light to take a longer path through the ice. As with water.g. or stalagmite-like forms as water drips and re-freezes. Feather ice on the plateau near Alta.5 °C. This creates a sheltered environment for bacterial and algal colonies. providing lubrication between the ice and the blade. This water then freezes. particularly in regard to the water cycle. However. they may sublimate or melt. It has been argued that without this property natural bodies of water would freeze. Other colors can appear in the presence of light absorbing impurities. pack ice. called "pressure melting". When ice melts. which in turn provide food for animals such as krill and specialised fish like the Bald notothen.Wikipedia.
An accumulation of ice pellets This causes the partial or complete melting of any snowflakes falling through the warm layer. The METAR code for ice pellets is PL. A temperature profile showing a warm layer above the ground is most likely to be found in advance of a warm front during the cold season. as hail formation is considerably more likely when the freezing level is below the altitude of 11. Hailstones can grow to 15 centimetres (6 in) and weigh more than . and generally do not freeze into a solid mass unless mixed with freezing rain. with sub-freezing air both above and below it. the free encyclopedia http://en. they re-freeze into ice pellets. a few molecules in the droplet need to get together by chance to form an arrangement similar to that in an ice lattice. Snowflakes Main article: Snowflake Snow crystals form when tiny supercooled cloud droplets (about 10 μm in diameter) freeze.25 in) and GS for smaller.36 in) in diameter Hail forms in strong thunderstorm clouds. Accordingly. where the liquid outer shell collects other smaller hailstones. Our understanding of what particles make efficient ice nuclei is poor – what we do know is they are very rare compared to that cloud condensation nuclei on which 3 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . because to freeze. However. Within METAR code. latent heat released by further freezing may melt the outer shell of the hailstone. The storm's updraft blows the hailstones to the upper part of the cloud. The updraft dissipates and the hailstones fall down. high liquid water content.5 kilograms (1. For this reason. The hailstone then may undergo 'wet growth'. great vertical extent. −31 °F).4 millimetres (0. hail is actually less common in the tropics despite a much higher frequency of thunderstorms than in the mid-latitudes because the atmosphere over the tropics tends to be warmer over a much greater depth. Hail has a diameter of 5 millimetres (0. if the sub-freezing layer beneath the warm layer is too small.500 metres (4. about 6 cm (2. of a diameter of at least 6. (In Commonwealth English "sleet" refers to a mixture of rain and snow).000 feet (3. size. These droplets are able to remain liquid at temperatures lower than −18 °C (255 K. The growth rate is maximized at about −13 °C (9 °F). A large hailstone. Hail-producing clouds are often identifiable by their green coloration.400 m). Hail in the tropics occurs mainly at higher elevations. Ice pellets See also: Ice pellets Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small." Experiments show that this "homogeneous" nucleation of cloud droplets only occurs at temperatures lower than −35 °C (238 K. hail forms in storm clouds when supercooled water droplets freeze on contact with condensation nuclei. translucent balls of ice. GR is used to indicate larger hail. In large hailstones. Ice pellets form when a layer of above-freezing air is located between 1. As they fall back into the sub-freezing layer closer to the surface.wikipedia.900 ft) and 3. large water droplets.org/wiki/Ice Pancake ice is a formation of ice generally created in areas with less calm conditions. This form of precipitation is also referred to as sleet by the United States National Weather Service.Ice . Ice discs are circular formations of ice surrounded by water in a river.800 ft) above the ground. −0 °F). hail is most common within continental interiors of the mid-latitudes. and where a good portion of the cloud layer is below freezing 0 °C (32 °F). and becomes vanishingly small much below −30 °C (−22 °F) as supercooled water droplets become rare. Stones just larger than golf ball-sized are one of the most frequently reported hail sizes. particularly those with intense updrafts. the precipitation will not have time to re-freeze. such as dust or dirt. shape. influence and so on. and are lifted up again. Ice pellets are usually (but not always) smaller than hailstones.20 in) or more.000 metres (9. The World Meteorological Organization defines several kinds of ice depending on origin. then the droplet freezes around this "nucleus. Candle Ice is a form of Rotten Ice that develops in columns perpendicular to the surface of a lake. Once a hailstone becomes too heavy to be supported by the storm's updraft. it falls from the cloud. back into the updraft. Entrainment of dry air into strong thunderstorms over continents can increase the frequency of hail by promoting evaporational cooling which lowers the freezing level of thunderstorm clouds giving hail a larger volume to grow in. The hailstone gains an ice layer and grows increasingly larger with each ascent. Hail See also: Hail Like other precipitation. but can occasionally be found behind a passing cold front.Wikipedia.1 lb). and freezing rain will be the result at the surface. In warmer clouds an aerosol particle or "ice nucleus" must be present in (or in contact with) the droplet to act as a nucleus. They often bounce when they hit the ground.
