GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED

)

INTRODUCTION
What is gesture?
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of speech or together and in parallel with words. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Gestures differ from physical nonverbal communication that does not communicate specific messages, such as purely expressive displays, proxemics, or displays of joint attention. Gestures allow individuals to communicate a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection, often together with body language in addition to words when they speak. Gestures are processed in the same areas of the brain as speech and sign language such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) and the posteriormiddle temporal gyrus, posterior superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area). It
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

has been suggested that these parts of the brain originally supporting the pairing of gesture and meaning and then were adapted in human evolution "for the comparable pairing of sound and meaning as voluntary control over the vocal apparatus was established and spoken language evolved".

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

What is robot?
A robot is a mechanical device that can perform tasks automatically. Some robots require some degree of guidance, which may be done using a remote control, or with a computer interface. A robot is usually an electromechanical machine that is guided by a program or circuitry. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled and range from humanoids such as ASIMO and TOPIO to Nano robots, 'swarm' robots, and industrial robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. The branch of technology that deals with robots is called robotics. The first digital and programmable robot was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate . It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trentonsection of Ewing Township, New Jersey.
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

What is gesture controlled robot?
A Gesture Controlled robot is a kind of robot which can be controlled by your hand gestures not by old buttons. You just need to wear a small transmitting device in your hand which included an acceleration meter. This will transmit an appropriate command to the robot so that it can do whatever we want.

The transmitting device included a comparator IC for analog to digital conversion and an encoder IC(HT12E) which is use to encode the four bit data and then it will transmit by an RF Transmitter module.

At the receiving end an RF Receiver module receives the encoded data and decode it by an decoder IC(HT12D). This data is then processed by a microcontroller (P89V51RD2) and finally our motor driver to control the motor's.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

As we can see in the images one is robot and the another is to transmit the gesture data to robot.

Robot

Gesture Device

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

KEY COMPONENTS OF PROJECTS

This project contains mainly two parts -

gesture controlled robot

transmitter part or gesture device

receiver part or robot

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

TRANSMITTER PART OR GESTURE DEVICE
The Transmitter part contain four module in it—
1- ACCELEROMETER

2- COMPARATOR

3- ENCODER (HT12E)

4- RF TRANSMITTER

Now we will discuss all of the parts of transmitter in detail..

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

ACCELEROMETER
An Accelerometer is a kind of sensor which gives an analog data while moving in X,Y,Z direction or may be X,Y direction only depends on the type of the sensor. Here is a small image of an Accelerometer shown. We can see in the image that their are some arrow showing if we tilt these sensor's in that direction then the data at that corresponding pin will change in the analog form.

Figure 1.1-Accelerometer
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

Conceptually, an accelerometer behaves as a damped mass on a spring. When the accelerometer experiences an acceleration, the mass is displaced to the point that the spring is able to accelerate the mass at the same rate as the casing. The displacement is then measured to give the acceleration. In commercial devices, piezoelectric, piezoresistive and capacitive components are commonly used to convert the mechanical motion into an electrical signal. Piezoelectric accelerometers rely on piezoceramics (e.g. lead zirconate titanate) or single crystals (e.g. quartz, tourmaline). They are unmatched in terms of their upper frequency range, low packaged weight and high temperature range. Piezoresistive accelerometers are preferred in high shock applications. Capacitive accelerometers typically use a silicon micro-machined sensing element. Their performance is superior in the low frequency range and they can be operated in servo mode to achieve high stability and linearity.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

The Accelerometer having 6 pin1-VDD- We will give the +5volt to this pin. 2- GND- We simply connect this pin to the ground for biasing. 3- X- On this pin we will receive the analog data for x direction movement. 4- Y- On this pin we will receive the analog data for y direction movement. 5- Z- On this pin we will receive the analog data for z direction movement. 6- ST- this pin is use to set the sensitivity of the accelerometer 1.5g/2g/3g/4g.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

COMPARATOR (LM324)
For the purpose to change the analog voltage into digital we use comparator which compare that analog voltage to a reference voltage and give a particular high or low voltage.

