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Exp1 Measuring Resistance Using the VA Method

Exp1 Measuring Resistance Using the VA Method

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EXPERIMENT N0.

1

Measuring Resistance using the Voltmeter-Ammeter Method

UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENTS and CONTROL LAB. 0908448

EXPERIMENT N0. 1

Measuring Resistance using the Voltmeter-Ammeter Method
Prepared by: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif in October, 2008

OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this experiment is to familiarize the student with the method of measuring resistance using the voltmeter-ammeter method and to allow him/her to appreciate the errors involved in the two different cases of measurement.

EQUIPMENT and PARTS LIST:
1234Decade resistance boxes (3 boxes, 2 boxes of high values; 1 box of low values). Two galvanometers (one to be used as a voltmeter, one to be used as an ammeter). Power supply. Connecting leads.

PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENTS:
The lab preparation and assignments must be completed before coming to the lab. Show it to the lab supervisor for checking at the beginning of the lab.

Pre1. Read this lab handout completely, and do all the problems indicated. Pre2. Read Chapter 15 (Resistance Measurement) from the online measurements material, especially the voltmeter-ammeter method and how to convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or voltmeter. Visit: http://fetweb.ju.edu.jo/staff/Mechatronics/LShareef/MandI.htm and open Chapter 15: Resistance Measurement. Pre3. Revise the method of converting a galvanometer (PMMC) into an ammeter. Pre4. Revise the method of converting a galvanometer (PMMC) into a voltmeter and how to calculate the suitable resistor. Pre5. Revise the error involved in using case I and case II when measuring the resistance verify the results.

MEASUREMENTS and CONTROL LAB. 0908448

Page 1 of 5

This DRB will be referred to as DRBA. They need to be converted to a higher scale instruments by the use of shunt resistor (for the ammeter) and by the use of a series resistor (for the voltmeter). 1 Measuring Resistance using the Voltmeter-Ammeter Method PROCEDURE Background The voltmeter Ammeter method relies on using a voltage source to pass a current into the unknown resistor and then measuring the current flowing through the resistor and the voltage across it.Based on the value of current expected to flow. In case I the voltmeter is placed directly in parallel with the unknown resistor while in case II the ammeter is placed directly in series with the unknown resistor. Galvanometer Specifications The galvanometer specifications should be known. 2.Calculate the required value of DRBV to a value suitable for a FSD of voltage of 10 V.EXPERIMENT N0. This decade resistance box (DRB) will be referred to as DRBX. MEASUREMENTS and CONTROL LAB. Case I and case II There are two possible arrangements: Case I and case II. During the work in this experiment. 0908448 Page 2 of 5 . Case I Practical Fill in the table below by following the steps below: 1. 3. One of those DRBs will be used to convert one galvanometer (the one marked with a V) into a voltmeter with a higher voltage range. in order to increase their full scale deflections (FSD). Decade Resistance Boxes (DRB) One of the decade resistance boxes will be used to represent the unknown resistance to be measured.For each value of Rx. show which method is suitable for high values of resistance and which method is suitable for low values of resistance. In order to do this use the decade resistance boxes (DRB) provided.Set the DRBX to the value of Rx. Remember that the galvanometers (PMMC: permanent magnet moving coils) provided are not suitable to directly be used as voltmeters or ammeters. Internal resistance: 1300 ohms. This DRB will be referred to as DRBV. Full scale deflection (FSD) 0-1 mA. • • Galvanometer to be used as an Ammeter: resistance: 75 ohms. There are shown below. the value of the resistance can be derived. 4. The other DRB will be used to convert the galvanometer (the one marked with an I) into an ammeter with a higher current range. calculate the required value of the DRB to convert the ammeter to the suitable full scale deflection (FSD). internal Galvanometer to be used as a voltmeter: Full scale deflection: 0-100 micro-A. By dividing the voltage across the resistor by the current flowing through it. Note that case I and case II are each suitable for certain values of unknown resistors. find the expected value of current that will flow (assuming a voltage source of 10 V) by dividing 10 V by the value of Rx.