forms at temperatures approaching −40 °C (−40 °F) due to air with slightly higher moisture from aloft mixing with colder. There were thriving industries in 16/17th century England whereby low lying areas along the Thames estuary were flooded during the winter. surface based air. Artificial nuclei are used in cloud seeding.Wikipedia. Diamond dust See also: Diamond dust Diamond dust. Most commercial ice makers produce three basic types of fragmentary ice: flake. and often contained a system of windcatchers which could easily bring temperatures inside the space down to frigid levels on summer days. using a variety of techniques. and stored in specially designed. The ice was used to chill treats for royalty. The ice was brought in during the winters from nearby mountains in bulk amounts. Trieste sent ice to Egypt. 1905 B&W film of 1919 ice harvest at Pocono Manor in the Poconos Ice is still harvested for ice and snow sculpture events. it was not unusual to have a regular ice delivery service during the summer. Commercial production Ice is now produced on an industrial scale. egg whites. Snowflake viewed in an optical microscope Production Ice is now mechanically produced on a large scale. In many cities. c. Ice was imported into England from Norway on a considerable scale as early as 1823. and widely used to keep fish fresh when caught in distant waters. and consumer or packaged ice. with a combined 4 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . and ash in specific proportions. goat hair. This was a large underground space (up to 5000 m³) that had thick walls (at least two meters at the base) made of a special mortar called sārooj. Icehouses were used to store ice formed in the winter. and Germany sometimes was supplied from Bavarian lakes. in 2002. This mixture was thought to be completely water impenetrable. In 400 BC Iran. for uses including food storage and processing. and Zante.” worked on developing better insulation products for the long distance shipment of ice. Many ice sculptures are made from the ice.wikipedia. naturally cooled refrigerators. and early refrigerators were known as iceboxes. Persian engineers had already mastered the technique of storing ice in the middle of summer in the desert. the free encyclopedia http://en. An ice manufacturing plant in East Midnapore.org/wiki/Ice liquid droplets form. Ice harvesting Main article: Ice cutting Ice has long been valued as a means of cooling. and by the first half of the 19th century. In the United States. and which was known to be resistant to heat transfer. South Carolina in 1799. but before refrigeration was developed ice was harvested from natural sources for human use. A swing saw is used to get ice for the Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival each year from the frozen surface of the Songhua River. and ice harvested in carts and stored interseasonally in insulated wooden houses as a provision to an icehouse often located in large country houses. especially to the tropics. clay. chemical manufacturing. Large batch ice makers can produce up to 75 tons of ice per day. composed of sand. Corfu. India Harvesting ice on Lake Saint Clair in Michigan. concrete mixing and curing. ice harvesting had become big business. tubular and plate. Clays. called yakhchal (meaning ice storage). lime. also known as ice needles or ice crystals. there were 426 commercial ice-making companies in the United States. although to what extent is unclear. the first cargo of ice was sent from New York City to Charleston. Ice production is a large business. The space often had access to a qanat.Ice . The advent of artificial refrigeration technology has since made delivery of ice obsolete. to make ice available all year long. the Hungarian Parliament building used ice harvested in the winter from Lake Balaton for air conditioning. because they had a block of ice in them. Switzerland sent it to France. Frederic Tudor. The METAR identifier for diamond dust within international hourly weather reports is IC. desert dust and biological particles may be effective. who became known as the “Ice King. this became known as the ice trade. This was allegedly copied by an Englishman who had seen the same activity in China. Until recently. The droplet then grows by condensation of water vapor onto the ice surfaces.