LM324 IC

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

The figure shown here is comparator IC. The pin 1, 7, 8 and 14 are use to give out put to the microcontroller. We should connect a reference voltage to the -ve terminal for high output when input is high (+ve terminal for high output when input is low) from the LM324 IC. In this circuit we compare the data from x with two terminal one for positive x direction and negative x direction and same for y direction. In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and switches its output to indicate which is larger. They are commonly used in devices such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). An operational amplifier (op-amp) has a well balanced Difference input and a very high gain. This parallels the characteristics of comparators and can be substituted in applications with low-performance requirements. In theory, a standard op-amp operating in open-loop configuration (without negative feedback) may be used as a low-performance comparator. When the non-inverting input (V+) is at a higher voltage than the inverting input
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

(V-), the high gain of the op-amp causes the output to saturate at the highest positive voltage it can output. When the non-inverting input (V+) drops below the inverting input (V-), the output saturates at the most negative voltage it can output. The op-amp's output voltage is limited by the supply voltage. An op-amp operating in a linear mode with negative feedback, using a balanced, split-voltage power supply, (powered by ± VS) its transfer function is typically written as: . However, this equation

may not be applicable to a comparator circuit which is non-linear and operates open-loop (no negative feedback).

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

In practice, using an operational amplifier as a comparator presents several disadvantages as compared to using a dedicated comparator: 1. Op-amps are designed to operate in the linear mode with negative feedback. Hence, an op-amp typically has a lengthy recovery time from saturation. Almost all op-amps have an internal compensation capacitor which imposes slew rate limitations for high frequency signals. Consequently an op-amp makes a sloppy comparator with propagation delays that can be as slow as tens of microseconds. 2. Since op-amps do not have any internal hysteresis an external hysteresis network is always necessary for slow moving input signals. 3. The quiescent current specification of an op-amp is valid only when the feedback is active. Some opamps show an increased quiescent current when the inputs are not equal. 4. A comparator is designed to produce well limited output voltages that easily interface with digital logic.
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

Compatibility with digital logic must be verified while using an op-amp as a comparator. 5. Some multiple-section opamps may exhibit extreme channel-channel interaction when used as comparators. 6. Many opamps have back to back diodes between their inputs. Opamp inputs usually follow each other so this is fine. But comparator inputs are not usually the same. The diodes can cause unexpected current through inputs.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

ENCODER (HT12E)
The HT12E is an 4bit encoder which encode the input data applied on it . Encoders are software programs that Often, the are used for of

compressing

information.

function

an encoder will also allow for the conversion of data from one format to another. While there are several types of programs that accomplish this for text data, the encoder is usually associated with audio and video. One of the common uses of an encoder today has to do with the conversion of audio files from an originating format to one that will match with a specific player. For example, an encoder would be used to compress and convert a WAV file into a file type that would be compatible on an MP3 player. The WAV file would be compressed to a fraction of the original size. The compression would take place without having a negative impact on the sound quality of the converted file.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

The pin description of the HT12E is shown in the figure .

FIGURE:-ENCODER

Pin (1 to 8) A0-A7 known as address bits so we do

not need to consider them.

Pin no (9 and 18) are use to bias the IC as pin-18 as

VCC and pin-9 as GND.
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

Pin - 17 is connected to the RF Transmitter module

Din.

Pin-16 and Pin-15 are connected by an Osc resistor

known as Roscc (1.1 Mohm)
 

Pin-14 is connected to ground to enable the transmitt. Pin-13 to Pin-10 are known as AD0 to AD3 those

having the 4bit data which is required to transmit.

The VCC pin is connected to the +terminal in the

circuit.

The data pin is connected to the HT12E (Pin no-17)

that is transmitted or we can say that encoded data.

The next pin is shown in figure is GND that is

connected to the ground terminal.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

RF TRANSMITTER MODULE (TX)
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radi o transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as cell phones, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves forcommunication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits. The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage usually includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, and often the building it is housed in. An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control, where a "transmitter" is a telemetry device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, and sends it, usually via wires, to be received by some display or control device located a distance away. The transmitter module is working on the frequency of 433MHz and is easily available in the market at the cost of 250rs .

The VCC pin is connected to the +terminal in the

circuit.

The data pin is connected to the HT12E (pin no-17)

that is transmitted or we can say that encoded data.
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

The next pin is shown in figure is GND that is

connected to the ground terminal.

Now the last pin ANT this is connected to a small wire

as an antenna.

FIGURE:-RF TRANSMITTER

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

TRANSMITTER MODULE

FIGURE:-GESTURE SENSING DEVICE MODULE

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

RECEIVER PART OR ROBOT
This part contain four module-1. 2. 3. 4. Receiver Decoder(HT12D) Process(microcontroller 8051) Actuator (Motor driver L293D)

Now we will discuss all of these parts in detail.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

RF RECEIVER MODULE (RX)
The RF receiver module will receive the data which is transfered by the gesture device. It is also working as similar to the transmitter module.