For the voltmeter. 0908448 Page 3 of 5 . not only on RV and RA. 1 Measuring Resistance using the Voltmeter-Ammeter Method 5. Rx (kΩ) 5 10 50 100 Expected ia (mA) Measured ia (mA) DRBA Measured voltage across resistance (V) Calculated value of Rx (Rx’) Measured value of Rx (Rx’) Calculated percentage error (e%) Measured percentage error (e%) 500 1000 MEASUREMENTS and CONTROL LAB. Important note: Remember that the internal resistance of the voltmeter or ammeter will depend on the value of the series or shunt resistor used.EXPERIMENT N0. Also remember that the ammeter shown might include DRBA in parallel. Remember that the voltmeter shown might include DRBV in series. its internal resistance will be the series combination of RV and DRBV. Results for Case I measurements. For the ammeter. Carry out the measurements required and fill in -٦ 7.Table 1below. its internal resistance will be the parallel combination of RA and DRBA. Table 1.Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1 below.

Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 2 below. calculate the required value of the DRB to convert the ammeter to the suitable full scale deflection (FSD). 3. Remember that the voltmeter shown might include DRBV in series. 4. 6.Set the DRBX to the value of Rx. its internal resistance will be the series combination of RV and DRBV. For the voltmeter. For the ammeter. its internal resistance will be the parallel combination of RA and DRBA. find the expected value of current that will flow (assuming a voltage source of 10 V) by dividing 10 V by the value of Rx. Table 2. 5.EXPERIMENT N0. Carry out the measurements required and fill in -٧ 8.Based on the value of current expected to flow. 0908448 Page 4 of 5 . Important note: Remember that the internal resistance of the voltmeter or ammeter will depend on the value of the series or shunt resistor used.Table 2 below.Calculate the required value of DRBV to a value suitable for a FSD of voltage of 10 V. 5 10 50 100 Rx (kΩ) Expected ia (mA) Measured ia (mA) DRBA Measured voltage across resistance (V) Calculated value of Rx (Rx’) Measured value of Rx (Rx’) Calculated percentage error (e%) Measured percentage error (e%) 500 1000 MEASUREMENTS and CONTROL LAB.For each value of Rx. not only on RV and RA. 1 Measuring Resistance using the Voltmeter-Ammeter Method Case II Practical Fill in the table below by following the steps below: 12. Also remember that the ammeter shown might include DRBA in parallel. Results for Case II measurements.

address the following questions: 1. What can be done if there is no idea regarding the value of Rx? 7. 4.e.edu. 12.ju. 3. 1 Measuring Resistance using the Voltmeter-Ammeter Method RESULTS and DISCUSSION: In writing the report. Can the current galvanometer be used as a voltmeter? Explain. was the voltmeter reading changing? Explain.jo/staff/Mechatronics/LShareef/MandI. Repeat the same analysis as in 6 above for the voltmeter galvanometer? 9.. Derive the expression for the error (e%) for both Case I and II.htm …and open Chapter 13: Voltage Measurement. What is the voltmeter sensitivity of both galvanometers above in Ω·V-1? In order to understand this question refer to Chapter of the measurement material at: http://fetweb. 11. 2. When will use each of the configurations (i. 5. Repeat this for calculated MEASUREMENTS and CONTROL LAB. percentage error and measured percentage error. Discuss the effects of RV and RA on measuring voltages and currents. What are the values of the series and shunt resistances that were needed to convert the ammeter and voltmeter to the required new scales? Show all calculations. Case I or Case II)? 6. 10. Plot the percentage error (e%) versus Rx for Cases I and II.EXPERIMENT N0. While changing the value of Rx in Case I and II above. 0908448 Page 5 of 5 . What is the minimum possible full scale deflection (FSD) of the current galvanometer? What is the maximum possible FSD? 8. Can the voltage galvanometer be used as an ammeter? Explain.

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