Ice scrapers are tools designed to break the ice free and clear the windows. ice fishing. The structures are mostly ornamental (as in the case with ice castles). Ice hotels exist on a seasonal basis in a few cold areas.Wikipedia. Ice pier during 1983 cargo operations. Driving safely requires the removal of the ice build-up. Ice has even been used as the material for a variety of musical instruments. Moisture from the driver's breath is the source of water for the crystals. and not practical for long-term habitation. Ice can be used to reduce swelling (by decreasing blood flow) and pain by pressing it against an area of the body. Ice piers have a lifespan of three to five years. due to the ease with which a large deck could be constructed.wikipedia. which is reflected in the name "iceboxes.org/wiki/Ice value of shipments of $595. It is troublesome to remove this form of ice. luge and skeleton. the free encyclopedia http://en. Fleet operations personnel make the floating pier during the winter. Ice and transportation Ice can also be an obstacle. The ice can become thick enough to drive onto with 5 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . many modern home refrigerators can also make ice with a built in icemaker.Ice . but can happen while driving. Antarctica use of pykrete (wood fibers mixed with ice) as a possible material for warships. a thin layer of ice crystals can form on the inside surface of McMurdo Station. Whenever there is freezing rain or snow which occurs at a temperature near the melting point. The sport has even been modified for ice rinks. When the outdoor temperature stays below freezing for extended periods. Igloos are another example of a temporary structure. which is one reason why many colder regions require double-pane windows for insulation. but the idea was given up when there were not enough funds for construction of a prototype. February 2002 windows. so people often open their windows slightly when the vehicle is parked in order to let the moisture dissipate. Examples are Murmansk (Russia). ideally. Stand-alone icemaker units that make ice cubes are often called ice machines. Ice sailing on the Żnin Small Lake Other uses Ice cubes or crushed ice can be used to cool drinks. ice hockey. it is common for ice to build up on the windows of vehicles. Such ice piers are used during cargo operations to load and offload ships. Black ice is very difficult to see. which will typically make ice cubes or crushed ice. They build upon naturally-occurring frozen seawater in McMurdo Sound until the dock reaches a depth of about 22 feet (6. ice climbing.487. Uses Sports Ice also plays a central role in winter recreation and in many sports such as ice skating.7 m). For small-scale ice production.000. being ice-free is an important advantage. where drivers must speed on lake ice. it absorbs heat and keeps the drink near 0 °C (32 °F). As the ice melts. A similar problem can happen in homes. Engineers used formidable strength of pack ice when they constructed Antarctica's first floating ice pier in 1973. Many of the different sports played on ice get international attention every four years during the Winter Olympic Games. though removing the ice can be a long and laborious process. all year long. The human quest for excitement has even led to ice racing. while also controlling the skid of their vehicle (similar in some ways to dirt track racing). During World War II. formerly Finland) and Vardø (Norway). for harbors near the poles. tour skating. Ice forming on roads is a dangerous winter hazard. if the outside temperature is low enough. Ice was once used to cool refrigerators in the 19th century. Coast Guard icebreakers near Far enough below the freezing point. Harbors which are not ice-free are opened up using icebreakers.S. and it is now common for cars to have rear-window defrosters to solve the problem." Ice can be used as part of an air conditioning system. A fire will eventually start. U. for example by percussionist Terje Isungset. Structures and ice sculptures are built out of large chunks of ice. Petsamo (Russia. broomball and sled racing on bobsled. because it lacks the expected frosty surface. very thick layers of ice can form on lakes and other bodies of water. although places with flowing water require much colder temperatures. Project Habbakuk was a British programme which investigated the McMurdo Station. A sort of sailboat on blades gives rise to ice yachting. especially aircraft carriers. Ice can be used to start a fire by carving it into a lens which will focus sunlight onto kindling. curling. made primarily from snow. This usually happens when a vehicle has been left alone after being driven for a while.
The increasing use of fuel injection—which does not require carburetors—has made "carb icing" less of an issue for reciprocating engines. the British aviators Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown encountered such icing conditions – Brown left the cockpit and climbed onto the wing several times to remove ice which was covering the engine air intakes of the Vickers Vimy aircraft they were flying. Doing this safely requires a thickness of at least 30 cm (one foot). If ice forms on the wings or control surfaces. So. ice presents two distinct hazards. very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) and hyperquenched glassy water (HGW). but recent evidence indicates that they can be slowed. The melting of ice under high pressures is thought to contribute to the movement of glaciers. or reverse it.16 of the difference between this triple point and absolute zero). This will block the supply of air to the engine. During the first non-stop flight of the Atlantic. and XII respectively. the strong hydrogen bonds in water make it different: water. The types