   

Connect the VCC pin to the 5volt terminal. Connect the ground pin to the ground terminal. The data pin is then connected to the HT12D (pin-14). So that we can get the decoded 4 bit data.

The RF module, as the name suggests, operates at Radio Frequency. The corresponding frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300 GHz. In this RF system, the digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

carrier wave. This kind of modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons. Firstly, signals through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications. Also, while IR mostly operates in lineof-sight mode, RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter & receiver. Next, RF transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission. RF communication uses a specific

frequency unlike IR signals which are affected by other IR emitting sources. This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz. An RF transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna connected at pin4. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps - 10Kbps.The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

DECODER (HT12D)
In a very simple way we can say that an HT12D converts that serial data into parallel which is received by the RF receiver module .The input data is decoded when no error or unmatched codes are found.

FIGURE:-DECODER(HT12D
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

A valid transmission in indicated by a high signal at VT pin that is pin no 17.

pin 18 : It is use to give the +VCC or biasing to the IC HT12D this pin is connected with the +5 volt

Pin 17 : It is the valid transmission pin it will high

when the transmission is ok so that we connected this pin to an led for indication.

Pin16-15: we connect these two pin directly by a 51k

resistor

Pin 14 : This pin is connected with the rf receiver

module data pin to receiving the serial data.

Pin10-13:

These

pins

are

data

pin

which

is transferred by the gesture module.

A decoder is a combinational digital circuit that decodes an n-bit binary input in to its correspoding decimal level. An n-bit input (A0-A(n)) decoder has 2n output (E0-E(2n 1)) lines with each line corresponding to a different minterm or decimal level. Depending upon the input, the corresponding decimal level becomes high while all other
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

outputs remain as 0.E.g. If the input bits to a four input decoder are 0110, then the 7th output line ( that corresponds to decimal level 6) of the decoder will become high while all the other will remain as zero. A decoder can simply be synthesized by generating all the minterms from the input bits by the use

of Inverters and

AND

gates.Besides

decoding

a binary number to its corresponding decimal level, a decoder can also be used for the realization of various logical functions. Since all the minterms are available from the decoder as its output lines, a logic function can easily be realized by adding the required minterms in an OR gate. E.g. Let there be a 4:16 decoder and a logical function F of four variables with minterms (0,4,6,7,9). Then F can be realized by connection the variables to the input lines of the decoder and then taking the E0,E4,E6,E7 and E9 output lines of the decoder and then adding them in an OR gate. The output of the OR gate will give the function F.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

Decoders also come with active low outputs in which case all the output lines remain high while the output line that corresponds to the decimal level of the input bits become low. To realize an active high logical function from such a decoder, the minterms need to be fed in to a NAND gate rather than an OR gate.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

PROCESS (MICROCONTROLLER P89V51RD2)

The processing is the most important part of the robot. Till now we get the data from the decoder now based on that data we have to make some decision so here the role of microcontroller is coming up. We use an 8051 microcontroller for our circuit to give them a decision capability. Our microcontroller is made up by nxp the product name is P89V51RD2. The basic circuit to initialize the microcontroller is shown below. We just need an reset circuit and oscillator to run the program.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

FIGURE:-MOCROCONTROLLER(8051)

we use the port 1 as an input port and port 2 as an output port.so the Data from the decoder will connect with pin 1,2,3,4 and motor should be connect with pin 21,22,23,24.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

For forward the data to the Port2 is 0a or for backward it is 05 then for lest its 02 and for right it is 08.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

ACTUATOR (L293D)
The Actuator's are those devices which actually gives the movement or to do a task like motor's. In the real world their are various types of motor's available which works on different voltages. So we need motor driver for running them through the controller. To get interface between motor and microcontroller . We use L293D motor driver IC in our circuit.

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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

motor driver circuit

As in above circuit a 2 pin male connector in connected to the pin 8 this will provide the operating voltage for the motor like if we want to run our
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

voltage on 12volt. so we just have to connect a 12volt power source Now here is the full circuit diagram of the robot (receiver module)-

RECEIVER MODULE
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GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT (ACCELEROMETER BASED)

FIGURE:-RECEIVER

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