are differentiated by their crystalline structure. Ice. ice can form in fifteen separate known phases. With care all these phases except ice X can be recovered at ambient pressure and low temperature. it passes through air layers of different temperature and humidity. ice XV was found at extremely high pressures and −143 °C. high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Unlike most other solids. both fully hydrogen-disordered. ice at −3 °C was superheated to about 17 °C for about 250 picoseconds. Ice formation on window glass of high altitude flying airplane Phases Ice may be any one of the 15 known solid phases of water. For ships. A particular icing vulnerability associated with reciprocating internal combustion engines is the carburetor. For this reason. which causes adiabatic cooling. At even higher pressures.16 K) at a pressure of 611.wikipedia. and water vapour can coexist at the triple point. In 2006. Ice XII was discovered in 1996. Jet engines do not experience carb icing. and to require it to be hacked off or melted with steam hoses. 6 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . ordering and density.01 °C (273. ice is predicted to become a metal. hexagonal crystalline ice can be formed via volcanic action. Ices XI.Wikipedia. In an experiment. the engines can be quickly restarted and flights are not endangered.10 MPa). the most famous probably being the Titanic. freezes at a temperature below 0 °C.55 TPa or 5. water.Ice . these are IV and XII. the free encyclopedia http://en. V. aircraft reciprocating engines with carburetors are provided with carburetor air intake heaters.62 TPa.73 Pa (the Kelvin is in fact defined as 1/273. some of which may be conducive to ice formation. solid water can exist in amorphous states as amorphous solid water (ASW). There are also two metastable phases of ice under pressure. in flight. As air is sucked through the carburetor into the engine. In most cases. and tend to ice up. however. and XIV are hydrogen-ordered forms of ices Ih. and cause it to fail. this has been variously estimated to occur at 1. Most liquids under increased pressure freeze at higher temperatures because the pressure helps to hold the molecules together. In 2009. XIII and XIV were discovered.org/wiki/Ice automobiles and trucks. which is exactly 0. or damaged by internal icing in certain types of atmospheric conditions much more easily than previously believed. low-density amorphous ice (LDA). the carburetor will be colder. ice can cause a number of dangers. Subjected to higher pressures and varying temperatures. and find the best methods to prevent. stopped. this may adversely affect the flying qualities of the aircraft. Spray and freezing rain can produce an ice build-up on the superstructure of a vessel sufficient to make it unstable. For aircraft. the local air pressure is lowered. However. Icebergs have been responsible for the sinking of many ships. Pressure dependence of ice melting. As well as crystalline forms. As an aircraft climbs. In outer space. but research continues to determine the exact conditions which produce this type of icing. ice is difficult to superheat. hexagonal crystalline ice (the predominant form found on Earth) is extremely rare. And icebergs – large masses of ice floating in water (typically created when glaciers reach the sea) – can be dangerous if struck by a ship when underway. XIII. in humid near-freezing conditions. Amorphous ice is more common. under a pressure higher than 1 atm (0.
with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic. Ice Ic 7 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . Formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa. The hydrogen atoms' positions are disordered. Amorphous ice exists in three forms: low-density (LDA) formed at atmospheric pressure. It doesn't form easily without a nucleating agent. when it transforms into ice Ih. forming at higher Amorphous pressures.1 GPa. It may occasionally be present in the upper atmosphere.org/wiki/Ice Log-lin pressure-temperature phase diagram of water. Ice II Ice III Ice IV Ice V Ice VI Ice VII Ice VIII A rhombohedral crystalline form with highly ordered structure. Ice Ih Normal hexagonal crystalline ice. The Roman numerals correspond to some ice phases listed below. Phase Characteristics Amorphous ice is an ice lacking crystal structure. by depositing ice water vapour on very cold substrates ("amorphous solid water". A tetragonal crystalline ice. Most complicated structure of all the phases. A monoclinic crystalline phase. It can be formed by heating high-density amorphous ice slowly at a pressure of 810 MPa. where the hydrogen atoms assume fixed positions. A metastable rhombohedral phase. and can exist up to 240 K. Formed by cooling water to 270 K at 1. A cubic phase. high density (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA). LDA forms by extremely quick cooling of liquid water ("hyperquenched glassy water". Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih. by cooling it below 5 °C (278 K). A metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. HGW). When heated. Formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 190–210 K. A tetragonal crystalline phase. It is formed from ice VII. Exhibits Debye relaxation. It is produced at temperatures between 130 and 220 K. Least dense of the high-pressure phases. The hydrogen bonds form two interpenetrating lattices. the free encyclopedia http://en. or below. The oxygen atoms are arranged in a diamond structure.wikipedia.Wikipedia. Exhibits Debye relaxation. A more ordered version of ice VII.Ice . it undergoes transformation to ice III. Denser than water. formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. ASW) or by heating high density forms of ice at ambient pressure ("LDA").
weather. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service.wikipedia.php?word=hail) .alaska. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. low-temperature equilibrium form of hexagonal ice. ^ "Hail (glossary entry)" (http://www. http://www. ^ Lide. Robert (December 2005). The proton-ordered form of ice V. (2005).html?pagewanted=all) . Formed gradually from ice III by cooling it from 208 K to 165 K.alaska. generally a volatile is classed as an ice if its melting point lies above around 100 K. ^ a b c Alaska Air Flight Service Station (2007-04-10). Proton-ordered symmetric ice.galleries. "Why is ice slippery?" (http://lptms.org/wiki/Ice Ice IX Ice X Ice XI A tetragonal phase. Water" (http://www. Archived from the original (http://www. ^ a b David K. (2005).haydenplanetarium.com /books?id=4Abp5FdhskAC&pg=PA161) .nw. slightly higher than ordinary ice. 10.php?word=sleet) . Boca Raton (FL). A tetragonal.org /web/20080501074014/http://www. R. http://books. ^ "WMO SEA-ICE NOMENCLATURE" (http://www. Retrieved 3 May 2011.3 g cm−3 at 127 K (i.archive.com/Minerals/OXIDES /ice/ice. 6. Retrieved 2007-03-20.faa. It is ferroelectric. ed.Wikipedia.weather.pdf) . ^ Neil deGrasse Tyson.sipex. ^ "Sleet (glossary entry)" (http://www. It can be prepared by heating high-density amorphous ice from 77 K to about 183 K at 810 MPa. Formed by cooling water to below 130 K at 500 MPa. Physics Today: 50–54. The proton-ordered form of ice VI formed by cooling water to around 80–108 K at 1. pp. ^ Lide. dense crystalline phase.nytimes. New York Times.e. http://web. See also Density of ice versus water Ice climbing Ice famine Pumpable ice technology Detail of an ice cube References 1. the solid form of carbon dioxide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. R. A monoclinic crystalline phase.aari.weather.1 GPa.gov/glossary/index.acecrc.gov/glossary /index. stable below 140 K and pressures between 200 MPa and 400 MPa. ^ Sea Ice Ecology (http://www. 2006). 7.org/tyson/read/1998/05/01/waterwater) .org/web/20080501074014/http: //www. approximately 1. http://www.google. That study indicated that the temperature below which ice XI forms is −36 °C (240 K). "Water. D. "SA-METAR" (http://web. Forms at about 70 GPa. Retrieved 8 April 2009. "Explaining Ice: The Answers Are Slippery" (http://www..faa.com/books?id=4Abp5FdhskAC&pg=PA161.pdf.htm) on 2008-05-01.gov/glossary/index. Federal Aviation Administration via the Internet Wayback Machine. CRC Press 3.nw.alaska. The natural transformation process is very slow and ice XI has been found in Antarctic ice 100 to 10.3 times more dense than water).aq.faa.fr/membres/trizac/Ens/L3FIP/Ice. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.nytimes. Retrieved 8 April 2012..htm) .php) ) World Meteorological Organization / Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Cambridge University Press. Formed below 118 K at 1. William Charles Livingston (1 July 2001). Lynch. An orthorhombic crystalline phase.ru/gdsidb /XML/wmo_259. The best known example is dry ice. ISBN 978-0-521-77504-5. Color and light in nature (http://books.haydenplanetarium.htm. http://www.Ice .org/tyson/read/1998/05/01 /water-water. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service.u-psud. 8.u-psud.archive.php?word=hail. ^ The word crystal derives from Greek word for frost. http://lptms. Retrieved on 2011-10-30.000 years old.google.weather. 4. 13.gov/glossary /index. the free encyclopedia http://en.com/Minerals/OXIDES /ice/ice.gov/fai/afss /metar+taf/sametara.galleries.com/2006/02 /21/science/21ice.php?word=sleet. 5. Kenneth (February 21.php?lang1=0&lang2=1&arrange=0& self=0) (Multi-language (http://www.htm) .html?pagewanted=all. 2. Acecrc. ^ Chang. Ice XII Ice XIII Ice XIV Ice XV Other ices Main article: Volatiles The solid phases of several other volatile substances are also referred to as ices. It is observed in the phase space of ice V and ice VI. 161–. ^ "The Mineral Ice" (http://www. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.fr/membres/trizac /Ens/L3FIP/Ice.16 g/cm3. It has a density of 1. Ice XI is considered the most stable configuration of ice Ih.).aq/access /page/?page=d664da82-b244-102a-8ea7-0019b9ea7c60) . http://www.aari. An orthorhombic. metastable. D.gov/fai/afss/metar+taf/sametara. The proton-ordered form of ice XII. These materials are called spin ice. A "magnetic analogue" of ice is also realized in some insulating magnetic materials in which the magnetic moments mimic the position of protons in water ice and obey energetic constraints similar to the Bernal-Fowler ice rules arising from the geometrical frustration of the proton configuration in water ice. http://www.com/2006/02/21/science /21ice.ru /gdsidb/XML/volume1. 12.2 GPa. ^ Rosenberg. 9.sipex. Retrieved 2007-03-20. Retrieved 15 February 2009. 11.gov/fai/afss 8 of 10 20/02/2013 11:30 AM . It has density of 1.
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